WorldWideScience

Sample records for school buses weighing

  1. 76 FR 53102 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Denial of Petition for Rulemaking; School Buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... small school buses to provide adequate crash protection for the occupants. For large school buses, FMVSS... and crash protection,'' requires lap/shoulder belts for all seating positions on small school buses... for adequate occupant crash protection. For large school buses, we have determined there is not a...

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Pennsylvania School Buses Run on Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennsylvania School Buses Run on Natural Gas to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Pennsylvania School Buses Run on Natural Gas on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Pennsylvania School Buses Run on Natural Gas on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center

  3. The Bus Stops Here: The Case for Biodiesel in School Buses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Steven T.

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that diesel exhaust from most of the nation's school buses may be hazardous to children's health. Documents studies on the nature and potential magnitude of the risk to children and proposes replacing petroleum diesel with biodiesel as the fuel for school buses. Presents the merits and practicality of switching to biodiesel as a healthier…

  4. In-use fuel economy of hybrid-electric school buses in Iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallmark, Shauna; Sperry, Bob; Mudgal, Abhisek

    2011-05-01

    Although it is much safer and more fuel-efficient to transport children to school in buses than in private vehicles, school buses in the United States still consume 822 million gal of diesel fuel annually, and school transportation costs can account for a significant portion of resource-constrained school district budgets. Additionally, children in diesel-powered school buses may be exposed to higher levels of particulates and other pollutants than children in cars. One solution to emission and fuel concerns is use of hybrid-electric school buses, which have the potential to reduce emissions and overall lifecycle costs compared with conventional diesel buses. Hybrid-electric technologies are available in the passenger vehicle market as well as the transit bus market and have a track record indicating fuel economy and emissions benefits. This paper summarizes the results of an in-use fuel economy evaluation for two plug-in hybrid school buses deployed in two different school districts in Iowa. Each school district selected a control bus with a route similar to that of the hybrid bus. Odometer readings, fuel consumption, and maintenance needs were recorded for each bus. The buses were deployed in 2008 and data were collected through May 2010. Fuel consumption was calculated for each school district. In Nevada, IA, the overall average fuel economy was 8.23 mpg for the hybrid and 6.35 mpg for the control bus. In Sigourney, IA, the overall average fuel economy was 8.94 mpg for the hybrid and 6.42 mpg for the control bus. The fuel consumption data were compared for the hybrid and control buses using a Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results indicate that fuel economy for the Nevada hybrid bus was 29.6% better than for the Nevada control bus, and fuel economy for the Sigourney hybrid bus was 39.2% higher than for the Sigourney control bus. Both differences were statistically significant.

  5. Measurements of ultrafine particles and other vehicular pollutants inside school buses in South Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qunfang; Zhu, Yifang

    2010-01-01

    Increasing evidence has demonstrated toxic effects of vehicular emitted ultrafine particles (UFPs, diameter pollutants, especially UFPs, was measured inside four diesel-powered school buses. Two 1990 and two 2006 model year diesel-powered school buses were selected to represent the age extremes of school buses in service. Each bus was driven on two routine bus runs to study school children's exposure under different transportation conditions in South Texas. The number concentration and size distribution of UFPs, total particle number concentration, PM 2.5, PM 10, black carbon (BC), CO, and CO 2 levels were monitored inside the buses. The average total particle number concentrations observed inside the school buses ranged from 7.3 × 10 3 to 3.4 × 10 4 particles cm -3, depending on engine age and window position. When the windows were closed, the in-cabin air pollutants were more likely due to the school buses' self-pollution. The 1990 model year school buses demonstrated much higher air pollutant concentrations than the 2006 model year ones. When the windows were open, the majority of in-cabin air pollutants came from the outside roadway environment with similar pollutant levels observed regardless of engine ages. The highest average UFP concentration was observed at a bus transfer station where approximately 27 idling school buses were queued to load or unload students. Starting-up and idling generated higher air pollutant levels than the driving state. Higher in-cabin air pollutant concentrations were observed when more students were on board.

  6. Characterizing ultrafine particles and other air pollutants in and around school buses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yifang; Zhang, Qunfang

    2014-03-01

    Increasing evidence has demonstrated toxic effects of ultrafine particles (UFP*, diameter emissions from idling school buses to air pollutant levels in and around school buses under different scenarios; 3. Retrofit tests to evaluate the performance of two retrofit systems, a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) muffler and a crankcase filtration system (CFS), on reducing tailpipe emissions and in-cabin air pollutant concentrations under idling and driving conditions; and 4. High efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter air purifier tests to evaluate the effectiveness of in-cabin filtration. In total, 24 school buses were employed to cover a wide range of school buses commonly used in the United States. Real-time air quality measurements included particle number concentration (PNC), fine and UFP size distribution in the size range 7.6-289 nm, PM2.5 mass concentration, black carbon (BC) concentration, and carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations. For in-cabin measurements, instruments were placed on a platform secured to the rear seats inside the school buses. For all other tests, a second set of instruments was deployed to simultaneously measure the ambient air pollutant levels. For tailpipe emission measurements, the exhaust was diluted and then measured by instruments identical to those used for the in-cabin measurements. The results show that when driving on roads, in-cabin PNC, fine and UFP size distribution, PM2.5, BC, and CO varied by engine age, window position, driving speed, driving route, and operating conditions. Emissions from idling school buses increased the PNC close to the tailpipe by a factor of up to 26.0. Under some circumstances, tailpipe emissions of idling school buses increased the in-cabin PNC by factors ranging from 1.2 to 5.8 in the 10-30 nm particle size range. Retrofit systems significantly reduced the tailpipe emissions of idling school buses. With both DOC and CFS installed, PNC in tailpipe emissions dropped by 20

  7. Transportation of Wheelchair Seated Students in School Buses: A Review of State Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Britta; Fuhrman, Susan; Karg, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    This study quantitatively reviews publicly available state policies as they relate to the transportation of wheelchair-seated students in school buses. Inclusion of best practices in specially equipped school bus and driver training policies was assessed. Key points of interest within state policies were identified based on site visits, common…

  8. Alternative Fuels for Washington's School Buses: A Report to the Washington State Legislature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, John Kim; McCoy, Gilbert A.

    This document presents findings of a study that evaluated the use of both propane and compressed natural gas as alternative fuels for Washington State school buses. It discusses air quality improvement actions by state- and federal-level regulators and summarizes vehicle design, development, and commercialization activities by all major engine,…

  9. Predicting self-pollution inside school buses using a CFD and multi-zone coupled model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Lee, Eon S.; Liu, Junjie; Zhu, Yifang

    2015-04-01

    The in-cabin environment of a school bus is important for children's health. The pollutants from a bus's own exhaust contribute to children's overall exposure to air pollutants inside the school bus cabin. In this study, we adapted a coupled model originally developed for indoor environment to determine the relative contribution of the bus own exhaust to the in-cabin pollutant concentrations. The coupled model uses CFD (computational fluent dynamics) model to simulate outside concentration and CONTAM (a multi-zone model) for inside the school bus. The model was validated with experimental data in the literature. Using the validated model, we analyzed the effects of vehicle speed and tailpipe location on self-pollution inside the bus cabin. We confirmed that the pollution released from the tailpipe can penetrate into the bus cabin through gaps in the back emergency door. We found the pollution concentration inside school buses was the highest when buses were driven at a medium speed. In addition, locating the tailpipe on the side, behind the rear axle resulted in less self-pollution since there is less time for the suction effect to take place. The developed theoretical framework can be generalized to study other types of buses. These findings can be used in developing policy recommendations for reducing human exposure to air pollution inside buses.

  10. School buses, air pollution and children's health: follow-up report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrotta, K. [Clean Air Partnership, Toronto, ON (Canada)], email: Kperrotta@cleanairpartnership.org

    2010-10-15

    This document is designed to be a follow-up report to the Ontario Public Health Association (OPHA) school bus report published in 2005, and was produced through a collaboration between the Clean Air Partnership and the OPHA. The level of awareness of school bus emissions are evaluated in this report. The document also provides a review of projects handled by the federal government, programs developed by governments of other provinces and the policies followed by school boards in other provinces, to mitigate emissions and exposures related to school buses. Several recommendations were made, including the replacement of older school buses, adapt the routes considering the emissions generated and promote the use of biodiesel to reduce emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases. 36 refs, 8 tabs.

  11. School buses, air pollution and children's health: follow-up report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrotta, K.

    2010-10-01

    This document is designed to be a follow-up report to the Ontario Public Health Association (OPHA) school bus report published in 2005, and was produced through a collaboration between the Clean Air Partnership and the OPHA. The level of awareness of school bus emissions are evaluated in this report. The document also provides a review of projects handled by the federal government, programs developed by governments of other provinces and the policies followed by school boards in other provinces, to mitigate emissions and exposures related to school buses. Several recommendations were made, including the replacement of older school buses, adapt the routes considering the emissions generated and promote the use of biodiesel to reduce emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases. 36 refs, 8 tabs.

  12. Aerosol particles generated by diesel-powered school buses at urban schools as a source of children’s exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochstetler, Heather A.; Yermakov, Mikhail; Reponen, Tiina; Ryan, Patrick H.; Grinshpun, Sergey A.

    2015-01-01

    Various heath effects in children have been associated with exposure to traffic-related particulate matter (PM), including emissions from school buses. In this study, the indoor and outdoor aerosol at four urban elementary schools serviced by diesel-powered school buses was characterized with respect to the particle number concentrations and size distributions as well as the PM2.5 mass concentrations and elemental compositions. It was determined that the presence of school buses significantly affected the outdoor particle size distribution, specifically in the ultrafine fraction. The time-weighted average of the total number concentration measured outside the schools was significantly associated with the bus and the car counts. The concentration increase was consistently observed during the morning drop-off hours and in most of the days during the afternoon pick-up period (although at a lower degree). Outdoor PM2.5 mass concentrations measured at schools ranged from 3.8 to 27.6 µg m−3. The school with the highest number of operating buses exhibited the highest average PM2.5 mass concentration. The outdoor mass concentrations of elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) were also highest at the school with the greatest number of buses. Most (47/55) correlations between traffic-related elements identified in the outdoor PM2.5 were significant with elements identified in the indoor PM2.5. Significant associations were observed between indoor and outdoor aerosols for EC, EC/OC, and the total particle number concentration. Day-to-day and school-to-school variations in Indoor/Outdoor (I/O) ratios were related to the observed differences in opening windows and doors, which enhanced the particle penetration, as well as indoor activities at schools. Overall, the results on I/O ratio obtained in this study reflect the sizes of particles emitted by diesel-powered school bus engines (primarily, an ultrafine fraction capable of penetrating indoors). PMID:25904818

  13. Aerosol particles generated by diesel-powered school buses at urban schools as a source of children's exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochstetler, Heather A; Yermakov, Mikhail; Reponen, Tiina; Ryan, Patrick H; Grinshpun, Sergey A

    2011-03-01

    Various heath effects in children have been associated with exposure to traffic-related particulate matter (PM), including emissions from school buses. In this study, the indoor and outdoor aerosol at four urban elementary schools serviced by diesel-powered school buses was characterized with respect to the particle number concentrations and size distributions as well as the PM2.5 mass concentrations and elemental compositions. It was determined that the presence of school buses significantly affected the outdoor particle size distribution, specifically in the ultrafine fraction. The time-weighted average of the total number concentration measured outside the schools was significantly associated with the bus and the car counts. The concentration increase was consistently observed during the morning drop-off hours and in most of the days during the afternoon pick-up period (although at a lower degree). Outdoor PM2.5 mass concentrations measured at schools ranged from 3.8 to 27.6 µg m -3 . The school with the highest number of operating buses exhibited the highest average PM2.5 mass concentration. The outdoor mass concentrations of elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) were also highest at the school with the greatest number of buses. Most (47/55) correlations between traffic-related elements identified in the outdoor PM2.5 were significant with elements identified in the indoor PM2.5. Significant associations were observed between indoor and outdoor aerosols for EC, EC/OC, and the total particle number concentration. Day-to-day and school-to-school variations in Indoor/Outdoor (I/O) ratios were related to the observed differences in opening windows and doors, which enhanced the particle penetration, as well as indoor activities at schools. Overall, the results on I/O ratio obtained in this study reflect the sizes of particles emitted by diesel-powered school bus engines (primarily, an ultrafine fraction capable of penetrating indoors).

  14. New Britain, Conn. School District will Benefit from $125,000 EPA Rebate for Clean Emission School Buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    The New Britain, Conn. school district will benefit from a $125,000 US EPA rebate that will pay for retrofitted engines on seven older school buses so they would emit fewer pollutants that are linked to health problems such as asthma and lung damage.

  15. Chicopee, Mass. School District will Benefit from $200,000 EPA Rebate to Clean Up Emissions from School Buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    A school district in Chicopee., Mass. will benefit from $200,000 from the US EPA that will pay for rebates to retrofit the engines on 10 older school buses so they would emit fewer pollutants that are linked to health problems such as asthma & lung damage.

  16. CNG/diesel buses for Texas school districts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, J.H.

    1993-01-01

    At the present time, the preponderance of trucks, buses and other heavy duty vehicles are powered by diesel engines. The reasons for the change from gasoline to diesel engines are all basically economic, due to the longer life and lower operating costs of diesel engines, as compared to gasoline engines. This provides a compelling reason to continue to use these engines, even if powered by fuel other than diesel. A major strategy within the industry has been the various attempts to adapt diesel engines to alternative fuels. These conversions have been largely to either methanol or natural gas, with propane joining the race just recently. This strategy takes advantage of the remaining life of existing vehicles by converting engines rather than purchasing a new engine (and/or vehicle) designed for and dedicated to an alternate fuel. Although diesel engines have been converted to run on natural gas, there are substantial challenges that must be met. The following describes some of the technical approaches being used for diesel engine conversions

  17. Studies of self-pollution in diesel school buses: methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borak, Jonathan; Sirianni, Greg

    2007-09-01

    Considerable interest has focused on levels of exhaust emissions in the cabins of diesel-powered school buses and their possible adverse health effects. Significantly different policy and engineering issues would be raised if compelling evidence found that inc-cabin contamination was due to self-pollution from bus emissions, rather than ambient pollution, neighboring vehicles, and/or re-entrained road dust. We identified 19 reports from 11 studies that measured diesel exhaust particulate in the cabins of 58 school bus of various type. Studies were evaluated in light of their experimental design, their data quality, and their capacity to quantify self-pollution. Only one study had a true experimental design, comparing the same buses with and without emission controls, while four others used intentional tracers to quantify tail pipe and/or crankcase emissions. Although definitive data are still lacking, these studies suggest that currently available control technologies can nearly eliminate particulate self-pollution inside diesel school buses.

  18. Diesel vs. compressed natural gas for school buses: a cost-effectiveness evaluation of alternative fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, J.T.

    2005-01-01

    Reducing emissions from school buses is a priority for both state and federal regulators. Two popular alternative technologies to conventional diesel (CD) are emission controlled diesel (ECD), defined here to be diesel buses equipped with continuously regenerating particle filters, and engines fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG). This paper uses a previously published model to quantify the impact of particulate matter (PM), oxides of nitrogen (NO x ), and sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) emissions on population exposure to ozone and to primary and secondary PM, and to quantify the resulting health damages, expressed in terms of lost quality adjusted life years (QALYs). Resource costs include damages from greenhouse gas-induced climate change, vehicle procurement, infrastructure development, and operations. I find that ECD and CNG produce very similar reductions in health damages compared to CD, although CNG has a modest edge because it may have lower NO x emissions. However, ECD is far more cost effective ($400,000-900,000 cost per QALY saved) than CNG (around $4 million per QALY saved). The results are uncertain because the model used makes a series of simplifying assumptions and because emissions data and cost data for school buses are very limited

  19. Quantification of self pollution from two diesel school buses using three independent methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sally Liu, L.-J.; Phuleria, Harish C.; Webber, Whitney; Davey, Mark; Lawson, Douglas R.; Ireson, Robert G.; Zielinska, Barbara; Ondov, John M.; Weaver, Christopher S.; Lapin, Charles A.; Easter, Michael; Hesterberg, Thomas W.; Larson, Timothy

    2010-09-01

    We monitored two Seattle school buses to quantify the buses' self pollution using the dual tracers (DT), lead vehicle (LV), and chemical mass balance (CMB) methods. Each bus drove along a residential route simulating stops, with windows closed or open. Particulate matter (PM) and its constituents were monitored in the bus and from a LV. We collected source samples from the tailpipe and crankcase emissions using an on-board dilution tunnel. Concentrations of PM 1, ultrafine particle counts, elemental and organic carbon (EC/OC) were higher on the bus than the LV. The DT method estimated that the tailpipe and the crankcase emissions contributed 1.1 and 6.8 μg m -3 of PM 2.5 inside the bus, respectively, with significantly higher crankcase self pollution (SP) when windows were closed. Approximately two-thirds of in-cabin PM 2.5 originated from background sources. Using the LV approach, SP estimates from the EC and the active personal DataRAM (pDR) measurements correlated well with the DT estimates for tailpipe and crankcase emissions, respectively, although both measurements need further calibration for accurate quantification. CMB results overestimated SP from the DT method but confirmed crankcase emissions as the major SP source. We confirmed buses' SP using three independent methods and quantified crankcase emissions as the dominant contributor.

  20. Adopting Clean Fuels and Technologies on School Buses. Pollution and Health Impacts in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adar, Sara D; D'Souza, Jennifer; Sheppard, Lianne; Kaufman, Joel D; Hallstrand, Teal S; Davey, Mark E; Sullivan, James R; Jahnke, Jordan; Koenig, Jane; Larson, Timothy V; Liu, L J Sally

    2015-06-15

    More than 25 million American children breathe polluted air on diesel school buses. Emission reduction policies exist, but the health impacts to individual children have not been evaluated. Using a natural experiment, we characterized the exposures and health of 275 school bus riders before, during, and after the adoption of clean technologies and fuels between 2005 and 2009. Air pollution was measured during 597 trips on 188 school buses. Repeated measures of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), lung function (FEV1, FVC), and absenteeism were also collected monthly (1,768 visits). Mixed-effects models longitudinally related the adoption of diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs), closed crankcase ventilation systems (CCVs), ultralow-sulfur diesel (ULSD), or biodiesel with exposures and health. Fine and ultrafine particle concentrations were 10-50% lower on buses using ULSD, DOCs, and/or CCVs. ULSD adoption was also associated with reduced FeNO (-16% [95% confidence interval (CI), -21 to -10%]), greater changes in FVC and FEV1 (0.02 [95% CI, 0.003 to 0.05] and 0.01 [95% CI, -0.006 to 0.03] L/yr, respectively), and lower absenteeism (-8% [95% CI, -16.0 to -0.7%]), with stronger associations among patients with asthma. DOCs, and to a lesser extent CCVs, also were associated with improved FeNO, FVC growth, and absenteeism, but these findings were primarily restricted to patients with persistent asthma and were often sensitive to control for ULSD. No health benefits were noted for biodiesel. Extrapolating to the U.S. population, changed fuel/technologies likely reduced absenteeism by more than 14 million/yr. National and local diesel policies appear to have reduced children's exposures and improved health.

  1. Adopting Clean Fuels and Technologies on School Buses. Pollution and Health Impacts in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Souza, Jennifer; Sheppard, Lianne; Kaufman, Joel D.; Hallstrand, Teal S.; Davey, Mark E.; Sullivan, James R.; Jahnke, Jordan; Koenig, Jane; Larson, Timothy V.; Liu, L. J. Sally

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: More than 25 million American children breathe polluted air on diesel school buses. Emission reduction policies exist, but the health impacts to individual children have not been evaluated. Methods: Using a natural experiment, we characterized the exposures and health of 275 school bus riders before, during, and after the adoption of clean technologies and fuels between 2005 and 2009. Air pollution was measured during 597 trips on 188 school buses. Repeated measures of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), lung function (FEV1, FVC), and absenteeism were also collected monthly (1,768 visits). Mixed-effects models longitudinally related the adoption of diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs), closed crankcase ventilation systems (CCVs), ultralow-sulfur diesel (ULSD), or biodiesel with exposures and health. Measurements and Main Results: Fine and ultrafine particle concentrations were 10–50% lower on buses using ULSD, DOCs, and/or CCVs. ULSD adoption was also associated with reduced FeNO (−16% [95% confidence interval (CI), −21 to −10%]), greater changes in FVC and FEV1 (0.02 [95% CI, 0.003 to 0.05] and 0.01 [95% CI, −0.006 to 0.03] L/yr, respectively), and lower absenteeism (−8% [95% CI, −16.0 to −0.7%]), with stronger associations among patients with asthma. DOCs, and to a lesser extent CCVs, also were associated with improved FeNO, FVC growth, and absenteeism, but these findings were primarily restricted to patients with persistent asthma and were often sensitive to control for ULSD. No health benefits were noted for biodiesel. Extrapolating to the U.S. population, changed fuel/technologies likely reduced absenteeism by more than 14 million/yr. Conclusions: National and local diesel policies appear to have reduced children’s exposures and improved health. PMID:25867003

  2. Walking School Buses as a Form of Active Transportation for Children--A Review of the Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Liz; Norgate, Sarah H.; Cherrett, Tom; Davies, Nigel; Winstanley, Christopher; Harding, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Background: Walking school buses (WSBs) offer a potentially healthier way for children to get to school while reducing traffic congestion. A number of pressing societal challenges make it timely to evaluate evidence of their value. Methods: Studies that focused solely on WSBs were identified through online and manual literature searches. Twelve…

  3. School buses, air pollution and children's health : improving children's health and local air quality by reducing school bus emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrotta, K. [Ontario Public Health Association, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2005-11-01

    The exhaust gases from school buses was examined and recommendations were presented for the establishment of a healthy school bus program in Ontario that is directed at improving children's health and local air quality. The Ontario Public Health Association is concerned with school bus emissions because they are heavy-duty vehicles that emit large quantities of diesel-related air pollutants such as fine particulate matter, nitrogen oxides and diesel particulates. In addition, school buses can be self-polluting vehicles that expose children on-board to high levels of fine particulates and diesel particulate matter. Both these pollutants have been associated with a range of acute and chronic health problems such as asthma, respiratory infections, allergies, and school absences. With nearly 800,000 Ontario children being transported on school buses annually, these exposures can represent a serious public health concern, as childhood exposures can also influence the health of exposed individuals later in life. Exposure studies have found that tailpipe and engine emissions contribute greatly to concentrations of air pollutants on-board school buses. The studies also showed that on-board concentrations were also influenced by local air quality in the communities studied, traffic density, wind direction, the configuration of windows, idling and queuing patterns. It was recommended that the use of ultra-low sulphur diesel fuel along with the installation of diesel particulate filters and closed crankcase filters can reduce the concentrations of air pollutants on-board school buses to almost ambient air levels, even under idling conditions. This report recommended the replacement of pre-1994 school buses, the retrofitting of 1994-2003 school buses with filters, and maintaining proper maintenance, idling and vehicle operation practices. refs., tabs., figs.

  4. Emergency and Disaster Preparedness of School Transportation Staff and School Buses in the United States: Compliance With Recommendations for School Transportation Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olympia, Robert P; Weber, Christopher; Brady, Jodi; Ho, Susana

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the compliance of school transportation staff and school buses with recommendations for the safe transportation of children to and from school and school-related activities. An electronic questionnaire was distributed to school transportation staff represented by the International Brotherhood of Teamsters during the 2013-2014 academic year. Analysis was performed on 558 completed questionnaires (13% usable response rate). Responders had previous training in first aid (89%), basic life support (28%), and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (52%). Seventy-eight percent of school buses in our sample had restraint devices and 87% had seat belt cutters. Responders reported the immediate availability of the following on their bus: communication devices (81%), first aid kits (97%), fire extinguishers (89%), automated external defibrillators (1%), and epinephrine autoinjectors (2%). Thirty percent of responders have had no previous training in the management of emergencies such as trouble breathing, severe allergic reaction, seizures, cardiac arrest or unresponsiveness, and head, neck, or extremity trauma. Thirteen percent of responders are unfamiliar with or have had no previous training on protocols regarding emergency shelters and community evacuation plans in the event of a disaster. Variability exists in the compliance of school transportation staff and school buses with recommendations for the safe transportation of children. Areas for improvement were identified, such as educating school transportation staff in the recognition and initial management of pediatric emergencies, ensuring the presence of restraint devices, increasing the immediate availability of certain emergency medications and equipment, and familiarizing school transportation staff with designated emergency shelters and community evacuation plans.

  5. 26 CFR 48.4221-8 - Tax-free sales of tires, tubes, and tread rubber used on intercity, local, and school buses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... if the bus has a passenger seating capacity of at least 20 adults and the transportation is available... of a school. Incidental use (deadheading) of the school bus without passengers to or from a point to... used on intercity, local, and school buses. 48.4221-8 Section 48.4221-8 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...

  6. Why People Are Not Willing to Let Their Children Ride in Driverless School Buses: A Gender and Nationality Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily C. Anania

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available As driverless vehicles proliferate, it is possible that this technology will be applied in mass transport vehicles. School buses may be suited for autonomous operations as they follow set routes and schedules. However, a research gap exists in whether or not parents would be willing to have their children ride in autonomously operated school buses. The purpose of this study was to examine parents’ willingness to allow their child to ride in an autonomous school bus. Participant gender and nationality were also two independent variables, along with affect measures as a possible mediating variable. The research used a two-study approach. In study one, it was found that participants were less willing to have their child ride in a driverless school bus than a traditional human-operated vehicle. In study two, findings suggest a significant interaction between the type of driver, participant gender, and nationality. In general, American females were less willing than Indian females and overall, Americans were less willing than Indians in the driverless conditions. Affect was found to be a mediating variable, which suggests that emotions were playing a role in the responses of participants. The paper concludes with theoretical contributions, practical applications, and suggestions for future research.

  7. Evaluation of retrofit crankcase ventilation controls and diesel oxidation catalysts for reducing air pollution in school buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenbath, Kim; Hannigan, Michael P.; Milford, Jana B.

    2009-12-01

    This study evaluates the effect of retrofit closed crankcase ventilation filters (CCFs) and diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs) on the in-cabin air quality in transit-style diesel school buses. In-cabin pollution levels were measured on three buses from the Pueblo, CO District 70 fleet. Monitoring was conducted while buses were driven along their regular routes, with each bus tested three times before and three times after installation of control devices. Ultrafine number concentrations in the school bus cabins were 33-41% lower, on average, after the control devices were installed. Mean mass concentrations of particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) were 56% lower, organic carbon (OC) 41% lower, elemental carbon (EC) 85% lower, and formaldehyde 32% lower after control devices were installed. While carbon monoxide concentrations were low in all tests, mean concentrations were higher after control devices were installed than in pre-retrofit tests. Reductions in number, OC, and formaldehyde concentrations were statistically significant, but reductions in PM2.5 mass were not. Even with control devices installed, during some runs PM2.5 and OC concentrations in the bus cabins were elevated compared to ambient concentrations observed in the area. OC concentrations inside the bus cabins ranged from 22 to 58 μg m -3 before and 13 to 33 μg m -3 after control devices were installed. OC concentrations were correlated with particle-bound organic tracers for lubricating oil emissions (hopanes) and diesel fuel and tailpipe emissions (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and aliphatic hydrocarbons). Mean concentrations of hopanes, PAH, and aliphatic hydrocarbons were lower by 37, 50, and 43%, respectively, after the control devices were installed, suggesting that both CCFs and DOCs were effective at reducing in-cabin OC concentrations.

  8. Walking school buses as a form of active transportation for children-a review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Liz; Norgate, Sarah H; Cherrett, Tom; Davies, Nigel; Winstanley, Christopher; Harding, Mike

    2015-03-01

    Walking school buses (WSBs) offer a potentially healthier way for children to get to school while reducing traffic congestion. A number of pressing societal challenges make it timely to evaluate evidence of their value. Studies that focused solely on WSBs were identified through online and manual literature searches. Twelve WSB studies involving a total of 9169 children were reviewed. Study aims, designs, methods, outcomes, and barriers and facilitators were examined. WSBs were found to be associated with increased prevalence of walking to school and general activity levels although not always significantly. Time constraints emerged as barriers to WSBs, impacting on recruitment of volunteers and children to the WSBs. Facilitators of WSBs included children enjoying socializing and interacting with the environment. Preliminary evidence of the health value of WSBs was demonstrated, along with recommendations for the design of future studies. By tackling barriers of time constraints, volunteer recruitment, and parents' safety concerns while at the same time, increasing convenience and time savings for families, future WSBs are likely to be more sustainable and taken up by more schools. Implications for future innovation in school health were identified. © 2015, American School Health Association.

  9. Big Brother Is Watching: Video Surveillance on Buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloggett, Joel

    2009-01-01

    Many school districts in North America have adopted policies to permit cameras on their properties and, when needed, on buses used to transport students. With regard to school buses, the camera is typically a tool for gathering information to monitor behavior or to help investigate a complaint about behavior. If a picture is worth a thousand…

  10. Buse_Francisella Medium

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains colony forming unit and qPCR data. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Morris, B., H. Buse, N. Adcock, and E. Rice. A...

  11. Scientific research in school psychology: Leading researchers weigh in on its past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Kent; Martinez, Rebecca S; Ty, Sophie V; McClain, Maryellen B

    2013-06-01

    A survey of established researchers in school psychology was conducted to reflect on the state of the science of school psychology research. A total of 54 members of the Society for the Study of School Psychology shared their perceptions of (a) the most significant findings of the past 25years that have influenced research and practice in school psychology, (b) current, exciting research topics, and (c) topics that are likely to guide the future of research in school psychology. Qualitative analyses revealed 6 major categories and 17 minor categories within the major categories. Four major categories were present across each of the three time periods: (a) Data-Informed Practices and their Implementation, (b) Theory Development, (c) Changing Role and Function, and (d) Biological Bases of Behavior. Additional major categories included Advances in Research Methodology and Psychometrics (found across past and present time periods) and There is Not One Single Most Important Idea (found during only the past time period). Quotations are provided to illustrate these categories and share the respondents' ideas in their own words. Copyright © 2013 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. "Platooning" Instruction: Districts Weigh Pros and Cons of Departmentalizing Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Lucy

    2010-01-01

    To platoon or not to platoon? That's the question facing Irving Hamer, Deputy Superintendent of Academic Operations, Technology and lnnovation for the Memphis City Schools. This year for the first time, the state's achievement test, Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program (TCAP), will include algebraic concepts on the 5th-grade test. Of the…

  13. Weighing Outsourcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, William J.; Jimerson, Lorna

    2009-01-01

    The Umbridge School District's hot lunch program was hemorrhaging red ink. Each year, the school district poured more money down the sinkhole. At the same time, parents complained about the quality of the school lunches. The food services director always had excuses and nothing really changed. When no headway was evident, the superintendent said…

  14. Parents of elementary school students weigh in on height, weight, and body mass index screening at school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubik, Martha Y; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Story, Mary; Rieland, Gayle

    2006-12-01

    School-based body mass index (BMI) screening and parent notification programs have been recommended as a childhood overweight prevention strategy. However, there are little empirical data available to guide decision making about the acceptability and safety of programs. A pilot study was conducted using a quasiexperimental research design. In fall 2004, children in 4 suburban elementary schools (kindergarten to sixth grade) in the St Paul/Minneapolis, MN, metropolitan area completed height/weight screening. The following spring, parents in 2 schools received letters containing height/weight and BMI results. A self-administered post-only survey examined parents' opinions and beliefs regarding school-based BMI screening and parent notification programs (response rate: 790/1133 = 70%). The chi2 test of significance was used to examine differences in program support by treatment condition, child's weight status, and sociodemographic characteristics. Among all parents, 78% believed it was important for schools to assess student's height/weight annually and wanted to receive height, weight, and BMI information yearly. Among parents receiving the letter, 95% read most/all of the letter. Most parents (80%) and children (83%) reported comfort with the information in the letter. Parents of overweight children were more likely to report parental discomfort as well as child discomfort with letter content. There was considerable parental support for school-based BMI screening and parent notification programs. Programs may be a useful overweight prevention tool for children. However, continued attention to how best to support parents and children affected by overweight is required.

  15. Buses involved in fatal accidents factbook 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    This document presents aggregate statistics on buses involved in traffic accidents in 2007. The : statistics are derived from the Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA) file, compiled by the : University of Michigan Transportation Research Institut...

  16. Current Leads, Links and Buses

    CERN Document Server

    Ballarino, A

    2014-01-01

    Electrical transfer from a room temperature power source to a superconducting system is done via conventional or superconducting current leads and superconducting buses or links. The principles of optimization of these devices are presented, with emphasis on the cryogenic, electrical, and superconductor related aspects that drive choices for a system.

  17. Current Leads, Links and Buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballarino, A [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-07-01

    Electrical transfer from a room temperature power source to a superconducting system is done via conventional or superconducting current leads and superconducting buses or links. The principles of optimization of these devices are presented, with emphasis on the cryogenic, electrical, and superconductor related aspects that drive choices for a system.

  18. A nucleonic weighing machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The design and operation of a nucleonic weighing machine fabricated for continuous weighing of material over conveyor belt are described. The machine uses a 40 mCi cesium-137 line source and a 10 litre capacity ionization chamber. It is easy to maintain as there are no moving parts. It can also be easily removed and reinstalled. (M.G.B.)

  19. Air quality in inter-city buses : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Various studies have suggested that air quality inside automobiles and school buses may be poorer than ambient or nearby air quality, and that concentrations of vehicle-related pollutants in city buses may be sufficiently elevated to pose concerns for vehicle occupants and operators. This paper presented the results of preliminary investigation of levels of some pollutants in inter-city buses to determine whether a fuller investigation is warranted. Another objective of the investigation was to develop methods for assessing air quality within road vehicles. Students carried monitoring equipment on 28 inter-city trips made by Greyhound Canada buses during July and August 2004. The equipment recorded average levels of carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), as well as concentrations of particulate matter. Bus routes were selected that allowed for an average of 10 hours of total sampling time in a day. Data was recorded on pumps, run times and routes taken. Results indicated that levels of CO in the buses were much lower than the national standard of acceptable levels for CO. Levels of NO 2 were on average lower, but 5 of the 19 recorded values exceeded acceptable levels. Average particulate levels recorded in the buses were considered acceptable, although some of the recorded levels were higher than desirable. It was concluded that further work on in-vehicle levels of NO 2 and particulate matter could be warranted. Although several procedural and equipment problems were encountered, the methods used in the investigation appeared to be valid, and were thought to be suitable for further work on in-vehicle concentrations of pollutants. 21 refs

  20. Alternative Energy Busing

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFee, Scott

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, school districts have converted portions of their bus fleets to cleaner-burning, sometimes cheaper, alternative fossil fuels, such as compressed natural gas or propane. Others have adopted biodiesel, which combines regular diesel with fuel derived from organic sources, usually vegetable oils or animal fats. The number of biodiesel…

  1. Nucleonic weighing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teller, S.

    1977-01-01

    Nucleonic weighing systems utilize the principle of the absorption or the scattering of nuclear radiation for a contactless measurement of the weight of material per unit length, the loading, of a conveyor. The load signal is processed in an electronic unit with a tachometer signal for the conveyor velocity to indicate the flow rate and the integrated flow of material. The different sources of error in nucleonic weighing using transmitted and forward scattered radiation are discussed, and the design of two nucleonic weighing systems is described. One is a conventional transmission gauge particularly suited for measuring rapid variation in belt loading due to a fast detection and linearizing unit. The other system consists of a forward scattering gauge, particularly suitable for measuring light inhomogeneous materials due to the linear relationship between the weight per unit area and the gauge response. Results from on-line trials with different materials are presented, and experiences from more than one year of operation for a batch weighing system for quick lime and a continuous weighing system for mineral wool are reported. (author)

  2. Buses involved in fatal accidents codebook 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    This report provides documentation for UMTRIs file of Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA), 2008, : including distributions of the code values for each variable in the file. The 2008 BIFA file is a census of all : buses involved in a fatal acc...

  3. Buses involved in fatal accidents codebook 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This report provides documentation for UMTRIs file of Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA), 2007, : including distributions of the code values for each variable in the file. The 2007 BIFA file is a census of all : buses involved in a fatal acc...

  4. Rounding errors in weighing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeach, J.L.

    1976-01-01

    When rounding error is large relative to weighing error, it cannot be ignored when estimating scale precision and bias from calibration data. Further, if the data grouping is coarse, rounding error is correlated with weighing error and may also have a mean quite different from zero. These facts are taken into account in a moment estimation method. A copy of the program listing for the MERDA program that provides moment estimates is available from the author. Experience suggests that if the data fall into four or more cells or groups, it is not necessary to apply the moment estimation method. Rather, the estimate given by equation (3) is valid in this instance. 5 tables

  5. Weighing Rain Gauge Recording Charts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weighing rain gauge charts record the amount of precipitation that falls at a given location. The vast majority of the Weighing Rain Gauge Recording Charts...

  6. Weighing fluidized powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adomitis, J.T.; Larson, R.I.

    1980-01-01

    Fluidized powder is discharged from a fluidizing vessel into a container. Accurate metering is achieved by opening and closing the valve to discharge the powder in a series of short-duration periods until a predetermined weight is measured by a load cell. The duration of the discharge period may be increased in inverse proportion to the amount of powder in the vessel. Preferably the container is weighed between the discharge periods to prevent fluctuations resulting from dynamic effects. The gas discharged into the container causes the pressures in the vessel and container to equalize thereby decreasing the rate of discharge and increasing the accuracy of metering as the weight reaches the predetermined value. (author)

  7. Modelo conceptual para identificar factores relevantes en la seguridad de los niños en los autobuses escolares Conceptual model for identifying factors relevant to the safety of children in school buses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Lucía Bernal

    2010-06-01

    dimensions of components in different types of school buses. The information collected was analyzed using the Atlas.ti v6 software and the construction of a model through deduction. RESULTS: Important relationships were found between adoption of potentially hazardous postures by children during transport to and from school and the seat and seat belt dimensions, the characteristics of the transportation service, and the role of bus aides. CONCLUSIONS: In order to adopt coherent interventions in school transportation safety, it is necessary to consider not only the technical aspects of the vehicle or posture that are controlled in crash tests but the specific variables of the activities that lead children to adopt postures that put them at greater risk of injury.

  8. SOLVING OF SCHOOL BUS ROUTING PROBLEM BY ANT COLONY OPTIMIZATION RESOLUCIÓN DEL PROBLEMA DE RUTEO DE BUSES ESCOLARES CON OPTIMIZACIÓN POR COLONIA DE HORMIGAS RESOLUÇÃO DO PROBLEMA DE RUTEO DE ÔNIBUS ESCOLARES COM OTIMIZAÇÃO POR COLÔNIA DE FORMIGAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan S Arias-Rojas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The school bus routing problem (SBRP seeks to plan an efficient schedule of a fleet of school buses that must pick up students from various bus stops and deliver them by satisfying various constraints: maximum capacity of the bus, maximum riding time of students, time window to arrive to school. In this paper, we consider a case study of SBRP for a school in Bogotá, Colombia. The problem is solved using ant colony optimization (ACO. Computational experiments are performed using real data. Results lead to increased bus utilization and reduction in transportation times with on-time delivery to the school. The proposed decision-aid tool has shown its usefulness for actual decision-making at the school: it outperforms current routing by reducing the total distance traveled by 8.3 % and 21.4 % respectively in the morning and in the afternoon.El problema de ruteo de buses escolares (SBRP busca encontrar el programa más eficiente para una flota de buses escolares que deben recoger y despachar estudiantes en varias paradas de bus satisfaciendo varias restricciones: capacidad máxima del bus, máximo tiempo de recorrido de los estudiantes, ventanas de tiempo para la llegada al colegio. En este artículo se considera un caso de estudio de un problema SBRP para un colegio en Bogotá, Colombia. El problema se resuelve usando la metaheurística de colonia de hormigas (ACO. Los experimentos computacionales se realizan empleando datos reales. Los resultados muestran el incremento en el nivel de utilización de los buses y una reducción en los tiempos de transporte con despacho a tiempo en el colegio. La herramienta ha mostrado su utilidad para la planeación regular de buses en el colegio: se redujo la distancia total recorrida en 8,3 % en la mañana y en 21,4 % en la tarde.O problema de roteamento de ônibus escolares (SBRP busca encontrar o programa mais eficiente para uma frota de ônibus escolares que devem recolher e despachar estudantes em v

  9. Gas Phase Emission Ratios From In-Use Diesel and CNG Curbside Passenger Buses in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, S. C.; Shorter, J.; Canagaratna, M.; Jayne, J.; Nelson, D. D.; Wormhoudt, J. C.; Williams, P.; Silva, P. J.; Shi, Q.; Ghertner, A.; Zahniser, M.; Worsnop, D.; Kolb, C.; Lanni, T.; Drewnick, F.; Demerjian, K. L.

    2002-12-01

    The Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory simultaneously measured gas phase and particulate emissions from in use vehicles during two campaigns in New York City. The campaigns took place during two weeks in October, 2000 and four weeks in July-August, 2001. Passenger curbside buses were the primary focus of the study, but school buses and several other heavy duty diesel vehicles were also characterized. This paper describes the methodologies used to measure individual in use vehicles and presents the results of the gas phase measurements. Emission ratios for NO, NO2, SO2, N2O, CO, CH4 and H2CO relative to CO2 have been determined across several classes of buses. The gas phase concentrations were measured each second, using Tunable Infrared Laser Direct Absorption Spectroscopy (TILDAS). Some of the categories of buses into which the data has been sorted are; diesel (both 6V92 and Series 50) with and without the Continuous Regenerative Technology (CRT) retrofit, compressed natural gas powered(CNG) and hybrid diesel-electric buses. The New York Metropolitan Transit Authority (MTA) cooperated with this work, providing details about each of their buses followed. In addition to MTA buses, other New York City passenger bus operators were also measured. In September 2000, MTA began to switch to 30 ppm sulfur diesel fuel while it is believed the non MTA operators did not. The measured emission ratios show that low sulfur fuel greatly reduces the amount of SO2 per CO2. Roughly one third of the MTA fleet of diesel buses have been equipped with the CRT retrofit. The gas phase results of interest in this category show increased direct emission of NO2 and companion work (also submitted to the 12th CRC) show the impact the CRT refit has on particulate emissions. CNG buses show increased H2CO and CH4 emission ratios relative to diesel powered motors.

  10. The New Energy Buses in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jingyu; Liu, Yingqi; Kokko, Ari

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of “low carbon” economy, new energy vehicles are increasingly favored by the Chinese government and manufacturers. New energy buses have become an important channel for the promotion of new energy utilizations. Based on the summary of policies, this paper conducts a thorough...

  11. Unit Monitors Manchester-Format Data Buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador, Jose J.

    1994-01-01

    Circuit card converts data signals into convenient hexadecimal form for troubleshooting. Bus-monitoring unit converts data signals from Manchester II format used on data bus into hexadecimal format. Monitoring circuit causes hexadecimal words to display on video terminal, where test engineer compares them with hexadecimal records for troubleshooting. Circuit monitors one bus or two buses simultaneously.

  12. Weigh-in-Motion Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The data included in the GIS Traffic Stations Version database have been assimilated from station description files provided by FHWA for Weigh-in-Motion (WIM), and...

  13. Conveyor belt nuclear weighing machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    In many industries the flow of materials on conveyor belts must be measured and controlled. Electromechanical weighing devices have high accuracy but are complicated and expensive to install and maintain. For many applications the nuclear weighing machine has sufficient accuracy but is considerably simpler, cheaper and more robust and is easier to maintain. The rating and performance of a gamma ray balance on the mar ket are detailed. (P.G.R.)

  14. Dictionary of weighing terms a guide to the terminology of weighing

    CERN Document Server

    Nater, Roland; Reichmuth, Arthur; Schwartz, Roman; Zervos, Panagiotis

    2009-01-01

    This book explains over 1,000 terms from weighing technology and includes many illustrations. Terms used relate to the following topics: Fundamentals of Weighing, Using Scales, International Norms and Legal Requirements for Weighing, and Precision in Weighing.

  15. Carbon Dioxide Concentrations and Temperatures within Tour Buses under Real-Time Traffic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chun-Fu; Chen, Ming-Hung; Chang, Feng-Hsiang

    2015-01-01

    This study monitored the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations and temperatures of three 43-seat tour buses with high-passenger capacities in a course of a three-day, two-night school excursion. Results showed that both driver zones and passenger zones of the tour buses achieved maximum CO2 concentrations of more than 3000 ppm, and maximum daily average concentrations of 2510.6 and 2646.9 ppm, respectively. The findings confirmed that the CO2 concentrations detected in the tour buses exceeded the indoor air quality standard of Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (8 hr-CO2: 1000 ppm) and the air quality guideline of Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department (1 hr-CO2: 2500 ppm for Level 1 for buses). Observations also showed that high-capacity tour bus cabins with air conditioning system operating in recirculation mode are severely lacking in air exchange rate, which may negatively impact transportation safety. Moreover, the passenger zones were able to maintain a temperature of between 20 and 25°C during travel, which effectively suppresses the dispersion of volatile organic compounds. Finally, the authors suggest that in the journey, increasing the ventilation frequency of tour bus cabin, which is very beneficial to maintain the travel safety and enhance the quality of travel.

  16. Carbon Dioxide Concentrations and Temperatures within Tour Buses under Real-Time Traffic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chun-Fu; Chen, Ming-Hung; Chang, Feng-Hsiang

    2015-01-01

    This study monitored the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations and temperatures of three 43-seat tour buses with high-passenger capacities in a course of a three-day, two-night school excursion. Results showed that both driver zones and passenger zones of the tour buses achieved maximum CO2 concentrations of more than 3000 ppm, and maximum daily average concentrations of 2510.6 and 2646.9 ppm, respectively. The findings confirmed that the CO2 concentrations detected in the tour buses exceeded the indoor air quality standard of Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (8 hr-CO2: 1000 ppm) and the air quality guideline of Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department (1 hr-CO2: 2500 ppm for Level 1 for buses). Observations also showed that high-capacity tour bus cabins with air conditioning system operating in recirculation mode are severely lacking in air exchange rate, which may negatively impact transportation safety. Moreover, the passenger zones were able to maintain a temperature of between 20 and 25°C during travel, which effectively suppresses the dispersion of volatile organic compounds. Finally, the authors suggest that in the journey, increasing the ventilation frequency of tour bus cabin, which is very beneficial to maintain the travel safety and enhance the quality of travel. PMID:25923722

  17. Environmental Technology Assessment of Introducing Fuel Cell City Buses. A Case Study of Fuel Cell Buses in Goeteborg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlstroem, Magnus

    2002-07-01

    Over the last several years, fuel cell systems have improved. These advancements have increased the expectations that fuel cells are a feasible option for several applications such as transportation and stationary use. There are several reasons why fuel cell buses in city centres appear to be the most beneficial market niche to begin introducing the technology in. The goal of the report is to compile information about fuel cell buses relevant for city administrators working with public transport and environmental issues. A literature review of the fuel cells in buses is included. This study also consists of an environmental assessment of using fuel cell buses with hydrogen produced in various ways for buses on bus route 60 in Goeteborg by 2006. The fuel cell buses are compared with other bus and fuel alternatives. There are two goals of the case study: 1. The first goal is to describe the technical system, the methodology, and the problem for the intended audience. In the future, this study could help frame future investment decisions. 2. The second goal is to present environmental performance results---emission, health, monetary---relative the alternative bus technologies. The model calculations showed that the social benefits were approximately SEK 910,000 each year if all buses were fuel cell buses compared with developed diesel buses. If the fuel cell buses were compared to natural gas buses, then the benefits were SEK 860,000 each year. The benefits were SEK 1.39/bus/km compared with diesel buses or SEK 1.30/bus/km compared with natural gas buses.

  18. Halon containers - to weigh or not to weigh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, K.C.

    1984-04-01

    The National Fire Protection Association requires that the quantity of agent in Halon fire extinguishing systems be verified every six months. The accepted method for determining the quantity of agent has been weighing the containers. Because of problems involved with this method, such as the size of the containers, access, etc., the question what other alternatives are there to weighing halon containers has arisen. This report includes the evaluation and test program whereby the Fire Engineering Group selected and tested alternative methods: the thermal strip tape method, the infrared scanner, ultrasonics, and the radiation detector. Also evaluated, but not tested, were the dip stick method, the pressure supervision method, and weighing using a transducer. As a result of this program, it was determined that weighing is still the most positive method for determining agent quantity, but there are alternatives that can be used. The use of some of these alternatives will provide cost savings, time savings, and maintain the fire protection system in service. However, it will be important for the organization or company intending to use one of the alternative methods, to evaluate and make sure it is compatible with their particular halon protection system

  19. 27 CFR 30.44 - Weighing containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Weighing containers. 30.44... Weighing containers. (a) Weighing containers of more than 10 wine gallons. The weight of containers having.... (b) Weighing containers of 10 wine gallons or less. The weight for containers of a capacity of 10...

  20. Transit experience with hydrogen fueled hybrid electric buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, P.B.; Mazaika, D.M.; Levin, J.; Edwards, T.

    2006-01-01

    Both AC Transit and SunLine Transit operate hybrid electric hydrogen fueled buses in their transit service. ACT presently operates three fuel cell buses in daily revenue service, and SunLine operates a fuel cell bus and a HHICE (Hybrid Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine) bus. All these buses use similar electric drive train and electric accessories, although the detailed design differs notably between the fuel cell and the hybrid ICE buses. The fuel cell buses use a 120kW UTC fuel cell and a Van Hool Chassis, whereas the HHICE bus uses a turbocharged Ford engine which is capable of 140kW generator output in a New Flyer Chassis. The HHICE bus was the first in service, and has been subjected to both winter testing in Manitoba, Canada and summer testing in the Palm Springs, CA region. The winter testing included passenger sampling using questionnaires to ascertain passenger response. The fuel cell buses were introduced to service at the start of 2006. All five buses are in daily revenue service use. The paper will describe the buses and the experience of the transit properties in operating the buses. (author)

  1. The first weighing of plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1967-09-10

    The following text, transcribed from the remarks of those scientists who gathered at the University of Chicago on September 10, 1967, to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the first weighing of plutonium, tells an important part of the story of this fascinating new element that is destined to play an increasingly significant role in the future of man.

  2. The first weighing of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    The following text, transcribed from the remarks of those scientists who gathered at the University of Chicago on September 10, 1967, to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the first weighing of plutonium, tells an important part of the story of this fascinating new element that is destined to play an increasingly significant role in the future of man

  3. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2007-03-01

    This report provides an evaluation of three prototype fuel cell-powered transit buses operating at AC Transit in Oakland, California, and six baseline diesel buses similar in design to the fuel cell buses.

  4. Environmental benefits of natural gas for buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabl, A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a life cycle assessment comparing diesel buses with buses fueled by natural gas. The data for the emission of pollutants are based on the MEET Project of the European Commission (EC), supplemented by data measured for diesel and gas buses in Paris. The benefits of the gas fueled bus are then quantified using the damage cost estimates of the ExternE Project of the EC. A diesel bus with emissions equal to Standard EURO2 of the EC is compared with the same bus equipped with a natural gas engine, for use in Paris and in Toulouse. The damage cost of a diesel bus is significant, in the range of 0.4-1.3 euro/km. Natural gas allows an appreciable reduction of the emissions, lowering the damage cost by a factor of about 2.5 (Toulouse) to 5.5 (Paris). An approximate rule is provided for transferring the results to other cities. A sensitivity analysis is carried out to evaluate the effect of the evolution of the emissions standard towards EURO3, 4 and 5, as well as the effect of uncertainties. Finally a comparison is presented between a EURO2 diesel bus with particle filter, and a gas fueled bus with the MPI engine of IVECO, a more advanced and cleaner technology. With this engine the damage costs of the gas fueled bus are about 3-5 times lower than those of the diesel with particle filter, even though the latter has already very low emissions.(author)

  5. Communication Buses and Protocols for Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Mason

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper overviews existing digital communication buses which are commonly used in sensor networks, discusses sensor network architectures, and introduces a new sensor bus for low power microsystem applications. The new intra-module multi-element microsystem (IM2 bus is nine-line interface with 8b serial data which implements several advanced features such as power management and plug-n-play while maintaining minimum hardware overhead at the sensor node. Finally, some issues in wireless sensor networking are discussed. The coverage of these issues provides a guideline for choosing the appropriate bus for different sensor network applications.

  6. COORDINATION OF THE WORK OF BUSES IN CITY ROUTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuad DASHDAMIROV

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper studied the work of bus routes passing through a street. Optimality criterion was chosen for the development of appropriate models of effective work of buses on the land. The paper proposes a new model costing time passengers at bus stops. A method of technique was developed to coordinate the buses running on the combined section of route.

  7. 49 CFR 393.89 - Buses, driveshaft protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.89 Buses, driveshaft protection. Any driveshaft extending lengthways under the floor of the passenger compartment of a bus shall... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buses, driveshaft protection. 393.89 Section 393...

  8. 49 CFR 393.90 - Buses, standee line or bar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buses, standee line or bar. 393.90 Section 393.90 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.90 Buses, standee line or bar. Except...

  9. 46 CFR 111.30-19 - Buses and wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... control wiring must be— (1) Suitable for installation within in a switchboard enclosure and be rated at 90... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buses and wiring. 111.30-19 Section 111.30-19 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Switchboards § 111.30-19 Buses and wiring. (a) General. Each bus must meet the requirements of...

  10. 49 CFR 392.63 - Towing or pushing loaded buses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Towing or pushing loaded buses. 392.63 Section 392... COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Prohibited Practices § 392.63 Towing or pushing loaded buses. No disabled bus with... passengers aboard for the purpose of towing or pushing any disabled motor vehicle, except in such...

  11. Cool Science: K-12 Climate Change Art Displayed on Buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R. F.; Lustick, D. S.; Lohmeier, J.; Thompson, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    Cool science is an art contest where K12 students create placards (7" x 22") to educate the public about climate change. Students are prompted to create their artwork in response to questions such as: What is the evidence for climate change? How does climate change impact your local community? What can you do to reduce the impacts of climate change? In each of three years, 500-600 student entrees have been submitted from more than 12 school districts across Massachusetts. A panel of judges including scientists, artists, rapid transit representatives, and educators chooses elementary, middle, and high school winners. Winners (6), runners-up (6), and honorable mentions (12) and their families and teachers are invited to an annual Cool Science Award Ceremony to be recognized and view winning artwork. All winning artwork is posted on the Cool Science website. The winning artwork (2 per grade band) is converted into placards (11" x 28") and posters (2.5' x 12') that are placed on the inside (placards) and outside (posters) of buses. Posters are displayed for one month. So far, Cool Science was implemented in Lowell, MA where over 5000 public viewers see the posters daily on the sides of Lowell Rapid Transit Authority (LRTA) buses, making approximately 1,000,000 impressions per year. Cool Science acts to increase climate literacy in children as well as the public, and as such promotes intergenerational learning. Using art in conjunction with science learning about climate change appears to be effective at engaging not just traditionally high achieving science students, but also those interested in the creative arts. Hearing winners' stories about how they created their artwork and what this contest meant to them supports the idea that Cool Science attracts a wide diversity of students. Parents discuss climate change with their children. Multiple press releases announcing the winners further promotes the awareness of climate change throughout school districts and their

  12. NAA of an iridium tracer to determine soot exposure of students commuting on Baltimore`s buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ondov, J.M.; Wu, C.C.; Lin, Zhibo; Kidwell, C.B. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that short-term increases in indices of particulate air pollution are associated with increased mortality and morbidity from respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. An important component of urban aerosol, diesel soot, is a known respiratory irritant and contains mutagenic and carcinogenic organic compounds. In the United States, motor vehicles are thought to be the largest single source of atmospheric soot and account for {approximately}36% of the annual anthropogenic emission of toxic polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Much of the motor-vehicle-derived PAH originates from diesel-powered vehicles because their PAH emissions are up to 50-fold greater than those from gasoline engines. In Baltimore, city high school students take public buses to school and, often, must stand at bus stops while many diesel buses pass or stop before their own buses arrive. To estimate student exposures to soot emitted from public diesel buses (MTA) during commutes to city high schools, the Baltimore municipal fuel supply was tagged with an iridium tracer, and exposure was monitored during commutes with personal aerosol monitors as a part of the Baltimore Environmental Justice Project.

  13. Hydrogen fuelled buses: Italian ENEA research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosini, G.; Ciancia, A.; Pede, G.

    1993-01-01

    Current hydrogen automotive fuels research studies being conducted by ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) are being targeted towards the development of hydrogen fueled vans and buses for use in highly polluted urban environments where the innovative vehicles' air pollution abatement characteristics would justify their high operating costs as compared with those of conventional automotive alternatives. The demonstration vehicle being used in the experimental studies and performance tests is a two liter minibus with a spark ignition engine power rated at 55 kW with gasoline operation and 45 kW with hydrogen. Detailed design notes are given regarding the retrofitting of the minibus chassis to house the aluminium gas storage tanks and the adaptation of the engine to operate with compressed hydrogen. Attention is given to efforts being made to resolve combustion control and fueling problems. Focus is on the progress being made in the development of an efficient and safe electronically controlled fuel injection system

  14. New buses and links for data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, H.; Bogaerts, A.; McLaren, R.; Parkman, C.; Linnhoefer, D.

    1992-01-01

    Bus standards for data acquisition have been vital for the construction and operation of medium and large HEP experiments. The recent industry bus standardisation effort will soon release the next generation of high performance buses and links for scalable systems. Prototype components, VLSI chips and board-level systems are already announced. Layers of the new bus specifications cover wide areas of applications and provide possibilities to define specific bus profiles by interest groups. New, innovative solutions which are needed for high rate experiments are becoming visible. These will provide novel architectural possibilities, very high bandwidth, fast silicon, industry support and new metric mechanical standards. Interconnected via standard bridges, different bus standards can be used to cover the varying requirements from the front ends to the computers. (orig.)

  15. Improving School Bus Safety. Transportation Research Board Special Report 222.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Transportation Research Board.

    While school buses transport more passengers per trip, the rate of occupant fatalities per mile driven for school buses is one-quarter that for passenger cars. Nevertheless, the public expects school districts and other school bus operators to take all reasonable precautions to protect children as they travel to and from school. Although a variety…

  16. Buse_Francisella and free-living amoebae data sets

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Co-infection data in the form of colony forming units and amoeba cell counts. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Buse , H., F. Schaefer, and...

  17. Natural gas drive for city buses in Skopje

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrovski, Mile; Veljanovski, Krsto; Dimitrovski, Dame

    2002-01-01

    Emission improvement in both city centers and conurbations is an important factor which developers of public-utility vehicles and buses must take into account. If natural gas is used as a fuel the emission is considerably lower than that from conventional diesel drive. Thus it is an important contribution to keep the air clean in the area where the vehicles are deployed. In this paper the project 'Ecological Natural gas drive for city buses in Skopje' is analysed. (Original)

  18. Radiometric weighing devices. Part 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaeser, M.

    1985-01-01

    Proceeding from the physical and mathematical fundamentals and from the types of radiometric weighing devices presently available, the radiation protection problems arising from the application of radiometric gages in industry and agriculture are discussed. Nuclear weighing devices have been found to be effective from economic point of view but in some cases gravimetric conveyor weighers are indispensable. Information and guidance is given especially for users of radiometric weighing devices. 91 refs., 69 figs., and 8 tabs

  19. Particle and gaseous emissions from individual diesel and CNG buses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Å. M. Hallquist

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study size-resolved particle and gaseous emissions from 28 individual diesel-fuelled and 7 compressed natural gas (CNG-fuelled buses, selected from an in-use bus fleet, were characterised for real-world dilution scenarios. The method used was based on using CO2 as a tracer of exhaust gas dilution. The particles were sampled by using an extractive sampling method and analysed with high time resolution instrumentation EEPS (10 Hz and CO2 with a non-dispersive infrared gas analyser (LI-840, LI-COR Inc. 1 Hz. The gaseous constituents (CO, HC and NO were measured by using a remote sensing device (AccuScan RSD 3000, Environmental System Products Inc.. Nitrogen oxides, NOx, were estimated from NO by using default NO2/NOx ratios from the road vehicle emission model HBEFA3.1. The buses studied were diesel-fuelled Euro III–V and CNG-fuelled Enhanced Environmentally Friendly Vehicles (EEVs with different after-treatment, including selective catalytic reduction (SCR, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR and with and without diesel particulate filter (DPF. The primary driving mode applied in this study was accelerating mode. However, regarding the particle emissions also a constant speed mode was analysed. The investigated CNG buses emitted on average a higher number of particles but less mass compared to the diesel-fuelled buses. Emission factors for number of particles (EFPN were EFPN, DPF = 4.4 ± 3.5 × 1014, EFPN, no DPF = 2.1 ± 1.0 × 1015 and EFPN, CNG = 7.8 ± 5.7 ×1015 kg fuel−1. In the accelerating mode, size-resolved emission factors (EFs showed unimodal number size distributions with peak diameters of 70–90 nm and 10 nm for diesel and CNG buses, respectively. For the constant speed mode, bimodal average number size distributions were obtained for the diesel buses with peak modes of ~10 nm and ~60 nm. Emission factors for NOx expressed as NO2 equivalents for the diesel buses were on average 27 ± 7 g (kg fuel−1 and for the CNG buses 41

  20. Transit experience with hydrogen fueled hybrid electric buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, P.B.; Mazaika, D.M. [ISE Corp., Poway, CA (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Mass transit buses are ideal candidates for hydrogen implementation due to their capability of carrying 30 to 60 kg of hydrogen. ISE Corporation is a supplier of hydrogen fueled buses, including the first hybrid electric fuel cell bus which was commercialized in 2002, the hybrid electric fuel cell bus, and the hybrid hydrogen internal combustion engine (HHICE) bus which was commercialized in 2004. The configuration of a HHICE bus was illustrated with reference to its engine, control system, energy storage, generator, drive motor, inverter and accessories. Although these vehicles are expensive, the cost is amortized over a large base of hours used and passengers carried. The buses are operated primarily in urban areas where quiet and clean operation is needed the most. ISE has established a joint venture with Thor industries to develop a series of fuel cell buses equipped with a 60 kW PEM fuel cell. A schematic illustrating the energy flow in HHICE bus was also presented. It was shown that regenerative braking recovers the energy of motion. When using regenerative braking, most of the braking energy is saved in the battery. ISE drive systems convert 30 per cent or more of the bus energy to electrical energy to be used in later acceleration. Reduced fuel consumption also reduces the vehicle emissions. Testing of HHICE buses in both summer and winter operating conditions have shown that the range needs to be improved along with engine component reliability and durability. Fuel supply is also a major issue. A comparison with a fuel cell hybrid system was also presented. In the United States, more than 100,000 miles have been logged for the use of hydrogen hybrid buses, fuel cell buses and HHICE buses. The HHICE bus offers low capital cost, familiar technologies, but some NOx. CAT absorber technology offers the possibility of near zero emission capability. The fuel cell bus was found to be more fuel efficient, and can travel nearly twice as far per unit energy as

  1. Reliability Evaluation Of The City Transport Buses Under Actual Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rymarz Joanna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to present a reliability comparison of two types of city transport buses. Case study on the example of the well-known brands of city buses: Solaris Urbino 12 and Mercedes-Benz 628 Conecto L used at Municipal Transport Company in Lublin was presented in details. A reliability index for the most failure parts and complex systems for the period of time failures was determined. The analysis covered damages of the following systems: engine, electrical system, pneumatic system, brake system, driving system, central heating and air-conditioning and doors. Reliability was analyzed based on Weibull model. It has been demonstrated, that during the operation significant reliability differences occur between the buses produced nowadays.

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Mesa Unified School District Reaps Economic

    Science.gov (United States)

    and Environmental Benefits with Propane Buses Mesa Unified School District Reaps Economic and School District Reaps Economic and Environmental Benefits with Propane Buses on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Mesa Unified School District Reaps Economic and Environmental Benefits with

  3. Individual nuclear fuel rod weighing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogg, J. L.; Howell, C. A.; Smith, J. H.; Vining, G. E.

    1985-01-01

    An individual nuclear fuel rod weighing system for rods carried on a tray which moves along a materials handling conveyor. At a first tray position on the conveyor, a lifting device raises the rods off the tray and places them on an overhead ramp. A loading mechanism conveys the rods singly from the overhead ramp onto an overhead scale for individual weighing. When the tray is at a second position on the conveyor, a transfer apparatus transports each weighed rod from the scale back onto the tray

  4. Individual nuclear fuel rod weighing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogg, J.L.; Smith, J.H.; Vining, G.E.; Howell, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    An individual nuclear fuel rod weighing system for rods carried on a tray which moves along a materials handling conveyor is discussed. At a first tray position on the conveyor, a lifting device raises the rods off the tray and places them on an overhead ramp. A loading mechanism conveys the rods singly from the overhead ramp onto an overhead scale for individual weighing. When the tray is at a second position on the conveyor, a transfer apparatus transports each weighed rod from the scale back onto the tray

  5. Million Dollar Busing: Saving Money through Privatization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crates, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    The economic crisis has had--and will continue to have--a dramatic effect on tax revenue and education spending throughout the United States and beyond. Yet children still show up for school every day in need of an education. In times like these, educators and school business managers must be as committed as ever to providing it. The economic…

  6. Life Cycle Assessment of Diesel and Electric Public Transportation Buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clean Air Act identifies diesel powered motor vehicles, including transit buses, as significant sources of several criteria pollutants which contribute to ground level ozone formation or smog. The effects of air pollution in urban areas are often more significant due to con...

  7. Luxurious Buses As Means Of Night Journey In Nigeria: Challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    transfer to discourage robbery cases on our roads. Passengers should also keep their traveling plans secret as much as possible as a way of fostering safety. Keywords: night journey, armed robbers, luxurious buses and police escorts. Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management Vol. 1 (3) 2008: pp. 52-62.

  8. Weighing every day matters: daily weighing improves weight loss and adoption of weight control behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Dori M; Bennett, Gary G; Askew, Sandy; Tate, Deborah F

    2015-04-01

    Daily weighing is emerging as the recommended self-weighing frequency for weight loss. This is likely because it improves adoption of weight control behaviors. To examine whether weighing every day is associated with greater adoption of weight control behaviors compared with less frequent weighing. Longitudinal analysis of a previously conducted 6-month randomized controlled trial. Overweight men and women in Chapel Hill, NC, participated in the intervention arm (N=47). The intervention focused on daily weighing for weight loss using an e-scale that transmitted weights to a study website, along with weekly e-mailed lessons and tailored feedback on daily weighing adherence and weight loss progress. We gathered objective data on self-weighing frequency from the e-scales. At baseline and 6 months, weight change was measured in the clinic and weight control behaviors (total items=37), dietary strategies, and calorie expenditure from physical activity were assessed via questionnaires. Calorie intake was assessed using an online 24-hour recall tool. We used χ(2) tests to examine variation in discrete weight control behaviors and linear regression models to examine differences in weight, dietary strategies, and calorie intake and expenditure by self-weighing frequency. Fifty-one percent of participants weighed every day (n=24) over 6 months. The average self-weighing frequency among those weighing less than daily (n=23) was 5.4±1.2 days per week. Daily weighers lost significantly more weight compared with those weighing less than daily (mean difference=-6.1 kg; 95% CI -10.2 to -2.1; P=0.004). The total number of weight control behaviors adopted was greater among daily weighers (17.6±7.6 vs 11.2±6.4; P=0.004). There were no differences by self-weighing frequency in dietary strategies, calorie intake, or calorie expenditure. Weighing every day led to greater adoption of weight control behaviors and produced greater weight loss compared with weighing most days of the

  9. Are We There Yet? Alternative Fuels for School Buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Dennis; Carter, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    America's annual oil consumption continues to increase and is projected to continue the upward spiral into the foreseeable future. Alternative-fuel options are available that are not only cheaper in some cases on an energy-equivalent basis but are also more environmentally friendly. Education leaders need to be concerned with both these facts.…

  10. The Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles III : Trucks, Buses and Trains

    CERN Document Server

    Orellano, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This volume contains papers presented at the International conference “The Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles III: Trucks, Buses and Trains” held in Potsdam, Germany, September 12-17, 2010 by Engineering Conferences International (ECI). Leading scientists and engineers from industry, universities and research laboratories, including truck and high-speed train manufacturers and operators were brought together to discuss computer simulation and experimental techniques to be applied for the design of more efficient trucks, buses and high-speed trains in the future.   This conference was the third in the series after Monterey-Pacific Groove in 2002 and Lake Tahoe in 2007.  The presentations address different aspects of train aerodynamics (cross wind effects, underbody flow, tunnel aerodynamics and aeroacoustics, experimental techniques), truck aerodynamics (drag reduction, flow control, experimental and computational techniques) as well as computational fluid dynamics and bluff body, wake and jet flows.

  11. NREL Evaluates Performance of Fast-Charge Electric Buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-16

    This real-world performance evaluation is designed to enhance understanding of the overall usage and effectiveness of electric buses in transit operation and to provide unbiased technical information to other agencies interested in adding such vehicles to their fleets. Initial results indicate that the electric buses under study offer significant fuel and emissions savings. The final results will help Foothill Transit optimize the energy-saving potential of its transit fleet. NREL's performance evaluations help vehicle manufacturers fine-tune their designs and help fleet managers select fuel-efficient, low-emission vehicles that meet their bottom line and operational goals. help Foothill Transit optimize the energy-saving potential of its transit fleet. NREL's performance evaluations help vehicle manufacturers fine-tune their designs and help fleet managers select fuel-efficient, low-emission vehicles that meet their bottom line and operational goals.

  12. Weigh Station and Grid Plate Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PAJUNEN, A.L.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this test is to verify that the Shortened Fuel Canister Hook with Certified Scale (i.e. Weigh Station) can be used to weigh an empty canister from the Canister Well and the empty Primary Cleaning Machine (PCM) Strainer Basket from the process table. Drawing H-1-84835, ''Canister Handling Hook for Fuel Retrieval System Process Table,'' provides details of the Shortened Fuel Canister Hook. It is also necessary to verify that the grid plate can be lifted and tilted over a canister in the canister well. This testing shall be performed before N Reactor fuel is processed through the FRS in Phase 3. The Phase 3 Test will repeatedly weigh fuel and scrap canisters and the PCM strainer basket containing N Reactor fuel (Pajunen, et. al, 2000). Advance testing of this weigh station will ensure that accurate fuel weight data can be recorded in the Phase 3 Test. This document satisfies the requirements EN-6-031-00, ''Testing Process'' for a test plan, test specification and test procedure

  13. Confusion errors and false manoeuvres at power buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cernes, A.

    1985-09-01

    The incident at Bugey 5 on 14th April 1984, which is regarded as one of the most important in recent years has alas shown again that unless dealt with by the operators in good time, failure of a rectifier supplying one of the buses may soon lead to a very serious situation, in this particular instance voltage loss on the train A 48 volt supply from the two offsite electrical sources and train A diesel generator. Operating experience feedback of the past three years reveals that although the Bugey incident is undoubtedly the most serious, it is not the only where a major alarm was not taken into consideration until fairly late by the operators, and other types of error with far from negligible consequences have occurred during repair work on buses. After a brief reminder of the role and layout of buses, statistics of all incidents of this type in recent years are described and a few cases are presented in order to give some idea of the range of situations encountered. The main measures aimed at reducing the number of incidents of this type are then presented, bearing in mind that one cannot hope to remove the possibility of this type of failure entirely. It may also be noted that the large number of such errors during the night shift or at the very beginning of the morning shift is no doubt connected with the well-known fact that operators are less vigilant at such times

  14. To Evaluate Zero Emission Propulsion and Support Technology for Transit Buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Chandler; Leslie Eudy

    2006-11-01

    This report provides evaluation results for prototype fuel cell transit buses operating at Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (VTA) in San Jose, California, in partnership with the San Mateo County Transit District in San Carlos, California. VTA has been operating three fuel cell transit buses in extra revenue service since February 28, 2005. This report provides descriptions of the equipment used, early experiences, and evaluation results from the operation of the buses and the supporting hydrogen infrastructure from March 2005 through July 2006.

  15. Creation and Reliability Analysis of Vehicle Dynamic Weighing Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Ling XU

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, it is modeled by using ADAMS to portable axle load meter of dynamic weighing system, controlling a single variable simulation weighing process, getting the simulation weighing data under the different speed and weight; simultaneously using portable weighing system with the same parameters to achieve the actual measurement, comparative analysis the simulation results under the same conditions, at 30 km/h or less, the simulation value and the measured value do not differ by more than 5 %, it is not only to verify the reliability of dynamic weighing model, but also to create possible for improving algorithm study efficiency by using dynamic weighing model simulation.

  16. Uncertainty evaluation of a modified elimination weighing for source preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cacais, F.L.; Loayza, V.M., E-mail: facacais@gmail.com [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia, (INMETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Delgado, J.U. [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Metrologia das Radiações Ionizantes

    2017-07-01

    Some modification in elimination weighing method for radioactive source allowed correcting weighing results without non-linearity problems assign a uncertainty contribution for the correction of the same order of the mass of drop uncertainty and check weighing variability in series source preparation. This analysis has focused in knowing the achievable weighing accuracy and the uncertainty estimated by Monte Carlo method for a mass of a 20 mg drop was at maximum of 0.06%. (author)

  17. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-11

    This past year has been one of transition for the introduction of fuel cell transit buses. The existing generation of fuel cell buses from Van Hool and UTC Power has continued to operate in service at three transit agencies. At the same time, a new g...

  18. Charging cost optimization for EV buses using neural network based energy predictor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nageshrao, S.P.; Jacob, J.; Wilkins, S.

    2017-01-01

    For conventional buses, based on the decades of their operational knowledge, public transport companies are able to optimize their cost of operation. However, with recent trend in the usage of electric buses, cost optimal operation can become challenging. In this paper an offline optimal charging

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fleet Application for School Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Propane Buses Jan. 26, 2016 Video thumbnail for Biodiesel Offers an Easy Alternative for Fleets Biodiesel thumbnail for Biodiesel Fuels Education in Alabama Biodiesel Fuels Education in Alabama May 1, 2012 Video School Transportation Videos on YouTube Video thumbnail for New Hampshire Cleans up with Biodiesel Buses

  20. Modeling of passengers' safety perception for buses on mountainous roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Hooi Ling; Ahmed, Muaid

    2018-04-01

    This study had developed a passenger safety perception model specifically for buses taking into consideration the various factors, namely driver characteristics, environmental conditions, and bus characteristics using Bayesian Network. The behaviour of bus driver is observed through the bus motion profile, measured in longitudinal, lateral, and vertical accelerations. The road geometry is recorded using GPS and is computed with the aid of the Google map while the perceived bus safety is rated by the passengers in the bus in real time. A total of 13 variables were derived and used in the model development. The developed Bayesian Network model shows that the type of bus and the experience of the driver on the investigated route could have an influence on passenger's perception of their safety on buses. Road geometry is an indirect influencing factor through the driver's behavior. The findings of this model are useful for the authorities to structure an effective strategy to improve the level of perceived bus safety. A high level of bus safety will definitely boost passenger usage confidence which will subsequently increase ridership. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Electric buses - An energy efficient urban transportation means

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehne, Reinhart [German Aerospace Center (DLR), Transportation Studies, Rutherfordstr. 2, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    Bus transit systems with electric traction are an important contribution to the post fossil fuel mobility. Most renewable energy sources provide energy in the form of electricity. Electric motors thus have promise in the development of the way ''beyond oil''. The reactivation of trolley bus systems - grid bounded but also catenary free for short distances - paves this way. The design of modern trolley bus operations overcomes the existing disadvantages of conventional buses using fossil fuel. Germany has an efficient industry in this field, that offers braking energy recovery and energy storage in modern supercapacitors as well as technical and organisational innovations for a local emission free and a low noise transit system. Gentle but powerful when starting and braking, the trolley bus is cost effective and easy to integrate into an existing infrastructure. Such an electric bus system is ecological, customer-friendly and suitable for cities. It has a high economic efficiency and it also expands the traffic planning field towards an ecological future technology. This paper shows examples at home and abroad how electric buses achieve an energy solving modern urban traffic. It gives insights into technical developments of electric vehicle equipment, cateneries with fast driving handling characteristics and the use of plain electric and hybrid powertrains. (author)

  2. On the issue of selecting technical and operational parameters for buses in urban passenger routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudzinskyi V.V.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Problems of a public transport bus service in urban areas were analyzed. The aim of the article is to determine actual operational parameters of buses during passenger transportation in Zhytomyr. Ways of determining technical and operational parameters of buses were developed using visual and tabular methods of city buses real-time speed and acceleration performance registration by GPS-monitoring system with the help of a communicational and informational intelligent transport system of the city. Experimental studies of city buses motion parameters were presented. A comprehensive survey of passenger traffic and conditions of public transport functioning in Zhytomyr was carried out. The values of technical and operational parameters of buses on city routes were obtained. Preliminarily conclusions and recommendations considering the criteria for selecting the optimal rolling stock for a bus network of the city were suggested.

  3. New laser power sensor using weighing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinot, P.; Silvestri, Z.

    2018-01-01

    We present a set-up using a piece of pyrolytic carbon (PyC) to measure laser power in the range from a few milliwatts to a few watts. The experimental configuration consists in measuring the magnetic repulsion force acting between a piece of PyC placed on a weighing pan and in a magnetic induction generated by a magnet array in a fixed position above the PyC sheet. This involves a repulsion force on the PyC piece which is expressed in terms of mass by the balance display. The quantities affecting the measurement results have been identified. An example of metrological characterization in terms of accuracy, linearity and sensitivity is given. A relative uncertainty of optical power measurement for the first experimental set-up is around 1%. The wavelength and power density dependence on power response of this device has been demonstrated. This PyC-based device presented here in weighing configuration and the other one previously studied in levitation configuration offer a new technique for measuring optical power.

  4. Using Task Clarification, Goal Setting, and Feedback to Decrease Table Busing Times in a Franchise Pizza Restaurant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amigo, Seth; Smith, Andrew; Ludwig, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    The current study investigated the effects of task-clarification, and manager verbal and graphic feedback on employee busing times at a pizza restaurant. Using an ABC design, task-clarification was provided in a memo, which described the process, priority, and goal time of busing. The busing time decreased slightly, from an average of 315 seconds…

  5. Uncertainty estimation in nuclear material weighing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thaure, Bernard [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay aux Roses, (France)

    2011-12-15

    The assessment of nuclear material quantities located in nuclear plants requires knowledge of additions and subtractions of amounts of different types of materials. Most generally, the quantity of nuclear material held is deduced from 3 parameters: a mass (or a volume of product); a concentration of nuclear material in the product considered; and an isotopic composition. Global uncertainties associated with nuclear material quantities depend upon the confidence level of results obtained in the measurement of every different parameter. Uncertainties are generally estimated by considering five influencing parameters (ISHIKAWA's rule): the material itself; the measurement system; the applied method; the environmental conditions; and the operator. A good practice guide, to be used to deal with weighing errors and problems encountered, is presented in the paper.

  6. Txatarra: vivienda transitoria con buses de transporte público

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Arenas Vargas

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente análisis del proyecto Casa Linda parte de una exploración conceptual en torno a un hábitat sostenible, mediante la generación de un tipo de vivienda transitoria que reutiliza buses de transporte público destinados a ser reducidos a chatarra. La necesidad de replantear la labor de configurar espacios con materiales y formas predeterminados llevó a los autores a comprender cómo resultan insuficientes los medios tradicionales de construcción, en los que se acostumbra emplear materias primas en presentaciones estandarizadas y con acabados predefinidos que se adaptan a los requerimientos y necesidades del proyecto. Enfrentar el proyecto a partir del reciclaje de materiales y objetos (chatarra, de diversas dimensiones y en variadas condiciones, generó un proceso cuya característica principal es la imposibilidad de anticipar con exactitud los procesos constructivos y los acabados finales.

  7. An updated assessment of the prospects for fuel cell-powered buses. An information paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanderson, T.K. [Future Energy Solutions, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    This report presents updated conclusions of the Department of Trade and Industry's research and development programme to assess the commercial prospects for advanced fuel cells in buses. The programme has focussed on low temperature solid polymer fuel cells (SPFCs) for transport and combined heat and power (CHP)/distributed power and high temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) for CHP/distributed power. As well as assessing the prospects for SPFCs in buses, the report examines those for alkaline fuel cells (AFCs) and phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs) in buses. The report provides an assessment of the status of technology development for different types of fuel cells in terms of applications to buses and offers estimates of market potential. Some fuel-cell powered buses are now available for demonstration purposes but the report concludes that truly commercial sales are unlikely to start before 2010 and widespread deployment is expected to take a further ten years after that. Buses have now slipped behind cars in terms of worldwide deployment. The issue of fuel choice is considered largely resolved with most fleet vehicle/bus manufacturers currently focussing on hydrogen as a fuel. A discussion of the prospects and barriers for fuel cell buses concludes that cost reduction is now the major barrier to the successful commercialisation of fuel cells in buses. More demonstration prototypes and field trials are required to provide information on energy, environmental and economic performance of fuel cell buses. Field trials could also provide information to assist the development of refuelling systems, fuel storage systems, stacks and other system components and to gain experience of building integrated fuel cell systems.

  8. URBAN PUBLIC TRANSPORT WITH THE USE OF ELECTRIC BUSES – DEVELOPMENT TENDENCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław KRAWIEC

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The programing documents of the European Union determine the direction of transport systems development, including large cities and agglomerations. The context of these actions which aim to transform into ecologically clean and sustainable transport system is a significant reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Assuming that public transport will significantly reduce the use of combustion-powered buses, studies on urban logistic enabling the use of electric buses for public transport are needed. The article presents the variants and scenarios for electric buses implementation in urban public transport, as well as the decision algorithm to support electric bus implementation based on technological, organisational, economic and ecological variables.

  9. Concentrations and risk assessment of selected monoaromatic hydrocarbons in buses and bus stations of Hangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuang; Chen, Shuguang; Zhu, Lizhong; Chen, Xiasheng; Yao, Chaoying; Shen, Xueyou

    2009-03-01

    Air pollution surveys of ten selected monoaromatic hydrocarbons (MAHCs) were conducted in buses and bus stations in Hangzhou, China. The mean concentrations of MAHCs in the air of buses and bus stations were 95.9 and 36.5 microg/m(3), respectively, of which toluene was the highest in all the sampling sites. Mean concentrations of all MAHCs in buses were statistically higher than those nearby bus stations (pbus drivers were 1.11x10(-5) and 4.00x10(-5), respectively, which were way above the limit set by USEPA. The health risk caused by MAHCs in bus microenvironment should be cautioned.

  10. Online weighing of kiwifruit using impact method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M Mir-ahmadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Iran is one of the main producers of kiwifruit in the world. Unfortunately, the sorting and grading of the kiwifruits are manual, which is a time consuming and labor intensive task. Due to the lack of appropriate devices for sorting and grading of kiwifruit based on the quality parameters, only 10% of total production is exported (Mohammadian & Esehaghi Teymouri, 1999. One of the main quality attribute for evaluating the kiwifruits is weight. Based on the standards, the minimum weight for an excellent kiwifruit is 90 g, while these values for the first and second classes should be 70 and 65 g, respectively (Abedini, 2003. Therefore, developing a device for fast weighing of fruits in the sorting lines can be useful in packaging, storage, exporting and distributing kiwifruit to the consumer markets. In the past, the mechanical-based systems were commonly used for online weighing of the agricultural materials, but they did not lead to the promising accuracy and speed in sorting lines. Today, electrical instruments equipped with the precise load cells are substituted for fast weighing in the sorting lines. The dropping impact method, in which a free falling fruit drops on a load cell, is one of the suitable techniques for this purpose. Different studies have addressed the application of dropping impact for fast weighing of agricultural materials (Rohrbach et al., 1982; Calpe et al., 2002; Gilman & Bailey, 2005; Stropek & Gołacki, 2007; Elbeltagi, 2011. The aim of this study reported here was to develop an on-line system for fast weighing of kiwifruit and compare the accuracy of different methods for extracting the weight predictive models. Materials and Methods: Sample selection: A total of 232 samples with the weight range of 40 to 120 g were selected. Before conducting the main experiments, the weight and dimensions of the sample were measured using a digital balance and caliper, with the precisions of 0.001 g and 0.01 mm

  11. Self-weighing in weight management: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yaguang; Klem, Mary Lou; Sereika, Susan M; Danford, Cynthia A; Ewing, Linda J; Burke, Lora E

    2015-02-01

    Regular self-weighing, which in this article is defined as weighing oneself regularly over a period of time (e.g., daily, weekly), is recommended as a weight loss strategy. However, the published literature lacks a review of the recent evidence provided by prospective, longitudinal studies. Moreover, no paper has reviewed the psychological effects of self-weighing. Therefore, the objective is to review the literature related to longitudinal associations between self-weighing and weight change as well as the psychological outcomes. Electronic literature searches in PubMed, Ovid PsycINFO, and Ebscohost CINAHL were conducted. Keywords included overweight, obesity, self-weighing, etc. Inclusion criteria included trials that were published in the past 25 years in English; participants were adults seeking weight loss treatment; results were based on longitudinal data. The results (N=17 studies) revealed that regular self-weighing was associated with more weight loss and not with adverse psychological outcomes (e.g., depression, anxiety). Findings demonstrated that the effect sizes of association between self-weighing and weight change varied across studies and also that the reported frequency of self-weighing varied across studies. The findings from prospective, longitudinal studies provide evidence that regular self-weighing has been associated with weight loss and not with negative psychological outcomes. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  12. Quantitative characterization of the reliability of simplex buses and stars to compare their benefits in fieldbuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barranco, Manuel; Proenza, Julián; Almeida, Luís

    2015-01-01

    Fieldbuses targeted to highly dependable distributed embedded systems are shifting from bus to star topologies. Surprisingly, despite the efforts into this direction, engineers lack of analyses that quantitatively characterize the system reliability achievable by buses and stars. Thus, to guide engineers in developing adequate bus and star fieldbuses, this work models, quantifies and compares the system reliability provided by simplex buses and stars for the case of the Controller Area Network (CAN). It clarifies how relevant dependability-related aspects affect reliability, refuting some intuitive ideas, and revealing some previously unknown bus and star benefits. - Highlights: • SANs models that quantify the reliability of simplex buses/stars in fieldbuses. • Models cover system relevant dependability-related features abstracted in the literature. • Results refute intuitive ideas about buses and stars and show some unexpected effects. • Models and results can guide the design of reliable simplex bus/stars fieldbuses

  13. School Districts Move to the Head of the Class with Propane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-01-12

    School districts across the country are under pressure to reduce their cost of operations and ensure their budgets are spent wisely. School bus fleets operate more than 675,000 buses in the United States, and many school districts have found the answer to their budget woes in the form of propane, or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Propane is a reliable, domestic fuel, and it's used in approximately 2% of school buses nationwide.

  14. Lifecycle cost assessment and carbon dioxide emissions of diesel, natural gas, hybrid electric, fuel cell hybrid and electric transit buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lajunen, Antti; Lipman, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    This paper evaluates the lifecycle costs and carbon dioxide emissions of different types of city buses. The simulation models of the different powertrains were developed in the Autonomie vehicle simulation software. The carbon dioxide emissions were calculated both for the bus operation and for the fuel and energy pathways from well to tank. Two different operating environment case scenarios were used for the primary energy sources, which were Finland and California (USA). The fuel and energy pathways were selected appropriately in relation to the operating environment. The lifecycle costs take into account the purchase, operating, maintenance, and possible carbon emission costs. Based on the simulation results, the energy efficiency of city buses can be significantly improved by the alternative powertrain technologies. Hybrid buses have moderately lower carbon dioxide emissions during the service life than diesel buses whereas fully-electric buses have potential to significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions, by up to 75%. The lifecycle cost analysis indicates that diesel hybrid buses are already competitive with diesel and natural gas buses. The high costs of fuel cell and battery systems are the major challenges for the fuel cell hybrid buses in order to reduce lifecycle costs to more competitive levels. - Highlights: • Alternative powertrains can significantly improve energy efficiency of transit buses. • Operating environment has an important impact on the lifecycle costs of buses. • Diesel hybrid buses are already cost effective solution for public transportation. • The cost of fuel cell technology is the major challenge for fuel cell hybrid buses. • Fully-electric buses have potential to significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions.

  15. Reduction of weighing errors caused by tritium decay heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, J.F.

    1978-01-01

    The deuterium-tritium source gas mixture for laser targets is formulated by weight. Experiments show that the maximum weighing error caused by tritium decay heating is 0.2% for a 104-cm 3 mix vessel. Air cooling the vessel reduces the weighing error by 90%

  16. Intermediate transport in Southeast Asia. [Carts, cycles, mini-buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, A.K.

    1977-06-01

    Traffic flows through the streets of Southeast Asian countries even though they are used for almost all aspects of human and animal existence. The carts, bicycles, tricycles, and motorcycles, motorized three-wheelers, mini-buses are the so-called intermediate-transport vehicles. It is upon this group of vehicles that a culture--constrained by its own unique economic, environmental, and technological factors--exerts its influence most directly toward the solution of the transport problem. Transportation fills more service roles in Southeast Asian cities than in Western cities. Communication facilities such as telephones and postal services are notoriously unreliable. The personal encounter is all important in social and business interactions in Southeast Asia. Each of the transport modes is examined in view of design and use in a number of specific cultural settings for the countries in Southeast Asia. Present use of intermediate transport in developed countries is discussed briefly, and its further development predicted--pointing out the health and conservation advantages. (MCW)

  17. Spiral of Decline or "Beacon of Hope": Stories of School Choice in a Dual Language School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Timothy; Wolgemuth, Jennifer R.; Colomer, Soria E.

    2015-01-01

    Public schools in some areas of the U.S. are as segregated as they were prior to court-ordered busing, in part due to school choice policies that appear to exacerbate extant segregation. In particular, Latina/o students are increasingly isolated in schools characterized as being in cycles of decline. Our case study of one such school is based on a…

  18. 49 CFR 393.62 - Emergency exits for buses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (including a school bus used in interstate commerce for non-school bus operations) with a GVWR of more than 4... manufacture. (2) Each bus (including a school bus used in interstate commerce for non-school bus operations... passenger space provided, inclusive of the driver there shall be at least 432 cm2 (67 square inches) of...

  19. A cost-benefit analysis of alternatively fueled buses with special considerations for V2G technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirazi, Yosef; Carr, Edward; Knapp, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by climate, health and economic considerations, alternatively-fueled bus fleets have emerged worldwide. Two popular alternatives are compressed natural gas (CNG) and electric vehicles. The latter provides the opportunity to generate revenue through vehicle-to-grid (V2G) services if properly equipped. This analysis conducts a robust accounting of the costs of diesel, CNG and battery-electric powertrains for school buses. Both marginal and fleet-wide scenarios are explored. Results indicate that the marginal addition of neither a small CNG nor a small V2G-enabled electric bus is cost effective at current prices. Contrary to previous findings, a small V2G-enabled electric bus increases net present costs by $7,200/seat relative to diesel for a Philadelphia, PA school district. A small CNG bus increases costs by $1,200/seat relative to diesel. This analysis is the first to quantify and include the economic implications of cold temperature extremes on electric vehicle battery operations, and the lower V2G revenues that result. Additional costs and limitations imposed by electric vehicles performing V2G are frequently overlooked in the literature and are explored here. If a variety of technical, legal, and economic challenges are overcome, a future eBus may be economical. - Highlights: • We present a robust cost-benefit analysis of various bus technologies. • Diesel is a low-cost technology at current prices. • CNG represents slightly higher costs on a marginal bus basis. • V2G-enabled electric buses are not cost-effective at current prices. • We identify frequently overlooked costs and challenges to V2G implementation.

  20. Prevention of obesity : weighing ethical arguments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. ten Have (Marieke)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractTaxes on unhealthy food, limits to commercial advertising, a ban on chocolate drink at schools, or compulsory physical exercise for obese employees: efforts to counter the rise in overweight and obesity sometimes raise questions about what is ethically acceptable. This thesis examines

  1. Mass concentrations of BTEX inside air environment of buses in Changsha, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiaokai; Zhang, Guoqiang; Zhang, Quan [College of Civil Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, Hunan (China); Chen, Hong [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, Hunan (China)

    2011-02-15

    In order to estimate the mass concentrations of benzene (B), toluene (T), ethylbenzene (E) and xylenes (X) inside air environment of buses and to analyze the influencing factors of the BTEX pollution levels, 22 public buses were investigated in Changsha, China. The interior air was collected through activated charcoal adsorption tubes and then the air samples were analyzed with thermally desorbed gas chromatograph. The mass concentrations ranged from 21.3 to 106.4 {mu}g/m{sup 3} for benzene, from 53.5 to 266.0 {mu}g/m{sup 3} for toluene, from 19.6 to 95.9 {mu}g/m{sup 3} for ethylbenzene and from 46.9 to 234.8 {mu}g/m{sup 3} for xylenes. Their mean values were 68.7, 179.7, 62.5 and 151.8 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, respectively. The rates of buses tested where the interior concentrations exceeded the limit levels of Chinese Indoor Air Quality Standard were 45.5% for toluene and 13.6% for xylenes. The BTEX levels increased when in-car temperature or relative humidity rose, and decreased when car age or travel distance increased. The BTEX concentrations were higher in leather trims buses than in non-leather trims ones, in air-conditioned buses than in non-air-conditioned ones, and in high-grade buses than in low-grade ones. According to the analysis of multiple linear regression equation, car age and in-car temperature were two most important factors influencing the BTEX pollution levels in the cabins of public buses. (author)

  2. Baxter elastomeric pumps: Weighing as an alternative to visual inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusano, Ellen L; Ali, Raafi; Sawyer, Michael B; Chambers, Carole R; Tang, Patricia A

    2018-04-01

    Purpose Elastomeric pumps are used to administer 46-hour infusions of 5-fluorouracil (5FU). Baxter suggests patients visually monitor their pumps to ensure that infusions are proceeding correctly. This can be confusing and lead to concerns about under- or over-dosing. Baxter has not considered weighing pumps as a validated method for monitoring. This study aims to validate weighing as a more accurate method for patients and healthcare professionals, and describe real life Baxter Infusor™ variability. Methods Patients who had been started on a 46-hour 5FU infusion returned to the clinic approximately 24 h after starting treatment. The pump was weighed on a StarFrit kitchen scale, and date, time, and weights recorded. Patients were asked if they had a preference for weighing or visually inspecting their pump. Results Pumps ( n = 103) were weighed between 17.25 and 27.5 h after connection. The average weight of a pump was 189 g. Of 103 pumps weighed, 99 weighed less than expected, corresponding to average flow rates of 5.69 mL/h over the elapsed time. The expected flow rate is 5 mL/h with 10% variability. Average flow rates within the 17.25- to 27.5-hour window were 4.561 mL/h, which is 8.78% slower than expected, but within the 10% known variability. Forty-seven percent of patients didn't have a preference for either method, but for those who did have a preference, more than twice as many preferred weighing. Conclusion With proper education, weighing Baxter Infusors at home with kitchen scales can be an accepted and objective alternative to the current recommendation of visual inspection.

  3. Evaluation of Alternative Field Buses for Lighting ControlApplications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Ed; Rubinstein, Francis

    2005-03-21

    The Subcontract Statement of Work consists of two major tasks. This report is the Final Report in fulfillment of the contract deliverable for Task 1. The purpose of Task 1 was to evaluate existing and emerging protocols and standards for interfacing sensors and controllers for communicating with integrated lighting control systems in commercial buildings. The detailed task description follows: Task 1. Evaluate alternative sensor/field buses. The objective of this task is to evaluate existing and emerging standards for interfacing sensors and controllers for communicating with integrated lighting control systems in commercial buildings. The protocols to be evaluated will include at least: (1) 1-Wire Net, (2) DALI, (3) MODBUS (or appropriate substitute such as EIB) and (4) ZigBee. The evaluation will include a comparative matrix for comparing the technical performance features of the different alternative systems. The performance features to be considered include: (1) directionality and network speed, (2) error control, (3) latency times, (4) allowable cable voltage drop, (5) topology, and (6) polarization. Specifically, Subcontractor will: (1) Analyze the proposed network architecture and identify potential problems that may require further research and specification. (2) Help identify and specify additional software and hardware components that may be required for the communications network to operate properly. (3) Identify areas of the architecture that can benefit from existing standards and technology and enumerate those standards and technologies. (4) Identify existing companies that may have relevant technology that can be applied to this research. (5) Help determine if new standards or technologies need to be developed.

  4. Students and Buses: What You need To Watch Out For.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews safety considerations, district responsibilities, and court litigation related to pupil transportation. Highlights litigious issues involving selection of bus stops, driver responsibilities when transporting and disembarking students, and school bus safety requirements. School districts lacking medical emergency and disruptive behavior…

  5. Busing, Taxes, and Desegregation. Special Monograph No. 4. Management Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMont, Roger, Ed.; And Others

    This monograph summarizes recent developments in school law in the areas of school segregation, school finance, and interdistrict integration in order to project future developments in these areas. The content of this publication has been taken in part from transcripts of a conference on law and public education. (Detroit, Michigan, October 27,…

  6. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in public transportation vehicles (buses): another piece to the epidemiologic puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Jonathan K; van Balen, Joany; Crawford, John Mac; Wilkins, John R; Lee, Jiyoung; Nava-Hoet, Rocio C; Hoet, Armando E

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about the occurrence and epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in public transportation in the United States. This research sought to determine the background prevalence and phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of MRSA strains circulating on buses from a large, metropolitan transportation agency. Electrostatic wipes were used to collect 237 surface samples from 40 buses randomly selected from July-October 2010. Six samples were collected from each bus immediately postservice and before any cleaning and disinfection. Positive isolates were analyzed for antibiotic resistance, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis; and potential epidemiologic factors were examined. Of the buses, 68% (27/40) were contaminated with S aureus, and 63% (25/40) were contaminated with MRSA. Seats and seat rails were the surfaces most frequently contaminated, followed by the back door and stanchions. Most (62.9%) of the MRSA isolates were classified as community-associated MRSA clones (SCCmec type IV), and 22.9% were health care-associated MRSA clones (SCCmec type II). Of the MRSA strains, 65% (5/20) were multidrug resistant. MRSA was frequently isolated from commonly touched surfaces in buses serving both hospital and community routes. Phenotypic and genotypic analysis demonstrated that buses may be effective mixing vessels for MRSA strains of both community and health care-associated origin. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Weighing the legal basis for housing rights in Zimbabwe | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-12-13

    Dec 13, 2016 ... Weighing the legal basis for housing rights in Zimbabwe ... through the Safe and Inclusive Cities partnership with the UK's Department for International Development. ... Transforming the slum: The case of Mumbai's M-Ward.

  8. Microbial air quality in mass transport buses and work-related illness among bus drivers of Bangkok Mass Transit Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luksamijarulkul, Pipat; Sundhiyodhin, Viboonsri; Luksamijarulkul, Soavalug; Kaewboonchoo, Orawan

    2004-06-01

    The air quality in mass transport buses, especially air-conditioned buses may affect bus drivers who work full time. Bus numbers 16, 63, 67 and 166 of the Seventh Bus Zone of Bangkok Mass Transit Authority were randomly selected to investigate for microbial air quality. Nine air-conditioned buses and 2-4 open-air buses for each number of the bus (36 air-conditioned buses and 12 open-air buses) were included. Five points of in-bus air samples in each studied bus were collected by using the Millipore A ir Tester Totally, 180 and 60 air samples collected from air-conditioned buses and open-air buses were cultured for bacterial and fungal counts. The bus drivers who drove the studied buses were interviewed towards histories of work-related illness while working. The results revealed that the mean +/- SD of bacterial counts in the studied open-air buses ranged from 358.50 +/- 146.66 CFU/m3 to 506 +/- 137.62 CFU/m3; bus number 16 had the highest level. As well as the mean +/- SD of fungal counts which ranged from 93.33 +/- 44.83 CFU/m3 to 302 +/- 294.65 CFU/m3; bus number 166 had the highest level. Whereas, the mean +/- SD of bacterial counts in the studied air-conditioned buses ranged from 115.24 +/- 136.01 CFU/m3 to 244.69 +/- 234.85 CFU/m3; bus numbers 16 and 67 had the highest level. As well as the mean +/- SD of fungal counts which rangedfrom 18.84 +/- 39.42 CFU/m3 to 96.13 +/- 234.76 CFU/m3; bus number 166 had the highest level. When 180 and 60 studied air samples were analyzed in detail, it was found that 33.33% of the air samples from open-air buses and 6.11% of air samples from air-conditioned buses had a high level of bacterial counts (> 500 CFU/m3) while 6.67% of air samples from open-air buses and 2.78% of air samples from air-conditioned buses had a high level of fungal counts (> 500 CFU/m3). Data from the history of work-related illnesses among the studied bus drivers showed that 91.67% of open-air bus drivers and 57.28% of air-conditioned bus drivers had

  9. Quantum Algorithms for Weighing Matrices and Quadratic Residues

    OpenAIRE

    van Dam, Wim

    2000-01-01

    In this article we investigate how we can employ the structure of combinatorial objects like Hadamard matrices and weighing matrices to device new quantum algorithms. We show how the properties of a weighing matrix can be used to construct a problem for which the quantum query complexity is ignificantly lower than the classical one. It is pointed out that this scheme captures both Bernstein & Vazirani's inner-product protocol, as well as Grover's search algorithm. In the second part of the ar...

  10. An Integrated Dynamic Weighing System Based on SCADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bazydło

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A prototyped dynamic weighing system has been presented which integrates together three advanced software environments: MATLAB, LabVIEW and iFIX SCADA. They were used for advanced signal processing, data acquisition, as well as visualization and process control. Dynamic weighing is a constantly developing field of metrology. Because of the highly complicated structure of any electronic weighing module, it is vulnerable to many sources of environmental disturbances. For this reason, there is a lot of research concerned with weighing signal processing, mechanical matters and functionality of the system. In the paper, some issues connected with dynamic weighing have been presented, and the necessity of implementing signal processing methods has been discussed. Implementation of this feature is impossible in the majority of SCADA systems. The integration of the three environments mentioned above is an attempt to create an industrial system with capabilities to deal with major dynamic weighing problems. It is innovative because it connects the industrial SCADA, laboratory/industrial product LabVIEW and MATLAB. In addition, the algorithms responsible for process control and data exchange are presented. The paper includes a description of the capabilities, performance tests, as well as benefits and drawbacks, of the system. The outcome of the research is a prototyped system and evaluation of its usefulness. (original abstract

  11. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.; Gigakis, C.

    2010-11-01

    This status report, fourth in a series of annual status reports from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory, summarizes progress and accomplishments from demonstrations of fuel cell transit buses in the United States. This year's assessment report provides the results from the fifth year of operation of five Van Hool, ISE, and UTC Power fuel cell buses operating at AC Transit, SunLine, and CTTRANSIT. The achievements and challenges of this bus design, implementation, and operating are presented, with a focus on the next steps for implementing larger numbers and new and different designs of fuel cell buses. The major positive result from nearly five years of operation is the dramatic increase in reliability experienced for the fuel cell power system.

  12. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.; Gikakis, C.

    2011-11-01

    This status report, fifth in a series of annual status reports from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), discusses the achievements and challenges of fuel cell propulsion for transit and summarizes the introduction of fuel cell transit buses in the United States. Progress this year includes an increase in the number of fuel cell electric buses (FCEBs), from 15 to 25, operating at eight transit agencies, as well as increased diversity of the fuel cell design options for transit buses. The report also provides an analysis of the combined results from fuel cell transit bus demonstrations evaluated by NREL with a focus on the most recent data through July 2011 including fuel cell power system reliability and durability; fuel economy; roadcall; and hydrogen fueling results. These evaluations cover 22 of the 25 FCEBs currently operating.

  13. Bacterial Quality of Drinking Water in Bushehr Intercity Buses in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariush Ranjbar Vakilabadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Road transportation and specifically bus travel accounts for the bulk of travel. Contaminated drinking water consumption is one of the issues that threaten health, and always there is pollution possibility in drinking water in buses. This study evaluated the microbial quality of consumed drinking water in buses and also compared it with available standards. Materials and Methods: This study is a cross-sectional study. By considering similar studies, 95% confidence interval and based on the samples size formula for tradition of proportion, 80 buses from 122 buses that entered Bushehr Passenger Depot from other cities or exited it were randomly selected. Over a three-month period, samples were taken from drinking water in these buses. Temperature, pH, residual chlorine, total coliform (TC, and fecal coliform (E. coli in each sample were measured in accordance with the standard method. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out with SPSS Version 16, and the t-test was performed for statistical difference. Results: The results showed that residual chlorine in 97.5% was zero and pH values of the samples were in the range of 6.8-8.7. TC and E. coli numbers in 12.5% and 8.8% of the samples were higher than those of standards, respectively. Conclusion: Use of ice, washing time of the drinking water tank (daily or weekly, and method of usage and storage of drinking water (with 20-liter tanks had significant effects on the bacterial loads of the drinking water in the tanks (p value <0.05. Some factors such as tank material, driver's education and age, type and model of the bus, filling time of the tank (daily or weekly, the method of filling and emptying the tank (complete clearing out of the tank or otherwise, and distance had no significant effect on the quality of the drinking water in the buses.

  14. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM DIESEL- AND CNG-POWERED URBAN BUSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COROLLER, P; PLASSAT, G

    2003-08-24

    Couple years ago, ADEME engaged programs dedicated to the urban buses exhaust emissions studies. The measures associated with the reduction of atmospheric and noise pollution has particular importance in the sector of urban buses. In many cases, they illustrate the city's environmental image and contribute to reinforcing the attractiveness of public transport. France's fleet in service, presently put at about 14,000 units, consumes about 2 per cent of the total energy of city transport. It causes about 2 per cent of the HC emissions and from 4 to 6 per cent of the NOx emissions and particles. These vehicles typically have a long life span (about 15 years) and are relatively expensive to buy, about 150.000 euros per unit. Several technical solutions were evaluated to quantify, on a real condition cycle for buses, on one hand pollutants emissions, fuel consumption and on the other hand reliability, cost in real existing fleet. This paper presents main preliminary results on urban buses exhaust emission on two different cases: - existing Diesel buses, with fuel modifications (Diesel with low sulphur content), Diesel with water emulsion and bio-Diesel (30% oil ester in standard Diesel fuel); renovating CNG powered Euro II buses fleet, over representative driving cycles, set up by ADEME and partners. On these cycles, pollutants (regulated and unregulated) were measured as well as fuel consumption, at the beginning of a program and one year after to quantify reliability and increase/decrease of pollutants emissions. At the same time, some after-treatment technologies were tested under real conditions and several vehicles. Information such as fuel consumption, lubricant analysis, problem on the technology were following during a one year program. On the overall level, it is the combination of various action, pollution-reduction and renewal that will make it possible to meet the technological challenge of reducing emissions and fuel consumption by urban bus

  15. Multistage Mechanical Transmissions with Automatic Control for Advanced Trucks and Buses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blokhin Aleksandr

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study considers the basic trends of development of modern mechanical transmissions of trucks and buses. It provides the developed various series of multispeed transmissions with automatic control and a number of transmissions from 6 to 16 for trucks and buses. The paper shows the basic parameters of the standard series of new transmissions received on the basis of innovative technical solutions. It provides the results of experimental studies of 16-speed transmissions on a special test stand and on the road as part of a truck transmission. Theoretical and experimental data on the gear change time are compared.

  16. Research on Automotive Dynamic Weighing Method Based on Piezoelectric Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to effectively measure the dynamic axle load of vehicles in motion, the dynamic weighing method of vehicles based on piezoelectric sensor was studied. Firstly, the influencing factors of the measurement accuracy in the dynamic weighing process were analyzed systematically, and the impacts of road irregularities and dynamic weighing system vibration on measurement error were discussed. On the basis of the analysis, the arithmetic mean filter method was used in the software algorithm to filter out the periodic interference added in the sensor signal, the most suitable n value was selected to get the better filtering result by simulation comparison. Then, the dynamic axle load calculation model of high speed vehicles was studied deeply, based on the theoretical response curve of the sensor, the dynamic axle load calculation method based on frequency reconstruction was established according to actual measurement signals of sensors and the analysis from time domain and frequency domain, also the least square method was used to realize the identification of temperature correction coefficient. A large amount of data that covered the usual vehicle weighing range was collected by experiment. The results show that the dynamic weighing signal system identification error all controlled within 10% at the same temperature and 60% of the vehicle data error can be controlled within 7%. The temperature correction coefficient and the correction formula at different temperatures ranges are well adapted to ensure that the vehicle temperature error at different temperatures can also be controlled within 10% and 70% of the vehicle data error within 7%. Furthermore, the weighing results remain stable regardless of the speed of the vehicle which meets the requirements for high-speed dynamic weighing.

  17. The Weighing Chair of Sanctorius Sanctorius: A Replica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollerbach, Teresa

    2018-05-14

    In 1614, the physician Sanctorius Sanctorius (1561-1636) published his most famous work entitled Ars […] de statica medicina (On static medicine). This is a work composed of aphorisms that present the practical results of a series of weighing procedures, rather than theoretical observations. De statica medicina is the result of a large number of test series that Sanctorius carried out over many years with the weighing chair he constructed himself in order to quantify the so-called perspiratio insensibilis, an insensible perspiration of the human body. Through his weighing experiments, Sanctorius introduced the idea of quantitative research into physiology. Although historical accounts ascribe an important role to Sanctorius as the founder of a new medical science, up until now the design of his weighing chair and the method of measurement have not been closely analysed. The aim of this paper is to close this gap. Through a collaboration between the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science and the Technical University of Berlin (Institute of Vocational Education and Work Studies), Sanctorius's weighing chair was reconstructed and experiments carried out with it. This opened new perspectives on Sanctorius's work and led to a reconsideration of the function and purpose of his weighing chair. With his static medicine, Sanctorius repurposed an old instrument. The replication of the weighing chair and the repetition of the experiments demonstrate that this novel application of scales posed some challenges for the mechanical design of the instrument. We recognized that the instrument fulfilled different functions that might in turn have affected its design, precision, and the measuring method applied. Although in the end we could not clarify how Sanctorius actually conducted his measurements, we were nevertheless able to develop an understanding of Sanctorius's mechanical and practical knowledge that would not have been possible for us to develop solely on

  18. Concentrations of volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and particulate matter in buses on highways in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Der-Jen; Huang, Hsiao-Lin

    2009-12-01

    Although airborne pollutants in urban buses have been studied in many cities globally, long-distance buses running mainly on highways have not been addressed in this regard. This study investigates the levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2) and particulate matter (PM) in the long-distance buses in Taiwan. Analytical results indicate that pollutants levels in long-distance buses are generally lower than those in urban buses. This finding is attributable to the driving speed and patterns of long-distance buses, as well as the meteorological and geographical features of the highway surroundings. The levels of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) found in bus cabins exceed the proposed indoor VOC guidelines for aromatic compounds, and are likely attributable to the interior trim in the cabins. The overall average CO level is 2.3 ppm, with higher average level on local streets (2.9 ppm) than on highways (2.2 ppm). The average CO 2 level is 1493 ppm, which is higher than the guideline for non-industrial occupied settings. The average PM level in this study is lower than those in urban buses and IAQ guidelines set by Taiwan EPA. However, the average PM 10 and PM 2.5 is higher than the level set by WHO. Besides the probable causes mentioned above, fewer passenger movements and less particle re-suspension from bus floor might also cause the lower PM levels. Measurements of particle size distribution reveal that more than 75% of particles are in submicron and smaller sizes. These particles may come from the infiltration from the outdoor air. This study concludes that air exchange rates in long-distance buses should be increased in order to reduce CO 2 levels. Future research on long-distance buses should focus on the emission of VOCs from brand new buses, and the sources of submicron particles in bus cabins.

  19. Comparative study of fuel cell, battery and hybrid buses for renewable energy constrained areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stempien, J. P.; Chan, S. H.

    2017-02-01

    Fuel cell- and battery-based public bus technologies are reviewed and compared for application in tropical urban areas. This paper scrutinizes the reported literature on fuel cell bus, fuel cell electric bus, battery electric bus, hybrid electric bus, internal combustion diesel bus and compressed natural gas bus. The comparison includes the capital and operating costs, fuel consumption and fuel cycle emissions. To the best of authors knowledge, this is the first study to holistically compare hydrogen and battery powered buses, which is the original contribution of this paper. Moreover, this is the first study to focus on supplying hydrogen and electricity from fossil resources, while including the associated emissions. The study shows that compressed natural gas and hybrid electric buses appear to be the cheapest options in terms of total cost of ownership, but they are unable to meet the EURO VI emissions' standard requirement. Only fuel cell based buses have the potential to achieve the emissions' standard when the fuel cycle based on fossil energy was considered. Fuel cell electric buses are identified as a technology allowing for the largest CO2 emission reduction, making ∼61% decrease in annual emissions possible.

  20. 76 FR 77888 - Student Transportation of America, Inc.-Control-Dairyland Buses, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... Wisconsin law, also holds a FMCSA license (MC-170747) and is owned by Coach USA, Inc., a Delaware..., 2011, from their current owner, Coach USA, Inc., into an independent voting trust established under 49... Transportation of America, Inc.--Control--Dairyland Buses, Inc. AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION...

  1. Feasibility study on the introduction of hybrid buses; Hybrid bus donyu kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to design pilot projects for introducing hybrid buses into the public transportation sector. This research also covers contents regarding hybrid buses with a trolley-collector motor and a diesel engine, to identify technical and economical problems and to analyze cost beneficiation using hybrid buses. The trolley parallel hybrid system has been employed for the feasibility study. This system has abundant operation results in Europe and the USA. Its battery is small or is not necessary, and the maintenance cost is also low. As a result of the feasibility study, reduction effects of CO2 emission were found out. When the CO2 generation at the power plant is not counted, the reduction effect was estimated to be 32% compared with the CO2 emission from diesel buses. When the CO2 generation at the power plant is considered, it was estimated to be 18%. The cost beneficiation was investigated for the cases of the transportations using trolley system surrounding a medium-scale terminal among large-scale housing development, tourist resort, and stations. The annual income is estimated to be larger than the annual payment in each case. It was found that the hybrid bus is economically established. 17 refs., 48 figs., 41 tabs.

  2. Battery Peak Power Shaving Strategy to Prolong Battery Life for Electric Buses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, T.H.; Rosea, B.; Wilkins, S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a battery peak power shaving strategy for battery electric buses. The developed strategy restricts the battery charge/discharge power when the propulsion power demand is high to avoid high deterioration of the battery capacity during operation. Without reducing the propulsion

  3. Demonstration of 3 buses fuelled with ethanol with ignition improver in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, J.; Weide, J. van der; Nie, L.H. de; Bruin, A. de

    1996-01-01

    This three year demonstration programme was initiated by OBL, a subsidiary of two Dutch sugar companies, and GADO, a public transport company. The programme was financially supported by a regional governmental organisation (ISP). In this programme, three bio-ethanol fuelled buses accumulated more

  4. Pad-weighing test performed with standardized bladder volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lose, G; Rosenkilde, P; Gammelgaard, J

    1988-01-01

    The result of the one-hour pad-weighing test proposed by the International Continence Society has been demonstrated to depend on the urine load during the test. To increase reproducibility of the pad-weighing test by minimizing the influence of variation in urine load the test was done with a sta...... to +/- 24 g between two tests. It is concluded that this setup (i.e., standardized bladder volume) of the one-hour pad-weighing test allows for a more reliable assessment of urinary incontinence for quantitative purposes....... with a standardized bladder volume (50% of the cystometric bladder capacity). Twenty-five female patients with stress or mixed incontinence underwent two separate tests. Test-retest results were highly correlated (r = 0.97, p less than 0.001). Nonetheless, analysis of test-retest differences revealed a variation up...

  5. Improving truck safety: Potential of weigh-in-motion technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Jacob

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Trucks exceeding the legal mass limits increase the risk of traffic accidents and damage to the infrastructure. They also result in unfair competition between transport modes and companies. It is therefore important to ensure truck compliance to weight regulation. New technologies are being developed for more efficient overload screening and enforcement. Weigh-in-Motion (WIM technologies allow trucks to be weighed in the traffic flow, without any disruption to operations. Much progress has been made recently to improve and implement WIM systems, which can contribute to safer and more efficient operation of trucks.

  6. Efficiency evaluation of gas fuelled and electric driven buses in the public transport sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aigner, Tobias Alexander

    2013-07-01

    The following report evaluates the efficiency of gas fuelled and electric driven buses in the public transport sector on a theoretical basis. The results indicate that the combination of CHP power plants and electric driven buses reach an overall efficiency of about 51% throughout the production chain (Well-to-Wheel), including heat distribution losses. The overall Well-to-Wheel efficiency for conventional gas turbines without heat recovery decreases to around 28%. For gas fuelled buses the Well-to-Wheel efficiency is about 30%. The Co2-emissions are evaluated based on the example of a #Left Double Quotation Mark#Volvo B10L CNG#Right Double Quotation Mark# gas bus and the electric driven #Left Double Quotation Mark#Eurabus 600#Right Double Quotation Mark#. The low energy consumption of the electric driven bus results in Co2-emissions of only 181.4 g Co2/km (Grid-to-Wheel). Depending on the utilised power plant technology the overall Co2-emissions (Well-to-Wheel) amount to 307.5 g Co2/km for a CHP power plant and 553.5 g Co2/km for a conventional gas turbine. On the other hand, gas fuelled buses emit about 1.25 kg Co2/km (Tank-to-Wheel), which is eightfold the emissions of an electrical bus. The Well-to-Tank emissions further increase to about 1.32 kg Co2/km. The emission calculation is based on real gas consumption data from a Norwegian public transport utility. The results indicate that the combination of CHP plants and electrical buses provide a much higher efficiency while reducing Co2-emissions. (author)

  7. Detection of maximum loadability limits and weak buses using Chaotic PSO considering security constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharjee, P.; Mallick, S.; Thakur, S.S.; Ghoshal, S.P.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The unique cost function is derived considering practical Security Constraints. → New innovative formulae of PSO parameters are developed for better performance. → The inclusion and implementation of chaos in PSO technique is original and unique. → Weak buses are identified where FACTS devices can be implemented. → The CPSO technique gives the best performance for all the IEEE standard test systems. - Abstract: In the current research chaotic search is used with the optimization technique for solving non-linear complicated power system problems because Chaos can overcome the local optima problem of optimization technique. Power system problem, more specifically voltage stability, is one of the practical examples of non-linear, complex, convex problems. Smart grid, restructured energy system and socio-economic development fetch various uncertain events in power systems and the level of uncertainty increases to a great extent day by day. In this context, analysis of voltage stability is essential. The efficient method to assess the voltage stability is maximum loadability limit (MLL). MLL problem is formulated as a maximization problem considering practical security constraints (SCs). Detection of weak buses is also important for the analysis of power system stability. Both MLL and weak buses are identified by PSO methods and FACTS devices can be applied to the detected weak buses for the improvement of stability. Three particle swarm optimization (PSO) techniques namely General PSO (GPSO), Adaptive PSO (APSO) and Chaotic PSO (CPSO) are presented for the comparative study with obtaining MLL and weak buses under different SCs. In APSO method, PSO-parameters are made adaptive with the problem and chaos is incorporated in CPSO method to obtain reliable convergence and better performances. All three methods are applied on standard IEEE 14 bus, 30 bus, 57 bus and 118 bus test systems to show their comparative computing effectiveness and

  8. School Bus Accidents: Reducing Incidents and Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The number of children injured in nonfatal school bus accidents annually is more than double the number previously estimated. In Ohio alone, approximately 20,800 children younger than 18 were occupants of school buses that were involved in crashes in 2003 and 2004 (McGeehan 2007). Among those children, most had minor or no injuries. However, there…

  9. In-vehicle measurement of ultrafine particles on compressed natural gas, conventional diesel, and oxidation-catalyst diesel heavy-duty transit buses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Davyda; Jones, Steven; Lalor, Melinda

    2007-02-01

    Many metropolitan transit authorities are considering upgrading transit bus fleets to decrease ambient criteria pollutant levels. Advancements in engine and fuel technology have lead to a generation of lower-emission buses in a variety of fuel types. Dynamometer tests show substantial reductions in particulate mass emissions for younger buses (vehicle particle number concentration measurements on conventional diesel, oxidation-catalyst diesel and compressed natural gas transit buses are compared to estimate relative in-vehicle particulate exposures. Two primary consistencies are observed from the data: the CNG buses have average particle count concentrations near the average concentrations for the oxidation-catalyst diesel buses, and the conventional diesel buses have average particle count concentrations approximately three to four times greater than the CNG buses. Particle number concentrations are also noticeably affected by bus idling behavior and ventilation options, such as, window position and air conditioning.

  10. Cost Effectiveness of Premium Versus Regular Gasoline in MCPS Buses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baacke, Clifford M.; Frankel, Steven M.

    The primary question posed in this study is whether premium or regular gasoline is more cost effective for the Montgomery County Public School (MCPS) bus fleet, as a whole, when miles-per-gallon, cost-per-gallon, and repair costs associated with mileage are considered. On average, both miles-per-gallon, and repair costs-per-mile favor premium…

  11. 78 FR 51658 - Weighing, Feed, and Swine Contractors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ..., one zero balance documented on a scale ticket along with the tare and gross weight for the grower or..., there is no need for a zero balance between individual hopper loads for one grower. This sentence was...) The zero balance; provided that when using a vehicle scale to weigh feed for more than one producer or...

  12. 9 CFR 201.73-1 - Instructions for weighing livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... come to rest at the center of the trig loop. (5) Dial scales shall be balanced by releasing all drop... lock when the weigher is not at his duty station. (3) Accurate weighing and correct weight recording... use the scale until it has been tested and inspected and found to be accurate. (6) Count-off men, gate...

  13. 7 CFR 27.16 - Inspection; weighing; samples; supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection; weighing; samples; supervision. 27.16 Section 27.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION...

  14. Weighing Designs to Detect a Single Counterfeit Coin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    research-level problems have been posed and resolved from time to time. .... 1b shows this method of fake coin detection. 2. ... the same weighing design) whether there is a fake coin of ..... He put all 101 pills in the last bottle, and mixed it up.

  15. School Districts Move to the Head of the Class with Propane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-01-01

    Propane has been a proven fuel for buses for decades. For the first time in 2007, Blue Bird rolled out a propane school bus using direct liquid injection, which was later followed by Thomas Built Buses and Navistar. Because this new technology is much more reliable than previous designs, it is essentially reintroducing propane buses to many school districts. During this same time period, vehicle emissions standards have tightened. To meet them, diesel engine manufacturers have added diesel particulate filters (DPF) and, more recently, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems. As an alternative to diesel buses with these systems, many school districts have looked to other affordable, clean alternatives, and they've found that propane fits the bill.

  16. Influence of the weighing bar position in vessel on measurement of cement’s particle size distribution by using the buoyancy weighing-bar method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambun, R.; Sihombing, R. O.; Simanjuntak, A.; Hanum, F.

    2018-02-01

    The buoyancy weighing-bar method is a new simple and cost-effective method to determine the particle size distribution both settling and floating particle. In this method, the density change in a suspension due to particle migration is measured by weighing buoyancy against a weighing-bar hung in the suspension, and then the particle size distribution is calculated using the length of the bar and the time-course change in the mass of the bar. The apparatus of this method consists of a weighing-bar and an analytical balance with a hook for under-floor weighing. The weighing bar is used to detect the density change in suspension. In this study we investigate the influences of position of weighing bar in vessel on settling particle size distribution measurements of cement by using the buoyancy weighing-bar method. The vessel used in this experiment is graduated cylinder with the diameter of 65 mm and the position of weighing bar is in center and off center of vessel. The diameter of weighing bar in this experiment is 10 mm, and the kerosene is used as a dispersion liquids. The results obtained show that the positions of weighing bar in vessel have no significant effect on determination the cement’s particle size distribution by using buoyancy weighing-bar method, and the results obtained are comparable to those measured by using settling balance method.

  17. A Hybrid Column Generation and Clustering Approach to the School Bus Routing Problem with Time WindowsUn Aproximación Híbrida de Generación de Columnas y Agrupación para Resolver el Problema de Ruteo de Buses Escolares con Ventanas deTiempo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduyn Ramiro Lopez Santana

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to solve the School Bus Routing Problem with Time Windows that consists of finding the best set of routes to pick up students distributed geographically with constraints as capacity, time windows and maximum travel time. We formulated the problem as a classic Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows and solved it using an approach based on a clustering algorithm and column generation method. A real world case from a school in Bogotá, Colombiais presented including 600 students to pick up in near 400 nodes located in urban and rural areas. The obtained results demonstrate a reduction as the problem’s complexity and  an improvement on the performance measures of the proposed method.

  18. Reducing Children's Exposure to School Bus Diesel Exhaust in One School District in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazer, Mary E.; Jacobson Vann, Julie C.; Lamanna, Beth F.; Davison, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Children who are exposed to diesel exhaust from idling school buses are at increased risk of asthma exacerbation, decreased lung function, immunologic reactions, leukemia, and increased susceptibility to infections. Policies and initiatives that aim to protect school children from the harmful effects of exposure to diesel exhaust range from…

  19. Characterization and speciation of fine particulate matter inside the public transport buses running on bio-diesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Air pollution with respect to particulate matter was investigated in Toledo, Ohio, USA, a : city of approximately 300,000, in 2009. Two study buses were selected to reflect typical : exposure conditions of passengers while traveling in the bus. Monit...

  20. 49 CFR 383.123 - Requirements for a school bus endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... devices required for school buses by State or Federal law or regulation. (ii) Emergency exits and... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for a school bus endorsement. 383.123... Requirements for a school bus endorsement. (a) An applicant for a school bus endorsement must satisfy the...

  1. Settle for Segregation or Strive for Diversity? A Defining Moment for Maryland's Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayscue, Jennifer B.

    2013-01-01

    Maryland, as one of 17 states that had de jure segregation, has an intense history of school segregation. Following the 1954 Brown decision, school districts across the state employed various methods to desegregate their schools, including mandatory busing in Prince George's County, magnet schools in Montgomery County, and a freedom of choice plan…

  2. Preliminary study on field buses for the control system of the high voltage of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drevet, F.; Chadelas, R.; Montarou, G.

    1996-01-01

    We present here after a preliminary study on field buses for the control system of the high voltage of the photomultipliers of the TILECAL calorimeter. After some generalities, different commercial buses are reviewed (CAN, ARCET, WorldFIP, Profibus and LonWorks). The Profibus and LonWorks solution are more extensively studies as a possible solution for the high voltage system of the TILE hadronic calorimeter. (authors)

  3. Hydrogen for buses in London: A scenario analysis of changes over time in refuelling infrastructure costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shayegan, S.; Pearson, P.J.G.; Hart, D.

    2009-01-01

    The lack of a hydrogen refuelling infrastructure is one of the major obstacles to the introduction of the hydrogen vehicles to the road transport market. To help overcome this hurdle a likely transitional solution is to introduce hydrogen for niche applications such as buses or other types of fleet vehicles for which fuel demand is predictable and localised. This paper analyses the costs of different hydrogen production-delivery pathways, via a case study of buses in London. Scenario analysis over time (2007-2025) is used to investigate potential changes to the cost of hydrogen as a result of technology development, growing demand for hydrogen and changes in energy prices (gas and electricity). It is found that factors related to hydrogen demand have the greatest effect on the unit cost of hydrogen, while for the whole of the analysis period, on-site SMR (steam methane reforming) remains the least-cost production-delivery pathway. (author)

  4. From prototype to product. The development of low emission natural gas- and biogas buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekelund, M. [Strateco Development AB, Haninge (Sweden)

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this report is to show the development of natural gas and bio gas buses and trucks since the termination of the `Co-Nordic GasBus Project`, to which KFB was a major contributor and one of the initiators. Sweden have some 325 heavy duty methane vehicles of which almost 100 are bio gas operated. Scania and Volvo have produced, or have orders for, 500 gas buses to 6 different countries since 1990. The Project objectives were obtained and the significantly reduced emission levels aimed for, were shown. The international bus manufacturing industry followed, and have since shown the same low levels of emissions from gas bus engines. Sweden has taken the lead in the use of bio gas, by operating nearly 100 buses and trucks. Bio gas is still an underestimated fuel when it comes to supply, as it can provide fuel for 50% of the domestic use of diesel oil. Future development need to include control systems for more stable emissions, lower weight cylinders, less costly compressors, cleaning equipment and storage cylinders as well as more fuel efficient engines that can reduce mainly the discharge of CO2, NOx and CH4 further. Societal costs, regardless of who pays, for methane operated buses is still somewhat higher compared with best use of diesel + CRT technology. As commercialization develops, it is expected that the price of the vehicle will be reduced and emissions improved. It is therefore expected that the stake holders costs will be lower then that of diesel technology in the future

  5. Dynamic global model of oxide Czochralski process with weighing control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamedov, V. M.; Vasiliev, M. G.; Yuferev, V. S.

    2011-03-01

    A dynamic model of oxide Czochralski growth with weighing control has been developed for the first time. A time-dependent approach is used for the calculation of temperature fields in different parts of a crystallization set-up and convection patterns in a melt, while internal radiation in crystal is considered in a quasi-steady approximation. A special algorithm is developed for the calculation of displacement of a triple point and simulation of a crystal surface formation. To calculate variations in the heat generation, a model of weighing control with a commonly used PID regulator is applied. As an example, simulation of the growth process of gallium-gadolinium garnet (GGG) crystals starting from the stage of seeding is performed.

  6. Estimating passenger numbers in trains using existing weighing capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo Friis; Frølich, Laura; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2013-01-01

    trains to control braking. This technique makes passenger counting cheaper and ensures a complete sample. The paper compares numbers estimated by this technique with manual counts and counts from an infrared system in trains in urban Copenhagen. It shows that the weighing system provides more accurate......Knowing passenger numbers is important for the planning and operation of the urban rail systems. Manual and electronic counting systems (typically infrared or video) are expensive and therefore entail small sample sizes. They usually count boarding and alighting passengers, which means that errors...... in estimates of total numbers of passengers propagate along train runs. Counting errors in manual and electronic counting systems are typically flow-dependent, making uncertainty a function of volume. This paper presents a new counting technique that exploits the weighing systems installed in most modern...

  7. FFTF/IEM cell fuel pin weighing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, P.W.

    1987-01-01

    The Interim Examination and Maintenance (IEM) cell in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is used for remote disassembly of irradiated fuel and materials experiments. For those fuel experiments where the FFTF tag-gas detection system has indicated a fuel pin cladding breach, a weighing system is used in identifying that fuel pin with a reduced weight due to the escape of gaseous and volatile fission products. A fuel pin weighing machine, originally purchased for use in the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF), was the basis for the IEM cell system. Design modifications to the original equipment were centered around adapting the machine to the differences between the two facilities and correcting deficiencies discovered during functional testing in the IEM cell mock-up

  8. Developing a discrete event simulation model for university student shuttle buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkepli, Jafri; Khalid, Ruzelan; Nawawi, Mohd Kamal Mohd; Hamid, Muhammad Hafizan

    2017-11-01

    Providing shuttle buses for university students to attend their classes is crucial, especially when their number is large and the distances between their classes and residential halls are far. These factors, in addition to the non-optimal current bus services, typically require the students to wait longer which eventually opens a space for them to complain. To considerably reduce the waiting time, providing the optimal number of buses to transport them from location to location and the effective route schedules to fulfil the students' demand at relevant time ranges are thus important. The optimal bus number and schedules are to be determined and tested using a flexible decision platform. This paper thus models the current services of student shuttle buses in a university using a Discrete Event Simulation approach. The model can flexibly simulate whatever changes configured to the current system and report its effects to the performance measures. How the model was conceptualized and formulated for future system configurations are the main interest of this paper.

  9. Thermodynamic analysis of the two-phase ejector air-conditioning system for buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ünal, Şaban; Yilmaz, Tuncay

    2015-01-01

    Air-conditioning compressors of the buses are usually operated with the power taken from the engine of the buses. Therefore, an improvement in the air-conditioning system will reduce the fuel consumption of the buses. The improvement in the coefficient of performance (COP) of the air-conditioning system can be provided by using the two-phase ejector as an expansion valve in the air-conditioning system. In this study, the thermodynamic analysis of bus air-conditioning system enhanced with a two-phase ejector and two evaporators is performed. Thermodynamic analysis is made assuming that the mixing process in ejector occurs at constant cross-sectional area and constant pressure. The increase rate in the COP with respect to conventional system is analyzed in terms of the subcooling, condenser and evaporator temperatures. The analysis shows that COP improvement of the system by using the two phase ejector as an expansion device is 15% depending on design parameters of the existing bus air-conditioning system. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic analysis of the two-phase ejector refrigeration system. • Analysis of the COP increase rate of bus air-conditioning system. • Analysis of the entrainment ratio of the two-phase ejector refrigeration system

  10. Location Planning for Dynamic Wireless Charging Systems for Electric Airport Passenger Buses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Helber

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of the ground vehicles operating on the airside parts of commercial airports are currently powered by diesel engines. These include vehicles such as apron buses, fuel trucks, and aircraft tractors. Hence, these vehicles contribute to the overall CO 2 emissions of the aviation transport system and thus negatively influence its environmental footprint. To reduce this damaging environmental impact, these vehicles could potentially be electrified with on-board batteries as their energy sources. However, the conductive charging of such vehicles via stationary cable connections is rather time-consuming. A dynamic wireless charging system to supply public transportation passenger buses with electric energy while in motion has recently been installed on the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST campus and in the Korean city of Gumi. In this paper, we study configuration problems related to the use of this technology to make airport operations more environmentally sustainable. We concentrate on the power supply for apron buses and analyze the location planning problems related to the distribution of the required power supply and the wireless charging units in the apron road system. To this end, we develop a formal optimization model and discuss the first numerical results.

  11. Safety issues in urban transit facilities for hydrogen-fueled buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, R.H.; Ducharme, P.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' The Canadian Transportation Fuel Cell Alliance (CTFCA), created by the Canadian Government as part of its 2000 Climate Change Action Plan, has commissioned MARCON-DDM's Hydrogen Intervention Team (HIT) to provide a roadmap for urban transit systems that wish to move to hydrogen fuel cell-powered bus fleets. HIT is currently in the process of gathering information from hydrogen technology providers, bus manufacturers, fuelling system providers and urban transit systems in Canada, the US and Europe. In September, HIT will be in a position to provide a hands-on perspective of the introduction of fuel-cell buses in the Canadian environment. Part of the process of adding hydrogen-fueled busses to urban transit systems involves phasing in the new technology to minimize the economic cost. This involves substituting hydrogen buses into the normal bus procurement life cycle and maximizing the use of existing facilities for garaging, maintenance and fueling. Using a schematic outline of an urban transit system, this presentation will outline the safety issues specific to hydrogen in such systems, particularly for garaging, maintenance and fueling components. It will then outline how safety of these component is addressed in current and proposed codes, standards and recommended practices. Based on these requirements the impact of the introduction of hydrogen-fueled buses on each component of the transit system will be addressed in terms of the adaptations of current facilities and practices or the requirements for new facilities and practices. (author)

  12. Buses retrofitting with diesel particle filters: Real-world fuel economy and roadworthiness test considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischman, Rafael; Amiel, Ran; Czerwinski, Jan; Mayer, Andreas; Tartakovsky, Leonid

    2018-05-01

    Retrofitting older vehicles with diesel particulate filter (DPF) is a cost-effective measure to quickly and efficiently reduce particulate matter emissions. This study experimentally analyzes real-world performance of buses retrofitted with CRT DPFs. 18 in-use Euro III technology urban and intercity buses were investigated for a period of 12months. The influence of the DPF and of the vehicle natural aging on buses fuel economy are analyzed and discussed. While the effect of natural deterioration is about 1.2%-1.3%, DPF contribution to fuel economy penalty is found to be 0.6% to 1.8%, depending on the bus type. DPF filtration efficiency is analyzed throughout the study and found to be in average 96% in the size range of 23-560nm. Four different load and non-load engine operating modes are investigated on their appropriateness for roadworthiness tests. High idle is found to be the most suitable regime for PN diagnostics considering particle number filtration efficiency. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. High-speed precision weighing of pharmaceutical capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bürmen, Miran; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a cost-effective method for fast and accurate in-line weighing of hard gelatin capsules based on the optimized capacitance sensor and real-time processing of the capsule capacitance profile resulting from 5000 capacitance measurements per second. First, the effect of the shape and size of the capacitive sensor on the sensitivity and stability of the measurements was investigated in order to optimize the performance of the system. The method was tested on two types of hard gelatin capsules weighing from 50 mg to 650 mg. The results showed that the capacitance profile was exceptionally well correlated with the capsule weight with the correlation coefficient exceeding 0.999. The mean precision of the measurements was in the range from 1 mg to 3 mg, depending on the size of the capsule and was significantly lower than the 5% weight tolerances usually used by the pharmaceutical industry. Therefore, the method was found feasible for weighing pharmaceutical hard gelatin capsules as long as certain conditions are met regarding the capsule fill properties and environment stability. The proposed measurement system can be calibrated by using only two or three sets of capsules with known weight. However, for most applications it is sufficient to use only empty and nominally filled capsules for calibration. Finally, a practical application of the proposed method showed that a single system is capable of weighing around 75 000 capsules per hour, while using multiple systems could easily increase the inspection rate to meet almost any requirements

  14. A Practical Probabilistic Graphical Modeling Tool for Weighing ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Past weight-of-evidence frameworks for adverse ecological effects have provided soft-scoring procedures for judgments based on the quality and measured attributes of evidence. Here, we provide a flexible probabilistic structure for weighing and integrating lines of evidence for ecological risk determinations. Probabilistic approaches can provide both a quantitative weighing of lines of evidence and methods for evaluating risk and uncertainty. The current modeling structure wasdeveloped for propagating uncertainties in measured endpoints and their influence on the plausibility of adverse effects. To illustrate the approach, we apply the model framework to the sediment quality triad using example lines of evidence for sediment chemistry measurements, bioassay results, and in situ infauna diversity of benthic communities using a simplified hypothetical case study. We then combine the three lines evidence and evaluate sensitivity to the input parameters, and show how uncertainties are propagated and how additional information can be incorporated to rapidly update the probability of impacts. The developed network model can be expanded to accommodate additional lines of evidence, variables and states of importance, and different types of uncertainties in the lines of evidence including spatial and temporal as well as measurement errors. We provide a flexible Bayesian network structure for weighing and integrating lines of evidence for ecological risk determinations

  15. Towards sustainable urban transportation: Test, demonstration and development of fuel cell and hybrid-electric buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folkesson, Anders

    2008-05-01

    Several aspects make today's transport system non-sustainable: - Production, transport and combustion of fossil fuels lead to global and local environmental problems. - Oil dependency in the transport sector may lead to economical and political instability. - Air pollution, noise, congestion and land-use may jeopardise public health and quality of life, especially in urban areas. In a sustainable urban transport system most trips are made with public transport because high convenience and comfort makes travelling with public transport attractive. In terms of emissions, including noise, the vehicles are environmentally sustainable, locally as well as globally. Vehicles are energy-efficient and the primary energy stems from renewable sources. Costs are reasonable for all involved, from passengers, bus operators and transport authorities to vehicle manufacturers. The system is thus commercially viable on its own merits. This thesis presents the results from three projects involving different concept buses, all with different powertrains. The first two projects included technical evaluations, including tests, of two different fuel cell buses. The third project focussed on development of a series hybrid-bus with internal combustion engine intended for production around 2010. The research on the fuel cell buses included evaluations of the energy efficiency improvement potential using energy mapping and vehicle simulations. Attitudes to hydrogen fuel cell buses among passengers, bus drivers and bus operators were investigated. Safety aspects of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel were analysed and the use of hydrogen compared to electrical energy storage were also investigated. One main conclusion is that a city bus should be considered as one energy system, because auxiliaries contribute largely to the energy use. Focussing only on the powertrain is not sufficient. The importance of mitigating losses far down an energy conversion chain is emphasised. The Scania hybrid fuel cell

  16. Influence of the weighing bar size to determine optimal time of biodiesel-glycerol separation by using the buoyancy weighing-bar method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambun, R.; Sibagariang, Y.; Manurung, J.

    2018-02-01

    The buoyancy weighing-bar method is a novel method in the particle size distribution measurement. This method can measure particle size distributions of the settling particles and floating particles. In this study, the buoyancy weighing-bar method is applied to determine optimal time of biodiesel-glycerol separation. The buoyancy weighing-bar method can be applied to determine the separation time because biodiesel and glycerol have the different densities. The influences of diameter of weighing-bar by using the buoyancy weighing-bar method would be experimentally investigated. The diameters of weighing-bar in this experiment are 8 mm, 10 mm, 15 mm and 20 mm, while the graduated cylinder (diameter : 65 mm) is used as vessel. The samples used in this experiment are the mixture of 95 % of biodiesel and 5 % of glycerol. The data obtained by the buoyancy weighing-bar method are analized by using the gas chromatography to determine the purity of biodiesel. Based on the data obtained, the buoyancy weighing-bar method can be used to detect the separation time of biodiesel-glycerol by using the weighing-bar diameter of 8 mm, 10 mm, 15 mm and 20 mm, but the most accuracy in determination the biodiesel-glycerol separation time is obtained by using the weighing-bar diameter of 20 mm. The biodiesel purity of 97.97 % could be detected at 64 minutes by using the buoyancy weighing-bar method when the weighing-bar diameter of 20 mm is used.

  17. Real-time measurements of nitrogen oxide emissions from in-use New York City transit buses using a chase vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorter, Joanne H; Herndon, Scott; Zahniser, Mark S; Nelson, David D; Wormhoudt, Joda; Demerjian, Kenneth L; Kolb, Charles E

    2005-10-15

    New diesel engine technologies and alternative fuel engines are being introduced into fleets of mass transit buses to try to meet stricter emission regulations of nitrogen oxides and particulates: Real-time instruments including an Aerodyne Research tunable infrared laser differential absorption spectrometer (TILDAS) were deployed in a mobile laboratory to assess the impact of the implementation of the new technologies on nitrogen oxide emissions in real world driving conditions. Using a "chase" vehicle sampling strategy, the mobile laboratory followed target vehicles, repeatedly sampling their exhaust. Nitrogen oxides from approximately 170 in-use New York City mass transit buses were sampled during the field campaigns. Emissions from conventional diesel buses, diesel buses with continuously regenerating technology (CRT), diesel hybrid electric buses, and compressed natural gas (CNG) buses were compared. The chase vehicle sampling method yields real world emissions that can be included in more realistic emission inventories. The NO, emissions from the diesel and CNG buses were comparable. The hybrid electric buses had approximately one-half the NOx emissions. In CRT diesels, NO2 accounts for about one-third of the NOx emitted in the exhaust, while for non-CRT buses the NO2 fraction is less than 10%.

  18. 40 CFR 92.110 - Weighing chamber and micro-balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weighing chamber and micro-balance. 92... Weighing chamber and micro-balance. (a) Ambient conditions—(1) Temperature. The temperature of the chamber... shall be 45±8 percent during all filter conditioning and weighing. The dew point shall be 6.4 to 12.4 °C...

  19. 9 CFR 201.108-1 - Instructions for weighing live poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Instructions for weighing live poultry... STOCKYARDS ACT Poultry-Packers and Live Poultry Dealers § 201.108-1 Instructions for weighing live poultry. Live poultry dealers who operate scales on which live poultry is weighed for purposes of purchase, sale...

  20. Weighing and Body Monitoring among College Women: The Scale Number as an Emotional Barometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz, Laurie B.; Awad, Germine H.; Stinson, Rebecca D.; Bledman, Rashanta A.; Coker, Angela D.; Kashubeck-West, Susan; Connelly, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated weighing and body-monitoring behaviors, as well as psychological and behavioral reactions to weighing, among female college students. Weighing and body monitoring were engaged in by the majority of participants. Participants changed food intake and exercise based on weight. About 63% reported that the scale number impacts…

  1. 7 CFR 800.97 - Weighing grain in containers, land carriers, barges, and shiplots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weighing grain in containers, land carriers, barges... (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS Weighing Provisions and Procedures § 800.97 Weighing grain in...

  2. Weighing the evidence of common beliefs in obesity research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casazza, Krista; Brown, Andrew; Astrup, Arne

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Obesity is a topic on which many views are strongly held in the absence of scientific evidence to support those views, and some views are strongly held despite evidence to contradict those views. We refer to the former as "presumptions" and the latter as "myths". Here we present nine myths...... and ten presumptions surrounding the effects of rapid weight loss; setting realistic goals in weight loss therapy; stage of change or readiness to lose weight; physical education classes; breast-feeding; daily self-weighing; genetic contribution to obesity; the "Freshman 15"; food deserts; regularly...

  3. Alternative fuel buses currently in use in China: Life-cycle fossil energy use, GHG emissions and policy recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou Xunmin; Zhang Xiliang; Chang Shiyan

    2010-01-01

    The Chinese government has enacted policies to promote alternative vehicle fuels (AVFs) and alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), including city bus fleets. The life cycle (LC), energy savings (ES) and GHG reduction (GR) profiles of AVFs/AFVs are critical to those policy decisions. The well-to-wheels module of the Tsinghua-CA3EM model is employed to investigate actual performance data. Compared with conventional buses, AFVs offer differences in performance in terms of both ES and GR. Only half of the AFVs analyzed demonstrate dual benefits. However, all non-oil/gas pathways can substitute oil/gas with coal. Current policies seek to promote technology improvements and market creation initiatives within the guiding framework of national-level diversification and district-level uniformity. Combined with their actual LC behavior and in keeping with near- and long-term strategies, integrated policies should seek to (1) apply hybrid electric technology to diesel buses; (2) encourage NG/LPG buses in gas-abundant cities; (3) promote commercialize electric buses or plug-in capable vehicles through battery technology innovation; (4) support fuel cell buses and hydrogen technology R and D for future potential applications; and (5) conduct further research on boosting vehicle fuel efficiency, applying low-carbon transportation technologies, and addressing all resultant implications of coal-based transportation solutions to human health and natural resources.

  4. Alternative fuel buses currently in use in China: Life-cycle fossil energy use, GHG emissions and policy recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou Xunmin, E-mail: oxm07@mails.tsinghua.edu.c [School of Public Policy and Management (SPPM), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang Xiliang, E-mail: zhang_xl@tsinghua.edu.c [China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Chang Shiyan [China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-01-15

    The Chinese government has enacted policies to promote alternative vehicle fuels (AVFs) and alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), including city bus fleets. The life cycle (LC), energy savings (ES) and GHG reduction (GR) profiles of AVFs/AFVs are critical to those policy decisions. The well-to-wheels module of the Tsinghua-CA3EM model is employed to investigate actual performance data. Compared with conventional buses, AFVs offer differences in performance in terms of both ES and GR. Only half of the AFVs analyzed demonstrate dual benefits. However, all non-oil/gas pathways can substitute oil/gas with coal. Current policies seek to promote technology improvements and market creation initiatives within the guiding framework of national-level diversification and district-level uniformity. Combined with their actual LC behavior and in keeping with near- and long-term strategies, integrated policies should seek to (1) apply hybrid electric technology to diesel buses; (2) encourage NG/LPG buses in gas-abundant cities; (3) promote commercialize electric buses or plug-in capable vehicles through battery technology innovation; (4) support fuel cell buses and hydrogen technology R and D for future potential applications; and (5) conduct further research on boosting vehicle fuel efficiency, applying low-carbon transportation technologies, and addressing all resultant implications of coal-based transportation solutions to human health and natural resources.

  5. Alternative fuel buses currently in use in China. Life-cycle fossil energy use, GHG emissions and policy recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou, Xunmin [School of Public Policy and Management (SPPM), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Xiliang; Chang, Shiyan [China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-01-15

    The Chinese government has enacted policies to promote alternative vehicle fuels (AVFs) and alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), including city bus fleets. The life cycle (LC), energy savings (ES) and GHG reduction (GR) profiles of AVFs/AFVs are critical to those policy decisions. The well-to-wheels module of the Tsinghua-CA3EM model is employed to investigate actual performance data. Compared with conventional buses, AFVs offer differences in performance in terms of both ES and GR. Only half of the AFVs analyzed demonstrate dual benefits. However, all non-oil/gas pathways can substitute oil/gas with coal. Current policies seek to promote technology improvements and market creation initiatives within the guiding framework of national-level diversification and district-level uniformity. Combined with their actual LC behavior and in keeping with near- and long-term strategies, integrated policies should seek to (1) apply hybrid electric technology to diesel buses; (2) encourage NG/LPG buses in gas-abundant cities; (3) promote commercialize electric buses or plug-in capable vehicles through battery technology innovation; (4) support fuel cell buses and hydrogen technology R and D for future potential applications; and (5) conduct further research on boosting vehicle fuel efficiency, applying low-carbon transportation technologies, and addressing all resultant implications of coal-based transportation solutions to human health and natural resources. (author)

  6. School Desegregation, Interracial Exposure, and Antibusing Activity in Contemporary Urban America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olzak, Susan; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Reviews research on the impact of efforts to achieve school desegregation. Argues that increased interracial exposure in schools and neighborhoods triggers racial and ethnic conflict. Reviews recent research and asserts that school desegregation significantly raised rates of protests against busing. (CFR)

  7. ALICE: structures weighing several tonnes are moved with millimetric precision

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The ALICE collaboration has just conducted one of its most spectacular transport operations to date in lifting the dipole of the muon spectrometer and reassembling it on the other side of the huge solenoid magnet. This incredible feat involved lifting no fewer than 900 tonnes of equipment over the red octagonal yoke inherited from the L3 experiment at a height of 18 metres. Following initial assembly and successful testing at the end of last year (see Bulletin No. 4/2005), the dipole was completely dismantled and moved to the other end of the cavern. The yoke was transported as 28 modules, each weighing 30 tonnes. The most spectacular feat of all, though, was undoubtedly the removal of the two 32-tonne coils. The first of these was moved on 18 April, as recorded in the following photos: A special lifting gantry weighing 5 tonnes had to be developed to move and install the coils. Huge clamps, which can be seen at the front, were used to rotate these enormous 32-tonne components. The whole assembly was raised ...

  8. Heart rate detection from an electronic weighing scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González-Landaeta, R; Casas, O; Pallàs-Areny, R

    2008-01-01

    We propose a novel technique for beat-to-beat heart rate detection based on the ballistocardiographic (BCG) force signal from a subject standing on a common electronic weighing scale. The detection relies on sensing force variations related to the blood acceleration in the aorta, works even if wearing footwear and does not require any sensors attached to the body because it uses the load cells in the scale. We have devised an approach to estimate the sensitivity and frequency response of three commercial weighing scales to assess their capability to detect the BCG force signal. Static sensitivities ranged from 490 nV V −1 N −1 to 1670 nV V −1 N −1 . The frequency response depended on the subject's mass but it was broad enough for heart rate estimation. We have designed an electronic pulse detection system based on off-the-shelf integrated circuits to sense heart-beat-related force variations of about 0.24 N. The signal-to-noise ratio of the main peaks of the force signal detected was higher than 30 dB. A Bland–Altman plot was used to compare the RR time intervals estimated from the ECG and BCG force signals for 17 volunteers. The error was ±21 ms, which makes the proposed technique suitable for short-term monitoring of the heart rate

  9. The Fuel Economy of Hybrid Buses: The Role of Ancillaries in Real Urban Driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bottiglione

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present context of the global economic crisis and environmental emergency, transport science is asked to find innovative solutions to turn traditional vehicles into fuel-saving and eco-friendly devices. In the last few years, hybrid vehicles have been shown to have potential benefits in this sense. In this paper, the fuel economy of series hybrid-electric and hybrid-mechanical buses is simulated in two real driving situations: cold and hot weather driving in the city of Taranto, in Southern Italy. The numerical analysis is carried out by an inverse dynamic approach, where the bus speed is given as a velocity pattern measured in the field tests performed on one of the city bus routes. The city of Taranto drive schedule is simulated in a typical tempered climate condition and with a hot temperature, when the air conditioning system must be switched on for passenger comfort. The fuel consumptions of hybrid-electric and hybrid-mechanical buses are compared to each other and with a traditional bus powered by a diesel engine. It is shown that the series hybrid-electric vehicle outperforms both the traditional and the mechanical hybrid vehicles in the cold weather driving simulation, reducing the fuel consumption by about 35% with respect to the traditional diesel bus. However, it is also shown that the performance of the hybrid-electric bus gets dramatically worse when the air-cooling system is continuously turned on. In this situation, the fuel consumption of the three different technologies for city buses under investigation is comparable.

  10. High prevalence of EMRSA-15 in Portuguese public buses: a worrisome finding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roméo Rocha Simões

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The nosocomial prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA in Portugal remains one of the highest in Europe and is currently around 50%. Transmission of S. aureus, including MRSA, occurs principally by direct human-to-human skin contact. However, S. aureus can survive for long periods on inanimate objects, which may represent an important reservoir for dissemination as well. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Between May 2009 and February 2010, handrails of 85 public urban buses circulating in Oporto, Portugal, were screened for the occurrence of MRSA. Twenty-two (26% buses showed MRSA contamination. The molecular characterization of a total of 55 MRSA, by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC mec typing, spa typing, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST, clustered the isolates into three clonal types. However, the overwhelming majority (n = 50; 91% of the isolates belonged to a single clone (PFGE A, spa types t747, t032, t025 or t020, ST22, SCCmec type IVh that exhibits the characteristics of the pandemic EMRSA-15, currently the major lineage circulating in Portuguese hospitals, namely in the Oporto region. Two additional clones were found but in much lower numbers: (i PFGE B, ST5, spa type t002, SCCmec IVa (n = 3, and (ii PFGE C, spa type t008, ST8, SCCmec IVa (n = 2. None of the 55 isolates was PVL positive. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Public buses in Oporto seem to be an important reservoir of MRSA of nosocomial origin, providing evidence that the major hospital-associated MRSA clone in Portugal is escaping from the primary ecological niche of hospitals to the community environment. Infection control measures are urgently warranted to limit the spread of EMRSA-15 to the general population and future studies are required to assess the eventual increase of MRSA in the Portuguese community, which so far remains low.

  11. Thermal Safety of the Current Buses in the Chimney of the D0 Solenoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.P.

    1998-01-01

    The thermal and electrical behaviour of the current buses in the chimney of the D0 solenoid during upset conditions is modeled to guide the selection of trip levels for magnet protection circuits which discharge the magnet if abnormal conditions are detected. The current buses in the chimney are designed to operate safely without likelihood of loss of superconductivity as long as normal cooling conditions are maintained. Helium liquid level probes, helium flow instrumentation, and thermometry all are provided to certify that proper cooling conditions exist in the subcooler and chimney at all times. Rising temperatures in any portion of the system, excessive voltage drops on the vapor cooled leads, or decreasing liquid level in the subcooler or flow rate in the system, will each cause the fast discharge system to be triggered. Postulated failures of the helium flow system, somehow undetected by any and all of the aforementioned instrumentation, can in principal eventually lead to loss of superconductivity in the buses. Quenching in one bus will rapidly lead to quenching in the other. Potential taps on the buses and magnet coil halves connected to voltage-detection bridges external to the system provide at least dually redundant signals which will unambiguously trigger the magnet rapid discharge system. The conservative design of the bus system ensures that it will not be damaged during such incidents, however improbable they may be. The transition leads in the subcooler are equally conservatively designed, and would not be damaged if they were operated in a fully non-superconducting state for several minutes. The loss of liquid helium in the sub cooler required to cause this condition would imply that helium flow from the magnet had stopped, which in turn would imply that flow to the magnet had also stopped. The lack of flow into the sub cooler would result in insufficient flow to the vapor cooled leads. Any or all of these conditions would be detected, as would

  12. Operational integrity using field buses; Integridade operacional utilizando barramentos de campo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennig, Carlos Henrique [Coester Automacao S.A., Sao Leopoldo, RS (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The device information is collected using standardized Filed Buses with high data transmission capacity, which allows the analysis of his operational status in real time. The quantity of information generated by the devices for the maintenance area is increasing and this data quantity transferred through the field bus should not interfere in the network performance to the point of degrade his control function. In this way, is presented a technique that can be used in different protocols, which allow sending of maintenance data using a small band of the communication channel. Operational integrity can be achieved using predictive maintenance techniques based on the collected data. (author)

  13. Static Scale Conversion Weigh-In-Motion System; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beshears, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    In support of the Air Mobility Battle Lab (AMBL), the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Advanced Logistics Program and the U. S. Transportation Command (USTRANSCOM), the ultimate objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate a full-scale prototype static scale conversion weigh-in-motion/Profilometry (SSC-WIM/P) system to measure and record dimensional and weight information for the Department of Defense (DoD) equipment and cargo. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), along with the AMBL, and Intercomp, Inc. have developed a long-range plan for developing a dual-use system which can be used as a standard static scale or an accurate weigh-in-motion system. AMBL will work to define requirements for additional activities with U.S. Transportation Command, Air Mobility Command, and the Joint Warfighting Battle Lab for both the SSC-WIM/P and a portable Weigh-in-Motion System for individual units. The funding goal is to fully fund the development of two prototype test articles (a SSC-WIM kit, and a laser profilometer) and have at least one fully operational system by the early 2002 timeframe. The objective of this portion of the project will be to develop a SSC-WIM system, which at a later date can be fully integrated with a profilometry system; to fully characterize DOD wheeled vehicles and cargo (individual axle weights, total vehicle weight, center of balance, height, width and length measurements). The program will be completed in phases with the initial AMBL/DARPA funding being used to initiate the efforts while AMBL/USTC obtains funding to complete the first generation system effort. At the completion of an initial effort, the interface hardware and the data acquisition/analysis hardware will be developed, fabricated, and system principles and basic functionality evaluated, tested, and demonstrated. Additional funding, when made available, will allow the successful completion of a first generation prototype system. This effort will be

  14. Life-cycle Energy and Emissions Inventories for Motorcycles, Diesel Automobiles, School Buses, Electric Buses, Chicago Rail, and New York City Rail

    OpenAIRE

    Chester, Mikhail; Horvath, Arpad

    2009-01-01

    The development of life-cycle energy and emissions factors for passenger transportation modes is critical for understanding the total environmental costs of travel. Previous life-cycle studies have focused on the automobile given its dominating share of passenger travel and have included only few life-cycle components, typically related to the vehicle (i.e., manufacturing, maintenance, end-of-life) or fuel (i.e., extraction, refining, transport). Chester (2009) provides the first comprehensiv...

  15. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gikakis, Christina [Federal Transit Administration, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-12-11

    This report, published annually, summarizes the progress of fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) development in the United States and discusses the achievements and challenges of introducing fuel cell propulsion in transit. Various stakeholders, including FCEB developers, transit agencies, and system integrators, have expressed the value of this annual status report, which provides a summary of results from evaluations performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The annual status report tracks the progress of the FCEB industry toward meeting technical targets, documents the lessons learned, and discusses the path forward for commercial viability of fuel cell technology for transit buses. The 2015 summary results primarily focus on the most recent year for each demonstration, from August 2014 through July 2015. The results for these buses account for more than 1,045,000 miles traveled and 83,000 hours of fuel cell power system operation. The primary results presented in the report are from two demonstrations of fuel-cell-dominant bus designs: the Zero Emission Bay Area Demonstration Group led by Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) in California and the American Fuel Cell Bus Project at SunLine Transit Agency in California.

  16. Ways to improve the environmental conditions of their buses in operation on passenger routes of cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnychuk S.V.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies on operational and environmental parameters buses used on bus routes Zhitomir city. It uses statistical methods for determining the intensity of traffic, passenger traffic and ecology in traffic. To assess the environmental chosen stop with the greatest intensity of traffic, which is the probability of accumulation of pollution transport emissions that exceed permissible limits. Calculation of environmental pollution emission route for vehicles made stops street «Str. Hundreds of Heaven» «CUM», «vul. Hlibna» on the main trunk street Kievska. Results obtained environmental field experiments compared with the data defined calculation methods, based on the proposed use appropriate operational vehicles. The conclusions that indicate the seriousness of the problem and the urgency to address it. The system of environmental safety and road safety in Zhitomir requires significant improvements due to the increased quantities bus vehicles plying city routes. Recommendations to improve the ecological condition of intersections can be developed through the optimization of traffic using buses with environmentally improved operating parameters. Keywords: environmental and operational parameters; ecological safety; environmental assessment; intensity of traffic; passenger traffic; environmental conditions; operation; bus choice; stop.

  17. Lagrangian Hotspots of In-Use NOX Emissions from Transit Buses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotz, Andrew J; Kittelson, David B; Northrop, William F

    2016-06-07

    In-use, spatiotemporal NOX emissions were measured from a conventional powertrain transit bus and a series electric hybrid bus over gradients of route kinetic intensity and ambient temperature. This paper introduces a new method for identifying NOX emissions hotspots along a bus route using high fidelity Lagrangian vehicle data to explore spatial interactions that may influence emissions production. Our study shows that the studied transit buses emit higher than regulated emissions because on-route operation does not accurately represent the range of engine operation tested according to regulatory standards. Using the Lagrangian hotspot detection, we demonstrate that NOX hotspots occurred at bus stops, during cold starts, on inclines, and for accelerations. On the selected routes, bus stops resulted in 3.3 times the route averaged emissions factor in grams/km without significant dependence on bus type or climate. The buses also emitted 2.3 times the route averaged NOX emissions factor at the beginning of each route due to cold selective catalytic reduction aftertreatment temperature. The Lagrangian hotspot detection technique demonstrated here could be employed in future connected vehicles empowered by advances in computational power, data storage capability, and improved sensor technology to optimize emissions as a function of spatial location.

  18. Design of a nucleonic conveyor belt weighing machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magal, B.S.; Sunder Singh, V.P.

    1979-01-01

    A brief literature survey of the existing conventional units and the nucleonic belt weigher is made. The design of a 250 ton per hour coal weighing unit working in conjunction with a 24 inch wide belt, running at 350 feet per minute has been attempted and a unit has been built to the above specifications. Caseium-137 line source has been used as an isotope and a 10 litre volume argon filled ionisation chamber has been used as a detector. A line source has been preferred to a point source. The unit is under trial and the accuracy of the same is being evaluated by changing the variables like particle size profile of the material deposited on the belt and sudden changes in loading. Initial trials indicate that an accuracy of +- 1 p.c. can be achieved. (auth.)

  19. Hydrometer calibration by hydrostatic weighing with automated liquid surface positioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera, Jesus; Wright, John D; Bean, Vern E

    2008-01-01

    We describe an automated apparatus for calibrating hydrometers by hydrostatic weighing (Cuckow's method) in tridecane, a liquid of known, stable density, and with a relatively low surface tension and contact angle against glass. The apparatus uses a laser light sheet and a laser power meter to position the tridecane surface at the hydrometer scale mark to be calibrated with an uncertainty of 0.08 mm. The calibration results have an expanded uncertainty (with a coverage factor of 2) of 100 parts in 10 6 or less of the liquid density. We validated the apparatus by comparisons using water, toluene, tridecane and trichloroethylene, and found agreement within 40 parts in 10 6 or less. The new calibration method is consistent with earlier, manual calibrations performed by NIST. When customers use calibrated hydrometers, they may encounter uncertainties of 370 parts in 10 6 or larger due to surface tension, contact angle and temperature effects

  20. Hydrometer calibration by hydrostatic weighing with automated liquid surface positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Jesus; Wright, John D.; Bean, Vern E.

    2008-01-01

    We describe an automated apparatus for calibrating hydrometers by hydrostatic weighing (Cuckow's method) in tridecane, a liquid of known, stable density, and with a relatively low surface tension and contact angle against glass. The apparatus uses a laser light sheet and a laser power meter to position the tridecane surface at the hydrometer scale mark to be calibrated with an uncertainty of 0.08 mm. The calibration results have an expanded uncertainty (with a coverage factor of 2) of 100 parts in 106 or less of the liquid density. We validated the apparatus by comparisons using water, toluene, tridecane and trichloroethylene, and found agreement within 40 parts in 106 or less. The new calibration method is consistent with earlier, manual calibrations performed by NIST. When customers use calibrated hydrometers, they may encounter uncertainties of 370 parts in 106 or larger due to surface tension, contact angle and temperature effects.

  1. Load-cell-based weighing system for weighing 9.1- and 12.7-tonne UF6 cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAuley, W.A.; Kane, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    For the independent verification of UF 6 cylinder masses by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) at uranium enrichment facilities, an 18-tonne capacity Load-Cell-Based Weighing System (LCBWS) has been developed. The system was developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory and the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant and calibrated at the US National Bureau of Standards. The principal components of the LCBWS are two load cells, with readout and ancillary equipment, and a lifting fixture that couples the load cells to a cylinder. Initial experience with the system demonstrates that it has the advantages of transportability, ease of application, stability, and an attainable accuracy of 2 kg or better for a full cylinder

  2. Pilot testing of environment-friendly low-emission alternative drive components for city buses. Phase 1. Technical final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doemeland, H.; Haase, G.; Sarnes, J.; Schultheis, S.; Schuenemann, M.; Strauss, A.; Voss, K.; Aepler, E.; Stachel, K.; Wolter, M.; Lenz, W.

    1993-05-01

    The report describes pilot tests of environment-friendly, low-emission city buses with alternative drive systems. The following problems are discussed: Natural gas as primary energy source, natural gas drives, safety requirements, measurement and testing technology for natural gas engines, environmental effects, operating concepts, operating cost. (HW) [de

  3. Is the public willing to pay for hydrogen buses? A comparative study of preferences in four cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Garra, Tanya; Mourato, Susana; Garrity, Lisa; Schmidt, Patrick; Beerenwinkel, Anne; Altmann, Matthias; Hart, David; Graesel, Cornelia; Whitehouse, Simon

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents results from the international AcceptH2 study (http://www.accepth2.com) of acceptability and preferences for hydrogen fuel cell (FC) buses. Using the contingent valuation method, this paper compares public willingness to pay (WTP) for the air pollution reductions associated with a scenario of large-scale introduction of hydrogen (H 2 ) FC buses in four cities: Berlin, London, Luxembourg and Perth. Results indicate that bus users in all cities have a positive WTP for H 2 buses, and that values (adjusted to the cost of living in each city) are very similar across geographical locations (ranging from WTP an extra Euro 0.29 to Euro 0.35 per single bus fare). Non-bus users were also interviewed in London and Perth, in order to capture values for the whole populations in these cities. Combined results for bus users and non-bus users confirm that overall residents in these cities are willing to pay extra (in taxes) to support the large-scale introduction of H 2 -buses

  4. 40 CFR 1065.590 - PM sampling media (e.g., filters) preconditioning and tare weighing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., as follows: (1) For automatic weighing, follow the automation system manufacturer's instructions to..., covered or sealed container before removing them from the stabilization environment for transport to the...

  5. Weighing Evidence "Steampunk" Style via the Meta-Analyser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Jack; Jackson, Chris

    2016-10-01

    The funnel plot is a graphical visualization of summary data estimates from a meta-analysis, and is a useful tool for detecting departures from the standard modeling assumptions. Although perhaps not widely appreciated, a simple extension of the funnel plot can help to facilitate an intuitive interpretation of the mathematics underlying a meta-analysis at a more fundamental level, by equating it to determining the center of mass of a physical system. We used this analogy to explain the concepts of weighing evidence and of biased evidence to a young audience at the Cambridge Science Festival, without recourse to precise definitions or statistical formulas and with a little help from Sherlock Holmes! Following on from the science fair, we have developed an interactive web-application (named the Meta-Analyser) to bring these ideas to a wider audience. We envisage that our application will be a useful tool for researchers when interpreting their data. First, to facilitate a simple understanding of fixed and random effects modeling approaches; second, to assess the importance of outliers; and third, to show the impact of adjusting for small study bias. This final aim is realized by introducing a novel graphical interpretation of the well-known method of Egger regression.

  6. Weighing the Evidence of Common Beliefs in Obesity Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casazza, Krista; Brown, Andrew; Astrup, Arne; Bertz, Fredrik; Baum, Charles; Brown, Michelle Bohan; Dawson, John; Durant, Nefertiti; Dutton, Gareth; Fields, David A; Fontaine, Kevin R; Heymsfield, Steven; Levitsky, David; Mehta, Tapan; Menachemi, Nir; Newby, P K; Pate, Russell; Raynor, Hollie; Rolls, Barbara J; Sen, Bisakha; Smith, Daniel L; Thomas, Diana; Wansink, Brian; Allison, David B

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a topic on which many views are strongly held in the absence of scientific evidence to support those views, and some views are strongly held despite evidence to contradict those views. We refer to the former as "presumptions" and the latter as "myths." Here, we present nine myths and 10 presumptions surrounding the effects of rapid weight loss; setting realistic goals in weight loss therapy; stage of change or readiness to lose weight; physical education classes; breastfeeding; daily self-weighing; genetic contribution to obesity; the "Freshman 15"; food deserts; regularly eating (versus skipping) breakfast; eating close to bedtime; eating more fruits and vegetables; weight cycling (i.e., yo-yo dieting); snacking; built environment; reducing screen time in childhood obesity; portion size; participation in family mealtime; and drinking water as a means of weight loss. For each of these, we describe the belief and present evidence that the belief is widely held or stated, reasons to support the conjecture that the belief might be true, evidence to directly support or refute the belief, and findings from randomized controlled trials, if available. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of these determinations, conjecture on why so many myths and presumptions exist, and suggestions for limiting the spread of these and other unsubstantiated beliefs about the obesity domain.

  7. Development of CH{sub 3}OH fueled PEMFC power plants for hybrid transit buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumert, R; Cooper, R; Feasey, G [DBB Fuel Cell Engines Corp., Poway, CA (United States)

    1999-12-31

    An overview of the methanol fuel cell power system was provided, identifying improved efficiency and reduced emissions as the principal advantages. Four critical tasks regarding on-board fuel processing were described: (1) efficient methanol conversion (steam reforming), (2) effective reformate purification (selective catalytic oxidation), (3) optimized heat integration, and (4) rapid response to transients. A description of a 100 kW PEM fuel cell bus engine package was also presented. As far as a development time table is concerned, the DBB Fuel Cell Engines Corp. of Poway California has completed two methanol fueled PEMFC power plants, fabrication of the initial 100 kW PEMFC engine is in progress and scheduled for delivery by 1998. The two methanol fueled commercial products which are in the planning stages are the 100 and 200 kW class FCPS for hybrid and non-hybrid buses and other applications. tabs., figs.

  8. Simulations of the Fuel Economy and Emissions of Hybrid Transit Buses over Planned Local Routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhiming [ORNL; LaClair, Tim J [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Smith, David E [ORNL; Franzese, Oscar [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    We present simulated fuel economy and emissions city transit buses powered by conventional diesel engines and diesel-hybrid electric powertrains of varying size. Six representative city drive cycles were included in the study. In addition, we included previously published aftertreatment device models for control of CO, HC, NOx, and particulate matter (PM) emissions. Our results reveal that bus hybridization can significantly enhance fuel economy by reducing engine idling time, reducing demands for accessory loads, exploiting regenerative braking, and shifting engine operation to speeds and loads with higher fuel efficiency. Increased hybridization also tends to monotonically reduce engine-out emissions, but trends in the tailpipe (post-aftertreatment) emissions involve more complex interactions that significantly depend on motor size and drive cycle details.

  9. The Impact of Regular Self-weighing on Weight Management: A Systematic Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welsh Ericka M

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regular self-weighing has been a focus of attention recently in the obesity literature. It has received conflicting endorsement in that some researchers and practitioners recommend it as a key behavioral strategy for weight management, while others caution against its use due to its potential to cause negative psychological consequences associated with weight management failure. The evidence on frequent self-weighing, however, has not yet been synthesized. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the evidence regarding the use of regular self-weighing for both weight loss and weight maintenance. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted using the MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO online databases. Reviewed studies were broken down by sample characteristics, predictors/conditions, dependent measures, findings, and evidence grade. Results Twelve studies met the inclusion/exclusion criteria, but nearly half received low evidence grades in terms of methodological quality. Findings from 11 of the 12 reviewed studies indicated that more frequent self-weighing was associated with greater weight loss or weight gain prevention. Specifically, individuals who reported self-weighing weekly or daily, typically over a period of several months, held a 1 to 3 kg/m2 (current advantage over individuals who did not self-weigh frequently. The effects of self-weighing in experimental studies, especially those where self-weighing behaviors could be isolated, were less clear. Conclusion Based on the consistency of the evidence reviewed, frequent self-weighing, at the very least, seems to be a good predictor of moderate weight loss, less weight regain, or the avoidance of initial weight gain in adults. More targeted research is needed in this area to determine the causal role of frequent self-weighing in weight loss/weight gain prevention programs. Other open questions to be pursued include the optimal dose of self-weighing, as well as the

  10. 75 FR 66686 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Seat Belt Assembly Anchorages, School Bus Passenger...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... loose belts) also applies to seats that have wheelchair positions or side emergency doors behind them... have wheelchair positions or side emergency doors behind them); and, the test requirements for self... which correspond to the size of some high school football players) and school buses closer in weight to...

  11. Continuous weighing of conveyor-transported materials based on gamma radiation conversion to electric current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principle is described of the continuous weighing of conveyer-transported materials applied in the food industry. The weighing technique is based on the measurement of the absorption of gamma radiation emitted by a source located behind the material to be scaled. (Z.M.)

  12. Getting the Facts Straight about the Effects of School Desegregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Willis D.

    1979-01-01

    Examines the effects of school desegregation by suggesting some reasons why those who review the research might misinterpret or misrepresent the evidence; and by summarizing what is known about two significant types of outcomes--academic achievement, and busing and "white flight." (Author/MLF)

  13. Method for Assessing Risk of Road Accidents in Transportation of School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogotovkina, N. S.; Volodkin, P. P.; Demakhina, E. S.

    2017-11-01

    The rationale behind the problem being investigated is explained by the remaining high level of the accident rates with the participation of vehicles carrying groups of children, including school buses, in the Russian Federation over the period of several years. The article is aimed at the identification of new approaches to improve the safety of transportation of schoolchildren in accordance with the Concept of children transportation by buses and the plan for its implementation. The leading approach to solve the problem under consideration is the prediction of accidents in the schoolchildren transportation. The article presents the results of the accident rate analysis with the participation of school buses in the Russian Federation for five years. Besides, a system to monitor the transportation of schoolchildren is proposed; the system will allow analyzing and forecasting traffic accidents which involve buses carrying groups of children, including school buses. In addition, the article presents a methodology for assessing the risk of road accidents during the transportation of schoolchildren.

  14. Combustion Chemistry of Biodiesel for the Use in Urban Transport Buses: Experiment and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvarborna, Hamid

    Biofuels, such as biodiesel, offer benefits as a possible alternative to conventional fuels due to their fuel source sustainability and their reduced environmental impact. Before they can be used, it is essential to understand their combustion chemistry and emission characterizations due to a number of issues associated with them (e.g., high emission of nitrogen oxides (NOx), lower heating value than diesel, etc.). During this study, emission characterizations of different biodiesel blends (B0, B20, B50, and B100) were measured on three different feedstocks (soybean methyl ester (SME), tallow oil (TO), and waste cooking oil (WCO)) with various characteristics, while an ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) was used as base fuel at low-temperature combustion (LTC). A laboratory combustion chamber was used to analyze soot formation, NOx emissions, while real engine emissions were measured for further investigation on PM and NOx emissions. For further study, carbon emissions (CO, CO 2, and CH4) were also measured to understand their relations with feedstocks' type. The emissions were correlated with fuel's characteristics, especially unsaturation degree (number of double bonds in methyl esters) and chain length (oxygen-to-carbon ratio). The experimental results obtained from laboratory experiments were confirmed by field experiments (real engines) collected from Toledo area regional transit authority (TARTA) buses. Combustion analysis results showed that the neat biodiesel fuels had longer ignition delays and lower ignition temperatures compared to ULSD at the tested condition. The results showed that biodiesel containing more unsaturated fatty acids emitted higher levels of NOx compared to biodiesel with more saturated fatty acids. A paired t-test on fuels showed that neat biodiesel fuels had significant reduction in the formation of NOx compared with ULSD. In another part of this study, biodiesel fuel with a high degree of unsaturation and high portion of long chains of

  15. Case Study - Propane School Bus Fleets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughlin, M; Burnham, A.

    2014-08-31

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) effort to deploy transportation technologies that reduce U.S. dependence on imported petroleum, this study examines five school districts, one in Virginia and four in Texas, successful use of propane school buses. These school districts used school buses equipped with the newly developed liquid propane injection system that improves vehicle performance. Some of the school districts in this study saved nearly 50% on a cost per mile basis for fuel and maintenance relative to diesel. Using Argonne National Laboratory’s Alternative Fuel Life-Cycle Environmental and Economic Transportation (AFLEET) Tool developed for the DOE’s Clean Cities program to help Clean Cities stakeholders estimate petroleum use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, air pollutant emissions and cost of ownership of light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles, the results showed payback period ranges from 3—8 years, recouping the incremental cost of the vehicles and infrastructure. Overall, fuel economy for these propane vehicles is close to that of displaced diesel vehicles, on an energy-equivalent basis. In addition, the 110 propane buses examined demonstrated petroleum displacement, 212,000 diesel gallon equivalents per year, and GHG benefits of 770 tons per year.

  16. Crash problem definition and safety benefits methodology for stability control for single-unit medium and heavy trucks and large-platform buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    This report presents the findings of a comprehensive engineering analysis of electronic stability control (ESC) and roll stability control (RSC) systems for single-unit medium and heavy trucks and large-platform buses. This report details the applica...

  17. Unregulated emissions from compressed natural gas (CNG) transit buses configured with and without oxidation catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Robert A; Kado, Norman Y; Kuzmicky, Paul A; Ayala, Alberto; Kobayashi, Reiko

    2006-01-01

    The unregulated emissions from two in-use heavy-duty transit buses fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG) and equipped with oxidation catalyst (OxiCat) control were evaluated. We tested emissions from a transit bus powered by a 2001 Cummins Westport C Gas Plus 8.3-L engine (CWest), which meets the California Air Resources Board's (CARB) 2002 optional NOx standard (2.0 g/bhp-hr). In California, this engine is certified only with an OxiCat, so our study did not include emissions testing without it. We also tested a 2000 New Flyer 40-passenger low-floor bus powered by a Detroit Diesel series 50G engine (DDCs50G) that is currently certified in California without an OxiCat. The original equipment manufacturer (OEM) offers a "low-emission" package for this bus that includes an OxiCat for transit bus applications, thus, this configuration was also tested in this study. Previously, we reported that formaldehyde and other volatile organic emissions detected in the exhaust of the DDCs50G bus equipped with an OxiCat were significantly reduced relative to the same DDCs50G bus without OxiCat. In this paper, we examine othertoxic unregulated emissions of significance. The specific mutagenic activity of emission sample extracts was examined using the microsuspension assay. The total mutagenic activity of emissions (activity per mile) from the OxiCat-equipped DDC bus was generally lower than that from the DDC bus without the OxiCat. The CWest bus emission samples had mutagenic activity that was comparable to that of the OxiCat-equipped DDC bus. In general, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions were lower forthe OxiCat-equipped buses, with greater reductions observed for the volatile and semivolatile PAH emissions. Elemental carbon (EC) was detected in the exhaust from the all three bus configurations, and we found that the total carbon (TC) composition of particulate matter (PM) emissions was primarily organic carbon (OC). The amount of carbon emissions far exceeded the

  18. Ultrafine particle emissions by in-use diesel buses of various generations at low-load regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartakovsky, L.; Baibikov, V.; Comte, P.; Czerwinski, J.; Mayer, A.; Veinblat, M.; Zimmerli, Y.

    2015-04-01

    Ultrafine particles (UFP) are major contributors to air pollution due to their easy gas-like penetration into the human organism, causing adverse health effects. This study analyzes UFP emissions by buses of different technologies (from Euro II till Euro V EEV - Enhanced Environmentally-friendly Vehicle) at low-load regimes. Additionally, the emission-reduction potential of retrofitting with a diesel particle filter (DPF) is demonstrated. A comparison of the measured, engine-out, particle number concentrations (PNC) for buses of different technological generations shows that no substantial reduction of engine-out emissions at low-load operating modes is observed for newer bus generations. Retrofitting the in-use urban and interurban buses of Euro II till Euro IV technologies by the VERT-certified DPF confirmed its high efficiency in reduction of UFP emissions. Particle-count filtration efficiency values of the retrofit DPF were found to be extremely high - greater than 99.8%, similar to that of the OEM filter in the Euro V bus.

  19. Analysis of weighing cells based on the principle of electromagnetic force compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marangoni, Rafael R; Rahneberg, Ilko; Fröhlich, Thomas; Hilbrunner, Falko; Theska, René

    2017-01-01

    An analytical model that considers the static behaviour of weighing cells based on the principle of electromagnetic force compensation (EMFC) is presented. With this model, adjustment strategies for the stiffness and tilt sensitivity of EMFC weighing cells are derived. These parameters are known as limiting factors for the achievable sensitivity and measurement uncertainty respectively. In order to obtain the analytical equations of the system, linear and rigid-body behaviour is assumed. The results obtained with the model are compared with results from multi-body simulations. It is shown that, for the considered model, an optimum design that eliminates the tilt sensitivity of the weighing cell while minimizing its stiffness exists. (paper)

  20. “Bus Lane Within The Area Of Intersection” Method For Buses Priority On The Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikovych Ihor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this article is to formalize the “special bus lanes within the area of intersection” method that allows providing buses with space-time priority at signalized intersections (mostly of the isolated type, including those with no more than two traffic lanes in each direction at the approaches to the intersection. The article establishes the limits for efficient application of this method, and describes the results of a simulation experiment conducted in the VISSIM environment to investigate the functioning of the method on an actual intersection. The most critical phase of implementation of this method is to determine the optimum length of the special bus lane at the approach to the intersection. The optimum length of special bus lanes at the approaches to isolated or coordinated intersections is determined based on the maximum length of queued vehicles which is computed using the simulation models developed in the Objective-C language. The article covers the basic characteristics of those models, their structure and building principles, and also provides the model validation results. Simulation models can be used both for determination of the optimum length of special bus lanes at the approaches to signalized intersections and for analysis of intersection performance based on the maximum length of queued vehicles.

  1. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew B [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-21

    This report, published annually, summarizes the progress of fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) development in the United States and discusses the achievements and challenges of introducing fuel cell propulsion in transit. The report provides a summary of results from evaluations performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This annual status report combines results from all FCEB demonstrations, tracks the progress of the FCEB industry toward meeting technical targets, documents the lessons learned, and discusses the path forward for commercial viability of fuel cell technology for transit buses. These data and analyses help provide needed information to guide future early-stage research and development. The 2017 summary results primarily focus on the most recent year for each demonstration, from August 2016 through July 2017. The primary results presented in the report are from five demonstrations of two different fuel-cell-dominant bus designs: Zero Emission Bay Area Demonstration Group led by Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) in California; American Fuel Cell Bus (AFCB) Project at SunLine Transit Agency in California; AFCB Project at the University of California at Irvine; AFCB Project at Orange County Transportation Authority; and AFCB Project at Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority.

  2. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jeffers, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This report, published annually, summarizes the progress of fuel cell electric bus development in the United States and discusses the achievements and challenges of introducing fuel cell propulsion in transit. The report provides a summary of results from evaluations performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Funding for this effort is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Office within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and by the U.S. Department of Transportation's Federal Transit Administration. The 2016 summary results primarily focus on the most recent year for each demonstration, from August 2015 through July 2016. The results for these buses account for more than 550,000 miles traveled and 59,500 hours of fuel cell power system operation. The primary results presented in the report are from three demonstrations of two different fuel-cell-dominant bus designs: Zero Emission Bay Area Demonstration Group led by Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) in California; American Fuel Cell Bus Project at SunLine Transit Agency in California; and American Fuel Cell Bus Project at the University of California at Irvine.

  3. Multi-criteria analysis of alternative-fuel buses for public transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzeng, G.-H.; Lin, C.-W.; Opricovic, Serafim

    2005-01-01

    The technological development of buses with new alternative fuels is considered in this paper. Several types of fuels are considered as alternative-fuel modes, i.e., electricity, fuel cell (hydrogen), and methanol. Electric vehicles may be considered the alternative-fuel vehicles with the lowest air pollution. Hybrid electric vehicles provide an alternate mode, at least for the period of improving the technology of electric vehicles. A hybrid electric vehicle is defined as a vehicle with the conventional internal combustion engine and an electric motor as its major sources of power. Experts from different decision-making groups performed the multiple attribute evaluation of alternative vehicles. AHP is applied to determine the relative weights of evaluation criteria. TOPSIS and VIKOR are compared and applied to determine the best compromise alternative fuel mode. The result shows that the hybrid electric bus is the most suitable substitute bus for Taiwan urban areas in the short and median term. But, if the cruising distance of the electric bus extends to an acceptable range, the pure electric bus could be the best alternative

  4. A Model for the Stop Planning and Timetables of Customized Buses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihui Ma

    Full Text Available Customized buses (CBs are a new mode of public transportation and an important part of diversified public transportation, providing advanced, attractive and user-led service. The operational activity of a CB is planned by aggregating space-time demand and similar passenger travel demands. Based on an analysis of domestic and international research and the current development of CBs in China and considering passenger travel data, this paper studies the problems associated with the operation of CBs, such as stop selection, line planning and timetables, and establishes a model for the stop planning and timetables of CBs. The improved immune genetic algorithm (IIGA is used to solve the model with regard to the following: 1 multiple population design and transport operator design, 2 memory library design, 3 mutation probability design and crossover probability design, and 4 the fitness calculation of the gene segment. Finally, a real-world example in Beijing is calculated, and the model and solution results are verified and analyzed. The results illustrate that the IIGA solves the model and is superior to the basic genetic algorithm in terms of the number of passengers, travel time, average passenger travel time, average passenger arrival time ahead of schedule and total line revenue. This study covers the key issues involving operational systems of CBs, combines theoretical research and empirical analysis, and provides a theoretical foundation for the planning and operation of CBs.

  5. Weighing the cost of educational inflation in undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusano, Ronald; Busche, Kevin; Coderre, Sylvain; Woloschuk, Wayne; Chadbolt, Karen; McLaughlin, Kevin

    2017-08-01

    Despite the fact that the length of medical school training has remained stable for many years, the expectations of graduating medical students (and the schools that train them) continue to increase. In this Reflection, the authors discuss motives for educational inflation and suggest that these are likely innocent, well-intentioned, and subconscious-and include both a propensity to increase expectations of ourselves and others over time, and a reluctance to reduce training content and expectations. They then discuss potential risks of educational inflation, including reduced emphasis on core knowledge and clinical skills, and adverse effects on the emotional, psychological, and financial wellbeing of students. While acknowledging the need to change curricula to improve learning and clinical outcomes, the authors proffer that it is naïve to assume that we can inflate educational expectations at no additional cost. They suggest that before implementing and/or mandating change, we should consider of all the costs that medical schools and students might incur, including opportunity costs and the impact on the emotional and financial wellbeing of students. They propose a cost-effectiveness framework for medical education and advocate prioritization of interventions that improve learning outcomes with no additional costs or are cost-saving without adversely impacting learning outcomes. When there is an additional cost for improved learning outcomes or a decline in learning outcomes as a result of cost saving interventions, they suggest careful consideration and justification of this trade-off. And when there are neither improved learning outcomes nor cost savings they recommend resisting the urge to change.

  6. Portable load-cell based system for weighing UF6 cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fainberg, A.; Gordon, D.; Dermendjiev, E.; Terrey, D.; Mitchell, R.

    1982-01-01

    A load-cell-based portable weighing system which is capable of verifying the weights of 2.2 tonne 30-inch UF 6 cylinders has been developed by the US National Bureau of Standards (NBS). This system weighs about 13 kg and has an attainable accuracy of about 1 kg. After an initial calibration at NBS, the system is ready for use in the field. Approximately 5 to 10 minutes are needed for assembly, and, if an overhead crane has access to all cylinders to be weighed, from 10 to 15 weighings may be performed in one hour. During the past year the system has been tested at several facilities around the world with satisfactory results and with favorable comments from the facility operators. Results of several tests are presented in this paper

  7. Weigh-in-Motion Sensor and Controller Operation and Performance Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    This research project utilized statistical inference and comparison techniques to compare the performance of different Weigh-in-Motion (WIM) sensors. First, we analyzed test-vehicle data to perform an accuracy check of the results reported by the sen...

  8. Low-cost, distributed, sensor-based weigh-in-motion systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Monitoring truck weights is essential for traffic operations, roadway design, traffic safety, and regulations. : Traditional roadside static truck weighing stations have many operational shortcomings, and so there have : been ongoing efforts to devel...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1339-90 - Particulate filter handling and weighing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate... humidity exchange) petri dish and place in a weighing chamber meeting the specifications of § 86.1312 for...

  10. Portable bench tester for piezo weigh-in-motion equipment : final report, June 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    The Ohio Department of Transportation's (ODOT) piezo weigh-in-motion (WIM) equipment must be tested for initial working operation and to insure continued correct operation. Currently, the only available method to verify the vehicle classification par...

  11. Portable bench tester for piezo weigh-in-motion equipment : executive summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    The Ohio Department of Transportation's (ODOT) piezo weigh-in-motion (WIM) equipment must be tested for initial working operation and to insure continued correct operation. Currently, the only available method to verify the vehicle classification par...

  12. Wind-powered electrical systems : highway rest areas, weigh stations, and team section buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    This project considered the use of wind for providing electrical power at Illinois Department of Transportation : (IDOT) highway rest areas, weigh stations, and team section buildings. The goal of the project was to determine : the extent to which wi...

  13. 9 CFR 201.49 - Requirements regarding scale tickets evidencing weighing of livestock, live poultry, and feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... evidencing weighing of livestock, live poultry, and feed. 201.49 Section 201.49 Animals and Animal Products... regarding scale tickets evidencing weighing of livestock, live poultry, and feed. (a) Livestock. When... the weigher. (b) Poultry. When live poultry is weighed for the purpose of purchase, sale, acquisition...

  14. Furniture for a Technology-Infused School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fickes, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how one New Mexico school district weighed the choices in selecting and purchasing computer furniture for its classrooms. The purchasing process is described, as well as the types of, and reasons for, the furniture bought. (GR)

  15. Statistical analysis of nuclear material weighing systems at the Oak Ridge - Y-12 plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, A.H.

    1980-04-01

    The variation in weight measurements on the electronic scales purchased for the Dynamic Special Nuclear Materials Control and Accountability System (DYMCAS) has been characterized and estimated to be more than is acceptable when using the current weighing methods. New weighing procedures have been developed which substantially reduce this variation and bring the weight errors within the Y-12 Plant Nuclear Materials Control and Accountability Department's desired +- 2-g accuracy

  16. Clinician’s Attitudes to the Introduction of Routine Weighing in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Hasted

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Excessive gestational weight gain poses significant short- and long-term health risks to both mother and baby. Professional bodies and health services increasingly recommend greater attention be paid to weight gain in pregnancy. A large Australian tertiary maternity hospital plans to facilitate the (reintroduction of routine weighing of all women at every antenatal visit. Objective. To identify clinicians’ perspectives of barriers and enablers to routinely weighing pregnant women and variations in current practice, knowledge, and attitudes between different staff groups. Method. Forty-four maternity staff from three professional groups were interviewed in four focus groups. Staff included midwives; medical staff; and dietitians. Transcripts underwent qualitative content analysis to identify and examine barriers and enablers to the routine weighing of women throughout pregnancy. Results. While most staff supported routine weighing, various concerns were raised. Issues included access to resources and staff; the ability to provide appropriate counselling and evidence-based interventions; and the impact of weighing on patients and the therapeutic relationship. Conclusion. Many clinicians supported the practice of routine weighing in pregnancy, but barriers were also identified. Implementation strategies will be tailored to the discrete professional groups and will address identified gaps in knowledge, resources, and clinician skills and confidence.

  17. Fuel consumption reduction in urban buses by using power split transmissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macor, Alarico; Rossetti, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Fuel consumption is highly influenced by transmission layout and control. • Continuous Variable Transmission allows control of the working point of the engine. • Hydromechanical CVT was numerically tested and compared with usual mechanical solutions. • CVT solution proved to reduce fuel consumption, improving the I.C.E. mean efficiency. • Results obtained from standard emission test cycles: New York and Manhattan Buses. - Abstract: The reduction of fuel consumption of urban vehicles is one of the challenges of the society today. Many promising technologies such as hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cells are the focus of a lot of research and investments, but high costs prevent their development on a large scale, especially in heavy duty vehicles. Simpler solutions, such as continuously variable transmissions, are then interesting alternatives: they preserve some of the advantages of hybrid solutions significantly reducing the overall cost of the system. Since these technologies allow the decoupling of the engine’s velocity from that of the wheels, optimised management of the engine becomes feasible, leading to lower fuel consumption than that of traditional solutions. This work compares the hydromechanical transmission with a traditional power shift in an application where efficiency and comfort are required: a city bus. The performance of a vehicle with a dual stage hydromechanical transmission has been investigated by means of a model implemented in the AMESim environment. A second model of a vehicle with a power shift transmission has been taken as reference solution. During the simulation of two standard test cycles, the first vehicle showed the lower fuel consumption, due to its better engine management, and to the operation of the torque converter during starts, which lowers the efficiency of the reference vehicle

  18. Evaluating real-world CO2 and NOX emissions for public transit buses using a remote wireless on-board diagnostic (OBD) approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liuhanzi; Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Chen, Qizheng; Niu, Tianlin; Huang, Xu; Zhang, Shida; Zhang, Liangjun; Zhou, Yu; Hao, Jiming

    2016-11-01

    The challenge to mitigate real-world emissions from vehicles calls for powerful in-use compliance supervision. The remote on-board diagnostic (OBD) approach, with wireless data communications, is one of the promising next-generation monitoring methods. We collected second-by-second profiles of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and nitrogen oxides (NO X ) emissions, driving conditions and engine performance for three conventional diesel and three hybrid diesel buses participating in a remote OBD pilot program in Nanjing, China. Our results showed that the average CO 2 emissions for conventional diesel and hybrid diesel buses were 816 ± 83 g km -1 and 627 ± 54 g km -1 , respectively, under a typical driving pattern. An operating mode binning analysis indicated that CO 2 emissions reduction by series-parallel hybrid technology was largely because of the significant benefits of the technology under the modes of low speed and low power demand. However, significantly higher CO 2 emissions were observed for conventional diesel buses during rush hours, higher than 1200 g km -1 . The OBD data suggested no improvement in NO X emission reduction for hybrid buses compared with conventional buses; both were approximately 12 g km -1 because of poor performance of the selective catalyst reduction (SCR) systems in the real world. Speed-dependent functions for real-world CO 2 and NO X emissions were also constructed. The CO 2 emissions of hybrid buses were much less sensitive to the average speed than conventional buses. If the average speed decreased from 20 km h -1 to 10 km h -1 , the estimated CO 2 emission factor for conventional buses would be increased by 34%. Such a change in speed would increase NO X emissions for conventional and hybrid buses by 38% and 56%, respectively. This paper demonstrates the useful features of the remote OBD system and can inform policy makers how to take advantage of these features in monitoring in-use vehicles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  19. Evidence Based Weighing Policy during the First Week to Prevent Neonatal Hypernatremic Dehydration while Breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, Suzanne; Unal, Sevim; van Wouwe, Jacobus P; van Dommelen, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal hypernatremic dehydration is prevented by daily neonatal weight monitoring. We aim to provide evidence-based support of this universally promoted weighing policy and to establish the most crucial days of weighing. Weight measurements of 2,359 healthy newborns and of 271 newborns with clinical hypernatremic dehydration were used within the first seven days of life to simulate various weighting policies to prevent hypernatremic dehydration; its sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) of these policies were calculated. Various referral criteria were also evaluated. A policy of daily weighing with a cut-off value of -2.5 Standard Deviation Score (SDS) on the growth chart for weight loss, had a 97.6% sensitivity, 97.6% specificity and a PPV of 2.80%. Weighing at birth and only at days two, four and seven with the same -2.5 SDS cut-off, resulted in 97.3% sensitivity, 98.5% specificity and a PPV of 4.43%. A weighing policy with measurements restricted to birth and day two, four and seven applying the -2.5 SDS cut-off seems an optimal policy to detect hypernatremic dehydration. Therefore we recommend to preferably weigh newborns at least on day two (i.e. ~48h), four and seven, and refer them to clinical pediatric care if their weight loss increases below -2.5 SDS. We also suggest lactation support for the mother, full clinical assessment of the infant and weighing again the following day in all newborns reaching a weight loss below -2.0 SDS.

  20. WEIGHING THE OPTIONS: A LEGAL APPROACH TO CHILDHOOD OBESITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Solomon

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Growing childhood obesity rates are increasingly putting the lives of Canadian children at risk. Using schools as the foundation for tackling childhood obesity is significantly more achievable than attempting to place blanket measures that intrude into Canadian homes. Measures should be taken to address childhood obesity by promoting healthy eating, education and exercise. Yet it is important to recognise obesity both as a medical and as a pyschosocial problem in order to construct these preventative policies: by doing so we can begin to understand the potential challenges such as stigma along with negative exogenous influences in the home and as consumers.   Les taux croissants d’obésité juvénile montrent que les enfants canadiens sont de plus en plus exposés à un risque pour leur santé. Il est beaucoup plus réaliste de passer par les écoles pour s’attaquer au problème de l’obésité juvénile que de tenter de mettre en œuvre des mesures générales qui constituent une ingérence dans les foyers canadiens. Il faut prendre des mesures pour lutter contre l’obésité juvénile en encourageant les saines habitudes alimentaires, l’éducation et l’exercice. Il importe aussi de reconnaître l’obésité comme un problème d’ordre tant médical que psychosocial avant d’élaborer ces politiques préventives : de cette façon, nous pourrons commencer à comprendre les difficultés possibles telles que l’ostracisme et les influences exogènes négatives dans les foyers et comme consommateurs.

  1. Environmental, health, and safety issues of fuel cells in transportation. Volume 1: Phosphoric acid fuel-cell buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ring, S

    1994-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) chartered the Phosphoric Acid Fuel-Cell (PAFC) Bus Program to demonstrate the feasibility of fuel cells in heavy-duty transportation systems. As part of this program, PAFC- powered buses are being built to meet transit industry design and performance standards. Test-bed bus-1 (TBB-1) was designed in 1993 and integrated in March 1994. TBB-2 and TBB-3 are under construction and should be integrated in early 1995. In 1987 Phase I of the program began with the development and testing of two conceptual system designs- liquid- and air-cooled systems. The liquid-cooled PAFC system was chosen to continue, through a competitive award, into Phase H, beginning in 1991. Three hybrid buses, which combine fuel-cell and battery technologies, were designed during Phase III. After completing Phase II, DOE plans a comprehensive performance testing program (Phase HI) to verify that the buses meet stringent transit industry requirements. The Phase III study will evaluate the PAFC bus and compare it to a conventional diesel bus. This NREL study assesses the environmental, health, and safety (EH&S) issues that may affect the commercialization of the PAFC bus. Because safety is a critical factor for consumer acceptance of new transportation-based technologies the study focuses on these issues. The study examines health and safety together because they are integrally related. In addition, this report briefly discusses two environmental issues that are of concern to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The first issue involves a surge battery used by the PAFC bus that contains hazardous constituents. The second issue concerns the regulated air emissions produced during operation of the PAFC bus.

  2. Massachusetts Fuel Cell Bus Project: Demonstrating a Total Transit Solution for Fuel Cell Electric Buses in Boston

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-22

    The Federal Transit Administration's National Fuel Cell Bus Program focuses on developing commercially viable fuel cell bus technologies. Nuvera is leading the Massachusetts Fuel Cell Bus project to demonstrate a complete transit solution for fuel cell electric buses that includes one bus and an on-site hydrogen generation station for the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA). A team consisting of ElDorado National, BAE Systems, and Ballard Power Systems built the fuel cell electric bus, and Nuvera is providing its PowerTap on-site hydrogen generator to provide fuel for the bus.

  3. Itinerant vending of medicines inside buses in Nigeria: vending strategies, dominant themes and medicine-related information provided.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuff, Kazeem B; Wassi Sanni, Abd'

    2011-07-01

    To determine vending strategies and marketing themes employed by itinerant bus vendors, and assess the accuracy and completeness of information provided on medicines being sold in an urban setting in Nigeria. Cross-sectional study and content analysis of itinerant vending of medicines inside buses recorded with a mobile telephone on purposively selected routes in a mega city with an estimated 18 million residents in southwestern Nigeria over a 2-month period. Two coders independently assessed 192 vending episodes by 56 vendors for 147 OTC and prescription medicines. Inter-rater reliability (Gwet AC1 =0.924; p<0.0001). Fourteen thousands and four hundred potential consumers encountered 192 recorded episodes of vending of medicines inside 192 buses within the study periods. Forty-four (78•5%) of the 56 vendors were females in the 30-45 years age bracket, were mostly (75%) attired in the local 'Iro and Buba' Ankara fabric and showed laminated identity cards (97.5%) issued by the local association for 'marketers' of medicines inside buses, markets, and motor parks. Of the 14400 consumers encountered inside buses during the study period, between 6.7% and 48.3% purchased the medicines promoted. Prayers against death from road traffic accidents and diseases of physical and / or meta-physical origins were the most frequently used (76•8%) ice-breaking opening statement / strategy to gain consumers' attention. Hematinics, multi-vitamins, simple analgesic, NSAIDs and corticosteroids were the most frequently vended medicines. Consumers' enquiries were related to dosing for children (51.8%), elderly (28.6%), and pregnancy (52.7%); and contra-indications during pregnancy (8.9%). Factual medicines information such as dose, frequency, potential side effects and contra-indications were not provided in majority of vending episodes. Itinerant vending of medicines and the use of misleading and melodramatic themes to secure high consumer patronage appear considerable in Nigeria

  4. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Quasi-In-Motion Wireless Power Transfer for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Transit Buses from Fleet Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lijuan; Gonder, Jeff; Brooker, Aaron; Meintz, Andrew; Konan, Arnaud; Markel, Tony

    2016-05-16

    This study evaluated the costs and benefits associated with the use of stationary-wireless-power-transfer-enabled plug-in hybrid electric buses and determined the cost effectiveness relative to conventional buses and hybrid electric buses. A factorial design was performed over a number of different battery sizes, charging power levels, and f bus stop charging stations. The net present costs were calculated for each vehicle design and provided the basis for design evaluation. In all cases, given the assumed economic conditions, the conventional bus achieved the lowest net present cost while the optimal plug-in hybrid electric bus scenario beat out the hybrid electric comparison scenario. The parameter sensitivity was also investigated under favorable and unfavorable market penetration assumptions.

  5. Efficiency improvement of transport service by trolley buses based on the levels of their power demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Aulin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Use efficiency improvement of trolley buses in passenger traffic based on power levels of electric energy input and terms adjustment of their maintenance. Methodology. In order to achieve this goal conformance of electric energy input by trolleybus to the transported amount of passengers taking into account characteristics of the route is offered to establish. The major indicators of the trolleybus operation are: speed of a race on lines, number of tractive motor firing, voltage and amperage in the network that were taken with accountants from a dashboard. Research results were tabulated and recorded with DVR. Along with the study of power consumption of electric energy input by a trolleybus passenger count was carried out too. Findings. The directly proportional dependence between the level of energy consumption by a trolleybus and the number of passengers for constant performance route was determined. Originality. As the criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of the trolleybus operation on the route is proposed to use the ratio between electricity consumption and number of passengers for these characteristics of the route. This is confirmed experimentally. The obtained formulas give the possibility to balance the force work and consequently the volume of energy consumption during the trolleybus movement on the rise and the descent. Practical value. The proposed criterion can be used to adjust the terms of maintenance on the individual program, that means individual maintenance (IM. Type of work performed at the IM should be determined on the basis of diagnostic data of the vehicle (V. The principles of IM were formulated: 1 the primary task is planned and preventative strategy to identify and eliminate troubleshooting and technical actions; 2 operational control of the vehicle (V technical condition on the basis of prediction of its state using the proposed criteria, that takes into account the dependence of power consumption to

  6. Driving-behavior-aware stochastic model predictive control for plug-in hybrid electric buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Liang; You, Sixiong; Yang, Chao; Yan, Bingjie; Song, Jian; Chen, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The novel approximated global optimal energy management strategy has been proposed for hybrid powertrains. • Eight typical driving behaviors have been classified with K-means to deal with the multiplicative traffic conditions. • The stochastic driver models of different driving behaviors were established based on the Markov chains. • ECMS was used to modify the SMPC-based energy management strategy to improve its fuel economy. • The approximated global optimal energy management strategy for plug-in hybrid electric buses has been verified and analyzed. - Abstract: Driving cycles of a city bus is statistically characterized by some repetitive features, which makes the predictive energy management strategy very desirable to obtain approximate optimal fuel economy of a plug-in hybrid electric bus. But dealing with the complicated traffic conditions and finding an approximated global optimal strategy which is applicable to the plug-in hybrid electric bus still remains a challenging technique. To solve this problem, a novel driving-behavior-aware modified stochastic model predictive control method is proposed for the plug-in hybrid electric bus. Firstly, the K-means is employed to classify driving behaviors, and the driver models based on Markov chains is obtained under different kinds of driving behaviors. While the obtained driver behaviors are regarded as stochastic disturbance inputs, the local minimum fuel consumption might be obtained with a traditional stochastic model predictive control at each step, taking tracking the reference battery state of charge trajectory into consideration in the finite predictive horizons. However, this technique is still accompanied by some working points with reduced/worsened fuel economy. Thus, the stochastic model predictive control is modified with the equivalent consumption minimization strategy to eliminate these undesirable working points. The results in real-world city bus routines show that the

  7. Design of a Capacitive Flexible Weighing Sensor for Vehicle WIM System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Li

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the Highway Transportation and Business Trade, vehicle weigh-in-motion (WIM technology has become a key technology and trend of measuring traffic loads. In this paper, a novel capacitive flexible weighing sensor which is light weight, smaller volume and easy to carry was applied in the vehicle WIM system. The dynamic behavior of the sensor is modeled using the Maxwell-Kelvin model because the materials of the sensor are rubbers which belong to viscoelasticity. A signal processing method based on the model is presented to overcome effects of rubber mechanical properties on the dynamic weight signal. The results showed that the measurement error is less than ���±10%. All the theoretic analysis and numerical results demonstrated that appliance of this system to weigh in motion is feasible and convenient for traffic inspection.

  8. Potential Utilization of Automatic Cows Weighing for Evaluation of Health and Nutritional Condition of Herd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Podlahová

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Weight of cows affects a large number of factors. Regular weighing and data processing can detect differences that may indicate disorders requiring nursing interventions, e.g. nutritional deficiencies, incorrect fetal development and health problems. The current weighing systems operate as stationary - the animal is fixed, identified and weighed. However, the procedure is time consuming and operation, and that is way this system is used minimally. That implies the need of complete automation of all activities associated with the weighing, which enables introduction of pass – through weight. The aim of this thesis was to develop a methodology for evaluating health and nutritional status of the herd based on data from an automated system for weighing a live weight of dairy cows. There was used in the weighing unit for milking robots Astronaut A3 (Lely company to obtain weight data of individual cows. There were selected dairy cows with the longest period of lactation or already drying off, and especially dairy cows with various health problems for study. Limiting values of weight changes were established after assembling a general equation of mass curve. In the sphere of the diseases there was manifested only ketosis in the weight curve with a loss of 10.2 kg / day (38% weight loss. Additionally, the completion of growth during the first 2 periodes of lactations and weight gain due to advanced pregnancy were confirmed. The maximum daily weight difference recorded in healthy animals was 7 %, equivalent to 40 - 45 kg. The results of the study will be applied for compiling algorithm that will be implemented in the complete management system of cattle breeding, monitoring the dairy cows every day and highlight possible deviations exceeding of physiological changes in weight.

  9. Statistical analysis of vehicle loads measured with three different vehicle weighing devices

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mkhize, ZQP

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available MEASURED WITH THREE DIFFERENT VEHICLE WEIGHING DEVICES Z Q P MKHIZE and M DE BEER CSIR Transportek, PO Box 395, Pretoria, 0001 ABSTRACT This study introduces a new scale for weighing individual tyres of slow moving vehicles. The new technology... that vehicles exert on pavements plays a vital part in the deterioration of the structural and functional capacity of the road. It also influences the safety of the vehicles, especially when vehicles are operated under overloaded and/or inappropriately loaded...

  10. The Bohr--Einstein ''weighing-of-energy'' debate and the principle of equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    The Bohr--Einstein debate over the ''weighing of energy'' and the validity of the time--energy uncertainty relation is reexamined in the context of gravitation theories that do not respect the equivalence principle. Bohr's use of the equivalence principle is shown to be sufficient, but not necessary, to establish the validity of this uncertainty relation in Einstein's ''weighing-of-energy'' gedanken experiment. The uncertainty relation is shown to hold in any energy-conserving theory of gravity, and so a failure of the equivalence principle does not engender a failure of quantum mechanics. The relationship between the gravitational redshift and the equivalence principle is reviewed

  11. FFTF [Fast Flux Test Facility]/IEM [Interim Examination and Maintenance] Cell Fuel Pin Weighing System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, P.W.

    1987-09-01

    A Fuel Pin Weighing Machine has been developed for use in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) Interim Examination and Maintenance (IEM) Cell to assist in identifying an individual breached fuel pin from its fuel assembly pin bundle. A weighing machine, originally purchased for use in the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) at Hanford, was used as the basis for the IEM Cell system. Design modifications to the original equipment were centered around: 1) adapting the FMEF machine for use in the IEM Cell and 2) correcting operational deficiencies discovered during functional testing in the IEM Cell Mockup

  12. Technical evaluation report on the 120 Vac vital instrument buses and inverter Technical Specifications Issue B71

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St Leger-Barter, G.; White, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    The operation of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) with one of its 120 Vac vital buses energized in an off-normal mode was analyzed. A Probabilistic Risk Assessment was made to determine the increment of risk by energizing a vital bus from an off-site source directly vs energizing it from its normal, uninterruptible source (i.e., a battery/inverter arrangement). The calculations were made based on uninterruptible source energized vital buses as the normal mode. The analysis indicated that a reduction in the incremental risk increase (caused by plant operation with a vital bus being energized in an off-normal mode) can be accomplished by limiting the time permitted in that condition. Currently, the time that a vital bus can be energized in the off-normal mode is not universally time-limited by plant Technical Specifications. Several alternatives for the reduction in incremental risk were examined and their value/impacts were derived. These data indicate that a recommendation be made for a Technical Specification time limitation of 72 hours per year for off-normal energizing a vital bus during operation of a PWR

  13. Evaluation of the use of bioethanol fuelled buses based on ambient air pollution screening and on-road measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Aparicio, S; Hak, C

    2013-05-01

    Mitigation measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions may have adverse effects on urban air quality and human exposure to harmful pollutants. The use of bioethanol fuelled vehicles is increasing worldwide and may create new undesired pollution effects. Different measurement campaigns were performed in a pilot study to contribute to the understanding of the consequences associated with the use of bioethanol blended fuel (E95) on a series of pollutants. Ambient screening measurements of NO2, O3, acetic acid, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were performed at different urban locations, exposed and not exposed to the circulation of bioethanol buses. In addition, volatile organic compounds were measured at the exhaust pipe of a bioethanol fuelled bus, both under idling conditions (carbonyls; DNPH cartridge) and under on-road driving conditions applying online monitoring (PTR-TOF). Higher ambient acetaldehyde values were measured at locations exposed to bioethanol fuelled buses than at locations not exposed, and very high acetaldehyde and acetic acid values were measured from the exhaust pipe during driving conditions (acetaldehyde>150 ppm; acetic acid ≈ 20-30 ppm) and modelled at close distance to the bioethanol bus. Human exposure to high concentration of acetaldehyde is expected, and it may involve a significantly increased chance in developing cancer. The high concentration of acetic acid will involve odour annoyance and significant material degradation or corrosion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Load demand profile for a large charging station of a fleet of all-electric plug-in buses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario A. Rios

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a general procedure to compute the load demand profile from a parking lot where a fleet of buses with electric propulsion mechanisms are charged. Such procedure is divided in three different stages, the first one models the daily energy utilisation of the batteries based on Monte Carlo simulations and route characteristics. The second one models the process in the charging station based on discrete event simulation of queues of buses served by a lot of available chargers. The third step computes the final demand profile in the parking lot because of the charging process based on the power consumption of batteries’ chargers and the utilisation of the available charges. The proposed procedure allows the computation of the number of required batteries’ chargers to be installed in a charging station placed at a parking lot in order to satisfy and ensure the operation of the fleet, the computation of the power demand profile and the peak load and the computation of the general characteristics of electrical infrastructure to supply the power to the station.

  15. The effects of urban driving conditions on the operating characteristics of conventional and hybrid electric city buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soylu, Seref

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Operating characteristics of conventional and hybrid electric buses were examined. • Recovery of braking energy offers an excellent opportunity to improve fuel economy. • Speed and altitude profiles of routes have dramatic impacts on the energy recovery. • Capacity of the auxiliary power source has a dramatic impact on the energy recovery. • Round-trip efficiency of the regenerative braking system was calculated to be 27%. - Abstract: The basic operating characteristics of a conventional bus (CB) and a hybrid electric bus (HEB) were examined under urban driving conditions. To perform this examination, real-time operating data from the buses were collected on the Campus-Return route of the Sakarya Municipality. The main characteristics examined were the traction, braking, engine, engine generator unit (EGU), motor/generator (M/G), and ultracapacitor (Ucap) energies and efficiencies of the buses. The route elevation profile and the frequency of stop-and-go operations of the buses were found to have dramatic impacts on the braking and traction energies of the buses. The declining profile of the Campus-Return route provided an excellent opportunity for energy recovery by the regenerative braking system of the HEB. However, owing to the limits on the capacities and efficiencies of the hybrid drive train components and the Ucap, the bus braking energies were not recovered completely. Braking energies as high as 2.2 kW h per micro-trip were observed, but less than 1 kW h of braking energy per micro-trip was converted to electricity by the M/G; the rest of the braking energy was wasted in frictional braking. The maximum energy recovered and stored in the Ucap per micro-trip was 0.5 kW h, but the amount of energy recovered and stored per micro-trip was typically less than 0.2 kW h for the entire route. The cumulative braking energy recovered and stored in the Ucap for the Campus-Return route was 52% of the available brake energy, which was 13.02 kW h

  16. A Practical Probabilistic Graphical Modeling Tool for Weighing Ecological Risk-Based Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Past weight-of-evidence frameworks for adverse ecological effects have provided soft-scoring procedures for judgments based on the quality and measured attributes of evidence. Here, we provide a flexible probabilistic structure for weighing and integrating lines of evidence for e...

  17. Testing and development of transfer functions for weighing precipitation gauges in WMO-SPICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kochendorfer

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Weighing precipitation gauges are used widely for the measurement of all forms of precipitation, and are typically more accurate than tipping-bucket precipitation gauges. This is especially true for the measurement of solid precipitation; however, weighing precipitation gauge measurements must still be adjusted for undercatch in snowy, windy conditions. In WMO-SPICE (World Meteorological Organization Solid Precipitation InterComparison Experiment, different types of weighing precipitation gauges and shields were compared, and adjustments were determined for the undercatch of solid precipitation caused by wind. For the various combinations of gauges and shields, adjustments using both new and previously existing transfer functions were evaluated. For most of the gauge and shield combinations, previously derived transfer functions were found to perform as well as those more recently derived. This indicates that wind shield type (or lack thereof is more important in determining the magnitude of wind-induced undercatch than the type of weighing precipitation gauge. It also demonstrates the potential for widespread use of the previously developed transfer functions. Another overarching result was that, in general, the more effective shields, which were associated with smaller unadjusted errors, also produced more accurate measurements after adjustment. This indicates that although transfer functions can effectively reduce measurement biases, effective wind shielding is still required for the most accurate measurement of solid precipitation.

  18. A Dual-Range Strain Gage Weighing Transducer Employing Automatic Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodger A. Arola

    1968-01-01

    Describes a dual-range strain gage transducer which has proven to be an excellent weight-sensing device for weighing trees and tree-length logs; discusses basic principals of the design and operation; and shows that a single transducer having two sensitivity ranges with automatic internal switching can sense weight with good repeatability and that one calibration curve...

  19. "Sorpvej" for Sorption Curves - A Windows Program for collecting Weighing Data and determining Equilibrium State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strømdahl, Kenneth; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    1998-01-01

    The Windows program SORPVEJ collects weighing data from the balance and plots points on the sorption curve. The features of the program are: All data are transmitted automatically from the balance to the computer. Each point on the curve (upper right inset)is an original measurement and every time...

  20. 76 FR 45397 - Export Inspection and Weighing Waiver for High Quality Specialty Grain Transported in Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ...-AB18 Export Inspection and Weighing Waiver for High Quality Specialty Grain Transported in Containers... permanent a waiver due to expire on July 31, 2012, for high quality specialty grain exported in containers... of high quality specialty grain exported in containers are small entities that up until recently...

  1. 78 FR 2627 - Fees for Official Inspection and Official Weighing Services Under the United States Grain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... authority to charge and collect reasonable fees to cover the cost of performing official services. These fees also cover the costs associated with managing the program. After a financial review of GIPSA's Fees for Official Inspection and Weighing Services, including a comparison of the costs and revenues...

  2. 78 FR 22151 - Fees for Official Inspection and Official Weighing Services Under the United States Grain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... Inspection Service (FGIS) with the authority to charge and collect reasonable fees to cover the cost of performing official services. The fees also cover the costs associated with managing the program. After a... associated administrative and supervisory costs. The fees for official inspection and weighing services were...

  3. Testing and development of transfer functions for weighing precipitation gauges in WMO-SPICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochendorfer, John; Nitu, Rodica; Wolff, Mareile; Mekis, Eva; Rasmussen, Roy; Baker, Bruce; Earle, Michael E.; Reverdin, Audrey; Wong, Kai; Smith, Craig D.; Yang, Daqing; Roulet, Yves-Alain; Meyers, Tilden; Buisan, Samuel; Isaksen, Ketil; Brækkan, Ragnar; Landolt, Scott; Jachcik, Al

    2018-02-01

    Weighing precipitation gauges are used widely for the measurement of all forms of precipitation, and are typically more accurate than tipping-bucket precipitation gauges. This is especially true for the measurement of solid precipitation; however, weighing precipitation gauge measurements must still be adjusted for undercatch in snowy, windy conditions. In WMO-SPICE (World Meteorological Organization Solid Precipitation InterComparison Experiment), different types of weighing precipitation gauges and shields were compared, and adjustments were determined for the undercatch of solid precipitation caused by wind. For the various combinations of gauges and shields, adjustments using both new and previously existing transfer functions were evaluated. For most of the gauge and shield combinations, previously derived transfer functions were found to perform as well as those more recently derived. This indicates that wind shield type (or lack thereof) is more important in determining the magnitude of wind-induced undercatch than the type of weighing precipitation gauge. It also demonstrates the potential for widespread use of the previously developed transfer functions. Another overarching result was that, in general, the more effective shields, which were associated with smaller unadjusted errors, also produced more accurate measurements after adjustment. This indicates that although transfer functions can effectively reduce measurement biases, effective wind shielding is still required for the most accurate measurement of solid precipitation.

  4. Chronic hemodialysis in children weighing less than 10 kg.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quinlan, Catherine

    2013-05-01

    Hemodialysis (HD) in infants is usually used when peritoneal dialysis (PD) has failed. We describe our experience with HD, outlining the morbidity, complications, and outcomes for infants weighing less than 10 kg managed with HD for more than 6 months over a 10-year period.

  5. 75 FR 76254 - Official Performance and Procedural Requirements for Grain Weighing Equipment and Related Grain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration 7 CFR Part 802 [Docket GIPSA-2010-FGIS-0012] RIN 0580-AB19 Official Performance and Procedural Requirements for Grain Weighing Equipment and Related Grain Handling Systems AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards...

  6. 7 CFR 800.17 - Special inspection and weighing requirements for sacked export grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... sacked export grain. 800.17 Section 800.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE... Requirements § 800.17 Special inspection and weighing requirements for sacked export grain. (a) General...

  7. Greenhouse gas credits trade versus biomass trade – weighing (Workshop Summary)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junginger, H.M.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Robertson, K.; Woes-Gallasch, S.; Schlamadinger, B.

    2006-01-01

    A workshop entitled ‘Greenhouse gas credits trade versus biomass trade – weighing the benefits’, jointly organised by IEA Bioenergy Tasks 38 (GHG Balances of Biomass and Bioenergy Systems) and 40 (Sustainable International Bioenergy Trade: Securing Supply and Demand), and ENOVA, took place in

  8. 21 CFR 864.9195 - Blood mixing devices and blood weighing devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood mixing devices and blood weighing devices. 864.9195 Section 864.9195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That...

  9. 40 CFR 1065.595 - PM sample post-conditioning and total weighing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... minutes before weighing. Note that 400 µg on sample media (e.g., filters) is an approximate net mass of 0... the procedures in § 1065.590(f) through (i) to determine post-test mass of the sample media (e.g., filters). (g) Subtract each buoyancy-corrected tare mass of the sample medium (e.g., filter) from its...

  10. 40 CFR 1065.390 - PM balance verifications and weighing process verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Successive mass determinations of each reference PM sample media (e.g., filter) must return the same value... individual test media (e.g., filter) mass readings occurring between the successive reference media (e.g., filter) mass determinations. You may reweigh these media (e.g., filter) in another weighing session. If...

  11. 7 CFR 27.10 - Supervision of cotton inspection, weighing, sampling; and other duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supervision of cotton inspection, weighing, sampling; and other duties. 27.10 Section 27.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER...

  12. Weighing waiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel M. Duncan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available People have been shown to delay decision making to wait for missing noninstrumental attribute information --- information that would not have altered their decision if known at the outset --- with this delay originally attributed to uncertainty obscuring one's true preference (Bastardi and Shafir, 1998. To test this account, relative to an alternative that delay arises from low confidence in one's preference (Tykocinski and Ruffle, 2003, we manipulated information certainty and the magnitude of a penalty for delay, the latter intended to reduce the influence of easily resolved sources of delay and to magnify any influence of uncertainty. Contrary to expectations, the results were largely inconsistent with the uncertainty account in that, under a low penalty, delay did not depend on information certainty; and, under a high penalty, delay rate was actually much lower when information was uncertain. To explain the latter, we propose that people use a strategy for resolving choice under uncertainty that does not require establishing a confident preference for each value of the missing information. These findings are related to others in which choice difficulty has been found to be a major source of delay.

  13. Overestimation of infant and toddler energy intake by 24-h recall compared with weighed food records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jennifer O; Butte, Nancy F; Mendoza, Patricia M; Wilson, Theresa A; Hodges, Eric A; Reidy, Kathleen C; Deming, Denise

    2008-08-01

    Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls have been used in large surveys of infant and toddler energy intake, but the accuracy of the method for young children is not well documented. We aimed to determine the accuracy of infant and toddler energy intakes by a single, telephone-administered, multiple-pass 24-h recall as compared with 3-d weighed food records. A within-subjects design was used in which a 24-h recall and 3-d weighed food records were completed within 2 wk by 157 mothers (56 non-Hispanic white, 51 non-Hispanic black, and 50 Hispanic) of 7-11-mo-old infants or 12-24-mo-old toddlers. Child and caregiver anthropometrics, child eating patterns, and caregiver demographics and social desirability were evaluated as correlates of reporting bias. Intakes based on 3-d weighed food records were within 5% of estimated energy requirements. Compared with the 3-d weighed food records, the 24-h recall overestimated energy intake by 13% among infants (740 +/- 154 and 833 +/- 255 kcal, respectively) and by 29% among toddlers (885 +/- 197 and 1140 +/- 299 kcal, respectively). Eating patterns (ie, frequency and location) did not differ appreciably between methods. Macronutrient and micronutrient intakes were higher by 24-h recall than by 3-d weighed food record. Dairy and grains contributed the most energy to the diet and accounted for 74% and 54% of the overestimation seen in infants and toddlers, respectively. Greater overestimation was associated with a greater number of food items reported by the caregiver and lower child weight-for-length z scores. The use of a single, telephone-administered, multiple-pass 24-h recall may significantly overestimate infant or toddler energy and nutrient intakes because of portion size estimation errors.

  14. Road Safety Data, Collection, Transfer and Analysis DaCoTa. Factsheet Traffic safety basic facts 2010 : heavy goods vehicles and buses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pace, J.-F. López de Cozar, E. Pérez-Fuster, P. Sanmartín, J. Kirk, A. Yannis, G. Evgenikos, P. Argyropoulou, E. Papantoniou, P. Broughton, J. Knowles, J. Brandstaetter, C. Candappa, N. Christoph, M. Vis, M. Haddak, M. & Moutengou, E.

    2012-01-01

    Heavy Goods Vehicles (HGVs) are defined as goods vehicles of over 3,5 tons maximum permissible gross vehicle weight. Road traffic accidents involving HGVs tend to be more severe than other accidents because of the great size and mass of these vehicles. Buses and coaches are included in this Basic

  15. An Analysis of Challenges Faced by Students Learning in Virtual and Open Distance Learning System: A Case of Bindura University of Science Education (BUSE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodo, Obediah; Makwerere, David; Parwada, Matavire; Parwada, Cosmas

    2013-01-01

    After realizing that the traditional modes of tuition in Zimbabwe's andragogy had either gone obsolete or over-crowded, BUSE ventured into a "virtualised" model of open and distance learning as a way of out-doing other competing universities. However, as the programme was rolled out, there came a myriad of challenges affecting the…

  16. Real-world emissions and fuel consumption of diesel buses and trucks in Macao: From on-road measurement to policy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaomeng; Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Li, Zhenhua; Zhou, Yu; Fu, Lixin; Hao, Jiming

    2015-11-01

    A total of 13 diesel buses and 12 diesel trucks in Macao were tested using portable emission measurement systems (PEMS) including a SEMTECH-DS for gaseous emissions and a SEMTECH-PPMD for PM2.5. The average emission rates of gaseous pollutants and CO2 are developed with the operating mode defined by the instantaneous vehicle specific power (VSP) and vehicle speed. Both distance-based and fuel mass-based emission factors for gaseous pollutants (e.g., CO, THC and NOX) are further estimated under typical driving conditions. The average distance-based NOX emission of heavy-duty buses (HDBs) is higher than 13 g km-1. Considering the unfavorable conditions for selective reductions catalyst (SCR) systems, such as low-speed driving conditions, more effective technology options (e.g., dedicated natural gas buses and electric buses) should be considered by policy makers in Macao. We identified strong effects of the vehicle size, engine displacement and driving conditions on real-world CO2 emission factors and fuel consumption for diesel vehicles. Therefore, detailed profiles regarding vehicle specifications can reduce the uncertainty in their fleet-average on-road fuel consumption. In addition, strong correlations between relative emission factors and driving conditions indicated by the average speed of generated micro-trips are identified based on a micro-trip method. For example, distance-based emission factors of HDBs will increase by 39% for CO, 29% for THC, 43% for NOX and 26% for CO2 when the average speed decreases from 30 km h-1 to 20 km h-1. The mitigation of on-road emissions from diesel buses and trucks by improving traffic conditions through effective traffic and economic management measures is therefore required. This study demonstrates the important role of PEMS in understanding vehicle emissions and mitigation strategies from science to policy perspectives.

  17. Real-world operation conditions and on-road emissions of Beijing diesel buses measured by using portable emission measurement system and electric low-pressure impactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhihua; Ge, Yunshan; Johnson, Kent C; Shah, Asad Naeem; Tan, Jianwei; Wang, Chu; Yu, Linxiao

    2011-03-15

    On-road measurement is an effective method to investigate real-world emissions generated from vehicles and estimate the difference between engine certification cycles and real-world operating conditions. This study presents the results of on-road measurements collected from urban buses which propelled by diesel engine in Beijing city. Two widely used Euro III emission level buses and two Euro IV emission level buses were chosen to perform on-road emission measurements using portable emission measurement system (PEMS) for gaseous pollutant and Electric Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI) for particulate matter (PM) number emissions. The results indicate that considerable discrepancies of engine operating conditions between real-world driving cycles and engine certification cycles have been observed. Under real-world operating conditions, carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions can easily meet their respective regulations limits, while brake specification nitrogen oxide (bsNO(x)) emissions present a significant deviation from its corresponding limit. Compared with standard limits, the real-world bsNO(x) emission of the two Euro III emission level buses approximately increased by 60% and 120% respectively, and bsNO(x) of two Euro IV buses nearly twice standard limits because Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system not active under low exhaust temperature. Particle mass were estimated via particle size distribution with the assumption that particle density and diameter is liner. The results demonstrate that nanometer size particulate matter make significant contribution to total particle number but play a minor role to total particle mass. It is suggested that specific certified cycle should be developed to regulate bus engines emissions on the test bench or use PEMS to control the bus emissions under real-world operating conditions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Simulation on the consumption-oriented evaluation of ventilation concepts for buses; Simulation zur verbrauchsorientierten Bewertung von Omnibus-Klimatisierungskonzepten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, Christian; Foersterling, Sven; Strupp, Christian; Lemke, Nicholas [TLK Thermo GmbH, Braunschweig (Germany); Sonnekalb, Michael [Konvekta AG, Schwalmstadt (Germany); Koehler, Juergen [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents different air conditioning system and climate control concepts for buses. These concepts are investigated based on a complete vehicle simulation in order to perform a close-to-reality assessment. The effects of various control strategies are examined in a comparative approach using boundary conditions which are based on on-the-road-relevant test cycles and climatic conditions. The focus of this study is the evaluation of the total energy consumption. Moreover, an analysis of air conditioning systems with conventional and natural refrigerants is presented (R-134a and R-744). Based on simulation results, a high fuel-saving concept is developed and tested in a virtual test drive, in order to present a specific method of control strategy evaluation with transient boundary and environmental conditions. (orig.)

  19. Robust Clamping Force Control of an Electro-Mechanical Brake System for Application to Commercial City Buses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangjune Eum

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a sensor-less robust force control method for improving the control performance of an electro-mechanical brake (EMB which is applicable to commercial city buses. The EMB generates the accurate clamping force commanded by a driver through an independent motor control at each wheel instead of using existing mechanical components. In general, an EMB undergoes parameter variation and a backdrivability problem. For this reason, the cascade control strategy (e.g., force-position cascade control structure is proposed and the disturbance observer is employed to enhance control robustness against model variations. Additionally, this paper proposed the clamping force estimation method for a sensor-less control, i.e., the clamping force observer (CFO. Finally, in order to confirm the performance and effectiveness of a proposed robust control method, several experiments are performed and analyzed.

  20. Evaluation of the use of bioethanol fuelled buses based on ambient air pollution screening and on-road measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Aparicio, S., E-mail: sla@nilu.no; Hak, C.

    2013-05-01

    Mitigation measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions may have adverse effects on urban air quality and human exposure to harmful pollutants. The use of bioethanol fuelled vehicles is increasing worldwide and may create new undesired pollution effects. Different measurement campaigns were performed in a pilot study to contribute to the understanding of the consequences associated with the use of bioethanol blended fuel (E95) on a series of pollutants. Ambient screening measurements of NO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, acetic acid, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were performed at different urban locations, exposed and not exposed to the circulation of bioethanol buses. In addition, volatile organic compounds were measured at the exhaust pipe of a bioethanol fuelled bus, both under idling conditions (carbonyls; DNPH cartridge) and under on-road driving conditions applying online monitoring (PTR-TOF). Higher ambient acetaldehyde values were measured at locations exposed to bioethanol fuelled buses than at locations not exposed, and very high acetaldehyde and acetic acid values were measured from the exhaust pipe during driving conditions (acetaldehyde > 150 ppm; acetic acid ≈ 20–30 ppm) and modelled at close distance to the bioethanol bus. Human exposure to high concentration of acetaldehyde is expected, and it may involve a significantly increased chance in developing cancer. The high concentration of acetic acid will involve odour annoyance and significant material degradation or corrosion. - Highlights: ► Acetaldehyde levels above 150 ppm were measured from the bioethanol bus. ► High acetic acid levels (20–30 ppm) were measured from the bioethanol bus. ► Demonstrated usefulness of PTR-MS to evaluate non-criteria pollutants ► High levels of acetaldehyde and acetic acid are estimated in the dispersion plume. ► Climate mitigation measures may have adverse impact on air quality.

  1. Evaluation of the use of bioethanol fuelled buses based on ambient air pollution screening and on-road measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Aparicio, S.; Hak, C.

    2013-01-01

    Mitigation measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions may have adverse effects on urban air quality and human exposure to harmful pollutants. The use of bioethanol fuelled vehicles is increasing worldwide and may create new undesired pollution effects. Different measurement campaigns were performed in a pilot study to contribute to the understanding of the consequences associated with the use of bioethanol blended fuel (E95) on a series of pollutants. Ambient screening measurements of NO 2 , O 3 , acetic acid, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were performed at different urban locations, exposed and not exposed to the circulation of bioethanol buses. In addition, volatile organic compounds were measured at the exhaust pipe of a bioethanol fuelled bus, both under idling conditions (carbonyls; DNPH cartridge) and under on-road driving conditions applying online monitoring (PTR-TOF). Higher ambient acetaldehyde values were measured at locations exposed to bioethanol fuelled buses than at locations not exposed, and very high acetaldehyde and acetic acid values were measured from the exhaust pipe during driving conditions (acetaldehyde > 150 ppm; acetic acid ≈ 20–30 ppm) and modelled at close distance to the bioethanol bus. Human exposure to high concentration of acetaldehyde is expected, and it may involve a significantly increased chance in developing cancer. The high concentration of acetic acid will involve odour annoyance and significant material degradation or corrosion. - Highlights: ► Acetaldehyde levels above 150 ppm were measured from the bioethanol bus. ► High acetic acid levels (20–30 ppm) were measured from the bioethanol bus. ► Demonstrated usefulness of PTR-MS to evaluate non-criteria pollutants ► High levels of acetaldehyde and acetic acid are estimated in the dispersion plume. ► Climate mitigation measures may have adverse impact on air quality

  2. Design and construction of a large weighing lysimeter in an almond orchard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorite, I. J.; Santos, C.; Testi, L.; Fereres, E.

    2012-11-01

    Effective water management is essential to ensure the sustainability of irrigated agriculture. The accurate determination of crop water requirements is the first step in this task. This paper describes the building of a one-tree weighing lysimeter (3 × 3 m and 2.15 m depth) located in an almond (Prunus dulcis cv. Guara) orchard, inside the experimental farm “Alameda del Obispo” in Córdoba, Spain, to measure orchard evapotranspiration (ETc). Following a review on lysimetry, the description of the construction of the weighing lysimeter is provided in detail, including considerations relative to system resolution and wind effects on the measurements. Finally, some preliminary results of the evaporation and transpiration of young almond trees are presented demonstrating that lysimetry in orchards provides accurate ETc values needed to determine irrigation water requirements. (Author) 72 refs.

  3. Beyond Buses, Boilers, and Books: Instructional Support Takes Center Stage for Principal Supervisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Sarosh

    2014-01-01

    Denver Public Schools, one of 14 districts that receive funding from The Wallace Foundation to improve principal effectiveness, is also one of a number of districts around the country emphasizing the development of principals' managers in the central office. The principal's job has changed over the last decade, going from a role that revolved…

  4. A Weighing Algorithm for Checking Missing Components in a Pharmaceutical Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Silvestri

    2014-11-01

    image. The goal of the present work is the development of an algorithm able to optimize the production line of a pharmaceutical firm. In particular, the proposed weighing procedure allows both checking missing components in packaging and minimizing false rejects of packages by dynamic scales. The main problem is the presence at the same time, in the same package, of different components with different variable weights. The consequence is uncertainty in recognizing the absence of one or more components.

  5. Pulmonary diseases of the infants weighing under 1500 grams at birth: clinical and radiographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ok Hwa; Park, Jeong Mi; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1990-01-01

    Since the introduction of the intensive perinatal care, the survival rate of the infants weighing less than 1500 gm at birth has improved substantially. However, pulmonary diseases remain to be the major causes of the high mortality of these low birthweight infants. In order to systematically assess an epidemiologic distribution of the pulmonary diseases in these very low weight prematures, we have analyzed the chest x-rays of 102 infants weighing less than 1500 gm. These consisted of 30 with extreme low birth weight (ELBW) weighing less than 1000 gm and 72 with very low birth weight (VLBW) weighing 1001 - 1500 gm. The survival rate of ELBW and VLBW was 10% and 49%, respectively. Seventy of 102 infants had abnormal findings in the chest x-ray. Forty-eight had idiopathic respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS), 8 immature lung, 6 Wilson-Mikity syndrome, 4 pneumonia, 2 pulmonary hemorrhage, 1 congenital heart disease, and 1 suspicious Pierre-Robin syndrome. Seven out of 48 infants with IRDS had persistent ductus arteriosus, and in only 2(30%) of 7 cases were alive. Endotracheal intubation and assisted ventilation application for the treatment of IRDS resulted in pulmonary interstitial emphysema in 4 infants and pneumothorax and / or pneumomediastinum in 4 infants. Displacement of endotracheal intubation showed lobar and / or unilateral lung atelectasis in 8 infants and a case of accidental dislodgement of intubation tube into the esophagus resulted in air esophagogram and worsened lung aeration. In spite of the development of many sophisticated methods of diagnostic radiology, the chest x-ray was still the most valuable yet simple way of evaluating the pulmonary problems in these extreme and very low birth weight prematures

  6. Probability Based Evaluation of Vehicular Bridge Load using Weigh-in-Motion Data

    OpenAIRE

    Widi Nugraha; Indra Djati Sidi

    2016-01-01

    Load and Resistance Factored Design (LRFD) method for designing bridge in Indonesia have been implemented for more than 25 years. LRFD method treating loads and strengths variables as random variables with specific safety factors for different loads and strengths variables type. The nominal loads, load factors, reduction factors, and other criteria for bridge design code can be determined to meet the reliability criteria. Statistical data of weigh-in-motion (WIM) vehicular loads measurement i...

  7. Weighing in motion and characterization of the railroad traffic with using the B-WIM technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. DE CARVALHO NETO

    Full Text Available AbstractThe knowledge on the active moving load of a bridge is crucial for the achievement of the information on the behavior of the structure, and thus foresee maintenance, repairs and better definition of the logistics of its active vehicles. This paper presents the development of the algorithms for the application of the Bridge-Weigh In Motion (B-WIM method created by Moses for the weighing of trains during motion and also for the characterization of the rail traffic, allowing the obtainment of information like passage's train velocity and number and spacing of axles, eliminating the dynamic effect. There were implemented algorithms for the determination of the data referring to the geometry of the train and its loads, which were evaluated using a theoretical example, in which it was simulated the passage of the train over a bridge and the loads of its axles were determined with one hundred percent of precision. In addition, it was made a numerical example in finite elements of a reinforced concrete viaduct from the Carajás' Railroad, in which the developed system reached great results on the characterization and weighing of the locomotive when the constitutive equation of the Brazilian Standards was substituted by the one proposed by Collins and Mitchell.

  8. A novel cell weighing method based on the minimum immobilization pressure for biological applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Qili [Robotics and Mechatronics Research Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Monash University, Clayton 3800 (Australia); Institute of Robotics and Automatic Information System, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Shirinzadeh, Bijan [Robotics and Mechatronics Research Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Monash University, Clayton 3800 (Australia); Cui, Maosheng [Biotechnology Lab of Animal Reproduction, Tianjin Animal Sciences, Tianjin 300112 (China); Sun, Mingzhu; Liu, Yaowei; Zhao, Xin, E-mail: zhaoxin@nankai.edu.cn [Institute of Robotics and Automatic Information System, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2015-07-28

    A novel weighing method for cells with spherical and other regular shapes is proposed in this paper. In this method, the relationship between the cell mass and the minimum aspiration pressure to immobilize the cell (referred to as minimum immobilization pressure) is derived for the first time according to static theory. Based on this relationship, a robotic cell weighing process is established using a traditional micro-injection system. Experimental results on porcine oocytes demonstrate that the proposed method is able to weigh cells at an average speed of 16.3 s/cell and with a success rate of more than 90%. The derived cell mass and density are in accordance with those reported in other published results. The experimental results also demonstrated that this method is able to detect less than 1% variation of the porcine oocyte mass quantitatively. It can be conducted by a pair of traditional micropipettes and a commercial pneumatic micro-injection system, and is expected to perform robotic operation on batch cells. At present, the minimum resolution of the proposed method for measuring the cell mass can be 1.25 × 10{sup −15 }kg. Above advantages make it very appropriate for quantifying the amount of the materials injected into or moved out of the cells in the biological applications, such as nuclear enucleations and embryo microinjections.

  9. Weighing Efficiency-Robustness in Supply Chain Disruption by Multi-Objective Firefly Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Shu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates various supply chain disruptions in terms of scenario planning, including node disruption and chain disruption; namely, disruptions in distribution centers and disruptions between manufacturing centers and distribution centers. Meanwhile, it also focuses on the simultaneous disruption on one node or a number of nodes, simultaneous disruption in one chain or a number of chains and the corresponding mathematical models and exemplification in relation to numerous manufacturing centers and diverse products. Robustness of the design of the supply chain network is examined by weighing efficiency against robustness during supply chain disruptions. Efficiency is represented by operating cost; robustness is indicated by the expected disruption cost and the weighing issue is calculated by the multi-objective firefly algorithm for consistency in the results. It has been shown that the total cost achieved by the optimal target function is lower than that at the most effective time of supply chains. In other words, the decrease of expected disruption cost by improving robustness in supply chains is greater than the increase of operating cost by reducing efficiency, thus leading to cost advantage. Consequently, by approximating the Pareto Front Chart of weighing between efficiency and robustness, enterprises can choose appropriate efficiency and robustness for their longer-term development.

  10. Study on the weighing system based on optical fiber Bragg grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaona; Yu, Qingxu; Li, Yefang

    2010-10-01

    The optical fiber sensor based on wavelength demodulation such as fiber Bragg grating(FBG), with merits of immunity to electromagnetic interference, low drift and high precision, has been widely used in many areas, such as structural health monitoring and smart materials, and the wavelength demodulation system was also studied widely. In the paper, a weighing system based on FBG was studied. The optical source is broadband Erbium-doped fiber ring laser with a spectral range of 1500~1600nm and optical power of 2mW; A Fabry-Perot Etalon with orientation precision of 1pm was adopted as real-time wavelength calibration for the swept laser; and multichannel high resolution simultaneous sampling card was used in the system to acquire sensing signals simultaneously, thus high-resolution and real-time calibration of sweep-wavelength can be achieved. The FBG was adhered to a cantilever beam and the Bragg wavelength was demodulated with the system. The weighing system was done after calibrated with standard weight. Experimental results show that the resolution of the weighing system is 0.5 g with a full scale of 2Kg.

  11. Heart rate detection from single-foot plantar bioimpedance measurements in a weighing scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Delia H; Casas, Oscar; Pallas-Areny, Ramon

    2010-01-01

    Electronic bathroom scales are an easy-to-use, affordable mean to measure physiological parameters in addition to body weight. They have been proposed to obtain the ballistocardiogram (BCG) and derive from it the heart rate, cardiac output and systolic blood pressure. Therefore, weighing scales may suit intermittent monitoring in e-health and patient screening. Scales intended for bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) have also been proposed to estimate the heart rate by amplifying the pulsatile impedance component superimposed on the basal impedance. However, electronic weighing scales cannot easily obtain the BCG from people that have a single leg neither are bioimpedance measurements between both feet recommended for people wearing a pacemaker or other electronic implants, neither for pregnant women. We propose a method to detect the heart rate (HR) from bioimpedance measured in a single foot while standing on an bathroom weighting scale intended for BIA. The electrodes built in the weighing scale are used to apply a 50 kHz voltage between the outer electrode pair and to measure the drop in voltage across the inner electrode pair. The agreement with the HR simultaneously obtained from the ECG is excellent. We have also compared the drop in voltage across the waist and the thorax with that obtained when measuring bioimpedance between both feet to compare the possible risk of the proposed method to that of existing BIA scales.

  12. A novel cell weighing method based on the minimum immobilization pressure for biological applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Qili; Shirinzadeh, Bijan; Cui, Maosheng; Sun, Mingzhu; Liu, Yaowei; Zhao, Xin

    2015-01-01

    A novel weighing method for cells with spherical and other regular shapes is proposed in this paper. In this method, the relationship between the cell mass and the minimum aspiration pressure to immobilize the cell (referred to as minimum immobilization pressure) is derived for the first time according to static theory. Based on this relationship, a robotic cell weighing process is established using a traditional micro-injection system. Experimental results on porcine oocytes demonstrate that the proposed method is able to weigh cells at an average speed of 16.3 s/cell and with a success rate of more than 90%. The derived cell mass and density are in accordance with those reported in other published results. The experimental results also demonstrated that this method is able to detect less than 1% variation of the porcine oocyte mass quantitatively. It can be conducted by a pair of traditional micropipettes and a commercial pneumatic micro-injection system, and is expected to perform robotic operation on batch cells. At present, the minimum resolution of the proposed method for measuring the cell mass can be 1.25 × 10 −15  kg. Above advantages make it very appropriate for quantifying the amount of the materials injected into or moved out of the cells in the biological applications, such as nuclear enucleations and embryo microinjections

  13. A laboratory evaluation of the influence of weighing gauges performance on extreme events statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colli, Matteo; Lanza, Luca

    2014-05-01

    The effects of inaccurate ground based rainfall measurements on the information derived from rain records is yet not much documented in the literature. La Barbera et al. (2002) investigated the propagation of the systematic mechanic errors of tipping bucket type rain gauges (TBR) into the most common statistics of rainfall extremes, e.g. in the assessment of the return period T (or the related non-exceedance probability) of short-duration/high intensity events. Colli et al. (2012) and Lanza et al. (2012) extended the analysis to a 22-years long precipitation data set obtained from a virtual weighing type gauge (WG). The artificial WG time series was obtained basing on real precipitation data measured at the meteo-station of the University of Genova and modelling the weighing gauge output as a linear dynamic system. This approximation was previously validated with dedicated laboratory experiments and is based on the evidence that the accuracy of WG measurements under real world/time varying rainfall conditions is mainly affected by the dynamic response of the gauge (as revealed during the last WMO Field Intercomparison of Rainfall Intensity Gauges). The investigation is now completed by analyzing actual measurements performed by two common weighing gauges, the OTT Pluvio2 load-cell gauge and the GEONOR T-200 vibrating-wire gauge, since both these instruments demonstrated very good performance under previous constant flow rate calibration efforts. A laboratory dynamic rainfall generation system has been arranged and validated in order to simulate a number of precipitation events with variable reference intensities. Such artificial events were generated basing on real world rainfall intensity (RI) records obtained from the meteo-station of the University of Genova so that the statistical structure of the time series is preserved. The influence of the WG RI measurements accuracy on the associated extreme events statistics is analyzed by comparing the original intensity

  14. How to talk (and not to talk) about school shootings

    OpenAIRE

    Scheper-Hughes, N

    2018-01-01

    © RAI 2018 In this guest editorial, the author addresses the latest school shootings at the Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School in Parkland, Florida. This event is weighed up against reports written by prominent academics, including anthropologists, during previous school shootings.

  15. Preliminary study on field buses for the control system of the high voltage of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter; Etude preliminaire d`un reseau de terrain pour le systeme de controle des hautes tensions du calorimetre hadronique d`Atlas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drevet, F.; Chadelas, R.; Montarou, G.

    1996-12-31

    We present here after a preliminary study on field buses for the control system of the high voltage of the photomultipliers of the TILECAL calorimeter. After some generalities, different commercial buses are reviewed (CAN, ARCET, WorldFIP, Profibus and LonWorks). The Profibus and LonWorks solution are more extensively studies as a possible solution for the high voltage system of the TILE hadronic calorimeter. (authors).

  16. Evaluation of city buses installed diesel particulate filter systems on fleet test; Diesel particulate filter system wo tosaishita rosen bus no soko chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudo, H [Japan Automobile Research Institute Inc., Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    An environmental air quality of suspended particulate matter is insufficient in the big city area. To reduce the particulate matter, improvement of engine and development of the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) system are carrying. The purpose of this report is to investigate a possibility of practical use of the city buses installed DPF systems. From March 1995, investigation for practical use of these DPF systems on a route buses was carried in regular service operation of the Tokyo and Yokohama Transportation Bureau. The investigation items are service situation, smoke density and preparation inspection. From the result for 2 years service operation, each DPF systems needed some failure correspondence. but these were not fatal problem on using the DPF system. Then the subject of relative to durability and reliability became clear, and the performance of a low particulate emission DPF system obtained the high value evaluation for users. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Reliability improvement of potential transformer and secondary circuit of 6 kV 1E-class buses in Qinshan nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Houjun

    2014-01-01

    There are design defects in potential transformer (PT) and secondary circuit of 6 kV 1E-class buses in Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant Nuclear Island. During the operating period, there happened several serious operational events (loss of power) caused by PT resonance. The essay analyses the defects of original design, and put forward corresponding modification measures, which have been carried out by two steps between 2009 and 2010, and after the modification the same problems have not happened again. (author)

  18. 75 FR 18134 - Function and Reliability Flight Testing for Turbine-Powered Airplanes Weighing 6,000 Pounds or Less

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... undergo F & R flight testing regardless of the airplane's systems complexity or level of automation. After... airplanes that weigh 6,000 pounds or less to be more complex and integrated than some transport category...

  19. Second Interim Report on the Installation and Evaluation of Weigh-In-Motion Utilizing Quartz-Piezo Sensor Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the sensor survivability, accuracy and reliability of quartz-piezoelectric weigh-in-motion (WIM) sensors under actual traffic conditions in Connecticut's environment. This second interim report provides a s...

  20. Waste container weighing data processing to create reliable information of household waste generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Pirjo; Kaila, Juha

    2015-05-01

    Household mixed waste container weighing data was processed by knowledge discovery and data mining techniques to create reliable information of household waste generation. The final data set included 27,865 weight measurements covering the whole year 2013 and it was selected from a database of Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority, Finland. The data set contains mixed household waste arising in 6m(3) containers and it was processed identifying missing values and inconsistently low and high values as errors. The share of missing values and errors in the data set was 0.6%. This provides evidence that the waste weighing data gives reliable information of mixed waste generation at collection point level. Characteristic of mixed household waste arising at the waste collection point level is a wide variation between pickups. The seasonal variation pattern as a result of collective similarities in behaviour of households was clearly detected by smoothed medians of waste weight time series. The evaluation of the collection time series against the defined distribution range of pickup weights on the waste collection point level shows that 65% of the pickups were from collection points with optimally dimensioned container capacity and the collection points with over- and under-dimensioned container capacities were noted in 9.5% and 3.4% of all pickups, respectively. Occasional extra waste in containers occurred in 21.2% of the pickups indicating the irregular behaviour of individual households. The results of this analysis show that processing waste weighing data using knowledge discovery and data mining techniques provides trustworthy information of household waste generation and its variations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ground Snow Measurements: Comparisons of the Hotplate, Weighing and Manual Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettlaufer, A.; Snider, J.; Campbell, L. S.; Steenburgh, W. J.; Burkhart, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Yankee Environmental Systems (YES) Hotplate was developed to avoid some of the problems associated with weighing snowfall sensors. This work compares Hotplate, weighing sensor (ETI NOAH-II) and manual measurements of liquid-equivalent depth. The main field site was at low altitude in western New York; Hotplate and ETI comparisons were also made at two forested subalpine sites in southeastern Wyoming. The manual measurement (only conducted at the New York site) was derived by weighing snow cores sampled from a snow board. The two recording gauges (Hotplate and ETI) were located within 5 m of the snow board. Hotplate-derived accumulations were corrected using a wind-speed dependent catch efficiency and the ETI orifice was heated and alter shielded. Three important findings are evident from the comparisons: 1) The Yes-derived accumulations, recorded in a user-accessible file, were compared to accumulations derived using an in-house calibration and fundamental measurements (plate power, long and shortwave radiances, wind speed, and temperature). These accumulations are highly correlated (N=24; r2=0.99), but the YES-derived values are larger by 20%. 2) The in-house Hotplate accumulations are in good agreement with ETI-based accumulations but with larger variability (N=24; r2=0.88). 3) The comparison of in-house Hotplate accumulation versus manual accumulation, expressed as mm of liquid, exhibits a fitted linear relationship Y (in-house) versus X (manual) given by Y = -0.2 (±1.4) + 0.9 (±0.1) · X (N= 20; r2=0.89). Thus, these two methods agree within statistical uncertainty.

  2. Validation of uncertainty of weighing in the preparation of radionuclide standards by Monte Carlo Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacais, F.L.; Delgado, J.U.; Loayza, V.M.

    2016-01-01

    In preparing solutions for the production of radionuclide metrology standards is necessary measuring the quantity Activity by mass. The gravimetric method by elimination is applied to perform weighing with smaller uncertainties. At this work is carried out the validation, by the Monte Carlo method, of the uncertainty calculation approach implemented by Lourenco and Bobin according to ISO GUM for the method by elimination. The results obtained by both uncertainty calculation methods were consistent indicating that were fulfilled the conditions for the application of ISO GUM in the preparation of radioactive standards. (author)

  3. Study on granulated material automatic weighing machine%颗粒状物料自动称量机研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾丽娜; 张辉; 陈文庆

    2012-01-01

    In order to solve the problems of the granulated material automatic weighing, according to the characteristics of granulated material, the granulated material automatic weighing machine based on PLC was established. A method was presented to improve the automatic weighing machine speed and accuracy effectively, that used frequency conversion motor driving synchronous belt rough charging and vibrating feeder fine dosing. The weighing experiments were evaluated on the granulated material automatic weighing machine, the several kinds of drug were tested. The experimental results show that the equipment has high weighing accuracy and weighing speed, the characteristics of the operation is stable and reliable, and the equipment can satisfy different granulated drug automatic weighing requirements.%为了解决颗粒状物料自动称量的问题,根据颗粒状物料特性,研制了一种基于PLC的颗粒状物料自动称量机,该系统采用变频电机驱动同步带进行粗加料和振动给料机精加料结合的方式,有效提高了自动称量机的速度和精度.对不同种类的颗粒状药品进行了称量试验,试验结果表明,该称量设备具有精度高、称量速度快、运行稳定可靠的特点,且可以满足不同颗粒药品的自动称量要求.

  4. Technological capability assessment of suppliers to support product development: case study on a buses and coaches manufacturer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Comerlato

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain management has become a critical issue in the global collaboration scenario. Suppliers are not expected to provide just commodities or pre-defined components, but also collaborative engineering design solutions within the product development cycle. Thus, the selection criteria for defining supply partner go beyond the production and logistic capabilities, but must also include technical and engineering competence. This, in some sense, can be considered a common scenario of big companies, but is still challenging when dealing with SME´s. This work discusses how SME´s can be included in a supply chains taking in consideration a set of parameters to assess their technical competence related to product development collaboration. A set of eight parameters has been proposed to assess the engineering team competence, physical and technological structure and further legal responsibility. For each parameter values and weights were defined also. The assessment was applied to three companies that are suppliers of a buses and coaches manufacturer from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The results show that even when dealing with objective parameters, the suppliers and costumer can have different perceptions about same issues.

  5. Consumption-efficient regulation and switching concepts for air conditioners in buses; Verbrauchseffiziente Regelungs- und Verschaltungskonzepte fuer Omnibusklimaanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, Christian; Tegethoff, Wilhelm [TLK-Thermo GmbH, Braunschweig (Germany); Koehler, Juergen [TU Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermodynamik; Sonnekalb, Michael [Konvekta AG, Schwalmstadt (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The reduction of the fuel consumption and the related reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions is one of the most important requirements in the current development of vehicles. This includes the development of fuel-efficient drive systems and the optimization of the so-called auxiliary users such as the air conditioner. The majority of the buses used today have an air conditioner in order to meet the increased demand of passengers for comfort. Since the operation of the air conditioner results in a significant increase in fuel consumption and thus in enhanced emissions of CO{sub 2}, an essential task of the development engineer is to minimize this additional consumption. In order to identify possible optimization potentials, a bus simulation model was developed which investigates not only exclusively compression refrigeration systems, but also is in communication with their relevant systems: heating circuit with engine cooling circuit, vehicle interior, on-board electrical system and vehicle longitudinal dynamics with the drive train. In the contribution under consideration, potentials of energy conservation should be identified that can be achieved due to the use of improved control and switching concepts. For this purpose, both the conventional R-744 (CO{sub 2}) bus air conditioning systems as well as alternative systems such as an ejector cycle were studied by means of a total vehicle simulation of the bus and compared.

  6. The effects of fuel characteristics and engine operating conditions on the elemental composition of emissions from heavy duty diesel buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.C.H. Lim; G.A. Ayoko; L. Morawska; Z.D. Ristovski; E.R. Jayaratne [Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia). International Laboratory for Air Quality and Health, School of Physical and Chemical Sciences

    2007-08-15

    The effects of fuel characteristics and engine operating conditions on elemental composition of emissions from twelve heavy duty diesel buses have been investigated. Two types of diesel fuels - low sulfur diesel (LSD) and ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuels with 500 ppm and 50 ppm sulfur contents respectively and 3 driving modes corresponding to 25%, 50% and 100% power were used. Elements present in the tailpipe emissions were quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) and those found in measurable quantities included Mg, Ca, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ti, Ni, Pb, Be, P, Se, Ti and Ge. Multivariate analyses using multi-criteria decision making methods (MCDM), principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) facilitated the extraction of information about the structure of the data. MCDM showed that the emissions of the elements were strongly influenced by the engine driving conditions while the PCA loadings plots showed that the emission factors of the elements were correlated with those of other pollutants such as particle number, total suspended particles, CO, CO{sub 2} and NOx. Partial least square analysis revealed that the emission factors of the elements were strongly dependent on the fuel parameters such as the fuel sulfur content, fuel density, distillation point and cetane index. Strong correlations were also observed between these pollutants and the engine power or exhaust temperature. The study provides insights into the possible role of fuel sulfur content in the emission of inorganic elements from heavy duty diesel vehicles. 39 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  7. 1986 CERN School of Computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verkerk, C.

    1987-01-01

    These proceedings contain written versions of lectures delivered at the 1986 CERN School of Computing. Two lecture series treated trends in computer architecture and architectural requirements for high-energy physics. Three other courses concentrated on object-oriented programming, on objects in Ada, and on modularization and re-usability. Expert systems, their applications, and knowledge engineering for graphics were treated by three lectures. The programme of the School covered, in addition, practical aspects of networks, buses for high-energy physics, the design of data-acquisition systems, and examples of on-line systems for particle physics experiments. Optical storage methods, software for distributed systems, symbolic formula manipulation, and solid modelling and rendering were also covered. Experience with transputers was the subject of an unscheduled presentation. (orig.)

  8. Basic theory of diameter control in Czochralski growth using the melt-weighing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, T.H.

    1986-04-01

    The unconfined crystal growth in the Czochralski configuration is recognized as a process which is quite dependent upon successful control of the shape determining conditions. In the paper attention is focused on the meniscus region, and its relevance to the crystal diameter behaviour is discussed. The dynamic stability of the configuration is analyzed according to the Surek criterion. In contrast to earlier zeroth order arguments, the system is shown to be inherently stable at normal growth conditions if the thermal impedance of the meniscus is taken into account. General difficulties associated with small diameter growth are pointed out. Reference is made to various growth monitoring arrangements, and the melt-weighing method is described in detail. Assuming uniform growth with a flat interface, the exact relation between the force experienced by a weighing cell and the growth parameters during both stationary and non-stationary conditions is derived. Growth at a constant angle is analyzed, and a new procedure for deriving the crystal diameter is suggested

  9. Antenatal Weight Management: Women’s Experiences, Behaviours, and Expectations of Weighing in Early Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Swift

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current emphasis on obstetric risk management helps to frame gestational weight gain as problematic and encourages intervention by healthcare professionals. However pregnant women have reported confusion, distrust, and negative effects associated with antenatal weight management interactions. The MAGIC study (MAnaging weiGht In pregnanCy sought to examine women’s self-reported experiences of usual-care antenatal weight management in early pregnancy and consider these alongside weight monitoring behaviours and future expectations. 193 women (18 yrs+ were recruited from routine antenatal clinics at the Nottingham University Hospital NHS Trust. Self-reported gestation was 10–27 weeks, with 41.5% (n=80 between 12 and 14 and 43.0% (n=83 between 20 and 22 weeks. At recruitment 50.3% of participants (n=97 could be classified as overweight or obese. 69.4% of highest weight women (≥30 kg/m2 did not report receiving advice about weight, although they were significantly more likely compared to women with BMI < 30 kg/m2. The majority of women (regardless of BMI did not express any barriers to being weighed and 40.8% reported weighing themselves at home. Women across the BMI categories expressed a desire for more engagement from healthcare professionals on the issue of bodyweight. Women are clearly not being served appropriately in the current situation which simultaneously problematizes and fails to offer constructive dialogue.

  10. Estimated weight on goats with a commercial weighing tape and thoracic perimeter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Chacón-Hernández

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to determine the technical viability of using a weighing tape to measure the pectoral circumference and estimate the body weight of goats. The study took place in the Alfredo Volio Mata Experimental Station in the University of Costa Rica, during the month of February 2015, by measuring the weight with a scale, a calibrated weighing tape and the thoracic diameter of sixty female goats. The data was adjusted through polynomial equations from rst to third degree. The thoracic diameter was used to determine the living weight of the goat population analyzed. Signi cant differences were found (p<0,05 when using the calibrated tape and the scale to determine the weight, with the obtained values of an average of 48,62kg y 39,99kg, respectively. There were differences (p<0,05 in the average of the weight depending on the age with results of 24,40kg in animals less than a year old, 40,39kg for the ages from one to three and 57,25kg for animals older with more than three years of age. The rst degree lineal regression, presented a good adjustment in the thoracic diameter and living weight( r2 = 0,88, with the values of ß0 and ß1 of -50,84 y 1,11, respectively.

  11. An automated walk-over weighing system as a tool for measuring liveweight change in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, R A; Morton, J M; Beggs, D S; Anderson, G A; Pyman, M F; Mansell, P D; Blackwood, C B

    2013-07-01

    Automated walk-over weighing systems can be used to monitor liveweights of cattle. Minimal literature exists to describe agreement between automated and static scales, and no known studies describe repeatability when used for daily measurements of dairy cows. This study establishes the repeatability of an automated walk-over cattle-weighing system, and agreement with static electronic scales, when used in a commercial dairy herd to weigh lactating cows. Forty-six lactating dairy cows from a seasonal calving, pasture-based dairy herd in southwest Victoria, Australia, were weighed once using a set of static scales and repeatedly using an automated walk-over weighing system at the exit of a rotary dairy. Substantial agreement was observed between the automated and static scales when assessed using Lin's concordance correlation coefficient. Weights measured by the automated walkover scales were within 5% of those measured by the static scales in 96% of weighings. Bland and Altman's 95% limits of agreement were -23.3 to 43.6 kg, a range of 66.9 kg. The 95% repeatability coefficient for automated weighings was 46.3 kg. Removal of a single outlier from the data set increased Lin's concordance coefficient, narrowed Bland and Altman's 95% limits of agreement to a range of 32.5 kg, and reduced the 95% repeatability coefficient to 18.7 kg. Cow misbehavior during walk-over weighing accounted for many of the larger weight discrepancies. The automated walk-over weighing system showed substantial agreement with the static scales when assessed using Lin's concordance correlation coefficient. This contrasted with limited agreement when assessed using Bland and Altman's method, largely due to poor repeatability. This suggests the automated weighing system is inadequate for detecting small liveweight differences in individual cows based on comparisons of single weights. Misbehaviors and other factors can result in the recording of spurious values on walk-over scales. Excluding

  12. School bus pollution and changes in the air quality at schools: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunlei; Nguyen, Quyen; Ryan, Patrick H; Lemasters, Grace K; Spitz, Henry; Lobaugh, Megan; Glover, Samuel; Grinshpun, Sergey A

    2009-05-01

    Millions of children attending US schools are exposed to traffic-related air pollutants, including health-relevant ultrafine aerosols generated from school buses powered with diesel fuel. This case study was established in a midwestern (USA) metropolitan area to determine the concentration and elemental composition of aerosol in the vicinity of a public school during morning hours when the bus traffic in and out of the adjacent depot was especially intense. Simultaneous measurements were performed at a control site. The ambient aerosol was first characterized in real time using a particle size selective aerosol spectrometer and then continuously monitored at each site with a real-time non-size-selective instrument that detected particles of 20 nm to >1 microm. In addition, air samples were collected with PM2.5 Harvard Impactors and analyzed for elemental composition using the X-ray fluorescence technique (for 38 elements) and thermal-optical transmittance (for carbon). The measurements were conducted during two seasons: in March at ambient temperature around 0 degrees C and in May when it ranged mostly between 10 and 20 degrees C. The particle number concentration at the test site exhibited high temporal variability while it was time independent at the control site. Overall, the aerosol particle count at the school was 4.7 +/- 1.0 times (March) and 2.2 +/- 0.4 times (May) greater than at the control site. On some days, a 15 min-averaged particle number concentration showed significant correlation with the number of school bus arrivals and departures during these time intervals. On other days, the correlation was less than statistically significant. The 3 h time-averaged particle concentrations determined in the test site on days when the school buses operated were found to be more than two-fold greater (on average) than those measured on bus-free days at the same location, and this difference was statistically significant. Overall, the data suggest a possible

  13. School interventions after the Joplin tornado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Robert K; Abramson, David

    2014-04-01

    To qualitatively describe interventions by schools to meet children's needs after the May 2011 Joplin, Missouri tornado. Qualitative exploratory study conducted six months after the tornado. Key informant interviews with school staff (teachers, psychologists, guidance counselor, nurse, principal), public health official, and physicians. After the tornado, school staff immediately worked to contact every enrolled child to provide assistance and coordinate recovery services. Despite severe damage to half of the city's schools, the decision was made to reopen schools at the earliest possible time to provide a safe, reassuring environment and additional services. An expanded summer school session emphasized child safety and emotional wellbeing. The 2011-2012 school year began on time, less than three months after the disaster, using temporary facilities. Displaced children were bused to their usual schools regardless of their new temporary residence locations. In just-in-time training sessions, teachers developed strategies to support students and staff experiencing anxiety or depression. Certified counselors conducted school-based, small-group counseling for students. Selective referrals were made to community mental health providers for children with greatest needs. Evidence from Joplin adds to a small body of empirical experience demonstrating the important contribution of schools to postdisaster community recovery. Despite timely and proactive services, many families and children struggled after the tornado. Improvements in the effectiveness of postdisaster interventions at schools will follow from future scientific evidence on optimal approaches.

  14. The Effect of Flexible Pavement Mechanics on the Accuracy of Axle Load Sensors in Vehicle Weigh-in-Motion Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnos, Piotr; Rys, Dawid

    2017-09-07

    Weigh-in-Motion systems are tools to prevent road pavements from the adverse phenomena of vehicle overloading. However, the effectiveness of these systems can be significantly increased by improving weighing accuracy, which is now insufficient for direct enforcement of overloaded vehicles. Field tests show that the accuracy of Weigh-in-Motion axle load sensors installed in the flexible (asphalt) pavements depends on pavement temperature and vehicle speeds. Although this is a known phenomenon, it has not been explained yet. The aim of our study is to fill this gap in the knowledge. The explanation of this phenomena which is presented in the paper is based on pavement/sensors mechanics and the application of the multilayer elastic half-space theory. We show that differences in the distribution of vertical and horizontal stresses in the pavement structure are the cause of vehicle weight measurement errors. These studies are important in terms of Weigh-in-Motion systems for direct enforcement and will help to improve the weighing results accuracy.

  15. Vehicle Signal Analysis Using Artificial Neural Networks for a Bridge Weigh-in-Motion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Seok Park

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the procedures for development of signal analysis algorithms using artificial neural networks for Bridge Weigh-in-Motion (B-WIM systems. Through the analysis procedure, the extraction of information concerning heavy traffic vehicles such as weight, speed, and number of axles from the time domain strain data of the B-WIM system was attempted. As one of the several possible pattern recognition techniques, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN was employed since it could effectively include dynamic effects and bridge-vehicle interactions. A number of vehicle traveling experiments with sufficient load cases were executed on two different types of bridges, a simply supported pre-stressed concrete girder bridge and a cable-stayed bridge. Different types of WIM systems such as high-speed WIM or low-speed WIM were also utilized during the experiments for cross-checking and to validate the performance of the developed algorithms.

  16. Vehicle Signal Analysis Using Artificial Neural Networks for a Bridge Weigh-in-Motion System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungkon; Lee, Jungwhee; Park, Min-Seok; Jo, Byung-Wan

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the procedures for development of signal analysis algorithms using artificial neural networks for Bridge Weigh-in-Motion (B-WIM) systems. Through the analysis procedure, the extraction of information concerning heavy traffic vehicles such as weight, speed, and number of axles from the time domain strain data of the B-WIM system was attempted. As one of the several possible pattern recognition techniques, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was employed since it could effectively include dynamic effects and bridge-vehicle interactions. A number of vehicle traveling experiments with sufficient load cases were executed on two different types of bridges, a simply supported pre-stressed concrete girder bridge and a cable-stayed bridge. Different types of WIM systems such as high-speed WIM or low-speed WIM were also utilized during the experiments for cross-checking and to validate the performance of the developed algorithms.

  17. System and method for weighing and characterizing moving or stationary vehicles and cargo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshears, David L [Knoxville, TN; Scudiere, Matthew B [Oak Ridge, TN; White, Clifford P [Seymour, TN

    2008-05-20

    A weigh-in-motion device and method having at least one transducer pad, each transducer pad having at least one transducer group with transducers positioned essentially perpendicular to the direction of travel. At least one pad microcomputer is provided on each transducer pad having a means for calculating first output signal indicative of weight, second output signal indicative of time, and third output signal indicative of speed. At least one host microcomputer is in electronic communication with each pad microcomputer, and having a means for calculating at least one unknown selected from the group consisting of individual tire weight, individual axle weight, axle spacing, speed profile, longitudinal center of balance, and transverse center of balance.

  18. Isoleucine requirement of pigs weighing 8 to 18 kg fed blood cell–free diets1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Shresta, Aruna; Krogh, Uffe

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the minimum requirement of Ile in young pigs, enabling feeding of balanced low-CP diets. Most previous studies have used experimental diets that included blood cells, which are particularly high in Leu and known to antagonize the use of Ile. One week....... In conclusion, the average estimation of requirement in this dose-response study using blood cell–free diets was 0.52 SID Ile:Lys during a 21-d experimental period from 8 kg BW....... after weaning at d 28, 100 crossbred female pigs weighing 7.9 ± 0.7 kg were allocated to 1 of 5 dietary treatments. Diets were formulated to contain 1.15 g standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys/MJ NE and were free of blood cells. The SID Ile was 0.42, 0.47, 0.53, 0.58, and 0.62 relative to Lys...

  19. Twenty-Seven Years Experience With Transvenous Pacemaker Implantation in Children Weighing <10 kg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konta, Laura; Chubb, Mark Henry; Bostock, Julian; Rogers, Jan; Rosenthal, Eric

    2016-02-01

    Epicardial pacemaker implantation is the favored approach in children weighing pacemaker implantation in neonates and infants from 1987. To date there have been no long-term follow-up reports of what is for many a controversial strategy. Between 1987 and 2003, 37 neonates and infants-median age 6.7 months (1 day to 3 years) and median weight 4.6 kg (2.7-10 kg)-had a permanent transvenous pacing system implanted. Pacing leads were placed into the right ventricular apex/outflow tract through a subclavian vein puncture with a redundant loop in the atrium. Three patients were lost to follow-up, 4 patients died from complications of cardiac surgery, and 2 patients had their system removed. At long-term follow-up in 28 patients at a median of 17.2 (range, 11.2-27.4) years, 10 patients have a single chamber ventricular pacemaker, 14 a dual chamber pacemaker, 3 a biventricular pacemaker, and 1 has a single chamber implantable cardioverter defibrillator. Subclavian vein patency was assessed in 26 patients. The overall subclavian vein occlusion rate was 10 of 13 (77%) 5 kg during long-term follow-up. After a median of 14.3 (range, 13.4-17.6) years of pacing, 7 patients continue with their original lead. Transvenous pacing in infants <10 kg results in encouraging short- and long-term clinical outcomes. Subclavian vein occlusion remains an important complication, occurring predominantly in those weighing <5 kg. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Measurement accuracy of weighing and tipping-bucket rainfall intensity gauges under dynamic laboratory testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colli, M.; Lanza, L. G.; La Barbera, P.; Chan, P. W.

    2014-07-01

    The contribution of any single uncertainty factor in the resulting performance of infield rain gauge measurements still has to be comprehensively assessed due to the high number of real world error sources involved, such as the intrinsic variability of rainfall intensity (RI), wind effects, wetting losses, the ambient temperature, etc. In recent years the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) addressed these issues by fostering dedicated investigations, which revealed further difficulties in assessing the actual reference rainfall intensity in the field. This work reports on an extensive assessment of the OTT Pluvio2 weighing gauge accuracy when measuring rainfall intensity under laboratory dynamic conditions (time varying reference flow rates). The results obtained from the weighing rain gauge (WG) were also compared with a MTX tipping-bucket rain gauge (TBR) under the same test conditions. Tests were carried out by simulating various artificial precipitation events, with unsteady rainfall intensity, using a suitable dynamic rainfall generator. Real world rainfall data measured by an Ogawa catching-type drop counter at a field test site located within the Hong Kong International Airport (HKIA) were used as a reference for the artificial rain generation system. Results demonstrate that the differences observed between the laboratory and field performance of catching-type gauges are only partially attributable to the weather and operational conditions in the field. The dynamics of real world precipitation events is responsible for a large part of the measurement errors, which can be accurately assessed in the laboratory under controlled environmental conditions. This allows for new testing methodologies and the development of instruments with enhanced performance in the field.

  1. Traffic volume and load data measurement using a portable weigh in motion system: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu N.M. Faruk

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, traffic loading characteristics are collected for pavement design and performance prediction purposes using permanent roadside weigh-in-motion (WIM stations. However, high installation and maintenance costs associated with these permanent WIM stations dictate that their deployment be mostly limited to major highways, such as the interstate network. Quite often however, pavement damage on high volume rural highways with heavy truck proportions is more severe than anticipated, and there is no effective way of quantifying the traffic loading on these highways. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the potential application of portable WIM systems as a means for bringing the WIM technology to these high volume rural highways. A portable WIM unit was deployed in the Texas overweight corridor in Hidalgo County (Pharr District near the USA-Mexico border on highway FM 1016 for collecting traffic data for a minimum of three weeks in each direction. The collected traffic data were analyzed to generate traffic parameters such as volume, load spectra, and overloading information both in terms of the gross vehicle weight (GVW and axle weight. The computed traffic parameters were successful in partially explaining some of the existing pavement conditions on this highway. Overall, the study findings indicated that the portable WIM unit can be used as a convenient and cost-effective means for collecting reliable traffic information for design, analysis, and monitoring purposes. However, proper in-situ calibration of the portable WIM unit at each site is imperative prior to any real-time traffic data collection. Keywords: Traffic data, Load spectra, Truck overweight, Weigh-in-motion (WIM, Portable WIM, Texas overweight corridor

  2. Non-constrained monitoring of systolic blood pressure on a weighing scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jae Hyuk; Lee, Kang Moo; Park, Kwang Suk

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we developed a novel technique for estimating non-constrained and cuffless blood pressure (BP) that was based on electrocardiogram (ECG) and ballistocardiogram (BCG). The BCG was non-invasively measured using a common electronic weighing scale when a subject was standing on it. The ECG was measured using three different methods: on the chest using Ag/AgCl electrodes, on the hands using dry electrodes and on the feet also using dry electrodes. For a BP correlated parameter, a time interval parameter, which was defined as the time difference between the ECG R-peak and BCG J-peak, was employed for evaluating and estimating beat-to-beat BP. Under a BP varying experiment with a Valsalva manoeuvre, the R–J intervals were extracted at every beat cycle and a systolic blood pressure (SBP) estimation equation was established using linear regression analysis for each subject. In the case of feet delivered ECG (F-ECG), an ensemble average technique synchronized at the BCG J-peak point was applied to extract the ECG signal from the feet. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated using Finapres, a non-invasive blood pressure measurement system, as a reference BP signal, and a scatter plot was used to find the regression line between the reference values and estimated BPs. A moving-window averaging technique was applied to remove the high-frequency noise in the R–J intervals and was applied to enhance the accuracy of the SBP estimation. For all individuals, the estimated SBP was similar to the measured SBP with a reliable correlation, which makes the proposed method suitable for use in a home healthcare system to monitor blood pressure on a weighing scale at the same time as measuring weight

  3. [Weighing use and safety of therapeutic agents and feed additives (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wal, P

    1982-02-01

    (1) The pros and cons of using feed additives and therapeutic agents may be successfully weighed in the light of carefully considered consumer requirements. (2) The socio-economic interests of the producer and the welfare of the animal will also determine the response of the production apparatus to consumer requirements. (3) Consumption of the current amounts of products of animal origin and maintenance of price and quality will only be feasible in the event of rational large-scale production in which constituents used in nutrition, prophylaxis and therapeutics are highly important factors. (4) Using these ingredients should be preceded by accurate evaluation of their use and safety. Testing facilities, conduct of studies and reporting should be such as to make the results nationally and internationally acceptable to all those concerned. (5) In deciding whether feed constituents are acceptable in view of the established use and safety, compliance will have to be sought with those standards which are accepted in other fields of society. Measures which result in raising the price of food without actually helping to reduce the risks to the safety of man, animals and environment, are likely to be rejected by any well-informed consumer who is aware of the facts. (6) For accurate weighing of use and safety at a national level, possibilities are hardly adequate in Europe. Decisions reached within the framework of the European Community, also tuned to U.S.A.- conditions are rightly encouraged. A centrally managed professionally staffed and equipped test system in the European Community would appear to be indispensable.

  4. Using weigh-in-motion data to determine bridge dynamic amplification factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalin Jan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic component of bridge traffic loading is commonly taken into account with a Dynamic Amplification Factor (DAF – the ratio between the maximum dynamic and static load effects on a bridge. In the design codes, this factor is generally higher than in reality. While this is fine for new bridges that must account for various risks during their life-time, it imposes unnecessary conservativism into assessment of the existing well defined bridges. Therefore, analysis of existing bridges should apply more realistic DAF values. One way of obtaining them experimentally is by bridge weigh-in-motion (B-WIM measurements, which use an existing instrumented bridge or culvert to weigh all crossing vehicles at highway speeds. The B-WIM system had been equipped with two methods of obtaining an approximation to the static response of the. The first method uses the sum of influence lines. This method relies on accurate axle identification, the failure of which can have a large influence on the DAF value. The other method uses a pre-determined low-pass filter to remove the dynamic component of the measured signal; however an expert is needed to set the filter parameters. A new approach that tries to eliminate these two drawbacks has been developed. In this approach the parameters for the filter are determined automatically by fitting the filtered response to the sum of the influence lines. The measurement of DAF on a typical bridge site agrees with experiments performed in the ARCHES [1] project: dynamic amplification decreases as static loading increases.

  5. Report on FS survey for project of introduction of highly energy-efficient trolley buses into the Mexico Metropolitan Area in FY 1997; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (Mexico city eno sho energy gata trolley bus donyu project FS chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Traffic jam and air pollution by automobiles are currently getting severe in the Mexico Metropolitan Area. Trolley buses were introduced for improving the environment more than ten years ago. Vehicles become too old for use, and their energy efficiency is low. In this project, 200 highly energy-efficient trolley buses are introduced to replace old inefficient trolley buses, which results in the improved traffic convenience in the City and enhanced energy efficiency. The new energy-efficient trolley buses are made of energy-efficient control VVVF inverters produced and exported by MELCO (Mitsubishi Electric Corporation), energy-efficient motors by MELMEX (Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, Mexico), and bodies by MASA which is a major manufacturer of bus bodies. The objective of this research is to analyze the background of introduction of new energy-efficient trolley buses and the effects of the present project. The results of analysis are going to be utilized for future promotion of the Joint Implementation and Clean Development Mechanism. 30 refs., 30 figs., 24 tabs.

  6. 不客忽视的衡器监管%Weighing instrument regulation can not be ignored

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴娜

    2012-01-01

    衡器作为经济贸易中重要的计量手段之一,在我国经济飞速发展的今天起着越来越重要的作用。本文对我国衡器发展的现状和存在的问题进行分析,提出在衡器监管措施方面的建议。%Weighing instrument is as one of the important economic and trade measurement instruments, and plays a more and more role nowadays. This article analyzes current situation and existing problems of the weighing instrument development in China, and suggests on the weighing instrument regulatory measures.

  7. Optimization model for school transportation design based on economic and social efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heddebaut, O.; Ciommo, F. di

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to design a model that allows to suggest new planning proposals on school transport, so that greater efficiency operational will be achieved. It is a multi-objective optimization problem including the minimization of the cost of busing and minimizes the total travel time of all students. The foundation of the model is the planning routes made by bus due to changes in the starting time in schools, so the buses are able to perform more than one route. The methodology is based on the School Bus Routing Problem, so that routes from different schools within a given time window are connected, and within the restrictions of the problem, the system costs are minimized. The proposed model is programmed to be applied in any generic case. This is a multi-objective problem, in which there will be several possible solutions, depending on the weight to be assigned to each of the variables involved, economic point of view versus social point of view. Therefore, the proposed model is helpful for policy planning school transportation, supporting the decision making under conditions of economic and social efficiency. The model has been applied in some schools located in an area of Cantabria (Spain), resulting in 71 possible optimal options that minimize the cost of school transport between 2,7% and 35,1% regarding to the current routes of school transport, with different school start time and minimum travel time for students. (Author)

  8. Comparison of Life Cycle energy consumption and GHG emissions of natural gas, biodiesel and diesel buses of the Madrid transportation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García Sánchez, Juan Antonio; López Martínez, José María; Lumbreras Martín, Julio; Flores Holgado, Maria Nuria

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study on the use of three after-treatment technologies: i) EGR + DPF, ii) SCR + Urea and iii) 3-way catalyst when implemented in urban buses, to determinate the energy requirements, greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), direct Land Use Change (dLUC), abiotic depletion of fossil energy by means of a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The process of production, conditioning and transporting of the fuels used by the buses (diesel, biodiesel (B100), a blended biodiesel at 20% (B20) and natural gas) were also analyzed (Well-to-Tank analysis) along with the environmental impact due to its combustion in the bus (Tank-to-Wheel analysis). The environmental impact of the manufacturing, maintenance and recycling process of the urban buses and exhaust after-treatment systems has also been evaluated. Main results shows that Life Cycle of SCR + Urea technology reduces environmental impact to a greater extent than its global Life Cycle increases it when gasoil is used resulting in a final balance more efficient than the other options, the same behavior is observed with the use of B20 and B100 but only when 0%dLUC is assumed since if the percentage of dLUC increases the effectiveness of the SCR + Urea technology in the reduction of environmental impact tend to decrease. -- Highlights: ► We examine the environmental impact caused by the Life Cycle of each technology, fossil fuel, biofuel and vehicle. ► Biodiesel environmental impact depends largely on land transformed for grow crops. ► Using SCR + Urea technology and gasoil as a fuel in the bus further reduces the environmental impact.

  9. The Wheels on the Bus Go “Buy Buy Buy”: School Bus Advertising Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    School buses, a practical necessity for millions of children, are at the center of new efforts to raise revenue. School bus advertising laws bring public health and commercialization concerns to the school setting. In doing so, they potentially expose school districts to First Amendment lawsuits. I examined various school bus advertising bills and laws. I reviewed First Amendment “forum analysis” as applied in the transit and school settings to clarify how this legal test may affect school districts subject to such laws. I have made recommendations for school districts to enact appropriate policies to ensure that such advertising does not undermine public health and to enable the districts to maintain control over their property. PMID:22742065

  10. The wheels on the bus go "buy buy buy": school bus advertising laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L

    2012-09-01

    School buses, a practical necessity for millions of children, are at the center of new efforts to raise revenue. School bus advertising laws bring public health and commercialization concerns to the school setting. In doing so, they potentially expose school districts to First Amendment lawsuits. I examined various school bus advertising bills and laws. I reviewed First Amendment "forum analysis" as applied in the transit and school settings to clarify how this legal test may affect school districts subject to such laws. I have made recommendations for school districts to enact appropriate policies to ensure that such advertising does not undermine public health and to enable the districts to maintain control over their property.

  11. Creating regional consensus for starting school later: a physician-driven approach in southern Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Tracey Ann; Indorf, Christopher; Klak, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    In April 2016, several contiguous school districts and an independent high school academy in southern Maine voted simultaneously to start school later, beginning with the 2016-17 academic year. They became Maine's first school districts to implement the American Academy of Pediatrics' 1 and the American Medical Association's 2 health policy recommendations that middle and high schools should not start before 8:30 AM. Local physicians' presentations to school staff and parents on the medical evidence of the health benefits of a later start solidified early consensus. The action required special permission from the Maine Municipal Association to hold a joint school board vote, impacted approximately 6500 students across the region, resulted in no increase in busing costs, and took 8 months to implement after the first formal school board discussions. Copyright © 2017 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A laboratory assessment of the measurement accuracy of weighing type rainfall intensity gauges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colli, M.; Chan, P. W.; Lanza, L. G.; La Barbera, P.

    2012-04-01

    In recent years the WMO Commission for Instruments and Methods of Observation (CIMO) fostered noticeable advancements in the accuracy of precipitation measurement issue by providing recommendations on the standardization of equipment and exposure, instrument calibration and data correction as a consequence of various comparative campaigns involving manufacturers and national meteorological services from the participating countries (Lanza et al., 2005; Vuerich et al., 2009). Extreme events analysis is proven to be highly affected by the on-site RI measurement accuracy (see e.g. Molini et al., 2004) and the time resolution of the available RI series certainly constitutes another key-factor in constructing hyetographs that are representative of real rain events. The OTT Pluvio2 weighing gauge (WG) and the GEONOR T-200 vibrating-wire precipitation gauge demonstrated very good performance under previous constant flow rate calibration efforts (Lanza et al., 2005). Although WGs do provide better performance than more traditional Tipping Bucket Rain gauges (TBR) under continuous and constant reference intensity, dynamic effects seem to affect the accuracy of WG measurements under real world/time varying rainfall conditions (Vuerich et al., 2009). The most relevant is due to the response time of the acquisition system and the derived systematic delay of the instrument in assessing the exact weight of the bin containing cumulated precipitation. This delay assumes a relevant role in case high resolution rain intensity time series are sought from the instrument, as is the case of many hydrologic and meteo-climatic applications. This work reports the laboratory evaluation of Pluvio2 and T-200 rainfall intensity measurements accuracy. Tests are carried out by simulating different artificial precipitation events, namely non-stationary rainfall intensity, using a highly accurate dynamic rainfall generator. Time series measured by an Ogawa drop counter (DC) at a field test site

  13. Abraham Pais Prize for History of Physics Talk: Henry Cavendish, John Michell, Weighing the Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormmach, Russell

    2010-03-01

    This talk is about an interaction between two 18th-century natural philosophers (physical scientists), Henry Cavendish and John Michell, and its most important outcome, the experiment of weighing the world (their name for it) using a torsion balance (our name for it). Michell was the most inventive of the 18th century English natural philosophers, and Cavendish was the first of his countrymen to possess abilities at all comparable with Newton's. By their interests and skills, they were drawn to one another. Both were universal natural philosophers, equally adept at building scientific instruments, performing experiments, constructing theory, and using mathematics; both had a penchant for exacting, quantitative work. Both also had fitful habits of publication, which did not begin to reveal the range of their work, to the mystification of later scientists and historians. Late in life, Cavendish and Michell turned their attention to the force that Newton had examined most completely, a singular triumph of his natural philosophy, the force of universal gravitation. Over the course of the 18th century, abundant evidence of attraction had been gathered from the motions of the earth, moon, planets, and comets, phenomena which span the intermediate range of masses, sizes, and distances. But in three domains of experience, involving the extreme upper and lower limits of masses and dimensions, the universality of gravitation remained an article of faith. These were the gravity of the ``fixed'' stars, the mutual attraction of terrestrial bodies, and the gravitation of light and other special substances. Michell took on himself the task of deducing observable consequences from each of these prospective instances of universal gravitation. Cavendish encouraged Michell, and he followed up the resulting observational and experimental questions. The experiment of weighing the world was the last experiment Mitchell planned and the last experiment Cavendish published. The capstone of

  14. Analysis of axle and vehicle load properties through Bayesian networks based on weigh-in-motion data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales Napoles, O.; Steenbergen, R.D.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Weigh-in-Motion (WIM) systems are used, among other applications, in pavement and bridge reliability. The system measures quantities such as individual axle load, vehicular loads, vehicle speed, vehicle length and number ofaxles. Because ofthe nature ofúamc configuration, the quantities measured are

  15. Design and realization of the high-precision weighing systems as the gravimetric references in PTB's national water flow standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, Rainer; Beyer, Karlheinz; Baade, Hans-Joachim

    2012-01-01

    PTB's ‘Hydrodynamic Test Field’, which represents a high-accuracy water flow calibration facility, serves as the national primary standard for liquid flow measurands. As the core reference device of this flow facility, a gravimetric standard has been incorporated, which comprises three special-design weighing systems: 300 kg, 3 tons and 30 tons. These gravimetric references were realized as a combination of a strain-gauge-based and an electromagnetic-force-compensation load-cell-based balance, each. Special emphasis had to be placed upon the dynamics design of the whole weighing system, due to the high measurement resolution and the dynamic behavior of the weighing systems, which are dynamically affected by mechanical vibrations caused by environmental impacts, flow machinery operation, flow noise in the pipework and induced wave motions in the weigh tanks. Taking into account all the above boundary conditions, the design work for the gravimetric reference resulted in a concrete foundation ‘rock’ of some 300 tons that rests on a number of vibration isolators. In addition to these passively operating vibration isolators, the vibration damping effect is enhanced by applying an electronic level regulation device. (paper)

  16. Рassenger survey on public transport in Zhitomir and evaluation of the main technical and operational parameters for the choice of city buses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudzynskyi V.V.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The parameters of the passenger movements in the direction of public transport in Zhitomir are defined and conformity assessment of technical and operational parameters of urban shuttle buses is folded. Firstly, the amount of passenger traffic affects the optimal choice of passenger vehicles and secondly, the intensity of road traffic on the streets of areas where passengers pass routes. It should also be kept in mind that passenger traffic can fluctuate significantly depending on the time of day and days of the week. But virtually all carriers can be replaced within days with rolling at a large passenger capacity, and vice versa. Therefore, the choice of one type of rolling stock, the capacity of which is set taking into account the data on hourly passenger capacity on the most loaded part of the route up to an hour "peak", or its capacity per day on the route as a whole. Thus the research work on inspection of passenger-route passenger transport, and public electric transport in Zhitomir is conducted. Primary data was estimated to select the main criteria for urban passenger bus. It was found that the buses in the "peak" hours move on passenger congestion. Preliminary conclusions and recommendations on the criteria of optimal rolling of choice for the city bus route network are provided.

  17. Use of Finite Elements Analysis for a Weigh-in-Motion Sensor Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel Goanta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available High speed weigh-in-motion (WIM sensors are utilized as components of complex traffic monitoring and measurement systems. They should be able to determine the weights on wheels, axles and vehicle gross weights, and to help the classification of vehicles (depending on the number of axles. WIM sensors must meet the following main requirements: good accuracy, high endurance, low price and easy installation in the road structure. It is not advisable to use cheap materials in constructing these devices for lower prices, since the sensors are normally working in harsh environmental conditions such as temperatures between –40 °C and +70 °C, dust, temporary water immersion, shocks and vibrations. Consequently, less expensive manufacturing technologies are recommended. Because the installation cost in the road structure is high and proportional to the WIM sensor cross section (especially with its thickness, the device needs to be made as flat as possible. The WIM sensor model presented and analyzed in this paper uses a spring element equipped with strain gages. Using Finite Element Analysis (FEA, the authors have attempted to obtain a more sensitive, reliable, lower profile and overall cheaper elastic element for a new WIM sensor.

  18. Effect acute of resitive training with weight on hidrostatic weigh, body density and percentage of fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luiz Zinn

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify if a session of Resistive training with Weights (TRP seeking Local Muscular Resistance (RML or Increase in Muscle Volume (AVM would cause significant alterations in Hydrostatic Weight (PH, Body Density (DC and Percentage of Body Fat (%G. Nine men between the ages of 17 and 26 years participated in the study, all with a basic level of TRP and who were adapted to water. The study was carried out during three days. On the first day, the subjects performed the 1RM test for the 10 exercises included into the training. Two days later, hydrostatic weighing (pre-trainingwas measured, immediately followed by a TRP session for AVM and by another hydrostatic weighing (post-training measurement. Two days later, the same process was applied to, however this time with a TRP session for RML. The statistical analyses by Student’s-t test showed that there were no significant differences (p>0.05 between pre and post-training results for PH, DC and %G variables. The 2x2 ANOVA interaction for type of training (AVM and RML and the moment of weighing (pre and post-training was not significant, while the results of PH, DC and %G did not depend on the type of training (AVM or RML. Pearson’s linear correlation between the values of the pre and post-training was significant (r≥0.94. It can be concluded that the TRP does not have an effect on the results of PH, DC and %G, regardless of type of training performed, therefore, hydrostatic weighing can be measured either before or after the TRP, without interfering on the results. RESUMO Este estudo teve por objetivo verificar se uma sessão de Treinamento Resistido com Pesos (TRP visando Resistência Muscular Localizada (RML ou objetivando Aumento de Volume Muscular (AVM causariam alterações significativas no Peso Hidrost��tico (PH, Densidade Corporal (DC e Percentual de Gordura (%G. Participaram da amostra nove homens com idade entre 17 e 26 anos que possuíam um n

  19. Densimetry in compressed fluids by combining hydrostatic weighing and magnetic levitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masui, R.; Haynes, W.M.; Chang, R.F.; Davis, H.A.; Sengers, J.M.H.L.

    1984-01-01

    A magnetic suspension densimeter is described that has been built for measuring the density of compressed liquids at pressures up to 15 MPa in the temperature range 20 0 --200 0 C with an uncertainty of 0.1%. The densimeter combines the principle of magnetic levitation of a buoy with that of liquid density determination by hydrostatic weighing. To accomplish this, the support coil is suspended from an electronic balance, and the balance readings are recorded (1) with the buoy at rest, and (2) with the buoy in magnetic suspension. Details are given of the construction of the cell, coil, buoy, and thermostat. The procedure is described by which cell and buoy are aligned so that the suspended buoy does not touch the cell wall. Test data on the densities of seven different liquids were obtained at room temperature. They agree with reliable literature values to within 0.1%. In a separate experiment, the bulk thermal expansion coefficient of the buoy material was determined. This experiment and its results are also given here

  20. Biophysical profile in the treatment of intrauterine growth-restricted fetuses who weigh <1000 g.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Satinder; Picconi, Jason L; Chadha, Rati; Kruger, Michael; Mari, Giancarlo

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the biophysical profile (BPP) usefulness in the prediction of cord pH, base excess, and guidance regarding the timing of delivery in preterm intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) fetuses. A BPP was performed daily in 48 IUGR fetuses and was considered abnormal when it was 2/10 on 1 single occasion or 4/10 on 2 consecutive occasions 2 hours apart. The median gestational age and fetal weight for the total population was 27.6 weeks and 632 g, respectively. In 13 fetuses with a BPP of 6, there were 3 deaths, and 7 fetuses were acidemic. In 27 fetuses with a BPP of 8, there were 3 deaths, and 12 fetuses were acidemic. BPP alone is not a reliable test in the treatment of preterm IUGR fetuses, because of high false-positive and -negative results. The common notion of a good BPP providing reassurance for at least 24 hours is not applicable in severely preterm IUGR fetuses who weigh <1000 g.

  1. A low-noise ac-bridge amplifier for ballistocardiogram measurement on an electronic weighing scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inan, O T; Kovacs, G T A

    2010-01-01

    Ballistocardiography is a non-invasive technique for evaluating cardiovascular health. This note presents an ac-bridge amplifier for low-noise ballistocardiogram (BCG) recording from a modified weighing scale. The strain gauges in a commercial scale were excited by an ac source—square or sine wave—and the differential output voltage resulting from the BCG was amplified and demodulated synchronously with the excitation waveform. A standard BCG amplifier, with a simple dc-bridge excitation, was also built and the performance was compared to both the square- and sine-wave excited ac-bridge amplifiers. The total input-referred voltage noise (rms) integrated over the relevant BCG bandwidth of 0.3–10 Hz was found to be 30 nV (square wave source) or 25 nV (sine-wave source) for the ac-bridge amplifier and 52 nV for the standard amplifier: an improvement of 4.8 dB or 6 dB, respectively. These correspond to input-referred force noise (rms) values of 5 mN, 4 mN and 8.3 mN. The improvement in SNR was also observed in recorded waveforms from a seated subject whose BCG signal was measured with both dc- and ac-bridge circuits. (note)

  2. Probability Based Evaluation of Vehicular Bridge Load using Weigh-in-Motion Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widi Nugraha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Load and Resistance Factored Design (LRFD method for designing bridge in Indonesia have been implemented for more than 25 years. LRFD method treating loads and strengths variables as random variables with specific safety factors for different loads and strengths variables type. The nominal loads, load factors, reduction factors, and other criteria for bridge design code can be determined to meet the reliability criteria. Statistical data of weigh-in-motion (WIM vehicular loads measurement in Northern Java highway, Cikampek - Pamanukan, West Java (2011, used in as statistical loads variable. A 25 m simple span bridge with reinforced concrete T-girder is used as a model for structural analysis due to WIM measured and nominal vehicular load based on RSNI T-02-2005, with applied bending moment of girder as the output. The distribution fitting result of applied bending moment due to WIM measured vehicular loads is lognormal. The maximum bending moment due to RSNI T-02-2005 nominal vehicular load is 842.45 kN-m and has probability of exceedance of 5x10-5. It can be concluded, for this study, that the bridge designed using RSNI T-02-2005 is safely designed, since it has reliability index, β of 5.02, higher than target reliability, β ranging from 3.50 or 3.72.

  3. Measuring and weighing psychostasia in Q 6:37–38: Intertexts from the Old Testament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llewellyn Howes

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is the first of three on the relationship between the Sayings Gospel Q and the ancient concept of ‘psychostasia,’ which is the ancient notion that a divine or supernatural figure weighed people’s souls when judging them. The ultimate goal of all three articles is to enhance our understanding of Q 6:37–38, as well as of the Q document as a whole. In the current article, attention is focused on intertexts from the Old Testament, and the occurrences therein of the word ‘measure’ and the concept of ‘psychostasia’. The implications of these results for our interpretation of Q 6:37–38 are briefly noted. A second (future article will focus on intertexts in apocryphal and pseudepigraphical writings from Second Temple Judaism dealing with ‘psychostasia’. A third study will ultimately spell out in more comprehensive detail the implications of the foregoing intertextual investigations on both our understanding of Q 6:37–38 and our understanding of the Sayings Gospel Q as a whole.

  4. On balance: weighing harms and benefits in fundamental neurological research using nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnason, Gardar; Clausen, Jens

    2016-06-01

    One of the most controversial areas of animal research is the use of nonhuman primates for fundamental research. At the centre of the controversy is the question of whether the benefits of research outweigh the harms. We argue that the evaluation of harms and benefits is highly problematic. We describe some common procedures in neurological research using nonhuman primates and the difficulties in evaluating the harm involved. Even if the harm could be quantified, it is unlikely that it could be meaningfully aggregated over different procedures, let alone different animals. A similar problem arises for evaluating benefits. It is not clear how benefits could be quantified, and even if they could be, values for different aspects of expected benefits cannot be simply added up. Sorting harms and benefits in three or four categories cannot avoid the charge of arbitrariness and runs the risk of imposing its structure on the moral decision. The metaphor of weighing or balancing harms and benefits is inappropriate for the moral decision about whether to use nonhuman primates for research. Arguing that the harms and benefits in this context are incommensurable, we suggest describing the moral consideration of harms and benefits as a coherent trade-off. Such a decision does not require commensurability. It must be well-informed about the suffering involved and the potential benefits, it must be consistent with the legal, regulatory and institutional framework within which it is made, and it must cohere with other judgments in relevant areas.

  5. Weighing serological evidence of human exposure to animal influenza viruses - a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikkema, Reina Saapke; Freidl, Gudrun Stephanie; de Bruin, Erwin; Koopmans, Marion

    2016-11-03

    Assessing influenza A virus strains circulating in animals and their potential to cross the species barrier and cause human infections is important to improve human influenza surveillance and preparedness. We reviewed studies describing serological evidence of human exposure to animal influenza viruses. Comparing serological data is difficult due to a lack of standardisation in study designs and in laboratory methods used in published reports. Therefore, we designed a scoring system to assess and weigh specificity of obtained serology results in the selected articles. Many studies report reliable evidence of antibodies to swine influenza viruses among persons occupationally exposed to pigs. Most avian influenza studies target H5, H7 and H9 subtypes and most serological evidence of human exposure to avian influenza viruses is reported for these subtypes. Avian influenza studies receiving a low grade in this review often reported higher seroprevalences in humans compared with studies with a high grade. Official surveillance systems mainly focus on avian H5 and H7 viruses. Swine influenza viruses and avian subtypes other than H5 and H7 (emphasising H9) should be additionally included in official surveillance systems. Surveillance efforts should also be directed towards understudied geographical areas, such as Africa and South America. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.

  6. Weighing serological evidence of human exposure to animal influenza viruses − a literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikkema, Reina Saapke; Freidl, Gudrun Stephanie; de Bruin, Erwin; Koopmans, Marion

    2016-01-01

    Assessing influenza A virus strains circulating in animals and their potential to cross the species barrier and cause human infections is important to improve human influenza surveillance and preparedness. We reviewed studies describing serological evidence of human exposure to animal influenza viruses. Comparing serological data is difficult due to a lack of standardisation in study designs and in laboratory methods used in published reports. Therefore, we designed a scoring system to assess and weigh specificity of obtained serology results in the selected articles. Many studies report reliable evidence of antibodies to swine influenza viruses among persons occupationally exposed to pigs. Most avian influenza studies target H5, H7 and H9 subtypes and most serological evidence of human exposure to avian influenza viruses is reported for these subtypes. Avian influenza studies receiving a low grade in this review often reported higher seroprevalences in humans compared with studies with a high grade. Official surveillance systems mainly focus on avian H5 and H7 viruses. Swine influenza viruses and avian subtypes other than H5 and H7 (emphasising H9) should be additionally included in official surveillance systems. Surveillance efforts should also be directed towards understudied geographical areas, such as Africa and South America. PMID:27874827

  7. Buses at the crossroads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1990-06-15

    With demanding new physics data handling requirements on the horizon, the VMEbus Working Group of ESONE (the European Standards On Nuclear Electronics committee of European laboratories) organized a fruitful meeting entitled 'New Backplane Bus Architectures' at CERN in March.

  8. Applying distance-to-target weighing methodology to evaluate the environmental performance of bio-based energy, fuels, and materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, Martin; Patel, Martin; Heilmeier, Hermann; Bringezu, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    The enhanced use of biomass for the production of energy, fuels, and materials is one of the key strategies towards sustainable production and consumption. Various life cycle assessment (LCA) studies demonstrate the great potential of bio-based products to reduce both the consumption of non-renewable energy resources and greenhouse gas emissions. However, the production of biomass requires agricultural land and is often associated with adverse environmental effects such as eutrophication of surface and ground water. Decision making in favor of or against bio-based and conventional fossil product alternatives therefore often requires weighing of environmental impacts. In this article, we apply distance-to-target weighing methodology to aggregate LCA results obtained in four different environmental impact categories (i.e., non-renewable energy consumption, global warming potential, eutrophication potential, and acidification potential) to one environmental index. We include 45 bio- and fossil-based product pairs in our analysis, which we conduct for Germany. The resulting environmental indices for all product pairs analyzed range from -19.7 to +0.2 with negative values indicating overall environmental benefits of bio-based products. Except for three options of packaging materials made from wheat and cornstarch, all bio-based products (including energy, fuels, and materials) score better than their fossil counterparts. Comparing the median values for the three options of biomass utilization reveals that bio-energy (-1.2) and bio-materials (-1.0) offer significantly higher environmental benefits than bio-fuels (-0.3). The results of this study reflect, however, subjective value judgments due to the weighing methodology applied. Given the uncertainties and controversies associated not only with distance-to-target methodologies in particular but also with weighing approaches in general, the authors strongly recommend using weighing for decision finding only as a

  9. Performance of school bus retrofit systems: ultrafine particles and other vehicular pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qunfang; Zhu, Yifang

    2011-08-01

    This study evaluated the performance of retrofit systems for diesel-powered school buses, a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) muffler and a spiracle crankcase filtration system (CFS), regarding ultrafine particles (UFPs) and other air pollutants from tailpipe emissions and inside bus cabins. Tailpipe emissions and in-cabin air pollutant levels were measured before and after retrofitting when the buses were idling and during actual pick-up/drop off routes. Retrofit systems significantly reduced tailpipe emissions with a reduction of 20-94% of total particles with both DOC and CFS installed. However, no unequivocal decrease was observed for in-cabin air pollutants after retrofitting. The AC/fan unit and the surrounding air pollutant concentrations played more important roles for determining the in-cabin air quality of school buses than did retrofit technologies. Although current retrofit systems reduce children's exposure while waiting to board at a bus station, retrofitting by itself does not protect children satisfactorily from in-cabin particle exposures. Turning on the bus engine increased in-cabin UFP levels significantly only when the wind blew from the bus' tailpipe toward its hood with its windows open. This indicated that wind direction and window position are significant factors determining how much self-released tailpipe emissions may penetrate into the bus cabin. The use of an air purifier was found to remove in-cabin particles by up to 50% which might be an alternative short-to-medium term strategy to protect children's health.

  10. The App Squad: SLJ's Advisors Weigh in on Kids' Book Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, "School Library Journal's" ("SLJ") advisors talk about book apps for kids. They discuss what they like, what one should look for in discerning the best for kids and teens, and where this all might be headed.

  11. Flexible spatial perspective-taking: Conversational partners weigh multiple cues in collaborative tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexia eGalati

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Research on spatial perspective-taking often focuses on the cognitive processes of isolated individuals as they adopt or maintain imagined perspectives. Collaborative studies of spatial perspective-taking typically examine speakers’ linguistic choices, while overlooking their underlying processes and representations. We review evidence from two collaborative experiments that examine the contribution of social and representational cues to spatial perspective choices in both language and the organization of spatial memory. Across experiments, speakers organized their memory representations according to the convergence of various cues. When layouts were randomly configured and did not afford intrinsic cues, speakers encoded their partner’s viewpoint in memory, if available, but did not use it as an organizing direction. On the other hand, when the layout afforded an intrinsic structure, speakers organized their spatial memories according to the person-centered perspective reinforced by the layout’s structure. Similarly, in descriptions, speakers considered multiple cues whether available a priori or at the interaction. They used partner-centered expressions more frequently (e.g., to your right when the partner’s viewpoint was misaligned by a small offset or coincided with the layout’s structure. Conversely, they used egocentric expressions more frequently when their own viewpoint coincided with the intrinsic structure or when the partner was misaligned by a computationally difficult, oblique offset. Based on these findings we advocate for a framework for flexible perspective-taking: people weigh multiple cues (including social ones to make attributions about the relative difficulty of perspective-taking for each partner, and adapt behavior to minimize their collective effort. This framework is not specialized for spatial reasoning but instead emerges from the same principles and memory-depended processes that govern perspective-taking in

  12. Flexible spatial perspective-taking: conversational partners weigh multiple cues in collaborative tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galati, Alexia; Avraamides, Marios N

    2013-01-01

    Research on spatial perspective-taking often focuses on the cognitive processes of isolated individuals as they adopt or maintain imagined perspectives. Collaborative studies of spatial perspective-taking typically examine speakers' linguistic choices, while overlooking their underlying processes and representations. We review evidence from two collaborative experiments that examine the contribution of social and representational cues to spatial perspective choices in both language and the organization of spatial memory. Across experiments, speakers organized their memory representations according to the convergence of various cues. When layouts were randomly configured and did not afford intrinsic cues, speakers encoded their partner's viewpoint in memory, if available, but did not use it as an organizing direction. On the other hand, when the layout afforded an intrinsic structure, speakers organized their spatial memories according to the person-centered perspective reinforced by the layout's structure. Similarly, in descriptions, speakers considered multiple cues whether available a priori or at the interaction. They used partner-centered expressions more frequently (e.g., "to your right") when the partner's viewpoint was misaligned by a small offset or coincided with the layout's structure. Conversely, they used egocentric expressions more frequently when their own viewpoint coincided with the intrinsic structure or when the partner was misaligned by a computationally difficult, oblique offset. Based on these findings we advocate for a framework for flexible perspective-taking: people weigh multiple cues (including social ones) to make attributions about the relative difficulty of perspective-taking for each partner, and adapt behavior to minimize their collective effort. This framework is not specialized for spatial reasoning but instead emerges from the same principles and memory-depended processes that govern perspective-taking in non-spatial tasks.

  13. Human milk consumption and full enteral feeding among infants who weigh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisk, Paula M; Lovelady, Cheryl A; Gruber, Kenneth J; Dillard, Robert G; O'Shea, T Michael

    2008-06-01

    Establishing enteral feeding is an important goal in the care of very low birth weight infants. In such infants, receipt of >/=50 mL/kg per day human milk during hospitalization has been associated with shorter time to full enteral feeding. The objective of this study was to determine whether high proportions (>/=50%) of human milk during feeding advancement are associated with shorter time to full enteral feeding and improved feeding tolerance. This was a prospective cohort study of very low birth weight infants (n = 127) who were grouped into low (/=50%; n = 93) human milk consumption groups according to their human milk proportion of enteral feeding during the time of feeding advancement. The primary outcomes of interest were ages at which 100 and 150 mL/kg per day enteral feedings were achieved. The high human milk group reached 100 mL/kg per day enteral feeding 4.5 days faster than the low human milk group. The high human milk group reached 150 mL/kg per day enteral feeding 5 days faster than the low human milk group. After adjustment for gestational age, gender, and respiratory distress syndrome, times to reach 100 and 150 mL/kg per day were significantly shorter for those in the high human milk group. Infants in the high human milk group had a greater number of stools per day; other indicators of feeding tolerance were not statistically different. In infants who weighed milk was associated with fewer days to full enteral feedings.

  14. Assessment of soil hydrology variability of a new weighing lysimeter facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S. E.; Wagner-Riddle, C.; Berg, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    Diversifying annual crop rotations is a strategy that mimics natural ecosystems and is postulated to increase agricultural resilience to climate change, soil quality and provision of soil ecosystem services. However, diverse cropping systems could increase soil mineral N levels and lead to greater leaching and/or N2O emissions; which raises the questions: (i) are diverse cropping systems actually beneficial for air and water quality? (ii) what are the trade-offs between soil, water, and air quality upon implementing a diverse cropping rotation? It can be difficult to fully evaluate the interactions between the two N-pollution pathways simultaneously in traditional field studies as drainage is largely unconstrained. Weighing lysimeters solve this issue by providing a closed system to measure N outputs via drainage and soil gas fluxes. A set of 18 weighting lysimeters were installed in Elora, Ontario, Canada in May 2016, to establish a long-term study of N-leaching and greenhouse gas emission from traditional and diverse cropping rotations for two different soil types. Each lysimeter is equipped with an automated chamber for continuous measurement of soil N2O and CO2 fluxes. A full characterization of variations of physical properties that may affect GHG emissions and N-leaching (e.g., soil temperature, moisture, drainage and evapotranspiration rates) amongst the lysimeters is required prior to application and assessment of the management treatments. Novel techniques such as wavelet analysis is required as standard statistical analyses are not applicable to the time series data. A full description of the lysimeters will be presented along with results of the characterization.

  15. Behavioural problems in children who weigh 1000 g or less at birth in four countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hille, E T; den Ouden, A L; Saigal, S; Wolke, D; Lambert, M; Whitaker, A; Pinto-Martin, J A; Hoult, L; Meyer, R; Feldman, J F; Verloove-Vanhorick, S P; Paneth, N

    2001-05-26

    The increased survival chances of extremely low-birthweight (ELBW) infants (weighing cultural comparisons are lacking. Our aim was to compare behavioural problems in ELBW children of similar ages from four countries. We prospectively studied 408 ELBW children aged 8-10 years, whose parents completed the child behaviour checklist. The children came from the Netherlands, Germany, Canada, and USA. The checklist provides a total problem score consisting of eight narrow-band scales. Of these, two (aggressive and delinquent behaviour) give a broad-band externalising score, three (anxious, somatic, and withdrawn behaviour) give a broad-band internalising score, and three (social, thought, and attention problems) indicate difficulties fitting neither broad-band dimension. For each cohort we analysed scores in ELBW children and those in normal- birthweight controls (two cohorts) or national normative controls (two cohorts). Across countries, we assessed deviations of the ELBW children from normative or control groups. ELBW children had higher total problem scores than normative or control children, but this increase was only significant in European countries. Narrow-band scores were raised only for the social, thought, and attention difficulty scales, which were 0.5-1.2 SD higher in ELBW children than in others. Except for the increase in internalising scores recorded for one cohort, ELBW children did not differ from normative or control children on internalising or externalising scales. Despite cultural differences, types of behavioural problems seen in ELBW children were very similar in the four countries. This finding suggests that biological mechanisms contribute to behavioural problems of ELBW children.

  16. Gaseous and particulate composition of fresh and aged emissions of diesel, RME and CNG buses using Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psichoudaki, Magda; Le Breton, Michael; Hallquist, Mattias; Watne, Ågot; Hallquist, Asa

    2016-04-01

    Urban air pollution is becoming a significant global problem, especially for large cities around the world. Traffic emissions contribute significantly to both elevated particle concentrations and to gaseous pollutants in cities. The latter also have the potential of forming more particulate mass via their photochemical oxidation in the atmosphere. The International Agency for Research on Cancer and the US EPA have characterised diesel exhausts as a likely human carcinogen that can also contribute to other health problems. In order to meet the challenges with increased transportation and enhanced greenhouse gas emissions, the European Union have decided on a 10% substitution of traditional fuels in the road transport sector by alternative fuels (e.g. biodiesel, CNG) before the year 2020. However, it is also important to study the influence of fuel switches on other primary pollutants as well as the potential to form secondary aerosol mass. This work focuses on the characterisation of the chemical composition of the gas and the condensed phase of fresh bus emissions during acceleration, in order to mimic the exhaust plume that humans would inhale under realistic conditions. In addition, photochemical aging of the exhaust emissions was achieved by employing a Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM) flow reactor, allowing the characterization of the composition of the corresponding aged emissions. The PAM reactor uses UV lamps and high concentrations of oxidants (OH radicals and O3) to oxidize the organic species present in the chamber. The oxidation that takes place within the reactor can be equivalent to up to one week of atmospheric oxidation. Preliminary tests showed that the oxidation employed in these measurements corresponded to a range from 4 to 8 days in the atmosphere. During June and July 2015, a total of 29 buses, 5 diesel, 13 CNG and 11 RME (rapeseed methyl ester), were tested in two different locations with limited influence from other types of emissions and traffic

  17. FFTF/IEM [Fast Flux Test Facility/Interim Examination and Maintenance] cell fuel pin weighing system: Remote maintenance design considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, P.W.

    1986-06-01

    A Fuel Pin Weighing Machine has been developed for use in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) Interim Examination and Maintenance (IEM) Cell to assist in identifying an individual breached fuel pin from its fuel assembly pin bundle. Optimum configuration for remote maintenance was a major consideration in the design of each element of the Pin Weighing System

  18. School bus travel is associated with bullying victimization among Canadian male, but not female, middle and high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Hamilton, Hayley A; Larouche, Richard

    2016-08-01

    Previous research has found a link between active school transportation and bullying victimization among school-aged children. However, the link with other school travel modes (such as car, school bus, and public transportation) and bullying victimization is largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between school travel mode and report of bullying victimization among Canadian middle and high school students. The sample consisted of 5065 students aged 11-20 years (mean age: 15.2±1.9 years; 56% females) who participated in the 2013 Ontario Students Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS). Overall, 24.7% of students reported school bullying victimization in the past year. Females (27.2%) were more likely than males (22.3%) to be victims of school bullying (ptravel to (adjusted odd ratio (OR)=1.83; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.25-2.68) and from (OR=1.79; 95% CI=1.70-2.67) school was associated with greater odds of bullying victimization among males, but not females. However, the use of public transportation to get to school was associated with lower odds of bullying victimization compared to active transportation among females only (OR=0.59; 95% CI=0.36-0.97). These findings suggest that school travel mode should be considered when considering risks for bullying victimization. Bullying prevention efforts should target school buses to make children's commute a safe and enjoyable experience. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Weighing in on Education: A Study of Childhood Obesity and Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guindon, John R., Sr.

    2014-01-01

    This quantitative causal comparative study looked to see if there was a relationship between childhood obesity and student achievement. Because of the many conflicting results in the research available, it was not known if there was a relationship between childhood obesity and student achievement among inner-city middle school students in a school…

  20. Validation of a Dietary History Questionnaire against a 7-D Weighed Record for Estimating Nutrient Intake among Rural Elderly Malays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahar, S; Earland, J; Abdulrahman, S

    2000-03-01

    Energy and nutrient intake estimated using a pre-coded dietary history questionnaire (DHQ) was compared with results obtained from a 7-d weighed intake record (WI) in a group of 37 elderly Malays residing in rural areas of Mersing District, Johor, Malaysia to determine the validity of the DHQ. The DHQ consists of a pre-coded dietary history with a qualitative food frequency questionnaire which was developed to obtain information on food intake and usual dietary habits. The 7-d WI requires subjects to weigh each food immediately before eating and to weigh any leftovers. The medians of intake from the two methods were rather similar and varied by less than 30% for every nutrient, except for vitamin C (114%). For most of the nutrients, analysis of group means using the Wilcoxon matched pairs signed rank sum test showed no significant difference between the estimation of intake from the DHQ and from the WI, with the exceptions of vitamin C and niacin. The DHQ significantly overestimated the intake of vitamin C compared to the WI (ppopulation with a high prevalence of illiteracy, a specially designed DHQ can provide very similar estimations to that obtained from 7-d WI.

  1. Spatial and temporal variations in traffic-related particulate matter at New York City high schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Molini M.; Chillrud, Steven N.; Correa, Juan C.; Feinberg, Marian; Hazi, Yair; Deepti, K. C.; Prakash, Swati; Ross, James M.; Levy, Diane; Kinney, Patrick L.

    Relatively little is known about exposures to traffic-related particulate matter at schools located in dense urban areas. The purpose of this study was to examine the influences of diesel traffic proximity and intensity on ambient concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) and black carbon (BC), an indicator of diesel exhaust particles, at New York City (NYC) high schools. Outdoor PM 2.5 and BC were monitored continuously for 4-6 weeks at each of 3 NYC schools and 1 suburban school located 40 km upwind of the city. Traffic count data were obtained using an automated traffic counter or video camera. BC concentrations were 2-3 fold higher at urban schools compared with the suburban school, and among the 3 urban schools, BC concentrations were higher at schools located adjacent to highways. PM 2.5 concentrations were significantly higher at urban schools than at the suburban school, but concentrations did not vary significantly among urban schools. Both hourly average counts of trucks and buses and meteorological factors such as wind direction, wind speed, and humidity were significantly associated with hourly average ambient BC and PM 2.5 concentrations in multivariate regression models. An increase of 443 trucks/buses per hour was associated with a 0.62 μg/m 3 increase in hourly average BC at an NYC school located adjacent to a major interstate highway. Car traffic counts were not associated with BC. The results suggest that local diesel vehicle traffic may be important sources of airborne fine particles in dense urban areas and consequently may contribute to local variations in PM 2.5 concentrations. In urban areas with higher levels of diesel traffic, local, neighborhood-scale monitoring of pollutants such as BC, which compared to PM 2.5, is a more specific indicator of diesel exhaust particles, may more accurately represent population exposures.

  2. Research on the Influence of Weighing Accuracy Caused by the Position of Tension Wheel on the Electronic Belt-Conveyor Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Zhang, Hu; Song, Qiuzhi

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a Single- Idler electronic belt-conveyor scale is the Object of study. The contact force between the belt and the supporting roller is calculated by the finite element analysis software ABAQUS. The relationship between the tension distance of the tension wheel and the contact force between the belt and the weighing roller is obtained. The best stretching distance is found through analysis. And the conclusion which is the weighing error is different at the same stretching distance but the different weight of material is obtained. A compensation mechanism is proposed to improve the weighing accuracy.

  3. Development and demonstration of use of methane/hydrogen blends as fuel in existing methane-driven buses; Utveckling och demonstration av anvaendning av metan/vaetgasblandningar som braensle i befintliga metangasdrivna bussar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joensson, Owe

    2006-10-15

    Two natural gas buses in Malmoe have in a project been converted to run on mixtures of hydrogen and natural gas. The buses have been in operation from September 2003 to December 2005 and have during the whole extent of the project been in commercial operation with passengers. One bus has been refuelled with a mixture containing 8% hydrogen and another with 25% hydrogen. One of the buses has during limited periods been refuelled with natural gas in order to establish differences in fuel consumption between the different fuels. A number of different supporting activities have been performed in conjunction to the project: Tests at the Lund Univ. with hydrogen addition to natural gas in a one cylinder test engine and in a 6 cylinder natural gas engine. Safety analysis for handling of hydrogen/natural gas blends. Hydrogen compatibility study of material and components in bus fuel system. Test of leak detection systems for hydrogen and hydrogen/natural gas blends. Development of safety routines for operation and maintenance staff. Emission measurement during road operation with mobile equipment. Follow up of filling station for hydrogen/natural gas blends. The results from the projects are: The buses did not need to be modified in any way in order to run on mixtures with up to 8 vol-% hydrogen. The buses could, in less than 4 h, be modified to run on mixtures with 25 vol-% hydrogen. The conversion was accomplished by changing one computer chip in the engine control system, thus altering the air/fuel ratio and adjusting the ignition angle. The fuel consumption of the buses was reduced by 20-30% by hydrogen addition. The largest relative influence was achieved with 8% hydrogen addition. The reduced fuel consumption in combination with reduced carbon content in the fuel resulted in a total reduction in CO{sub 2}-emission by approximately 35% using 8% hydrogen (by volume). Addition of hydrogen to natural gas has thus proved to be a more efficient way of reducing CO{sub 2

  4. Human-milk intake measured by administration of deuterium oxide to the mother: a comparison with the test-weighing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butte, N.F.; Wong, W.W.; Patterson, B.W.; Garza, C.; Klein, P.D.

    1988-01-01

    A comparison was made between the dose-to-the-mother deuterium-dilution method and the conventional test-weighing technique for determining human-milk intake in five exclusively breast-fed infants and in four breast-fed infants who received supplemental foods. After administration of 2 H to the mothers human milk and infant urine were sampled over 14 d and analyzed for 2 H: 1 H ratios by gas-isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. Infant total body water was determined by 18 O dilution. The test-weighing procedure was conducted for 5 d consecutively. The intake of human milk (mean +/- SD) estimated by 2 H dilution was 648 +/- 63 g/d and estimated by test-weighing was 636 +/- 84 g/d. The mean difference between the two methods was not significantly different from 0. The 2 H-dilution and test-weighing techniques provide similar estimates of human-milk intake

  5. Prevalence of pre-diabetes, diabetes, pre-hypertension, and hypertension in children weighing more than normal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priti Phatale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Prevalence of pre-diabetes, diabetes, pre-hypertension (pre-HT, and hypertension (HT in children weighing more than normal. Materials and Methods: Three- to eighteen-year old children weighing more than normal were included. Pathological short children were excluded. According to Centre for Disease Control (CDC, children are grouped into overweight (OW and obese (OB. Indian B.P. reference tables are used for defining HT and pre-HT. [2] HbA1c by HPLC (BIO RAD method was used to define pre-diabetes and diabetes. [3] Children with HbA1c ≥6.5 were subjected for Glucose Tolerance Test (GTT. C-peptide assay was done to rule out (r/o IDDM. Observations: When we compare this with our earlier presentation at PEDICON 2011, we found that hypertension (HTN (22.9% vs. 23.07% is not significantly different but pre-HTN (28.09% vs. 33.9%, pre-diabetes mellitus (pre-DM (3.7% vs. 64.3%, and diabetes mellitus (DM (0.35% vs. 3.8% are significantly high in this study. Conclusion: (1 Prevalence of HT (22.90% vs. 23.07% is similar in both groups but pre-HT (33.9% vs. 28.09% is high in this study. (2 Significant rise in prevalence of diabetes (3.84% vs. 0.35% and pre-diabetes (64.33% vs. 3.7% is seen in this study. (3 This change is because of using HbA1c as screening tool in children weighing more than normal.

  6. Attributional and consequential environmental assessment of using waste cooking oil- and poultry fat-based biodiesel blends in urban buses: a real-world operation condition study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rajaeifar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Urban public transportation sector in general is heavily dependent on fossil-oriented fuels, e.g., diesel. Given the fact that a major proportion of urban pollution and the consequent threats towards public health are attributed to this sector, serious efforts at both technical and political levels have been being made to introduce less-polluting fueling regimes, e.g., partial replacement of diesel with biodiesel. In line with that, the present study was aimed at evaluating the emissions attributed to 5% blends of waste cooking oil (WCO and poultry fat (PF biodiesel fuels (i.e., B5-WCO and B5-PF fuel blends when used in urban buses during idle operation mode. Moreover, the attributional and consequential environmental impacts of using these fuel blends were also investigated through a well to wheel life cycle assessment (LCA by considering the real-world condition combustion data using ten urban buses. The findings of the ALCA revealed that the application of 1 L B5-WCO fuel blend could potentially reduce the environmental burdens in human health, ecosystem quality, and resources damage categories compared with using the B5-PF fuel blend. The situation was opposite for climate change damage category in which using 1 L B5-PF fuel blend had a lower impact on the environment. Overall, the environmental hotspots in the B5-WCO and B5-PF life cycles were identified as the combustion stage as well as the diesel production and transportation. From the consequential perspective, using 1 L B5-WCO fuel blend could potentially decrease the environmental burdens in human health, ecosystem quality, and resources damage categories. While, the situation was different for climate change damage category where using 1 L B5-PF fuel blend could have a lower impact on the environment. In conclusion, using B5-WCO fuel blend as an alternative for diesel could be an environmentally-friendly decision for the Iranian urban transportation sector at the policy level as long

  7. School bus’s level of service in Malang City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariyani, S.

    2017-06-01

    School Bus began operated on the 12th of January 2015. Provision of school buses is expected to reduce not only the use of vehicles by students, but it is also to reduce the number of traffic jams. Malang school bus facilities provided by the Department of Transport in cooperation with the Department of Education to serve students in elementary school, junior and senior high schools. After the service running two years, based on the preliminary observation not all students are interested in using the school bus. The research objective was to measure the school bus’s level service. The method to measure school bus’s level of service was used Importance Performance analysis (IPA). The results showed that through IPA, it can be concluded that school bus’s level of service in Malang City have been able to serve students/customers with the mean of degree suitability (Tki) is 111. Meanwhile it must be observed and get more attention to improve by government, attributes which is lies in the first quadrant or concentrate here (attribute Adequate space, Seating capacity, Availability trash can, Passenger facility down in points, The availability of information boards in each bus stop, Availability public telephone in each bus stop, and Availability CCTV in each bus), in order to increase its performance.

  8. The analysis of overloaded trucks in indonesia based on weigh in motion data (east of sumatera national road case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihanny Jongga

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Overloaded trucks phenomena generally common in developing countries where the traffic control is poor. In Indonesia, the percentage of overloaded trucks can reach more than 60% in the total number of trucks and may be one of the substantial factors that reduce the service life of the road pavements. This paper presents the analysis results of the weigh in motion survey data at East of Sumatera National Road (Jalintim in Indonesia and the impact of overloaded trucks on the pavement. For the analysis the simplified approach was used, the axle loads were converted into representative single-axle loads based on 4th power formula by AASHTO 1993 equation. The vehicle damage factor of vehicles is presented and will be compared with the Highways National Standard to estimate the remaining service life of pavement and IRI value prediction. The analysis showed that the vehicle damage factor that determined from weigh in motion data is extremely greater than vehicle damage factor of the national standard in Indonesia which may lead to accelerated deterioration, reducing the service life of the pavement structures and significantly influence the IRI value.

  9. New portal axle for low-floor electric-powered city buses; Neue Portalachse fuer Niederflur-Stadtbusse mit E-Antrieb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Axel Michael [ZF Friedrichshafen AG, Friedrichshafen (Germany); Solka, Ulrich [ZF Passau GmbH, Passau (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Serial hybrid systems do have due to the very distinctive intra-urban driving cycles and the low average speeds in city bus applications very good technical characteristics regarding reduction of emissions and fuel consumption. Hence, in comparison to passenger car applications this technical solution has found a wide spreading in the field of city busses. This contribution describes the essential characteristics of the new-developed, electrically driven low floor portal axle AVE 130 for city buses from ZF. Beside the main features of the mechanical constructive assembly, the qualities of the electric drive with the features of the specifically developed asynchronous electrical machines are shown. Another main focus forms the description of the system characteristics of a city bus, which is equipped with a serial hybrid system and the new electrical portal axle. On this occasion, traction performances, aggregate arrangement, weight balances and the interaction of the components in the electrical driveline are discussed. Finally the results of simulation calculations regarding the fuel saving potential in such systems round the paper out. (orig.)

  10. Desien, ConstruThe design, fabrication and evaluation of egg weighing device using capacitive sensor and neural networksction and Evaluation of Egg Weighing Device Using Capacitive Sensor and Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Khalili

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Grading agricultural products always has a particular important position for submission to domestic and overseas markets. The grading causes more profitable product ranges and customer satisfaction. Grading treatment is carried out based on various parameters such as color, ripeness level, dimensions and weight. Product weight is one of the most effective parameters in grading operation. Egg weight is directly related to the smallness and coarseness of eggs. In egg grading, the largeness value is very important in marketing. This research aimed to design, fabricate and evaluate the egg weighing system based on its dielectric properties. Materials and Methods: To perform this research, the stages of work are divided into several sections including, design and construction of the hardware section, writing code for the software section to collect data, conducting nondestructive tests and data collection, analysis of obtained data using artificial intelligence, and giving the results of analysis for device calibration of the system as the software code. The large eggs as dielectric substances cause more increase in the capacity of the capacitive sensor. Furthermore, by derivation of a relation between capacity of capacitive sensor and egg weight, one can predict the weight of the sample. A prototype unit of weighing system was designed and fabricated. The designed unit was composed of a chassis, a voltage source, a sinusoidal signal generator, a voltage measurement unit, an AVR micro controller, a COM port, a capacitive sensor, and an LCD and a keyboard. Neural network technique was used for egg weight prediction. The designed net receives 16 voltage values at different frequencies as inputs and its output is the egg weight. In order to calibrate and evaluate the weighing unit, 150 fresh egg samples were provided on egg laying day from a local poultry farm. Experiments were divided into three groups. The experiments were carried out on

  11. Comparative analysis of objective techniques for criteria weighing in two MCDM methods on example of an air conditioner selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujičić Momčilo D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with comparative analysis of two different types of objective techniques for criteria weighing: Entropy and CRITIC and two MCDM methods: MOORA and SAW on example of an air conditioner selection. We used six variants for calculation of normalized performance ratings. Results showed that the decision of the best air conditioner was basically independent of the MCDM method used, despite the applied technique for determination of criteria weights. Complete ranking within all of the combinations of methods and techniques with diverse ratio calculation variants showed that the best ranked air conditioner was A7, while the worst ones were A5 and A9. Significant positive correlation was obtained for almost all the pairs of variants in all the combinations except for the MOORA - CRITIC combination with SAW - Entropy combination to have the highest correlations between variants (p < 0.01.

  12. A Mixed-Methods Evaluation of the Choose Less, Weigh Less Portion Size Health Marketing Campaign in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gase, Lauren N; Barragan, Noel C; Robles, Brenda; Leighs, Michael; Kuo, Tony

    2015-01-01

    To assess the impact of the Choose Less, Weigh Less portion size health marketing campaign. A mixed-methods, cross-sectional evaluation. A quantitative Internet panel survey was administered through an online sampling vendor and qualitative interviews were conducted by street intercept. The panel survey included 796 participants, weighted to represent Los Angeles County. Street intercept interviews were conducted with 50 other participants. The Choose Less, Weigh Less campaign included print media on transit shelters, bus and rail cars, and billboards; radio and online advertising; and Web site content and social media outreach. The panel survey measured self-reported campaign exposure and outcomes, including knowledge of recommended daily calorie limits, attitudes toward portion sizes, and intent to reduce calories and portion size. Intercept interviews assessed campaign appeal, clarity, and utility. Weighted survey data were analyzed using logistic regression to assess the association between campaign exposure and outcomes. Interview data were analyzed for themes. The campaign reached 19.7% of the Los Angeles County population. Significant differences were seen for 2 of the 10 outcomes assessed. Participants who saw the campaign were more likely than those who did not to report fast-food portion sizes as being too large (adjusted odds ratio [Adj. OR]: 1.89; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16, 3.07) and intention to choose a smaller portion (Adj. OR: 1.99; 95% CI: 1.20, 3.31). Qualitative data revealed three themes about appeal, clarity, and utility. Health marketing efforts targeting portion size can have relatively broad reach and limited but positive impacts on consumer attitudes and intent to select smaller portions.

  13. Challenges in device closure of a large patent ductus arteriosus in infants weighing less than 6 kg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayalakshmi, I B; Chitra, Narasimhan; Praveen, Jayan; Prasanna, Simha Rao

    2013-02-01

    Transcatheter closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) has replaced surgery in most institutions. Despite improvements in techniques and the devices available, closure of large PDA in very small infants remains a challenge. To assess the challenges, feasibility, and efficacy of device closure of large PDA, in infants weighing ≤6 kg. Analysis of device closure of a PDA was done in 61 infants ≤6 kg. Their ages, ranged from 9 days-12 months (mean 8.9 months), weight ranged from 2.2 to 6 kg (mean 5.3 kg), and PDA measured 3.2-8.7 mm (mean 4.8 mm). The fluoroscopy time was 3-18 minutes. The largest device used was 12 × 10 mm. Successful device placement was achieved in 60/61 infants (98.4%). Mild aortic obstruction occurred in 2 cases (3.3%), as the device got displaced towards the aorta after release. The device embolized in 2 cases (3.3%). In one it was retrieved by a novel method like fastening the screw in the aorta and was closed with a 4 × 6 ADO II. In the other infant, with a single kidney, died of uremia after device retrieval. Mild left pulmonary artery (LPA) obstruction occurred in one case (1.6%). Four cases (6.6%) had minor vascular complications. The postprocedure weight gain after 3 months was between 2.5 kg ± 250 mg. Device closure of large PDA in infants weighing ≤6 kg with left ventricular failure is challenging but possible, safe and effective. Retrieval of embolized device could be tricky. © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Commuter exposure to black carbon particles on diesel buses, on bicycles and on foot: a case study in a Brazilian city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targino, Admir Créso; Rodrigues, Marcos Vinicius C; Krecl, Patricia; Cipoli, Yago Alonso; Ribeiro, João Paulo M

    2018-01-01

    Commuting in urban environments accounts for a large fraction of the daily dose of inhaled air pollutants, especially in countries where vehicles have old technologies or run on dirty fuels. We measured black carbon (BC) concentrations during bus, walk and bicycle commutes in a Brazilian city and found a large spatial variability across the surveyed area, with median values between 2.5 and 12.0 μg m -3 . Traffic volume on roadways (especially the number of heavy-duty diesel vehicles), self-pollution from the bus tailpipe, number of stops along the route and displacement speed were the main drivers of air pollution on the buses. BC concentrations increased abruptly at or close to traffic signals and bus stops, causing in-cabin peaks as large as 60.0 μg m -3 . BC hotspots for the walk mode coincided with the locations of bus stops and traffic signals, whilst measurements along a cycle lane located 12 m from the kerb were less affected. The median BC concentrations of the two active modes were significantly lower than the concentrations inside the bus, with a bus/walk and bus/bicycle ratios of up to 6. However, the greater inhalation rates of cyclist and pedestrians yielded larger doses (2.6 and 3.5 μg on a 1.5-km commute), suggesting that the greater physical effort during the active commute may outweigh the reduction in exposure due to the shift from passive to active transport modes.

  15. Fatigue-related crashes involving express buses in Malaysia: will the proposed policy of banning the early-hour operation reduce fatigue-related crashes and benefit overall road safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Norlen; Mohd-Yusoff, Mohammad-Fadhli; Othman, Ilhamah; Zulkipli, Zarir-Hafiz; Osman, Mohd Rasid; Voon, Wong Shaw

    2012-03-01

    Fatigue-related crashes have long been the topic of discussion and study worldwide. The relationship between fatigue-related crashes and time of day is well documented. In Malaysia, the possibility of banning express buses from operating during the early-hours of the morning has emerged as an important consideration for passenger safety. This paper highlights the findings of an impact assessment study. The study was conducted to determine all possible impacts prior to the government making any decision on the proposed banning. This study is an example of a simple and inexpensive approach that may influence future policy-making process. The impact assessment comprised two major steps. The first step involved profiling existing operation scenarios, gathering information on crashes involving public express buses and stakeholders' views. The second step involved a qualitative impact assessment analysis using all information gathered during the profiling stage to describe the possible impacts. Based on the assessment, the move to ban early-hour operations could possibly result in further negative impacts on the overall road safety agenda. These negative impacts may occur if the fundamental issues, such as driving and working hours, and the need for rest and sleep facilities for drivers, are not addressed. In addition, a safer and more accessible public transportation system as an alternative for those who choose to travel at night would be required. The proposed banning of early-hour operations is also not a feasible solution for sustainability of express bus operations in Malaysia, especially for those operating long journeys. The paper concludes by highlighting the need to design a more holistic approach for preventing fatigue-related crashes involving express buses in Malaysia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The rational reconstruction of weighing and balancing on the basis of teleological-evaluative considerations in the justification of judicial decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feteris, E.T.

    2008-01-01

    In this contribution the author develops an argumentation model for the reconstruction of weighing and balancing on the basis of teleological-evaluative considerations. The model is intended as a heuristic and critical tool for the rational reconstruction of the justification of judicial decisions.

  17. A Novel Wireless Power Transfer-Based Weighed Clustering Cooperative Spectrum Sensing Method for Cognitive Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin

    2015-10-30

    In a cognitive sensor network (CSN), the wastage of sensing time and energy is a challenge to cooperative spectrum sensing, when the number of cooperative cognitive nodes (CNs) becomes very large. In this paper, a novel wireless power transfer (WPT)-based weighed clustering cooperative spectrum sensing model is proposed, which divides all the CNs into several clusters, and then selects the most favorable CNs as the cluster heads and allows the common CNs to transfer the received radio frequency (RF) energy of the primary node (PN) to the cluster heads, in order to supply the electrical energy needed for sensing and cooperation. A joint resource optimization is formulated to maximize the spectrum access probability of the CSN, through jointly allocating sensing time and clustering number. According to the resource optimization results, a clustering algorithm is proposed. The simulation results have shown that compared to the traditional model, the cluster heads of the proposed model can achieve more transmission power and there exists optimal sensing time and clustering number to maximize the spectrum access probability.

  18. Modelling Truck Weigh Stations’ Locations based on Truck Traffic Flow and Overweight Violation: A Case Study in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirsad Kulović

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The number of registered commercial freight vehicles is constantly increasing, increasing therefore as well the traffic load on the roads in Bosnia and Herzegovina. A significant part of freight vehicles moving along the main and regional roads are overloaded and cause significant damage to road infrastructure, affect road safety and result in an increase of emissions of harmful gases for people and the environment. The overloading rate is extremely high, in particular with 5-axle trucks representing 58.7%. The research showed that the increased overload level ranges from 10-20% of the maximum permissible weight. The importance of load limits was recognized early in the history of road development. This interrelation led directly to limitations on vehicle loads, and laws were enacted in many countries to establish the maximum allowable motor vehicle sizes and weights. Strict enforcement of motor vehicle size and weight laws is a step toward reducing motor vehicle size and weight violations, heavy truck accidents, and, even more, improving road maintenance, rehabilitation expenditures and road safety. Thus, based on the applied model the objective of this paper is to evaluate and optimize the locations of truck weigh stations on the road network of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  19. A Novel Wireless Power Transfer-Based Weighed Clustering Cooperative Spectrum Sensing Method for Cognitive Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In a cognitive sensor network (CSN, the wastage of sensing time and energy is a challenge to cooperative spectrum sensing, when the number of cooperative cognitive nodes (CNs becomes very large. In this paper, a novel wireless power transfer (WPT-based weighed clustering cooperative spectrum sensing model is proposed, which divides all the CNs into several clusters, and then selects the most favorable CNs as the cluster heads and allows the common CNs to transfer the received radio frequency (RF energy of the primary node (PN to the cluster heads, in order to supply the electrical energy needed for sensing and cooperation. A joint resource optimization is formulated to maximize the spectrum access probability of the CSN, through jointly allocating sensing time and clustering number. According to the resource optimization results, a clustering algorithm is proposed. The simulation results have shown that compared to the traditional model, the cluster heads of the proposed model can achieve more transmission power and there exists optimal sensing time and clustering number to maximize the spectrum access probability.

  20. Sampling optimization for high-speed weigh-in-motion measurements using in-pavement strain-based sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhiming; Huang, Ying; Bridgelall, Raj; Palek, Leonard; Strommen, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Weigh-in-motion (WIM) measurement has been widely used for weight enforcement, pavement design, freight management, and intelligent transportation systems to monitor traffic in real-time. However, to use such sensors effectively, vehicles must exit the traffic stream and slow down to match their current capabilities. Hence, agencies need devices with higher vehicle passing speed capabilities to enable continuous weight measurements at mainline speeds. The current practices for data acquisition at such high speeds are fragmented. Deployment configurations and settings depend mainly on the experiences of operation engineers. To assure adequate data, most practitioners use very high frequency measurements that result in redundant samples, thereby diminishing the potential for real-time processing. The larger data memory requirements from higher sample rates also increase storage and processing costs. The field lacks a sampling design or standard to guide appropriate data acquisition of high-speed WIM measurements. This study develops the appropriate sample rate requirements as a function of the vehicle speed. Simulations and field experiments validate the methods developed. The results will serve as guidelines for future high-speed WIM measurements using in-pavement strain-based sensors. (paper)

  1. Further miniaturisation of the Thermochron iButton to create a thermal bio-logger weighing 0.3 g.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virens, Josef; Cree, Alison

    2018-06-05

    Thermochron iButtons are commonly used by thermal biologists to continuously measure body temperature from animals. However, if unmodified, these devices are of a size that limits their use with very small animals. To allow iButtons to be used to study smaller species, methods to miniaturise them by 61% have been previously described. We present a method to reduce iButton mass by a further 71%. The modified devices have a shorter battery life, but the minimum size of vertebrates able to carry the devices is reduced from 28.9 g to 6.6 g, if the arbitrary, yet widely cited, maximum of 5% body mass for attached devices is adhered to. We demonstrate the application of our method by recording surface temperatures of captive and wild skinks and show that captive cockroaches weighing 0.8 g are also able to carry the device. We believe this to be the first time that temperature data have been recorded from an insect in this way. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Sampling optimization for high-speed weigh-in-motion measurements using in-pavement strain-based sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiming; Huang, Ying; Bridgelall, Raj; Palek, Leonard; Strommen, Robert

    2015-06-01

    Weigh-in-motion (WIM) measurement has been widely used for weight enforcement, pavement design, freight management, and intelligent transportation systems to monitor traffic in real-time. However, to use such sensors effectively, vehicles must exit the traffic stream and slow down to match their current capabilities. Hence, agencies need devices with higher vehicle passing speed capabilities to enable continuous weight measurements at mainline speeds. The current practices for data acquisition at such high speeds are fragmented. Deployment configurations and settings depend mainly on the experiences of operation engineers. To assure adequate data, most practitioners use very high frequency measurements that result in redundant samples, thereby diminishing the potential for real-time processing. The larger data memory requirements from higher sample rates also increase storage and processing costs. The field lacks a sampling design or standard to guide appropriate data acquisition of high-speed WIM measurements. This study develops the appropriate sample rate requirements as a function of the vehicle speed. Simulations and field experiments validate the methods developed. The results will serve as guidelines for future high-speed WIM measurements using in-pavement strain-based sensors.

  3. Mathematical evaluation of similarity factor using various weighing approaches on aceclofenac marketed formulations by model-independent method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, T G; Desai, J U; Nagda, C D; Gandhi, T R; Chotai, N P

    2008-01-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) guidance for industry on dissolution testing of immediate-release solid oral dosage forms describes that drug dissolution may be the rate limiting step for drug absorption in the case of low solubility/high permeability drugs (BCS class II drugs). US FDA Guidance describes the model-independent mathematical approach proposed by Moore and Flanner for calculating a similarity factor (f2) of dissolution across a suitable time interval. In the present study, the similarity factor was calculated on dissolution data of two marketed aceclofenac tablets (a BCS class II drug) using various weighing approaches proposed by Gohel et al. The proposed approaches were compared with a conventional approach (W = 1). On the basis of consideration of variability, preference is given in the order of approach 3 > approach 2 > approach 1 as approach 3 considers batch-to-batch as well as within-samples variability and shows best similarity profile. Approach 2 considers batch-to batch variability with higher specificity than approach 1.

  4. Urban air pollution in school-related microenvironments in Bogota, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Felipe Franco

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Particle-related pollution (PM10, PM2.5 and soot was measured in both indoor and outdoor microenvironments at four public elementary schools in Bogota, Colombia. Three of these schools were located alongside major urban roads in which different types of public transit systems are used (bus rapid transit system and conventional transit buses. The fourth school was located on a non-congested road (background school. Pollutant levels at schools situated on major-roads were higher than those found at the low-congestion-road school. Outdoor black carbon daily mean concentrations at the schools located near major roads were up to six times higher than those recorded at the background school. Mean particulate matter concentrations at schools near major roads were above international standards, suggesting that school-age children in Bogota are exposed to pollution levels that are considered to be harmful by environmental and public health authorities. Elevated indoor and outdoor pollutant concentrations documented in this study suggested that traffic has a direct impact on air quality regarding the schools’ characterised microenvironments.

  5. Counting and Weighing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf; Rezetko, Robert; Young, Ian

    2017-01-01

    The intuition of established scholars often holds them back from appreciating revolutionary advances in the understanding of how the biblical texts evolved and how to view their language in that context. Kuhn’s theory of paradigm shifts helps elucidate what is currently going on in our field. We...

  6. Students 'Weigh' Atmospheric Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporaloni, Marina

    1998-01-01

    Describes a procedure developed by students that measures the mass concentration of particles in a polluted urban atmosphere. Uses a portable fan and filters of various materials. Compares students' data with official data. (DDR)

  7. Weighing halo nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunney, D.

    2009-01-01

    Weak binding energy is one of the fundamental criteria characterizing the unique properties of nuclear halos. As such, it must be known with great accuracy and is best obtained through direct mass measurements. The global mass market is now a competitive one. Of the many investment vehicles, the Penning trap has emerged as providing the best rate of return and reliability. We examine mass-market trends, highlighting the recent cases of interest. We also hazard a prediction for the halo futures market. (author)

  8. Weighing the Smallest Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    VLT Finds Young, Very Low Mass Objects Are Twice As Heavy As Predicted Summary Thanks to the powerful new high-contrast camera installed at the Very Large Telescope, photos have been obtained of a low-mass companion very close to a star. This has allowed astronomers to measure directly the mass of a young, very low mass object for the first time. The object, more than 100 times fainter than its host star, is still 93 times as massive as Jupiter. And it appears to be almost twice as heavy as theory predicts it to be. This discovery therefore suggests that, due to errors in the models, astronomers may have overestimated the number of young "brown dwarfs" and "free floating" extrasolar planets. PR Photo 03/05: Near-infrared image of AB Doradus A and its companion (NACO SDI/VLT) A winning combination A star can be characterised by many parameters. But one is of uttermost importance: its mass. It is the mass of a star that will decide its fate. It is thus no surprise that astronomers are keen to obtain a precise measure of this parameter. This is however not an easy task, especially for the least massive ones, those at the border between stars and brown dwarf objects. Brown dwarfs, or "failed stars", are objects which are up to 75 times more massive than Jupiter, too small for major nuclear fusion processes to have ignited in its interior. To determine the mass of a star, astronomers generally look at the motion of stars in a binary system. And then apply the same method that allows determining the mass of the Earth, knowing the distance of the Moon and the time it takes for its satellite to complete one full orbit (the so-called "Kepler's Third Law"). In the same way, they have also measured the mass of the Sun by knowing the Earth-Sun distance and the time - one year - it takes our planet to make a tour around the Sun. The problem with low-mass objects is that they are very faint and will often be hidden in the glare of the brighter star they orbit, also when viewed in large telescopes. Astronomers have however found ways to overcome this difficulty. For this, they rely on a combination of a well-considered observational strategy with state-of-the-art instruments. High contrast camera First, astronomers searching for very low mass objects look at young nearby stars because low-mass companion objects will be brightest while they are young, before they contract and cool off. In this particular case, an international team of astronomers [1] led by Laird Close (Steward Observatory, University of Arizona), studied the star AB Doradus A (AB Dor A). This star is located about 48 light-years away and is "only" 50 million years old. Because the position in the sky of AB Dor A "wobbles", due to the gravitational pull of a star-like object, it was believed since the early 1990s that AB Dor A must have a low-mass companion. To photograph this companion and obtain a comprehensive set of data about it, Close and his colleagues used a novel instrument on the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope. This new high-contrast adaptive optics camera, the NACO Simultaneous Differential Imager, or NACO SDI [2], was specifically developed by Laird Close and Rainer Lenzen (Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy in Heidelberg, Germany) for hunting extrasolar planets. The SDI camera enhances the ability of the VLT and its adaptive optics system to detect faint companions that would normally be lost in the glare of the primary star. A world premiere ESO PR Photo 03/05 ESO PR Photo 03/05 Infrared image of AB Doradus A and its companion [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 406 pix - 99k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 812 pix - 235k] Caption: ESO PR Photo 03/05 is an enhanced, false-colour near-infrared image of AB Dor A and C. The faint companion "AB Dor C" - seen as the pink dot at 8 o'clock - is 120 times fainter than its primary star. The tiny separation between A and C, only 0.156 arcsec, is smaller than a one Euro coin seen at 20 km distance. Nevertheless, the new NACO SDI camera was able to distinguish it as a "redder" dot surrounded by the "bluer" light from AB Dor A. The orbit of AB Dor C around AB Dor A is shown as a yellow ellipse. It takes 11.75 years for the 93 Jupiter-mass companion to complete this orbit. Turning this camera towards AB Dor A in February 2004, they were able for the first time to image a companion so faint - 120 times fainter than its star - and so near its star. Says Markus Hartung (ESO), member of the team: "This world premiere was only possible because of the unique capabilities of the NACO SDI instrument on the VLT. In fact, the Hubble Space Telescope tried but failed to detect the companion, as it was too faint and too close to the glare of the primary star." The tiny distance between the star and the faint companion (0.156 arcsec) is the same as the width of a one Euro coin (2.3 cm) when seen 20 km away. The companion, called AB Dor C, was seen at a distance of 2.3 times the mean distance between the Earth and the Sun. It completes a cycle around its host star in 11.75 years on a rather eccentric orbit. Using the companion's exact location, along with the star's known 'wobble', the astronomers could then accurately determine the companion's mass. The object, more than 100 times fainter than its close primary star, has one tenth of the mass of its host star, i.e., it is 93 times more massive than Jupiter. It is thus slightly above the brown dwarf limit. Using NACO on the VLT, the astronomers further observed AB Dor C at near infrared wavelengths to measure its temperature and luminosity. "We were surprised to find that the companion was 400 degrees (Celsius) cooler and 2.5 times fainter than the most recent models predict for an object of this mass," Close said. "Theory predicts that this low-mass, cool object would be about 50 Jupiter masses. But theory is incorrect: this object is indeed between 88 to 98 Jupiter masses." These new findings therefore challenge current ideas about the brown dwarf population and the possible existence of widely publicized "free-floating" extrasolar planets. Indeed, if young objects hitherto identified as brown dwarfs are twice as massive as was thought, many must rather be low-mass stars. And objects recently identified as "free-floating" planets are in turn likely to be low-mass brown dwarfs. For Close and his colleagues, "this discovery will force astronomers to rethink what masses of the smallest objects produced in nature really are."

  9. Eat More, Weigh Less?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aim for a slow, steady weight loss by decreasing calorie intake while maintaining an adequate nutrient intake and increasing physical activity. You can cut calories without eating less nutritious ...

  10. Weighing the antiproton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayano, Ryugo S., E-mail: hayano@phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [University of Tokyo, Department of Physics (Japan)

    2013-03-15

    Antiprotonic helium is a metastable three-body neutral atom consisting of an antiproton, a helium nucleus and an electron, which we serendipitously discovered some 20 years ago. The antiproton, which normally annihilates within a few picoseconds when injected into matter, can be 'stored' in this system for up to several microseconds, and laser spectroscopy is possible within this time window. From the laser transition frequency, the antiproton-to-electron mass ratio can be deduced to high precision. Recent progress at CERN's antiproton decelerator (AD) will be discussed.

  11. Teaching Weight-Gravity and Gravitation in Middle School: Testing a New Instructional Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galili, Igal; Bar, Varda; Brosh, Yaffa

    2016-01-01

    This study deals with the school instruction of the concept of weight. The historical review reveals the major steps in changing weight definition reflecting the epistemological changes in physics. The latest change drawing on the operation of "weighing" has been not widely copied into physics education. We compared the older instruction…

  12. Teaching a New Conceptual Framework of Weight and Gravitation in Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Hana; Galili, Igal; Schur, Yaron

    2015-01-01

    Empirical studies have reported difficulties, confusion, and lack of understanding among students at all levels of instruction regarding the issue of weight--gravitation--weighing relationships. This study examined the impact of a new conceptual framework of weight, on a small group of 7th-grade students (N?=?14) in a middle school in Israel. This…

  13. Historic Schools: Renovation vs. Replacement & the Role of a Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Trust for Historic Preservation, Washington, DC.

    Weighing the pros and cons of renovating a historic neighborhood school or building a new one takes preservation "know-how," experience, and creativity. The potential for renovation is routinely dismissed without full consideration of the facts and long-term implications. Central to this decision-making process is the feasibility study,…

  14. Emissions of toxic pollutants from compressed natural gas and low sulfur diesel-fueled heavy-duty transit buses tested over multiple driving cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kado, Norman Y; Okamoto, Robert A; Kuzmicky, Paul A; Kobayashi, Reiko; Ayala, Alberto; Gebel, Michael E; Rieger, Paul L; Maddox, Christine; Zafonte, Leo

    2005-10-01

    The number of heavy-duty vehicles using alternative fuels such as compressed natural gas (CNG) and new low-sulfur diesel fuel formulations and equipped with after-treatment devices are projected to increase. However, few peer-reviewed studies have characterized the emissions of particulate matter (PM) and other toxic compounds from these vehicles. In this study, chemical and biological analyses were used to characterize the identifiable toxic air pollutants emitted from both CNG and low-sulfur-diesel-fueled heavy-duty transit buses tested on a chassis dynamometer over three transient driving cycles and a steady-state cruise condition. The CNG bus had no after-treatment, and the diesel bus was tested first equipped with an oxidation catalyst (OC) and then with a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF). Emissions were analyzed for PM, volatile organic compounds (VOCs; determined on-site), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and mutagenic activity. The 2000 model year CNG-fueled vehicle had the highest emissions of 1,3-butadiene, benzene, and carbonyls (e.g., formaldehyde) of the three vehicle configurations tested in this study. The 1998 model year diesel bus equipped with an OC and fueled with low-sulfur diesel had the highest emission rates of PM and PAHs. The highest specific mutagenic activities (revertants/microg PM, or potency) and the highest mutagen emission rates (revertants/mi) were from the CNG bus in strain TA98 tested over the New York Bus (NYB) driving cycle. The 1998 model year diesel bus with DPF had the lowest VOCs, PAH, and mutagenic activity emission. In general, the NYB driving cycle had the highest emission rates (g/mi), and the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) had the lowest emission rates for all toxics tested over the three transient test cycles investigated. Also, transient emissions were, in general, higher than steady-state emissions. The emissions of toxic compounds from an in-use CNG transit bus (without an oxidation

  15. Uncertainty in particle number modal analysis during transient operation of compressed natural gas, diesel, and trap-equipped diesel transit buses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmén, Britt A; Qu, Yingge

    2004-04-15

    The relationships between transient vehicle operation and ultrafine particle emissions are not well-known, especially for low-emission alternative bus technologies such as compressed natural gas (CNG) and diesel buses equipped with particulate filters/traps (TRAP). In this study, real-time particle number concentrations measured on a nominal 5 s average basis using an electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI) for these two bus technologies are compared to that of a baseline catalyst-equipped diesel bus operated on ultralow sulfur fuel (BASE) using dynamometer testing. Particle emissions were consistently 2 orders of magnitude lower for the CNG and TRAP compared to BASE on all driving cycles. Time-resolved total particle numbers were examined in terms of sampling factors identified as affecting the ability of ELPI to quantify the particulate matter number emissions for low-emitting vehicles such as CNG and TRAP as a function of vehicle driving mode. Key factors were instrument sensitivity and dilution ratio, alignment of particle and vehicle operating data, sampling train background particles, and cycle-to-cycle variability due to vehicle, engine, after-treatment, or driver behavior. In-cycle variability on the central business district (CBD) cycle was highest for the TRAP configuration, but this could not be attributed to the ELPI sensitivity issues observed for TRAP-IDLE measurements. Elevated TRAP emissions coincided with low exhaust temperature, suggesting on-road real-world particulate filter performance can be evaluated by monitoring exhaust temperature. Nonunique particle emission maps indicate that measures other than vehicle speed and acceleration are necessary to model disaggregated real-time particle emissions. Further testing on a wide variety of test cycles is needed to evaluate the relative importance of the time history of vehicle operation and the hysteresis of the sampling train/dilution tunnel on ultrafine particle emissions. Future studies should

  16. Food and beverage promotions in Minnesota secondary schools: secular changes, correlates, and associations with adolescents' dietary behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Davey, Cynthia S; Coombes, Brandon; Caspi, Caitlin; Kubik, Martha Y; Nanney, Marilyn S

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe promotions for unhealthy and healthy foods and beverages within Minnesota secondary schools from 2008 to 2012, and to examine associations with school-level coordination of environmental improvements and students' dietary behaviors. The Minnesota School Health Profiles and Minnesota Student Survey data were used along with National Center for Education Statistics data to conduct analyses accounting for school-level demographics. There was no significant improvement over time in the proportion of schools that banned advertising for unhealthy products in school buildings, on school grounds, on buses, or in publications. Whereas more than two thirds of schools had implemented strategies focused on the promotion of fruits/vegetables by 2012, only 37% labeled healthful foods with appealing names and just 17% used price incentives to encourage healthy choices. The number of stakeholders representing different roles on school health councils was positively correlated with implementation of healthy food and beverage promotion strategies. Little evidence was found to support an influence of in-school advertising bans or promotions on students' diets. Policy changes are needed to protect students from food and beverage advertising and additional opportunities exist to reduce disparities in the selection of healthy options at school. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  17. Computational methods using weighed-extreme learning machine to predict protein self-interactions with protein evolutionary information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ji-Yong; Zhang, Lei; Zhou, Yong; Zhao, Yu-Jun; Wang, Da-Fu

    2017-08-18

    Self-interactions Proteins (SIPs) is important for their biological activity owing to the inherent interaction amongst their secondary structures or domains. However, due to the limitations of experimental Self-interactions detection, one major challenge in the study of prediction SIPs is how to exploit computational approaches for SIPs detection based on evolutionary information contained protein sequence. In the work, we presented a novel computational approach named WELM-LAG, which combined the Weighed-Extreme Learning Machine (WELM) classifier with Local Average Group (LAG) to predict SIPs based on protein sequence. The major improvement of our method lies in presenting an effective feature extraction method used to represent candidate Self-interactions proteins by exploring the evolutionary information embedded in PSI-BLAST-constructed position specific scoring matrix (PSSM); and then employing a reliable and robust WELM classifier to carry out classification. In addition, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) approach is used to reduce the impact of noise. The WELM-LAG method gave very high average accuracies of 92.94 and 96.74% on yeast and human datasets, respectively. Meanwhile, we compared it with the state-of-the-art support vector machine (SVM) classifier and other existing methods on human and yeast datasets, respectively. Comparative results indicated that our approach is very promising and may provide a cost-effective alternative for predicting SIPs. In addition, we developed a freely available web server called WELM-LAG-SIPs to predict SIPs. The web server is available at http://219.219.62.123:8888/WELMLAG/ .

  18. Jeans that fit: weighing the mass of the Milky Way analogues in the ΛCDM universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafle, Prajwal R.; Sharma, Sanjib; Robotham, Aaron S. G.; Elahi, Pascal J.; Driver, Simon P.

    2018-04-01

    The spherical Jeans equation is a widely used tool for dynamical study of gravitating systems in astronomy. Here, we test its efficacy in robustly weighing the mass of Milky Way analogues, given they need not be in equilibrium or even spherical. Utilizing Milky Way stellar haloes simulated in accordance with Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmology by Bullock and Johnston and analysing them under the Jeans formalism, we recover the underlying mass distribution of the parent galaxy, within distance r/kpc ∈ [10, 100], with a bias of ˜ 12 per cent and a dispersion of ˜ 14 per cent. Additionally, the mass profiles of triaxial dark matter haloes taken from the SURFS simulation, within scaled radius 0.2 < r/rmax < 3, are measured with a bias of ˜ - 2.4 per cent and a dispersion of ˜ 10 per cent. The obtained dispersion is not because of Poisson noise due to small particle numbers as it is twice the later. We interpret the dispersion to be due to the inherent nature of the ΛCDM haloes, for example being aspherical and out-of-equilibrium. Hence, the dispersion obtained for stellar haloes sets a limit of about 12 per cent (after adjusting for random uncertainty) on the accuracy with which the mass profiles of the Milky Way-like galaxies can be reconstructed using the spherical Jeans equation. This limit is independent of the quantity and quality of the observational data. The reason for a non-zero bias is not clear, hence its interpretation is not obvious at this stage.

  19. Highly sensitive, reproducible and stable SERS substrate based on reduced graphene oxide/silver nanoparticles coated weighing paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Guina, E-mail: xiaoguina@shnu.edu.cn; Li, Yunxiang; Shi, Wangzhou; Shen, Leo; Chen, Qi; Huang, Lei, E-mail: leihuang@shnu.edu.cn

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • We developed a paper-based SERS substrate by gravure and inkjet printing methods. • The S-RGO/AgNPs comoposite structure had higher SERS activity than the pure AgNPs. • The Raman enhancement factor of S-RGO/AgNPs substrate was calculated to be 10{sup 9}. • The paper-based substrate exhibited good reproducibility and long-term stability. - Abstract: Paper-based surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates receive a great deal of attention due to low cost and high flexibility. Herein, we developed an efficient SERS substrate by gravure printing of sulfonated reduced graphene-oxide (S-RGO) thin film and inkjet printing of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on weighing paper successively. Malachite green (MG) and rhodamine 6G (R6G) were chosen as probe molecules to evaluate the enhanced performance of the fabricated SERS-active substrates. It was found that the S-RGO/AgNPs composite structure possessed higher enhancement ability than the pure AgNPs. The Raman enhancement factor of S-RGO/AgNPs was calculated to be as large as 10{sup 9}. The minimum detection limit for MG and R6G was down to 10{sup −7} M with good linear responses (R{sup 2} = 0.9996, 0.9983) range from 10{sup −4} M to 10{sup −7} M. In addition, the S-RGO/AgNPs exhibited good uniformity with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 7.90% measured by 572 points, excellent reproducibility with RSD smaller than 3.36%, and long-term stability with RSD less than 7.19%.

  20. Diet-related greenhouse gas emissions assessed by a food frequency questionnaire and validated using 7-day weighed food records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjörs, Camilla; Raposo, Sara E; Sjölander, Arvid; Bälter, Olle; Hedenus, Fredrik; Bälter, Katarina

    2016-02-09

    The current food system generates about 25 % of total greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE), including deforestation, and thereby substantially contributes to the warming of the earth's surface. To understand the association between food and nutrient intake and GHGE, we therefore need valid methods to assess diet-related GHGE in observational studies. Life cycle assessment (LCA) studies assess the environmental impact of different food items. We linked LCA data expressed as kg carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) per kg food product to data on food intake assessed by the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) Meal-Q and validated it against a 7-day weighed food record (WFR). 166 male and female volunteers aged 20-63 years completed Meal-Q and the WFR, and their food intake was linked to LCA data. The mean GHGE assessed with Meal-Q was 3.76 kg CO2e per day and person, whereas it was 5.04 kg CO2e using the WFR. The energy-adjusted and deattenuated Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients were 0.68 and 0.70, respectively. Moreover, compared to the WFR, Meal-Q provided a good ranking ability, with 90 % of the participants classified into the same or adjacent quartile according to their daily average CO2e. The Bland-Altman plot showed an acceptable level of agreement between the two methods and the reproducibility of Meal-Q was high. This is the first study validating the assessment of diet-related GHGE by a questionnaire. The results suggest that Meal-Q is a useful tool for studying the link between food habits and CO2e in future epidemiological studies.

  1. Weighing the value of memory loss in the surgical evaluation of left temporal lobe epilepsy: a decision analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akama-Garren, Elliot H; Bianchi, Matt T; Leveroni, Catherine; Cole, Andrew J; Cash, Sydney S; Westover, M Brandon

    2014-11-01

    Anterior temporal lobectomy is curative for many patients with disabling medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy, but carries an inherent risk of disabling verbal memory loss. Although accurate prediction of iatrogenic memory loss is becoming increasingly possible, it remains unclear how much weight such predictions should have in surgical decision making. Here we aim to create a framework that facilitates a systematic and integrated assessment of the relative risks and benefits of surgery versus medical management for patients with left temporal lobe epilepsy. We constructed a Markov decision model to evaluate the probabilistic outcomes and associated health utilities associated with choosing to undergo a left anterior temporal lobectomy versus continuing with medical management for patients with medically refractory left temporal lobe epilepsy. Three base-cases were considered, representing a spectrum of surgical candidates encountered in practice, with varying degrees of epilepsy-related disability and potential for decreased quality of life in response to post-surgical verbal memory deficits. For patients with moderately severe seizures and moderate risk of verbal memory loss, medical management was the preferred decision, with increased quality-adjusted life expectancy. However, the preferred choice was sensitive to clinically meaningful changes in several parameters, including quality of life impact of verbal memory decline, quality of life with seizures, mortality rate with medical management, probability of remission following surgery, and probability of remission with medical management. Our decision model suggests that for patients with left temporal lobe epilepsy, quantitative assessment of risk and benefit should guide recommendation of therapy. In particular, risk for and potential impact of verbal memory decline should be carefully weighed against the degree of disability conferred by continued seizures on a patient-by-patient basis. Wiley

  2. [School meals: planning, production, distribution, and adequacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Raquel Carvalho; Moraes, Letícia Freitas; Francisco, Raquel Rocha Jabour; dos Santos, Luana Caroline; dos Anjos, Adriana Fernandez Versiani; Pereira, Simone Cardoso Lisboa

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the planning, production, distribution, and nutritional adequacy of meals served at city schools. This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted between March 2011 and April 2012 and included a representative sample (n = 42 schools) of extended shift city schools from Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Five meals from each school were randomly selected and analyzed by direct weighing. Production indicators and nutritional adequacy were evaluated in contrast to the recommendations of the city food security bureau and the Brazilian National Program of School Meals (PNAE). Seventy-nine percent of the analyzed meals did not meet the recommendations of the city food security bureau. The rate of waste (food left on plates) was acceptable at 4,90%, but the rates of cooked and not served food (7,06%) and counter leftovers (5,30%) were high. Both the city planned meals and the meals served in the schools were nutritionally inadequate in terms of the PNAE, particularly for children aged 11-15 years. There was a relationship between consumption by school staff and the amount of food that was cooked (r = 0.353; P planning, production, and distribution of school meals and of food and nutrition education in order to improve the quality of food and to reduce waste in schools.

  3. Food and beverage promotions in Minnesota secondary schools: secular changes, correlates, and associations with adolescents’ dietary behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Davey, Cynthia S.; Coombes, Brandon; Caspi, Caitlin; Kubik, Martha Y.; Nanney, Marilyn S.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to describe promotions for unhealthy and healthy foods and beverages within Minnesota secondary schools from 2008 to 2012, and to examine associations with school-level coordination of environmental improvements and students’ dietary behaviors. METHODS The Minnesota School Health Profiles and Minnesota Student Survey data were used along with National Center for Education Statistics data to conduct analyses accounting for school-level demographics. RESULTS There was no significant improvement over time in the proportion of schools that banned advertising for unhealthy products in school buildings, on school grounds, on buses, or in publications. Whereas more than two-thirds of schools had implemented strategies focused on the promotion of fruits/vegetables by 2012, only 37% labeled healthful foods with appealing names and just 17% used price incentives to encourage healthy choices. The number of stakeholders representing different roles on school health councils was positively correlated with implementation of healthy food and beverage promotion strategies. Little evidence was found to support an influence of in-school advertising bans or promotions on students’ diets. CONCLUSIONS Policy changes are needed to protect students from food and beverage advertising and additional opportunities exist to reduce disparities in the selection of healthy options at school. PMID:25388594

  4. Percutaneous closure of a large patent ductus arteriosus in a preterm newborn weighing 1400 g without using arterial sheath: an innovative technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Gaurav; Garg, Vishal; Prakash, Amit

    2018-03-01

    Percutaneous closure of patent ductus arteriosus is well established in infants weighing >5 kg, but data regarding outcome of preterm especially very low birth weight infants is minimal. Although surgical ligation of patent ductus arteriosus is the preferred and well-accepted modality of treatment after failure of drug therapy in preterm infants, it has also got its own demerits in such a small and fragile subset. Device closure in infants weighing closure of large patent ductus arteriosus. Percutaneous closure of patent ductus arteriosus was done successfully and the infant was discharged on room air with a weight of 1.8 kg. We present here an innovative technique in which successful patent ductus arteriosus device closure was done in a 1.4-kg infant without using arterial sheath.

  5. Community based weighing of newborns and use of mobile phones by village elders in rural settings in Kenya: a decentralised approach to health care provision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisore Peter

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying every pregnancy, regardless of home or health facility delivery, is crucial to accurately estimating maternal and neonatal mortality. Furthermore, obtaining birth weights and other anthropometric measurements in rural settings in resource limited countries is a difficult challenge. Unfortunately for the majority of infants born outside of a health care facility, pregnancies are often not recorded and birth weights are not accurately known. Data from the initial 6 months of the Maternal and Neonatal Health (MNH Registry Study of the Global Network for Women and Children's Health study area in Kenya revealed that up to 70% of newborns did not have exact weights measured and recorded by the end of the first week of life; nearly all of these infants were born outside health facilities. Methods To more completely obtain accurate birth weights for all infants, regardless of delivery site, village elders were engaged to assist in case finding for pregnancies and births. All elders were provided with weighing scales and mobile phones as tools to assist in subject enrollment and data recording. Subjects were instructed to bring the newborn infant to the home of the elder as soon as possible after birth for weight measurement. The proportion of pregnancies identified before delivery and the proportion of births with weights measured were compared before and after provision of weighing scales and mobile phones to village elders. Primary outcomes were the percent of infants with a measured birth weight (recorded within 7 days of birth and the percent of women enrolled before delivery. Results The recorded birth weight increased from 43 ± 5.7% to 97 ± 1.1. The birth weight distributions between infants born and weighed in a health facility and those born at home and weighed by village elders were similar. In addition, a significant increase in the percent of subjects enrolled before delivery was found. Conclusions Pregnancy

  6. Semiportable load-cell-based weighing system prototype of 18.14-metric-ton (20-ton) capacity for UF6 cylinder weight verifications: description and testing procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAuley, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    The 18.14-metric-ton-capacity (20-ton) Load-Cell-Based Weighing System (LCBWS) prototype tested at the Oak Ridge (Tennessee) Gaseous Diffusion Plant March 20-30, 1984, is semiportable and has the potential for being highly accurate. Designed by Brookhaven National Laboratory, it can be moved to cylinders for weighing as opposed to the widely used operating philosophy of most enrichment facilities of moving cylinders to stationary accountability scales. Composed mainly of commercially available, off-the-shelf hardware, the system's principal elements are two load cells that sense the weight (i.e., force) of a uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) cylinder suspended from the LCBWS while the cylinder is in the process of being weighed. Portability is achieved by its attachment to a double-hook, overhead-bridge crane. The LCBWS prototype is designed to weigh 9.07- and 12.70-metric ton (10- and 14-ton) UF 6 cylinders. A detailed description of the LCBWS is given, design information and criteria are supplied, a testing procedure is outlined, and initial test results are reported. A major objective of the testing is to determine the reliability and accuracy of the system. Other testing objectives include the identification of (1) potential areas for system improvements and (2) procedural modifications that will reflect an improved and more efficient system. The testing procedure described includes, but is not limited to, methods that account for temperature sensitivity of the instrumentation, the local variation in the acceleration due to gravity, and buoyance effects. Operational and safety considerations are noted. A preliminary evaluation of the March test data indicates that the LCBWS prototype has the potential to have an accuracy in the vicinity of 1 kg

  7. A MultiFactorial Risk Score to weigh toxicities and co-morbidities relative to costs of antiretrovirals in a cohort of HIV-infected patients

    OpenAIRE

    M Tontodonati; F Sozio; F Vadini; E Polilli; T Ursini; G Calella; P Di Stefano; E Mazzotta; A Costantini; C D'Amario; G Parruti

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the study: Considering costs of antiretrovirals (ARVs) for HIV patients is increasingly needed. A simple and comprehensive tool weighing comorbidities and ARV-related toxicities could be useful to judge the appropriateness of use of more expensive drugs. We conceived a MultiFactorial Risk Score (MFRS) to evaluate the appropriateness of ARVs prescription relative to their costs. Methods: HIV patients were consecutively enrolled in 2010-2011. We considered socio-demographic character...

  8. Effectiveness of vehicle weight enforcement in a developing country using weigh-in-motion sorting system considering vehicle by-pass and enforcement capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Rehan Karim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle overloading has been identified as one of the major contributors to road pavement damage in Malaysia. In this study, the weigh-in-motion (WIM system has been used to function as a vehicle weight sorting tool to complement the exsiting static weigh bridge enforcement station. Data collected from the developed system is used to explore the effectiveness of using WIM system in terms of generating more accurate data for enforcement purposes and at the same time improving safety and reducing the number of vehicle weight violations on the roads. This study specifically focus on the effect of vehicle by-pass and static weigh station enforcement capability on the overall effectiveness of vehicle weight enforcement system in a developing country. Results from this study suggest that the WIM system will significantly enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of the current vehicle weight enforcement, thus generating substantial revenue that would greatly off-set the current road maintenance budget that comes from tax payers money. If there is substantial reduction in overloaded vehicles, the public will still gain through reduction in road maintenance budget, less accident risks involving heavy trucks, and lesser greenhouse gases (GHGs emissions.

  9. Validity of hydration non-invasive indices during the weightcutting and official weigh-in for Olympic combat sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Elías, Valentín E; Martínez-Abellán, Alberto; López-Gullón, José María; Morán-Navarro, Ricardo; Pallarés, Jesús G; De la Cruz-Sánchez, Ernesto; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    In Olympic combat sports, weight cutting is a common practice aimed to take advantage of competing in weight divisions below the athlete's normal weight. Fluid and food restriction in combination with dehydration (sauna and/or exercise induced profuse sweating) are common weight cut methods. However, the resultant hypohydration could adversely affect health and performance outcomes. The aim of this study is to determine which of the routinely used non-invasive measures of dehydration best track urine osmolality, the gold standard non-invasive test. Immediately prior to the official weigh-in of three National Championships, the hydration status of 345 athletes of Olympic combat sports (i.e., taekwondo, boxing and wrestling) was determined using five separate techniques: i) urine osmolality (UOSM), ii) urine specific gravity (USG), iii) urine color (UCOL), iv) bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and v) thirst perception scale (TPS). All techniques were correlated with UOSM divided into three groups: euhydrated (G1; UOSM 250-700 mOsm · kg H2O(-1)), dehydrated (G2; UOSM 701-1080 mOsm · kg H2O(-1)), and severely dehydrated (G3; UOSM 1081-1500 mOsm · kg H2O(-1)). We found a positive high correlation between the UOSM and USG (r = 0.89: p = 0.000), although this relationship lost strength as dehydration increased (G1 r = 0.92; G2 r = 0.73; and G3 r = 0.65; p = 0.000). UCOL showed a moderate although significant correlation when considering the whole sample (r = 0.743: p = 0.000) and G1 (r = 0.702: p = 0.000) but low correlation for the two dehydrated groups (r = 0.498-0.398). TPS and BIA showed very low correlation sizes for all groups assessed. In a wide range of pre-competitive hydration status (UOSM 250-1500 mOsm · kg H2O(-1)), USG is highly associated with UOSM while being a more affordable and easy to use technique. UCOL is a suitable tool when USG is not available. However, BIA or TPS are not sensitive enough to detect hypohydration at official weight

  10. Kangaroo mother care for clinically unstable neonates weighing ≤2000 g: Is it feasible at a hospital in Uganda?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Melissa C; Nambuya, Harriet; Waiswa, Peter; Tann, Cally; Elbourne, Diana; Seeley, Janet; Allen, Elizabeth; Lawn, Joy E

    2018-06-01

    /peer counselling, resources, family support, and community outreach. There remains a need for an evidence-based approach to consistently define stability criteria for KMC to improve care. We found that KMC for unstable neonates weighing ≤2000g was feasible and acceptable at Jinja Hospital in Uganda. Randomised controlled trials are needed to demonstrate the effect of KMC on survival among unstable neonates in low-resource settings.

  11. Transcatheter occlusion of the patent ductus arteriosus in premature infants weighing less than 1200 g.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morville, Patrice; Douchin, Stephanie; Bouvaist, Helene; Dauphin, Claire

    2018-05-01

    Over the last few decades different strategies have been proposed to treat persistent ductal patency in premature infants. The advent of the Amplatzer Duct Occluder II Additional Size (ADOIIAS) provided the potential to close the patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Opinions differ on the significance and treatment of PDA in premature neonates. Because surgical ligation and medical therapy both have their drawbacks, interventional catheterisation can be considered as an alternative means of closing the ductus arteriosus. Our aim was to analyse the feasibility, safety and efficacy of this device in premature infants weighing closure. The procedure was performed in the catheterisation laboratory by venous cannulation without angiography. The position of the occluder was directed by X-ray and ultrasound. We looked at procedural details, device size selection, complications and short-term and mid-term outcomes. Eighteen infants born at gestational ages ranging between 23.6 and 29+6 weeks (mean±SD 25+6±3 weeks) underwent transcatheter PDA closure. Their mean age and weight at the time of the procedure was 20 days (range 8-44 days) and 980 g (range 680-1200 g), respectively. The mean PDA and device waist diameters were 3.2±0.6 mm (range 2.2-4 mm) and 4.5±0.6 mm, respectively, and the mean PDA and device lengths were 4.3±1.2 mm (range 2-10 mm) and 2.5±0.9 mm, respectively. Complete closure was achieved in all but one patient. There was no device migration. One patient developed a left pulmonary artery obstruction. Three infants died. Two deaths were related to complications of prematurity and one to the procedure. Transcatheter closure of a PDA is feasible in very low weight infants with ADOIIAS and is an alternative to surgery. Success requires perfect selection and placement of the occluder. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless

  12. Evaluation of intelligent transport systems impact on school transport safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankowska-Karpa Dagmara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The integrated system of safe transport of children to school using Intelligent Transport Systems was developed and implemented in four locations across Europe under the Safeway2School (SW2S project, funded by the EU. The SW2S system evaluation included speed measurements and an eye-tracking experiment carried out among drivers who used the school bus route, where selected elements of the system were tested. The subject of the evaluation were the following system elements: pedestrian safety system at the bus stop (Intelligent Bus Stop and tags for children, Driver Support System, applications for parents’ and students’ mobile phones, bus stop inventory tool and data server. A new sign designed for buses and bus stops to inform about child transportation/children waiting at the bus stop was added to the system. Training schemes for system users were also provided. The article presents evaluation results of the impact of selected elements of the SW2S system on school transport safety in Poland.

  13. Hemolysis During Open-Heart Surgery With Vacuum-Assisted Venous Drainage at Different Negative Pressures in Pediatric Patients Weighing Less Than 10 kilograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Jae Gun; Lee, Jinkwon; Park, Minkyoung; Seo, Yu-Jin; Lee, Chang-Ha

    2017-03-01

    This study examined the degree of hemolysis during vacuum-assisted venous drainage at different negative pressures to identify an adequate negative pressure that provides effective venous drainage without significant hemolysis in open-heart surgery in children weighing less than 10 kg. Patients weighing less than 10 kg who underwent surgery for ventricular septal defect or atrial septal defect from 2011 to 2014 were enrolled. We used one of four negative pressures (20, 30, 40, or 60 mm Hg) for each patient. We measured haptoglobin, plasma hemoglobin, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase levels in the patients' blood three times perioperatively and determined the potential correlation between the change in each parameter with the level of negative pressure. Forty-six patients were enrolled in this study (mean age: 7.1 ± 7.0 months, mean body weight: 6.1 ± 1.8 kg). There were no significant differences according to the degree of negative pressure with respect to patient age, body weight, cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) time, aorta cross-clamping time, blood flow during CPB, or lowest body temperature. All parameters that we measured reflected progression of hemolysis during CPB; however, the degree of change in the parameters did not correlate with negative pressure. In pediatric patients weighing less than 10 kg, the change in the degree of hemolysis did not differ with the amount of negative pressure. We may apply negative pressures up to 60 mm Hg without increasing the risk of hemolysis, with almost same the level of hemolysis using negative pressures of 20, 30, and 40 mm Hg for effective venous drainage and an ideal operative field during open-heart surgery.

  14. Demonstration and evaluation of the 20-ton-capacity load-cell-based weighing system, Eldorado Resources, Ltd., Port Hope, Ontario, September 3-4, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, J.N.; Huxford, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    On September 3 and 4, 1986, the prototype 20-ton-capacity load-cell-based weighing system (LCBWS) developed by the US Enrichment Safeguards Program (ESP) at Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., was field tested at the Eldorado Resources, Ltd., (ERL) facility in Port Hope, Ontario. The 20-ton-capacity LCBWS has been designed and fabricated for use by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for verifying the masses of large-capacity UF 6 cylinders during IAEA safeguards inspections at UF 6 handling facilities. The purpose of the Canadian field test was to demonstrate and to evaluate with IAEA inspectorates and with UF 6 bulk handling facility operators at Eldorado the principles, procedures, and hardware associated with using the 20-ton-capacity LCBWS as a portable means for verifying the masses of 10- and 14-ton UF 6 cylinders. Session participants included representatives from the IAEA, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Eldorado Resources, Ltd., the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB), and the International Safeguards Project Office (ISPO) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Appendix A presents the list of participants and their organization affiliation. The two-day field test involved a formal briefing by ESP staff, two cylinder weighing sessions, IAEA critiques of the LCBWS hardware and software, and concluding discussions on the field performance of the system. Appendix B cites the meeting agenda. Summarized in this report are (1) the technical information presented by the system developers, (2) results from the weighing sessions, and (3) observations, suggestions, and concluding statements from meeting participants

  15. Transcatheter closure of patent ductus arteriosus in children weighing 10 kg or less: Initial experience at Sohag University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Safaa; El Sisi, Amel

    2016-04-01

    To assess the challenges, feasibility, and efficacy of device closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in small children weighing ⩽10 kg for different types of devices used in an initial experience at Sohag University hospital. Between March 2011 and September 2014, 91 patients with PDA underwent transcatheter closure in our institute, among whom 54 weighed ⩽10 kg. All of these patients underwent transcatheter closure of PDA using either a Cook Detachable Coil, PFM Nit-Occlud, or Amplatzer duct occluder. A retrospective review of the treatment results and adverse events was performed. Successful device placement was achieved in 53/54 small children (98.1%). The median minimum PDA diameter was 2.4 mm [interquartile range (IQR, 1.8-3.5 mm), median weight 8 kg (IQR, 7-10 kg), and median age 10 months (IQR, 8-17 months)]. Mild aortic obstruction occurred in one case (1.9%), as the device became displaced towards the aorta after release. The device embolized in one case (1.9%) and no retrieval attempt was made. Five cases (9.3%) had minor vascular complications. With the current availability of devices for PDA closure, transcatheter closure of PDA is considered safe and efficacious in small children weighing ⩽10 kg with good mid-term outcome. The procedure had a low rate of high-severity adverse events even with the initial experience of the catheterization laboratory.

  16. Outcomes of systemic to pulmonary artery shunts in patients weighing less than 3 kg: analysis of shunt type, size, and surgical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, John W; Ghanayem, Nancy S; Cao, Yumei; Simpson, Pippa; Trapp, Katie; Mitchell, Michael E; Tweddell, James S; Woods, Ronald K

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate outcomes of systemic to pulmonary artery shunts (SPS) in patients weighing less than 3 kg with regard to shunt type, shunt size, and surgical approach. Patients weighing less than 3 kg who underwent modified Blalock-Taussig or central shunts with polytetrafluoroethylene grafts at our institution from January 1, 2000, to May 31, 2011, were reviewed. Patients who had undergone other major concomitant procedures were excluded from the analysis. Primary outcomes included mortality (discharge mortality and mortality before next planned palliative procedure or definitive repair), cardiac arrest and/or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and shunt reintervention. In this cohort of 80 patients, discharge survival was 96% (77/80). Postoperative cardiac arrest or ECMO occurred in 6/80 (7.5%), and shunt reintervention was required in 14/80 (17%). On univariate analysis, shunt reintervention was more common in patients with 3-mm shunts (11/30, 37%) compared with 3.5-mm (2/36, 6%) or 4-mm shunts (1/14, 7%) (P approach and cardiac arrest/ECMO or mortality. Multiple logistic regression demonstrated that a shunt size of 3 mm (P = .019) and extracardiac anomaly (P = .047) were associated with shunt reintervention, whereas no variable was associated with cardiac arrest/ECMO or mortality. In this high-risk group of neonates weighing less than 3 kg at the time of SPS, survival to discharge and the next planned surgical procedure was high. Outcomes were good with the 3.5- and 4-mm shunts; however, shunt reintervention was common with 3-mm shunts. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Belt deviation and its solution of belt weighing feeder machine%皮带称重绐料机皮带跑偏问题殁对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张荣轩

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the reasons of common belt deviation problems during the using of belt weighing feeder machine, and combining practical work experience, proposed its solutions.%本文就皮带称重给料机在使用过程中常见的皮带跑偏问题进行了原因分析,并结合本人多年的工作实践经验,提出其相应的解决办法。

  18. Quantitative control of belt weighing feeder quick loading system%定量控制皮带称重式给料机快速装车系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张荣轩

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a kind of belt weighing feeder quantitative control technology, which realizes the bulk material rapid loading design and widely used in coal metallurgy, chemical industry, building materials industry.%本文介绍了一种对皮带称重式给料机进行定量控制技术,实现散状物料快速装车的设计方案,广泛适用于煤炭、冶金、化工和建材等行业。

  19. Characterizing the range of children's air pollutant exposure during school bus commutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabin, Lisa D; Behrentz, Eduardo; Winer, Arthur M; Jeong, Seong; Fitz, Dennis R; Pankratz, David V; Colome, Steven D; Fruin, Scott A

    2005-09-01

    Real-time and integrated measurements of gaseous and particulate pollutants were conducted inside five conventional diesel school buses, a diesel bus with a particulate trap, and a bus powered by compressed natural gas (CNG) to determine the range of children's exposures during school bus commutes and conditions leading to high exposures. Measurements were made during 24 morning and afternoon commutes on two Los Angeles Unified School District bus routes from South to West Los Angeles, with seven additional runs on a rural/suburban route, and three runs to test the effect of window position. For these commutes, the mean concentrations of diesel vehicle-related pollutants ranged from 0.9 to 19 microg/m(3) for black carbon, 23 to 400 ng/m(3) for particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PB-PAH), and 64 to 220 microg/m(3) for NO(2). Concentrations of benzene and formaldehyde ranged from 0.1 to 11 microg/m(3) and 0.3 to 5 microg/m(3), respectively. The highest real-time concentrations of black carbon, PB-PAH and NO(2) inside the buses were 52 microg/m(3), 2000 ng/m(3), and 370 microg/m(3), respectively. These pollutants were significantly higher inside conventional diesel buses compared to the CNG bus, although formaldehyde concentrations were higher inside the CNG bus. Mean black carbon, PB-PAH, benzene and formaldehyde concentrations were higher when the windows were closed, compared with partially open, in part, due to intrusion of the bus's own exhaust into the bus cabin, as demonstrated through the use of a tracer gas added to each bus's exhaust. These same pollutants tended to be higher on urban routes compared to the rural/suburban route, and substantially higher inside the bus cabins compared to ambient measurements. Mean concentrations of pollutants with substantial secondary formation, such as PM(2.5), showed smaller differences between open and closed window conditions and between bus routes. Type of bus, traffic congestion levels, and encounters with

  20. Validity and Interrater Reliability of the Visual Quarter-Waste Method for Assessing Food Waste in Middle School and High School Cafeteria Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getts, Katherine M; Quinn, Emilee L; Johnson, Donna B; Otten, Jennifer J

    2017-11-01

    Measuring food waste (ie, plate waste) in school cafeterias is an important tool to evaluate the effectiveness of school nutrition policies and interventions aimed at increasing consumption of healthier meals. Visual assessment methods are frequently applied in plate waste studies because they are more convenient than weighing. The visual quarter-waste method has become a common tool in studies of school meal waste and consumption, but previous studies of its validity and reliability have used correlation coefficients, which measure association but not necessarily agreement. The aims of this study were to determine, using a statistic measuring interrater agreement, whether the visual quarter-waste method is valid and reliable for assessing food waste in a school cafeteria setting when compared with the gold standard of weighed plate waste. To evaluate validity, researchers used the visual quarter-waste method and weighed food waste from 748 trays at four middle schools and five high schools in one school district in Washington State during May 2014. To assess interrater reliability, researcher pairs independently assessed 59 of the same trays using the visual quarter-waste method. Both validity and reliability were assessed using a weighted κ coefficient. For validity, as compared with the measured weight, 45% of foods assessed using the visual quarter-waste method were in almost perfect agreement, 42% of foods were in substantial agreement, 10% were in moderate agreement, and 3% were in slight agreement. For interrater reliability between pairs of visual assessors, 46% of foods were in perfect agreement, 31% were in almost perfect agreement, 15% were in substantial agreement, and 8% were in moderate agreement. These results suggest that the visual quarter-waste method is a valid and reliable tool for measuring plate waste in school cafeteria settings. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Certified Schools

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Certified schools must provide specific information regarding the school, the nature and requirements of the educational program, location and contact information,...

  2. [Effect of energy intake at breakfast on school performance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, G; Hu, X; Gao, S; Bai, D

    1999-09-30

    In order to examine the effect of energy intake at breakfast on school performance, 151 grade three school children from four classes of two schools were sampled for this study. Children were randomly assigned to breakfast A or B on any given day. They were provided with breakfast with either high or low energy content at school over a period of 5 successive days. The remained foods were collected and weighed. Performance tests including addition, multiplication, number checking, logic, creativity, physical endurance, visual-analogue scales were applied at the third or fourth period of courses in the morning on Tuesday through Friday during the experimental week. The teachers involved in the study were blind to the kind of treatment. No significant effect of energy intake at breakfast on these performance indicators was found in this study.

  3. Solar Schools Assessment and Implementation Project: Financing Options for Solar Installations on K-12 Schools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, J.; Kandt, A.

    2011-10-01

    This report focuses on financial options developed specifically for renewable energy and energy efficiency projects in three California public school districts. Solar energy systems installed on public schools have a number of benefits that include utility bill savings, reductions in greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) and other toxic air contaminants, job creation, demonstrating environmental leadership, and creating learning opportunities for students. In the 2011 economic environment, the ability to generate general-fund savings as a result of reducing utility bills has become a primary motivator for school districts trying to cut costs. To achieve meaningful savings, the size of the photovoltaic (PV) systems installed (both individually on any one school and collectively across a district) becomes much more important; larger systems are required to have a material impact on savings. Larger PV systems require a significant financial commitment and financing therefore becomes a critical element in the transaction. In simple terms, school districts can use two primary types of ownership models to obtain solar installations and cost savings across a school district. The PV installations can be financed and owned directly by the districts themselves. Alternatively, there are financing structures whereby another entity, such as a solar developer or its investors, actually own and operate the PV systems on behalf of the school district. This is commonly referred to as the 'third-party ownership model.' Both methods have advantages and disadvantages that should be weighed carefully.

  4. Nursery School

    CERN Multimedia

    Nursery School

    2016-01-01

    Enrolments 2016-2017 Enrolments for the school year 2016-2017 to the Nursery, the Nursery school and the school will take place on 7, 8 and 9 March 2016 from 8 to 10 am at the Nursery School. Registration forms will be available from Thursday 3rd March. More information on the website: http://nurseryschool.web.cern.ch/.

  5. Children's body mass index, participation in school meals, and observed energy intake at school meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mackelprang Alyssa J

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data from a dietary-reporting validation study with fourth-grade children were analyzed to investigate a possible relationship of body mass index (BMI with daily participation in school meals and observed energy intake at school meals, and whether the relationships differed by breakfast location (classroom; cafeteria. Methods Data were collected in 17, 17, and 8 schools during three school years. For the three years, six, six, and seven of the schools had breakfast in the classroom; all other schools had breakfast in the cafeteria. Information about 180 days of school breakfast and school lunch participation during fourth grade for each of 1,571 children (90% Black; 53% girls was available in electronic administrative records from the school district. Children were weighed and measured, and BMI was calculated. Each of a subset of 465 children (95% Black; 49% girls was observed eating school breakfast and school lunch on the same day. Mixed-effects regression was conducted with BMI as the dependent variable and school as the random effect; independent variables were breakfast participation, lunch participation, combined participation (breakfast and lunch on the same day, average observed energy intake for breakfast, average observed energy intake for lunch, sex, age, breakfast location, and school year. Analyses were repeated for BMI category (underweight/healthy weight; overweight; obese; severely obese using pooled ordered logistic regression models that excluded sex and age. Results Breakfast participation, lunch participation, and combined participation were not significantly associated with BMI or BMI category irrespective of whether the model included observed energy intake at school meals. Observed energy intake at school meals was significantly and positively associated with BMI and BMI category. For the total sample and subset, breakfast location was significantly associated with BMI; average BMI was larger for

  6. Understanding parents' concerns about their children with autism taking public school transportation in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, Amber M; Solomon, Olga

    2018-05-01

    There are a number of recent US news media reports of children and youth with autism becoming lost, injured, or even dying while taking public school transportation, yet research on this problem is scarce. This ethnographic study examines the experiences of 14 parents whose children with autism take public school transportation in Los Angeles County. We present two case studies of children with autism being "lost" while in transit from school to home on the bus to (1) describe how the situation was experienced, responded to, and managed by the parents; (2) consider three interrelated themes that emerged from interviews with 14 parents, related to children's safety, independence, and participation, across multiple contexts and analytic levels; and (3) discuss the findings in relation to US news media reports of incidents involving children with autism on school buses to identify specific weaknesses in school transportation infrastructure, particularly in the context of privatization, that create conditions in which children with autism can "fall through the cracks" in potentially life-threatening ways. We argue that there is a critical need to address transportation accessibility for individuals on the autism spectrum to ensure their safety and support their independence and community participation.

  7. The ALICE collaboration has just conducted one of its most spectacular transport operations to date: structures weighing several tonnes are moved with millimetric precision

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    The ALICE collaboration has just lifted the dipole of the muon spectrometer and reassembled it on the other side of the huge solenoid magnet. This incredible feat involved lifting no fewer than 900 tonnes of equipment over the red octagonal yoke inherited from the L3 experiment at a height of 18 metres. A special lifting gantry weighing 5 tonnes had to be developed to move and install the coils. Huge clamps, which can be seen at the front, were used to rotate these enormous 32-tonne components. The whole assembly was raised to the cavern ceiling using an overhead travelling crane. With just 3 centimetres to spare below and 2 centimetres above, there was just enough room for the coil to pass. The operation required the overhead travelling crane to be operated with extreme precision. The coil was then placed on a 4.5-metre-high platform on the other side of the magnet.

  8. Measuring Post-Partum Haemorrhage in Low-Resource Settings: The Diagnostic Validity of Weighed Blood Loss versus Quantitative Changes in Hemoglobin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Cathyln Atukunda

    Full Text Available Accurate estimation of blood loss is central to prompt diagnosis and management of post-partum hemorrhage (PPH, which remains a leading cause of maternal mortality in low-resource countries. In such settings, blood loss is often estimated visually and subjectively by attending health workers, due to inconsistent availability of laboratory infrastructure. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of weighed blood loss (WBL versus changes in peri-partum hemoglobin to detect PPH.Data from this analysis were collected as part of a randomized controlled trial comparing oxytocin with misoprostol for PPH (NCT01866241. Blood samples for complete blood count were drawn on admission and again prior to hospital discharge or before blood transfusion. During delivery, women were placed on drapes and had pre-weighed sanitary towels placed around their perineum. Blood was then drained into a calibrated container and the sanitary towels were added to estimate WBL, where each gram of blood was estimated as a milliliter. Sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values (PPVs were calculated at various blood volume loss and time combinations, and we fit receiver-operator curves using blood loss at 1, 2, and 24 hours compared to a reference standard of haemoglobin decrease of >10%.A total of 1,140 women were enrolled in the study, of whom 258 (22.6% developed PPH, defined as a haemoglobin drop >10%, and 262 (23.0% had WBL ≥500mL. WBL generally had a poor sensitivity for detection of PPH (85% in high prevalence settings when WBL exceeds 750mL.WBL has poor sensitivity but high specificity compared to laboratory-based methods of PPH diagnosis. These characteristics correspond to a high PPV in areas with high PPH prevalence. Although WBL is not useful for excluding PPH, this low-cost, simple and reproducible method is promising as a reasonable method to identify significant PPH in such settings where quantifiable red cell indices are unavailable.

  9. Bilingual children weigh speaker’s referential cues and word-learning heuristics differently in different language contexts when interpreting a speaker’s intent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Yu eHung

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Past research has investigated how children use different sources of information such as social cues and word-learning heuristics to infer referential intents. The present research explored how children weigh and use some of these cues to make referential inferences. Specifically, we examined how switching between languages known (familiar or unknown (unfamiliar to a child would influence his or her choice of cue to interpret a novel label in a challenging disambiguation task, where a pointing cue was pitted against the mutual exclusivity (ME principle. Forty-eight 3-and 4-year-old English-Mandarin bilingual children listened to a story told either in English only (No-Switch, English and Mandarin (Familiar-Switch, English and Japanese (Unfamiliar-Switch, or English and English-sounding nonsense sentences (Nonsense-Switch. They were then asked to select an object (from a pair of familiar and novel objects after hearing a novel label paired with the speaker’s point at the familiar object, e.g., Can you give me the blicket? Results showed that children in the Familiar-Switch condition were more willing to relax ME to follow the speaker’s point to pick the familiar object than those in the Unfamiliar-Switch condition, who were more likely to pick the novel object. No significant differences were found between the other conditions. Further analyses revealed that children in the Unfamiliar-Switch condition looked at the speaker longer than children in the other conditions when the switch happened. Our findings suggest that children weigh speakers’ referential cues and word-learning heuristics differently in different language contexts while taking into account their communicative history with the speaker. There are important implications for general education and other learning efforts, such as designing learning games so that the history of credibility with the user is maintained and how learning may be best scaffolded in a helpful and trusting

  10. Estimation of caffeine intake in Japanese adults using 16 d weighed diet records based on a food composition database newly developed for Japanese populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Mai; Sasaki, Satoshi; Murakami, Kentaro; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Okubo, Hitomi; Hirota, Naoko; Notsu, Akiko; Todoriki, Hidemi; Miura, Ayako; Fukui, Mitsuru; Date, Chigusa

    2010-05-01

    Previous studies in Western populations have linked caffeine intake with health status. While detailed dietary assessment studies in these populations have shown that the main contributors to caffeine intake are coffee and tea, the wide consumption of Japanese and Chinese teas in Japan suggests that sources of intake in Japan may differ from those in Western populations. Among these teas, moreover, caffeine content varies widely among the different forms consumed (brewed, canned or bottled), suggesting the need for detailed dietary assessment in estimating intake in Japanese populations. Here, because a caffeine composition database or data obtained from detailed dietary assessment have not been available, we developed a database for caffeine content in Japanese foods and beverages, and then used it to estimate intake in a Japanese population. The caffeine food composition database was developed using analytic values from the literature, 16 d weighed diet records were collected, and caffeine intake was estimated from the 16 d weighed diet records. Four areas in Japan, Osaka (Osaka City), Okinawa (Ginowan City), Nagano (Matsumoto City) and Tottori (Kurayoshi City), between November 2002 and September 2003. Two hundred and thirty Japanese adults aged 30-69 years. Mean caffeine intake was 256.2 mg/d for women and 268.3 mg/d for men. The major contributors to intake were Japanese and Chinese teas and coffee (47 % each). Caffeine intake above 400 mg/d, suggested in reviews to possibly have negative health effects, was seen in 11 % of women and 15 % of men. In this Japanese population, caffeine intake was comparable to the estimated values reported in Western populations.

  11. School environment and school injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simo eSalminen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although injuries at school are an important issue in public health, environmental factors in schools and school yards have seldom been the focus of school injury research. The goal of our investigation was to examine the effect of environmental factors on school injuries. Methods: Nine comprehensive Finnish schools registered school injuries over a period of two school years. Injuries were classified as being associated with environmental factors, suspected environmental factors, and others. The consensus between two independent classifiers was 81%. Results: A total of 722 injuries were classified. In 11.6% of these injuries, the physical environment factor was evident, and in 28.1% of the injuries, physical environment was suspected of being a contributory risk factor. Thus the physical environment of the school was a contributing factor in over a third (39.7% of injuries occurring in the school, on the school yard or during the journey to or from school. In this study, conducted in Finland, ice on the ground was mentioned most frequently as an environmental risk factor. Conclusions: In Finland, the Nordic weather conditions are not taken into account in the school yard and playground plans as they ought to from the safety point of view. An initiative has been launched on a mandatory wintertime master plan for every school yard.

  12. Private Schools

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This Private Schools feature dataset is composed of all Private elementary and secondary education features in the United States as defined by the Private School...

  13. of Schools*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elementary Schools' (1908) and the 'School Health Service. Regulations' (1953). ... to the social and medical changes which have taken place during the past 20 years. ... both by mass media, and group discussion between teachers and the ...

  14. Healthy Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition Facts School Meals Smart Snacks Celebrations & Rewards Food and Beverage Marketing Water Access Healthy Eating Learning Opportunities Staff ... Services Acute & Emergency Care Care Coordination Chronic Disease Management Family Engagement Chronic ... Allergies Oral Health Local School Wellness Policy Whole ...

  15. School Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrrell, Maureen

    2005-01-01

    School phobia is a serious disorder affecting up to 5% of elementary and middle school children. Long-term consequences include academic failure, diminished peer relationships, parental conflict, and development of additional psychiatric disorders. Hiding behind such common physical symptoms as headaches, stomachaches, and fatigue, school phobia…

  16. School Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964

    The importance of insurance in the school budget is the theme of this comprehensive bulletin on the practices and policies for Texas school districts. Also considered is the development of desirable school board policies in purchasing insurance and operating the program. Areas of discussion are: risks to be covered, amount of coverage, values,…

  17. School Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonfeld, Irvin Sam

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is threefold. First, the chapter summarizes what is known about the prevalence of violence and weapons in U.S. schools. Second, the chapter examines theories that bear on school violence and the empirical evidence linked to those theories. Third, the chapter looks at attempts to prevent school violence and,…

  18. Nursery School

    CERN Document Server

    Nursery School

    2015-01-01

    Enrolments 2015-2016 Enrolments for the school year 2015-2016 to the Nursery, the Nursery school and the school will take place on: Monday 2, Tuesday 3 and Thursday 4 March 2015 More information on the website: http://nurseryschool.web.cern.ch/

  19. School Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piele, Philip K.; Forsberg, James R.

    The 1973 court cases relating to school property continued a trend toward litigating constitutional issues. For instance, a larger number of cases dealt with the relationship between the location and construction of school buildings and school desegregation plans. This chapter reviews the status and development of case law relating to school…

  20. School Refusal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Mary

    2008-01-01

    School attendance is an ongoing concern for administrators, particularly in middle level and high school. Frequent absences affect student learning, test scores, and social development. Absenteeism is often the result of emotional disorders, such as anxiety or depression. Administrators who understand the causes of school refusal behavior and are…

  1. A school meal study: comparing platewaste and likings of packed lunch and school lunch based on the New Nordic Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Anne Vibeke; Lassen, Anne Dahl; Christensen, Lene M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives: The majority of Danish children do not eat in accordance with the national dietary guidelines. The OPUS School Meal Study is a school-based intervention study testing the health effects of the New Nordic Diet (NND). The aim of this sub-study was to compare edible plate.......0; 119.0). Lunches rated as ‘really bad’ or ‘bad’ in the self-reported likings had more waste than lunches rated ‘really good’ (P ... schools were assigned to the food waste sub-study. Edible plate waste was measured by weighing individually the meal for 5 consecutive days before and after lunch at the end of each dietary period. Self-reported smiley ratings from a web-based dietary assessment software for children were compared...

  2. Retinopatía de la prematuridad en el neonato con peso menor de 1 500 g Retinopathy of prematurity in neonate weighing less than 1 500 g

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Fernández Ragi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. La retinopatía del prematuro (ROP es una retinopatía neovascular que se desarrolla hasta en el 84 % de los niños prematuros. Es inversamente proporcional al peso y a la edad gestacional y muy frecuente en el menor de 1500 g. El objetivo de esta investigación fue conocer la incidencia de retinopatía de la prematuridad en los neonatos de menos de 1500 g de peso, así como algunos factores asociados. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio prospectivo longitudinal en el cual se incluyeron 31 neonatos con peso menor de 1500 g, ingresados en la unidad de cuidados intensivos neonatales del Hospital «Iván Portuondo» entre enero del 2004 y diciembre del 2008. No se incluyeron los fallecidos en ese período. En todos los casos se realizaron pesquisas de ROP. Se tomó en cuenta el sexo y la edad gestacional menor de 36 semanas. Se valoraron algunos factores de riesgo para ROP. RESULTADOS. Se encontró ROP en el 25,8 % de los 31 neonatos: el 6,5 % con ROP I Y ROP II, el 9,7 % con ROP III y el 3,2 % con ROP IV. Se encontró retina inmadura en el 74,2 % de los pacientes. El 9,7 % de los casos y el paciente con grado IV recibieron tratamiento quirúrgico con rayos láser. Se encontró mayor incidencia en el sexo masculino y factores asociados como la dificultad respiratoria y la ventilación, en el 75 % de los casos. CONCLUSIÓN. La incidencia de ROP fue baja en comparación con los resultados de otros estudios.INTRODUCTION: Retinopathy of prematurity (RP is a neovascular retinopathy developing in the 84 % of premature infants. It is proportional in inverse order to weight and to gestational age and its frequent in an infant weighing less than 1500 g. The aim of present research was to know the prematurity retinopathy incidence in neonates weighing less than 1500 g, s well as some related factors. METHODS: A longitudinal and prospective study was conducted including 31 neonates weighing less than 1500 g, admitted in neonatal intensive care

  3. REVALENCE OF BACKACHE AMONG SCHOOL GOING CHILDREN OF HYDERABAD SINDH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shireen Khanzada

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of backache is increasing in children with heavy weighed school bags and abnormal sitting posture both, at home and school. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of this much avoided issue of back pain among school going children of Hyderabad, Sindh. Methodology: 240 pupils (range, 7-14 years old were recruited in their respective schools of Hyderabad city. Inclusions were all the present students on that particular day of data collecting and excluding those who were absent that day. A preformed questionnaire form was filled with all due consent, following which, examination was done to check the parameters of height, weight, BMI, weight of school bag, and posture analysis. Result: The prevalence of back pain was 46.7% among the total 240 subjects studied. Out of which 14.4% boys and 32.3% girls were affected. The majority of affected children were age group of 10-12 years old. In our study 61% children had school bags weighing around 5 kg, which is point to be considered by high officials of Primary Education System in Pakistan. Conclusion: The symptoms of backache were significantly visible in those students carrying heavy bags in proportion to their own weight and BMI. This was also closely related to the time duration, subjects were spending in front of computer/television. After analysis and all, it turned out that a significant number of students were affected by abnormal postures leading to backache-, which may be held equally responsible for further Alleviation of such symptoms later in life.

  4. Mitigation potential of greenhouse gas emission and implications on fuel consumption due to clean energy vehicles as public passenger transport in Kathmandu Valley of Nepal: A case study of trolley buses in Ring Road

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, Shreekar; Ale, Bhakta Bahadur; Amatya, Vishwa Bhusan

    2006-01-01

    This paper estimates the consequences in fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emission due to the possible intervention of the electric run trolley buses in the existing public transport system in a particular road up to the year 2025 in Kathmandu Valley. It projects the scenarios on the basis that the passenger travel demand is the function of population and income. Basically, it uses the Long Range Energy Alternatives Planning System software to develop Business as Usual scenario and the five alternative scenarios. The alternative scenarios are 100% replacement of vehicles catering to mass-transit in the concerned routes, 50% replacement, 25% replacement, stopping future growth of other vehicles catering to mass-transit in the concerned routes and 25% replacement in the first year, and combination scenarios. The results estimate that the passenger travel demand will increase by three folds from the year 2003 to the year 2025. It projects the three-fold increase of the existing vehicle activity by the year 2025 in Business as Usual scenario. The fuel consumption will increase by 2.4 times compared to the year 2003. It estimates the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emission as 8.5 thousands tons in year 2003 which will increase by more than 3 times in year 2025. It estimates that 174.3 thousands t CO 2 e can be avoided in combination scenario. The paper concludes that the intervention of clean energy transport in the existing public transport can have a significant positive impact on the GHG emission and current fuel consumption

  5. Application of gamma spectrometry technique in combination with weighing for material balance taking in the production of highly enriched U-A1 fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serin, P.A.

    1975-07-01

    The purpose of this project is to obtain the data on material balance for a batch of highly enriched U-Al alloys (used in the NRX and NRU reactors) during production of fuel, using gamma spectrometry (mainly the 186 KeV photopeak) and weighing, and to determine operational data of the Agency's single channel stabilized spectrometer (SAM-1) for measurement of the product typical for the production of highly enriched U-Al fuel (U-Al billets, fuel elements, scrap). The data collected indicates that gamma spectrometry using the single channel stabilized spectrometer is a valid non-destructive method of determining quantitatively U-235 content of U-Al alloy in the form of cast billets or extruded fuel elements providing that adequate standards are available. An accuracy of better than + 1% relative can be obtained using a simple jig to provide reproducible counting geometry. Count rates should be kept well below the saturation level of the detector and counter, preferably by a lead collimator in front of the detector. This non-destructive method is not easily applicable to scrap because of the inability to maintain constant geometry and to prepare standards closely similar in size and shape to the samples

  6. Plastic Pollution in the World's Oceans: More than 5 Trillion Plastic Pieces Weighing over 250,000 Tons Afloat at Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Eriksen

    Full Text Available Plastic pollution is ubiquitous throughout the marine environment, yet estimates of the global abundance and weight of floating plastics have lacked data, particularly from the Southern Hemisphere and remote regions. Here we report an estimate of the total number of plastic particles and their weight floating in the world's oceans from 24 expeditions (2007-2013 across all five sub-tropical gyres, costal Australia, Bay of Bengal and the Mediterranean Sea conducting surface net tows (N = 680 and visual survey transects of large plastic debris (N = 891. Using an oceanographic model of floating debris dispersal calibrated by our data, and correcting for wind-driven vertical mixing, we estimate a minimum of 5.25 trillion particles weighing 268,940 tons. When comparing between four size classes, two microplastic 4.75 mm, a tremendous loss of microplastics is observed from the sea surface compared to expected rates of fragmentation, suggesting there are mechanisms at play that remove <4.75 mm plastic particles from the ocean surface.

  7. Plastic Pollution in the World's Oceans: More than 5 Trillion Plastic Pieces Weighing over 250,000 Tons Afloat at Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Marcus; Lebreton, Laurent C. M.; Carson, Henry S.; Thiel, Martin; Moore, Charles J.; Borerro, Jose C.; Galgani, Francois; Ryan, Peter G.; Reisser, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Plastic pollution is ubiquitous throughout the marine environment, yet estimates of the global abundance and weight of floating plastics have lacked data, particularly from the Southern Hemisphere and remote regions. Here we report an estimate of the total number of plastic particles and their weight floating in the world's oceans from 24 expeditions (2007–2013) across all five sub-tropical gyres, costal Australia, Bay of Bengal and the Mediterranean Sea conducting surface net tows (N = 680) and visual survey transects of large plastic debris (N = 891). Using an oceanographic model of floating debris dispersal calibrated by our data, and correcting for wind-driven vertical mixing, we estimate a minimum of 5.25 trillion particles weighing 268,940 tons. When comparing between four size classes, two microplastic 4.75 mm, a tremendous loss of microplastics is observed from the sea surface compared to expected rates of fragmentation, suggesting there are mechanisms at play that remove plastic particles from the ocean surface. PMID:25494041

  8. Plastic Pollution in the World's Oceans: More than 5 Trillion Plastic Pieces Weighing over 250,000 Tons Afloat at Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Marcus; Lebreton, Laurent C M; Carson, Henry S; Thiel, Martin; Moore, Charles J; Borerro, Jose C; Galgani, Francois; Ryan, Peter G; Reisser, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Plastic pollution is ubiquitous throughout the marine environment, yet estimates of the global abundance and weight of floating plastics have lacked data, particularly from the Southern Hemisphere and remote regions. Here we report an estimate of the total number of plastic particles and their weight floating in the world's oceans from 24 expeditions (2007-2013) across all five sub-tropical gyres, costal Australia, Bay of Bengal and the Mediterranean Sea conducting surface net tows (N = 680) and visual survey transects of large plastic debris (N = 891). Using an oceanographic model of floating debris dispersal calibrated by our data, and correcting for wind-driven vertical mixing, we estimate a minimum of 5.25 trillion particles weighing 268,940 tons. When comparing between four size classes, two microplastic 4.75 mm, a tremendous loss of microplastics is observed from the sea surface compared to expected rates of fragmentation, suggesting there are mechanisms at play that remove plastic particles from the ocean surface.

  9. Chubby children; weighing the risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, M. van

    2010-01-01

    The present thesis aimed to describe the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors, (which are predictive for the development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease) among overweight/obese children with or without type 1 diabetes (T1DM). Also, we aimed to assess the prevalence of the

  10. Weighing in on Dietary Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to simply reduce your portion sizes. “Choose more lean meats, like poultry without the skin. Eat more ... and Use the Nutrition Facts Label (FDA) NIH Office of Communications and Public Liaison Building 31, Room ...

  11. Not all Anchors Weigh Equally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstein, Michael; Velazquez, Alexandra

    2017-11-01

    The anchoring bias is a reliable effect wherein a person's judgments are affected by initially presented information, but it is unknown specifically why this effect occurs. Research examining this bias suggests that elements of both numeric and semantic priming may be involved. To examine this, the present research used a phenomenon wherein people treat numeric information presented differently in Arabic numeral or verbal formats. We presented participants with one of many forms of an anchor that represented the same value (e.g., twelve hundred or 1,200). Thus, we could examine how a concept's meaning and its absolute numeric value affect anchoring. Experiments 1 and 2 showed that people respond to Arabic and verbal anchors differently. Experiment 3 showed that these differences occurred largely because people tend to think of numbers in digit format. This suggests that one's conceptual understanding of the anchored information matters more than its strict numeric value.

  12. Time spent by Brazilian students in different modes of transport going to school: changes over a decade (2001-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Samara Silva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To examine changes in the time spent in each mode of transportation used for going to school by gender and age among adolescents from Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Two school-based surveys were performed in 2001 (N = 5,028 and 2011 (N = 6,529 in high school students (15-19 years old. The mode of transportation (on foot; by bicycle; by bus; car/motorcycle and the time spent for commuting to school were assessed. Active commuting increased for short trips in both genders (male: 25.1% to 36.7%; female: 18.8% to 29.2% and in all ages (15-16 years: 21% to 32.7%; 17-19 years: 21.9% to 32.4%, and declined for longer trips in males (30.5% to 21.9% and in 15-16 years old students (25.7% to 34.7%. Car/motorcycle use has doubled for short trips in males (38.1% to 65.9% and in 17-19 years old students (37.7% to 62.7%, while the use of buses remained stable in both genders. Our findings contribute to discussions on public policy focusing on the design of safe environments to promote active commuting to schools, particularly to decrease the use of motorized transport for short trips.

  13. [School bullying].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquart, J; Van Paemel, S; Pitchot, W

    2018-02-01

    School bullying consists of harassment behaviours in a school setting and is characterized by violence acts, mockery or even humiliations between students. More recently, with the development of new technologies, our society has seen the cyber-bullying born. This new type of harassment "on-line" comes and intersects the harassment at school. After the description of a clinical situation, we describe the impact of this phenomenon on the different actors concerned, the lines for prevention and for appropriate support.

  14. Born a bit too early: A study of early planned birth and child development at school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Bentley

    2017-04-01

    Early (<39 weeks gestation planned birth is associated with an increased risk of poor development in children starting school. Given the timing of planned birth is modifiable, delaying birth for an additional week or more may improve child development. Strategies and interventions to inform more judicious decision making, weighing all the risks and benefits for early planned birth are required to ensure optimal child health and development.

  15. SCHOOL INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Tsinghua SEM Gets EQUIS Accreditation The School of Economies and Management of Tsinghua University(Tsinghua SEM)was awarded accreditation from the European Quality’ Improvement System(EQUIS)at the end of February 2008.This makes Tsinghua SEM the first business school on the Chinese mainland to be accredited by EQUIS.Together with the accreditation awarded by AACSB International (the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business)in 2007,Tsinghua SEM becomes the only business school on the Chinese mainland to be accredited by both AACSB and EQUIS,two of the most prestigious international accreditations of management education.

  16. Nursery school

    CERN Document Server

    Jardin d'enfants

    2010-01-01

    * * * * * Enrollments 2010-2011 Monday 8, Tuesday 9 and Wednesday 10 March From 8:00 to 10:00 at the Nursery School   Registration forms will be available from 5th March onwards: At the Nursery School, from Catherine Regelbrugge, Secretary tel: 73604, Catherine.Regelbrugge@cern.ch At the Nursery School, from Brigitte Pillionnel, Headmistress tel: 77925, Brigitte.Pillionnel@cern.ch On the pages of the Nursery School website http://kindergarten.web.cern.ch/kindergarten/docs/cond%20gales%2010-2011%20EN.pdf  

  17. Nursery School

    CERN Document Server

    Jardin d'enfant

    2012-01-01

      Enrollments 2012-2013  Monday 5, Tuesday 6 and Wednesday 7 March From 8.00 to 10.00 at the Nursery School  Registration forms will be available from 2nd March onwards: – At the Nursery School, from Catherine Regelbrugge, Secretary   Catherine.Regelbrugge@cern.ch, tel : 73604. – At the Nursery School, from Brigitte Pillionnel, Headmistress    Brigitte.Pillionnel@cern.ch, tel : 77925. – On the pages of the Nursery School website    http://kindergarten.web.cern.ch/kindergarten/docs/cond%20gales%2012-2013%20EN.pdf

  18. Effects of the window openings on the micro-environmental condition in a school bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Lee, Eon S.; Zhou, Bin; Liu, Junjie; Zhu, Yifang

    2017-10-01

    School bus is an important micro-environment for children's health because the level of in-cabin air pollution can increase due to its own exhaust in addition to on-road traffic emissions. However, it has been challenging to understand the in-cabin air quality that is associated with complex airflow patterns inside and outside a school bus. This study conducted Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling analyses to determine the effects of window openings on the self-pollution for a school bus. Infiltration through the window gaps is modeled by applying variable numbers of active computational cells as a function of the effective area ratio of the opening. The experimental data on ventilation rates from the literature was used to validate the model. Ultrafine particles (UFPs) and black carbon (BC) concentrations were monitored in ;real world; field campaigns using school buses. This modeling study examined the airflow pattern inside the school bus under four different types of side-window openings at 20, 40, and 60 mph (i.e., a total of 12 cases). We found that opening the driver's window could allow the infiltration of exhaust through window/door gaps in the back of school bus; whereas, opening windows in the middle of the school bus could mitigate this phenomenon. We also found that an increased driving speed (from 20 mph to 60 mph) could result in a higher ventilation rate (up to 3.4 times) and lower mean age of air (down to 0.29 time) inside the bus.

  19. Analysis of production models and hydrogen supply for urban collective transportation buses: a case study at Foz do Iguacu; Analise de modelos de producao e abastecimento de hidrogenio para onibus de transporte coletivo urbano: estudo de caso em Foz do Iguacu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riveros-Godoy, Gustavo [Universidade Nacional de Assuncao (Paraguay). Faculdade de Ciencias Quimicas]. E-mail: riveros@qui.una.py; Cavaliero, Carla; Peres, Ennio [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica

    2008-07-01

    Even though technical-economical barriers still exist for the development of an economy based in the hydrogen, these difficulties are opportunities for the appearance of new business of goods and services, energetic matrix diversification, focusing of researches activities, development and support to provide sustainability to the new economy. This study presents the technical-economical comparison of hydrogen production and supply models, using the so-called Spilled Turbinable Energy of the Itaipu Hydroelectric Power Plant and available for the transport sector. The substitution of the urban collective diesel bus fleet with fuel cell buses in Foz do Iguacu city was used as a case study in this work. (author)

  20. Electronic School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Executive Educator, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This issue of "The Electronic School" features a special forum on computer networking. Articles specifically focus on network operating systems, cabling requirements, and network architecture. Tom Wall argues that virtual reality is not yet ready for classroom use. B.J. Novitsky profiles two high schools experimenting with CD-ROM…

  1. Hacker School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Leonard

    1993-01-01

    The author reminisces about his educational experience at a small school in Maine during the late 1930s, revealing the respect he extended toward his teachers, what it was like to grow up during this time period, and his feelings upon returning to the now vacant school. (LP)

  2. Democratic Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple, Michael W., Ed.; Beane, James A., Ed.

    This book illustrates how educators in four U.S. communities committed themselves to preparing students for the democratic way of life. In four narratives, educators directly involved in four different school-reform efforts describe how they initiated demographic practices in their educational settings. The four schools serve as reminders that…

  3. School Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, Héctor A.

    2015-01-01

    The school performance study of students is, due to its relevance and complexity, one of the issues of major controversy in the educational research, and it has been given special attention in the last decades. This study is intended to show a conceptual approach to the school performance construct, contextualizing the reality in the regular basic…

  4. School reintegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeney, P

    1995-01-01

    School reintegration programs have been developed to enhance a positive sense of self-worth in a child who has been burned. The premise of these programs is that cognitive and affective education about children with burns will diminish the anxiety of the patient with burns, the patient's family, faculty and staff of the school, and the students. Five principles guide school reentry programs: (1) preparation begins as soon as possible; (2) planning includes the patient and family; (3) each program is individualized; (4) each patient is encouraged to return to school quickly after hospital discharge; and (5) burn team professionals remain available for consultation to the school. Reintegration programs can vary in format depending on patient and/or family need and capability of the burn team, thus allowing flexibility in assisting every child with burns make the transition from hospital patient to normal living.

  5. Nursery School

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

      Registration of school year of 2014-2015 at the Nursery school of Cern Staff Association     Dear parents, We would like to inform you that the dates of enrolments will be 3, 4 and 5th March 2014 from 8:00 a.m to 10:00 a.m at the nursery school Bulding 562. Reminder : From 0-2 years, your child goes to the nursery, from 2-4 to the kindergarten, and from 4 years onwards, your child will join the school, following the program of first and second year of primary school (première and deuxième primaire in the Swiss system), which corresponds to the moyenne and grande section in France.

  6. Plate waste in school lunch programs in Beijing, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yao; Cheng, Shengkui; Liu, Xiaojie

    2016-01-01

    School plate waste is of particular concern worldwide due to its adverse impacts not only on resource use and the environment, but also on students' health, physical maturation, and academic achievement in the long term. Previous studies on school plate waste have all been conducted in industrial...... in China, and a good basis for further analysis in this field, and will be helpful in informing policy-making in relevant nutrition and education programs in schools in China.......School plate waste is of particular concern worldwide due to its adverse impacts not only on resource use and the environment, but also on students' health, physical maturation, and academic achievement in the long term. Previous studies on school plate waste have all been conducted...... in industrialized countries, and more studies are badly needed in developing countries. In this paper, we report a pilot study on the patterns and causes of plate waste in school lunch programs in Beijing, China, by a combination of physical weighing, questionnaire survey, and semi-structured interview approaches...

  7. Plate Waste in School Lunch Programs in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available School plate waste is of particular concern worldwide due to its adverse impacts not only on resource use and the environment, but also on students’ health, physical maturation, and academic achievement in the long term. Previous studies on school plate waste have all been conducted in industrialized countries, and more studies are badly needed in developing countries. In this paper, we report a pilot study on the patterns and causes of plate waste in school lunch programs in Beijing, China, by a combination of physical weighing, questionnaire survey, and semi-structured interview approaches. Our results show that the average amount of food waste generated by school students in Beijing in 2014 was 130 g/cap/meal, accounting for 21% of total food served. Staple food (43% and vegetables (42% were the dominant proportions. Buffet meals resulted in less plate waste than packed meals and set meals. Food supply patterns, the quality of canteen service, and the dietary habit and students’ knowledge of food production were the main influencing factors behind plate waste. To our best knowledge, our pilot study provides a first understanding of the overlooked plate waste in school lunch programs in China, and a good basis for further analysis in this field, and will be helpful in informing policy-making in relevant nutrition and education programs in schools in China.

  8. Do school inspections improve primary school performance?

    OpenAIRE

    Dinand Webbink; Rob Luginbuhl; I. de Wolf

    2007-01-01

    Inspectors from the Dutch Inspectorate of Education inspect primary schools, write inspection reports on each inspected school, and make recommendations as to how each school can improve. We test whether these inspections result in better school performance. Using a fixed-effects model, we find evidence that school inspections do lead to measurably better school performance. Our assessment of school performance is based on the Cito test scores of pupils in their final year of primary school. ...

  9. School Social Capital and School Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Kwok-Kuen

    2009-01-01

    This article argues that school social capital is crucial for school effectiveness, but it has been disregarded in the traditional school administrative theory. Therefore, this article tries to illustrate the significance of school social capital to school effectiveness. School social capital is defined as the social resources embedded in internal…

  10. Cooperation Models, Motivation and Objectives behind Farm–School Collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyg, Pernille Malberg; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    2016-01-01

    economic incentives. Teachers display academic motives for engaging in farm visits, but also a broader focus on shaping children’s world views, connectedness to food and nature and fostering life skills. The farm can be an important setting for promoting food, agricultural and ecological literacy. We...... people and their ability to understand the food system. Thus, efforts are made to promote food literacy through strengthening of farm–school links. The case-study research from Denmark investigates existing cooperation arrangements in farm–school collaboration and the underlying motivation of the farmers...... and teachers. Findings show distinct differences in motivation. Farmers want to create transparency in their production, ensure support for the agricultural profession or promote food and agricultural literacy. The idealistic motivation of teaching children about food and agriculture weighs higher than...

  11. Nursery school

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    The CERN Nursery school was founded in 1961 in Meyrin, before it found a new home on the CERN site in 1965. It expanded from a “garderie” in the morning-only with 30 children, to the Crèche/Kindergarten/School with 147 children and 42 staff we have today. Every year the Nursery school makes an art exhibition in the main building. In 2000 the theme was “Monet’s garden” and it was complete, not even the little bridge was missing! This year, the theme of the exhibition was transport. We could see a garbage truck, a train, and much more.

  12. Testing the effects of safety climate and disruptive children behavior on school bus drivers performance: A multilevel model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, Dov; Lee, Jin

    2016-10-01

    The study was designed to test a multilevel path model whose variables exert opposing effects on school bus drivers' performance. Whereas departmental safety climate was expected to improve driving safety, the opposite was true for in-vehicle disruptive children behavior. The driving safety path in this model consists of increasing risk-taking practices starting with safety shortcuts leading to rule violations and to near-miss events. The study used a sample of 474 school bus drivers in rural areas, driving children to school and school-related activities. Newly developed scales for measuring predictor, mediator and outcome variables were validated with video data taken from inner and outer cameras, which were installed in 29 buses. Results partially supported the model by indicating that group-level safety climate and individual-level children distraction exerted opposite effects on the driving safety path. Furthermore, as hypothesized, children disruption moderated the strength of the safety rule violation-near miss relationship, resulting in greater strength under high disruptiveness. At the same time, the hypothesized interaction between the two predictor variables was not supported. Theoretical and practical implications for studying safety climate in general and distracted driving in particular for professional drivers are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Potential and Beneficial Use of Weigh-In-Motion (WIM) Systems Integrated with Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Systems for Characterizing Disposal of Waste Debris to Optimize the Waste Shipping Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abercrombie, Robert K.; Buckner, Dooley Jr.; Newton, David D.

    2010-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Weigh-In-Motion (WIM) system provides a portable and/or semi-portable means of accurately weighing vehicles and its cargo as each vehicle crosses the scales (while in motion), and determining (1) axle weights and (2) axle spacing for vehicles (for determination of Bridge Formula compliance), (3) total vehicle/cargo weight and (4) longitudinal center of gravity (for safety considerations). The WIM system can also weigh the above statically. Because of the automated nature of the WIM system, it eliminates the introduction of human errors caused by manual computations and data entry, adverse weather conditions, and stress. Individual vehicles can be weighed continuously at low speeds (approximately 3-10 mph) and at intervals of less than one minute. The ORNL WIM system operates and is integrated into the Bethel Jacobs Company Transportation Management and Information System (TMIS, a Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) enabled information system). The integrated process is as follows: Truck Identification Number and Tare Weight are programmed into a RFID Tag. Handheld RFID devices interact with the RFID Tag, and Electronic Shipping Document is written to the RFID Tag. The RFID tag read by an RFID tower identifies the vehicle and its associated cargo, the specific manifest of radioactive debris for the uniquely identified vehicle. The weight of the cargo (in this case waste debris) is calculated from total vehicle weight information supplied from WIM to TMIS and is further processed into the Information System and kept for historical and archival purposes. The assembled data is the further process in downstream information systems where waste coordination activities at the Y-12 Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) are written to RFID Tag. All cycle time information is monitored by Transportation Operations and Security personnel.

  14. Reliability and Validity of Digital Imagery Methodology for Measuring Starting Portions and Plate Waste from School Salad Bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Melanie K; Raynor, Hollie A; Thornton, Laura M; Sova, Alexandra; Dunne Stewart, Mary; Mazzeo, Suzanne E

    2018-04-12

    Scientifically sound methods for investigating dietary consumption patterns from self-serve salad bars are needed to inform school policies and programs. To examine the reliability and validity of digital imagery for determining starting portions and plate waste of self-serve salad bar vegetables (which have variable starting portions) compared with manual weights. In a laboratory setting, 30 mock salads with 73 vegetables were made, and consumption was simulated. Each component (initial and removed portion) was weighed; photographs of weighed reference portions and pre- and post-consumption mock salads were taken. Seven trained independent raters visually assessed images to estimate starting portions to the nearest ¼ cup and percentage consumed in 20% increments. These values were converted to grams for comparison with weighed values. Intraclass correlations between weighed and digital imagery-assessed portions and plate waste were used to assess interrater reliability and validity. Pearson's correlations between weights and digital imagery assessments were also examined. Paired samples t tests were used to evaluate mean differences (in grams) between digital imagery-assessed portions and measured weights. Interrater reliabilities were excellent for starting portions and plate waste with digital imagery. For accuracy, intraclass correlations were moderate, with lower accuracy for determining starting portions of leafy greens compared with other vegetables. However, accuracy of digital imagery-assessed plate waste was excellent. Digital imagery assessments were not significantly different from measured weights for estimating overall vegetable starting portions or waste; however, digital imagery assessments slightly underestimated starting portions (by 3.5 g) and waste (by 2.1 g) of leafy greens. This investigation provides preliminary support for use of digital imagery in estimating starting portions and plate waste from school salad bars. Results might inform

  15. Public Schools

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This Public Schools feature dataset is composed of all Public elementary and secondary education in the United States as defined by the Common Core of Data, National...

  16. School bullying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and relational practices – as well as the abjections by which subjects and social groups are formed – have inspired several of the articles, and the authors seek to reveal complex patterns of relating amongst children in school classes that are saturated by marginalisation and bullying practices. Foucault......School Bullying: New Theories in Context brings together the work of scholars who utilise ontological, epistemological and methodological approaches that challenge paradigm one, contributing to the shift in research on school bullying that we call paradigm two. Several of the authors have...... in these countries highlights both the similarities and differences amongst national school systems. Most importantly, the authors share an analytical ambition to understand bullying as a complex phenomenon that is enacted or constituted through the interactive/intra-active entanglements that exist between a variety...

  17. School Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Lamas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The school performance study of students is, due to its relevance and complexity, one of the issues of major controversy in the educational research, and it has been given special attention in the last decades. This study is intended to show a conceptual approach to the school performance construct, contextualizing the reality in the regular basic education classrooms. The construct of learning approaches is presented as one of the factors that influences the school performance of students. Besides, an outlook of the empirical research works related to variables that are presented as relevant when explaining the reason for a specific performance in students is shown. Finally, some models and techniques allowing an appropriate study of school performance are presented.

  18. Online dietary intake estimation: reproducibility and validity of the Food4Me food frequency questionnaire against a 4-day weighed food record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallaize, Rosalind; Forster, Hannah; Macready, Anna L; Walsh, Marianne C; Mathers, John C; Brennan, Lorraine; Gibney, Eileen R; Gibney, Michael J; Lovegrove, Julie A

    2014-08-11

    Advances in nutritional assessment are continuing to embrace developments in computer technology. The online Food4Me food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was created as an electronic system for the collection of nutrient intake data. To ensure its accuracy in assessing both nutrient and food group intake, further validation against data obtained using a reliable, but independent, instrument and assessment of its reproducibility are required. The aim was to assess the reproducibility and validity of the Food4Me FFQ against a 4-day weighed food record (WFR). Reproducibility of the Food4Me FFQ was assessed using test-retest methodology by asking participants to complete the FFQ on 2 occasions 4 weeks apart. To assess the validity of the Food4Me FFQ against the 4-day WFR, half the participants were also asked to complete a 4-day WFR 1 week after the first administration of the Food4Me FFQ. Level of agreement between nutrient and food group intakes estimated by the repeated Food4Me FFQ and the Food4Me FFQ and 4-day WFR were evaluated using Bland-Altman methodology and classification into quartiles of daily intake. Crude unadjusted correlation coefficients were also calculated for nutrient and food group intakes. In total, 100 people participated in the assessment of reproducibility (mean age 32, SD 12 years), and 49 of these (mean age 27, SD 8 years) also took part in the assessment of validity. Crude unadjusted correlations for repeated Food4Me FFQ ranged from .65 (vitamin D) to .90 (alcohol). The mean cross-classification into "exact agreement plus adjacent" was 92% for both nutrient and food group intakes, and Bland-Altman plots showed good agreement for energy-adjusted macronutrient intakes. Agreement between the Food4Me FFQ and 4-day WFR varied, with crude unadjusted correlations ranging from .23 (vitamin D) to .65 (protein, % total energy) for nutrient intakes and .11 (soups, sauces and miscellaneous foods) to .73 (yogurts) for food group intake. The mean cross

  19. School bullying

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Peter K.

    2013-01-01

    Bullying is defined as a systematic abuse of power; the development of the research program on school bullying is outlined over four phases. The distinctive nature of cyberbullying, and also of identity-based bullying, is outlined. Measurement methods are discussed, and the kinds of prevalence rates obtained. A range of risk factors for involvement as a bully, or victim, are summarized. A range of school-based interventions are described, together with discussion of a meta-analysis of their o...

  20. Art School

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Art School is a body of research that focuses on the pedagogical environment and the conditions of creative thinking & material making. The outputs are films that embed reflexivity in their concept, process and form, further contextualised through International talks, events and curated screenings about Art School and the nature of artist’s process and pedagogy. The underlying research questions also address the significance of artist’s processes within the contemporary political and cultur...

  1. Liquefied Natural Gas for Trucks and Buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James Wegrzyn; Michael Gurevich

    2000-01-01

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is being developed as a heavy vehicle fuel. The reason for developing LNG is to reduce our dependency on imported oil by eliminating technical and costs barriers associated with its usage. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a program, currently in its third year, to develop and advance cost-effective technologies for operating and refueling natural gas-fueled heavy vehicles (Class 7-8 trucks). The objectives of the DOE Natural Gas Vehicle Systems Program are to achieve market penetration by reducing vehicle conversion and fuel costs, to increase consumer acceptance by improving the reliability and efficiency, and to improve air quality by reducing tailpipe emissions. One way to reduce fuel costs is to develop new supplies of cheap natural gas. Significant progress is being made towards developing more energy-efficient, low-cost, small-scale natural gas liquefiers for exploiting alternative sources of natural gas such as from landfill and remote gas sites. In particular, the DOE program provides funds for research and development in the areas of; natural gas clean up, LNG production, advanced vehicle onboard storage tanks, improved fuel delivery systems and LNG market strategies. In general, the program seeks to integrate the individual components being developed into complete systems, and then demonstrate the technology to establish technical and economic feasibility. The paper also reviews the importance of cryogenics in designing LNG fuel delivery systems

  2. Crashworthiness evaluation of mass transit buses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    Mass transit bus systems are an integral part of the national transportation network, serving more than 20.6 billion passenger-miles per year with a relatively low fatality rate. Bus occupant injuries are evenly distributed among crashes on all sides...

  3. Hydrogen fuel cells for cars and buses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, L.J.J.

    2007-01-01

    The use of hydrogen fuel cells for cars is strongly promoted by the governments of many countries and by international organizations like the European Community. The electrochem. behavior of the most promising fuel cell (polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell, PEMFC) is critically discussed, based

  4. The uses of biodiesel in buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smigins, R.; Gulbis, V.

    2003-01-01

    In November 2001 in Naukseni, Valmiera district the biodiesel - methyl ester of rapeseed oil (RME) - plant first in Latvia and in all Baltic States began to work. The production capacity of the plant is 2500 t of biodiesel per year. In the summer and autumn period of the last year the first experiment using 100% RME on one city bus line was carried out. The bus Ikarus-280 in total turned 30700 km consuming 11 tons or 12600 litres of biodiesel. The fuel consumption with biodiesel was 0.9 kg/h (14.2%) or 3.01/100 km higher as with fossil diesel fuel. The engine power and the driving speed on the line were practically unchanged in spite that the heat capacity of biodiesel is lower than of ordinary diesel fuel (according 37.1 l and 42.1 MJ/kg). Using biodiesel the toxicity of the exhaust gases dropped down very essentially. It was controlled regularly by measuring the absorption coefficient and smokiness. At the end of second month of the experiment the absorption coefficient was 2.09 m -1 and 47.8%. This shows that by the influence of biodiesel the compression chambers of the engine clean from burnt parts and the combustion process most completely thanks to the oxygen content in the biodiesel (authors)

  5. High Energy Batteries for Hybrid Buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce Lu

    2010-12-31

    EnerDel batteries have already been employed successfully for electric vehicle (EV) applications. Compared to EV applications, hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) bus applications may be less stressful, but are still quite demanding, especially compared to battery applications for consumer products. This program evaluated EnerDel cell and pack system technologies with three different chemistries using real world HEV-Bus drive cycles recorded in three markets covering cold, hot, and mild climates. Cells were designed, developed, and fabricated using each of the following three chemistries: (1) Lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) - hard carbon (HC); (2) Lithium manganese oxide (LMO) - HC; and (3) LMO - lithium titanium oxide (LTO) cells. For each cell chemistry, battery pack systems integrated with an EnerDel battery management system (BMS) were successfully constructed with the following features: real time current monitoring, cell and pack voltage monitoring, cell and pack temperature monitoring, pack state of charge (SOC) reporting, cell balancing, and over voltage protection. These features are all necessary functions for real-world HEV-Bus applications. Drive cycle test data was collected for each of the three cell chemistries using real world drive profiles under hot, mild, and cold climate conditions representing cities like Houston, Seattle, and Minneapolis, respectively. We successfully tested the battery packs using real-world HEV-Bus drive profiles under these various climate conditions. The NMC-HC and LMO-HC based packs successfully completed the drive cycles, while the LMO-LTO based pack did not finish the preliminary testing for the drive cycles. It was concluded that the LMO-HC chemistry is optimal for the hot or mild climates, while the NMC-HC chemistry is optimal for the cold climate. In summary, the objectives were successfully accomplished at the conclusion of the project. This program provided technical data to DOE and the public for assessing EnerDel technology, and helps DOE to evaluate the merits of underlying technology. The successful completion of this program demonstrated the capability of EnerDel battery packs to satisfactorily supply all power and energy requirements of a real-world HEV-Bus drive profile. This program supports green solutions to metropolitan public transportation problems by demonstrating the effectiveness of EnerDel lithium ion batteries for HEV-Bus applications.

  6. A comparative study of mid-day meal beneficiaries and private school attendees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavi Bhargava

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: India is undergoing a rapid demographic transition accompanied by an epidemiologic and nutritional transition. The nutritional status of school-going children who form a major section of the population, can give an indication of the changing trends in nutritional profile of the population. According to Planning Commission report, 2010, Mid Day Meal (MDM Program has been successful in addressing classroom hunger and the objective of social equity in government school attendees. Aims & Objectives: To study the pattern of school lunch intake and nutritional status in private and government school-going children of district Dehradun. Material & Methods: This was an observational cross-sectional study in district Dehradun in government and private schools, with participants from class 1 to 12. A 24-hour dietary recall was done to measure caloric intake. Height and weight were measured using Microtoise (accuracy 0.1cm and digital weighing machine (Omron Model: HN286, accuracy 100 gm. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS, version 22. Nutritional status was classified using WHO cut-offs and analyzed using AnthroPlus Software. Student t-test was used to compare caloric intake of subgroups. Association between nutritional status and other variables was assessed using Chi-squared test. Results: Using WHO cut-offs, the proportion of thin children was 5.4% in private school and 21.5% in MDM beneficiaries of government schools. The proportion of children who were overweight was 27.7% in private schools and 3.6% in government schools (p<.0.05. The caloric content of school lunch was 271 Kcal in private school attendees and 375 Kcal in MDM beneficiaries. Proportion of children who skipped school lunch increased as they progressed in higher classes, and this proportion was greater in students of government schools beyond class VIII. Conclusion: The study highlights the need for more large scale nutritional surveys with school lunch in focus.

  7. School bullying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    the importance of qualitative research in the field of school bullying. However, the authors also acknowledge the importance of insights obtained through quantitative studies, such as survey material, and through mixed methods (see Hansen, Henningsen and Kofoed on page XX, and Cross and Barnes on page XX)....... seen amongst various the actors involved in bullying practices. Theoretical approaches based in deconstruction, discourse analysis and narrative analysis as well as mixed methods have been utilised to analyse the qualitative data. This anthology makes a particular contribution in highlighting......School Bullying: New Theories in Context brings together the work of scholars who utilise ontological, epistemological and methodological approaches that challenge paradigm one, contributing to the shift in research on school bullying that we call paradigm two. Several of the authors have...

  8. Validation of a digital photographic method for assessment of dietary quality of school lunch sandwiches brought from home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabinsky, Marianne; Toft, Ulla; Andersen, Klaus K

    2013-01-01

    Background: It is a challenge to assess children’s dietary intake. The digital photographic method (DPM) may be an objective method that can overcome some of these challenges. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of a DPM to assess the quality of dietary....... The lunches were photographed using a standardised DPM. From the digital images, the dietary components were estimated by a trained image analyst using weights or household measures and the dietary quality was assessed using a validated Meal Index of Dietary Quality (Meal IQ). The dietary components...... and the Meal IQ obtained from the digital images were validated against the objective weighed foods of the school lunch sandwiches. To determine interrater reliability, the digital images were evaluated by a second image analyst. Results: Correlation coefficients between the DPM and the weighed foods ranged...

  9. Asthma and school

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... teacher School nurse School office Gym teachers and coaches Alternative Names Asthma action plan - school; Wheezing - school; ... Children Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the ...

  10. What Do Schools Need? School Professionals' Perceptions of School Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahtola, Annarilla; Kiiski-Mäki, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Indirect work of school psychologists has not actualized itself widely in everyday practices. To understand this contradiction, the working environment of school psychologists, that is, the school, is worthy of closer examination. In the present study, we wanted to find out which factors affect school professionals' perceptions of school…

  11. The relationship between school inspections, school characteristics and school improvement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehren, Melanie Catharina Margaretha; Visscher, Arend J.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of school inspections on school improvement have been investigated only to a limited degree. The investigation reported on in this article is meant to expand our knowledge base regarding the impact of school inspections on school improvement. The theoretical framework for this research

  12. Chocolate Milk Consequences: A Pilot Study Evaluating the Consequences of Banning Chocolate Milk in School Cafeterias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, Andrew S.; Just, David R.; Wansink, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Currently, 68.3% of the milk available in schools is flavored, with chocolate being the most popular (61.6% of all milk). If chocolate milk is removed from a school cafeteria, what will happen to overall milk selection and consumption? Methods In a before-after study in 11 Oregon elementary schools, flavored milk–which will be referred to as chocolate milk–was banned from the cafeteria. Milk sales, school enrollment, and data for daily participation in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) were compared year to date. Results Total daily milk sales declined by 9.9% (pchocolate milk was also associated with 6.8% fewer students eating school lunches, and although other factors were also involved, this is consistent with the notion of psychological reactance. Conclusions Removing chocolate milk from school cafeterias may reduce calorie and sugar consumption, but it may also lead students to take less milk overall, drink less (waste more) of the white milk they do take, and no longer purchase school lunch. Food service managers need to carefully weigh the costs and benefits of eliminating chocolate milk and should consider alternative options that make white milk more convenient, attractive, and normal to choose. PMID:24740451

  13. Chocolate milk consequences: a pilot study evaluating the consequences of banning chocolate milk in school cafeterias.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S Hanks

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Currently, 68.3% of the milk available in schools is flavored, with chocolate being the most popular (61.6% of all milk. If chocolate milk is removed from a school cafeteria, what will happen to overall milk selection and consumption? METHODS: In a before-after study in 11 Oregon elementary schools, flavored milk-which will be referred to as chocolate milk-was banned from the cafeteria. Milk sales, school enrollment, and data for daily participation in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP were compared year to date. RESULTS: Total daily milk sales declined by 9.9% (p<0.01. Although white milk increased by 161.2 cartons per day (p<0.001, 29.4% of this milk was thrown away. Eliminating chocolate milk was also associated with 6.8% fewer students eating school lunches, and although other factors were also involved, this is consistent with the notion of psychological reactance. CONCLUSIONS: Removing chocolate milk from school cafeterias may reduce calorie and sugar consumption, but it may also lead students to take less milk overall, drink less (waste more of the white milk they do take, and no longer purchase school lunch. Food service managers need to carefully weigh the costs and benefits of eliminating chocolate milk and should consider alternative options that make white milk more convenient, attractive, and normal to choose.

  14. Prevalence of Malnutrition in a Rural Residential Sanskrit School in Baglung, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatya, B; Shrestha, N

    2017-01-01

    Under-nutrition is a condition in which there is inadequate consumption, poor absorption or excessive loss of nutrients. Nepal still faces high chronic as well as acute under-nutrition in children. The following study was conducted a Sanskrit school in rural Baglung to find the prevalence of malnutrition among the children which could reflect the nutritional status of the community. Out of 60 students admitted to the school, only 43 were present at the time when we collected our data. Weight was measured with a standard weighing scale and standing height with a measuring tape attached to the wall. Data were filled up in proforma, entered in Microsoft Excel 2013 and were analyzed and indicators calculated with SPSS version 20 using WHO Child Growth Reference data for 5-19 years and macros. Stunting (Z score Sanskrit school where the study was conducted.

  15. An Epidemiological Study Of Hypertension Amongst Children From Various Primary Schools Of Surat City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakor H.G

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the prevalence of hypertension in school children aged 10 years and above? Objectives: 1. To find out the prevalence of hypertension. 2. To generate a profile of hypertensive cases. Study design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Selected primary schools run by Surat Manipal Corporation. Participants: School children aged 10 years and above. Sample size: 2250 children (1092 boys, 158girls Study variables: Age, sex, body weight, body mass index Outcome variables: Prevalence of hypertension. Statistical analysis: X2 test Results: Overall prevalence of hypertension in children was 2.3 percent, separately in girls and 0.9 percent in boys. Body weight above 40kgms and body mass index (BMI above 20 were differentiating points as children weighing more than 40kgms and/or with BMI more than 20 significantly higher prevalence of hypertension. Most of the cases were asymptomatic and also had no suggestive symptoms in the past.

  16. Discipline in the Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleton, Travis

    Discipline is a necessary ingredient for any successful school. Every teacher and school has a particular style and technique of discipline. This paper examines effective discipline strategies that help maintain school discipline. Classroom management, in school and out of school suspensions, alternative schooling, corporal punishment, and…

  17. SP.ACE: taking secondary school students' hearts and minds "up, up and away"

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Schrijver, Erik

    2005-08-01

    Secondary school students were given the opportunity to build and fly "pongsats" (small experiments weighing under 100 grams each, and packed inside a ping pong ball) on high-altitude balloons bound for 100000 feet, or 30 km: the edge of space. The need to acquire the knowledge and know-how to build successful experiments gave birth to the SP.ACE project. Over their last 3 years of secondary education, students are now learning about flight vehicles, the physical conditions in space, microcontrollers, sensors, programming, data logging, flight path analysis, and much more.

  18. Validation of uncertainty of weighing in the preparation of radionuclide standards by Monte Carlo Method; Validacao da incerteza de pesagens no preparo de padroes de radionuclideos por Metodo de Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cacais, F.L.; Delgado, J.U., E-mail: facacais@gmail.com [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Loayza, V.M. [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia (INMETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Qualidade e Tecnologia

    2016-07-01

    In preparing solutions for the production of radionuclide metrology standards is necessary measuring the quantity Activity by mass. The gravimetric method by elimination is applied to perform weighing with smaller uncertainties. At this work is carried out the validation, by the Monte Carlo method, of the uncertainty calculation approach implemented by Lourenco and Bobin according to ISO GUM for the method by elimination. The results obtained by both uncertainty calculation methods were consistent indicating that were fulfilled the conditions for the application of ISO GUM in the preparation of radioactive standards. (author)

  19. How to insure measurement accuracy of belt feeder machine weighing installment%如何保证皮带绐料机称重装置的计量精度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李双; 吴江; 陈以振

    2012-01-01

    本文从皮带给料机这一称重产品的结构、校准原理、计量精度等几个主要方面,以图文结合的形式着重阐述了怎样保证皮带给料机称重装置的计量精度。%In the form of a graphic combination, according to structure, calibration principle, measurement accuracy and some other factors, this article elaborates how to insure measurement accuracy of belt feeder machine weighing installmenL

  20. No School like Freedom School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Lisa Ann

    2013-01-01

    "You are the hope of the future." That's the message Marian Wright Edelman, executive director of the Children's Defense Fund (CDF), gave more than 1,500 excited college students and recent graduates as they began a week-long training for the CDF's Freedom Schools. She was preparing them for a daunting task--that of transforming the…