WorldWideScience

Sample records for school bus passengers

  1. 75 FR 66686 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Seat Belt Assembly Anchorages, School Bus Passenger...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... (IC); seat manufacturers C.E. White Company (CEW) and M2K, LLC (M2K); and from the Marietta City School District (MCSD) of Ohio. With regard to changes to the regulatory text adopted by the October 2008... an average 6-year-old child sits on the seat. Petitions for Reconsideration--Marietta City School...

  2. Bus accident severity and passenger injury: evidence from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Kaplan, Sigal

    2014-01-01

    examining occurrence of injury to bus passengers. Results Bus accident severity is positively related to (i) the involvement of vulnerable road users, (ii) high speed limits, (iii) night hours, (iv) elderly drivers of the third party involved, and (v) bus drivers and other drivers crossing in yellow or red...... light. Occurrence of injury to bus passengers is positively related to (i) the involvement of heavy vehicles, (ii) crossing intersections in yellow or red light, (iii) open areas, (iv) high speed limits, and (v) slippery road surface. Conclusions The findings of the current study provide a comprehensive......Purpose Bus safety is a concern not only in developing countries, but also in the U.S. and Europe. In Denmark, disentangling risk factors that are positively or negatively related to bus accident severity and injury occurrence to bus passengers can contribute to promote safety as an essential...

  3. Evaluation of Bus Vibration Comfort Based on Passenger Crowdsourcing Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibration comfort is an important factor affecting the quality of service (QoS of bus. In order to make people involved in supervising bus’s vibration comfort and improve passengers’ riding experience, a novel mode of passenger crowdsourcing is introduced. In this paper, comfort degree of bus vibration is calculated from bus’s vibration signals collected by passengers’ smartphones and sent through WiFi to the Boa web server which shows the vibration comfort on the LCD deployed in bus and maybe trigger alarm lamp when the vibration is beyond the threshold. Three challenges here have been overcome: firstly, space coordinate transformation algorithm is used to solve the constant drift of signals collected; secondly, a low-pass filter is designed to isolate gravity from signals real-timely via limited computing resources; thirdly, an embedded evaluation system is developed according to the calculation procedure specified by criterion ISO 2631-1997. Meanwhile, the model proposed is tested in a practical running environment, the vibration data in whole travel are recorded and analyzed offline. The results show that comfort degree of vibration obtained from the experimental system is identical with the truth, and this mode is proved to be effective.

  4. Railroad and Bus Passenger Stations of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows Amtrak intercity railroad and bus passenger terminals in the United States. There are no Amtrak stations in Alaska or Hawaii. The data are a...

  5. Modeling Passenger-Flow in Real-Time Bus Tracking System

    OpenAIRE

    Shalaik, Bashir; Jacob, Ricky; Winstanley, Adam C.

    2012-01-01

    Transit networks in the real world are similar to data transfer across a computer network. In this paper, we present the similarity and differences between computer networks and transit networks. We have developed a passenger-flow simulation model and we tested the effects of transit services provided on passengers in term of delay and passenger quality of service. We present the passenger’s behavior at bus stops, factors that affect passenger’s interactions with buses...

  6. Bus-stop Based Real Time Passenger Information System – Case Study Maribor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čelan, Marko; Klemenčič, Mitja; Mrgole, Anamarija L.; Lep, Marjan

    2017-10-01

    Real time passenger information system is one of the key element of promoting public transport. For the successful implementation of real time passenger information systems, various components should be considered, such as: passenger needs and requirements, stakeholder involvement, technological solution for tracking, data transfer, etc. This article carrying out designing and evaluation of real time passenger information (RTPI) in the city of Maribor. The design phase included development of methodology for selection of appropriate macro and micro location of the real-time panel, development of a real-time passenger algorithm, definition of a technical specification, financial issues and time frame. The evaluation shows that different people have different requirements; therefore, the system should be adaptable to be used by various types of people, according to the age, the purpose of journey, experience of using public transport, etc. The average difference between perceived waiting time for a bus is 35% higher than the actual waiting time and grow with the headway increase. Experiences from Maribor have shown that the reliability of real time passenger system (from technical point of view) must be close to 100%, otherwise the system may have negative impact on passengers and may discourage the use of public transport. Among considered events of arrivals during the test period, 92% of all prediction were accurate. The cost benefit analysis has focused only on potential benefits from reduced perceived users waiting time and foreseen costs of real time information system in Maribor for 10 years’ period. Analysis shows that the optimal number for implementing real time passenger information system at the bus stops in Maribor is set on 83 bus stops (approx. 20 %) with the highest number of passenger. If we consider all entries at the chosen bus stops, the total perceived waiting time on yearly level could be decreased by about 60,000 hours.

  7. Bullying and Aggression on the School Bus: School Bus Drivers' Observations and Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    deLara, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Every school day bus drivers are responsible for transporting children safely over many miles, yet they are rarely polled for their opinions or contributions to school safety. School bus drivers are in a unique position to inform the discussion on aggressive behavior during the school day. This exploratory study collected information from school…

  8. 76 FR 13580 - Bus Testing; Calculation of Average Passenger Weight and Test Vehicle Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ..., developing preventive maintenance schedules, and budgeting for unscheduled maintenance. In addition... components, ensuring the availability of such vehicles for passenger service. This NPRM is based on modern... modern scientific data, and provides flexibility and freedom of choice for the affected entities. The bus...

  9. Statistical analysis of passenger-crowding in bus transport network of Harbin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Baoyu; Feng, Shumin; Li, Jinyang; Zhao, Hu

    2018-01-01

    Passenger flow data is indispensable but rare in the study of public transport networks. In this study, we focus on the passenger-crowding characteristics of the bus transport network of Harbin (BTN-H) based on passenger flow investigation. The three frequency histograms for all the uplinks and downlinks in Harbin are presented, including passengers on the bus at each section, crowding coefficients, and position parameters of crowded sections. The differences in crowding position are analyzed on each route. The distributions of degree and crowding degree (in directed space L) follow an exponential law. The new finding indicates that there are many stations with few crowded sections and a few stations with many crowded sections. The distributions of path length and crowded length (in directed space P) are presented based on the minimum transfer times, and it is found that they can be fitted by a composite Gaussian function and a Gaussian function, respectively. The stations and paths can be divided into three crowd levels. We conclude that BTN-H is crowded from a network-based perspective.

  10. Emergence of criticality in the transportation passenger flow: scaling and renormalization in the Seoul bus system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segun Goh

    Full Text Available Social systems have recently attracted much attention, with attempts to understand social behavior with the aid of statistical mechanics applied to complex systems. Collective properties of such systems emerge from couplings between components, for example, individual persons, transportation nodes such as airports or subway stations, and administrative districts. Among various collective properties, criticality is known as a characteristic property of a complex system, which helps the systems to respond flexibly to external perturbations. This work considers the criticality of the urban transportation system entailed in the massive smart card data on the Seoul transportation network. Analyzing the passenger flow on the Seoul bus system during one week, we find explicit power-law correlations in the system, that is, power-law behavior of the strength correlation function of bus stops and verify scale invariance of the strength fluctuations. Such criticality is probed by means of the scaling and renormalization analysis of the modified gravity model applied to the system. Here a group of nearby (bare bus stops are transformed into a (renormalized "block stop" and the scaling relations of the network density turn out to be closely related to the fractal dimensions of the system, revealing the underlying structure. Specifically, the resulting renormalized values of the gravity exponent and of the Hill coefficient give a good description of the Seoul bus system: The former measures the characteristic dimensionality of the network whereas the latter reflects the coupling between distinct transportation modes. It is thus demonstrated that such ideas of physics as scaling and renormalization can be applied successfully to social phenomena exemplified by the passenger flow.

  11. 49 CFR 571.131 - Standard No. 131; School bus pedestrian safety devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... signal arm means a device that can be extended outward from the side of a school bus to provide a signal... tangent to the lower edge of the frame of the passenger window immediately behind the driver's window; and... 200 28 0.5 +30 65 10 S6.2 Lighting Tests. S6.2.1 Color. The procedure shall be done in accordance with...

  12. Managing Student Behavior on the School Bus: A Key to Bus Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Federation of Teachers (NJ), 2007

    2007-01-01

    School buses are the safest form of mass transit in America. Every day, school buses travel through congested city traffic and on isolated country roads in all types of weather, safely transporting millions of children to and from school and school-related activities. Federal and state standards for school bus construction and maintenance and…

  13. Rationalization of Public Road Passenger Transport by Merging Bus Lines on the Example of Zadar County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Kos

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study consists of the analysis of public passenger transport in Zadar County, that is, transport on the County and school lines and suggestions of transport rationalization. The rationalization comprises the application of the County and school lines integration, as well as suggestions of other measures which aim to reduce transport costs financed by Zadar County. The objectives to rationalize public passenger transport have been defined, all County transport lines of schoolchildren and other passengers have been analysed as well as actual deficiencies in the city, County and school transport needs. Road transport infrastructure, carriers and transportation vehicles have been analysed. The future transport demand has been reviewed and the prediction of passengers on lines has been provided. Within the next five to ten years no relevant changes will take place, meaning that the balance in transport supply and demand will not be disrupted significantly. This study presents the measures for transport cost reduction and increase in the safety level in the performance of public transport.

  14. Bus 54 -- Where are you? A school bus intelligent information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truett, L.F.; Moore, S.; Tonn, B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Conley, T. [GTE Wireless, Nashville, TN (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Although major accidents involving school buses are rare (only about 0.3% of all fatal crashes since 1986 are classified as school-bus-related), even minor accidents and breakdowns cause a great deal of parental anxiety. The objective of this research is to design an efficient, cost-effective, accurate, and secure system that will track individual school buses and communicate appropriate information to the school system`s central administration unit, to the school transportation administrator, and to parents of children on the bus. The greatest benefit of the proposed information system is that parents and officials can always know the location and condition (these conditions would vary depending on the needs of a particular school system) of the school buses. In case of an accident or mechanical problem, when emergency crews are needed, they can be dispatched almost immediately with a good understanding of the problem and the exact location of the bus. In addition to being able to track the bus while the child is on board, parents will be able to determine the location of their child`s bus prior to its arrival in the morning in order to prevent the child from needing to wait outside in inclement weather. The information available to parents can also be expanded to include maps of limited routes (e.g., snow routes). Basically, the Bus 54 concept consists of a bus component and a central data processing unit. Each bus will be outfitted with a global positioning satellite (GPS) device, a wireless communication device, and wireless data communication service. The central data processing unit will receive and process information from the buses and provide information access to parents and officials via an Internet link.

  15. Solving of school bus routing problem by ant colony optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Arias-Rojas, Juan S.; Jiménez-Gordillo, J. F. (José Fernando); Montoya-Torres, J. R. (Jairo Rafael)

    2011-01-01

    The school bus routing problem (SBRP) seeks to plan an efficient schedule of a fleet of school buses that must pick up students from various bus stops and deliver them by satisfying various constraints: maximum capacity of the bus, maximum riding time of students, time window to arrive to school. In this paper, we consider a case study of SBRP for a school in Bogotá, Colombia. The problem is solved using ant colony optimization (ACO). Computational experiments are performed using real data. R...

  16. School bus crash rates on routine and nonroutine routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Elizabeth; Ramirez, Marizen; Hamann, Cara; Young, Tracy; Stahlhut, Mary; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2014-09-01

    Although prior research has established that school buses are a safe form of transportation, crashes can produce catastrophic consequences. School buses have 2 types of routes: predictable, routine routes that take children to and from school and less predictable, nonroutine routes for school events. No studies have examined school bus crash incidence and characteristics by these route types. School bus crashes were identified from the Iowa Department of Transportation Crash Database from mid-2005 through mid-2010. Crash reports did not identify whether the bus was on a routine or nonroutine route, so a protocol to assign these based on day and time was developed. Bus mileage was provided by the Iowa Department of Education. The school bus crash rate was 2.1 times higher on nonroutine routes than on routine routes (95% CI = 1.8-2.3). Most crashes involved an improper action by the driver of another vehicle. In crashes attributed to improper actions of school buses, failure to yield the right-of-way and disregarding traffic signs were more common on routine routes, while losing control, speeding, reckless, or aggressive driving were more common on nonroutine routes. School bus crashes are more likely to occur on nonroutine routes. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  17. School Bus Safety: What Can Our Schools Do to Protect Our Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargan, Thomas J.; Silverstone, Adam H.

    2014-01-01

    School districts and school bus contractors are entrusted with the most important of all road users--our nation's children. In the wake of recent newsworthy accidents and attention grabbing headlines regarding unfit bus drivers, claims premised upon school bus accidents have become increasingly tangential and, in turn, personal injury attorneys…

  18. Bus Operations for Pupil Transportation. "Chrome-Yellow and Red Lights."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannels, Morris W.

    This paper is based on a committee report of the last National School Bus Conference on "Minimum Standards for School Buses." Standards for school bus operations are included for (1) administrators, (2) supervisors, (3) school bus drivers, (4) student passengers, and (5) maintenance and service personnel. The report deals also with procedures for…

  19. High-Tech School Bus Teaches Students on the Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katims, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    Last year, kindergarten through high school students in the rural Hector, Arkansas, School District barely had the technology resources that keep kids interested in math and science. This year, they potentially have the most advanced resources in the country--before they even step into the classroom. One school bus in Arkansas' Pope County has…

  20. Implementation of a Walking School Bus: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Alberta S.; Sussman, Andrew L.; Negrete, Sylvia; Patterson, Nissa; Mittleman, Rachel; Hough, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Background: Obesity is rapidly becoming the most common chronic medical condition affecting children. To address this crisis, an Albuquerque, New Mexico, elementary school partnered with University of New Mexico researchers and conducted a Walking School Bus (WSB). The purpose of this article is to examine the feasibility of implementing a WSB.…

  1. The Taking Ways of an Old School Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Joan Thompson; Watkins, J. Foster

    1969-01-01

    The conversion of an "old school bus" in the late 1960s into a mobile library is discussed. The conversion was an element of educational service developed cooperatively between a regional educational laboratory and a rural school system. The project endeavored to improve the early experiences of future students, many of whom would have…

  2. Potential for modal shift by passenger car and motorcycle users towards Bus Rapid Transit (BRT in an Asian developing city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaned Satiennam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Many developing Asian cities consider a Bus Rapid Transit (BRT system in their public transport planning because of its advantages, offering lower investment cost and flexible implementation over rail systems. The objective of this research is to assess the potential of BRT for attracting travelers from passenger cars and motorcycles. Three different BRT systems were designed for the main corridor passing through Khon Kaen City in Thailand. The study developed modal split models for predicting the choices of passenger car users and motorcycle users. The models were developed based on a Stated Preference (SP survey. It was found that BRT could attract significantly private vehicle users to change mode choice. The proportion of motorcycle users shifting is higher than passenger car users. However, the majority of private vehicle users still prefer their own private vehicles. Both travel time and travel cost affects the mode choice, in which travel time has a highly significant effect on passenger car users' choice of BRT, but travel cost has a highly significant effect on motorcyclists' choice. Some socio-economic factors, including gender, age, driving license holding and residence location also influence the choice of BRT.

  3. Development of an ultra-safe, ultra-low-emissions natural gas-fueled school bus: Phase 2, prototype hardware development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubesh, J. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1996-04-01

    This report summarizes work done on Phase 2, ``Prototype Hardware Development`` of Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) Project No. 03-6871, ``Development of an Ultra-Safe, Ultra-Low-Emissions Alternative-Fueled School Bus``. A prototype school bus was designed and constructed. This bus incorporated many new technologies to increase the safety of the bus passengers as well as pedestrians boarding and leaving the bus. These technologies emphasized increased visibility between the bus driver and pedestrians or vehicles, and included the use of high intensity discharge lighting, pedestrian and vehicle detection systems, and remote-mounted cameras. Passenger safety was also stressed, with the application of seat belts and improved emergency exits and lighting. A natural gas-fueled engine was developed for powering the bus. The development process focused primarily on improvements to the lean operation of the engine and control system advancements. The control system development included investigations into alternative control algorithms for steady-state and transient operation, various fuel metering devices, as well as new methods for wastegate control, knock and misfire detection, and catalyst monitoring. Both the vehicle and engine systems represent state-of-the-art technologies. Integration of the vehicle and engine is planned for the next phase of the project, followed by a demonstration test of the overall vehicle system.

  4. How Quality, Value and Satisfaction Create Passenger Loyalty: an Empirical Study on Indonesia Bus Rapid Transit Passenger

    OpenAIRE

    Hussein, Ananda Sabil; Hapsari, Raditha

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the dimensions of service quality especially in the area of public transport as well asthe role of service quality in enhancing passenger's value, satisfaction and loyalty. Partial Least Squares (PLS) with survey data from 152 BRT passengerswas used by this study. This study found that outcome quality, physical quality and interaction quality are the the primary dimensions of service quality. In addition, this study explained that service quality has a signifian...

  5. GeoBus: sharing science research with schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Kathryn; Robinson, Ruth; Moorhouse, Ben

    2016-04-01

    GeoBus (www.geobus.org.uk) is an educational outreach project that was developed in 2012 by the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at the University of St Andrews, and it is currently sponsored by industry, NERC, The Crown Estate, and the Scottish Government. The aims of GeoBus are to support the teaching of Earth Science in secondary (middle and high) schools by providing teaching support to schools that have little or no experience in teaching this subject. This is, in part, done through the sharing of new science research outcomes and the experiences of young researchers with school pupils to provide a bridge between industry, higher education institutions, research councils and schools. Since its launch, over 40,000 pupils will have been involved in experiential Earth science learning activities in 190 different schools (over 400 separate visits) across the length and breadth of Scotland: many of these schools are in remote and disadvantaged regions. A new GeoBus project is under development within the Department of Earth Sciences at UCL in London. A key aim of GeoBus is to incorporate new research into our workshops with the main challenge being the development of appropriate resources that incorporate the key learning aims and requirements of the science and geography curricula. GeoBus works closely with researchers, teachers and educational practitioners to tailor the research outcomes to the curricula as much as possible. Over the past four years, GeoBus has developed 17 workshops, 5 challenge events and extensive field trips and each of these activities are trialled and evaluated within the university, and adjustments are made before the activities are delivered in schools. Activities are continually reviewed and further developments are made in response to both teacher and pupil feedback. This critical reflection of the project's success and impact is important to insure a positive and significant contribution to the science learning in

  6. 49 CFR 571.220 - Standard No. 220; School bus rollover protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... result from failure of the school bus body structure to withstand forces encountered in rollover crashes... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard No. 220; School bus rollover protection... STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.220 Standard No. 220; School bus rollover protection...

  7. Evaluation of fatal school bus related crashes and near-term crash mitigation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Donoughe

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available School bus crashes are rare in comparison to other crash types, but considering all crashes that occur in and around school buses, they begin to become a noticeable problem and one that tends to attract national attention. As defined by the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS, a school bus related crash is a crash that either involves a school bus or a crash where the presence of a school bus is considered as a major contributing factor. Ten years of data indicate that the number of fatal school bus related crashes has remained nearly stagnant despite an increase in the number vehicle safety systems available on the market. The findings also highlight the importance of protecting the non-bus occupants since they are the most likely to incur a serious or fatal injury in the event of a crash. As the most vulnerable user group, pedestrians (typically school-aged children are especially at risk when crossing the road while boarding or exiting a school bus. Until new technologies for reducing school bus related crashes are designed and implemented, school transportation safety can be improved by increasing awareness of school bus stop laws and by implementing existing transportation safety initiatives at school bus stop locations.

  8. Iterated Local Search Algorithm with Strategic Oscillation for School Bus Routing Problem with Bus Stop Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saied Fallah Niasar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available he school bus routing problem (SBRP represents a variant of the well-known vehicle routing problem. The main goal of this study is to pick up students allocated to some bus stops and generate routes, including the selected stops, in order to carry students to school. In this paper, we have proposed a simple but effective metaheuristic approach that employs two features: first, it utilizes large neighborhood structures for a deeper exploration of the search space; second, the proposed heuristic executes an efficient transition between the feasible and infeasible portions of the search space. Exploration of the infeasible area is controlled by a dynamic penalty function to convert the unfeasible solution into a feasible one. Two metaheuristics, called N-ILS (a variant of the Nearest Neighbourhood with Iterated Local Search algorithm and I-ILS (a variant of Insertion with Iterated Local Search algorithm are proposed to solve SBRP. Our experimental procedure is based on the two data sets. The results show that N-ILS is able to obtain better solutions in shorter computing times. Additionally, N-ILS appears to be very competitive in comparison with the best existing metaheuristics suggested for SBRP

  9. Case Study - Propane School Bus Fleets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughlin, M; Burnham, A.

    2014-08-31

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) effort to deploy transportation technologies that reduce U.S. dependence on imported petroleum, this study examines five school districts, one in Virginia and four in Texas, successful use of propane school buses. These school districts used school buses equipped with the newly developed liquid propane injection system that improves vehicle performance. Some of the school districts in this study saved nearly 50% on a cost per mile basis for fuel and maintenance relative to diesel. Using Argonne National Laboratory’s Alternative Fuel Life-Cycle Environmental and Economic Transportation (AFLEET) Tool developed for the DOE’s Clean Cities program to help Clean Cities stakeholders estimate petroleum use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, air pollutant emissions and cost of ownership of light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles, the results showed payback period ranges from 3—8 years, recouping the incremental cost of the vehicles and infrastructure. Overall, fuel economy for these propane vehicles is close to that of displaced diesel vehicles, on an energy-equivalent basis. In addition, the 110 propane buses examined demonstrated petroleum displacement, 212,000 diesel gallon equivalents per year, and GHG benefits of 770 tons per year.

  10. Orientation Assistance for Visually Impaired Passengers within a Bus Rapid Transit System (Transmilenio, using Satellite Geolocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Camargo

    2017-05-01

    Results: 100% of the users were able to reach their destination successfully in the pilot test. In regards to the usability perception, users highlighted features such as sound indications for setting the device and orientation guidance throughout the journey. On the other hand, one of the main difficulties found was to correctly identify the bus approaching the stop and similarly locating the corresponding boarding door, as multiple bus routes may alight in the same door. Conclusions: The device was built incorporating low-cost technologies intended to make it affordable in an eventual mass—scale production. Likewise, a discreet design was chosen so as to lessen the risk of robbery, which unfortunately is a frequent issue in the Transmilenio system due to overcrowding of buses and stations. Additionally, we remark that the prototype can be made smaller by using special—purpose circuit boards. Policy-makers may take into account these considerations for an eventual wide implementation as part of governments’ plans for mobility inclusion in mass-transport systems for disabled people, in comparison with other alternatives such as smart cell phones Language: Spanish.

  11. Intelligent Bus Stops in the Flexible Bus Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razi Iqbal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to discuss Intelligent Bus Stops in a special Demand Responsive Transit (DRT, the Flexible Bus System. These Intelligent Bus Stops are more efficient and information rich than Traditional Bus Stops. The real time synchronization of the Flexible Bus System makes it unique as compared to Traditional Bus Systems. The Main concern is to make Bus Stops intelligent and information rich. Buses are informed about the no. of passengers waiting at the upcoming Bus Stops. If there are no passengers to ride or get off on upcoming Bus Stop, the Bus can skip that Bus Stop and head towards the next Bus Stop where passenger is waiting, which will decrease the ride time of the passengers on the Bus and also the wait time of the passengers waiting on the upcoming Bus Stops. Providing more information at Bus Stops about the Destination (Time to Destination, Distance to Destination etc. and Buses (Bus Location, Arrival Time of Bus etc. makes it easier for the passengers to decide whether to ride a particular Bus or not.

  12. Implementation of a Cooking Bus intervention to support cooking in schools in Wales, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segrott, Jeremy; Holliday, Jo; Murphy, Simon; Macdonald, Sarah; Roberts, Joan; Moore, Laurence; Phillips, Ceri

    2017-01-01

    The teaching of cooking is an important aspect of school-based efforts to promote healthy diets among children, and is frequently done by external agencies. Within a limited evidence base relating to cooking interventions in schools, there are important questions about how interventions are integrated within school settings. The purpose of this paper is to examine how a mobile classroom (Cooking Bus) sought to strengthen connections between schools and cooking, and drawing on the concept of the sociotechnical network, theorise the interactions between the Bus and school contexts. Methods comprised a postal questionnaire to 76 schools which had received a Bus visit, and case studies of the Bus' work in five schools, including a range of school sizes and urban/rural locations. Case studies comprised observation of Cooking Bus sessions, and interviews with school staff. The Cooking Bus forged connections with schools through aligning intervention and schools' goals, focussing on pupils' cooking skills, training teachers and contributing to schools' existing cooking-related activities. The Bus expanded its sociotechnical network through post-visit integration of cooking activities within schools, particularly teachers' use of intervention cooking kits. The paper highlights the need for research on the long-term impacts of school cooking interventions, and better understanding of the interaction between interventions and school contexts. This paper adds to the limited evidence base on school-based cooking interventions by theorising how cooking interventions relate to school settings, and how they may achieve integration.

  13. The school bus routing and scheduling problem with transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bögl, Michael; Doerner, Karl F; Parragh, Sophie N

    2015-03-01

    In this article, we study the school bus routing and scheduling problem with transfers arising in the field of nonperiodic public transportation systems. It deals with the transportation of pupils from home to their school in the morning taking the possibility that pupils may change buses into account. Allowing transfers has several consequences. On the one hand, it allows more flexibility in the bus network structure and can, therefore, help to reduce operating costs. On the other hand, transfers have an impact on the service level: the perceived service quality is lower due to the existence of transfers; however, at the same time, user ride times may be reduced and, thus, transfers may also have a positive impact on service quality. The main objective is the minimization of the total operating costs. We develop a heuristic solution framework to solve this problem and compare it with two solution concepts that do not consider transfers. The impact of transfers on the service level in terms of time loss (or user ride time) and the number of transfers is analyzed. Our results show that allowing transfers reduces total operating costs significantly while average and maximum user ride times are comparable to solutions without transfers. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. NETWORKS, Vol. 65(2), 180-203 2015.

  14. Drive Cycle Analysis, Measurement of Emissions and Fuel Consumption of a PHEV School Bus: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnitt, R.; Gonder, J.

    2011-04-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) collected and analyzed real-world school bus drive cycle data and selected similar standard drive cycles for testing on a chassis dynamometer. NREL tested a first-generation plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) school bus equipped with a 6.4L engine and an Enova PHEV drive system comprising a 25-kW/80 kW (continuous/peak) motor and a 370-volt lithium ion battery pack. A Bluebird 7.2L conventional school bus was also tested. Both vehicles were tested over three different drive cycles to capture a range of driving activity. PHEV fuel savings in charge-depleting (CD) mode ranged from slightly more than 30% to a little over 50%. However, the larger fuel savings lasted over a shorter driving distance, as the fully charged PHEV school bus would initially operate in CD mode for some distance, then in a transitional mode, and finally in a charge-sustaining (CS) mode for continued driving. The test results indicate that a PHEV school bus can achieve significant fuel savings during CD operation relative to a conventional bus. In CS mode, the tested bus showed small fuel savings and somewhat higher nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions than the baseline comparison bus.

  15. Exact and Metaheuristic Approaches for a Bi-Objective School Bus Scheduling Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaopan; Kong, Yunfeng; Dang, Lanxue; Hou, Yane; Ye, Xinyue

    2015-01-01

    As a class of hard combinatorial optimization problems, the school bus routing problem has received considerable attention in the last decades. For a multi-school system, given the bus trips for each school, the school bus scheduling problem aims at optimizing bus schedules to serve all the trips within the school time windows. In this paper, we propose two approaches for solving the bi-objective school bus scheduling problem: an exact method of mixed integer programming (MIP) and a metaheuristic method which combines simulated annealing with local search. We develop MIP formulations for homogenous and heterogeneous fleet problems respectively and solve the models by MIP solver CPLEX. The bus type-based formulation for heterogeneous fleet problem reduces the model complexity in terms of the number of decision variables and constraints. The metaheuristic method is a two-stage framework for minimizing the number of buses to be used as well as the total travel distance of buses. We evaluate the proposed MIP and the metaheuristic method on two benchmark datasets, showing that on both instances, our metaheuristic method significantly outperforms the respective state-of-the-art methods.

  16. Exact and Metaheuristic Approaches for a Bi-Objective School Bus Scheduling Problem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopan Chen

    Full Text Available As a class of hard combinatorial optimization problems, the school bus routing problem has received considerable attention in the last decades. For a multi-school system, given the bus trips for each school, the school bus scheduling problem aims at optimizing bus schedules to serve all the trips within the school time windows. In this paper, we propose two approaches for solving the bi-objective school bus scheduling problem: an exact method of mixed integer programming (MIP and a metaheuristic method which combines simulated annealing with local search. We develop MIP formulations for homogenous and heterogeneous fleet problems respectively and solve the models by MIP solver CPLEX. The bus type-based formulation for heterogeneous fleet problem reduces the model complexity in terms of the number of decision variables and constraints. The metaheuristic method is a two-stage framework for minimizing the number of buses to be used as well as the total travel distance of buses. We evaluate the proposed MIP and the metaheuristic method on two benchmark datasets, showing that on both instances, our metaheuristic method significantly outperforms the respective state-of-the-art methods.

  17. Implementation of a Cooking Bus intervention to support cooking in schools in Wales, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segrott, Jeremy; Holliday, Jo; Murphy, Simon; Macdonald, Sarah; Roberts, Joan; Moore, Laurence; Phillips, Ceri

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The teaching of cooking is an important aspect of school-based efforts to promote healthy diets among children, and is frequently done by external agencies. Within a limited evidence base relating to cooking interventions in schools, there are important questions about how interventions are integrated within school settings. The purpose of this paper is to examine how a mobile classroom (Cooking Bus) sought to strengthen connections between schools and cooking, and drawing on the concept of the sociotechnical network, theorise the interactions between the Bus and school contexts. Design/methodology/approach Methods comprised a postal questionnaire to 76 schools which had received a Bus visit, and case studies of the Bus’ work in five schools, including a range of school sizes and urban/rural locations. Case studies comprised observation of Cooking Bus sessions, and interviews with school staff. Findings The Cooking Bus forged connections with schools through aligning intervention and schools’ goals, focussing on pupils’ cooking skills, training teachers and contributing to schools’ existing cooking-related activities. The Bus expanded its sociotechnical network through post-visit integration of cooking activities within schools, particularly teachers’ use of intervention cooking kits. Research limitations/implications The paper highlights the need for research on the long-term impacts of school cooking interventions, and better understanding of the interaction between interventions and school contexts. Originality/value This paper adds to the limited evidence base on school-based cooking interventions by theorising how cooking interventions relate to school settings, and how they may achieve integration. PMID:28725120

  18. Effects of the window openings on the micro-environmental condition in a school bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Lee, Eon S.; Zhou, Bin; Liu, Junjie; Zhu, Yifang

    2017-10-01

    School bus is an important micro-environment for children's health because the level of in-cabin air pollution can increase due to its own exhaust in addition to on-road traffic emissions. However, it has been challenging to understand the in-cabin air quality that is associated with complex airflow patterns inside and outside a school bus. This study conducted Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling analyses to determine the effects of window openings on the self-pollution for a school bus. Infiltration through the window gaps is modeled by applying variable numbers of active computational cells as a function of the effective area ratio of the opening. The experimental data on ventilation rates from the literature was used to validate the model. Ultrafine particles (UFPs) and black carbon (BC) concentrations were monitored in ;real world; field campaigns using school buses. This modeling study examined the airflow pattern inside the school bus under four different types of side-window openings at 20, 40, and 60 mph (i.e., a total of 12 cases). We found that opening the driver's window could allow the infiltration of exhaust through window/door gaps in the back of school bus; whereas, opening windows in the middle of the school bus could mitigate this phenomenon. We also found that an increased driving speed (from 20 mph to 60 mph) could result in a higher ventilation rate (up to 3.4 times) and lower mean age of air (down to 0.29 time) inside the bus.

  19. Walking school bus programs in U.S. public elementary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Lindsey; Chriqui, Jamie F; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2013-07-01

    Active transportation to school provides an important way for children to meet physical activity recommendations. The "walking school bus" (WSB) is a strategy whereby adults walk with a group of children to and from school along a fixed route. This study assessed whether school-organized WSB programs varied by school characteristics, district policies, and state laws. School data were gathered by mail-back surveys in nationally representative samples of U.S. public elementary schools during the 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 school years (n = 632 and 666, respectively). Corresponding district policies and state laws were obtained. Nationwide, 4.2% of schools organized a WSB program during 2008-2009, increasing to 6.2% by 2009-2010. Controlling for demographic covariates, schools were more likely to organize a WSB program where there was a strong district policy pertaining to safe active routes to school (OR = 2.14, P schools (OR = 2.72, P schools organizing these programs. Policymaking efforts may encourage schools to promote active transportation.

  20. A preliminary survey analysis of school shuttle bus system towards smart mobility solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Wong Seng; Hoy, Cheong Wan; Chye, Koh Keng

    2017-10-01

    Mobility and accessibility are crucial indicators of urban development. Public transport in the urban areas came into existence to fulfil transportation needs as well as mobility and accessibility demands. Ridership can be affected by the quality and quantity of transit service. However, technical improvements are needed for such as real-time bus information, controlling run time and headway delay. Thus, this paper is aimed to carry out a preliminary survey to determine the problems of school shuttle bus that faced by the students in a selected educational institution, their perceptions of using shuttle bus tracking and information mobile application and impacts of real-time information of public transits on bus ridership and towards smart mobility solutions. Efficient public transportation system needs further investigation about the role of mobile application for the bus tracking system in supporting smart mobility actions and real-time information. The proposed application also provides a smart solution for the management of public infrastructures and urban facilities in Malaysia in future. Eventually, this study opens an opportunity to improve Malaysian quality of life on the public value that created for the city as a whole.

  1. GeoBus: bringing Earth science learning to secondary schools in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Ruth; Roper, Kathryn; Pike, Charlotte

    2015-04-01

    GeoBus (www.geobus.org.uk) is an educational outreach project that was developed in 2012 by the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at the University of St Andrews, and it is sponsored jointly by industry and the UK Research Councils (NERC and EPSRC). The aims of GeoBus are to support the teaching of Earth Science in secondary (middle and high) schools by providing teaching support to schools that have no or little expertise of teaching Earth science, to share the outcomes of new science research and the experiences of young researchers with school pupils, and to provide a bridge between industry, higher education institutions, research councils and schools. Since its launch, GeoBus has visited over 160 different schools across the length and breadth of Scotland. Almost 35,000 pupils will have been involved in experiential Earth science learning activities by April 2015, including many in remote and disadvantaged regions. The challenge with secondary school experiential learning as outreach is that activities need to be completed in either 50 or 80 minutes to fit within the school timetables in the UK, and this can limit the amount of hands-on activities that pupils undertake in one session. However, it is possible to dedicate a whole or half day of linked activities to Earth science learning within the Scotland Curriculum for Excellence, and this provides a long enough period to undertake field work, conduct group projects, or complete more complicated experiments. GeoBus has developed a suite of workshops that all involve experiential learning and are targeted for shorter and longer time slots, and the lessons learned in developing and refining these workshops to maximise the learning achieved will be presented. A key aim of GeoBus is to incorporate research outcomes directly into workshops, and to involve early career researchers in project development. One example that is currently in progress is a set of hydrology workshops that focus on the water

  2. A Rule-Based Energy Management Strategy for a Plug-in Hybrid School Bus Based on a Controller Area Network Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiankun Peng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a rule-based energy management strategy for a plug-in hybrid school bus (PHSB. In order to verify the effectiveness and rationality of the proposed energy management strategy, the powertrain and control models were built with MATLAB/Simulink. The PHSB powertrain model includes an engine model, ISG (integrated started and generator model, drive motor model, power battery packs model, driver model, and vehicle longitudinal dynamics model. To evaluate the controller area network (CAN bus performance features such as the bus load, signal hysteresis, and to verify the reliability and real-time performance of the CAN bus multi-node control method, a co-simulation platform was built with CANoe and MATLAB/Simulink. The co-simulation results show that the control strategy can meet the requirements of the PHSB’s dynamic performance. Meanwhile, the charge-depleting mode (CD and charge-sustaining mode (CS can switch between each other and maintain a state-of-charge (SoC of around 30%, indicating that the energy management strategy effectively extends the working period of the CD mode and improves the fuel economy further. The energy consumption per 100 km includes 13.7 L diesel and 10.5 kW·h electricity with an initial SoC of 75%. The CANoe simulation results show that the bus communication performs well without error frames.

  3. Designing Hub-and-Spoke School Bus Transportation Network: A Case Study of Wonkwang University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Hyuk Kim

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a case study of hub-and-spoke school bus transportation network design. The case study here utilizes a mathematical model that is the P-median optimization model to determine optimal hub locations. The P-median problem is a combinatorial optimization problem that includes many binary variables and constraints. The selected objective of the model is to minimize the total travel time satisfying other operational constraints. To elevate usability of decision making in the future, we implement the simulation model through the template model in spreadsheet platform. The developed model is used as a future reference to find operational directions of school bus managing policy and also tested on the case of Wonkwang University.

  4. The School Bus Symposium: A Poetic Journey of Co-created Conference Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell A McLarnon

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available With the intention of disrupting and re-imagining traditional conference spaces, this article is a poetic compilation developed from a Curriculum Studies conference symposium that took place on a school bus. During the School Bus Symposium, in situ poetry writing and reading, song and storytelling occurred in response to open ended prompts and facilitation of creative activities. After the symposium, a call was issued to invite participants to submit any poetry or stories produced during, or inspired by the session. Consisting of 18 submissions including poetry, story, photography and creative essays, infused by curriculum theory and poetic inquiry, this collection offers an inclusive, reflective, participatory, and experiential rendering where participants are living and journeying poetically. Emphasizing creative engagement with personal memories, the authors collectively aimed to promote art education through imaginative approaches to curriculum studies, poetic inquiry and academic conferences.

  5. School Bus Carbon Monoxide Intrusion. NHTSA Technical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This report presents the findings of a voluntary program conducted over a 10-month period during which school buses were tested for carbon monoxide (CO) levels under different climatological conditions. The objective of the test program was to determine whether or not there are any serious CO intrusion problems or indications of potential problems…

  6. Modeling school bus seat belt usage: Nested and mixed logit approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Gaurav; Lou, Yingyan

    2013-03-01

    School bus seat belt usage has been of great interest to the school transportation community. Understanding factors that influence students' decisions about wearing seat belts or not is important in determining the most cost-effective ways to improve belt usage rate, and thus the seat belt safety benefits. This paper presents a rigorous empirical analysis on data from Alabama School Bus Pilot Project using discrete choice modeling framework. In order to collect relevant information on individual student-trips, a new data collection protocol is adopted. Three choice alternatives are considered in the study: wearing, not wearing, and improperly wearing seat belts. A student's choice probabilities of these alternatives are modeled as functions of the student's characteristics and trip attributes. The coefficients of the variables in the functions are estimated first using standard multinomial logit model. Moreover, to account for potential correlations among the three choice alternatives and individual-level preference and response heterogeneity among users, nested and mixed logit models are employed in the investigation. Eight significant influence factors are identified by the final models. Their relative impacts are also quantified. The factors include age, gender and the home county of a student, a student's trip length, time of day, seat location, presence and active involvement of bus aide, and two levels of bus driver involvement. The impact of the seat location on students' seat belt usage is revealed for the first time by this study. Both hypotheses that some of the choice alternatives are correlated and that individual-level heterogeneity exists are tested statistically significant. In view of this, the nested and the mixed logit model are recommended over the standard multinomial logit model to describe and predict students' seat belt usage behaviors. The final nested logit model uncovers a correlation between improper wearing and not wearing, indicating

  7. 49 CFR 571.222 - Standard No. 222; School bus passenger seating and crash protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... removable without tools or to flip up must have a self-latching mechanism that is activated when a 22-kg (48... at an angle of 50 degrees to the horizontal. S5.1.7.2Load application. Insert the seat belt... Sections Affected which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and on GPO Access. ...

  8. Statistical Characterization of School Bus Drive Cycles Collected via Onboard Logging Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, A.; Walkowicz, K.

    2013-10-01

    In an effort to characterize the dynamics typical of school bus operation, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) researchers set out to gather in-use duty cycle data from school bus fleets operating across the country. Employing a combination of Isaac Instruments GPS/CAN data loggers in conjunction with existing onboard telemetric systems resulted in the capture of operating information for more than 200 individual vehicles in three geographically unique domestic locations. In total, over 1,500 individual operational route shifts from Washington, New York, and Colorado were collected. Upon completing the collection of in-use field data using either NREL-installed data acquisition devices or existing onboard telemetry systems, large-scale duty-cycle statistical analyses were performed to examine underlying vehicle dynamics trends within the data and to explore vehicle operation variations between fleet locations. Based on the results of these analyses, high, low, and average vehicle dynamics requirements were determined, resulting in the selection of representative standard chassis dynamometer test cycles for each condition. In this paper, the methodology and accompanying results of the large-scale duty-cycle statistical analysis are presented, including graphical and tabular representations of a number of relationships between key duty-cycle metrics observed within the larger data set. In addition to presenting the results of this analysis, conclusions are drawn and presented regarding potential applications of advanced vehicle technology as it relates specifically to school buses.

  9. Stochastic Bus Dispatching Model untuk Optimalisasi Jumlah Bus Transjakarta Koridor 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahedi Zahedi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of road user causing traffic jam finds out a way, busway. However, in its implementation, the number of fleet available does not enough to take the passengers. It results in the an amassed of passengers at several bus stops. This leads to passenger dissatisfaction satisfaction which eventually causes Transjakarta users to reuse private cars. Definitely this situation may builds up traffic jams. Stochastic Bus Dispatching Model is used to simulate public transportation that operates regularly. 

  10. Modeling the Coordinated Operation between Bus Rapid Transit and Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqing Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The coordination between bus rapid transit (BRT and feeder bus service is helpful in improving the operational efficiency and service level of urban public transport system. Therefore, a coordinated operation model of BRT and bus is intended to develop in this paper. The total costs are formulated and optimized by genetic algorithm. Moreover, the skip-stop BRT operation is considered when building the coordinated operation model. A case of the existing bus network in Beijing is studied, the proposed coordinated operation model of BRT and bus is applied, and the optimized headway and costs are obtained. The results show that the coordinated operation model could effectively decrease the total costs of the transit system and the transfer time of passengers. The results also suggest that the coordination between the skip-stop BRT and bus during peak hour is more effective than non-coordination operation.

  11. A Rule-Based Energy Management Strategy for a Plug-in Hybrid School Bus Based on a Controller Area Network Bus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peng, Jiankun; Fan, Hao; He, Hongwen; Pan, Deng

    2015-01-01

    .... To evaluate the controller area network (CAN) bus performance features such as the bus load, signal hysteresis, and to verify the reliability and real-time performance of the CAN bus multi-node control method, a co-simulation platform was built...

  12. The GeoBus project: a mobile Earth science outreach project for secondary schools in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, R. A.; Roper, K. A.; Macfarlane, D.; Pike, C.

    2013-12-01

    GeoBus is an educational outreach project that was developed in 2012 by the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at the University of St Andrews. It is sponsored jointly by industry and the UK Research Councils (NERC and EPSRC). The aims of GeoBus are to support the teaching of Earth Science in secondary (high) schools by providing teaching resources that are not readily available to educators, to inspire young learners by incorporating new science research outcomes in teaching activities, and to provide a bridge between industry, higher education institutions, research councils and schools. These linkages are important for introducing career opportunities in Earth sciences. Since its launch, GeoBus has visited over 140 different schools across the length and breadth of Scotland. Over 20,000 pupils will have been involved in practical hands-on Earth science learning activities by December 2013, including many in remote and disadvantaged regions. The resources that GeoBus brings to schools include all the materials and equipment needed to run workshops, field excursions and Enterprise Challenges. GeoBus provides 16 workshops which can be adapted for different learning levels. Workshops are 50 to 80 minute sessions for up to 30 pupils and topics include minerals, rocks, fossils, geological time, natural resources, climate change, volcanoes, earthquakes, and geological mapping. As with all GeoBus activities, the inclusion of equipment and technology otherwise unavailable to schools substantially increases the engagement of pupils in workshops. Field excursions are popular, as many teachers have little or no field trainng and feel unable to lead this type of activity. The excursions comprise half or full day sessions for up to 30 pupils and are tailored to cover the local geology or geomorphology. The Enterprise Challenges are half or full day sessions for up to 100 pupils. Current topics are Drilling for Oil, Renewable Energy, a Journey to Mars and Scotland

  13. LHC on the bus

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    On 15 December, an airport bus will be transformed in the image of CERN. The bus will be seen by the thousands of travellers arriving in Geneva, informing them of the possibility to visit CERN.   Sketch of the bus. The good relationship between Geneva International Airport and CERN started several years ago. In 2004 the airport put advertising space in the arrivals area at CERN's disposal free of charge. Now, starting on 15 December, a 40-foot long bus will display a giant sticker advertisement depicting CERN as it takes passengers over the airport tarmac to their planes. This is no ordinary sticker, and it was no mean task to attach it to the bus. The task of producing and attaching it was entrusted to Geneva-based specialists Mathys SA. With the ski season opening on 15 December, there will be many travellers arriving at the airport, and the bus will be ready to receive them. When one thinks of CERN, the subjects that naturally come to mind are the LHC, the mysteries of the Universe...

  14. Problems and opportunities of the public organisation of passenger transport on the example of bus transport in Estonia. Reisijateveo riikliku korralduse probleemid ja võimalused Eesti bussitranspordi näitel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jüri Sepp

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to show the need and opportunities for the public organisation of bus transport in Estonia. In order to achieve this goal, it is necessary to investigate Estonian and international experience in the organisation of passenger transport, its theoretical background and the resulting special measures. If we look at a specific transport service, the exclusion of the consumption thereof for a non-payer is no problem either in principle or technically. Here, public goods and market failure are not as much related to a specific transport service, but to the general availability thereof to the majority of the population. This is exactly the circumstance that the market may not necessarily guarantee. Here, the economic policy theory offers two solutions, which application in Estonian case are analysed in this article: 1 the cross-subsidisation of some lines at the expense of others, which, of course, presumes the prevention of the so-called price skimming with the establishment of regional monopolies and granting of special rights for them; 2 if cross-subsidisation cannot ensure a wide enough access to passenger transport, subsidisation must be added

  15. Bus industry market study. Report -- Task 3.2: Fuel cell/battery powered bus system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalbowitz, M.

    1992-06-02

    In support of the commercialization of fuel cells for transportation, Georgetown University, as a part of the DOE/DOT Fuel Cell Transit Bus Program, conducted a market study to determine the inventory of passenger buses in service as of December, 1991, the number of buses delivered in 1991 and an estimate of the number of buses to be delivered in 1992. Short term and long term market projections of deliveries were also made. Data was collected according to type of bus and the field was divided into the following categories which are defined in the report: transit buses, school buses, commercial non-transit buses, and intercity buses. The findings of this study presented with various tables of data collected from identified sources as well as narrative analysis based upon interviews conducted during the survey.

  16. The mobile GeoBus outreach project: hands-on Earth and Mars activities for secondary schools in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Ruth; Pike, Charlotte; Roper, Kathryn

    2015-04-01

    GeoBus (www.geobus.org.uk) is an educational outreach project that was developed in 2012 by the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at the University of St Andrews, and it is sponsored jointly by industry and the UK Research Councils (NERC and EPSRC). The aims of GeoBus are to support the teaching of Earth Science in secondary schools by providing teaching resources that are not readily available to educators, to inspire young learners by incorporating new science research outcomes in teaching activities, and to provide a bridge between industry, higher education institutions, research councils and schools. Since its launch, GeoBus has visited over 160 different schools across the length and breadth of Scotland. Just under 35,000 pupils have been involved in practical hands-on Earth science learning activities since the project began in 2012, including many in remote and disadvantaged regions. The resources that GeoBus brings to schools include all the materials and equipment needed to run 50 - 80 minute workshops, and half- or whole-day Enterprise Challenges and field excursions. Workshops are aimed at a class of up to 30 pupils and topics include minerals, rocks, fossils, geological time, natural resources, climate change, volcanoes, earthquakes, and geological mapping. As with all GeoBus activities, the inclusion of equipment and technology otherwise unavailable to schools substantially increases the engagement of pupils in workshops. Field excursions are increasingly popular, as many teachers have little or no field trainng and feel unable to lead this type of activity. The excursions comprise half or full day sessions for up to 30 pupils and are tailored to cover the local geology or geomorphology. Enterprise Challenge are half or full day sessions for up to 100 pupils. Topics include "Journey to Mars", "Scotland's Rocks", "Drilling for Oil", and "Renewable Energy". Both of the energy Enterprise Challenges were designed to incorporates ideas and

  17. How to Find a Comfortable Bus Route - Towards Personalized Information Recommendation Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danhuai Guo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available With the generation of massive data from bus IC cards, how to effectively and efficiently recommend comfortable bus routes to bus passengers is a challenging and complex task. In this paper, waiting time, crowded time, and driving time between different bus stations on different bus routes at different times of the day are calculated from bus IC cards data history. Then, a multi-objective program with various constraints is suggested to recommend comfortable bus routes for bus passengers, and a genetic algorithm is developed to search for expected solutions. The proposed method is implemented using bus IC cards data from Chongqing, China and will be a promising tool for bus passengers when choosing comfortable bus routes.

  18. BBIS: Beacon Bus Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasim, Shahreen; Hafit, Hanayanti; Pei Juin, Kong; Afizah Afif, Zehan; Hashim, Rathiah; Ruslai, Husni; Jahidin, Kamaruzzaman; Syafwan Arshad, Mohammad

    2016-11-01

    Lack of bus information for example bus timetable, status of the bus and messy advertisement on bulletin board at the bus stop will give negative impact to tourist. Therefore, a real-time update bus information bulletin board provides all information needed so that passengers can save their bus information searching time. Supported with Android or iOS, Beacon Bus Information System (BBIS) provides bus information between Batu Pahat and Kluang area. BBIS is a system that implements physical web technology and interaction on demand. It built on Backend-as-a-Service, a cloud solution and Firebase non relational database as data persistence backend and syncs between user client in the real-time. People walk through bus stop with smart device and do not require any application. Bluetooth Beacon is used to achieve smart device's best performance of data sharing. Intellij IDEA 15 is one of the tools that that used to develop the BBIS system. Multi-language included front end and backend supported Integration development environment (IDE) helped to speed up integration process.

  19. Integer programming model for optimizing bus timetable using genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wihartiko, F. D.; Buono, A.; Silalahi, B. P.

    2017-01-01

    Bus timetable gave an information for passengers to ensure the availability of bus services. Timetable optimal condition happened when bus trips frequency could adapt and suit with passenger demand. In the peak time, the number of bus trips would be larger than the off-peak time. If the number of bus trips were more frequent than the optimal condition, it would make a high operating cost for bus operator. Conversely, if the number of trip was less than optimal condition, it would make a bad quality service for passengers. In this paper, the bus timetabling problem would be solved by integer programming model with modified genetic algorithm. Modification was placed in the chromosomes design, initial population recovery technique, chromosomes reconstruction and chromosomes extermination on specific generation. The result of this model gave the optimal solution with accuracy 99.1%.

  20. Request-Centric Wireless Bus Information Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Chih Chen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This invention relates to a wireless bus information management system, which includes bus stop and vehicle management subsystems. The management signals are transmittable between bus stops and the vehicle. Based on vehicle management signals, the bus stop management subsystem can obtain information about the bus route identification, the number of unoccupied seats, the intention to stop or not, etc. Similarly, with the bus stop management signals, the vehicle management subsystem can make the decision of stopping. Accordingly, when a passenger wants to get off the vehicle or there are unoccupied seats, the vehicle management subsystem will inform the bus stop management subsystem such that the passengers waiting at the bus stop may flexibly schedule their travel plan. The proposed distributed wireless system is detailed by a prototype implementation and a simulation analysis, which is shown to be feasible and scalable.

  1. Factors influencing students' usage of school bus seat belts: an empirical analysis of the Alabama pilot project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yingyan; Mehta, Gaurav; Turner, Daniel S

    2011-09-01

    The Alabama State Department of Education and the Governor's Study Group on School Bus Seat Belts authorized and funded a research project to investigate the effects of lap-shoulder seat belts on Alabama school buses. This article performs an empirical analysis to address an important component of the study - factors that impact students' decisions about wearing seat belts or not on school buses. Discrete choice modeling framework is applied to quantify relative influences of various factors. To obtain the disaggregate level information on individual student's characteristics and trip properties, a new data collection protocol is developed. Eleven variables are investigated and eight of them are found to have significant impacts. They are age, gender, the home county of a student, a student's trip length, time of day, presence and active involvement of bus aide, and two levels of bus driver involvement. The resulting model fits the data well and reveals several trends that have been overlooked or underestimated in the literature. The model can also be used to predict the change of seat belt usage rate caused by the change of impact factors. This is helpful in identifying the most cost-effective ways to improve compliance rate, which is critical to bring the added safety benefit of seat belts into effect. This article is the first to quantify relative impacts of a range of variables using rigorous statistical modeling techniques. This study will contribute to the literature and provide valuable insights to the practice of school transportation management. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Testing the effects of safety climate and disruptive children behavior on school bus drivers performance: A multilevel model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, Dov; Lee, Jin

    2016-10-01

    The study was designed to test a multilevel path model whose variables exert opposing effects on school bus drivers' performance. Whereas departmental safety climate was expected to improve driving safety, the opposite was true for in-vehicle disruptive children behavior. The driving safety path in this model consists of increasing risk-taking practices starting with safety shortcuts leading to rule violations and to near-miss events. The study used a sample of 474 school bus drivers in rural areas, driving children to school and school-related activities. Newly developed scales for measuring predictor, mediator and outcome variables were validated with video data taken from inner and outer cameras, which were installed in 29 buses. Results partially supported the model by indicating that group-level safety climate and individual-level children distraction exerted opposite effects on the driving safety path. Furthermore, as hypothesized, children disruption moderated the strength of the safety rule violation-near miss relationship, resulting in greater strength under high disruptiveness. At the same time, the hypothesized interaction between the two predictor variables was not supported. Theoretical and practical implications for studying safety climate in general and distracted driving in particular for professional drivers are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Optimizing Bus Frequencies under Uncertain Demand: Case Study of the Transit Network in a Developing City

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Zhengfeng; Ren, Gang; Liu, Haixu

    2013-01-01

    Various factors can make predicting bus passenger demand uncertain. In this study, a bilevel programming model for optimizing bus frequencies based on uncertain bus passenger demand is formulated. There are two terms constituting the upper-level objective. The first is transit network cost, consisting of the passengers’ expected travel time and operating costs, and the second is transit network robustness performance, indicated by the variance in passenger travel time. The second term reflect...

  4. A Self-Adjusting Method to Resist Bus Bunching Based on Boarding Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuzhi Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bus bunching is one of the most serious problems of urban bus systems. Bus bunching increases waiting and travel time of passengers. Many bus systems use schedules to reach equal headways. Compared to the idea of schedules and the target headway introduced later, we propose a new method to improve the efficiency of a bus system and avoid bus bunching by boarding limits. Our solution can be effectively implemented when buses cannot travel as planned because of bad road conditions and dynamic demands at bus stops. Besides, using our method, bus headways reach the state with equal headways dynamically and spontaneously without drivers’ explicit intervention. Moreover, the method can improve the level of the bus service and reduce total travel time of passengers. We verify our method using an ideal bus route and a real bus route, both showing the success of the proposed method.

  5. Passengers' Variables as Predictors of Risky Driving Behaviour of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... a significant influence on the risky driving behaviour of intercity commercial bus drivers [F(1,282)=5.27,P<0.05].that is, female passengers have more influence on the driving behaviour of inter-city commercial bus drivers than male passengers. The study also revealed that more women (58.3%) use public transportation in ...

  6. Kajian Keamanan Pengoperasian Public Transport Tinjauan Terhadap Kekuatan Rangka Body Bus

    OpenAIRE

    Sudiro, B. M

    2010-01-01

    In order to meet the safety and security of the public transportation, design specification of construction body bus or bus frame structures should have an appropriate structural strength and comply with standard design including the safety factor and selection of material besides static and dynamic testing of the part of body bus. It is also realized that a bus carrying passengers have to give secure to the passengers also driver.The fact that a technology concerning with metal works indus...

  7. Road safety issues for bus transport management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafiso, Salvatore; Di Graziano, Alessandro; Pappalardo, Giuseppina

    2013-11-01

    Because of the low percentage of crashes involving buses and the assumption that public transport improves road safety by reducing vehicular traffic, public interest in bus safety is not as great as that in the safety of other types of vehicles. It is possible that less attention is paid to the significance of crashes involving buses because the safety level of bus systems is considered to be adequate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and perceptions of bus managers with respect to safety issues and the potential effectiveness of various technologies in achieving higher safety standards. Bus managers were asked to give their opinions on safety issues related to drivers (training, skills, performance evaluation and behaviour), vehicles (maintenance and advanced devices) and roads (road and traffic safety issues) in response to a research survey. Kendall's algorithm was used to evaluate the level of concordance. The results showed that the majority of the proposed items were considered to have great potential for improving bus safety. The data indicated that in the experience of the participants, passenger unloading and pedestrians crossing near bus stops are the most dangerous actions with respect to vulnerable users. The final results of the investigation showed that start inhibition, automatic door opening, and the materials and internal architecture of buses were considered the items most strongly related to bus passenger safety. Brake assistance and vehicle monitoring systems were also considered to be very effective. With the exception of driver assistance systems for passenger and pedestrian safety, the perceptions of the importance of other driver assistance systems for vehicle monitoring and bus safety were not unanimous among the bus company managers who participated in this survey. The study results showed that the introduction of new technologies is perceived as an important factor in improving bus safety, but a better understanding

  8. Development of bus-stop time models in dense urban areas : a case study in Washington DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Bus transit reliability depends on several factors including the route of travel, traffic conditions, time of day, and conditions at : the bus stops along the route. The number of passengers alighting or boarding, fare payment method, dwell time (DT)...

  9. Comparing data quality and cost from three modes of on-board transit passenger surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This report presents the findings from a research project investigating the relative data quality and administration costs for three : different modes of surveying bus passengers that produce results generalizable to the full passenger population. Th...

  10. 75 FR 71792 - National Express Corporation-Control Exemption-Vogel Bus Company, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... passenger carrier (MC-274520). NEC indirectly owns and controls one interstate motor passenger carrier... Surface Transportation Board National Express Corporation--Control Exemption--Vogel Bus Company, Inc... approval requirements of 49 U.S.C. 14303(a)(5) and 49 CFR 1182 to acquire control of Vogel Bus Company, Inc...

  11. The Bus Station Spacing Optimization Based on Game Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjiang Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of city, the problem of traffic is becoming more and more serious. Developing public transportation has become the key to solving this problem in all countries. Based on the existing public transit network, how to improve the bus operation efficiency, and reduce the residents transit trip cost has become a simple and effective way to develop the public transportation. Bus stop spacing is an important factor affecting passengers’ travel time. How to set up bus stop spacing has become the key to reducing passengers’ travel time. According to comprehensive traffic survey, theoretical analysis, and summary of urban public transport characteristics, this paper analyzes the impact of bus stop spacing on passenger in-bus time cost and out-bus time cost and establishes in-bus time and out-bus time model. Finally, the paper gets the balance best station spacing by introducing the game theory.

  12. DETERMINATION OF THE DELAY DEPARTURE TIME OF THE BUS FROM STOPPING POINT INTO THE CAR FLOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gorbachov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An analytical model for estimation of the bus departure delax from the bus stopping point after passenger loading is presented. The model allows to take into account the traffic density on a particular road section of the transport network, as well as the bus parameters.

  13. Optimization Model for Headway of a Suburban Bus Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to relatively low passenger demand, headways of suburban bus route are usually longer than those of urban bus route. Actually it is also difficult to balance the benefits between passengers and operators, subject to the service standards from the government. Hence the headway of a suburban bus route is usually determined on the empirical experience of transport planners. To cope with this problem, this paper proposes an optimization model for designing the headways of suburban bus routes by minimizing the operating and user costs. The user costs take into account both the waiting time cost and the crowding cost. The feasibility and validity of the proposed model are shown by applying it to the Route 206 in Jiangning district, Nanjing city of China. Weightages of passengers’ cost and operating cost are further discussed, considering different passenger flows. It is found that the headway and objective function are affected by the weightages largely.

  14. Keeping Them on the Bus: Retaining Early Career Teachers in a Successful Urban School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ado, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses teacher retention in a successful, new, small urban school. As a longitudinal study, it focuses on the intersections between individual teachers' expectations about teaching, contextual factors, and experiences at the school site and teachers' future career plans. The experiences and perspectives of three representative case…

  15. Exposure Assessment of Diesel Bus Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Hofmann

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to measure ultrafine particle concentrations with diameters less than 1 μm emitted by diesel buses and to assess resulting human exposure levels. The study was conducted at the Woolloongabba Busway station in Brisbane, Australia in the winter months of 2002 during which temperature inversions frequently occurred. Most buses that utilize the station are fuelled by diesel, the exhaust of which contains a significant quantity of particle matter. Passengers waiting at the station are exposed to these particles emitted from the buses. During the course of this study, passenger census was conducted, based on video surveillance, yielding person-by-person waiting time data. Furthermore, a bus census revealed accurate information about the total number of diesel versus Compressed Natural Gas (CNG powered buses. Background (outside of the bus station and platform measurements of ultrafine particulate number size distributions were made to determine ambient aerosol concentrations. Particle number exposure concentration ranges from 10 and 40 to 60% of bus related exhaust fumes. This changes dramatically when considering the particle mass exposure concentration, where most passengers are exposed to about 50 to 80% of exhaust fumes. The obtained data can be very significant for comparison with similar work of this type because it is shown in previous studies that exhaust emissions causes cancer in laboratory animals. It was assumed that significant differences between platform and background distributions were due to bus emissions which, combined with passenger waiting times, yielded an estimate of passenger exposure to ultrafine particles from diesel buses. From an exposure point of view, the Busway station analyzed resembles a street canyon. Although the detected exhaust particle concentration at the outbound platform is found to be in the picogram range, exposure increases with the time passengers spend on the platform

  16. Research on the Coordinated Design of Bus and Taxi Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangfeng Xi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rises in the number of transit buses, bus routes, and overall traffic volume in China’s cities, coupled with interference from other transport modes, such as taxis loading and unloading passengers nearby, have led to increasing traffic delays at bus stops, which is considered one of the factors degrading service levels and traffic operations on urban roadways. This paper studies traffic characteristics at bus stops, investigates variations in delay from different types or designs of bus stops, and analyzes the impact of it on traffic capacity, the purpose of which is to propose a solution to predicting the feasibility of an integrated design of bus stops and taxi stands with the help of mathematical models and based on the objectives of optimal traffic operations and passenger transfer.

  17. Modeling of passengers' safety perception for buses on mountainous roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Hooi Ling; Ahmed, Muaid

    2018-01-31

    This study had developed a passenger safety perception model specifically for buses taking into consideration the various factors, namely driver characteristics, environmental conditions, and bus characteristics using Bayesian Network. The behaviour of bus driver is observed through the bus motion profile, measured in longitudinal, lateral, and vertical accelerations. The road geometry is recorded using GPS and is computed with the aid of the Google map while the perceived bus safety is rated by the passengers in the bus in real time. A total of 13 variables were derived and used in the model development. The developed Bayesian Network model shows that the type of bus and the experience of the driver on the investigated route could have an influence on passenger's perception of their safety on buses. Road geometry is an indirect influencing factor through the driver's behavior. The findings of this model are useful for the authorities to structure an effective strategy to improve the level of perceived bus safety. A high level of bus safety will definitely boost passenger usage confidence which will subsequently increase ridership. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Extracting potential bus lines of Customized City Bus Service based on public transport big data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yibin; Chen, Ge; Han, Yong; Zheng, Huangcheng

    2016-11-01

    Customized City Bus Service (CCBS) can reduce the traffic congestion and environmental pollution that caused by the increasing in private cars, effectively. This study aims to extract the potential bus lines and each line's passenger density of CCBS by mining the public transport big data. The datasets used in this study are mainly Smart Card Data (SCD) and bus GPS data of Qingdao, China, from October 11th and November 7th 2015. Firstly, we compute the temporal-origin-destination (TOD) of passengers by mining SCD and bus GPS data. Compared with the traditional OD, TOD not only has the spatial location, but also contains the trip's boarding time. Secondly, based on the traditional DBSCAN algorithm, we put forwards an algorithm, named TOD-DBSCAN, combined with the spatial-temporal features of TOD.TOD-DBSCAN is used to cluster the TOD trajectories in peak hours of all working days. Then, we define two variables P and N to describe the possibility and passenger destiny of a potential CCBS line. P is the probability of the CCBS line. And N represents the potential passenger destiny of the line. Lastly, we visualize the potential CCBS lines extracted by our procedure on the map and analyse relationship between potential CCBS lines and the urban spatial structure.

  19. Natural gas powered bus; Erdgasbusprojekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambuehl, D.; Fernandez, J.

    2003-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents the results of a project carried out by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich to evaluate the performance of a natural-gas-powered bus in comparison with two diesel buses. The report provides details on the vehicles, their routes and the results of interviews made with both passengers and drivers. Details of measurements made on fuel consumption and pollutant emissions are presented in tabular and graphical form, as are those made on noise emissions inside and outside the vehicles. The conclusions of the project are presented including economic aspects of using gas as a motor fuel. Also, the views of passengers, who were more concerned with comfort aspects, and drivers, who were more interested in technical aspects, are quoted.

  20. Evaluation of Urban Bus Transport Failure in Gujranwala City of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD WAQAR ASLAM

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This research work has evaluated the performance of urban public bus transport service operating in Gujranwala city of Pakistan. The assessment has been made in terms of financial viability, bus condition, operational performance and user perception. Based on the data requirements, various traffic/transport surveys were conducted including Passenger Boarding and Alighting Survey, Bus Count Survey, Bus Inspection Survey, Illegal Operations Survey and Public Transport User Interview Survey in consultation with concerned department/agencies. Field surveys were also conducted to get input from passengers and local people. Initial investigation informed that out of four operational bus routes, only two routes are profitable. The overall bus operation is running in loss (only 0.3% net profit. It has barely any profit for the bus operator against its investment thereby making the urban bus operation financially non-viable. The whole revenue flow is dependent on passenger ticketing revenue only. Around 35% of the buses are in poor condition with major issues of quality of tyres, no speedometer, worse condition of seats, floor and ceiling, and display of route. Illegal operation of Qingqis/Rickshaws (as para-transit mode along the bus routes is also decreasing the revenue by capturing the passenger volume. According to passenger opinion analysis, around 55% of the passenger are not satisfied with the service quality and prefer other modes of transport. Their major concerns are absence of facilities for disables and bus stops, bus seating and standing capacity, poor bus condition and pick pocketing. Collectively, these factors are contributing

  1. Shuttle bus services quality assessment Tangerang Selatan toward smart city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassa, Ferdinand; Sitorus, Fredy Jhon Philip; Adikesuma, Tri Nugraha

    2017-11-01

    Around the world, shuttle bus operation played the significant role to accommodate transportation for commuting bus passengers. Shuttle Bus services in cities are provided by various bus agencies with kinds of own specific purposes. For instance, at Tangerang Selatan, Indonesia, it was said that shuttle bus In Trans Bintaro is run and operated by private bus companies hire by Bintaro developer. The aim of this research is to identify factors of satisfaction of shuttle bus service in Kota Tangerang Selatan, Indonesia. Several factors are used to analyze sums of 20 parameters performance indicators of Shuttle Bus. A face to face interview using a questionnaire (N=200) was used to collect data on October and March 2017. Likert and diagram Cartesian were used to model the all the parameters. This research succeeded in finding some categories of Shuttle bus service attributes such as accessibility, comfort, and safety. Users agreed that eight indicators in shuttle bus have the excellent achievement, while three indicators on performance remain low and should receive more attention especially punctuality of the bus.

  2. Dynamic Bus Travel Time Prediction Models on Road with Multiple Bus Routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Cong; Peng, Zhong-Ren; Lu, Qing-Chang; Sun, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and real-time travel time information for buses can help passengers better plan their trips and minimize waiting times. A dynamic travel time prediction model for buses addressing the cases on road with multiple bus routes is proposed in this paper, based on support vector machines (SVMs) and Kalman filtering-based algorithm. In the proposed model, the well-trained SVM model predicts the baseline bus travel times from the historical bus trip data; the Kalman filtering-based dynamic algorithm can adjust bus travel times with the latest bus operation information and the estimated baseline travel times. The performance of the proposed dynamic model is validated with the real-world data on road with multiple bus routes in Shenzhen, China. The results show that the proposed dynamic model is feasible and applicable for bus travel time prediction and has the best prediction performance among all the five models proposed in the study in terms of prediction accuracy on road with multiple bus routes.

  3. Comfort of passengers in vehicles in urban mass passenger transport for one of Belgrade's suburbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladović Pavle V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban mass passenger transport (UMTP is less attractive when passengers must stand for long period of time, especially when transport vehicles are highly crowded. Crowded vehicles also slow down transport operations, as it takes more time for passengers to get on and off. From the passenger point of view, the number of passengers on a transit unit (vehicle at a specified point of line reflect the comfort level of the on-board vehicle portion of a transit trip. This refers to the possibility to find a seat and in overall crowding levels within the vehicle. From a transport operator point of view, a poor level of service may indicate the need to increase service frequency or vehicle size in order to reduce crowding and provide a more comfortable ride for passengers. The level of service, for one of Belgrade's suburb, in terms of comfort in vehicles, will be analyzed in this paper. For these reasons, three bus lines of public transport which serve the mentioned suburb are discussed and examined (one diametrical, one radial and one peripheral bus line. Passenger flows on these three bus lines are investigated in the peak time periods when vehicles work on the line.

  4. Optimal Locations of Bus Stops Connecting Subways near Urban Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Cui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Unsuitable locations of bus stops which provide feeder transportation connecting subways near urban intersections usually lead to the low efficiency of public transport and level of passenger service. A multiobjective optimization model to distribute such stop locations is proposed to attain the shortest total walk distance of passengers and minimum delay time of cars through intersections and travel time of buses. The Pareto frontier and optimal solutions for the proposed model are given by the distance-based and enumerative methods. The Xizhimen bus stop is selected to implement case studies for verifying the validity of the proposed model. The analysis of sensitivity on possible solutions is also carried out in the case studies. The results show that the proposed model is capable of optimizing the locations of bus stops connecting subways near intersections and helpful to improve the level of passengers service and operational efficiency of public transportation.

  5. School bus’s level of service in Malang City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariyani, S.

    2017-06-01

    School Bus began operated on the 12th of January 2015. Provision of school buses is expected to reduce not only the use of vehicles by students, but it is also to reduce the number of traffic jams. Malang school bus facilities provided by the Department of Transport in cooperation with the Department of Education to serve students in elementary school, junior and senior high schools. After the service running two years, based on the preliminary observation not all students are interested in using the school bus. The research objective was to measure the school bus’s level service. The method to measure school bus’s level of service was used Importance Performance analysis (IPA). The results showed that through IPA, it can be concluded that school bus’s level of service in Malang City have been able to serve students/customers with the mean of degree suitability (Tki) is 111. Meanwhile it must be observed and get more attention to improve by government, attributes which is lies in the first quadrant or concentrate here (attribute Adequate space, Seating capacity, Availability trash can, Passenger facility down in points, The availability of information boards in each bus stop, Availability public telephone in each bus stop, and Availability CCTV in each bus), in order to increase its performance.

  6. In-use fuel economy of hybrid-electric school buses in Iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallmark, Shauna; Sperry, Bob; Mudgal, Abhisek

    2011-05-01

    Although it is much safer and more fuel-efficient to transport children to school in buses than in private vehicles, school buses in the United States still consume 822 million gal of diesel fuel annually, and school transportation costs can account for a significant portion of resource-constrained school district budgets. Additionally, children in diesel-powered school buses may be exposed to higher levels of particulates and other pollutants than children in cars. One solution to emission and fuel concerns is use of hybrid-electric school buses, which have the potential to reduce emissions and overall lifecycle costs compared with conventional diesel buses. Hybrid-electric technologies are available in the passenger vehicle market as well as the transit bus market and have a track record indicating fuel economy and emissions benefits. This paper summarizes the results of an in-use fuel economy evaluation for two plug-in hybrid school buses deployed in two different school districts in Iowa. Each school district selected a control bus with a route similar to that of the hybrid bus. Odometer readings, fuel consumption, and maintenance needs were recorded for each bus. The buses were deployed in 2008 and data were collected through May 2010. Fuel consumption was calculated for each school district. In Nevada, IA, the overall average fuel economy was 8.23 mpg for the hybrid and 6.35 mpg for the control bus. In Sigourney, IA, the overall average fuel economy was 8.94 mpg for the hybrid and 6.42 mpg for the control bus. The fuel consumption data were compared for the hybrid and control buses using a Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results indicate that fuel economy for the Nevada hybrid bus was 29.6% better than for the Nevada control bus, and fuel economy for the Sigourney hybrid bus was 39.2% higher than for the Sigourney control bus. Both differences were statistically significant.

  7. An Improved Model for Headway-Based Bus Service Unreliability Prevention with Vehicle Load Capacity Constraint at Bus Stops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiya Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an improved model for improving headway-based bus route service reliability at bus stops using real-time preventive operation control, taking into account dynamic interaction among random passenger demand, stochastic driving conditions of route segments, and vehicle load capacity constraint. In this model, the real-time information of passenger demand and vehicle operation is involved to predict the imminent unacceptable headway deviation, in the case of which some in-time preventive control strategies are deployed according to the given control rules. As a case study, a single fixed bus route with high-frequency services was simulated and different scenarios of real-time preventive operation control were performed. Headway adherence and average passenger wait time were used to measure bus service reliability. The results show that the improved model is closer to the real bus route service, and using real-time information to predict potential service unreliability and trigger in-time preventive control can reduce bus bunching and avoid big gap.

  8. Swisstrolley 3 - An articulated trolley bus; SWISSTROLLEY 3. Gelenktrolleybus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gisler, H.-J.

    2006-07-01

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the Swisstrolley 3 low-floor, articulated trolley bus developed in Switzerland by the Hess AG company. Various features of the variants of the trolley bus, including single vehicle, single and double-articulated buses and bus trailers, are discussed. The reductions achieved in energy consumption, weight and noise are discussed. Typical values for power consumption are presented in graphical form. Economic viability and passenger-friendliness are examined, as are possibilities for further improvement.

  9. Model Passengers’ Travel Time for Conventional Bus Stop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangzhao Xin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited number of berths can result in a subsequent bus stopping at the upstream of a bus stop when all berths are occupied. When this traffic phenomenon occurs, passengers waiting on the platform usually prefer walking to the stopped bus, which leads to additional walking time before boarding the bus. Therefore, passengers’ travel time consumed at a bus stop is divided into waiting time, additional walking time, and boarding time. This paper proposed a mathematical model for analyzing passengers’ travel time at conventional bus stop based on theory of stochastic service system. Field-measured and simulated data were designated to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model. By analyzing the results, conclusion was conducted that short headway can reduce passengers’ waiting time at bus stop. Meanwhile, the theoretical analysis explained the inefficiency of bus stops with more than three berths from the perspective of passengers’ additional walking time. Additional walking time will increase in a large scale when the number of berths at a bus stop exceedsthe threshold of three.

  10. GO Bus impact analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    NJ TRANSIT launched two relatively new enhanced bus services: GO 25 serving the : Springfield Avenue corridor in 2008 and GO 28 serving the Bloomfield Avenue corridor in 2009. : As an enhanced but not full Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) service, GO Bus feat...

  11. Bus-based best-practice and urban transport emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoch, Marcus Paul

    In Britain over recent years, transport has risen to the very top of the political agenda, partly because it is the fastest growing source of urban emissions. One politically attractive solution to this rapidly worsening problem, is 'improving public transport'. This thesis examines how the bus-the most widespread form of public transport-could be improved, and at how much these improvements would contribute to solving the emissions problem. The project was studied in two inter-related parts. The first part aimed to determine the factors necessary in forming the 'best possible' bus-based transport system by identifying and analysing a number of 'best-practice' bus systems in Europe and North America, using a case study approach. The second part then sought to quantify the effect on travel patterns and emissions that implementing this best possible bus-based transport system would have. This was done by modelling a series of possible scenarios with the START strategic transport model, and a modified version of the JET emissions inventory model. The City of Leicester was used as a modelling base. The study found that bus systems contributed most to reducing urban emissions where the needs of the bus passenger were made paramount, and where bus operators worked together with local government, local businesses etc. Even where these factors existed however, the effect of bus-based transport policies on levels of pollutants was found to be significant only when applied together with strong car restraint measures.

  12. A Conceptual Approach for Optimising Bus Stop Spacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johar, Amita; Jain, S. S.; Garg, P. k.

    2017-06-01

    An efficient public transportation system is essential of any country. The growth, development and shape of the urban areas are mainly due to availability of good transportation (Shah et al. in Inst Town Plan India J 5(3):50-59, 1). In developing countries, like India, travel by local bus in a city is very common. The accidents, congestion, pollution and appropriate location of bus stops are the major problems arising in metropolitan cities. Among all the metropolitan cities in India, Delhi has highest percentage of growth of population and vehicles. Therefore, it is important to adopt efficient and effective ways to improve mobility in different metropolitan cities in order to overcome the problem and to reduce the number of private vehicles on the road. The primary objective of this paper is to present a methodology for developing a model for optimum bus stop spacing (OBSS). It describes the evaluation of existing urban bus route, data collection, development of model for optimizing urban bus route and application of model. In this work, the bus passenger generalized cost method is used to optimize the spacing between bus stops. For the development of model, a computer program is required to be written. The applicability of the model has been evaluated by taking the data of urban bus route of Delhi Transport Corporation (DTC) in Excel sheet in first phase. Later on, it is proposed to develop a programming in C++ language. The developed model is expected to be useful to transport planner for rational design of the spacing of bus stops to save travel time and to generalize operating cost. After analysis it is found that spacing between the bus stop comes out to be between 250 and 500 m. The Proposed Spacing of bus stops is done considering the points that they don't come nearer to metro/rail station, entry or exit of flyover and near traffic signal.

  13. Computation on Bus Delay at Stops in Beijing through Statistical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaokuan Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Delays at bus stops have seriously affected the efficiency of bus operation and the improvement of level of services of public transportation and greatly influenced the preferences of passengers to choose bus services. In this paper, the analysis on arriving, dwell and leaving process of buses and the method to calculate bus delays at stops are proposed according to survey data from three bus routes in Beijing. Statistical analysis is then adopted respectively to evaluate average times that buses are docking at curbside and bay-style stops. Moreover, it is noted that different load factors of passengers in buses have significantly influenced the average boarding and alighting time per person. The effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed methods is illustrated through case studies. This study is crucial and helpful for the planners and operators to evaluate the efficiency and level of service of urban public transportation.

  14. PCI bus demystified

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, Doug

    2004-01-01

    The peripheral component interconnect (PCI) bus is the dominant bus system used to connect the different elements making up today''s high-performance computer systems. Different PCI implementations have also been developed for such applications as telecommunications and embedded computing. If an application calls for high speed, high reliability, flexible configuration, and bus mastering, then PCI is the only logical bus choice. This book is an applications-oriented introduction to the PCI bus, with an emphasis on implementing PCI in a variety of computer architectures. Special attention is given to industrial and mission-critical applications of PCI bus.·Fully describes PCI electrical specifications, mechanical requirements, and signal types·Covers advanced topics through numerous design examples to increase the readers understanding of the subject ·Includes updated coverage of PCI-X 2.0

  15. Analysis of feeder bus network design and scheduling problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almasi, Mohammad Hadi; Mirzapour Mounes, Sina; Koting, Suhana; Karim, Mohamed Rehan

    2014-01-01

    A growing concern for public transit is its inability to shift passenger's mode from private to public transport. In order to overcome this problem, a more developed feeder bus network and matched schedules will play important roles. The present paper aims to review some of the studies performed on Feeder Bus Network Design and Scheduling Problem (FNDSP) based on three distinctive parts of the FNDSP setup, namely, problem description, problem characteristics, and solution approaches. The problems consist of different subproblems including data preparation, feeder bus network design, route generation, and feeder bus scheduling. Subsequently, descriptive analysis and classification of previous works are presented to highlight the main characteristics and solution methods. Finally, some of the issues and trends for future research are identified. This paper is targeted at dealing with the FNDSP to exhibit strategic and tactical goals and also contributes to the unification of the field which might be a useful complement to the few existing reviews.

  16. TPG bus passes

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Staff Association will stop selling TPG bus passes. All active and retired members of the CERN personnel will be able to purchase Unireso bus passes from the CERN Hostel - Building 39 (Meyrin site) from 1st February 2013. For more information: https://cds.cern.ch/journal/CERNBulletin/2013/04/Announcements/1505279?ln=en

  17. Electric bus systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Pure electric buses (EBs) offer an alternative fuel for the nations transit bus systems. To : evaluate EBs in a transit setting, this project investigated the five electric bus fleet of the : StarMetro transit system of the city of Tallahassee, FL...

  18. Intermodal Passenger Connectivity Database -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Intermodal Passenger Connectivity Database (IPCD) is a nationwide data table of passenger transportation terminals, with data on the availability of connections...

  19. Bunching transition in a time-headway model of a bus route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, T

    2001-03-01

    A time-headway model is presented to mimic bus behavior on the bus route. The motion of a bus is described in terms of the time headway between its bus and the bus in front. We study the bunching behavior of buses induced by interacting with other buses and passengers. It is shown that the dynamical phase transitions among the inhomogeneous bunching phase, the homogeneous free phase, the coexisting phase, and the homogeneous congested phase occur with varying the initial time headway. We study the effect of not stopping at bus stops on the time-headway profile. It is found that the bunching transition lines are consistent with the neutral stability curves obtained by the linear stability analysis.

  20. Violence Against Drivers and Conductors in the Road Passenger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This cross-sectional study examined the extent, nature and risk factors of workplace violence in the road passenger transport sector in Maputo, the capital city of Mozambique. A random sample of 504 participants was selected from a population of 2 618 registered bus, minibus, and taxi drivers/conductors. The results ...

  1. Bus Operation Monitoring Oriented Public Transit Travel Index System and Calculation Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiancheng Weng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposed a two-dimensional index system which is concerned essentially with urban travel based on travel modes and user satisfaction. First, the public transit was taken as an example to describe the index system establishing process. In consideration of convenience, rapid, reliability, comfort, and safety, a bus service evaluation index system was established. The indicators include the N-minute coverage of bus stops, average travel speed, and fluctuation of travel time between stops and bus load factor which could intuitively describe the characteristics of public transport selected to calculate bus travel indexes. Then, combined with the basic indicators, the calculation models of Convenience Index (CI, Rapid Index (RI, Reliability Index (RBI, and Comfort Index (CTI were established based on the multisource data of public transit including the real-time bus GPS data and passenger IC card data. Finally, a case study of Beijing bus operation evaluation and analysis was conducted by taking real bus operation data including GPS data and passenger transaction recorder (IC card data. The results showed that the operation condition of the public transit was well reflected and scientifically classified by the bus travel index models.

  2. Savannah River bus project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, W.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1998-08-01

    The H2Fuel Bus is the world`s first hybrid hydrogen electric transit bus. It was developed through a public/private partnership involving several leading technology and industrial organizations in the Southeast, with primary funding and program management provided by the Department of Energy. The primary goals of the project are to gain valuable information on the technical readiness and economic viability of hydrogen buses and to enhance the public awareness and acceptance of emerging hydrogen technologies. The bus has been operated by the transit agency in Augusta, Georgia since April, 1997. It employs a hybrid IC engine/battery/electric drive system, with onboard hydrogen fuel storage based on the use of metal hydrides. Initial operating results have demonstrated an overall energy efficiency (miles per Btu) of twice that of a similar diesel-fueled bus and an operating range twice that of an all-battery powered electric bus. Tailpipe emissions are negligible, with NOx less than 0.2 ppm. Permitting, liability and insurance issues were addressed on the basis of extensive risk assessment and safety analyses, with the inherent safety characteristic of metal hydride storage playing a major role in minimizing these concerns. Future plans for the bus include continued transit operation and use as a national testbed, with potential modifications to demonstrate other hydrogen technologies, including fuel cells.

  3. Cellular Automata Based Modeling for Evaluating Different Bus Stop Designs in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoyang Ding

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A cellular automaton model is proposed to simulate mixed traffic flow composed of motor vehicles and bicycles near bus stops. Three typical types of bus stops which are common in China are considered in the model, including two types of curbside bus stops and one type of bus bay stops. Passenger transport capacity of three types of bus stops, which is applied to evaluate the bus stop design, is calculated based on the corresponding traffic flow rate. According to the simulation results, the flow rates of both motor vehicles and bicycles exhibit phase transition from free flow to the saturation one at the critical point. The results also show that the larger the interaction between motor vehicle and bicycle flow is near curbside bus stops, the more the value of saturated flows drops. Curbside bus stops are more suitable when the conflicts between two flows are small and the inflow rate of motor vehicles is low. On the contrary, bus bay stops should be applied due to their ability to reduce traffic conflicts. Findings of this study can provide useful suggestions on bus stop selection considering different inflow rate of motor vehicles and bicycles simultaneously.

  4. Terminals for Suburb Bus Transport in Bratislava

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Tibor; Schlosser, Peter; Cápayová, Silvia; Hodáková, Dominika

    2017-10-01

    The main objective of this article is to describe the strategy for development of the public transport terminals in the city of Bratislava, Capital of Slovak Republic. The reason goes from the private operator Slovak Lines, who operates the suburb bus transport in the agglomeration of the city. For this operator was created a transport model, while placing emphasis on optimizing the compliance of suburban public transport with urban public transport in the city of Bratislava and evaluating the significance of the new Bus Station to be constructed at Mlynské Nivy – in a new down town centre of the city. The main issue is to ensure the best available offer of public transport (PT) to passengers in the Bratislava agglomeration. The subject of the study was oriented to specify and propose changes in the transport infrastructure and integrated public transport organisation on the area of the city in terms of the significant position of the new Mlynské Nivy Bus Station (MN BS), which is under preparation with realization in the year 2017.

  5. Experimental Measures of Bus Comfort Levels Using Kinematic Parameters Recorded by Smartphone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquila, S. dell' ; Eboli, L.; Futia, G.; Mazzulla, G.; Pungillo, G.

    2016-07-01

    Comfort on board plays an essential role in the levels of satisfaction of a bus service perceived by passengers. The aim of this paper is to propose a measure of comfort based on two kinds of data: perceptions of passengers (subjective data) and accelerations of bus (objective data). For the collection of subjective data a questionnaire was addressed to a sample of university students, while a smartphone, equipped with GPS device and 3-axis accelerometer, was used to record the accelerations. Based on the recorded parameters, we determined the thresholds of the acceleration values beyond which the level of comfort cannot be considered as good.. (Author)

  6. Passengers, Information, and Disruptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. van der Hurk (Evelien)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Passengers traveling in public transport generate a detailed digital track record of their journey through using automated fare collection systems and carrying mobile devices. This information on passenger behavior has only recently become available to public

  7. Bus transport network of Shenyang considering competitive and cooperative relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Baoyu; Feng, Shumin; Nie, Cen

    2017-01-01

    Competition and cooperation is a universal phenomenon in bus transport networks (BTNs) because of the shared stations between bus routes. A measuring method is proposed for competitive and cooperative relationship between bus routes. Based on this measurement, we develop a new representation model for BTNs, namely competitive-cooperative space R. This model is applied to investigate empirically bus transport network of Shenyang (BTN-S) from China. We present the histograms of competitive-cooperative coefficients, competitive coefficients and cooperative coefficients to illustrate that competitive and cooperative relationship plays an important role in transporting passengers. The competitive-cooperative situation shows that cooperative relationship holds an absolutely dominant position in BTN-S. To explore the networked characteristics, we present some empirical distributions, for the number of bus stations on a route, the number of shared stations between two routes, degree and weighted degree, competitive strength, and cooperative strength. We also examine the correlations between degree and competitive strength, and between degree and cooperative strength. Besides, we investigate the diversities of competitive strength and cooperative strength in BTN-S. This study can help us to understand the BTN from a deeper level.

  8. Learning NServiceBus

    CERN Document Server

    Boike, David

    2013-01-01

    This is a practical tutorial containing hands-on examples for creating a messaging and SOA based service bus.This book is for .NET developers who are looking for ways to overcome problems related to buggy third party web service integrations, codebases that have grown into a big ball of mud, and batch jobs failure.

  9. Organizing a bus depot – selected aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy PAWLICKI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban transportation problems are particularly noticeable within cities of over 100 thousand inhabitants. In these cities buses are a primary means of transport, but lack of low-floor and poor interior design does not encourage passengers to use them. However, the qualities that give the most negative feedback on the public transpiration are the technical condition of buses, excessive noise and exhaust emission. Technical backsides of the bus depots that constantly maintain the technical readiness of the required number of vehicles play an important role to ensure high quality standards. New European Union legislation is very helpful in such. New laws and regulations deal with the safety issues and environmental protection matters, to which the urban transportation depots must be strictly adjusted. This article refers to these documents and presents depot technical stations, which equipment needs to be upgraded in the first place.

  10. Optimizing Bus Frequencies under Uncertain Demand: Case Study of the Transit Network in a Developing City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengfeng Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Various factors can make predicting bus passenger demand uncertain. In this study, a bilevel programming model for optimizing bus frequencies based on uncertain bus passenger demand is formulated. There are two terms constituting the upper-level objective. The first is transit network cost, consisting of the passengers’ expected travel time and operating costs, and the second is transit network robustness performance, indicated by the variance in passenger travel time. The second term reflects the risk aversion of decision maker, and it can make the most uncertain demand be met by the bus operation with the optimal transit frequency. With transit link’s proportional flow eigenvalues (mean and covariance obtained from the lower-level model, the upper-level objective is formulated by the analytical method. In the lower-level model, the above two eigenvalues are calculated by analyzing the propagation of mean transit trips and their variation in the optimal strategy transit assignment process. The genetic algorithm (GA used to solve the model is tested in an example network. Finally, the model is applied to determining optimal bus frequencies in the city of Liupanshui, China. The total cost of the transit system in Liupanshui can be reduced by about 6% via this method.

  11. ANALISIS SARANA ANGKUTAN UMUM BUS DAMRI DI KOTA SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhan Rizal Amin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the availability and use of public transportation by taking a case study of the Damri bus which has Ngaliyan-Pucanggading route. The availability of public transport is not comparable to the demand for public transportation services so that the problems of transportation emerge. Additionally, the use of public transport becomes an important factor to develop the transportation. The study is conducted by surveying the Damri passengers of B.04 lane and logistic regression is used for the analysis. The method of determining the needs of transportation is issued by Departemen Perhubungan. It is used to calculate and determine whether the public transportation should be added or reduced. Then, the factors used as the independent variables in the analysis are the Damri’s safety, effectiveness, efficiency, service and reliability. The results show that Perum Damri does not need to add more Damri bus for B.04 because the results’ calculation is 0.6. and the factors that significantly influence the use Damri bus is the variable of safety, effectiveness and efficiency. However, the variables of service and reliability do not significantly influence the use of B.04 Damri bus.Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis ketersediaan dan penggunaan angkutan sarana angkutan umum penumpang dengan mengambil studi kasus pada bus Damri jalur dengan trayek Ngaliyan-Pucanggading. Ketersediaan sarana angkutan umum yang tersedia tidak sebanding dengan besarnya permintaan akan jasa angkutan umum oleh masyarakat umum sehingga muncul permasalahan transportasi. Di samping itu, penggunaan angkutan umum yang beroperasi menjadi faktor penting dalam upaya pengembangan sarana transportasi. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode survey terhadap para penumpang bus Damri jalur B.04 dan dianalisis dengan Regresi Logistik. Metode penentuan kebutuhan armada dikeluarkan oleh Departemen Perhubungan yang digunakan untuk menghitung apakah suatu

  12. Noise exposure inside transit buses in Kerman: measurements, drivers and passengers attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorbanali Mohammadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive study was conducted with the objectives of evaluation of noise exposure in the workplace of bus drivers, and to find attitudes of passengers and drivers. This study consisted of two phases. In the first phase, Noise levels were measured in fifty buses. The evaluation of noise levels in the workplace of bus drivers was performed according to the Iranian legislation`s. Twenty four buses with noise levels above 85 dB (A consider as an "unsafe" workplace. In the second phase, the attitude of 50 male drivers and 500 passengers concerning the annoyance and impact of noise on health were also surveyed. Second phase showed that 70% of drivers and 86.4% of passengers was nervousness from high level noise inside the buses. Eighty four percent drivers and 80% passengers felt noise had affected on their hearing. This study also affirmed that out of every seven drivers, six reported headache.

  13. Optimal Design of the Feeder-Bus Network Based on the Transfer System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianbo Deng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studied the classic feeder-bus network design problem (FBNDP, which can be described as follows: for the passenger travel demand between rail stations and bus stops on a given urban transit network, it designs the optimal feeder bus routes and frequencies so as to minimize the passengers’ travel expense and the operator’s cost. We extended the demand pattern of M-to-1 in most existing researches to M-to-M. We comprehensively considered the passenger travel cost, which includes the waiting and riding cost on the bus, riding cost on rail, and transfer cost between these two transportation modes, and presented a new genetic algorithm that determines the optimal feeder-bus operating frequencies under strict constraint conditions. The numerical examples under different demand patterns have been experienced and analysed, which showed the robustness and efficiency of the presented algorithm. We also found that the distribution pattern of the travel demand has a significant influence on the feeder-bus network construction.

  14. Evaluation of Effective Factors on Travel Time in Optimization of Bus Stops Placement Using Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargegol, Iraj; Ghorbanzadeh, Mahyar; Ghasedi, Meisam; Rastbod, Mohammad

    2017-10-01

    In congested cities, locating and proper designing of bus stops according to the unequal distribution of passengers is crucial issue economically and functionally, since this subject plays an important role in the use of bus system by passengers. Location of bus stops is a complicated subject; by reducing distances between stops, walking time decreases, but the total travel time may increase. In this paper, a specified corridor in the city of Rasht in north of Iran is studied. Firstly, a new formula is presented to calculate the travel time, by which the number of stops and consequently, the travel time can be optimized. An intended corridor with specified number of stops and distances between them is addressed, the related formulas to travel time are created, and its travel time is calculated. Then the corridor is modelled using a meta-heuristic method in order that the placement and the optimal distances of bus stops for that are determined. It was found that alighting and boarding time along with bus capacity are the most effective factors affecting travel time. Consequently, it is better to have more concentration on indicated factors for improving the efficiency of bus system.

  15. Biobjective Optimization and Evaluation for Transit Signal Priority Strategies at Bus Stop-to-Stop Segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new optimization framework for the transit signal priority strategies in terms of green extension, red truncation, and phase insertion at the stop-to-stop segment of bus lines. The optimization objective is to minimize both passenger delay and the deviation from bus schedule simultaneously. The objective functions are defined with respect to the segment between bus stops, which can include the adjacent signalized intersections and downstream bus stops. The transit priority signal timing is optimized by using a biobjective optimization framework considering both the total delay at a segment and the delay deviation from the arrival schedules at bus stops. The proposed framework is evaluated using a VISSIM model calibrated with field traffic volume and traffic signal data of Caochangmen Boulevard in Nanjing, China. The optimized TSP-based phasing plans result in the reduced delay and improved reliability, compared with the non-TSP scenario under the different traffic flow conditions in the morning peak hour. The evaluation results indicate the promising performance of the proposed optimization framework in reducing the passenger delay and improving the bus schedule adherence for the urban transit system.

  16. Studying customer loyalty at Daewoo express bus service, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Yousaf

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Meeting service quality standards and striving for loyalty are two critical areas which have until now been overlooked by both the passenger transport industry and academia in Pakistan therefore the study sheds useful light on an issue hitherto untouched. Therefore increased sample size will help in increasing generalizability of study. Methods: This paper is designed to study the level of loyalty at Daewoo Express Bus Service in Sargodha by measuring customer satisfaction. Researchers used a small sample of only 96 respondents (passengers and only studies customer's behavior in the service quality of Daewoo Express Bus Service however it may differ in other passenger transport services. Results and conclusions: This paper reveals that there is a positive and significant relationship between loyalty (dependant variable and price perceptions, reliability, retrieving and smoothing (independent variables. However, the study found that reliability of services is the most important dimension among other independent variables (price perceptions, smoothing, reliability, retrieving effecting customers loyalty at Daewoo Express. Paper under consideration would surely assist Daewoo`s management team to take care of the loopholes existing in the current service level and likely threats which Daewoo might face.

  17. Estimating Bus Loads and OD Flows Using Location-Stamped Farebox and Wi-Fi Signal Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxiong Ji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic fareboxes integrated with Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL systems can provide location-stamped records to infer passenger boarding at individual stops. However, bus loads and Origin-Destination (OD flows, which are useful for route planning, design, and real-time controls, cannot be derived directly from farebox data. Recently, Wi-Fi sensors have been used to collect passenger OD flow information. But the data are insufficient to capture the variation of passenger demand across bus trips. In this study, we propose a hierarchical Bayesian model to estimate trip-level OD flow matrices and a period-level OD flow matrix using sampled OD flow data collected by Wi-Fi sensors and boarding data provided by fareboxes. Bus loads on each bus trip are derived directly from the estimated trip-level OD flow matrices. The proposed method is evaluated empirically on an operational bus route and the results demonstrate that it provides good and detailed transit route-level passenger demand information by combining farebox and Wi-Fi signal data.

  18. The impact of governance modes on sustainable transport - the case of bus transport in Greater Manchester, UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard; Gudmundsson, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    'Sustainable transport' has become a priority for transport planning and policy making around the world. Sustainable transport plans often promote efforts to shift passengers from private cars to other modes such as public transport. However, the actual success of such efforts is likely to depend...... pursued in a deregulated context. We focus on bus transport in Greater Manchester as the case in point. First, we study the effects of the NPM reforms on modal shift. We find that the reforms generally have contributed to a decline in bus passengers, while some reform elements have made positive...

  19. Annoyance evaluation and the effect of noise on the health of bus drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Portela S; Marcos, Queiroga R; Amanda, Constantini; Paulo, Zannin H T

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we evaluated annoyance and the effects of noise on the health of bus drivers. For that, 200 bus drivers from a public transport company participated in a cross-sectional study. Annoyance and effects on health was measured with analog scale: Sleep quality, occurrence of tinnitus, headache, irritation, and annoyance from bus engine, traffic, and passengers. Data of age and working time of bus drivers also were obtained. For noise exposure, LA eq was evaluated in 80 buses. Statistical analysis consisted of mean, standard deviation, minimum, and maximum, Kruskal-Wallis test with post-hoc Dunn, one-way ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey and Spearman's correlation coefficient. Results indicate three groups of bus drivers (not annoyed: (N.A.), a little annoyed (L.A.) and highly annoyed (H.A.)). The group H.A. was younger and with less working time in relation to others, with a significant difference only for age. Regarding sleep quality, there was no significant difference. For results on the occurrence of tinnitus, headache and irritation after work, group H.A. had significantly higher means. Result of annoyance to the bus engine was significantly higher in H.A. than in L.A. and N.A. Annoyance to traffic and passengers, no significant differences were found, but the highest results were found for L.A., followed by H.A. and N.A. Equivalent sound pressure level in buses was above of the limit for occupational comfort. It was concluded that bus drivers has considerable level of noise annoyance and some health effects are perceived. The noise is a factor discomfort ergonomic that may cause effects on health of bus drivers. This study aims to evaluate annoyance and the effects of noise on the health of bus drivers. Cross-sectional study with buses and bus drivers. For that, 200 bus drivers from a public transport company participated in a cross-sectional study. Annoyance and effects on health was measured with analog scale: Sleep quality, occurrence of tinnitus

  20. Annoyance evaluation and the effect of noise on the health of bus drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portela S Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we evaluated annoyance and the effects of noise on the health of bus drivers. For that, 200 bus drivers from a public transport company participated in a cross-sectional study. Annoyance and effects on health was measured with analog scale: Sleep quality, occurrence of tinnitus, headache, irritation, and annoyance from bus engine, traffic, and passengers. Data of age and working time of bus drivers also were obtained. For noise exposure, LA eq was evaluated in 80 buses. Statistical analysis consisted of mean, standard deviation, minimum, and maximum, Kruskal-Wallis test with post-hoc Dunn, one-way ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey and Spearman′s correlation coefficient. Results indicate three groups of bus drivers (not annoyed: (N.A., a little annoyed (L.A. and highly annoyed (H.A.. The group H.A. was younger and with less working time in relation to others, with a significant difference only for age. Regarding sleep quality, there was no significant difference. For results on the occurrence of tinnitus, headache and irritation after work, group H.A. had significantly higher means. Result of annoyance to the bus engine was significantly higher in H.A. than in L.A. and N.A. Annoyance to traffic and passengers, no significant differences were found, but the highest results were found for L.A., followed by H.A. and N.A. Equivalent sound pressure level in buses was above of the limit for occupational comfort. It was concluded that bus drivers has considerable level of noise annoyance and some health effects are perceived. The noise is a factor discomfort ergonomic that may cause effects on health of bus drivers. This study aims to evaluate annoyance and the effects of noise on the health of bus drivers. Cross-sectional study with buses and bus drivers. For that, 200 bus drivers from a public transport company participated in a cross-sectional study. Annoyance and effects on health was measured with analog scale: Sleep quality

  1. Bus lane efficiency analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tovornik, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The upper Celovška road has been dealing with traffic jams for quite some time now. Traffic jams are concentrated in time of morning (in direction towards towns center) and afternoon (in direction towards Gorenjska) peak hour , whereas jams in between times are not excluded. There are many solutions to solve the problem and are variable. In this assigment I am focusing on one of potencial solutions, with special bus lanes. It is a measure that can be, if used in right way, very effective and ...

  2. Learning NServiceBus Sagas

    CERN Document Server

    Helton, Rich

    2015-01-01

    If you are an Enterprise C# developer who wishes to extend your knowledge of NServiceBus and Enterprise Service Bus in C#, this is the book for you. This book is designed to enhance the education of ESBs and their messaging, whether you are a beginner or a seasoned expert in Enterprise C#, Apex, and Visualforce pages.

  3. Rail passengers rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđev Dušanka J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The legal framework of rail passengers rights is set out in a combination of international and European law: an international measure, the rather unwieldy Uniform Rules concerning the Contract for International Carriage of Passengers and Luggage by Rail, forming part of the Convention concerning International Carriage by Rail of 9 May 1980 (as amended by the Vilnius Protocol of 3 June 1999 ['CIV'], lays down a basic framework which is then fleshed out by more recent EU legislation, Regulation (EC No 1371/2007 on Rail Passengers ' Rights and Obligations. Regulation 1371/2007/EC on rail passenger rights and obligations sets out minimum quality standards that have to be guaranteed to all passengers on all lines. .

  4. Bus stops and pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions in Lima, Peru: a matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quistberg, D Alex; Koepsell, Thomas D; Johnston, Brian D; Boyle, Linda Ng; Miranda, J Jaime; Ebel, Beth E

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the relationship between bus stop characteristics and pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions. This was a matched case-control study where the units of study were pedestrian crossings in Lima, Peru. We performed a random sample of 11 police commissaries in Lima, Peru. Data collection occurred from February 2011 to September 2011. A total of 97 intersection cases representing 1134 collisions and 40 mid-block cases representing 469 collisions that occurred between October 2010 and January 2011, and their matched controls, were included. The main exposures assessed were presence of a bus stop and specific bus stop characteristics. The main outcome measure was occurrence of a pedestrian-motor vehicle collision. Intersections with bus stops were three times more likely to have a pedestrian-vehicle collision (OR 3.28, 95% CI 1.53 to 7.03), relative to intersections without bus stops. Formal and informal bus stops were associated with higher odds of a collision at intersections (OR 6.23, 95% CI 1.76 to 22.0 and OR 2.98, 1.37 to 6.49). At mid-block sites, bus stops on a bus-dedicated transit lane were also associated with collision risk (OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.02 to 5.42). All bus stops were located prior to the intersection, contrary to practices in most high-income countries. In urban Lima, the presence of a bus stop was associated with a threefold increase in risk of a pedestrian collision. The highly competitive environment among bus companies may provide an economic incentive for risky practices, such as dropping off passengers in the middle of traffic and jockeying for position with other buses. Bus stop placement should be considered to improve pedestrian safety. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Level of service for pedestrian movement towards the performance of passenger information in public transport stations in Klang Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, M. Z.; Hanipah, M. H.; Lee, L. G.; Loo, K. F.; Wong, J. K.; Zawawi, M. H.; Fuad, N. F. S.

    2017-09-01

    Rapid growth in car ownership in Malaysia plays a major role to traffic congestion. Hence, public transportation is crucial to cater the residents in high-density area especially in Klang Valley. Signage information in public transport station is one of an important passenger information system. Poor placement of sign information will decrease the efficiency of passenger flow and caused congestion in the station. Passenger information system is very useful for trip planning and decision making. Therefore, it is interesting to study the performance of passenger information system in focusing the movement behavior of pedestrian at non-peak period. Thus, the study on pedestrian movement during non-peak period on weekdays and weekends in mass transit stations and bus transit stations in Klang Valley was carried out by using video observation. The observation of the pedestrian movement was made in Mass Transit Station 1 in the middle of Kuala Lumpur and Mass Transit Station 2 in southern of Kuala Lumpur. The other site was focused at Bus Transit Station 1 in Putrajaya and Bus Transit Station 2 in Kajang. Findings shown that Mass Transit Station 1 having the best facility in terms of passenger information which the level of service obtained is LOS A, while the lowest level of service which is LOS E was obtained in Bus Transit Station 2.

  6. Research development and demonstration of a fuel cell/battery powered bus system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, S.; Wimmer, R.

    1993-02-01

    During 1992, the design of the three test bed buses evolved. Georgetown participated in all the working meetings and the preliminary design review of the Test Bed Bus (TBB). Throughout the Year, Georgetown provided input on system design and integration issues, transit industry requirements, and bus performance. GU also attended technical seminars, presenting papers at two. The computer simulation 'HYBRID', developed by Georgetown, was used to assess performance of different bus designs and system control algorithms. GU also modified the simulation to be more flexible and allow easier evaluation of designs. Georgetown had Exhibitgroup design and construct, to our specifications, a fuel cell bus display with a 1/10 scale model of the TBB for use at trade shows and exhibits. Energy Partners of West Palm Beach, Florida completed their subcontract for the engineering design study of a hydrogen fueled, fuel-cell-powered multi-passenger vehicle. Georgetown performed a study to determine the size of the US bus fleet and expected new bus deliveries over the next 10 years. Trojan Battery Company of Santa Fe Springs, California conducted a study to determine the specific design characteristics required of a lead acid battery to meet the special requirements posed by hybrid vehicle operation. Finally, GU assisted the prime contractor with the design of the system controller and its control algorithms.

  7. Safety evaluation of a hydrogen fueled transit bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutts, D.A.; Thomas, J.K.; Hovis, G.L.; Wu, T.T. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Hydrogen fueled vehicle demonstration projects must satisfy management and regulator safety expectations. This is often accomplished using hazard and safety analyses. Such an analysis has been completed to evaluate the safety of the H2Fuel bus to be operated in Augusta, Georgia. The evaluation methods and criteria used reflect the Department of Energy`s graded approach for qualifying and documenting nuclear and chemical facility safety. The work focused on the storage and distribution of hydrogen as the bus motor fuel with emphases on the technical and operational aspects of using metal hydride beds to store hydrogen. The safety evaluation demonstrated that the operation of the H2Fuel bus represents a moderate risk. This is the same risk level determined for operation of conventionally powered transit buses in the United States. By the same criteria, private passenger automobile travel in the United States is considered a high risk. The evaluation also identified several design and operational modifications that resulted in improved safety, operability, and reliability. The hazard assessment methodology used in this project has widespread applicability to other innovative operations and systems, and the techniques can serve as a template for other similar projects.

  8. Effects of transit bus interior configuration on performance of wheeled mobility users during simulated boarding and disembarking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Clive; Paquet, Victor; Lenker, James A; Steinfeld, Edward

    2017-07-01

    The emergence of low-floor bus designs and related regulatory standards in the U.S. have resulted in substantial improvements in public transit accessibility. However, passengers using wheeled mobility devices still experience safety concerns and inefficiencies in boarding, disembarking, and interior circulation on low-floor buses. This study investigates effects of low-floor bus interior configuration and passenger crowding on boarding and disembarking efficiency and safety. Users of manual wheelchairs (n = 18), powered wheelchairs (n = 21) and electric scooters (n = 9) simulated boarding and disembarking in three interior layout configurations at low and high passenger crowding conditions on a full-scale laboratory mock-up of a low-floor bus. Dependent measures comprised task times and critical incidents during access ramp use, fare payment, and movement to and from the doorway and wheeled mobility securement area. Individual times for unassisted boarding ranged from 15.2 to 245.3 s and for disembarking ranged from 9.1 to 164.6 s across layout and passenger crowding conditions. Nonparametric analysis of variance showed significant differences and interactions across vehicle design conditions, passenger load and mobility device type on user performance. The configuration having electronic on-board fare payment, rear-bus entrance doorways and adjacent device securement areas demonstrated greatest efficiency and safety. High passenger load adversely impacted efficiency and frequency of critical incidents during on-board circulation across all three layouts. Findings have broader implications for improving transit system efficiency and quality of service across the spectrum of transit users. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Tort Liability and School Transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Allyn J.

    School districts, school employees, bus companies contracted by districts, and bus company employees could be involved in court litigation over student injury and student civil rights related to school bus transportation. Civil rights insurance should be added to general liability insurance and motor vehicle liability insurance. Students must be…

  10. A nonparametric efficiency analysis of bus subsystem in Belgrade city, using DEA methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćiraković Lazar S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important principles in the company is the principle of efficiency which consists in achieving the highest possible economic effects with minimum economic investment. In this paper, we present a nonparametric efficiency analysis, bus subsystems of public transport passengers Belgrade City, a sample of five small, three medium and two large companies. It was shown that the overall bus transport system has a low level of overall efficiency, only 0.66%. It was found that the economies of scale has no significant impact on the level of efficiency when it comes to classification that was generated for this study. Small and medium companies are in a worse situation than large companies when it comes to economies of scale. These results should indicate the necessity of the transport system and bus companies organizational and technological redesign.

  11. Bavarian liquid hydrogen bus demonstration project - safety, licensing and acceptability aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurster, R.; Knorr, H.; Pruemm, W.

    1999-07-01

    A regular 12 m city bus of the MAN SL 202 type with an internal combustion engine adapted to hydrogen operation and auxiliary gasoline operation was demonstrated in the Bavarian cities of Erlangen and Munich between April 1996 and August 1998. Three bus operators, Erlanger Stadtwerke, Stadtwerke Muenchen and Autobus Oberbayern were testing the bus in three different operating schemes. In order to be able to perform this worldwide first public demonstration of a liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}) city bus in regular service, several requirements with respect to safety, licensing, training and acceptability had to be fulfilled. These activities were focusing mainly on the hydrogen specific issues such as (a) integration of onboard LH{sub 2} storage vessels, piping and instrumentation, (b) implementation of storage and refueling infrastructure in the operators' yards, (c) adaptation of the maintenance garages, (d) training of operating and maintenance personnel. During phase II of the demonstration activity a poll was performed on passengers traveling onboard the hydrogen-powered city bus in order to determined the level of acceptance among the users of the bus. The bus was designed and manufactured by MAN Nutzfahrzeuge Aktiengesellschaft. The cryogenic fuel storage and the refueling equipment were designed and manufactured by Linde AG. The realization of the hardware was financially supported by the European Commission (EC) within the Euro-Quebec Hydro-Hydrogen Pilot Project. The demonstration phase was financially supported by EC and the Bavarian State Government. Ludwig-Boelkow-Systemtechnik performed project monitoring for both funding organizations. The presentation will summarize the most important results of this demonstration phase and will address the measures undertaken in order to get the bus, the refueling infrastructure and the maintenance and operating procedures approved by the relevant authorities.

  12. Determining adjustment variables for rationalising a design for fleet operation in public passenger transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fabián Flórez Valero

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was aimed at establishing aspects leading to adjusting the operational design of public transport fleet operation to make it more profitable for private investors. Data obtained from more than a year’s operation by the Alianza Sat S.A. was used (this being a bus- company alliance grouping about 100 buses from some of Bogotá’s collective transport companies for carrying out the present investigation regarding fleet administration and operation. Simply implementing conventionally-designed routing plans is not enough for rationalising fleet operation, as most public collective transport is not directly operated by companies The Alianza Sat S.A. bus fleet was used for testing hypotheses demonstrating that current operational design for the company’s routes (in Bogotá’s current public transport market conditions leads to reducing the company’s income. The investigation revealed that public pas-senger transport bus fleet revenue can be increased if aspects different to those considered in standard route design methodology are controlled. The investigation has determined alternative rationalisation for operational collective public passenger transport company design regarding adjusting aspects such as the demand pattern, operating scheme, route variability, etc. This will provide an innovative and useful tool for rationalising the operational design of bus routes operating in cities having weak public transport control and excess bus supply.

  13. Heterogeneity of passenger exposure to air pollutants in public transport microenvironments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fenhuan; Kaul, Daya; Wong, Ka Chun; Westerdahl, Dane; Sun, Li; Ho, Kin-fai; Tian, Linwei; Brimblecombe, Peter; Ning, Zhi

    2015-05-01

    Epidemiologic studies have linked human exposure to pollutants with adverse health effects. Passenger exposure in public transport systems contributes an important fraction of daily burden of air pollutants. While there is extensive literature reporting the concentrations of pollutants in public transport systems in different cities, there are few studies systematically addressing the heterogeneity of passenger exposure in different transit microenvironments, in cabins of different transit vehicles and in areas with different characteristics. The present study investigated PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters smaller than 2.5 μm), black carbon (BC), ultrafine particles (UFP) and carbon monoxide (CO) pollutant concentrations in various public road transport systems in highly urbanized city of Hong Kong. Using a trolley case housing numerous portable air monitors, we conducted a total of 119 trips during the campaign. Transit microenvironments, classified as 1). busy and secondary roadside bus stops; 2). open and enclosed termini; 3). above- and under-ground Motor Rail Transport (MTR) platforms, were investigated and compared to identify the factors that may affect passenger exposures. The pollutants inside bus and MTR cabins were also investigated together with a comparison of time integrated exposure between the transit modes. Busy roadside and enclosed termini demonstrated the highest average particle concentrations while the lowest was found on the MTR platforms. Traffic-related pollutants BC, UFP and CO showed larger variations than PM2.5 across different microenvironments and areas confirming their heterogeneity in urban environments. In-cabin pollutant concentrations showed distinct patterns with BC and UFP high in diesel bus cabins and CO high in LPG bus cabins, suggesting possible self-pollution issues and/or penetration of on-road pollutants inside cabins during bus transit. The total passenger exposure along selected routes, showed bus

  14. The Major Roles Of Long Distance Bus Transport In Developing Countries With Emphasis On Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassa Fekadu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the major roles of long distance bus transport that radiates from Addis Ababa to the hinterland. The purpose is to assess and identify the major roles of Long Distance Bus Transport in Addis Ababa. The methodology is focused on both primary and secondary sources. The primary informants, who were principally distinguished from the passengers, operators, and key government officials from the transport office, include the head of bus terminal and Association, and selected experts. In terms of analysis, the qualitative approach was used by applying a thick description of the issue. The findings revealed that the availability of towns comes mainly because of the routes which give access and distribution of road passenger transport. The LDB (Long Distance Bus along the line has played a great role in the making of metropolitan linkage. The presence of these routes contributes more to the rise of urbanization and it has also played a role in the creation of towns and rural areas found around certain radius at the two sides of highways. Thus, it has a high probability for the expansion of urban sprawl and formation of conurbation in the future. The prescription for this study is to work with stakeholders to reduce the congestion of passengers in the terminals and the association also should serve the society 24/7 or 18/7.

  15. 75 FR 52054 - Bus and Bus Facilities Discretionary Program Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... 8, 2009. The Livability Bus program makes funds available to public transit providers to finance... 2-New York, Administrator, Region 7-Kansas One Bowling Green, Room 429, New City, MO, 901 Locust... Metropolitan Office, Region 2-New York, One Bowling Green, Room 428, New York, NY 10004-1415, Tel. 212-668-2202...

  16. 75 FR 23843 - Discretionary Bus and Bus Facilities Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... assistance to subrecipients that are public agencies, private companies engaged in public transportation, or... bus-related projects for assistance to subrecipients that are public agencies, private companies... projects for assistance to subrecipients that are public agencies, private companies engaged in public...

  17. Timetable optimization for single bus line based on hybrid vehicle size model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel(Jian Sun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a flexible timetable optimization method based on hybrid vehicle size model to tackle the bus demand fluctuations in transit operation. Three different models for hybrid vehicle, large vehicle and small vehicle are built in this study, respectively. With the operation data of Shanghai Transit Route 55 at peak and off-peak hours, a heuristic algorithm was proposed to solve the problem. The results indicate that the hybrid vehicle size model excels the other two modes both in the total time and total cost. The study verifies the rationality of the strategy of hybrid vehicle size model and highlights the importance of the adaptive vehicle size in dealing with the bus demand fluctuation. The main innovation of the study is that unlike traditional timetables, the arrangement of the scheduling interval and the corresponding bus type or size are both involved in the timetable of hybrid vehicle size bus mode, which will be more effective to solve the problem of passenger demand fluctuation. Findings from this research would provide a new perspective to improve the level of regular bus service.

  18. Concentrations and risk assessment of selected monoaromatic hydrocarbons in buses and bus stations of Hangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuang; Chen, Shuguang; Zhu, Lizhong; Chen, Xiasheng; Yao, Chaoying; Shen, Xueyou

    2009-03-01

    Air pollution surveys of ten selected monoaromatic hydrocarbons (MAHCs) were conducted in buses and bus stations in Hangzhou, China. The mean concentrations of MAHCs in the air of buses and bus stations were 95.9 and 36.5 microg/m(3), respectively, of which toluene was the highest in all the sampling sites. Mean concentrations of all MAHCs in buses were statistically higher than those nearby bus stations (pvehicle conditions (including vehicle type, fuel type, interior decoration, etc.) and traffic conditions (mainly traffic density). Among the investigated buses, microbuses had the highest MAHCs level, while electric buses had the lowest. Buses driven in downtown had the highest MAHCs level, followed by those in suburban areas and tourist areas. The mean concentration ratio of toluene to benzene was 2.1+/-0.9, indicating that vehicle emission was the dominant source of MAHCs. Interior decorations, such as painting and surface coating, could also contribute to the MAHCs in the buses. The mean lifetime carcinogenic risks for passengers and bus drivers were 1.11x10(-5) and 4.00x10(-5), respectively, which were way above the limit set by USEPA. The health risk caused by MAHCs in bus microenvironment should be cautioned.

  19. HERMES travels by CAN bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Lewis G.; Shortridge, Keith; Farrell, Tony J.; Vuong, Minh; Muller, Rolf; Sheinis, Andrew I.

    2014-07-01

    The new HERMES spectrograph represents the first foray by AAO into the use of commercial off-the-shelf industrial field bus technology for instrument control, and we regard the final system, with its relatively simple wiring requirements, as a great success. However, both software and hardware teams had to work together to solve a number of problems integrating the chosen CANopen/CAN bus system into our normal observing systems. A Linux system running in an industrial PC chassis ran the HERMES control software, using a PCI CAN bus interface connected to a number of distributed CANopen/CAN bus I/O devices and servo amplifiers. In the main, the servo amplifiers performed impressively, although some experimentation with homing algorithms was required, and we hit a significant hurdle when we discovered that we needed to disable some of the encoders used during observations; we learned a lot about how servo amplifiers respond when their encoders are turned off, and about how encoders react to losing power. The software was based around a commercial CANopen library from Copley Controls. Early worries about how this heavily multithreaded library would work with our standard data acquisition system led to the development of a very low-level CANopen software simulator to verify the design. This also enabled the software group to develop and test almost all the control software well in advance of the construction of the hardware. In the end, the instrument went from initial installation at the telescope to successful commissioning remarkably smoothly.

  20. On the issue of selecting technical and operational parameters for buses in urban passenger routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudzinskyi V.V.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Problems of a public transport bus service in urban areas were analyzed. The aim of the article is to determine actual operational parameters of buses during passenger transportation in Zhytomyr. Ways of determining technical and operational parameters of buses were developed using visual and tabular methods of city buses real-time speed and acceleration performance registration by GPS-monitoring system with the help of a communicational and informational intelligent transport system of the city. Experimental studies of city buses motion parameters were presented. A comprehensive survey of passenger traffic and conditions of public transport functioning in Zhytomyr was carried out. The values of technical and operational parameters of buses on city routes were obtained. Preliminarily conclusions and recommendations considering the criteria for selecting the optimal rolling stock for a bus network of the city were suggested.

  1. Electrical system architecture having high voltage bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Brian Douglas [East Peoria, IL; Akasam, Sivaprasad [Peoria, IL

    2011-03-22

    An electrical system architecture is disclosed. The architecture has a power source configured to generate a first power, and a first bus configured to receive the first power from the power source. The architecture also has a converter configured to receive the first power from the first bus and convert the first power to a second power, wherein a voltage of the second power is greater than a voltage of the first power, and a second bus configured to receive the second power from the converter. The architecture further has a power storage device configured to receive the second power from the second bus and deliver the second power to the second bus, a propulsion motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus, and an accessory motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus.

  2. Multi-channel Dual Clocks three-dimensional probability Random Multiple Access protocol for Wireless Public Bus Networks based on RTS/CTS mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Sheng Jie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A MAC protocol for public bus networks, called Bus MAC protocol, designed to provide high quality Internet service for bus passengers. The paper proposed a multi-channel dual clocks three-demission probability random multiple access protocol based on RTS/CTS mechanism, decreasing collisions caused by multiple access from multiple passengers. Use the RTS/CTS mechanism increases the reliability and stability of the system, reducing the collision possibility of the information packets to a certain extent, improves the channel utilization; use the multi-channel mechanism, not only enables the channel load balancing, but also solves the problem of the hidden terminal and exposed terminal. Use the dual clocks mechanism, reducing the system idle time. At last, the different selection of the three-dimensional probabilities can make the system throughput adapt to the network load which could realize the maximum of the system throughput.

  3. Impact of Efficient Driving in Professional Bus Fleets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Garcia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Diesel engines of the vehicles in the transport sector are responsible for most of the CO2 emissions into the environment. An alternative to reduce fuel consumption is to promote efficient driving techniques. The aim of this paper is to assess the impact of efficient driving on fuel consumption in professional fleets. Data captured from the engine control unit (ECU of the vehicles are complemented with external information from weather stations and context data from the transport companies. The paper proposes linear and quadratic models in order to quantify the impact of all the terms influencing energy consumption. The analysis was made from the traces captured from a passenger transport company in Spain with more than 50 bus routes. 20 vehicles of five different models were monitored and 58 drivers participated in the study. The results indicate that efficient driving has significant influence on fuel consumption, which confirms efficient driving as a valid and economical option for reducing consumption and therefore emissions of harmful particles into the atmosphere. According to the proposed model, in average external conditions, a driver that increases efficiency from 25% to 75% can reach savings in fuel consumption of up to 16 L/100 km in the analysed bus fleet, which is a significant improvement considering the long distances covered by professionals of the transport sector.

  4. ORADEA URBAN BUS SYSTEM ENERGY EFFICIENCY ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIBOR L.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Brief description of Public Transport Company and network in Oradea, passenger statistics, analysis of energy consumption, passenger/kilometer parameter evaluation, compare liquid fuel and electricity consumption, cost reduction, optimization.

  5. PinBus Interface Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Adgerson, Jewel D.; Sastry, Chellury; Pratt, Richard M.; Pratt, Robert G.

    2009-12-30

    On behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, PNNL has explored and expanded upon a simple control interface that might have merit for the inexpensive communication of smart grid operational objectives (demand response, for example) to small electric end-use devices and appliances. The approach relies on bi-directional communication via the electrical voltage states of from one to eight shared interconnection pins. The name PinBus has been suggested and adopted for the proposed interface protocol. The protocol is defined through the presentation of state diagrams and the pins’ functional definitions. Both simulations and laboratory demonstrations are being conducted to demonstrate the elegance and power of the suggested approach. PinBus supports a very high degree of interoperability across its interfaces, allowing innumerable pairings of devices and communication protocols and supporting the practice of practically any smart grid use case.

  6. Avionic Data Bus Integration Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    address the hardware-software interaction between a digital data bus and an avionic system. Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) ICs and multiversion ...the SCP. In 1984, the Sperry Corporation developed a fault tolerant system which employed multiversion programming, voting, and monitoring for error... MULTIVERSION PROGRAMMING. N-version programming. 226 N-VERSION PROGRAMMING. The independent coding of a number, N, of redundant computer programs that

  7. New TPG bus route 28

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Geneva's Public Transport services (TPG) have recently inaugurated a new bus line 28, connecting the La Tour Hospital in Meyrin to the international organisations in Geneva, via the airport. All signs associated with this route will be yellow in colour. Timetables and route details can be found at http://www.tpg.ch. Relations with the Host States Service http://www.cern.ch/relations/ Tel. 72848

  8. Connecting and Networking for Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources for connecting and networking for schools through e-newsletters, finding school IAQ Champions and other EPA school programs such as Asthma, Energy Star, Clean School Bus USA, School Flag, etc.

  9. 76 FR 78732 - FY 2011 Discretionary Funding Opportunity; Section 5309 Bus and Bus Facilities Veterans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ... Administration's priority of supporting America's veterans and military families, as well as the objectives of... Federal Transit Administration FY 2011 Discretionary Funding Opportunity; Section 5309 Bus and Bus Facilities Veterans Transportation and Community Living Initiative AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration...

  10. National fuel cell bus program : proterra fuel cell hybrid bus report, Columbia demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    This report summarizes the experience and early results from a fuel cell bus demonstration funded by the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) under the National Fuel Cell Bus Program. A team led by the Center for Transportation and the Environment an...

  11. A Safe Ride to School; A Safe Ride Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

    Text and illustrations are used to teach safe school bus riding practices. The guide begins with instructions to parents or guardians to set a good example of safe behavior, and to help children learn safety rules and be on time. Instructions to children concern obeying the bus driver, boarding the bus, riding the bus, crossing the road, and using…

  12. Simulating Study on Drive System Performance for Hybrid Electric Bus Based on ADVISOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xingxing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid electric bus has a number of advantages when compared with ordinary passenger cars, but in the dynamic matching and the vehicle performance are difficult to detect, thus limits its development process. In this paper, combined with the actual models, the hybrid electric bus module parameters were modified in the software of ADVISOR (Advanced Vehicle Simulator, main including: module of the vehicle, the wheel module, motor module, a battery module and engine module, three kinds of bus models for A, B and C were established, and the related performance that need to be analyzed was set up, such as acceleration, gradability, emissions and energy utilization and so on, in order to ensure the vehicle running in the same environment and convenient for comparison, a fixed vehicle driving cycles was chose, then the simulation results was analyzed, and the various performance was compared with the dynamic indicators and economic indicators which determined by referencing of traditional city bus standard and each other, and finally, the performance optimal model of B was chose out which can meet the demand, its related performance parameters of the simulation results are as follows: the best gradability is 26%, maximum speed is 72.7km/h, maximum acceleration is 1.7m/s2, 0~50km/h acceleration time is 9.5s and fuel consumption is 25L/km.

  13. Bus transport in Greater Manchester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard; Gudmundsson, Henrik

    is that ‘organisation matters’ and that the reforms may have changed significantly the institutional conditions for the implementation of sustainable transport policies and easures. We have focused the research on public transport in larger cities and how their organisation has changed due to the reforms. At the NECTAR......, and will be elaborated by the time of the NECTAR workshop in May: • Deregulation and privatisation have not changed negative trends in modal split in Greater Manchester, but likely made it worse at least compared to London. • Deregulation and privatisation have worsened conditions for a greening of the bus fleets...

  14. American fuel cell bus project : first analysis report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This report summarizes the experience and early results from the American Fuel Cell Bus Project, a fuel cell electric bus demonstration : funded by the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) under the National Fuel Cell Bus Program. A team led by CALST...

  15. The EU Passenger Name Record (PNR) System and Human Rights : Transferring Passenger Data or Passenger Freedom?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, E.R.

    The European Commission presented the ‘EU Passenger Name Record (PNR) system’ in 2007 as a tool in the fight against terrorism and organised crime. One of the proposed instruments of this system is the Framework Decision on the use of PNR, which provides for the storage and exchange of passenger

  16. Mastering NServiceBus and persistence

    CERN Document Server

    Helton, Rich

    2014-01-01

    This book is intended for developers, designers, and architects alike who wish to build C# NServiceBus enterprise architectures and learn how ESB persists data and messages to help them attain their goals. No prior knowledge of persistence in NServiceBus is required.

  17. 14 CFR 91.517 - Passenger information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Passenger information. 91.517 Section 91... Multiengine Airplanes and Fractional Ownership Program Aircraft § 91.517 Passenger information. (a) Except as... belts and when smoking is prohibited. (c) If passenger information signs are installed, no passenger or...

  18. Does Operation Scheduling Make a Difference: Tapping the Potential of Optimized Design for Skipping-Stop Strategy in Reducing Bus Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xumei Chen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The idea of corporate social responsibility has promoted bus operation agencies to rethink how to provide not only efficient but also environmentally friendly services for residents. A study on the potential of using an optimized design of skip-stop services, one of the essential operational strategies in practice, to reduce emissions is conducted in this paper. The underlying scheduling problem is formulated as a nonlinear programming problem with the primary objective of optimizing the total costs for both passengers and operating agencies, as well as with the secondary objective of minimizing bus emissions. A solution method is developed to solve the problem. A real-world case of Route 16 in Beijing is studied, in which the optimal scheduling strategy that maximizes the cost savings and environmental benefits is determined. The costs and emissions of the proposed scheduling strategy are compared with the optimal scheduling with skip-stop services without considering bus emissions. The results show that the proposed scheduling strategy outperforms the other operating strategy with respect to operational costs and bus emissions. A sensitivity study is then conducted to investigate the impact of the fleet size in operations and passenger demand on the effectiveness of the proposed stop-skipping strategy considering bus emissions.

  19. 49 CFR 393.62 - Emergency exits for buses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (including a school bus used in interstate commerce for non-school bus operations) with a GVWR of more than 4... manufacture. (2) Each bus (including a school bus used in interstate commerce for non-school bus operations... passenger space provided, inclusive of the driver there shall be at least 432 cm2 (67 square inches) of...

  20. Deadhead Trip Minimization in City Bus Transportation: A Real Life Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efendi Nasibov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The quality of public transportation services is one of the most important performance indicators of modern urban policies for both planning and implementation aspects. Therefore, along with the size of the city, the significance of appropriate cost evaluation and optimization of all related transportation activities increases as well. One of the most important cost factors for the public transport agencies is naturally the fuel consumption of the vehicles. In this study, the attention is focused on the metropolitan bus transport service. The specific aim is to minimize a significant portion of total fuel utilization that occurs due to the so called deadhead trip or dead mileage, which is defined as the idle distance covered by the vehicle between the garage and the route terminal stops without carrying any passengers. In this study, the results of four mathematical models for minimizing the total deadhead trip distance covered in city bus services of Izmir are presented. The models vary due to the inclusion of garage capacity restrictions or operator distinction for supporting both operational and strategical decisions. All models are applied to the recent bus schedule data, which consist of 293 routes, 1,424 buses and 10 garages, for obtaining the optimal route bus-garage allocations and garage capacities. The results of the Decentralized-Capacitated model, which is appropriate for quick implementation, promise a 7.8% reduction in total dead mileage. While on the other hand, if all garage capacities can be expanded and the bus service is maintained only by one operator as modelled in the Centralized-Uncapacitated case, even a 31.4% improvement is possible in the long term. The environmental gains as well as the financial benefits to be achieved when the solutions are actually implemented, justify the practical contribution of the study.

  1. Ways to improve the environmental conditions of their buses in operation on passenger routes of cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnychuk S.V.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies on operational and environmental parameters buses used on bus routes Zhitomir city. It uses statistical methods for determining the intensity of traffic, passenger traffic and ecology in traffic. To assess the environmental chosen stop with the greatest intensity of traffic, which is the probability of accumulation of pollution transport emissions that exceed permissible limits. Calculation of environmental pollution emission route for vehicles made stops street «Str. Hundreds of Heaven» «CUM», «vul. Hlibna» on the main trunk street Kievska. Results obtained environmental field experiments compared with the data defined calculation methods, based on the proposed use appropriate operational vehicles. The conclusions that indicate the seriousness of the problem and the urgency to address it. The system of environmental safety and road safety in Zhitomir requires significant improvements due to the increased quantities bus vehicles plying city routes. Recommendations to improve the ecological condition of intersections can be developed through the optimization of traffic using buses with environmentally improved operating parameters. Keywords: environmental and operational parameters; ecological safety; environmental assessment; intensity of traffic; passenger traffic; environmental conditions; operation; bus choice; stop.

  2. Bus and Tag Terminators for IBM system/360

    CERN Multimedia

    Control units were connected to the channels with "Bus and Tag" cable pairs. The bus cables carried the address and data information and the tag cables identified what data was on the bus. There were three general types of bus-and-tag cables produced by IBM.

  3. Physics Bus: An Innovative Model for Public Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Claire

    The Physics Bus is about doing science for fun. It is an innovative model for science outreach whose mission is to awaken joy and excitement in physics for all ages and walks of life - especially those underserved by science enrichment. It is a mobile exhibition of upcycled appliances-reimagined by kids-that showcase captivating physics phenomena. Inside our spaceship-themed school bus, visitors will find: a microwave ionized-gas disco-party, fog rings that shoot from a wheelbarrow tire, a tv whose electron beam is controlled by a toy keyboard, and over 20 other themed exhibits. The Physics Bus serves a wide range of public in diverse locations from local neighborhoods, urban parks and rural schools, to cross-country destinations. Its approachable, friendly and relaxed environment allows for self-paced and self-directed interactions, providing a positive and engaging experience with science. We believe that this environment enriches lives and inspires people. In this presentation we will talk about the nuts and bolts that make this model work, how the project got started, and the resources that keep it going. We will talk about the advantages of being a grassroots and community-based organization, and how programs like this can best interface with universities. We will explain the benefits of focusing on direct interactions and why our model avoids ``teaching'' physics content with words. Situating our approach within a body of research on the value of informal science we will discuss our success in capturing and engaging our audience. By the end of this presentation we hope to broaden your perception of what makes a successful outreach program and encourage you to value and support alternative outreach models such as this one. In Collaboration with: Eva Luna, Cornell University; Erik Herman, Cornell University; Christopher Bell, Ithaca City School District.

  4. Bus operator perceptions of safety risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents the results of a survey of TriMet bus operators addressing safety risks in their assigned work. Surveyed risk factors : were organized into five categories: vehicle design and condition; route layout; operating conditions; fatigue...

  5. MPBUS: Modular Power bus for Space Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Ricardo; Remírez Eduardo; Alonso Javier; Priel Eran; Carapelle Alain; Actis Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Cost reduction in the access to space is leading the space race in the launchers market. Launcher’s companies are looking for a more efficient and economical way to place satellites in orbit. MPBUS project proposes a decentralized power bus distribution with jettisonable smart batteries combined with the use of PLC technology, data over DC, achieving overall weight reduction and harness simplification, both goals in line with Next Generation Launchers (NGL) targets. Two different bus in...

  6. ISET ORS Bus Standards and Prototype

    OpenAIRE

    Sandhoo, Gurpartap; Johnson, Mark; Raynor, William; Hurley, Michael; Stadter, Patrick; Marley, Michael; Apland, Clint; Lee, Robert; Bruzzi, Jonathan; Williams, Bruce; SCHAEFER, EDWARD, JAY; Vernon, Steven; Schwartz, Paul; Moretti, George; Doyne, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Advancing sound and accepted spacecraft bus standards is the objective of the Office of the Secretary of Defense’s (OSD) Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) Bus Standards Initiative. This effort involves multiple government, industry, and academia participants assembled into an Integrated System Engineering Team (ISET). The core ISET industry team members include AeroAstro, Boeing, Design Net Engineering, General Dynamics Spectrum Astro, Loral, Microcosm, MicroSat, Orbital, Raytheon, and Swa...

  7. Bridge Condition Assessment based on Vibration Responses of Passenger Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Ayaho; Yabe, Akito

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method of assessing the condition of existing short- and medium-span reinforced/prestressed concrete bridges based on vibration monitoring data obtained from a public bus. This paper not only describes details of a prototype monitoring system that uses information technology and sensors capable of providing more accurate knowledge of bridge performance than conventional ways but also shows a few specific examples of bridge condition assessment based on vehicle vibrations measured by using an in-service public bus equipped with vibration measurement instrumentation. This paper also describes a sensitivity analysis of deteriorating bridges based on simulation of the acceleration response of buses conducted by the "substructure method" employing a finite element model to verify the above bridge performance results. The main conclusions obtained in this study can be summarized as follows: (1) Because the vibration responses of passenger vehicles, such as buses, have a good linear relationship with the vibration responses of the target bridges, the proposed system can be used as a practical monitoring system for bridge condition assessment. (2) The results of sensitivity analysis performed by the substructure method show that bus vibration responses are useful for evaluating target bridge performance. (3) The proposed method was applied to a network of real bridges in a local area to evaluate its effectiveness. The results indicate that the proposed method can be used to prioritize the repair/strengthening works of existing bridges based on various vibration information in order to help bridge administrators establish rational maintenance strategies.

  8. Bridge Condition Assessment based on Vibration Responses of Passenger Vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, Ayaho [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamaguchi University, Ube (Japan); Yabe, Akito, E-mail: miya818@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp, E-mail: nagai@kke.co.jp [Seismic Engineering Department, KOZO KEIKAKU Engineering Inc. Tokyo (Japan)

    2011-07-19

    In this paper, we propose a new method of assessing the condition of existing short- and medium-span reinforced/prestressed concrete bridges based on vibration monitoring data obtained from a public bus. This paper not only describes details of a prototype monitoring system that uses information technology and sensors capable of providing more accurate knowledge of bridge performance than conventional ways but also shows a few specific examples of bridge condition assessment based on vehicle vibrations measured by using an in-service public bus equipped with vibration measurement instrumentation. This paper also describes a sensitivity analysis of deteriorating bridges based on simulation of the acceleration response of buses conducted by the 'substructure method' employing a finite element model to verify the above bridge performance results. The main conclusions obtained in this study can be summarized as follows: (1) Because the vibration responses of passenger vehicles, such as buses, have a good linear relationship with the vibration responses of the target bridges, the proposed system can be used as a practical monitoring system for bridge condition assessment. (2) The results of sensitivity analysis performed by the substructure method show that bus vibration responses are useful for evaluating target bridge performance. (3) The proposed method was applied to a network of real bridges in a local area to evaluate its effectiveness. The results indicate that the proposed method can be used to prioritize the repair/strengthening works of existing bridges based on various vibration information in order to help bridge administrators establish rational maintenance strategies.

  9. Towards smart mobility in urban spaces: Bus tracking and information application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Wong Seng; Chye, Koh Keng; Hoy, Cheong Wan

    2017-10-01

    Smart city can be defined as an urban space with complete and advanced infrastructure, intelligent networks and platforms, with millions of sensors among which people themselves and their mobile devices. Urban mobility is one of the global smart city project which offers traffic management in real-time, management of passenger transport means, tracking applications and logistics, car sharing services, car park management and more smart mobility services. Due to the frustrated waiting time for the arrival of buses and the difficulty of accessing shuttle bus-related information in a one-stop centre, bus tracking and information application (BTA) is one the proposed solutions to solve the traffic problems in urban spaces. This paper is aimed to design and develop a bus tracking and information application in a selected city in Selangor state, Malaysia. Next, this application also provides an alternative to design public transport tracking and information application for the urban places in Malaysia. Furthermore, the application also provides a smart solution for the management of public infrastructures and urban facilities in Malaysia in future.

  10. Bias of averages in life-cycle footprinting of infrastructure: truck and bus case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taptich, Michael N; Horvath, Arpad

    2014-11-18

    The life-cycle output (e.g., level of service) of infrastructure systems heavily influences their normalized environmental footprint. Many studies and tools calculate emission factors based on average productivity; however, the performance of these systems varies over time and space. We evaluate the appropriate use of emission factors based on average levels of service by comparing them to those reflecting a distribution of system outputs. For the provision of truck and bus services where fuel economy is assumed constant over levels of service, emission factor estimation biases, described by Jensen's inequality, always result in larger-than-expected environmental impacts (3%-400%) and depend strongly on the variability and skew of truck payloads and bus ridership. Well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emission factors for diesel trucks in California range from 87 to 1,500 g of CO2 equivalents per ton-km, depending on the size and type of trucks and the services performed. Along a bus route in San Francisco, well-to-wheel emission factors ranged between 53 and 940 g of CO2 equivalents per passenger-km. The use of biased emission factors can have profound effects on various policy decisions. If average emission rates must be used, reflecting a distribution of productivity can reduce emission factor biases.

  11. Evolution of weighted complex bus transit networks with flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ailing; Xiong, Jie; Shen, Jinsheng; Guan, Wei

    2016-02-01

    Study on the intrinsic properties and evolutional mechanism of urban public transit networks (PTNs) has great significance for transit planning and control, particularly considering passengers’ dynamic behaviors. This paper presents an empirical analysis for exploring the complex properties of Beijing’s weighted bus transit network (BTN) based on passenger flow in L-space, and proposes a bi-level evolution model to simulate the development of transit routes from the view of complex network. The model is an iterative process that is driven by passengers’ travel demands and dual-controlled interest mechanism, which is composed of passengers’ spatio-temporal requirements and cost constraint of transit agencies. Also, the flow’s dynamic behaviors, including the evolutions of travel demand, sectional flow attracted by a new link and flow perturbation triggered in nearby routes, are taken into consideration in the evolutional process. We present the numerical experiment to validate the model, where the main parameters are estimated by using distribution functions that are deduced from real-world data. The results obtained have proven that our model can generate a BTN with complex properties, such as the scale-free behavior or small-world phenomenon, which shows an agreement with our empirical results. Our study’s results can be exploited to optimize the real BTN’s structure and improve the network’s robustness.

  12. Security awareness for public bus transportation : case studies of attacks against the Israeli public bus system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This report presents 16 case studies of attacks planned or carried out against Israeli bus targets, along with statistical data on the number, frequency, and lethality of attacks against bus targets that have taken place in Israel since 1970 and duri...

  13. Energy-Absorbing Passenger Seat for Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, C. P.; Alfaro-Bou, E.; Fasanella, E. L.

    1987-01-01

    Development of energy-absorbing passenger seat, designed to minimize injury in commercial-aircraft crash, part of joint FAA/NASA controlledimpact flight test of transport-category commercial aircraft. Modified seat mechanism collapses under heavy load to absorb impact energy and thereby protect passenger. Results of simulation tests indicate probability of passenger survival high. Proposed seat mechanism mitigates passenger injuries by reducing impact forces in crash.

  14. THE MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF SELECTING THE ROLLING STOCK FOR PASSENGER BUS TRANSPORTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kostikova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of choosing buses of different carrying capacity while simultaneously using them on regular urban routes is considered. The indicators that affect the selection of the rolling stock are analyzed. Methods for constructing models, which allow calculating the number of buses of different classes for one city route are proposed. The implementation of the constructed models will make it possible to obtain the savings in capital expenditures, as well as reduce the operational costs of an enterprise.

  15. Partial least square method for modelling ergonomic risks factors on express bus accidents in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Yusof bin; Taha, Zahari bin

    2015-02-01

    Public, stake holders and authorities in Malaysian government show great concern towards high numbers of passenger's injuries and passengers fatalities in express bus accident. This paper studies the underlying factors involved in determining ergonomics risk factors towards human error as the reasons in express bus accidents in order to develop an integrated analytical framework. Reliable information about drivers towards bus accident should lead to the design of strategies intended to make the public feel safe in public transport services. In addition there is an analysis of ergonomics risk factors to determine highly ergonomic risk factors which led to accidents. The research was performed in east coast of peninsular Malaysia using variance-based structural equation modeling namely the Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression techniques. A questionnaire survey was carried out at random among 65 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuantan in Pahang and among 49 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuala Terengganu in Terengganu to all towns in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia. The ergonomic risks factors questionnaire is based on demographic information, occupational information, organizational safety climate, ergonomic workplace, physiological factors, stress at workplace, physical fatigue and near miss accidents. The correlation and significant values between latent constructs (near miss accident) were analyzed using SEM SmartPLS, 3M. The finding shows that the correlated ergonomic risks factors (occupational information, t=2.04, stress at workplace, t = 2.81, physiological factor, t=2.08) are significant to physical fatigue and as the mediator to near miss accident at t = 2.14 at p1.96. The results shows that the effects of physical fatigue due to ergonomic risks factors influence the human error as the reasons in express bus accidents.

  16. Statistical Analysis of Bus Networks in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Atanu; Manohar, Manju; Ramadurai, Gitakrishnan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we model the bus networks of six major Indian cities as graphs in L-space, and evaluate their various statistical properties. While airline and railway networks have been extensively studied, a comprehensive study on the structure and growth of bus networks is lacking. In India, where bus transport plays an important role in day-to-day commutation, it is of significant interest to analyze its topological structure and answer basic questions on its evolution, growth, robustness and resiliency. Although the common feature of small-world property is observed, our analysis reveals a wide spectrum of network topologies arising due to significant variation in the degree-distribution patterns in the networks. We also observe that these networks although, robust and resilient to random attacks are particularly degree-sensitive. Unlike real-world networks, such as Internet, WWW and airline, that are virtual, bus networks are physically constrained. Our findings therefore, throw light on the evolution of such geographically and constrained networks that will help us in designing more efficient bus networks in the future.

  17. Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessel Fishery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the logbook data from U.S.A. Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessels (CPFV) fishing in the U.S.A. EEZ and in waters off of Baja California, from...

  18. Energy Use of Passenger Cars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of the Danish sale and stock of passenger cars, focusing particularly on aspects influencing energy use. The project has tracked the development of vehicle weight, power and fuel economy for both the sale of new cars (from 1980 to 1997)and the stock. In addition, the energy use...

  19. SAE for the prediction of road traffic status from taxicab operating data and bus smart card data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhengfeng, Huang; Pengjun, Zheng; Wenjun, Xu; Gang, Ren

    Road traffic status is significant for trip decision and traffic management, and thus should be predicted accurately. A contribution is that we consider multi-modal data for traffic status prediction than only using single source data. With the substantial data from Ningbo Passenger Transport Management Sector (NPTMS), we wished to determine whether it was possible to develop Stacked Autoencoders (SAEs) for accurately predicting road traffic status from taxicab operating data and bus smart card data. We show that SAE performed better than linear regression model and Back Propagation (BP) neural network for determining the relationship between road traffic status and those factors. In a 26-month data experiment using SAE, we show that it is possible to develop highly accurate predictions (91% test accuracy) of road traffic status from daily taxicab operating data and bus smart card data.

  20. THE DEVELOPMENT OF MODE-CHOICE SIMULATOR WITH THE LOG DATA ACCUMULATED IN ON-DEMAND BUS SERVER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubouchi, Kota; Yamato, Hiroyuki; Hiekata, Kazuo

    The new simulator which can estimate the mode-choi ce in the area was developed and evaluated in the field test. The characteristic of the developed simulato r is to be able to estimate the number of demand and demand pattern in high-accuracy with the real operation log data of the On-demand Bus. The simulator is devided into micro-simulator whose passenger agents choose their transpor t mode by the sacrifice model. The developed simulator is evaluated in the real fi eld test in Sakai City, Osaka Prefecture. The new transportation like LRT (Light Rail Transit) and On-demand Bus is eval uated by the simulator and the result of simulation is confirmed to be reliable by the local government officers.

  1. Statistical Analysis of Bus Networks in India

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Atanu; Ramadurai, Gitakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Through the past decade the field of network science has established itself as a common ground for the cross-fertilization of exciting inter-disciplinary studies which has motivated researchers to model almost every physical system as an interacting network consisting of nodes and links. Although public transport networks such as airline and railway networks have been extensively studied, the status of bus networks still remains in obscurity. In developing countries like India, where bus networks play an important role in day-to-day commutation, it is of significant interest to analyze its topological structure and answer some of the basic questions on its evolution, growth, robustness and resiliency. In this paper, we model the bus networks of major Indian cities as graphs in \\textit{L}-space, and evaluate their various statistical properties using concepts from network science. Our analysis reveals a wide spectrum of network topology with the common underlying feature of small-world property. We observe tha...

  2. Stress prevention in bus drivers: Evaluation of 13 natural experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kompier, M.A.J.; Aust, B.; Berg, A.M. van den; Siegrist, J.

    2000-01-01

    The research aim was to select, compare, and analyze interventions and preventive actions from international bus companies to decrease bus drivers' occupational stress and sickness absenteeism. Through networking, international surveys, and literature study, 13 "natural experiments" were identified

  3. Analysis of a diesel-electric hybrid urban bus system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, W. W.; Sekar, R. R.; Ahlheim, M. C.

    A hybrid bus powered by a diesel engine and a battery pack was analyzed over an idealized bus-driving cycle in Chicago. Three hybrid configurations, two parallel and one series, were evaluated. The results indicate that the fuel economy of a hybrid bus, taking into account the regenerative braking, is comparable with that of a conventional diesel bus. Life-cycle costs are slightly higher because of the added weight and cost of the battery.

  4. 45 CFR 1310.17 - Driver and bus monitor training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Driver and bus monitor training. 1310.17 Section... START PROGRAM HEAD START TRANSPORTATION Transportation Requirements § 1310.17 Driver and bus monitor... performance; and (2) before bus monitors assigned to vehicles used to provide such services begin their duties...

  5. 77 FR 43646 - FY 2012 Discretionary Funding Opportunity; Section 5309 Bus and Bus Facilities and Section 5312...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... Administration's priority of supporting America's veterans and military families, as well as the objectives of... Federal Transit Administration FY 2012 Discretionary Funding Opportunity; Section 5309 Bus and Bus... AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: FTA Veterans Transportation and Community...

  6. Security awareness for public bus transportation : case studies of attacks against the Israeli public bus system [research brief].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Government regulators and transportation operators of public bus systems are concerned about terrorist attacks. Bus attacks in Israel between late September 2000 and the end of 2006, a period known as the Second Intifada, are particularly well known....

  7. Technology Validation: Fuel Cell Bus Evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-02

    This presentation describing the FY 2016 accomplishments for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Fuel Cell Bus Evaluations project was presented at the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7, 2016.

  8. FUEL CELL BUS DEMONSTRATION IN MEXICO CITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses the performance of a cull-size, zero-emission, Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel-cell-powered transit bus in the atmospheric environment of Mexico City. To address the air quality problems caused by vehicle emissions in Mexico City, a seminar on clean vehic...

  9. An Experimental Platform for Autonomous Bus Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Montes

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, with highly developed instrumentation, sensing and actuation technologies, it is possible to foresee an important advance in the field of autonomous and/or semi-autonomous transportation systems. Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS have been subjected to very active research for many years, and Bus Rapid Transit (BRT is one area of major interest. Among the most promising transport infrastructures, the articulated bus is an interesting, low cost, high occupancy capacity and friendly option. In this paper, an experimental platform for research on the automatic control of an articulated bus is presented. The aim of the platform is to allow full experimentation in real conditions for testing technological developments and control algorithms. The experimental platform consists of a mobile component (a commercial articulated bus fully instrumented and a ground test area composed of asphalt roads inside the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC premises. This paper focuses also on the development of a human machine interface to ease progress in control system evaluation. Some experimental results are presented in order to show the potential of the proposed platform.

  10. Rolling horizon predictions of bus trajectories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oshyani, M.F.; Cats, O.

    2014-01-01

    Bus travel times are subject to inherent and recurrent uncertainties. A real-time prediction scheme regarding how the transit system evolves will potentially facilitate more adaptive operations as well as more adaptive passengers’ decisions. This scheme should be tractable, sufficiently fast and

  11. Advanced eGovernment Information Service Bus (eGov-Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The eGov-Bus project provides citizens and businesses with improved access to virtual public services, which are based on existing national eGovernment Web services and which support cross-border life events. Requirements and specific rules of these life events are considered, and personalization of user preferences is supported. eGov-Bus is based on adaptable process management technologies, allowing for virtual services which are dynamically combined from existing national eGovernment services. In this way, a comprehensive workflow process is set up, allowing for service-level agreements, an audit trail and explanation of the process to the end user. The eGov-Bus process engine operates on top of a virtual repository, providing a high-level semantic view of information retrieved from heterogeneous information sources, such as eGovernment Web services. Further, eGov-Bus relies on a security framework to ensure all high-level security requirements are met. The eGov-Bus architecture is business oriented, it focuses on Service Oriented Architecture (SOA concepts, asynchronously combining Web services and providing a Service Bus.

  12. Environmental Life-cycle Assessment of Passenger Transportation: A Detailed Methodology for Energy, Greenhouse Gas and Criteria Pollutant Inventories of Automobiles, Buses, Light Rail, Heavy Rail and Air

    OpenAIRE

    Chester, Mikhail; Horvath, Arpad

    2007-01-01

    The passenger transportation modes of auto, bus, heavy rail, light rail and air are critical systems relied upon for business and leisure. When considering their environmental effects, most studies and policy focus on the fuel use of the vehicles, and ignore the energy and other resource inputs and environmental outputs from the life cycles of necessary infrastructures, fuels, and vehicles. The goal of this project is to develop comprehensive life-cycle assessment (LCA) models to quantify the...

  13. School Transportation: Administrator's Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Pupil transportation is an essential part of the overall school program, which requires constant supervision and direction. Perhaps no other phase of the school program is more closely observed by the public or has a greater tendency to mold public opinion about the schools than the school bus system. The success of any school district pupil…

  14. [Robbers on board: exposure to violence, insecurity, and other health hazards among mass transportation workers and passengers in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paes-Machado, Eduardo; Levenstein, Charles

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of violent crime on working conditions, health, and security for bus drivers and ticket takers in the mass transportation system in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The research included 195 interviews with workers, labor union officials, passengers, management, and police. In the last ten years there have been 20,572 robberies in a fleet of 2,400 buses operated by 10,151 workers, with 67 deaths and more than US$500,000 in company losses. Perpetrators are typically poor, unemployed youths, the majority of whom first offenders, seeking easy money primarily for leisure pursuits. The average "take" from such robberies is minimal. The authors observed a pattern of bus robberies as a psychological power game which, for bus workers, apart from physical injuries and fatalities, generates fear, identity conflicts, tense relations with passengers, and labor conflicts involving the recovery of stolen fares and worker and passenger security issues. The article also outlines and evaluates the efficiency of security measures including the use of lethal force by police.

  15. Energy efficiency of different bus subsystems in Belgrade public transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mišanović Slobodan M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Research in this paper comprised experimental determination of energy efficiency of different bus subsystems (diesel bus, trolleybus and fully electric bus on chosen public transport route in Belgrade. Experimental measuring of energy efficiency of each bus type has been done based on the analysis of parameters of vehicle driving cycles between stops. Results of this analysis were basis for development of theoretical simulation model of energy efficiency. The model was latter compared with the results of simulation done by "Solaris bus & Coach" company for the chosen electric bus route. Based on demonstrated simulation, characteristics of electric bus batteries were defined, the method and dynamic of their recharge was suggested, as well as choice for other aggregates for drive system and technical characteristics for the electric buses were suggested.

  16. Exploring Injury Panorama, Consequences, and Recovery among Bus Crash Survivors: A Mixed-Methods Research Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doohan, Isabelle; Björnstig, Ulf; Östlund, Ulrika; Saveman, Britt-Inger

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore physical and mental consequences and injury mechanisms among bus crash survivors to identify aspects that influence recovery. The study participants were the total population of survivors (N=56) from a bus crash in Sweden. The study had a mixed-methods design that provided quantitative and qualitative data on injuries, mental well-being, and experiences. Results from descriptive statistics and qualitative thematic analysis were interpreted and integrated in a mixed-methods analysis. Among the survivors, 11 passengers (20%) sustained moderate to severe injuries, and the remaining 45 (80%) had minor or no physical injuries. Two-thirds of the survivors screened for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) risk were assessed, during the period of one to three months after the bus crash, as not being at-risk, and the remaining one-third were at-risk. The thematic analysis resulted in themes covering the consequences and varying aspects that affected the survivors' recoveries. The integrated findings are in the form of four "core cases" of survivors who represent a combination of characteristics: injury severity, mental well-being, social context, and other aspects hindering and facilitating recovery. Core case Avery represents a survivor who had minor or no injuries and who demonstrated a successful mental recovery. Core case Blair represents a survivor with moderate to severe injuries who experienced a successful mental recovery. Core case Casey represents a survivor who sustained minor injuries or no injuries in the crash but who was at-risk of developing PTSD. Core case Daryl represents a survivor who was at-risk of developing PTSD and who also sustained moderate to severe injuries in the crash. The present study provides a multi-faceted understanding of mass-casualty incident (MCI) survivors (ie, having minor injuries does not always correspond to minimal risk for PTSD and moderate to severe injuries do not always correspond to

  17. Advanced Intelligent System Application to Load Forecasting and Control for Hybrid Electric Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momoh, James; Chattopadhyay, Deb; Elfayoumy, Mahmoud

    1996-01-01

    The primary motivation for this research emanates from providing a decision support system to the electric bus operators in the municipal and urban localities which will guide the operators to maintain an optimal compromise among the noise level, pollution level, fuel usage etc. This study is backed up by our previous studies on study of battery characteristics, permanent magnet DC motor studies and electric traction motor size studies completed in the first year. The operator of the Hybrid Electric Car must determine optimal power management schedule to meet a given load demand for different weather and road conditions. The decision support system for the bus operator comprises three sub-tasks viz. forecast of the electrical load for the route to be traversed divided into specified time periods (few minutes); deriving an optimal 'plan' or 'preschedule' based on the load forecast for the entire time-horizon (i.e., for all time periods) ahead of time; and finally employing corrective control action to monitor and modify the optimal plan in real-time. A fully connected artificial neural network (ANN) model is developed for forecasting the kW requirement for hybrid electric bus based on inputs like climatic conditions, passenger load, road inclination, etc. The ANN model is trained using back-propagation algorithm employing improved optimization techniques like projected Lagrangian technique. The pre-scheduler is based on a Goal-Programming (GP) optimization model with noise, pollution and fuel usage as the three objectives. GP has the capability of analyzing the trade-off among the conflicting objectives and arriving at the optimal activity levels, e.g., throttle settings. The corrective control action or the third sub-task is formulated as an optimal control model with inputs from the real-time data base as well as the GP model to minimize the error (or deviation) from the optimal plan. These three activities linked with the ANN forecaster proving the output to the

  18. The Effect of Passengers on Teen Driver Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    A number of studies have shown that passengers substantially increase the risk of crashes for young, novice drivers. This increased risk may result from distractions that young passengers create for drivers. Alternatively, the presence of passengers ...

  19. Taking Physics and Now the Stars on the Road With the Magic Physics Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennum, David

    2009-05-01

    In February 2003 the ``Physics on the Road'' workshop, held at Colorado State University- Fort Collins, Colorado, brought together physics faculty who were experienced in designing and providing year --round mobile physics displays and those who were interested in initiating similar outreach programs. The impetus for the workshop was the upcoming ``World Year of Physics'', but the workshop had much broader impact for many of us who attended. The University of Nevada had a long history of demonstration shows for campus visitors from K-12 students/faculty but the cost of field trips began to limit this for many schools, especially for schools in poorer neighborhoods without large scale parental fundraising. The timing of the workshop was perfect for my developing program to utilize a donated ``electric bus'' as a traveling physics demo showcase. The program has grown to near our current limitations (70 mile range of the bus and time considerations), however we are expanding the ``scope'' of the project to include evening astronomy ``star parties'' as we enter the ``Year of Astronomy''. In addition to the bus transport of portable astronomy equipment to school sites we are adding, through donation, a 22 inch telescope in a domed observatory at a secondary campus location at the edge of Reno where large scale ``star parties'' can be conducted as outreach to K-12 and the community. The ``Physics on the Road'' bus reaches several thousand elementary and middle school students every year now and the potential for similar outreach with ``Stars on the Road'' has excited several of our faculty and physics students into increased participation in these endeavors to introduce our young people to science. It has become one of our most active ``recruitment'' plans and growing numbers of local students entering physics and other science majors is anecdotal evidence of success.

  20. Brazilian hybrid electric fuel cell bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, P.E.V.; Carreira, E.S. [Coppe-Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Hydrogen Lab.

    2010-07-01

    The first prototype of a hybrid electric fuel cell bus developed with Brazilian technology is unveiled. It is a 12 m urban-type, low-floor, air-conditioned bus that possesses three doors, air suspension, 29 seats and reversible wheelchair site. The bus body was built based on a double-deck type monoblock vehicle that is able to sustain important load on its roof. This allowed positioning of the type 3 hydrogen tanks and the low weight traction batteries on the roof of the vehicles without dynamic stabilization problems. A novel hybrid energy configuration was designed in such a way that the low-power (77 kWe) fuel cell works on steady-state operation mode, not responding directly to the traction motor load demand. The rate of kinetic energy regeneration upon breaking was optimized by the use of an electric hybrid system with predominance of batteries and also by utilizing supercapacitors. The electric-electronic devices and the security control softwares for the auxiliary and traction systems were developed in-house. The innovative hybrid-electric traction system configuration led to the possibility to decrease the fuel cell power, with positive impact on weight and system volume reduction, as well as to significantly decrease the hydrogen consumption. (orig.)

  1. Research of intelligent bus coin box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Shihao

    2017-03-01

    In the energy-saving emission reduction of the social context, in response to low-carbon travel, buses become the majority of people choose. We have designed this sorting machine for the present situation that the bus company has received a large amount of mixed zero coins and employed a large amount of manpower to sort out and lower the efficiency. Its function is to separate the coins and notes mixed, and the coins sort storage, the display shows the value of the received coins, so that the whole mechanized inventory classification, reduce the cost of clearing up and improve the efficiency of zero cash recycling, use Simple mechanical principles for classification, to be efficient, accurate and practical. Really meet the current city bus companies, commerce and banking and other industries in order to zero notes, zero coins in the actual demand. The size and specification of this machine are designed according to the size of the bus coin box. It is suitable for almost all buses. It can be installed in the coin box directly, real-time sorting and real-time counting. The difficulty of clearing change.

  2. Passengers waste production during flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofalli, Niki; Loizia, Pantelitsa; Zorpas, Antonis A

    2017-12-20

    We assume that during flights the amount of waste that is produced is limited. However, daily, approximately 8000 commercial airplanes fly above Europe's airspace while at the same time, more than 17,000 commercial flights exist in the entire world. Using primary data from airlines, which use the Larnaca's International Airport (LIA) in Cyprus, we have tried to understand why wastes are produced during a typical flight such as food waste, paper, and plastics, as well as how passengers affect the production of those wastes. The compositional analysis took place on 27 flights of 4 different airlines which used LIA as final destination. The evaluation indicated that the passenger's habits and ethics, and the policy of each airline produced different kinds of waste during the flights and especially food waste (FW). Furthermore, it was observed that the only waste management strategy that exists in place in the airport is the collection and the transportation of all those wastes from aircrafts and from the airport in the central unit for further treatment. Hence, this research indicated extremely difficulties to implement any specific waste minimization, or prevention practice or other sorting methods during the flights due to the limited time of the most flights (less than 3 h), the limited available space within the aircrafts, and the strictly safety roles that exist during the flights.

  3. Young drivers and their young passengers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    More than one-third of all fatalities among car passengers occurs in the 10-24-year age group. The majority of these young passengers die in a car driven by an 18 to 24-year old. Compared with the composition of the population, these are high proportions, yet the exposure (for example in distance

  4. 77 FR 38248 - Passenger Train Emergency Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... Emergency Systems (PTES I) Final Rule C. 2012 Passenger Train Emergency Systems (PTES II) NPRM D. The Need.... ] B. 2008 Passenger Train Emergency Systems (PTES I) Final Rule In 2008, FRA revisited requirements... Train Emergency Systems (PTES II) NPRM On January 3, 2012, FRA published an NPRM proposing to enhance...

  5. 14 CFR 91.519 - Passenger briefing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Passenger briefing. 91.519 Section 91.519 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC... items; (2) Use of safety belts and shoulder harnesses. Each passenger shall be briefed on when, where...

  6. 14 CFR 91.1035 - Passenger awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Passenger awareness. 91.1035 Section 91.1035 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED...) Use of safety belts, shoulder harnesses, and child restraint systems: Each passenger must be briefed...

  7. 78 FR 39649 - Passenger Vessels Accessibility Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1196 RIN 3014-AA11 Passenger Vessels Accessibility... Tuesday, June 25, 2013, make the following correction: PART 1196--PASSENGER VESSELS ACCESSIBILITY... ``Figure V703.7.2.1 International Symbol of Accessibility'' and are added to read as set forth below...

  8. Writing on the Bus: Using Athletic Team Notebooks and Journals to Advance Learning and Performance in Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Richard

    2012-01-01

    "Writing on the Bus" showcases the what, how, and why of using athletic team notebooks and journals. The book guides coaches and athletes, from elementary school through college, in analyzing games while thinking deeply about motivation, goal setting, and communication in order to optimize performance. Filled with lesson plans, writing activities,…

  9. Technology of Urban, Interurban and Rural Passenger Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Štefančić

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The work will consider the significance of various publictransport modes, since different methods of travel that form thetransport system are interconnected. The application of thelevel of service in one mode influences other transport modesand changes depending on the type of travel and is divided inthree groups: urban, interurban and rural travel. In consideringthe significance of urban public transport there are three levelsof trip-end generation/attraction, with which six types of urbantravel can be identified. lnterurban travel is presented throughtwo main transport modes, rail and bus. Apart from businesstrips, air travel is relatively insignificant, primarily because ofthe prices and small distances. In rural areas, characterized bylow population density, there is the problem of travelling of theelderly people, as well as those without cars, as the difficulty ofproviding economic public transport services has increased becausethe number of carried passengers is small. This results inthe reduction in mobility and the quality of life. Attempts havebeen made to improve the standard of provision of public transportservices by introducing unconventional transport means.

  10. Study and Application of Forced Convection in Road Bus Heating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheila Sandi Biazus

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with a replacing the heating system of intercity buses, made by long heat exchangers distributed on the sides of the passenger saloon by small and compact ones that use forced convection to heat dissipation. At the beginning the calculation was made of the heat capacity of a heat exchanger with the parameters defined by the supplier, and then conducted an analysis of change in these parameters in order to improve its efficiency. The method for examining the heat exchanger is based on the correlations available in the convection flow inside and outside to determine the respective convective coefficients, and therefore the overall coefficient of heat transfer. Following, the heat exchanger in its original form, was tested on bench. Thus, from the thermal load of the bus model studied, the amount of exchangers required has been defined to satisfy the thermal comfort of passengers. Field tests of the heating systems with new heat exchangers were performed to obtain actual data of the proposed system. The original factory system showed to be efficient in meeting the needs thermal load and economically viable, such that the critical thermal load can be met with ten heaters installed along the body. Furthermore, this system offers the possibility of varying the parameters to best fit to the project, where the flow variation of the fans or the spacing between the fins of the heat exchanger decreases the amount of heaters required. At the same time, the system showed the need for further study to assess its distribution along the passenger saloon in order to meet a best uniformity temperature distribution.

  11. Peptic ulcer among urban bus drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, Bo; Juel, K

    1990-01-01

    As part of a survey on the work environment of bus drivers, 2045 (83%) of 2465 male bus drivers in the three major cities in Denmark in 1978 answered a postal questionnaire on health and working conditions. In order to evaluate the relative occurrence of peptic ulcer among the bus drivers, a follow......-up study was also conducted. All hospital discharges with a peptic ulcer diagnosis among the bus drivers were registered from the Danish National Patient Register. All Danish men were used as reference group. On the basis of the 1978-questionnaire association between occupational and psychosocial factors...... and subsequent hospital discharge with a peptic ulcer diagnosis was studied. The prevalence of abdominal pain alleviated by food intake was 12% among bus drivers and 6% in the reference group. The incidence of hospital discharge with duodenal ulcer among younger bus drivers was twice the incidence among Danish...

  12. Design of Mine Locomotive System Based on CAN Bus

    OpenAIRE

    Li Yuanhong; Zhang Quanzhu; Zhang Wenshan

    2017-01-01

    Based on CAN bus, this paper studies the system control and management system of locomotive in mine, analyzes the working principle of locomotive system, gives the CAN bus scheme, hardware circuit design and CAN communication protocol, and implements long-distance, high-reliability communication function and remote monitoring function. Experiments show that the auxiliary system based on CAN bus control easier, operation more secure, as well as improving the control performance and service lif...

  13. Design of Mine Locomotive System Based on CAN Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yuanhong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on CAN bus, this paper studies the system control and management system of locomotive in mine, analyzes the working principle of locomotive system, gives the CAN bus scheme, hardware circuit design and CAN communication protocol, and implements long-distance, high-reliability communication function and remote monitoring function. Experiments show that the auxiliary system based on CAN bus control easier, operation more secure, as well as improving the control performance and service life of the electric locomotive.

  14. Energy consumption analysis and the emissions from a bio diesel driven bus using the PAMVEC; Analise do consumo energetico e das emissoes em um onibus movido a biodiesel utilizando o PAMVEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Silvio Carlos Anibal de; Faria, Rodrigo do Nascimento [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (DEM/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], e-mail: silvioa@gmail.com, e-mail: rodrigoengmec@gmail.com

    2008-07-01

    This paper applied the vehicle simulator PAMVEC for estimation of the gas emissions of a bio diesel driven bus. The software allows the calculation of some vehicle parameters, such as energy consumption, global efficiency and fuel consumption under different drive cycles and vehicle characteristics such as: propulsion type system type, transmission, vehicle mass, aerodynamics and fuel heat power. The work includes new capacities of the program, through the implementation of routines for vehicle emission generation and analysis of the performance for different bio diesel formulations. The work will present the vehicle emissions of a conventional bus, body mass: 2736 kg (without passengers); submitted to the drive cycle Manhattan Bus Drive Cycle. The emissions have been estimated for the following fuels: Diesel, GeV and different compositions of ballad's (B2, B5, B10, B15 and B20)

  15. Partial least square method for modelling ergonomic risks factors on express bus accidents in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashim, Yusof bin [Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Gambang 26300 Kuantan, Pahang (Malaysia); Taha, Zahari bin [Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering, Malaysia Pahang, 26600 Pekan, Pahang (Malaysia)

    2015-02-03

    Public, stake holders and authorities in Malaysian government show great concern towards high numbers of passenger’s injuries and passengers fatalities in express bus accident. This paper studies the underlying factors involved in determining ergonomics risk factors towards human error as the reasons in express bus accidents in order to develop an integrated analytical framework. Reliable information about drivers towards bus accident should lead to the design of strategies intended to make the public feel safe in public transport services. In addition there is an analysis of ergonomics risk factors to determine highly ergonomic risk factors which led to accidents. The research was performed in east coast of peninsular Malaysia using variance-based structural equation modeling namely the Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression techniques. A questionnaire survey was carried out at random among 65 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuantan in Pahang and among 49 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuala Terengganu in Terengganu to all towns in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia. The ergonomic risks factors questionnaire is based on demographic information, occupational information, organizational safety climate, ergonomic workplace, physiological factors, stress at workplace, physical fatigue and near miss accidents. The correlation and significant values between latent constructs (near miss accident) were analyzed using SEM SmartPLS, 3M. The finding shows that the correlated ergonomic risks factors (occupational information, t=2.04, stress at workplace, t = 2.81, physiological factor, t=2.08) are significant to physical fatigue and as the mediator to near miss accident at t = 2.14 at p<0.05and T-statistics, t>1.96. The results shows that the effects of physical fatigue due to ergonomic risks factors influence the human error as the reasons in express bus accidents.

  16. MODELLING AND ANALYSIS OF THE BUS PRIORITY IMPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Hidayati

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Bus is expected to play an important role in providing a reliable travel in congested conditions. Therefore, it has been widely studied to minimize the travel time and the delay of the bus by proposing bus priority scheme to increase the attractiveness of public transport against private vehicles. Signal timing optimization combined with the bus priority scheme are discussed in this research as the alternatives to improve the intersection performances. Further, identifying the effects of these alternatives towards the general vehicles and public transport system performances were the aims of this research as well. As the result of this research, bus advance area with pre-signal method is able to reduce the travel time and delay of the bus for routes 2A and 3A by 11%, 23% and 14% , 0% respectively and able to reduce travel time, delay, and queue of vehicles by 25%, 26%, 7% consecutively. Thus bus advance area with pre-signal method is proposed as the best alternative due to its impact to reduce the bus travel times and delay without degrading the other vehicles performance. Keywords: bus priority, optimizing signal timing, Aimsun simulation, travel time-delay-queue.

  17. Access improvement to aircraft passengers' hand luggage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberda, W; Kampinga, O; Kassels, R; van Kester, R; Noriega, J; Vink, P

    2015-01-01

    Efficient use of space and passenger comfort in aircraft interiors are major issues. There is not much research available about the flying experience regarding passengers' personal belongings. The objective of this study is to explore concepts within the current aircraft seats which improve the passenger experience related to their personal belongings like wallets, mobile phones and laptops. Through on-site observations, interviews and online questionnaires, data regarding the number of personal belongings taken into the airplane and opinions about access to hand luggage were gathered. These data were used to develop different concepts to optimize the aircraft interior, which were evaluated by passengers. Almost every passenger carries a phone (88%), wallet (94%), travel documents (98%) and keys (76%) with them and they like to have these stored close by. Passengers rate the concept that provides integrated storage in the tray table of the aircraft seat the best. Extra storage possibility in the table-tray seems a promising solution according to the passengers.

  18. Relationship between Quality of Building Maintenance Management Services for Indoor Environmental Quality and Occupant Satisfaction: Case Study of Bus Terminal Buildings in Penang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Full Chong Choon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance is often defined as the series of activities undertaken to take care of the building structure and services to ensure the intended functions and optimal performance of a building life cycle. The management department of a building is usually responsible for the enhancement of the indoor environment quality by service delivery and for boosting occupant productivity and satisfaction. Thus, a salient point of this study is to determine the current level of the building’s maintenance management service for indoor environmental quality in Penang bus terminals, along with its occupant satisfaction with regards to the services provided in the building. The assessment of the indoor environmental quality includes the evaluation of thermal comfort, lighting condition, air quality and cleanliness. Apart from that, qualitative and quantitative methodologies were applied during the process of data collection and analysis. A questionnaire survey was distributed to 500 of the targeted population for each bus terminal, including passengers and the staff. In this study, the conclusion was drawn in which the maintenance management service level of the bus terminal was directly proportional to occupant satisfaction. However, the current quality of maintenance management services in the bus terminals are still not up to the level of the occupants’ satisfaction.

  19. 77 FR 6178 - FY 2012 Discretionary Funding Opportunities: Bus and Bus Facilities Programs (State of Good...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ... transportation, environmental protection, and housing investments. Bus Livability will invest in projects that... characteristics of all communities by investing in healthy, safe and walkable neighborhoods--rural, urban or... guidelines. The project improves energy efficiency or reduces energy consumption/green house gas emissions...

  20. 76 FR 68819 - State of Good Repair Bus and Bus Facilities Discretionary Program Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ...--New York, Administrator, Region 7--Kansas One Bowling Green, Room 429, New City, MO, 901 Locust Street... transportation bus fleet, infrastructure, and equipment in a state of good repair. Project Implementation..., Region 6--Ft. Kendall Square, 55 Broadway, Suite Worth, 819 Taylor Street, Room 920, Cambridge, MA 02142...

  1. Simulation Model of Bus Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawan Fergyanto E.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bus rapid transit system is modern solution for mass transportation system. The system, in comparison to the rail-based transportation system, is significantly cheaper and requires shorter development time, but lower performance. The BRT system performance strongly depends on variables related to station design and infrastructure. A numerical model offers an effective and efficient means to evaluate the system performance. This article offers a detailed numerical model on the basis of the discrete-event approach and demonstrates its application.

  2. Oracle Service Bus 11g Development Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Schmutz, Guido; van Zoggel, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This cookbook is full of immediately useable recipes showing you how to develop service and message-oriented (integration) applications on the Oracle Service Bus. In addition to its cookbook style, which ensures the solutions are presented in a clear step-by-step manner, the explanations go into great detail, which makes it good learning material for everyone who has experience in OSB and wants to improve. Most of the recipes are designed in such a way that each recipe is presented as a separate, standalone entity and reading of prior recipes is not required. The finished solution of each reci

  3. Redesign of Transjakarta Bus Driver's Cabin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardi Safitri, Dian; Azmi, Nora; Singh, Gurbinder; Astuti, Pudji

    2016-02-01

    Ergonomic risk at work stations with type Seated Work Control was one of the problems faced by Transjakarta bus driver. Currently “Trisakti” type bus, one type of bus that is used by Transjakarta in corridor 9, serving route Pinang Ranti - Pluit, gained many complaints from drivers. From the results of Nordic Body Map questionnaires given to 30 drivers, it was known that drivers feel pain in the neck, arms, hips, and buttocks. Allegedly this was due to the seat position and the button/panel bus has a considerable distance range (1 meter) to be achieved by drivers. In addition, preliminary results of the questionnaire using Workstation Checklist identified their complaints about uncomfortable cushion, driver's seat backrest, and the exact position of the AC is above the driver head. To reduce the risk level of ergonomics, then did research to design the cabin by using a generic approach to designing products. The risk analysis driver posture before the design was done by using Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA), Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA), and Quick Exposure Checklist (QEC), while the calculation of the moment the body is done by using software Mannequin Pro V10.2. Furthermore, the design of generic products was done through the stages: need metric-matrix, house of quality, anthropometric data collection, classification tree concept, concept screening, scoring concept, design and manufacture of products in the form of two-dimensional. While the design after design risk analysis driver posture was done by using RULA, REBA, and calculation of moments body as well as the design visualized using software 3DMax. From the results of analysis before the draft design improvements cabin RULA obtained scores of 6, REBA 9, and the result amounted to 57.38% QEC and moment forces on the back is 247.3 LbF.inch and on the right hip is 72.9 LbF.in. While the results of the proposed improvements cabin design RULA obtained scores of 3, REBA 4, and the moment of force on

  4. Comparison of airline passenger oxygen systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, N J

    1995-08-01

    The principal sources of oxygen for inflight passenger use, scheduled and unscheduled, are examined. Present practices of assessment of the passenger's "fitness to fly" are described. Three partner airlines, British Airways, U.S. Air, and Qantas, catering for more than 8000 oxygen requests annually, are compared. Analysis of customer use suggests that medical oxygen requests are frequently not clinically justified. The growth in demand, for both scheduled and unscheduled use of an expensive resource, supports the need for a "recommended best practice" among carriers. Passengers with respiratory disorders who will most benefit from inflight oxygen are vulnerable either to hypoxia or asthma.

  5. Program Guide for Diesel Engine Mechanics 8742000 (IN47.060500) and Heavy Duty Truck and Bus Mechanics DIM0991 (IN47.060501).

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Coll. of Education.

    This competency-based program guide provides course content information and procedures for secondary schools, postsecondary vocational schools, and community colleges in Florida that conduct programs in diesel engine mechanics and heavy duty truck and bus mechanics. The first section is on legal authority, which applies to all vocational education…

  6. 19 CFR 122.88 - Aircraft carrying domestic (stopover) passengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aircraft carrying domestic (stopover) passengers... Passengers § 122.88 Aircraft carrying domestic (stopover) passengers. Airlines that commingle domestic... continuing on another aircraft to a second U.S. destination) with international passengers who are continuing...

  7. 49 CFR 383.117 - Requirements for passenger endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for passenger endorsement. 383.117... Requirements for passenger endorsement. An applicant for the passenger endorsement must satisfy both of the... passenger endorsement must have knowledge covering at least the following topics: (1) Proper procedures for...

  8. Teen Drivers' Perceptions of Their Peer Passengers: Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani, Johnathon P; Haynie, Denise L; Luthers, Christina; Perlus, Jessamyn; Gerber, Eli; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Klauer, Sheila G; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    The presence of peer passengers increases teenage drivers' fatal crash risk. Distraction and social influence are the two main factors that have been associated with increased risk. Teen drivers' perceptions of their peer passengers on these factors could inform our understanding of the conditions under which peer passengers increase crash risk or promote safer driving. The purpose of this study was to examine teen drivers' perceptions of their peer passengers on distraction and social influence. A convenience sample of male and female drivers participated in a semi-structured interview that included questions on their perceptions of the effects of peer passengers on driving on distraction and social influence. The analysis of the interviews was guided by a grounded theory approach. Teenage drivers were aware of the risk that peer passengers posed. Some described having passengers in the vehicle as distracting, and recognized that the level of distraction increased with the number of passengers in the vehicle. Drivers that felt responsible for the safety of their peer passengers described strategies they used to control the in-vehicle environment. Drivers described driving with passengers as a performance, and articulated direct and indirect sources of pressure, gender norms, and unspoken expectations of their passengers as influencing their driving behavior. The influence of passengers is situation specific and dependent on whom the passenger(s) may be. Passenger influence may be either protective or harmful, depending on the circumstances. Some passengers exert direct influence, but often their influence appears more indirect and subtle.

  9. Effect of stoppage time on motion of a bus through a sequence of signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    We study the dynamic motion of a bus moving through the series of traffic signals where the bus stops at bus stops during a time. The dynamic state of the bus depends highly on both stoppage time at the bus stop and cycle time of the signal. It is found that the bus motion has two kinds of dynamic states: the one is the normal state and the other is the offset state. In the normal state, the bus stops normally at both bus stops and signals. In the offset state, the bus passes timely through the signal sometimes and the stoppage time at the bus stop is offset against the stopping time at the signal. If the bus speed has the same value as the car speed, the travel time of the bus is consistent with that of the car in the offset state. The region map (phase diagram) is shown for two kinds of dynamic states: the normal and offset states.

  10. Modeling and Optimization of Collaborative Passenger Control in Urban Rail Stations under Mass Passenger Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of urban rail transit, the phenomenon of outburst passenger flows flocking to stations is occurring much more frequently. Passenger flow control is one of the main methods used to ensure passengers’ safety. While most previous studies have only focused on control measures inside the target station, ignoring the collaboration between stops, this paper puts emphasis on joint passenger control methods during the occurrence of large passenger flows. To provide a theoretic description for the problem under consideration, an integer programming model is built, based on the analysis of passenger delay and the processes by which passengers alight and board. Taking average passenger delay as the objective, the proposed model aims to disperse the pressure of oversaturated stations into others, achieving the optimal state for the entire line. The model is verified using a case study and the results show that restricted access measures taken collaboratively by stations produce less delay and faster evacuation. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is conducted, from which we find that the departure interval and maximum conveying capacity of the train affect passenger delay markedly in the process of passenger control and infer that control measures should be taken at stations near to the one experiencing an emergency.

  11. Djungle power. A more remote AC bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehnke, Heinz W. [Technosol, Jork (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The Dzanga-Sangha Reserve in the Central African Republic is probably one of the world's most remote protected rainforest areas, much to the benefit of the rare species of lowland gorilla, forest elephant and local pygmy population Ba'Aka. The park is co-managed by the ''WWF-World Wide Fund for Nature'' with sponsoring from the German Regenwald-Stiftung. In 2008 wwf decided to switch from the old, failing generator supply to a solar hybrid mini-grid, along with stringent measures of energy conservation and management. After a careful energy audit Technosol designed an AC-bus system with a 22 kWp PV generator which should overcome the dependency on the old generators and their fuel demands. For 15 buildings, an entirely new distribution network was installed, state of the art energy saving devices introduced and an energy metering system deviced. The installation is operating since August 2009. In such remote locations, the reliability of the AC-bus over other generator-based solutions will be demonstrated and with the support of international organisations like the wwf the practical application of solar hybrid supply becomes a landmark of sustainable energy concepts. (orig.)

  12. Optimal boarding method for airline passengers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffen, Jason H.; /Fermilab

    2008-02-01

    Using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo optimization algorithm and a computer simulation, I find the passenger ordering which minimizes the time required to board the passengers onto an airplane. The model that I employ assumes that the time that a passenger requires to load his or her luggage is the dominant contribution to the time needed to completely fill the aircraft. The optimal boarding strategy may reduce the time required to board and airplane by over a factor of four and possibly more depending upon the dimensions of the aircraft. I explore some features of the optimal boarding method and discuss practical modifications to the optimal. Finally, I mention some of the benefits that could come from implementing an improved passenger boarding scheme.

  13. Passenger Rail Car Egress -- TRB Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    The Federal Railroad Administrations (FRA) Office of Railroad Policy and Development is exploring how to enhance regulations that address the safe, timely, and effective emergency evacuation of occupants from passenger rail vehicles in various eme...

  14. Rail industry job analysis : passenger conductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    This document describes the results of a job analysis that was conducted for the position of railroad Passenger Conductor. Key aspects of the position were identified, including main tasks and knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (...

  15. Towards formal verification of ToolBus scripts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkink, W.; Klint, P.; Lisser, B.; Usenko, Y.S.

    2008-01-01

    ToolBus allows one to connect tools via a software bus. Programming is done using the scripting language Tscript, which is based on the process algebra ACP. Tscript was originally designed to enable formal verification, but this option has so far not been explored in any detail. We present a method

  16. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2008-10-01

    This report provides preliminary results from a National Renewable Energy Laboratory evaluation of a protoptye fuel cell transit bus operating at Connecticut Transit in Hartford. Included are descriptions of the planned fuel cell bus demonstration and equipment; early results and agency experience are also provided.

  17. Solar Telescope Control with the CAN-Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettauer, T. V.

    The real time behavior, error handling and its simplicity makes CAN a preferable bus protocol to interconnect the various modules of a tower telescope. A schematic description of the control bus for the Kanzelhöhe Vakuum Telescope is given.

  18. Application of CAN-bus Network in Intelligent parking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianjun, WU; Juan, Hu

    Convenient life makes intelligent parking every- where. This paper describes how to connect the various separate modern terminal of intelligent parking with CAN-bus network, and the competitive advantage of the system by using the CAN-bus network. From a technical point of view, this paper describes the development trend of intelligent parking in next few years.

  19. Connecticut nutmeg fuel cell bus project : first analysis report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This report summarizes the experience and early results from a fuel cell bus demonstration funded by the Federal Transit Administra-tion (FTA) under the National Fuel Cell Bus Program (NFCBP). A team led by the Northeast Advanced Vehicle Consortium a...

  20. Bus Lifecycle Cost Model for Federal Land Management Agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    The Bus Lifecycle Cost Model is a spreadsheet-based planning tool that estimates capital, operating, and maintenance costs for various bus types over the full lifecycle of the vehicle. The model is based on a number of operating characteristics, incl...

  1. 32 CFR 935.138 - Motor bus operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor bus operation. 935.138 Section 935.138 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.138 Motor bus operation. Each person operating a motor...

  2. Network Analysis of Urban Traffic with Big Bus Data

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Urban traffic analysis is crucial for traffic forecasting systems, urban planning and, more recently, various mobile and network applications. In this paper, we analyse urban traffic with network and statistical methods. Our analysis is based on one big bus dataset containing 45 million bus arrival samples in Helsinki. We mainly address following questions: 1. How can we identify the areas that cause most of the traffic in the city? 2. Why there is a urban traffic? Is bus traffic a key cause of the urban traffic? 3. How can we improve the urban traffic systems? To answer these questions, first, the betweenness is used to identify the most import areas that cause most traffics. Second, we find that bus traffic is not an important cause of urban traffic using statistical methods. We differentiate the urban traffic and the bus traffic in a city. We use bus delay as an identification of the urban traffic, and the number of bus as an identification of the bus traffic. Third, we give our solutions on how to improve...

  3. A series of small scientific satellite with flexible standard bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Hirobumi; Sawai, Syujiro; Sakai, Shin-ichiro; Fukuda, Seisuke; Kitade, Kenji

    2009-11-01

    Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency has a plan to develop the small satellite standard bus for various scientific missions and disaster monitoring missions. The satellite bus is a class of 250-400 kg mass with three-axis control capability of 0.02∘ accuracy. The science missions include X-ray astronomy missions, planetary telescope missions, and magnetosphere atmosphere missions. In order to adapt the wide range of mission requirements, the satellite bus has to be provided with flexibility. The concepts of modularization, reusability, and product line are applied to the standard bus system. This paper describes the characteristics of the small satellite standard bus which will be firstly launched in 2011.

  4. Genetic Algorithm for Multiple Bus Line Coordination on Urban Arterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bus travel time on road section is defined and analyzed with the effect of multiple bus lines. An analytical model is formulated to calculate the total red time a bus encounters when travelling along the arterial. Genetic algorithm is used to optimize the offset scheme of traffic signals to minimize the total red time that all bus lines encounter in two directions of the arterial. The model and algorithm are applied to the major part of Zhongshan North Street in the city of Nanjing. The results show that the methods in this paper can reduce total red time of all the bus lines by 31.9% on the object arterial and thus improve the traffic efficiency of the whole arterial and promote public transport priority.

  5. Recommendations for yield-to-bus traffic control devices and bus pullout bays design characteristics : [research summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Bus pullout bays are being installed increasingly : on Floridas roads as a safety factor and so that : stopped buses do not impede traffic. In Florida, : state law requires car drivers to yield to buses : when a bus needs to reenter the roadway af...

  6. Environmental Life-cycle Assessment of Passenger Transportation: A Detailed Methodology for Energy, Greenhouse Gas and Criteria Pollutant Inventories of Automobiles, Buses, Light Rail, Heavy Rail and Air v.2

    OpenAIRE

    Chester, Mikhail; Horvath, Arpad

    2008-01-01

    The passenger transportation modes of auto, bus, heavy rail, light rail and air are critical systems relied upon for business and leisure. When considering their environmental effects, most studies and policy focus on the fuel use of the vehicles, and ignore the energy and other resource inputs and environmental outputs from the life cycles of necessary infrastructures, fuels, and vehicles. The goal of this project is to develop comprehensive life-cycle assessment (LCA) models to quantify the...

  7. Work fatigue in urban bus drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Makowiec-Dąbrowska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bus drivers are a special group of professional drivers who are at a very high risk of fatigue. The aim of the study was to examine whether the driver’s subjective assessment of fatigue allows for the determination of its level and identification of its causes. Material and Methods: The study group comprised 45 randomly selected bus drivers (mean age – 43.7±7.9 years, period of employment as drivers – 14.7±8.6 years. Examinations were performed in all subjects four times – before and after work on the “easy” route (outside the city center, small traffic intensity and before and after work on the “difficult” route (city center, heavy traffic. The fatigue test questionnaire, based on the list of symptoms of fatigue prepared by the Japan Research Committee of Fatigue, was used in the study. Results: The rating of fatigue after the work was significantly higher than that before the work. The profile of fatigue after work was not influenced by the type of route, but the assessment of most symptoms of fatigue reached a higher level after the “difficult” routes and the differences were statistically significant for 7 symptoms. Only the ratings of leg fatigue, feeling of heaviness, and the necessity to squint eyes and gaze with effort reached the higher levels after driving the “easy” routes. It has been found that the level of fatigue was significantly correlated with the job characteristics (driving time, the length of the route, number of stops, etc. and with the abundance of food ingested and type of beverage (coffee vs. others drunk prior to driving. Conclusions: The questionnaire used in our study to assess the subjective feeling of fatigue has proved to be a sensitive and useful tool for indicating the level and causes of fatigue. The relationship between the symptoms of fatigue and the characteristics of job and lifestyle shows that actions must be taken by both the employers and employees to prevent fatigue

  8. Bus bar electrical feedthrough for electrorefiner system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Mark; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Willit, James L; Barnes, Laurel A; Blaskovitz, Robert J

    2013-12-03

    A bus bar electrical feedthrough for an electrorefiner system may include a retaining plate, electrical isolator, and/or contact block. The retaining plate may include a central opening. The electrical isolator may include a top portion, a base portion, and a slot extending through the top and base portions. The top portion of the electrical isolator may be configured to extend through the central opening of the retaining plate. The contact block may include an upper section, a lower section, and a ridge separating the upper and lower sections. The upper section of the contact block may be configured to extend through the slot of the electrical isolator and the central opening of the retaining plate. Accordingly, relatively high electrical currents may be transferred into a glovebox or hot-cell facility at a relatively low cost and higher amperage capacity without sacrificing atmosphere integrity.

  9. Research of WLAN CAN Bus Data Test System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weibin; Zhu, Yuqing; Hong, Tiansheng; Ye, Cheng; Ye, Zhijie; He, Guangbin; Li, Haobiao

    Both controller area network (CAN) and wireless local area network (WLAN) bus technologies are developing rapidly nowadays. But the study on WLAN technology with CAN bus data is relative to be less researched. So a WLAN CAN bus data test system was present in this paper. The system hardware consists of two control modules, each of which consistently allows link test to the CAN bus network. Each hardware of the module is composed by a microcontroller STC12C5410AD, a CAN bus control unit MCP2515, a CAN bus transceiver MCP2551 and a RF wireless module RF903. During the test process, the CAN bus analyzer, Kvaser USBCAN II, receives and dispatches the CAN messages. Test results showed that the system's error score was approximately zero when messages are transmitted and the system can message transmission from one side of CAN panel point to the other side. The communication of the system is suitable for the CAN treaty standard and it can allow wireless message transmission to other suitable networks meeting the CAN treaty standard as well. Finally the system has been applied to the project for hill citrus leaf area index (LAI) acquisition.

  10. Using microcomputers for lighting appliance control using a DALI bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sysala Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Article concerns the DALI bus theoretical and practical aspects. The DALI bus is a modern technology developed especially for illumination systems control. Authors are outlining communication basic principles related to the physical layer and going up to more complex data transactions among particular devices. The article main topic is aimed at two device models development based on microcontroller and exploiting that technology. The first of those two devices is a DALI slave unit enabling the light source or multi switch with light indication components control via DALI bus. The second device measures the ambient illumination intensity and it also detects errors in the load.

  11. Design and Research on Automotive Controller Area Network Bus Analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei CUI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The detection method of automotive controller area network bus is researched in this paper. Failure identifying of CAN bus under different working conditions has been realized. In order to realizing intelligent failure diagnosis, data fusion means has been put forward in this paper. The composition of analysis and detection system is introduced. By analyzing and processing the data of CAN bus and sensors, work condition of automotive is achieved. Multi-pattern data fusion model and algorithm for failure diagnosis are researched. The analyzer and detection system designed in this paper can be applied to automotive fault analysis, troubleshooting and maintenance.

  12. A new MV bus transfer scheme for nuclear power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Choong-Koo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fast bus transfer method is the most popular and residual voltage transfer method that is used as a backup in medium voltage buses in general. The use of the advanced technology like open circuit voltage prediction and digital signal processing algorithms can improve the reliability of fast transfer scheme. However, according to the survey results of the recent operation records in nuclear power plants, there were many instances where the fast transfer scheme has failed. To assure bus transfer in any conditions and circumstances, uninterruptible bus transfer scheme utilizing the state of the art medium voltage UPS is discussed and elaborated.

  13. Research on Optimization for Motion Control Bus Based on Ethernet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Field bus system has been successfully introduced into industrial automation. Nowadays, most of the motion control bus is based on the Ethernet physical layer, and all of the new standards are based on the Ethernet physical layer. This paper introduces a new optimized technology based on motion control bus of the Ethernet physical layer, which includes the prediction mechanism in the arrival of the frames, the retransmission mechanism in advance, and a new mechanism of independent verification of data segment. Tests show that using the mechanisms in this paper can enhance efficiency and reliability in communication process.

  14. Common Airborne Instrumentation System: CAIS Bus Interface Standard, A00.00-C001. Revision A

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Sidney

    1997-01-01

    .... This interface control document (ICD) was written to provide a single document that designers of CAIS bus controllers and data acquisition units could reference to ensure interoperability on the CAIS bus. This ICD establishes the requirements for digital command/response, time division multiplexing techniques for a single CAIS bus. It encompasses the physical, electrical, and protocol aspects of the CAIS bus.

  15. Empirically Determined Passenger Ferry Navigable Routes within ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWASOGO

    traffic congestion contained in their 30-years transportation improvement plan. Essentially, the steps include light rail schemes and BRT bus services in Lagos ..... Role of Geomatics in the Management of. Disasters and Infrastructural Failures. Ethiopian Journal of. Environmental Studies and Management, 6(2): 143–148.

  16. Traffic lanes for vehicles of mass public passenger transport on city streets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladović Pavle V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Some of the basic measures of regulating public mass passenger transport in a city network are the introduction and management of traffic lanes reserved for the public transportation. These traffic lanes are important for several reasons: faster moving and shorter travelling time for the vehicles, reducing operating costs, improving the safety, increasing passenger comfort, maintaining of the timetable quality, etc. In most cities, an intensive use of the public transport is concentrated in the morning and the afternoon peak period. The state of the public transport system during these periods is reflected in the crowds inside the vehicles, long vehicle queues at intersections and at bus stops, which cause congestion on the streets and result in delays of public transport vehicles. This paper provides an overview of the current situation on an example in the city of Belgrade. The capacity and the quality of service for the street surfaces reserved for the public transportation vehicles were analysed on the aforementioned example.

  17. Fixed Route Accessible Bus Service in Connecticut : A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    U.S. Department of Transportation regulations implementing Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, require transit agencies to provide wheelchair accessibility on fixed-route bus service. The study is part of the series which included studies ...

  18. A research framework for studying transit bus driver distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The increase in transit bus ridership nationally during the past ten years, along with the : proliferation of personal electronic control and communication gadgets is causing more : distractions for the drivers. Earlier research studies have found dr...

  19. Analysis of movable bus stop boarding and alighting areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    This study explored the feasibility of using movable and reusable boarding and alighting (B&A) pads at bus stops. : Potential design alternatives in terms of materials and structural support for these pads were evaluated. The review : focused on the ...

  20. Multi-Gigabit Rate Radiation Hard Bus Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High speed robust very low power radiation hardened bus interconnects are required to accelerate on-board computations, further improve reconfigurability and upgrade...

  1. FTA fuel cell bus program : research accomplishments through 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Prepared by the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) Office of Research, Demonstration, and Innovation (TRI), this report summarizes the accomplishments of fuel-cell-transit-bus-related research and demonstrations projects supported by FTA through 20...

  2. Black silicon solar cells with black bus-bar strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of black silicon texturing and blackened bus-bar strings as a potential method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon was realized by maskless reactive ion etching resulting in total, average reflectance...... below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon wafer. Four different methods to obtain blackened bus-bar strings were compared with respect to reflectance, and two of these methods (i.e., oxidized copper and etched solder) were used to fabricate functional allblack solar 9-cell panels. The black bus-bars (e.......g., by oxidized copper) have a reflectance below 3% in the entire visible wavelength range. The combination of black silicon cells and blackened bus-bars results in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted solar cells without compromising efficiency....

  3. Public transit: Bus, paratransit, and ridesharing. Transportation research record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Contents: part 1--bus operations--service reliability program of the southern california rapid transit district: a test of the short-term impacts on line 26-51; bus route o-d matrix generation: relationship between biproportional and recursive methods; transportation systems management options to improve urban bus route performance using computer simulation; development and application of performance measures for rural public transportation operators; rural public transportation in alaska: present and future options; particulate trap installation in a man articulated transit bus; part 2--paratransit--methodology for conducting a transportation survey of persons with disabilities; marketing rural transit among senior populations; evolution of functional eligibility and certification for paratransit service: the chicago experience; part 3--ridesharing--the state of the commute in southern california; hispanic market research in the southern california market; evaluation of second-year effectiveness of guaranteed ride home service at warner center transportation management organization; effectiveness of a statewide ridesharing promotion: california rideshare week.

  4. Very-low-frequency and low-frequency electric and magnetic fields associated with electric shuttle bus wireless charging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tell, R A; Kavet, Robert; Bailey, J R; Halliwell, John

    2014-01-01

    Tests conducted to date at the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga (UTC) indicate that wireless charging of the Chattanooga Area Regional Transportation Authority's (CARTA) downtown shuttle bus, currently operating with off-board battery charging technology, offers significant improvements in performance and cost. The system operates at a frequency of 20 kHz and a peak power of 60 kW. Because the system's wireless charging is expected to occur during a nominal 3-min charging period with passengers on-board, the magnetic and electric fields associated with charging were characterised at UTC's Advanced Vehicle Test Facility and compared with established human exposure limits. The two most prominent exposure limits are those published by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and the Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE). Both organisations include limits for groups who are trained (workers in specific industries) to be aware of electromagnetic environments and their potential hazards, as well as a lower set of limits for the general public, who are assumed to lack such awareness. None of the magnetic or electric fields measured either within or outside the bus during charging exceeded either the ICNIRP or the IEEE exposure limits for the general public.

  5. The bus rapid transit system: A service quality dimension of commuter uptake in Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prince D. Ugo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated commuter uptake of the bus rapid transit (BRT system in Cape Town,South Africa. As a stated preference survey was not carried out prior to the launch of the new BRT system in the City of Cape Town, it became difficult to assess commuters’ preferences,which would have provided City policymakers and planners with an understanding of customer satisfaction of the proposed bus service. The commuting trend of the BRT system in the City indicates that tickets sales and utilisation by commuters is gradually picking up, but one would have expected high commuter engagement in terms of the modernity profile of the BRT system. This study investigated commuters’ (n = 260 satisfaction levels with 30 service quality variables on a self-rated questionnaire, using quantitative research methodology.The study result showed that passengers were not satisfied with the transport fare and the availability or accessibility of ticket sales outlets. In the context of this study, this result implies that the ‘responsiveness and affordability’ variable of the service quality dimensions should be an area of interest and review to City of Cape Town policymakers and planners. Service quality trends in public transport were also highlighted.

  6. Telemedical Advice to Long Distance Passenger Ferries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf Chresten; Bøggild, Niels Bo; Kristensen, Søren

    were of the central type such as migraine, meningitis pain or other types of headaches. For treatment of pain mainly paracetamol, NSAIDs and opioids was used. Paracetamol was offered to all with pain without any registration. Among the patients with nociceptive pain 4 were treated with NSAIDs and one......Background: Radio medical (RM) advice for seafarers and travelling passengers is important and can be Radio medical (RM) advice for seafarers and travelling passengers is important and can be crucial for the optimal medical treatment on board ships. The aim was to analyse the data from...

  7. Application Layer Definition and Analyses of Controller Area Network Bus for Wire Harness Assembly Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Hui; Jiang, Ying

    2006-01-01

    With the feature of multi-master bus access, nondestructive contention-based arbitration and flexible configuration, Controller Area Network (CAN) bus is applied into the control system of Wire Harness Assembly Machine (WHAM). To accomplish desired goal, the specific features of the CAN bus is analyzed by compared with other field buses and the functional performances in the CAN bus system of WHAM is discussed. Then the application layer planning of CAN bus for dynamic priority is presented. ...

  8. Accessibility analysis to public services by bus transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Košir, Uroš

    2009-01-01

    Graduation thesis focuses on ESRI GIS tools, Model Builder and Network analyst. It is shown how automated process with geoprocesing models simplify procedures, with prepared data, for further analyses. Data, established with analyses, were used for accessability analysis to public services by bus transportation. Analyses were made for territory of Slovenia and their statistical regions. For better understanding of choice between a car and a bus accessibility to public services, thesis was sup...

  9. VHDL resolved function based inner communication bus for FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozniak, Krzysztof T.

    2017-08-01

    This article discusses a method of building an internal, universal and parametric bus. The solution was designed for a variety of FPGA families and popular VHDL compilers. The algorithm of automatic configuration of address space and methods of receiving and sending addressed data are discussed. The basic solution realized in VHDL language in a behavioral form and chosen examples of practical use of the internal bus are presented in detail.

  10. Toward a shared urban transport system passengers & Goods Cohabitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Trentini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents radical new urban transportation system concepts, potentially allowing changing the economic and environmental costs of passenger and freight transportation. The driver focuses on the concept of sharing, which means to make a joint use of transport resources, between passengers and goods flows. From a field observation of several existing solutions, an inductive reasoning enables us to move from a set of specific facts to establish an archetype for a radical new urban transportation system. Once the archetype defined, it is translated in real life through the example of the On Route proposal for London.The research frame of this paper is the ANR ( French National Research Agency C-Goods (City Goods Operation Optimization using Decision support System project. Started in February 2009 the project involves four partners, (The multi-disciplinary French engineer school EIGSI (Ecole d’Ingénieurs en Génie des Systèmes Industriels, the French university ENMP (Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Paris, the Poitiers Urban Community (CAP, and the consulting service Interface Transport, specialized in transport economy and will end on 2012.

  11. NON-VERBAL SIGNS OF POTENTIALLY DANGEROUS AIR PASSENGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with problem of air passengers’ non-verbal signs identification while ensuring aviation security. The danger is not only the passengers intentionally preparing acts of unlawful interference in civil aviation, but also unbal- anced passengers with increased anxiety. The non-verbal signs of both passenger categories are frequently identical. Safety control on the ground and in the air depends on the timely transfer in information about potentially dangerous passengers from aviation security profilers to flight attendants.

  12. Definition of usefulness of public passenger transport system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ігор Євгенович Іванов

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the causal factors of the usefulness of public passenger transport system is conducted. The result of research is the mathematical model of usefulness of transport process of urban passenger transport. In general utility determines transport mobility, mobility that realized in transport, including urban passenger transport. Rational coefficient of dynamic use of vehicles depending on the parameters of urban passenger transport system is determined

  13. Unhealthy and healthy weight control behaviours among bus operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escoto, K H; French, S A

    2012-03-01

    Urban bus operators are an occupational group with high rates of overweight and obesity. Understanding methods bus operators use for weight control may be important; there may be increased risk for these workers to engage in less healthy weight management behaviours due to stressful working conditions. To examine the prevalence of unhealthy and healthy weight control behaviours used by bus operators and examine associations between use of unhealthy weight control behaviours and work-related and sociodemographic variables. Bus operators from four different transit garages were invited to complete a self-administered survey; height and weight were measured by research staff. Unhealthy and healthy weight control behaviours, work hours, work schedule and social support were measured with self-report items on the employee survey. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to estimate associations. Nearly 60% of bus operators endorsed at least one unhealthy method; over 50% reported skipping meals, 30% fasted and 10% reported taking diet pills in the past year. Bus operator gender, race, body mass index status and hours worked per week showed significant associations with using at least one unhealthy weight control behaviour. Worksite interventions should emphasize the benefit of healthy eating and physical activity but should also address the use of less healthy methods for weight control for individuals employed in transportation occupations.

  14. CROSS-FRONTIER PUBLIC TRANSPORT: Y BUS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Housing Service

    2002-01-01

    'Y' buses cover the journey between Val Thoiry in France (shopping centre including'Migros' and other stores) and Blandonnet in Switzerland, where they stop outside the 'Jumbo' shop, now renamed 'Carrefour'. In France, the buses connect up Thoiry, Sergy and St. Genis, then cross the border to stop outside CERN, Meyrin, before continuing towards Geneva along the 'Route de Meyrin', stopping outside the 'La Tour' hospital, then at the terminus Blandonnet. The normal fare on French territory with a slight incursion into Switzerland for this purpose as far as CERN, Meyrin, is 1.20 Euros per single journey (ticket valid for one hour). The same amount is charged for any single journey in Switzerland. For example, the cost of a single journey between St. Genis and the 'La Tour' hospital would be 2.40 Euros. The season ticket ('Abonnement de Travail') opens the right to purchase a ticket valid over any period of seven days which entitles the holder to as many journeys as required between the bus stop nearest to the pl...

  15. DIMETHYL ETHER (DME)-FUELED SHUTTLE BUS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elana M. Chapman; Shirish Bhide; Jennifer Stefanik; Howard Glunt; Andre L. Boehman; Allen Homan; David Klinikowski

    2003-04-01

    The objectives of this research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as, field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In this project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Their strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. The bulk of the efforts over the past year were focused on the conversion of the campus shuttle bus. This process, started in August 2001, took until April 2002 to complete. The process culminated in an event to celebrate the launching of the shuttle bus on DME-diesel operation on April 19, 2002. The design of the system on the shuttle bus was patterned after the system developed in the engine laboratory, but also was subjected to a rigorous failure modes effects analysis (FMEA, referred to by Air Products as a ''HAZOP'' analysis) with help from Dr. James Hansel of Air Products. The result of this FMEA was the addition of layers of redundancy and over-pressure protection to the system on the shuttle bus. The system became operational in February 2002. Preliminary emissions tests and basic operation of the shuttle bus took place at the Pennsylvania Transportation Institute's test track facility near the University Park airport. After modification and optimization of the system on

  16. 46 CFR 176.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 100 GROSS TONS) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974, as Amended (SOLAS) § 176.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel, which carries more than 12 passengers on an international voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate...

  17. 46 CFR 115.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CERTIFICATION International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974, as Amended (SOLAS) § 115.910 Passenger... must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. The Commandant issues the original SOLAS... complies with the applicable SOLAS regulations. Subsequent SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificates are...

  18. 14 CFR 29.1413 - Safety belts: passenger warning device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety belts: passenger warning device. 29....1413 Safety belts: passenger warning device. (a) If there are means to indicate to the passengers when safety belts should be fastened, they must be installed to be operated from either pilot seat. (b) Each...

  19. 78 FR 71785 - Passenger Train Emergency Systems II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... published a final rule on Passenger Train Emergency Systems (PTES) on February 1, 2008. See 73 FR 6370. The... Working Group meetings, FRA initiated the Passenger Train Emergency Systems II (PTES II) rulemaking. In... regulations. For example, the 2008 PTES final rule established requirements that improve passenger emergency...

  20. 14 CFR 23.791 - Passenger information signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Passenger information signs. 23.791 Section... Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 23.791 Passenger information signs. For those airplanes in which the... separated from the passenger compartment, there must be at least one illuminated sign (using either letters...

  1. 14 CFR 135.113 - Passenger occupancy of pilot seat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Passenger occupancy of pilot seat. 135.113... Operations § 135.113 Passenger occupancy of pilot seat. No certificate holder may operate an aircraft type certificated after October 15, 1971, that has a passenger seating configuration, excluding any pilot seat, of...

  2. Safety of railroad passenger vehicle dynamics : OMNISIM simulation and test correlations for passenger rail cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of the work is to validate the safety assessment methodology previously developed for passenger rail vehicle dynamics, which requires the application of simulation tools as well as testing of vehicles under different track scenarios. This...

  3. Pollution Characteristics and Health Risk Assessment of Airborne Heavy Metals Collected from Beijing Bus Stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaoxia; Zhao, Wenji; Yan, Xing; Shu, Tongtong; Xiong, Qiulin; Chen, Fantao

    2015-08-17

    Airborne dust, which contains high levels of toxic metals, is recognized as one of the most harmful environment component. The purpose of this study was to evaluate heavy metals pollution in dustfall from bus stations in Beijing, and to perform a risk assessment analysis for adult passengers. The concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, V and Zn were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The spatial distribution, pollution level and potential health risk of heavy metals were analyzed by Geographic Information System (GIS) mapping technology, geo-accumulation index and health risk assessment model, respectively. The results indicate that dust samples have elevated metal concentrations, especially for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. The nine metals can be divided into two categories in terms of spatial distribution and pollution level. Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Pb and Zn reach contaminated level and have similar spatial patterns with hotspots distributed within the Fifth Ring Road. While the hot spot areas of Co and V are always out of the Fifth Ring Road. Health risk assessment shows that both carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks of selected metals were within the safe range.

  4. Pollution Characteristics and Health Risk Assessment of Airborne Heavy Metals Collected from Beijing Bus Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaoxia; Zhao, Wenji; Yan, Xing; Shu, Tongtong; Xiong, Qiulin; Chen, Fantao

    2015-01-01

    Airborne dust, which contains high levels of toxic metals, is recognized as one of the most harmful environment component. The purpose of this study was to evaluate heavy metals pollution in dustfall from bus stations in Beijing, and to perform a risk assessment analysis for adult passengers. The concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, V and Zn were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The spatial distribution, pollution level and potential health risk of heavy metals were analyzed by Geographic Information System (GIS) mapping technology, geo-accumulation index and health risk assessment model, respectively. The results indicate that dust samples have elevated metal concentrations, especially for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. The nine metals can be divided into two categories in terms of spatial distribution and pollution level. Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Pb and Zn reach contaminated level and have similar spatial patterns with hotspots distributed within the Fifth Ring Road. While the hot spot areas of Co and V are always out of the Fifth Ring Road. Health risk assessment shows that both carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks of selected metals were within the safe range. PMID:26287229

  5. 76 FR 23109 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... from airlines, airports and other industry entities on whether there are any special operational... April 25, 2011 Part IV Department of Transportation 14 CFR Parts 244, 250, 253 Et al. Enhancing Airline..., 253, 259, and 399 RIN 2105-AD92 Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections AGENCY: Office of the...

  6. Serviceability of passenger trains during acquisition projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parada Puig, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    Acquiring assets that can be serviced cost effectively is a fundamental goal during large acquisition projects at NS, the largest railway company in the Netherlands. Buying passenger trains and providing their required services requires important strategic decisions involving both the trains and

  7. Empirically Determined Passenger Ferry Navigable Routes within ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sea surveying is associated with port and offshore industries and the marine environment, including measurements and marine investigations made by ... Furthermore, waterway navigable chart was developed based on prevailing river bed topography along the study corridors as well as passenger ferry draught constraint.

  8. Biodiesel intercity passenger rail revenue service test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Amtrak, with the support of the Federal Railroad Administration, operated a P-32 passenger locomotive in revenue service for a : period of 12 months, on a blend of 20 percent pure biodiesel and 80 percent #2 ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel. The G...

  9. Texas Hydrogen Highway Fuel Cell Hybrid Bus and Fueling Infrastructure Technology Showcase - Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitchcock, David

    2012-06-29

    The Texas Hydrogen Highway project has showcased a hydrogen fuel cell transit bus and hydrogen fueling infrastructure that was designed and built through previous support from various public and private sector entities. The aim of this project has been to increase awareness among transit agencies and other public entities on these transportation technologies, and to place such technologies into commercial applications, such as a public transit agency. The initial project concept developed in 2004 was to show that a skid-mounted, fully-integrated, factory-built and tested hydrogen fueling station could be used to simplify the design, and lower the cost of fueling infrastructure for fuel cell vehicles. The approach was to design, engineer, build, and test the integrated fueling station at the factory then install it at a site that offered educational and technical resources and provide an opportunity to showcase both the fueling station and advanced hydrogen vehicles. The two primary technology components include: Hydrogen Fueling Station: The hydrogen fueling infrastructure was designed and built by Gas Technology Institute primarily through a funding grant from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. It includes hydrogen production, clean-up, compression, storage, and dispensing. The station consists of a steam methane reformer, gas clean-up system, gas compressor and 48 kilograms of hydrogen storage capacity for dispensing at 5000 psig. The station is skid-mounted for easy installation and can be relocated if needed. It includes a dispenser that is designed to provide temperaturecompensated fills using a control algorithm. The total station daily capacity is approximately 50 kilograms. Fuel Cell Bus: The transit passenger bus built by Ebus, a company located in Downey, CA, was commissioned and acquired by GTI prior to this project. It is a fuel cell plug-in hybrid electric vehicle which is ADA compliant, has air conditioning sufficient for Texas operations

  10. Route planning for airport personnel transporting passengers with reduced mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Line Blander; Clausen, Tommy; Pisinger, David

    Major airports have an average throughput of more than 100,000 passengers per day, some of which will need special assistance. The largest airports have a daily average throughput of more than 500 passengers with reduced mobility. A significant number of people and busses are assigned to provide...... transportation for the passengers with reduced mobility. It is often necessary for a passenger with reduced mobility to use several different modes of transport during their journey through the airport. Synchronization occurs at the locations where transport modes are changed as to not leave passengers...

  11. Modelling expected train passenger delays on large scale railway networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2006-01-01

    Forecasts of regularity for railway systems have traditionally – if at all – been computed for trains, not for passengers. Relatively recently it has become possible to model and evaluate the actual passenger delays by a passenger regularity model for the operation already carried out. First the ...... and compare future scenarios. In this way it is possible to estimate the network effects of the passengers and to identify critical stations or sections in the railway network for further investigation or optimization.......Forecasts of regularity for railway systems have traditionally – if at all – been computed for trains, not for passengers. Relatively recently it has become possible to model and evaluate the actual passenger delays by a passenger regularity model for the operation already carried out. First...... the paper describes the passenger regularity model used to calculate passenger delays of the Copenhagen suburban rail network the previous day. Secondly, the paper describes how it is possible to estimate future passenger delays by combining the passenger regularity model with railway simulation software...

  12. DETERMINATION OF PASSENGER-TRAFFIC FLOWS IN REGIONAL TRANSPORT SYSTEM ON THE BASIS OF MODIFIED GRAVITY MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Nurminskiy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a transportation system of  one poorly developed region of the Eastern Siberia where it is planned to make investments for improvement of the corresponding infrastructure. The efficient investment disbursement presupposes study of the existing demand for transport services in the field of passenger traffic.  Results of the observations can be used for development planning of a road network and a bus service system.Due to lack of direct data on the existing demand efforts have been made to obtain its model description while using modified gravity models that make it possible to estimate  volumes of population transportation which is carried out between residential areas by public transport buses and private vehicles. The given models have permitted to make analysis of more than 5000 populated locality pairs for 86 residential areas where the population constitutes more than 80 % and its passenger flow formation component in equal to 60%. Traffic flows between these settlement pairs have been estimated with the help of gravity models with various attraction functions and Arrowsmith method for provision of transportation balances. The most adequate results have been obtained while using an exponential attraction function for individual vehicles and a power attraction function  for passenger route auto transport. Such approach is consistent with the preference of the route auto transport in case of long-distance transport service. A tree-like structure of the existing traffic system has given the possibility to avoid consideration of  alternative routes in case of passenger transportation and directly calculate transport flows for certain road sections. Comparative analysis of the transport flows using the proposed methodology and the existing partial data of the executed observations reveals  satisfactory coincidence of empirical data for the main part of the traffic system. The obtained results demonstrate an efficiency

  13. Graz, city bus fleet running on 100% biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ablasser, G. [City of Graz (Austria)

    2008-07-01

    Graz collects used cooking oil on a large scale. This used cooking oil is converted into biodiesel and along with biodiesel produced from rape seed provides the whole bus fleet (135 buses) with fuel. The bus fleet also got an optimized high quality interior design (information screens, air conditioning, a better acoustic and visual information and ramps for mobility-impaired persons). Attractiveness of the city will increase due to lower pollution levels by the biodiesel driven buses. Public transport became more user-friendly, especially for the disabled and other specific groups. The local public transport company, GBV, carries out a series of technical, ecological and economic trials of 100% biodiesel operation in the meantime also during wintertime. Within the framework of CIVITAS trendsetter, the whole bus fleet was either converted to biodiesel operation or new buses were bought already equipped for biodiesel operations. The 100% switch to alternative fuel for the entire bus fleet of the City of Graz is new; Graz is the only city in the world operating the whole bus fleet on 100% biodiesel.

  14. Shift work and arteriosclerosis risk in professional bus drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Chieh; Shiu, Li-Jie; Li, Yu-Ling; Tung, Kuan-Yeng; Chan, Kwan-Yu; Yeh, Chih-Jung; Chen, Shiuan-Chih; Wong, Ruey-Hong

    2010-01-01

    Professional bus drivers are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease, but the underlying causes are unclear. Professional bus drivers often follow shift schedules. Especially, an association between shift work and early manifestations of cardiovascular disease has not been elucidated. Thus we investigated the links between shift work and arteriosclerosis risk in professional bus drivers. Questionnaires were administered to 184 bus drivers on demographic characteristics, lifestyle, and occupational history from 5 transportation companies in Taiwan. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) was measured using a volume-plethysmographic apparatus. Body mass index, waist circumference, biochemical variables, and blood pressure were also measured. Arteriosclerotic risk factors (age, weekly driving hours, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and insulin level) differed in part among different groups of drivers. Long-term shift drivers had higher baPWV compared to regular drivers and short-term shift drivers (1594 cm/s vs. 1497 and 1432, pshift driving. Long-term shift work could increase the risk of arteriosclerosis in professional bus drivers. Larger studies would be necessary to provide further evidence regarding this finding.

  15. Bus network redesign for inner southeast suburbs of Melbourne, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandangwati, S. T.; Milyanab, N. A.

    2017-06-01

    Public transport is the most effective mode of transport in the era of climate change and oil depletion. It can address climate change issues by reducing urban greenhouse gas emission and oil consumption while at the same time improving mobility. However, many public transport networks are not effective and instead create high operating costs with low frequencies and occupancy. Melbourne is one example of a metropolitan area that faces this problem. Even though the city has well-integrated train and tram networks, Melbourne’s bus network still needs to be improved. This study used network planning approach to redesign the bus network in the City of Glen Eira, a Local Government Area (LGA) in the southeastern part of Metropolitan Melbourne. The study area is the area between Gardenvale North and Oakleigh Station, as well as between Caulfield and Patterson Stations. This area needs network improvement mainly because of the meandering bus routes that run within it. This study aims to provide recommendations for improving the performance of bus services by reducing meandering routes, improving transfer point design and implementing coordinated timetables. The recommendations were formulated based on a ‘ready-made’ concept to increase bus occupancy. This approach can be implemented in other cities with similar problems and characteristics including those in Indonesia.

  16. Car Delay Model near Bus Stops with Mixed Traffic Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xiaobao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a model for estimating car delays at bus stops under mixed traffic using probability theory and queuing theory. The roadway is divided to serve motorized and nonmotorized traffic streams. Bus stops are located on the nonmotorized lanes. When buses dwell at the stop, they block the bicycles. Thus, two conflict points between car stream and other traffic stream are identified. The first conflict point occurs as bicycles merge to the motorized lane to avoid waiting behind the stopping buses. The second occurs as buses merge back to the motorized lane. The average car delay is estimated as the sum of the average delay at these two conflict points and the delay resulting from following the slower bicycles that merged into the motorized lane. Data are collected to calibrate and validate the developed model from one site in Beijing. The sensitivity of car delay to various operation conditions is examined. The results show that both bus stream and bicycle stream have significant effects on car delay. At bus volumes above 200 vehicles per hour, the curbside stop design is not appropriate because of the long car delays. It can be replaced by the bus bay design.

  17. Approaches to Czech Passenger Railway Market Liberalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomeš Zdeněk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Competition on the Czech railway passenger market has been developing recently. It is possible to distinguish two types of competition – unregulated competition (competition on the market and regulated competition (competition for the market. Competition on the market is present on the Prague–Ostrava route and competition for the market has been applied in a few public tenders for subsidised services. However, the substantial part of the Czech railway passenger market has remained closed and there is a question how to proceed with the competition development – whether to promote competition on the market or competition for the market. Based on European and modelling experience, there is an argument for more competition for the market.

  18. Optical Pipelined Multi-bus Interconnection Network Intrinsic Topologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Joseph d'Auriol

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Digital all-optical parallel computing is an important research direction and spans conventional devices and convergent nano-optics deployments. Optical bus-based interconnects provide interesting aspects such as relative information communication speed-up or slow-down between optical signals. This aspect is harnessed in the newly proposed All-Optical Linear Array with a Reconfigurable Pipelined Bus System (OLARPBS model. However, the physical realization of such communication interconnects needs to be considered. This paper considers spatial layouts of processing elements along with the optical bus light paths that are necessary to realize the corresponding interconnection requirements. A metric in terms of the degree of required physical constraint is developed to characterize the variety of possible solutions. Simple algorithms that determine spatial layouts are given. It is shown that certain communication interconnection structures have associated intrinsic topologies.

  19. American Fuel Cell Bus Project Evaluation. Second Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report presents results of the American Fuel Cell Bus (AFCB) Project, a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses operating in the Coachella Valley area of California. The prototype AFCB was developed as part of the Federal Transit Administration's (FTA's) National Fuel Cell Bus Program. Through the non-profit consortia CALSTART, a team led by SunLine Transit Agency and BAE Systems developed a new fuel cell electric bus for demonstration. SunLine added two more AFCBs to its fleet in 2014 and another in 2015. FTA and the AFCB project team are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. This report summarizes the performance results for the buses through June 2015.

  20. Contagion processes on urban bus networks in Indian cities

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Atanu; Jagannathan, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Bus transportation is considered as one of the most convenient and cheapest modes of public transportation in Indian cities. Due to their cost-effectiveness and wide reachability, they help a significant portion of the human population in cities to reach their destinations every day. Although from a transportation point of view they have numerous advantages over other modes of public transportation, they also pose a serious threat of contagious diseases spreading throughout the city. The presence of numerous local spatial constraints makes the process and extent of epidemic spreading extremely difficult to predict. Also, majority of the studies have focused on the contagion processes on scale-free network topologies whereas, spatially-constrained real-world networks such as, bus networks exhibit a wide-spectrum of network topology. Therefore, we aim in this study to understand this complex dynamical process of epidemic outbreak and information diffusion on the bus networks for six different Indian cities usin...

  1. Evaluation of global comfort for train passengers

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardi, Giovanni; Ferrara, Riccardo

    2010-01-01

    International audience; The aim of this study is to propose a method for the evaluation of railway passengers' comfort in relationship to temperature, noise, and vibration. Estimated the single comfort for every sensation considered, the global comfort is evaluated with the Hyper-Sphere Method proposed by Corriere & Lo Bosco [1]. The humanvehicle- infrastructure-environment variables which influence comfort are individuated. Thus their value and correspondent global comfort could be evaluated...

  2. A hierarchical process for optimizing bus stop distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengdong Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Transit stop spacing is an important indicator in deploying public transit services. This paper presents a hierarchical process for optimizing distribution of bus stops in the context of multi-modal transit development in large cities. Firstly, connection stops are generated manually to connect with other transit facilities. Secondly, key stops are identified based on a coverage model that minimizing total distance, using node centrality value as weight. Thirdly, ordinary bus stops are optimized with coverage model that maximizing potential transit demand. The analytical process is based on a combination of raster and vector data models in Geographical information system, which allows for flexible computing and effective evaluation.

  3. Overview of Multi-DC-Bus Solutions for DC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricchiuto, D.; Mastromauro, R.A.; Liserre, Marco

    2013-01-01

    DC Microgrids have recently received a lot of attention in the last years due to high penetration of renewable energy sources as well as distributed energy storage systems. In the future DC microgrids could be preferable respect to AC microgrids in terms of redundancy since multi-DC-Bus solutions...... could provide a continuative power supply to the loads. An overview of Multi-DC-Bus solutions is presented in this paper. The performances are compared on the basis of possible DC microgrid configurations, redundancy, different DC voltage levels....

  4. Design of temperature monitoring system based on CAN bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li

    2017-10-01

    The remote temperature monitoring system based on the Controller Area Network (CAN) bus is designed to collect the multi-node remote temperature. By using the STM32F103 as main controller and multiple DS18B20s as temperature sensors, the system achieves a master-slave node data acquisition and transmission based on the CAN bus protocol. And making use of the serial port communication technology to communicate with the host computer, the system achieves the function of remote temperature storage, historical data show and the temperature waveform display.

  5. Black silicon with black bus-bar strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of black silicon texturing and blackened bus-bar strings as a potential method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon was realized by mask-less reactive ion etching resulting in total, average reflectance...... below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon wafer. Black bus-bars were realized by oxidized copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the entire visible wavelength range. The combination of these two technologies may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted solar cells...

  6. Drivers' and conductors' views on the causes and ways of preventing workplace violence in the road passenger transport sector in Maputo City, Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tillgren Per

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Workplace violence (WPV is an occupational health hazard in both low and high income countries. To design WPV prevention programs, prior knowledge and understanding of conditions in the targeted population are essential. This study explores and describes the views of drivers and conductors on the causes of WPV and ways of preventing it in the road passenger transport sector in Maputo City, Mozambique. Methods The design was qualitative. Participants were purposefully selected from among transport workers identified as victims of WPV in an earlier quantitative study, and with six or more years of experience in the transport sector. Data were collected in semi-structured interviews. Seven open questions covered individual views on causes of WPV and its prevention, based on the interviewees' experiences of violence while on duty. Thirty-two transport professionals were interviewed. The data were analyzed by means of qualitative content analysis. Results The triggers and causes of violence included fare evasion, disputes over revenue owing to owners, alcohol abuse, overcrowded vehicles, and unfair competition for passengers. Failures to meet passenger expectations, e.g. by-passing parts of a bus route or missing stops, were also important. There was disrespect on the part of transport workers, e.g. being rude to passengers and jumping of queues at taxi ranks, and there were also robberies. Proposals for prevention included: training for workers on conflict resolution, and for employers on passenger-transport administration; and, promoting learning among passengers and workers on how to behave when traveling collectively. Regarding control and supervision, there were expressed needs for the recording of mileage, and for the sanctioning of workers who transgress queuing rules at taxi ranks. The police or supervisors should prevent drunken passengers from getting into vehicles, and drivers should refuse to go to dangerous, secluded

  7. How Important is the Integration of Public Passenger Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrníková Michaela

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The significance of the issue of an effective mode of passenger transport is currently increasing. On the one hand, there is the increasing economic demand of public passenger transport, on the other hand, there is the growing traffic share of individual automobile transport. The objective of the paper is to analyze public passenger transport without mutual integration of individual transport systems resulting in the fact that it is not sufficiently able to compete with individual automobile transport. It is proposed the integration of different modes of public passenger transport as a way to increase the competitiveness of public passenger transport. Aim of this paper is to analyze the individual elements of integration systems and describe why integration of public passenger transport systems is needed.

  8. Passenger Perspectives in Railway Timetabling: A Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Parbo; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    with fluctuating passenger demand. A key aspect is the robustness of railway timetables. Empirical evidence indicates that passengers give more importance to travel time certainty than travel time reductions, as passengers associate an inherent disutility with travel time uncertainty. This disutility may...... be broadly interpreted as an anxiety cost for the need for having contingency plans in case of disruptions, and may be looked at as the motivator for the need for delay-robust railway timetables. Interestingly, passenger-oriented optimisation studies considering robustness in railway planning typically limit...... the operators’ railway planning and performance measurement on the one hand and the passengers’ perception of the railway performance on the other hand. Thereby, the conclusions create a foundation for a more passenger-oriented railway timetabling ensuring that passengers are provided with the best service...

  9. [Air transport biomechanical risk: reduced mobility passengers' handling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draicchio, F; Campoli, G; Silvetti, A; Badellino, E; Forzano, F; Ranavolo, A; Iavicoli, S; Campagna, G; Raffaele, G; Gismondi, M

    2012-01-01

    As the airport traffic increases there is a continuous increase of passengers with different motor disabilities. Disabled passenger's assistance causes a biomechanical overload in airport workers. Some disabled passengers are classified by IATA as WCHC (wheel chair in cabin or Charlie). Our study, was performed in one of the most important Italian airport on Charlie passengers (about 10% of all assistances). We identified four critical points: 1) wheelchair and baggage moving (unstable load), 2) inclined ramps with worker's backwards steps and braked wheelchair to prevent passenger tipping or falling, 3) transfer from standard wheelchair to bicycle wheelchair, specifically designed for the aisle; 4.) transfer from bicycle wheelchair to aircraft seat. The last two points required sometimes to lift passengers over the armrest and positioning them on a window side seat, causing a serious increase of biomechanical load. For each critical point we have proposed technical and organizational measures to reduce airport worker's biomechanical risk.

  10. Air flow through a non-airconditioned bus with open windows

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Smoke and tuft visualizations were also performed on an urban bus at 40 km/h. Numerical simulations were performed at the actual Reynolds number. Even though there were Reynolds number differences, the broad features were similar. Air enters the bus from the rear windows, moves to the front (relative to the bus) and ...

  11. Survey on the implementation and reliability of CubeSat electrical bus interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwmeester, J.; Langer, M; Gill, E.K.A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides results and conclusions on a survey on the implementation and reliability aspects of CubeSat bus interfaces, with an emphasis on the data bus and power distribution. It provides recommendations for a future CubeSat bus standard. The survey is based on a literature study and a

  12. Computer-Based Video Instruction to Teach Students with Intellectual Disabilities to Use Public Bus Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechling, Linda; O'Brien, Eileen

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of computer-based video instruction (CBVI) to teach three young adults with moderate intellectual disabilities to push a "request to stop bus signal" and exit a city bus in response to target landmarks. A multiple probe design across three students and one bus route was used to evaluate effectiveness of…

  13. Principles of Logistics Applied to Railway Passenger Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtek Martin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Main challenge of logistics is delivering right assortment of products in exact amount, to exact place, in exact time, ecologically and for exact price. Logistics deals with freight transport but when the word ‘products’ is changed to ‘passengers’, then many principles can be applied to passenger transport. Railway passenger transport is the key part of passenger transport system, so it is necessary to optimize it on logistics philosophy at first.

  14. Trajectories of Cigarette Smoking among Commercial Bus Drivers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trajectories of Cigarette Smoking among Commercial Bus Drivers and University Students in Nigeria. ... Thus, this article gathered comprehensive primary qualitative, quantitative and secondary data on smoking behaviors of two distinct groups in Nigeria for reliable comprehension of smoking trajectories in Nigeria with ...

  15. A Quantitative Economics Of Seasonality In Bus Patronage In Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study thus set out to empirically investigate the myth or reality of the thesis that trip generation and trip attraction can be significantly season- determined. Collecting time series data over a ... Apposite recommendations were then made, sequel to highlighting of policy implications of findings. Key words: seasonality, bus ...

  16. Eliminating the empty bus syndrome by understanding dynamic travel behaviour

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokonyama, Mathetha T

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This chapter interrogates some empirical data to examine some of the contributory causes of EBS in South Africa, and uses the City of Johannesburg as a case study. The daily travel patterns of car users are analysed within the context of how bus...

  17. A Novel Time Synchronization Method for Dynamic Reconfigurable Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Weigong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available UM-BUS is a novel dynamically reconfigurable high-speed serial bus for embedded systems. It can achieve fault tolerance by detecting the channel status in real time and reconfigure dynamically at run-time. The bus supports direct interconnections between up to eight master nodes and multiple slave nodes. In order to solve the time synchronization problem among master nodes, this paper proposes a novel time synchronization method, which can meet the requirement of time precision in UM-BUS. In this proposed method, time is firstly broadcasted through time broadcast packets. Then, the transmission delay and time deviations via three handshakes during link self-checking and channel detection can be worked out referring to the IEEE 1588 protocol. Thereby, each node calibrates its own time according to the broadcasted time. The proposed method has been proved to meet the requirement of real-time time synchronization. The experimental results show that the synchronous precision can achieve a bias less than 20 ns.

  18. Heavy Duty Diesel Truck and Bus Hybrid Powertrain Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    4.1.4 Kenworth Truck Company (PACCAR Inc.) ................................................................... 72 4.1.5 Mack Trucks Inc. ( Volvo ...76 4.1.7 Nova Bus ( Volvo Group...74 4.1.5 Mack Trucks Inc. ( Volvo Group) Mack Trucks does not yet have any diesel-electric hybrid truck models in series production, although its

  19. Cascaded Amplifying Quantum Optical Taps: A Robust Noiseless Optical Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencheikh, K.; Simonneau, C.; Levenson, J. A.

    1997-01-01

    Two identical amplifying quantum optical taps, based on noiseless optical parametric amplification and twin beam quantum correlation, have been implemented in a series configuration and experimentally investigated. The result is an optical bus which we have shown to be robust with respect to downstream losses.

  20. Measuring Bus Drivers' Occupational Stress Under Changing Working Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hlotova, Y.; Cats, O.; Meijer, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Stress is an immense problem in modern society; approximately half of all occupational illnesses are directly or indirectly related to stress. The work of a bus driver is typically associated with high stress levels that negatively influence individual well-being as well as workforce management. The

  1. Distributed cooperative synchronization strategy for multi-bus microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yao; Zhong, Chaolu; Hou, Xiaochao

    2017-01-01

    synchronization methods based on centralized communication are very costly and not suitable for multi-bus microgrids that have a large number of distributed generators (DGs). To address this concern, this study presents an active synchronization control strategy based on distributed cooperation technology...

  2. Bussikontsern Go Bus ihaldab Harjumaa turgu / Signe Kalberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalberg, Signe, 1959-

    2005-01-01

    AS-i Tarbus ja kaheksa bussiettevõtte ühinemisel moodustati AS Go Bus, ettevõte plaanib veel mitme bussifirma liitmist. Atko Grupi juhatuse esimehe Margo Tomingase, AS Sebe nõukogu esimehe Hugo Osula arvamus. Lisa: Konkurentsiamet hoiab silma peal

  3. Fairness in optimizing bus-crew scheduling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jihui; Song, Cuiying; Ceder, Avishai Avi; Liu, Tao; Guan, Wei

    2017-01-01

    This work proposes a model considering fairness in the problem of crew scheduling for bus drivers (CSP-BD) using a hybrid ant-colony optimization (HACO) algorithm to solve it. The main contributions of this work are the following: (a) a valid approach for cases with a special cost structure and constraints considering the fairness of working time and idle time; (b) an improved algorithm incorporating Gamma heuristic function and selecting rules. The relationships of each cost are examined with ten bus lines collected from the Beijing Public Transport Holdings (Group) Co., Ltd., one of the largest bus transit companies in the world. It shows that unfair cost is indirectly related to common cost, fixed cost and extra cost and also the unfair cost approaches to common and fixed cost when its coefficient is twice of common cost coefficient. Furthermore, the longest time for the tested bus line with 1108 pieces, 74 blocks is less than 30 minutes. The results indicate that the HACO-based algorithm can be a feasible and efficient optimization technique for CSP-BD, especially with large scale problems.

  4. Low back trouble among urban bus drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, Bo; Juel, K

    1989-01-01

    herniation was 137 compared to all Danish men. These differences were statistically significant. Of psychosocial factors only "the feeling of being mentally unbalanced" was found to be statistically significantly related to subsequent hospital discharge with a LBT-diagnosis. Long seniority as bus driver...

  5. Aerodynamic study of state transport bus using computational fluid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanekar, Siddhesh; Thakre, Prashant; Rajkumar, E.

    2017-11-01

    The main purpose of this study was to develop the aerodynamic study of a Maharashtra state road transport bus. The rising fuel price and strict government regulations makes the road transport uneconomical now days. With the objective of increasing fuel efficiency and reducing the emission of harmful exhaust gases. It has been proven experimentally that vehicle consumes almost 40% of the available useful engine power to overcome the drag resistance. This provides us a huge scope to study the influence of aerodynamic drag. The initial of the project was to identify the drag coefficient of the existing ordinary type model called “Parivartan” from ANSYS fluent. After preliminary analysis of the existing model corresponding changes are made in such a way that their implementation should be possible at workshop level. The simulation of the air flow over the bus was performed in two steps: design on SolidWorks CAD and ANSYS (FLUENT) is used as a virtual analysis tool to estimate the drag coefficient of the bus. We have used the turbulence models k-ε Realizable having a better approximation of the actual result. Around 28% improvement in the drag coefficient is achieved by CFD driven changes in the bus design. Coefficient of drag is improved by 28% and fuel efficiency increased by 20% by CFD driven changes.

  6. Scheduling with Bus Access Optimization for Distributed Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eles, Petru; Doboli, Alex; Pop, Paul

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we concentrate on aspects related to the synthesis of distributed embedded systems consisting of programmable processors and application-specific hardware components. The approach is based on an abstract graph representation that captures, at process level, both dataflow and the flow......, generates an efficient bus access scheme as well as the schedule tables for activation of processes and communications....

  7. Training Needs Analysis for Bus Depot Managers at GSRTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Hardik; Gopal, Raj

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: With rapid industrialization and population growth in the urban and rural areas in India, the demand for public transport has risen sharply. In the fast changing scenario in the public transit sector, the role of a bus depot manager (DM) has also undergone substantial transformation. This paper aims to identify and gauge the…

  8. ADlll:S ABABA BUS TERMINAL DESIGN COMPETITION.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Association of Engineers and Architects. Today at the opening of the First National. Conference of the ... of the Architectural Competition for the New Bus. Terminal of Addis Ababa. Unfortunately, due to another ... A competition enables the client, the future owner of the project, to choose from various solutions.

  9. PERCEIVED SERVICE QUALITY OF YOUTH PUBLIC TRANSPORT PASSENGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medi YARMEN

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to explore the dimension of perceived service quality of youth public transport passengers. This research is important due to the lack of research that focuses on perceived service quality of youth public transport passengers. This research employed quantitative research methodology. Survey was performed in order to gather research data. The respondents are 233 youth public transport passengers in Bogor and Tangerang, Indonesia. Exploratory factor analysis, validity analysis, and reliability analysis were conducted. The research results show that there are three dimensions of perceived service quality of youth public transport passengers. The dimensions are comfort, performance, and assurance.

  10. Real life testing of a Hybrid PEM Fuel Cell Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkesson, Anders; Andersson, Christian; Alvfors, Per; Alaküla, Mats; Overgaard, Lars

    Fuel cells produce low quantities of local emissions, if any, and are therefore one of the most promising alternatives to internal combustion engines as the main power source in future vehicles. It is likely that urban buses will be among the first commercial applications for fuel cells in vehicles. This is due to the fact that urban buses are highly visible for the public, they contribute significantly to air pollution in urban areas, they have small limitations in weight and volume and fuelling is handled via a centralised infrastructure. Results and experiences from real life measurements of energy flows in a Scania Hybrid PEM Fuel Cell Concept Bus are presented in this paper. The tests consist of measurements during several standard duty cycles. The efficiency of the fuel cell system and of the complete vehicle are presented and discussed. The net efficiency of the fuel cell system was approximately 40% and the fuel consumption of the concept bus is between 42 and 48% lower compared to a standard Scania bus. Energy recovery by regenerative braking saves up 28% energy. Bus subsystems such as the pneumatic system for door opening, suspension and brakes, the hydraulic power steering, the 24 V grid, the water pump and the cooling fans consume approximately 7% of the energy in the fuel input or 17% of the net power output from the fuel cell system. The bus was built by a number of companies in a project partly financed by the European Commission's Joule programme. The comprehensive testing is partly financed by the Swedish programme "Den Gröna Bilen" (The Green Car). A 50 kW el fuel cell system is the power source and a high voltage battery pack works as an energy buffer and power booster. The fuel, compressed hydrogen, is stored in two high-pressure stainless steel vessels mounted on the roof of the bus. The bus has a series hybrid electric driveline with wheel hub motors with a maximum power of 100 kW. Hybrid Fuel Cell Buses have a big potential, but there are

  11. THE PREVALENCE OF MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS AMONG BUS DRIVERS IN TRICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalit

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Musculoskeletal disorders are widespread in many countries around the world. It has been reported that about 58 percent of the world's population over the age of 10 years spent one third of their life span at work. The population at a high risk include nursing facilities, transportation, mining, food processing, leather tanning, heavy and light manufacturing. Transport workers have been found to be at high risk of developing work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs. There has been literature evidence regarding the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in bus drivers of various cities of different countries. But no study has been done so far in Tricity (Chandigarh, Panchkula and Mohali for the same. The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs among bus drivers of Tricity. Methods: 300 bus drivers were included in the study according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The standardized Nordic questionnaire for musculoskeletal disorder and a self administered questionnaire were filled by therapist after the personal interview of each driver. Results: Unpaired t test was used to measure the difference in variable of two groups and Karl Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to determine the correlation between two entities. In the present study, the subjects were in the age group of 25 to 50 years. Out of the total sample of 300 male bus drivers in Tricity, 159 reported that they had WRMSDs. The prevalence of WRMSDs among bus drivers in Tricity was 53%. In present study, the prevalence of low back pain was highest among the bus drivers that are 30.3%, then neck pain 17.3%, knee pain 14.7%, shoulder 6.3%, ankle and feet 5.7%, upper back 4%, hip and thigh 4%, elbow 1.3% and wrist and hand 1.3%. Thus low back pain, neck pain and knee pain are the most prevalent WRMSDs amongst bus drivers. Conclusions: Work-related biomechanical

  12. Bus Stops Location and Bus Route Planning Using Mean Shift Clustering and Ant Colony in West Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supangat, Kenny; Eko Soelistio, Yustinus

    2017-03-01

    Traffic Jam has been a daily problem for people in Jakarta which is one of the busiest city in Indonesia up until now. Even though the official government has tried to reduce the impact of traffic issues by developing a new public transportation which takes up a lot of resources and time, it failed to diminish the problem. The actual concern to this problem actually lies in how people move between places in Jakarta where they always using their own vehicle like cars, and motorcycles that fill most of the street in Jakarta. Among much other public transportations that roams the street of Jakarta, Buses is believed to be an efficient transportation that can move many people at once. However, the location of the bus stop is now have moved to the middle of the main road, and its too far for the nearby residence to access to it. This paper proposes an optimal location of optimal bus stops in West Jakarta that is experimentally proven to have a maximal distance of 350 m. The optimal location is estimated by means of mean shift clustering method while the optimal routes are calculated using Ant Colony algorithm. The bus stops locations rate of error is 0.07% with overall route area of 32 km. Based on our experiments, we believe our proposed bus stop plan can be an interesting alternative to reduce traffic congestion in West Jakarta.

  13. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: First Results Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2011-03-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for their newest prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. In May 2010, SunLine began operating its sixth-generation hydrogen fueled bus, an Advanced Technology (AT) fuel cell bus that incorporates the latest design improvements to reduce weight and increase reliability and performance. The agency is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the bus in revenue service. This report provides the early data results and implementation experience of the AT fuel cell bus since it was placed in service.

  14. Implementing Composite Superstructures in Large Passenger Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karatzas, Vasileios; Berggreen, Christian; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the structural response of the part of the superstructure of a RoPax ferry that has been redesigned using composite materials. The composite superstructure is presented and subsequently compared to the existing steel design considering different loading conditions by the use...... of FE modelling.Results indicate that it is not the structural response of the superstructure that inhibits the implementation of composites in the superstructures of large passenger ships but the complicated design procedure and the acceptance of such solutions by the regulatory bodies....

  15. Managing Food Allergies at School: School Transportation Staff

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-20

    This podcast highlights the role of bus drivers and transportation staff in the management of food allergies in schools. It also identifies CDC food allergy resources for schools.  Created: 1/20/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/20/2015.

  16. Self-reported difficulty and preferences of wheeled mobility device users for simulated low-floor bus boarding, interior circulation and disembarking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Clive; Paquet, Victor L; Lenker, James A; Steinfeld, Edward

    2017-11-13

    Low ridership of public transit buses among wheeled mobility device users suggests the need to identify vehicle design conditions that are either particularly accommodating or challenging. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of low-floor bus interior seating configuration and passenger load on wheeled mobility device user-reported difficulty, overall acceptability and design preference. Forty-eight wheeled mobility users evaluated three interior design layouts at two levels of passenger load (high vs. low) after simulating boarding and disembarking tasks on a static full-scale low-floor bus mockup. User self-reports of task difficulty, acceptability and design preference were analyzed across the different test conditions. Ramp ascent was the most difficult task for manual wheelchair users relative to other tasks. The most difficult tasks for users of power wheelchairs and scooters were related to interior circulation, including moving to the securement area, entry and positioning in the securement area and exiting the securement area. Boarding and disembarking at the rear doorway was significantly more acceptable and preferred compared to the layouts with front doorways. Understanding transit usability barriers, perceptions and preferences among wheeled mobility users is an important consideration for clinicians who recommend mobility-related device interventions to those who use public transportation. Implications for Rehabilitation In order to maximize community participation opportunities for wheeled mobility users, clinicians should consider potential public transit barriers during the processes of wheelchair device selection and skills training. Usability barriers experienced by wheeled mobility device users on transit vehicles differ by mobility device type and vehicle configurations. Full-scale environment simulations are an effective means of identifying usability barriers and design needs in people with mobility impairments and may

  17. PASSENGER CAR TRAVEL CHARACTERISTICS IN SINGAPORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.F. FWA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Singapore is known for its successful implementation of land transport management measures in the form of car-use restraining schemes and car-ownership control policy. This paper presents a study that examines how these management measures have affected the travel characteristics of car owners in Singapore. This is achieved by analyzing the changes in passenger car travel characteristics from 1990 to 2005. In 1990 and again in 2005, a vehicle-based travel diary survey was conducted to determine the travel characteristics of car owners. For each participating car owner, the details of all trips made over an average period of 4 weeks were collected. The 1990 survey covered 115 cars and generated 11,638 sets of trip data, while the 2005 survey involved 108 cars that produced 11,336 sets of trip data. These data were processed to provide information of travel characteristics in travel speed, travel distance, travel duration, trip purpose, passenger occupancy level, time that travel was made, and the choice of road class. Comparisons of the car travel characteristics in 1990 and 2005 were made to identify major trends of changes. An attempt is also made to relate these changes to the land transport management measures and policies implemented during the 15-year study period.

  18. JUSTIFICATION OF PERIOD OF PASSENGER ROUTE CHOICE SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbachov, P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the justification of reasonability of taking into account the situation of equally possible passenger route choice when modeling such a choice with proper mathematical models. The approach to determine the number of days to survey the factual passenger route choice, which will be enough to develop the choice models, is given.

  19. CONCEPTUAL APPROACHES TO CREATE CONTROL MECHANISM BY PASSENGER COMMUTATION SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Zadoya

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article the basic approaches of improving a management mechanism for passenger suburban railway transportations are considered, and the classification of reformation models for passenger suburban railway transportations depending on scales, degree of independence, department subordination and amount of proprietors of future company is offered.

  20. Passenger and Cell Phone Conversations in Simulated Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, Frank A.; Pasupathi, Monisha; Strayer, David L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines how conversing with passengers in a vehicle differs from conversing on a cell phone while driving. We compared how well drivers were able to deal with the demands of driving when conversing on a cell phone, conversing with a passenger, and when driving without any distraction. In the conversation conditions, participants were…

  1. Child Passenger Safety (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-09-29

    Proper installation and use of car seats and booster seats for child passengers can save their lives. CDC recommends drivers ensure children are always buckled up. In this podcast, Bethany West discusses how to keep young passengers as safe as possible.  Created: 9/29/2016 by MMWR.   Date Released: 9/29/2016.

  2. In-use compliance programme passenger cars: annual report 2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgwal, H.C. van de; Foster, D.L.; Bremmers, D.A.C.M.; Gense, N.L.J.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents a general overview of the results of the Dutch In-Use Compliance programme for passenger cars over the year 2003. The work in this year was executed under a contract with the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment for the period 2000-2003. The passenger

  3. Factors associated with child passenger motorcycle helmet use in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merali, Hasan S; Bachani, Abdulgafoor M

    2017-07-10

    This study examines factors associated with child passenger helmet use in five Cambodian provinces. We performed an analysis of periodic roadside observations of helmet use over a four-year period. A total of 62,039 child passengers 12 years of age and younger met inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. Overall, 1369 (2.1%) of child passengers were observed to be wearing a helmet. Most significantly, children were six times more likely to wear a helmet if the driver was wearing a helmet (OR 6.2; 95% CI 5.1-7.5). In addition, the odds of helmet use were noted to be significantly different depending on province, day of the week, time of day and number of passengers on the motorcycle. This study highlights the extremely low rate of child passenger helmet use in Cambodia, and provides priorities for interventions and enforcement to ensure all children are protected from head injury.

  4. Multiobjective Gate Assignment Based on Passenger Walking Distance and Fairness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Passenger walking distance is an important index of the airport service quality. How to shorten the walking distance and balance the airlines' service quality is the focus of much research on airport gate assignment problems. According to the problems of airport passenger service quality, an optimization gate assignment model is established. The gate assignment model is based on minimizing the total walking distance of all passengers and balancing the average walking distance of passengers among different airlines. Lingo is used in the simulation of a large airport gate assignment. Test results show that the optimization model can reduce the average walking distance of passenger effectively, improve the number of flights assigned to gate, balance airline service quality, and enhance the overall service level of airports and airlines. The model provides reference for the airport gate preassignment.

  5. Level of Service Analysis Based on Maximum Number of Passengers in Waiting Room of Railway Passenger Station Using Arena Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The level of service is an important aspect of the operation and management at a railway passenger station. Particularly, the level of service in waiting room (LOSWR is one of the most important influential factors in deciding passengers’ satisfaction. This paper proposes a model for finding the LOSWR based on the maximum number of passengers, and an Arena simulation model that simulates passengers’ aggregation behaviors in the waiting room is presented for analyzing the LOSWR. Through the simulation, we demonstrate how the passenger advanced arrival time and the accompany rate influence the maximum number of passengers and the LOSWR. In addition, the simulation also illustrates the effect utilities and the priority of different measures that can be used to improve the LOSWR. In detail, the simulation results demonstrate that the passenger advanced arrival time and advanced check-out time have much stronger effect utilities on the maximum number of passengers and the LOSWR than other discussed factors. The simulation suggests that the Arena is an effective simulation platform for analyzing complex passengers-related behaviors at railway passenger station.

  6. Health effect of a bus ride in an urban environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takano, T.

    1983-07-01

    Health effects on subjects during a bus drive on an urban road were investigated in a real situation. Leukocyte count, adrenalin level in blood and urine, noradrenalin and dopamine in urine, diastolic blood pressure, and index of vascular resistance increased significantly on the drive day compared with the control day. A bus drive on an urban road induced enhanced sympathetic-adreno-medullary activity in real life as a result of the comprehensive effect of various factors. The concentrations of air pollutants were excessively high on the road, and correlated with traffic volume. It was concluded that the interactions between psychogenic, physical nonspecific and physical specific effects should be taken into consideration when evaluating human health effects of air pollution in the urban environment.

  7. American Fuel Cell Bus Project Evaluation: Third Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jeffers, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This report presents results of the American Fuel Cell Bus (AFCB) Project, a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses operating in the Coachella Valley area of California. The prototype AFCB, which was developed as part of the Federal Transit Administration's (FTA) National Fuel Cell Bus Program, was delivered to SunLine in November 2011 and was put in revenue service in mid-December 2011. Two new AFCBs with an upgraded design were delivered in June/July of 2014 and a third new AFCB was delivered in February 2015. FTA and the AFCB project team are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. This report covers the performance of the AFCBs from July 2015 through December 2016.

  8. Discharging a DC bus capacitor of an electrical converter system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajouke, Lateef A; Perisic, Milun; Ransom, Ray M

    2014-10-14

    A system and method of discharging a bus capacitor of a bidirectional matrix converter of a vehicle are presented here. The method begins by electrically shorting the AC interface of the converter after an AC energy source is disconnected from the AC interface. The method continues by arranging a plurality of switching elements of a second energy conversion module into a discharge configuration to establish an electrical current path from a first terminal of an isolation module, through an inductive element, and to a second terminal of the isolation module. The method also modulates a plurality of switching elements of a first energy conversion module, while maintaining the discharge configuration of the second energy conversion module, to at least partially discharge a DC bus capacitor.

  9. Heat storage for a bus petrol internal-combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliev, Leonard L.; Burak, Victor S.; Kulakov, Andry G.; Mishkinis, Donatas A.; Bohan, Pavel V.

    The heat storage (HS) system for pre-heating a bus petrol internal combustion engine to starting was mathematically modelled and experimentally investigated. The development of such devices is an extremely urgent problem especially for regions with a cold climate. We discuss how HS works on the effect of absorption and rejection of heat energy at a solid-liquid phase change of a HS substance. In the first part of the paper a numerical method to calculate the HS mass-dimensional parameters and their characteristics are described. In the experimental part of the paper results are given of experiments on the pre-heating device aiding to start a carburettor engine under operational conditions and analysis of data received. Practical confirmation of the theoretical development of HS devices for a bus engine for starting by pre-heating is given.

  10. Sustainable transport and the organisation of bus services in Manchester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard

    2008-01-01

    “Sustainable transport” has become a headline for transport planning and policy making around the world. While there are many different definitions of what Sustainable Transport means, it commonly includes efforts to improve the environmental performance of transport systems, and to promote...... depends on how the bus sector is organised. By organisation we adopt an institutional point of view and consider basic modes of governance. Basic modes of governance include the forms “market”, “hierarchy” and “network” (Powell 1990). So-called New Public Management (NPM) reforms have changed the modes......: Public bus transport in England, exemplified by Greater Manchester. England represents a situation where - compared to continental Europe including Denmark - the NPM reforms have been particularly radical. In no other European country the market forces has achieved a role as dominant as in England...

  11. Design Report for Isolated RS-485 Bus Node

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    1.2 Master Control Node The master control node was implemented with a USB to universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter (UART) bridge chip produced...indicate fragment manipulation via calls to public methods. The black arrows in the main activity indicate the fragments requesting action from the...Unplug the universal serial bus (USB) cable from the tablet. 2. Go to Android back stack via button on bottom right and swipe off STSLEDCntrl. 3

  12. BC Transit Fuel Cell Bus Project: Evaluation Results Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This report evaluates a fuel cell electric bus demonstration led by British Columbia Transit (BC Transit) in Whistler, Canada. BC Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. This evaluation report covers two years of revenue service data on the buses from April 2011 through March 2013.

  13. Evaluasi Tingkat Kelelahan Pada Pengemudi Bus Di Kota Bandung

    OpenAIRE

    Febrianti, Asterina; Yassierli, Yassierli; Mahachandra, Manik

    2016-01-01

    Kota Bandung saat ini mengalami pertumbuhan penduduk mencapai 3% setiap tahunnya, sehingga kebutuhan akan transportasi umum sangat tinggi serta tingkat kemacetan yang timbul semakin tinggi pula. Kemacetan yang panjang berdampak pada penurunan kewaspadaan dan timbulnya risiko kecelakaan karena waktu berkendara yang relatif lebih beragam. Menyadari akan risiko kecelakaan yang diakibatkan oleh kelelahan maka diperlukan pengukuran kelelahan pada pengemudi bus di kota Bandung yang belum pernah dik...

  14. City of Chula Vista hydrogen fuel cell bus demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafson, B.; Bamberger, B.

    1996-10-01

    Hydrogen as an energy carrier and fuel has potential for various uses including electricity, commercial, residential, transportation, and industrial. It is an energy carrier that can be produced from a variety of primary sources and potentially can accomplish these various uses while significantly reducing pollution by substituting for or reducing the use of fossil fuels. One of the most immediate and potentially viable roles for hydrogen as an energy carrier will be its use as a transportation fuel, especially in densely populated urban areas where automotive emissions contribute significantly to air pollution. The Department of Energy`s commitment to research and development of hydrogen as an alternative fuel, and California`s Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) requirements, both provide the impetus and favorable circumstance for demonstrating hydrogen as a transportation fuel on an urban bus system. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility of using solid polymer fuel cells in a hydrogen-powered electric drive system for an urban transit bus application. Fuel cell buses use hydrogen fuel and oxygen from the air to produce electrical power with the only byproduct being pure water. Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells are proposed for this project. Current evidence suggests that fuel cells, which rely on hydrogen and a process known as proton exchange to generate their power, appear to have an infinite life span. All exhaust pollution is completely eliminated, resulting in a Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV). An urban bus system offers the potential for developing a market for the production of hydrogen propulsion technology due to extensive vehicular use in densely populated areas experiencing pollution from numerous sources, and because the central garaging facilities or the bus system facilitates fueling and maintenance functions.

  15. Bi-Directional Multi-Station Command/Information Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-11-01

    signals are presented. The model of the signal flow requirements is presented both schematically and in tabular form From this model, a possible...is presented both in schematic and tabular forms. Finally, a conceptual data bus configura- tion meeting the signal flow requirements has been...A Converter LRI Central Air Dato Computer ’LLI Demultiplexer D/A Converter 0>AI OfA2 Type R Modem Type T Modem A/D Cowerfcr

  16. Optimalisasi Kelembagaan Dan Manajemen Dalam Bus Rapid Transit Semarang

    OpenAIRE

    Ghoni, Ahmad; Yuniar, Haptiwi Tri; Riyanto, Bambang; Supriyono, Supriyono

    2013-01-01

    Bus Rapid Transit Trans Semarang is a means of mass transportation to the transit system that began operating since 2009 as a solution to reduce congestion in the city of Semarang. This research focuses on the optimization and management of institutional BRT Trans Semarang to improve it's performance. The purpose of this study is to optimize the performance of the organization and management of BRT Trans Semarang with variable types of institutional cooperation BRT operations, and leadership...

  17. Effects of biodiesel on emissions of a bus diesel engine

    OpenAIRE

    Kegl, Breda

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the influence of biodiesel on the injection, spray, and engine characteristics with the aim to reduce harmful emissions. The considered engine is a bus diesel engine with injection M system. The injection, fuel spray, and engine characteristics, obtained with biodiesel, are compared to those obtained with mineral diesel (D2) under various operating regimes. The considered fuel is neat biodiesel from rapeseed oil. Its density, viscosity, surface tension, and sound velocity...

  18. Experimental investigation review of biodiesel usage in bus diesel engine

    OpenAIRE

    Kegl, Breda; Kegl, Marko

    2017-01-01

    This paper assembles and analyses extensive experimental research work conducted for several years in relation to biodiesel usage in a MAN bus Diesel engine with M injection system. At first the most important properties of the actually used neat rapeseed biodiesel fuel and its blends with mineral diesel are discussed and compared to that of mineral diesel. Then the injection, fuel spray, and engine characteristics for various considered fuel blends are compared at various ambient conditions,...

  19. Should bus commuting be subsidized for providing quality transport ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    e-mail: geetamt@gmail.com. Abstract. Urban transport has ... (ii) Should bus prices be subsidized in order to provide a quality public transport system? (iii) How large is the modal shift in favour ..... been derived through a speed-flow relationship function, with a car free flow speed of 45 km/h, peak traffic speed of 24 km/h and ...

  20. Common Traffic Violations of Bus Drivers in Urban China: An Observational Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiqi Wang

    Full Text Available To report common traffic violations in bus drivers and the factors that influence those violations in urban China.We conducted an observational study to record three types of traffic violations among bus drivers in Changsha City, China: illegal stopping at bus stations, violating traffic light signals, and distracted driving. The behaviors of bus drivers on 32 routes (20% of bus routes in the city were observed. A two-level Poisson regression examined factors that predicted bus driver violations.The incidence of illegal stopping at bus stations was 20.2%. Illegal stopping was less frequent on weekends, sunny days, and at stations with cameras, with adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRRs of 0.81, 0.65 and 0.89, respectively. The incidence of violating traffic light signals was 2.2%, and was lower on cloudy than sunny days (adjusted IRR: 0.60. The incidence of distracted driving was 3.3%. The incidence of distracted driving was less common on cloudy days, rainy or snowy days, and foggy/windy/dusty days compared to sunny days, with adjusted IRRs of 0.54, 0.55 and 0.07, respectively.Traffic violations are common in bus drivers in urban China and they are associated with the date, weather, and presence of traffic cameras at bus station. Further studies are recommended to understand the behavioral mechanisms that may explain bus driver violations and to develop feasible prevention measures.

  1. HEV Test Bench Based on CAN Bus Sensor Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shupeng ZHAO

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The HEV test bench based on Controller Area Network bus was studied and developed. Control system of HEV power test bench used the CAN bus technology. The application of CAN bus technology on control system development has opened up a new research direction for domestic automobile experimental platform. The HEV power control system development work was completed, including power master controller, electric throttle controller, driving simulation platform, CAN2.0 B communication protocol procedures for formulation, CAN communication monitoring system, the simulation model based on MATLAB code automatic generation technology research, etc. Maximum absorption power of the test bench is 90 kW, the test bench top speed is 6000 r/min, the CAN communication data baud rate is 10~500 k, the conventional electric measurement parameter part precision satisfies the requirement of development of HEV. On the HEV test bench the result of regenerative braking experiment shows that the result got by the test bench was closer to the results got by outdoor road test. And the fuel consumption experiment test results show that the HEV fuel consumption and the charge-discharge character are in linear relationship. The establishment of the test platform for the evaluation of the development of hybrid electric vehicle and power provides physical simulation and test platform.

  2. Replacement model of city bus: A dynamic programming approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifin, Dadang; Yusuf, Edhi

    2017-06-01

    This paper aims to develop a replacement model of city bus vehicles operated in Bandung City. This study is driven from real cases encountered by the Damri Company in the efforts to improve services to the public. The replacement model propounds two policy alternatives: First, to maintain or keep the vehicles, and second is to replace them with new ones taking into account operating costs, revenue, salvage value, and acquisition cost of a new vehicle. A deterministic dynamic programming approach is used to solve the model. The optimization process was heuristically executed using empirical data of Perum Damri. The output of the model is to determine the replacement schedule and the best policy if the vehicle has passed the economic life. Based on the results, the technical life of the bus is approximately 20 years old, while the economic life is an average of 9 (nine) years. It means that after the bus is operated for 9 (nine) years, managers should consider the policy of rejuvenation.

  3. An Electric Bus with a Battery Exchange System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongyong Kim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As part of the ongoing effort to be independent of petroleum resources and to be free from pollutant emission issues, various electric vehicles have been developed and tested through their integration with real world systems. In the current paper, yet another application specific EV for public transportation, an electric bus, is introduced and explained with results from the pilot test program which was carried out under real traffic conditions. The main feature of the current system is a battery exchanging mechanism mounted on the roof of the bus. The current configuration certainly requires an externally fabricated battery exchanging robot system that would complement the electric bus for a fully automated battery exchanging process. The major advantage of the current system is the quick re-charging of the electric energy through the physical battery exchange and the possible utilization of the battery exchange station as a mini scale energy storage system for grid system peak power shaving. With the total system solution approach for the public transportation system, it is fully expected to create outstanding business opportunities in number of areas such as battery suppliers, battery exchanging station management, battery leasing and many more.

  4. A Dimensional Bus model for integrating clinical and research data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Ted D; Hum, Richard C; Murphy, James R

    2011-12-01

    Many clinical research data integration platforms rely on the Entity-Attribute-Value model because of its flexibility, even though it presents problems in query formulation and execution time. The authors sought more balance in these traits. Borrowing concepts from Entity-Attribute-Value and from enterprise data warehousing, the authors designed an alternative called the Dimensional Bus model and used it to integrate electronic medical record, sponsored study, and biorepository data. Each type of observational collection has its own table, and the structure of these tables varies to suit the source data. The observational tables are linked to the Bus, which holds provenance information and links to various classificatory dimensions that amplify the meaning of the data or facilitate its query and exposure management. The authors implemented a Bus-based clinical research data repository with a query system that flexibly manages data access and confidentiality, facilitates catalog search, and readily formulates and compiles complex queries. The design provides a workable way to manage and query mixed schemas in a data warehouse.

  5. Perspective Application of Passive Optical Network with Optimized Bus Topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lafata

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Passive optical networks (PONs represent a promising solution for modern access telecommunication networks.These networks are able to meet the increasing demands on transmission rate for demanding multimedia services,while they can offer typical shared transmission speed of 1.25 or 2.5 Gbps. The major role in deploying opticaldistribution networks ODNs plays the maximum attenuable loss, which is caused mainly by passive optical splitters.This paper proposes an innovative application of passive optical networks with optimized bus topology especially forlocal backbone data networks. Due to using only passive components, it is necessary to optimize certain parameters,especially an overall attenuation balance. Considering the possibility of such optimization, the passive optical networkwith optimized bus topology provides several interesting opportunities for specific applications. This paper will presentselected aspects of passive optical networks and splitters with asymmetric splitting ratio. The essential part is focusedon the practical demonstration of their use to optimize the passive optical network with bus topology, which acts as alocal backbone network for structured cabling systems, and for local data networks in large buildings.

  6. Validating the passenger traffic model for Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgård, Christian Hansen; VUK, Goran

    2006-01-01

    Metro became operational in autumn 2002. We observed that forecasts from the demand sub-models agree well with the data from the 2000 national travel survey, with the mode choice forecasts in particular being a good match with the observed modal split. The results of the 2000 car assignment model...... the model’s base trip matrices. Second, a dialog between researchers and the Ministry of Transport has been initiated to discuss the need to upgrade the Copenhagen model, e.g. a switching to an activity-based paradigm and improving assignment procedures.......The paper presents a comprehensive validation procedure for the passenger traffic model for Copenhagen based on external data from the Danish national travel survey and traffic counts. The model was validated for the years 2000 to 2004, with 2004 being of particular interest because the Copenhagen...

  7. Airline passengers' alcohol use and its safety implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girasek, Deborah C; Olsen, Cara H

    2009-01-01

    This investigation was designed to identify individual and contextual factors associated with airline passengers' alcohol use, and to explore potentially dangerous in-flight alcohol consumption. Passengers waiting to board 24 domestic flights at an international airport in the South Atlantic United States were asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire. Eighty percent of those approached agreed to participate. Our findings are based upon the responses of 1,548 adults. A majority (84%) of passengers indicated that they did not intend to consume alcoholic beverages on the plane they were waiting to board. Passengers who were more likely to report that they would drink were on longer flights, traveling with friends, and anticipating First or Business Class seating. Passengers who had already consumed alcohol that day and those who drank more often generally were also more likely to say that they intended to consume alcohol, as were people who thought that in-flight alcohol use was enjoyable, acceptable, and unlikely to make jet lag worse. Eighty-nine percent of the passengers who said they intended to drink reported that they would purchase one to two drinks. Very few respondents reported intentions that would pose a risk to others. Future studies should validate alcohol consumption and sample passengers at multiple airports throughout the year.

  8. The Hybrid Airline Model. Generating Quality for Passengers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan AVRAM

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to investigate the different strategies adopted by the airline companies in adapting to the ongoing changes while developing products and services for passengers in order to increase their yield, load factor and passenger satisfaction. Finding a balance between costs and services quality in the airline industry is a crucial task for every airline wanting to gain a competitive advantage on the market. Also, the rise of the hybrid business operating model has brought up many challenges for airlines as the line between legacy carriers and low-cost carriers is getting thinner in terms of costs and innovative ideas to create a superior product for the passengers.

  9. Risk factors for subsequent impaired driving by injured passengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purssell, Roy A; Chan, Herbert; Brown, Douglas; Fang, Ming; Brubacher, Jeffrey R

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the rate of, and risk factors for, subsequent impaired driving activity (IDA) in a cohort of injured passengers who were treated for injuries in a Canadian trauma center. We studied adult passengers who were occupants in vehicles involved in motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) and either included in the British Columbia (BC) trauma registry (January 1, 1992-December 31, 2004) or treated in the emergency department (ED) of Vancouver General Hospital (VGH; January 1, 1999-December 31, 2003). Passengers were linked to their driver's license and hence to their driving record using personal health number and demographic information. Injured passengers were stratified into 3 groups based on their blood alcohol concentration (BAC) at time of ED presentation: group 1: BAC = 0, group 2: 0 17.3 mM (0.08%). Two outcome variables were studied: involvement in a subsequent IDA and time to their first subsequent IDA. IDA was defined as a criminal code conviction for impaired driving, a 24-h or 90-day license suspension for impaired driving, and/or involvement in an MVC where police cited alcohol as a factor. Time to first IDA following the index event among passenger BAC groups was compared with Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Cox proportional hazards models were employed to examine the effect of various potential risk factors on time to engage in first IDA. Injured passengers with any BAC at the time of ED visit were more likely to engage in IDA and had their first IDA sooner after the index event than those with zero BAC. Among this cohort of injured passengers, 12.1 percent with BAC = 0, 29.9 percent with 0 17.3 mM (0.08%) engaged in IDA. Compared to passengers with BAC = 0, group 3 passengers and group 2 passengers were 2.06 times and 1.79 times more likely to engage in future IDA. Twenty-five percent of injured passengers engaged their first IDA by 57 and 38 months in groups 2 and 3, respectively. Previous IDA and being male were also

  10. Identification of voltage stability condition of a power system using measurements of bus variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durlav Hazarika

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Several online methods were proposed for investigating the voltage stability condition of an interconnected power system using the measurements of voltage and current phasors at a bus. For this purpose, phasor measurement units (PMUs are used. A PMU is a device which measures the electrical waves on an electrical network, using a common time source (reference bus for synchronisation. This study proposes a method for online monitoring of voltage stability condition of a power system using measurements of bus variables namely – (i real power, (ii reactive power and (iii bus voltage magnitude at a bus. The measurements of real power, reactive power and bus voltage magnitude could be extracted/captured from a smart energy meter. The financial involvement for implementation of the proposed method would significantly lower compared with the PMU-based method.

  11. The effect of an active steering system on city bus drivers muscle activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlström, Christer; Gink Lövgren, Maria; Nilsson, Mats; Willstrand, Tania; Anund, Anna

    2018-02-26

    City bus drivers spend hours driving under time pressure, in congested traffic and in a monotonous sitting position. This leads to unhealthy working conditions, especially in terms of physical and psychological stress. The aim of this study is to investigate if an active steering system can alleviate the musculoskeletal stress involved in manoeuvring a bus. Twenty bus drivers drove a city bus equipped with the Volvo dynamic steering (VDS) support system in real traffic. Steering effort was evaluated with fyography and with a questionnaire. Compared to baseline, VDS significantly reduced the required muscle activity by on average 15 - 25 % while turning, and with up to 68 % in the part of the manoeuvre requiring maximum effort. The bus drivers believed that VDS will help reduce neck and shoulder problems, and they expressed a desire to have VDS installed in their own bus.

  12. Bitmap-Wise Wireless M-Bus Coordination for Sustainable Real Time Energy Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-il Hwang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Even though WM-Bus is being considered to be the most promising network protocol for smart metering, it is not suitable for a sustainable real-time home energy management system (HEMS, which requires higher reliability and longer lifetime despite real time bi-directional communications. Therefore, in this paper we propose a Bitmap-wise WM-Bus (BWM-Bus, coping well with sustainable real-time HEMS. In particular, the proposed scheme addresses the several problems in WM-Bus for HEMS by introducing novel functions: asynchronous meter trigger, adaptive slot scheduling, and bitmap-wise retransmission request. Through experiments, we demonstrate that BWM-Bus guarantees higher data success ratio with lower data aggregation time, as well as longer lifetime than WM-Bus standard.

  13. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Third Results Reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2012-05-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for their newest prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. In May 2010, SunLine began operating its sixth-generation hydrogen fueled bus, an Advanced Technology (AT) fuel cell bus that incorporates the latest design improvements to reduce weight and increase reliability and performance. The agency is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the bus in revenue service. NREL has previously published two reports documenting the operation of the fuel cell bus in service. This report provides a summary of the results with a focus on the bus operation from July 2011 through January 2012.

  14. Battery-electric route bus: a platform for vehicle design

    OpenAIRE

    Fridman, Ilya

    2017-01-01

    This research developed a platform for designing battery-electric vehicle (BEV) route buses within an Australian context. The uncertainty of oil supply, increasing price of diesel fuel and development limitations of the internal combustion engine (ICE) encourage a transition away from current vehicle platforms. BEV systems address these concerns, while presenting potential to enhance vehicle performance and passenger accommodation on purpose-designed route buses. Conflicts between on-board en...

  15. An Interactive Wireless Communication System for Visually Impaired People Using City Bus Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Lan Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Visually impaired people have difficulty accessing information about public transportation systems. Several systems have been developed for assisting visually impaired and blind people to use the city bus. Most systems provide only one-way communication and require high-cost and complex equipment. The purpose of this study is to reduce the difficulties faced by visually impaired people when taking city buses, using an interactive wireless communication system. The system comprised a user module and a bus module to establish a direct one-to-one connection. When the user inputs 4-digit numbers, the user module immediately sends out the information. If the bus module receives the matched bus number, it buzzes and the warning LED flashes to notify the bus driver that someone is waiting to board on the bus. User tests were conducted by two visually impaired people in a simulated vehicle and a city bus. The success rate of interactive wireless communication, recognizing the arrival of the bus and boarding the correct bus reached 100% in all of the tests. The interactive wireless communication aid system is a valid and low-cost device for assisting visually impaired people to use city buses.

  16. A Prediction System Using a P2P Overlay Network for a Bus Arrival System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ssu-Hsuan Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with the evolution of times and the surge of metropolitan populations, government agencies often promote the construction of public transport. Unlike rail transportation or rapid transit systems, it is often difficult to estimate the vehicle arrival times at each station in a bus transportation system due to metropolitan transportation congestion. Traffic status is often monitored using wireless sensor networks (WSNs. However, WSNs are always separated from one another spatially. Recent studies have considered the connection of multiple sensor networks. This study considers a combination view of peer-to-peer (P2P overlay networks and WSN architecture to predict bus arrival times. Each bus station, which is also a P2P overlay peer, is connected in a P2P overlay network. A sensor installed in each bus can receive data via peers to obtain the moving speed of a bus. Then, each peer can exchange its data to predict bus arrival times at bus stations. This method can considerably increase the accuracy with which bus arrival times can be predicted and can provide traffic status with high precision. Furthermore, these data can also be used to plan new bus routes according to the information gathered.

  17. An interactive wireless communication system for visually impaired people using city bus transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiao-Lan; Chen, Ya-Ping; Rau, Chi-Lun; Yu, Chung-Huang

    2014-04-25

    Visually impaired people have difficulty accessing information about public transportation systems. Several systems have been developed for assisting visually impaired and blind people to use the city bus. Most systems provide only one-way communication and require high-cost and complex equipment. The purpose of this study is to reduce the difficulties faced by visually impaired people when taking city buses, using an interactive wireless communication system. The system comprised a user module and a bus module to establish a direct one-to-one connection. When the user inputs 4-digit numbers, the user module immediately sends out the information. If the bus module receives the matched bus number, it buzzes and the warning LED flashes to notify the bus driver that someone is waiting to board on the bus. User tests were conducted by two visually impaired people in a simulated vehicle and a city bus. The success rate of interactive wireless communication, recognizing the arrival of the bus and boarding the correct bus reached 100% in all of the tests. The interactive wireless communication aid system is a valid and low-cost device for assisting visually impaired people to use city buses.

  18. Development and Evaluation of Bus Operation Control System Based on Cooperative Speed Guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Teng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Buses often have strong bunching or large interval tendency when traveling further along the route. To restrain this further deterioration of operation service, this paper developed a bus operation control system to dynamically adjust bus speed, bus dwell time, and traffic signal timings along the running path. In addition, a simulation platform was developed to evaluate the proposed control system with the actual data collected from bus route number 210 in Shanghai. The simulation results show that the proposed control system can mitigate the amplification trend of the headway deviation along the route to produce headways within a given tolerance.

  19. Ejection of a rear facing, golf cart passenger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schau, Kyle; Masory, Oren

    2013-10-01

    The following report details the findings of a series of experiments and simulations performed on a commercially available, shuttle style golf cart during several maneuvers involving rapid accelerations of the vehicle. It is determined that the current set of passive restraints on these types of golf carts are not adequate in preventing ejection of a rear facing passenger during rapid accelerations in the forward and lateral directions. Experimental data and simulations show that a hip restraint must be a minimum of 13 in. above the seat in order to secure a rear facing passenger during sharp turns, compared to the current restraint height of 5 in. Furthermore, it is determined that a restraint directly in front of the rear facing passenger is necessary to prevent ejection. In addressing these issues, golf cart manufacturers could greatly reduce the likelihood of injury due to ejection of a rear facing, golf cart passenger. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fuzzy temporal logic based railway passenger flow forecast model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Fei; Jia, Limin; Wang, Li; Xu, Jie; Huang, Yakun

    2014-01-01

    Passenger flow forecast is of essential importance to the organization of railway transportation and is one of the most important basics for the decision-making on transportation pattern and train operation planning. Passenger flow of high-speed railway features the quasi-periodic variations in a short time and complex nonlinear fluctuation because of existence of many influencing factors. In this study, a fuzzy temporal logic based passenger flow forecast model (FTLPFFM) is presented based on fuzzy logic relationship recognition techniques that predicts the short-term passenger flow for high-speed railway, and the forecast accuracy is also significantly improved. An applied case that uses the real-world data illustrates the precision and accuracy of FTLPFFM. For this applied case, the proposed model performs better than the k-nearest neighbor (KNN) and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models.

  1. Intercity passenger rail : implications for urban, regional, and national mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Recent policy and regulatory actions by the U.S. government have revived interest in intercity passenger : rail among transportation planners, policymakers, and the general public. As part of a fully integrated : multimodal intercity corridor, passen...

  2. Nonlinear Model of the Passenger Car Seat Suspension System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danko Ján

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the modelling of a passenger car seat suspension system. Currently, vehicle safety and ride comfort are one of the most important factors of vehicle design. This article analyses a mathematical model of the passenger car seat suspension system. Furthermore, experimental measurements of the passenger car seat suspension system are performed. Utilizing the experimental data, model parameters are identified. From the chosen mathematical model a simulation model in constructed in Matlab is designed. In this simulation, the force-velocity and force-displacement characteristics of the passenger car seat suspension system are described. Finally, evaluation of simulated damper characteristics with the characteristics form measured data are performed.

  3. High-speed and intercity passenger rail testing strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    This high-speed and intercity passenger rail (HSIPR) testing strategy addresses the requirements for testing of high-speed train sets and technology before introduction to the North American railroad system. The report documents the results of a surv...

  4. Specific climate impact of passenger and freight transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Emissions of short-lived species contribute significantly to : the climate impact of transportation. The magnitude of the effects : varies over time for each transport mode. This paper compares : first the absolute climate impacts of current passenge...

  5. Evaluation of Occupant Volume Strength in Conventional Passenger Railroad Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-24

    To ensure a level of occupant volume protection, passenger : railway equipment operating on mainline railroads in the : United States must be designed to resist an 800,000-lb : compressive load applied statically along the line of draft. An : alterna...

  6. RCA: A route city attraction model for air passengers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Feihu; Xiong, Xi; Peng, Jian; Guo, Bing; Tong, Bo

    2018-02-01

    Human movement pattern is a research hotspot of social computing and has practical values in various fields, such as traffic planning. Previous studies mainly focus on the travel activities of human beings on the ground rather than those in the air. In this paper, we use the reservation records of air passengers to explore air passengers' movement characteristics. After analyzing the effect of the route-trip length on the throughput, we find that most passengers eventually return to their original departure city and that the mobility of air passengers is not related to the route length. Based on these characteristics, we present a route city attraction (RCA) model, in which GDP or population is considered for the calculation of the attraction. The sub models of our RCA model show the better prediction performance of throughput than the radiation model and the gravity model.

  7. Restraint use (seat belt and child passenger seat) survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    In Arizona, lack of restraint usage (seat belts and child passenger seats) was a contributing factor to an average of 687 fatalities per year which is nearly 60% of total fatalities. These tragic statistics could be dramatically decreased if effectiv...

  8. Some issues of passenger choice of suburban transport mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тetyana М. Grigorova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article the passenger choice of transport mode for moving to suburban is discussed. The analysis of methods of Transport Management in suburban transportation showed that they did not fully take into account the effect of the transport process parameters on the passenger choice of transport mode for travel. The aim of research is to determine the value of the factors that influence passenger choice of suburban transport. The study was conducted on the basis of passenger survey on the factors affecting the choice of transport mode, and the importance of these factors. Kendall's coefficient of concordance its statistical significance were used to evaluate the consistency of expert opinion. The main factors for choosing the mode of suburban transport are identified. The identified factors can then be used in determining selection patterns of suburban transport mode.

  9. Massachusetts Fuel Cell Bus Project: Demonstrating a Total Transit Solution for Fuel Cell Electric Buses in Boston

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-22

    The Federal Transit Administration's National Fuel Cell Bus Program focuses on developing commercially viable fuel cell bus technologies. Nuvera is leading the Massachusetts Fuel Cell Bus project to demonstrate a complete transit solution for fuel cell electric buses that includes one bus and an on-site hydrogen generation station for the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA). A team consisting of ElDorado National, BAE Systems, and Ballard Power Systems built the fuel cell electric bus, and Nuvera is providing its PowerTap on-site hydrogen generator to provide fuel for the bus.

  10. Numerical study on aerodynamic drag reduction of passenger cars

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez Martinez, Javier

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this work is to identify potential improvements on Passenger cars Aerodynimcs (Drag reduction and Downforce increase) to help to minimize fuel consumption and hence reduce exhaust emisions. The Ahmed body (Bluff body) is representative of a passenger car under aerodynamical point of view. A lot of studies and literature exists as far as test reports of the Ahmed body on wind tunel tests. This work can be divided onto 2 steps. First step is to perform qualitative numerical simulat...

  11. Small passenger car transmission test: Dodge Omni A-404 transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This transmission was tested in accordance with a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid eighty percent range for both drive performance test and coast performance tests.

  12. Transport illumination: health risks for personnel and passengers

    OpenAIRE

    V.A. Kaptsov; V.N. Deinego

    2016-01-01

    The hygienic aspects of the transport illumination and the risks of the negative impact of LED lighting on the health of operators, drivers and passengers have been investigated. The transport illumination is a subject of the longitudinal research of the light effect of the beam and signal lights on driver’s reaction and dazzle. The study of the vehicles’ light effect on passengers’ health was not carried out because for the illuminating of the passenger compartments the incandescent bulbs we...

  13. Designing Train Passenger Seat by Kansei Engineering in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hapsari Sakya Nabila

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Public transport adoption is still major problem in Indonesia. Integrating impression and emotion to service may change the image of public transport, leading to fast adoption rate. As product development technique, Kansei Engineering is well known to facilitate that integration. This paper communicates the implementation of Kansei Engineering (KE in designing train passenger seat in Indonesia. The train between Bandung-Solo (8 hours journey was chosen to be the investigated object. The train was selected to be refurbished by introducing a new passenger seat design, emphasizing on the improvement of passenger experience. As the first step of KE type I technique, travel experience of the existing passengers were taken into the consideration for selecting Kansei words. It was found that the relevant Kansei words to design passenger train seat in Indonesia were: comfort, people-friendly, multifunction, safe, soft, spacious, relaxing, superior, maintainable, strong, producible, minimalist, attractive, modern, unique, and durable. Upon understanding the semantic meaning of those words, physical properties and technical specification were produced by consulting to the related members. Finally, a passenger seat with synthetic leather cover, modular design, foldable table, individual power point, bluesilver color, and adjusted to Indonesian’s anthropometry data was proposed as the final design

  14. BC Transit Fuel Cell Bus Project Evaluation Results: Second Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Post, M.

    2014-09-01

    Second report evaluating a fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) demonstration led by British Columbia Transit (BC Transit) in Whistler, Canada. BC Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. NREL published its first report on the demonstration in February 2014. This report is an update to the previous report; it covers 3 full years of revenue service data on the buses from April 2011 through March 2014 and focuses on the final experiences and lessons learned.

  15. Implementation of PMSM speed control software based on CAN bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wenlun; Chen, Bei; He, Yuyao

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, the driver's hardware structure based on TMS320F28335 is introduced, the control software flow of host computer based on CAN bus is designed, the rule of CAN communication protocol is fulfilled and accordingly the hybrid programming is realized in the background of low speed and large sinusoid operation. This system can realize the CAN communication setting, download the PID parameters to DSP, operate at constant rotate speed and at given large sinusoid rotate speed. Meanwhile the dynamical monitoring and alarm are implemented. Finally the real-time display and storage of measured current, voltage and rotate speed are completed well.

  16. Turbocharger for passenger cars; Joyoshayo turbocharger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, H. [Toyota Central Research and Development Labs., Inc., Aichi (Japan)

    2000-05-20

    This paper explains trends of technologies for turbo chargers used in passenger cars. With the turbo charger for gasoline fueled cars, in which super charge pressure is limited by knocking, performance is demanded that is high in efficiency and responsiveness in low pressure ratio zones. Such high-performance devices as ceramic turbine wheels and ball bearings are used. Making the turbine capacity variable has not taken roots because of the aspects of reliability and performance advantages. Most of light car makers use turbo supercharge system, its percentage being as high as several ten percent. A new turbo has made debut, which aims at ultra low cost that cannot be expected in this class of conventional turbo chargers. On the other hand, direct injection gasoline engine cars are supplied into the market recently, and making the engine turbo-supercharged is drawing attention. In the direct injection gasoline engines, enhancement of fuel consumption is expected by using the turbo supercharge system. For diesel cars, turbo supercharge is indispensable because of the recently strengthened gas emission regulation. (NEDO)

  17. Types of solutions improving passenger transport interconnectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika BĄK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to present different types of solutions which could improve interconnectivity of passenger transport especially within interconnections between long and short transport distance. The topic has particular relevance at the European level because the European transport networks’ role as integrated international networks is compromised by poor interconnectivity and because the next generation of European transport policies will have to be sensitive to the differences between short, medium and long-term transport markets and the market advantages of each transport mode. In this context, a realistic assessment of intermodal opportunities is a key ingredient to future policy development.Effective interconnection requires the provision of integrated networks and services which are attractive to potential users and this is likely to require co-operation between a range of authorities and providers in the public and private sectors and may necessitate a wider vision than might otherwise prevail.The paper is based on the results of the project realised by the team of the University of Gdansk in the EU funded 7 Framework Programme - INTERCONNECT (Interconnection between short- and long-distance transport networks with partners in the UK, Germany, Denmark, Poland, Spain and Italy. Different types of solutions will be summarized in the paper including e.g. local link infrastructure solutions, improved local public transport services, improvements at the interchange, solutions involving improved procedures for check-in or luggage transfer & documentation, pricing and ticketing solutions, solutions involving marketing, information and sales.

  18. Energy Chain Analysis of Passenger Car Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Jakob Walnum

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Transport makes up 20 percent of the World’s energy use; in OECD countries this has exceeded 30 percent. The International Energy Agency (IEA estimates that the global energy consumption will increase by 2.1 percent annually, a growth rate that is higher than for any other sector. The high energy consumption means that transportation accounts for nearly 30 percent of CO2 emission in OECD countries and is also one of the main sources of regional and local air pollution. In this article, we analyze energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions from passenger car transport using an energy chain analysis. The energy chain analysis consists of three parts: the net direct energy use, the energy required for vehicle propulsion; the gross direct chain, which includes the net direct energy consumption plus the energy required to produce it; and, finally, the indirect energy chain, which includes the energy consumption for production, maintenance and operation of infrastructure plus manufacturing of the vehicle itself. In addition to energy consumption, we also analyze emissions of greenhouse gases measured by CO2-equivalents. We look at the trade-offs between energy use and greenhouse gas emissions to see whether some drivetrains and fuels perform favourable on both indicators. Except for the case of electric cars, where hydropower is the only energy source in the Norwegian context, no single car scores favourably on both energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions.

  19. King County Metro Battery Electric Bus Demonstration: Preliminary Project Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-22

    The U.S. Federal Transit Administration (FTA) funds a variety of research projects that support the commercialization of zero-emission bus technology. To evaluate projects funded through these programs, FTA has enlisted the help of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to conduct third-party evaluations of the technologies deployed under the FTA programs. NREL works with the selected agencies to evaluate the performance of the zero-emission buses compared to baseline conventional buses in similar service. The evaluation effort will advance the knowledge base of zero-emission technologies in transit bus applications and provide 'lessons learned' to aid other fleets in incrementally introducing next generation zero-emission buses into their operations. This report provides preliminary performance evaluation results from a demonstration of three zero-emission battery electric buses at King County Metro in King County, Washington. NREL developed this preliminary results report to quickly disseminate evaluation results to stakeholders. Detailed evaluation results will be published in future reports.

  20. Operational efficiency of the lighting system of bus salons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brytkovskyi V.M.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the problem of safety of people is studied primarily in aspects of natural and man-made disasters, fire, health and safety in the workplace. A problem connected with the way of life of the people, in particular with the use of bus transport remains almost out of sight. In addition to the foregoing, there is another side to the issue: modern development of industry and transport is characterized by large-scale introduction of technical measures aimed at saving energy In the specified aspect theoretical dependences for evaluation of technological economic efficiency of light sources in indoor lighting system buses are grounded. This theoretical dependency will make analytical framework justification applying the respective sources of light, taking into account the hygiene requirements to illumination. The methodology of calculation of economic efficiency of lighting of bus salons is offered. Estimating parameter is justified relative objective function value costs per unit of time or distance. The greatest costs are typical for lamps with incandescent bulbs. The least is common to lamps with fluorescent lamps. Led bulbs have no significant advantage even over incandescent lamps. The reason for this is the relatively high color temperature radiation of LED lamps that requires more light levels and, consequently, the high cost of energy, as well as relatively large initial cost of these lamps.

  1. CERPEN FARUK “BUS KOTA” DALAM SEMIOTIK ROLAND BARTHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Widyatwati

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Literature called beautiful if it contains the mandate, message, ideas and meanings that are useful for the readers. Short story “Bus Kota” (City Bus containing the mandate, message, ideas and meanings that are useful to the reader. The mandate will be revealed by Roland Barthes' semiotic theory in the book S/Z. Literature has its own allure and text have accrued but not due to independence because of the difference in quality. Texts merge into a unity, or restore any text not as an individual but as a form of plurality. Literature as part of a social system is an expression of the author's sense of the outpouring of public life. Literary works can express themselves in the author's view the social and cultural changes in society because of the development of information technology and rapid. Technological developments and socio-cultural information can change in society so as to affect the psychology of the people. Society must have a thickness of faith not only for themselves, but to be able to maintain equanimity in the life of a pluralistic society

  2. Bus Implementation Using New Low Power PFSCL Tristate Buffers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeta Pandey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes new positive feedback source coupled logic (PFSCL tristate buffers suited to bus applications. The proposed buffers use switch to attain high impedance state and modify the load or the current source section. An interesting consequence of this is overall reduction in the power consumption. The proposed tristate buffers consume half the power compared to the available switch based counterpart. The issues with available PFSCL tristate buffers based bus implementation are identified and benefits of employing the proposed tristate buffer topologies are put forward. SPICE simulation results using TSMC 180 nm CMOS technology parameters are included to support the theoretical formulations. The performance of proposed tristate buffer topologies is examined on the basis of propagation delay, output enable time, and power consumption. It is found that one of the proposed tristate buffer topology outperforms the others in terms of all the performance parameters. An examination of behavior of available and the proposed PFSCL tristate buffer topologies under parameter variations and mismatch shows a maximum variation of 14%.

  3. Efficiency and robustness of different bus network designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, John Zhen Fu; Bin Othman, Nasri; Ng, Keng Meng; Monterola, Christopher

    2015-07-01

    We compare the efficiencies and robustness of four transport networks that can be possibly formed as a result of deliberate city planning. The networks are constructed based on their spatial resemblance to the cities of Manhattan (lattice), Sudan (random), Beijing (single-blob) and Greater Cairo (dual-blob). For a given type, a genetic algorithm is employed to obtain an optimized set of the bus routes. We then simulate how commuter travels using Yen's algorithms for k shortest paths on an adjacency matrix. The cost of traveling such as walking between stations is captured by varying the weighted sums of matrices. We also consider the number of transfers a posteriori by looking at the computed shortest paths. With consideration to distances via radius of gyration, redundancies of travel and number of bus transfers, our simulations indicate that random and dual-blob are more efficient than single-blob and lattice networks. Moreover, dual-blob type is least robust when node removals are targeted but is most resilient when node failures are random. The work hopes to guide and provide technical perspectives on how geospatial distribution of a city limits the optimality of transport designs.

  4. MANAJEMEN RISIKO DAN KINERJA LABA : STUDI KASUS PADA BANK UMUM SYARIAH (BUS)

    OpenAIRE

    -, RAHMAT NURUL PRIMA. N

    2016-01-01

    2016 Manajemen Risiko dan Kinerja Laba : Studi Kasus Pada Bank Umum Syariah (BUS) Rahmat Nurul Prima Muhammad Sobarsyah Nur Alamsyah Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji pengaruh implementasi manajemen risiko terhadap kinerja laba pada bank umum syariah (BUS) yang diproksikan dengan ROE. Spektrum implementasi manajemen risiko yang dijadikan objek penelitian adalah risiko kredit yang diproksikan dengan NPF, risiko likuiditas yang diproksikan dengan F...

  5. Evoking Emotions and Unpacking Layered Histories through Young Children's Illustrations of Racial Bus Segregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuby, Candace R.

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on theories of multi-modality and critical visual literacy, this article focuses on images that five-and six year-olds painted in a class-made book, Voice on the Bus, about racial segregation. The article discusses how children used illustrations to convey their understandings of Rosa Parks' bus arrest in Alabama. A post-structural view…

  6. Split, Send, Reassemble: A Formal Specification of a CAN Bus Protocol Stack

    OpenAIRE

    van Glabbeek, Rob; Höfner, Peter

    2017-01-01

    We present a formal model for a fragmentation and a reassembly protocol running on top of the standardised CAN bus, which is widely used in automotive and aerospace applications. Although the CAN bus comes with an in-built mechanism for prioritisation, we argue that this is not sufficient and provide another protocol to overcome this shortcoming.

  7. Desain Dan Implementasi Sistem Komunikasi Prosesor Parallel Pada Aplikasi Robotik Berbasis Bus Serial I2C

    OpenAIRE

    Mubarak, Tito; Sumaryo, Sony; Abdurohman, Maman

    2008-01-01

    Dewasa ini desain sistem embedded tidak cukup lagi hanya dengan menerapkan satu buahmicroprocessor atau microcontroller saja. Karena sistem yang dikontrol mempunyai peralatan dan tugas yangsemakin banyak. Sehingga perlu menerapkan desentralisasi dan paralelisme pada sistem berbasismicroprocessor.Pada Penelitian ini, dirancang suatu sistem komunikasi antar microcontroller sebagai implementasi darimicroprocessor. Yaitu berupa suatu sistem bus yang berbasis pada I2C serial bus yang dikeluarkan o...

  8. Operating Time Division for a Bus Route Based on the Recovery of GPS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bus travel time is an important source of data for time of day partition of the bus route. However, in practice, a bus driver may deliberately speed up or slow down on route so as to follow the predetermined timetable. The raw GPS data collected by the GPS device equipped on the bus, as a result, cannot reflect its real operating conditions. To address this concern, this study first develops a method to identify whether there is deliberate speed-up or slow-down movement of a bus. Building upon the relationships between the intersection delay, link travel time, and traffic flow, a recovery method is established for calculating the real bus travel time. Using the dwell time at each stop and the recovered travel time between each of them as the division indexes, a sequential clustering-based time of day partition method is proposed. The effectiveness of the developed method is demonstrated using the data of bus route 63 in Harbin, China. Results show that the partition method can help bus enterprises to design reasonable time of day intervals and significantly improve their level of service.

  9. Successfulness of bus rapid transit systems in Asia. Ex-post evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kogdenko, Nadja

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) can be defined as “a bus-based mass transit system that delivers fast, comfortable, and cost-effective urban mobility”. It offers the opportunity to create a high-quality mass transit system at affordable costs, which is p

  10. Survey on the implementation and reliability of CubeSat electrical bus interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwmeester, Jasper; Langer, Martin; Gill, Eberhard

    2017-06-01

    This paper provides results and conclusions on a survey on the implementation and reliability aspects of CubeSat bus interfaces, with an emphasis on the data bus and power distribution. It provides recommendations for a future CubeSat bus standard. The survey is based on a literature study and a questionnaire representing 60 launched CubeSats and 44 to be launched CubeSats. It is found that the bus interfaces are not the main driver for mission failures. However, it is concluded that the Inter Integrated Circuit (I2C) data bus, as implemented in a great majority of the CubeSats, caused some catastrophic satellite failures and a vast amount of bus lockups. The power distribution may lead to catastrophic failures if the power lines are not protected against overcurrent. A connector and wiring standard widely implemented in CubeSats is based on the PC/104 standard. Most participants find the 104 pin connector of this standard too large. For a future CubeSat bus interface standard, it is recommended to implement a reliable data bus, a power distribution with overcurrent protection and a wiring harness with smaller connectors compared with PC/104.

  11. Telemetry Standards, RCC Standard 106-17. Chapter 8. Digital Data Bus Acquisition Formatting Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    generated for the resulting formatted word or an additional bit appended to the bus/group identification label as described in Paragraph 8.2.3. 8.2.3...shall be identical to that described in Paragraph 8.2. (5) The frame length shall be fixed and shall be the same for each track used for a given bus

  12. Peer passenger influences on male adolescent drivers' visual scanning behavior during simulated driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Anuj K; Li, Kaigang; Bingham, C Raymond; Simons-Morton, Bruce G; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Shope, Jean T

    2014-05-01

    There is a higher likelihood of crashes and fatalities when an adolescent drives with peer passengers, especially for male drivers and male passengers. Simulated driving of male adolescent drivers with male peer passengers was studied to examine passenger influences on distraction and inattention. Male adolescents drove in a high-fidelity driving simulator with a male confederate who posed either as a risk-accepting passenger or as a risk-averse passenger. Drivers' eye movements were recorded. The visual scanning behavior of the drivers was compared when driving alone with when driving with a passenger and when driving with a risk-accepting passenger with a risk-averse passenger. The visual scanning of a driver significantly narrowed horizontally and vertically when driving with a peer passenger. There were no significant differences in the times the drivers' eyes were off the forward roadway when driving with a passenger versus when driving alone. Some significant correlations were found between personality characteristics and the outcome measures. The presence of a male peer passenger was associated with a reduction in the visual scanning range of male adolescent drivers. This reduction could be a result of potential cognitive load imposed on the driver due to the presence of a passenger and the real or perceived normative influences or expectations from the passenger. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  13. A train dispatching model based on fuzzy passenger demand forecasting during holidays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Dou Dou

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Purpose: The train dispatching is a crucial issue in the train operation adjustment when passenger flow outbursts. During holidays, the train dispatching is to meet passenger demand to the greatest extent, and ensure safety, speediness and punctuality of the train operation. In this paper, a fuzzy passenger demand forecasting model is put up, then a train dispatching optimization model is established based on passenger demand so as to evacuate stranded passengers effectively during holidays. Design/methodology/approach: First, the complex features and regularity of passenger flow during holidays are analyzed, and then a fuzzy passenger demand forecasting model is put forward based on the fuzzy set theory and time series theory. Next, the bi-objective of the train dispatching optimization model is to minimize the total operation cost of the train dispatching and unserved passenger volume during holidays. Finally, the validity of this model is illustrated with a case concerned with the Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway in China. Findings: The case study shows that the fuzzy passenger demand forecasting model can predict outcomes more precisely than ARIMA model. Thus train dispatching optimization plan proves that a small number of trains are able to serve unserved passengers reasonably and effectively. Originality/value: On the basis of the passenger demand predictive values, the train dispatching optimization model is established, which enables train dispatching to meet passenger demand in condition that passenger flow outbursts, so as to maximize passenger demand by offering the optimal operation plan.

  14. A Study of BUS Architecture Design for Controller of Nuclear Power Plant Using FPGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dongil; Yun, Donghwa; Hwang, Sungjae; Kim, Myeongyun; Lee, Dongyun [PONUTech Co. Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    CPU (Central Processing Unit) operating speed and communication rate have been more technically improved than before. However, whole system is been a degradation of performance by electronic and structural limitation of parallel bus. Transmission quantity and speed have a limit and need arbiter in order to do arbitration because several boards shared parallel bus. Arbiter is a high complexity in implementing so it increases component per chip. If a parallel bus uses, it will occurs some problems what are reflection noise, power/ground noise (or ground bounce) as SSN (Simultaneous Switching Noise) and crosstalk noise like magnetic coupling. In this paper, in order to solve a problem of parallel bus in controller of NPP (Nuclear Power Plant), proposes the bus architecture design using FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) based on LVDS (Low Voltage Differential Signaling)

  15. Occupational safety conditions of bus drivers in Metro Manila, the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Jewelle Ann; Lu, Jinky Leilanie

    2016-12-01

    The study looks into the occupational safety and working conditions among bus drivers in Metro Manila, the Philippines. Quantitative data were collected through survey interviews of 95 bus drivers using the stratified sampling technique. Results showed that bus drivers worked an average of 16 h/day and were engaged in risky driving behaviors such as over-speeding and road racing in order to reach their quota for the day. Fifty-nine percent experienced work-related accidents, with a mean of three accidents. The most common accident was hitting another vehicle followed by side swipe. The accidents were blamed on other drivers, followed by vehicle defect, inattentiveness and tiredness/micro-sleep or sudden involuntary sleep while driving. The most common health symptoms experienced by the bus drivers were fatigue, back pain, and cough and colds. This study underlines the need for an occupational health and safety program for bus drivers in the Philippines.

  16. Bus driving assistance system for town area by using ATmega328P microcontroller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Mohamad Fauzi; Soon, Tan Jiah; Rohani, Munzilah Md

    2017-09-01

    Recently, several bus accidents happened because of bus driver's behavior. In fact, there is no dedicated tool for assisting them to drive safely. This project gives solutions to this by assisting the driver, according to the speed and acceleration of the bus. These data are collected by using a motion processing unit (MPU-6050) and a global positioning system (GPS) and then indicate the driving mode status on the LEDs. All data and status are recorded in a secure digital (SD) card for the authority or the bus company to analyze the driving behavior of a bus driver. This system has been successfully developed and tested in two different areas which includes the UTHM main campus and the road from Parit Raja to Batu Pahat.

  17. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Second Results Report and Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2011-10-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for their newest prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. In May 2010, SunLine began operating its sixth-generation hydrogen fueled bus, an Advanced Technology (AT) fuel cell bus that incorporates the latest design improvements to reduce weight and increase reliability and performance. The agency is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the bus in revenue service. This is the second results report for the AT fuel cell bus since it was placed in service, and it focuses on the newest data analysis and lessons learned since the previous report. The appendices, referenced in the main report, provide the full background for the evaluation. They will be updated as new information is collected but will contain the original background material from the first report.

  18. Econometric Forecasting Models for Air Traffic Passenger of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Suryan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major benefits of the air transport services operating in bigger countries is the fact that they provide a vital social economic linkage. This study is an attempt to establish the determinants of the passenger air traffic in Indonesia. The main objective of the study is to determine the economic variables that affect the number of airline passengers using the econometrics model of projection with an emphasis on the use of panel data and to determine the economic variables that affect the number of airline passengers using the econometrics model of projection with an emphasis on the use of time series data. This research also predicts the upcoming number of air traffic passenger until 2030. Air transportation and the economic activity in a country are interdependent. This work first uses the data at the country level and then at the selected airport level for review. The methodology used in this study has adopted the study for both normal regression and panel data regression techniques. Once all these steps are performed, the final equation is taken up for the forecast of the passenger inflow data in the Indonesian airports. To forecast the same, the forecasted numbers of the GDP (Gross Domestic Product and population (independent variables were chosen as a part of the literature review exercise are used. The result of this study shows the GDP per capita have significant related to a number of passengers which the elasticity 2.23 (time-series data and 1.889 for panel data. The exchange rate variable is unrelated to a number of passengers as shown in the value of elasticity. In addition, the total of population gives small value for the elasticity. Moreover, the number of passengers is also affected by the dummy variable (deregulation. With three scenarios: low, medium and high for GDP per capita, the percentage of growth for total number of air traffic passenger from the year 2015 to 2030 is 199.3%, 205.7%, and 320.9% respectively.

  19. Evaluation of intelligent transport systems impact on school transport safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankowska-Karpa Dagmara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The integrated system of safe transport of children to school using Intelligent Transport Systems was developed and implemented in four locations across Europe under the Safeway2School (SW2S project, funded by the EU. The SW2S system evaluation included speed measurements and an eye-tracking experiment carried out among drivers who used the school bus route, where selected elements of the system were tested. The subject of the evaluation were the following system elements: pedestrian safety system at the bus stop (Intelligent Bus Stop and tags for children, Driver Support System, applications for parents’ and students’ mobile phones, bus stop inventory tool and data server. A new sign designed for buses and bus stops to inform about child transportation/children waiting at the bus stop was added to the system. Training schemes for system users were also provided. The article presents evaluation results of the impact of selected elements of the SW2S system on school transport safety in Poland.

  20. Airline policy for passengers requiring supplemental in-flight oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jacqueline; Kelly, Paul T; Beckert, Lutz

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the current Australian/New Zealand airline policy on supplemental in-flight oxygen for passengers with lung disease. Fifty-four commercial airlines servicing international routes were surveyed. Information was gathered from airline call centres and web sites. The survey documented individual airline policy on in-flight oxygen delivery, approval schemes, equipment and cost. Of the 54 airlines contacted, 43 (81%) were able to support passengers requiring in-flight oxygen. The majority (88%) of airlines provided a cylinder for passengers to use. Airline policy for calculating the cost of in-flight oxygen differed considerably between carriers. Six (14%) airlines supplied oxygen to passengers free of charge; however, three of these airlines charged for an extra seat. Fifteen airlines (35%) charged on the basis of oxygen supplied, that is, per cylinder. Fourteen airlines (33%) had a flat rate charge per sector. This study confirmed that most airlines can accommodate passengers requiring supplemental oxygen. However, the findings highlight inconsistencies in airline policies and substantial cost differences for supplemental in-flight oxygen. We advocate an industry standardization of policy and cost of in-flight oxygen.

  1. Novel low cost standardized Nano-Satellite structure bus for LEO missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anubhav, T.; Sarwesh, P.; Narayan, V.; Varma, P. A.; Prasad, R. A.; Loganathan, M.; Rao, D. N.; Sriram, S.; Venkatesh, M.

    This paper focuses on SRMSAT STRUCTURE BUS which is a standardized Nano-Satellite structure bus. It provides a standard platform for a wide variety of missions in LEO and can be realized in a very short developmental period. The bus was designed and developed for SRMSAT, the SRM University (Sri Ramaswamy Memorial University) student Nano-Satellite, by the undergraduate students and faculty of SRM University in collaboration with Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). The bus can support payloads up to a mass of 20kg. SRMSAT STRUCTURE BUS has a mass of around 6 kg and dimensions 280mm × 280mm × 280mm with an available volume of 11000 cc. Vibration Testing of the bus has been performed upto 6.7 gRMS. This makes the satellite capable of being launched by any launch vehicle in the world. An innovative PCB mounting design has been introduced in this structure bus which facilitates mounting of a maximum 7 PCB trays independently, each tray capable of holding a 250 mm2 PCB. Structural analysis of SRMSAT STRUCTURE BUS was done using NX Nastran. The boundary conditions for each analysis were defined based on the loading conditions as specified by the launcher, PSLV (Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle). Optimization of each individual component was performed by maintaining a minimum threshold between the local frequencies of the component and global frequencies of the entire satellite. Static, Modal, Harmonic and Random Vibration analysis of the structure bus was performed. This paper also describes the methodology followed in the static and dynamic analysis of the structure bus to finalize the design. The results have been tested and validated at ISRO Satellite Centre, Bangalore with around 90% accuracy and the structure has been certified as a standard structure bus for Nano-satellite missions. In terms of expandability, this structure bus is capable of accommodating deployable solar panels. Also, the payload mounting is not only restricted to th- bottom deck but can

  2. FAKTOR PENYEBAB KERUSAKAN SISTEM MESIN PADA BUS APTB PPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laela Chairani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Comfort and safety of public transportation, particularly APTB PPD buses, becomes high expectations for its customers. Those expectations must be supported by the application of a good engine maintenance system. By using the method of Reliability Centered Maintenance may be determined appropriate actions to mitigate damage. From the analysis known the failures of the APTB PPD bus are malfunctions of the fuel engine, power transfer systems, difficulty to move the gear lever, and lubricating system for the rough engine noise. The cause of engine malfunction is dirty diesel filter, vehicle acceleration malfunction is due to the clutch plate wear out. Difficulty to move the gear lever indicates that the clutch slips. Rough engine noise caused by the flow of oil to the engine stalled as the result of dirty oil filter. The results of the logic tree analysis show that for each failure requires scheduling of time directed task.

  3. Foothill Transit Battery Electric Bus Demonstration Results: Second Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jeffers, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-06-28

    This report summarizes results of a battery electric bus (BEB) evaluation at Foothill Transit, located in the San Gabriel and Pomona Valley region of Los Angeles County, California. Foothill Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate its fleet of Proterra BEBs in revenue service. The focus of this evaluation is to compare performance of the BEBs to that of conventional technology and to track progress over time toward meeting performance targets. This project has also provided an opportunity for DOE to conduct a detailed evaluation of the BEBs and charging infrastructure. This is the second report summarizing the results of the BEB demonstration at Foothill Transit and it provides data on the buses from August 2015 through December 2016. Data are provided on a selection of compressed natural gas buses as a baseline comparison.

  4. Application of gravity model on the Korean urban bus network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Inho; Jung, Woo-Sung

    2016-11-01

    Mobility models have been studied to describe the underlying mechanism of human mobility. The mobility patterns in various transportation systems were understood with the gravity model by estimating the traffic as a simple function of population and distance. Compared to most studies on large-scale systems, we focused on the validity and characteristics of gravity model for intraurban mobility. Several variations of gravity model are applied on the urban bus systems of five medium-sized cities in Korea. The gravity model successfully estimates the intraurban traffic without universal exponents for cities. From the change of exponents by predictor types, we figure out the effect by a non-trivial relation between traffic and population in the urban areas.

  5. Using a Control System Ethernet Network as a Field Bus

    CERN Document Server

    De Van, William R; Lawson, Gregory S; Wagner, William H; Wantland, David M; Williams, Ernest

    2005-01-01

    A major component of a typical accelerator distributed control system (DCS) is a dedicated, large-scale local area communications network (LAN). The SNS EPICS-based control system uses a LAN based on the popular IEEE-802.3 set of standards (Ethernet). Since the control system network infrastructure is available throughout the facility, and since Ethernet-based controllers are readily available, it is tempting to use the control system LAN for "fieldbus" communications to low-level control devices (e.g. vacuum controllers; remote I/O). These devices may or may not be compatible with the high-level DCS protocols. This paper presents some of the benefits and risks of combining high-level DCS communications with low-level "field bus" communications on the same network, and describes measures taken at SNS to promote compatibility between devices connected to the control system network.

  6. [Bus drivers' biomechanical risk assessment in two different contexts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baracco, A; Coggiola, M; Perrelli, F; Banchio, M; Martignone, S; Gullino, A; Romano, C

    2012-01-01

    The application of standardize methods for the biomechanical risk assessment in non-industrial cycled activity is not always possible. A typical case is the public transport sector, where workers complain of suffering for shoulder more than elbow and wrist pains. The Authors present the results of two studies involving two public transport companies and the risk of biomechanical overload of upper limbs for bus and tram drivers. The analysis has been made using three different approaches: focus groups; static analysis by using anthropometric manikins; work sampling technique by monitoring worker's activity and posture at each minute, for two hours and for each binomial vehicle-route, considering P5F e P95M drivers and assessing the perceived efforts thorough the Borg's CR10 Scale. The conclusive results show that the ergonomic analysis managed by multiple non-standardized techniques may reach consistent and repeatable results according to the epidemiological evidences.

  7. Predicting self-pollution inside school buses using a CFD and multi-zone coupled model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Lee, Eon S.; Liu, Junjie; Zhu, Yifang

    2015-04-01

    The in-cabin environment of a school bus is important for children's health. The pollutants from a bus's own exhaust contribute to children's overall exposure to air pollutants inside the school bus cabin. In this study, we adapted a coupled model originally developed for indoor environment to determine the relative contribution of the bus own exhaust to the in-cabin pollutant concentrations. The coupled model uses CFD (computational fluent dynamics) model to simulate outside concentration and CONTAM (a multi-zone model) for inside the school bus. The model was validated with experimental data in the literature. Using the validated model, we analyzed the effects of vehicle speed and tailpipe location on self-pollution inside the bus cabin. We confirmed that the pollution released from the tailpipe can penetrate into the bus cabin through gaps in the back emergency door. We found the pollution concentration inside school buses was the highest when buses were driven at a medium speed. In addition, locating the tailpipe on the side, behind the rear axle resulted in less self-pollution since there is less time for the suction effect to take place. The developed theoretical framework can be generalized to study other types of buses. These findings can be used in developing policy recommendations for reducing human exposure to air pollution inside buses.

  8. Dynamics of Air Passenger Transportation in Eastern Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Păuna

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of an air route mile is, of course, entirely different from that of a road or rail route mile. An air route is a direct service between two cities. The too-rapid development of the air route system must inevitably result in an average intensity of operations on the route, and this means the frequencies are low or high, or the airplanes used are profitable or unprofitable. The purpose of this paper is to emphasize air passenger dynamics in Romania and to calculate specific indicators regarding this calculation for the airports in eastern Romania in 2011t., this, because the air passenger featurea indicator passenger – kilometer, starting with 2009 no longer calculate for aviation and shipping.

  9. Child Passenger Safety in the Somali Communities of Columbus, Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Lara B; Fowler, Erica; Roberts, Kristin J; Kaercher, Roxanne M

    2017-04-01

    Children (particularly low-income minorities and refugees) are at high risk for serious injury or death from motor vehicle crashes. Interpreter-assisted data collection included key informant interviews, focus groups and face-to-face surveys with the Somali community of Columbus, Ohio about child passenger safety. Measurements included prevalence of child safety seats use, awareness and knowledge of and barriers to proper use in order to inform development, implementation, and initial evaluation of a culturally-appropriate intervention for Somali families. Somali parents regarded child passenger safety as an important topic, but many reported improper restraint behaviors of one or more children and/or did not have an adequate number of child safety seats. Few parents reported having child safety seats installed by a professional technician. Child passenger safety practices in the Somali communities of Columbus are a public health concern that should be addressed with culturally-appropriate interventions.

  10. Autonomous Navigation and Obstacle Avoidance of a Micro-Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fernández

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available At present, the topic of automated vehicles is one of the most promising research areas in the field of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS. The use of automated vehicles for public transportation also contributes to reductions in congestion levels and to improvements in traffic flow. Moreover, electrical public autonomous vehicles are environmentally friendly, provide better air quality and contribute to energy conservation. The driverless public transportation systems, which are at present operating in some airports and train stations, are restricted to dedicated roads and exhibit serious trouble dynamically avoiding obstacles in the trajectory. In this paper, an electric autonomous mini-bus is presented. All datasets used in this article were collected during the experiments carried out in the demonstration event of the 2012 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium that took place in Alcalá de Henares (Spain. The demonstration consisted of a route 725 metres long containing a list of latitude-longitude points (waypoints. The mini-bus was capable of driving autonomously from one waypoint to another using a GPS sensor. Furthermore, the vehicle is provided with a multi-beam Laser Imaging Detection and Ranging (LIDAR sensor for surrounding reconstruction and obstacle detection. When an obstacle is detected in the planned path, the planned route is modified in order to avoid the obstacle and continue its way to the end of the mission. On the demonstration day, a total of 196 attendees had the opportunity to get a ride on the vehicles. A total of 28 laps were successfully completed in full autonomous mode in a private circuit located in the National Institute for Aerospace Research (INTA, Spain. In other words, the system completed 20.3 km of driverless navigation and obstacle avoidance.

  11. Indonesian commercial bus drum brake system temperature model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wibowo, D. B., E-mail: rmt.bowo@gmail.com; Haryanto, I., E-mail: ismoyo2001@yahoo.de; Laksono, N. P., E-mail: priyolaksono89@gmail.com [Mechanical Engineering Dept., Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University (Indonesia)

    2016-03-29

    Brake system is the most significant aspect of an automobile safety. It must be able to slow the vehicle, quickly intervening and reliable under varying conditions. Commercial bus in Indonesia, which often stops suddenly and has a high initial velocity, will raise the temperature of braking significantly. From the thermal analysis it is observed that for the bus with the vehicle laden mass of 15 tons and initial velocity of 80 km/h the temperature is increasing with time and reaches the highest temperature of 270.1 °C when stops on a flat road and reaches 311.2 °C on a declination road angle, ø, 20°. These temperatures exceeded evaporation temperature of brake oil DOT 3 and DOT 4. Besides that, the magnitude of the braking temperature also potentially lowers the friction coefficient of more than 30%. The brakes are pressed repeatedly and high-g decelerations also causes brake lining wear out quickly and must be replaced every 1 month as well as the emergence of a large thermal stress which can lead to thermal cracking or thermal fatigue crack. Brake fade phenomenon that could be the cause of many buses accident in Indonesia because of the failure of the braking function. The chances of accidents will be even greater when the brake is worn and not immediately replaced which could cause hot spots as rivets attached to the brake drum and brake oil is not changed for more than 2 years that could potentially lower the evaporation temperature because of the effect hygroscopic.

  12. Real-time bus location monitoring using Arduino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohammad Y. M.; Audah, Lukman

    2017-09-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is the network of objects, such as a vehicles, mobile devices, and buildings that have electronic components, software, and network connectivity that enable them to collect data, run commands, and be controlled through the Internet. Controlling physical items from the Internet will increase efficiency and save time. The growing number of devices used by people increases the practicality of having IoT devices on the market. The IoT is also an opportunity to develop products that can save money and time and increase work efficiency. Initially, they need more efficiency for real-time bus location systems, especially in university campuses. This system can easily find the accurate locations of and distances between each bus stop and the estimated time to reach a new location. This system has been separated into two parts, which are the hardware and the software. The hardware parts are the Arduino Uno and the Global Positioning System (GPS), while Google Earth and GpsGate are the software parts. The GPS continuously takes input data from the satellite and stores the latitude and longitude values in the Arduino Uno. If we want to track the vehicle, we need to send the longitude and latitude as a message to the Google Earth software to convert these into maps for navigation. Once the Arduino Uno is activated, it takes the last received latitude and longitude positions' values from GpsGate and sends a message to Google Earth. Once the message has been sent to Google Earth, the current location will be shown, and navigation will be activated automatically. Then it will be broadcast using ManyCam, Google+ Hangouts, and YouTube, as well as Facebook, and appear to users. The additional features use Google Forms for determining problems faced by students, who can also take immediate action against the responsible department. Then after several successful simulations, the results will be shown in real time on a map.

  13. Child passenger deaths involving alcohol-impaired drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Kyran; Shults, Ruth A; Rudd, Rose A

    2014-06-01

    Approximately 1 in 5 child passenger deaths in the United States involves an alcohol-impaired driver, most commonly the child's own driver. The objective of this study was to document recent trends and state-specific rates of these deaths. A descriptive analysis of 2001-2010 Fatality Analysis Reporting System data for child passengers aged alcohol-impaired driving crashes. Driver impairment was defined as a blood alcohol concentration of ≥0.08 g/dL. During 2001-2010, 2344 children alcohol-impaired driver. Of these children, 1515 (65%) were riding with an impaired driver. Annual deaths among children riding with an alcohol-impaired driver decreased by 41% over the decade. Among the 37 states included in the state-level analysis, Texas (272) and California (135) had the most children killed while riding with an impaired driver and South Dakota (0.98) and New Mexico (0.86) had the highest annualized child passenger death rates (per 100 000 children). Most (61%) child passengers of impaired drivers were unrestrained at the time of the crash. One-third of the impaired drivers did not have a valid driver's license. Alcohol-impaired driving remains a substantial threat to the safety of child passengers in the United States, and typically involves children being driven by impaired drivers. This risk varies meaningfully among states. To make further progress, states and communities could consider increased use of effective interventions and efforts aimed specifically at protecting child passengers from impaired drivers. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. Quality Assessment in the Logistics of Rail Passenger Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedík Milan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on analysis and rating of the quality in the passenger railway transport logistics. At first is described the relationships between logistics and transport, logistical demands for transport and functions of logistics in rail transport. In the third chapter is explained quality assessment including the description of the quality indicators in passenger rail transport and making a proposal of the new methodology for this rating. Consequently this methodology is tested for chosen transport route and is concerned with monitoring quality of the transport routes in the railway network.

  15. Competitiveness of rail in long-distance passenger transport

    OpenAIRE

    Knotek, Lukáš

    2013-01-01

    This master's thesis describes the current state of passenger rail transport and the most important long-distance projects in Europe in the 20th century. It also deals with current changes in the European rail market and its further development. The aim of this master's thesis is to analyze the state of long-distance rail passenger transport in the Czech Republic and abroad, a general view on the high speed rail, which is described in terms of its development, technology, benefits and costs a...

  16. Passenger Requirements of a Public Transport Ticketing System

    OpenAIRE

    Caulfield, Brian; O'MAHONY, MARGARET

    2005-01-01

    PUBLISHED Vienna, Austria Currently in Dublin the system of public transport ticketing is under review and there are plans to introduce a multi-modal, multi-operator ticketing system. It is planned that this system would be operated via smart card technology, whereby passengers can pass between mode and operator with ease of use. The purpose of this paper is to examine what passengers require from their ticketing system with regard to the means and method of payment and the kind of info...

  17. Estimating passenger numbers in trains using existing weighing capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo Friis; Frølich, Laura; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2013-01-01

    in estimates of total numbers of passengers propagate along train runs. Counting errors in manual and electronic counting systems are typically flow-dependent, making uncertainty a function of volume. This paper presents a new counting technique that exploits the weighing systems installed in most modern...... trains to control braking. This technique makes passenger counting cheaper and ensures a complete sample. The paper compares numbers estimated by this technique with manual counts and counts from an infrared system in trains in urban Copenhagen. It shows that the weighing system provides more accurate...

  18. Study of the Instructional Effectiveness of Last Period Middle School Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jennifer Giddings; Tees, Sandra

    To facilitate cost effective bus schedules, middle school classes begin one hour later than high school classes in the Fort Worth Independent School District, Texas. This study investigated whether middle school students were adversely affected, in terms of grades and classroom performance, by having the class day extended to 4 p.m. High schools…

  19. Passenger train emergency systems : review of egress variables and egress simulation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) regulations are intended to ensure the safe, timely, and effective evacuation of intercity and commuter rail passengers when necessary during passenger train emergencies. Although it is recognized that during the...

  20. HRTPO strategic campaign and vision plan for passenger rail : phase 1 overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    SUBJECT: : TEMS (Transportation Economics & Management Systems, Inc.), the consultant specializing in : passenger rail planning, was secured by the HRTPO and its partner DRPT to evaluate the potential : passenger rail service alternative defined by t...

  1. Dynamic traffic analysis model of multiple passengers for urban public transport corridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Di

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available For researching travel choice behavior about different kinds of passenger-alone urban public transportation corridor, a dynamic multiple-passenger flow analysis model was proposed based on dynamic equilibrium assignment theory. Some factors which might influence passenger travel disutility were considered in the model, and they were closely related to the characteristic of passenger. And then a heuristic solution algorithm is developed to solve this model. Relying on MATLAB simulation, the model could reflect the time–space distribution of multiple-passenger flow along this corridor and gave a theoretically quantitative relationship among the passenger characteristics and departure time or path/mode choice. And some useful conclusions about travel choice behavior of different passengers were obtained finally. Compared with the actual data, the deviation of the simulation results is less than 20%, which shows the efficiency of the dynamic multiple-passenger flow analysis model clearly.

  2. Work ability and stress in a bus transportation company in Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Rosana Ferreira; Coelho, Cecília Martins; Barbosa, Fábio Bonfim; Mancini, Marisa Cotta; Parreira, Verônica Franco

    2009-01-01

    Demographic, occupational and psychosocial characteristics affect the health and occupational performance of workers. The objective of the present study was to elaborate a profile of the work ability and factors that affect it in a bus transportation company in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The instruments used included a socio-demographic and occupational questionnaire, the Work Ability Index and the Job Stress Scale. Demographic information revealed that 85.7% of the 126 employees of the company were active workers, 98% were males, with an average of 39 years of age (SD= 10) and 79 months working in the company (SD= 68); more than half reported having a low schooling level. In terms of personal habits, 88% were exposed to one or more risk factors, especially a sedentary lifestyle. The average strain value (as a consequence of stress) was 0.78 (SD= 0.2) and 75.3% reported episodes of violence at the workplace. The work ability was good to excellent among 89% of the workers. Results from the logistic regression analysis showed that strain was the only significant variable in relation to the Work Ability Index, (estimated odds ratio of 0.02). The results suggest that psychosocial factors presented the greatest association with work ability, and preventive and/or corrective measures should be implemented.

  3. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Third Evaluation Report and Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes operations at Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) in Hartford for one prototype fuel cell bus and three new diesel buses operating from the same location. The prototype fuel cell bus was manufactured by Van Hool and ISE Corp. and features an electric hybrid drive system with a UTC Power PureMotion 120 Fuel Cell Power System and ZEBRA batteries for energy storage. The fuel cell bus started operation in April 2007, and evaluation results through October 2009 are provided in this report.

  4. Single Axis Attitude Control and DC Bus Regulation with Two Flywheels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kascak, Peter E.; Jansen, Ralph H.; Kenny, Barbara; Dever, Timothy P.

    2002-01-01

    A computer simulation of a flywheel energy storage single axis attitude control system is described. The simulation models hardware which will be experimentally tested in the future. This hardware consists of two counter rotating flywheels mounted to an air table. The air table allows one axis of rotational motion. An inertia DC bus coordinator is set forth that allows the two control problems, bus regulation and attitude control, to be separated. Simulation results are presented with a previously derived flywheel bus regulator and a simple PID attitude controller.

  5. 77 FR 60672 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Tesla Motors, Inc., (Electric Passenger Vehicles), Palo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Tesla Motors, Inc., (Electric Passenger... electric passenger vehicles and related powertrain components at the Tesla Motors, Inc., facilities located... establish a special-purpose subzone at the electric passenger vehicle manufacturing facilities of Tesla...

  6. ROLE AND SIGNIFICANCE OF THE COACH SECTIONS IN PASSENGER SERVICES AND PERSPECTIVE THEIR DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. H. Kharchuk

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article the certain role and value of carriage areas as important subsection of passenger complex of railway transport are determined, the analysis of the passenger coach division-1 activity and the environment is conducted and the ways of their promising development in passenger services taking into account basic marketing-andlogistic principles of providing services in trains are offered.

  7. 36 CFR 1005.4 - Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. 1005.4 Section 1005.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.4 Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. Passenger-carrying motor...

  8. 49 CFR 583.11 - Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle... CONTENT LABELING § 583.11 Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. (a) For each unique type of passenger motor vehicle equipment which an allied supplier supplies to the manufacturer with which...

  9. 49 CFR 583.10 - Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle... CONTENT LABELING § 583.10 Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. (a) For each unique type of passenger motor vehicle equipment for which a manufacturer or allied supplier requests information...

  10. 36 CFR 13.1316 - Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... passengers by motor vehicles. 13.1316 Section 13.1316 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK... National Park General Provisions § 13.1316 Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles. Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles on Exit Glacier Road is allowed without a written permit. However...

  11. 14 CFR 135.155 - Fire extinguishers: Passenger-carrying aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire extinguishers: Passenger-carrying... Aircraft and Equipment § 135.155 Fire extinguishers: Passenger-carrying aircraft. No person may operate an aircraft carrying passengers unless it is equipped with hand fire extinguishers of an approved type for use...

  12. APPLICATION OF NFC TECHNOLOGY IN PASSENGER RAIL TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryk KOMSTA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the possibility of the application of the NFC technology as a system of selling tickets in passenger rail transport. The NFC (Near Field Communication technology is a wireless and contactless technology of transmission of radio data over short distances (max. 5 cm. This technology is very similar to the RFID (Radio Frequency Identification technology. It is assumed that this technology will spread rapidly and that already in 2015 around 85% of the payments in the EU will be made via mobile phones. This paper presents a research of passenger interest in this method of payment for tickets in the passenger rail transport in Slovakia. Further, an analysis of the applications of the NFC technology as a system of selling tickets in passenger rail transport, including the protection of data in mobile phones, the processes in case of losing a mobile phone and ensuring the communication between both parties was presented in the article. The last part of this analysis shows the possibility of purchasing tickets regardless of the carrier and the transport type.

  13. Reasons and remedies of inland passenger vessels accidents in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Cdr Kaosar; Islam, Muhammad Rabiul

    2017-12-01

    The waterways are very important means of communication in Bangladesh. Every year over 95 million passengers are carried through this route. But, this important mode of transport is ridden with tragic disasters every year, incurring a heavy toll of human lives. In last twenty years (1994 to 2014), around 5,500 people have died and 1,500 gone missing in 658 launch disasters. The inland routes of Barisal, Bhola, Chandpur and Patuakhali and their connected water ways to Dhaka and Chittagong are found to be more accident prone. Lack of Awareness, boundless operation of unfit vessels, overloading of passengers, recruitment of unskilled crews, poor capacity of relevant bodies and low standard maintenance of Inland Water Transport (IWT) channels, poor weather forecasting, profit centered attitude of vessel owners and corruption are initiating these deadly accidents. Despite of a number of initiatives by the government, concerned departments and foreign consultants, the safety aspect of the inland passenger vessels still remains in dark. Combined effort of Department of Shipping, BIWTA, and the attitude of vessels owners as well as passengers are very essential in this respect.

  14. The Simultaneous Vehicle Scheduling and Passenger Service Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne Løhmann; Larsen, Allan; Madsen, Oli B.G.

    2013-01-01

    , by modifying the timetable. The planning approach is referred to as the simultaneous vehicle scheduling and passenger service problem (SVSPSP). The SVSPSP is modelled as an integer programming problem and solved using a large neighborhood search metaheuristic. The proposed framework is tested on data inspired...

  15. The Simultaneous Vehicle Scheduling and Passenger Service Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne Løhmann; Larsen, Allan; Madsen, Oli B.G.

    modifications of the timetable during the vehicle scheduling phase. This planning approach is referred to as the Simultaneous Vehicle Scheduling and Passenger Service Problem (SVSPSP). The SVSPSP is solved using a large neighbourhood search metaheuristic. The proposed framework is tested on data inspired...

  16. 75 FR 68467 - Transportation for Individuals With Disabilities: Passenger Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION 49 CFR Part 39 RIN 2105-AB87 Transportation for Individuals With Disabilities: Passenger Vessels... remain consistent with those of DOJ. One of these organizations pointed out that the DOJ ADA rules become...

  17. Maintenance in Railway Rolling Stock Rescheduling for Passenger Railways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Wagenaar (Joris); L.G. Kroon (Leo)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThis paper addresses the Rolling Stock Rescheduling Problem (RSRP), while taking maintenance appointments into account. After a disruption, the rolling stock of passenger trains has to be rescheduled in order to maintain a feasible rolling stock circulation. A limited number of rolling

  18. Alignment analysis of urban railways based on passenger travel demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Planning of urban railways like Metro and especially Light Rail Transit often result in multiple alignment alternatives from where it can be difficult to select the best one. Travel demand is a good foundation for evaluating a railway alignment for its ability to attract passengers. Therefore...

  19. PASSENGER CAR MOTION RESISTANCE AT COAST-DOWN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Rabinovich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The nature of the real dependence of the movement resistance of a passenger car speed during the free coast-down is significantly different from the theoretical one. Partially, the differences can be eliminated by taking into account the loss of transmission idling.

  20. 77 FR 153 - Passenger Train Emergency Systems II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    ... Passenger Train Emergency Systems (PTES) addressing: emergency communication, emergency egress, and rescue... windows used by emergency responders. See 73 FR 6370. During the development of the PESS rule and the PTES... issued the PTES rule. As noted above, the final rule was published on February 1, 2008, and it addressed...

  1. Enhancing passenger safety and security in Ghana: Appraising ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are increasing calls for regular monitoring and evaluation of safety and security strategies of public transport (PT) operators, especially in developing countries where PT safety and security concerns abound. In respect of this, this study examined the passenger safety and security interventions of PT operators in ...

  2. 14 CFR 23.853 - Passenger and crew compartment interiors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Passenger and crew compartment interiors. 23.853 Section 23.853 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... instruments in a common housing, seatbelts, shoulder harnesses, and cargo and baggage tiedown equipment...

  3. Allocation of Railway Rolling Stock for Passenger Trains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.W.V. van den Berg (Bianca); L.G. Kroon (Leo); M. Salomon (Marc); E.J.W. Abbink (Erwin)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractFor a commercially operating railway company, providing a high level of service for the passengers is of utmost importance. The latter requires a high punctuality of the trains and an adequate rolling stock capacity. Unfortunately, the latter is currently (2002) one of the bottlenecks in

  4. Allocation of Railway Rolling Stock for Passenger Trains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, E.; van den Berg, B.; Kroon, L.G.; Salomon, M.

    2002-01-01

    For a commercially operating railway company, providing a high level of service for the passengers is of utmost importance.The latter requires a high punctuality of the trains and an adequate rolling stock capacity.Unfortunately, the latter is currently (2002) one of the bottlenecks in the service

  5. Regulation of cell division by the chromosomal passenger complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vader, G.

    2007-01-01

    The experiments described in this thesis have investigated the mitotic function of a protein complex called the Chromosomal Passenger Complex (CPC). The CPC is required for the detection and correction of defective (non bi-oriented) microtubule-kinetochore attachments, spindle checkpoint function

  6. Energy use reduction potential of passenger transport in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, ME; Moll, HC

    2000-01-01

    To contribute to a sustainable society, considerable reduction in energy use and CO2 emissions should be achieved. This paper presents the results of calculations exploring the energy use reduction potential of passenger transport for Western Europe (OECD Europe minus Turkey). For these

  7. Harnessing innovation in passenger transport research in Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokonyama, Mathetha T

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides the framework proposed by the newly established Built Environment Unit of CSIR, a public institution, to provide foresight driven research input into the passenger transport domain. This is modelled on the mandate of the CSIR...

  8. EVs and post 2020 CO2 targets for passenger cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smokers, R.T.M.; Verbeek, M.; Zyl, S. van

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses what post 2020 targets may be necessary for the European CO2 legislation for passenger cars in order to reach the overall sectoral goal of 60% reduction of transport's greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 relative to 1990, as defined in the European Commission's White Paper. The

  9. Passengers' attitudes and behaviour towards motorcycle helmet use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Head injuries are a leading cause of death and morbidity among motorcycle users. The use of crash helmet is the most successful approach to preventing injury among motorcycle users. The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes, knowledge, and behavior of motorcycle passengers to helmet use in Ilorin ...

  10. Safety of railroad passenger vehicle dynamics : final summary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-07-01

    This report is a summary of all the work done by Foster-Miller on the passenger rail vehicle dynamic safety under the contract awarded by the FRA. The report presents key issues and findings in the safety assessments and a safety assessment methodolo...

  11. Quantifying Clonal and Subclonal Passenger Mutations in Cancer Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozic, Ivana; Gerold, Jeffrey M.; Nowak, Martin A.

    2016-01-01

    The vast majority of mutations in the exome of cancer cells are passengers, which do not affect the reproductive rate of the cell. Passengers can provide important information about the evolutionary history of an individual cancer, and serve as a molecular clock. Passengers can also become targets for immunotherapy or confer resistance to treatment. We study the stochastic expansion of a population of cancer cells describing the growth of primary tumors or metastatic lesions. We first analyze the process by looking forward in time and calculate the fixation probabilities and frequencies of successive passenger mutations ordered by their time of appearance. We compute the likelihood of specific evolutionary trees, thereby informing the phylogenetic reconstruction of cancer evolution in individual patients. Next, we derive results looking backward in time: for a given subclonal mutation we estimate the number of cancer cells that were present at the time when that mutation arose. We derive exact formulas for the expected numbers of subclonal mutations of any frequency. Fitting this formula to cancer sequencing data leads to an estimate for the ratio of birth and death rates of cancer cells during the early stages of clonal expansion. PMID:26828429

  12. Violence Against Drivers and Conductors in the Road Passenger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    increased likelihood of exposure to workplace violence in the road passenger transport sector. ... 1 Correspondence to:Maria Tereza Couto Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Social Medicine, Norrbacka 2nd floor, ..... interviewers' training package included understanding the study aims, the questionnaire.

  13. Chicago to Iowa City intercity passenger rail route : business plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    This business plan describes the methods by which the Iowa Department of Transportation (DOT will partner with Iowa counties and cities to fund Iowas share of the operating and maintenance cost for the Chicago-Iowa City passenger-rail service, an ...

  14. Consumer preferences in the design of airport passenger areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oel, C.J.; Van den Berkhof, F.W.

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades, commercial developments have become increasingly important for the overall profit of airports. However, little is known about consumer preferences regarding the design of passenger areas, which is striking as the design of terminal buildings affects consumers' emotional state and

  15. Emergency evacuation : how better interior design can improve passenger flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, L.C.; Skjong, R.

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents some conclusions from the EU basic research project "MEPdesign" relevant for design of ship interiors. The findings are discussed with regard to passenger flow as a function of design parameters. The paper explains that current evacuation analyses may be overly optimistic. The

  16. Models for Train Passenger Forecasting of Java and Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartono

    2017-04-01

    People tend to take public transportation to avoid high traffic, especially in Java. In Jakarta, the number of railway passengers is over than the capacity of the train at peak time. This is an opportunity as well as a challenge. If it is managed well then the company can get high profit. Otherwise, it may lead to disaster. This article discusses models for the train passengers, hence, finding the reasonable models to make a prediction overtimes. The Box-Jenkins method is occupied to develop a basic model. Then, this model is compared to models obtained using exponential smoothing method and regression method. The result shows that Holt-Winters model is better to predict for one-month, three-month, and six-month ahead for the passenger in Java. In addition, SARIMA(1,1,0)(2,0,0) is more accurate for nine-month and twelve-month oversee. On the other hand, for Sumatra passenger forecasting, SARIMA(1,1,1)(0,0,2) gives a better approximation for one-month ahead, and ARIMA model is best for three-month ahead prediction. The rest, Trend Seasonal and Liner Model has the least of RMSE to forecast for six-month, nine-month, and twelve-month ahead.

  17. State and Federal project development procedures for bus rapid transit : managing differences and reducing implementation delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    This report documents an investigation into the transportation project development process in the : context of the implementation of bus rapid transit systems on the State Highway System as well as such : systems being part of the Federal New Starts ...

  18. Toward Real-time Multi-criteria Decision Making for Bus Service Reliability Optimisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Vu The; Eklund, Peter; Cook, Chris

    2015-01-01

    -objective evolutionary algorithm using a dynamic Bayesian network, applies preventive strategies to forestall bus unreliability and, where unreliability is evident, restore reliability using corrective strategies. 'Holding', 'expressing', 'short-turning' and 'deadheading' are the corrective strategies considered...

  19. Exploring public bus service quality in South Africa: A structural equation modelling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayanda M. Vilakazi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study, which is a deviation from the usual practice of using SERVQUAL or an adaptedversion thereof, uses McKnight, Pagano and Paaswell’s (1986 service quality dimensions,namely reliability; extent of service; comfort; safety; and affordability (RECSA and structuralequation modelling to determine commuters’ perception of public bus service quality in amajor city in South Africa. The RECSA model was adapted and fitted to the data collectedfrom a convenience sample of bus commuters in Johannesburg, using structural equationmodelling. It was ascertained that reliability, service, comfort and safety influenced thepublic bus commuters’ perception of the overall service quality. The implications of theaforementioned findings for providers of public bus services are explained.

  20. Professional, ethical, and legal duties in the case of the diabetic bus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , or one year of imprisonment, or both.[1]. The situation at hand, in which the bus driver's practitioner diagnoses the patient's condition outside a fitness-to-drive examination, is more problematic and forms the subject matter of this article.

  1. Optimizing a desirable fare structure for a bus-subway corridor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bing-Zheng Liu; Ying-En Ge; Kai Cao; Xi Jiang; Lingyun Meng; Ding Liu; Yunfeng Gao

    This paper aims to optimize a desirable fare structure for the public transit service along a bus-subway corridor with the consideration of those factors related to equity in trip, including travel...

  2. Risk factors associated with bus accident severity in the United States: a generalized ordered logit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2012-07-01

    Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in improving bus safety operations worldwide. While in the United States buses are considered relatively safe, the number of bus accidents is far from being negligible, triggering the introduction of the Motor-coach Enhanced Safety Act of 2011. The current study investigates the underlying risk factors of bus accident severity in the United States by estimating a generalized ordered logit model. Data for the analysis are retrieved from the General Estimates System (GES) database for the years 2005-2009. Results show that accident severity increases: (i) for young bus drivers under the age of 25; (ii) for drivers beyond the age of 55, and most prominently for drivers over 65 years old; (iii) for female drivers; (iv) for very high (over 65 mph) and very low (under 20 mph) speed limits; (v) at intersections; (vi) because of inattentive and risky driving. Copyright © 2012 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Hierarchical Approach to Optimizing Bus Stop Distribution in Large and Fast Developing Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengdong Huang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Public transit plays a key role in shaping the transportation structure of large and fast growing cities. To cope with high population and employment density, such cities usually resort to multi-modal transit services, such as rail, BRT and bus. These modes are strategically connected to form an effective transit network. Among the transit modes, bus stops need to be properly deployed to maintain an acceptable walking accessibility. This paper presents a hierarchical process for optimizing bus stop locations in the context of fast growing multi-modal transit services. Three types of bus stops are identified hierarchically, which includes connection stops, key stops and ordinary stops. Connection stops are generated manually to connect with other transit facilities. Key stops and ordinary stops are optimized with coverage models that are respectively weighted by network centrality measure and potential demand. A case study in a Chinese city suggests the hierarchical approach may generate more effective stop distribution.

  4. Performance analysis of time triggered communication bus based on network calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiandong; Ma, Lianchuan; Cao, Yuan; Mu, Jiancheng

    2017-03-01

    The time triggered mechanism is the activity of incentive system in the scheduled time. Each node of the time-triggered communication bus knows when the data information can be transmitted, so the behavior of communication nodes is determined and predictable. This feature is very suitable for appling in the industry field of high safety requirement. According to EN50159 standard for railway signal system security related communication, this paper analyzes the reliability of the physical layer of communication bus, and uses the network calculus method to establish the arrival curve model and service curve model which quantitatively calculate the time delay characteristic of time trigger bus to determine the number of retransmissions of data communications. The time-triggered communication bus is proved that it can meet the security requirements of the railway signal transmission system.

  5. Implementation of Bus Rapid Transit in Copenhagen: A Mesoscopic Model Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvardson, Jesper Bláfoss; Kornerup Jensen, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    upgrades (busways and enhanced stations) ensure a reduction to traveltime whereas no improvements to reliability occur. Upgrades to technology and serviceplanning (pre-paid fare collection, boarding and alighting from all doors, special BRT vehicles, ITS, and active bus control) ensure an increase...... for large scale corridors due to the vast amount of data and resources required.Hence, it is relevant to investigate how to model and evaluate BRT efficiently.In this paper the effects of implementing BRT in Copenhagen is discussed including how to evaluate and model bus operations.For this purpose......-simulation models.The developed model is capable of modelling bus operations in terms of travel time and reliability including important mode-specific issues such as bus bunching.The model is applied to a BRT project proposal with different combinations of BRTelements. The model results show that infrastructure...

  6. Glacier Going to the Sun Road Rehabilitation Mitigation Shuttle Bus Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-31

    As a mitigation measure during reconstruction of the Going to the Sun Road, Glacier National Park operated a shuttle bus system along three routes during the 2007 season. This report presents a multi-dimensional evaluation of the transportation servi...

  7. Optimizing Frequency of Bus Services in Mixed-Traffic Urban Streets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    KOV, Monyrath; FUKUDA, Daisuke; YAI, Tetsuo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a new analytical model is proposed to determine optimal frequency for urban bus transit under variable demand by explicitly considering the interaction between different vehicles in urban mixed traffic...

  8. Risk factors associated with bus accident severity in the United States: A generalized ordered logit model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in improving bus safety operations worldwide. While in the United States buses are considered relatively safe, the number of bus accidents is far from being negligible, triggering the introduction of the Motor-coach Enhanced Safety Act...... of 2011. Method: The current study investigates the underlying risk factors of bus accident severity in the United States by estimating a generalized ordered logit model. Data for the analysis are retrieved from the General Estimates System (GES) database for the years 2005–2009. Results: Results show...... that accident severity increases: (i) for young bus drivers under the age of 25; (ii) for drivers beyond the age of 55, and most prominently for drivers over 65 years old; (iii) for female drivers; (iv) for very high (over 65 mph) and very low (under 20 mph) speed limits; (v) at intersections; (vi) because...

  9. Long term application of bus monitoring system to short and medium span bridges and damage detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Ayaho; Lúcio, Válter J. G.; Emoto, Hisao; Tanaka, Hideaki

    2015-07-01

    In this study, as one solution to the problem for condition assessment of existing short and medium span reinforced/prestressed concrete bridges, a new monitoring method using a public bus as part of a public transit system (bus monitoring system) is proposed, along with safety indices, namely, characteristic deflection, which is relatively free from the influence of dynamic disturbances due to such factors as the roughness of the road surface, and a structural anomaly parameter. A basic study was conducted by using the results of technical verification experiments and numerical analysis simulation. This paper describes the details of not only how to assess the bridge condition by public bus vibration measured in operating on Ube City bus network as a specific example for verify the system but also what kind of consideration we need to apply the system to existing bridges in overseas country.

  10. Psychosocial Work Factors, Blood Pressure and Psychological Strain in Male Bus Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    CENDALES, Boris; USECHE, Sergio; GÓMEZ, Viviola

    2014-01-01

    The research aim was to predict the bus operators’ blood pressure (BP) and psychological strain using a combination of the Job-Demand Control (JDC) and Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) models. The study was conducted with a sample of 139 bus operators in the city of Bogotá (Colombia), who answered a questionnaire that included the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), the ERI Questionnaire, and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Four consecutive BP readings taken in the workplace were averaged to calculate an estimation of the bus operators’ BP. By conducting multiple linear regressions it was found that, taken together, JDC and ERI models explain 10% (F(11,139)=2,502; p=0.00) of systolic BP variance, and 34% (F(6,139)=8,638; p=0.00) of psychological strain variance. These results suggest that the JDC and ERI predictors provide complementary information which increases the probability of accurately model the bus operators’ health. PMID:24869893

  11. Analysis of Journey to Work Travel Behavior by Car and Bus in the Sydney Metropolitan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suthanaya P.A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Car dependence is a fundamental problem in the sustainability of cities with low-density suburban sprawl. Increasing the use of public transport is one of the policy objectives commonly adopted to overcome this problem. It is essential to study journey to work travel behavior by car and bus. This paper applied preference function to analyze travel behavior and Moran’s I spatial statistic to evaluate the spatial association. The results indicated that the commuting preferences of residents have moved towards distance maximization. In general, bus was preferred for shorter distance trips whilst car was preferred for longer distance trips. Unlike car, by increasing distances from the Central Business District, residents tended to use bus for shorter distance trip. A significant positive spatial association was identified for both the slope preferences by car and bus where zones with a preference towards longer or shorter trips tended to travel to zones with similar preferences.

  12. Measuring technology in the Autarkic Hybrid of the TUM based on the CAN-BUS; Messtechnik im Autarken Hybrid der TUM auf Basis des CAN-BUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freimann, R.; Rhenius, K.T. [VDI, Garching (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    In the frame of the partial project B8, equipment of the test vehicle in terms of measuring technology, the SFB 365 (Environmentally friendly drive technology for vehicles) tests have been carried out to show the suitability of serial digital data transfer for the acquisition of measuring data and the Controller Area Network (CAN) was selected as appropriate transfer medium in order to realise communication in a decentral control and to realise the control of all drive system functions based upon distributed control devices. All measuring and control data necessary for the control are transferred to the ''Control-BUS'' (BUS = Binary Unit System). Parallel to the control process the necessary high frequency measuring data are transferred on a second CAN and are recorded together with the data on the Control-BUS. The necessary sensors for the data acquisition were designed and tested within the partial project B8 as far as they were not a direct component of the control system of a partial component in the drive system. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen des Teilprojektes B8, messtechnische Ausruestung des Versuchsfahrzeuges, des SFB 365 (Umweltfreundliche Antriebstechnik fuer Fahrzeuge) wurden Untersuchungen zur Eignung einer seriell digitalen Datenuebertragung fuer die Messdatenerfassung durchgefuehrt und das Controller Area Network (CAN) als geeignetes Uebertragungsmedium zur Realisierung der Kommunikation in einer dezentralen Steuerung / Regelung aller Antriebsstrangfunktionen auf Basis verteilter Steuergeraete ausgewaehlt. Alle zur Regelung benoetigten Mess- und Statusdaten werden auf dem 'Regel-BUS' (BUS = Binary Unit System) uebertragen. Parallel zur Regelung werden die erforderlichen hochfrequenten Messdaten auf einem zweiten CAN Uebertragen und gemeinsam mit den Daten auf dem Regel-BUS aufgezeichnet. Die erforderliche Sensorik der Datenerfassung wurde, soweit sie nicht direkter Bestandteil der Regelung einer Teilkomponente im

  13. The impact of bus drivers ’ lifestyle on the occurrence of health problems and absenteeism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Jerman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: Do bus drivers’ lifestyles affect the occurrence of health problems and absenteeism? Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine whether the lifestyle of professional bus drivers affects the occurrence of health problems and the phenomenon of absenteeism. Method: A quantitative research method was used in the research. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire, on a sample of 230 professional bus drivers from different bus transport companies in Slovenia. Selected data were analyzed with chi-square test and multiple regression analysis. Results: We determined that there is a relationship between the state of health of professional bus drivers and participation in sport activity and that there is a statistically significant impact of lifestyle on the absenteeism of professional bus drivers. Organization: The study points to the necessity of management’s awareness to improve the conditions for the health status of employees and, consequently, absenteeism. Managers need to be more vigilant in ensuring conditions and social security that will allow employees a higher quality lifestyle. Society: The poor quality lifestyle of professional bus drivers, which includes different addictions, inadequate physical activity, and poor working conditions, is a significant factor causing absenteeism. All these factors influence the onset of negative consequences, such as the direct cost of compensation payments, costs of replacing the absent person, a reduction in productivity, which in turn affect economic growth and the high cost of health care. Originality: This is the first focus group study of professional bus drivers that targets lifestyle and its connection to absenteeism. Limitations/Future Research: The main limitation of the study is the number of respondents. The reason for this is that professional drivers are less responsive in the survey and that the study was conducted only in Slovenia, country of two

  14. Two-Stage Vibration Isolation for Flexible Satellite Bus and Optic Payload Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-27

    and damper model and with neglectable mass . Subscripts denote degree of freedoms corresponding to actuators ( R ), actuator isolators’ locations on... damper inserted inside the elastic element. Comparing with liquid damper and viscoelastic material damper , this damper has such merits as simple...satellite bus and the optic payload are rigid body. This study indicates that a large mass ratio between the satellite bus and the optical payload can

  15. Mechanical analysis of the main bus bars in the DFBA shuffling modules

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos, D

    2012-01-01

    The main bus bars (13 kA) inside the shuffling modules of the distribution feed boxes powering the LHC arcs (DFBA) are subjected to high Lorentz forces. The structural behaviour of the bus bars under such forces is here analysed. The results are discussed with respect to a risk of structural failure due to excessive deformation or degradation of the electrical insulation by repeated contact with other surfaces.

  16. Design of Bus Protocol Intelligent Initiation System Based On RS485

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Liming

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to design an effective and reliable RS485 bus protocol based on RS485 bus, this paper introduces the structure and transmission mode of the command frame and the response frame, and also introduce four control measures and the communication in order to process quality of this system. The communication protocol is open, tolerant, reliable and fast, and can realize ignition more reliable and accurate in the intelligent initiation system.

  17. Effects of Self Stretching on Pain and Musculoskeletal Symptom of Bus Drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jung-Ho; Gak, Hwang Bo

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the musculoskeletal symptoms, pain and risk of postures as well as the effects of stretching exercise on the work-related symptoms and pain of bus drivers. [Subjects and Methods] Eighty-one drivers were randomly recruited from a bus corporation for this study. Information about pain levels, painful regions, and general characteristics of subjects was obtained using the symptom research form (KOSHA Code H-30-2003). The level of pain was assessed ...

  18. Stochastic Bus Traffic Modelling and Validation Using Smart Card Fare Collection Data

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanchev, Jordan;Aydt, Heiko;Knoll, Alois

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines some of the most important contributions regarding bus transit control and optimisation from a modelling perspective. It provides guidelines for designing simulations of this type and points to the need of a qualitatively and quantitatively correct model that is validated and can serve as a benchmark testing platform for the numerous optimisation strategies that researchers present. It examines a case study about a bus line in Singapore and uses smart card data to extract ...

  19. Get Smart About Energy: Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (OBT) EnergySmart Schools Program Folder (Revision)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-02-01

    While improving their energy use in buildings and bus fleets, schools are likely to create better places for teaching and learning with better lighting, temperature control, acoustics, and air quality. Smart districts also realize benefits in student performance.

  20. Get Smart About Energy: Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (OBT) EnergySmart Schools Program Brochure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Energy Smart Schools Team

    2001-10-11

    While improving their energy use in buildings and bus fleets, schools are likely to create better places for teaching and learning with better lighting, temperature control, acoustics, and air quality. Smart districts also realize benefits in student performance.