Children's Aid Society, 2012
School Based Health Centers (SBHC) are considered by experts as one of the most effective and efficient ways to provide preventive health care to children. Few programs are as successful in delivering health care to children at no cost to the patient, and where they are: in school. For many underserved children, The Children's Aid Society's…
... care group, such as a community health center, hospital, or health department. A few are run by the school district itself. Centers often get money from charities and the government so they can give care ...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration School-Based... Gadsden County. SUMMARY: HRSA will be transferring a School-Based Health Center Capital (SBHCC) Program... support the expansion of services at school-based health centers will continue. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION...
Ondeck, Lynnette; Combe, Laurie; Baszler, Rita; Wright, Janet
It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that the unique combination of school nursing services and school-based health centers (SBHCs) facilitate positive health outcomes for students. The registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as school nurse) is responsible for management of the daily health…
Wei, Yifeng; Kutcher, Stan; Szumilas, Magdalena
Adolescence is a critical period for the promotion of mental health and the treatment of mental disorders. Schools are well-positioned to address adolescent mental health. This paper describes a school mental health model, "School-Based Pathway to Care," for Canadian secondary schools that links schools with primary care providers and…
Resources available for school based mental health services in Enugu urban and head teachers' knowledge of childhood mental health problems. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) ...
Larson, Satu; Chapman, Susan; Spetz, Joanne; Brindis, Claire D.
Background: Children and adolescents exposed to chronic trauma have a greater risk for mental health disorders and school failure. Children and adolescents of minority racial/ethnic groups and those living in poverty are at greater risk of exposure to trauma and less likely to have access to mental health services. School-based health centers…
Bains, Ranbir M.; Cusson, Regina; White-Frese, Jesse; Walsh, Stephen
Background: We summarize utilization patterns for mental health services in school-based health centers. Methods: Administrative data on school-based health center visits in New Haven, Connecticut were examined for the 2007-2009 school years. Relative frequencies of mental health visits by age were calculated as a percentage of all visits and were…
Larson, S; Chapman, S; Spetz, J; Brindis, CD
Children and adolescents exposed to chronic trauma have a greater risk for mental health disorders and school failure. Children and adolescents of minority racial/ethnic groups and those living in poverty are at greater risk of exposure to trauma and less likely to have access to mental health services. School-based health centers (SBHCs) may be one strategy to decrease health disparities.Empirical studies between 2003 and 2013 of US pediatric populations and of US SBHCs were included if rese...
Bogie, James; Eder, Ben; Magnus, Dan; Amonje, Onguko David; Gant, Martina
Primary school children in low-income countries are at risk of many diseases and poor health affects attendance, cognition and ability to learn. Developing school health and nutrition strategies has been extensively highlighted as a global priority, with a particular focus on complex programme design. However, such programmes are relatively untested in low-income settings. We implemented a complex school health and nutrition programme in two schools in Western Kenya over 3 years. There were numerous elements covering health policy, skills-based health education, infrastructure and disease prevention. A local non-governmental organisation, with involvement from local government and the community, performed programme implementation. Height-for-age, weight-for-age,height-for-weight, anaemia prevalence, academic performance and school attendance were the primary outcome measures. The programme improved nutrition, academic performance and anaemia prevalence. The number of underweight children fell from 20% to 11% (OR 0.51 95% CI 0.39 to 0.68 p=effect on school attendance, the reasons for which are unclear. These results are encouraging and demonstrate that complex schools health programmes can lead to positive gains in health, nutrition and importantly academic performance. There is a need for further evaluation of comprehensive school health interventions in poor communities. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Gonzales, C; Mulligan, D; Kaufman, A; Davis, S; Hunt, K; Kalishman, N; Wallerstein, N
Participants in this discussion of the potential of school-based health care services for adolescents included family medicine physicians, school health coordinators, a school nurse, and a community worker. It was noted that health care for adolescents tends to be either inaccessible or underutilized, largely because of a lack of sensitivity to adolescent culture and values. An ideal service for adolescents would offer immediate services for crises, strict confidentiality, ready access to prescribed medications, a sliding-scale scheme, and a staff that is tolerant of divergent values and life-styles. School-based pilot adolescent clinics have been established by the University of New Mexico's Department of Family, Community, and Emergency Medicine to test the community-oriented health care model. On-site clinics provide urgent medical care, family planning, pregnancy testing, psychological counseling, alcohol and drug counseling, and classroom health education. Experience with these programs has demonstrated the necessity for an alliance among the health team and the school administration, parents, and students. Financial, ethical, and political factors can serve as constraints to school-based programs. In some cases, school administrators have been resistant to the provision of contraception to students on school grounds and parents have been unwilling to accept the adolescent's right to confidentiality. These problems in part stem from having 2 separate systems, each with its own values, orientation, and responsibilities, housed in 1 facility. In addition, there have been problems generating awareness of the school-based clinic among students. Health education theater groups, peer counseling, and student-run community services have been effective, however, in increasing student participation. It has been helpful to mold clinic services to meet the needs identified by teenagers themselves. There is an interest not only in curative services, but in services focused
Research demonstrates that addressing mental health issues in children can yield both increased academic performance and better social-emotional skills. In the past, school-based mental health services for students have been implemented inconsistently and usually in combination with community partners. When school mental health interventions are…
Bains, Ranbir Mangat; Diallo, Ana F.
Mental health issues affect 20-25% of children and adolescents, of which few receive services. School-based health centers (SBHCs) provide access to mental health services to children and adolescents within their schools. A systematic review of literature was undertaken to review evidence on the effectiveness of delivery of mental health services…
National Assembly on School-Based Health Care, 2008
School-based health centers (SBHCs) are considered one of the most effective strategies for delivering preventive care, including reproductive and mental health care services, to adolescents--a population long considered difficult to reach. National Assembly on School-Based Health Care (NASBHC) recommends practices and policies to assure…
Doll, Beth; Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Cornell, Laura; Song, Samuel Y.
School-based mental health services are those delivered by school-employed and community-employed providers in school buildings. With the implementation of provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (2010) that funds school-based health centers, school-based mental health services could become more broadly available in…
From February 2008 through April 2011, School Health Connection, a program of the Louisiana Public Health Institute, developed an electronic health information management system for newly established school-based health centers in Greater New Orleans. School Health Connection was established as part of a broader effort to restore community health…
Moore, Michele Johnson; Barr, Elissa; Wilson, Kristina; Griner, Stacey
Background: Numerous studies document support for sexuality education in the schools. However, there is a dearth of research assessing support for sexual health services offered through school-based health clinics (SBHCs). The purpose of this study was to assess voter support for offering 3 sexual health services (STI/HIV testing, STI/HIV…
Adults may facilitate or obstruct healthy sexual behaviours by adolescents; hence information on their attitude towards adolescent sexual behaviour, including contraceptive use is important. The attitude of teachers to school-based adolescent reproductive health services was assessed among two hundred and twenty three ...
Nevada Univ., Las Vegas. Coll. of Education.
This document is one of ten curriculum guides developed by the Nevada Competency-Based Adult High School Diploma (CBAHSD) Project. This curriculum guide on health is divided into ten topics. The topics included are Nutrition, Reproduction, Menstruation, Contraception, Alcohol Abuse, Tobacco, Immunization, Disease, Accident Prevention, and…
Freeman, Ruth; Gibson, Barry; Humphris, Gerry; Leonard, Helen; Yuan, Siyang; Whelton, Helen
Objective: To use a model of health learning to examine the role of health-learning capacity and the effect of a school-based oral health education intervention (Winning Smiles) on the health outcome, child oral health-related quality of life (COHRQoL). Setting: Primary schools, high social deprivation, Ireland/Northern Ireland. Design: Cluster…
Kline, Emily R; Chokran, Cole; Rodenhiser-Hill, Janine; Seidman, Larry J; Woodberry, Kristen A
Many school districts in the United States employ mental health professionals to provide assessment, counselling and crisis interventions within the school setting; however, little is known about actual clinical practices of psychosis screening in schools. The aim of the present study is to examine attitudes and practices regarding psychosis screening among school mental health providers in metropolitan Boston, Massachusetts. School-based mental health clinicians (N = 100) completed an anonymous survey assessing familiarity, screening, and involvement with psychosis and psychosis risk prior to attending trainings on psychosis. Providers reported screening for psychosis less often than other mental health problems and rated themselves as less confident treating psychosis relative to other mental health concerns. Frequency of screening for psychosis was significantly associated with familiarity with psychosis assessment and case management, confidence providing treatment for individuals experiencing psychosis, and the number of students with or at risk for psychosis with whom providers had been involved. Frequency of screening for psychosis was not associated with years of practice, suggesting that both novice and experienced school-based providers may benefit from training on this issue. Community outreach via school-based provider training on assessment and management of psychosis may help to increase providers' understanding of psychosis and increase the practice of verbal or written screening for psychosis and psychosis risk within schools. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Patino-Fernandez, Anna M.; Hernandez, Jennifer; Villa, Manuela; Delamater, Alan
Background: The prevalence of childhood obesity is high, particularly among minority youth. The objective of this article was to evaluate parent and school staff perspectives of childhood health and weight qualitatively to guide the development of a school-based obesity prevention program for minority youth. Methods: Hispanic parents (N?=?9) of…
Conclusions: The oral health knowledge among primary school teachers was found to be good with positive attitudes toward school-based oral health programs. The most significant barriers in implementing a school oral health program were administrative barriers. There is a need for concerned school authorities and health policy makers to address these barriers and to promote oral health in the community.
Ciccarelli, Marina; Portsmouth, Linda; Harris, Courtenay; Jacobs, Karen
Introduction of notebook computers in many schools has become integral to learning. This has increased students' screen-based exposure and the potential risks to physical and visual health. Unhealthy computing behaviours include frequent and long durations of exposure; awkward postures due to inappropriate furniture and workstation layout, and ignoring computer-related discomfort. Describe the framework for a planned school-based health promotion program to encourage healthy computing behaviours among middle school students. This planned program uses a community- based participatory research approach. Students in Year 7 in 2011 at a co-educational middle school, their parents, and teachers have been recruited. Baseline data was collected on students' knowledge of computer ergonomics, current notebook exposure, and attitudes towards healthy computing behaviours; and teachers' and self-perceived competence to promote healthy notebook use among students, and what education they wanted. The health promotion program is being developed by an inter-professional team in collaboration with students, teachers and parents to embed concepts of ergonomics education in relevant school activities and school culture. End of year changes in reported and observed student computing behaviours will be used to determine the effectiveness of the program. Building a body of evidence regarding physical health benefits to students from this school-based ergonomics program can guide policy development on the healthy use of computers within children's educational environments.
Shackleton, Nichola; Jamal, Farah; Viner, Russell M; Dickson, Kelly; Patton, George; Bonell, Christopher
Health education in school classrooms can be effective in promoting sexual health and preventing violence and substance use but effects are patchy and often short term. Classroom education is also challenging because of schools' increasing focus on academic-performance metrics. Other school-based approaches are possible, such as healthy school policies, improving how schools respond to bullying, and parent outreach, which go beyond health education to address broader health determinants. Existing systematic reviews include such interventions but often alongside traditional health education. There is scope for a systematic review of reviews to assess and synthesize evidence across existing reviews to develop an overview of the potential of alternative school-based approaches. We searched 12 databases to identify reviews published after 1980. Data were reviewed by two researchers. Quality was assessed using a modified Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews checklist and results were synthesized narratively. We screened 7,544 unique references and included 22 reviews. Our syntheses suggest that multicomponent school-based interventions, for example, including school policy changes, parent involvement, and work with local communities, are effective for promoting sexual health and preventing bullying and smoking. There is less evidence that such intervention can reduce alcohol and drug use. Economic incentives to keep girls in school can reduce teenage pregnancies. School clinics can promote smoking cessation. There is little evidence that, on their own, sexual-health clinics, antismoking policies, and various approaches targeting at-risk students are effective. There is good evidence that various whole-school health interventions are effective in preventing teenage pregnancy, smoking, and bullying. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rienzo, B A; Button, J W; Wald, K D
School-based health centers (SBHCs) provide access to health services by bringing providers to children (and sometimes parents) and furnishing low cost services in an atmosphere of trust. While the number of SBHCs has continued to grow and some clinics have continued to expand their services, others have barely survived and some have even closed. This study investigated factors, particularly political forces, that affected the success of SBHCs. Using a national survey of clinic directors, this study assessed clinic success in terms both of longevity and service delivery. Findings indicate the factors most consistently and significantly associated with success include not only measures of "need" (school size and percent African-American enrollment or population) but of "politics" (citizen political ideology and Southern conservatism). Thus, politics matters more than previous studies suggested.
Lai, Karen; Guo, Sisi; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Roya; Puffer, Maryjane; Kataoka, Sheryl H
School-based health centers (SBHCs) reduce access barriers to mental health care and improve educational outcomes for youths. This qualitative study evaluated the innovations and challenges of a unique network of SBHCs in a large, urban school district as the centers attempted to integrate health, mental health, and educational services. The 43 participants sampled included mental health providers, primary care providers, and care coordinators at 14 SBHCs. Semistructured interviews with each participant were audio recorded and transcribed. Themes were identified and coded by using Atlas.ti 5.1 and collapsed into three domains: operations, partnership, and engagement. Interviews revealed provider models ranging from single agencies offering both primary care and mental health services to colocated services. Sites where the health agency provided at least some mental health services reported more mental health screenings. Many sites used SBHC wellness coordinators and coordination team meetings to facilitate relationships between schools and health agency and community mental health clinic providers. Partnership challenges included confidentiality policies and staff turnover. Participants also highlighted student and parent engagement through culturally sensitive services, peer health advocates, and "drop-in" lunches. Staffing and operational models are critical in the success of integrating primary care, mental health care, and education. Among the provider models observed, the combined primary care and mental health provider model offered the most integrated services. Despite barriers, providers and schools have begun to implement novel solutions to operational problems and family engagement in mental health services.
Bains, Ranbir M; Cusson, Regina; White-Frese, Jesse; Walsh, Stephen
We summarize utilization patterns for mental health services in school-based health centers. Administrative data on school-based health center visits in New Haven, Connecticut were examined for the 2007-2009 school years. Relative frequencies of mental health visits by age were calculated as a percentage of all visits and were stratified by sex, ethnicity/race, and insurance status. Mental health visits accounted for the highest proportion of visits (31.8%). The proportion of mental health visits was highest at 8 years (42.8%) and at 13 years (39.0%). The proportion of mental health visits among boys (38.4%) was higher than among girls (26.7%). Hispanic students had a lower proportion of mental health visits than black students (23.5% vs 35.8%) in all but 2 age groups. Students in the white/other ethnicity category had higher proportions of mental health visits than Hispanic and black students between ages 12 and 15. Students with no health insurance (22.5%) had lower proportions of mental health visits than students covered by Medicaid (34.3%) or private insurance (33.9%). The percentage of mental health visits by students with private insurance was highest (37.2%-49%) in the 13-15 age range. Usage patterns for mental health issues show pronounced, nonrandom variation relative to age and other demographic characteristics especially with 8-year-old boys. © 2017, American School Health Association.
Denny, Simon; Howie, Hamish; Grant, Sue; Galbreath, Ross; Utter, Jennifer; Fleming, Theresa; Clark, Terryann
Objective School-based health services (SBHS) have been shown to improve access to mental health services but the evidence of their effectiveness on students' mental health is lacking. Our objective was to examine associations between variation in the provision of SBHS and students' mental health. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of a nationally representative health and well-being survey of 8500 New Zealand high school students conducted in March-November 2012. Students' mental health is related to data on school health services obtained from clinic leaders and clinicians from 90 participating high schools. Results After adjustment for socio-demographic differences in students between schools, increasing levels of services were associated with progressively lower levels of student-reported depressive symptoms (p = 0.002), emotional and behavioural difficulties (p = 0.004) and suicidality (p = 0.008). Services with greater levels of nursing hours (p = 0.02) and those that performed routine, comprehensive psychosocial assessments (p = 0.01) were both associated with lower levels of student-reported depressive symptoms. Greater levels of nursing hours and doctor hours were associated with lower self-reported suicidality among students. Conclusions Although a causal association between school-based health services and students' mental health cannot be demonstrated, these findings support the benefit of such services and the need for a cluster randomized trial.
Cluss, Patricia; Lorigan, Devin; Kinsky, Suzanne; Nikolajski, Cara; McDermott, Anne; Bhat, Kiran B.
Background: Childhood obesity increases health risk, and modest physical activity can impact that risk. Schools have an opportunity to help children become more active. Purpose: This study implemented a program offering extra school-day activity opportunities in a rural school district where 37% of students were obese or overweight in 2005 and…
Nov 11, 2003 ... Department of Community Health and Primary Health Care ... percent approved of teaching sex education to adolescents in schools, 55.6% approved of contraceptive use by the ..... own biases in the light of scientific facts.
Research has estimated that the percentage of children and adolescents experiencing significant mental health difficulties is as high as 20% of all youth, and that only one-fourth of these students receive therapeutic services outside of school. Given this gap between the need and availability of mental health services, schools often become the…
Dudovitz, Rebecca N; Valiente, Jonathan E; Espinosa, Gloria; Yepes, Claudia; Padilla, Cesar; Puffer, Maryjane; Slavkin, Harold C; Chung, Paul J
Although dental decay is preventable, it remains the most common pediatric chronic disease. We describe a public health approach to implementing a scalable and sustainable school-based oral health program for low-income urban children. The Los Angeles Trust for Children's Health, a nonprofit affiliated with the Los Angeles Unified School District, applied a public health model and developed a broad-based community-coalition to a) establish a District Oral Health Nurse position to coordinate oral health services, and b) implement a universal school-based oral health screening and fluoride varnishing program, with referral to a dental home. Key informant interviews and focus groups informed program development. Parent surveys assessed preventative oral health behaviors and access to oral health services. Results from screening exams, program costs and rates of reimbursement were recorded. From 2012 to 2015, six elementary schools and three dental provider groups participated. Four hundred ninety-one parents received oral health education and 89 served as community oral health volunteers; 3,399 screenings and fluoride applications were performed on 2,776 children. Sixty-six percent of children had active dental disease, 27 percent had visible tooth decay, and 6 percent required emergent care. Of the 623 students who participated for two consecutive years, 56 percent had fewer or no visible caries at follow-up, while only 17 percent had additional disease. Annual program cost was $69.57 per child. Using a broad based, oral health coalition, a school-based universal screening and fluoride varnishing program can improve the oral health of children with a high burden of untreated dental diseases. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.
Yusoff, Fadhli; Saari, Riyanti; Naidu, Balkish M; Ahmad, Noor Ani; Omar, Azahadi; Aris, Tahir
The National School-Based Health Survey 2012 was a nationwide school health survey of students in Standard 4 to Form 5 (10-17 years of age), who were schooling in government schools in Malaysia during the period of data collection. The survey comprised 3 subsurveys: the Global School Health Survey (GSHS), the Mental Health Survey, and the National School-Based Nutrition Survey. The aim of the survey was to provide data on the health status of adolescents in Malaysia toward strengthening the adolescent health program in the country. The design of the survey was created to fulfill the requirements of the 3 subsurveys. A 2-stage stratified sampling method was adopted in the sampling. The methods for data collection were via questionnaire and physical examination. The National School-Based Health Survey 2012 adopted an appropriate methodology for a school-based survey to ensure valid and reliable findings. © 2014 APJPH.
Kang-Yi, Christina D.; Mandell, David S.; Hadley, Trevor
Background: This study examined the impact of school-based mental health programs on children's school outcomes and the utilization of acute mental health services. Methods: The study sample included 468 Medicaid-enrolled children aged 6 to 17 years who were enrolled 1 of 2 school-based mental health programs (SBMHs) in a metropolitan area…
National Assembly on School-Based Health Care, 2010
One of today's most pressing public health problems is the rise in childhood overweight and obesity. School-based health centers (SBHCs)--the convergence of public health, primary care, and mental health in schools--represent an important element in the public health toolbox for combating the challenging epidemic. When working side-by-side in a…
Millar, Golden M.; Lean, Debra; Sweet, Susan D.; Moraes, Sabrina C.; Nelson, Victoria
Evidence suggests that schools have, by default, become the primary mental health system for students in Canada. The goal of the present study was to design, implement, and evaluate the Psychology School Mental Health Initiative (PSMHI). The PSMHI is an innovative attempt to increase the capacity of school-based psychology staff to deliver…
Todd, Charlotte; Christian, Danielle; Davies, Helen; Rance, Jaynie; Stratton, Gareth; Rapport, Frances; Brophy, Sinead
Schools play an important role in promoting the health of children. However, little consideration is often given to the influence that headteachers' and school staff's prior beliefs have on the implementation of public health interventions. This study examined primary school headteachers' and school health co-ordinators' views regarding child health in order to provide greater insights on the school's perspective for those designing future school-based health interventions. A qualitative study was conducted using 19 semi-structured interviews with headteachers, deputy headteachers and school health co-ordinators in the primary school setting. All transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis. Whilst many participants in this study believed good health was vital for learning, wide variance was evident regarding the perceived health of school pupils and the magnitude of responsibility schools should take in addressing child health behaviours. Although staff in this study acknowledged the importance of their role, many believed the responsibility placed upon schools for health promotion was becoming too much; suggesting health interventions need to better integrate school, parental and societal components. With mental health highlighted as an increasing priority in many schools, incorporating wellbeing outcomes into future school based health interventions is advocated to ensure a more holistic understanding of child health is gained. Understanding the health beliefs of school staff when designing interventions is crucial as there appears to be a greater likelihood of interventions being successfully adopted if staff perceive a health issue as important among their pupils. An increased dependability on schools for addressing health was expressed by headteachers in this study, highlighting a need for better understanding of parental, child and key stakeholder perspectives on responsibility for child health. Without this understanding, there is potential for certain
This article examines the role of community-based schools of nursing in the promotion of public health and research in poverty-stricken areas. This was a three-phase study (questionnaire and key-informants' interviews) that surveyed representatives of prelicensure associate and baccalaureate nursing schools (n=17), nursing-school key informants (n=6) and community leaders (n=10). A 13-question web-based survey and semi-structured interview of key informants elicited data on demographics, nursing program design, exposure of faculty and students to various research and health promotion methods, and beliefs about student involvement. Nursing schools participated minimally in community-based health promotion (CBHP) and community-based participatory research saw reduced need for student involvement in such activities, cited multiple barriers to active community collaboration, and reported restricted community partnerships. CBHP was recognized to be a valuable element of health care and student education, but is obstructed by many barriers. This study suggests that nursing schools are not taking full advantage of relationships with community leaders. Recommendations for action are given. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Wolpert, Miranda; Humphrey, Neil; Deighton, Jessica; Patalay, Praveetha; Fugard, Andrew J. B.; Fonagy, Peter; Belsky, Jay; Vostanis, Panos
We report on a randomized controlled trial of Targeted Mental Health in Schools (TaMHS), which is a nationally mandated school-based mental health program in England. TaMHS aimed to improve mental health for students with, or at risk of, behavioral and emotional difficulties by providing evidence-informed interventions relating to closer working…
Gamble, Brandon E.; Lambros, Katina M.
This article provides results from a qualitative study on the efforts of school-based mental health providers (SBMHPs) who serve students in urban, suburban, and ethnically diverse settings to help families access quality mental health services. School-based mental health plays a key role in the provision of direct and indirect intervention…
Navarro, Stephanie; Zirkle, Dorothy L; Barr, Donald A
The United States is facing a surge in the number of school-based health centers (SBHCs) owing to their success in delivering positive health outcomes and increasing access to care. To preserve this success, experts have developed frameworks for creating sustainable SBHCs; however, little research has affirmed or added to these models. This research seeks to analyze elements of sustainability in a case study of three SBHCs in San Diego, California, with the purpose of creating a research-based framework of SBHC sustainability to supplement expertly derived models. Using a mixed methods study design, data were collected from interviews with SBHC stakeholders, observations in SBHCs, and SBHC budgets. A grounded theory qualitative analysis and a quantitative budget analysis were completed to develop a theoretical framework for the sustainability of SBHCs. Forty-one interviews were conducted, 6 hours of observations were completed, and 3 years of SBHC budgets were analyzed to identify care coordination, community buy-in, community awareness, and SBHC partner cooperation as key themes of sustainability promoting patient retention for sustainable billing and reimbursement levels. These findings highlight the unique ways in which SBHCs gain community buy-in and awareness by becoming trusted sources of comprehensive and coordinated care within communities and among vulnerable populations. Findings also support ideas from expert models of SBHC sustainability calling for well-defined and executed community partnerships and quality coordinated care in the procurement of sustainable SBHC funding.
Johnston, Craig A.; Moreno, Jennette P.; El-Mubasher, Abeer; Gallagher, Martina; Tyler, Chermaine; Woehler, Deborah
Background: This study evaluated a school-based obesity intervention for elementary school children (N = 835) where health professionals assisted teachers with the integration of healthy messages into the school curriculum. Methods: Schools were randomized into a professional-facilitated intervention (PFI; N = 4) or a self-help (SH; N = 3)…
This study evaluated a school-based obesity intervention for elementary school children (N=835) where health professionals assisted teachers with the integration of healthy messages into the school curriculum. Schools were randomized into a professional-facilitated intervention (PFI; N=4) or a self-...
Perfect, Michelle M.; Morris, Richard J.
Consistent with the priority goals of the 2002 Future of School Psychology Conference, the National Association of School Psychologists' "Blueprint for Training and Practice III" advocates for school psychologists becoming "leading mental health experts in schools." In this regard, the present article reviews the prevalence and incidence of…
Blackman, Kate F.; Powers, Joelle D.; Edwards, Jeffrey D.; Wegmann, Kate M.; Lechner, Ethan; Swick, Danielle C.
Mental health needs among children in the United States have significant consequences for children and their families, as well as the schools that serve them. This qualitative study evaluated the second year of an innovative school-based mental health project that created a multi-system partnership between an urban school district, a public mental…
Bruce, Linda; Gresh, Kathy; Vanchiswaran, Rohini; Werapitiya, Deepthi
This article discusses the part-time/Internet-based Master of Public Health (MPH) program at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (JHSPH). The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health was the first school of public health in the United States to offer a Master of Public Health program via the Internet. The JHSPH MPH Program…
Carlsson, Monica Susanne; Simovska, Venka
This paper discusses the findings from a multiple case study of a European health promotion project - ‘Shape Up – a school-community approach to influencing determinants of a healthy and balanced growing up’. The project sought to develop children’s capacity to critically explore and act to improve...
Kerns, Suzanne E U; Pullmann, Michael D; Walker, Sarah Cusworth; Lyon, Aaron R; Cosgrove, T J; Bruns, Eric J
To determine the association between use of school-based health centers (SBHCs) and school dropout. Quasi-experimental longitudinal analysis of a retrospective student cohort, with SBHC use as the independent variable. We statistically controlled for dropout risk and used propensity score regression adjustment to control for several factors associated with SBHC use. Integrated database from an urban public school district (academic outcomes) and department of public health (SBHC use). District-enrolled students in their first semester of ninth grade in 2005 (N = 3334), followed up through their anticipated on-time graduation semester of 12th grade in 2009. Students were divided into 4 groups: never used (47%); low use (23%); moderate use (20%); and high users (10%). Time to nongraduation (described as dropout). Low to moderate SBHC use (0.125-2.5 visits per semester) was associated with a 33% reduction in dropout compared with non-SBHC users. The high-use group (>2.5 visits per semester) did not have dropout rates that differed from nonusers. For SBHC users who did drop out, dropout occurred approximately 1 semester later than nonusers. Exploratory analyses revealed that the association between SBHC use and prevention of dropout was greatest for higher-risk students. This study found an association between low to moderate SBHC use and reductions in dropout for high school students in an urban school district, especially for students at higher risk for dropout. This study supports the theory that benefits of SBHCs extend beyond managing physical and mental health needs to include academic outcomes.
Corrieri, Sandro; Conrad, Ines; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.
Background: Mental disorders in children and adolescents are common and have serious consequences. Schools present a key opportunity to promote mental health and implement prevention measures. Four school coaches in five German schools were enlisted to engage students, teachers and parents in building a sustainably healthy school and classroom climate. Subjects and methods: Altogether, 58 focus groups with students (N=244), parents (N=54) and teachers (N=62) were conducted longitu...
Ahmed, Ameena T; Oshiro, Caryn E; Loharuka, Sheila; Novotny, Rachel
Childhood obesity prevention is a national priority. School-based gardening has been proposed as an innovative obesity prevention intervention. Little is known about the perceptions of educators about school-based gardening for child health. As the success of a school-based intervention depends on the support of educators, we investigated perceptions of educators about the benefits of gardening programs to child health. Semi-structured interviews of 9 middle school educators at a school with a garden program in rural Hawai'i were conducted. Data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Perceived benefits of school-based gardening included improving children's diet, engaging children in physical activity, creating a link to local tradition, mitigating hunger, and improving social skills. Poverty was cited as a barrier to adoption of healthy eating habits. Opinions about obesity were contradictory; obesity was considered both a health risk, as well as a cultural standard of beauty and strength. Few respondents framed benefits of gardening in terms of health. In order to be effective at obesity prevention, school-based gardening programs in Hawai'i should be framed as improving diet, addressing hunger, and teaching local tradition. Explicit messages about obesity prevention are likely to alienate the population, as these are in conflict with local standards of beauty. Health researchers and advocates need to further inform educators regarding the potential connections between gardening and health.
Oshiro, Caryn E; Loharuka, Sheila; Novotny, Rachel
Background Childhood obesity prevention is a national priority. School-based gardening has been proposed as an innovative obesity prevention intervention. Little is known about the perceptions of educators about school-based gardening for child health. As the success of a school-based intervention depends on the support of educators, we investigated perceptions of educators about the benefits of gardening programs to child health. Methods Semi-structured interviews of 9 middle school educators at a school with a garden program in rural Hawai‘i were conducted. Data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Results Perceived benefits of school-based gardening included improving children's diet, engaging children in physical activity, creating a link to local tradition, mitigating hunger, and improving social skills. Poverty was cited as a barrier to adoption of healthy eating habits. Opinions about obesity were contradictory; obesity was considered both a health risk, as well as a cultural standard of beauty and strength. Few respondents framed benefits of gardening in terms of health. Conclusions In order to be effective at obesity prevention, school-based gardening programs in Hawai‘i should be framed as improving diet, addressing hunger, and teaching local tradition. Explicit messages about obesity prevention are likely to alienate the population, as these are in conflict with local standards of beauty. Health researchers and advocates need to further inform educators regarding the potential connections between gardening and health. PMID:21886287
Madsen, Katrine Dahl; Nordin, Lone Lindegaard; Simovska, Venka
The article aims to explore the following question: "How is education for sustainable development and health education in schools approached and contextualized at a municipal level, and what contradictions and tensions might local structures imply for sustainable health promoting school development?" Based on interviews with key agents…
Hartono, S.W.; Lambri, S.E.; Palenstein Helderman, W.H. van
A study in West Java has indicated that involvement of primary health care personnel and schoolteachers in oral health education (OHE) at primary schools is a feasible approach that is sustainable. AIM: The present study aims to assess the effects of that school-based OHE programme on pupils who had
Baker, Jennifer L; Sørensen, Thorkild I A
INTRODUCTION: To summarise key findings from research performed using data from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register over the last 30 years with a main focus on obesity-related research. The register contains computerised anthropometric information on 372,636 schoolchildren from the capi......INTRODUCTION: To summarise key findings from research performed using data from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register over the last 30 years with a main focus on obesity-related research. The register contains computerised anthropometric information on 372,636 schoolchildren from...... the capital city of Denmark. Additional information on the cohort members has been obtained via linkages with population studies and national registers. RESEARCH TOPICS: Studies using data from the register have made important contributions in the areas of the aetiology of obesity, the development...... of the obesity epidemic, and the long-term health consequences of birth weight as well as body size and growth in childhood. CONCLUSION: Research using this unique register is ongoing, and its contributions to the study of obesity as well as other topics will continue for years to come....
Fazel, Mina; Garcia, Jo; Stein, Alan
Access to needed mental health services can be particularly difficult for newly arrived refugee and asylum-seeking adolescents, although many attend school. This study examined young refugees' impressions and experience of mental health services integrated within the school system. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 40 adolescent refugees discharged by three school-based mental health services across the United Kingdom. Two-thirds preferred to be seen at school. Rumination and worry about insecurity in the asylum process had a negative impact particularly on the adolescents' social functioning and ability to focus at school. The important role played by teachers in supporting and mediating contact with mental health services was valued by those interviewed. The study confirms that schools offer an important location for mental health services for adolescent refugees and provide an important portal for integration of services. © The Author(s) 2016.
Lyon, Aaron R.; Bruns, Eric J.; Weathers, Ericka S.; Canavas, Nick; Ludwig, Kristy; Vander Stoep, Ann; Cheney, Douglas; McCauley, Elizabeth
School-based mental health services offer unparalleled opportunities for providing accessible care to children and adolescents. Research indicates that services available in schools are rarely based on evidence of effectiveness and are typically disconnected from the larger school context. To address these issues, the current paper presents…
Kontak, Julia C H; McIsaac, Jessie-Lee D; Penney, Tarra L; Kuhle, Stefan; Kirk, Sara F L
Health-promoting schools (HPS) is an effective approach to enhance the health and well-being of children and youth, but its measurement remains a challenge considering contextual differences across school environments. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively explore the physical features of the school environment through photographs of schools that had implemented an HPS approach compared with schools that had not. This study used a descriptive approach, wherein physical features of the school environment were distilled through visual images and qualitatively analyzed. School environment data were collected from 18 elementary schools (10 HPS, 8 comparison schools) from a school board in rural Nova Scotia (Canada). Evaluation assistants captured photographs of the physical school environment as part of a broader environment audit. Overarching themes included the promotion, access and availability of opportunities for healthy eating and physical activity, healthy school climate and safety and accessibility of the school. The photographs characterized diverse aspects of the school environment and revealed differences between schools that had implemented an HPS approach compared with schools that had not. There were increased visual cues to support healthy eating, physical activity and mental well-being, and indications of a holistic approach to health among schools that implemented an HPS approach. This research adds to understanding the environmental elements of HPS. The use of photographic data to understand school environments provided an innovative method to explore the physical features of schools that had implemented an HPS approach. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Cotts, T B; Goldberg, C S; Palma Davis, L M; Durussel-Weston, J E; Aaronson, S M; Lin, K; Eagle, K A
This prospective study aimed to measure the impact of a school-based multidisciplinary education program on risk factors for atherosclerosis in sixth-grade students. A prospective study was performed in which patients served as their own controls. Healthy sixth-grade students from three middle schools in a city of approximately 100,000 were exposed to an educational program promoting healthful habits through behavioral and environmental change. Risk factors including body mass index (BMI), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), cholesterol panel, and random blood glucose were measured before program initiation, then 5 months afterward. Of 711 sixth-graders at three middle schools, 287 (47% boys; mean age, 11.5 +/- 0.37 years) consented to participate in the study. The mean total cholesterol value decreased from 169 +/- 26 to 154 +/- 26 mg/dl (p value decreased from 86 +/- 25 to 84 +/- 23 mg/dl (p = 0.01), and the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol value decreased from 56 +/- 13 to 50 +/- 13 mg/dl (p value decreased from 96 +/- 13 to 93 +/- 15 mm/dl (p = 0.01). The mean SBP did not change, showing 109 +/- 12.5 mmHg before the program and 108 +/- 11.5 mmHg afterward. The DBP decreased from 63.6 +/- 8.6 to 62.3 +/- 7.8 mmHg (p = 0.01). The Project Healthy Schools program is feasible and appears to be effective. The results showed significant improvement in risk factors for early atherosclerosis among sixth-grade students including total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, random glucose levels, and diastolic blood pressure. Further study with a larger group and a longer follow-up period would be valuable.
Vander Ploeg, Kerry A; McGavock, Jonathan; Maximova, Katerina; Veugelers, Paul J
Comprehensive school health (CSH) is a multifaceted approach to health promotion. A key objective of CSH is to foster positive health behaviors outside of school. This study examined the 2-year change in physical activity during and after school among students participating in a CSH intervention in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. This was a quasi-experimental, pre-post trial with a parallel, nonequivalent control group. Intervention schools had to be located in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods. In the spring of 2009 and 2011, pedometer recordings (7 full days) and demographic data were collected from cross-sectional samples of fifth grade students from 10 intervention schools and 20 comparison schools. A total of 1157 students participated in the study. Analyses were adjusted for potential confounders and the clustered design. Relative to 2009, children in 2011 were more active on schools days (1172 steps per day; P affect children's physical activity during and outside of school. Results of this study justify broader implementation of effective CSH interventions for physical activity promotion and obesity prevention in the long term.
Blake, Jamilia; Banks, Courtney S.; Patience, Brenda A.; Lund, Emily M.
A sample of 483 school-based mental health professionals completed a survey about the training they have received related to conducting bullying assessments in schools, competence in conducting an assessment of bullying, and the bullying assessment methods they used. Results indicate that school counselors were usually informed about incidents of…
Williams, Lisa O.
Mental health issues among American adolescents and children can negatively impact their potential for school success. As many as 10% of students among the general education population suffer from psychiatric disorders, yet only between 1% and 5% of those students are being served. The effects of mental health difficulties are problematic for…
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to scrutinise two ostensibly disparate approaches to school-based mental health promotion and offer a conceptual foundation for considering possible synergies between them. Design/methodology/approach – The paper examines current conceptualisations of child and youth mental health and explores how these inform school-based prevention and intervention approaches. The dominance of discrete, “expert-driven” psychosocial programmes as well as the...
Kuo, Elena; Stoep, Ann Vander; McCauley, Elizabeth; Kernic, Mary A.
Background: School-based screening for health conditions can help extend the reach of health services to underserved populations. Screening for mental health conditions is growing in acceptability, but evidence of cost-effectiveness is lacking. This study assessed costs and effectiveness associated with the Developmental Pathways Screening…
O'Reilly, Aileen; Barry, James; Neary, Marie-Louise; Lane, Sabrina; O'Keeffe, Lynsey
The use of peer education has been well documented within the discipline of health promotion, but not within the youth mental health domain. This paper describes an evaluation of an innovative schools-based peer education training programme that involved preparing young people to deliver a mental health workshop to their peers. Participants…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Active commuting to school has declined over time, and interventions are needed to reverse this trend. The main objective was to investigate the effects of a school-based intervention on active commuting to school and health-related fitness in school-age children of Southern Spain. Methods A total of 494 children aged 8 to 11 years were invited to participate in the study. The schools were non-randomly allocated (i.e., school level allocation into the experimental group (EG or the control group (CG. The EG received an intervention program for 6 months (a monthly activity focused on increasing the level of active commuting to school and mainly targeting children’s perceptions and attitudes. Active commuting to school and health-related fitness (i.e., cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular fitness and speed-agility, were measured at baseline and at the end of the intervention. Children with valid data on commuting to school at baseline and follow-up, sex, age and distance from home to school were included in the final analysis (n = 251. Data was analyzed through a factorial ANOVA and the Bonferroni post-hoc test. Results At follow up, the EG had higher rates of cycling to school than CG for boys only (p = 0.04, but not for walking to school for boys or girls. The EG avoided increases in the rates of passive commuting at follow up, which increased in the CG among girls for car (MD = 1.77; SE = 0.714; p = 0.010 and bus (MD = 1.77; SE = 0.714; p = 0.010 modes. Moreover, we observed significant interactions and main effects between independent variables (study group, sex and assessment time point on health-related fitness (p < 0.05 over the 6-month period between groups, with higher values in the control group (mainly in boys. Conclusion A school-based intervention focused on increasing active commuting to school was associated with increases in rates of cycling to school among boys, but not for
Singh, Harsimran; Matza, Maria; Latham, Christine
Statistics representing professional health care providers do not adequately reflect the shift in the nation's diverse population. Latinos are significantly underrepresented at all levels of appropriate academic programs critical for entry to health profession careers. This project describes the implementation of a student-run, faculty-facilitated Future Nurse and Health Club at a school (with majority Latino students) to emphasize the importance of higher education in health care. Demographic and psychosocial profiles of club members were also developed to understand community needs. The Future Nurse and Health Club was established in partnership with faculty and researchers representing a university-based nursing program, school officials, and community leaders. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected from club members and their parents using a variety of techniques including questionnaires and focus groups. The findings of the study highlighted a variety of student- and parent-related factors including poor lifestyle habits and perceptions of support that could potentially influence Latino high school students' interest and progress in health care-related higher education. A school-based health career club involving active participation of parents and students with support from health care professionals such as academic nursing faculty has the potential to simultaneously raise student interest in health-related careers and health needs of their community.
O'Dea, Bridianne; King, Catherine; Subotic-Kerry, Mirjana; O'Moore, Kathleen; Christensen, Helen
Mental health problems are common among youth in high school, and school counselors play a key role in the provision of school-based mental health care. However, school counselors occupy a multispecialist position that makes it difficult for them to provide care to all of those who are in need in a timely manner. A Web-based mental health service that offers screening, psychological therapy, and monitoring may help counselors manage time and provide additional oversight to students. However, for such a model to be implemented successfully, school counselors' attitudes toward Web-based resources and services need to be measured. This study aimed to examine the acceptability of a proposed Web-based mental health service, the feasibility of providing this type of service in the school context, and the barriers and facilitators to implementation as perceived by school counselors in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. This study utilized an online cross-sectional survey to measure school counselors' perspectives. A total of 145 school counselors completed the survey. Overall, 82.1% (119/145) thought that the proposed service would be helpful to students. One-third reported that they would recommend the proposed model, with the remaining reporting potential concerns. Years of experience was the only background factor associated with a higher level of comfort with the proposed service (P=.048). Personal beliefs, knowledge and awareness, Internet accessibility, privacy, and confidentiality were found to influence, both positively and negatively, the likelihood of school counselors implementing a Web-based school mental health service. The findings of this study confirmed that greater support and resources are needed to facilitate what is already a challenging and emotionally demanding role for school counselors. Although the school counselors in this study were open to the proposed service model, successful implementation will require that the issues outlined are carefully
Mathur, Sarup R.; Kern, Lee; Albrecht, Susan F.; Poland, Scott; Rozalski, Michael; Skiba, Russell J.
This document provides administrative recommendations of the Council for Children with Behavioral Disorders (CCBD) regarding the need for school-based mental health services (SBMHS) in schools (Kern et al., 2017). It includes (1) an introduction, (2) key considerations for successful SBMHS, and (3) recommendations regarding local, state, and…
Evans, Steven W; Randy Koch, J; Brady, Christine; Meszaros, Peggy; Sadler, Joanna
Youth with learning and behavioral problems are at elevated risk for substance use during adolescence. Although evidence-based substance use prevention and screening practices are described in the literature, the extent with which these are provided to these youth is unclear. Mental health professionals in schools and community mental health centers are in an ideal position to conduct substance use screening and prevention practices since they have frequent contact with this high risk group. In order to determine whether these mental health professionals were using evidence based substance use screening and prevention programs with these youth, we analyzed 345 completed surveys from mental health professionals in schools and community clinics throughout a mid-Atlantic state. Results indicated that a large portion of the respondents were unfamiliar with evidence based practices and they were infrequently used. Implications for the division of labor at schools and community mental health centers are discussed in relation to time allotment and priority for these procedures.
Padula, William V; Connor, Katherine A; Mueller, Josiah M; Hong, Jonathan C; Velazquez, Gabriela Calderon; Johnson, Sara B
The Rales Health Center is a comprehensive school-based health center at an urban elementary/middle school. Rales Health Center provides a full range of pediatric services using an enriched staffing model consisting of pediatrician, nurse practitioner, registered nurses, and medical office assistant. This staffing model provides greater care but costs more than traditional school-based health centers staffed by part-time nurses. The objective was to analyze the cost benefit of Rales Health Center enhanced staffing model compared with a traditional school-based health center (standard care), focusing on asthma care, which is among the most prevalent chronic conditions of childhood. In 2016, cost-benefit analysis using a decision tree determined the net social benefit of Rales Health Center compared with standard care from the U.S. societal perspective based on the 2015-2016 academic year. It was assumed that Rales Health Center could handle greater patient throughput related to asthma, decreased prescription costs, reduced parental resources in terms of missed work time, and improved student attendance. Univariate and multivariate probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted. The expected cost to operate Rales Health Center was $409,120, compared with standard care cost of $172,643. Total monetized incremental benefits of Rales Health Center were estimated to be $993,414. The expected net social benefit for Rales Health Center was $756,937, which demonstrated substantial societal benefit at a return of $4.20 for every dollar invested. This net social benefit estimate was robust to sensitivity analyses. Despite the greater cost associated with the Rales Health Center's enhanced staffing model, the results of this analysis highlight the cost benefit of providing comprehensive, high-quality pediatric care in schools, particularly schools with a large proportion of underserved students. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by
Barnes, Margaret; Courtney, Mary D; Pratt, Jan; Walsh, Anne M
A case study and focus-group discussions were conducted with 10 youth health nurses (nurses) employed in the recently introduced School-Based Youth Health Nurse Program (SBYHNP) to identify their roles, responsibilities, and professional development needs. Major roles are support, referral, health promotion, and marketing. Clients include high school students, teachers, and parents; the majority of whom are female and aged 13-16 years. Health issues addressed during individual consultations are predominantly psychosocial but also include medical, sexual health and sexuality issues, health surveillance, and risk-taking behaviors. Nurses also provide clients with health information and promote enhanced personal skill development during these consultations. Health promotion strategies undertaken by nurses were predominantly health education and health information displays. Nurses reported marketing their role and function within the school to be an essential and often difficult aspect of their role. Professional development through the SBYHNP was excellent; however, there was concern relating to the availability of future educational opportunities. The SBYHNP provides nurses with a new, challenging, autonomous role within the school environment and the opportunity to expand their role to incorporate all aspects of the health-promoting schools' framework.
Peng, Bin; Petersen, Poul Erik; Bian, Zhuan
The purpose of the study was to assess the outcome of school-based oral health education (OHE) and a sugar-free chewing gum program on the oral health status of children in terms of reduced caries increment and gingival bleeding over a period of 2 years. Nine primary schools randomly chosen from......'s oral hygiene; in certain circumstances children may benefit from using polyol-containing chewing gum in terms of reduced dental caries....
Tai, Bao-Jun; Jiang, Han; Du, Min-Quan; Peng, Bin
To assess the outcome of oral health promotion in schoolchildren over a 3-year period in Yichang City, Hubei, China. In a cluster randomized controlled trial, the concept of the World Health Organization Health Promoting Schools Project was applied to primary schoolchildren. Seven intervention schools and eight control schools were randomly selected from one district by stratified cluster sampling. The study was conducted as a 3-year follow-up study. After 3 years, 661 children remained in the intervention group and 697 children in the control group. Data on dental caries, plaque accumulation, and sulcus bleeding were collected by clinical examination, while behavioural data were gathered by self-administered questionnaires. The 3-year net mean DMFS increment score was 0.22 in the intervention schools and 0.35 in the control schools (P schools adopted regular oral health behavioural practices such as brushing their teeth at least twice a day, visiting the dentist within the past calendar year, and using fluoride toothpaste. The study suggests that the school-based oral health promotion was an effective way to reduce new caries incidence, improve oral hygiene and establish positive oral health behavioural practices in the targeted schoolchildren.
Demsko, Tobin W.
School-based health clinics, adolescent pregnancy prevention programs offering comprehensive health services, represent the latest initiative to reduce the incidence of teenage pregnancy. Researchers at Johns Hopkins University designed and administered a pregnancy prevention program which offered sexuality education and family planning services…
Bruselius-Jensen, Maria; Renwick, Kerry; Aagaard-Hansen, Jens
Objective: Drawing on the concepts of the cosmopolitan person and democratic health education, this article explores the merits of primary school-based, cross-cultural dialogues for global health education. Design: A qualitative study of the learning outcomes of the Move/Eat/Learn (MEL) project. MEL facilitates cultural meetings, primarily…
Sisselman, Amanda; Strolin-Goltzman, Jessica; Auerbach, Charles; Sharon, Lisa
School-based health centers (SBHCs) continue to provide essential health care services to children and families in underserved neighborhoods across the country. Preliminary studies show that students who use SBHCs have better attendance rates as well as higher rates of academic achievement and attachment to the learning environment. Few studies,…
Booker, John M.; Schluter, Janette A.; Carrillo, Kris; McGrath, Jane
Background: Quality improvement principles have been applied extensively to health care organizations, but implementation of quality improvement methods in school-based health centers (SBHCs) remains in a developmental stage with demonstration projects under way in individual states and nationally. Rural areas, such as New Mexico, benefit from the…
Langer, David A; Wood, Jeffrey J; Wood, Patricia A; Garland, Ann F; Landsverk, John; Hough, Richard L
Researchers have consistently documented a gap between the large number of US youth meeting criteria for a mental health disorder with significant associated impairment, and the comparatively few youth receiving services. School-based mental health care may address the need-services gap by offering services more equitably to youth in need, irrespective of family economic resources, availability of transportation, and other factors that can impede access to community clinics. However, diagnoses alone do not fully capture the severity of an individual's mental health status and need for services. Studying service use only in relation to diagnoses may restrict our understanding of the degree to which service use is reflective of service need, and inhibit our ability to compare school and non-school-based outpatient settings on their responsiveness to service need. The present study evaluated predictors of mental health service use in school- and community-based settings for youth who had had an active case in one of two public sectors of care, comparing empirically-derived dimensional measurements of youth mental health service need and impairment ratings against non-need variables (e.g., ethnicity, income). Three dimensions of youth mental health service need were identified. Mental health service need and non-need variables each played a significant predictive role. Parent-rated impairment was the strongest need-based predictor of service use across settings. The impact of non-need variables varied by service setting, with parental income having a particularly noticeable effect on school-based services. Across time, preceding service use and impairment each significantly predicted future service use.
Leadbeater, Bonnie J; Gladstone, Emilie J; Sukhawathanakul, Paweena
Substantial research illuminates many factors effecting the implementation of evidence-based mental health promotion programs in schools; however, research on how schools plan for sustaining their investments in these programs is limited. In this qualitative study, we elicited descriptions of opportunities and challenges for sustainability. We interviewed 24 individuals from schools involved in a longitudinal, qualitative research project that followed uptake and implementation of the evidence-based WITS Programs across 2 years (Leadbeater et al. 2012). WITS stands for Walk away, Ignore, Talk it out and Seek help and the online WITS Programs focus on preventing peer victimization ( www.witsprograms.ca ). Our findings suggest that sustainability planning in schools is not merely a next step following high quality implementation, but rather involves multiple ongoing processes that need to be anticipated and supported by school leadership and program champions and developers in order to realize investments in evidence-based programs.
Schools face increasing demands to support the mental health needs of students and families; some estimate that 80 percent of students receive mental health services at school. Thus, schools face two daunting challenges: (1) to provide effective mental health support to students and (2) to address how mental health needs affect other students,…
Golbasi, Zehra; Taskin, Lale
To evaluate the effectiveness of school-based reproductive health education for adolescent girls on the reproductive knowledge level of the girls. This research was carried out as a quasi-experimental study at two vocational girls high schools, one of which was used as the study school and the other as the control school. The study group (97 students) consisted of three classes representing every grade. The control group consisted of students selected likewise (92 students). Reproductive health education was given to students in the study group for 10 weeks; the control group was not subjected to any educational program. The impact of the program was evaluated with reproductive health knowledge test designed for this study. A pretest evaluated baseline knowledge, and a posttest measured the gain in knowledge. Baseline knowledge score of students in study and control group were similar and low (p > 0.05). We found that the reproductive health knowledge level of students in the study group increased significantly after the program of education. Post-test knowledge scores (75.03 +/- 13.82) of the students in the study group were higher than those of the control group (36.65 +/- 14.17). The results showed students' low baseline knowledge and a good ability to learn. A school-based reproductive health education is needed to promote knowledge and prevention in reproductive health among teenagers.
Widiyawati, W.; Fitriani, A.; Priyandoko, D.
This research aims to describe the high school student’s health literacy profile based on their knowledge, attitude, and behavior to health of respiration. This descriptive study involved 65 participants of senior high school students of Ciamis city. Research instruments for collecting data are test and questionnaires sheets. The data were analyzed using quantitative descriptive analysis. The results showed that student’s health literacy of respiration get mean 109.94, moderate category. Based on the above results, it can be concluded that student’s health literacy of respiration is enough because student’s health literacy are in the moderate category, but it needs to be improved by the classroom learning in accompanied by changing some of the lesser habits in maintaining respiratory health.
Pfeiffer, Steven I.; Reddy, Linda A.
Provides overview of sociocultural and political factors in the United States that have influenced recent interest in school-based health and mental health programs. Describes four well-known programs and presents a new framework, the Tripartite Model of School-Based Mental Health Interventions, to stimulate thinking on future programs. Addresses…
Harper, Erin; Kruger, Ann Cale; Hamilton, Chela; Meyers, Joel; Truscott, Stephen D.; Varjas, Kris
School-based mental health practitioners are positioned to address low-income urban African American girls' mental health needs through culturally responsive services. Despite the importance of culturally reflective practice, it is understudied. We asked school-based mental health practitioners (N = 7) to reflect on barriers and facilitators to…
Shernoff, Elisa S.; Bearman, Sarah Kate; Kratochwill, Thomas R.
School psychologists are uniquely positioned to support the delivery of evidence-based mental health practices (EBMHPs) to address the overwhelming mental health needs of children and youth. Graduate training programs can promote EBMHPs in schools by ensuring school psychologists enter the workplace prepared to deliver and support high-quality,…
Blake, Holly; Dawett, Bhupinder; Leighton, Paul; Rose-Brady, Laura; Deery, Chris
To evaluate a brief oral health promotion intervention delivered in schools by a primary care dental practice, aimed at changing oral health care knowledge and oral health-related behaviors in children. Cohort study with pretest-posttest design. Three primary schools. One hundred and fifty children (aged 9-12 years). Children received a 60-minute theory-driven classroom-based interactive educational session delivered by a dental care professional and received take-home literature on oral health. All children completed a questionnaire on oral health-related knowledge and self-reported oral health-related behaviors before, immediately after, and 6 weeks following the intervention. Children's dental knowledge significantly improved following the intervention, with improvement evident at immediate follow-up and maintained 6 weeks later. Significantly more children reported using dental floss 6 weeks after the intervention compared with baseline. No significant differences were detected in toothbrushing or dietary behaviors. School-based preventative oral health education delivered by primary care dental practices can generate short-term improvements in children's knowledge of oral health and some aspects of oral hygiene behavior. Future research should engage parents/carers and include objective clinical and behavioral outcomes in controlled study designs. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.
Woolf, Maryke; Bantjes, Jason; Kagee, Ashraf
Youth suicidal behaviour poses a significant public health concern. Mental health care professionals working in schools have an important role to play in youth suicide prevention initiatives, although little is known of the experiences of this group of professionals in the developing world. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of mental health professionals working in South African schools and document their insights, attitudes and beliefs regarding youth suicidal behaviour. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven school-based mental health care professionals and data were analysed using Thematic Analysis. Participants reported that they relied on a reactive strategy by responding to youths who were in crisis. They were challenged by a lack of support from faculty staff, lack of access to resources, and heavy caseloads. Findings highlight the need for a proactive and collaborative approach to suicide prevention among mental health care professionals, teachers and parents in South African schools and improved training and supervision.
Bruselius-Jensen, Maria; Renwick, Kerry; Aagaard-Hansen, Jens
: Qualitative analysis of 18 focus group discussions with 72 Danish and 36 Kenyan students. Results: Cross-cultural dialogues promoted students’ engagement and reflections on their own and peers’ health condition, access to education, food cultures, gender and family structures. Conclusion: Findings indicate...
Daly, Joan Ziegler; Ziegler, Robert; Goldstein, Donna J
A short-term postabortion group for adolescents was developed. Three groups were conducted in an adolescent mental health clinic within an urban high school-based health clinic. The clinical group experiences offered the adolescents an opportunity to integrate the experience of pregnancy and the abortion decision into their lives. At follow up, adolescents who participated in th postabortion counseling group indicated that they chose and used a method of birth control, did not repeat an unplanned pregnancy, and remained in high school.
Objective: To identify the food skills deemed essential to include in skill-based healthful eating programs in secondary schools. Methods: Fifty-one food experts including home economics educators, chefs, nutritionists and dietitians, community educators, homemakers, and young people were recruited by invitation, mail, and advertising. Data were…
Goforth, Anisa N.; Nichols, Lindsey M.; Stanick, Cameo F.; Shindorf, Zachary R.; Holter, Olivia
Arab Americans are a culturally, linguistically, and religiously diverse group. Although there are an estimated 3.6 million Arab Americans in the USA, there is little discussion about how to best provide culturally responsive school-based mental health supports to Arab American youths. The purpose of this article is to (1) briefly describe the…
Khun, Sokrin; Manderson, Lenore
Dengue fever continues to be a major public health problem in Cambodia, with significant impact on children. Health education is a major means for prevention and control of the National Dengue Control Program (NDCP), and is delivered to communities and in schools. Drawing on data collected in 2003-2004 as part of an ethnographic study conducted in eastern Cambodia, we explore the approaches used in health education and their effectiveness to control dengue. Community health education is provided through health centre outreach activities and campaigns of the NDCP, but is not systematically evaluated, is under-funded and delivered irregularly; school-based education is restricted in terms of time and lacks follow-up in terms of practical activities for prevention and control. As a result, adherence is partial. We suggest the need for sustained routine education for dengue prevention and control, and the need for approaches to ensure the translation of knowledge into practice.
Full Text Available Dengue fever continues to be a major public health problem in Cambodia, with significant impact on children. Health education is a major means for prevention and control of the National Dengue Control Program (NDCP, and is delivered to communities and in schools. Drawing on data collected in 2003-2004 as part of an ethnographic study conducted in eastern Cambodia, we explore the approaches used in health education and their effectiveness to control dengue. Community health education is provided through health centre outreach activities and campaigns of the NDCP, but is not systematically evaluated, is under-funded and delivered irregularly; school-based education is restricted in terms of time and lacks follow-up in terms of practical activities for prevention and control. As a result, adherence is partial. We suggest the need for sustained routine education for dengue prevention and control, and the need for approaches to ensure the translation of knowledge into practice.
Conrado, Carlos Alberto; Maciel, Sandra Mara; Oliveira, Márcia Regina
The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the preliminary results of a school-based oral health educational strategy adopted in public primary schools from the city of Maringa, State of Parana, Brazil. The study sample was composed by 556 children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years old, 124 schoolteachers and a group of 55 mothers. The educational approach was implemented for 18 months and consisted of reinforcements of interventions addressed to students and schoolteachers at school level and few activities targeted at the mothers, performed by means of home visits. Baseline and follow-up interviews focused on oral health care were undertaken for the entire study population. As a stimulus for the students to achieve proper oral hygiene habits, the simplified oral hygiene index was assessed at three different moments. A statistically significant improvement in their oral hygiene index (pstudied. They also point out the need of intensifying the preparation of schoolteachers in oral health topics, as well the instructions to the mothers for their oral health care. Moreover, they highlight the importance of the continuous implementation of school-based programs to promote the oral health.
Health observatories may differ according to their mission, institutional setting, topical emphasis or geographic coverage. This paper discusses the development of a new urban-focused health observatory, and its operational research and training infrastructure under the academic umbrella of the Department of Epidemiology and the Institute of Urban Health at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (BSPH) in Baltimore, USA. Recognizing the higher education mission of the BSPH, the development of a new professional training in public health was an important first step for the development of this observatory. This new academia-based observatory is an innovative public health research and training platform offering faculty, investigators, professional epidemiology students and research partners a physical and methodological infrastructure for their operational research and training activities with both a local urban focus and a global reach. The concept of a public health observatory and its role in addressing social health inequalities in local urban settings is discussed.
Full Text Available Abstract Health observatories may differ according to their mission, institutional setting, topical emphasis or geographic coverage. This paper discusses the development of a new urban-focused health observatory, and its operational research and training infrastructure under the academic umbrella of the Department of Epidemiology and the Institute of Urban Health at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (BSPH in Baltimore, USA. Recognizing the higher education mission of the BSPH, the development of a new professional training in public health was an important first step for the development of this observatory. This new academia-based observatory is an innovative public health research and training platform offering faculty, investigators, professional epidemiology students and research partners a physical and methodological infrastructure for their operational research and training activities with both a local urban focus and a global reach. The concept of a public health observatory and its role in addressing social health inequalities in local urban settings is discussed.
Lee, Albert; Ho, Mandy; Keung, Vera M W; Kwong, Amy C M
Home and school environments conducive for unhealthy eating and physical inactivity are precursors of obesity. The aim of this study is evaluation of the effectiveness of a multi-component school-based weight management programme for overweight and obese primary school children via a home-school joint venture. This study made use of variety of behavioural modification strategies integrating into the Health Promoting School approach to promote healthy lifestyles. The participants were overweight and obese students aged between 8 and 12 from six participating schools. The interventions involved students attending ten 75 minutes after-school sessions and one 3-hour week-end session of practical interactive and fun activities on healthy eating and exercise, and meal plan together with parents and printed tailor-made management advices. Parents received an introductory seminar with 2 sets of specially designed exercise for their overweight children. The tools to measure bodyweight and fat percentage and standing height were bio-impedance body fat scale and a portable stadiometer. Self-administered questionnaire was used to measure knowledge, attitudes and behaviours. McNemar test was utilized to compare the proportions of behaviour changes within the same group to assess for the trends of changes. BMI z-score and body fat percentage of intervention participants at baseline, 4 month and 8 month were compared pair-wisely using tests of within subject contrasts in repeated measures ANOVA to assess for programme sustainability. Those students in the intervention group reduced their BMI z-score (-0.21, 95% CI -0.34 to -0.07, P = 0.003) and body fat (-2.67%, 95% CI -5.12 to -0.22, P = 0.033) compared to wait list control group with statistical significant, and the intervention group also had a significant reduction in BMI z-score (-0.06, 95% CI -0.11, -0.007, P = 0.028) and body fat (-1.71%, 95% CI, -3.44 to 0.02, P = 0.052) after a 4 month maintenance period. Improvement of
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Garmy, Pernilla; Berg, Agneta; Clausson, Eva K
Supporting positive mental health development in adolescents is a major public health concern worldwide. Although several school-based programs aimed at preventing depression have been launched, it is crucial to evaluate these programs and to obtain feedback from participating adolescents. This study aimed to explore adolescents' experiences with a -based cognitive-behavioral depression prevention program. Eighty-nine adolescents aged 13-15 years were divided into 12 focus groups. The focus group interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Three categories and eight subcategories were found to be related to the experience of the school-based program. The first category, intrapersonal strategies, consisted of the subcategories of directed thinking, improved self-confidence, stress management, and positive activities. The second category, interpersonal awareness, consisted of the subcategories of trusting the group and considering others. The third category, structural constraints, consisted of the subcategories of negative framing and emphasis on performance. The school-based mental health program was perceived as beneficial and meaningful on both individual and group levels, but students expressed a desire for a more health-promoting approach.
Imran, Nazish; Rahman, Atif; Chaudhry, Nakhshab; Asif, Aftab
The teacher's role in school mental health initiatives cannot be overemphasized. Despite global evidence of educational interventions in improving teachers' knowledge and attitudes regarding mental health, this area remains under researched in Pakistan. This paper presents a study protocol of a pilot randomized controlled trial to examine the effectiveness of a teacher training intervention for improving mental health literacy and self-efficacy among school teachers in urban Lahore, Pakistan. The randomized controlled trial will follow the CONSORT guidelines. Participants will be allocated to the Intervention group (receiving the World Health Organization, Eastern Mediterranean Region (WHO-EMRO) School Mental Health Manual-based intervention in three 6-h, face-to-face sessions) or a waitlist control group (not receiving training during the study period). Participants will be teachers of private schools with similar broad demographic characteristics in an inner city area of Lahore. The primary outcome measures for the trial is teachers' mental health literacy. It will be assessed by using the previously applied (during WHO training of Master Trainers) self-administered questionnaire in both groups pre and post training and at 3 months' follow-up. Secondary outcomes include: for teachers: Teachers' self-efficacy (assessed by the Teachers' Sense of Self Efficacy Scale (TSES) short form.); for students (11-16 years): socio-emotional skills and psychological problems measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (assessed at baseline and 3 months post intervention); for schools: the WHO School Psychosocial Profile Questionnaire (baseline and 3 months post intervention). Given the high prevalence of child mental health problems, stigma and lack of services, it is important to consider alternate avenues for promoting positive mental health among youth. This pilot study should establish the effectiveness of the WHO-EMRO School Mental Health Manual-based
Kwan, Stella Y L; Petersen, Poul Erik; Pine, Cynthia M
Schools provide an important setting for promoting health, as they reach over 1 billion children worldwide and, through them, the school staff, families and the community as a whole. Health promotion messages can be reinforced throughout the most influential stages of children's lives, enabling...... them to develop lifelong sustainable attitudes and skills. Poor oral health can have a detrimental effect on children's quality of life, their performance at school and their success in later life. This paper examines the global need for promoting oral health through schools. The WHO Global School...... Health Initiative and the potential for setting up oral health programmes in schools using the health-promoting school framework are discussed. The challenges faced in promoting oral health in schools in both developed and developing countries are highlighted. The importance of using a validated...
Fox, Patricia G; Rossetti, Jeanette; Burns, Kenneth R; Popovich, Judith
One particular focus of refugee studies in the United States has been the violence experience of Southeast Asian (S.E.A.) refugee children and its impact on mental health and school adaptation. Although virtually all researchers have found that the children have high rates of depression and/or post-traumatic stress disorder, findings concerning successful school adaptation have been inconclusive. Even so, concern has been generated on how to best meet the children's mental health needs. The purpose of our study was to provide an eight-week school-based program that was designed to reduce depression symptoms of S.E.A. refugee children. Specifically, this collaborative program addressed refugee adaptation issues, children's culture and the development of coping skills. All of the children were screened for depression using the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI). Analysis of CDI data revealed that children's depression scores had a significant decrease between screening times 1 (approximately one month before the intervention) and 2 (fourth week of the intervention), 1 and 3 (eighth week of the intervention) and 1 and 4 (one month following the intervention). Globally, culturally sensitive mental health school-based programs may be an appropriate intervention to assist immigrant and refugee children in making a successful adaptation to host countries.
The aim of this study is to identify opportunities in policy framing for critical health education (CHE) about food and nutrition in Ecuadorian schools. The research engages in a dialogue between the perspectives of critical nutrition and political ecology, as it seeks to clarify and develop...... through critical, democratic and collaborative processes, anchored in and supported by the local community. Based on a textual analysis of health, food and education policy documents, the study finds that concrete norms endorse a biomedical stance. Consequently, focus remains on prescribing individual...... behavior, and schools are regarded as intervention settings, rather than a site for generating change as would be the case of health promotion using a CHE viewpoint. However, the study finds the possibility for developing a CHE perspective in the overarching rationale of “good living”, which reaffirms...
Fredriksen, Per Morten; Hjelle, Ole Petter; Mamen, Asgeir; Meza, Trine J; Westerberg, Ane C
The prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is increasing worldwide, also among children. Information about primary prevention of NCD's is increasing; however, convincing strategies among children is needed. The present paper describes the design and methods in the Health Oriented Pedagogical Project (HOPP) study. The main objective is to evaluate the effects of a school-based physical activity intervention program on cardio-metabolic risk factors. Secondary objectives include assessment of physical, psychological and academic performance variables. The HOPP study is a 7 years longitudinal large-scale controlled intervention in seven elementary schools (n = 1545) with two control schools (n = 752); all aged 6-11 years at baseline. The school-based physical activity intervention program includes an increase in physical activity (PA) of 225 min/week as an integrated part of theoretical learning, in addition to the curriculum based 90 min/week of ordinary PA. Primary outcomes include cardio-metabolic risk factors measured as PA level, BMI status, waist circumference, muscle mass, percent fat, endurance test performance, total serum cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), non-HDL, micro C-reactive protein (mCRP) and long-term blood sugar (HbA1c). In addition, secondary outcomes include anthropometric growth measures, physical fitness, quality of life (QoL), mental health, executive functions, diet and academic performance. HOPP will provide evidence of effects on cardio-metabolic risk factors after a long-term PA intervention program in elementary schoolchildren. School-based PA intervention programs may be an effective arena for health promotion and disease prevention. The study is registered in Clinical trials (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02495714 ) as of June 20 th - 2015, retrospectively registered. The collection of baseline values was initiated in mid-January 2015.
Per Morten Fredriksen
Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs is increasing worldwide, also among children. Information about primary prevention of NCD’s is increasing; however, convincing strategies among children is needed. The present paper describes the design and methods in the Health Oriented Pedagogical Project (HOPP study. The main objective is to evaluate the effects of a school-based physical activity intervention program on cardio-metabolic risk factors. Secondary objectives include assessment of physical, psychological and academic performance variables. Methods The HOPP study is a 7 years longitudinal large-scale controlled intervention in seven elementary schools (n = 1545 with two control schools (n = 752; all aged 6–11 years at baseline. The school-based physical activity intervention program includes an increase in physical activity (PA of 225 min/week as an integrated part of theoretical learning, in addition to the curriculum based 90 min/week of ordinary PA. Primary outcomes include cardio-metabolic risk factors measured as PA level, BMI status, waist circumference, muscle mass, percent fat, endurance test performance, total serum cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, non-HDL, micro C-reactive protein (mCRP and long-term blood sugar (HbA1c. In addition, secondary outcomes include anthropometric growth measures, physical fitness, quality of life (QoL, mental health, executive functions, diet and academic performance. Discussion HOPP will provide evidence of effects on cardio-metabolic risk factors after a long-term PA intervention program in elementary schoolchildren. School-based PA intervention programs may be an effective arena for health promotion and disease prevention. Trial registration The study is registered in Clinical trials (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02495714 as of June 20th – 2015, retrospectively registered. The collection of baseline values was initiated in mid-January 2015.
Process evaluations of large-scale school based programs are necessary to aid in the interpretation of the outcome data. The Louisiana Health (LA Health) study is a multi-component childhood obesity prevention study for middle school children. The Physical Education (PEQ), Intervention (IQ), and F...
Hess, Robyn S.; Pearrow, Melissa; Hazel, Cynthia E.; Sander, Janay B.; Wille, Alice M.
Recent health care reform provides many new opportunities to expand mental health and behavioral support to students in schools and school-community partnerships. Through newly available funding sources, as well as expanded legislative initiatives, school psychologists can advocate for and become leaders in delivering universal programming, tiered…
Arora, Prerna G; Connors, Elizabeth H; George, Melissa W; Lyon, Aaron R; Wolk, Courtney B; Weist, Mark D
Evidence-based assessment (EBA) is a critically important aspect of delivering high-quality, school-based mental health care for youth. However, research in this area is limited and additional applied research on how best to support the implementation of EBA in school mental health (SMH) is needed. Accordingly, this manuscript seeks to facilitate the advancement of research on EBA in SMH by reviewing relevant literature on EBA implementation in schools and providing recommendations for key research priorities. Given the limited number of published studies available, findings from child and adolescent mental health and implementation science research are also included to inform a robust and comprehensive research agenda on this topic. Based on this literature review, five priorities for research on EBA in SMH are outlined: (1) effective identification of assessment targets, (2) appropriate selection of assessment measures, (3) investigation of organizational readiness for EBA, (4) study of implementation support for EBA, and (5) promotion of EBA data integration and use. Each priority area includes recommended directions for future research. A comprehensive and robust research agenda is warranted to build the science and practice of implementing EBA in SMH. Specific directions for this agenda are offered.
Corrieri, Sandro; Conrad, Ines; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G
Mental disorders in children and adolescents are common and have serious consequences. Schools present a key opportunity to promote mental health and implement prevention measures. Four school coaches in five German schools were enlisted to engage students, teachers and parents in building a sustainably healthy school and classroom climate. Altogether, 58 focus groups with students (N=244), parents (N=54) and teachers (N=62) were conducted longitudinally. Topics included: (1) the development of the school and classroom climate, (2) the role of mental health in the regular curriculum, and (3) the role of school coaches in influencing these aspects. Over time, school coaches became trusted reference persons for an increasing number of school system members. They were able to positively influence the school and classroom climate by increasing the awareness of students, teachers and parents of mental health in daily routines. Nevertheless, topics like bullying and student inclusion remained an issue at follow-up. Overall, the school coach intervention is a good model for establishing the topic of mental health in everyday school life and increasing its importance. Future efforts will focus on building self-supporting structures and networks in order to make these efforts sustainable.
Children Now, 2014
School-based health centers (SBHCs) are an innovative and effective way to address California's severe health care access problem among children. By providing critical health care services to kids in school, SBHCs ensure children get the medical, mental health, and dental care they need to be healthy and safe, and to support their ability to…
Full Text Available Abstract Stigmatizing, or discriminatory, perspectives and behaviour, which target individuals on the basis of their mental health, are observed in even the youngest school children. We conducted a systematic review of the published and unpublished, scientific literature concerning the benefits and harms of school-based interventions, which were directed at students 18 years of age or younger to prevent or eliminate such stigmatization. Forty relevant studies were identified, yet only a qualitative synthesis was deemed appropriate. Five limitations within the evidence base constituted barriers to drawing conclusive inferences about the effectiveness and harms of school-based interventions: poor reporting quality, a dearth of randomized controlled trial evidence, poor methods quality for all research designs, considerable clinical heterogeneity, and inconsistent or null results. Nevertheless, certain suggestive evidence derived both from within and beyond our evidence base has allowed us to recommend the development, implementation and evaluation of a curriculum, which fosters the development of empathy and, in turn, an orientation toward social inclusion and inclusiveness. These effects may be achieved largely by bringing especially but not exclusively the youngest children into direct, structured contact with an infant, and likely only the oldest children and youth into direct contact with individuals experiencing mental health difficulties. The possible value of using educational activities, materials and contents to enhance hypothesized benefits accruing to direct contact also requires investigation. Overall, the curriculum might serve as primary prevention for some students and as secondary prevention for others.
Mumbauer, Janyna; Kelchner, Viki
Considering that one in five children has or has had a mental disorder in a given year (National Institute of Mental Health, 2010), the demand for mental health services within the school setting is immense. Bibliotherapy can serve as a preventative and responsive treatment for increasing mental health literacy within the school setting. The…
Mental health problems often go undiagnosed or unaddressed until a crisis or extreme event brings the problem to the forefront. Youth are particularly at risk for lack of identification and treatment in regard to mental health issues. This article describes an advanced nursing practice mental health initiative for at-risk teenage girls based on Hildegard Peplau's nursing theory, group process, and healing through holistic health approaches. A support group, RICHES, was developed with focus on core components of relationships, identity, communication, health, esteem, and support. The acronym RICHES was chosen as the name of the support group. Selected themes and issues addressed in this school-based support group are illustrated in case vignettes. Through a collaborative approach with the community and school, this practice initiative presents a unique healing process that extends knowledge in the realm of intervention with at-risk teenage girls. Further research is needed on the efficacy of support groups to modify risk factors and to address goals for primary prevention in at-risk teenage girls. © The Author(s) 2014.
Baker, Constance M.
Despite data suggesting a relationship between investment in children's health and improved academic performance, school health financing is inadequate, inequitable, and fragmented. Strategies for improving school health programs include leadership from the nursing profession; collaboration among health professionals; consolidation of funding…
Naveen Agarwal; Balram Paswan; Prakash H. Fulpagare; Dhirendra N Sinha; Thaksaphon Thamarangsi; Manju Rani
Background and challenges to implementation Technological advancement is growing very fast in India and majority of young population is handling electronic devices often during leisure as well as at work. This study indicates that electronic tablets are less time consuming and improves survey response rate over the traditional paper-pencil survey method. Intervention or response An Android-based Global School-based Health Survey (GSHS) questionnaire was used with the...
Lima-Serrano, Marta; Lima-Rodríguez, Joaquín S
Given that lifestyleshave similar determinants and that school-based interventions are usually targeted at all the risks that affect adolescents, the objective of this systematic review was to summarize the characteristics and effects of school-based interventions acting on different behavioral domains of adolescent health promotion. The review process was conducted by two independent reviewers who searched PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO, and ERIC databases for experimental or observational studies with at least two measures of results published from 2007 to 2011, given that the research information available doubles every 5 years. Methodological quality was assessed with a standardized tool. Information was extracted from 35 studies aiming to prevent risk behaviors and promote healthy nutrition, physical activity, and mental and holistic health. Activities were based on theoretical models and were classified into interactive lessons, peer mediation, environmental changes, parents' and community activities, and tailored messages by computer-assisted training or other resources, usually including multiple components. In some cases, we identified some moderate to large, short- and long-term effects on behavioral and intermediate variable. This exhaustive review found that well-implemented interventions can promote adolescent health. These findings are consistent with recent reviews. Implications for practice, public health, and research are discussed. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
School health services reduce absenteeism and improve academic achievement according to research. If you have school-aged children, you'll want to listen to this podcast to learn more about healthy school environments and the link between health and academic achievement.
Wilson, Charles C.
This 1958 paper examines how former and current school health programs differ (e.g., school nurses moved from simply treating minor injuries and communicable diseases to working cooperatively with physicians and school staff to develop policies and procedures, and health education moved from simple anatomy and physiology to broader personal and…
Characteristics of health professions schools, public school systems, and community-based organizations in successful partnerships to increase the numbers of underrepresented minority students entering health professions education.
Carline, Jan D; Patterson, Davis G
To identify characteristics of health professions schools, public schools, and community-based organizations in successful partnerships to increase the number of underrepresented minority students entering health professions. The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and the W. K. Kellogg Foundation funded the Health Professions Partnership Initiative program developed from Project 3000 by 2000 of the Association of American Medical Colleges. Semi-structured interviews were completed with awardees and representatives of the funding agencies, the national program office, and the national advisory committee between the fall of 2000 and the summer of 2002. Site visits were conducted at ten sites, with representatives of partner institutions, teachers, parents, and children. Characteristics that supported and hindered development of successful partnerships were identified using an iterative qualitative approach. Successful partnerships included professional schools that had a commitment to community service. Successful leaders could work in both cultures of the professional and public schools. Attitudes of respect and listening to the needs of partners were essential. Public school governance supported innovation. Happenstance and convergence of interests played significant roles in partnership development. The most telling statement was "We did it, together." This study identifies characteristics associated with smoothly working partnerships, and barriers to successful program development. Successful partnerships can form the basis on which educational interventions are built. The study is limited by the definition of success used, and its focus on one funded program. The authors were unable to identify outcomes in terms of numbers of children influenced by programs or instances in which lasting changes in health professions schools had occurred.
Woolf, Maryke; Bantjes, Jason; Kagee, Ashraf
Youth suicidal behaviour poses a significant public health concern. Mental health care professionals working in schools have an important role to play in youth suicide prevention initiatives, although little is known of the experiences of this group of professionals in the developing world. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of mental health professionals working in South African schools and document their insights, attitudes and beliefs regarding youth suicidal behaviour. I...
Petersen, Poul Erik; Peng, Bin; Tai, Baojun
OBJECTIVES: To assess oral health outcomes of a school-based oral health education (OHE) programme on children, mothers and schoolteachers in China, and to evaluate the methods applied and materials used. DESIGN: The WHO Health Promoting Schools Project applied to primary schoolchildren in 3...... in experimental schools adopted regular oral health behaviour such as toothbrushing, recent dental visits, use of fluoride toothpaste, with less frequent consumption of cakes/biscuits compared to controls. In experimental schools, mothers showed significant beneficial oral health developments, while teachers...... showed higher oral health knowledge and more positive attitudes, also being satisfied with training workshops, methods applied, materials used and involvement with children in OHE. CONCLUSIONS: The programme had positive effects on gingival bleeding score and oral health behaviour of children...
School health services reduce absenteeism and improve academic achievement according to research. If you have school-aged children, youâll want to listen to this podcast to learn more about healthy school environments and the link between health and academic achievement. Created: 9/13/2017 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 9/13/2017.
Larson, Satu A; Chapman, Susan A
School-based health centers (SBHCs) are an important component of health care reform. The SBHC model of care offers accessible, continuous, comprehensive, family-centered, coordinated, and compassionate care to infants, children, and adolescents. These same elements comprise the patient-centered medical home (PCMH) model of care being promoted by the Affordable Care Act with the hope of lowering health care costs by rewarding clinicians for primary care services. PCMH survey tools have been developed to help payers determine whether a clinician/site serves as a PCMH. Our concern is that current survey tools will be unable to capture how a SBHC may provide a medical home and therefore be denied needed funding. This article describes how SBHCs might meet the requirements of one PCMH tool. SBHC stakeholders need to advocate for the creation or modification of existing survey tools that allow the unique characteristics of SBHCs to qualify as PCMHs.
Wang, Dongxu; Stewart, Donald; Chang, Chun
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess whether the school-based nutrition programme using the health-promoting school (HPS) framework was effective to improve parents' knowledge, attitudes and behaviour (KAB) in relation to nutrition in rural Mi Yun County, Beijing. Design/methodology/approach: A cluster-randomised intervention trial…
Oliveira-Campos, Maryane; Nunes, Marília Lavocart; Madeira, Fátima de Carvalho; Santos, Maria Goreth; Bregmann, Silvia Reise; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Giatti, Luana; Barreto, Sandhi Maria
This study describes the sexual behavior among students who participated in the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE) 2012 and investigates whether social inequalities, the use of psychoactive substances and the dissemination of information on sexual and reproductive health in school are associated with differences in behavior. The response variable was the sexual behavior described in three categories (never had sexual intercourse, had protected sexual intercourse, had unprotected sexual intercourse). The explanatory variables were grouped into socio- demographic characteristics, substance use and information on sexual and reproductive health in school. Variables associated with the conduct and unprotected sex were identified through multinomial logistic regression, using "never had sexual intercourse" as a reference. Over nearly a quarter of the adolescents have had sexual intercourse in life, being more frequent among boys. About 25% did not use a condom in the last intercourse. Low maternal education and work increased the chance of risky sexual behavior. Any chance of protected and unprotected sex increased with the number of psychoactive substances used. Among those who don't receive guidance on the prevention of pregnancy in school, the chance to have sexual intercourse increased, with the largest magnitude for unprotected sex (OR = 1.41 and OR = 1.87 ). The information on preventing pregnancy and STD/AIDS need to be disseminated before the 9th grade. Social inequalities negatively affect risky sexual behavior. Substance use is strongly associated with unprotected sex. Information on the prevention of pregnancy and STD/AIDS need to be disseminated early.
Page, Randy M.; Saumweber, Jacqueline; Hall, P. Cougar; Crookston, Benjamin T.; West, Joshua H.
This study describes the prevalence of suicide ideation in 109 Global School-based Health Surveys (GSHS) conducted from 2003-2010 representing 49 different countries and 266,694 school-attending students aged 13-15 years primarily living in developing areas of the World. Prevalence of suicide ideation varied widely among and between countries,…
John Paul Ekwaru
Full Text Available The Alberta Project Promoting active Living and healthy Eating in Schools (APPLE Schools has been recognized as a "best practice" in preventing childhood obesity. To inform decision making on the economic implications of APPLE Schools and to justify investment, we evaluated the project's cost-effectiveness following a life-course approach.We developed a state transition model for the lifetime progression of body weight status comparing elementary school students attending APPLE Schools and control schools. This model quantified the lifetime impact of APPLE Schools in terms of prevention of excess body weight, chronic disease and improved quality-adjusted life years (QALY, from a school system's cost perspective. Both costs and health outcomes were discounted to their present value using 3% discount rate.The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio(ICER of APPLE schools was CA$33,421 per QALY gained, and CA$1,555, CA$1,709 and CA$14,218 per prevented person years of excess weight, obesity and chronic disease, respectively. These estimates show that APPLE Schools is cost effective at a threshold of ICER < CA$50,000. In probabilistic sensitivity analysis, APPLE Schools was cost effective more than 64% of the time per QALY gained, when using a threshold of ICER
Chen, Gang; Ratcliffe, Julie; Olds, Tim; Magarey, Anthea; Jones, Michelle; Leslie, Eva
To explore the relationship between weight status (BMI) and health-related quality of life in children and adolescents through application of the Child Health Utility 9D, a new generic preference-based instrument. Data were collected from primary and high school students in rural and metropolitan regions of South Australia. Consenting participants (2588 in grades 4-6 and 765 in grades 9-10) were weighed and measured and categorized as underweight, healthy weight, overweight, or obese according to International Obesity Taskforce BMI cutoff points (primary outcome). Participants also completed a questionnaire including the Child Health Utility 9D and standardized measures of physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep patterns, and eating behavior (secondary outcomes). Descriptive and multivariate linear regression analyses were undertaken to calculate mean utility differences. In comparison with healthy-weight primary school students, adjusted mean utilities were lower for overweight (-0.016, P = .02) or obese (-0.039, P = .001) students. For high school students, the adjusted mean utilities were also lower for overweight and obese students but were nonsignificant (-0.018, P > .10). Physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep patterns, and eating behavior were all found to be significantly associated with utilities. Irrespective of BMI, young people engaging in more physical activities or less sedentary behavior, and having healthier sleep patterns or eating behavior exhibited higher utilities. Associations between utilities and sleep patterns or eating behavior were stronger than the associations with BMI. Future economic evaluations for obesity interventions should more formally investigate the relationship between changes over time in weight status and health-related quality of life for children and adolescents.
Maintaining student health, safety, and welfare is a primary goal for any K-12 school system. If a child becomes sick, is injured, or seems in any other way incapacitated at school, it is the understood responsibility that the school will provide care and, if necessary, contact the parents and direct the child to outside treatment. Beyond that…
U, Harikrishnan; Arif, Ali; H, Sobhana
Adolescent emotional responses and behaviors are often passed off as growth pangs and academic stress, thereby missing those that need deeper understanding and mental health interventions. The aim of the study is to understand mental health status among the school adolescents in Tezpur, Assam. The present study was a cross sectional study that used convenience sampling in selection of the schools. A total of 10 schools were selected for the purpose of the study. 1403 Adolescents were selected for data analysis. Socio-Demographic Performa and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire [SDQ] were administered to the participants. The results indicated that five predictors (gender, education, family type, academic performance, socio economic status in the family) explained 9.79% of the variance (F=5.040, Pconcern. Schools should have standing operation procedures in place to periodically screen adolescents for mental health related issues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Anwar-McHenry, Julia; Donovan, Robert John; Nicholas, Amberlee; Kerrigan, Simone; Francas, Stephanie; Phan, Tina
Purpose: Mentally Healthy WA developed and implemented the Mentally Healthy Schools Framework in 2010 in response to demand from schools wanting to promote the community-based Act-Belong-Commit mental health promotion message within a school setting. Schools are an important setting for mental health promotion, therefore, the Framework encourages…
Gambhir, Ramandeep Singh; Sohi, Ramandeep Kaur; Nanda, Tarun; Sawhney, Gurjashan Singh; Setia, Saniya
The teaching of Oral Health Education aims at preventing the dental disease and promoting dental health at early stages. Schools are powerful places to shape the health, education and well-being of our children. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of school dental health education programmes conducted in various parts of India. A systematic review from available literature was carried out. The study examined papers relating to oral health interventions which were published between 1992 and 2012. Ten articles were selected and included in the review. All the studies were found to contain the required information on the outcomes of school dental health programmes in India. Different methods were used to deliver oral health education. All the studies reported significant improvement in oral hygiene of school children after imparting dental health education. In some studies, school teachers were also trained to impart oral health education. Decreased level of awareness was found in children coming from low income families. Longer duration studies are needed to improve the results. School dental education programmes should be more focused on north-eastern Indian population.
Ekwaru, John Paul; Ohinmaa, Arto; Tran, Bach Xuan; Setayeshgar, Solmaz; Johnson, Jeffrey A; Veugelers, Paul J
The Alberta Project Promoting active Living and healthy Eating in Schools (APPLE Schools) has been recognized as a "best practice" in preventing childhood obesity. To inform decision making on the economic implications of APPLE Schools and to justify investment, we evaluated the project's cost-effectiveness following a life-course approach. We developed a state transition model for the lifetime progression of body weight status comparing elementary school students attending APPLE Schools and control schools. This model quantified the lifetime impact of APPLE Schools in terms of prevention of excess body weight, chronic disease and improved quality-adjusted life years (QALY), from a school system's cost perspective. Both costs and health outcomes were discounted to their present value using 3% discount rate. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio(ICER) of APPLE schools was CA$33,421 per QALY gained, and CA$1,555, CA$1,709 and CA$14,218 per prevented person years of excess weight, obesity and chronic disease, respectively. These estimates show that APPLE Schools is cost effective at a threshold of ICER Schools was cost effective more than 64% of the time per QALY gained, when using a threshold of ICERSchool-based health promotion, such as APPLE Schools is a cost-effective intervention for obesity prevention and reduction of chronic disease risk over the lifetime. Expanding the coverage and allocating resources towards school-based programs like the APPLE Schools program, is likely to reduce the public health burden of obesity and chronic diseases.
Guzmán, Javier; Kessler, Ronald C; Squicciarini, Ana Maria; George, Myriam; Baer, Lee; Canenguez, Katia M; Abel, Madelaine R; McCarthy, Alyssa; Jellinek, Michael S; Murphy, J Michael
Skills for Life (SFL) is the largest school-based mental health program in the world, screening and providing services to more than 1,000,000 students in Chile over the past decade. This is the first external evaluation of the program. Of the 8,372 primary schools in Chile in 2010 that received public funding, one-fifth (1,637) elected to participate in SFL. Each year, all first- and third-grade students in these schools are screened with validated teacher- and parent-completed measures of psychosocial functioning (the Teacher Observation of Classroom Adaptation-Re-Revised [TOCA-RR] and the Pediatric Symptom Checklist-Chile [PSC-CL]). Students identified as being at risk on the TOCA-RR in first grade are referred to a standardized 10-session preventive intervention in second grade. This article explores the relationships between workshop participation and changes in TOCA-RR and PSC-CL scores, attendance, and promotion from third to fourth grades. In all, 16.4% of students were identified as being at-risk on the TOCA-RR. Statistically significant relationships were found between the number of workshop sessions attended and improvements in behavioral and academic outcomes after controlling for nonrandom selection into exposure and loss to follow-up. Effect sizes for the difference between attending most (7-10) versus fewer (0-6) sessions ranged from 0.08 to 0.16 standard deviations. This study provides empirical evidence that a large-scale mental health intervention early in schooling is significantly associated with improved behavioral and academic outcomes. Future research is needed to implement more rigorous experimental evaluation of the program, to examine longer-term effects, and to investigate possible predictors of heterogeneity of treatment response. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bundy, Donald, Ed.
School health and nutrition programs can contribute to achieving the goals of the Education for All initiative (EFA) by helping children enroll on time, complete their education, and realize their cognitive potential. Achieving these goals depends on reaching the children most in need. One strong feature of school health and nutrition programs is…
Rosvall, Per-Åke; Nilsson, Stefan
There has been an increase of reports describing mental health problems in adolescents, especially girls. School nurses play an important role in supporting young people with health problems. Few studies have considered how the nurses' gender norms may influence their discussions. To investigate this issue, semi-structured interviews focusing on school nurses' work with students who have mental health problems were conducted. Transcripts of interviews with Swedish school nurses (n = 15) from the Help overcoming pain early project (HOPE) were analysed using theories on gender as a theoretical framework and then organised into themes related to the school nurses' provision of contact and intervention. The interviewees were all women, aged between 42-63 years, who had worked as nurses for 13-45 years, and as school nurses for 2-28 years. Five worked in upper secondary schools (for students aged 16-19) and 10 in secondary schools (for students aged 12-16). The results show that school nurses more commonly associated mental health problems with girls. When the school nurses discussed students that were difficult to reach, boys in particular were mentioned. However, very few nurses mentioned specific intervention to address students' mental health problems, and all of the mentioned interventions were focused on girls. Some of the school nurses reported that it was more difficult to initiate a health dialogue with boys, yet none of the nurses had organized interventions for the boys. We conclude that generalisations can sometimes be analytically helpful, facilitating, for instance, the identification of problems in school nurses' work methods and interventions. However, the most important conclusion from our research, which applied a design that is not commonly used, is that more varied approaches, as well as a greater awareness of potential gender stereotype pitfalls, are necessary to meet the needs of diverse student groups.
O'Brien, Liam M.; Polacsek, Michele; MacDonald, Pamela B.; Ellis, Jacqueline; Berry, Susan; Martin, Maurice
Background: Health-related, school-based interventions may serve to prevent disease and improve academic performance. The Healthy Maine Partnerships (HMP) initiative funded local school health coordinators (SHCs) as a part of Maine's Coordinated School Health Program (CSHP) beginning in January 2001. SHCs established school health leadership teams…
Mesheriakova, Veronika V; Tebb, Kathleen P
The use of effective contraception can decrease the incidence of unplanned pregnancy among adolescents. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of an iPad-based application (app) on improving adolescent girls' sexual health knowledge and on its ability to influence their intentions to use effective contraception. This was a prospective study of girls aged 12 to 18 years recruited from 3 school-based health centers in California. A total of 120 racially/ethnically diverse participants used the iPad app; 54% were sexually active, with only 26% using effective contraception at baseline. The average score on baseline sexual health knowledge assessment was 58%. After using the app, 68% of the sexually active participants reported intention to use effective contraception in the future, and sexual health knowledge improved significantly to 79% ( P iPad-based app is a promising intervention to educate adolescents about sexual health and support them in selecting an effective contraception method.
Full Text Available Abstract Background As concern about youth obesity continues to mount, there is increasing consideration of widespread policy changes to support improved nutritional and enhanced physical activity offerings in schools. A critical element in the success of such programs may be to involve students as spokespeople for the program. Making such a public commitment to healthy lifestyle program targets (improved nutrition and enhanced physical activity may potentiate healthy behavior changes among such students and provide a model for their peers. This paper examines whether student's "public commitment"--voluntary participation as a peer communicator or in student-generated media opportunities--in a school-based intervention to prevent diabetes and reduce obesity predicted improved study outcomes including reduced obesity and improved health behaviors. Methods Secondary analysis of data from a 3-year randomized controlled trial conducted in 42 middle schools examining the impact of a multi-component school-based program on body mass index (BMI and student health behaviors. A total of 4603 students were assessed at the beginning of sixth grade and the end of eighth grade. Process evaluation data were collected throughout the course of the intervention. All analyses were adjusted for students' baseline values. For this paper, the students in the schools randomized to receive the intervention were further divided into two groups: those who participated in public commitment activities and those who did not. Students from comparable schools randomized to the assessment condition constituted the control group. Results We found a lower percentage of obesity (greater than or equal to the 95th percentile for BMI at the end of the study among the group participating in public commitment activities compared to the control group (21.5% vs. 26.6%, p = 0.02. The difference in obesity rates at the end of the study was even greater among the subgroup of students who
Macnab, A J; Radziminski, N; Budden, H; Kasangaki, A; Zavuga, R; Gagnon, F A; Mbabali, M
PROJECT GOAL: To adapt a successful Canadian health-promoting school initiative to a Ugandan context through international partnership. Rural children face many health challenges worldwide; health professionals in training understand these better through community-based learning. Aboriginal leaders in a Canadian First-Nations community identified poor oral health as a child health issue with major long-term societal impact and intervened successfully with university partners through a school-based program called "Brighter Smiles". Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda (MUK) sought to implement this delivery model for both the benefit of communities and the dental students. MUK identified rural communities where hospitals could provide dental students with community-based learning and recruited four local schools. A joint Ugandan and Canadian team of both trainees and faculty planned the program, obtained ethics consent and baseline data, initiated the Brighter Smiles intervention model (daily at-school tooth-brushing; in-class education), and recruited a cohort to receive additional bi-annual topical fluoride. Hurdles included: challenging international communication and planning due to inconsistent internet connections; discrepancies between Canadian and developing world concepts of research ethics and informed consent; complex dynamics for community engagement and steep learning curve for accurate data collection; an itinerant population at one school; and difficulties coordinating Canadian and Ugandan university schedules. Four health-promoting schools were established; teachers, children, and families were engaged in the initiative; community-based learning was adopted for the university students; quarterly team education/evaluation/service delivery visits to schools were initiated; oral health improved, and new knowledge and practices were evident; an effective international partnership was formed providing global health education, research and health care
Riley, Margaret; Laurie, Anna R; Plegue, Melissa A; Richarson, Caroline R
Access to high-quality health care is a crucial social determinant of health. We describe the implementation of an "expanded medical home" partnering a primary care practice (the Ypsilanti Health Center [YHC]) with local school-based health centers (the Regional Alliance for Healthy Schools [RAHS]), and to assess whether this model improves access to and quality of care for shared patients. Using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research, we define the steps in, barriers to, and facilitating factors in implementing the expanded medical home model. Visits and quality measures were assessed for patients seen by YHC only versus YHC/RAHS at baseline and during the intervention. At baseline, patients seen at YHC/RAHS had higher compliance with most quality metrics compared with those seen at YHC only. The proportion of shared patients significantly increased because of the intervention (P partnership between primary care physicians and school-based health centers increases the number of shared high-risk adolescent patients. Shared patients have improved compliance with quality measures, which may lead to long-term improved health equity. © Copyright 2016 by the American Board of Family Medicine.
Waenerlund, Anna-Karin; Stenmark, Helena; Bergström, Erik; Hägglöf, Bruno; Öhman, Ann; Petersen, Solveig
Little is known about the association between school experiences and mental health in young schoolchildren. This study explored the cross-sectional and prospective associations between children's school experiences and mental health in middle childhood. We gathered comprehensive population-based data on the school experiences and mental health of 592 schoolchildren attending grades three and six in Sweden (ages approximately nine and 12 years). The KIDSCREEN questionnaire was used to measure school experiences in both age groups while the Child Behavior Checklist and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire measured mental health in grades three and six, respectively. Children with problematic school experiences in grade three had an approximately two times higher odds for concurrent total, internalised, externalised, attention-hyperactivity and social problems. They also had a 1.5-2.5 higher odds for these mental health problems three years later. Likewise, there was an association between problematic school experiences in grade three and lower levels of prosocial behaviour three years later. These associations were shown in both boys and girls, but were particularly pronounced in girls. This study indicated that school experiences in young schoolchildren may be important determinants of concurrent and later mental health problems. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Patel, Pooja R; Huynh, Michaela T; Alvarez, Crystal A; Jones, DaJonitta; Jennings, Kristofer; Snyder, Russell R
To determine characteristics of teen pregnancies in southeast Texas and the opinions of postpartum teenagers with regard to having contraceptive services available in high school clinics. A cross-sectional study of postpartum teenagers interviewed during their hospital stay. Of 404 postpartum teenagers interviewed, 86% had unplanned pregnancies. Approximately 53% of respondents first had intercourse at less than 16 years of age. Of the 130 teenagers who had used contraception prior to pregnancy, 85% became pregnant because they were unable to visit the clinic to obtain a contraceptive refill or replacement. In multivariate modeling, factors associated with using contraceptives prior to pregnancy included black race (p teenagers surveyed, 223 (82%) were in favor of having contraceptive services offered in high school clinics. Contraceptive education is not sufficient to prevent teenage pregnancy. Increase in access is critical as teenagers with previous pregnancies were more likely to use contraception, likely due to their interaction with the medical community during the antecedent pregnancy. One possible solution is to bring contraceptive services to the teenagers, by offering them at school based health systems. A majority of teenagers surveyed in this study supported this proposal.
Annette Quinto Romani
Full Text Available AbstractChildhood obesity and inactivity is a significant public health problem that also has economic consequences. Therefore, economists have a role to play in determining the causal impacts. The influences of childhood background on outcomes can, usefully, be broken down into the effect of family, school and peer. To combat the raising childhood obesity, schools have been advocated as a potential area. This paper analyses whether increasing physical activity in a school context can contribute to health improvement using multiple outcomes. We address the issue by using a unique longitudinal data set of, respectively, 1087 (BMI and 1047 (fitness schoolchildren attending 37 state schools in the Municipality of Aalborg, Denmark. The effect is identified by using a randomized experiment that creates an exogenous increase in physical activity. Surprisingly, we find that the intervention did not have the expected impact on schoolchildren’s health, and the scant evidence we have points towards a negative effect. A plausible explanation is that the results mask important heterogeneity. Another plausible explanation is that the results also capture any compensating behaviour that schoolchildren engage in by being less active out of school. From a public-policy perspective, increasing physical activity in a school context seems to increase the ‘gap’ in child health and ‘crowd-out’ outside-school physical activity. Consequently, a supportive cost-benefit case might exist if parental behaviour is assumed to be affected by school resources and endogenous.
Amaugo, Lucky Gospel; Papadopoulos, Chris; Ochieng, Bertha M. N.; Ali, Nasreen
HIV/AIDS is one of the most important public health challenges facing Nigeria today. Recent evidence has revealed that the adolescent population make up a large proportion of the 3.7% reported prevalence rate among Nigerians aged 15-49 years. School-based sexual health education has therefore become an important tool towards fighting this problem.…
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the frequency of consumption of obesogenic foods among adolescents and its association with sociodemographic, family, behavioral, and environmental variables. Methods: Secondary data from the National School-Based Student Health Hurvey were analyzed from a representative sample of 9th grade Brazilian students (high school. A self-administered questionnaire, organized into thematic blocks, was used. The dependent variables were the consumption of deep fried snacks, packaged snacks, sugar candies, and soft drinks; consumption frequency for the seven days preceding the study was analyzed. Bivariate analysis was carried out to determine the empirical relationship between the regular consumption of these foods (≥3 days/week with sociodemographic, family, behavioral, and school structural variables. p-value <0.20 was used as the criterion for initial inclusion in the multivariate logistic analysis, which was conducted using the "Enter" method, and the results were expressed as adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence interval and p<0.05 indicating a statistically significance. Results: Regular food consumption ranged from 27.17% to 65.96%. The variables female gender, mobile phone ownership, Internet access at home, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, regular physical activity, eating while watching television or studying, watching television for at least 2 hours a day, and not willing to lose weight were associated in the final logistic models of all foods analyzed. Conclusion: It was concluded that fried snacks, packaged snacks, sugar candies, and soft drinks are regularly consumed by adolescents and that such consumption was associated with the sociodemographic, family, behavioral, and school structural variables.
Jamilia J. Blake
Full Text Available African American males are at increased risk for experiencing disciplinary practices that exclude them from the school environment. It is believed that African American males’ overrepresentation in the receipt of these practices contributes to their involvement in the criminal justice system as they approach adolescence and enter adulthood. The connection of exclusionary discipline with incarceration rates is termed the School to Prison Pipeline. Although some scholars have identified school-wide initiatives as having potential in curtailing African American males’ overrepresentation in these punitive discipline practices, less discussion has focused on the role of school-based mental health professionals to address this issue. School-based mental health professionals possess a unique set of skills that may assist schools in decreasing African American males’ exposure to exclusionary discipline practices and consequently reducing their risk for adverse outcomes. The purpose of this review is to provide school-based mental health professionals with specific recommendations for reducing this negative educational experience.
O'Connor, Clare A; Dyson, Judith; Cowdell, Fiona; Watson, Roger
To examine evidence-using a range of outcomes-for the effectiveness of school-based mental health and emotional well-being programmes. It is estimated that 20% of young people experience mental health difficulties every year. Schools have been identified as an appropriate setting for providing mental health and emotional well-being promotion prompting the need to determine whether current school-based programmes are effective in improving the mental health and emotional well-being of young people. A systematic search was conducted using the health and education databases, which identified 29 studies that measured the effectiveness of school-based universal interventions. Prisma guidelines were used during the literature review process. Thematic analysis generated three key themes: (i) help seeking and coping; (ii) social and emotional well-being; and (iii) psycho-educational effectiveness. It is concluded that whilst these studies show promising results, there is a need for further robust evaluative studies to guide future practice. All available opportunities should be taken to provide mental health promotion interventions to young people in the school environment, with a requirement for educational professionals to be provided the necessary skills and knowledge to ensure that the school setting continues to be a beneficial environment for conducting mental health promotion. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Paschall, Mallie J; Bersamin, Melina
This study examined whether an increase in the availability of mental health services at school-based health centers (SBHCs) in Oregon public schools was associated with the likelihood of suicidal ideation, suicide attempts and substance use behaviors among adolescents who experienced a depressive episode in the past year. The study sample included 168 Oregon public middle and high schools and 9073 students who participated in the Oregon Healthy Teens Survey (OHT) in 2013 and 2015. Twenty-five schools had an SBHC, and 14 of those schools increased availability of mental health services from 2013 to 2015. The OHT included questions about having a depressive episode, suicidal ideation, attempting suicide in the past year, and substance use behaviors in the past 30days. Multi-level logistic regression analyses were conducted in 2017 to examine associations between increasing mental health services and the likelihood of these outcomes. Analysis results indicated that students at SBHC schools that increased mental health services were less likely to report any suicidal ideation [odds ratio (OR) (95% C.I.)=0.66 (0.55, 0.81)], suicide attempts [OR (95% C.I.)=0.71 (0.56, 0.89)] and cigarette smoking [OR (95% C.I.)=0.77 (0.63, 0.94)] from 2013 to 2015 compared to students in all other schools. Lower frequencies of cigarette, marijuana and unauthorized prescription drug use were also observed in SBHC schools that increased mental health services relative to other schools with SBHCs. This study suggests that mental health services provided by SBHCs may help reduce suicide risk and substance use behaviors among at-risk adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
BACKGROUND Stigmatizing attitudes toward mental illness and low mental health literacy have been found to be barriers to seeking help for mental health related issues in adolescents. Prior research has found that it is possible to improve these outcomes using school-based mental health interventions. The purpose of this study was to review empirical literature pertaining to universal interventions addressing mental health among students enrolled in US K-12 schools, especially related to health disparities in vulnerable populations. METHODS PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, PUBMED, and reference lists of relevant articles were searched for K-12 school-based mental health awareness interventions in the US. Universal studies that measured knowledge, attitudes, and/or help-seeking pertinent to mental health were included. RESULTS A total of 15 studies were selected to be part of the review. There were 7 pretest/posttest case series, 5 non-randomized experimental trial, 1 Solomon 4-groups, and 2 randomized controlled trial designs (RCT). Nine studies measuring knowledge, 8 studies measuring attitudes, and 4 studies measuring help-seeking, indicated statistically significant improvement. CONCLUSIONS Although results of all studies indicated some level of improvement, more research on implementation of universal school-based mental health awareness programs is needed using RCT study designs, and long-term follow up implementation. PMID:27866385
Annesi, James J.; Trinity, John; Mareno, Nicole; Walsh, Stephanie M.
Increasing exercise in children and adolescents through academic classes is an understudied area. Potential benefits include associated improvements in health, psychosocial, and quality-of-life factors. A sample of 98 students (M[subscript age] = 14.3) from high school health education classes received six, 40-min lessons incorporating…
Sulz, Lauren; Gibbons, Sandra; Naylor, Patti-Jean; Wharf Higgins, Joan
Background: Comprehensive School Health models offer a promising strategy to elicit changes in student health behaviours. To maximise the effect of such models, the active involvement of teachers and students in the change process is recommended. Objective: The goal of this project was to gain insight into the experiences and motivations of…
Whitley, Jessica; Smith, J. David; Vaillancourt, Tracy
Teachers and other school staff play key roles as partners in the prevention, identification, and intervention of mental health difficulties among children and youth. However, it is essential that teachers are equipped with sufficient mental health literacy to engender effective practices in these areas. This article reviews the literature related…
Full Text Available Background: Smoking is one of the most important risk factors for health and also health problems, such as heart diseases, especially for young people. This study aimed to investigate the effect of factors related to smoking among the secondary high school students in the city of Marivan (Kurdistan-Iran, in 2015, based on the constructs of health belief model (HBM. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 470 secondary high school students in Marivan in 2015. The samples were selected by random cluster sampling. A question with four sections was used to collect data (demographic questions, knowledge section, attitude section, and questions related to e constructs of HBM. Results: According to the results, the correlation of smoking was stronger with attitude (r = 0.269 and odds ratio = 0.89 but weaker with perceived barriers (r = 0.101. There was not a significant correlation between smoking behavior and knowledge of the harms of smoking (r = −0.005. Moreover, Cues to action was effective predictor of smoking behavior (r = 0.259. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that the prevalence of smoking in the studied sample is somewhat lower than other regions of Iran, but it should be noted that if no interventions are done to prevent smoking in this age group. The findings of the study also showed that the structure of attitudes, self-efficacy, and Cues to action are the strongest predictors of smoking among students. Albeit, attitude was strongest predictor of smoking that shows the prevalence of smoking can be reduced by focusing in this part. Considering the mean age of participants (16/2 ± 0.25 years, that shows the riskiest period for smoking is 16 years and authorities can make change in policies of cigarette selling only for over 18 years.
Basurto-Dávila, Ricardo; Meltzer, Martin I; Mills, Dora A; Beeler Asay, Garrett R; Cho, Bo-Hyun; Graitcer, Samuel B; Dube, Nancy L; Thompson, Mark G; Patel, Suchita A; Peasah, Samuel K; Ferdinands, Jill M; Gargiullo, Paul; Messonnier, Mark; Shay, David K
To estimate the societal economic and health impacts of Maine's school-based influenza vaccination (SIV) program during the 2009 A(H1N1) influenza pandemic. Primary and secondary data covering the 2008-09 and 2009-10 influenza seasons. We estimated weekly monovalent influenza vaccine uptake in Maine and 15 other states, using difference-in-difference-in-differences analysis to assess the program's impact on immunization among six age groups. We also developed a health and economic Markov microsimulation model and conducted Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis. We used national survey data to estimate the impact of the SIV program on vaccine coverage. We used primary data and published studies to develop the microsimulation model. The program was associated with higher immunization among children and lower immunization among adults aged 18-49 years and 65 and older. The program prevented 4,600 influenza infections and generated $4.9 million in net economic benefits. Cost savings from lower adult vaccination accounted for 54 percent of the economic gain. Economic benefits were positive in 98 percent of Monte Carlo simulations. SIV may be a cost-beneficial approach to increase immunization during pandemics, but programs should be designed to prevent lower immunization among nontargeted groups. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
Eichhorn, C; Bodner, L; Liebl, S; Scholz, U; Wozniak, D; Möstl, M; Ungerer-Röhrich, U; Nagel, E; Loss, J
The high prevalence of overweight among children and adolescents has led to an increase in school-based prevention programmes. The aim of the present paper is to present the concept of an initiative called "BEO'S" as well as the experience made with the implementation und acceptance of this programme in the participating schools. Different from the majority of school-based projects for healthy eating and physical activity, BEO'S pursues a systemic approach that includes the whole school and is tailored to the school's respective resources. Characteristics are (1) the participation of teachers, students, parents, and caretakers, (2) the motivation and empowerment of schools to plan and implement activities by themselves, (3) the focus on environmental approaches, and (4) addressing and considering the individual school's needs and resources. The university project team supports the schools by individual counselling as well as providing information materials, trainings and workshops for teachers, an internet page, newsletters, and financial support. In the school years 2007/08 and 2008/09, BEO'S was conducted at 14 primary and secondary schools in the district of Oberfranken, Bavaria. It was extended to other schools in 2009/10. The short- and mid-term goals are the improvement of the school's environments as well as the eating behaviour and physical activity of the students. In the long run, it is intended to prevent obesity and improve the students' health and school performance. The implementation processes showed that the teachers for physical education and domestic science as well as the headmasters were especially committed. The participation of the teaching staff, the students and the parents proved to be difficult, however. The schools implemented many activities for healthy eating and physical activity, but the planning process was not very systematic: needs assessment, status quo analysis, identification of successful strategies and definition of aims was
Dick, Rebecca N; McCauley, Heather L; Jones, Kelley A; Tancredi, Daniel J; Goldstein, Sandi; Blackburn, Samantha; Monasterio, Erica; James, Lisa; Silverman, Jay G; Miller, Elizabeth
To estimate the prevalence of cyber dating abuse among youth aged 14 to 19 years seeking care at school-based health centers and associations with other forms of adolescent relationship abuse (ARA), sexual violence, and reproductive and sexual health indicators. A cross-sectional survey was conducted during the 2012-2013 school year (participant n = 1008). Associations between cyber dating abuse and study outcomes were assessed via logistic regression models for clustered survey data. Past 3-month cyber dating abuse was reported by 41.4% of this clinic-based sample. More female than male participants reported cyber dating abuse victimization (44.6% vs 31.0%). Compared with no exposure, low- ("a few times") and high-frequency ("once or twice a month" or more) cyber dating abuse were significantly associated with physical or sexual ARA (low: adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.8-4.4; high: aOR 5.4, 95% CI 4.0-7.5) and nonpartner sexual assault (low: aOR 2.7, 95% CI 1.3-5.5; high: aOR 4.1, 95% CI 2.8-5.9). Analysis with female participants found an association between cyber dating abuse exposure and contraceptive nonuse (low: aOR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2-2.7; high: aOR 4.1, 95% CI 2.0-8.4) and reproductive coercion (low: aOR 3.0, 95% CI 1.4-6.2; high: aOR 5.7, 95% CI 2.8-11.6). Cyber dating abuse is common and associated with ARA and sexual assault in an adolescent clinic-based sample. The associations of cyber dating abuse with sexual behavior and pregnancy risk behaviors suggest a need to integrate ARA education and harm reduction counseling into sexual health assessments in clinical settings. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Charafeddine, Lama; El Rafei, Rym; Azizi, Sophie; Sinno, Durriyah; Alamiddine, Kawthar; Howson, Christopher P; Walani, Salimah R; Ammar, Walid; Nassar, Anwar; Yunis, Khalid
Maternal behavior before and after conception affects maternal and child health. Limited awareness of adolescents in preconception health may be addressed through school education. The aim of this intervention is to assess preconception health awareness among adolescents in Lebanese high schools and to test the effectiveness of a one-time educational session in improving preconception knowledge. The intervention consisted of a 30-minute educational session about good practices in preconception health, developed by the National Collaborative Perinatal Neonatal Network's (NCPNN) research team. A convenience sample of high school Lebanese students in grades 10 to 12, aged 14 to 26 years old, from 70 private and public schools in all six Lebanese provinces, participated in the intervention in 2011 and 2012. A multiple-choice questionnaire administered prior to and 2 months after the session was used to assess knowledge improvement among the students. A total of 7,290 students were enrolled. After the session, mean scores of correct answers increased from 4.36 to 6.42 out of 10, representing a 47.2% improvement (p improvement was observed for questions about Trisomy 21, folic acid intake and toxoplasmosis with percentages improvement of 96%, 172% and 83% respectively. Being female or in private school was a significant predictor of higher scores in both pre-test and post-test (p students. We recommend expanding the scope of this intervention into universities in Lebanon.
Quach, Jon; Hiscock, Harriet; Wake, Melissa
To determine at school entry (i) the prevalence and types of child sleep problems; (ii) sleep difficulties and hygiene practices associated with sleep problems; and (iii) their associations with child health-related quality of life, mental health and parent mental health. We conducted a cross-sectional community-based study at 22 primary schools in Melbourne, Australia. One thousand five hundred and twelve (70%) parents of children in the first 6 months of the child's first year of primary school took part. Parent report of child sleep problems (none, mild, and moderate/severe); sleep difficulties; pre-bedtime activities (television in bedroom, television or electronic games before bedtime, television or electronic games >2 h/day) and caffeine intake; child mental health (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire), health-related quality of life (Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory); and parent mental health (Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21). 38.6% of children had a parent-reported sleep problem (27.9% mild, 10.8% moderate/severe). Sleep problems were characterised by problematic sleep difficulties but not poor sleep hygiene practices. Moderate/severe sleep problems were associated with poorer child mental health (mean difference -0.8; 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.1 to -0.5, P health-related quality of life (mean difference -9.9; 95% CI -11.9 to -7.9, P mental health (mean difference 9.8; 95% CI 7.7-11.9, P school entrants, sleep problems are common and associated with poorer child mental health, health-related quality of life and parent mental health. Future research needs to determine if systematically addressing sleep problems improves these outcomes. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2012 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Eiraldi, Ricardo; Wolk, Courtney Benjamin; Locke, Jill; Beidas, Rinad
Schools have become the main provider of services to children with mental health needs. Although there is substantial literature on barriers to implementation of evidence-based practices (EBPs) in under-resourced school districts, less has been written on how to overcome those barriers. Providing mental health services in the school setting presents a tremendous opportunity to increase access to quality mental health care for underserved youth. This review provides a brief overview of the barriers to successful implementation and sustainment of EBPs in under-resourced public schools and provides recommendations for overcoming them. The discussion is organized around an established conceptual framework adapted for the delivery of services in under-resourced schools that focuses on interdependent factors that exist at the individual-, team, school-, and macro-levels. This manuscript explores some recommendations and strategies for effectively addressing challenges related to implementation of EBPs. Research ideas are offered to bridge the research-to-practice gap that impacts many under-resourced public school districts.
Eiraldi, Ricardo; Wolk, Courtney Benjamin; Locke, Jill; Beidas, Rinad
Schools have become the main provider of services to children with mental health needs. Although there is substantial literature on barriers to implementation of evidence-based practices (EBPs) in under-resourced school districts, less has been written on how to overcome those barriers. Providing mental health services in the school setting presents a tremendous opportunity to increase access to quality mental health care for underserved youth. This review provides a brief overview of the barriers to successful implementation and sustainment of EBPs in under-resourced public schools and provides recommendations for overcoming them. The discussion is organized around an established conceptual framework adapted for the delivery of services in under-resourced schools that focuses on interdependent factors that exist at the individual-, team, school-, and macro-levels. This manuscript explores some recommendations and strategies for effectively addressing challenges related to implementation of EBPs. Research ideas are offered to bridge the research-to-practice gap that impacts many under-resourced public school districts. PMID:26336512
Shih, Shu-Fang; Liu, Chieh-Hsing; Liao, Li-Ling; Osborne, Richard H
Health literacy has become an important health policy and health promotion agenda item in recent years. It had been seen as a means to reduce health disparities and a critical empowerment strategy to increase people's control over their health. So far, most of health literacy studies mainly focus on adults with few studies investigating associations between child health literacy and health status. This study aimed to investigate the association between health literacy and body weight in Taiwan's sixth grade school children. Using a population-based survey, 162,209 sixth grade (11-12 years old) school children were assessed. The response rate at school level was 83%, with 70% of all students completing the survey. The Taiwan child health literacy assessment tool was applied and information on sex, ethnicity, self-reported health, and health behaviors were also collected. BMI was used to classify the children as underweight, normal, overweight, or obese. A multinomial logit model with robust estimation was used to explore associations between health literacy and the body weight with an adjustment for covariates. The sample consisted of 48.9% girls, 3.8% were indigenous and the mean BMI was 19.55 (SD = 3.93). About 6% of children self-reported bad or very bad health. The mean child health literacy score was 24.03 (SD = 6.12, scale range from 0 to 32). The overall proportion of obese children was 15.2%. Children in the highest health literacy quartile were less likely to be obese (12.4%) compared with the lowest quartile (17.4%). After controlling for gender, ethnicity, self-rated health, and health behaviors, children with higher health literacy were less likely to be obese (Relative Risk Ratio (RRR) = 0.94, p 1.10, p obese. This study demonstrates strong links between health literacy and obesity, even after adjusting for key potential confounders, and provides new insights into potential intervention points in school education for obesity prevention. Systematic
Full Text Available Abstract Background Health literacy has become an important health policy and health promotion agenda item in recent years. It had been seen as a means to reduce health disparities and a critical empowerment strategy to increase people’s control over their health. So far, most of health literacy studies mainly focus on adults with few studies investigating associations between child health literacy and health status. This study aimed to investigate the association between health literacy and body weight in Taiwan’s sixth grade school children. Methods Using a population-based survey, 162,209 sixth grade (11–12 years old school children were assessed. The response rate at school level was 83 %, with 70 % of all students completing the survey. The Taiwan child health literacy assessment tool was applied and information on sex, ethnicity, self-reported health, and health behaviors were also collected. BMI was used to classify the children as underweight, normal, overweight, or obese. A multinomial logit model with robust estimation was used to explore associations between health literacy and the body weight with an adjustment for covariates. Results The sample consisted of 48.9 % girls, 3.8 % were indigenous and the mean BMI was 19.55 (SD = 3.93. About 6 % of children self-reported bad or very bad health. The mean child health literacy score was 24.03 (SD = 6.12, scale range from 0 to 32. The overall proportion of obese children was 15.2 %. Children in the highest health literacy quartile were less likely to be obese (12.4 % compared with the lowest quartile (17.4 %. After controlling for gender, ethnicity, self-rated health, and health behaviors, children with higher health literacy were less likely to be obese (Relative Risk Ratio (RRR = 0.94, p 1.10, p < 0.0001 were more likely to report being overweight or obese. Conclusions This study demonstrates strong links between health literacy and obesity, even after
Ojio, Yasutaka; Yonehara, Hiromi; Taneichi, Setsuko; Yamasaki, Syudo; Ando, Shuntaro; Togo, Fumiharu; Nishida, Atsushi; Sasaki, Tsukasa
Improving knowledge and beliefs about mental health (or mental health literacy [MHL]) may promote appropriate help-seeking by adolescents who are suffering from mental health problems. We developed a concise, school-staff-led MHL program and examined its effects. The participants comprised 118 grade-9 students (61 boys and 57 girls). The program consisted of two 50-min sessions, and was given by a schoolteacher. The effects of the program were evaluated before, immediately after and 3 months after the program, using a self-report questionnaire. Knowledge of mental health/illnesses and desirable behavior for help-seeking were significantly improved immediately after (post-test, P mental health problems were also significantly (P school-staff-led program may have a significant effect on the improvement of MHL in secondary school students. © 2015 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2015 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.
Nakamura, Harunobu; Ohara, Kumiko; Kouda, Katsuyasu; Fujita, Yuki; Mase, Tomoki; Miyawaki, Chiemi; Okita, Yoshimitsu; Ishikawa, Tetsuya
In recent years in Japan, electronic games, home computers, and the internet have assumed an important place in people's lives, even for elementary school children. Subjective health complaints have also become a problem among children. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between media use and health status in elementary school children in Japan. A cross-sectional school-based population survey was conducted in 2009 with a sample of fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade children (age range: 10-12 years old) in elementary schools in Japan (n = 3,464). Self-reported health, lifestyle habits, and time spent using media were assessed. The use of games, television, and personal computers was significantly associated with lifestyle (p media used for more than 1 hour was, the higher the odds ratio of the association of media use with unhealthy lifestyle and subjective health complaints was. The plural use of these media had stronger associations with unhealthy lifestyle and subjective health complaints. Game, television, and personal-computer use were mutually associated, and the plural use of these media had stronger associations with unhealthy lifestyle and subjective health complaints. Excessive use of media might be a risk for unhealthy lifestyle and subjective health complaints.
Salerno, John P.
Background: Stigmatizing attitudes toward mental illness and low mental health literacy have been identified as links to social adversity, and barriers to seeking and adhering to treatment among adolescents suffering from mental illness. Prior research has found that it is possible to improve these outcomes using school-based mental health…
Tol, W.A.; Komproe, I.H.; Jordans, M.J.D.; Ndayisaba, A.; Ntamatumba, P.; Sipsma, H.; Smallegange, E.S.; Macy, R.D.; de Jong, J.T.V.M.
Background: Armed conflicts are associated with a wide range of impacts on the mental health of children and adolescents. We evaluated the effectiveness of a school-based intervention aimed at reducing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety (treatment aim); and improving
Tol, Wietse A.; Komproe, Ivan H.; Jordans, Mark J D; Ndayisaba, Aline; Ntamutumba, Prudence; Sipsma, Heather; Smallegange, Eva S.; Macy, Robert D.; de Jong, Joop T V M; Komproe, J
Background: Armed conflicts are associated with a wide range of impacts on the mental health of children and adolescents. We evaluated the effectiveness of a school-based intervention aimed at reducing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety (treatment aim); and improving
Extensive research has shown that children in the United States present with a myriad of mental health concerns, and that those concerns can develop into mental illness if not treated. The consequences of mental illness on students' life both in an out of school is well documented. The need to provide effective treatment to children is also…
To combat the problem of teenage pregnancy, public health clinics have made birth control counseling and free contraceptives available to minors and many public schools have implemented sex education programs. Despite the development and implementation of these programs, teenage sexual activity and pregnancy have increased. The increase in…
Olajide, O J; Shucksmith, J; Maguire, A; Zohoori, F V
Despite the considerable improvement in oral health of children in the UK over the last forty years, a significant burden of dental caries remains prevalent in some groups of children, indicating the need for more effective oral health promotion intervention (OHPI) strategies in this population. To explore the implementation process of a community-based OHPI, in the North East of England, using Normalisation Process Theory (NPT) to provide insights on how effectiveness could be maximised. Utilising a generic qualitative research approach, 19 participants were recruited into the study. In-depth interviews were conducted with relevant National Health Service (NHS) staff and primary school teachers while focus group discussions were conducted with reception teachers and teaching assistants. Analyses were conducted using thematic analysis with emergent themes mapped onto NPT constructs. Participants highlighted the benefits of OHPI and the need for evidence in practice. However, implementation of 'best evidence' was hampered by lack of adequate synthesis of evidence from available clinical studies on effectiveness of OHPI as these generally have insufficient information on the dynamics of implementation and how effectiveness obtained in clinical studies could be achieved in 'real life'. This impacted on the decision-making process, levels of commitment, collaboration among OHP teams, resource allocation and evaluation of OHPI. A large gap exists between available research evidence and translation of evidence in OHPI in community settings. Effectiveness of OHPI requires not only an awareness of evidence of clinical effectiveness but also synthesised information about change mechanisms and implementation protocols. Copyright© 2017 Dennis Barber Ltd.
Burke, Rachel M; Meyer, Adria; Kay, Christi; Allensworth, Diane; Gazmararian, Julie A
Over the past 30 years, obesity in the United States has increased twofold in children and threefold in adolescents. In Georgia, nearly 17% of children aged 10 - 17 are obese. In response to the high prevalence of child obesity in Georgia and the potential deleterious consequences that this can have, HealthMPowers was founded in 1999 with the goal of preventing childhood obesity by improving health-enhancing behaviors in elementary schools, utilizing a holistic three-year program. This study measures the effectiveness of the HealthMPowers program in improving the school environment, student knowledge, behavior, cardiovascular fitness levels, and Body Mass Index (BMI). The present analysis utilizes data from 40 schools that worked with HealthMPowers over the course of the 2012 - 2013 school year (including schools at each of the three years of the intervention period) and provided information on demographics, student knowledge and behaviors, BMI, performance on the PACER test of aerobic capacity, and school practices and policies (measured via school self-assessment with the HealthMPowers-developed instrument "Continuous Improvement Tracking Tool" or CITT), measured at the beginning and end of each school year. Paired two-sample T tests were used to compare continuous variables (e.g., student knowledge scores, BMI-for-age Z scores), while chi-squared tests were used to assess categorical variables (e.g., trichotomized PACER performance). Students across all grades and cohorts demonstrated improvements in knowledge and self-reported behaviors, with particularly significant improvements for third-graders in schools in the second year of the HealthMPowers program (p grades and gender, with the most significant decreases for students overweight or obese at baseline (p Students also showed significant increases in performance on the PACER test across grades and cohorts (p improve their practices over time, as measured via the CITT instrument. The present report
Full Text Available Aim: To determine the impact of a school-based oral hygiene instructions program on the gingival health of children in randomly selected middle schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Nine hundred and fourteen children were selected from nine schools that were randomly determined from Riyadh City public schools. After obtaining the parents′ consent, the criteria-guided enrolment of study participants yielded 457 children in the control group and 457 students in the experimental group. The intervention design was 90 days experimental period with an intermediate follow-up visit at 45 days. A calibrated examiner (HW measured the plaque index (PI and the gingival index (GI. The indices were measured at day 1, day 45 and day 90 in both the control and the experimental groups. Results were analyzed with Wilcoxon sign rank test for each index, site, and by sessions for each group to determine if the scores had increased, decreased, or remained the same between intervals. Results: Plaque and gingival scores in the control group showed a steady improvement throughout the experimental period when compared with the baseline scores. Scores in the experimental group were significantly improved at each session between baseline and session 2 (45 days and session 3 (90days respectively. Conclusions: The continued reduction of GI and PI scores at the end of the intervention observed in this pilot study suggest that a school-based oral hygiene measures program can significantly improve oral health among school children in Saudi Arabia.
Annesi, James J; Trinity, John; Mareno, Nicole; Walsh, Stephanie M
Increasing exercise in children and adolescents through academic classes is an understudied area. Potential benefits include associated improvements in health, psychosocial, and quality-of-life factors. A sample of 98 students (M(age) = 14.3) from high school health education classes received six, 40-min lessons incorporating cognitive-behavioral methods to increase exercise over 6 weeks. Significant within-group improvements in exercise, mood, and body satisfaction were found, with slightly larger effect sizes identified for the boys. Increase in exercise was significantly associated with reduced mood distress (β = -.17, p goal setting and self-regulation within high school health education classes may foster increased exercise and associated improvements in mood and body satisfaction. For girls, the positive effects may reinforce one another. © The Author(s) 2014.
Carlson, Joseph J; Eisenmann, Joey C; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Jager, Kathleen B; Sehnert, Scott T; Yee, Kimbo E; Klavinski, Rita A; Feltz, Deborah L
Abstract Background The American Heart Association Position Statement on Cardiovascular Health Promotion in Public Schools encourages school-based interventions for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) through risk factor prevention or reduction in children with an emphasis on creating an environment that promotes healthy food choices and physical activity (PA). In an effort to address issues related to CVD risk factors including obesity in Michigan children, a multi-discipl...
Ribeiro, Robespierre Q C; Alves, Luciana
To assess the efficacy of two school-based programmes to promote students' willingness to engage in lifestyle changes related to eating habits and physical activity behaviours. Elementary school-based health promotion intervention, designed as a multicomponent experimental study, based on a behavioural epidemiological model. Nine intervention and eight comparative public and private elementary schools. The goal was to determine the impact on the longitudinally assessed outcomes of two programmes that addressed healthy nutrition and active living in a cohort of 2038 children. The evaluations used pre-intervention and follow-up student surveys that were based on the Transtheoretical Model of the stages of behaviour change. In the intervention group, there were significant (P motivated teachers. The comparison group did not show significant differences between the pre- and post-intervention times for any of the stages of behaviour. The intervention programme encouraged the students to make healthy lifestyle choices related to eating habits and physical activity behaviours.
Haque, Syed Emdadul; Rahman, Mosiur; Itsuko, Kawashima; Mutahara, Mahmuda; Sakisaka, Kayako
To assess the impact of a school-based menstrual education programme on: (1) menstrual knowledge, beliefs and practices, (2) menstrual disorders experienced, and (3) restrictions on menstruating adolescents. Intervention study. Araihazar area, Bangladesh. 416 adolescent female students aged 11-16 years, in grade 6-8, and living with their parents. A school-based health education study conducted from April 2012 to April 2013. We randomly selected 3 of 26 high schools in the study area. We delivered 6 months of educational intervention by trained (by an obstetrician and gynaecologist) research assistants (RAs) on menstrual hygiene among school girls. RAs read the questionnaire and participants answered. The changes in knowledge, beliefs and practices regarding menstruation, menstrual disorders experienced, and the restrictions and behaviours practiced by menstruating adolescents were compared between the baseline and the follow-up assessments. After health education, participants reported a significant improvement (pmenstruation (78.6% vs 59.6%). The programme produced significant changes in the knowledge, beliefs and practices of menstrual hygiene, complications from lack of hygiene, and the behaviour and restrictions of the menstruating adolescents. These results demonstrate the feasibility of implementing a health education programme for adolescents on menstrual hygiene in secondary schools serving rural Bangladesh. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Heo, Moonseong; Jimenez, Camille C; Lim, Jean; Isasi, Carmen R; Blank, Arthur E; Lounsbury, David W; Fredericks, Lynn; Bouchard, Michelle; Faith, Myles S; Wylie-Rosett, Judith
Adolescent obesity is a major public health concern. Open to all high school students regardless of weight status, HealthCorps is a nationwide program offering a comprehensive high school-based participatory educational program to indirectly address obesity. We tested a hypothesis that the HealthCorps program would decrease BMI z-scores among overweight or obese students, and reduce obesity rates, and evaluated its effects on health knowledge and behaviors. HealthCorps aimed to improve student knowledge and behaviors regarding nutrition quality, physical activity, sleep, breakfast intake, and mental resilience. Participating students received through HealthCorps coordinators weekly or bi-weekly classroom lessons either for a semester or a year in addition to various during- and after-school health-promoting activities and mentorship. Self-reported height and weight were collected along with questionnaires assessing knowledge and behaviors during 2013-2014 academic year among 14 HealthCorps-participating New York City high schools. This quasi experimental two-arm pre-post trial included 611 HealthCorps and 221 comparison arm students for the analytic sample. Sex-specific analyses stratified by weight status were adjusted for age and Hispanic ethnicity with clustering effects of schools and students taken into account. HealthCorps female overweight/obese and obese student had a significant decrease in BMI z-scores (post-pre delta BMI z-score = -0.16 (95%CI = (-0.26, -0.05), p = 0.004 for the former; and = -0.23 (-0.44, -0.03), p = 0.028, for the latter) whereas comparison female counterparts did not. The HealthCorps students, but not the comparison students, had a significant increase for all knowledge domains except for the breakfast realm, and reported a greater number of significant behavior changes including fruit and vegetable intake and physical activities. The HealthCorps program was associated with reduced BMI z-score in overweight/obese and obese
Leahy, Deana; Simovska, Venka
Purpose - This Special Issue is the second in a series that aims to place the spotlight on educational research and its contribution to the field of school-based health and wellbeing promotion. The purpose of both special issues is to bring together scholars from across the world to consider...... current developments in research on curricula, interventions, policies and practices concerning health education and promotion and related professional development of teachers. Design/methodology/approach – As in the first Special Issue published in 2017 (School health education and promotion: Health...... and wellbeing promotion. Additionally, an open call for papers was published on the Health Education website and on the EERA website. There was considerable interest from those such as researchers, scholars and practitioners, and as a result, we have been able to publish a second Special Issue. Findings...
Ormshaw, Michael James; Kokko, Sami Petteri; Villberg, Jari; Kannas, Lasse
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to utilise the collective opinion of a group of Finnish experts to identify the most important learning outcomes of secondary-level school-based health education, in the specific domains of physical activity and nutrition. Design/ Methodology/ Approach: The study uses a Delphi survey technique to collect the…
Rickert, Vaughn I; Auslander, Beth A; Cox, Dena S; Rosenthal, Susan L; Rupp, Richard E; Zimet, Gregory D
Adolescent immunization rates for human papillomavirus (HPV) are low and interventions within school-based health centers (SBHCs) may increase HPV uptake and series completion. We examined the effect of a parent health message intervention on HPV vaccination intent, first dose uptake and series completion among adolescents who received care at SBHCs. Via computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI), 445 parents of young adolescents were randomly assigned to 2 two-level interventions using a 2 × 2 design (rhetorical question (RQ) or no-RQ and one-sided or two-sided message). The RQ intervention involved asking the parent a question they were likely to endorse (e.g., "Do you want to protect your daughter from cervical cancer?") with the expectation that they would then behave in a manner consistent with their endorsement (i.e., agree to vaccinate). For the one-sided message, parents were given information that emphasized the safety and effectiveness of HPV vaccine, whereas the two-sided message acknowledged that some parents might have concerns about the vaccine, followed by reassurance regarding the safety and effectiveness. At CATI conclusion, parents indicated intentions to have their adolescents vaccinated. Parents who endorsed any intent were sent a consent form to return and all adolescents with signed returned consents were vaccinated at SBHCs. Medical records were reviewed for uptake/completion. Parents were 87% female; adolescents were 66% male and racially/ethnically diverse. 42.5% of parents indicated some intention to immunize, 51.4% were unsure, and 6.1% were not interested. 34% (n = 151) of adolescents received their first dose with series completion rates of 67% (n = 101). The RQ component of the intervention increased intention to vaccinate (RR = 1.45; 95%CI 1.16,1.81), but not first dose uptake or series completion. The 1-sided and 2-sided messages had no effect. This brief, RQ health intervention enhanced intent, but did not impact vaccination
Morgan, Emily H.; Houser, Robert F.; Au, Lauren E.; Sacheck, Jennifer M.
School-based body mass index (BMI) notification programs are often used to raise parental awareness of childhood overweight and obesity, but how BMI results are associated with physical fitness and diet is less clear. This study examined the relationship between BMI, fitness, and diet quality in a diverse sample of urban schoolchildren…
Creed, Torrey A.; Jager-Hyman, Shari; Pontoski, Kristin; Feinberg, Betsy; Rosenberg, Zachary; Evans, Arthur; Hurford, Matthew O.; Beck, Aaron T.
A growing literature supports cognitive therapy (CT) as an efficacious treatment for youth struggling with emotional or behavioral problems. Recently, work in this area has extended the dissemination of CT to school-based settings. The current study has two aims: 1) to examine the development of therapists' knowledge and skills in CT, an…
Chisholm, Katharine Elizabeth; Patterson, Paul; Torgerson, Carole; Turner, Erin; Birchwood, Max
With the burden of mental illness estimated to be costing the English economy alone around £22.5 billion a year 1, coupled with growing evidence that many mental disorders have their origins in adolescence, there is increasing pressure for schools to address the emotional well-being of their students, alongside the stigma and discrimination of mental illness. A number of prior educational interventions have been developed and evaluated for this purpose, but inconsistency of findings, reporting standards, and methodologies have led the majority of reviewers to conclude that the evidence for the efficacy of these programmes remains inconclusive. A cluster randomised controlled trial design has been employed to enable a feasibility study of 'SchoolSpace', an intervention in 7 UK secondary schools addressing stigma of mental illness, mental health literacy, and promotion of mental health. A central aspect of the intervention involves students in the experimental condition interacting with a young person with lived experience of mental illness, a stigma reducing technique designed to facilitate students' engagement in the project. The primary outcome is the level of stigma related to mental illness. Secondary outcomes include mental health literacy, resilience to mental illness, and emotional well-being. Outcomes will be measured pre and post intervention, as well as at 6 month follow-up. The proposed intervention presents the potential for increased engagement due to its combination of education and contact with a young person with lived experience of mental illness. Contact as a technique to reduce discrimination has been evaluated previously in research with adults, but has been employed in only a minority of research trials investigating the impact on youth. Prior to this study, the effect of contact on mental health literacy, resilience, and emotional well-being has not been evaluated to the authors' knowledge. If efficacious the intervention could provide a
This is the second special issue of Health Education which features research, theory and practice based perspectives on what counts as desirable outcomes of health promotion in schools in terms of health as well as education, and the effective processes in schools which lead to these outcomes....... The focus in the first special issue was on highlighting the argument that the question about the outcomes of the health-promoting schools should not be limited to narrowly defined health outcomes but needs to be closely linked with the core tasks and values of the school. Building further on this argument......, the papers in this issue feature a number of research issues of relevance for the effectiveness of the health-promoting schools approach, as well as a variety of research and evaluation methodologies contributing to the debate about what counts as reliable evidence within the health-promoting schools...
Mwambene, J B; Muula, A S; Leo, J C
Education is important in improving economies and creating literate, self-reliant and healthy societies. However, hunger is a barrier to basic education in Malawi. Hunger is also associated with a number of health risk behaviours, such as bullying, suicide ideation and unhygienic behaviours that may jeopardize the future of children. There are, however, limited data on the prevalence and associated factors of hunger among school children in Malawi. The study used data from the Malawi Global School-Based Health Survey conducted in 2009 to estimate the prevalence of self-reported hunger within the last 30 days among primary and secondary school age group. It also assessed the association between self-reported hunger and some selected list of independent variables using frequency distribution, chi-squared test and logistic regression. A total of 2359 students were available for analysis. The overall self-reported prevalence of hunger within the last 30 days was 12.5% (18.9% (172) in the rural and 8.3% (115) in urban areas; and 11.9%(123) for male and 12.5(148) for female children). In the final analysis, geographical location, eating fruits, having been bullied, suicide ideation, and washing hands with soap were significantly associated with hunger. Hunger in both primary and secondary school children in Malawi is a major social problem. The design of school feeding programmes aimed to reduce hunger should incorporate the factors identified as associated with hunger.
Full Text Available The voice of youth is crucial to advancing solutions that contribute to effective strategies to improve youth health outcomes. The problem, however, is that youth/student voices are often overlooked, and stakeholders typically engage in decision-making without involving youth. The burden of chronic disease is increasing worldwide, and in Canada chronic disease accounts for 89 per cent of deaths. However, currently, youth spend less time being physically active while engaging in more unhealthy eating behaviours than ever before. High rates of unhealthy behaviours such as physical inactivity, unhealthy eating and tobacco use are putting Canadian youth at risk of health problems such as increased levels of overweight and obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Focus group methodology was utilised to conduct 7 focus groups with 50 students in grades 7–12 from schools in Prince Edward Island, Canada. The key themes that emerged included: (1 youth health issues such as lack of opportunities to be physically active, cost and quality of healthy food options, and bullying; (2 facilitators and barriers to health promotion, including positive peer and adult role models, positive relationships with adults and competitiveness of school sports; and (3 lack of student voice. Our findings suggest that actively engaging youth provides opportunities to understand youth perspectives on how to encourage them to make healthy choices and engage in healthy behaviours. Attention needs to be paid to inclusive knowledge exchange practices that value and integrate youth perspectives and ideas as a basis for building health promotion actions and interventions. Keywords: knowledge exchange, youth health, youth engagement
Torrey A. Creed
Full Text Available A growing literature supports cognitive therapy (CT as an efficacious treatment for youth struggling with emotional or behavioral problems. Recently, work in this area has extended the dissemination of CT to school-based settings. The current study has two aims: 1 to examine the development of therapists’ knowledge and skills in CT, an evidence-based approach to promoting student well-being, and 2 to examine patterns of narrative feedback provided to therapists participating in the program. As expected, school therapists trained in CT demonstrated significant gains in their knowledge of CT theory and in their demonstration of CT skills, with the majority of therapists surpassing the accepted threshold of competency in CT. In addition, an examination of feedback content suggested that narrative feedback provided to therapists most frequently consisted of positive feedback and instructions for future sessions. Suggestions for future research regarding dissemination of CT are discussed in light of increasing broad access to evidence based practices.
Full Text Available Abstract Background and objective: Nowadays, due to changes in eating patterns, the worthless junk foods are replaced useful food among children. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of unhealthy junk food consumption based on health belief model in elementary school girls Methods: Cross-sectional study Descriptive-analytic type of multi-stage sampling (208 samples was carried out in 2016. The survey instrument was a questionnaire valid and reliable based on the Health Belief Model (70 items. Data was analyzed by SPSS software according to statistical tests of significance level of 0.05. Results: Results showed that students of sensitivity (49% and relatively high efficacy (53/8%, perceived benefits (73/1% and better social protection (68/3% had. The results showed that among all the health belief model structures with yield (junk food intake significantly correlated. Also significant differences in parental education and sensitivity, perceived severity, self-efficacy, social support and yield (p<0/05. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that students from relatively favorable sensitivity and self-efficacy, perceived benefits and social protection in the field of unhealthy snacks were good. Also a significant relationship between structural and non-use study results showed unhealthy snacks but because of the importance of unhealthy snacks and unhealthy snack consumption among school children and the complications of the health belief model in predicting nutritional behaviors suggest that this model used as a framework for school feeding programs. Paper Type: Research Article.
Hansen, Caitlin E; Okoloko, Edirin; Ogunbajo, Adedotun; North, Anna; Niccolai, Linda M
Countries with high human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination rates have achieved this success largely through school-based vaccination. Using school-based health centers (SBHCs) in the United States, where HPV vaccine remains underutilized, could improve uptake. In this mixed-methods study, we examined acceptability, facilitators, and barriers of HPV vaccination visits at SBHCs from the perspectives of adolescents and parents. We conducted qualitative interviews and structured surveys with adolescents and parents recruited from an urban, hospital-based clinic. Interviews with parents (N = 20) and adolescents (N = 20) were audio-recorded and transcribed for analysis using an iterative thematic approach. Quantitative measures for a survey administered to parents (N = 131) were derived from the qualitative findings. Survey results were analyzed by chi-square tests. Many participants expressed favorable opinions of HPV vaccination at SBHCs in qualitative interviews. Facilitators included convenience, ease of scheduling, and not missing work or school. However, barriers were noted including concerns about obtaining care outside the medical home, fragmentation of medical records, and negative perceptions about SBHCs. Quantitative findings revealed that a higher proportion of parents with experience using SBHCs were willing to use a middle school (59.5%) or high school (80.5%) SBHC for HPV vaccinations compared with those who had not used SBHCs (p HPV vaccination visits at SBHCs were acceptable, and SBHC users expressed more favorable attitudes. Barriers to HPV vaccination at SBHCs can be addressed through more education about SBHCs' role, and improvement of systems to coordinate care. © 2017, American School Health Association.
Weist, Mark D.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Stephan, Sharon; Lever, Nancy; Fowler, Johnathan; Taylor, Leslie; McDaniel, Heather; Chappelle, Lori; Paggeot, Samantha; Hoagwood, Kimberly
Objective Reviews the progression of a research program designed to develop, implement and study the implementation of “achievable” evidence-based practices (EBPs) in schools. Reviews challenges encountered and ideas to overcome them to enhance this avenue of research. Method Presents two federally funded randomized controlled trials involving comparison of a four-component targeted intervention (Quality Assessment and Improvement, Family Engagement and Empowerment, Modular Evidence-Based Practice, Implementation Support) versus a comparison intervention focused on Personal Wellness. In both studies primary aims focused on changes in clinician attitudes and behavior, including the delivery of high quality, evidence-based practices and secondary aims focused on student level impacts. Results A number of challenges, many not reported in the literature are reviewed, and ideas for overcoming them are presented. Conclusions Given the reality that the majority of youth mental health services are delivered in schools and the potential of school mental health (SMH) services to provide a continuum of mental health care from promotion to intervention, it is critical that the field consider and address the logistical and methodological challenges associated with implementing and studying EBP implementation by clinicians. PMID:24063310
Full Text Available Introduction: Education is a powerful tool in reducing dental diseases. It is known as an essential part of oral health services. This study evaluated the impact of education on oral health behavior of students based on health belief model. Methods: This educational intervention study was carried out on secondary school girls of Paveh, Iran in 2011. A standard questionnaire was used to collect the data, including demographic characteristics, dimensions of health belief model and performance of students before and after intervention. The educational intervention was conducted over three sessions. To examine differences between groups in terms of demographic factors, dimensions of health belief model and performance status before and after the intervention, Chi-square test and logistic regression were used. P0.05. Conclusion: The importance of education caused promoting dental health behaviors of students. It also emphasized adopting more appropriate methods for oral health training.
Newton, Robert L; Thomson, Jessica L; Rau, Kristi K; Ragusa, Shelly A; Sample, Alicia D; Singleton, Nakisha N; Anton, Stephen D; Webber, Larry S; Williamson, Donald A
To evaluate the implementation of intervention components of the Louisiana Health study, which was a multicomponent childhood obesity prevention program conducted in rural schools. Content analysis. Process evaluation assessed implementation in classrooms, gym classes, and cafeterias. Classroom teachers (n = 232), physical education teachers (n = 53), food service managers (n = 33), and trained observers (n = 9). Five process evaluation measures were created: Physical Education Questionnaire (PEQ), Intervention Questionnaire (IQ), Food Service Manager Questionnaire (FSMQ), Classroom Observation (CO), and School Nutrition Environment Observation (SNEO). Interrater reliability and internal consistency were assessed on all measures. Analysis of variance and χ(2) were used to compare differences across study groups on questionnaires and observations. The PEQ and one subscale from the FSMQ were eliminated because their reliability coefficients fell below acceptable standards. The subscale internal consistencies for the IQ, FSMQ, CO, and SNEO (all Cronbach α > .60) were acceptable. After the initial 4 months of intervention, there was evidence that the Louisiana Health intervention was being implemented as it was designed. In summary, four process evaluation measures were found to be sufficiently reliable and valid for assessing the delivery of various aspects of a school-based obesity prevention program. These process measures could be modified to evaluate the delivery of other similar school-based interventions.
Rowe, Daryl E.
Environmental health, as it relates to schools, is defined. Site, chemical, biological, and physical health hazards are identified. Recommendations and precautions to help achieve optimal health, safety, and comfort are presented. Resources are noted. (Author/MT)
Lena V Nordheim
Full Text Available Adolescents are frequent media users who access health claims from various sources. The plethora of conflicting, pseudo-scientific, and often misleading health claims in popular media makes critical appraisal of health claims an essential ability. Schools play an important role in educating youth to critically appraise health claims. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the effects of school-based educational interventions for enhancing adolescents' abilities in critically appraising health claims.We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, AMED, Cinahl, Teachers Reference Centre, LISTA, ERIC, Sociological Abstracts, Social Services Abstracts, The Cochrane Library, Science Citation Index Expanded, Social Sciences Citation Index, and sources of grey literature. Studies that evaluated school-based educational interventions to improve adolescents' critical appraisal ability for health claims through advancing the students' knowledge about science were included. Eligible study designs were randomised and non-randomised controlled trials, and interrupted time series. Two authors independently selected studies, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias in included studies. Due to heterogeneity in interventions and inadequate reporting of results, we performed a descriptive synthesis of studies. We used GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation to assess the certainty of the evidence.Eight studies were included: two compared different teaching modalities, while the others compared educational interventions to instruction as usual. Studies mostly reported positive short-term effects on critical appraisal-related knowledge and skills in favour of the educational interventions. However, the certainty of the evidence for all comparisons and outcomes was very low.Educational interventions in schools may have beneficial short-term effects on knowledge and skills relevant to the critical appraisal of health
Nordheim, Lena V; Gundersen, Malene W; Espehaug, Birgitte; Guttersrud, Øystein; Flottorp, Signe
Adolescents are frequent media users who access health claims from various sources. The plethora of conflicting, pseudo-scientific, and often misleading health claims in popular media makes critical appraisal of health claims an essential ability. Schools play an important role in educating youth to critically appraise health claims. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the effects of school-based educational interventions for enhancing adolescents' abilities in critically appraising health claims. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, AMED, Cinahl, Teachers Reference Centre, LISTA, ERIC, Sociological Abstracts, Social Services Abstracts, The Cochrane Library, Science Citation Index Expanded, Social Sciences Citation Index, and sources of grey literature. Studies that evaluated school-based educational interventions to improve adolescents' critical appraisal ability for health claims through advancing the students' knowledge about science were included. Eligible study designs were randomised and non-randomised controlled trials, and interrupted time series. Two authors independently selected studies, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias in included studies. Due to heterogeneity in interventions and inadequate reporting of results, we performed a descriptive synthesis of studies. We used GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) to assess the certainty of the evidence. Eight studies were included: two compared different teaching modalities, while the others compared educational interventions to instruction as usual. Studies mostly reported positive short-term effects on critical appraisal-related knowledge and skills in favour of the educational interventions. However, the certainty of the evidence for all comparisons and outcomes was very low. Educational interventions in schools may have beneficial short-term effects on knowledge and skills relevant to the critical appraisal of health claims. The small
Full Text Available Abstract Background With the burden of mental illness estimated to be costing the English economy alone around £22.5 billion a year 1, coupled with growing evidence that many mental disorders have their origins in adolescence, there is increasing pressure for schools to address the emotional well-being of their students, alongside the stigma and discrimination of mental illness. A number of prior educational interventions have been developed and evaluated for this purpose, but inconsistency of findings, reporting standards, and methodologies have led the majority of reviewers to conclude that the evidence for the efficacy of these programmes remains inconclusive. Methods/Design A cluster randomised controlled trial design has been employed to enable a feasibility study of 'SchoolSpace', an intervention in 7 UK secondary schools addressing stigma of mental illness, mental health literacy, and promotion of mental health. A central aspect of the intervention involves students in the experimental condition interacting with a young person with lived experience of mental illness, a stigma reducing technique designed to facilitate students' engagement in the project. The primary outcome is the level of stigma related to mental illness. Secondary outcomes include mental health literacy, resilience to mental illness, and emotional well-being. Outcomes will be measured pre and post intervention, as well as at 6 month follow-up. Discussion The proposed intervention presents the potential for increased engagement due to its combination of education and contact with a young person with lived experience of mental illness. Contact as a technique to reduce discrimination has been evaluated previously in research with adults, but has been employed in only a minority of research trials investigating the impact on youth. Prior to this study, the effect of contact on mental health literacy, resilience, and emotional well-being has not been evaluated to the authors
Dray, Julia; Bowman, Jenny; Freund, Megan; Campbell, Elizabeth; Wolfenden, Luke; Hodder, Rebecca K; Wiggers, John
Research investigating the effectiveness of universal interventions to reduce the risk of mental health problems remains limited. Schools are a promising setting within which adolescents can receive interventions aimed at promoting their mental health. The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of a resilience-based prevention-focused intervention in reducing the risk of mental health problems among adolescents attending secondary school in socio-economically disadvantaged areas. A cluster randomised control trial will be conducted, with schools as the unit of randomisation. Initially, 32 secondary schools will be randomly allocated to a control or intervention group (12 control and 20 intervention). An intervention focused on improving student internal and external resilience factors will be implemented in intervention schools. A survey of students in Grade 7 in both intervention and control schools will be conducted (baseline) and repeated three years later when the students are in Grade 10. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire will be used to measure the risk of mental health problems. At follow-up, the risk of mental health problems will be compared between Grade 10 students in intervention and control schools to determine intervention effectiveness. The study presents an opportunity to determine the effectiveness of a comprehensive resilience-based intervention in reducing the risk of mental health problems in adolescents attending secondary schools. The outcomes of the trial are of importance to youth, schools, mental health clinicians and policymakers. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12611000606987, registered 14 June 2011.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral health education (OHE in schools has largely been imparted by dental professionals. Considering the substantial cost of this expert-led approach, the strategies relying on teachers, peer-leaders and learners themselves have also been utilized. However the evidence for comparative effectiveness of these strategies is lacking in the dental literature. The present study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of dentist-led, teacher-led, peer-led and self-learning strategies of oral health education. Methods A two-year cluster randomized controlled trial following a parallel design was conducted. It involved five groups of adolescents aged 10-11 years at the start of the study. The trial involved process as well as four outcome evaluations. The present paper discusses the findings of the study pertaining to the baseline and final outcome evaluation, both comprising of a self-administered questionnaire, a structured interview and clinical oral examination. The data were analyzed using Generalized Estimating Equations. Results All the three educator-led strategies of OHE had statistically higher mean oral health knowledge (OHK, oral health behavior (OHB, oral hygiene status (OHS and combined knowledge, behavior and oral hygiene status (KBS scores than the self-learning and control groups (p Conclusions The dentist-led, teacher-led and peer-led strategies of oral health education are equally effective in improving the oral health knowledge and oral hygiene status of adolescents. The peer-led strategy, however, is almost as effective as the dentist-led strategy and comparatively more effective than the teacher-led and self-learning strategies in improving their oral health behavior. Trail registration SRCTN39391017
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: While all students are vulnerable to injuries, such vulnerability may even be higher in the deaf and hard-of-hearing students. Therefore, this study evaluated a health belief model-based educational program to prevent school injuries among deaf and hard-of-hearing high school students. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted on all deaf and hard-of-hearing students who attended two special schools in Hamadan (Iran during 2014. They were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (n = 23 or the control group (n = 27. Data were collected using a self-report questionnaire containing items on demographic characteristics, constructs of the health belief model, and knowledge and preventive behaviors. In both groups, the questionnaires were filled out through interviews before and two months after the intervention. The intervention included distributing booklets and holding five educational sessions. Data were analyzed with paired t, independent t, chi square, and Fisher’s exact tests in SPSS16. Results: After the educational intervention, the mean scores of knowledge (P=0.002, preventive behaviors (P=0.001, and constructs of the health belief model, i.e. perceived severity (P=0.001, perceived benefits (P=0.001, self-efficacy (P=0.001, and cues to action (P=0.001, were significantly higher in the intervention group than in the control group. Conclusion: According to our findings, an educational intervention based on the health belief model can promote behaviors to prevent school injuries among deaf and hard-of-hearing students.
Weist, Mark D; Youngstrom, Eric A; Stephan, Sharon; Lever, Nancy; Fowler, Johnathan; Taylor, Leslie; McDaniel, Heather; Chappelle, Lori; Paggeot, Samantha; Hoagwood, Kimberly
This article reviews the progression of a research program designed to develop, implement, and study the implementation of "achievable" evidence-based practices (EBPs) in schools. We review challenges encountered and ideas to overcome them to enhance this avenue of research. The article presents two federally funded randomized controlled trials involving comparison of a four-component targeted intervention (Quality Assessment and Improvement, Family Engagement and Empowerment, Modular Evidence-Based Practice, Implementation Support) versus a comparison intervention focused on personal wellness. In both studies, primary aims focused on changes in clinician attitudes and behavior, including the delivery of high-quality EBPs and secondary aims focused on student-level impacts. A number of challenges, many not reported in the literature, are reviewed, and ideas for overcoming them are presented. Given the reality that the majority of youth mental health services are delivered in schools and the potential of school mental health services to provide a continuum of mental health care from promotion to intervention, it is critical that the field consider and address the logistical and methodological challenges associated with implementing and studying EBP implementation by clinicians.
Allensworth, D M; Greene, A G
The school health program in Mexico, directed by the Office of School Hygiene (la Unidad de Higiene Escolar), is in a state of flux. The program will change substantially if an initiative between the national offices of health and education is enacted. The initiative would establish a national commission to be replicated at state, county, and district levels. Commissions would oversee integration of the health services component, social participation, and research into the school health program which currently only focuses on health instruction and a healthy school environment. The initiative would restore and improve a former model that incorporated health services as a part of the school health program. The history of the school health program, which can trace its roots to 1861 and President Benito Juarez, is provided.
Wang, Dongxu; Stewart, Donald
To evaluate implementation and effectiveness of nutrition promotion programmes using the health-promoting schools (HPS) approach, to indicate areas where further research is needed and to make recommendations for practice in this field. The searched electronic databases included: CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Health Reference Center, Informit Search, MEDLINE, ProQuest, PsycINFO, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Social Services Abstracts and Web of Science. Inclusion criteria were: (i) controlled or before-and-after studies evaluating a nutrition intervention and involving the HPS approach, either fully or in part; (ii) provision of information about components and delivery of the intervention; and (iii) report on all evaluated outcomes. Schools. Students, parents and school staff. All included studies described intervention delivery and six reported on process evaluation. In intervention schools school environment and ethos were more supportive, appropriate curriculum was delivered and parents and/or the community were more engaged and involved. Students participated in interventions at differing levels, but the majority was satisfied with the intervention. The evidence indicates that nutrition promotion programmes using the HPS approach can increase participants' consumption of high-fibre foods, healthier snacks, water, milk, fruit and vegetables. It can also reduce participants' 'breakfast skipping', as well as reduce intakes of red food, low-nutrient dense foods, fatty and cream foods, sweet drinks consumption and eating disorders. It can help to develop hygienic habits and improved food safety behaviours. More professional training for teachers in the HPS approach, further qualitative studies, longer intervention periods, improved follow-up evaluations and adequate funding are required for future school-based nutrition promotion programmes.
Huang, Keng-Yen; Nakigudde, Janet; Calzada, Esther; Boivin, Michael J; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Brotman, Laurie Miller
Children in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are burdened by significant unmet mental health needs, but this region has limited access to mental health workers and resources to address these needs. Despite the successes of numerous school-based interventions for promoting child mental health, most evidence-based interventions are not available in SSA. This study will investigate the transportability of an evidence-based program from a developed country (United States) to a SSA country (Uganda). The approach includes task-shifting to early childhood teachers and consists of professional development (five days) to introduce strategies for effective behavior management and positive teacher-student interactions, and group-based consultation (14 sessions) to support adoption of effective practices and tailoring to meet the needs of individual students. The design of this study is guided by two implementation frameworks, the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research and the Teacher Training Implementation Model, that consider multidimensional aspects of intervention fidelity and contextual predictors that may influence implementation and teacher outcomes. Using a cluster randomized design, 10 schools in Uganda will be randomized to either the intervention group (five schools) or the waitlist control group (five schools). A total of 80 to 100 early childhood teachers will be enrolled in the study. Teacher utilization of evidence-based strategies and practices will be assessed at baseline, immediate post-intervention (six months after baseline), and at seven months post-intervention (during a new academic year). Fidelity measures will be assessed throughout the program implementation period (during professional development and consultation sessions). Individual teacher and contextual factors will be assessed at baseline. Data will be collected from multiple sources. Linear mixed-effect modeling, adjusting for school nesting, will be applied to address study questions. The
Sehnert Scott T
Full Text Available Abstract Background The American Heart Association Position Statement on Cardiovascular Health Promotion in Public Schools encourages school-based interventions for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD through risk factor prevention or reduction in children with an emphasis on creating an environment that promotes healthy food choices and physical activity (PA. In an effort to address issues related to CVD risk factors including obesity in Michigan children, a multi-disciplinary team of Michigan State University (MSU faculty, clinicians, and health profession students was formed to "(Spartner" with elementary school physical education (PE teachers and MSU Extension staff to develop and implement a cost-effective, sustainable program aimed at CVD risk factor prevention and management for 5th grade students. This (Spartnership is intended to augment and improve the existing 5th grade PE, health and nutrition curriculum by achieving the following aims: 1 improve the students' knowledge, attitudes and confidence about nutrition, PA and heart health; 2 increase the number of students achieving national recommendations for PA and nutrition; and 3 increase the number of students with a desirable CVD risk factor status based on national pediatric guidelines. Secondary aims include promoting school staff and parental support for heart health to help children achieve their goals and to provide experiential learning and service for MSU health profession students for academic credit. Methods/Design This pilot effectiveness study was approved by the MSU IRB. At the beginning and the end of the school year students undergo a CVD risk factor assessment conducted by MSU medical students and graduate students. Key intervention components include eight lesson plans (conducted bi-monthly designed to promote heart healthy nutrition and PA behaviors conducted by PE teachers with assistance from MSU undergraduate dietetic and kinesiology students
Carlson, Joseph J; Eisenmann, Joey C; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Jager, Kathleen B; Sehnert, Scott T; Yee, Kimbo E; Klavinski, Rita A; Feltz, Deborah L
The American Heart Association Position Statement on Cardiovascular Health Promotion in Public Schools encourages school-based interventions for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) through risk factor prevention or reduction in children with an emphasis on creating an environment that promotes healthy food choices and physical activity (PA). In an effort to address issues related to CVD risk factors including obesity in Michigan children, a multi-disciplinary team of Michigan State University (MSU) faculty, clinicians, and health profession students was formed to "(S)partner" with elementary school physical education (PE) teachers and MSU Extension staff to develop and implement a cost-effective, sustainable program aimed at CVD risk factor prevention and management for 5th grade students. This (S)partnership is intended to augment and improve the existing 5th grade PE, health and nutrition curriculum by achieving the following aims: 1) improve the students' knowledge, attitudes and confidence about nutrition, PA and heart health; 2) increase the number of students achieving national recommendations for PA and nutrition; and 3) increase the number of students with a desirable CVD risk factor status based on national pediatric guidelines. Secondary aims include promoting school staff and parental support for heart health to help children achieve their goals and to provide experiential learning and service for MSU health profession students for academic credit. This pilot effectiveness study was approved by the MSU IRB. At the beginning and the end of the school year students undergo a CVD risk factor assessment conducted by MSU medical students and graduate students. Key intervention components include eight lesson plans (conducted bi-monthly) designed to promote heart healthy nutrition and PA behaviors conducted by PE teachers with assistance from MSU undergraduate dietetic and kinesiology students (Spartners). The final 10 minutes of each lesson
Kubwalo, H W; Muula, A S; Siziya, S; Pasupulati, S; Rudatsikira, E
Physical and emotional violence against adolescents is a neglected, but growing problem globally. Violence against adolescents negatively affects the victim in terms of physical health, school attendance and performance and social adjustment. The literature on the prevalence and associated factors of bullying against adolescents is sparse in southern Africa outside South Africa. Such data are even sparser for Malawi. The current study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of self-reported bullying and its personal and social correlates. A secondary analysis of the Malawi School-Based Student Health Survey (2009) was done. Descriptive analyses were done to describe the sample and estimate the prevalence of reporting history of bullying in the past 30 days preceding the survey. Logistic regression analysis was done to assess the association between several factors and being a victim of bullying. Crude and adjusted odds ratios are reported. A total of 2,264 in-school adolescents participated in the Malawi School-Based Student Health Survey of 2009. Just under half (44.5%) reported having been bullied in the previous month to the survey (44.1% among boys versus 44.9% among girls). Compared to adolescents of age 16 years or older, those who were 12 years old or younger and those who were 14 years of age were more likely to be bullied (AOR=1.54; 95% CI [1.41, 1.76]) and OR=1.26; 95% CI [1.21, 1.31]) respectively. The other risk factors that were identified in the analysis were loneliness (AOR = 2.23; 95% CI [2.20, 2.27]), and being worried (AOR = 2.80; 95% CI [2.76, 2.85[). Adolescents who had no close friends were 14% (AOR = 1.14; 95% CI [1.11-1.17]) more likely to be reporting bullied compared to adolescents who reported having close friends. Adolescents who smoked cigarettes were more than three times more likely to reporting be bullied compared to non-smokers (AOR=3.97; 955 CI [3.83, 4.10]), while those who drank alcohol were more than twice as likely to be
Green, Jennifer Greif; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Alegria, Margarita; Costello, E. Jane; Gruber, Michael J.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Leaf, Philip J.; Olin, Serene; Sampson, Nancy A.; Kessler, Ronald C.
Objective: Although schools are identified as critical for detecting youth mental disorders, little is known about whether the number of mental health providers and types of resources that they offer influence student mental health service use. Such information could inform the development and allocation of appropriate school-based resources to…
Full Text Available Background Osteoporosis is one of the most common metabolic bone diseases and is the silent epidemic of this era. Objectives This study evaluates the effect of education that is based on the health belief model on promoting osteoporosis prevention behaviors among female high school students. Methods In this two-group interventional study, 172 students age 11 to 14 years (experimental group = 86 subjects; control group = 86 subjects were randomly selected from Khorramshahr high schools using multistage sampling. Data were collected before the intervention and two months after its completion using a researcher-made questionnaire with four parts: demographic questions, knowledge questions, questions related to the health belief model constructs, and questions regarding preventive behaviors. Data was analyzed using SPSS 22 software and by applying the Mann-Whitney test, the analysis of covariance procedure, and the Wilcoxon statistical test. Results After the intervention, significant statistical differences were seen between the experimental and control groups in mean scores of knowledge, health belief model constructs, and preventive behaviors. Conclusions The education based on health belief model plays an important role in increasing knowledge and improving osteoporosis prevention behaviors in students.
Weist, Mark D.; Bruns, Eric J.; Whitaker, Kelly; Wei, Yifeng; Kutcher, Stanley; Larsen, Torill; Holsen, Ingrid; Cooper, Janice L.; Geroski, Anne; Short, Kathryn H.
All around the world, partnerships among schools and other youth-serving systems are promoting more comprehensive school-based mental health services. This article describes the development of international networks for school mental health (SMH) including the International Alliance for Child and Adolescent Mental Health and Schools (INTERCAMHS)…
Tsai, Fang-Ju; Huang, Yu-Hsin; Liu, Hui-Ching; Huang, Kuo-Yang; Huang, Yen-Hsun; Liu, Shen-Ing
The aim of this study was to determine the reliability and validity of a Chinese version of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 item (PHQ-9) and its 2 subscales (1 item and 2 items) for the screening of major depressive disorder (MDD) among adolescents in Taiwan. A total of 2257 adolescents were recruited from high schools in Taipei. The participants completed assessments including demographic information, the Chinese version of the PHQ-9, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and data on the number of physical illnesses and mental health service utilizations were recorded. Among them, 430 were retested using the PHQ-9 within 2 weeks. Child psychiatrists interviewed a subsample of the adolescents (n = 165) using the Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia Epidemiological Version as the criterion standard. The PHQ-9 had good internal consistency (α = 0.84) and acceptable test-retest reliability (0.80). The participants with higher PHQ-9 scores were more likely to have MDD. Principal component factor analysis of the PHQ-9 yielded a 1-factor structure, which accounted for 45.3% of the variance. A PHQ-9 score ≥15 had a sensitivity of 0.72 and a specificity of 0.95 for recognizing MDD. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.90. The screening accuracy of the 2 subscales was also satisfactory, with a Patient Health Questionnaire-2 item cutoff of ≥3 being 94.4% sensitive and 82.5% specific and a Patient Health Questionnaire-1 item cutoff of ≥2 being 61.1% sensitive and 87.7% specific. The PHQ-9 and its 2 subscales appear to be reliable and valid for detecting MDD among ethnic Chinese adolescents in Taiwan.
Evaluation of school health instruction in public primary schools in Bonny Local Government Area, Rivers state. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Background: Effective school health instruction in primary schools is ...
Haleem, Abdul; Khan, Muhammad Khalil; Sufia, Shamta; Chaudhry, Saima; Siddiqui, Muhammad Irfanullah; Khan, Ayyaz Ali
Repetition and reinforcement have been shown to play a crucial role in the sustainability of the effect of Oral Health Education (OHE) programs. However, its relevance to school-based OHE imparted by different personnel is not depicted by the existing dental literature. The present study was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of the repeated and reinforced OHE (RR-OHE) compared to one-time OHE intervention and to assess its role in school-based OHE imparted by dentist, teachers and peers. The study was a cluster randomized controlled trial that involved 935 adolescents aged 10-11 years. Twenty four boys' and girls' schools selected at random in two towns of Karachi, Pakistan were randomly assigned to three groups to receive OHE by dentist (DL), teachers (TL) and peer-leaders (PL). The groups received a single OHE session and were evaluated post-intervention and 6 months after. The three groups were then exposed to OHE for 6 months followed by 1 year of no OHE activity. Two further evaluations at 6-month and 12-month intervals were conducted. The data were collected by a self-administered questionnaire preceded by a structured interview and followed by oral examination of participants. The adolescents' oral health knowledge (OHK) in the DL and PL groups increased significantly by a single OHE session compared to their baseline knowledge (p strategy. Although the OHK scores of the DL and PL groups decreased significantly at 12-month evaluation of RR-OHE (p play a key role in school-based OHE irrespective of educators. The trained teachers and peers can play a complementary role in RR-OHE.
Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Participation in regular physical activity is associated with a variety of positive outcomes for young people. Physical activity (PA rates decline precipitously during the high school years and are consistently lower among adolescent girls than among adolescent boys. In order to stop or diverse this negative trend, there are necessary interventions based on various theories and models to promote physical activity in girls. Materials & Methods: This randomized control study evaluated the effectiveness of a 24-week exercise education program based on Pender’s Health Promotion model to improve cognitive and psychosocial factors associated with physical activity and to promote physical activity in adolescent girls (n =106. The program included educational sessions and tailored counseling. Results: There was an increase of 45 minutes for daily physical activity in the experimental group compared to their baseline. After intervention, the training group had a positive significant progression in stages along with significant improvements in self efficacy, enjoyment of physical activity, interpersonal influences, planning for physical activity, and also a decrease in perceived barriers to physical activity and competing preferences (p ≤ .0001-0.04. Conclusion: Findings of this study showed the positive effect of program on stage of change and potential determinants of the behavior of physical activity. The high proportion of the people in action and maintenance in experimental group compared to the baseline and the attainment of recommend criteria for physical activity are promising findings of school-based intervention based on Pender’s health promotion model.
Davis, Teresa K
School-based health centers in high schools provide a unique setting in which to deliver risk-reduction and resilience-building services to adolescents. The traditional health care system operating in the United States focuses on the treatment of illness and disease rather than on preventing problems originating from health risk behaviors. Nurse practitioners can promote healthy behavior in adolescents through linkages to parents, schools, and community organizations; by conducting individual risk assessments; and by providing health education and access to creative health programs that build resilience and promote protective factors. With a focus on wellness, nurse practitioners as advanced practice nurses and specialists in disease prevention and health promotion can establish students' health priorities in the context of the primary health care they deliver on a daily basis.
Demirci, Nevzat; Demirci, Pervin Toptas; Demirci, Erdal
This study was planned to determine the effects of school-based exercise practices (SBEP) on obesity and health-related quality of life (HRQL) in 9-11 year old girls. Participants consist of girls students from 9-11 years old in two state schools in Kars. Intervention Group (n: 85) courses of games and physical activities (CGPA) and SBEP…
McKey, Anne; Huntington, Annette
Childhood obesity is becoming a topical issue in both the health literature and the popular media and increasingly child health nurses are observing preschool children who appear to be disproportionately heavy for their height when plotted on standardized growth charts. In this paper literature related to childhood obesity in New Zealand and internationally is explored to identify current issues, and the implications of these issues for nurses in community based child health practice are discussed. Themes that emerged from the literature relate to the measurement of obesity, links between childhood and adult obesity and issues for families. A theme in the literature around maternal perception was of particular interest. Studies that investigated maternal perceptions of childhood obesity found that mothers identified their child as being overweight or obese only when it imposed limitations on physical activity or when the children were teased rather than by referring to individual growth graphs. The implications for nursing in the area of child health practice is discussed as nurses working in this area need an understanding of the complex and often emotive issues surrounding childhood obesity and an awareness of the reality of people's lives when devising health promotion strategies.
Towle, Angela; Godolphin, William; Van Staalduinen, Samantha
To develop, implement and evaluate a workshop to help adolescents develop independent and active relationships with their physicians. A needs-assessment survey informed the development of a workshop delivered by medical student volunteers and incorporated into the career and personal planning curriculum of high schools in Vancouver, Canada. Over a 6-year period, 64 workshops were delivered by 181 medical students to 1651 high school students in six schools. The workshop is acceptable, do-able, effective and sustainable, characteristics that arise from the mutual benefits to all the groups involved: the medical school, the school board, the medical students, the high school teachers and students. The workshop provides a model for providing health care education to adolescents in the community. Teaching adolescents the importance of good doctor-patient communication encourages them to take ongoing responsibility for their health care and is an alternative route to direct health care education.
Atkinson, M; Hornby, G
This text provides information on a range of mental health problems that confront teachers and discusses their underlying causes. It considers what schools can do to help pupils and reflects on the role of the mental health services.
Rezazadeh, Afsaneh; Solhi, Mahnaz; Azam, Kamal
Adolescence is a sensitive period of acquiring normal and abnormal habits for all oflife. The study investigates determinants of responsibility for health, spiritual health and interpersonal relations and predictive factors based on the theory of planned behavior in high school girl students in Tabriz. In this Cross-sectional study, 340 students were selected thorough multi-stage sampling. An author-made questionnaire based on standard questionnaires of Health Promotion and Lifestyle II (HPLPII), spiritual health standards (Palutzian & Ellison) and components of the theory of planned behavior (attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and behavioral intention) was used for data collection. The questionnaire was validated in a pilot study. Data were analyzed using SPSS v.15 and descriptive and analytical tests (Chi-square test, Pearson correlation co-efficient and liner regression test in backward method). Students' responsibility for health, spiritual health, interpersonal relationships, and concepts of theory of planned behavior was moderate. We found a significant positive correlation (ptheory of planned behavior. Attitude and perceived behavioral control predicted 35% of intention of behavioral change (pbehavioral control predicted 74% of behavioral change in accountability for health (pbehavioral change in spiritual health (pbehavioral change in interpersonal relationship (pbehavioral intention and its determinants such as perceived behavioral control should be noted in promoting intervention programs.
Adelman, Howard S; Taylor, Linda
Health policy and practice call for health and mental health parity and for a greater focus on universal interventions to promote, prevent, and intervene as early after problem onset as is feasible. Those in the public health field are uniquely positioned to help promote the mental health of young people and to reshape how the nation thinks about and addresses mental health. And schools are essential partners for doing the work.
Full Text Available Studies have shown preventive effects of an active lifestyle during childhood on later life; therefore, health promotion has to start early. The programme “Join the Healthy Boat” promotes a healthy lifestyle in primary school children. In order to evaluate it, children’s behaviours in respect of increased physical activity (PA, a decrease in screen media use (SMU, more regular breakfast, and a reduction of the consumption of soft drinks (SDC were investigated. 1943 children (7.1 ± 0.6 years participated in the cluster-randomised study and were assessed at baseline and 1736 of them at follow-up. Teachers delivered lessons, which included behavioural contracting and budgeting of SMU and SDC. Daily SMU, PA behaviours, SDC, and breakfast patterns were assessed via parental questionnaire. After one-year intervention, significant effects were found in the intervention group for SMU of girls, children without migration background, and children with parents having a low education level. In the control group, second grade children skipped breakfast significantly more often. Tendencies but no significant differences were found for PA and SDC. This intervention seems to affect groups, which are usually hard to reach, such as children of parents with low education levels, which shows that active parental involvement is vital for successful interventions.
Duffy, Michael; McDermott, Maura; Percy, Andrew; Ehlers, Anke; Clark, David M; Fitzgerald, Michael; Moriarty, John
The main objective of this study was to assess psychiatric morbidity among adolescents following the Omagh car bombing in Northern Ireland in 1998. Data was collected within schools from adolescents aged between 14 and 18 years via a self-completion booklet comprised of established predictors of PTSD; type of exposure, initial emotional response, long-term adverse physical problems, predictors derived from Ehlers and Clark's (2000) cognitive model, a PTSD symptoms measure (PDS) and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Those with more direct physical exposure were significantly more likely to meet caseness on the GHQ and the PDS. The combined pre and peri trauma risk factors highlighted in previous meta-analyses accounted for 20% of the variance in PDS scores but the amount of variance accounted for increased to 56% when the variables highlighted in Ehlers and Clark's cognitive model for PTSD were added. High rates of chronic PTSD were observed in adolescents exposed to the bombing. Whilst increased exposure was associated with increased psychiatric morbidity, the best predictors of PTSD were specific aspects of the trauma ('seeing someone you think is dying'), what you are thinking during the event ('think you are going to die') and the cognitive mechanisms employed after the trauma. As these variables are in principle amenable to treatment the results have implications for teams planning treatment interventions after future traumas.
Mehrabbeik, Akram; Mahmoodabad, Seyed Saeed Mazloomy; Khosravi, Hassan Mozaffari; Fallahzadeh, Hossein
Despite the importance of breakfast, especially for students, unfortunately, this meal is usually ignored in daily routine. The aim of this study was to identify determinants among female high school students of Yazd province based on the Pender Health Promotion Model. This was a cross-sectional study conducted to examine 200 female high school students of Yazd, selected by cluster sampling method in 2016. A researcher-made questionnaire, based on Pender's Health Promotion Model, was used as a data collection tool. A panel of experts and Cronbach's alpha coefficient were used to confirm the questionnaire validity and reliability. In order to analyze descriptive data, SPSS version 22 was used. AMOS software (v.23) was employed for path analysis. Direct impact of activity -related affect (0.300), interpersonal influences (0.276), and perceived barriers to eating breakfast (-0.223) were approved at significance level p<0.000. By influencing perceived barriers, perceived self-efficacy and previous related behavior indirectly affected breakfast consumption. These components determined 33% of breakfast consumption. By planning to create a positive feeling in students to have breakfast, to involve family and friends to encourage students to eat breakfast, to reduce barriers to have breakfast by increasing students' self-efficacy, the behavior of having breakfast among students can be improved.
Hazemba, Alice; Siziya, Seter; Muula, Adamson S; Rudatsikira, Emmanuel
Bullying has public health importance. It has been reported that both the victims and perpetrators of bullying are more likely to have suicidal ideation and other suicidal behaviours. Moreover, bullying can be a precursor for school violence and can contribute to poor academic performance. The purpose of the study was to raise awareness on the subject in China. We, therefore conducted an analysis of secondary data to determine the prevalence and correlates of having been bullied among in-school adolescents. The data was taken from the Beijing Global School-Based Health Survey conducted in 2003. A weighted analysis to reduce bias due to differing patterns of non-response was conducted using statistical software (SPSS version 14.0). We conducted a backward logistic regression analysis to determine independent predictors for being bullied. Out of a total of 2,348 in-school adolescents who participated in the survey, 20% (23% males, and 17% females) reported having been bullied. Risk factors for having been bullied were loneliness (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.44; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.42-1.45), being worried (AOR = 1.30; 95% CI 1.29-1.32), being sad or having feelings of hopelessness (AOR = 1.21; 95% CI 1.19-1.22), smoking cigarettes (AOR = 1.09; 95% CI 1.08-1.11), drinking alcohol (AOR = 1.31; 95% CI 1.29-1.32), and being truant (AOR = 1.24; 95% CI 1.22-1.27). Meanwhile protective factors were having close friends (AOR = 0.84; 95% CI 0.83-0.86), receiving parental supervision (AOR = 0.80; 95% CI 0.80-0.81), and ever been drunk (AOR = 0.86; 95% CI 0.84-0.87). We believe the results of this study will raise awareness among school health practitioners and administrators, paediatric psychiatrists and psychologists on the prevalence and correlates of bullying among adolescents in Beijing, China.
Muula Adamson S
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bullying has public health importance. It has been reported that both the victims and perpetrators of bullying are more likely to have suicidal ideation and other suicidal behaviours. Moreover, bullying can be a precursor for school violence and can contribute to poor academic performance. The purpose of the study was to raise awareness on the subject in China. We, therefore conducted an analysis of secondary data to determine the prevalence and correlates of having been bullied among in-school adolescents. Methods The data was taken from the Beijing Global School-Based Health Survey conducted in 2003. A weighted analysis to reduce bias due to differing patterns of non-response was conducted using statistical software (SPSS version 14.0. We conducted a backward logistic regression analysis to determine independent predictors for being bullied. Results Out of a total of 2,348 in-school adolescents who participated in the survey, 20% (23% males, and 17% females reported having been bullied. Risk factors for having been bullied were loneliness (adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 1.44; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.42–1.45, being worried (AOR = 1.30; 95% CI 1.29–1.32, being sad or having feelings of hopelessness (AOR = 1.21; 95% CI 1.19–1.22, smoking cigarettes (AOR = 1.09; 95% CI 1.08–1.11, drinking alcohol (AOR = 1.31; 95% CI 1.29–1.32, and being truant (AOR = 1.24; 95% CI 1.22–1.27. Meanwhile protective factors were having close friends (AOR = 0.84; 95% CI 0.83–0.86, receiving parental supervision (AOR = 0.80; 95% CI 0.80–0.81, and ever been drunk (AOR = 0.86; 95% CI 0.84–0.87. Conclusion We believe the results of this study will raise awareness among school health practitioners and administrators, paediatric psychiatrists and psychologists on the prevalence and correlates of bullying among adolescents in Beijing, China.
White, Henry; LaFleur, Jennifer; Houle, Katherine; Hyry-Dermith, Paul; Blake, Susan M.
In recent decades, increasing attention has been paid to the number of adolescents experiencing extended absences from school due to mental health crises. Upon returning to school, these students often face difficulties in functioning, risk of relapse, and vulnerability to academic failure and social isolation. This paper presents results of a…
Gilmore, Kelly; Hoopes, Andrea J; Cady, Janet; Amies Oelschlager, Anne-Marie; Prager, Sarah; Vander Stoep, Ann
The purpose of this study was to describe the implementation of a program that provides long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) services within school-based health centers (SBHCs) and to identify barriers and facilitators to implementation as reported by SBHC clinicians and administrators, public health officials, and community partners. We conducted 14 semistructured interviews with key informants involved in the implementation of LARC services. Key informants included SBHC clinicians and administrators, public health officials, and community partners. We used a content analysis approach to analyze interview transcripts for themes. We explored barriers to and facilitators of LARC service delivery across and within key informant groups. The most cited barriers across key informant groups were as follows: perceived lack of provider procedural skills and bias and negative attitudes about LARC methods. The most common facilitators identified across groups were as follows: clear communication strategies, contraceptive counseling practice changes, provider trainings, and stakeholder engagement. Two additional barriers emerged in specific key informant groups. Technical and logistical barriers to LARC service delivery were cited heavily by SBHC administrative staff, community partners, and public health officials. Expense and billing was a major barrier to SBHC administrative staff. LARC counseling and procedural services can be implemented in an SBHC setting to promote access to effective contraceptive options for adolescent women. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
MindMatters, implemented by Principals Australia Institute, is a resource and professional development initiative supporting Australian secondary schools in promoting and protecting the mental health and social and emotional wellbeing of members of school communities, preferring a proactive paradigm (Covey, 1989) to the position of "disaster…
Anne Nordrehaug Åstrøm
Full Text Available Objectives: The following questions were addressed; to what extent is sugar consumption, tooth brushing, and oral health related attitudes and knowledge subject to change following a combined atraumatic restorative treatment (ART /oral health education (OHE program? Are changes in intended sugar avoidance associated with changes in cognitions as specified by the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB? Are changes in oral health related knowledge associated with changes in attitudes and oral health behaviour?Method: A total of 1306 (follow-up prevalence 73.8% primary school students in Kilwa, Tanzania completed interviews before and after a combined ART/OHE program. Post intervention at 6 months follow-up assessed changes in oral health related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours. Complete baseline and follow-up interviews were obtained from 221 and 1085 students who received ART/OHE and OHE only at schools, respectively.Results: Improvement was obtained with attitudes towards sugar avoidance, knowledge, and tooth brushing (effect sizes in the range 0.1-0.3. Within individual changes did not differ significantly between students receiving ART/ OHE and OHE only. Change scores of intended sugar avoidance associated in the expected direction with changes in sugar consumption. Attitudes and norms with respect to sugar avoidance deteriorated and improved among subjects who respectively decreased and increased intended sugar avoidance. Tooth brushing increased in students who improved oral knowledge.Conclusion: School based ART/OHE improved pupils’ tooth brushing, knowledge, and attitudes, but had no effect on sugar consumption. This study provided support for the validity of the TPB in predicting changes in intended sugar avoidance and reported sugar intake.
Green, Jennifer Greif; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Alegría, Margarita; Costello, E. Jane; Gruber, Michael J.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Leaf, Philip J.; Olin, Serene; Sampson, Nancy A,; Kessler, Ronald C.
Objective Although schools are identified as critical for detecting youth mental disorders, little is known about whether the number of mental health providers and types of resources they offer influence student mental health service use. Such information could inform the development and allocation of appropriate school-based resources to increase service use. This paper examines associations of school resources with past-year mental health service use among students with 12-month DSM-IV mental disorders. Method Data come from the U.S. National Comorbidity Survey Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A), a national survey of adolescent mental health that included 4,445 adolescent-parent pairs in 227 schools in which principals and mental health coordinators completed surveys about school resources-policies for addressing student emotional problems. Adolescents and parents completed the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and reported mental health service use across multiple sectors. Multilevel multivariate regression was used to examine associations of school mental health resources and individual-level service use. Results Roughly half (45.3%) of adolescents with a 12-month DSM-IV disorder received past-year mental health services. Substantial variation existed in school resources. Increased school engagement in early identification was significantly associated with mental health service use for adolescents with mild/moderate mental and behavior disorders. The ratio of students-to-mental health providers was not associated with overall service use, but was associated with sector of service use. Conclusions School mental health resources, particularly those related to early identification, may facilitate mental health service use and influence sector of service use for youths with DSM disorders. PMID:23622851
Jenkins, Jade Marcus
Background: Rates of child insurance coverage have increased due to expansions in public programs, but many eligible children remain uninsured. Uninsured children are less likely to receive preventative care, which leads to poorer health and achievement in the long term. This study is an evaluation of a school-based health insurance outreach…
Andrew L. Sussman
Full Text Available Purpose. From our previous clinical work with overweight/obese youth, we identified the need for research to create an effective weight management intervention to address the growing prevalence of adolescent metabolic syndrome. Formative assessment through an adaptive community-based participatory research (CBPR approach was conducted toward the development of a nutritional and physical activity (DVD and clinician toolkit for a school-based health center (SBHC weight management intervention. Methods. We first conducted parent and adolescent interviews on views and experiences about obesity while convening a community advisory council (CAC recruited from two participating urban New Mexico high schools. Thematic findings from the interviews were analyzed with the CAC to develop culturally and developmentally appropriate intervention materials. Results. Themes from the parent and adolescent interviews included general barriers/challenges, factors influencing motivation, and change facilitators. The CAC and university-based research team reached consensus on the final content of nutrition and physical activity topics to produce a DVD and clinician toolkit through six monthly sessions. These materials used in the SBHC intervention resulted in a greater reduction of body mass index when compared to adolescents receiving standard care. Conclusions. Formative assessment using an adaptive CBPR approach resulted in the creation of culturally and age appropriate weight reduction materials that were acceptable to study participants. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00841334.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Educational attainment is an important determinant of diverse health outcomes. Truancy among adolescents jeopardizes chances of achieving their educational goals. Truant behaviors are also associated with various psychosocial problems. There is however limited data on the prevalence and factors associated with truancy among adolescents in Africa. Methods We used data from the Swaziland Global School-Based Health Survey (GSHS conducted in 2003 to estimate the prevalence of self-reported truancy within the last 30 days among adolescents. We also assessed the association between self-reported truancy and a selected list of independent variables using logistic regression analysis. Results A total of 7341 students participated in the study. In analysis of available data, 2526 (36.2% and 4470 (63.8% were males and females respectively. The overall prevalence of truancy within the last 30 days preceding the study was 21.6%. Prevalence of truancy was 27.4% (605 and 17.9% (723 in males and females respectively. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, being a male, having been bullied, lower school grades, and alcohol use were positively associated with truancy. Adolescents who perceived themselves as having parental support were less likely to have reported being truant. Conclusion Truancy among adolescents in Swaziland should be regarded as an important social problem as it is relatively prevalent. The design and implementation of intervention programs aimed to reduce truant behaviours should incorporate our knowledge of the factors identified as associated with bullying.
Full Text Available Background: One of the authors living in Yelagiri Hills incidentally noticed that the one government school and two hostels there, were facing acute issues with performance and multiple student health issues. Hence the action research was undertaken to address the problem and simultaneously to empower the local community. Methods: It was a mixed-method action research study comprising of quantitative surveys (before- after design and qualitative approach (participatory intervention. At baseline survey 177 children in two residential hostels and one government school were examined using a locally adapted Global School based Student Health Survey questionnaire. The hemoglobin level was estimated using WHO hemoglobin color scale. The participatory interventions were carried out through School Health Committee. Periodic health checkup with hemoglobin levels and school performance were examined. After one year, 230 children were examined in the follow up survey using the same questionnaire. Results: There was significant improvement in the personal hygiene and reduction in related morbidity among the children. The number of students of hemoglobin level less than 12gm% decreased from 31.4% to 11.3%.The number of students of hemoglobin level more than or equal to 12gm% increased from 68.6% to 88.7%. There was significant decline in anemia from 31.4% from baseline to 11.3% at follow up survey. There was also significant decrease in the malnutrition. Conclusion: The need based participatory health promoting school initiative for tribal children at Yelagiri hills led to a significant improvement in the school performance and general health conditions of the children. The school health committee has played a vital role in the sustainability of the project. The action research could bring positive improvements in health status of school children through active participation of students, parents, teachers and community members.
Grunbaum, J A; Kann, L; Williams, B I; Kinchen, S A; Collins, J L; Kolbe, L J
School health education (e.g., classroom training) is an essential component of school health programs; such education promotes the health of youth and improves overall public health. February-May 1996. The School Health Education Profiles monitor characteristics of health education in middle or junior high schools and senior high schools. The Profiles are school-based surveys conducted by state and local education agencies. This report summarizes results from 35 state surveys and 13 local surveys conducted among representative samples of school principals and lead health education teachers. The lead health education teacher is the person who coordinates health education policies and programs within a middle or junior high school and senior high school. During the study period, almost all schools in states and cities required health education in grades 6-12; of these, a median of 87.6% of states and 75.8% of cities taught a separate health education course. The median percentage of schools that tried to increase student knowledge on certain topics (i.e., prevention of tobacco use, alcohol and other drug use, pregnancy, human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] infection, other sexually transmitted diseases, violence, or suicide; dietary behaviors and nutrition; and physical activity and fitness) was > 72% for each of these topics. The median percentage of schools that tried to improve certain student skills (i.e., communication, decision making, goal setting, resisting social pressures, nonviolent conflict resolution, stress management, and analysis of media messages) was > 69% for each of these skills. The median percentage of schools that had a health education teacher coordinate health education was 33.0% across states and 26.8% across cities. Almost all schools taught HIV education as part of a required health education course (state median: 94.3%; local median: 98.1%), and more than half (state median: 69.5%; local median: 82.5%) had a written policy on HIV infection
Langdon, M C; Gazmuri, C; Venegas, L
The leading health problems of children and adolescents in Chile is reviewed. The Chilean educational system and how the system addresses its principal health problems are described. A school health program is described as well as other educational programs designed and developed by nongovernmental institutions which have a smaller coverage. Current research studies regarding growth and development, child morbidity, nutritional level, and mental health studies are reviewed. In addition, principal challenges that include developing more efficient ways of referring children, enriching the curriculum and teacher training, assigning school hours for health teachers, and enlarging coverage of the health care evaluation programs are outlined. Of special importance is developing prevention programs for parents and children using school and community leaders to prevent health problems in areas such as human sexuality education, decision-making, social abilities, and alcohol and drug abuse. Main efforts should be directed toward low-income families and children to improve life conditions.
Rohwer, John; Wandberg, Bob
New threats to the health of American children, often psychosocial in nature due to societal changes, must be addressed. The Minnesota School Health Education Model is based on the integration of four primary components: (1) school health education goals aimed at health promotion, disease prevention, and long-term positive health effects on…
Deborah Carvalho Malta
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between the consumption of psychoactive substances (tobacco, alcohol and illicit drugs and demographic variables, mental health and family context among school-aged children. METHODS: The National Adolescent School-based Health Survey was held with a national sample of 109,104 students. Data regarding demographic variables, family background and mental health were collected. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the associations of interest. RESULTS: Multivariate analyses showed that alcohol consumption was higher among girls, drug experimentation was more frequent among boys and that there was no difference between sexes for smoking. Being younger and mulatto were negatively associated with the use of tobacco, alcohol and illicit drugs. Also negatively associated with such risk behaviors were characteristics of the family context represented by: living with parents, having meals together and parental supervision (when parents know what the child does in their free time. Moreover, characteristics of mental health such as loneliness and insomnia were positively associated with use of tobacco, alcohol and illicit drugs. Not having friends was positively associated with use of tobacco and illicit drugs and negatively associated with alcohol use. CONCLUSIONS: The study shows the protective effect of family supervision in the use of tobacco, alcohol and drugs and, on the contrary, the increasing use of substances according to aspects of mental health, such as loneliness, insomnia and the fact of not having friends. The study's findings may support actions from health and education professionals, as well as from the government and families in order to prevent the use of these substances by adolescents.
Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Oliveira-Campos, Maryane; do Prado, Rogério Ruscitto; Andrade, Silvania Suely Caribé; de Mello, Flávia Carvalho Malta; Dias, Antonio José Ribeiro; Bomtempo, Denise Birche
To evaluate the association between the consumption of psychoactive substances (tobacco, alcohol and illicit drugs) and demographic variables, mental health and family context among school-aged children. The National Adolescent School-based Health Survey was held with a national sample of 109,104 students. Data regarding demographic variables, family background and mental health were collected. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the associations of interest. Multivariate analyses showed that alcohol consumption was higher among girls, drug experimentation was more frequent among boys and that there was no difference between sexes for smoking. Being younger and mulatto were negatively associated with the use of tobacco, alcohol and illicit drugs. Also negatively associated with such risk behaviors were characteristics of the family context represented by: living with parents, having meals together and parental supervision (when parents know what the child does in their free time). Moreover, characteristics of mental health such as loneliness and insomnia were positively associated with use of tobacco, alcohol and illicit drugs. Not having friends was positively associated with use of tobacco and illicit drugs and negatively associated with alcohol use. The study shows the protective effect of family supervision in the use of tobacco, alcohol and drugs and, on the contrary, the increasing use of substances according to aspects of mental health, such as loneliness, insomnia and the fact of not having friends. The study's findings may support actions from health and education professionals, as well as from the government and families in order to prevent the use of these substances by adolescents.
ABRAMS, D; SHEERAN, P; ABRAHAM, C; SPEARS, R
A survey examined health beliefs and intentions among 690 16-18 year-olds in Dundee. Respondents in the younger cohort (n = 363) were classified according to their educational situation (at school vs left) and self-reports of having received AIDS/HIV-relevant health education. Both remaining in
Conclusions: This exhaustive review found that well-implemented interventions can promote adolescent health. These findings are consistent with recent reviews. Implications for practice, public health, and research are discussed.
Lambros, Katina; Kraemer, Bonnie; Wager, James Derek; Culver, Shirley; Angulo, Aidee; Saragosa, Marie
This article describes and investigates initial findings from the Esperanza Mental Health Services (EMHS) Program, which is an intensive outpatient program that provides individual and group mental health services for students with "dual diagnosis" or developmental disabilities and co-occurring mental health problems. Previous research…
Tol, Wietse A; Komproe, Ivan H; Jordans, Mark J D; Ndayisaba, Aline; Ntamutumba, Prudence; Sipsma, Heather; Smallegange, Eva S; Macy, Robert D; de Jong, Joop T V M
Armed conflicts are associated with a wide range of impacts on the mental health of children and adolescents. We evaluated the effectiveness of a school-based intervention aimed at reducing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety (treatment aim); and improving a sense of hope and functioning (preventive aim). We conducted a cluster randomized trial with 329 children in war-affected Burundi (aged 8 to 17 (mean 12.29 years, standard deviation 1.61); 48% girls). One group of children (n = 153) participated in a 15-session school-based intervention implemented by para-professionals, and the remaining 176 children formed a waitlist control condition. Outcomes were measured before, one week after, and three months after the intervention. No main effects of the intervention were identified. However, longitudinal growth curve analyses showed six favorable and two unfavorable differences in trajectories between study conditions in interaction with several moderators. Children in the intervention condition living in larger households showed decreases on depressive symptoms and function impairment, and those living with both parents showed decreases on posttraumatic stress disorder and depressive symptoms. The groups of children in the waitlist condition showed increases in depressive symptoms. In addition, younger children and those with low levels of exposure to traumatic events in the intervention condition showed improvements on hope. Children in the waitlist condition who lived on their original or newly bought land showed improvements in hope and function impairment, whereas children in the intervention condition showed deterioration on these outcomes. Given inconsistent effects across studies, findings do not support this school-based intervention as a treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder and depressive symptoms in conflict-affected children. The intervention appears to have more consistent preventive benefits, but these effects are
Blackwell, Cindy DeRuiter; Bilics, Andrea
Directors of entry-level occupational therapy (OT) programs were surveyed regarding how their programs prepare students to become mental health practitioners in schools. Analysis of quantitative data included descriptive statistics to examine participants' ratings of their program's ability to prepare students for mental health practice. We found…
Marryat, Louise; Thompson, Lucy; Minnis, Helen; Wilson, Philip
Background This paper examines socioeconomic inequalities in mental health at school entry and explores changes in these inequalities over the first 3 years of school. Methods The study utilises routinely collected mental health data from education records and demographic data at ages 4 and 7 years, along with administrative school-level data. The study was set in preschool establishments and schools in Glasgow City, Scotland. Data were available on 4011 children (59.4%)at age 4 years, and 3166 of these children were followed at age 7 years (46.9% of the population). The main outcome measure was the teacher-rated Goodman’s Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (4–16 version) at age 7 years, which measures social, emotional and behavioural difficulties. Results Children living in the most deprived area had higher levels of mental health difficulties at age 4 years, compared with their most affluent counterparts (7.3%vs4.1% with abnormal range scores). There was a more than threefold widening of this disparity over time, so that by the age of 7 years, children from the most deprived area quintile had rates of difficulties 3.5 times higher than their more affluent peers. Children’s demographic backgrounds strongly predicted their age 7 scores, although schools appeared to make a significant contribution to mental health trajectories. Conclusions Additional support to help children from disadvantaged backgrounds at preschool and in early primary school may help narrow inequalities. Children from disadvantaged backgrounds started school with a higher prevalence of mental health difficulties, compared with their more advantaged peers, and this disparity widened markedly over the first 3 years of school. PMID:29056594
Marryat, Louise; Thompson, Lucy; Minnis, Helen; Wilson, Philip
This paper examines socioeconomic inequalities in mental health at school entry and explores changes in these inequalities over the first 3 years of school. The study utilises routinely collected mental health data from education records and demographic data at ages 4 and 7 years, along with administrative school-level data. The study was set in preschool establishments and schools in Glasgow City, Scotland. Data were available on 4011 children (59.4%)at age 4 years, and 3166 of these children were followed at age 7 years (46.9% of the population). The main outcome measure was the teacher-rated Goodman's Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (4-16 version) at age 7 years, which measures social, emotional and behavioural difficulties. Children living in the most deprived area had higher levels of mental health difficulties at age 4 years, compared with their most affluent counterparts (7.3%vs4.1% with abnormal range scores). There was a more than threefold widening of this disparity over time, so that by the age of 7 years, children from the most deprived area quintile had rates of difficulties 3.5 times higher than their more affluent peers. Children's demographic backgrounds strongly predicted their age 7 scores, although schools appeared to make a significant contribution to mental health trajectories. Additional support to help children from disadvantaged backgrounds at preschool and in early primary school may help narrow inequalities. Children from disadvantaged backgrounds started school with a higher prevalence of mental health difficulties, compared with their more advantaged peers, and this disparity widened markedly over the first 3 years of school. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Barrett-Williams, Shannon L; Franks, Padra; Kay, Christi; Meyer, Adria; Cornett, Kelly; Mosier, Brian
Power Up for 30 (PU30) is a schoolwide intervention that encourages schools to provide an additional 30 minutes of physical activity during the school day, beyond physical education. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of PU30 on Georgia public elementary schools and their students. A total of 719 of 1320 public elementary schools in Georgia that were sent a baseline survey about school physical activity during October 2013 to September 2014 completed the survey, 160 of which were asked to complete a second survey. In the interim (March to June 2015), half (80) of these schools implemented the PU30 program. The interim surveys, which were completed during March to June 2015, assessed opportunities for student physical activity and staff member professional development focused on student physical activity. Compared with schools that had not implemented the program, more schools using the PU30 program reported offering before- and after-school physical activity programs. Forty-four of 78 (57%) PU30 schools compared with 20 of 53 (38%) non-PU30 schools offered before-school physical activity programs. Likewise, more PU30 schools than non-PU30 schools offered after-school physical activity programs (35% vs 16%), and a greater proportion of students at PU30 schools compared with non-PU30 schools met fitness benchmarks: recess 5 days per week (91% [288 of 323] vs 80% [273 of 341]), offering ≥11 minutes per day of classroom-based physical activity (39% [53 of 136] vs 25% [47 of 189] for kindergarten through second grade; 20% [37 of 187] vs 6% [9 of 152] for grades 3 through 5), and receiving physical activity-related professional development time (42% [136 of 323] vs 14% [48 of 341]). The surveys provided a statewide picture of the physical activity opportunities offered to students and staff members in Georgia elementary schools and demonstrated the effective use of a comprehensive, multicomponent program to offer more school-based physical activity
Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Mascarenhas, Márcio Dênis Medeiros; Dias, Antônio Ribeiro; do Prado, Rogério Ruscitto; Lima, Cheila Marina; da Silva, Marta Maria Alves; da Silva Júnior, Jarbas Barbosa
To describe violent events experienced by school-aged adolescents in school, around the school and in the family context, and to compare the results of the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey of 2009 and 2012. Indicators related to violence involving teenagers were analyzed. The prevalence rates and confidence intervals of 95% were calculated for events of interest according to gender and type of school (public or private) and regions. Prevalence rates were: insecurity in the route between home-school (9.1%), insecurity in school (8.0%), physical assault in the last 12 months (18.2%), engaging in fights in the last 12 months (20.7%), fighting with a cold weapon (8.3%), fighting with firearms (6.9%), physical assault by a family member (11.6%) and having been seriously injured in the last 12 months (10.3%). The situations of violence were more prevalent among male students from public schools. The comparison with the 2009 survey showed increased prevalence in all the variables studied. Teenagers are exposed to different forms of violence, and the data from the National Survey of School Health can support the planning of preventive actions.
Birch, David A.; Priest, Hannah M.; Mitchell, Qshequilla P.
Advocacy at the local school or school district level has received emphasis as a strategy for improving school health education. The involvement of health educators in advocacy for school health education has been described as "imperative" at all levels of school-based policy. Allensworth's 2010 Society for Public Health Education…
Respress, Brandon N; Amutah-Onukagha, Ndidiamaka N; Opara, Ijeoma
Social inequalities are at the heart of disparities in sexual health outcomes among African American and Latino/a adolescents living in the United States. Schools are typically the largest and primary context in youth development. School characteristics such as peer and teacher discrimination and school performance were examined to determine whether such characteristics predict sexual behavior in adolescents of color. This study utilized a representative sample of high school age students to assess sexual risk behavior. Findings indicate that there was a clear disparity in sexually transmitted infection diagnoses. School characteristics such as teacher discrimination and Grade Point Average were significant predictors to sexual risky behaviors among adolescents of color. The study adds to the literature in examining contextual factors that are associated with adolescent sexual risk behavior, and findings provide implications for future prevention work.
Baker, Jennifer L; Sørensen, Thorkild I A
The Copenhagen School Health Records Register is an electronic register of health examination information on 372,636 children who attended school in Copenhagen, Denmark from 1936 to 2005.......The Copenhagen School Health Records Register is an electronic register of health examination information on 372,636 children who attended school in Copenhagen, Denmark from 1936 to 2005....
West Virginia Department of Education Office of Research, Accountability, and Data Governance, 2015
The School Health Profiles (Profiles) is a system of surveys assessing school health policies and practices in states, large urban school districts, and territories. Profiles surveys are conducted biennially by education and health agencies among middle and high school principals and lead health education teachers. Profiles monitors the current…
Public Health Service (DHHS), Rockville, MD. Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.
This publication presents findings from evaluations of many school health programs from across the United States. Each program includes at least one of the following eight components of a comprehensive school health program: health education, clinical services, counseling and mental health services, school environment, school food programs,…
Deborah Carvalho Malta
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of injuries among teenagers and to examine the associated risk factors, such as sociodemographic characteristics, risk behaviors, family ties and other factors. METHOD: The prevalence of the outcome (injury was estimated with a 95%confidence interval. In order to verify factors associated with the injury, a bivariate analysis was made with estimated odds ratio (OR and its respective confidence intervals. Then, a multivariate analysis was carried out, only with variables whose descriptive level was equal to or lower than 5% (p < 0.05 remaining in the model. RESULTS: The study of injury in adolescents, based on the data from the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE, pointed out that 10.3% of the teenagers suffered severe injuries in the past 12 months, such as cuts or perforations, broken bones or dislocated joints. The following variables remained independently associated with "suffering severe injuries": being a male teenager; black, mulatto or indigenous race/color and working. Factors related to family ties are significant when the relations are fragile amongst members: adolescents that are injured the most are the ones who suffer most aggressions at home, who skip classes without notifying their parents, those who do not live with their parents and have low family control. The most relevant aspects of mental health are insomnia and loneliness. The factors associated to the exposure to situations of violence that remained in the model were: insecurity in school and in the route home-school; getting a ride with someone inebriated; drinking and driving motorized vehicles; not wearing the seatbelt; not wearing a helmet and being bullied. Among the factors of individual behavior, the following can be emphasized: use of alcohol, cigarettes, trying illicit drugs and early sexual intercourse. CONCLUSION: The analysis of the determinants for suffering injuries in childhood and adolescence shows
Zhang, Huiping; Wong, William C W; Ip, Patrick; Fan, Susan; Yip, Paul S F
This study aimed to examine the association between sexual orientation and health disparities among a stratified random sample of 3776 secondary students in Hong Kong. The prevalence of homosexuality and bisexuality were 1.5% and 2.6% in boys and 1.8% and 3.7% in girls, respectively. A total of 10.7% of boys and 8.8% of girls were unsure of their sexual orientation. Homosexual and bisexual boys reported poorer physical and mental health than their heterosexual peers. Homosexual and bisexual boys were more likely to engage in smoking, frequent drinking, and vaginal sex and be subjected to sexually transmitted disease and sexual victimization. However, lesbian and bisexual girls were less likely to engage in risky health behaviors except for smoking and being subjected to sexual victimization. There is a gender-specific problem that may warrant prevention and intervention programs to address the unique health issues facing homosexual and bisexual adolescents in Hong Kong.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study describes exposure labor among Brazilian 9th grade students from public and private schools and investigates socio-demographic characteristics, behaviors, violent situations and psychosocial factors associated with labor among adolescents. METHODS: The present study included 108,984 students from the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey carried out in 2012. Variables were grouped into sociodemographic characteristics, behavioral factors, violent situations and psychosocial aspects. Associations between labor and several health risk variables were identified by multiple logistic regression analysis, after adjustment for sex and age. RESULTS: Approximately 13% of the students reported having a job: 17.4% of them were male. The chance of working was lower between females and individuals whose fathers' have incomplete superior education. Students who worked had greater chances to smoke (OR = 2.26; 95%CI 2.04 - 2.51, drink alcohol, use illicit drugs (OR = 2.63; 95%CI 2.29 - 3.02, drive motorized vehicles (OR = 2.15; 95%CI 2.03 2.27, have sexual intercourse (OR = 2.10; 95%CI 1.99 - 2.24, suffer physical violence (OR = 1.57; 95%CI 1.46 1.68, engage in fights (OR = 1.65; 95%CI 1.55 - 1.76, feel lonely (OR = 1.26; 95%CI 1.17 - 1.36 and report sleeping problems (OR = 1.46; 95%CI 1.34 - 1.60. They also have lower chances of having close friends (OR = 0.78; 95%CI 0.68 - 0.90. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of labor among students is high. Socioeconomical disadvantages increase the chances of early working. Early working is also associated to health damaging behavior, violent situations, sleeping problems, and social isolation. Adolescents who study and work experiment expositions that may affect distinct health dimensions and perpetuate disadvantages over lifetime.
Rossen, Eric; Cowan, Katherine C.
Students do not leave their mental health at the front door when they come to school. From wellness to serious illness, a student's mental health status is integral to how they think, feel, interact, behave, and learn. Decades of research and experience have laid a solid foundation and framework for effectively providing mental health…
Haque, S.E.; Rahman, M.; Itsuko, K.; Mutahara, M.; Sakisaka, K.
Objectives: To assess the impact of a school-based menstrual education programme on: (1) menstrual knowledge, beliefs and practices, (2) menstrual disorders experienced, and (3) restrictions on menstruating adolescents. Design: Intervention study. Setting: Araihazar area, Bangladesh. Participants:
Alert, Marissa D.; Carucci, Daniella; Clennan, Mary Kate; Chiles, Shannon; Etzel, Erin N.; Saab, Patrice G.
The Reducing Obesity in Students Everywhere (ROSE) health promotion presentations educate students in grades 3-12 about nutrition, physical activity, reducing screen time, sleep, smoking, stress management, and the benefits of a healthy lifestyle. This article describes the content of the presentations, how information is delivered, strategies…
Carlsson, Monica Susanne
shows that ‘a production logic’ and economic values are emphasized in the motivation of the project and in the knowledge base underpinning the competency-framework. The discussion of the responsiveness of the formulations in relation to school health promotion points out that there are matches between......The purpose of the study is to critically explore the formulations of competencies and standards in the European project “Developing Competencies and Professional Standards for Health Promotion Capacity Building in Europe”, and to discuss them in relation to school health promotion. The analysis...... these formulations, and essential values and approaches in school health promotion. However, by underemphasizing the potential of education and learning, and reducing changes at individual and group level to behavioral change, the formulations of competencies and standards are not in concert with essential values...
Mũkoma, Wanjirũ; Flisher, Alan J
The concept of 'health promoting schools' has been embraced internationally as an effective way of promoting the health of children, adolescents, and the wider school community. It is only recently that attempts have been made to evaluate health promoting schools. This paper reviews evaluations of health promoting schools and draws useful evaluation methodology lessons. The review is confined to school-based interventions that are founded explicitly on the concept of the health promoting school and employ the concept beyond one school domain. We included nine evaluations in this review. Seven of these were published in the peer reviewed scientific literature. Two were unpublished reports. One study was a randomized controlled trial, while a quasi-experimental research design with comparison schools was used in three studies. With three exceptions, combinations of quantitative and qualitative data were collected. There was evidence that the health promoting school has some influence on various domains of health for the school community. It is also possible to integrate health promotion into the school curriculum and policies successfully. However, the evaluation of health promoting schools is complex. We discuss some of the methodological challenges of evaluating health promoting schools and make suggestions for improving future evaluations.
Dang, Hoang-Minh; Weiss, Bahr; Nguyen, Cao Minh; Tran, Nam; Pollack, Amie
The purposes of this study were to (a) assess the efficacy of a universal classroom-based mental health and social skills program for primary school students in Vietnam, and (b) given the universal nature of the intervention, assess outcomes as a function of risk status (high versus low). RECAP-VN is a semi-structured program that provides…
Sani, A. Sadiq; Abraham, Charles; Denford, Sarah; Mathews, Catherine
This study investigated facilitators and challenges to designing, implementing and evaluating school-based sexual health education in sub-Saharan Africa, using interviews with intervention designers and researchers. At the pre-planning and planning stages, participants reported that facilitating factors included addressing the reproductive health…
Middleton, G; Keegan, R; Henderson, H
Food for Fitness is an on-going multi-component health promotion programme, delivered in primary and secondary schools by community nutrition assistants. The programme uses nutritional interventions aimed at promoting healthier eating practices for children. This service evaluation investigated the receipt and delivery of the programme, as perceived by local stakeholders who had experienced and administered the service. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups were carried out with three key stakeholder groups: health professionals (n = 9), school teachers (n = 10) and senior health officials (n = 3). Qualitative data were transcribed verbatim and received thematic analysis with deductive and inductive processes. Stakeholders reported that the programme contributed to the development of food education and healthy-eating practices of children in the local area. Stakeholders considered that the main concern was the limited capacity and size of the service. They described problems with long-term sustainability in supporting schools with maintaining nutritional interventions, highlighting issues regarding contact, planning and organisation of several interventions. The findings of the service evaluation inform service management, organisation and ground-level delivery. The use of stakeholder opinion provided contextualised information on the factors that impact on the implementation of the programme. The richness of the qualitative results can guide future planning and provision for similar health promotion nutrition programmes delivered in the school environment. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2012 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
McAllister, Margaret; Knight, Bruce Allen; Withyman, Cathie
Approximately three quarters of all major mental disorders begin in adolescence. Finding ways to buffer against stress, access social support and connection and flexibly draw upon a range of coping mechanisms are vital strategies that young people can use to promote mental health and wellbeing and to navigate this turbulent life transition successfully. Within Australia, like other parts of the world such as the UK and the USA, it is a sad reality that when young people do become distressed they are not self-caring or supporting others effectively, and not seeking or receiving appropriate help. In order to respond proactively to this issue, a nurse-initiated mental health promotion program was developed. It is termed, iCARE, which stands for Creating Awareness, Resilience and Enhanced Mental Health. The aim of this paper is to discuss the underpinning educational theory that assists in developing in young people a sense of belonging, empathy, self-care and resilience, and why the strategies chosen to engage young people are likely to be effective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is common and can have devastating effects on the life of adolescents. Psychological interventions are the first-line for treating or preventing depression among adolescents. This proposal aims to evaluate a school-based, universal psychological intervention to reduce depressive symptoms among student's aged 13-14 attending municipal state secondary schools in Santiago, Chile. Study design This is a cluster randomised controlled trial with schools as the main clusters. We compared this intervention with a control group in a study involving 22 schools, 66 classes and approximately 2,600 students. Students in the active schools attended 11 weekly and 3 booster sessions of an intervention based on cognitive-behavioural models. The control schools received their usual but enhanced counselling sessions currently included in their curriculum. Mean depression scores and indicators of levels of functioning were assessed at 3 and 12 months after the completion of the intervention in order to assess the effectiveness of the intervention. Direct and indirect costs were measured in both groups to assess the cost-effectiveness of this intervention. Discussion As far as we are aware this is the first cluster randomised controlled trial of a school intervention for depression among adolescents outside the Western world. Trial Registration ISRCTN19466209
Small, B.M. [Envirodesic Certification Program, Stouffville, ON (Canada)
Indoor health is a concern today because unhealthy environments can cause adverse health effects, poor learning and teaching and increased costs. The holistic view of the environment and human health links sick kids, absenteeism, teacher illness, education costs and mouldy schools. An historical perspective is provided on the problem and its treatment referring to: 1962 and chemical susceptibility, 1975 and open systems theory, 1978 and high risk groups, 1985 and pollution and education in Toronto, 1987 and health environments for Canadians, 1995 and the National Education Association in the U.S., 1997 and a U.S. Executive Order, 1998 and the Texas Dept. of Health, 1998 and the U.S. EPS website 'IAQ Tools for Schools', and 1998 and 'The air children breathe.' It is known that pollutants adversely affect health, that children are highly susceptible, that the role in schools has being known for decades, and that information is now available worldwide through the Internet. The reasons why mould is a problem are listed, and the effects of an unhealthy indoor environment are referred to. The benefits of a healthy indoor environment are listed, and the various means of creating a healthy indoor environment are outlined. New developments are referred to including: fresh air, building envelope, building leakage, airtightness of buildings, tight envelope and air supply, low-emission materials, maintenance and cleaning, strategy and financing, collaboration, and the possibility of healthy schools.
Hiltz, Cynthia; Johnson, Katie; Lechtenberg, Julia Rae; Maughan, Erin; Trefry, Sharonlee
It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that Electronic Health Records (EHRs) are essential for the registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as school nurse) to provide efficient and effective care in the school and monitor the health of the entire student population. It is also the position of…
Monica H. Swahn
Full Text Available This study examines the associations between alcohol marketing strategies, alcohol education including knowledge about dangers of alcohol and refusal of alcohol, and drinking prevalence, problem drinking, and drunkenness. Analyses are based on the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS conducted in Zambia (2004 of students primarily 11 to 16 years of age (=2257. Four statistical models were computed to test the associations between alcohol marketing and education and alcohol use, while controlling for possible confounding factors. Alcohol marketing, specifically through providing free alcohol through a company representative, was associated with drunkenness (AOR = 1.49; 95% CI: 1.09–2.02 and problem drinking (AOR = 1.41; 95% CI: 1.06–1.87 among youth after controlling for demographic characteristics, risky behaviors, and alcohol education. However, alcohol education was not associated with drunkenness or problem drinking. These findings underscore the importance of restricting alcohol marketing practices as an important policy strategy for reducing alcohol use and its dire consequences among vulnerable youth.
Swahn, Monica H; Ali, Bina; Palmier, Jane B; Sikazwe, George; Mayeya, John
This study examines the associations between alcohol marketing strategies, alcohol education including knowledge about dangers of alcohol and refusal of alcohol, and drinking prevalence, problem drinking, and drunkenness. Analyses are based on the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) conducted in Zambia (2004) of students primarily 11 to 16 years of age (N = 2257). Four statistical models were computed to test the associations between alcohol marketing and education and alcohol use, while controlling for possible confounding factors. Alcohol marketing, specifically through providing free alcohol through a company representative, was associated with drunkenness (AOR = 1.49; 95% CI: 1.09-2.02) and problem drinking (AOR = 1.41; 95% CI: 1.06-1.87) among youth after controlling for demographic characteristics, risky behaviors, and alcohol education. However, alcohol education was not associated with drunkenness or problem drinking. These findings underscore the importance of restricting alcohol marketing practices as an important policy strategy for reducing alcohol use and its dire consequences among vulnerable youth.
Champion, Katrina E; Newton, Nicola C; Spring, Bonnie; Wafford, Q Eileen; Parmenter, Belinda J; Teesson, Maree
Six key behavioural risk factors (risky alcohol use, smoking, poor diet, physical inactivity, sedentary behaviour and unhealthy sleep patterns) have been identified as strong determinants of chronic disease, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancers. School-based interventions targeting these multiple health risk behaviours among adolescents have the potential to halt the trajectory towards later disease, whilst online and mobile technology interventions offer advantages in terms of student engagement, reach and scalability. Despite this, the efficacy of eHealth school-based interventions targeting these six health risk behaviours among adolescents has not been evaluated. The proposed systematic review aims to address this by determining the nature and efficacy of existing eHealth school-based interventions targeting multiple health risk behaviours among adolescents. A systematic search of the MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO and Cochrane Library databases will be conducted to identify eligible published papers. Eligible studies will be randomised controlled trials, including cluster randomised controlled trials, of interventions targeting two or more of the following lifestyle risk behaviours: alcohol use, smoking, poor diet, physical inactivity, sedentary behaviour and sleep. Eligible studies will be those evaluating interventions delivered in a secondary school setting among participants 11-18 years of age, via an eHealth platform (Internet, computers of mobile technology). Two reviewers will independently screen studies for eligibility, extract data and assess the risk of bias. Study outcomes will be summarised in a narrative synthesis, and meta-analyses will be conducted where it is appropriate to combine studies. It is anticipated that the results from this review will serve to inform the development of future eHealth multiple health behaviour interventions for adolescents by identifying common characteristics of effective programs and highlighting
Lind, Rune Rasmussen; Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Ørntoft, Christina; Madsen, Mads; Larsen, Malte Nejst; Dvorak, Jiri; Ritz, Christian; Krustrup, Peter
Recent studies have shown promising effects of physical activity on cognitive function, but there is a need to investigate this link in real-life settings such as schools. Hence, the objective of the present pilot study was to investigate whether the school-based physical activity programme "FIFA 11 for Health" for Europe could improve cognitive performance in preadolescent Danish children. The pilot study used an 11-week cluster-randomised intervention study design. School classes were randomly assigned to either a control group (CG) (n = 93 children, age = 11.8, s = 0.2 years), which performed the obligatory daily school-based physical activity (5 × 45 minutes per week); or an intervention group (IG) (n = 838 children, age = 11.9, s = 0.4 years), which substituted 2 × 45 minutes per week of the daily school physical activity with the "FIFA 11 for Health" for Europe programme. The programme combines small-sided football games, drills and health education. Cognitive performance was evaluated at baseline and follow-up. The IG improved their cognitive performance compared to the CG for psychomotor function (56, s x - = 22 ms, p school-based physical activity programme "FIFA 11 for Health" for Europe can improve cognitive performance in preadolescent Danish schoolchildren. Future studies should attempt to disentangle the effects of "FIFA 11 for Health" for Europe on cognitive performance by investigating the characteristics of the programme's physical activity.
Haque, Syed Emdadul; Rahman, Mosiur; Itsuko, Kawashima; Mutahara, Mahmuda; Kayako, Sakisaka; Tsutsumi, Atsuro; Islam, Md Jahirul; Mostofa, Md Golam
There is a dearth of published literature that demonstrates the impact and effectiveness of school-based oral health education (OHE) program in Bangladesh and it is one of the most neglected activities in the field of public health. Keeping this in mind, the objectives of this study were to assess the effectiveness of OHE program in: 1) increasing oral health knowledge, attitude, and practices and 2) decreasing the prevalence of untreated dental caries among 6-8 grade school students in Bangladesh. This intervention study was conducted in Araihazar Thana, Narayanganj district, Bangladesh during April 2012 to March 2013. The total participants were 944 students from three local schools. At baseline, students were assessed for oral health knowledge, attitude and practices using a self-administered structured questionnaire and untreated dental caries was assessed using clinical examination. Follow up study was done after 6 months from baseline. McNemar's chi-square analysis was used to evaluate the impact of OHE program on four recurrent themes of oral health between the baseline and follow-up. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to determine the impact of the intervention group on our outcome variables. Significant improvement was observed regarding school aged adolescents' self-reported higher knowledge, attitude and practices scores (p level of knowledge regarding oral health compared to baseline. Compared with baseline participants in the follow-up were 1.89 times (95 % CI = 1.44-2.87) more likely to have higher attitude towards oral health. In addition, OHE intervention was found to be significantly associated with higher level of practices toward oral health (AOR = 1.64; 95 % CI = 1.12, 3.38). This study indicated that OHE intervention was effective in increasing i) knowledge, ii) attitude, and iii) practices towards oral health; it also significantly reduced the prevalence of untreated dental caries among school aged adolescents from grade 6-8 in a
Carlson, Laurie A.; Kees, Nathalie L.
This descriptive survey research study (N = 120) examined the self-reported comfort level of school counselors in addressing the mental health needs of their students and school counselor perceptions regarding working relationships with school-based therapists. Survey results indicated that school counselors are generally confident in their…
Brener, Nancy D.; Pejavara, Anu; McManus, Tim
Background: The School Health Index (SHI) is a tool designed to help schools assess the extent to which they are implementing practices included in the research-based guidelines and strategies for school health and safety programs developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). CDC previously analyzed data from the 2000 School…
Borup, Ina K.
Public health, health promotion, empowerment, experiental learning, HBSC, health survey, qualitative interviews, grounded theory, school children, adolescents, health dialogue, school health nurse......Public health, health promotion, empowerment, experiental learning, HBSC, health survey, qualitative interviews, grounded theory, school children, adolescents, health dialogue, school health nurse...
Lindo, Natalya A.; Taylor, Dalena Dillman; Meany-Walen, Kristin K.; Purswell, Katherine; Jayne, Kimberly; Gonzales, Terri; Jones, Leslie
Teacher-child relationship building (TCRB) is a play-based professional development programme adapted from kinder training and filial therapy. Intended for early education teachers and students, TCRB is designed to strengthen the teacher-child relationship, improve student behaviour, enhance academic involvement and develop teachers' classroom…
Madsen, Katrine Dahl; Nordin, Lone Lindegard; Simovska, Venka
and invitations to ‘run with the ball’, and 3) ad hoc professional development. A main conclusion in the article is that local approaches are largely based on plurality and voluntarism, and formed around enthusiasts. There is a risk that this framework becomes so flexible that it ‘falls apart’ in the balance...
Background. Oral health promotion is a cost-effective strategy that can be implemented at schools for the prevention of oral diseases. The importance and value of school-based interventions in children has been identified in South Africa (SA). Although oral health strategies include integrated school-based interventions, ...
Dandara de Oliveira Ramos
Full Text Available Abstract: This study assessed the consistency of self-reports of risk behavior (overall and within four specific domains: alcohol use, tobacco use, drug use, and sexual activity in two editions of the Brazilian National School Based Survey of Adolescent Health (PeNSE: 2009 and 2012. The overall proportion of cases with at least one inconsistent response in the two editions was 11.7% (2.7% on the alcohol items, 2.1% for drug use, 4.3% for cigarette use, 3% for sexual activity and 22.7% (12.8% on alcohol items, 2.5% for drug use, 4.3% for cigarette use, 4.1% for sexual activity, respectively. Such inconsistency was more prevalent among males, delayed students, those who reported having experimented with drugs, and those who did not have a cellphone. Because inconsistent responses were more prevalent among the students who claimed to have engaged in risky activities, removing inconsistent responders affected the estimated prevalence of all risk behaviors in both editions of the survey. This study supports the importance of performing consistency checks of self-report surveys, following the growing body of literature on this topic.
Mello, Flávia Carvalho Malta; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Prado, Rogério Ruscitto do; Farias, Marilurdes Silva; Alencastro, Lidiane Cristina da Silva; Silva, Marta Angélica Iossi
To estimate the prevalence of bullying from the perspective of victims in students from the Southeast region of Brazil and analyze its association with individual variables and family context. Information on 19,660 adolescents from the National School-based Health Survey was analyzed, calculating the association between bullying and sociodemographic variables, risk behaviors, mental health, and family background. Multivariate analysis and the calculation of odds ratio and confidence intervals were performed. The prevalence of bullying was 7.8% (95%CI 6.5 - 9.2). After adjustment, the following associations were observed: students with less than 13 years of age (OR = 2.40; 1.4 - 3.93); protection for those aged 14, 15, and 16 years; male gender (OR = 1.47; 95%CI 1.35 - 1.59); black color (OR = 1.24; 95%CI 1.11 - 1.40); yellow color (OR = 1.38 95%CI 1.14 - 1.6); private school students (OR = 1.11; 95%CI 1.01 - 1.23); and students who work (OR = 1.30; 95%CI 1.16 - 1.45). Higher education of the mothers was a protective factor in all groups. Risk factors considered were feeling lonely (OR = 2.68; 95%CI 2.45 - 2.94), having insomnia (OR = 1.95; 95%CI 1.76 - 2.17), having no friends (OR = 1.47; 95%CI 1.24 - 1.75), suffering physical abuse from family members (OR = 1.83; 95%CI 1.66 - 2.03), missing classes without their parents' knowledge (OR = 1.23; 95%CI 1.12 - 1.34), as well as family supervision (OR = 1.14; 95%CI 1.05 - 1.23). To have drunk in the last 30 days (OR = 0.88 95%CI 0.8 - 0.97) was a protective factor. Bullying increases vulnerabilities among students, which suggests the need for an intersectoral approach in order to find measures to prevent them.
Parnia, Aidin; Yamani, Nikoo; Zamani, Ahmadreza; Badihian, Shervin; Manouchehri, Navid; Fakhri, Maryam
A serious challenge to educate health staff for public health is to appear encouraging enough to persuade them for learning issues on this field and implementing new educational methods and innovative ways. Iran International Public Health Summer School (IPHS) made an effort to provide medical sciences students with a fortune to get familiar with and involved in public health. This study intended to evaluate the efficacy of this event. This cross-sectional study was performed in March-April 2015 by the help of an electronic self-administered questionnaire filled out by 49 Iranian participants 6 months after IPHS2014. The questionnaire assessed the main goals in seven main domains: Interest, activities, and general knowledge in the field of public health, general skills, educational methods, educational and executive schedules, and general satisfaction. Average scores of all domains were >3 (the mean), and all were statistically significant. The highest average score belonged to educational methods (3.92) and the lowest was calculated for the item regarding participants' activities on public health (3.5). No significant difference was found between positive answers of individuals who were interested or active in public health prior to the event and those who had no background. We believe IPHS was a unique instance in Public Health Education in Iran. Considering the level of success of this program to reach its goals for both students' with or without any previous background on public health, it is recommended as a general model to be simulated in other developing countries.
Eckermann, Simon; Dawber, James; Yeatman, Heather; Quinsey, Karen; Morris, Darcy
Successful health promotion and disease prevention strategies in complex community settings such as primary schools rely on acceptance and ownership across community networks. Assessing multiplier impacts from investment on related community activity over time are suggested as key alongside evidence of program health effects on targeted groups of individuals in gauging community network engagement and ownership, dynamic impacts, and program long term success and return on investment. An Australian primary school based health promotion and prevention strategy, the Stephanie Alexander Kitchen Garden National Program (SAKGNP), which has been providing garden and kitchen classes for year 3-6 students since 2008, was evaluated between 2011 and 2012. Returns on Australian Federal Government investment for school infrastructure grants up to $60,000 are assessed up to and beyond a two year mutual obligation period with: (i) Impacts on student lifestyle behaviours, food choices and eating habits surveyed across students (n = 491 versus 260) and parents (n = 300 versus 234) in 28 SAKGNP and 14 matched schools, controlling for school and parent level confounders and triangulated with SAKGNP pre-post analysis; (ii) Multiplier impacts of investment on related school and wider community activity up to two years; and (iii) Evidence of continuation and program evolution in schools observed beyond two years. SAKGNP schools showed improved student food choices (p = 0.024) and kitchen lifestyle behaviour (p = 0.019) domains compared to controls and in pre-post analysis where 20.0% (58/290) reported eating fruit and vegetables more often and 18.6% (54/290) preparing food at home more often. No significant differences were found in case control analysis for eating habits or garden lifestyle behaviour domains, although 32.3% of children helped more in the garden (91/278) and 15.6% (45/289) ate meals together more often in pre-post analysis. The multiplier impact on total
Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2005, we reported on the success of Comprehensive School Health (CSH in improving diets, activity levels, and body weights. The successful program was recognized as a "best practice" and has inspired the development of the Alberta Project Promoting active Living and healthy Eating (APPLE Schools. The project includes 10 schools, most of which are located in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. The present study examines the effectiveness of a CSH program adopted from a "best practice" example in another setting by evaluating temporal changes in diets, activity levels and body weight. Methods In 2008 and 2010, we surveyed grade 5 students from approximately 150 randomly selected schools from the Canadian province of Alberta and students from 10 APPLE Schools. Students completed the Harvard Youth/Adolescent Food Frequency Questionnaire, questions on physical activity, and had their height and weight measured. Multilevel regression methods were used to analyze changes in diets, activity levels, and body weight between 2008 and 2010. Results In 2010 relative to 2008, students attending APPLE Schools were eating more fruits and vegetables, consuming fewer calories, were more physically active and were less likely obese. These changes contrasted changes observed among students elsewhere in the province. Conclusions These findings provide evidence on the effectiveness of CSH in improving health behaviors. They show that an example of "best practice" may lead to success in another setting. Herewith the study provides the evidence that investments for broader program implementation based on "best practice" are justified.
Background In 2005, we reported on the success of Comprehensive School Health (CSH) in improving diets, activity levels, and body weights. The successful program was recognized as a "best practice" and has inspired the development of the Alberta Project Promoting active Living and healthy Eating (APPLE) Schools. The project includes 10 schools, most of which are located in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. The present study examines the effectiveness of a CSH program adopted from a "best practice" example in another setting by evaluating temporal changes in diets, activity levels and body weight. Methods In 2008 and 2010, we surveyed grade 5 students from approximately 150 randomly selected schools from the Canadian province of Alberta and students from 10 APPLE Schools. Students completed the Harvard Youth/Adolescent Food Frequency Questionnaire, questions on physical activity, and had their height and weight measured. Multilevel regression methods were used to analyze changes in diets, activity levels, and body weight between 2008 and 2010. Results In 2010 relative to 2008, students attending APPLE Schools were eating more fruits and vegetables, consuming fewer calories, were more physically active and were less likely obese. These changes contrasted changes observed among students elsewhere in the province. Conclusions These findings provide evidence on the effectiveness of CSH in improving health behaviors. They show that an example of "best practice" may lead to success in another setting. Herewith the study provides the evidence that investments for broader program implementation based on "best practice" are justified. PMID:22413778
Brassard, Marla R.; Fiorvanti, Christina M.
Child abuse is a leading cause of emotional, behavioral, and health problems across the lifespan. It is also preventable. School-based abuse prevention programs for early childhood and elementary school children have been found to be effective in increasing student knowledge and protective behaviors. The purpose of this article is to help school…
Ariga, Jitendra; Al-Mutawa, Sabiha; Nazar, Huda
The School Oral Health Program (SOHP), Kuwait, is a joint venture between the Ministry of Health, Kuwait, and Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, Mass., USA. This program provides oral health education, prevention and treatment to almost 280,000 public school children in Kuwait. Services are delivered through a system of center- and school-based clinics and preventive mobile teams. One of the recent developments is the effective use of portable dental units for the delivery of preventive care to children in schools without the need for children to go to dental clinics. Preventive procedures performed under this program are the biannual application of fluoride varnish and the placement of pit and fissure sealants on newly erupted permanent molars and premolars. During recent years, the SOHP has improved its coverage of children, with prevention up to 80%. This has resulted in a considerable reduction in treatment needs, which is evident from the reduced number of composite restorations performed under this program during the last 6 years. This indicates that the disease level is on a decline, which can be confirmed from the results of the ongoing National Oral Health Survey on Kuwaiti school children. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Dray, Julia; Bowman, Jenny; Campbell, Elizabeth; Freund, Megan; Hodder, Rebecca; Wolfenden, Luke; Richards, Jody; Leane, Catherine; Green, Sue; Lecathelinais, Christophe; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Attia, John; Gillham, Karen; Wiggers, John
Worldwide, 10-20% of adolescents experience mental health problems. Strategies aimed at strengthening resilience protective factors provide a potential approach for reducing mental health problems in adolescents. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a universal, school-based intervention targeting resilience protective factors in reducing mental health problems in adolescents. A cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted in 20 intervention and 12 control secondary schools located in socio-economically disadvantaged areas of NSW, Australia. Data were collected from 3115 students at baseline (Grade 7, 2011), of whom 2149 provided data at follow up (Grade 10, 2014; enrolments in Grades 7 to 10 typically aged 12-16 years; 50% male; 69.0% retention). There were no significant differences between groups at follow-up for three mental health outcomes: total SDQ, internalising problems, and prosocial behaviour. A small statistically significant difference in favour of the control group was found for externalising problems. Findings highlight the continued difficulties in developing effective, school-based prevention programs for mental health problems in adolescents. ANZCTR (Ref no: ACTRN12611000606987). Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Foster, Geraldine R. K.; Tickle, Martin
Background and objective: Some districts in the United Kingdom (UK), where the level of child dental caries is high and water fluoridation has not been possible, implement school-based fluoridated milk (FM) schemes. However, process variables, such as consent to drink FM and loss of children as they mature, impede the effectiveness of these…
Abrahamse, Mariëlle E; Jonkman, Caroline S; Harting, Janneke
The large number of children that grow up in poverty is concerning, especially given the negative developmental outcomes that can persist into adulthood. Poverty has been found as a risk factor to negatively affect academic achievement and health outcomes in children. Interdisciplinary interventions can be an effective way to promote health and academic achievement. The present study aims to evaluate a school-based interdisciplinary approach on child health, poverty, and academic achievement using a mixed-method design. Generally taken, outcomes of this study increase the knowledge about effective ways to give disadvantaged children equal chances early in their lives. An observational study with a mixed-methods design including both quantitative and qualitative data collection methods will be used to evaluate the interdisciplinary approach. The overall research project exists of three study parts including a longitudinal study, a cross-sectional study, and a process evaluation. Using a multi-source approach we will assess child health as the primary outcome. Child poverty and child academic achievement will be assessed as secondary outcomes. The process evaluation will observe the program's effects on the school environment and the program's implementation in order to obtain more knowledge on how to disseminate the interdisciplinary approach to other schools and neighborhoods. The implementation of a school-based interdisciplinary approach via primary schools combining the cross-sectoral domains health, poverty, and academic achievement is innovative and a step forward to reach an ethnic minority population. However, the large variety of the interventions and activities within the approach can limit the validity of the study. Including a process evaluation will therefore help to improve the interpretation of our findings. In order to contribute to policy and practice focusing on decreasing the unequal chances of children growing up in deprived neighborhoods, it is
Miller, Kim H.; Bice, Matthew R.
Child health is a complex issue that requires a comprehensive approach to address the many factors that influence it and are influenced by it. In light of the complexity of children's health, the Coordinated School Health Program (CSHP) was developed as a framework for a systems approach to planning and implementing school-based children's health…
Weare, Katherine; Markham, Wolfgang
There is a growing evidence base on what schools need to do to promote mental health effectively. There is strong evidence that they need first and foremost to use a whole school approach. This shapes the social contexts which promote mental health and which provide a backdrop of measures to prevent mental health disorders. In this context the targeting of those with articular needs and the work of the specialist services can be much more effective. Schools need to use positive model...
Rogério Lessa Horta; Bernardo Lessa Horta; Andre Wallace Nery da Costa; Rogério Ruscitto do Prado; Maryane Oliveira-Campos; Deborah Carvalho Malta
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at describing the prevalence of illicit drug use among 9th grade students in the morning period of public and private schools in Brazil, and assessing associated factors. METHOD: The Brazilian survey PeNSE (National Adolescent School-based Health Survey) 2012 evaluated a representative sample of 9th grade students in the morning period, in Brazil and its five regions. The use of illicit drugs at least once in life was assessed for the most commonly used drugs,...
Borup, Ina K.
Public health, health promotion, empowerment, experiential learning, health behaviour in school-aged children (HBSC), health survey, qualitative interviews, grounded theory, school children......Public health, health promotion, empowerment, experiential learning, health behaviour in school-aged children (HBSC), health survey, qualitative interviews, grounded theory, school children...
Olga N. Makhubela-Nkondo
Full Text Available For South Africa, the continent and the world as a whole, formal health literacy begins at school. Higher Education in South Africa is challenged to take heed of the World Health Organization’s (WHO (1996 definition of school health. For the WHO, school health is not merely hygiene, health promotion, health literacy or health education but a ‘combination of services ensuring the physical, mental and social well-being of learners so as to maximize their learning capabilities’. The WHO Expert Committee on School Health asserts that school health can advance public health, education, social and economic development, and that the global expansion of school health attests to the value placed internationally on such programmes (WHO 1996.
Lai, Karen; Guo, Sisi; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Roya; Puffer, Maryjane; Kataoka, Sheryl H.
Objective School-based health centers (SBHCs) reduce mental health access-to-care barriers and improve educational outcomes for youth. This qualitative study evaluates the innovations and challenges of a unique network of SBHCs in a large, urban school district, as they attempt to integrate health, mental health, and educational services. Methods The 43 participants sampled included mental health providers, primary care providers, and care coordinators at 14 SBHCs. Semi-structured interviews with each participant were audio-recorded and transcribed. Themes were identified and coded using Atlas.ti 5.1, and collapsed into three domains: Operations, Partnership, and Engagement. Results Interviews revealed provider models ranging from single agencies offering both health and mental health services to co-located services. Sites with the Health Agency providing at least some mental health services reported more mental health screenings. Many sites utilized SBHC coordinators and coordination team meetings to facilitate relationships between schools and Health Agency and Community Mental Health Clinic providers. Partnership challenges included confidentiality policies and staff turnover. Participants also highlighted student and parent engagement, through culturally sensitive services, peer health advocates, and “drop-in” lunches. Conclusions Staffing and operational models are critical in the success of health-mental health-education integration. Among the provider models observed, the combined health and mental health provider model offered the most integrated services. Despite barriers, providers and schools have begun to implement novel solutions for operational problems and family engagement in mental health services. Implications for future SBHCs as an integrated model are described. PMID:27417895
This podcast highlights the role of school mental health professionals in the management of food allergies in schools. It also identifies CDC food allergy resources for schools. Created: 1/20/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 1/20/2015.
Objectives: This study assessed school health appraisal implementation in primary schools within Abakaliki Metropolis. Materials and Methods: This was a cross sectional descriptive study of the forms of health appraisal in all 31 primary schools in Abakaliki metropolis. Relevant information was obtained from the head ...
Schaffer, Marjorie A.; Anderson, Linda J. W.; Rising, Shannon
School nurses (SNs) use public health nursing knowledge and skills to provide nursing services to school populations. The Public Health Intervention Wheel is a practice framework that can be used to explain and guide public health nursing interventions. SNs who were also members of the National Association of School Nurses completed an electronic…
Persson, Louise; Haraldsson, Katarina
Schools are recognized worldwide as settings for health promotion, and leadership has a bearing on schools' ability to be health promoting. School managers have a great influence on what is prioritized in school, which in turn affects students' school performance and health. There is lack of research into school managers' views on health promotion, and what they consider to be central to health promotion. The aim was therefore to examine school managers' views about what health promotion in schools include. An explorative design, qualitative content analysis, was performed. In-depth interviews were conducted with all 13 school managers of a middle-sized municipality in central Sweden. The analysis had both manifest and latent content and three categories: 'Organization and Collaboration', 'Optimize the arena' and 'Strengthen the individual', and 10 subcategories emerged. The theme, 'Opportunities for learning and a good life', describes the latent content of these categories. Taking into account the views of school managers are important because these views help form a more complete picture of how school managers work with health promotion and what is needed to enhance health promotion to improve students' opportunities for learning and a good life. The Ottawa Charter for Health promotion is thereby transformed into practice. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Nordentoft, Helle Merete; Wistoft, Karen
and the development of their competences in school health nursing. Practical implications The paper outlines how and why collaboration among school nurses should be introduced in a more systematic way in school health nursing. Originality/value The paper investigates the connection between informal educational....... Design/methodology/approach The article is based on data from a three-year health educational development project at primary schools in Denmark. These data are a) Observations from 12 reflective workshops with school nurses b) Two questionnaire surveys c) 5 focus group interviews with 5 of the 6......Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the process and learning outcomes of peer collaboration in a Danish health developmental project in school health nursing. The paper explores how peer collaboration influences the school nurses’ collaborative learning and competence development...
Dittus, Patricia J; Harper, Christopher R; Becasen, Jeffrey S; Donatello, Robin A; Ethier, Kathleen A
Adolescent males are less likely to receive health care and have lower levels of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) knowledge than adolescent females. The purpose of this study was to determine if a school-based structural intervention focused on school nurses increases receipt of condoms and SRH information among male students. Interventions to improve student access to sexual and reproductive health care were implemented in six urban high schools with a matched set of comparison schools. Interventions included working with school nurses to improve access to sexual and reproductive health care, including the provision of condoms and information about pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease prevention and services. Intervention effects were assessed through five cross-sectional yearly surveys, and analyses include data from 13,740 male students. Nurses in intervention schools changed their interactions with male students who visited them for services, such that, among those who reported they went to the school nurse for any reason in the previous year, those in intervention schools reported significant increases in receipt of sexual health services over the course of the study compared with students in comparison schools. Further, these results translated into population-level effects. Among all male students surveyed, those in intervention schools were more likely than those in comparison schools to report increases in receipt of sexual health services from school nurses. With a minimal investment of resources, school nurses can become important sources of SRH information and condoms for male high school students. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Hoopes, Andrea J; Gilmore, Kelly; Cady, Janet; Akers, Aletha Y; Ahrens, Kym R
Long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods can prevent teen pregnancy yet remain underutilized by adolescents in the United States. Pediatric providers are well positioned to discuss LARCs with adolescents, but little is known about how counseling should occur in pediatric primary care settings. We explored adolescent womens' attitudes and experiences with LARCs to inform the development of adolescent-centered LARC counseling strategies. Qualitative analysis of one-on-one interviews. Participants were recruited from 2 urban school-based, primary care centers. Thirty adolescent women aged 14-18 years, diverse in race/ethnicity, and sexual experience. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and coded using inductive and deductive coding. Major themes were identified to integrate LARC-specific adolescent preferences into existing counseling approaches. Participants (mean age, 16.2 years; range, 14-18 years) represented a diverse range of racial and/or ethnic identities. Half (15/30) were sexually active and 17% (5/30) reported current or past LARC use. Five themes emerged regarding key factors that influence LARC choice, including: (1) strong preferences about device-specific characteristics; (2) previous exposure to information about LARCs from peers, family members, or health counseling sessions; (3) knowledge gaps about LARC methods that affect informed decision-making; (4) personal circumstances or experiences that motivate a desire for effective and/or long-acting contraception; and (5) environmental constraints and supports that might influence adolescent access to LARCs. We identified 5 factors that influence LARC choice among adolescent women and propose a framework for incorporating these factors into contraceptive counseling services in pediatric primary care settings. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Johnson, Kathleen H.; Bergren, Martha Dewey; Westbrook, Linda Oakes
A gap in data prevents measurement of the needs of school-age children and the influence of school nursing interventions on student health and education outcomes. Its remedy is in the data collected in school health rooms. A national clinical database describing school health will allow education and health leaders to build evidence-based programs…
Kerebih, Habtamu; Abrha, Hailay; Frank, Reiner; Abera, Mubarek
Teachers perception of child mental health problems and their attitude to school-based mental health services helps in designing early intervention strategies aimed at promoting the service. However, little is known in this regard among primary school teachers in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study assessed perceptions and attitude of primary school teachers to child mental health problem and school-based mental health programs in Jimma town, southwest Ethiopia in 2013. A cross-sectional study design was implemented among 568 primary school teachers in Jimma town, from 1 to 30 October 2013. Perceptions and attitude of teachers to children with mental health problems and school mental health related information were assessed using a structured self- administered questionnaire. About 40% of teachers recognized the list of psychopathology items presented to them as child mental health problems while 54.4% of them rated child mental health problem as severe. Externalizing behaviors were perceived as the most severe problems. Teaching experience and teaching in public schools were significantly associated with the perception of severe type of child mental health problems. About 95% of teachers acknowledged that school-based mental health programs are important but limited availability was reported. Despite the high problem severity ratings, teachers' perception of the psychopathology as a mental health problem in children was low. There was also a favorable attitude on the importance and the need of school-based child mental health programs. Thus, creating mental health awareness for teachers and establishing school mental health services to intervene in child mental health problem is crucial.
Lubman, Dan I; Berridge, Bonita J; Blee, Fiona; Jorm, Anthony F; Wilson, Coralie J; Allen, Nicholas B; McKay-Brown, Lisa; Proimos, Jenny; Cheetham, Ali; Wolfe, Rory
Adolescence is a high-risk time for the development of mental health and substance use problems. However, fewer than one in four 16-24 year-olds with a current disorder access health services, with those experiencing a substance use disorder being the least likely to seek professional help. Research indicates that young people are keeping their problems to themselves or alternatively, turning to peers or trusted adults in their lives for help. These help-seeking preferences highlight the need to build the mental health literacy of adolescents, to ensure that they know when and how to assist themselves and their peers to access support. The MAKINGtheLINK intervention aims to introduce these skills to adolescents within a classroom environment. This is a cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT) with schools as clusters and individual students as participants from 22 secondary schools in Victoria, Australia. Schools will be randomly assigned to either the MAKINGtheLINK intervention group or the waitlist control group. All students will complete a self-report questionnaire at baseline, immediately post intervention and 6 and 12 months post baseline. The primary outcome to be assessed is increased help-seeking behaviour (from both formal and informal sources) for alcohol and mental health issues, measured at 12 months post baseline. The findings from this research will provide evidence on the effectiveness of the MAKINGtheLINK intervention for teaching school students how to overcome prominent barriers associated with seeking help, as well as how to effectively support their peers. If deemed effective, the MAKINGtheLINK programme will be the first evidence-informed resource that is able to address critical gaps in the knowledge and behaviour of adolescents in relation to help-seeking. It could, therefore, be a valuable resource that could be readily implemented by classroom teachers. Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR): ACTRN12613000235707
Lind, Rune Rasmussen; Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Ørntoft, Christina
programme. The programme combines small-sided football games, drills and health education. Cognitive performance was evaluated at baseline and follow-up. RESULTS: The IG improved their cognitive performance compared to the CG for psychomotor function (56, sx- = 22 ms, p attention (39, sx- = 17 ms......, p = .012) and working memory (79, sx- = 35 ms, p = .020). CONCLUSION: This pilot study provides evidence that the school-based physical activity programme "FIFA 11 for Health" for Europe can improve cognitive performance in preadolescent Danish schoolchildren. Future studies should attempt...
Health promotion uses a range of complementary approaches to provide individuals and communities with knowledge that will enable them to improve their own health and wellbeing. Encouraging children to adopt healthy lifestyle habits is a central objective, and health promotion at a community level, particularly through health promoting schools, may be an effective strategy. Health promoting schools are well within the capacity of even poor countries, as they focus on the school and its culture, and establishing health promoting schools requires a change in mindset and refinement of educational investment rather than the provision of major new resources, engagement of non-government organizations or obtaining international funding. A consensus of current evidence and essential concepts underlying health promotion in schools, principles that contribute to success or failure, and opportunities for implementation and engagement is presented, based on shared experience and dialogue at a 2011 international colloquium held at Stellenbosch University.
María de los Ángeles Merino Godoy
Full Text Available The cultural diversity of the Spanish population incorporates new styles of life and other health’s problems that are evolving and being made different to what we cannot ignore. Through this study of qualitative character that uses as instruments documentation analysis and observation, we have reached the conclusion that it is necessart to integrate the cultural diversity in the programs of school health, since the different cultures that coexist in our classrooms should be immersed in all the actions of the educative centers. Teaching and sanitary staff are aware of this new situation that is causing the propagation of new physical and psychic diseases and disorders, and that is why these professionals must be supported by the administration, which is responsible to provide the necessary resources to motivate to the teaching and sanitary staff and to the educative community in order to take care of the health of each one of us, what means everybody’s health.
reduce the healthcare burden of children and adolescents. HPS would help to combat the global burden of childhood obesity by promoting healthy eating behaviours and encouraging higher levels of physical activity. There are gaps in service provision for children and adolescents from both the health and education perspective; the HPS framework has the potential to develop a mechanism of closer integration with the primary healthcare system, making youth health services more school based and student centred. A new model of interconnection between HPS and different components of primary healthcare can be evolved to make services for disease prevention and health promotion more student friendly.
DeSocio, Janiece; Hootman, Janis
An integrative review of literature was undertaken to examine the impact of children's mental health on their school success. The literature confirmed a confluence of problems associated with school performance and child and adolescent mental health. Poor academic functioning and inconsistent school attendance were identified as early signs of…
Van Hoof, Thomas J.; Sherwin, Tierney E.; Baggish, Rosemary C.; Tacy, Peter B.; Meehan, Thomas P.
Private schools educate a significant percentage of US children and adolescents. Private schools, particularly where students reside during the academic year, assume responsibility for the health and well-being of their students. Children and adolescents experience mental health problems at a predictable rate, and private schools need a mechanism…
Núñez, Ana; Robertson-James, Candace; Reels, Serita; Jeter, Janay; Rivera, Hilda; Yusuf, Zena; Liu
Perceptions of masculinity and femininity influence behaviors and can be identified in young children and adolescents (Brannon, 2004). Thus, adolescents' engagement in health risk or promoting behaviors is influenced by perceptions of masculinity and femininity and the differences in expectations, norms and responsibilities for girls and boys (WHO, 2007). Girls and boys have different needs, and gender-based interventions that consider similarities as well as differences are needed. A gender-based nutrition and sexual health promotion program was developed and piloted by the Philadelphia Ujima Coalition in a high school setting. To explore the gender differences in adolescents' perceptions of the influence of gender norms on weight, nutrition, physical activity, and sexual health and the implication of these differences in future gender-integrated health promotion programming for youth, a content analysis of student and facilitator debriefing forms were implemented for the participating schools. The content analysis was used to identify central themes, concepts gained, and overall impact of the intervention sessions. Overall, gender norms influence healthy eating practices and activity through influencing perceptions of body type in adolescents. Gender norms also influence sexual activity and decision making through influencing perceptions of beauty, masculinity, femininity, pressures and popular concepts related to sexual activity. Thus, interventions that address gender may more effectively promote health and wellness in adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hansen, Claus D.; Andersen, Johan Hviid
adult educational achievement. Data are taken from a birth cohort study of all adolescents born in 1989 (n=3,058) living in a rural county in Denmark. Information was obtained from questionnaires (sent to the adolescents and their parents) and from different national registers (e.g. hospitalization......This study examines the impact of a wide range of health measures on school performance at the end of compulsory school (9 years of school). The key questions raised are whether different health problems lowers school performance contributing to a health selection process that could lead to lower...... health and school performance....
Wu, Wen-Chi; Luu, Shyuemeng; Luh, Dih-Ling
Students should be encouraged to help prevent or stop bullying. However, defending victims of bullying can impact on mental health. It is not only bystanders who may defend victims, but bullies, victims and bully-victims can also have defending behaviors. Nevertheless, most studies of defending behaviors have been limited to an examination of the reactions of bystanders or those not involved in bullying and have ignored the other players. The aim of this study is to investigate the associations between defending behaviors and mental health among bullies, victims, bully-victims and bystanders. Associations among defending behaviors, mental health (including depressive symptoms and social anxiety), and bullying experiences were cross-sectionally examined in 3441 students (13-15 years old.) from 20 randomly selected junior high schools in Taiwan using a self-report questionnaire. SAS 9.3 Survey Analysis procedures were used to conduct descriptive analysis and multiple regression models. Defending behaviors were associated with bullying roles and were higher in victims than in bullies or bystanders. Defending behaviors were positively associated with social anxiety and depressive symptoms. After stratifying by bullying roles, defending behaviors were positively associated with social anxiety in bystanders, and were positively associated with depressive symptoms in victims and bystanders. However, defending behaviors were not significantly associated with mental health indicators in bullies. The associations between defending behaviors and mental health varied according to bullying roles. The results suggest that bystanders and victims experience more mental health effects than bullies. Intervention programs aimed at preventing bullying should focus on strategies that minimize social anxiety and depression in victims and bystanders, and urge students to help vulnerable peers during bullying events.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Students should be encouraged to help prevent or stop bullying. However, defending victims of bullying can impact on mental health. It is not only bystanders who may defend victims, but bullies, victims and bully-victims can also have defending behaviors. Nevertheless, most studies of defending behaviors have been limited to an examination of the reactions of bystanders or those not involved in bullying and have ignored the other players. The aim of this study is to investigate the associations between defending behaviors and mental health among bullies, victims, bully-victims and bystanders. Methods Associations among defending behaviors, mental health (including depressive symptoms and social anxiety, and bullying experiences were cross-sectionally examined in 3441 students (13–15 years old. from 20 randomly selected junior high schools in Taiwan using a self-report questionnaire. SAS 9.3 Survey Analysis procedures were used to conduct descriptive analysis and multiple regression models. Results Defending behaviors were associated with bullying roles and were higher in victims than in bullies or bystanders. Defending behaviors were positively associated with social anxiety and depressive symptoms. After stratifying by bullying roles, defending behaviors were positively associated with social anxiety in bystanders, and were positively associated with depressive symptoms in victims and bystanders. However, defending behaviors were not significantly associated with mental health indicators in bullies. Conclusions The associations between defending behaviors and mental health varied according to bullying roles. The results suggest that bystanders and victims experience more mental health effects than bullies. Intervention programs aimed at preventing bullying should focus on strategies that minimize social anxiety and depression in victims and bystanders, and urge students to help vulnerable peers during bullying events.
Fazel, Mina; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Stephan, Sharon; Ford, Tamsin
Mental health services embedded within school systems can create a continuum of integrative care that improves both mental health and educational attainment for children. To strengthen this continuum, and for optimum child development, a reconfiguration of education and mental health systems to aid implementation of evidence-based practice might be needed. Integrative strategies that combine classroom-level and student-level interventions have much potential. A robust research agenda is needed that focuses on system-level implementation and maintenance of interventions over time. Both ethical and scientific justifications exist for integration of mental health and education: integration democratises access to services and, if coupled with use of evidence-based practices, can promote the healthy development of children. PMID:26114092
Toupin April, Karine; Gaboury, Isabelle
While some effort has been made to integrate complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) information in conventional biomedical training, it is unclear whether regulated Canadian CAM schools' students are exposed to research activities and continuing education, or whether topics such as evidence-based health care and interprofessional collaboration (IPC) are covered during their training. Since these areas are valued by the biomedical training field, this may help to bridge the attitudinal and communication gaps between these different practices. The aim of this study was to describe the training offered in these areas and gather the perceptions of curriculum/program directors in regulated Canadian CAM schools. A two-phase study consisting of an electronic survey and subsequent semi-structured telephone interviews was conducted with curriculum/program (C/P) directors in regulated Canadian CAM schools. Questions assessed the extent of the research, evidence-based health care, IPC training and continuing education, as well as the C/P directors' perceptions about the training. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the schools', curriculum's and the C/P directors' characteristics. Content analysis was conducted on the interview material. Twenty-eight C/P directors replied to the electronic survey and 11 participated in the interviews, representing chiropractic, naturopathy, acupuncture and massage therapy schools. Canadian regulated CAM schools offered research and evidence-based health care training as well as opportunities for collaboration with biomedical peers and continuing education to a various extent (58% to 91%). Although directors were generally satisfied with the training offered at their school, they expressed a desire for improvements. They felt future CAM providers should understand research findings and be able to rely on high quality research and to communicate with conventional care providers as well as to engage in continuing education
Horta, Rogério Lessa; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; da Costa, Andre Wallace Nery; do Prado, Rogério Ruscitto; Oliveira-Campos, Maryane; Malta, Deborah Carvalho
This study aimed at describing the prevalence of illicit drug use among 9th grade students in the morning period of public and private schools in Brazil, and assessing associated factors. The Brazilian survey PeNSE (National Adolescent School-based Health Survey) 2012 evaluated a representative sample of 9th grade students in the morning period, in Brazil and its five regions. The use of illicit drugs at least once in life was assessed for the most commonly used drugs, such as marijuana, cocaine, crack, solvent-based glue, general ether-based inhalants, ecstasy and oxy. Data were subjected to descriptive analysis, and Pearson's χ² test and logistic regression was used in the multivariate analysis. The use of illicit drugs at least once in life was reported by 7.3% (95%CI 5.3 - 9.4) of the respondents. Logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis and the evidences suggest that illicit drug use is associated to social conditions of greater consumption power, the use of alcohol and tobacco, behaviors related to socialization, such as having friends or sexual activity, and also the perception of loneliness, loose contact between school and parents and experiences of abuse in the family environment. The outcome was inversely associated with close contact with parents and parental supervision. In addition to the association with the processes of socialization and consumption, the influence of family and school is expressed in a particularly protective manner in different records of direct supervision and care.
Hansson, Annika; Clausson, Eva; Janlov, Ann-Christin
Rapid globalization and the integration of national economies have contributed to the sharp rise in enrollment in international schools. How does this global nomadism affect international school children and their individual health needs? This study attempts to find an answer by interviewing 10 school nurses, with varying degrees of experience in…
Waters, Allison M; Groth, Trisha A; Sanders, Mary; O'Brien, Rosanne; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J
Clinical scientists are calling for strong partnerships in the provision of evidence-based treatments for child mental health problems in real-world contexts. In the present study, we describe the implementation of a cognitive-behavioral intervention (CBI) to address grade 5 children's anxiety symptoms. The CBI arose from a long-standing partnership between University and Education Department stakeholders. The partnership integrates school-based, evidence-informed treatment delivery with clinical education, and also supports a school-based psychology clinic to provide assessment and treatment services to children attending schools within the catchment area and clinical training for university graduate students. Children in the active condition (N=74) completed the CBI during regular class time, while children in the control condition (N=77) received the standard classroom curriculum. Children's anxiety and depressive symptoms, threat interpretation biases (perceived danger and coping ability), and perceptions of their social skills were assessed before and after condition. Children in the active condition reported significant improvements in self-reported anxiety symptoms, and perceptions of their social skills and coping ability, whereas no significant differences were observed for children in the control condition from pre- to post-assessment. For a subset of children assessed 12 months after the CBI (n=76), symptom improvement remained stable over time and estimates of danger and coping ability showed even greater improvement. Results demonstrate the value of strong stakeholder partnerships in innovative youth mental health services, positive child outcomes, and clinical education. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Sherwood-Puzzello, Catherine M.; Miller, Michelle; Lohrmann, David; Gregory, Patricia
Background: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's School Health Index (SHI), a guide for completing a coordinated school-based program needs assessment relative to healthy eating, physical activity, a tobacco-free lifestyle, and prevention of other health risk behaviors and conditions, was used to assess current programming at 3…
Björklund, Katja; Liski, Antti; Samposalo, Hanna; Lindblom, Jallu; Hella, Juho; Huhtinen, Heini; Ojala, Tiina; Alasuvanto, Paula; Koskinen, Hanna-Leena; Kiviruusu, Olli; Hemminki, Elina; Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Sund, Reijo; Solantaus, Tytti; Santalahti, Päivi
Schools provide a natural context to promote children's mental health. However, there is a need for more evidence-based, high quality school intervention programs combined with an accurate evaluation of their general effectiveness and effectiveness of specific intervention methods. The aim of this paper is to present a study protocol of a cluster randomized controlled trial evaluating the "Together at School" intervention program. The intervention program is designed to promote social-emotional skills and mental health by utilizing whole-school approach and focuses on classroom curriculum, work environment of school staff, and parent-teacher collaboration methods. The evaluation study examines the effects of the intervention on children's socio-emotional skills and mental health in a cluster randomized controlled trial design with 1) an intervention group and 2) an active control group. Altogether 79 primary school participated at baseline. A multi-informant setting involves the children themselves, their parents, and teachers. The primary outcomes are measured using parent and teacher ratings of children's socio-emotional skills and psychological problems measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Multisource Assessment of Social Competence Scale. Secondary outcomes for the children include emotional understanding, altruistic behavior, and executive functions (e.g. working memory, planning, and inhibition). Secondary outcomes for the teachers include ratings of e.g. school environment, teaching style and well-being. Secondary outcomes for both teachers and parents include e.g. emotional self-efficacy, child rearing practices, and teacher-parent collaboration. The data was collected at baseline (autumn 2013), 6 months after baseline, and will be collected also 18 months after baseline from the same participants. This study protocol outlines a trial which aims to add to the current state of intervention programs by presenting and studying a
Jabbour, Khayrazad Kari
Supporting school health programs to improve the emotionally and physically health status of Lebanese students has never been more important. The use of mobile and wireless technologies to promote school health programs has the potential to transform the school health education and service delivery in Lebanon. This article explores the possibility…
Sacchetti, R; Dallolio, L; Musti, M A; Guberti, E; Garulli, A; Beltrami, P; Castellazzi, F; Centis, E; Zenesini, C; Coppini, C; Rizzoli, C; Sardocardalano, M; Leoni, E
A school based health promotion intervention was performed with the aim of increasing physical activity and improving the dietary habits of primary school pupils, using integrated educational strategies involving schools, families, public bodies, sports associations and public health operators. The intervention concerned 11 classes during 3 school years from 2009-10 (231 third-year school children) to 2011-12 (234 fifth-year school children). Information was collected both before and after the intervention about the dietary habits and the physical activities practised by the children, using the questionnaires of the project !OKkio alla Salute! which were administered to both children and parents. At the same time anthropometric measurements were taken (height, weight, BMI) and motor skills were assessed using standardized tests: Sit & Reach, medicine-ball forward throw, standing long jump, 20 m running speed, and forward roll. At the end of the intervention 12 different expected outcomes were assessed (5 about dietary habits, 5 about motor habits, 1 about anthropometric characteristics, 1 about motor skills). At baseline, 35.8% of the children show excess weight (23.4% overweight; 12.4% obese); this percentage falls to 29.3% (25.3% overweight; 4% obese) after the intervention (p habits improve from the pre- to the post-intervention: there is a rise in the percentage of children who receive an adequate mid-morning snack (p habits do not improve in the same way, since there is the increasing tendency with age to skip from a regular daily practice of physical exercise to favour of the occasional practice of a sport. The motor performances, compared after normalization for modifications due to the process of growth, improve between the third and fifth years of primary school, but with no significant differences. To achieve this objective more focused measures are necessary in the administration of moderate to intense physical exercise. The results point to a positive
Henderson, E; Rubin, G
(i) To explore dental, school and family perspectives of an oral health promotion (OHP) initiative to improve access for pre-school children in deprived communities; (ii) to develop a model of roles and responsibilities for OHP in community settings. Semi-structured focus groups (n = 6) with dental practice staff (n = 24), and semi-structured interviews with school staff (n = 9) and parents and children (n = 4) who were involved in an OHP initiative for pre-school children. Framework analysis was applied to identify themes. Themes were used to develop a model of roles and responsibilities for OHP, based on the WHO Planning and evaluating health promotion model. Respondents subscribed to a community-based approach to improving access to dental services for pre-school children in deprived areas, with an emphasis on shared responsibility and communication. In addition to macro-level actions in directing health policy and services, commissioners were held responsible for investing in micro-level actions, such as funding OHP training and involving parents, and meso-level actions such as reducing barriers to access. The model we have developed builds on WHO recommendations on health promotion to identify the key roles and responsibilities that should be incorporated into further initiatives in OHP.
This article draws upon research examining the impact of new health imperatives on schools in the United Kingdom. Specifically, it examines features of emerging surveillant relations, which not only speak to the changing nature of health-related practices in schools but have particular currency for broader understandings of theorisations of…
Sani, A Sadiq; Abraham, Charles; Denford, Sarah; Ball, Susan
School-based sexual health education has the potential to provide an inclusive and comprehensive approach to promoting sexual health among young people. We reviewed evaluations of school-based sexual health education interventions in sub-Saharan Africa to assess effectiveness in reducing sexually transmitted infections and promoting condom use. We searched ten electronic databases, hand-searched key journals, and reference lists of included articles for potential studies. Data were extracted on outcomes, intervention characteristics, methods and study characteristics indicative of methodological quality. Where possible, data were synthesized using random effect meta-analysis. Intervention features found predominantly in effective interventions were noted. The initial search retrieved 21634 potentially relevant citations. Of these, 51 papers reporting on 31 interventions were included. No evaluation reported statistically significant effects on the incidence or prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Herpes Simplex Virus 2 infections. However, intervention participants reported statistically significant greater condom use in both randomised controlled trials and non-randomised trials for short (less than 6 months) follow-up periods (OR = 1.62, 95 % CI = 1.03-2.55 and OR = 2.88, 95 % CI = 1.41-5.90 respectively). For intermediate (6-10 months) and long-term (more than 10 months) follow-up periods, the effect was statistically significant (OR = 1.40, 95 % CI = 1.16-1.68) and marginally significant (OR = 1.22, 95 % CI = 0.99-1.50) among the randomised trials respectively. Only 12 of the 31 interventions reported implementation details, out of which seven reported on fidelity. School-based sexual health education has the potential to promote condom use among young people in sub-Saharan Africa. However, further work is needed to develop and evaluate interventions that have measurable effects on sexually transmitted infections.
Angelopoulou, Matina V; Kavvadia, Katerina; Taoufik, Konstantina; Oulis, Constantine J
School based oral health education through traditional lecturing has been found successful only in improving oral health knowledge, while has low effectiveness in oral hygiene and gingival health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of experiential learning (EL) oral health education to traditional lecturing (TL), on enhancing oral health knowledge, attitude and behavior as well as oral hygiene, gingival health and caries of 10-year-old children. Eighty-four children were recruited for the EL and 100 for the TL group from 3 locations in Greece. Data regarding oral health knowledge, attitude and behavior were collected via questionnaires. Data regarding dental plaque, gingivitis and caries were collected by clinical examination. The evaluation using questionnaires and clinical examination was assessed at baseline and 6 and 18 months afterwards. Two calibrated pediatric dentists examined the students using a periodontal probe and artificial light. Modified hygiene index (HI) was used for dental plaque recording, the simplified gingival index (GI-S) was used for gingivitis and DMFT, based on BASCD criteria, for dental caries. Based on a dedicated manual, the teacher applied in the classroom the oral health educational program using EL. EL group had statistically significant better hygiene than the TL at 6 months (p 0.05) and attitude (p > 0.05) at 6 months in comparison to baseline. EL program was found more successful than TL in oral hygiene improvement. Both oral health education programs improved the oral health knowledge, attitude and behavior of children. ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02320162).
M Reddy; S Singh
Background. Oral health promotion is a cost-effective strategy that can be implemented at schools for the prevention of oral diseases. Theimportance and value of school-based interventions in children has been identified in South Africa (SA). Although oral health strategiesinclude integrated school-based interventions, there is a lack of published evidence on whether these strategies have been translated intopractice and whether these programmes have been evaluated.Objective. To assess the ef...
Lucarelli, Jennifer F; Alaimo, Katherine; Mang, Ellen; Martin, Caroline; Miles, Richard; Bailey, Deborah; Kelleher, Deanne K; Drzal, Nicholas B; Liu, Hui
Schools can promote healthy eating in adolescents. This study used a qualitative approach to examine barriers and facilitators to healthy eating in schools. Case studies were conducted with 8 low-income Michigan middle schools. Interviews were conducted with 1 administrator, the food service director, and 1 member of the coordinated school health team at each school. Barriers included budgetary constraints leading to low prioritization of health initiatives; availability of unhealthy competitive foods; and perceptions that students would not eat healthy foods. Schools had made improvements to foods and increased nutrition education. Support from administrators, teamwork among staff, and acknowledging student preferences facilitated positive changes. Schools with a key set of characteristics, (presence of a coordinated school health team, nutrition policies, and a school health champion) made more improvements. The set of key characteristics identified in successful schools may represent a school's health climate. While models of school climate have been utilized in the educational field in relation to academic outcomes, a health-specific model of school climate would be useful in guiding school health practitioners and researchers and may improve the effectiveness of interventions aimed at improving student dietary intake and other health behaviors. © 2014, American School Health Association.
Malta, Deborah Carvalho; do Prado, Rogério Ruscitto; Dias, Antônio José Ribeiro; Mello, Flavia Carvalho M; Silva, Marta Angelica Iossi; da Costa, Michelle Ralil; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira
To estimate the prevalence of bullying from the victim's perspective in Brazilian school children and to analyze its association with individual and family context variables. An analysis of the data on 109,104 adolescents, obtained by the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey, held in schools in 2012, was carried out. An association model between bullying and explanatory variables was tested in different contexts: sociodemographic, risk behaviors, mental health and family context. Univariate and multivariate analyzes were performed, calculating the Odds Ratio and confidence intervals. The prevalence of bullying found in this study was of 7.2% (95%CI 6.6 - 7.8). A higher chance of bullying was found among male students (OR = 1.58; 95%CI 1.51 - 1.66), with an inverse relation between age and bullying, with the magnitude of risk among adolescents younger than 13 years of age being higher when compared to those with 16 years of age or more. Of individual risk behaviors, only being a smoker remained in the final model (OR = 1.11; 95%CI 1.01 - 1.23). Mental health variables associated with bullying were: feeling lonely (OR = 2.66; 95%CI 2.52 - 2.81), insomnia (OR = 1.92; 95%CI 1.80 - 2.05), not having friends (OR = 1.71; 95%CI 1.54 - 1.89), and, in the family context, those who skip class without telling their parents (OR = 1.13; 95%CI 1,07 - 1,19) and those who suffer physical abuse by family members (OR = 2.03; 95%CI 1.91 - 2.146). Bullying was associated to male students, younger, of black color, smokers, with mental health vulnerabilities and victims of domestic violence. This suggests the need for a holistic approach from education and health professionals, parents and the community in seeking measures for the prevention of bullying.
Although there is a great need for school-based mental health services (SBMH), these needs are not adequately met in California's public schools. To meet these needs better, evidence-based methods have been used, including multi-tiered systems of support, training and workforce development, cultural competence, and family and youth engagement and…
Miglioretti, Massimo; Velasco, Veronica; Celata, Corrado; Vecchio, Luca
Objectives: The study explores the relationships among teachers' health representations, their ideas about health promotion, their working conditions and their involvement in health-promotion activities at school. Methods: A questionnaire was administered to 107 teachers in 86 schools in Milan (Italy). The questionnaire was structured in four…
Camelo, Lidyane do Valle; Rodrigues, Jôsi Fernandes de Castro; Giatti, Luana; Barreto, Sandhi Maria
The objective of this paper was to investigate whether sedentary leisure time was associated with increased regular consumption of unhealthy foods, independently of socio-demographic indicators and family context. The analysis included 59,809 students from the Brazilian National School-Based Adolescent Health Survey (PeNSE) in 2009. The response variable was sedentary leisure time, defined as watching more than two hours of TV daily. The target explanatory variables were regular consumption of soft drinks, sweets, cookies, and processed meat. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence limits (95%CI) were obtained by multiple logistic regression. Prevalence of sedentary leisure time was 65%. Regular consumption of unhealthy foods was statistically higher among students reporting sedentary leisure time, before and after adjusting for sex, age, skin color, school administration (public versus private), household assets index, and household composition. The results indicate the need for integrated interventions to promote healthy leisure-time activities and healthy eating habits among young people.
Zwinkels, Maremka; Verschuren, Olaf; Balemans, Astrid; Lankhorst, Kristel; Te Velde, Saskia; van Gaalen, Leendert; de Groot, Janke; Meilij, JMA; Takken, Tim
Objective: To investigate the effects of a school-based once-a-week sports program on physical fitness, physical activity, and cardiometabolic health in children and adolescents with a physical disability. Methods: This controlled clinical trial included 71 children and adolescents from four schools
Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava
and promoting research work to improveand widen the services based on the children’s health needs. It is concuded that schools promoting health provide a realistic and effective initiative under the global school health initiative for extending the healthy behavior of students, their families and the community. Keywords: School, Nurses, health education, World Health Organization
Full Text Available Background: Obesity in adolescence is the strongest risk factor for obesity in adulthood. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a comprehensive lifestyle intervention on different anthropometric indices in 12–16-year-old boy adolescents after 12 Weeks of Intervention. Methods: A total of 96 male adolescents from two schools participated in this study. The schools were randomly assigned to intervention (53 students and control school (43 students. Height and weight of students were measured and their body mass index (BMI was calculated. Body fat percent (BF and body muscle percent (BM was assessed using a bioimpedance analyzer considering the age, gender, and height of students at baseline and after intervention. The obesity reduction intervention was implemented in the intervention school based on the Ottawa charter for health promotion. Results: Twelve weeks of intervention decreased BF percent in the intervention group in comparison with the control group (decreased by 1.81% in the intervention group and increased by 0.39% in the control group, P < 0.01. However, weight, BMI, and BM did not change significantly. Conclusions: The result of this study showed that a comprehensive lifestyle intervention decreased the body fat percent in obese adolescents, although these changes was not reflected in the BMI. It is possible that BMI is not a good indicator in assessment of the success of obesity management intervention.
Skundberg-Kletthagen, Hege; Moen, Øyfrid Larsen
To explore school nurses' experiences with and attitudes towards working with young people with mental health problem in the school health services. Worldwide, 10%-20% of children and adolescents are affected by mental health problems. When these occur during youth, they constitute a considerable burden and are one of the main causes of disability among adolescents. School nurses are at the forefront of care for children and adolescents, identifying pupils struggling with physical, mental, psychosocial or emotional issues. A qualitative, explorative study was performed based on open-ended questions in a cross-sectional study of 284 school nurses in Norway. Inclusion criteria were as follows: working as a school nurse in the school health services with children and adolescents between the ages of 11-18 years. A qualitative inductive content analysis was conducted. Three generic categories emerged: perception of their role and experiences with mental health: the school nurses acknowledge their important role in work with adolescents focusing on their mental health. Perception of their professional competence: the school nurses described a lack of confidence and unmet training needs concerning mental health problems. Experiences with collaboration: the school nurses requested more knowledge about inter- and multidisciplinary cooperation regarding follow-up of pupils with mental health problems. The school nurses lacked knowledge and confidence in respect of working with children and adolescents suffering from mental health problems. This may be a barrier to giving pupils adequate aid. Nurses need to acquire more knowledge about mental health problems among children and adolescents as this is a growing public health issue. Educational programmes for school nurses need to be revised to achieve this. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lillevoll, Kjersti R; Vangberg, Hans Christian B; Griffiths, Kathleen M; Waterloo, Knut; Eisemann, Martin R
Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (ICBT) is a promising approach to the prevention and reduction of depressive symptoms among adolescents. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of disseminating a self-directed internet-based mental health intervention (MoodGYM) in senior high schools. It also sought to investigate possible effects of tailored and weekly e-mail reminders on initial uptake and adherence to the intervention. A baseline survey was conducted in four senior high schools in two Norwegian municipalities (n = 1337). 52.8% (707/1337) of the students consented to further participation in the trial and were randomly allocated to one of three MoodGYM intervention groups (tailored weekly e-mail reminder (n = 175), standardized weekly e-mail reminder (n = 176 ) or no e-mail reminder (n = 175)) or a waitlist control group (n = 180). We tested for effects of the intervention on depression and self-esteem using multivariate analysis of variance, effects of tailored e-mail and self-reported current need of help on initial uptake of the intervention using logistic regression and the effect of weekly e-mails on adherence using ordinal regression. There was substantial non-participation from the intervention, with only 8.5% (45/527) participants logging on to MoodGYM, and few proceeding beyond the first part of the programme. No significant effect on depression or self-esteem was found among the sample as a whole or among participants with elevated depression scores at baseline. Having a higher average grade in senior high school predicted initial uptake of the intervention, but tailored e-mail and self-reported current need of help did not. Weekly e-mail prompts did not predict adherence. The main reasons for non-use reported were lack of time/forgetting about it and doubt about the usefulness of the program. Overall, disseminating a self-directed internet-based intervention to a school population proved difficult despite steps taken to
Bohnenkamp, Jill H.; Stephan, Sharon H.; Bobo, Nichole
School nurses play a critical role in the provision of mental health services in the school environment and are valuable members of the coordinated student mental health team. They possess expertise to navigate in today's complicated educational and health care systems, and it is estimated that school nurses spend 33% of their time addressing…
-promotion interventions. Directly or indirectly the articles reiterate the idea that health promotion in schools needs to be linked with the core task of the school – education, and to the values inherent to education, such as inclusion, democracy, participation and influence, critical literacy and action competence......Purpose – The editorial aims to provide a brief overview of the individual contributions to the special issue, and a commentary positioning the contributions within research relating to the health-promoting schools initiative in Europe. Design/methodology/approach – The members of the Schools...... for Health in Europe Research Group were invited to submit their work addressing processes and outcomes in school health promotion to this special issue of Health Education. Additionally, an open call for papers was published on the Health Education web site. Following the traditional double blind peer...
Rose, Barbara L; Mansour, Mona; Kohake, Kelli
The Cincinnati School Health Demonstration Project was a 3-year collaboration that evaluated school-linked health services in 6 urban elementary (kindergarten to eighth grade) schools. Partners from the Cincinnati Health Department, Cincinnati Public Schools, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, and The Health Foundation of Greater Cincinnati wanted to determine if levels of school-linked care made a difference in student quality of life, school connectedness, attendance, emergency department use, and volume of referrals to health care specialists. School nurses, principals and school staff, parents and students, upper-level managers, and health service researchers worked together over a 2.5-year period to learn about and use new technology to collect information on student health, well-being, and outcome measures. Varying levels of school health care intervention models were instituted and evaluated. A standard model of care was compared with 2 models of enhanced care and service. The information collected from students, parents, nurses, and the school system provided a rich database on the health of urban children. School facilities, staffing, and computer technology, relationship building among stakeholders, extensive communication, and high student mobility were factors that influenced success and findings of the project. Funding for district-wide computerization and addition of school health staff was not secured by the end of the demonstration project; however, relationships among the partners endured and paved the way for future collaborations designed to better serve urban school children in Cincinnati.
Stjernqvist, Nanna Wurr; Bruselius-Jensen, Maria; Høstgaard Bonde, Ane
enjoyed having a voice in school matters and to deal with real life during health education. Teachers were very positive towards the integration of school health policy work into teaching the curriculum in Danish, Maths and Biology. However, the transferring from the classroom to the organizational levels....... Methods The presented model works at two levels - the classroom and the organizational level – and is based on four phases, namely: Investigation – Vision – Action – Change, viewed as an iterative process. Pupil perspectives and learning is the basis in all four phases based on a set of health education...... was weakhindering sustainable health changes. Conclusion Findings indicate that integrating school policy processes into the teaching of curriculum might pave the way for schools to engage in health promotion. But further knowledge on how to likewise engage the staff on an organisational level is needed....
Villarreal, Victor; Castro-Villarreal, Felicia
Schools have played an increasingly central role in providing mental health services to youth, but there are limitations to the services that are available through school-based mental health professionals. Thus, collaboration with non-school-based community mental health providers is oftentimes necessary. As collaboration can address limitations…
Barrios, Lisa C.; Burgeson, Charlene R.; Crossett, Linda; Harrykissoon, Samantha D.; Pritzl, Jane; Wechsler, Howell; Kuester, Sarah A.; Pederson, Linda; Graffunder, Corinne; Rainford, Neil; Sleet, David
The "School Health Index" is a self-assessment and planning guide that will enable schools to: (1) identify the strengths and weaknesses of school policies and programs for promoting health and safety; (2) develop an action plan for improving student health and safety, and (3) involve teachers, parents, students, and the community in improving…
Sormunen, Marjorita; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Turunen, Hannele
A 2-year, participatory action research school health study focused on developing components for home-school partnerships to support children's health learning process. Two intervention schools implemented strengthened health and collaboration-orientated activities; two control schools followed the national core curriculum without extracurricular activities. The parents of fourth-grade pupils (10-11 years at baseline) completed questionnaires before intervention in spring 2008 (N = 348) and after intervention in spring 2010 (N = 358). A two-way analysis of variance was conducted to determine whether time (2008/2010) and group (intervention/control) influenced parents' perceptions and experiences of parental involvement, health education and health support received from the school. Compared with controls, the intervention schools' parents experienced greater involvement ethos (Cohen's d = 0.57, P education (Cohen's d = 0.60, P = 0.02) and health support (Cohen's d = 0.35, P = 0.02). Health education participation among parents increased only partially during the intervention (Cohen's d = -0.12, P = 0.193). School health interventions based on schools' needs may have the potential to influence positively the relationship between home and school and increase the visibility of health education. The study was undertaken within the Schools for Health in Europe program.
Bardi, Mohammad; Burbank, Andrea; Choi, Wayne; Chow, Lawrence; Jang, Wesley; Roccamatisi, Dawn; Timberley-Berg, Tonia; Sanghera, Mandeep; Zhang, Margaret; Macnab, Andrew J.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe activities used to initiate health promotion in the school setting. Design/Methodology/Approach: Description of successful pilot Health Promoting School (HPS) initiatives in Canada and Uganda and the validated measures central to each program. Evaluation methodologies: quantitative data from the…
Piltoft, Johanne Spanggaard; Larsen, Signe Benzon; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Johansen, Christoffer; Baker, Jennifer L; Cederkvist, Luise; Andersen, Ingelise
One established risk factors for testicular cancer is cryptorchidism. However, it remains unclear whether cryptorchidism is a risk factor in itself or whether the two conditions share common causes in early life (estrogen hypothesis), such as birth weight and birth order. The objective of this study is to utilize data from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register (CSHRR) to evaluate cryptorchidism, birth weight and birth order as risk factors for testicular cancer. The study population consisted of 408 cases of testicular cancer identified by a government issued identification number linkage of the entire CSHRR with the Danish Cancer Registry and a random subsample of 4819 males from the CSHRR. The study design was case-cohort and the period of follow-up between 2 April 1968 and 31 December 2003. Cryptorchidism was significantly associated with testicular cancer in crude analyses [hazard ratio (HR) = 3.60, 95% CI 2.79-4.65]. Birth weight was inversely associated with testicular cancer and no clear association with birth order was observed. The positive association between cryptorchidism and testicular cancer was only slightly attenuated controlling for birth weight and birth order and stratified on birth cohort (HR = 3.46, 95% CI 2.67-4.48). This study confirmed the robustness of the association between cryptorchidism and testicular cancer even after adjustment for birth weight and birth order. Furthermore, the study showed an inverse association between birth weight and testicular cancer.
School Health Programme (SHP) refers to all the aspects of the total school programme which contribute to the understanding, maintenance and improvement of the health of the population, i.e. school children and staff. It consists of three main areas namely: school health services, school health instruction and healthful ...
Yoda, I. K.
The purpose of this research is to develop a cooperative learning model based on local wisdom (PKBKL) of Bali (Tri Pramana’s concept), for physical education, sport, and health learning in VII grade of Junior High School in Singaraja-Buleleng Bali. This research is the development research of the development design chosen refers to the development proposed by Dick and Carey. The development of model and learning devices was conducted through four stages, namely: (1) identification and needs analysis stage (2) the development of design and draft of PKBKL and RPP models, (3) testing stage (expert review, try out, and implementation). Small group try out was conducted on VII-3 grade of Undiksha Laboratory Junior High School in the academic year 2013/2014, large group try out was conducted on VIIb of Santo Paulus Junior High School Singaraja in the academic year 2014/2015, and the implementation of the model was conducted on three (3) schools namely SMPN 2 Singaraja, SMPN 3 Singaraja, and Undiksha laboratory Junior High School in the academic year 2014/2015. Data were collected using documentation, testing, non-testing, questionnaire, and observation. The data were analyzed descriptively. The findings of this research indicate that: (1) PKBKL model has met the criteria of the operation of a learning model namely: syntax, social system, principles of reaction, support system, as well as instructional and nurturing effects, (2) PKBKL model is a valid, practical, and effective model, (3) the practicality of the learning devices (RPP), is at the high category. Based on the research results, there are two things recommended: (1) in order that learning stages (syntax) of PKBKL model can be performed well, then teachers need to have an understanding of the cooperative learning model of Student Team Achievement Division (STAD) type and the concepts of scientifically approach well, (2) PKBKL model can be performed well on physical education, sport and health learning, if the
Study protocol for the optimisation, feasibility testing and pilot cluster randomised trial of Positive Choices: a school-based social marketing intervention to promote sexual health, prevent unintended teenage pregnancies and address health inequalities in England.
Ponsford, Ruth; Allen, Elizabeth; Campbell, Rona; Elbourne, Diana; Hadley, Alison; Lohan, Maria; Melendez-Torres, G J; Mercer, Catherine H; Morris, Steve; Young, Honor; Bonell, Chris
Since the introduction of the Teenage Pregnancy Strategy (TPS), England's under-18 conception rate has fallen by 55%, but a continued focus on prevention is needed to maintain and accelerate progress. The teenage birth rate remains higher in the UK than comparable Western European countries. Previous trials indicate that school-based social marketing interventions are a promising approach to addressing teenage pregnancy and improving sexual health. Such interventions are yet to be trialled in the UK. This study aims to optimise and establish the feasibility and acceptability of one such intervention: Positive Choices. Design: Optimisation, feasibility testing and pilot cluster randomised trial.Interventions: The Positive Choices intervention comprises a student needs survey, a student/staff led School Health Promotion Council (SHPC), a classroom curriculum for year nine students covering social and emotional skills and sex education, student-led social marketing activities, parent information and a review of school sexual health services.Systematic optimisation of Positive Choices will be carried out with the National Children's Bureau Sex Education Forum (NCB SEF), one state secondary school in England and other youth and policy stakeholders.Feasibility testing will involve the same state secondary school and will assess progression criteria to advance to the pilot cluster RCT.Pilot cluster RCT with integral process evaluation will involve six different state secondary schools (four interventions and two controls) and will assess the feasibility and utility of progressing to a full effectiveness trial.The following outcome measures will be trialled as part of the pilot:Self-reported pregnancy and unintended pregnancy (initiation of pregnancy for boys) and sexually transmitted infections,Age of sexual debut, number of sexual partners, use of contraception at first and last sex and non-volitional sexEducational attainmentThe feasibility of linking administrative
Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to contribute to the conceptualization and discussion of professional competencies needed for supporting the development of the whole-school approach in school health promotion (SHP). Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based on a conceptual synthesis of literature, guided by a theoretical perspective on…
Schools have become the primary setting for mental health service among youth. However, school-based providers are sometimes limited by lack of time, training, and other resources. Furthermore, problem-solving models emphasize the importance of developing partnerships with other professionals and agencies. Thus, it is critical to engage in…
Reuben, Cynthia A; Pastor, Patricia N
Past studies have shown that specific child conditions are associated with poor school outcomes. A national health survey with noncategorical measures of health and indicators of school functioning offers the opportunity to examine this association. To compare links between two health measures (children with special health care needs and general health status) and multiple school outcomes. The analysis was based on 59,440 children aged 6-17 years from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health. Child health was assessed using the Children with Special Health Care Needs (CSHCN) screener and a question on general health status. CSHCN were classified by the complexity of their health care needs. Indicators of school functioning included special education use, many problem reports, repeated a grade, lack of school engagement, and many missed school days. Overall 22% of children were identified as CSHCN: 13% with more complex needs (C-CSHCN) and 9% with medication use only (CSHCN-RX). Approximately 17% of children were in less than optimal health. After controlling for a child's sociodemographic characteristics C-CSHCN had an increased risk of all of the negative school outcomes compared to children without SHCN, while CSHCN-RX had an increased risk of only one school outcome (many missed school days). Children in less than optimal health were at an increased risk of all negative school outcomes compared to children in optimal health. The CSHCN screener and health status question identify related, but distinct, groups of children with worse outcomes on the indicators of school functioning. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Ferrante, Daniel; Linetzky, Bruno; Ponce, Miguel; Goldberg, Lucila; Konfino, Jonathan; Laspiur, Sebastián
In 2007 and 2012, the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) and the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) were implemented to estimate the prevalence of risk behaviors and protection factors among 13 to 15 year-old adolescents. To assess changes in dietary, body weight, tobacco and physical activity indicators in the past five years. Cross-sectional study. A randomized, two-stage sampling with 600 schools selected at a national level was used. Students from randomly selected courses were invited to answer a self-administered questionnaire (either the GSHS or the GYTS). In 2012, the GSHS was completed by 20 697 students from 544 schools, while the GYTS was completed by 2062 students from 73 schools. Between 2007 and 2012, overweight and obesity prevalence significantly increased (overweight: 24.5% in 2007, 28.6% in 2012; obesity 4.4% in 2007, 5.9% in 2012), while the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and fast food remained high. A slight improvement was observed in the level of physical activity (12.7% in 2007, 16.7% in 2012), although it remains below what is recommended. The prevalence of tobacco use was reduced (24.5% in 2007, 19.6% in 2012), but access to tobacco products and exposure to secondhand smoke remains high in public places, including schools. The spread of the overweight and obesity epidemic calls for a need to consolidate actions tending towards a healthy diet and physical activity. Despite a decrease in the prevalence of tobacco use, it is necessary to continue strengthening tobacco control actions.
Adriaanse, Marcia; Veling, Wim; Doreleijers, Theo; van Domburgh, Lieke
To investigate to what extent differences in prevalence and types of mental health problems between ethnic minority and majority youth can be explained by social disadvantage. Mental health problems were assessed in a sample of 1,278 schoolchildren (55% Dutch, 32% Moroccan and 13% Turkish; mean age: 12.9 ± 1.8) using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire self-report and teacher report. Measures of family socioeconomic status, neighbourhood deprivation, perceived discrimination, family structure, repeating a school year, housing stability and neighbourhood urbanization were used as indicators of social disadvantage, based on which a cumulative index was created. Ethnic minority youth had more externalizing and fewer internalizing problems than majority youth. Perceived discrimination and living in an unstable social environment were associated with mental health problems, independent of ethnicity. A dose-response relationship was found between social disadvantage and mental health problems. The adjusted odds ratio for mental health problems was 4.16 (95% CI 2.49-6.94) for more than four compared with zero indicators of social disadvantage. Social disadvantage was more common in ethnic minority than in majority youth, explaining part of the differences in prevalence of mental health problems. Ethnic minority youth in the Netherlands have a different profile of mental health problems than majority youth. In all ethnic groups, the risk of mental health problems increases with the degree of social disadvantage. The higher prevalence of externalizing problems among ethnic minority youth is explained partly by their disadvantaged social position. The findings suggest that social factors associated with ethnicity are likely to explain mental health problems in ethnic groups.
Ehn, S; Agardh, A; Holmer, H; Krantz, G; Hagander, L
Global health education is increasingly acknowledged as an opportunity for medical schools to prepare future practitioners for the broad health challenges of our time. The purpose of this study was to describe the evolution of global health education in Swedish medical schools and to assess students' perceived needs for such education. Data on global health education were collected from all medical faculties in Sweden for the years 2000-2013. In addition, 76% (439/577) of all Swedish medical students in their final semester answered a structured questionnaire. Global health education is offered at four of Sweden's seven medical schools, and most medical students have had no global health education. Medical students in their final semester consider themselves to lack knowledge and skills in areas such as the global burden of disease (51%), social determinants of health (52%), culture and health (60%), climate and health (62%), health promotion and disease prevention (66%), strategies for equal access to health care (69%) and global health care systems (72%). A significant association was found between self-assessed competence and the amount of global health education received (pcurriculum. Most Swedish medical students have had no global health education as part of their medical school curriculum. Expanded education in global health is sought after by medical students and could strengthen the professional development of future medical doctors in a wide range of topics important for practitioners in the global world of the twenty-first century. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.
Lau, Claudia; Wong, Mitchell; Dudovitz, Rebecca
Parenting style is strongly associated with adolescent health. However, little is known about how school disciplinary style relates to health. We categorized adolescents' perceptions of their schools as authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, or neglectful, and test whether perceived school disciplinary style is associated with health. We analyze data from the RISE Up study (Reducing Health Inequities Through Social and Educational Change Follow-up), comprised of baseline (eighth grade) and 2-year follow-up surveys (10th grade) from 1,159 low-income minority adolescents in Los Angeles attending 157 schools. At 10th grade, students' ratings of school support and structure were used to categorize perceived school disciplinary style as authoritative (highest tertile for support and structure), authoritarian (low support, high structure), permissive (high support, low structure), neglectful (low on both dimensions), and average (middle tertile on either dimension). Mixed effects logistic regressions controlling for sociodemographic factors, parenting style, grades, and baseline health tested whether school disciplinary style was associated with substance use, violence, bullying, and depression symptoms. Risky behaviors varied by school disciplinary style. After adjusting for covariates, compared with an average school disciplinary style, a neglectful school was associated with higher odds of substance use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.3, p authoritative school was associated with lower odds of substance use (AOR .6, p = .049), violence (AOR .6, p = .03), and bullying (AOR .5, p = .001). Structured and supportive school environments may impact the health of vulnerable adolescents. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lucarelli, Jennifer F.; Alaimo, Katherine; Mang, Ellen; Martin, Caroline; Miles, Richard; Bailey, Deborah; Kelleher, Deanne K.; Drzal, Nicholas B.; Liu, Hui
BACKGROUND Schools can promote healthy eating in adolescents. This study used a qualitative approach to examine barriers and facilitators to healthy eating in schools. METHODS Case studies were conducted with 8 low-income Michigan middle schools. Interviews were conducted with 1 administrator, the food service director, and 1 member of the coordinated school health team at each school. RESULTS Barriers included budgetary constraints leading to low prioritization of health initiatives; availability of unhealthy competitive foods; and perceptions that students would not eat healthy foods. Schools had made improvements to foods and increased nutrition education. Support from administrators, teamwork among staff, and acknowledging student preferences facilitated positive changes. Schools with a key set of characteristics, (presence of a coordinated school health team, nutrition policies, and a school health champion) made more improvements. CONCLUSIONS The set of key characteristics identified in successful schools may represent a school’s health climate. While models of school climate have been utilized in the educational field in relation to academic outcomes, a health-specific model of school climate would be useful in guiding school health practitioners and researchers and may improve the effectiveness of interventions aimed at improving student dietary intake and other health behaviors. PMID:25099428
Glennon, Catherine; Hinton, Christina; Callahan, Thomas; Fischer, Kurt W.
In the field of medicine, research and practice are joined in teaching hospitals. In these institutions, researchers work alongside doctors to incorporate recent advances in medical research into practice and track results. There is a growing movement in the field of education to create analogous institutions in education called research schools.…
Drummond, B K; Gaffney, M; Marshall, K
Prior to the introduction of the Southern District Health Board's reconfigured Community Oral Health Service in Otago, a project was undertaken with parents to investigate their knowledge, understanding and views of the historical School Dental Service and of the Community Oral Health Service that was being introduced. Focus groups were run during 2011 in ten selected schools (parents with children in years 1-8) across two areas in Otago to represent ur ban and rural settings and to represent parents who were already travelling to dental services. Parents valued the traditional School Dental Service in Otago highly, generally agreeing that the service based in schools was accessible and convenient for parents and children. Rural parents who had always taken their children to dental appointments viewed it as a normal process, accepting that there could not be a service located in every school. Parents were aware that facilities were out-of-date. They highlighted the challenges of locating therapists since they started moving from school to school in the later 1990s and felt it was difficult for children seeing different therapists at each recall. There were diverse views on the proposed new system. Some parents felt that school-aged children should go to dental clinics on their own or with peers, while other parents welcomed the opportunity to attend when their child was having health care. It appears that the Community Oral Health Services should have an ongoing process to seek the views of parents and children about the service.
McDermott, Elizabeth; Bohnenkamp, Jill Haak; Freedland, Mary; Baker, Dian; Palmer, Karla
It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that registered, professional school nurses (hereinafter referred to as school nurses) serve a vital role in promoting positive behavioral health outcomes in students through evidence-based programs and curricula in schools and communities. Behavioral health is as critical to…
Rochmes, Jane E.
Health and education are reciprocally related, and research indicates that unhealthy students are poorly positioned to learn. Providing services that prevent health problems or help students cope with existing health concerns is one way that schools intervene in the relationship between student background and educational outcomes. Providing health…
Sharma, Manoj; Branscum, Paul
Drug abuse, or substance abuse, is a substantial public health problem in the United States, particularly among high school students. The purpose of this article was to review school-based programs implemented in high schools for substance abuse prevention and to suggest recommendations for future interventions. Included were English language…
Liu, Chieh-Hsing; Chang, Fong-Ching; Liao, Li-Ling; Niu, Yu-Zhen; Cheng, Chi-Chia; Shih, Shu-Fang; Chang, Tzu-Chau; Chou, Hsin-Pei
In 2011, the Taiwan government expanded its support of school-district/university partnership programs that promote the implementation of the evidenced-based Health Promoting Schools (HPS) program. This study examined whether expanding the support for this initiative was effective in advancing HPS implementation, perceived HPS impact and perceived…
Onnela, A M; Vuokila-Oikkonen, P; Hurtig, T; Ebeling, H
The purpose of this paper is to describe a participatory action research process on the development of a professional practice model of mental health nurses in mental health promotion in a comprehensive school environment in the city of Oulu, Finland. The developed model is a new method of mental health promotion for mental health nurses working in comprehensive schools. The professional practice model has been developed in workshops together with school staff, interest groups, parents and students. Information gathered from the workshops was analysed using action research methods. Mental health promotion interventions are delivered at three levels: universal, which is an intervention that affects the whole school or community; selective, which is an intervention focusing on a certain group of students; and indicated, which is an individually focused intervention. All interventions are delivered within the school setting, which is a universal setting for all school-aged children. The interventions share the goal of promoting mental health. The purposes of the interventions are enhancing protective factors, reducing risk factors relating to mental health problems and early identification of mental health problems as well as rapid delivery of support or referral to specialized services. The common effect of the interventions on all levels is the increase in the experience of positive mental health. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Madsen, Katrine Dahl; Nordin, Lone Lindegard; Simovska, Venka
, the focus is on transformation processes occurring on the trajectory from international policy frameworks to the national context. The chapter considers the consequences of these transformation processes for educational practices within schools in light of the current major reform of basic general education......This chapter addresses the relationships between international and national (Danish) policies regarding sustainability and health promotion which have the potential to affect school-based health education/promotion and education for sustainable development. Based on policy mapping and analysis...... in Denmark with its aims of ensuring overall school improvement, increasing pupil wellbeing and improving academic outcomes. Analysis of international policy documents, as well as of research literature in both fields, shows that school-based health education (HE) and education for sustainable development...
O'Reilly, Michelle; Svirydzenka, Nadzeya; Adams, Sarah; Dogra, Nisha
The prevalence of mental disorders amongst children and adolescents is an increasing global problem. Schools have been positioned at the forefront of promoting positive mental health and well-being through implementing evidence-based interventions. The aim of this paper is to review current evidence-based research of mental health promotion interventions in schools and examine the reported effectiveness to identify those interventions that can support current policy and ensure that limited resources are appropriately used. The authors reviewed the current state of knowledge on school mental health promotion interventions globally. Two major databases, SCOPUS and ERIC were utilised to capture the social science, health, arts and humanities, and education literature. Initial searches identified 25 articles reporting on mental health promotion interventions in schools. When mapped against the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 10 studies were included and explored. Three of these were qualitative and seven were quantitative. A range of interventions have been tested for mental health promotion in schools in the last decade with variable degrees of success. Our review demonstrates that there is still a need for a stronger and broader evidence base in the field of mental health promotion, which should focus on both universal work and targeted approaches to fully address mental health in our young populations.
Mwidunda, Sylvester A.; Carabin, Hélène; Matuja, William B. M.; Winkler, Andrea S.; Ngowi, Helena A.
Taenia solium causes significant economic and public health impacts in endemic countries. This study determined effectiveness of a health education intervention at improving school children’s knowledge and attitudes related to T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in Tanzania. A cluster randomised controlled health education intervention trial was conducted in 60 schools (30 primary, 30 secondary) in Mbulu district. Baseline data were collected using a structured questionnaire in the 60 schools and group discussions in three other schools. The 60 schools stratified by baseline knowledge were randomised to receive the intervention or serve as control. The health education consisted of an address by a trained teacher, a video show and a leaflet given to each pupil. Two post-intervention re-assessments (immediately and 6 months post-intervention) were conducted in all schools and the third (12 months post-intervention) was conducted in 28 secondary schools. Data were analysed using Bayesian hierarchical log-binomial models for individual knowledge and attitude questions and Bayesian hierarchical linear regression models for scores. The overall score (percentage of correct answers) improved by about 10% in all schools after 6 months, but was slightly lower among secondary schools. Monitoring alone was associated with improvement in scores by about 6%. The intervention was linked to improvements in knowledge regarding taeniasis, porcine cysticercosis, human cysticercosis, epilepsy, the attitude of condemning infected meat but it reduced the attitude of contacting a veterinarian if a pig was found to be infected with cysticercosis. Monitoring alone was linked to an improvement in how best to raise pigs. This study demonstrates the potential value of school children as targets for health messages to control T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in endemic areas. Studies are needed to assess effectiveness of message transmission from children to parents and the general
Mwidunda, Sylvester A; Carabin, Hélène; Matuja, William B M; Winkler, Andrea S; Ngowi, Helena A
Taenia solium causes significant economic and public health impacts in endemic countries. This study determined effectiveness of a health education intervention at improving school children's knowledge and attitudes related to T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in Tanzania. A cluster randomised controlled health education intervention trial was conducted in 60 schools (30 primary, 30 secondary) in Mbulu district. Baseline data were collected using a structured questionnaire in the 60 schools and group discussions in three other schools. The 60 schools stratified by baseline knowledge were randomised to receive the intervention or serve as control. The health education consisted of an address by a trained teacher, a video show and a leaflet given to each pupil. Two post-intervention re-assessments (immediately and 6 months post-intervention) were conducted in all schools and the third (12 months post-intervention) was conducted in 28 secondary schools. Data were analysed using Bayesian hierarchical log-binomial models for individual knowledge and attitude questions and Bayesian hierarchical linear regression models for scores. The overall score (percentage of correct answers) improved by about 10% in all schools after 6 months, but was slightly lower among secondary schools. Monitoring alone was associated with improvement in scores by about 6%. The intervention was linked to improvements in knowledge regarding taeniasis, porcine cysticercosis, human cysticercosis, epilepsy, the attitude of condemning infected meat but it reduced the attitude of contacting a veterinarian if a pig was found to be infected with cysticercosis. Monitoring alone was linked to an improvement in how best to raise pigs. This study demonstrates the potential value of school children as targets for health messages to control T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in endemic areas. Studies are needed to assess effectiveness of message transmission from children to parents and the general
Sylvester A Mwidunda
Full Text Available Taenia solium causes significant economic and public health impacts in endemic countries. This study determined effectiveness of a health education intervention at improving school children's knowledge and attitudes related to T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in Tanzania. A cluster randomised controlled health education intervention trial was conducted in 60 schools (30 primary, 30 secondary in Mbulu district. Baseline data were collected using a structured questionnaire in the 60 schools and group discussions in three other schools. The 60 schools stratified by baseline knowledge were randomised to receive the intervention or serve as control. The health education consisted of an address by a trained teacher, a video show and a leaflet given to each pupil. Two post-intervention re-assessments (immediately and 6 months post-intervention were conducted in all schools and the third (12 months post-intervention was conducted in 28 secondary schools. Data were analysed using Bayesian hierarchical log-binomial models for individual knowledge and attitude questions and Bayesian hierarchical linear regression models for scores. The overall score (percentage of correct answers improved by about 10% in all schools after 6 months, but was slightly lower among secondary schools. Monitoring alone was associated with improvement in scores by about 6%. The intervention was linked to improvements in knowledge regarding taeniasis, porcine cysticercosis, human cysticercosis, epilepsy, the attitude of condemning infected meat but it reduced the attitude of contacting a veterinarian if a pig was found to be infected with cysticercosis. Monitoring alone was linked to an improvement in how best to raise pigs. This study demonstrates the potential value of school children as targets for health messages to control T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in endemic areas. Studies are needed to assess effectiveness of message transmission from children to parents and
Full Text Available Abnormal body weight poses a risk of the development of various health disorders, having a negative impact on the quality and length of life. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among European children is estimated to be 10–20%. In Poland this figure reaches 18%. A war on the epidemic obesity waged from the youngest age of the child is a strategy that brings long-term health benefits for the entire population. Apart from the family, the school is the second important educational environment responsible for conducting health education activities among children and teenagers. School health education programs should be implementing by teachers in collaboration with other school staff, parents and the broadly understood local community. Comprehensive health education aiming at combating obesity should cover the entire population of school children and teenagers, with special attention given to high risk groups. The school, undertaking health education activities aimed at preventing abnormal body weight, should implement nationwide programs for the prevention of obesity, and should also pursue its own health education program based on its curriculum. In most cases, development of obesity at children results from improper eating habits and insufficient physical activity, and therefore school health education programs aimed at the prevention of overweight and obesity should focus on these two most important modifiable risk factors of abnormal body weight.
Deborah Carvalho Malta
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of bullying from the victim's perspective in Brazilian school children and to analyze its association with individual and family context variables. METHODS: An analysis of the data on 109,104 adolescents, obtained by the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey, held in schools in 2012, was carried out. An association model between bullying and explanatory variables was tested in different contexts: sociodemographic, risk behaviors, mental health and family context. Univariate and multivariate analyzes were performed, calculating the Odds Ratio and confidence intervals. RESULTS: The prevalence of bullying found in this study was of 7.2% (95%CI 6.6 - 7.8. A higher chance of bullying was found among male students (OR = 1.58; 95%CI 1.51 - 1.66, with an inverse relation between age and bullying, with the magnitude of risk among adolescents younger than 13 years of age being higher when compared to those with 16 years of age or more. Of individual risk behaviors, only being a smoker remained in the final model (OR = 1.11; 95%CI 1.01 - 1.23. Mental health variables associated with bullying were: feeling lonely (OR = 2.66; 95%CI 2.52 - 2.81, insomnia (OR = 1.92; 95%CI 1.80 - 2.05, not having friends (OR = 1.71; 95%CI 1.54 - 1.89, and, in the family context, those who skip class without telling their parents (OR = 1.13; 95%CI 1,07 - 1,19 and those who suffer physical abuse by family members (OR = 2.03; 95%CI 1.91 - 2.146. CONCLUSION: Bullying was associated to male students, younger, of black color, smokers, with mental health vulnerabilities and victims of domestic violence. This suggests the need for a holistic approach from education and health professionals, parents and the community in seeking measures for the prevention of bullying.
Agha, Sohail; Van Rossem, Ronan
To determine whether adolescents' normative beliefs about abstinence and condoms, their personal risk perception, and safer sex practices changed after the implementation of a peer sexual health education intervention implemented in Zambian secondary schools. The peer intervention was implemented during the first week of September 2000 in Lusaka, Zambia. A quasi-experimental, longitudinal panel design was used to evaluate its impact. Three schools were randomly assigned to the intervention condition and two to the control condition. Three rounds of data from male and female adolescents in grades 10 and 11 were collected at baseline in July 2000, at first follow-up in the second half of September 2000, and at second follow-up in early April 2001. A total of 416 respondents aged 14-23 (at baseline) were interviewed in all three survey rounds. A mixed-effects logistic regression growth curve analysis was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios to compare intervention and control groups on the outcome variables. Student self-reports showed positive changes in normative beliefs about abstinence immediately after the intervention, and these improvements were largely sustained until 6 months after the intervention. Students became more likely to approve of condom use and to intend using condoms immediately after the intervention, but these positive outcomes could not be sustained during the 6 months that followed the intervention. Normative beliefs regarding condom use took longer to develop: these were only observed at 6 months follow-up. Students reported reductions in multiple regular partnerships. There was no change in condom use. A single session school-based peer sexual health intervention resulted in the development of normative beliefs about abstinence that were sustained over a 6-month period. Normative beliefs about condoms took longer to develop. More regular efforts may be required to sustain the approval of, and the intention to use, condoms. The intervention
Johnson, Teresa; Weed, L. Diane; Touger-Decker, Riva
The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity in the United States has resulted in a number of school-based health interventions. This article provides a review of research that addressed childhood overweight and obesity in minority, U.S. elementary schools. All studies reported some benefits in health behaviors and/or anthropometric…
Albert, David A.; McManus, Joseph M.; Mitchell, Dennis A.
School-based health centers (SBHCs) often are located in high-need schools and communities. Dental service is frequently an addition to existing comprehensive services, functioning in a variety of models, configurations, and locations. SBHCs are indicated when parents have limited financial resources or inadequate health insurance, limiting…
Thompson, Lindsay A; Ferdig, Rick; Black, Erik
In the United States, primary and secondary online schools are institutions that deliver online curricula for children enrolled in kindergarten through 12th grade (K-12). These institutions commonly provide opportunities for online instruction in conjunction with local schools for students who may need remediation, have advanced needs, encounter unqualified local instructors, or experience scheduling conflicts. Internet-based online schooling may potentially help children from populations known to have educational and health disadvantages, such as those from certain racial or ethnic backgrounds, those of low socioeconomic status, and children with special health care needs (CSHCN). To describe the basic and applied demographics of US online-school users and to compare student achievement in traditional versus online schooling environments. We performed a brief parental survey in three states examining basic demographics and educational history of the child and parents, the child's health status as measured by the CSHCN Screener, and their experiences and educational achievement with online schools and class(es). Results were compared with state public-school demographics and statistical analyses controlled for state-specific independence. We analyzed responses from 1971 parents with a response rate of 14.7% (1971/13,384). Parents of online-school participants were more likely to report having a bachelor's degree or higher than were parents of students statewide in traditional schools, and more of their children were white and female. Most notably, the prevalence of CSHCN was high (476/1971, 24.6%) in online schooling. Children who were male, black, or had special health care needs reported significantly lower grades in both traditional and online schools. However, when we controlled for age, gender, race, and parental education, parents of CSHCN or black children reported significantly lower grades in online than in traditional schooling (adjusted odds ratio [a
Melzer, Wolfgang; Schubarth, Wilfried
The article gives an overview of violence at school combined with the health of students. Based on the assumption that violence and health are two sides of the same coin, the article considers the question of the development of violence and bullying phenomena at German schools and its relation to student health. Long-term studies by the authors, such as the international Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) study, constitute the empirical basis. Prevalence and structures of student violence, as well as the relation between violence and health, are clarified and consequences for the prevention of violence and health are shown on the basis of our own empirical studies. Contrary to dramatic estimates in the media, a continuous reduction of bullying problems at German schools has been registered in recent years. In reference to the relation between violence and health, a significant correlation between dissocial behavior and health parameters was found. Victims and bully-victims show the most health problems and innocent bystanders the least health problems. In contrast to previous findings, bullies show a more positive prevailing mood. Due to the found associations between violence and health, it appears reasonable to combine violence prevention and health promotion measures to achieve sustainable prevention effects.
The Child and Family Refugee Service at the Tavistock Centre in London has run a series of 'Tree of Life' groups for both parents and children in schools. The groups were developed in response to a concern about the majority of psychological treatments, which focus predominantly on vulnerability factors in refugee populations, and the effect that this can have on those they are attempting to help. In addition, these are modelled on western assumptions, which do not adequately take account of culture. The Tree of Life groups have provided an alternative to traditional mental health services, which many refugee families find hard to access because of perceived stigma and lack of knowledge about what is on offer. The groups employed a strength-based narrative methodology, using the tree as a creative metaphor, which enabled parents and children to develop empowering stories about their lives, which were rooted in their cultural and social histories. From this secure base, participants were able to develop shared, culturally congruent solutions to their problems. The groups have been found to benefit parents and children alike, as well as the school communities in which they have taken place.
Kirkeby, Inge Mette; Jensen, Bjarne Bruun; Larsen, Kristian
Aim: To investigate the kinds of knowledge practitioners use when planning and designing for health in school buildings. Methods: Twelve semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with architects, teachers and officials to investigate use of knowledge in the making of school buildings...
Ruggieri, Dominique G.; Bass, Sarah B.
Background: Whereas legislation for body mass index (BMI) surveillance and screening programs has passed in 25 states, the programs are often subject to ethical debates about confidentiality and privacy, school-to-parent communication, and safety and self-esteem issues for students. Despite this debate, no comprehensive analysis has been completed…
Beck, Naja I; Arif, Issra; Paumier, Michelle F; Jacobsen, Kathryn H
The goals of this study were to identify the proportion of early adolescents in southern South America who were injured in the past year, to identify risk behaviours and other exposures associated with injuries, and to evaluate the most common types and causes of injury in this population. We used complex samples analysis to examine cross-sectional data from more than 35,000 students from all four countries in South America that participated in the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) in 2012-2013. The proportion of students reporting at least one injury in the past year that required medical treatment or caused at least one full day of missed school or usual activities was 27.1% in Argentina, 29.5% in Uruguay, 30.9% in Chile, and 36.8% in Bolivia. Significantly more boys than girls reported injuries. Injured students were more likely than non-injured students to report anxiety-induced insomnia, being physically attacked, being in a physical fight, and being lonely in the past year, and they were also more likely to report being bullied, using tobacco, drinking alcohol, and missing school in the past month. For both boys and girls, the most common type of injury reported was a broken bone or dislocated joint and the most common injury cause was the student falling. However, most students were not able to provide a specific answer to either question. The GSHS has been conducted in 100 low- and middle-income countries and territories around the world, and new waves of data collection are currently being planned and implemented. The utility of the injury data from the GSHS would be improved if the injury type and cause response items were updated to better capture information about self-harm, sports injuries, and other statistics that will provide a stronger foundation for evidence-based injury prevention interventions in adolescent populations. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Garbers, Samantha; Heck, Craig J; Gold, Melanie A; Santelli, John S; Bersamin, Melina
School-based health centers (SBHCs) can take specific steps to provide culturally competent care for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) youth, potentially impacting well-being. A needs assessment survey was conducted among a convenience sample of SBHC administrators and medical directors to assess climates and actions supportive of LGBTQ quality medical care. Half (53%) of the SBHCs surveyed ( N = 66) reviewed print materials for negative LGBTQ stereotypes, and 27.3% conducted exhaustive materials review. Regional differences were detected: 46.2% of Southern SBHCs conducted any materials review compared to 91.3% in the West and all in the East and Midwest (χ 2 , p LGBTQ youth. On intake forms, 85.4% included preferred names, but only 23.5% included preferred pronoun. There are significant gaps in the extent to which SBHCs provide culturally competent care. These findings can guide future training and advocacy.
Lind, Rune Rasmussen; Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Ørntoft, Christina Øyangen
, p = .012) and working memory (79, sx– = 35 ms, p = .020). Conclusion: This pilot study provides evidence that the school-based physical activity programme “FIFA 11 for Health” for Europe can improve cognitive performance in preadolescent Danish schoolchildren. Future studies should attempt...... programme. The programme combines small-sided football games, drills and health education. Cognitive performance was evaluated at baseline and follow-up. Results: The IG improved their cognitive performance compared to the CG for psychomotor function (56, sx– = 22 ms, p attention (39, sx– = 17 ms...
Heidemann, Malene; Jespersen, Eva; Holst, René
lessons per week) were compared to children at "traditional" schools (2×45min of PE lessons per week) in Svendborg, Denmark. Whole-body DXA scans were performed at baseline (2008) and at a two-year follow-up (2010). Bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD), and bone area (BA) were measured...
Waldrop, Deborah P.; Tamburlin, Judith A.; Thompson, Sanna J.; Simon, Mark
Public education that encourages family discussions about organ and tissue donation can enhance understanding, facilitate a donor's wishes and increase the numbers of donations. Action research methods were used to explore the impact of a student-initiated family discussion about donation. Most discussions were positive; only 7% middle school and…
Full Text Available School-age children are important drivers of annual influenza epidemics yet influenza vaccination coverage of this population is low despite universal publicly funded influenza vaccination in Alberta, Canada. Immunizing children at school may potentially increase vaccine uptake. As parents are a key stakeholder group for such a program, it is important to consider their concerns.We explored parents' perspectives on the acceptability of adding an annual influenza immunization to the immunization program that is currently delivered in Alberta schools, and obtained suggestions for structuring such a program.Forty-eight parents of children aged 5-18 years participated in 9 focus groups. Participants lived in urban areas of the Alberta Health Services Calgary Zone.Three major themes emerged: Advantages of school-based influenza vaccination (SBIV, Disadvantages of SBIV, and Implications for program design & delivery. Advantages were perceived to occur for different populations: children (e.g. emotional support, families (e.g. convenience, the community (e.g. benefits for school and multicultural communities, the health sector (e.g. reductions in costs due to burden of illness and to society at large (e.g. indirect conduit of information about health services, building structure for pandemic preparedness, building healthy lifestyles. Disadvantages, however, might also occur for children (e.g. older children less likely to be immunized, families (e.g. communication challenges, perceived loss of parental control over information, choices and decisions and the education sector (loss of instructional time. Nine second-level themes emerged within the major theme of Implications for program design & delivery: program goals/objectives, consent process, stakeholder consultation, age-appropriate program, education, communication, logistics, immunizing agent, and clinic process.Parents perceived advantages and disadvantages to delivering annual seasonal
Bakare Muideen O
Full Text Available Abstract Background School based mental health programs are absent in most educational institutions for intellectually disabled children and adolescents in Nigeria and co-morbid behavioral problems often complicate intellectual disability in children and adolescents receiving special education instructions. Little is known about prevalence and pattern of behavioral problems existing co-morbidly among sub-Saharan African children with intellectual disability. This study assessed the prevalence and pattern of behavioral problems among Nigerian children with intellectual disability and also the associated factors. Method Teachers' rated Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ was used to screen for behavioral problems among children with intellectual disability in a special education facility in south eastern Nigeria. Socio-demographic questionnaire was used to obtain socio-demographic information of the children. Results A total of forty four (44 children with intellectual disability were involved in the study. Twenty one (47.7% of the children were classified as having behavioral problems in the borderline and abnormal categories on total difficulties clinical scale of SDQ using the cut-off point recommended by Goodman. Mild mental retardation as compared to moderate, severe and profound retardation was associated with highest total difficulties mean score. Males were more likely to exhibit conduct and hyperactivity behavioral problems compared to the females. The inter-clinical scales correlations of teachers' rated SDQ in the studied population also showed good internal consistency (Cronbach Alpha = 0.63. Conclusion Significant behavioral problems occur co-morbidly among Nigerian children with intellectual disability receiving special education instructions and this could impact negatively on educational learning and other areas of functioning. There is an urgent need for establishing school-based mental health program and appropriate
Background School based mental health programs are absent in most educational institutions for intellectually disabled children and adolescents in Nigeria and co-morbid behavioral problems often complicate intellectual disability in children and adolescents receiving special education instructions. Little is known about prevalence and pattern of behavioral problems existing co-morbidly among sub-Saharan African children with intellectual disability. This study assessed the prevalence and pattern of behavioral problems among Nigerian children with intellectual disability and also the associated factors. Method Teachers' rated Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was used to screen for behavioral problems among children with intellectual disability in a special education facility in south eastern Nigeria. Socio-demographic questionnaire was used to obtain socio-demographic information of the children. Results A total of forty four (44) children with intellectual disability were involved in the study. Twenty one (47.7%) of the children were classified as having behavioral problems in the borderline and abnormal categories on total difficulties clinical scale of SDQ using the cut-off point recommended by Goodman. Mild mental retardation as compared to moderate, severe and profound retardation was associated with highest total difficulties mean score. Males were more likely to exhibit conduct and hyperactivity behavioral problems compared to the females. The inter-clinical scales correlations of teachers' rated SDQ in the studied population also showed good internal consistency (Cronbach Alpha = 0.63). Conclusion Significant behavioral problems occur co-morbidly among Nigerian children with intellectual disability receiving special education instructions and this could impact negatively on educational learning and other areas of functioning. There is an urgent need for establishing school-based mental health program and appropriate screening measure in this
Prasla, Munira; Prasla, Shameer Ali
Schools have great potential in health promotion; however, this is often neglected area and fewer efforts are done in exploring status of school health promotion in Pakistan. This paper attempts to outline brief historical background of school health promotion in Pakistan; presents critical review of some international school health promotion perspectives; and finally explore opportunities and role of healthcare professionals in Pakistan's context. A critical review of peer-reviewed literature divided into two broad themes of international perspectives on school health promotion, and role of healthcare professionals. Results are presented in cross-cutting themes and in narrative style. School health promotion is very diverse phenomenon, situated in respective cultural contexts. Programmes pesent a range of characteristics from focusing on integrated approach to health education to behavioural changes; and from involving youngsters to policy advocacy. Like the programmes, role of healthcare professionals is also varied and dynamic and without clearly defining their role, development of effective health promotion programmes is difficult. School health promotion could be facilitated by appropriate trainings for healthcare professionals and evidence-based policy changes.
Daley, Alison Moriarty
This article examines school-based health centers (SBHCs) as complex adaptive systems, the current gaps that exist in contraceptive access, and the potential to maximize this community resource in teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention efforts. Adolescent pregnancy is a major public health challenge for the United States. Existing community resources need to be considered for their potential to impact teen pregnancy and STI prevention efforts. SBHCs are one such community resource to be leveraged in these efforts. They offer adolescent-friendly primary care services and are responsive to the diverse needs of the adolescents utilizing them. However, current restrictions on contraceptive availability limit the ability of SBHCs to maximize opportunities for comprehensive reproductive care and create missed opportunities for pregnancy and STI prevention. A clinical case explores the current models of health care services related to contraceptive care provided in SBHCs and the ability to meet or miss the needs of an adolescent seeking reproductive care in a SBHC.
Deborah Carvalho Malta
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of major risk and protection factors for chronic non-communicable diseases in school-aged children in Brazilian capitals surveyed in the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey in its two editions, 2009 and 2012. METHODS: The frequencies, with Confidence Interval of 95%, of the following demographic variables were compared: food intake, body image, physical activity, smoking, alcohol and other drugs. Prevalence was compared in the two editions of the survey. RESULTS: The proportion of students who attend two physical education classes a week was maintained at 49% between 2009 and 2012, increasing in public schools from 50.6% (95%CI 49.8 - 51.4 to 52.5% (95%CI 49.2 - 55.7, and decreasing in private schools. There was no change in the proportion of students who watch two hours or more of television daily, about 80%. As for body image, there was no change between the two editions, and about 60% considered themselves being of normal weight. There was a reduction in the percentage of adolescents who experienced cigarettes, from 24.2% (95%CI 23.6 - 24.8 to 22.3% (95%CI 21.4 - 23.2, and the prevalence of smoking was maintained at about 6% (there was no statistical difference between 2009 and 2012. The consumption of beans, fruits, sweets and soft drinks also decreased. Frequency of drug experimentation was of 8.7% (95%CI 8.3 - 9.1 in 2009, and 9.6% (95%CI 9.0 - 10.3 in 2012, with no difference between confidence intervals, and the frequency of alcohol experimentation was maintained at about 70%; the percentage of use in the past 30 days was also maintained at around 27%. CONCLUSION: In the Brazilian capitals, the vast majority of prevalence of risk factors were kept stable in the two editions of the National Survey of School. These data generate evidence to guide the implementation of public policies to minimize the exposure of adolescents to risk factors.
Phillip T. Slee
Full Text Available Although there is increasing recognition internationally of the significance of social and emotional health and wellbeing for the healthy development of young people, the levels of support that governments provide for mental health policy and programme initiatives vary widely. In this paper, consideration is given to Australia's approach to mental health promotion from early years to secondary school, including specific reference to the KidsMatter Primary mental health promotion, prevention and early intervention initiative. Although it is now well established that schools provide important settings for the promotion of mental health initiatives, there are significant challenges faced in effectively implementing and maintaining the delivery of evidence-based practice in school settings, including concerns about quality assurance in processes of implementation, translation, dissemination and evaluation.
Zwinkels, Maremka; Verschuren, Olaf; Balemans, Astrid; Lankhorst, Kristel; Te Velde, Saskia; van Gaalen, Leendert; de Groot, Janke; Visser-Meily, Anne; Takken, Tim
To investigate the effects of a school-based once-a-week sports program on physical fitness, physical activity, and cardiometabolic health in children and adolescents with a physical disability. This controlled clinical trial included 71 children and adolescents from four schools for special education [mean age 13.7 (2.9) years, range 8-19, 55% boys]. Participants had various chronic health conditions including cerebral palsy (37%), other neuromuscular (44%), metabolic (8%), musculoskeletal (7%), and cardiovascular (4%) disorders. Before recruitment and based on the presence of school-based sports, schools were assigned as sport or control group. School-based sports were initiated and provided by motivated experienced physical educators. The sport group ( n = 31) participated in a once-a-week school-based sports program for 6 months, which included team sports. The control group ( n = 40) followed the regular curriculum. Anaerobic performance was assessed by the Muscle Power Sprint Test. Secondary outcome measures included aerobic performance, VO 2 peak, strength, physical activity, blood pressure, arterial stiffness, body composition, and the metabolic profile. A significant improvement of 16% in favor of the sport group was found for anaerobic performance ( p = 0.003). In addition, the sport group lost 2.8% more fat mass compared to the control group ( p = 0.007). No changes were found for aerobic performance, VO 2 peak, physical activity, blood pressure, arterial stiffness, and the metabolic profile. Anaerobic performance and fat mass improved following a school-based sports program. These effects are promising for long-term fitness and health promotion, because sports sessions at school eliminate certain barriers for sports participation and adding a once-a-week sports session showed already positive effects for 6 months. This trial was registered with the Dutch Trial Registry (NTR4698).
Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the effects of a school-based once-a-week sports program on physical fitness, physical activity, and cardiometabolic health in children and adolescents with a physical disability.MethodsThis controlled clinical trial included 71 children and adolescents from four schools for special education [mean age 13.7 (2.9 years, range 8–19, 55% boys]. Participants had various chronic health conditions including cerebral palsy (37%, other neuromuscular (44%, metabolic (8%, musculoskeletal (7%, and cardiovascular (4% disorders. Before recruitment and based on the presence of school-based sports, schools were assigned as sport or control group. School-based sports were initiated and provided by motivated experienced physical educators. The sport group (n = 31 participated in a once-a-week school-based sports program for 6 months, which included team sports. The control group (n = 40 followed the regular curriculum. Anaerobic performance was assessed by the Muscle Power Sprint Test. Secondary outcome measures included aerobic performance, VO2 peak, strength, physical activity, blood pressure, arterial stiffness, body composition, and the metabolic profile.ResultsA significant improvement of 16% in favor of the sport group was found for anaerobic performance (p = 0.003. In addition, the sport group lost 2.8% more fat mass compared to the control group (p = 0.007. No changes were found for aerobic performance, VO2 peak, physical activity, blood pressure, arterial stiffness, and the metabolic profile.ConclusionAnaerobic performance and fat mass improved following a school-based sports program. These effects are promising for long-term fitness and health promotion, because sports sessions at school eliminate certain barriers for sports participation and adding a once-a-week sports session showed already positive effects for 6 months.Clinical Trial RegistrationThis trial was registered with the Dutch Trial Registry (NTR
Ryberg, Jacalyn Wickline; Keller, Teresa; Hine, Beverly; Christeson, Elisabeth
School nurses occupy a unique position in relation to school health policy. In addition to facing the demands of promoting and maintaining the health of students, they collect the information that is used to document the implementation of school health policy. Effective school health policy is guided by reliable, credible data regarding what…
Dinkmeyer, Don, Jr.; Carlson, Jon
Decades after consultation has become a mandated function of school counselors, consultants still seek effective ways to deliver this essential role. This book, geared towards mental health professionals, provides a set of skills for working with the school-based population. The ideas, based on Adlerian psychology, present a theory of consultation…
Lewis, Catherine; Deardorff, Julianna; Lahiff, Maureen; Soleimanpour, Samira; Sakashita, Kimi; Brindis, Claire D
Bullying and victimization are ongoing concerns in schools. School health centers (SHCs) are well situated to support affected students because they provide crisis intervention, mental health care, and broader interventions to improve school climate. This study examined the association between urban adolescents' experiences of school-based bullying and victimization and their use of SHCs. Data was analyzed from 2063 high school students in 5 Northern California school districts using the 2009-2010 California Healthy Kids Survey. Chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression were used to measure associations. Students who were bullied or victimized at school had significantly higher odds of using the SHCs compared with students who were not, and were also significantly more likely to report confidentiality concerns. The magnitude of associations was largest for Asian/Pacific Islander students, though this was likely due to greater statistical power. African American students reported victimization experiences at approximately the same rate as their peers, but were significantly less likely to indicate they experienced bullying. Findings suggest that SHCs may be an important place to address bullying and victimization at school, but confidentiality concerns are barriers that may be more common among bullied and victimized youth. © 2015, American School Health Association.
Sherwood-Puzzello, Catherine M; Miller, Michelle; Lohrmann, David; Gregory, Patricia
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's School Health Index (SHI), a guide for completing a coordinated school-based program needs assessment relative to healthy eating, physical activity, a tobacco-free lifestyle, and prevention of other health risk behaviors and conditions, was used to assess current programming at 3 midwestern middle schools. Employing somewhat different procedures, data were collected from focus groups comprising school administrators, teachers, parents, community members, and students. Participants responded to SHI module questions and provided comments based on their perceptions. Both quantitative and qualitative data were recorded for each module, after which participants answered 3 planning questions intended to guide prioritization of actions to improve policies and programs based on importance, cost, time, commitment, and feasibility. Each school developed recommendations and strategies based on highest priority needs related to community involvement, professional development, health screenings, and health education materials in classrooms. The experience of completing the SHI in 3 different schools provided important insights about the data collection process as well as assessment results that have implications for the design and implementation of prevention programs.
Macnab, Andrew J.; Stewart, Donald; Gagnon, Faith A.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the rationale for and potential of World Health Organization (WHO) health promoting schools (HPS) in Africa. Design/Methodology/Approach: Overview of the related literature and presentations at the 2011 Stellenbosch international colloquium on HPS relating to sub-Saharan Africa. Findings: Schools…
Jourdan, Didier; Simar, Carine; Deasy, Christine; Carvalho, Graça S.; McNamara, Patricia Mannix
Purpose: Health and education are inextricably linked. Health promotion sits somewhat uncomfortably within schools, often remaining a marginal aspect of teachers' work. The purpose of this paper is to examine the compatibility of an HP-initiative with teacher professional identity. Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative research design was…
Muula, Adamson S; Siziya, Seter; Rudatsikira, Emmanuel
Mental health and injury are neglected public health issues especially in low-income nations. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates for serious injury in the last 12 months. The study used data of the 2007 Djibouti Global School-based Health Survey. Logistic regression analysis was used to establish associations. Of the 1, 777 respondents, 61.1% (63.2% males and 57.8% females) reported having sustained serious injury (SSI). Compared to participants who were not bullied, those who reported being bullied 3-9 days per month were more likely to have sustained serious injury in the last 12 months (AOR = 1.27; 95% CI [1.06, 1.52] for 3-5 days of bullying victimization per month, and AOR = 3.19; 95% CI [2.28, 4.47] for 6-9 days per month. Adolescents who were engaged in physical fighting were 47% (AOR = 1.47, 95% CI [1.40, 1.55] more likely to have sustained serious injury compared to those who were not engaged in the fighting. Meanwhile, adolescents who used substances (cigarettes, other forms of tobacco or drugs) were 30% (AOR = 1.30, 95% CI [1.19, 1.42]) more likely to have sustained serious injury compared to those who did not use substances. Serious injury is common among adolescents in Djibouti, and we suggest that health workers attending to injured adolescents explore the patients' psycho-social environment. Further, we suggest longitudinal studies where reduction of substance use and bullying may be assessed if they have an impact in reducing serious injury among adolescents.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental health and injury are neglected public health issues especially in low-income nations. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates for serious injury in the last 12 months. Findings The study used data of the 2007 Djibouti Global School-based Health Survey. Logistic regression analysis was used to establish associations. Of the 1, 777 respondents, 61.1% (63.2% males and 57.8% females reported having sustained serious injury (SSI. Compared to participants who were not bullied, those who reported being bullied 3-9 days per month were more likely to have sustained serious injury in the last 12 months (AOR = 1.27; 95% CI [1.06, 1.52] for 3-5 days of bullying victimization per month, and AOR = 3.19; 95% CI [2.28, 4.47] for 6-9 days per month. Adolescents who were engaged in physical fighting were 47% (AOR = 1.47, 95% CI [1.40, 1.55] more likely to have sustained serious injury compared to those who were not engaged in the fighting. Meanwhile, adolescents who used substances (cigarettes, other forms of tobacco or drugs were 30% (AOR = 1.30, 95% CI [1.19, 1.42] more likely to have sustained serious injury compared to those who did not use substances. Conclusions Serious injury is common among adolescents in Djibouti, and we suggest that health workers attending to injured adolescents explore the patients' psycho-social environment. Further, we suggest longitudinal studies where reduction of substance use and bullying may be assessed if they have an impact in reducing serious injury among adolescents.
van Gastel, W A; Tempelaar, W; Bun, C; Schubart, C D; Kahn, R S; Plevier, C; Boks, M P M
Although the association between cannabis use and a wide range of psychiatric symptoms is fairly well established, it is not clear whether cannabis use is also a risk factor for general mental health problems at secondary school. Method A total of 10 324 secondary school children aged 11-16 years, participating in an ongoing Public Health Service School Survey, gave information on demographics, substance use, school factors and stressful life events and completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Cannabis use in the past month was associated with a clinically relevant score on the SDQ [unadjusted odds ratio (OR) 4.46, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.46-5.76]. Other risk factors associated with poor psychosocial functioning were: a low level of education, alcohol use, cigarette smoking, hard drug use, frequent truancy, an unfavourable school evaluation, feeling unsafe at school, being victimized, frequent absence due to illness, a mentally ill parent, molestation by a parent, financial problems and feeling distressed by an adverse event. In a full model adjusting for these risk factors, cannabis was not significantly associated with mental health problems, although an association at trend level was apparent. Of these risk factors, regular alcohol use, cigarette smoking, hard drug use, frequent truancy, an unfavourable school evaluation and frequent absence due to illness were also associated with cannabis use. The association between cannabis use and poor psychosocial functioning in adolescence is due, at least in part, to confounding by other risk factors. Thus, cannabis use can best be viewed as an indicator of risk for mental health problems in adolescence.
Full Text Available Background: In 2007, the Tanzanian government called for improvements in its primary health care services. Part of this initiative was to accelerate the training rate for nurses qualified to work in rural areas. The aim of this study was to reflect on the issues experienced whilst establishing and implementing a faith-based organisation (FBO nursing school and make recommendations for other similar initiatives. Design: This paper describes an auto-ethnographic case study design to identify the key difficulties involved with establishing and implementing a new nursing school, and which factors helped the project achieve its goals. Results: Six themes emerged from the experiences that shaped the course of the project: 1 Motivation can be sustained if the rationale of the project is in line with its aims. Indeed, the project's primary health care focus was to strengthen the nursing workforce and build a public–private partnership with an FBO. All these were strengths, which helped in the midst of all the uncertainties. 2 Communication was an important and often underrated factor for all types of development projects. 3 Managing the unknown and 4 managing expectations characterised the project inception. Almost all themes had to do with 5 handling conflicts. With so many participants having their own agendas, tensions were unavoidable. A final theme was 6 the need to adjust to ever-changing targets. Conclusions: This retrospective auto-ethnographic manuscript serves as a small-scale case study, to illustrate how issues that can be generalised to other settings can be deconstructed to demonstrate how they influence health development projects in developing countries. From this narrative of experiences, key recommendations include the following: 1 Find the right ratio of stakeholders, participants, and agendas, and do not overload the project; 2 Be alert and communicate as much as possible with staff and do not ignore issues hoping they will solve
In 2007, the Tanzanian government called for improvements in its primary health care services. Part of this initiative was to accelerate the training rate for nurses qualified to work in rural areas. The aim of this study was to reflect on the issues experienced whilst establishing and implementing a faith-based organisation (FBO) nursing school and make recommendations for other similar initiatives. This paper describes an auto-ethnographic case study design to identify the key difficulties involved with establishing and implementing a new nursing school, and which factors helped the project achieve its goals. Six themes emerged from the experiences that shaped the course of the project: 1) Motivation can be sustained if the rationale of the project is in line with its aims. Indeed, the project's primary health care focus was to strengthen the nursing workforce and build a public-private partnership with an FBO. All these were strengths, which helped in the midst of all the uncertainties. 2) Communication was an important and often underrated factor for all types of development projects. 3) Managing the unknown and 4) managing expectations characterised the project inception. Almost all themes had to do with 5) handling conflicts. With so many participants having their own agendas, tensions were unavoidable. A final theme was 6) the need to adjust to ever-changing targets. This retrospective auto-ethnographic manuscript serves as a small-scale case study, to illustrate how issues that can be generalised to other settings can be deconstructed to demonstrate how they influence health development projects in developing countries. From this narrative of experiences, key recommendations include the following: 1) Find the right ratio of stakeholders, participants, and agendas, and do not overload the project; 2) Be alert and communicate as much as possible with staff and do not ignore issues hoping they will solve themselves; 3) Think flexibly and do not stubbornly
The healthy food score was associated with supportive teachers but not with supportive peers and supportive parents and socioeconomic status. Regarding the different health-related behaviours, gender differences were less pronounced than racial differences. Black school-aged children had a significantly higher ...
Full Text Available Background. Oral health promotion is a cost-effective strategy that can be implemented at schools for the prevention of oral diseases. Theimportance and value of school-based interventions in children has been identified in South Africa (SA. Although oral health strategiesinclude integrated school-based interventions, there is a lack of published evidence on whether these strategies have been translated intopractice and whether these programmes have been evaluated.Objective. To assess the efficiency and sustainability of the toothbrushing programme implemented at health-promoting schools inKwaZulu-Natal Province, SA.Methods. A mixed-methods approach was used for this study, conducted at 23 health-promoting schools in KwaZulu-Natal using focusgroup discussions. Triangulation was used for evaluation.Results. The intervention implemented had created awareness of oral health for learners, educators and parents. Findings in this studyindicate that although there were benefits obtained from this school-based intervention, many challenges, such as time constraints, largeclasses and a lack of adequate resources and funding, affected the sustainability of the programme.Conclusion.The school setting has the potential to deliver integrated preventive and promotive programmes provided they are supportedby adequate funding and resources.
CONCLUSION: Students with disadvantages gained physical, psychological and social skills (being interactive; sharing, communicating, enterprising features of leadership and social supporting as well as the development of health perception. Two students, who successfully completed these training activities in our study group, were chosen to the project camp. One of these two students, who successfully completed the activities in the project camp and past the final exam was accepted by science trip in the United Kingdom. In conclusion, professional group trainings at early ages may be helpful for developing characteristics of health perception, psychosocial skills, enterprising in disadvantaged students [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(1.000: 39-48
Full Text Available BackgroundMalnutrition can threaten mental and physical development of children while healthy nutrition can improve mental and physical status of children. To select the best foods, children need nutrition education. This study aimed to determine the effect of nutrition education on reducing the consumption of unhealthy snacks in female primary school students in Qom- Iran.Materials and MethodsThis interventional study was conducted on 88 students in intervention and control groups who were selected via multistage random sampling method. The data was collected using a valid and reliable researcher-made questionnaire which was designed based on the health belief model (HBM. First four training sessions were held for the intervention group; two months later, data were collected again from both groups of students (intervention and control group. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS version 16.0 using descriptive statistics and independent and paired t-test.ResultsThe mean score of knowledge and performance of the intervention group, were 96.12 and 18.61 before the intervention which changed to 110.00 and 68.22 after the intervention. The results showed that before the intervention there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of mean scores of knowledge, and the constructs of the health belief model (P>0.05. After the intervention, the scores of all variables and the behavior of unhealthy snacks consumption were significantly increased in the intervention group (P
John-Akinola, Yetunde O.; Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic
Purpose: Attention to improving the school environment is a common activity in school health promotion. The role of the school environment in supporting improved health and wellbeing has a theoretical base, but has rarely been directly investigated empirically. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the associations between school…
Murimi, Mary W.; Chrisman, Matthew S.; Hughes, Kelly; Taylor, Chris; Kim, Yeonsoo; McAllister, Tiffany L.
Objective: Rural areas may suffer from a lack of access to health care and programmes to promote behaviours such as healthy eating and physical activity. Point-of-testing counselling is a method of promoting a healthy lifestyle during an individual's most "teachable moment". Design/Setting: This longitudinal study examined the effects of…
Mevissen, Fraukje E. F.; van Empelen, Pepijn; Watzeels, Anita; van Duin, Gee; Meijer, Suzanne; van Lieshout, Sanne; Kok, Gerjo
This paper describes the development of a Dutch online programme called "Long Live Love+" focusing on positive, coercion-free relationships, contraception use, and the prevention of STIs, using the Intervention Mapping (IM) approach. All six steps of the approach were followed. Step 1 confirmed the need for a sexual health programme…
Morgitan, Judith; Bushmiaer, Margo; DeSisto, Marie C.; Duff, Carolyn; Lambert, C. Patrice; Murphy, M. Kathleen; Roland, Sharon; Selser, Kendra; Wyckoff, Leah; White, Kelly
It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses that students with chronic health conditions have access to a full-time registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as school nurse). School districts should include school nurse positions in their full-time instructional support personnel to provide health services…
Sumrana Yasmin Regional
Full Text Available Health, including visual health, is inextricably linked to school achievement, quality of life, and economic productivity. Introducing health education in schools is essential as knowledge and good habits acquired at an early age are likely to persist.
Aug 14, 2009 ... Background: The level of development of a country is measured by the health status of its children. ... initiative and its interrelatedness to school health services ... children's health, knowledge and practices target schools.
Amanda Gonçalves Simões Soares
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To examine public school teachers’ perceptions about general health and mental health, and the way in which they obtained this information. METHODS Qualitative research was conducted with 31 primary and secondary school teachers at a state school in the municipality of Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, in 2010. The teachers responded to a questionnaire containing open-ended questions about mental health and general health. The following aspects were evaluated: Teachers’ understanding of the terms “health and “mental health,” the relevance of the need for information on the subject, the method preferred for obtaining information, their experience with different media regarding such matters, and perceptions about the extent to which this available information is sufficient to support their practice. The data were processed using the Qualiquantisoft software and analyzed according to the Discourse of the Collective Subject technique. RESULTS From the teachers’ perspective, general health is defined as the proper physiological functioning of the body and mental health is related to the balance between mind and body, as a requirement for happiness. Most of the teachers (80.6% showed great interest in acquiring knowledge about mental health and receiving educational materials on the subject. For these teachers, the lack of information creates insecurity and complicates the management of everyday situations involving mental disorders. For 61.3% of the teachers, television is the medium that provides the most information on the topic. CONCLUSIONS The data indicate that there is little information available on mental health for teachers, showing that strategies need to be developed to promote mental health in schools.
Hansen, Claus D.; Andersen, Johan Hviid
in Ringkoebing County, Denmark in 2004 was collected from questionnaires. Participants’ childhood health was obtained from questionnaires to their parents at the same time. Information on grades in Danish spelling, oral Danish and written math was collected at the end of compulsory school (1 year after baseline...... years has between 0.27 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.13 to 0.40] and 0.34 (95% CI 0.21 to 0.48) lower grades, adjusted for a range of other factors influencing school performance. Specific symptoms leading to poorer school performance includes frequent headaches, high levels of perceived stress...
Driven by economic and societal changes, obesity levels and chronic diseases have surged in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in recent years. An estimated 25% (51.8 million) of Latin American children and adolescents are considered overweight or obese. Poor dietary and physical activity (PA) behaviours fuel these developments. Considering their impact on overall health, well-being and quality of life, preventive actions and informed policies are needed to tackle chronic diseases ...
Wu, Wen-Chi; Luu, Shyuemeng; Luh, Dih-Ling
Abstract Background Students should be encouraged to help prevent or stop bullying. However, defending victims of bullying can impact on mental health. It is not only bystanders who may defend victims, but bullies, victims and bully-victims can also have defending behaviors. Nevertheless, most studies of defending behaviors have been limited to an examination of the reactions of bystanders or those not involved in bullying and have ignored the other players. The aim of this study is to invest...
Youth rarely receive opportunities to craft their own strategies around health and wellness within contexts relevant to them. From 2009 to 2010, the Institute of Play, based in New York, developed Being Me, a social networking site, to enable sixth-graders at the Quest to Learn public school to explore, discover and document a range of ideas…
Mendez, Linda Raffaele; Ogg, Julia; Loker, Troy; Fefer, Sarah
In this study, the authors reviewed journal articles published between 1995 and 2010 that described student mental health interventions involving parents delivered in school settings. Their review identified 100 articles describing 39 interventions. On the basis of participant selection criteria provided by the authors of the reviewed articles,…
Garnham-Lee, Katy; Trigwell, Joanne; McGee, Ciara E.; Knowles, Zoe; Foweather, Lawrence
This study evaluated the impact and acceptability of a three-hour bespoke training workshop for sports coaches and teachers to subsequently deliver a sport-for-health smoking prevention intervention in primary schools. Questionnaires were completed pre- and post-training by both teachers (N = 24) and coaches (N = 8), and post-intervention by…
Mehta, Tara G.; Atkins, Marc S.; Frazier, Stacy L.
This study examined the factor structure of the Organizational Health Inventory-Elementary version (OHI-E; Hoy, Tarter, & Kottkamp, 1991) in a sample of 203 teachers working in 19 high-poverty, urban schools and the association of organizational school health with teacher efficacy, teacher stress, and job satisfaction. Results indicated a similar factor structure of the OHI-E as compared with the population of schools in the original sample (Hoy et al., 1991), and that specific components of organizational health, such as a positive learning environment, are associated with teacher efficacy, stress, and satisfaction. Overall, teachers’ relations with their peers, their school leadership, and their students appear especially critical in high-poverty, urban schools. Recommendations for research and practice related to improving high-poverty, urban schools are presented. PMID:23935763
Cheung, Karen; Lesesne, Catherine A; Rasberry, Catherine N; Kroupa, Elizabeth; Fisher, Deborah; Robin, Leah; Pitt Barnes, Seraphine
Coordinated school health (CSH) programs address multiple factors related to students' overall health, thereby increasing their physical and mental readiness to learn. A formative evaluation of three school districts in 2010-2011 examined strategies for sustaining the school health teams (SHTs) that lead CSH efforts. Qualitative data from 39 interviews and 13 focus groups revealed facilitators and barriers for sustaining SHTs. Quantitative data from 68 questionnaires completed by SHT members and school principals examined factors associated with having more active SHTs and district and school characteristics SHT members believed to be important to their schools' efforts to implement CSH. Facilitators of sustaining SHTs included administrative support, staff engagement in the SHT, and shared goals and responsibility. Barriers to sustaining SHTs included limited time and competing priorities, budget and funding constraints, and staff turnover. Findings provide valuable insight into challenges and potential solutions for improving the sustainability of SHTs to enable them to better support CSH efforts.
Mehta, Tara G; Atkins, Marc S; Frazier, Stacy L
This study examined the factor structure of the Organizational Health Inventory-Elementary version (OHI-E; Hoy, Tarter, & Kottkamp, 1991) in a sample of 203 teachers working in 19 high-poverty, urban schools and the association of organizational school health with teacher efficacy, teacher stress, and job satisfaction. Results indicated a similar factor structure of the OHI-E as compared with the population of schools in the original sample (Hoy et al., 1991), and that specific components of organizational health, such as a positive learning environment, are associated with teacher efficacy, stress, and satisfaction. Overall, teachers' relations with their peers, their school leadership, and their students appear especially critical in high-poverty, urban schools. Recommendations for research and practice related to improving high-poverty, urban schools are presented.
Ottoson, Judith M.; Streib, Greg; Thomas, John Clayton; Rivera, Mark; Stevenson, Beth
In 1999 the American Cancer Society (ACS) launched the National School Health Coordinator Leadership Institute, a groundbreaking initiative designed to enhance and invigorate school health in the nation's schools by training individual school health coordinators to act as change agents. The Institute consisted of three, week-long summer training…
that school children in Ogun State do not perceive themselves to be healthy and suggest the use of school health questionnaire to assess and identify common health problems in school children. Keywords: School-age children, common health problems, questionnaire, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology Vol.
Lee, Albert; Cheng, Frances F K; Fung, Yanas; St Leger, Lawrence
The Health Promoting School (HPS) is a WHO sponsored framework, compiled to enable education and health sectors to be more effective in school based initiatives. This study attempted to test the hypothesis that students from schools that had comprehensively embraced the HPS concept as indicated by the Healthy School Award, were better, in terms of health risk behaviour, self reported health status, and academic results, than students from schools that did not reach the standard of the award. The results presented came from nine schools (four primary and five secondary) applying for accreditation of the Healthy Schools Award after adopting the HPS framework for two years. Regular consultancy support and training were available to all schools. Students had completed before and after surveys to assess their health behaviours, self reported health status, and academic standing before the two year intervention, and at its end. Data from the before and after surveys of the students attending schools that reached certain level of HPS standard as indicated by the award, were compared with students whose schools did not receive the award, and the results showed differences. Some differences were found to be more significant among the primary school students than secondary schools students. This illustrated early intervention for lifestyle changes to be more effective. Students' satisfaction with life also improved if their schools adopted the concept of HPS comprehensively. The results suggest that comprehensive implementation of HPS would contribute to differences in certain behaviours and self reported health and academic status.
DENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS. 1. Pain due to ... increased intake of sweets and sweet snacks, ... to restrain production, import and marketing of modern sweets ... STRATEGY .... water we drink and bathe In. They are always ready to heip us or ...
Pâmela Ferreira Todendi
Full Text Available At present, obesity configures a public health problem which calls for attention from different sectors, given the proportion it assumes all over the world. Several studies relate this problem to metabolic health problems, including endocrinal, cardiovascular, lung, gastrointestinal, psychiatric, hematological disturbances, among others. Obesity is not only associated with genetic and environmental factors, but also with unhealthy lifestyles. In view of its social importance, it is ascertained, through analyses of studies, that there are not many health prevention strategies focused on this situation. As a result of this ascertainment, the proposal is for updating prevention actions in the realm of obese schoolchildren, resulting from a work conducted during the Master’s Degree lessons in Health Promotion at the University of Santa Cruz do Sul (UNISC. The point in question is the fact that many schools pose no restrictions to products sold in their canteens. Food stuffs sold in schools should have adequate nutritional quality, and snacks prepared at school are extremely important in meeting all nutritional requirements. However, many children do not consume these school lunches, but they bring them from home or purchase them at the canteen, spending public resources, along with not taking in healthy foods and, as a consequence, leading to health problems over the years. For all this, it is of fundamental importance to carry out investigating processes with regard to how public actions and policies are being implemented towards this end, in view of the fact that obesity in schoolchildren is on a rising trend.
Bundy, Donald A P; Drake, Lesley J; Burbano, Carmen
An analysis undertaken jointly in 2009 by the UN World Food Programme, The Partnership for Child Development and the World Bank was published as Rethinking School Feeding to provide guidance on how to develop and implement effective school feeding programmes as a productive safety net and as part of the efforts to achieve Education for All. The present paper reflects on how understanding of school feeding has changed since that analysis. Data on school feeding programme outcomes were collected through a literature review. Regression models were used to analyse relationships between school feeding costs (from data that were collected), the per capita costs of primary education and Gross Domestic Product per capita. Data on the transition to national ownership, supply chains and country examples were collected through country case studies. School feeding programmes increase school attendance, cognition and educational achievement, as well as provide a transfer of resources to households with possible benefits to local agricultural production and local market development. Low-income countries exhibit large variations in school feeding costs, with concomitant opportunities for cost containment. Countries are increasingly looking to transition from externally supported projects to national programmes. School feeding is now clearly evident as a major social programme in most countries with a global turnover in excess of $US 100 billion. This argues for a continuing focus on the evidence base with a view to helping countries ensure that their programmes are as cost-effective as possible. Clear policy advice has never been more important.
Gicquelais, Rachel E.; Safi, Haytham; Butler, Sandra; Smith, Nathaniel; Haselow, Dirk T.
Background: Influenza is a major cause of seasonal viral respiratory illness among school-aged children. Accordingly, the Arkansas Department of Health (ADH) coordinates >800 school-based influenza immunization clinics before each influenza season. We quantified the relationship between student influenza vaccination in Arkansas public schools…
Aventin, Áine; Lohan, Maria; Maguire, Lisa; Clarke, Mike
The move toward evidence-based education has led to increasing numbers of randomised trials in schools. However, the literature on recruitment to non-clinical trials is relatively underdeveloped, when compared to that of clinical trials. Recruitment to school-based randomised trials is, however, challenging, even more so when the focus of the study is a sensitive issue such as sexual health. This article reflects on the challenges of recruiting post-primary schools, adolescent pupils and parents to a cluster randomised feasibility trial of a sexual-health intervention, and the strategies employed to address them. The Jack Trial was funded by the UK National Institute for Health Research. It comprised a feasibility study of an interactive film-based sexual-health intervention entitled If I Were Jack, recruiting over 800 adolescents from eight socio-demographically diverse post-primary schools in Northern Ireland. It aimed to determine the facilitators and barriers to recruitment and retention to a school-based sexual-health trial and identify optimal multi-level strategies for an effectiveness study. As part of an embedded process evaluation, we conducted semi-structured interviews and focus groups with principals, vice-principals, teachers, pupils and parents recruited to the study as well as classroom observations and a parents' survey. With reference to social learning theory, we identified a number of individual-, behavioural- and environmental-level factors that influenced recruitment. Commonly identified facilitators included perceptions of the relevance and potential benefit of the intervention to adolescents, the credibility of the organisation and individuals running the study, support offered by trial staff, and financial incentives. Key barriers were prior commitment to other research, lack of time and resources, and perceptions that the intervention was incompatible with pupil or parent needs or the school ethos. Reflecting on the methodological
Cremers, Henricus-Paul; Oenema, Anke; Mercken, Liesbeth; Candel, Math; de Vries, Hein
Municipal Health Promotion Organisations (MHPOs) play an important role in promoting and disseminating prevention programmes, such as smoking prevention programmes, in schools. This study identifies factors that may facilitate or hinder MHPOs' willingness to recruit actively primary schools to use a smoking prevention programme. In 2011, 31 Dutch MHPOs were invited to recruit schools to use a smoking prevention programme. All MHPO employees involved in smoking prevention activities (n = 68) were asked to complete a questionnaire assessing psychological factors and characteristics of their organisation that might affect their decision to be involved in active recruitment of schools. T-tests and multivariate analysis of variance assessed potential differences in psychological and organisational factors between active and non-active recruiters. A total of 45 professionals returned the questionnaire (66.2%). Active recruiters (n = 12) had more positive attitudes (p = 0.02), higher self-efficacy expectations (p primary schools, compared with non-active recruiters. Organisational factors did not discriminate between active and non-active recruiters. Primarily psychological factors seem to be associated with MHPOs' decision to recruit schools actively. This indicates that creating more positive attitude, self-efficacy beliefs and formation of plans may help in getting more MHPOs involved in active recruitment procedures.
Greene, Michael B.
This article examines two different, but interrelated approaches to reduce school violence: school-based curricular programs and efforts to change school climate. The state of the research for each is reviewed and the relationship between them is explored.
Regina Lai-Tong Lee
Full Text Available There is a scarcity of resources and studies that utilize targeted weight management interventions to engage parents via mHealth tools targeting obese children and adolescents with mild intellectual disabilities (MIDs extended from school to a home setting. To test the feasibility and acceptability of a school-based weight program (SBWMP involving parents via mHealth tools designed to reduce weight, enhance knowledge and adopt healthy lifestyles, and thereby achieve better psychosocial well-being among children and adolescents with MIDs. Four special schools were randomly assigned as intervention or control schools. Students from the intervention group (n = 63 were compared to those in the control group (n = 52, which comprised those with usual school planned activities and no parental involvement. Demographics were considered as covariates in a general linear model, an ordinal regression model and a binary logistic regression model analyzing the relationships between the SBWMP and the outcome variables at baseline (T0 and six months later (T1. Body weight, body mass index, and triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness were lower in the intervention group compared to the control group, although the differences were not statistically significant. There was a positive and direct impact of the SBWMP on students’ health knowledge and psychological impacts in the intervention group. The SBWMP extended to the home involving parents via mHealth tools is a feasible and acceptable program for this group with MIDs and their parents.
Jürgensen, N; Petersen, P E
This paper reviews the range of school-based approaches to oral health and describes what is meant by a Health Promoting School. The paper then reports the results of a World Health Organization global survey of school-based health promotion. Purposive sampling across 100 countries produced 108...... evaluations of school oral health projects spread across 61 countries around the globe. The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion noted that schools can provide a supportive environment for promoting children's health. However, while a number of well-known strategies are being applied, the full range of health...... promoting actions is not being used globally. A greater emphasis on integrated health promotion is advised in place of narrower, disease- or project-specific approaches. Recommendations are made for improving this situation, for further research and for specifying an operational framework for sharing...
Nagel, Liza; Scherer, David G.; Lee, William
Investigated middle and high school counselors' perceptions of adolescent health-compromising behaviors and motivations to intervene. Data from a survey based on protection motivation theory showed differences in counselors' perceptions of the severity of risk-taking behaviors. Perceptions were highly correlated with intentions to seek out…
Purpose: School health promotion is said to be most effective when implemented through a comprehensive, settings-based, whole-school approach. The purpose of this paper is to address the current lack of knowledge about the current state of teacher education for health promotion and its potential to further the development of settings-based…
In this podcast, Dr. William Jeynes, CDC Parenting Speaker Series guest, discusses the importance of parental involvement in children's academic success and lifelong health. Created: 8/3/2009 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD). Date Released: 8/3/2009.
Background: Among the issues that determine the performance of a child at school is health. In recognition of this, the Uganda government has embarked on a school health program for the success of universal primary education. Although dental health is an important component of school health there is little information on ...
Jul 1, 2013 ... scores (63.6%), while 96.2% of the private primary schools had poor health service evaluation scores. Conclusions: SHS are ... Key words: School Health Services, School Health Services Evaluation scale, Health knowledge, Nigeria ..... Since food and nutrition is an aspect of home economics, teaching.
Full Text Available It is known that there was strong relation between health status of primary school students and school records. A health promoting school was, whether all members of school community work together to provide students with an integrated positive experiences and structures which promote and protect their health.These include both formal and informal curriculum in health, creation of a safe and healthy school environment, provision of appropriate health services and involvement of family and wider commmunities was in efforts to promote health. The objectives of, this study is to develop a model of health promoting school at poor urban areas which included to measure student knowledge and attitude, nutrition intake, and role of school teacher in health promotion. A stratified mulitistage randomized pre-post test control groups design was used in this study. Duration of this study was 3 years (2001-2003 and the location at 9 primary schools (6 intervention schools and 3 control schools in Semarang, Surakarta, Denpasar municipalities and Kendal district. Results of this study showed that students knowledge and atitude toward health were improved significantly as well as nutrition intake at intervention groups. This improvement was caused by the role of school teachers in health promotion which was integrated in daily learning process. Based on this results a model of health promoting school has been developed. It recommends to implement this health promoting school model at wider areas and to provide school teachers completed with health promotion manuals. Keywords: model, health promoting school
Carlsson, Monica Susanne
by a theoretical perspective on health promotion agency and professional competencies to identify core competency domains and elements. This is followed by a discussion of focus, gaps, and links in conceptualizations of competency domains and elements. Findings: The synthesis identifies five core competency...... delineates an overall professional competency model for SHP, discusses the specific demands on professional competencies within this field in relation to this model, and addresses three critical gaps in the conceptualizations of competency. Keywords: Professionals, competence, school health promotion Paper......Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to contribute to the conceptualization and discussion of professional competencies needed for supporting the development of the whole-school approach in school health promotion (SHP). Design: The paper is based a conceptual synthesis of literature, guided...
Carlsson, Monica Susanne
Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to contribute to the conceptualization and discussion of professional competencies needed for supporting the development of the whole-school approach in school health promotion (SHP). Design: The paper is based a conceptual synthesis of literature, guided...... delineates an overall professional competency model for SHP, discusses the specific demands on professional competencies within this field in relation to this model, and addresses three critical gaps in the conceptualizations of competency. Keywords: Professionals, competence, school health promotion Paper...... by a theoretical perspective on health promotion agency and professional competencies to identify core competency domains and elements. This is followed by a discussion of focus, gaps, and links in conceptualizations of competency domains and elements. Findings: The synthesis identifies five core competency...
Intellectual and knowledge values on one side, and vital and physical values on the other, need to be balanced. A harmonious coexistence of these values requires synergy among the bodies that contribute to children education to avoid that the heath education activities cause overlapping, misunderstanding and conflicts between the two models that define children lifestyles: schools and families. Educational bodies understand that health education is key to enable people manage their bio-psychic, emotional, moral and mental resources. Lack of this ability means damage to the child and consequently a failure of the school and the society itself. In the latest decades, schools have been working in this direction, and they have redefined the national curricula integrating health education with specific references to food education and physical activity.
Leahy, Deana; Simovska, Venka
Purpose - This Special Issue aims to place the spotlight on educational research and its contribution to the field of school-based health and wellbeing promotion. The purpose is to bring together scholars from across the world to consider current developments in research on curricula, interventions......, policies and practices concerning health and wellbeing promotion and related professional development of teachers. Design/methodology/approach - The members of European Educational Research Association (EERA) Network Research on Health Education (Network 8) were invited to submit their conceptual...... or empirical work addressing processes and outcomes in school health and wellbeing promotion. Additionally, an open call for papers was published on the Health Education website and on EERA website. Following the double blind peer review process and editorial work by the guest editors and the editor in chief...
Danielsen, Dina; Bruselius-Jensen, Maria; Laitch, Daniel
Health promotion and education researchers and practitioners advocate for more democratic approaches to school-based health education, including participatory teaching methods and the promotion of a broad and positive concept of health and health knowledge, including aspects of the German...... educational concept of bildung. Although Denmark, from where the data of this article are derived, has instituted policies for such approaches, their implementation in practice faces challenges. Adopting a symbolic interactionist analytical framework this paper explores and defines two powerful institutional...... rationales connected to formal and informal social processes and institutional purposes of schools, namely conservatism and Neoliberalism. It is empirically described and argued how these institutional rationales discourage teachers and students from including a broad and positive concept of health...
Reddy, M; Singh, S
BACKGROUND. Oral health promotion is a cost-effective strategy that can be implemented at schools for the prevention of oral diseases. The importance and value of school-based interventions in children has been identified in South Africa (SA). Although oral health strategies include integrated school-based interventions, there is a lack of published evidence on whether these strategies have been translated into practice and whether these programmes have been evaluated. OBJECTIVE. To assess th...
Macnab, Andrew J.; Gagnon, Faith A.; Stewart, Donald
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to summarize a consensus statement generated on the current challenges, strategies, and potential of health promoting schools (HPS) at a 2011 colloquium at the Stellenbosch Institute for Advanced Study where 40 people from five continents came together to share their global and regional experience surrounding…
Brown, Jackie; Busfield, Robert; O'Shea, Alison; Sibthorpe, Joanne
This paper will discuss research undertaken within a London borough in 2009 that aimed to examine how Personal, Social, Health and Economic education (PSHE) was perceived and delivered. The ethos of schools was incorporated into the enquiry as a key determinate of both perception and delivery of PSHE. The findings are presented with particular…
Holmström, Malin Rising; Olofsson, Niclas; Asplund, Kenneth; Kristiansen, Lisbeth
Background To explore three school based transitions and their impact on positive self- reported- health (SRH), pre-school to elementary school (6–10 y), elementary school to junior high school (10-13y), and junior high school to upper secondary school/high school (13-16y), in a long-term longitudinal population based study. Methods The study followed three cohorts through one school transition each. A longitudinal study with data from 6693 Health Dialogue questionnaires were used. Data were ...
Swahn, Monica H; Palmier, Jane B; Benegas-Segarra, Agnes; Sinson, Fe A
A largely unaddressed issue in lower income countries and the Philippines, in particular, is the role of alcohol marketing and its potential link to early alcohol use among youth. This study examines the associations between exposures to alcohol marketing and Filipino youths' drinking prevalence and drunkenness. Cross-sectional analyses were used to examine the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) conducted in Philippines (2011). The self-administered questionnaires were completed by students primarily 13 to 16 years of age (N = 5,290). Three statistical models were computed to test the associations between alcohol marketing and alcohol use, while controlling for possible confounding factors. Alcohol marketing, specifically through providing free alcohol through a company representative, was associated with drunkenness (AOR: 1.84; 95% CI=1.06-3.21) among youths after controlling for demographic and psychosocial characteristics, peer environment, and risky behaviors. In addition, seeing alcohol ads in newspapers and magazines (AOR: 1.65, 95% CI=1.05-2.58) and seeing ads at sports events, concerts or fairs (AOR: 1.50, 95% CI =1.06-2.12) were significantly associated with increased reports of drunkenness. There are significant associations between alcohol marketing exposure and increased alcohol use and drunkenness among youth in the Philippines. These findings highlight the need to put policies into effect that restrict alcohol marketing practices as an important prevention strategy for reducing alcohol use and its dire consequences among vulnerable youth.
A significant relationship was found between primary schools' perceptions of ... for the implementation of change in schools, educators' job satisfaction, motivation, ... organisational climate; organisational health; productivity; school climate; ...
Ellertsson, Ann-Sofi; Garmy, Pernilla; Clausson, Eva K.
The aim of the study was to investigate Swedish school nurses' perceptions of schoolchildren's health. The study is based on two national surveys in which school nurses responded to questions about schoolchildren's health in 2015 (n = 181) and 2005 (n = 129). A statistical comparison showed that physical and mental health of schoolchildren in…
Adolescents make up about one-sixth of the world's population. Most of the healthy and detrimental habits are adopted during childhood and adolescence. In the mid 1980s, a cross-national Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) survey was created to increase information about the well-being, health behaviours and social context of young people by using standard school-based questionnaires adopted by the World Health Organization (WHO) European office. The European Network of Health-Promoting Schools (HPS) was commenced in 1992, followed by the establishment of the WHO Global School Health Initiative in 1995. The initiative aims to improve the health of students, school personnel, families and other members of the community through schools by mobilizing and strengthening health promotion and educational activities at local, national, regional and global levels. The HBSC and HPS programmes have been accepted as activity areas for the WHO Collaborating Centre for Primary Oral Health Care in Kuwait. This article describes the HBSC and the HPS programmes and discusses the importance of establishing these programmes in Kuwait. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Weare, Katherine; Markham, Wolfgang
There is a growing evidence base on what schools need to do to promote mental health effectively. There is strong evidence that they need first and foremost to use a whole school approach. This shapes the social contexts which promote mental health and which provide a backdrop of measures to prevent mental health disorders. In this context the targeting of those with particular needs and the work of the specialist services can be much more effective. Schools need to use positive models of mental health, which emphasise well being and competence not just illness--this will help overcome problems of stigma and denial and promote the idea of mental health as 'everyone's business'. The most effective programmes in schools which address mental health have the following characteristics: They provide a backdrop of universal provision to promote the mental health of all and then target those with special needs effectively. They are multi-dimensional and coherent. They create supportive climates that promote warmth, empathy, positive expectations and clear boundaries. They tackle mental health problems early when they first manifest themselves and then take a long term, developmental approach which does not expect immediate answers. They identify and target vulnerable and at risk groups and help people to acquire the skills and competences that underlie mental health. They involve end users and their families in ways that encourage a feeling of ownership and participation, and provide effective training for those who run the programmes, including helping them to promote their own mental health. Using these starting points, we need to develop a rigorous evidence-based approach on this issue. We also require the facilitation of the dissemination of such research findings while encouraging new and innovative approaches.
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Background: this study in the prospect of promoting adherence to the primary and secondary preven- tion programmes will research knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of the student population attending high schools regarding HPV infections and will also promote health education sessions based on peer education.
Methods: we carried out a cross-sectional kaP survey regarding HPV infection, HPV vaccination, and sexual health, of students and a peer educational intervention. To verify the effectiveness of peer educators in changing opinions and beliefs about HPV a self-com- pletion questionnaire was made and distributed pre (T1 and post (T2 peer educator intervention. The same questionnaires were assigned to the control group.
Results: the sample consisted of 900 students, mean age was 16.6±1.4, having relationship 34.4%. at T1, 64.6% of students in experimental group said that they knew HPV, 83.4% how it is transmitted and 71.1% HPV vaccination, 54.7% perceived dangerousness with significant gender-related difference. at T2 the percentages increased. at T1, 14.1% of females were vaccinated at T2 they were 17.5%. The main factors associated with the students’ propensity to vaccination were: having at least one sister; being in favour of vaccinations in general; knowing that the vaccine is aimed at preventing cervical cancer; and being aware that they could be infected by HPV.
Conclusion: both the HPV test and HPV vaccine need effective communication and monitoring of the spread of knowledge, especially among women identified as most in need of information and included in the age group at risk, in wich it is crucial to encourage informed choices. This underlines the need to plan adequate educational programmes....
Full Text Available Background: Puberty is a period of psychological, physical, mental, emotional and social growth that stability and development of personality occurs in this period. This study aimed to determine the effect of planned behavior theory on improving pubertal health behavior in female first grade high school students. Materials and Methods: A quasi-experimental intervention was conducted in female high school in Khamir city, Iran in 2015. One of the schools were randomly assigned to the control group and other to the experimental group. Using the formula sample, 60 students were selected from each school. Samples were evaluated in two stages through pre-test and two months later via post-test by administered questionnaire including questions about demographic characteristics and structures of planned behavior theory. The content of training was presented through lecture group discussion with teaching aids such as booklet and pamphlet. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS version 22. Results: The intervention group mean age at first menstrual period was 12.30 ± 0.84 years old and for control group was 12.25 ± 0.79 years old. The results showed that two months after the intervention, health behaviors, subjective norms, behavioral intention, perceived behavioral control, and attitude, were significantly higher than pre- intervention (P
Moloughney, Brent W; Skinner, Harvey A
Canada is in the midst of rejuvenation of public health organizations, mandates and infrastructure. Major planning exercises are underway regarding public health human resources, where academic institutions have a key role to play. To what extent could schools of public health be part of the solution? Many universities across Canada are considering or in the process of implementing MPH programs (some 17 programs planned and/or underway) and possible schools of public health. However, concerns are raised about critical mass, quality and standards. We encourage innovation and debate about ways to enhance collaborative and structural arrangements for education programs. A school of public health model might emerge from this, but so too might other models. Also, novel types of organizational structure need consideration. One example is a "strategic alliance" model that is broad-based, integrative and adaptive--building on the interdisciplinary focus needed for addressing public health concerns in the 21st century. From our perspective, the central question is: what (new) types of organizational structures and, equally important, collaborative networks will enable Canada to strengthen its public health workforce so that it may better address local and global challenges to public health?
Using documentary analysis, face-to-face interaction with school health desk officers and the author's work among schools the paper examines the concept of health promoting school (HPS) and discusses its way forward for Bayelsa State. The paper observes that despite the HPS concept signifying a school that constantly ...
Dwyer, John J M; Allison, Kenneth R; LeMoine, Karen N; Adlaf, Edward M; Goodman, Jack; Faulkner, Guy E J; Lysy, Daria C
Adolescents spend considerable time at school and thus it is important to understand their opportunities for school-based physical activity. This study surveyed Ontario secondary schools to identify the range of structured opportunities and their engagement by students. A questionnaire was mailed to key informants in 600 randomly selected secondary schools in Ontario, for which 474 respondents (79%) returned completed questionnaires. Curriculum-based physical education (PE) classes in grade nine were reported to be offered in all schools and these classes in grades 10, 11 and 12 were offered in almost all schools. Student enrollment in PE decreased from grades 9 to 12 (97.9%, 49.6%, 43.3% and 35.9%, respectively). Respondents reported that funding, timetable, facilities and resources made it somewhat difficult to implement the health and physical education curriculum in their schools. About two-thirds (65.5%) of the schools had an intramural program and 15.0% of students participated in it, whereas 97.2% of the schools had an inter-school sports program and 25.0% of students participated in it. Supervision issues made it difficult to provide intramural programs and funding made it difficult to provide inter-school sports programs. Although provision of physical activity opportunities in Ontario appears satisfactory, actual engagement by students is low. The results suggest that strategies to increase student participation in PE, intramural programs, and inter-school sports programs need further consideration.
Heck, Nicholas C.; Lindquist, Lauri M.; Machek, Greg R.; Cochran, Bryan N.
This study investigates the mediating role of school victimization in the relationship between lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) young adults' feelings of high school belonging and current mental health (both depression and general psychological distress) outcomes. A total of 145 LGBT young adults were recruited from college LGBT…
George, Patricia, Ed.; Potter, Eugenia Cooper, Ed.
School-based management (SBM), sometimes called site-based management, is fast becoming the hottest restructuring item in the arsenal of reformers, teachers' unions, governors, and legislators who want to change the traditional ways in which schools and school districts do business. This document comprises three main sections with contributions…
Borup, Ina; Holstein, Bjørn E
Students with high school satisfaction were more likely to reflect on and discuss the content of health dialogues with school health nurses, and more likely to follow the nurse's advice. This was demonstrated among 5205 students ages 11-15-years, in a random sample of schools in Denmark....
Lazor, Kathleen; Chapman, Nancy; Levine, Elyse
Background: Soyfoods provide healthful options for school breakfasts and lunches that are lower in saturated fat, cholesterol, fat, and calories and can help meet demands for vegetarian choices. Researchers tested acceptance of soy-based options substituted for popular lunch items with a diverse student population. Methods: Researchers conducted a…
Marshall, Jon; Pritchard, Ruie; Gunderson, Betsey
The purpose of this study was to determine the congruence among W. E. Deming's 14 points for Total Quality Management (TQM), the organizational health of school districts, and student achievement. Based on Kanter's (1983) concept of a Culture of Pride with a Climate of Success, healthy districts were defined as having an organizational culture…
Wee, Liang En; Yeo, Wei Xin; Tay, Clifton M; Lee, Jeannette J M; Koh, Gerald C H
We assessed the pedagogical value of a student-led community-based experiential learning project called the Public Health Screening (PHS) run by medical and nursing students of the National University of Singapore's Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (NUS YLLSoM). We conducted a cross-sectional study using a self-administered anonymised questionnaire on medical and nursing students who participated in PHS using the Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education (FIPSE) Survey Instrument. Participants also gave an overall score for their learning experience at the PHS. The participation rate was 93.1% (576/619) for medical students and 100% (37/37) for nursing students. All participants gave the PHS learning experience a high rating (median = 8 out of maximum of 10, inter-quartile range, 7 to 9). A majority of participants felt that PHS had helped them to improve across all domains surveyed. For medical students, those in preclinical years and females were independently more likely to feel that PHS had helped them to improve in communication skills, teamwork, ability to identify social issues, taking action, and gaining and applying their knowledge than those in clinical years and males. Improved ability to interact with patients (β=1.64, 95%CI, 1.01-2.27), appreciation of challenges to healthcare faced by Singaporeans from lower income groups (β=0.93, 95%CI, 0.49-1.37), thinking of others (β=0.70, 95%CI, 0.04-1.37) and tolerance of different people (β =0.63, 95%CI, 0.17-1.10) were strongly associated with the overall rating score. PHS was a positive learning experience in a wide range of domains for all students involved. This suggests that student-organised community-based experiential learning projects have potential educational value for both medical and nursing students.
McLennan, John D
Telehealth to schools may be a strategic approach to expand child mental health service delivery, however, there are only a few published examples. This report describes video-conferencing telehealth linkage attempts to schools to facilitate mental health consultation. A series of synchronous video-conferencing linkage strategies were attempted to connect a mental health consultation service to multiple schools in a Canadian setting. Consultation to support the implementation of the Daily Report Card, for students with attentional and behavioural problems, was the core content of this pilot linkage attempt. Synchronous video conference consultations were successfully delivered to six elementary schools across three school districts. Two of three linkage strategies were functional. One used existing health centre-based telehealth units to connect to school-based dedicated tablets with a video collaboration app and reliance on existing school Wi-Fi. A second used existing laptops in both the health and school system linked through a communication platform. A third connection, using 3G/4G hotspots to obviate the need to access school Wi-Fi, was deemed too expensive in this setting. The potential to use existing computer hardware to connect mental health providers and schools could facilitate scale-up. However, it is unknown whether mental health systems and school sectors will invest in such linkages and reorganize core mental health services to be delivered in this way.
Ecological School Counseling in High-Poverty Elementary Schools: Counselors' Backgrounds and Perceptions Regarding the Effects of Poverty, Importance of Advocacy and School-Based Mental Health Programs
Brown, La Vera C.
Elementary school counselors working in high-poverty schools experience several challenges due to the multiple barriers associated with serving children from low-SES families. Research shows that children from low-SES families are at risk of adverse consequences to their developmental and psychological progress due to negative environmental…
Hubbard, Kristie L.; Bandini, Linda G.; Folta, Sara C.; Wansink, Brian; Must, Aviva
Background: Evidenced-based health promotion programmes for youth with intellectual and developmental disabilities (I/DD) are notably absent. Barriers include a lack of understanding of how to adapt existing evidence-based programmes to their needs, maximize inclusion and support mutual goals of health and autonomy. Methods: We undertook a…
Torrens Armstrong, Anna M; McCormack Brown, Kelli R; Brindley, Roger; Coreil, Jeannine; McDermott, Robert J
This study explored school personnel's perceptions of school refusal, as it has been described as a "common educational and public health problem" that is less tolerated due to increasing awareness of the potential socioeconomic consequences of this phenomenon. In-depth interviews were conducted with school personnel at the middle school (N = 42), high school (N = 40), and district levels (N = 10). The findings focus on emergent themes from interviews with school health personnel (N = 12), particularly those themes related to their perceptions of and role in working with school-refusing students. Personnel, especially school health services staff, constructed a typification of the school-refusing student as "the sick student," which conceptualized student refusal due to reasons related to illness. Personnel further delineated sick students by whether they considered the illness legitimate. School health personnel referenced the infamous "frequent fliers" and "school phobics" within this categorization of students. Overarching dynamics of this typification included parental control, parental awareness, student locus of control, blame, and victim status. These typifications influenced how personnel reacted to students they encountered, particularly in deciding which students need "help" versus "discipline," thus presenting implications for students and screening of students. Overall, findings suggest school health personnel play a pivotal role in screening students who are refusing school as well as keeping students in school, underscoring policy that supports an increased presence of school health personnel. Recommendations for school health, prevention, and early intervention include the development of screening protocols and staff training. © 2011, American School Health Association.
Carpino, Rachel; Walker, Mary P.; Liu, Ying; Simmer-Beck, Melanie
This program evaluation examines the effectiveness of a school-based dental clinic. A repeated-measures design was used to longitudinally examine secondary data from participants (N = 293). Encounter intensity was developed to normalize data. Multivariate analysis of variance and Kruskal-Wallis test were used to investigate the effect of encounter…
Frank, Jennifer L.; Bose, Bidyut; Schrobenhauser-Clonan, Alex
This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of a universal yoga-based social-emotional wellness promotion program, Transformative Life Skills, on indicators of adolescent emotional distress, prosocial behavior, and attitudes toward violence in a high-risk sample. Participants included 49 students attending an alternative education school in an…
McLellan, L; Rissel, C; Donnelly, N; Bauman, A
The relationship between the school environment and health has infrequently been examined. This study sought to examine the association between school students' perceptions of their school environment, teachers' and peers' support and their health behaviours. A cross sectional descriptive survey by supervised self-administration was conducted in 1996 based on the international WHO collaborative survey of school children's health and lifestyle (the HBSC Study) and extended in an Australian setting. Randomly sampled primary and secondary schools from Catholic, Independent and Government education sectors throughout New South Wales (NSW), Australia, were invited to participate. The final sample included 3918 school students attending Year 6 (primary school), Year 8 and Year 10 (high school) from 115 schools. The main outcome measures were self-reported health status and 7 health behaviours (tobacco use, alcohol use, physical activity, dental hygiene, nutritional intake, seat belt and bicycle helmet use). Independent variables included student perceptions of the school environment, perceptions of teachers' and peers' support. Girls, Year 6 students and students who have less than $19 a week to spend were significantly more likely to have positive perceptions towards their school environment, teacher(s) and peers. Students who had positive perceptions regarding their school environment and perceived their teachers as supportive were significantly more likely to engage in health promoting behaviours adjusting for age, sex and average weekly pocket money. A supportive peer environment was not associated with positive health behaviour. Health promotion practitioners need to consider the impact of the school environment on health behaviours of school students. In particular, practitioners should consider intervention models that improve the school environment as a key strategy within a health promoting school.
Woode, Maame Esi
The goal of this study was to look at the educational spill-over effects of health insurance on schooling with a focus on the Rwandan Community Based Health Insurance Programme, the Mutual Health Insurance scheme. Using a two-person general equilibrium overlapping generations model, this paper theoretically analyses the possible effect of health insurance on the relationship between parental health shocks and child schooling. Individuals choose whether or not they want to incur a medical cost by seeking care in order to reduce the effect of health shocks on their labour market availability and productivity. The theoretical results show that, health shocks negatively affect schooling irrespective of insurance status. However, if the health shock is severe (incapacitating) or sudden in nature, there is a discernible mitigating effect of health insurance on the negative impact of parental ill health on child schooling. The results are tested empirically using secondary data from the third Integrated Household Living Conditions Survey (EICV) for Rwanda, collected in 2011. A total of 2401 children between the ages of 13 and 18 are used for the analysis. This age group is selected due to the age of compulsory education in Rwanda. Based on average treatment effect on treated we find a statistically significant difference in attendance between children with MHI affiliated parents and those with uninsured parents of about 0.044. The negative effect of a father being severely ill is significant only for uninsured household. For the case of the mother, this effect is felt by female children with uninsured parents only when the illness is sudden. The observed effects are more pronounced for older children. While the father's ill health (sever or sudden) significantly and negatively affects their working hours, health insurance plays appears to increase their working hours. The effects of health insurance extend beyond health outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights
Daly, Brian P; Burke, Robert; Hare, Isadora; Mills, Carrie; Owens, Celeste; Moore, Elizabeth; Weist, Mark D
The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 was signed into law by President George W. Bush in January 2002 and is regarded as the most significant federal education policy initiative in a generation. The primary focus of the No Child Left Behind Act is on promoting educational success for all children; however, the legislation also contains opportunities to advance school-based mental health. Unfortunately, the complexities of the provisions of the No Child Left Behind Act have made it difficult for educators, stakeholders, and mental health professionals to understand the legal and practical interface between No Child Left Behind and the school mental health movement. Therefore, the goals of this article are to (1) raise awareness about the challenges educators and school mental health professionals face as a result of the implementation of No Child Left Behind and (2) provide ideas and recommendations to advance the interface between No Child Left Behind and school mental health, which will support key provisions of the act and the growth of the field.
Chilton, Roy; Pearson, Mark; Anderson, Rob
Purpose: Schools are an important setting for a wide variety of activities to promote health. The purpose of this paper is to map the different types of health promotion programmes and activities in schools, to estimate the amount of published evaluations of health promotion within UK schools, and to identify any provisional "candidate…
Wilson, F. Robert; Tang, Mei; Schiller, Kelly; Sebera, Kerry
Mental health problems among children in schools are on the increase. To exercise due diligence in their responsibility to monitor and promote mental health among our nation's children, school counselors may learn from triage systems employed in hospitals, clinics, and mental health centers. The School Counselor's Triage Model provides school…
Emihovich, Catherine; Herrington, Carolyn D.
This book examines practical, cultural, and political implications of placing health service programs in public schools, detailing three cases of Florida school districts, where a controversial statewide initiative for health services in schools recently went into effect. The plan supports programs to promote the health of medically underserved…
Liang, Bryan A.
Health care reform efforts in both the Clinton and Obama administrations have attempted to address college and university health. Yet, although the world of health care delivery has almost universally evolved to managed care, school health programs have not. In general, school-sponsored health plans do little to improve access and have adopted…
Hager, Erin R; Rubio, Diana S; Eidel, G Stewart; Penniston, Erin S; Lopes, Megan; Saksvig, Brit I; Fox, Renee E; Black, Maureen M
Written local wellness policies (LWPs) are mandated in school systems to enhance opportunities for healthy eating/activity. LWP effectiveness relies on school-level implementation. We examined factors associated with school-level LWP implementation. Hypothesized associations included system support for school-level implementation and having a school-level wellness team/school health council (SHC), with stronger associations among schools without disparity enrollment (majority African-American/Hispanic or low-income students). Online surveys were administered: 24 systems (support), 1349 schools (LWP implementation, perceived system support, SHC). The state provided school demographics. Analyses included multilevel multinomial logistic regression. Response rates were 100% (systems)/55.2% (schools). Among schools, 44.0% had SHCs, 22.6% majority (≥75%) African-American/Hispanic students, and 25.5% majority (≥75%) low-income (receiving free/reduced-price meals). LWP implementation (17-items) categorized as none = 36.3%, low (1-5 items) = 36.3%, high (6+ items) = 27.4%. In adjusted models, greater likelihood of LWP implementation was observed among schools with perceived system support (high versus none relative risk ratio, RRR = 1.63, CI: 1.49, 1.78; low versus none RRR = 1.26, CI: 1.18, 1.36) and SHCs (high versus none RRR = 6.8, CI: 4.07, 11.37; low versus none RRR = 2.24, CI: 1.48, 3.39). Disparity enrollment did not moderate associations (p > .05). Schools with perceived system support and SHCs had greater likelihood of LWP implementation, with no moderating effect of disparity enrollment. SHCs/support may overcome LWP implementation obstacles related to disparities. © 2016, American School Health Association.
Full Text Available Background: School Nursing embraces the pupil communities and school life in many a country across the world. This article focuses onGreek reality and analyses the Nurses’ role in emergency health care-related issues from a legal perspective in the last thirty years (1982-2011. Presented are the evolution of School Nursing in Greece, Legal Provisions pertaining to it, Professional Duties, and the work ofSchool Nurses, keeping abreast of existing legal bibliography including the latest Act, which introduces the description of duties vis-à-visemergency health care.Aim: This study links Greek School Nurses with Emergency Health Care in the School Environment. It is aimed at updating and raisingawareness about further legal regulation of emergency care procedures at Schools and constructing a model to be compared to the currentlegislation and practice in other countries.Methods: Systematic review of laws and review of articles published in the last 30 years (1982-2011 in scientific journals,academic databases included in HEAL-LING, SAGE, ELSEVIER, WILSON, SCIENCEDIRECT, MEDLINE, PUBMED,PsycINFO, Cochrane, EMBASE, SCOPUS and CINAHL having as search criteria and key words the terms of Greeklanguage «Σχολική Νοσηλευτική», (“School Nursing” [MeSH], «Ειδική Αγωγή» (“Special Education” [MeSH],«Επείγουσα Φροντίδα» (“Emergency Care” [MeSH], «Νοσηλευτική Νομοθεσία» (“Law and Nursing Ethics” [MeSH],«Άτομα με Ειδικές Ανάγκες» (“Children with Special Needs” [MeSH], «Πρώτες Βοήθεις» («First Aid» [MeSH].Discussion: School Nursing in Greece is only limited to Special Education whereas health care procedures are rather unclear from a legalpoint of view. Further clinical training, wider roles for nurses in emergency care, and the introduction of School Nurses in all Schools and ofa legal framework supporting them may be some of the
Naylor, Patti-Jean; Nettlefold, Lindsay; Race, Douglas; Hoy, Christa; Ashe, Maureen C; Wharf Higgins, Joan; McKay, Heather A
Implementation science is an emerging area in physical activity (PA) research. We sought to establish the current state of the evidence related to implementation of school-based PA models to explore 1) the relationship between implementation and health outcomes, and 2) factors that influence implementation. We searched 7 electronic databases (1995-2014) and included controlled studies of school-based PA programmes for healthy youth (6-18 y) measuring at least one physical health-related outcome. For objective 1, studies linked implementation level to student-level health outcome(s). For objective 2, studies reported factors associated with implementation. There was substantial variability in how health outcomes and implementation were assessed. Few studies linked implementation and health outcomes (n=15 interventions). Most (11/15) reported a positive relationship between implementation and at least one health outcome. Implementation factors were reported in 29 interventions. Of 22 unique categories, time was the most prevalent influencing factor followed by resource availability/quality and supportive school climate. Implementation evaluation supports scale-up of effective school-based PA interventions and thus population-level change. Our review serves as a call to action to 1) address the link between implementation and outcome within the school-based PA literature and 2) improve and standardize definitions and measurement of implementation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Xinghui; Xuan, Xin; Chen, Fumei; Zhang, Cai; Luo, Yuhan; Wang, Yun
Perceptions of school safety have an important effect on students' development. Based on the model of "context-process-outcomes," we examined school safety as a context variable to explore how school safety at the school level affected students' self-esteem. We used hierarchical linear modeling to examine the link between school safety at the school level and students' self-esteem, including school liking as a mediator. The data were from the National Children's Study of China (NCSC), in which 6618 fourth- to fifth-grade students in 79 schools were recruited from 100 counties in 31 provinces in China. Multilevel mediation analyses showed that the positive relationship between school safety at the school level and self-esteem was partially mediated by school liking, controlling for demographics at both student and school levels. Furthermore, a sex difference existed in the multilevel mediation model. For boys, school liking fully mediated the relationship between school safety at the school level and self-esteem. However, school liking partially mediated the relationship between school safety at the school level and self-esteem among girls. School safety should receive increasing attention from policymakers because of its impact on students' self-esteem. © 2016, American School Health Association.
Background A largely unaddressed issue in lower income countries and the Philippines, in particular, is the role of alcohol marketing and its potential link to early alcohol use among youth. This study examines the associations between exposures to alcohol marketing and Filipino youths’ drinking prevalence and drunkenness. Methods Cross-sectional analyses were used to examine the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) conducted in Philippines (2011). The self-administered questionnaires were completed by students primarily 13 to 16 years of age (N = 5290). Three statistical models were computed to test the associations between alcohol marketing and alcohol use, while controlling for possible confounding factors. Results Alcohol marketing, specifically through providing free alcohol through a company representative, was associated with drunkenness (AOR: 1.84; 95% CI = 1.06–3.21) among youths after controlling for demographic and psychosocial characteristics, peer environment, and risky behaviors. In addition, seeing alcohol ads in newspapers and magazines (AOR: 1.65, 95% CI = 1.05–2.58) and seeing ads at sports events, concerts or fairs (AOR: 1.50, 95% CI = 1.06–2.12) were significantly associated with increased reports of drunkenness. Conclusions There are significant associations between alcohol marketing exposure and increased alcohol use and drunkenness among youth in the Philippines. These findings highlight the need to put policies into effect that restrict alcohol marketing practices as an important prevention strategy for reducing alcohol use and its dire consequences among vulnerable youth. PMID:24325264
Lowe, Janet; Cagginello, Joan; Compton, Linda
Children come to school with a variety of health conditions, varying from moderate health issues to multiple, severe chronic health illnesses that have a profound and direct impact on their ability to learn. The registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as school nurse) provides medically necessary services in the school setting to improve health outcomes and promote academic achievement. The nursing services provided are reimbursable services in other health care settings, such as hospitals, clinics, and home care settings. The National Association of School Nurses (NASN) believes that school nursing services that are reimbursable nursing services in other health care systems should also be reimbursable services in the school setting, while maintaining the same high quality care delivery standards. Traditionally, local and state tax revenues targeted to fund education programs have paid for school nursing health services. School nurses are in a strategic position to advocate for improving clinical processes to better fit with community health care providers and to align reimbursements with proposed changes. Restructuring reimbursement programs will enable health care funding streams to assist in paying for school nursing services delivered to students in the school setting. Developing new innovative health financing opportunities will help to increase access, improve quality, and reduce costs. The goal is to promote a comprehensive and cost-effective health care delivery model that integrates schools, families, providers, and communities.
Christian, Danielle; Todd, Charlotte; Davies, Helen; Rance, Jaynie; Stratton, Gareth; Rapport, Frances; Brophy, Sinead
Schools are repeatedly utilised as a key setting for health interventions. However, the translation of effective research findings to the school setting can be problematic. In order to improve effective translation of future interventions, it is imperative key challenges and facilitators of implementing health interventions be understood from a school's perspective. Nineteen semi-structured interviews were conducted in primary schools (headteachers n = 16, deputy headteacher n = 1, healthy school co-ordinator n = 2). Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis. The main challenges for schools in implementing health interventions were; government-led academic priorities, initiative overload, low autonomy for schools, lack of staff support, lack of facilities and resources, litigation risk and parental engagement. Recommendations to increase the application of interventions into the school setting included; better planning and organisation, greater collaboration with schools and external partners and elements addressing sustainability. Child-centred and cross-curricular approaches, inclusive whole school approaches and assurances to be supportive of the school ethos were also favoured for consideration. This work explores schools' perspectives regarding the implementation of health interventions and utilises these thoughts to create guidelines for developing future school-based interventions. Recommendations include the need to account for variability between school environments, staff and pupils. Interventions with an element of adaptability were preferred over the delivery of blanket fixed interventions. Involving schools in the developmental stage would add useful insights to ensure the interventions can be tailored to best suit each individual schools' needs and improve implementation.
Cowan, Katherine C.; Vaillancourt, Kelly
The tragedy at Sandy Hook Elementary School, Newtown, CT (USA) has brought the conversation about how to reduce violence, make schools safer, improve school climate, and increase access to mental health services to the forefront of the national conversation. Advocating for comprehensive initiatives to address school safety, school climate, and…
Sherman, Jane; Muehlhoff, Ellen
School-based health and nutrition interventions in developing countries aim at improving children's nutrition and learning ability. In addition to the food and health inputs, children need access to education that is relevant to their lives, of good quality, and effective in its approach. Based on evidence from the Zambia Nutrition Education in Basic Schools (NEBS) project, this article examines whether and to what extent school-based health and nutrition education can contribute directly to improving the health and nutrition behaviors of school children. Initial results suggest that gains in awareness, knowledge and behavior can be achieved among children and their families with an actively implemented classroom program backed by teacher training and parent involvement, even in the absence of school-based nutrition and health services.
Nijs, Miesje M; Bun, Clothilde J E; Tempelaar, Wanda M; de Wit, Niek J; Burger, Huibert; Plevier, Carolien M; Boks, Marco P M
School environment is an important determinant of psychosocial function and may also be related to mental health. We therefore investigated whether perceived school safety, a simple measure of this environment, is related to mental health problems. In a population-based sample of 11,130 secondary school students, we analysed the relationship of perceived school safety with mental health problems using multiple logistic regression analyses to adjust for potential confounders. Mental health problems were defined using the clinical cut-off of the self-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. School safety showed an exposure-response relationship with mental health problems after adjustment for confounders. Odds ratios increased from 2.48 ("sometimes unsafe") to 8.05 ("very often unsafe"). The association was strongest in girls and young and middle-aged adolescents. Irrespective of the causal background of this association, school safety deserves attention either as a risk factor or as an indicator of mental health problems.
Horta, Rogério Lessa; Andersen, Cristine Scattolin; Pinto, Raquel Oliveira; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Oliveira-Campos, Maryane; Andreazzi, Marco Antonio Ratzsch de; Malta, Deborah Carvalho
Evaluate the school environments to which ninth-year students are exposed in Brazil and in the five regions of the country according to health promotion guidelines. Cross-sectional study from 2012, with a representative sample of Brazil and its macroregions. We interviewed ninth-year schoolchildren and managers of public and private schools. We proposed a score of health promotion in the school environment (EPSAE) and estimated the distribution of school members according to this score. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) were used, by ordinal regression, to determine the schoolchildren and schools with higher scores, according to the independent variables. A student is more likely to attend a school with a higher EPSAE in the South (OR = 2.80; 95%CI 2.67-2.93) if the school is private (OR = 4.52; 95%CI 4.25-4.81) and located in a state capital, as well as if the student is 15 years of age or older, has a paid job, or has parents with higher education. The inequalities among the country's regions and schools are significant, demonstrating the need for resources and actions that promote greater equity. Avaliar os ambientes escolares aos quais estão expostos estudantes do nono ano no Brasil e nas cinco regiões do país segundo diretrizes de promoção da saúde. Estudo transversal, de 2012, com amostra representativa do Brasil e suas macrorregiões. Escolares do nono ano e gestores de escolas públicas e privadas foram entrevistados. Foi proposto o Escore de Promoção de Saúde no Ambiente Escolar (EPSAE) e foi estimada a distribuição dos escolares segundo esse escore e segundo odds ratio (OR) brutas e ajustadas, por regressão ordinal, para exposição dos escolares a escolas com escores mais elevados, segundo as variáveis independentes. Um escolar tem mais probabilidade de frequentar escola com EPSAE elevado na região Sul (OR = 2,80; IC95% 2,67-2,93) se a escola for privada privada (OR = 4,52; IC95% 4,25-4,81) e estiver localizada em capital de estado e se o
Bryan, Hazel; Burstow, Bob
The notion of the "teacher as researcher" has been in the education lexicon since the mid-1970s. School-based research, we suggest, is currently enjoying something of a renaissance, flourishing within the emerging, complex school landscape. This empirical research engages with 25 school leaders to explore the ways in which…
Powers, Joelle D
Legislation has been passed that holds schools increasingly accountable for the proficiency of all students, including those with mental health problems. A critical obstacle impeding the ability of schools to effectively support students is the lack of access to quick, pre-screened, and organized information about scientifically-supported interventions that effectively address youth mental health problems. A new mental health best practices database was developed and made available online that provides access to free and user-friendly information about evidence-based interventions for use in schools. School staff will be better able to meet accountability demands of legislation and to effectively respond to student mental health problems.
A L-Dahnaim, Layla; Said, Hana; Salama, Rasha; Bella, Hassan; Malo, Denise
The school nurse plays a crucial role in the provision of comprehensive health services to students. This role encompasses both health and educational goals. The perception of the school nurse's role and its relation to health promotion is fundamental to the development of school nursing. This study aimed to determine the perception of school nurses and principals toward the role of school nurses in providing school health services in Qatar. A cross-sectional study was carried out among all school nurses (n=159) and principals (n=159) of governmental schools in Qatar. The participants were assessed for their perception toward the role of the school nurse in the school using 19-Likert-type scaled items Questionnaire. The response rates were 100% for nurses and 94% for principals. The most commonly perceived roles of the school nurse by both nurses and principals were 'following up of chronically ill students', 'providing first aid', and 'referral of students with health problems', whereas most of the roles that were not perceived as school nurse roles were related to student academic achievements. School nurses and principals agreed on the clinical/medical aspects of nurses' role within schools, but disagreed on nurses' involvement in issues related to the school performance of students. The study recommends raising awareness of school principals on the school nursing role, especially in issues related to the school performance of students.