WorldWideScience

Sample records for school based friendship

  1. Daily School Context of Adolescents' Single Best Friendship and Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkow, Melissa R; Rickert, Nicolette P; Cullen, Laura E

    2017-01-01

    Research on adolescent best friendships typically focuses on school-based friendships, ignoring important differences between classroom-based and out-of-school friendships. With data from 156 ninth-grade students, many of whom named more than 1 best friend across the 14-day period, the authors examined associations between the daily school context of one's best friendship and adjustment. Benefits of in-grade best friendships were found in academic engagement when a composite was assessed across the 2-week period. Daily findings were more complex and were different between weekends and school days. Out-of-grade best friends were named more frequently on weekends, and on weekend days in which they named an out-of-school best friend participants spent more time with that friend but felt like less of a good student. Implications for our understanding of friendship context and for the measurement of friendship itself are discussed.

  2. Friendship in school-age boys with autism spectrum disorders: A meta-analytic summary and developmental, process-based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, Jenna L; Gates, Jacquelyn A; Lerner, Matthew D

    2016-06-01

    Friendship-making is considered a well-established domain of deficit for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD; American Psychiatric Association, 2013), with this population sometimes described as incapable of making friends. However, the majority of children with ASD indicate a desire for friends, and many report having friends. To what degree, then, do youth with ASD succeed in achieving friendships with peers? If and when they do succeed, by what means do these friendships emerge relative to models of typically developing (TD) youths' friendships? To address these questions, we first meta-analyzed the descriptive friendship literature (peer-reported sociometrics, self-report, parent-report) among school-age boys with ASD. Using random effects models, we found that youth with ASD do make friends according to peers and parents (Hedges's g > 2.84). However, self-reported friendship quality (Hedges's g = -1.09) and parent- and peer-reported quantity (Hedges's g friendship in TD youth (Hartup & Stevens, 1997). We then present a model that synthesizes these domains through the construct of social information processing speed, and thereby present the first developmental, process-based model of friendship development among youth with ASD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Associations within school-based same-sex friendship networks of children’s physical activity and sedentary behaviours: a cross-sectional social network analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Salway, Ruth E.; Sebire, Simon J.; Solomon-Moore, Emma; Thompson, Janice L.; Jago, Russell

    2018-01-01

    Background Physical activity in children is associated with better physical and mental health but many children do not meet physical activity guidelines. Friendship groups are potentially an important influence on children’s physical activity and sedentary time. This paper examines the association between children of physical activity and sedentary time in school-based same-sex friendship networks, for both moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time. Moreover, ...

  4. Associations within school-based same-sex friendship networks of children's physical activity and sedentary behaviours: a cross-sectional social network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salway, Ruth E; Sebire, Simon J; Solomon-Moore, Emma; Thompson, Janice L; Jago, Russell

    2018-02-21

    Physical activity in children is associated with better physical and mental health but many children do not meet physical activity guidelines. Friendship groups are potentially an important influence on children's physical activity and sedentary time. This paper examines the association between children of physical activity and sedentary time in school-based same-sex friendship networks, for both moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time. Moreover, considering the methodological challenges of conducting and interpreting these analyses, we provide examples of how to analyse these data and interpret results to encourage further work in the area. Accelerometer data for 1223 children, aged 8-9 years, were collected in 2015-2016 and analysed in 2017. Mean accelerometer minutes of MVPA and sedentary time were calculated. Children named up to four school friends and same-sex school-based friendship networks were constructed. Network models, which include correlation between friends, were fitted by sex. Both MVPA and sedentary time were found to be associated via the friendship networks, for both boys and girls. The network autocorrelation was 0.21 (95% CI: 0.15 to 0.26) for boys' MVPA, and 0.14 (95% CI: 0.07 to 0.21) for sedentary time. Network autocorrelation between girls was weaker, with 0.13 (95% CI: 0.06 to 0.19) for MVPA and 0.11 (95% CI: 0.05 to 0.17) for sedentary time. Physical activity and sedentary time of boys and girls are associated with the physical activity and sedentary time respectively of others within same-sex friendship networks, and these associations are comparable to other known factors. In this study, the correlation between friends was stronger for boys than girls, and stronger for MVPA than for sedentary time. These findings suggest that friendship networks play a part in understanding children's physical activity and sedentary time and could play a valuable role in developing effective interventions.

  5. Friendship Experiences of Participants in a University Based Transition Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Maya; Cranston-Gingras, Ann; Jang, Seung-Eun

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the nature of friendships of 14 students with intellectual and developmental disabilities participating in a university-based transition program in the United States. The transition program is a bridge between high school and adulthood, designed to foster students' self-esteem and self-confidence by providing them with training…

  6. Bangladeshi Girls' Friendships in an English Primary School Locale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, James G.

    Despite England's long history of research on children's friendships, little is known of what it is like to be or have friends or how developing conceptions of friendship become embedded in children's social lives in increasingly culturally diverse English primary schools. This study, following an extensive search of the literature, explored…

  7. Animal ethics based on friendship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fröding, B.; Peterson, M.B.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses some aspects of animal ethics from an Aristotelian virtue ethics point of view. Because the notion of friendship (philia) is central to Aristotle's ethical theory, the focus of the article is whether humans and animals can be friends. It is argued that new empirical findings

  8. Ethnic ingroup friendships in schools : Testing the by-product hypothesis in England, Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, Sanne|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/35742574X; Maas, Ineke|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075229390; van Tubergen, Frank|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/271429534

    2014-01-01

    This study set out to examine to what extent ethnic ingroup friendship in secondary school classes are a by-product of cultural and socioeconomic ingroup friendship. Based on homophily theory, we expected similar opinions, leisure activities, religion, risk behaviour and socioeconomic factors to

  9. Ethnic ingroup friendships in schools: testing the by-product hypothesis in England, Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, S.; Maas, I.; van Tubergen, F.

    2014-01-01

    This study set out to examine to what extent ethnic ingroup friendship in secondary school classes are a by-product of cultural and socioeconomic ingroup friendship. Based on homophily theory, we expected similar opinions, leisure activities, religion, risk behaviour and socioeconomic factors to

  10. Friendship Concept and Community Network Structure among Elementary School and University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Hernández, Ana María; Viga-de Alva, Dolores; Huerta-Quintanilla, Rodrigo; Canto-Lugo, Efrain; Laviada-Molina, Hugo; Molina-Segui, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    We use complex network theory to study the differences between the friendship concepts in elementary school and university students. Four friendship networks were identified from surveys. Three of these networks are from elementary schools; two are located in the rural area of Yucatán and the other is in the urban area of Mérida, Yucatán. We analyzed the structure and the communities of these friendship networks and found significant differences among those at the elementary schools compared with those at the university. In elementary schools, the students make friends mainly in the same classroom, but there are also links among different classrooms because of the presence of siblings and relatives in the schools. These kinds of links (sibling-friend or relative-friend) are called, in this work, "mixed links". The classification of the communities is based on their similarity with the classroom composition. If the community is composed principally of students in different classrooms, the community is classified as heterogeneous. These kinds of communities appear in the elementary school friendship networks mainly because of the presence of relatives and siblings. Once the links between siblings and relatives are removed, the communities resembled the classroom composition. On the other hand, the university students are more selective in choosing friends and therefore, even when they have friends in the same classroom, those communities are quite different to the classroom composition. Also, in the university network, we found heterogeneous communities even when the presence of sibling and relatives is negligible. These differences made up a topological structure quite different at different academic levels. We also found differences in the network characteristics. Once these differences are understood, the topological structure of the friendship network and the communities shaped in an elementary school could be predicted if we know the total number of students

  11. Emotion understanding, pictorial representations of friendship and reciprocity in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laghi, Fiorenzo; Baiocco, Roberto; Di Norcia, Anna; Cannoni, Eleonora; Baumgartner, Emma; Bombi, Anna Silvia

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between emotional understanding, friendship representation and reciprocity in school-aged children. Two hundred and fifty-one Caucasian 6-year-old children (111 males and 140 females) took part in the study. The Test of Emotion Comprehension (TEC) and the Pictorial Assessment of Interpersonal Relationships (PAIR) were used. Children having a reciprocal friendship and children having a unilateral friendship with a child named as their "best friend" were compared on the emotional understanding task and on their pictorial representations of friendship. Multilevel analyses indicated that friendship status effects were not influenced by classroom-level differences. Results showed that children with reciprocal friendships drew themselves as more similar to and more cohesive with their best friends, and they showed better understanding of emotions, than children having a unilateral friendship. Finally, the implications of these findings for theoretical and empirical research development on friendship are discussed.

  12. Gateways to Friendships among Students who use AAC in Mainstream Primary School

    OpenAIRE

    Østvik, Jørn; Ytterhus, Borgunn; Balandin, Susan

    2018-01-01

    This study explores the personal characteristics that influence the establishment of friendships among seven students who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) and fellow students in primary school. Students using AAC, fellow students, parents, and school staff were interviewed about how the students established friendships at school. The results revealed that students using AAC and fellow students exerted agency in friendship establishment by showing clear preferences for peop...

  13. Single-Sex Schooling: Friendships, Dating, and Sexual Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gu; Wong, Wang Ivy

    2018-05-01

    Single-sex schooling has been controversial for decades. The current study investigated the differences in friendships, dating, and past, present, and ideal sexual orientation, between 207 college students who attended single-sex secondary schools and 249 college students who attended coeducational secondary schools in Hong Kong, controlling for personal characteristics such as socioeconomic status. We found that, compared to graduates of coeducational schools, graduates of single-sex schools reported a different gender composition in intimate friendships favoring the same sex, less romantic involvement with other-sex close friends, older age at first date, fewer boyfriends or girlfriends, and more past same-sex sexuality. In contrast, we found no significant differences in the interactions with same-sex versus other-sex friends, most aspects of past or present dating engagement, or self-reported present or ideal sexual orientation. These findings give insight into the interpersonal outcomes of single-sex schooling and fill a gap in previous research which has focused on academic achievement and gender role stereotypes.

  14. Friendship and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Evans

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Friendships are a powerful healing force for physical and mental illness. The study of the role of friendship for cancer patients has been relatively neglected and academic evidence-based studies are lacking. A literature review of research was performed linking cancer with friendships and social support (other than that provided by family members or members of medical staff. Some studies report the importance of friendships formed amongst young children and often in a school context; fewer studies have focused on friendships amongst adults with cancer. Direct links between friendships formed and/or maintained amongst cancer patients and their precise effects on an individual’s battle with cancer have yet to be explored.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/rhc.v6i2.1171

  15. Friendship Quality and School Achievement: A Longitudinal Analysis during Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchetti, Giulia; Candela, Filippo; Sacconi, Beatrice; Rabaglietti, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal relationship between friendship quality (positive and negative) and school achievement among 228 school-age children (51% girls, M = 8.09, SD = 0.41). A three-wave cross-lagged analysis was used to determine the direction of influence between these domains across school years. Findings revealed that: (a) school…

  16. Popularity Breeds Contempt: The Evolution of Reputational Dislike Relations and Friendships in High School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Kayo; Snijders, Tom A B; Valente, Thomas W

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we examined the dynamics of the perception of "dislike" ties (reputational dislike) among adolescents within the contexts of friendship, perceived popularity, substance use, and Facebook use. Survey data were collected from a longitudinal sample of 238 adolescents from the 11th and 12th grades in one California high school. We estimated stochastic actor-based network dynamic models, using reports of reputational dislike, friendships, and perceived popularity, to identify factors associated with the maintenance and generation reputational dislike ties. The results showed that high-status adolescents and more frequent Facebook users tended to become perceived as or stay disliked by their peers over time. There was a tendency for friendships to promote the creation and maintenance of reputational disliking but not vice versa. Adolescents tended to perceive others as disliked when their friends also perceived them as disliked. There was no evidence that either cigarette smoking or drinking alcohol affected reputational dislike dynamics. This study highlights the important role that the hierarchical peer system, online peer context, and friendships play in driving information diffusion of negative peer relations among adolescents.

  17. A Pedagogy of Friendship: Young Children's Friendships and How Schools Can Support Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Caron; Nutbrown, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    Children's friendships are often neglected by teachers and researchers. This phenomenological study conducted with seven children aged five and six years explores young children's perceptions of their everyday friendship experiences. This multi-method study used role play interviews, drawings and persona doll scenarios to consider children's…

  18. Ethnic Segregation in Friendship Networks : Studies of its Determinants in English, German, Dutch, and Swedish School Classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, S.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent interethnic friendship is an important indicator of social cohesion in multi-ethnic societies. Therefore, this dissertation examines individual, network, and contextual explanations for ethnic segregation in adolescent friendship networks in school classes. More specifically, the

  19. Psychosocial and Friendship Characteristics of Bully/Victim Subgroups in Korean Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yoolim

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated psychosocial and friendship characteristics of Korean children who engaged in bully/victim subgroups among their peer groups. The participants were 605 elementary school students in Bucheon City, Korea. The participants completed a peer nomination inventory as well as loneliness and social anxiety scales. Friendship quality…

  20. Children's Friendships in Diverse Primary Schools: Teachers and the Processes of Policy Enactment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Carol; Neal, Sarah; Iqbal, Humera

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on data from a project exploring children's and adults' friendships across social class and ethnic difference, this paper focuses on the enactment of national and institutional policy around children's friendships as realized in three primary schools in diverse urban areas in London. Through a focus on the way in which social and emotional…

  1. Intra- and Interracial Best Friendships during Middle School: Links to Social and Emotional Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Rebecca Kang; Way, Niobe; Hughes, Diane

    2012-01-01

    This study examined patterns of intra- and interracial best friendships during middle school and their associations with social and emotional well-being. We hypothesized that intraracial friendships would be beneficial for racial or ethnic minority youth because such relationships provide protection and solidarity in a discriminatory society.…

  2. Academic Coping, Friendship Quality, and Student Engagement Associated with Student Quality of School Life: A Partial Least Square Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thien, Lei Mee; Razak, Nordin Abd

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to examine an untested research model that explains the direct- and indirect influences of Academic Coping, Friendship Quality, and Student Engagement on Student Quality of School Life. This study employed the quantitative-based cross-sectional survey method. The sample consisted of 2400 Malaysian secondary Form Four students…

  3. Friendships and social interactions of school-aged children with migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannatta, K; Getzoff, E A; Gilman, D K; Noll, R B; Gerhardt, C A; Powers, S W; Hershey, A D

    2008-07-01

    We set out to evaluate the friendships and social behaviour of school-aged children with migraine. Concern exists regarding the impact of paediatric migraine on daily activities and quality of life. We hypothesized that children with migraine would have fewer friends and be identified as more socially sensitive and isolated than comparison peers. Sixty-nine children with migraine participated in a school-based study of social functioning. A comparison sample without migraine included classmates matched for gender, race and age. Children with migraine had fewer friends at school; however, this effect was limited to those in elementary school. Behavioural difficulties were not found. Middle-school students with migraine were identified by peers as displaying higher levels of leadership and popularity than comparison peers. Concern may be warranted about the social functioning of pre-adolescent children with migraine; however, older children with migraine may function as well as or better than their peers.

  4. The Co-evolution of Bullying Perpetration, Homophobic Teasing, and a School Friendship Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrin, Gabriel J; Haye, Kayla de la; Espelage, Dorothy L; Ewing, Brett; Tucker, Joan S; Hoover, Matthew; Green, Harold D

    2018-03-01

    Bullying and homophobic teasing behaviors affect the lives of many school aged children, often co-occur, and tend to peak in middle school. While bullying and homophobic teasing behaviors are known to be peer group phenomena, studies typically examine the associations at the individual or school levels. An examination of these behaviors at the peer group level can aid in our understanding of the formation and maintenance of peer groups that engage in these forms of aggressive behavior (selection), and the extent to which friends and the peer group impact individual rates of these aggressive behaviors (influence). In this longitudinal study, we assess the co-evolution of friendship networks, bullying perpetration, and homophobic teasing among middle school students (n = 190) using a Stochastic Actor-Based Model (SABM) for longitudinal networks. Data were collected from 6-8th-grade students (Baseline age 12-15; 53% Female; 47% Male) across three waves of data. The sample was diverse with 58% African American, 31% White, and 11% Hispanic. Since bullying and homophobic teasing behaviors are related yet distinct forms of peer aggression, to capture the unique and combined effects of these behaviors we ran models separately and then together in a competing model. Results indicated that on average individuals with higher rates of bullying perpetration and homophobic teasing were associated with becoming increasingly popular as a friend. However, the effects were not linear, and individuals with the highest rates of bullying perpetration and homophobic teasing were less likely to receive friendship nominations. There was no evidence that bullying perpetration or homophobic teasing were associated with the number of friendship nominations made. Further, there was a preference for individuals to form or maintain friendships with peers who engaged in similar rates of homophobic name-calling; however, this effect was not found for bullying perpetration. Additionally

  5. Transactional Relationships between Latinos' Friendship Quality and Academic Achievement during the Transition to Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebanc, Anne M.; Guimond, Amy B.; Lutgen, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates whether friendship quality, academic achievement, and mastery goal orientation predict each other across the transition to middle school. Participants were 146 Latino students (75 girls) followed from the end of elementary school through the first year of middle school. Measures included positive and negative friendship…

  6. Why virtual friendship is no genuine friendship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fröding, B.; Peterson, M.B.

    2012-01-01

    Based on a modern reading of Aristotle’s theory of friendship, we argue that virtual friendship does not qualify as genuine friendship. By ‘virtual friendship’ we mean the type of friendship that exists on the internet, and seldom or never is combined with real life interaction. A ‘traditional

  7. Friendship: Operationalizing the Intangible to Improve Friendship-Based Outcomes for Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, Erinn H

    2016-11-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have social deficits that affect making and maintaining friends. Many empirically tested methods to address these social deficits are available, yet difficulties related to the establishment and maintenance of authentic friendships persist. This viewpoint article (a) briefly reviews the current state of the science relative to social and friendship skills training for individuals with ASD, (b) considers the potential links (or lack thereof) between current social and friendship skill interventions for individuals with ASD and outcomes related to making and maintaining friends, (c) examines how friendship-related outcomes might be maximized, and (d) proposes a framework for intervention planning that may promote these valued outcomes. There are several key concepts to consider in planning intervention targeting friendship as an outcome. These concepts include (a) equal status, (b) mutually motivating and authentic opportunities for interaction, and (c) frequent opportunities for interaction. There are many aspects about friendship development that cannot be controlled or contrived. Much is still to be learned about the achievement of better friendships for individuals with ASD. Reconceptualizing the way we design intervention may promote better outcomes for individuals on the autism spectrum.

  8. Feasibility of a Friendship Network-Based Pediatric Obesity Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, Courtney M; Irby, Megan B; Skelton, Joseph A; Gesell, Sabina B

    2017-02-01

    There is growing evidence supporting social network-based interventions for adolescents with obesity. This study's aim was to determine the feasibility of a social network-based intervention by assessing adolescents' friendship networks, willingness to involve friends in treatment, and how these factors influence enjoyment. Adolescents (N = 42) were recruited from a tertiary care obesity clinic. Participants gave a list of closest friends, friendship characteristics, and which of their friends they would involve in treatment. A subset (N = 14) participated in group treatment, were encouraged to bring friends, and invited to a second interview. Participants nominated a mean of 4.0 (standard deviation [SD] = 1.6) friends and were more likely to nominate closer friends (p = 0.003). Friends who attended group sessions were more likely to have multiple friendships in common with the participant's own network (p = 0.04). Involving friends in treatment is feasible and desired by adolescents and may be a novel approach for augmenting obesity treatment outcomes.

  9. Contact Patterns in a High School: A Comparison between Data Collected Using Wearable Sensors, Contact Diaries and Friendship Surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Mastrandrea

    Full Text Available Given their importance in shaping social networks and determining how information or transmissible diseases propagate in a population, interactions between individuals are the subject of many data collection efforts. To this aim, different methods are commonly used, ranging from diaries and surveys to decentralised infrastructures based on wearable sensors. These methods have each advantages and limitations but are rarely compared in a given setting. Moreover, as surveys targeting friendship relations might suffer less from memory biases than contact diaries, it is interesting to explore how actual contact patterns occurring in day-to-day life compare with friendship relations and with online social links. Here we make progresses in these directions by leveraging data collected in a French high school and concerning (i face-to-face contacts measured by two concurrent methods, namely wearable sensors and contact diaries, (ii self-reported friendship surveys, and (iii online social links. We compare the resulting data sets and find that most short contacts are not reported in diaries while long contacts have a large reporting probability, and that the durations of contacts tend to be overestimated in the diaries. Moreover, measured contacts corresponding to reported friendship can have durations of any length but all long contacts do correspond to a reported friendship. On the contrary, online links that are not also reported in the friendship survey correspond to short face-to-face contacts, highlighting the difference of nature between reported friendships and online links. Diaries and surveys suffer moreover from a low sampling rate, as many students did not fill them, showing that the sensor-based platform had a higher acceptability. We also show that, despite the biases of diaries and surveys, the overall structure of the contact network, as quantified by the mixing patterns between classes, is correctly captured by both networks of self

  10. Contact Patterns in a High School: A Comparison between Data Collected Using Wearable Sensors, Contact Diaries and Friendship Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrandrea, Rossana; Fournet, Julie; Barrat, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Given their importance in shaping social networks and determining how information or transmissible diseases propagate in a population, interactions between individuals are the subject of many data collection efforts. To this aim, different methods are commonly used, ranging from diaries and surveys to decentralised infrastructures based on wearable sensors. These methods have each advantages and limitations but are rarely compared in a given setting. Moreover, as surveys targeting friendship relations might suffer less from memory biases than contact diaries, it is interesting to explore how actual contact patterns occurring in day-to-day life compare with friendship relations and with online social links. Here we make progresses in these directions by leveraging data collected in a French high school and concerning (i) face-to-face contacts measured by two concurrent methods, namely wearable sensors and contact diaries, (ii) self-reported friendship surveys, and (iii) online social links. We compare the resulting data sets and find that most short contacts are not reported in diaries while long contacts have a large reporting probability, and that the durations of contacts tend to be overestimated in the diaries. Moreover, measured contacts corresponding to reported friendship can have durations of any length but all long contacts do correspond to a reported friendship. On the contrary, online links that are not also reported in the friendship survey correspond to short face-to-face contacts, highlighting the difference of nature between reported friendships and online links. Diaries and surveys suffer moreover from a low sampling rate, as many students did not fill them, showing that the sensor-based platform had a higher acceptability. We also show that, despite the biases of diaries and surveys, the overall structure of the contact network, as quantified by the mixing patterns between classes, is correctly captured by both networks of self-reported contacts and

  11. Friendships in Middle School: Influences on Motivation and School Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzel, Kathryn R.; Barry, Carolyn McNamara; Caldwell, Kathryn A.

    2004-01-01

    In this 2-year longitudinal study (n=242), the authors examined relations of having a reciprocated friend and characteristics of a reciprocated friend to students' social and academic adjustment to middle school. With respect to having a friend, 6th-grade students without friends showed lower levels of prosocial behavior, academic achievement, and…

  12. Alcohol use among adolescent youth: the role of friendship networks and family factors in multiple school studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Wang

    Full Text Available To explore the co-evolution of friendship tie choice and alcohol use behavior among 1,284 adolescents from 12 small schools and 976 adolescents from one big school sampled in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (AddHealth, we apply a Stochastic Actor-Based (SAB approach implemented in the R-based Simulation Investigation for Empirical Network Analysis (RSiena package. Our results indicate the salience of both peer selection and peer influence effects for friendship tie choice and adolescent drinking behavior. Concurrently, the main effect models indicate that parental monitoring and the parental home drinking environment affected adolescent alcohol use in the small school sample, and that parental home drinking environment affected adolescent drinking in the large school sample. In the small school sample, we detect an interaction between the parental home drinking environment and choosing friends that drink as they multiplicatively affect friendship tie choice. Our findings suggest that future research should investigate the synergistic effects of both peer and parental influences for adolescent friendship tie choices and drinking behavior. And given the tendency of adolescents to form ties with their friends' friends, and the evidence of local hierarchy in these networks, popular youth who do not drink may be uniquely positioned and uniquely salient as the highest rank of the hierarchy to cause anti-drinking peer influences to diffuse down the social hierarchy to less popular youth. As such, future interventions should harness prosocial peer influences simultaneously with strategies to increase parental support and monitoring among parents to promote affiliation with prosocial peers.

  13. Effects of National, School, and Gender Cultures on Friendships among Adolescents in Australia and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, Barbara J.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses U.S. and Australian research on adolescence and the factors affecting friendship. Compared with Australian students, American adolescents were found to prescribe more closeness and more assertiveness to same-sex friendships; those in private schools were more assertive and less close. Girls prescribed more closeness but had less…

  14. "Sometimes I Want to Play by Myself": Understanding What Friendship Means to Children with Autism in Mainstream Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, Lynsey; Hill, Vivian; Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that friendship impacts the overall experience of mainstream school for autistic children. Using a unique combination of quantitative, qualitative and social network methods, we investigated the extent and nature of autistic children's friendships from their perspective and from those of their mothers, teachers and classroom…

  15. The Influence of Friendships and Friendship-Making Ability in Physical Activity Participation in Chiang Mai, Thailand High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M.; Taylor, Jerry; Suwanteerangkul, Jiraporn; Novilla, Lelinneth M.

    2005-01-01

    Unfortunately, the influence of friendships is a neglected area of investigation in studies of youth physical activity. This study investigated the degree to which three friendship variables (ability to make friends, level of involvement with friends, perceived friends' involvement in exercise/physical activity) was associated with physical…

  16. Supporting Interethnic and Interracial Friendships among Youth to Reduce Prejudice and Racism in Schools: The Role of the School Counselor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pica-Smith, Cinzia; Poynton, Timothy A.

    2015-01-01

    Supporting interethnic and interracial friendships in schools among children and adolescents is an important part of a progressive educational agenda informed in equity, social justice frameworks, and critical multicultural education that leads to a reduction in racial prejudice. Positive intergroup contact is a necessary condition in prejudice…

  17. Smoking-based selection and influence in gender-segregated friendship networks: a social network analysis of adolescent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercken, Liesbeth; Snijders, Tom A B; Steglich, Christian; Vertiainen, Erkki; de Vries, Hein

    2010-07-01

    The main goal of this study was to examine differences between adolescent male and female friendship networks regarding smoking-based selection and influence processes using newly developed social network analysis methods that allow the current state of continuously changing friendship networks to act as a dynamic constraint for changes in smoking behaviour, while allowing current smoking behaviour to be simultaneously a dynamic constraint for changes in friendship networks. Longitudinal design with four measurements. Nine junior high schools in Finland. A total of 1163 adolescents (mean age = 13.6 years) who participated in the control group of the ESFA (European Smoking prevention Framework Approach) study, including 605 males and 558 females. Smoking behaviour of adolescents, parents, siblings and friendship ties. Smoking-based selection of friends was found in male as well as female networks. However, support for influence among friends was found only in female networks. Furthermore, females and males were both influenced by parental smoking behaviour. In Finnish adolescents, both male and female smokers tend to select other smokers as friends but it appears that only females are influenced to smoke by their peer group. This suggests that prevention campaigns targeting resisting peer pressure may be more effective in adolescent girls than boys.

  18. 'Sometimes I want to play by myself': Understanding what friendship means to children with autism in mainstream primary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, Lynsey; Hill, Vivian; Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2013-05-01

    Research has shown that friendship impacts the overall experience of mainstream school for autistic children. Using a unique combination of quantitative, qualitative and social network methods, we investigated the extent and nature of autistic children's friendships from their perspective and from those of their mothers, teachers and classroom peers. Consistent with previous research, children with autism (n = 12), aged between 9 and 11 years, rated their friendships to be of poorer quality than their non-autistic classroom peers (n = 11). There was, however, much variability in autistic children's ratings, which, unexpectedly, was related to neither children's cognitive ability nor their theory of mind ability. Encouragingly, the children generally reported satisfaction with their friendships, and although no child was socially isolated, the degree of inclusion in friendship networks varied widely. Furthermore, autistic children's social motivation emerged as a key factor in parents' and teachers' reports in determining both the nature and extent of their friendships. Adults played an active role in supporting children's friendships, but this sometimes conflicted with what the children wanted. These findings highlight the need to ascertain the perspectives of young people with autism on their friendships and to consider the social and ethical implications of when and how to intervene.

  19. Psychosocial Benefits of Cross-Ethnic Friendships in Urban Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Sandra; Munniksma, Anke; Juvonen, Jaana

    2014-01-01

    To examine the unique functions of same- and cross-ethnic friendships, Latino (n = 536) and African American (n = 396) sixth-grade students (M[subscript age] = 11.5 years) were recruited from 66 classrooms in 10 middle schools that varied in ethnic diversity. Participants reported on the number of same- and cross-ethnic friends, perceived…

  20. Moscow and St. Petersburgpsychological schools: from opposition to friendship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor M. Allakhverdov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is an attempt to summarize the interaction of the two largest schools of psychology in Russia: the psychological schools of Moscow and St. Petersburg. The paper is a sketch dedicated to the 50th anniversary of the psychological faculties of Moscow and St. Petersburg, and should not be appreciated as a historical treatise. Tense ties between the psychological schools, that originate in the distant past, have gone through different historical stages. Slavophilevs Westernizer traditions affected the initial difference in these schoolsemerging into the opposition: either the human being is studied entirety with his/her vast subjective experience, but losing the reliability of our statements (peculiarity of Moscow school, or we study the human being accurately using objective methods, but losing the integrity of our ideas (peculiarity of St.-Petersburg school. Both psychological schools, having gone through the ups and downs, have retained their identity and their emphasis on research. Moscow scholars in their studies are aimed to larger issues and still rely on large-scale Vygotsky-Leontiev approach. Scholars of St.-Petersburgtouch upon more specific issues using empirical methods, but still continue with nostalgia and hope making plans about creating a common concept of human individual according to Ananiev. Nowadays between the two schools there is no opposition, but only one mutual love.

  1. Perceptions of Friendship among Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Conditions in a Mainstream High School Resource Provision

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hagan, Siobhan; Hebron, Judith

    2017-01-01

    Establishing and maintaining friendships is frequently challenging for young people with autism spectrum conditions (ASC). However, few studies have explored influences on friendship development, meaning that knowledge of friendship formation processes remains limited at a critical point in social development. As friendship can impact on…

  2. Beyond Social Skills: Supporting Peer Relationships and Friendships for School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, Amy; Estes, Annette

    2018-04-01

    Social impairments are the sine qua non of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, children with ASD are capable of forming reciprocal friendships and many people with ASD have a strong desire for friends. Developing and maintaining friendships is associated with many important outcomes, including improved quality of life, mental health, and academic achievement. Children with ASD often attend groups to improve social skills, but strategies for building and maintaining friendships are not consistently addressed or measured following intervention. In this article, our objective is to build an understanding of peer relationships and friendships in school-aged children with ASD and how to best support them. In this article, we describe characteristics of peer relationships and friendships for children with ASD. We discuss current research findings on intervention to improve social skills, peer relationships, and friendships in school-aged children with ASD. Finally, we give suggestions for clinical practice and future research. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  3. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in early adolescents' friendship development: friendship selection, influence, and prospective friendship quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojanen, Tiina; Sijtsema, Jelle J; Hawley, Patricia H; Little, Todd D

    2010-12-01

    Friendships are essential for adolescent social development. However, they may be pursued for varying motives, which, in turn, may predict similarity in friendships via social selection or social influence processes, and likely help to explain friendship quality. We examined the effect of early adolescents' (N = 374, 12-14 years) intrinsic and extrinsic friendship motivation on friendship selection and social influence by utilizing social network modeling. In addition, longitudinal relations among motivation and friendship quality were estimated with structural equation modeling. Extrinsic motivation predicted activity in making friendship nominations during the sixth grade and lower friendship quality across time. Intrinsic motivation predicted inactivity in making friendship nominations during the sixth, popularity as a friend across the transition to middle school, and higher friendship quality across time. Social influence effects were observed for both motives, but were more pronounced for intrinsic motivation. Copyright © 2010 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Some Ways in Which Neighborhoods, Nuclear Families, Friendship Groups, and Schools Jointly Affect Changes in Early Adolescent Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Thomas D.; Herman, Melissa R.; Phillips, Meredith; Settersten, Richard A., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    This study assessed how schools, neighborhoods, nuclear families, and friendship groups jointly contribute to positive change during early adolescence. Analyses showed that the four context indices modestly intercorrelated at the individual student level, but clustered more tightly at the school and neighborhood levels. Joint influence of all four…

  5. Early Adolescent Friendship Selection Based on Externalizing Behavior: the Moderating Role of Pubertal Development. The SNARE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, Aart; Prinstein, Mitchell J; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Steglich, Christian E G; Harakeh, Zeena; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2016-11-01

    This study examined friendship (de-)selection processes in early adolescence. Pubertal development was examined as a potential moderator. It was expected that pubertal development would be associated with an increased tendency for adolescents to select their friends based on their similarities in externalizing behavior engagement (i.e., delinquency, alcohol use, and tobacco use). Data were used from the first three waves of the SNARE (Social Network Analysis of Risk behavior in Early adolescence) study (N = 1144; 50 % boys; M age  = 12.7; SD = 0.47), including students who entered the first year of secondary school. The hypothesis was tested using Stochastic Actor-Based Modeling in SIENA. While taking the network structure into account, and controlling for peer influence effects, the results supported this hypothesis. Early adolescents with higher pubertal development were as likely as their peers to select friends based on similarity in externalizing behavior and especially likely to remain friends with peers who had a similar level of externalizing behavior, and thus break friendship ties with dissimilar friends in this respect. As early adolescents are actively engaged in reorganizing their social context, adolescents with a higher pubertal development are especially likely to lose friendships with peers who do not engage in externalizing behavior, thus losing an important source of adaptive social control (i.e., friends who do not engage in externalizing behavior).

  6. Friendship-based partner switching promotes cooperation in heterogeneous populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Wu, Te; Li, Zhiwu; Wang, Long

    2016-02-01

    The forming of human social ties tends to be with similar individuals. This study concentrates on the emergence of cooperation among heterogeneous populations. A simple model is proposed by considering the impact of interplay between the evolution of strategies and that of social partnerships on cooperation dynamics. Whenever two individuals acquire the rewards by playing prisoner's dilemma game with each other, the friendship (friendship is quantified as the weight of a link) between the two individuals deepens. Individuals can switch off the social ties with the partners who are unfriendly and rewire to similar new ones. Under this partner switching mechanism, population structure is divided into several groups and cooperation can prevail. It is observed that the frequent tendency of partner switching can lead to the enhancement of cooperative behavior under the enormous temptation to defect. Moreover, the influence of discounting the relationship between different individuals is also investigated. Meanwhile, the cooperation prevails when the adjustment of friendships mainly depends on the incomes of selected individuals rather than that of their partners. Finally, it is found that too similar population fail to maximize the cooperation and there exists a moderate similarity that can optimize cooperation.

  7. Children's Perceptions of Interethnic and Interracial Friendships in a Multiethnic School Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pica-Smith, Cinzia

    2011-01-01

    Some literature exists on children's real-life interracial and interethnic friendships. However, a scarcity of research exists on children's perceptions of these relationships. This cross-sectional study investigated children's perceptions of interracial friendships by employing the Perceptions of Intergroup Friendships Questionnaire. A total of…

  8. The Role of Reciprocity and Proximity in Junior High School Friendships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, M. L.; Ayers, Marla

    1988-01-01

    The relationship of reciprocity, sex, and race to friendship proximity in adolescent friendships was studied with 69 male and 67 female seventh and eighth graders (32 percent Black). Four measures were administered concerning adolescents' friendships. Results are reported on intelligence, personality, physical attractiveness, popularity, and…

  9. School Adjustment and Friendship Quality of First- and Second-Generation Adolescent Immigrants to Spain as a Function of Acculturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Valdivia, Ibis M.; Schneider, Barry H.; Carrasco, Cecilia Villalobos

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the links between school adjustment, friendship, and identification with both the cultures of origin and with the host culture. Our overriding hypothesis was that integration in Berry's terms, that is, simultaneous identification with both the culture of origin and the majority Spanish/Catalan culture,…

  10. A Cross-Cultural Study of Italian and U.S. Children's Perceptions of Interethnic and Interracial Friendships in Two Urban Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pica-Smith, Cinzia; Antognazza, Davide; Marland, Joshua J.; Crescentini, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    This cross-cultural and cross-sectional study investigated Italian and US children's perceptions of interethnic and interracial friendships, also known as intergroup friendships. A total sample of 226 children attending two urban, elementary schools in a middle-sized Northeastern US city and a middle-sized northern Italian city, were interviewed…

  11. Smoking-based selection and influence in gender-segregated friendship networks : a social network analysis of adolescent smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercken, Liesbeth; Snijders, Tom A. B.; Steglich, Christian; Vertiainen, Erkki; Vartiainen, E.; De Vries, H.

    Aims The main goal of this study was to examine differences between adolescent male and female friendship networks regarding smoking-based selection and influence processes using newly developed social network analysis methods that allow the current state of continuously changing friendship networks

  12. Studying Children’s friendship activities ethically using the Interaction Based Observation Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hanne Værum

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to acknowledge the influence that the interaction based observation method developed by Mariane Hedegaard has had on my studies of young children’s friendship activities. Hedegaard has problematized how existing methods of evaluating children’s development were inadequate...

  13. Parental Choice of Schooling, Learning Processes and Inter-Ethnic Friendship Patterns: The Case of Malay Students in Chinese Primary Schools in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sua, Tan Yao; Ngah, Kamarudin; Darit, Sezali Md.

    2013-01-01

    This study surveys 200 Malay students enrolled in three Chinese primary schools in relation to three issues, i.e., parental choice of schooling, learning processes and inter-ethnic friendship patterns. The three issues are explored through a combination of quantitative and qualitative research methodologies. Parental expectations for their…

  14. After Friendship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Mary

    2017-01-01

    The loss of friendship can be a frequent occurrence for children as they explore their social worlds and navigate their way through the demands of particular relationships. Given that friendship is a relationship of special regard, and associated with a particular partiality to our friends, the ending of friendship and the subsequent interactions…

  15. Impact of the mobile phone on junior high-school students' friendships in the Tokyo metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamibeppu, Kiyoko; Sugiura, Hitomi

    2005-04-01

    The proportion of having keitai (Japanese mobile phone) has increased rapidly in young children. To research how junior high school students use their own keitai and to examine the impact of using it on their psychology, especially on their friendship, we recruited 651 students, grade 8, from five public junior high schools in the Tokyo metropolitan area. Each student participant completed a questionnaire that we had created. The response rates were 88.8% (n = 578) for participants. The proportion of having their own keitai was 49.3% (n = 285) and that of not having it was 50.7% (n = 293). We found that they used it much more frequently for e-mail than as a phone. Most of them exchanged e-mails between schoolmates, and more than a half of them exchanged e-mails more than 10 times a day. Sociable students estimated that their own keitai was useful for their friendship. But they experienced some insecurity or started staying up late at night engaged in e-mail exchanges, and they thought that they could not live without their own keitai. Our findings suggest that keitai having an e-mail function play a big part in the junior high-school students' daily life, and its impact on students' friendships, psychology, or health should be discussed among students to prevent keitai addiction.

  16. Narratives of Friendship and Self in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmitia, Margarita; Ittel, Angela; Radmacher, Kimberley

    2005-01-01

    Gender and self-esteem provide lenses through which early and late adolescents construct their narratives of ideal and actual friendships. These narratives provide a unique window into the dynamics of adolescents' friendships during school transitions.

  17. Living in the city: school friendships, diversity and the middle classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Carol; Neal, Sarah; Iqbal, Humera

    2018-06-01

    Much of the literature on the urban middle classes describes processes of both affiliation (often to the localities) and disaffiliation (often from some of the non-middle-class residents). In this paper, we consider this situation from a different position, drawing on research exploring whether and how children and adults living in diverse localities develop friendships with those different to themselves in terms of social class and ethnicity. This paper focuses on the interviews with the ethnically diverse, but predominantly white British, middle-class parent participants, considering their attitudes towards social and cultural difference. We emphasize the importance of highlighting inequalities that arise from social class and its intersection with ethnicity in analyses of complex urban populations. The paper's contribution is, first, to examine processes of clustering amongst the white British middle-class parents, particularly in relation to social class. Second, we contrast this process, and its moments of reflection and unease, with the more deliberate and purposeful efforts of one middle-class, Bangladeshi-origin mother who engages in active labour to facilitate relationships across social and ethnic difference. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  18. "When You See a Normal Person …": Social Class and Friendship Networks among Teenage Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papapolydorou, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws on social capital theory to discuss the way social class plays out in the friendships of teenage students. Based on data from individual interviews and focus groups with 75 students in four London secondary schools, it is suggested that students tend to form friendships with people who belong to the same social-class background as…

  19. Cross Ethnic Friendship among Multi-ethnic Students and Teacher’s Role in Supporting Cultural Diversity in School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Yasmin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an in-depth discussion about cross ethnic friendship among students and teacher's role in supporting the cultural diversity that exists in school. The school which consist of students from various ethnic groups provide space and opportunities for students to interact socially with peers either from the same or other ethnic groups. On the other hand, the school that consists of only one ethnic group limits the opportunity for students to interact with friends from different ethnic groups. Students who have attended the schools that are not diverse in terms of ethnicity were reported having more friends from the same ethnic group. A positive relationship between individuals from different ethnic groups led to the reduction in prejudice, enhance the sense of common identity and closeness among individuals. Teachers as agents of unity should play an important role in assisting students to acquire the necessary social skills that enables them to interact effectively with students from different ethnic, cultural and languages which consequently create a harmony cross ethnic friendships among multi-ethnic students in school.

  20. For Better or Worse: Friendship Choices and Peer Victimization Among Ethnically Diverse Youth in the First Year of Middle School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echols, Leslie; Graham, Sandra

    2016-09-01

    As children approach early adolescence, the risk of peer victimization often increases. Many children experience some form of peer victimization during this time, but children who experience chronic victimization may be particularly vulnerable to adjustment difficulties. Thus, identifying risk and protective factors associated with chronic victimization continues to be an important area of research. This study examined the effect of change in the victimization of friends on change in children's own victimization, taking into account the ethnic group representation of children in their classes. Over 3000 6th grade students (52 % female; M = 11.33 years) were drawn from 19 middle schools varying in ethnic composition. Friendships were distinguished by type-reciprocal, desired, and undesired-and a novel methodology for measuring ethnic group representation at the individual level was employed. Multilevel modeling indicated that change in friends' victimization from fall to spring of 6th grade had a differential impact on children's own victimization by friendship type and that the benefits and consequences of change in friends' victimization were especially pronounced for children in the numerical ethnic majority. The findings underscore the role of friendship choices in peer victimization, even if those choices are not reciprocated, and highlight the unique social risks associated with being in the numerical ethnic majority.

  1. Children's Friendships in Culturally Diverse Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, James G.

    1993-01-01

    Draws attention to the potentially harmful effects of evaluating children's friendships on what are often negative outcomes, rather than on the efforts that children make to effectively negotiate their friendships. Describes a study of children's friendships in a fifth-grade, culturally diverse class in a large urban elementary school, revealing…

  2. Shades of Friendship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dungey, Claire Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Summary Based on 12 months of ethnographic fieldwork over a period of three years in southwestern Uganda, this thesis is an exploration of how children and youth from the surrounding area of Kisoro town value schooling as a means of cultivating friendships and moral values. In particular, it focu...... perspective on how children and young people strive to get connections to friends where these kinds of connections encompass moral evaluations. Despite experiencing uncertainties, young people, I suggest, create a sense of economic and moral stability through friendships....... is to a certain extent affected by war, genocide and instabilities both in the country itself but also across the borders in Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of Congo. These insecurities have largely shaped schoolchildren’s understandings and experiences of how trust is never easily gained and how...... can help them, especially in regards to money. But they have to keep trying and find it necessary to ask them for money in order to get a share. If people give economic support, they are often seen as connected in emotional ways but if they keep the money to themselves, they are perceived...

  3. The Exploration of the Relationship between Participation in Organized Activity and Cross-Group Friendships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonseok Suh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cross-group friendship is an important element in regard to reducing prejudice and increasing positive interracial interactions among young adults. In order to facilitate the formation of cross-group friendships, organized activity participation (e.g., community service and school-based extracurricular activities may provide an environment that supports positive cross-cultural interactions and contacts. The sample used for this study consisted of 601 college students. We tested whether participation in an organized activity contributes to the formation of cross-group friendships. The results of this study indicate that community service and school-based extracurricular activities significantly contribute to the formation of cross-group friendships among young adults. The findings also suggest that a variety of organized activities should be developed and implemented to facilitate cross-group friendships. We also discuss the practical implications of these findings.

  4. "Friendship in All Directions": Norwegian Children with Physical Disabilities Experiencing Friendship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbjornslett, Mona; Engelsrud, Gunn H.; Helseth, Solvi

    2012-01-01

    This article examines how Norwegian children with physical disabilities experience friendship during the transition between primary and secondary school. The research was based on 38 life mode interviews with 15 children. Two themes were explored: (1) different kinds of friends: friends with disabilities, friends without disabilities and…

  5. Social Participation and Friendship Quality of Students with Special Educational Needs in Regular Greek Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avramidis, Elias; Avgeri, Georgia; Strogilos, Vasilis

    2018-01-01

    The study addresses the social participation of integrated students with special educational needs (SEN) in upper primary regular classes in Greece alongside their perceptions of best friend quality. Social participation was defined as consisting of four key dimensions: students' acceptance by classmates, friendships, social self-perceptions, and…

  6. Individual and class room predictors of same-cultural friendship preferences in multicultural schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stefanek, E.; Strohmeier, D.; Van De Schoot, R.

    2015-01-01

    This study was an investigation of individual and contextual predictors for same-cultural friendship preferences among non-immigrant (N = 125), Turkish (N ¼ 196) and former Yugoslavian (N = 256) immigrant youths (M age = 14.39 years) in 36 multicultural classes. At the individual level age, gender,

  7. Friendship conflict and the development of generalized physical aggression in the early school years: a genetically informed study of potential moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvas, Marie-Claude; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E; Boivin, Michel

    2014-06-01

    Several authors consider high and frequent conflicts between friends during childhood as a serious risk for subsequent conduct problems such as generalized physical aggression toward others (e.g., Kupersmidt, Burchinal, & Patterson, 1995; Sebanc, 2003). Although it seems logical to assume that friendship conflict could have some negative consequences on children's behaviors, some scholars have suggested that a certain amount of conflict between friends may actually promote social adjustment (e.g., Laursen & Pursell, 2009). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of friendship conflict in regard to the development of generalized physical aggression toward others in the early school years (i.e., from kindergarten to Grade 1), as well as the moderating role of relational (i.e., shared positive affect and dyadic conflict resolution skills) and personal (i.e., children's sex and genetic liability for aggression) characteristics in this context. The sample included 745 twins assessed through teacher, peer, child, and friend ratings in kindergarten and Grade 1. Friendship conflict in kindergarten was linearly related to an increase in boys' but not girls' generalized physical aggression. However, shared positive affect and conflict resolution skills mitigated the prospective associations between friendship conflict and generalized physical aggression. These results were independent of children's sex, genetic risk for physical aggression, and initial levels of generalized physical aggression in kindergarten. Fostering a positive relationship between friends at school entry may buffer against the risk associated with experiencing friendship conflict. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. When Empathy Matters: The Role of Sex and Empathy in Close Friendships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarrochi, Joseph; Parker, Philip D; Sahdra, Baljinder K; Kashdan, Todd B; Kiuru, Noona; Conigrave, James

    2017-08-01

    Based on prior theory and research (Ciarrochi & Heaven, 2009; Eagly & Wood, 1999), we hypothesized that the link between empathy and friendship would be moderated by sex: Girls will nominate empathic boys as friends, whereas boys will not tend to nominate empathic girls. We collected measures of empathy, friendship social support, and close friendship nominations in grade 10 across 1,970 students in 16 schools (M age  = 15.70, SD = .44; males = 993, females = 977). Multilevel models revealed that boys high in cognitive empathy attracted an average of 1.8 more girl friendship nominations than did their low empathy counterparts, whereas empathic girls did not attract a greater number of opposite-sex friends. In addition, the more friendship nominations a boy received from either boys or girls, the more they felt supported by their friends; the number of friendship nominations received by girls, in contrast, had no effect on their felt support by friends. Regardless of the quantity of friendship nominations, empathy was linked to more supportive friendships for both males and females. These results inform a contextual understanding of the role of empathy in selecting and maintaining friendships. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Qualities in Friendship--Within an Outside Perspective--Definitions Expressed by Adolescents with Mild Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigstad, Hanne Marie Høybråten

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study examined how adolescents with mild intellectual disabilities define qualities of friendship and discussed the extent to which these definitions adhere to established definitions of close friendship. Materials and Methods: The study was based on qualitative interviews with 11 adolescents in secondary school. The interviews…

  10. Peer influence on marijuana use in different types of friendships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Joan S; de la Haye, Kayla; Kennedy, David P; Green, Harold D; Pollard, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    Although several social network studies have demonstrated peer influence effects on adolescent substance use, findings for marijuana use have been equivocal. This study examines whether structural features of friendships moderate friends' influence on adolescent marijuana use over time. Using 1-year longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this article examines whether three structural features of friendships moderate friends' influence on adolescent marijuana use: whether the friendship is reciprocated, the popularity of the nominated friend, and the popularity/status difference between the nominated friend and the adolescent. The sample consists of students in grade 10/11 at wave I, who were in grade 11/12 at wave II, from two large schools with complete grade-based friendship network data (N = 1,612). In one school, friends' influence on marijuana use was more likely to occur within mutual, reciprocated friendships compared with nonreciprocated relationships. In the other school, friends' influence was stronger when the friends were relatively popular within the school setting or much more popular than the adolescents themselves. Friends' influence on youth marijuana use may play out in different ways, depending on the school context. In one school, influence occurred predominantly within reciprocated relationships that are likely characterized by closeness and trust, whereas in the other school adopting friends' drug use behaviors appeared to be a strategy to attain social status. Further research is needed to better understand the conditions under which structural features of friendships moderate friends' influence on adolescent marijuana use. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  11. Developing Friendships:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2005-01-01

    reparations and - to a lesser degree - ODA as repentance for war crimes. Officials and other invlved parties often coded their interventions of development projects in language of friendship, whereby they expressed a Japanese desire to change the image of Japan from enemy to friend. In the wake of WWII...... of these programs in development assistance initiatives reflected Japanese attempts to redefine themselves as friends rather than enemies in the minds of Asian neighbors. Other donors also used friendship vocabulary in relation to their development assistance and I will apply a comparative perspective in order...

  12. Qualities in friendship - Within an outside perspective - Definitions expressed by adolescents with mild intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigstad, Hanne Marie Høybråten

    2017-03-01

    This study examined how adolescents with mild intellectual disabilities define qualities of friendship and discussed the extent to which these definitions adhere to established definitions of close friendship. The study was based on qualitative interviews with 11 adolescents in secondary school. The interviews were supplemented with information from six parents. A thematic structural analysis was used to identify themes. Qualities of friendship were categorized as mutual preference, mutual enjoyment, shared interactions, care, mutual trust and bonding. The criteria for close friendship seem to be fulfilled, albeit to a moderate degree. Closeness and reciprocity appear to be significant in this study, although these features have been considered less relevant within this target group in previous research. Differences in definitions may explain divergent results compared with other studies, and the need to achieve equivalence in friendship may be another.

  13. Attachment Contexts of Adolescent Friendship and Romance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Judi Beinstein; Hoicowitz, Tova

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare memories of attachments to parents, friends, and romantic partners in relation to the maintenance of high school friendships and romantic relationships. College students recorded the length of their friendships and romantic relationships during high school and rated the quality of each. They also rated…

  14. Friendship in inclusive physical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Helena; Reid, Greg; Bloom, Gordon A

    2009-07-01

    Social interaction and development of friendships between children with and without a disability are often proposed as potential outcomes of inclusive education. Physical activity specialists assert that exercise and sport environments may be conducive to social and friendship outcomes. This study investigated friendship in inclusive physical education from the perspective of students with (n = 8) and without (n = 8) physical disabilities. All participants attended a reversely integrated school and were interviewed using a semistructured, open-ended format. An adapted version of Weiss, Smith, and Theeboom's (1996) interview guide exploring perceptions of peer relationships in the sport domain was used. Four conceptual categories emerged from the analysis: development of friendship, best friend, preferred physical activities and outcomes, and dealing with disability. The results demonstrated the key characteristics of best friends and the influential role they play.

  15. Physiological Reactivity Moderates the Association between Parental Directing and Young Adolescent Friendship Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Kelly M.; Erath, Stephen A.; Pettit, Gregory S.; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether the longitudinal association between parental directing of friendships (i.e., encouraging or discouraging certain friendships) and young adolescents’ friendship adjustment (i.e., friendship quality and friends’ positive characteristics) was moderated by skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR) to peer stress. Participants included 123 young adolescents (M age = 12.03 years at T1; 50% boys; 58.5% European Americans). At T1 (summer before the transition to middle school), parents reported on the extent to which they directed adolescents toward or away from certain peers, and adolescents’ SCLR was assessed during a lab-based peer evaluation task. At T1 and T2 (spring of the first year of middle school), adolescents reported on the quality of their friendships and positive peer affiliations. Controlling for T1 friendship adjustment, parental directing predicted higher friendship quality and more positive peer affiliations, but only among young adolescents with lower SCLR, which was conceptualized as a marker of under-arousal and insensitivity to stress. Results are discussed with reference to the developmental period of early adolescence and related research on interactions between parental control and child characteristics as predictors of adolescent adjustment. PMID:25365119

  16. Social Anxiety and Friendship Quality over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodebaugh, Thomas L; Lim, Michelle H; Shumaker, Erik A; Levinson, Cheri A; Thompson, Tess

    2015-01-01

    High social anxiety in adults is associated with self-report of impaired friendship quality, but not necessarily with impairment reported by friends. Further, prospective prediction of social anxiety and friendship quality over time has not been tested among adults. We therefore examined friendship quality and social anxiety prospectively in 126 young adults (67 primary participants and 59 friends, aged 17-22 years); the primary participants were screened to be extreme groups to increase power and relevance to clinical samples (i.e., they were recruited based on having very high or very low social interaction anxiety). The prospective relationships between friendship quality and social anxiety were then tested using an Actor-Partner Interdependence Model. Friendship quality prospectively predicted social anxiety over time within each individual in the friendship, such that higher friendship quality at Time 1 predicted lower social anxiety approximately 6 months later at Time 2. Social anxiety did not predict friendship quality. Although the results support the view that social anxiety and friendship quality have an important causal relationship, the results run counter to the assumption that high social anxiety causes poor friendship quality. Interventions to increase friendship quality merit further consideration.

  17. Structural effect of size on interracial friendship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Siwei; Xie, Yu

    2013-04-30

    Social contexts exert structural effects on individuals' social relationships, including interracial friendships. In this study, we posit that, net of group composition, total context size has a distinct effect on interracial friendship. Under the assumptions of (i) maximization of preference in choosing a friend, (ii) multidimensionality of preference, and (iii) preference for same-race friends, we conducted analyses using microsimulation that yielded three main findings. First, increased context size decreases the likelihood of forming an interracial friendship. Second, the size effect increases with the number of preference dimensions. Third, the size effect is diluted by noise, i.e., the random component affecting friendship formation. Analysis of actual friendship data among 4,745 American high school students yielded results consistent with the main conclusion that increased context size promotes racial segregation and discourages interracial friendship.

  18. Stable Same-Sex Friendships with Higher Achieving Partners Promote Mathematical Reasoning in Lower Achieving Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Dawn; Laursen, Brett; Kiuru, Noona; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-01-01

    This study is designed to investigate friend influence over mathematical reasoning in a sample of 374 children in 187 same-sex friend dyads (184 girls in 92 friendships; 190 boys in 95 friendships). Participants completed surveys that measured mathematical reasoning in the 3rd grade (approximately 9 years old) and one year later in the 4th grade (approximately 10 years old). Analyses designed for dyadic data (i.e., longitudinal Actor-Partner Interdependence Models) indicated that higher achieving friends influenced the mathematical reasoning of lower achieving friends, but not the reverse. Specifically, greater initial levels of mathematical reasoning among higher achieving partners in the 3rd grade predicted greater increases in mathematical reasoning from 3rd grade to 4th grade among lower achieving partners. These effects held after controlling for peer acceptance and rejection, task avoidance, interest in mathematics, maternal support for homework, parental education, length of the friendship, and friendship group norms on mathematical reasoning. PMID:26402901

  19. Friendship Security, But Not Friendship Intimacy, Moderates the Stability of Anxiety During Preadolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Megan A; Bukowski, William M; Santo, Jonathan B

    2017-01-01

    A two-wave longitudinal study of 380 preadolescents (M age = 10.87) from largely middle-class schools in Montréal, Québec, Canada, assessed the hypothesis that friendship security, but not friendship intimacy, moderates the stability of anxiety during adolescence. This central but largely overlooked question about peer relations concerns which aspects of friendship account for the effects of friendship on emotional adjustment. Anxiety and friendship quality were measured via self-report questionnaires, employing the Network of Relationships Inventory for security and intimacy items. An index of friendship durability, which combined reciprocity and stability within first- and second-best friendship choices, was derived from sociometric measures. A latent variable path analysis examined with structural equation modeling showed that anxiety was less stable for children who perceived their friendships as secure. The moderating effect of intimacy was statistically nonsignificant. A follow-up analysis showed that the effects of security did not result from friendship durability. These findings provide support for the long-standing but previously unaddressed hypothesis that security, rather than intimacy, accounts for friendship's effect on anxiety reduction during early adolescence.

  20. Social Identity Complexity, Cross-Ethnic Friendships, and Intergroup Attitudes in Urban Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knifsend, Casey A.; Juvonen, Jaana

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated contextual antecedents (i.e., cross-ethnic peers and friends) and correlates (i.e., intergroup attitudes) of social identity complexity in seventh grade. Social identity complexity refers to the perceived overlap among social groups with which youth identify. Identifying mostly with out-of-school sports, religious…

  1. Friendship Characteristics of Children With ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, Imola; Wiener, Judith; Rogers, Maria; Moore, Chris

    2015-10-01

    This study explored the friendship characteristics of 8 to 12 year old children with and without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Friendship characteristics included number of nominated and corroborated friends, duration of friendships, amount of contact with friends, and the proportion of friends with learning and behavioral problems. The sample comprised 92 children, 50 with a diagnosis of ADHD and 42 comparison children. While children with ADHD did not differ from comparison children in the number of friends they nominated, parents and teachers of children with ADHD were less likely to corroborate that these friendships existed. The friendships of children with ADHD were also shorter in duration. While children with ADHD were indistinguishable from comparison children with regards to the amount of telephone contact with friends, they spent less time with friends outside of school than comparison children. Children with ADHD had a higher proportion of friends with learning and behavior problems. While children with ADHD differ from comparison children in the above friendship characteristics, it is promising that they still fall within the average range for the number of corroborated friendships and they demonstrate adequate stability in their friendships. © 2012 SAGE Publications.

  2. The Social Comparison Choices of Elementary and Secondary School Students: The Influence of Gender, Race, and Friendship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisel, C. Julius; Blumberg, Carol Joyce

    1990-01-01

    Two studies involving 63 second through fourth graders and 43 ninth graders investigated the influence of gender, race, and friendship on social comparison choices. Implications of the results for social comparison theory and social policy and education practice are discussed. (TJH)

  3. Boyfriend, Girlfriend in a Traditional Society: Parenting Styles and Development of Intimate Friendships among Arabs in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharabany, Ruth; Eshel, Yohanan; Hakim, Caesar

    2008-01-01

    The development of intimate same- and other-sex friendships in Arab children and adolescents in Israel was investigated in relation to their perceived parenting styles. It was hypothesized that girls would show higher levels of intimacy than boys, and that cross-sex intimacy in both groups would increase with age, whereas same-sex intimate…

  4. Prospective associations between friendship adjustment and social strategies: friendship as a context for building social skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Gary C; Rose, Amanda J

    2011-07-01

    The proposal that friendships provide a context for the development of social skills is widely accepted. Yet little research exists to support this claim. In the present study, children and adolescents (N = 912) were presented with vignettes in which a friend encountered a social stressor and they could help the friend and vignettes in which they encountered a stressor and could seek help from the friend. Social strategies in response to these vignettes were assessed in the fall and spring of the school year. Different indicators of friendship adjustment had unique effects on youths' strategies in response to helping tasks. Whereas having more friends predicted decreases in avoidant or hostile strategies, having high-quality friendships predicted emotionally engaged strategies that involved talking about the problem. Moreover, whereas having more friends predicted increases in relatively disengaged strategies, like distraction and acting like the problem never happened, having high-quality friendships predicted decreases in these strategies. The present study also tested whether youths' strategies in the fall predicted changes in friendship adjustment by the spring. Only strategies which may be seen as major friendship transgressions (i.e., avoiding or blaming the friend when the friend encounters a problem) predicted changes in friendship over time. Collectively, these results provide important new information on the interplay between social competencies and friendship experiences and suggest that friendships may provide a critical venue for the development of important relationship skills. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  5. FRIENDSHIP OF CITIZENS

    OpenAIRE

    Ottmann, Henning

    2011-01-01

    The author advocates a modernization of the antique doctrine of friendship. Friendship understood in the political sense is the friendship of citizens, as a regulative idea of ideal political community. Such friendship is above justice, it implies a permanent and stable mutual benevolence, living together, harmony, mutuality and equality, involvement and compassion, mutual openness in words and deeds, a culture of voluntary cooperation and a spirit of selfaware and self-resp...

  6. Evolution of friendship and best friendship choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, RTAJ

    1996-01-01

    It has been recognized in the literature that the mechanisms driving friendship choices differ when different settings are considered. At the same time, it is likely that different types of friendships are governed by different mechanisms. Employing longitudinal sociometric data from classrooms in

  7. Are Flunkers Social Outcasts? A Multilevel Study of Grade Retention Effects on Same-Grade Friendships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demanet, Jannick; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2016-01-01

    We examine the association between grade retention and the number of same-grade friendships. Moreover, we investigate the effect of a school's proportion of retained students on these friendships and the moderating effect of this school characteristic on the relationship between retention and the number of same-grade friendships. Multilevel…

  8. The neuroethology of friendship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Lauren J N; Chang, Steve W C; Gariépy, Jean-François; Platt, Michael L

    2014-05-01

    Friendship pervades the human social landscape. These bonds are so important that disrupting them leads to health problems, and difficulties forming or maintaining friendships attend neuropsychiatric disorders like autism and depression. Other animals also have friends, suggesting that friendship is not solely a human invention but is instead an evolved trait. A neuroethological approach applies behavioral, neurobiological, and molecular techniques to explain friendship with reference to its underlying mechanisms, development, evolutionary origins, and biological function. Recent studies implicate a shared suite of neural circuits and neuromodulatory pathways in the formation, maintenance, and manipulation of friendships across humans and other animals. Health consequences and reproductive advantages in mammals additionally suggest that friendship has adaptive benefits. We argue that understanding the neuroethology of friendship in humans and other animals brings us closer to knowing fully what it means to be human. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  9. A Dynamic Model of Adolescent Friendship Networks, Parental Influences, and Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Butts, Carter T.; Jose, Rupa; Timberlake, David S.; Hipp, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Peer and parental influences are critical socializing forces shaping adolescent development, including the co-evolving processes of friendship tie choice and adolescent smoking. This study examines aspects of adolescent friendship networks and dimensions of parental influences shaping friendship tie choice and smoking, including parental support, parental monitoring, and the parental home smoking environment using a Stochastic Actor-Based model. With data from three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health of youth in grades 7 through 12, including the In-School Survey, the first wave of the In-Home survey occurring 6 months later, and the second wave of the In-Home survey, occurring one year later, this study utilizes two samples based on the social network data collected in the longitudinal saturated sample of sixteen schools. One consists of twelve small schools (n = 1,284, 50.93 % female), and the other of one large school (n = 976, 48.46 % female). The findings indicated that reciprocity, choosing a friend of a friend as a friend, and smoking similarity increased friendship tie choice behavior, as did parental support. Parental monitoring interacted with choosing friends who smoke in affecting friendship tie choice, as at higher levels of parental monitoring, youth chose fewer friends that smoked. A parental home smoking context conducive to smoking decreased the number of friends adolescents chose. Peer influence and a parental home smoking environment conducive to smoking increased smoking, while parental monitoring decreased it in the large school. Overall, peer and parental factors affected the coevolution of friendship tie choice and smoking, directly and multiplicatively. PMID:25239115

  10. A Dynamic Model of Adolescent Friendship Networks, Parental Influences, and Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakon, Cynthia M; Wang, Cheng; Butts, Carter T; Jose, Rupa; Timberlake, David S; Hipp, John R

    2015-09-01

    Peer and parental influences are critical socializing forces shaping adolescent development, including the co-evolving processes of friendship tie choice and adolescent smoking. This study examines aspects of adolescent friendship networks and dimensions of parental influences shaping friendship tie choice and smoking, including parental support, parental monitoring, and the parental home smoking environment using a Stochastic Actor-Based model. With data from three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health of youth in grades 7 through 12, including the In-School Survey, the first wave of the In-Home survey occurring 6 months later, and the second wave of the In-Home survey, occurring one year later, this study utilizes two samples based on the social network data collected in the longitudinal saturated sample of sixteen schools. One consists of twelve small schools (n = 1,284, 50.93 % female), and the other of one large school (n = 976, 48.46 % female). The findings indicated that reciprocity, choosing a friend of a friend as a friend, and smoking similarity increased friendship tie choice behavior, as did parental support. Parental monitoring interacted with choosing friends who smoke in affecting friendship tie choice, as at higher levels of parental monitoring, youth chose fewer friends that smoked. A parental home smoking context conducive to smoking decreased the number of friends adolescents chose. Peer influence and a parental home smoking environment conducive to smoking increased smoking, while parental monitoring decreased it in the large school. Overall, peer and parental factors affected the coevolution of friendship tie choice and smoking, directly and multiplicatively.

  11. Prospective Associations Between Friendship Adjustment and Social Strategies: Friendship as a Context for Building Social Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Gary C.; Rose, Amanda J.

    2012-01-01

    The proposal that friendships provide a context for the development of social skills is widely accepted. Yet little research exists to support these claims. In the present study, children and adolescents (N = 912) were presented with vignettes in which their friend encountered a social stressor and they could help the friend and vignettes in which they encountered a stressor and could seek help from the friend. Social strategies in response to these vignettes were assessed in the fall and spring of the school year. Notably, different indicators of friendship adjustment had unique effects on youths’ strategies in response to helping tasks. Whereas having more friends predicted decreases in avoidant or hostile strategies, having high-quality friendships predicted emotionally-engaged strategies that involved talking about the problem. Moreover, whereas having more friends predicted increases in relatively disengaged strategies, like distraction and acting like the problem never happened, having high-quality predicted decreases in these strategies. The present study also tested whether youths’ strategies in fall predicted changes in friendship adjustment by the spring. Only strategies which may be seen as major friendship transgressions (i.e., avoiding or blaming the friend when the friend encounters a problem) predicted changes in friendship over time. Collectively, these results provide important new information on the interplay between social competencies and friendship experiences and suggest that friendships may provide a critical venue for the development of important relationship skills. PMID:21443336

  12. The Role of Adolescent Friendship Group Integration and Cohesion in Weapon-Related Violent Crime as a Young Adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundt, Marlon P; Antonaccio, Olena P; French, Michael T; Zakletskaia, Larissa I

    2017-08-01

    Weapon-related violent crime is a serious, complex, and multifaceted public health problem. The present study uses data from Waves I and III of Add Health (n = 10,482, 54% female) to examine how friendship group integration and cohesion in adolescence (ages 12-19) is associated with weapon-related criminal activity as a young adult (ages 18-26). Results indicate that greater cohesion in friendship groups is associated with significantly lower weapon-related criminal activity in young adulthood. In addition, for adolescent girls, a greater number of close friendship ties-an indicator of friendship group integration-is associated with less weapon-related criminal activity in young adulthood. These findings suggest that school-based initiatives to facilitate inclusive and cohesive adolescent peer communities may be an effective strategy to curb weapon-related criminal activity in young adulthood.

  13. Same-Ethnic, Interethnic, and Interracial Friendships Among Asian Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaochen; Graham, Sandra

    2017-09-01

    This study examined the psychological functions of three friendship types (i.e., same ethnic, interethnic, and interracial) in a sample of 785 sixth-grade Asian students (M age  = 11.5 years). Participants listed their friends in sixth grade and whether each nominated friend was the same or a different ethnic group. They also reported on their ethnic identity, intergroup relations, and perceived school safety. Results showed that same-ethnic friendships were related to stronger ethnic identity and interracial friendships were uniquely related to school safety. Interethnic friendships (an Asian friend from a different country of origin) when perceived as same ethnic functioned similarly to same-ethnic friendships, whereas interethnic friendships perceived as from a different ethnic group, like interracial friendships, were associated with better intergroup relations. Implications for studying friendships in ethnically diverse samples are discussed. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2017 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  14. Diverse Friendship Networks and Heterogeneous Peer Effects on Adolescent Misbehaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yilan; Fan, Linlin

    2018-01-01

    This study estimates peer effects in diverse friendship networks by friend types. Evidence from friendship networks for 57,351 U.S. high school adolescents demonstrates that adolescents are more likely to make friends with someone of the same immigrant status or ethnicity ('similar friends') than those with different backgrounds ('dissimilar…

  15. Developmental Trajectories of Peer-Reported Aggressive Behavior: The Role of Friendship Understanding, Friendship Quality, and Friends’ Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, Tina; McDonald, Kristina; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate developmental trajectories in peer-reported aggressive behavior across the transition from elementary-to-middle school, and whether aggressive behavior trajectories were associated with friendship quality, friends’ aggressive behavior, and the ways in which children think about their friendships. Method Participants included a community sample of 230 5th grade children who were assessed when they made a transition from elementary-to-middle school (6th grade). Peer nominations were used to assess the target child’s and friend’s aggressive behavior. Self- and friend reports were used to measure friendship quality; friendship understanding was assessed via a structured interview. Results General Growth Mixture Modeling (GGMM) revealed three distinct trajectories of peer-reported aggressive behavior across the school transition: low-stable, decreasing, and increasing. Adolescents’ understanding of friendship formation differentiated the decreasing from the low-stable aggressive behavior trajectories, and the understanding of friendship trust differentiated the increasing from the low-stable aggressive and decreasing aggressive behavior trajectories. Conclusions The findings indicated that a sophisticated understanding of friendship may serve as a protective factor for initially aggressive adolescents as they transition into middle school. Promoting a deepened understanding of friendship relations and their role in one’s own and others’ well-being may serve as an important prevention and intervention strategy to reduce aggressive behavior. PMID:26688775

  16. Developmental Trajectories of Peer-Reported Aggressive Behavior: The Role of Friendship Understanding, Friendship Quality, and Friends' Aggressive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, Tina; McDonald, Kristina; Rubin, Kenneth H; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn

    2015-10-01

    To investigate developmental trajectories in peer-reported aggressive behavior across the transition from elementary-to-middle school, and whether aggressive behavior trajectories were associated with friendship quality, friends' aggressive behavior, and the ways in which children think about their friendships. Participants included a community sample of 230 5 th grade children who were assessed when they made a transition from elementary-to-middle school (6 th grade). Peer nominations were used to assess the target child's and friend's aggressive behavior. Self- and friend reports were used to measure friendship quality; friendship understanding was assessed via a structured interview. General Growth Mixture Modeling (GGMM) revealed three distinct trajectories of peer-reported aggressive behavior across the school transition: low-stable, decreasing, and increasing. Adolescents' understanding of friendship formation differentiated the decreasing from the low-stable aggressive behavior trajectories, and the understanding of friendship trust differentiated the increasing from the low-stable aggressive and decreasing aggressive behavior trajectories. The findings indicated that a sophisticated understanding of friendship may serve as a protective factor for initially aggressive adolescents as they transition into middle school. Promoting a deepened understanding of friendship relations and their role in one's own and others' well-being may serve as an important prevention and intervention strategy to reduce aggressive behavior.

  17. Friendship and Community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGuire, Brian Patrick

    Reprint of the 1988 edition, with a new introductory chapter bringing research in the field of friendship up to date.......Reprint of the 1988 edition, with a new introductory chapter bringing research in the field of friendship up to date....

  18. Friendship, Intimacy and Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Mordechai

    2014-01-01

    A review of the literature in philosophy in the past 20 years indicates that relatively little has been written on the connection between friendship, intimacy and humor. This article is intended to begin to address the neglect of this topic among philosophers by focusing on some interesting aspects of the relationship between friendship, intimacy…

  19. Friendship Expectations and Children's Friendship-Related Behavior and Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacEvoy, Julie Paquette; Papadakis, Alison A.; Fedigan, Shea K.; Ash, Sarah E.

    2016-01-01

    Although relationship expectations are thought to influence all social interactions, little is known about the function of children's friendship expectations. This study examined the associations among children's friendship expectations and their behavior within their friendships, their friendship adjustment, and their socioemotional functioning.…

  20. MineCrafting Friendship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg, Helle Marie

    , 2013) that forms the basis for striking up friendships within the context of playing Minecraft and producing/consuming Mindcraft metatexts via YouTube. The investigation shows that children perform different types of friendships in the combination of Minecraft and Youtube. The analysis expose two...... dominant types of friends: “The generous Friend” and “The naughty Friend”. Both of these draw on the Greek understanding of friendship as a combination of “to receive” and “to follow”(Huber, 2006). For Aristoteles friendship, can lead to a better way of doing and thinking, and for Platon the dialogue...... between friends can even lead to a higher understanding of yourself. The combination Minecraft/YouTube shows forms of friendship that underline the importance of showing, sharing and caring, and show how this unfolds across media, stories and materialities. The theoretical point of departure for the study...

  1. Detecting Friendship Within Dynamic Online Interaction Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Merritt, Sears; Jacobs, Abigail Z.; Mason, Winter; Clauset, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    In many complex social systems, the timing and frequency of interactions between individuals are observable but friendship ties are hidden. Recovering these hidden ties, particularly for casual users who are relatively less active, would enable a wide variety of friendship-aware applications in domains where labeled data are often unavailable, including online advertising and national security. Here, we investigate the accuracy of multiple statistical features, based either purely on temporal...

  2. Co-evolution of Friendships and Antipathies: A Longitudinal Study of Preschool Peer Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João R. Daniel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We used stochastic actor-based models to test whether the developmental dynamics of friendships and antipathies in preschool peer groups (followed throughout three school years were co-dependent. We combined choices from three sociometric tasks of 142 children to identify friendship and antipathy ties and used SIENA to model network dynamics. Our results show that different social processes drive the development of friendship and antipathy ties, and that they do not develop in association (i.e., friendship ties are not dependent on existing antipathies, and vice-versa. These results differ from those of older children (age range = 10-14 suggesting that the interplay of friendship and antipathy only plays a significant role in the peer group context in older children. We propose these differences to be likely related with preschool age children’s inaccurate perceptions of their classmates’ relationships, particularly of their antipathies, and/or with the absence of shared norms to deal with antipathetic relationships.

  3. Stress and coping in interracial contexts: The influence of race-based rejection sensitivity and cross-group friendship in daily experiences of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page-Gould, Elizabeth; Mendoza-Denton, Rodolfo; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2014-06-01

    We examined the interplay of psychosocial risk and protective factors in daily experiences of health. In Study 1, the tendency to anxiously expect rejection from racial outgroup members, termed race-based rejection sensitivity (RS-race), was cross-sectionally related to greater stress-symptoms among Black adults who reported fewer cross-race friends but not among participants who had more cross-race friends. In Study 2, we experimentally manipulated the development of a same- versus cross-race friendship among Latino/a-White dyads prior to collecting daily experiences of stress-symptoms using a diary methodology. While RS-race predicted more psychosomatic symptoms in the same-race friendship condition, RS-race was unrelated to symptomatology among participants who made a cross-race friend. These findings suggest that experiences of intergroup stress can spill over into everyday life in the absence of positive contact, but cross-race friendships may be a resource that mitigates the expression of interracial stress.

  4. Robot friendship: Can a robot be a friend?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmeche, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Friendship is used here as a conceptual vehicle for framing questions about the distinctiveness of human cognition in relation to natural systems such as other animal species and to artificial systems such as robots. By exploring this very common form of a human interpersonal relationship......, the author indicates that even though it is difficult to say something generally true about friendship among humans, distinct forms of friendship as practiced and distinct notions of friendship have been investigated in the social and human sciences and in biology. A more general conceptualization...... of friendship as a triadic relation analogous to the sign relation is suggested. Based on this the author asks how one may conceive of robot-robot and robot-human friendships; and how an interdisciplinary perspective upon that relation can contribute to analyse levels of embodied cognition in natural...

  5. Interracial Friendships in College

    OpenAIRE

    Braz Camargo; Ralph Stinebrickner; Todd Stinebrickner

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by the reality that the benefits of diversity on a college campus will be mitigated if interracial interactions are scarce or superficial, previous work has strived to document the amount of interracial friendship interaction and to examine whether policy can influence this amount. In this paper we take advantage of unique longitudinal data from the Berea Panel Study to build on this previous literature by providing direct evidence about the amount of interracial friendships at diff...

  6. School Based Health Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children's Aid Society, 2012

    2012-01-01

    School Based Health Centers (SBHC) are considered by experts as one of the most effective and efficient ways to provide preventive health care to children. Few programs are as successful in delivering health care to children at no cost to the patient, and where they are: in school. For many underserved children, The Children's Aid Society's…

  7. Critical Friendship: Helping Youth Lift as They Climb Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Tanya G.

    2018-01-01

    Friendship and peer groups are important to youth. However, adults in afterschool programs and other youth-serving community-based organizations often either ignore peer relationships or deem them detrimental to desired youth outcomes. What would it mean to consider young people's friendships in a different light? How can this important element of…

  8. Learning Friendship: The "Indispensable Basis of a Good Society"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shushok, Frank, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Aristotle believed that perfect friendship based in goodness is rare because few people seek to be good. In this article, the author suggests that colleges and universities can prove him wrong by helping students understand the ways and whys of being a true friend. Here, he advocates a friendship curriculum to guide students in learning to create…

  9. Adolescents: Differences in Friendship Patterns Related to Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjaavatn, Per Egil; Frostad, Per; Pijl, Sip Jan

    2016-01-01

    Based on a survey of 123 Norwegian students aged 14-15 (grade 10) this article will discuss possible gender differences in peer relations, social position and friendship criteria. The students filled in a questionnaire that included sociometry and questions on friendship criteria, self-esteem and social support. We found significant gender…

  10. A unique friendship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Robert A.

    2010-10-01

    The beginning of the friendship between myself and H.F. Schaefer (hereafter 'Fritz') took place in Berkeley. The development of this friendship is best described by the question: How did a red diaper baby become good friends with one who had a totally different view of 'ultimate questions'? The essential role my wife, Christine Chapin Harris, plays in the friendship when Fritz moves to Georgia is next described. The story continues with Fritz's efforts over many years, finally successful, to encourage us to visit Georgia. This part of the history emphasizes Fritz's kindness towards Christine. I end this section with our adventures with Fritz in Georgia. The final section is about our old age common humanity.

  11. Friendship, sexual intimacy and young people's negotiations of sexual health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byron, Paul

    2017-04-01

    This paper examines how young people's friendships influence safer sexual practices. Through a thematic discourse analysis, interviews with Sydney-based young people (aged 18-25 years) and Australian-based sexual health websites for young people are considered. Interview data illustrate how friendships can support young people's sexual experiences, concerns and safeties beyond the practice of 'safe sex' (condom use). This is evident in friends' practices of sex and relationship advice, open dialogue, trust and sharing experiential knowledge, as well as friend-based sex. Meanwhile, friendship discourse from selected Australian sexual health websites fails to engage with the support offered by friendship, or its value to a sexual health agenda. Foucault's account of friendship as a space of self-invention is considered in light of these data, along with his argument that friendship poses a threat to formal systems of knowing and regulating sex. Whether sexual or not, many close friendships are sexually intimate given the knowledge, support and influence these offer to one's sexual practices and relations. This paper argues that greater attention to friendship among sexual health promoters and researchers would improve professional engagements with young people's contemporary sexual cultures, and better inform their attempts to engage young people through social media.

  12. Friendship Group Composition and Juvenile Institutional Misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Shannon E

    2017-02-01

    The present study examines both the patterns of friendship networks and how these network characteristics relate to the risk factors of institutional misconduct for incarcerated youth. Using friendship networks collected from males incarcerated with California's Division of Juvenile Justice (DJJ), latent profile analysis was utilized to create homogeneous groups of friendship patterns based on alter attributes and network structure. The incarcerated youth provided 144 egocentric networks reporting 558 social network relationships. Latent profile analysis identified three network profiles: expected group (67%), new breed group (20%), and model citizen group (13%). The three network profiles were integrated into a multiple group analysis framework to examine the relative influence of individual-level risk factors on their rate of institutional misconduct. The analysis finds variation in predictors of institutional misconduct across profile types. These findings suggest that the close friendships of incarcerated youth are patterned across the individual characteristics of the youth's friends and that the friendship network can act as a moderator for individual risk factors for institutional misconduct.

  13. Youth, friendship, and gaming: a network perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Grove, Frederik

    2014-09-01

    With digital games being part of the leisure of a multitude of young people, it is important to understand to what extent gaming-related practices such as talking about games or playing games together are associated with the quality of friendship relations with players and nonplayers. Based on 100 friendship networks, this study explored to what extent those practices permeated the everyday life of youngsters and whether they could be considered as a part of doing friendship. Results indicated that gaming as a conversational topic was widespread within and between networks. Furthermore, regardless of gender, this was significantly associated with friendship quality in almost all of the networks. When considering playing games together, a somewhat different picture emerged. In contrast to conversational practices, playing together was less widespread. Moreover, both the occurrence and the effect of co-play and friendship quality was gendered. The findings of this study show that a focus on gaming-related practices yields a fruitful starting point when considering the role of digital games in a social context that is not limited to people playing (online) games. Furthermore, they also feed into the ongoing debate of possible effects of digital games in that it shows that the way in which games influence the lives of young people goes beyond a direct effects approach.

  14. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in early adolescents' friendship development : Friendship selection, influence, and prospective friendship quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ojanen, Tiina; Sijtsema, Jelle J.; Hawley, Patricia H.; Little, Todd D.; Ojanen, M.

    2010-01-01

    Friendships are essential for adolescent social development. However, they may be pursued for varying motives, which, in turn, may predict similarity in friendships via social selection or social influence processes, and likely help to explain friendship quality. We examined the effect of early

  15. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation in Early Adolescents' Friendship Development: Friendship Selection, Influence, and Prospective Friendship Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojanen, Tiina; Sijtsema, Jelle J.; Hawley, Patricia H.; Little, Todd D.

    2010-01-01

    Friendships are essential for adolescent social development. However, they may be pursued for varying motives, which, in turn, may predict similarity in friendships via social selection or social influence processes, and likely help to explain friendship quality. We examined the effect of early adolescents' (N = 374, 12-14 years) intrinsic and…

  16. Friendship Factors and Suicidality: Common and Unique Patterns in Mexican- and European-American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterrowd, Erin; Canetto, Silvia Sara; Chavez, Ernest L.

    2010-01-01

    Research suggests a link between friendships and suicidality among U.S. youth but this link has not been confirmed across ethnicities. This study examined the relationship between friendships and suicidality among Mexican- and European-American adolescents. Specifically, the role of friendship problems (i.e., social isolation, poor quality friendships) and problematic friends (i.e., friends who were disconnected from school, delinquent friends) was explored. Participants were 648 community youth. Friends’ school disconnection was related to Mexican-American girls’ suicidal ideation while friends’ delinquency was associated with European-American youth suicidal behavior. Friendship factors were no longer associated with suicidality after controlling for suicidality correlates such as depression. These findings indicate that the relationship between friendships and suicidality varies by gender and ethnicity. They also suggest a dominant role of depression. PMID:21309824

  17. [The relationship between four components of assertiveness and interpersonal behaviors, interpersonal adjustment in high school students' friendship].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Asami

    2010-04-01

    This study examines the relationship between four components of assertiveness ("open expression", "control of emotion", "consideration for others" and "self-direction") and interpersonal behaviors on friends, interpersonal stress events, social anxiety. A questionnaire which included scales to measure the four components of assertiveness, activities with friend, considerate behavior for friends, interpersonal stress events and social anxiety was completed by 177 high school students. The results showed that "self-direction" had curvilinear relations with considerate behavior for friends, interpersonal stress events. An excessively high score for "self-direction" was associated with fewer considerate behavior and interpersonal stress events. An optimum score for "self-direction" was associated with more considerate behavior and interpersonal stress events.

  18. Relations between quality of friendships and attachment styles in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuruzović Nikolina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work relations between quality of friendship and attachment styles among adolescents were investigated. The question of the differences, among individuals of different styles of attachment in the quality of their friendly relations, both at the individual and at the dyadic level were investigated. Also, the predictive significance of attachment when it comes to the quality of friendship, were discussed. The study included 425 subjects of both genders, first grade secondary school students, aged 14 to 17 years. Following instruments were used: Friendship Quality Questionnaire, which was created for the purposes of this study, and assesses dimensions of affection, intimacy, interaction and conflicts in friendship, and a questionnaire for assessing styles of attachment UPIPAV (Nataša Hanak.Results indicate that participants of secure and insecure attachment styles differ significantly in all dimensions of quality of friendships. Secure participants have a higher level of affection, companionship, intimacy and conflict in relation to insecure subjects. Exceptions are subjects of fearful styles of attachment who have a similar level of affection in friendship to those of secure ones. When the above differences are observed at the dyadic level, the situation is as follows: couples of friends with secure styles of attachment at all dimensions of friendship have higher scores compared to couples with insecure styles. Regression analysis showed that attachment significantly contributes to the explanation of all the dimensions of friendship. The strongest individual contribution to the explanation of all dimensions of quality friendships have secure style of attachment. The results are discussed within the attachment theory perspective.

  19. The Relationship between Class Attitudes towards Peers with a Disability and Peer Acceptance, Friendships and Peer Interactions of Students with a Disability in Regular Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Katja

    2018-01-01

    Students with a disability in inclusive classes often face problems with peer acceptance, friendships and peer interactions. In this paper, the relationship between these difficulties in social participation and the attitudes that typically developing adolescents hold towards peers with a disability at the level of the class was explored. A…

  20. The Relationships between Perceived Parenting Style, Learning Motivation, Friendship Satisfaction, and the Addictive Use of Smartphones with Elementary School Students of South Korea: Using Multivariate Latent Growth Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sung Man

    2015-01-01

    We examined how perceived parenting style, friendship satisfaction, and academic motivation influence the addictive use of smartphones longitudinally. We utilized the panel data (from 2010-2012) of Korean children and youth panel survey of the National Youth Policy Institute. Data were collected from 2,376 individuals in the first year (boys:…

  1. Me, myself, and you : Friendships in adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zalk, M.H.W.

    2009-01-01

    The current dissertation focused on processes of friendship formation and friendship socialization in adolescence. The role of individual characteristics in friendship formation were examined at the a) individual level (individuals’ perceptions and traits), b) dyadic level (similarity between two

  2. Fictive Kinship as It Mediates Learning, Resiliency, Perseverance, and Social Learning of Inner-City High School Students of Color in a College Physics Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexakos, Konstantinos; Jones, Jayson K.; Rodriguez, Victor H.

    2011-01-01

    In this hermeneutic study we explore how fictive kinship (kin-like close personal friendship) amongst high school students of color mediated their resiliency, perseverance, and success in a college physics class. These freely chosen, processual friendships were based on emotional and material support, motivation, and caring for each other, as well…

  3. The Relationship between Friendship Quality and Self-Esteem in Adolescent Girls and Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jennifer J.; Daubman, Kimberly A.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the role of friendship quality in adolescent boys' and girls' self-esteem. High school student surveys indicated that girls had significantly lower self-esteem than boys, and they rated their relationships as stronger, more interpersonally rewarding, and more stressful than boys. Boys rated their cross-gender best friendship as more…

  4. Friendships in Childhood and Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagwell, Catherine L.; Schmidt, Michelle E.

    2011-01-01

    Highly readable and comprehensive, this volume explores the significance of friendship for social, emotional, and cognitive development from early childhood through adolescence. The authors trace how friendships change as children age and what specific functions these relationships play in promoting adjustment and well-being. Compelling topics…

  5. "No Time for Friendship": Shanghai Mothers' Views of Adult and Adolescent Friendships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xu; Gao, Minghui

    2014-01-01

    What is the relation between parents' views of their own friendships and their beliefs and practices about their children's friendships? Do parents who enjoy high-quality adult friendships understand and support adolescent friendships in ways different from parents who do not have close adult friendships? Relying on systematic analysis of…

  6. Friendships of Indonesian and United States Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Doran C.; Pidada, Sri; Victor, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    Issues in the study of friendship across cultures were explored by reviewing a set of studies focusing on the friendships of Indonesian and United States youth. Four topics are considered: similarity of friendships across cultures, dimensions of friendships that vary across cultures, the utility of the individualism/collectivism dimension for…

  7. Decomposing the components of friendship and friends' influence on adolescent drinking and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Kayo; Valente, Thomas W

    2012-08-01

    Friendship networks are an important source of peer influence. However, existing network studies vary in terms of how they operationalize friendship and friend's influence on adolescent substance use. This study uses social network analysis to characterize three types of friendship relations: (1) mutual or reciprocated, (2) directional, and (3) intimate friends. We then examine the relative effects of each friendship type on adolescent drinking and smoking behavior. Using a saturated sample from the Add Health data, a nationally representative sample of high school adolescents (N = 2,533 nested in 12 schools), we computed the level of exposure to drinking and smoking of friends using a network exposure model, and their association with individual drinking and smoking using fixed effect models. Results indicated that the influence from mutual or reciprocated type of friendship relations is stronger on adolescent substance use than directional, especially for smoking. Regarding the directionality of directional type of friendship relations, adolescents are equally influenced by both nominating and nominated friends on their drinking and smoking behavior. Results for intimate friends friendship relations indicated that the influence from "best friends" was weaker than the one from non-"best friends," which indicates that the order of friend nomination may not matter as much as nomination reciprocation. This study demonstrates that considering different features of friendship relationships is important in evaluating friends' influence on adolescent substance use. Related policy implications are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Popularity and Adolescent Friendship Networks : Selection and Influence Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Borch, Casey

    This study examined the dynamics of popularity in adolescent friendship networks across 3 years in middle school. Longitudinal social network modeling was used to identify selection and influence in the similarity of popularity among friends. It was argued that lower status adolescents strive to

  9. Popularity and Adolescent Friendship Networks: Selection and Influence Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.K.; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Borch, C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the dynamics of popularity in adolescent friendship networks across 3 years in middle school. Longitudinal social network modeling was used to identify selection and influence in the similarity of popularity among friends. It was argued that lower status adolescents strive to

  10. Popularity and Adolescent Friendship Networks: Selection and Influence Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Borch, Casey

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the dynamics of popularity in adolescent friendship networks across 3 years in middle school. Longitudinal social network modeling was used to identify selection and influence in the similarity of popularity among friends. It was argued that lower status adolescents strive to enhance their status through befriending higher…

  11. The interplay of friendship networks and social networking sites: longitudinal analysis of selection and influence effects on adolescent smoking and alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Grace C; Soto, Daniel; Fujimoto, Kayo; Valente, Thomas W

    2014-08-01

    We examined the coevolution of adolescent friendships and peer influences with respect to their risk behaviors and social networking site use. Investigators of the Social Network Study collected longitudinal data during fall 2010 and spring 2011 from 10th-grade students in 5 Southern California high schools (n = 1434). We used meta-analyses of stochastic actor-based models to estimate changes in friendship ties and risk behaviors and the effects of Facebook and MySpace use. Significant shifts in adolescent smoking and drinking occurred despite little change in overall prevalence rates. Students with higher levels of alcohol use were more likely to send and receive friendship nominations and become friends with other drinkers. They were also more likely to increase alcohol use if their friends drank more. Adolescents selected friends with similar Facebook and MySpace use habits. Exposure to friends' risky online pictures increased smoking behaviors but had no significant effects on alcohol use. Our findings support a greater focus on friendship selection mechanisms in school-based alcohol use interventions. Social media platforms may help identify at-risk adolescent groups and foster positive norms about risk behaviors.

  12. Friendship network position and salivary cortisol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornienko, Olga; Clemans, Katherine H; Out, Dorothée; Granger, Douglas A

    2013-01-01

    We employed a social network analysis approach to examine the associations between friendship network position and cortisol levels. The sample consisted of 74 first-year students (93% female, ages 22-38 years, M = 27) from a highly competitive, accelerated Nursing program. Participants completed questionnaires online, and the entire group met at one time to complete a series of sociometric nominations and donated a saliva sample. Saliva was later assayed for cortisol. Metrics derived from directed friendship nominations indexed each student's friendship network status regarding popularity, gregariousness, and degree of interconnectedness. Results revealed that (1) individuals with lower gregariousness status (i.e., lowest number of outgoing ties) had higher cortisol levels, and (2) individuals with higher popularity status (i.e., higher numbers of incoming ties) had higher cortisol levels. Popularity and gregariousness-based network status is significantly associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Implications for prevailing theories of the social determinants of individual differences in biological sensitivity and susceptibility to context are discussed.

  13. The perception of friendship in adults with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, K J; Johnson, P; Virji-Babul, N

    2010-11-01

    Measuring the perception of friendship in adults with Down syndrome (DS) has long been a research challenge. While there have been studies investigating the number of friends children with DS have in, the study of how adults with DS view the concept of friendship has been relatively unexplored. The aim of this study was to evaluate the perception of friendship in adults with DS using a visually based scale. Sixty-six individuals participated in this study: 22 adults with DS, 22 typical mental age (MA) matched children and 22 typical adults matched for chronological age (CA). We administered a visually based Friendship scale made up of photographs depicting social interactions between individuals or groups. The scale was composed of two parts. In Part 1 participants were shown two photographs and asked to select the photograph that best depicted friends. In Part 2 participants were asked to view one photograph and asked, 'Is it okay for friends to do this?' Adults with DS scored lower on the Friendship scale in comparison with the CA and MA matched groups. Adults with DS made more errors in identifying 'friends' from 'non-friends' but were equally able to distinguish friendly behaviours and actions from non-friendly behaviours as their CA and MA matched peers. Individuals with DS were more likely to incorrectly identify photographs depicting a teacher, or a mother with a child as friends. Actions or behaviours that depicted subtle negative emotions were also incorrectly identified. These results are an important first step in understanding the perception of friendship and social behaviours related to friendship in adults with DS. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Friendships in Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: What Holds Them Back, Child Characteristics or Teacher Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ya-Chih; Shih, Wendy; Kasari, Connie

    2016-01-01

    Children begin to show preferences for specific playmates as early as the first 2?years of life. Children with autism spectrum disorder have difficulty making friends, even in elementary and middle school. However, very little is known about earlier friendships in children with autism such as preschool friendships. This study examined friendships…

  15. Friendship and Postmodern Utopianism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leela Gandhi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Believers insist that the ghost of utopianism returned to Europe in May 1968, and that it has been haunting the ruins of ‘the political’ ever since. This paper is written in the spirit of belief. It has two claims: first, and incidentally, that utopianism—namely, a politics of alternatives poised at the limits of thought and being, epistemology and ontology—is both expedient and inevitable in regard to a terrain where, à la Foucault, power is everywhere, ‘immanent to the social field, distributed through the brains and bodies of citizens’; and second, and here is the crux of my argument, the movement in our time from nihilism to utopianism has required a careful renegotiation with ideas of community, communication, sociability, conatus. This process, most apparent within contemporary postmodernism, I would like to call, after Derrida, the politics of friendship. The rest of this paper is an attempt to describe the restless itinerary of such a politics, which entails, in the main, postmodernism’s departure from the cult of the hybrid subject toward a non-communitarian understanding of community.

  16. A Book and a Friendship to Cherish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Anne S.

    1989-01-01

    Relates how a child's love of Yoko Kawashima Watkins's book, So Far from the Bamboo Grove led to a friendship with Watkins. Considers the repercussions of this friendship on the child's reading motivation and development. (MM)

  17. Characteristic Processes in Close Peer Friendships of Preterm Infants at Age 12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary C. Sullivan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Close friendships become important at middle-school age and are unexplored in adolescents born prematurely. The study aimed to characterize friendship behaviors of formerly preterm infants at age 12 and explore similarities and differences between preterm and full-term peers on dyadic friendship types. From the full sample of N=186, one hundred sixty-six 12-year-old adolescents (40 born full term, 126 born preterm invited a close friend to a 1.5 hour videotaped laboratory play session. Twenty adolescents were unable to participate due to scheduling conflicts or developmental disability. Characteristic friendship behaviors were identified by Q-sort followed by Q-factoring analysis. Friendship duration, age, and contact differed between the full-term and preterm groups but friendship activities, behaviors, and quality were similar despite school service use. Three Q-factors, leadership, distancing, and mutual playfulness, were most characteristic of all dyads, regardless of prematurity. These prospective, longitudinal findings demonstrate diminished prematurity effects at adolescence in peer friendship behavior and reveal interpersonal dyadic processes that are important to peer group affiliation and other areas of competence.

  18. The effects of instant messaging on the quality of adolescents’ existing friendships: a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburg, P.M.; Peter, J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that instant messaging (IM) is positively related to the quality of adolescents’ existing friendships. However, most of these studies were based on cross-sectional correlational data. In addition, most studies have focused on direct effects of IM on the quality of friendships

  19. School-Based Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennon, Catherine; Hinton, Christina; Callahan, Thomas; Fischer, Kurt W.

    2013-01-01

    In the field of medicine, research and practice are joined in teaching hospitals. In these institutions, researchers work alongside doctors to incorporate recent advances in medical research into practice and track results. There is a growing movement in the field of education to create analogous institutions in education called research schools.…

  20. Friendship and the Worlds of Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, William M.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the historical and conceptual foundations of friendship research. Areas addressed include functions of friendship, study of peer relations and peer systems, associated methodological and measurement challenges, and the study of friendship today. The discussion is framed around the "Harry Potter" (by J. K. Rowling) phenomena. (SD)

  1. Our Friendship Gardens: Healing Our Mother, Ourselves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Madhu Suri

    2015-01-01

    Embracing the best ideals of Victory Gardens, this essay celebrates Friendship Gardens. The latter go further: collapsing the dualisms separating victors from losers. Friendships that transcend differences and honor diversity are among the many fruits and organic gifts harvested and shared in the commons created by Friendship Gardens. This essay…

  2. Children's Friendship Development: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, SeonYeong; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Fowler, Susan A.

    2011-01-01

    Establishing friendships is an important developmental goal of early childhood, but little research has addressed ways in which parents support the friendship development of their young children with disabilities. The purpose of this survey study was to explore the support strategies that parents use to facilitate their children's friendships.…

  3. Friendship and literacy through literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palincsar, A S; Parecki, A D; McPhail, J C

    1995-10-01

    The exploratory research reported in this article was designed to determine the processes and outcomes of planning thematic literacy instruction in a holistic and contextualized manner. The work was conducted in an upper-elementary, self-contained setting for students identified as learning disabled. Specifically, the instructional activities included (a) interactive readings from literature on friendship, (b) personal written responses to the literature, (c) supported retellings of the literature, (d) performance related to the literature, and (e) journal writing on the topic of friendship. The outcomes are reported in terms of the use of intertextuality over the course of the 6-week unit, the emergence of theme as a salient feature in literature, and a change in the children's conceptions of friendship. More specific literacy outcomes are captured in case studies of 3 children.

  4. The Social Network, Socioeconomic Background, and School Type of Adolescent Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisman, Chip; Bruggeman, Jeroen

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the role of Dutch second grade (age 13-14) high school peer networks in mediating socioeconomic background and school type effects on smoking behavior. This study is based on a longitudinal design with two measurement waves at five different high schools, of the complete networks of second grader friendships, as…

  5. Friendship Experiences and Anxiety Among Children: A Genetically Informed Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Catherine Serra; Brendgen, Mara; Girard, Alain; Vitaro, Frank; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel

    2016-01-01

    This study examined (a) whether, in line with a gene-environment correlation (rGE), a genetic disposition for anxiety puts children at risk of having anxious friends or having no reciprocal friends; (b) to what extent these friendship experiences are related to anxiety symptoms, when controlling for sex and genetic disposition for this trait; and (c) the additive and interactive predictive links of the reciprocal best friend's anxiety symptoms and of friendship quality with children's anxiety symptoms. Using a genetically informed design based on 521 monozygotic and ic twins (264 girls; 87% of European descent) assessed in Grade 4 (M age = 10.04 years, SD = .26), anxiety symptoms and perceived friendship quality were measured with self-report questionnaires. Results indicated that, in line with rGE, children with a strong genetic disposition for anxiety were more likely to have anxious friends than nonanxious friends. Moreover, controlling for their genetic risk for anxiety, children with anxious friends showed higher levels of anxiety symptoms than children with nonanxious friends but did not differ from those without reciprocal friends. Additional analyses suggested a possible contagion of anxiety symptoms between reciprocal best friends when perceived negative features of friendship were high. These results underline the importance of teaching strategies such as problem solving that enhance friendship quality to limit the potential social contagion of anxiety symptoms.

  6. Effects of Hospital Workers’ Friendship Networks on Job Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sung Yae; Lee, Sang Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Background This study attempted to identify the sources of job stress according to job position and investigate how friendship networks affect job stress. Methods Questionnaires based on The Health Professions Stress Inventory (HPSI) developed by Wolfgang experienced by healthcare providers were collected from 420 nurses, doctors and radiological technologists in two general hospitals in Korea by a multistage cluster sampling method. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the effects of friendship networks on job stress after controlling for other factors. Results The severity of job stress differed according to level of job demands (p = .006); radiologic technologists experienced the least stress (45.4), nurses experienced moderate stress (52.4), and doctors experienced the most stress (53.6). Those with long-term friendships characterized by strong connections reported lower levels of stress than did those with weak ties to friends among nurses (1.3, p job stress experienced by nurses (8.2, p job stress (9.2, p job stress. Conclusion The strength and density of such friendship networks were related to job stress. Life information support from their friendship network was the primary positive contributor to control of job stress. PMID:26900945

  7. In search of true friendship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Karine de Souza

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present text proposes a discussion on the concept of true friendship. The argument is grounded mostly on Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics, Owen Flanagan's ethics as human ecology, and on contemporary authors' works about the Greek philosopher's concept of friendship. Given that human beings flourish through 1 exercising capacities, 2 being moral, and 3 having true friendships, difficulties to establish the level of trust required by true friendships turns the search itself (for them morally valid.O presente texto propõe uma discussão sobre o conceito de amizade verdadeira. A argumentação que fundamenta o trabalho baseia-se em grande parte na Ética a Nicômaco de Aristóteles, na ética como ecologia humana de Owen Flanagan, e em autores contemporâneos sobre o conceito de amizade do filósofo grego. Considerando-se que seres humanos encontram a felicidade mediante 1 o exercício de suas capacidades, 2 ser um ente moral, e 3 ter amizades verdadeiras, as dificuldades no estabelecimento do nível de amizade requerido nas amizades verdadeiras torna a busca (por elas, por si só, algo moralmente válido.

  8. Aristotle on Love and Friendship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstan, David

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available David Konstan (Brown University, Providence argues that the term philia, in Aristotle, represents an elective, affective relationship, and not, as many scholars have maintained, a relation of mutual obligation, like that of kinship, with no necessary affective element; in addition, he disambiguates two senses of philia, one corresponding to “love”, the other designating the reciprocal affection characteristic of friendship.

  9. The Enhancing Impact of Friendship Networks on Sales Managers’ Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Pimentel Claro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how relationships with friends moderate the impact of professional networks on sales performance. Based on a sample of 204 sales managers in a professional service company, this study presents evidence that friendship networks amplify the effect of sales forces’ professional networks on new product sales as well as on prospecting and converting new deals. Our results offer important insights into the socio-cognitive perspective of sales management literature and suggest that firms should encourage managers to improve their friendships in order to access valuable information that will enhance customer knowledge and support their sales efforts.

  10. Effects of Hospital Workers' Friendship Networks on Job Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Yae Shin

    Full Text Available This study attempted to identify the sources of job stress according to job position and investigate how friendship networks affect job stress.Questionnaires based on The Health Professions Stress Inventory (HPSI developed by Wolfgang experienced by healthcare providers were collected from 420 nurses, doctors and radiological technologists in two general hospitals in Korea by a multistage cluster sampling method. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the effects of friendship networks on job stress after controlling for other factors.The severity of job stress differed according to level of job demands (p = .006; radiologic technologists experienced the least stress (45.4, nurses experienced moderate stress (52.4, and doctors experienced the most stress (53.6. Those with long-term friendships characterized by strong connections reported lower levels of stress than did those with weak ties to friends among nurses (1.3, p < .05 and radiological technologists (11.4, p < .01. The degree of cohesion among friends had a positive impact on the level of job stress experienced by nurses (8.2, p < .001 and radiological technologists (14.6, p < .1. Doctors who participated in workplace alumni meetings scored higher than those who did not. However, those who participated in alumni meetings outside the workplace showed the opposite tendency, scoring 9.4 (p < .05 lower than those who did not. The resources from their friendship network include both information and instrumental support. As most radiological technologists were male, their instrumental support positively affected their job stress (9.2, p < .05. Life information support was the primary positive contributor to control of nurses' (4.1, p < .05, radiological technologists' (8.0, p < .05 job stress.The strength and density of such friendship networks were related to job stress. Life information support from their friendship network was the primary positive contributor to control of job

  11. Loneliness in Early Adolescence: Friendship Quantity, Friendship Quality, and Dyadic Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodder, Gerine M A; Scholte, Ron H J; Goossens, Luc; Verhagen, Maaike

    2017-01-01

    Friendship quantity and quality are related to adolescent loneliness, but the exact link between these constructs is not well understood. The present study aimed to examine whether adolescents' perception of friendship quantity and quality, and the perceptions of their peers, were related to loneliness. We examined the relation between loneliness and the number of unilateral and reciprocal friendships and compared the views of best friendship quality. Overall, 1,172 Dutch adolescents (49.1% male, M age = 12.81, SD = .43) nominated their friends and rated their friendship quality. Friendship quantity was measured using sociometrics to distinguish reciprocated and unilateral (i.e., one-sided) friendships. The analyses indicated that loneliness was related to fewer reciprocal and unilateral-received friendships (i.e., the adolescent received a friendship nomination but did not reciprocate that nomination) and a lower quality of best friendship. Actor-partner interdependence analyses revealed that adolescents' loneliness was related to a less positive evaluation of their friendship, as reported by adolescents themselves (i.e., a significant actor effect) but not by their friends (i.e., nonsignificant partner effect). These findings (a) indicate that loneliness is negatively related to the number of friends adolescents have, as perceived by themselves and their peers and (b) suggest that, once a friendship is established, lonely adolescents may interpret the friendship quality less positively compared to their friends. Implications of these findings for our current understanding of adolescent loneliness are discussed, and suggestions for future research are outlined.

  12. Friendship after a friends with benefits relationship: deception, psychological functioning, and social connectedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Jesse; Fincham, Frank D; Manthos, Megan

    2013-11-01

    Friends with benefits (FWB) relationships are formed by an integration of friendship and sexual intimacy, typically without the explicit commitments characteristic of an exclusive romantic relationship. The majority of these relationships do not transition into committed romantic relationships, raising questions about what happens to the relationship after the FWB ends. In a sample of 119 men and 189 women university students, with a median age of 19 years and the majority identified as Caucasian (63.6 %), we assessed relationship adjustment, feelings of deception, perception of the FWB relationship and friendship, social connectedness, psychological distress, and loneliness. Results demonstrated that the majority of FWB relationships continued as friendships after the sexual intimacy ceased and that about 50 % of the participants reported feeling as close or closer to their FWB partner. Those who did not remain friends were more likely to report that their FWB relationship was more sex- than friendship-based; they also reported higher levels of feeling deceived by their FWB partner and higher levels of loneliness and psychological distress, but lower levels of mutual social connectedness. Higher levels of feeling deceived were related to feeling less close to the post-FWB friend; also, more sex-based FWB relationships were likely to result in post-FWB friendships that were either more or less close (as opposed to unchanged). FWB relationships, especially those that include more attention to friendship based intimacy, do not appear to negatively impact the quality of the friendship after the "with benefits" ends.

  13. Fictive-friendship and the Fourth Gospel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeba A. Crook

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The phenomena of friendship and giftship in antiquity have been the focus of much anthropological interest, yet those terms are still used much too broadly, wherein any one can be friends and anything exchanged is a gift. This article argued that proper friendship requires equality of exchange and status. When inequality of exchange is present, we will almost always also have inequality of status. These two things together naturally and necessarily result in the absence of frank speech. At this point, proper friendship (defined by frank speech and the exchange of gifts (defined by equality of value are impossible, and we have fictivefriendship, a term I have introduced in this article. Fictive-friendship refers to the practice, often but not exclusively amongst elites, of using friendship language to mask relationships of dependence (patronage and clientage. I closed my argument by looking at two examples of fictive-friendship in the Gospel of John.

  14. A Friendship for Others: Bonhoeffer and Bethge on the Theology and Practice of Friendship

    OpenAIRE

    Parsons, Preston David Sunabacka

    2018-01-01

    A Friendship for Others: Bonhoeffer and Bethge on the Theology and Practice of Friendship Preston Parsons This study considers the theology and practice of friendship in Dietrich Bonhoeffer’s academic writing, his pastoral work and thought, his involvement in the Abwehr plot, and his prison letters, taking special interest in the influence of Eberhard Bethge on Bonhoeffer and the influence of Bonhoeffer on Bethge. Friendship, as a locus of interpretation, also provides a fresh per...

  15. Using Aristotle’s theory of friendship to classify online friendships: A critical counterview

    OpenAIRE

    Kaliarnta, S.

    2016-01-01

    In a special issue of “Ethics and Information Technology” (September 2012), various philosophers have discussed the notion of online friendship. The preferred framework of analysis was Aristotle’s theory of friendship: it was argued that online friendships face many obstacles that hinder them from ever reaching the highest form of Aristotelian friendship. In this article I aim to offer a different perspective by critically analyzing the arguments these philosophers use against online friendsh...

  16. Gender, Friendship Networks, and Delinquency: A Dynamic Network Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynie, Dana L; Doogan, Nathan J; Soller, Brian

    2014-11-01

    Researchers have examined selection and influence processes in shaping delinquency similarity among friends, but little is known about the role of gender in moderating these relationships. Our objective is to examine differences between adolescent boys and girls regarding delinquency-based selection and influence processes. Using longitudinal network data from adolescents attending two large schools in AddHealth ( N = 1,857) and stochastic actor-oriented models, we evaluate whether girls are influenced to a greater degree by friends' violence or delinquency than boys (influence hypothesis) and whether girls are more likely to select friends based on violent or delinquent behavior than boys (selection hypothesis). The results indicate that girls are more likely than boys to be influenced by their friends' involvement in violence. Although a similar pattern emerges for nonviolent delinquency, the gender differences are not significant. Some evidence shows that boys are influenced toward increasing their violence or delinquency when exposed to more delinquent or violent friends but are immune to reducing their violence or delinquency when associating with less violent or delinquent friends. In terms of selection dynamics, although both boys and girls have a tendency to select friends based on friends' behavior, girls have a stronger tendency to do so, suggesting that among girls, friends' involvement in violence or delinquency is an especially decisive factor for determining friendship ties.

  17. Gender, Friendship Networks, and Delinquency: A Dynamic Network Approach**

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynie, Dana L.; Doogan, Nathan J.; Soller, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have examined selection and influence processes in shaping delinquency similarity among friends, but little is known about the role of gender in moderating these relationships. Our objective is to examine differences between adolescent boys and girls regarding delinquency-based selection and influence processes. Using longitudinal network data from adolescents attending two large schools in AddHealth (N = 1,857) and stochastic actor-oriented models, we evaluate whether girls are influenced to a greater degree by friends' violence or delinquency than boys (influence hypothesis) and whether girls are more likely to select friends based on violent or delinquent behavior than boys (selection hypothesis). The results indicate that girls are more likely than boys to be influenced by their friends' involvement in violence. Although a similar pattern emerges for nonviolent delinquency, the gender differences are not significant. Some evidence shows that boys are influenced toward increasing their violence or delinquency when exposed to more delinquent or violent friends but are immune to reducing their violence or delinquency when associating with less violent or delinquent friends. In terms of selection dynamics, although both boys and girls have a tendency to select friends based on friends' behavior, girls have a stronger tendency to do so, suggesting that among girls, friends' involvement in violence or delinquency is an especially decisive factor for determining friendship ties. PMID:26097241

  18. First-Year Female Students: Perceptions of Friendship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishler, Jennifer L. Crissman; Schreiber, Staci

    2002-01-01

    Examined 91 first-year female students' perceptions of their pre-college and new collegiate friendships. Found that they have difficulty letting go of pre-college friendships and investing in new friendships. (EV)

  19. Using Aristotle’s theory of friendship to classify online friendships : A critical counterview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaliarnta, S.

    2016-01-01

    In a special issue of “Ethics and Information Technology” (September 2012), various philosophers have discussed the notion of online friendship. The preferred framework of analysis was Aristotle’s theory of friendship: it was argued that online friendships face many obstacles that hinder them from

  20. The Effect of Friendship Skills Training on Friendship Quality and Subjective Well-Being of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çekiç, Ali; Kul, Aykut; Çetin, Aysenur; Cihangiroglu, Ümmügülsüm

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to examine the effects of friendship skills training on the quality of friendship and subjective well-being of adolescents. In order to determine the experimental and control groups, the Friendship Quality Scale and the Adolescent Subjective Well-Being Scale were administered to 311 students in 9th, 10th and 11th grade classes from…

  1. Talking Circles for Adolescent Girls in an Urban High School: A Restorative Practices Program for Building Friendships and Developing Emotional Literacy Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Martha Ann

    2012-01-01

    Restorative Practices and Restorative Justice programs in schools are a new and emerging field. Meeting in Circles to build community, resolve conflict, and learn interactively are core components of these programs. This ethnographic study, which took place February 2010 to December 2011, evaluates 12 small, out-of-classroom Talking Circles for 60…

  2. The ‘Friendship Dynamics of Religion,’ or the ‘Religious Dynamics of Friendship’? A Social Network Analysis of Adolescents Who Attend Small Schools*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheadle, Jacob E.; Schwadel, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Longitudinal social network data on adolescents in seven schools are analyzed to reach a new understanding about how the personal and interpersonal social dimensions of adolescent religion intertwine together in small school settings. We primarily address two issues relevant to the sociology of religion and sociology in general: (1) social selection as a source of religious homophily and (2) friend socialization of religion. Analysis results are consistent with Collins’ interaction ritual chain theory, which stresses the social dimensions of religion, since network-religion autocorrelations are relatively substantial in magnitude and both selection and socialization mechanisms play key roles in generating them. Results suggest that socialization plays a stronger role than social selection in four of six religious outcomes, and that more religious youth are more cliquish. Implications for our understanding of the social context of religion, religious homophily, and the ways we model religious influence, as well as limitations and considerations for future research, are discussed. PMID:23017927

  3. Friendship in people with schizophrenia: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Ellen Wan-Yuk; Boardman, Jed; Craig, Tom

    2012-08-01

    To explore the quantitative and qualitative aspects of friendship in people with schizophrenia. To examine emotional and behavioural commitment, experiences of stigma, and the impact of illness factors that may affect the making and keeping of friends. The difference in the perception between the researcher and participants of the presence of problems in friendships was also investigated. The size and quality of the social networks of 137 people with established schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, aged 18-65 in one geographical area of southeast England was ascertained using a semi-structured interview. Qualitative aspects of friendship were measured using objective, pre-determined, investigator-rated criteria. The mean number of friends reported by respondents was 1.57. Men were less likely to report friendships than women (29 vs. 53%, χ (2) = 13.51, df 1, p friendships was generally good. Emotional commitment to friendship and mistrust were more important than current clinical state in determining whether or not the participant has friends. Most of those without friends did not see the lack of friendship as a problem. The researcher was up to three times more likely to report a problem than the participant. The friendship network size was found to be small but the quality of friendship mostly positive and highly valued. The majority of friendships were with other service users made during attendances at day hospitals and drop-in centres thus underscoring the importance of this service provision. Psychosocial intervention programmes need to take into account psychological factors that impact upon friendship.

  4. The role of cross-group friendship and emotions in adolescents' attitudes towards inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grütter, Jeanine; Gasser, Luciano; Malti, Tina

    2017-03-01

    Most countries have started to educate students with special educational needs (SEN) in mainstream schools, but it remains unclear how inclusive attitudes towards students with SEN can be promoted. This study investigated the role of adolescents' friendships and socio-moral competencies for their attitudes towards the inclusion of students with SEN. Specifically, we studied whether adolescents without SEN would develop more inclusive attitudes if they had close friendships with SEN students and if they expressed negative emotions about social exclusion. Adolescents' inclusive attitudes and their emotions were gathered from survey data of 1225 Swiss students aged 11-13. Social network data were collected to assess adolescents' friendship relationships. The results indicated that adolescents' friendship closeness with SEN students positively related to their inclusive attitudes. However, this was only true for adolescents who anticipated more negative than positive emotions if a student with SEN was excluded. These findings highlight the role of friendship relationships between adolescents with and without SEN and adolescents' socio-moral experiences for their attitudes towards the inclusion of peers with SEN. Thus, inclusive education may benefit from promoting friendships among students with and without SEN as well as adolescents' socio-moral competencies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Friendship Characteristics, Threat Appraisals, and Varieties of Jealousy About Romantic Partners’ Friendships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy R. Worley

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the role of friendship sex composition, friendship history, and threat appraisals in the experience of jealousy about a romantic partner’s involvement in extradyadic friendships. Using a survey, 201 individuals responded to scenarios describing a romantic partner’s involvement in a significant friendship outside the romantic dyad. A partner’s involvement in a cross-sex friendship was associated with greater perceptions of threat to both the existence and quality of the romantic relationship than was a partner’s involvement in a same-sex friendship. Further, the specific forms of jealousy experienced about partners’ friendships were dependent on the threat appraisals individuals associated with the friendships. Appraisals of relational existence threat mediated the influence of friendship characteristics (i.e., sex composition and history on sexual jealousy and companionship jealousy, while appraisals of relational quality threat mediated the influence of friendship characteristics on intimacy jealousy, power jealousy, and companionship jealousy. This study points toward the central role of threat appraisals in mediating associations between rival characteristics and various forms of jealousy about a partner’s friendships.

  6. Reducing School Violence: School-Based Curricular Programs and School Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Michael B.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines two different, but interrelated approaches to reduce school violence: school-based curricular programs and efforts to change school climate. The state of the research for each is reviewed and the relationship between them is explored.

  7. Peer Bonds in Urban School Communities: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Nicole

    2018-01-01

    The literature identifies three main types of peer associations: cliques, crowds, and dyadic friendships. When schools create learning communities, an additional type of peer association may emerge that is not based on interactions but instead is based on membership in a shared community. The aim of this study is to qualitatively explore the…

  8. Teachers as Friendship Facilitators: Respeto and Personalismo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Ann P.; Pereira, Lourdes; Blue-Banning, Martha

    2000-01-01

    This article highlights three teachers who were actively involved as friendship facilitators by illuminating their use of a friendship-facilitator framework with three students with moderate/severe disabilities. The framework includes three strategies: finding opportunities to bring children and youth together, acknowledging individual strengths…

  9. The Cognitive Value of College Women's Friendships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Aleman, Ana M.

    The cognitive nature, power, and educational value of college women's friendships were studied. As a means for dissolving the boundaries between the academic and intellectual, and as a place where autonomy and interdependence are in dynamic exercise, female friendships can provide a model for peer-assisted learning in higher education. Data were…

  10. Augustine on the Dangers of Friendship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nawar, Tamer

    2015-01-01

    The philosophers of antiquity had much to say about the place of friendship in the good life and its role in helping us live virtuously. Augustine is unusual in giving substantial attention to the dangers of friendship and its potential to serve as an obstacle (rather than an aid) to virtue. Despite

  11. Workplace Friendship in the Electronically Connected Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sias, Patricia M.; Pedersen, Hannah; Gallagher, Erin B.; Kopaneva, Irina

    2012-01-01

    This study examined information communication technologies and workplace friendship dynamics. Employees reported factors that influenced their initiation of friendship with a coworker and reported patterns and perceptions of communication with their workplace friend via different communication methods. Results indicated that personality, shared…

  12. Animals and friendship : a reply to Rowlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fröding, B.; Peterson, M.B.

    2011-01-01

    Can humans be friends with animals? If so, what would the moral implications of such friendship be? In a previous issue of this journal, we argued that humans can indeed be friends with animals and that such friendships are morally valuable. The present article is a comment on Mark Rowlands's reply

  13. Making Friends in Violent Neighborhoods: Strategies among Elementary School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjanette M. Chan Tack

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available While many studies have examined friendship formation among children in conventional contexts, comparatively fewer have examined how the process is shaped by neighborhood violence. The literature on violence and gangs has identified coping strategies that likely affect friendships, but most children in violent neighborhoods are not gang members, and not all friendship relations involve gangs. We examine the friendship-formation process based on in-depth interviews with 72 students, parents, and teachers in two elementary schools in violent Chicago neighborhoods. All students were African American boys and girls ages 11 to 15. We find that while conventional studies depict friendship formation among children as largely affective in nature, the process among the students we observed was, instead, primarily strategic. The children’s strategies were not singular but heterogeneous and malleable in nature. We identify and document five distinct strategies: protection seeking, avoidance, testing, cultivating questioners, and kin reliance. Girls were as affected as boys were, and they also reported additional preoccupations associated with sexual violence. We discuss implications for theories of friendship formation, violence, and neighborhood effects.

  14. "A Virtual Canvas"—Designing a Blog Site to Research Young Muslims' Friendships & Identities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orla McGarry

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on research among a group of Muslim youth living in the west of Ireland as part of a study on "social belonging" and identity. One part of the research involved designing a youth centered, participatory research method, in the form of a blog site, to investigate what young people say and do when they are asked to talk about themselves and their relationships, with minimal researcher involvement. Participants were presented with a "blank virtual canvas" where they determined what became discussed. Twenty-two teenaged Muslims—comprising close friends as well as fellow students of the same school and living in the same West of Ireland town—contributed to a time limited, closed blog site over a four month period. The blog site offers interesting snippets of Muslim identification, and how they choose to present themselves to others. In the process of contributing to this exercise, we can also observe subtle means through which inclusion and exclusion co-exist online, refracting young people's offline worlds. The blog affords an opportunity to consciously "do" friendship by presenting to each other images, symbols and statements of friendship that invoke both cohesion and closure. The research unravels certain gendered patterns in online performances. In demonstrating this evidence, we argue that the study of online interactions of youth can provide an alternative window in exploring relationships, identification and social positioning. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs130115

  15. Social phobia and perceived friendship quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodebaugh, Thomas L

    2009-10-01

    Although it is clear that people with social phobia have interpersonal impairment, evidence that social phobia (as opposed to other mental disorders) affects friendship in particular is lacking. Two large epidemiological datasets were used to test whether diagnosis of social phobia is related to perceived friendship quality above and beyond perceived family relationship quality, diagnosis of other mental disorders, and a variety of demographic variables. After Bonferroni correction, social phobia was the only diagnosis related to perceived friendship quality above and beyond other factors, such that people with social phobia reported more impaired friendship quality. Social phobia's effect was similar in magnitude to demographic characteristics in both samples. The current study demonstrates that social phobia is specifically related to perceived friendship quality, suggesting that this aspect of social phobia's effects is worthy of further study.

  16. The Potential Scientist’s Dilemma: How the Masculine Framing of Science Shapes Friendships and Science Job Aspirations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Robin Gauthier

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the United States, girls and boys have similar science achievement, yet fewer girls aspire to science careers than boys. This paradox emerges in middle school, when peers begin to play a stronger role in shaping adolescent identities. We use complete network data from a single middle school and theories of gender, identity, and social distance to explore how friendship patterns might influence this gender and science paradox. Three patterns highlight the social dimensions of gendered science persistence: (1 boys and girls do not differ in self-perceived science potential and science career aspirations; (2 consistent with gender-based norms, both middle school boys and girls report that the majority of their female friends are not science kinds of people; and (3 youth with gender-inconsistent science aspirations are more likely to be friends with each other than youth with gender normative science aspirations. Together, this evidence suggests that friendship dynamics contribute to gendered patterns in science career aspirations.

  17. The potential scientist’s dilemma: How the Masculinization of Science Shapes Friendships and Science Job Preferences*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, G. Robin; Hill, Patricia Wonch; McQuillan, Julia; Spiegel, Amy N.; Diamond, Judy

    2017-01-01

    In the United States, girls and boys have similar science achievement, yet fewer girls aspire to science careers than boys. This paradox emerges in middle school, when peers begin to play a stronger role in shaping adolescent identities. We use complete network data from a single middle school and theories of gender, identity, and social distance to explore how friendship patterns might influence this gender and science paradox. Three patterns highlight the social dimensions of gendered science persistence: (1) boys and girls do not differ in self-perceived science potential and science career aspirations; (2) consistent with gender-based norms, both middle school boys and girls report that the majority of their female friends are not science kinds of people; and (3) youth with gender-inconsistent science aspirations are more likely to be friends with each other than youth with gender normative science aspirations. Together, this evidence suggests that friendship dynamics contribute to gendered patterns in science career aspirations. PMID:28491465

  18. School-Based Management: Theory and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Patricia, Ed.; Potter, Eugenia Cooper, Ed.

    School-based management (SBM), sometimes called site-based management, is fast becoming the hottest restructuring item in the arsenal of reformers, teachers' unions, governors, and legislators who want to change the traditional ways in which schools and school districts do business. This document comprises three main sections with contributions…

  19. Friendship in Young Children: Construction of a Behavioural Sociometric Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoogdalem, Anne-Greth; Singer, Elly; Eek, Anneloes; Heesbeen, Daniëlle

    2013-01-01

    We need methods to measure friendship among very young children to study the beginnings of friendship and the impact of experiences with friendship for later development. This article presents an overview of methods for measuring very young children's friendships. A behavioural sociometric method was constructed to study degrees of friendship…

  20. Origins and predictors of friendships in 6- to 8-year-old children born at neonatal risk

    OpenAIRE

    Heuser, Katharina M.; Jaekel, Julia; Wolke, Dieter

    2018-01-01

    Objective\\ud To test effects of gestational age (GA), early social experiences, and child characteristics on children's friendships and perceived peer acceptance.\\ud \\ud Study design\\ud As part of the prospective Bavarian Longitudinal Study (1147 children, 25-41 weeks GA), children's friendships (eg, number of friends, frequency of meeting friends) and perceived peer acceptance were assessed before school entry (6 years of age) and in second grade (8 years of age) using child and parent repor...

  1. Decomposing the Components of Friendship and Friends’ Influence on Adolescent Drinking and Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Kayo; Valente, Thomas W

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Friendship networks are an important source of peer influence. However, existing network studies vary in terms of how they operationalize friendship and friend’s influence on adolescent substance use. This study uses social network analysis to characterize three types of friendship relations: (1) mutual or reciprocated, (2) directional, and (3) intimate friends. We then examine the relative effects of each friendship type on adolescent drinking and smoking behavior. Methods Using a saturated sample from the Add Health data, a nationally representative sample of high-school adolescents (N=2,533 nested in 12 schools), we computed the level of exposure to drinking and smoking of friends using a network exposure model, and their association with individual drinking and smoking using fixed effect models. Results Results indicated that the influence from (1) is stronger on adolescent substance use than (2), especially for smoking. Regarding the directionality of (2), adolescents are equally influenced by both nominating and nominated friends on their drinking and smoking behavior. Results for (3) indicated that the influence from “best friends” was weaker than the one from non-“best friends,” which indicates that the order of friend nomination may not matter as much as nomination reciprocation. Conclusions This study demonstrates that considering different features of friendship relationships is important in evaluating friends’ influence on adolescent substance use. Related policy implications are discussed. PMID:22824443

  2. Preference effects on friendship choice: Evidence from an online field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Siyu; Xie, Yu

    2017-08-01

    Observed friendship choices are constrained by social structures and thus problematic indicators for underlying personal preferences. In this paper, we report on a study demonstrating the causal effects of preference in friendship choice based on an online field experiment. Specifically, we tested two important forces that govern friendship choices: preference for shared group identity (operationalized as the desire to befriend others sharing the same place-of-origin identity) and preference for high status (operationalized as the desire to befriend others from high-status institutions). Using an online field experiment in one of the largest social network service websites in China, we investigated the causal preference effects of these two forces free from structural constraints. The results of our study confirm the preference effects on friendship choice in both of the two dimensions we tested. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Friendship in childhood and adulthood: lessons across the life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, A M; de Vries, B; Lansford, J E

    2000-01-01

    Friendship occupies an important place in the growing body of literature in child development and gerontological research. As such, it may be useful for researchers from both fields to consider what can be learned from work carried out in each tradition. Therefore, we present a selected review of topics in friendship research across the life span. Through discussion of the value of friendship, the development of friendship, challenges to friendship, the gendered nature of friendship, and the connection between friends and family, points of commonality and contrast are identified. We conclude by presenting possible avenues for future investigation for researchers interested in friendship at any point in the life span.

  4. The borderology of friendship in academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmeche, Claus

    2015-01-01

    This essay is a contribution to a borderology of friendship in academic research. Borderology is an interdisciplinary approach to the study of two or more sets of phenomena that are informationally complex, interrelating, and involving both real phenomenal and disciplinary conceptual borders....... Academic research and the ties of friendship may, more often than not, be interrelated, though few scholars have studied these interconnections in any detail. There is a certain messiness to both phenomena, related to demarcation problems, e.g., how to define friendship as distinct from other interpersonal...

  5. Friendships fighting prejudice: a longitudinal perspective on adolescents' cross-group friendships with immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titzmann, Peter F; Brenick, Alaina; Silbereisen, Rainer K

    2015-06-01

    Increasingly, adolescents are growing up in multiethnic multicultural societies. While intergroup prejudice can threaten the multicultural societal cohesion, intergroup friendships are strong predictors of reduced prejudice. Thus, more research is needed to fully understand the development of intergroup friendships and their relations to less prejudicial attitudes. This study addressed two major developmental research questions: first, whether longitudinal patterns of intergroup friendships of native adolescents (i.e., whether or not a native German adolescent has a friendship with an immigrant at different points in time) relate to changes in rates of prejudice about immigrants. Second, whether these friendship patterns that unfold over time can be predicted by contact opportunities, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control assessed at the beginning of the study. The sample included 372 native German adolescents (14.7 years of age at first assessment, 62.3% girls) who showed one of four friendship trajectories over the three annual assessments: they either maintained, gained, never had, or lost a friendship with an outgroup peer. In particular, results showed that adolescents who gained an intergroup friendship over the three time points showed a significant decrease in negative prejudice over the study. All four theorized predictors contributed to explain friendship trajectory membership. Generally, adolescents with many opportunities for contact, positive attitudes about contact, perceived positive social norms for contact, and high levels of behavioral control (self-efficacy) were more likely to maintain a friendship with an outgroup member than to follow any of the three other friendship trajectories (gain, lost, or never had). The pattern of predictions differed, however, depending on the specific pairs of friendship trajectories compared.

  6. Understanding Ethics in School-Based Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Hazel; Burstow, Bob

    2018-01-01

    The notion of the "teacher as researcher" has been in the education lexicon since the mid-1970s. School-based research, we suggest, is currently enjoying something of a renaissance, flourishing within the emerging, complex school landscape. This empirical research engages with 25 school leaders to explore the ways in which…

  7. The enhancing impact of friendship networks on sales managers' performance

    OpenAIRE

    Claro, Danny Pimentel; Laban Neto, Silvio Abrahão; Claro, Priscila Borin de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines how relationships with friends moderate the impact of professional networks on sales performance. Based on a sample of 204 sales managers in a professional service company, this study presents evidence that friendship networks amplify the effect of sales forces’ professional networks on new product sales as well as on prospecting and converting new deals. Our results offer important insights into the socio-cognitive perspective of sales management literature and suggest th...

  8. Friendship Context Matters: Examining the Domain Specificity of Alcohol and Depression Socialization Among Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giletta, M.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Prinstein, M.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Rabaglietti, E.; Burk, W.J.

    2012-01-01

    Driven by existing socialization theories, this study describes specific friendship contexts in which peer influence of alcohol misuse and depressive symptoms occurs. In the fall and spring of the school year, surveys were administered to 704 Italian adolescents (53 % male, M (age) = 15.53) enrolled

  9. Descriptors of Friendship between Secondary Students with and without Autism or Intellectual and Developmental Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    This article reports findings from an interpretevist, qualitative study exploring the connections and dynamics of friendship among three groups of secondary school-aged young adults. Each group included an individual with autism or intellectual and developmental disabilities who had extensive or pervasive support needs, and at least one high…

  10. Quality of Reciprocated Friendships of Students with Special Educational Needs in Mainstream Seventh Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossaert, Goele; Colpin, Hilde; Pijl, Sip Jan; Petry, Katja

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on companionship, intimacy, and support of reciprocated friendships of students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), students with motor and/or sensory disabilities, and typically developing students with their classmates at the start of mainstream secondary school. The study included 1379 typically developing students, 65…

  11. Friendship 2.0: Adolescents' Experiences of Belonging and Self-Disclosure Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Katie

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the role that digital media technologies play in adolescents' experiences of friendship and identity. The author draws on findings from in-depth interviews with 32 adolescents (15 girls, 17 boys) ages 13-18 (M = 15.5 years) attending one of seven secondary schools in Bermuda. The adolescents were asked to describe the nature of…

  12. An Ethnography of Children's Friendships in a Fifth-Grade Culturally Diverse Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, James G.

    The purpose of this ethnographic study was to examine friendships of early adolescents in a culturally diverse fifth grade class in an urban elementary school in the southeastern United States. The study described and interpreted the experiences of being a friend and having a friend in a culturally diverse classroom. The approach was grounded in…

  13. Friends Can Hurt You: Examining the Coexistence of Friendship and Bullying among Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hsi-Sheng; Jonson-Reid, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    Friendship is typically assumed to be a protective factor for victims of school bullying, so the possibility of victimization by friends is rarely explored. This study examines the prevalence of positive affiliation between the victims and aggressors in verbal and physical bullying. Peer nomination inventories were used to assess the friendship…

  14. The Impact of Preschool Twins' Physical Difficulties on Parental Perceptions towards Separation, Closeness and Friendship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markodimitraki, Maria; Linardakis, Michalis; Kypriotaki, Maria; Manolitsis, George

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to: (a) provide descriptive data of twins with physical difficulties among 120 Greek twins of preschool age; and (b) to investigate the impact of twins' health condition on parental perceptions towards twins' separation, closeness and friendship. The administration of School Policy for Twins and Higher Multiples…

  15. Quality of Reciprocated Friendships of Students with Special Educational Needs in Mainstream Seventh Grade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossaert, Goele; Colpin, Hilde; Pijl, Sip Jan; Petry, Katja

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on companionship, intimacy, and support of reciprocated friendships of students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), students with motor and/or sensory disabilities, and typically developing students with their classmates at the start of mainstream secondary school. The study

  16. Perceived Influence and Friendship as Antecedents of Cooperation in Top Management Teams: A Network Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf N. Rank

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Using the relational dyad as unit of analysis this study examines the effects of perceived influence and friendship ties on the formation and maintenance of cooperative relationships between corporate top executives. Specifically, it is argued that perceived influence as well as friendship ties between any two managers will enhance the likelihood that these managers collaborate with each other. Additionally, a negative interaction effect between perceived influence and friendship on cooperation is proposed. The empirical analyses draw on network data that have been collected among all members of the top two organizational levels for the strategy-making process in two multinational firms headquartered in Germany. Applying logistic regression based on QAP the empirical results support our hypotheses on the direct effects between perceived influence, friendship ties, and cooperative relationships in both companies. In addition, we find at least partial support for our assumption that perceived influence and friendship interact negatively with respect to their effect on cooperation. Seemingly, perceived influence is partially substituted by managerial friendship ties.

  17. Friendship chemistry: An examination of underlying factors☆.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kelly; Holderness, Nicole; Riggs, Matt

    2015-06-01

    Interpersonal chemistry refers to a connection between two individuals that exists upon first meeting. The goal of the current study is to identify beliefs about the underlying components of friendship chemistry. Individuals respond to an online Friendship Chemistry Questionnaire containing items that are derived from interdependence theory and the friendship formation literature. Participants are randomly divided into two subsamples. A principal axis factor analysis with promax rotation is performed on subsample 1 and produces 5 factors: Reciprocal candor, mutual interest, personableness, similarity, and physical attraction. A confirmatory factor analysis is conducted using subsample 2 and provides support for the 5-factor model. Participants with agreeable, open, and conscientious personalities more commonly report experiencing friendship chemistry, as do those who are female, young, and European/white. Responses from participants who have never experienced chemistry are qualitatively analyzed. Limitations and directions for future research are discussed.

  18. Peer Influence, Peer Selection and Adolescent Alcohol Use: a Simulation Study Using a Dynamic Network Model of Friendship Ties and Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Hipp, John R; Butts, Carter T; Jose, Rupa; Lakon, Cynthia M

    2017-05-01

    While studies suggest that peer influence can in some cases encourage adolescent substance use, recent work demonstrates that peer influence may be on average protective for cigarette smoking, raising questions about whether this effect occurs for other substance use behaviors. Herein, we focus on adolescent drinking, which may follow different social dynamics than smoking. We use a data-calibrated Stochastic Actor-Based (SAB) Model of adolescent friendship tie choice and drinking behavior to explore the impact of manipulating the size of peer influence and selection effects on drinking in two school-based networks. We first fit a SAB Model to data on friendship tie choice and adolescent drinking behavior within two large schools (n = 2178 and n = 976) over three time points using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. We then alter the size of the peer influence and selection parameters with all other effects fixed at their estimated values and simulate the social systems forward 1000 times under varying conditions. Whereas peer selection appears to contribute to drinking behavior similarity among adolescents, there is no evidence that it leads to higher levels of drinking at the school level. A stronger peer influence effect lowers the overall level of drinking in both schools. There are many similarities in the patterning of findings between this study of drinking and previous work on smoking, suggesting that peer influence and selection may function similarly with respect to these substances.

  19. That's what friends are for: how intergroup friendships promote historically disadvantaged groups' substantive political representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkonen, Andrej; Karlsson, David

    2017-12-01

    The interests of historically disadvantaged groups risk being overlooked if they are not present in the decision-making process. However, a mere presence in politics does not guarantee political success. Often groups need allies to promote their interests successfully. We argue that one way to identify such allies is to judge politicians by whether they have friends in historically disadvantaged groups, as intergroup friendships have been shown to make people understand and feel empathy for outgroups. In other words, intergroup friendships may function as an important complement to descriptive representation. We test our argument with a unique survey that asks all elected political representatives in Sweden's 290 municipalities (response rate 79 per cent) about their friendship ties to, and their representation of, five historically disadvantaged groups: women, immigrants, youths, pensioners and blue-collar workers. We find a strong correlation between representatives' friendship ties to these groups and their commitment to represent them. The correlation is especially strong for youths and blue-collar workers, which likely can be explained by the fact that these groups usually lack crucial political resources (such as experience and education). We conclude that friendship ties function as an important complement to descriptive representation for achieving substantive representation. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  20. Friendship at work and error disclosure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Yen Mao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Organizations rely on contextual factors to promote employee disclosure of self-made errors, which induces a resource dilemma (i.e., disclosure entails costing one's own resources to bring others resources and a friendship dilemma (i.e., disclosure is seemingly easier through friendship, yet the cost of friendship is embedded. This study proposes that friendship at work enhances error disclosure and uses conservation of resources theory as underlying explanation. A three-wave survey collected data from 274 full-time employees with a variety of occupational backgrounds. Empirical results indicated that friendship enhanced error disclosure partially through relational mechanisms of employees’ attitudes toward coworkers (i.e., employee engagement and of coworkers’ attitudes toward employees (i.e., perceived social worth. Such effects hold when controlling for established predictors of error disclosure. This study expands extant perspectives on employee error and the theoretical lenses used to explain the influence of friendship at work. We propose that, while promoting error disclosure through both contextual and relational approaches, organizations should be vigilant about potential incongruence.

  1. Returning friendship to ethics: a Nierzschean perspectiv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Wat

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite its prominence in Greek ethical theory, friendship has generally been ignored by modern ethicists; and since most of the recent attempts  to revive it have been Aristotelian in inspiration, the impression of a straight choice between ancient and modern perspectives has actually been re-enforced by contemporary efforts at rehabilitation. In this paper I aim to complicate the debate by adding a third –Nietzschean – perspective, which cannot be subsumed within the ancient/modern dichotomy and which offers a way of connecting friendship and ethics very different from Aristotle’s. For whereas Aristotelianism sees ethics as a search for the good life and character friendship as contributing to thecreation of a shared understanding of the good, Nietzsche sees ethics as an arena of contest between different ways of valuing and “self-overcoming”, and character friendship as a process of challenge by which we push each other further along our own very different paths. The paper compares a Nietzschean way of linking ethics and friendship with the approaches of contemporary neo-Aristotelians, especiallyMacIntyre, and argues that Nietzsche’s pluralism  allows him to escape modern ethical theory’s powerful objections to (neo-Aristotelianism. A Nietzschean approach therefore offers, I conclude, a far more credible way of reconnecting ethics and friendship in our sceptical modern worl

  2. Emotions surrounding friendships of adolescents with autism spectrum disorder in Japan: A qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiya, Motofumi; Igarashi, Kazue; Miyahara, Motohide

    2018-01-01

    Emotions are embedded in culture and play a pivotal role in making friends and interacting with peers. To support the social participation of students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) it is essential to understand their emotional life in the context of ethnic and school cultures. We are particularly interested in how anxiety and loneliness are experienced in developing and maintaining friendships in the daily encounters of adolescents with ASD in the specific context of Japanese schools, because these emotions could serve either as facilitators or barriers to social interaction, depending on how individuals manage them. The present qualitative study investigated perceptions of emotions related to friendship in the everyday school life of 11 adolescents with ASD in Japan. Data were collected by means of semi-structured individual interviews, which revealed a wide range of motivations for socialization, limited future prospects to deepen friendships, robust self-awareness of one's own social challenges, and conscious efforts to cope with these challenges. An inductive approach to data analysis resulted in four themes: social motivation, loneliness, anxiety, and distress. To our knowledge this is the first study to uncover the rich emotional life of adolescents with ASD in the context of their friendships in an Asian culture.

  3. Emotions surrounding friendships of adolescents with autism spectrum disorder in Japan: A qualitative interview study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Kazue; Miyahara, Motohide

    2018-01-01

    Emotions are embedded in culture and play a pivotal role in making friends and interacting with peers. To support the social participation of students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) it is essential to understand their emotional life in the context of ethnic and school cultures. We are particularly interested in how anxiety and loneliness are experienced in developing and maintaining friendships in the daily encounters of adolescents with ASD in the specific context of Japanese schools, because these emotions could serve either as facilitators or barriers to social interaction, depending on how individuals manage them. The present qualitative study investigated perceptions of emotions related to friendship in the everyday school life of 11 adolescents with ASD in Japan. Data were collected by means of semi-structured individual interviews, which revealed a wide range of motivations for socialization, limited future prospects to deepen friendships, robust self-awareness of one’s own social challenges, and conscious efforts to cope with these challenges. An inductive approach to data analysis resulted in four themes: social motivation, loneliness, anxiety, and distress. To our knowledge this is the first study to uncover the rich emotional life of adolescents with ASD in the context of their friendships in an Asian culture. PMID:29408894

  4. Emotions surrounding friendships of adolescents with autism spectrum disorder in Japan: A qualitative interview study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motofumi Sumiya

    Full Text Available Emotions are embedded in culture and play a pivotal role in making friends and interacting with peers. To support the social participation of students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD it is essential to understand their emotional life in the context of ethnic and school cultures. We are particularly interested in how anxiety and loneliness are experienced in developing and maintaining friendships in the daily encounters of adolescents with ASD in the specific context of Japanese schools, because these emotions could serve either as facilitators or barriers to social interaction, depending on how individuals manage them. The present qualitative study investigated perceptions of emotions related to friendship in the everyday school life of 11 adolescents with ASD in Japan. Data were collected by means of semi-structured individual interviews, which revealed a wide range of motivations for socialization, limited future prospects to deepen friendships, robust self-awareness of one's own social challenges, and conscious efforts to cope with these challenges. An inductive approach to data analysis resulted in four themes: social motivation, loneliness, anxiety, and distress. To our knowledge this is the first study to uncover the rich emotional life of adolescents with ASD in the context of their friendships in an Asian culture.

  5. Conflict Resolution in Mexican American Adolescents' Friendships: Links with Culture, Gender and Friendship Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, Shawna M.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Delgado, Melissa Y.

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to describe the conflict resolution practices used in Mexican American adolescents' friendships, to explore the role of cultural orientations and values and gender-typed personality qualities in conflict resolution use, and to assess the connections between conflict resolution and friendship quality. Participants were 246…

  6. Binge drinking, marijuana use, and friendships: the relationship between similar and dissimilar usage and friendship quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boman, John H; Stogner, John; Miller, Bryan Lee

    2013-01-01

    While it is commonly understood that the substance use of peers influences an individual's substance use, much less is understood about the interplay between substance use and friendship quality. Using a sample of 2,148 emerging adults nested within 1,074 dyadic friendships, this study separately investigates how concordance and discordance in binge drinking and marijuana use between friends is related to each friend's perceptions of friendship quality. Because "friendship quality" is a complex construct, we employ a measure containing five sub-elements--companionship, a lack of conflict, willingness to help a friend, relationship security, and closeness. Results for both binge drinking and marijuana use reveal that individuals in friendship pairs who are concordant in their substance use perceive significantly higher perceptions of friendship quality than individuals in dyads who are dissimilar in substance use. Specifically, concordant binge drinkers estimate significantly higher levels of companionship, relationship security, and willingness to help their friend than concordant non-users, discordant users, and discordant non-users. However, the highest amount of conflict in friendships is found when both friends engage in binge drinking and marijuana use. Several interpretations of these findings are discussed. Overall, concordance between friends' binge drinking and marijuana use appears to help some elements of friendship quality and harm others.

  7. Conflict Resolution in Chinese Adolescents' Friendship: Links with Regulatory Focus and Friendship Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qin; Bian, Ran; Liu, Ru-de; He, Yili; Oei, Tian-Po

    2017-04-03

    It is generally acknowledged that people adopt different resolution strategies when facing conflicts with others. However, the mechanisms of conflict resolution are still unclear and under researched, in particular within the context of Chinese adolescents' same-sex friendship relations. Thus, the present study investigated the mediator role of conflict resolution strategies in the relationship between regulatory foci and friendship satisfaction for the first time. 653 Chinese adolescents completed the regulatory foci, conflict resolution style, and friendship satisfaction measures. The results of the structure equation modeling showed that while promotion focus was positively associated with problem-solving and compliance, prevention focus was positively associated with withdrawal and conflict engagement. In addition, problem-solving mediated the relationship between promotion focus and friendship satisfaction, and conflict engagement mediated the relationship between prevention focus and friendship satisfaction. These findings contribute to understanding Chinese adolescents' use of conflict resolution strategies as well as the relationship between regulatory foci and behavioral strategies in negative situations.

  8. Reinventing School-Based Management: A School Board Guide to School-Based Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Darrel W.

    This report critiques the movement to decentralize decision making in public education. It provides an indepth examination of school-based management (SBM) with the aim of revealing why this type of reform seems to have had so little payoff for students. It addresses several key questions: What are the objectives of SBM, and are these objectives…

  9. "Everyone can loosen up and get a bit of a buzz on": young adults, alcohol and friendship practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niland, Patricia; Lyons, Antonia C; Goodwin, Ian; Hutton, Fiona

    2013-11-01

    In countries with liberalised alcohol policies, alcohol harm reduction strategies predominantly focus on young adults' excessive drinking harms and risks. However, research shows such risks are largely irrelevant for young adults, who emphasise the sociability, release, pleasure and fun of drinking. Friendship is a central part of their lives and an integral part of their drinking experiences. This study aimed to explore everyday friendship practices, drinking, and pleasure in young people's routine and shared social lives. Twelve friendship discussion groups were conducted in urban and non-urban New Zealand, with 26 women and 25 men aged 18-25 years. Our Foucauldian discursive analysis enabled us to identify how the young adults drew on drinking as 'friendship fun' and 'friends with a buzz' discourses to construct drinking as a pleasurable and socially embodied friendship practice. Yet the young adults also drew on 'good always outweighs bad experiences' and friendship 'caring and protection' discourses to smooth over disruptive negative drinking experiences. Together these discourses function to justify young adults' drinking as friendship pleasure, minimising alcohol harms, and setting up powerful resistances to individualised risk-based alcohol-harm reduction campaigns. These findings are discussed in terms of new insights and implications for alcohol harm reduction strategies that target young adults. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Forms of Friendship: A Person-Centered Assessment of the Quality, Stability, and Outcomes of Different Types of Adolescent Friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiatt, Cody; Laursen, Brett; Mooney, Karen S; Rubin, Kenneth H

    2015-04-01

    Friendships differ in terms of their quality and participants may or may not agree as to their perceptions of relationship quality. Two studies ( N = 230 and 242) were conducted to identify distinct and replicable categories of friendship among young adolescents ( M = 11.6 years old) using self and partner reports of relationship quality. Same-sex friendships were identified from reciprocated friend nominations. Each friend described perceptions of negativity and social support in the relationship. Cluster analyses based on reports from both friends yielded 4 friendship types in each study: a high quality group, a low quality group, and two groups in which friends disagreed about the quality of the relationship. High quality friendships were most apt to be stable from the 6 th to the 7 th grade. Participants in high quality friendships reported the highest levels of global self-worth and perceived behavioral conduct and the lowest levels of problem behaviors. Dyads reporting discrepant perceptions of quality differed from dyads who agreed that the friendship was high quality in terms of stability and individual adjustment, underscoring the advantages of person-centered strategies that incorporate perceptions of both partners in categorizations of relationships.

  11. Forms of Friendship: A Person-Centered Assessment of the Quality, Stability, and Outcomes of Different Types of Adolescent Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiatt, Cody; Laursen, Brett; Mooney, Karen S.; Rubin, Kenneth H.

    2015-01-01

    Friendships differ in terms of their quality and participants may or may not agree as to their perceptions of relationship quality. Two studies (N = 230 and 242) were conducted to identify distinct and replicable categories of friendship among young adolescents (M = 11.6 years old) using self and partner reports of relationship quality. Same-sex friendships were identified from reciprocated friend nominations. Each friend described perceptions of negativity and social support in the relationship. Cluster analyses based on reports from both friends yielded 4 friendship types in each study: a high quality group, a low quality group, and two groups in which friends disagreed about the quality of the relationship. High quality friendships were most apt to be stable from the 6th to the 7th grade. Participants in high quality friendships reported the highest levels of global self-worth and perceived behavioral conduct and the lowest levels of problem behaviors. Dyads reporting discrepant perceptions of quality differed from dyads who agreed that the friendship was high quality in terms of stability and individual adjustment, underscoring the advantages of person-centered strategies that incorporate perceptions of both partners in categorizations of relationships. PMID:25620829

  12. School-Based Health Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care group, such as a community health center, hospital, or health department. A few are run by the school district itself. Centers often get money from charities and the government so they can give care ...

  13. Reinterpretaion of the friendship paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jingcheng; Wu, Jianliang

    The friendship paradox (FP) is a sociological phenomenon stating that most people have fewer friends than their friends do. It is to say that in a social network, the number of friends that most individuals have is smaller than the average number of friends of friends. This has been verified by Feld. We call this interpreting method mean value version. But is it the best choice to portray the paradox? In this paper, we propose a probability method to reinterpret this paradox, and we illustrate that the explanation using our method is more persuasive. An individual satisfies the FP if his (her) randomly chosen friend has more friends than him (her) with probability not less than 1/2. Comparing the ratios of nodes satisfying the FP in networks, rp, we can see that the probability version is stronger than the mean value version in real networks both online and offline. We also show some results about the effects of several parameters on rp in random network models. Most importantly, rp is a quadratic polynomial of the power law exponent γ in Price model, and rp is higher when the average clustering coefficient is between 0.4 and 0.5 in Petter-Beom (PB) model. The introduction of the probability method to FP can shed light on understanding the network structure in complex networks especially in social networks.

  14. “Malaysia-China Friendship Evening 2009”Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Our Staff Reporter

    2009-01-01

    <正>The CPAFFC, the Embassy of Malaysia in China, the Malaysia-China Friendship Association and the Malaysia-China Business Council jointly hosted the "Malaysia-China Friendship Evening 2009"at the Conference Hall of the Chi-

  15. Coping with hardship through friendship: the importance of peer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coping with hardship through friendship: the importance of peer social capital among children affected by HIV in Kenya. ... The children were found to strategically establish formalised friendship groups that ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  16. Student Voices in School-Based Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Siu Yin Annie; Adamson, Bob

    2015-01-01

    The value of student voices in dialogues about learning improvement is acknowledged in the literature. This paper examines how the views of students regarding School-based Assessment (SBA), a significant shift in examination policy and practice in secondary schools in Hong Kong, have largely been ignored. The study captures student voices through…

  17. Rational Thinking in School-Based Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Mary Kristen; Flynn, Perry

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: We reflect on Alan Kamhi's (2011) prologue on balancing certainty and uncertainty as it pertains to school-based practice. Method: In schools, rational thinking depends on effective team processes, much like professional learning communities. We consider the conditions that are required for rational thinking and how rational team dialogue…

  18. Information and Communication Technology and School Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information and Communication technology and school based assessment (SBA) is practice that broadens the form mode, means and scope of assessment in the school using modern technologies in order to facilitate and enhance learning. This study sought to ascertain the efficacy of Information and Communication ...

  19. School-Based Child Abuse Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassard, Marla R.; Fiorvanti, Christina M.

    2015-01-01

    Child abuse is a leading cause of emotional, behavioral, and health problems across the lifespan. It is also preventable. School-based abuse prevention programs for early childhood and elementary school children have been found to be effective in increasing student knowledge and protective behaviors. The purpose of this article is to help school…

  20. Kant, Nietzsche and the idealization of friendship into nihilism

    OpenAIRE

    van Tongeren, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Is friendship still possible under nihilistic conditions? Kant and Nietzsche are important stages in the history of the idealization of friendship, which leads inevitably to the problem of nihilism. Nietzsche himself claims on the one hand that only something like friendship can save us in our nihilistic condition, but on the other hand that precisely friendship has been unmasked and become impossible by these very conditions. It seems we are struck in the nihilistic paradox of not being allo...

  1. Multiplex congruity: friendship networks and perceived popularity as correlates of adolescent alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Kayo; Valente, Thomas W

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents interact with their peers in multiple social settings and form various types of peer relationships that affect drinking behavior. Friendship and popularity perceptions constitute critical relationships during adolescence. These two relations are commonly measured by asking students to name their friends, and this network is used to construct drinking exposure and peer status variables. This study takes a multiplex network approach by examining the congruity between friendships and popularity as correlates of adolescent drinking. Using data on friendship and popularity nominations among high school adolescents in Los Angeles, California (N = 1707; five schools), we examined the associations between an adolescent's drinking and drinking by (a) their friends only; (b) multiplexed friendships, friends also perceived as popular; and (c) congruent, multiplexed-friends, close friends perceived as popular. Logistic regression results indicated that friend-only drinking, but not multiplexed-friend drinking, was significantly associated with self-drinking (AOR = 3.51, p < 0.05). However, congruent, multiplexed-friend drinking also was associated with self-drinking (AOR = 3.10, p < 0.05). This study provides insight into how adolescent health behavior is predicated on the multiplexed nature of peer relationships. The results have implications for the design of health promotion interventions for adolescent drinking. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Adolescents' Conceptions of the Influence of Romantic Relationships on Friendships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jennifer J.

    2012-01-01

    Although researchers have investigated how adolescents' friendships affect their romantic relationships, the influence of romantic relationships on friendships is unexamined. As a first step, 9th- (n = 198) and 11th grade students (n = 152) reported on their conceptions of friendship when one friend had a romantic relationship and when neither…

  3. Interplay of Early Adolescents' Friendship and Helping Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijsewijk, Louise; Snijders, Thomas; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Steglich, Christian; Veenstra, David

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to unravel the interrelatedness of friendship and help, and to examine the characteristics of friendship and help networks. We examined effects of mutual relations versus one-sided relations in the help network on friendship initiation and maintenance, and vice versa. We

  4. Brief Report: How Anxiously Withdrawn Preadolescents Think about Friendship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredstrom, Bridget K.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Campbell, Kelly; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Burgess, Kim B.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research suggests that anxiously withdrawn preadolescents demonstrate success in forming friendships, yet these friendships tend to be of lesser quality. Drawing on Selman's (1980) theory of interpersonal understanding, we compared levels of friendship understanding between anxiously withdrawn preadolescents and a sample of non-withdrawn…

  5. Best Friends Forever? Race and the Stability of Adolescent Friendships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rude, Jesse; Herda, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Our research uses two waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to analyze the stability of same- and cross-race friendships. We find the following: First, interracial friendships are less stable than same-race friendships, even after controlling for a variety of contextual and dyadic characteristics, such as school…

  6. Children's cross-ethnic friendships: Antecedents and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jugert, P.; Feddes, A.R.; Rutland, A.; Nesdale, D.; Brown, C.S.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter reviews recent research on the antecedents of cross-ethnic friendships, on friendship stability and quality, as well as on their consequences. It discusses structural, intergroup, and family factors and its relationship to cross-ethnic friendships. Research shows that cross-ethnic

  7. Statistical Analysis of Friendship Patterns and Bullying Behaviors among Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espelage, Dorothy L.; Green, Harold D., Jr.; Wasserman, Stanley

    2007-01-01

    During adolescence, friendship affiliations and groups provide companionship and social and emotional support, and they afford opportunities for intimate self-disclosure and reflection. Friendships often promote positive psychosocial development, but some youth learn and adopt antisocial attitudes and deviant behaviors through their friendships.…

  8. Civic Friendship in Aristotle: Concord and Fraternity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriol Farrés Juste

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available the article shows the importance of friendship in the context of Aristotelian political philosophy. this importance is verified in its specific weight compared with justice. As it is known, Aristotle argues that the pursuit of friendship outranks the pursuit of justice in the polis. Particularly, the article focuses on the role of concord, as a special type of civic friendship, in terms of preserving the unity and stability of the polis. to grasp its significance, we have to consider the role of concord as a supplement of the political condition of the human being. Concord is necessary in the light of the trend to the struggle between the parts of the city, between the demos and the oligarchs. Since this fight endangers the continuity of the polis, concord among citizens becomes a privileged background of early republican fraternity, which has not enjoyed sufficient attention in the field of history of political philosophy.

  9. School-Based Extracurricular Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanger, Jeffrey J.

    2010-01-01

    The International Year of Astronomy in 2009 focused considerable public attention on Astronomy and generated valuable resources for educators. These activities are an effective vehicle for promoting Science to students and to the wider school community. The most engaging practical astronomy activities are best delivered with sustained support from…

  10. Bully Victimization: Selection and Influence Within Adolescent Friendship Networks and Cliques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodder, Gerine M A; Scholte, Ron H J; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Giletta, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents tend to form friendships with similar peers and, in turn, their friends further influence adolescents' behaviors and attitudes. Emerging work has shown that these selection and influence processes also might extend to bully victimization. However, no prior work has examined selection and influence effects involved in bully victimization within cliques, despite theoretical account emphasizing the importance of cliques in this regard. This study examined selection and influence processes in adolescence regarding bully victimization both at the level of the entire friendship network and the level of cliques. We used a two-wave design (5-month interval). Participants were 543 adolescents (50.1% male, Mage = 15.8) in secondary education. Stochastic actor-based models indicated that at the level of the larger friendship network, adolescents tended to select friends with similar levels of bully victimization as they themselves. In addition, adolescent friends influenced each other in terms of bully victimization over time. Actor Parter Interdependence models showed that similarities in bully victimization between clique members were not due to selection of clique members. For boys, average clique bully victimization predicted individual bully victimization over time (influence), but not vice versa. No influence was found for girls, indicating that different mechanisms may underlie friend influence on bully victimization for girls and boys. The differences in results at the level of the larger friendship network versus the clique emphasize the importance of taking the type of friendship ties into account in research on selection and influence processes involved in bully victimization.

  11. Perceptions of friendship among youth with distressed friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Erin N; Swenson, Lance P

    2014-02-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between a friend's level of internalizing distress and the focal child's perceptions of friendship amongst 5th, 8th, and 11th grade youth. Participants completed the Youth Self-Report to assess internalizing distress and measures assessing perceptions of friendship quality, social support, and self-disclosure within reciprocal, same-sex friendship dyads. Results indicated that youth with friends experiencing low levels of internalizing distress reported poorer friendship quality and decreased levels of social support and self-disclosure within the friendship compared to youth with friends experiencing average or high internalizing distress. In a second set of analyses controlling for the focal child's own internalizing symptoms, gender, and age, friend's level of internalizing distress remained a significant, unique predictor of target participants' self-disclosure about their own problems within the friendship. The findings suggest that a mild degree of internalizing distress may enhance, rather than harm, friendships amongst youth.

  12. College Women's Female Friendships: A Longitudinal View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Ana M. Martinez

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a longitudinal qualitative study of the cognitive value of female friendships formed in college and seeks to appraise the meaning of the phenomenon for the participants. To grasp the temporal effects of the longitudinal data in this study, the author examines and assesses the relevant developmental literature, particularly…

  13. Understanding and Investigating Female Friendship's Educative Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Ana M. Martinez

    1997-01-01

    Presents research suggesting that college women's friendships are learning relationships in which intellectual play and performance are risk-free and in which college women reconcile the constructed barrier between autonomous and interdependent learning and engage in dynamic articulation of thinking and knowing. Discusses implications of the value…

  14. Astronaut John Glenn Enters Friendship 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-01-01

    Astronaut John Glenn enters the Mercury spacecraft, Friendship 7, prior to the launch of MA-6 on February 20, 1961 and became the first American who orbited the Earth. The MA-6 mission was the first manned orbital flight boosted by the Mercury-Atlas vehicle, a modified Atlas ICBM (Intercontinental Ballistic Missile), lasted for five hours, and orbited the Earth three times.

  15. Astronaut Glenn in the Friendship 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-01-01

    Astronaut John Glenn in the Friendship 7 capsule during the first manned orbital flight, the MA-6 mission. Boosted by the Mercury-Atlas vehicle, a modified Atlas (intercontinental ballistic missile), the MA-6 mission lasted for 5 hours and orbited the Earth three times.

  16. Media use in long distance friendships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Utz, S.

    2007-01-01

    New media such as email and mobile phones have made it easier to maintain relationships over distances. The present paper examines which media people use to maintain long-distance friendships. The main focus lies on the comparison of email and phone. Media choice theories like media richness theory

  17. Reading "The Friendship" and Talking about Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sally A.; Singer, Judith Y.

    2006-01-01

    This study documents literature discussions between groups of teacher education students in two geographically and demographically different universities. Students from an education methods course at each site discussed "The Friendship" by Mildred Taylor with one another as part of a distance reader response project. The project was designed to…

  18. Friendship versus love in Ibsen's dramas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beret Wicklund

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article explores how friendships between men and women are presented in the dramas A Doll’s House, The Lady from the Sea, Rosmersholm and Hedda Gabler. Friendship is an important motive which functions to show women’s subordinate role in the bourgeois society in Ibsen’s time. Friendship seems to be a positive alternative relation to love and marriage for women, as it has the element of equality and freedom from traditional female roles. When love is declared, though, this hope is destroyed and it is revealed how all relations are involved in patriarchy and finances. Friendships also function for both male and female characters as an illusion and a convenient psychological cover for unpleasant feelings of guilt the characters are not able to admit or express. This functions in presenting the different cultural standards for men and women as it pertains to what are socially accepted of sexual feelings and experiences. In this way, we see how Ibsen, through his dramas, takes part in the important cultural debate on sexuality in Norway in his time, reflecting different arguments in this debate.

  19. Neighboring and Urbanism: Commonality versus Friendship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Carol J.

    1986-01-01

    Examines a dimension of neighboring that need not assume friendship as the role model. When the model assumes only a sense of connectedness as defining neighboring, then the residential correlation, shown in many studies between urbanism and neighboring, disappears. Theories of neighboring, study variables, methods, and analysis are discussed.…

  20. Friendship Dissolution Within Social Networks Modeled Through Multilevel Event History Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Danielle O.; Bauer, Daniel J.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2018-01-01

    A social network perspective can bring important insight into the processes that shape human behavior. Longitudinal social network data, measuring relations between individuals over time, has become increasingly common—as have the methods available to analyze such data. A friendship duration model utilizing discrete-time multilevel survival analysis with a multiple membership random effect structure is developed and applied here to study the processes leading to undirected friendship dissolution within a larger social network. While the modeling framework is introduced in terms of understanding friendship dissolution, it can be used to understand microlevel dynamics of a social network more generally. These models can be fit with standard generalized linear mixed-model software, after transforming the data to a pair-period data set. An empirical example highlights how the model can be applied to understand the processes leading to friendship dissolution between high school students, and a simulation study is used to test the use of the modeling framework under representative conditions that would be found in social network data. Advantages of the modeling framework are highlighted, and potential limitations and future directions are discussed. PMID:28463022

  1. Disentangling social selection and social influence effects on adolescent smoking: the importance of reciprocity in friendships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercken, Liesbeth; Candel, Math; Willems, Paul; de Vries, Hein

    2007-09-01

    The goal of this study was to examine social selection and social influence within reciprocal and non-reciprocal friendships, and the role of parents and siblings, as factors explaining similarity of smoking behaviour among adolescent friends. A new social selection-social influence model is proposed. Longitudinal design with two measurements. Data were gathered among Dutch high school students in the control group of the European Smoking prevention Framework Approach (ESFA) study. The sample consisted of 1886 adolescents with a mean age of 12.7 years. The main outcome measures were the smoking behaviours of the respondents, best friends, parents and siblings. We tested the social selection-social influence model with structural equation modelling techniques. Social selection and social influence both played an important role in explaining similarity of smoking behaviour among friends. Within non-reciprocal friendships, only social selection explained similarity of smoking behaviour, whereas within reciprocal friendships, social influence and possibly also social selection explained similarity of smoking behaviour. Sibling smoking behaviour was a more important predictor of adolescent smoking behaviour than parental smoking behaviour. Social selection and social influence both promote similarity of smoking behaviour, and the impact of each process differs with the degree of reciprocity of friendships. These insights may contribute to further refinement of smoking prevention strategies.

  2. Friendship and gender in preschoolers’ conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania M. Sperb

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigated the role of friendship and gender on conflict episodes of 48 preschoolers aged approximately 5 years and 8 months. Children were organized in dyads of same-sex friends and non-friends. Conflict situations were coded according to incidence, type, termination strategies, and finalizations. Gender differences were detected for type of conflict, with girls using more reasons for oppositions than boys. Termination strategies were used with a joint effect of friendship and gender: girl-friends preferred the tactic of standing firm whereas boy-friends chose more negotiation as means to deal with a disagreement, compared to the non-friend dyads. As for the results on conflict finalizations, friendship relations accounted for a significant difference found for agreement, while gender showed to be related to the use of disengagement among girls. Combined analysis between termination strategies and conflict finalizations indicated two significant differences: the first was related to friendship, through which children used more negotiation leading to agreement; the second showed a joint effect of friendship and gender, where non-friend girls tended to negotiate to reach disengagement, more often that non-friend boys. Findings for termination strategies – with girl-friends being more incisive and firm with their partners – diverge from the results provided by empirical literature, where boys are described as more autonomy- and domain oriented, and girls are prone to intimacy and social well-being in their relationships. Results are discussed with basis on previous studies conducted on conflict among preschoolers with considerations about the effects of gender and type of relationship.

  3. The power of (Mis)perception: Rethinking suicide contagion in youth friendship networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Gregory M; Rees, Carter; Posick, Chad; Zimmerman, Lori A

    2016-05-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of death among youth. In the wake of peer suicide, youth are vulnerable to suicide contagion. But, questions remain about the mechanisms through which suicide spreads and the accuracy of youths' estimates of friends' suicidal behaviors. This study addresses these questions within school-aged youths' friendship networks. Social network data were drawn from two schools in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, from which 2180 youth in grades 7-12 nominated up to ten friends. A measure of "perceived" friends' attempted suicide was constructed based on respondents' reports of their friends' attempted suicide. This measure was broader than a "true" measure of friends' attempted suicide, constructed from self-reports of nominated friends who attended respondents' schools. Sociograms graphically represented the accuracy with which suicide attempters estimated friends' suicide attempts. Results from cross-tabulation with Chi-square analysis indicated that approximately 4% of youth (88/2180) attempted suicide, and these youth disproportionately misperceived (predominantly overestimated) friends' suicidal behaviors, compared to non-suicide-attempters. Penalized logistic regression models indicated that friends' self-reported attempted suicide was unrelated to respondent attempted suicide. But, the odds of respondent attempted suicide were 2.54 times higher (95% CI, 1.06-6.10) among youth who accurately perceived friends' attempted suicide, and 5.40 times higher (95% CI, 3.34-8.77) among youth who overestimated friends' attempted suicide. The results suggest that at-risk youth overestimate their friends' suicidal behaviors, which exacerbates their own risk of suicidal behavior. Methodologically, this suggests that a continued collaboration among network scientists, suicide researchers, and medical providers is necessary to further examine the mechanisms surrounding this phenomenon. Practically, it is important to screen at

  4. Structural Modeling on the Relationship between Positive Perception, Deliberative Belief, and Friendship Quality: A Study with Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Wen

    2018-01-01

    Some of the key issues in pedagogy are the way of students' peer learning, collaboration, and team work at school. Friendship quality is essential for academic achievement by peer learning and team work. In line with that, the aim of the present study is to examine the associations between variables that are positive perception, deliberative…

  5. Interracial Friendships in the Transition to College: Do Birds of a Feather Flock Together Once They Leave the Nest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, Elizabeth; Buchmann, Claudia; Bonneau, Kara

    2009-01-01

    Because of segregation in neighborhoods and schools, college may provide the first opportunity for many young adults to interact closely with members of different racial and ethnic groups. Little research has examined how interracial friendships form during this period. This article investigates changes in the racial composition of friendship…

  6. Relational victimization, friendship, and adolescents’ hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis responses to an in vivo social stressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    CALHOUN, CASEY D.; HELMS, SARAH W.; HEILBRON, NICOLE; RUDOLPH, KAREN D.; HASTINGS, PAUL D.; PRINSTEIN, MITCHELL J.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents’ peer experiences may have significant associations with biological stress-response systems, adding to or reducing allostatic load. This study examined relational victimization as a unique contributor to reactive hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis responses as well as friendship quality and behavior as factors that may promote HPA recovery following a stressor. A total of 62 adolescents (ages 12–16; 73% female) presenting with a wide range of life stressors and adjustment difficulties completed survey measures of peer victimization and friendship quality. Cortisol samples were collected before and after a lab-based interpersonally themed social stressor task to provide measures of HPA baseline, reactivity, and recovery. Following the stressor task, adolescents discussed their performance with a close friend; observational coding yielded measures of friends’ responsiveness. Adolescents also reported positive and negative friendship qualities. Results suggested that higher levels of adolescents’ relational victimization were associated with blunted cortisol reactivity, even after controlling for physical forms of victimization and other known predictors of HPA functioning (i.e., life stress or depressive symptoms). Friendship qualities (i.e., low negative qualities) and specific friendship behaviors (i.e., high levels of responsiveness) contributed to greater HPA regulation; however, consistent with theories of rumination, high friend responsiveness in the context of high levels of positive friendship quality contributed to less cortisol recovery. Findings extend prior work on the importance of relational victimization and dyadic peer relations as unique and salient correlates of adaptation in adolescence. PMID:25047287

  7. Relational victimization, friendship, and adolescents' hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responses to an in vivo social stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Casey D; Helms, Sarah W; Heilbron, Nicole; Rudolph, Karen D; Hastings, Paul D; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2014-08-01

    Adolescents' peer experiences may have significant associations with biological stress-response systems, adding to or reducing allostatic load. This study examined relational victimization as a unique contributor to reactive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses as well as friendship quality and behavior as factors that may promote HPA recovery following a stressor. A total of 62 adolescents (ages 12-16; 73% female) presenting with a wide range of life stressors and adjustment difficulties completed survey measures of peer victimization and friendship quality. Cortisol samples were collected before and after a lab-based interpersonally themed social stressor task to provide measures of HPA baseline, reactivity, and recovery. Following the stressor task, adolescents discussed their performance with a close friend; observational coding yielded measures of friends' responsiveness. Adolescents also reported positive and negative friendship qualities. Results suggested that higher levels of adolescents' relational victimization were associated with blunted cortisol reactivity, even after controlling for physical forms of victimization and other known predictors of HPA functioning (i.e., life stress or depressive symptoms). Friendship qualities (i.e., low negative qualities) and specific friendship behaviors (i.e., high levels of responsiveness) contributed to greater HPA regulation; however, consistent with theories of rumination, high friend responsiveness in the context of high levels of positive friendship quality contributed to less cortisol recovery. Findings extend prior work on the importance of relational victimization and dyadic peer relations as unique and salient correlates of adaptation in adolescence.

  8. Comprehensive School Mental Health: An Integrated "School-Based Pathway to Care" Model for Canadian Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yifeng; Kutcher, Stan; Szumilas, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical period for the promotion of mental health and the treatment of mental disorders. Schools are well-positioned to address adolescent mental health. This paper describes a school mental health model, "School-Based Pathway to Care," for Canadian secondary schools that links schools with primary care providers and…

  9. Children's perceptions of school-based violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumpel, T P; Meadan, H

    2000-09-01

    An important first step in understanding school-based violence is understanding children's subjective perceptions of the phenomena. Understanding these perceptions is likely to be a major factor in determining the integrity of both prevalence and intervention studies. We investigated how elementary and secondary aged children perceived school-based violence. A sample of 979 children from a nested random sample of elementary (grades 3-6) and middle school (grades 7-8) classrooms in Jerusalem participated in this study. To understand children's perception of school violence, we used an instrument composed of 19 dichotomous items, each presenting a one-line description of a behaviour, which the respondent would define as either 'intentionally harmful' or not. Eighth graders were significantly less likely to label the behaviours described as violent compared to all other grades; and seventh graders were less likely as compared to third, fourth and fifth graders; also, some between-gender differences were found. The respondents often view the behaviours described as intentional and aggressive; this finding should serve as an impetus to widen the scope of school-based violence interventions to include these behaviours, especially for younger children.

  10. Meeting the need to belong: Predicting effects of a friendship enrichment program for older women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, N.L.; Martina, C.M.S.; Westerhof, G.J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study explores the effects of participation in a program designed to enrich friendship and reduce loneliness among women in later life. Several hypotheses based on the need to belong, socioemotional selectivity theory, and the social compensation model were tested. Design and Methods:

  11. Meeting the Need to Belong: Predicting Effects of a Friendship Enrichment Program for Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Nan L.; Martina, Camille M. S.; Westerhof, Gerben J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study explores the effects of participation in a program designed to enrich friendship and reduce loneliness among women in later life. Several hypotheses based on the need to belong, socioemotional selectivity theory, and the social compensation model were tested. Design and Methods: Study 1 involved two measurement points, one at…

  12. The Alliance in a Friendship Coaching Intervention for Parents of Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Matthew D.; Mikami, Amori Yee; McLeod, Bryce D.

    2011-01-01

    The alliance between parent and therapist was observed in a group-based parent-training intervention to improve social competency among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The intervention, called Parental Friendship Coaching (PFC), was delivered to 32 parents in small groups as part of a randomized clinical trial. PFC…

  13. Friendships and Family Support Reduce Subsequent Depressive Symptoms in At-Risk Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Laura van Harmelen

    Full Text Available Early life stress (ELS consists of child family adversities (CFA: negative experiences that happened within the family environment and/or peer bullying. ELS plays an important role in the development of adolescent depressive symptoms and clinical disorders. Identifying factors that may reduce depressive symptoms in adolescents with ELS may have important public mental health implications.We used structural equation modelling and examined the impact of adolescent friendships and/or family support at age 14 on depressive symptoms at age 17 in adolescents exposed to ELS before age 11. To this end, we used structural equation modelling in a community sample of 771 adolescents (322 boys and 477 girls from a 3 year longitudinal study. Significant paths in the model were followed-up to test whether social support mediated or moderated the association between ELS and depressive symptoms at age 17.We found that adolescent social support in adolescence is negatively associated with subsequent depressive symptoms in boys and girls exposed to ELS. Specifically, we found evidence for two mediational pathways: In the first pathway family support mediated the link between CFA and depressive symptoms at age 17. Specifically, CFA was negatively associated with adolescent family support at age 14, which in turn was negatively associated with depressive symptoms at age 17. In the second pathway we found that adolescent friendships mediated the path between peer bullying and depressive symptoms. Specifically, relational bullying was negatively associated with adolescent friendships at age 14, which in turn were negatively associated with depressive symptoms at age 17. In contrast, we did not find a moderating effect of friendships and family support on the association between CFA and depressive symptoms.Friendships and/or family support in adolescence mediate the relationship between ELS and late adolescent depressive symptoms in boys and girls. Therefore

  14. Morphing Literacy: Boys Reshaping Their School-Based Literacy Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Heather A.; Stanford, Kathy

    2004-01-01

    Details about a two-year ethnographic case study research in middle school boys to understand school literacy are presented. The study revealed that boys resist many school-based practices by transforming the assigned literacy work.

  15. The Complementary Roles of the School Nurse and School Based Health Centers. Position Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondeck, Lynnette; Combe, Laurie; Baszler, Rita; Wright, Janet

    2015-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that the unique combination of school nursing services and school-based health centers (SBHCs) facilitate positive health outcomes for students. The registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as school nurse) is responsible for management of the daily health…

  16. The Effect of School-Based Management on Schools' Culture of Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nir, Adam E.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the extent to which the introduction of school-based management (SBM) has affected schools' culture of consumption and the inequalities between schools with different socio-economic backgrounds. An analysis of financial reports from 31 SBM schools over four years reveals that schools have increased rather…

  17. School-Based Decision-Making: The Canadian Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Frank

    1997-01-01

    In Canada, school-based decision making is a political expedient to co-opt public support for public education at the same time as financial resources to schools are being curtailed. School councils are advisory in nature and have no statutory position in either school or school-system decisions. (17 references) (MLF)

  18. Factors Predicting Inter-Ethnic Friendships at the Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan H. M. Hashim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explored factors that may contribute to inter-ethnic friendships, both in terms of quantity and satisfaction with those friendships. Participants were 200 working adults who were studying part-time in a long-distance program in a university in Malaysia. In general, demographic factors (gender, ethnicity, education, and income had no significant relationships with number of inter-ethnic friends and satisfaction people had with inter-ethnic friendships. Ethnic identity and stress at work also did not have significant relationships with number of inter-ethnic friends. However, they were significantly related to satisfaction with inter-ethnic friendships. People with higher ethnic identification were more satisfied with inter-ethnic friendships whereas people with more stress at work reported lower satisfaction with inter-ethnic friendships.

  19. Performance-Based Evaluation and School Librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Audrey P.

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of instructional personnel is standard procedure in our Pre-K-12 public schools, and its purpose is to document educator effectiveness. With Race to the Top and No Child Left Behind waivers, states are required to implement performance-based evaluations that demonstrate student academic progress. This three-year study describes the…

  20. Historical Footage of John Glenn Friendship 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-01-01

    The Friendship mission launch on the 20th day of February marked the first time that an American attempts to orbit the Earth. Historical footage of John Glenn's suit up, ride out to the launch pad, countdown, liftoff, booster engine cutoff, and separation of the booster engine escape tower is shown. Views of the Earth, Glenn's manual control of the electrical fly-by wire system, and the recovery of the landing vehicle from the ocean are presented.

  1. An Advanced Private Social Activity Invitation Framework with Friendship Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weitian Tong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the popularity of social networks and human-carried/human-affiliated devices with sensing abilities, like smartphones and smart wearable devices, a novel application was necessitated recently to organize group activities by learning historical data gathered from smart devices and choosing invitees carefully based on their personal interests. We proposed a private and efficient social activity invitation framework. Our main contributions are (1 defining a novel friendship to reduce the communication/update cost within the social network and enhance the privacy guarantee at the same time; (2 designing a strong privacy-preserving algorithm for graph publication, which addresses an open concern proposed recently; (3 presenting an efficient invitee-selection algorithm, which outperforms the existing ones. Our simulation results show that the proposed framework has good performance. In our framework, the server is assumed to be untrustworthy but can nonetheless help users organize group activities intelligently and efficiently. Moreover, the new definition of the friendship allows the social network to be described by a directed graph. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first work to publish a directed graph in a differentially private manner with an untrustworthy server.

  2. Children use partial resource sharing as a cue to friendship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Zoe; Shaw, Alex

    2017-07-01

    Resource sharing is an important aspect of human society, and how resources are distributed can provide people with crucial information about social structure. Indeed, a recent partiality account of resource distribution suggested that people may use unequal partial resource distributions to make inferences about a distributor's social affiliations. To empirically test this suggestion derived from the theoretical argument of the partiality account, we presented 4- to 9-year-old children with distributors who gave out resources unequally using either a partial procedure (intentionally choosing which recipient would get more) or an impartial procedure (rolling a die to determine which recipient would get more) and asked children to make judgments about whom the distributor was better friends with. At each age tested, children expected a distributor who gave partially to be better friends with the favored recipient (Studies 1-3). Interestingly, younger children (4- to 6-year-olds) inferred friendship between the distributor and the favored recipient even in cases where the distributor used an impartial procedure, whereas older children (7- to 9-year-olds) did not infer friendship based on impartial distributions (Study 1). These studies demonstrate that children use third-party resource distributions to make important predictions about the social world and add to our knowledge about the developmental trajectory of understanding the importance of partiality in addition to inequity when making social inferences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. School Improvement Policy--Site-Based Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kenneth Tanner

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Have administrative functions of principals changed in schools practicing site-based management (SBM with shared governance? To deal with this issue we employed the Delphi technique and a panel of 24 experts from 14 states. The experts, which included educational specialists, researchers, writers, and elementary school principals, agreed that the implementation of SBM dramatically influences the roles of the principal in management/administration and leadership. Data revealed that the elementary principal's leadership role requires specialized skills to support shared governance, making it necessary to form professional development programs that adapt to innovations evolving from the implementation of SBM.

  4. Developing School Heads as Instructional Leaders in School-Based Assessment: Challenges and Next Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingam, Govinda Ishwar; Lingam, Narsamma

    2016-01-01

    The study explored challenges faced by school leaders in the Pacific nation of Solomon Islands in school-based assessment, and the adequacy of an assessment course to prepare them. A questionnaire including both open and closed-ended questions elicited relevant data from the school leaders. Modelling best practices in school-based assessment was…

  5. Parent Interest in a School-Based, School Nurse-Led Weight Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubik, Martha Y.; Lee, Jiwoo

    2014-01-01

    Because one in three children is already overweight or obese, school-based interventions targeting secondary obesity prevention merit consideration. This study assessed parent interest in participating in a school-based, school nurse-led weight management program for young school-aged children. A random sample of parents ("n" = 122) of…

  6. School-based influenza vaccination: parents' perspectives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candace Lind

    Full Text Available School-age children are important drivers of annual influenza epidemics yet influenza vaccination coverage of this population is low despite universal publicly funded influenza vaccination in Alberta, Canada. Immunizing children at school may potentially increase vaccine uptake. As parents are a key stakeholder group for such a program, it is important to consider their concerns.We explored parents' perspectives on the acceptability of adding an annual influenza immunization to the immunization program that is currently delivered in Alberta schools, and obtained suggestions for structuring such a program.Forty-eight parents of children aged 5-18 years participated in 9 focus groups. Participants lived in urban areas of the Alberta Health Services Calgary Zone.Three major themes emerged: Advantages of school-based influenza vaccination (SBIV, Disadvantages of SBIV, and Implications for program design & delivery. Advantages were perceived to occur for different populations: children (e.g. emotional support, families (e.g. convenience, the community (e.g. benefits for school and multicultural communities, the health sector (e.g. reductions in costs due to burden of illness and to society at large (e.g. indirect conduit of information about health services, building structure for pandemic preparedness, building healthy lifestyles. Disadvantages, however, might also occur for children (e.g. older children less likely to be immunized, families (e.g. communication challenges, perceived loss of parental control over information, choices and decisions and the education sector (loss of instructional time. Nine second-level themes emerged within the major theme of Implications for program design & delivery: program goals/objectives, consent process, stakeholder consultation, age-appropriate program, education, communication, logistics, immunizing agent, and clinic process.Parents perceived advantages and disadvantages to delivering annual seasonal

  7. School-Based Management: The Next Needed Education Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, James W.

    1986-01-01

    Recommends the implementation of school-based management systems as one way to meet government demands for educational reform. Describes the functions of principals, school advisory councils, school-site budgeting and accounting, and annual planning and performance reports in successful school-based management systems. Presents examples of…

  8. School-Based Management and Effectiveness of Public Secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to achieve its statutory roles, objectives and aspirations. We suggest that the adoption of School-based management by way of increasing the principals' sphere of influence would facilitate effective service delivery in schools. Keywords: school-based management, principals' effectiveness, public secondary schools.

  9. Strategies for Fostering the Efficacy of School-Based Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined community participation in the School-Based Management Committees (SBMC), the challenges hindering participation, and strategies for fostering efficacy of the School Based Management Committee. The number 340 schools were selected from the population of 2543 public primary schools in ...

  10. The Evidence-Based Manifesto for School Librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Ross

    2008-01-01

    School Library Journal's 2007 Leadership Summit, "Where's the Evidence? Understanding the Impact of School Libraries," focused on the topic of evidence-based practice. Evidence-based school librarianship is a systematic approach that engages research-derived evidence, school librarian-observed evidence, and user-reported evidence in the processes…

  11. Relations between life satisfaction, family and friendship satisfaction and religiosity in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doralúcia Gil da Silva

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to discuss relations between life satisfaction, family and friendship satisfaction and religiosity in a sample of adolescents. A record of sociodemographic data, a Multidimensional Scale of Life Satisfaction and a Positive and Negative Affect Scale were applied in 420 students (M= 14.91 years old; SD=1.65 from public schools of Porto Alegre. The results indicated that adolescents who reported having religion had higher life satisfaction, subjective well-being, and family and friendship satisfaction, all with significant differences. Religiosity and interpersonal relationships are factors that can act in a positive way and increase well-being perception by the adolescent. Implications about the form of to assess subjective well-being, as well as religiosity, are discussed.

  12. Priateľstvo ako cnosť súkromná i verejná (Friendship as a Private and Public Virtues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matúš Porubjak

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to show a social role of friendship (filia in Classical Greece and to discover why, as Aristotle thinks, is filia the greatest good for the polis. The author bases his analysis on a comparison between Plato’s dialogue Lysis and Aristotle’s Politics (namely the book 1 and book 3. He distinguishes four types of filia, and shows the social role played by each one of them: the love of parents to children, the friendship between teenage boys of the same age, the love of elder men to boys, and the friendship between free adult citizens.

  13. The potential protective effect of friendship on the association between childhood adversity and psychological distress in adulthood: A retrospective, preliminary, three-wave population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Mashhood Ahmed

    2018-01-15

    Previous studies that assessed the mediating role of social support in the association between childhood adversity and psychological distress based their inferences on very small, selective samples, which makes it impossible to generalise the findings to general population. The aim of this paper was to assess the mediating role of quantity and quality of social support in adulthood in the association between childhood adversity and psychological distress in adulthood. The study has a three-wave design; the present analysis used longitudinal data collected from 1994 to 2008 within the framework of the Tromsø Study (N = 4530), a representative prospective cohort study of men and women. Quantity and quality of social support were measured at a mean age of 54.7 years, and psychological distress in adulthood was measured at a mean age of 61.7 years. Mediation analysis was used to assess the indirect effect of childhood adversity (via quantity and quality of social support) on psychological distress in adulthood. Childhood adversity was associated with deficits in quantity and quality of social support in adulthood (p < 0.05). Childhood adversity and deficits in quantity and quality of social support were associated with psychological distress in adulthood (p < 0.05). Quantity and quality of social support significantly (p < 0.05) mediated the association between childhood adversity and psychological distress in adulthood. Childhood adversity was assessed retrospectively and social support was measured with two items. Interventions aimed at reducing social isolation may alleviate the burden carried by survivors of childhood adversity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. School based assessment module for invasion games category in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    School based assessment module for invasion games category in physical education. ... This study identify the level of basic skills of invasion games category when using School Based Assessment Module. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  15. Investigating Friendship Quality: An Exploration of Self-Control and Social Control Theories' Friendship Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boman, John H., IV; Krohn, Marvin D.; Gibson, Chris L.; Stogner, John M.

    2012-01-01

    While associations with deviant peers are well understood to impact individual development, less is understood about the relationship between friendship quality and delinquency. Two criminological theories--social control theory and self-control theory--are able to offer an explanation for the latter relationship. Social control and self-control…

  16. How intergroup friendship works: a longitudinal study of friendship effects on outgroup attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turner, R.N.; Feddes, A.R.

    2011-01-01

    Cross-sectional research has shown that frequency of self-disclosure to outgroup members mediates the positive relationship between intergroup friendship and outgroup attitudes. The current research investigated the relationship between self-disclosure and attitudes in more depth. New undergraduate

  17. Teachers' Knowledge and Readiness towards Implementation of School Based Assessment in Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloo, Arsaythamby; Krishnasamy, Hariharan N.; Md-Ali, Ruzlan

    2015-01-01

    School-Based Assessment (SBA) was implemented in Malaysian secondary schools in 2012. Since its implementation, teachers have faced several challenges to meet the aims and objectives of the School-Based Assessment. Based on these challenges this study aims to find the level of teachers' knowledge and readiness towards the implementation of…

  18. Evidence-Based Adequacy Model for School Funding: Success Rates in Illinois Schools that Meet Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study explores the 2010 recommendation of the Educational Funding Advisory Board to consider the Evidence-Based Adequacy model of school funding in Illinois. This school funding model identifies and costs research based practices necessary in a prototypical school and sets funding levels based upon those practices. This study…

  19. Friendships Moderate Psychosocial Maladjustment in Socially Anxious Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erath, Stephen A.; Flanagan, Kelly S.; Bierman, Karen L.; Tu, Kelly M.

    2010-01-01

    Close mutual friendships may help protect socially anxious early adolescents against concurrent psychosocial risks. This study investigated whether close mutual friendships moderated associations among social anxiety and several indices of psychosocial maladjustment (loneliness, peer victimization, and low social self-efficacy) in early…

  20. The Emergence Of Groups In The Evolution Of Friendship Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeggelink, Evelien P.H.; Stokman, Frans N.; Bunt, Gerhard G. van der

    1997-01-01

    Friendship networks usually show a certain degree of segmentation: subgroups of friends. The explanation of the emergence of such groups from initially dyadic pair friendships is a diflicult but important problem. In this paper we attempt to provide a first contribution to the explanation of

  1. The emergence of groups in the evolution of friendship networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeggelink, Evelien P.H.; Stokman, Frans N.; Bunt, Gerhard G. van der

    1996-01-01

    Friendship networks usually show a certain degree of segmentation: subgroups of friends. The explanation of the emergence of such groups from initially dyadic pair friendships is a difficult but important problem. In this paper we attempt to provide a first contribution to the explanation of

  2. Fictive-friendship and the Fourth Gospel | Crook | HTS Teologiese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phenomena of friendship and giftship in antiquity have been the focus of much anthropological interest, yet those terms are still used much too broadly, wherein any one can be friends and anything exchanged is a gift. This article argued that proper friendship requires equality of exchange and status. When inequality of ...

  3. Social Anxiety and Adolescents' Friendships: The Role of Social Withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Bridget K.; Vernberg, Eric M.; Wu, Yelena P.

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates social anxiety is associated with lower friendship quality, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms. This 2-month longitudinal study examined social withdrawal as a mediator of the social anxiety-friendship quality link in a sample of 214 adolescents (M[subscript age] = 13.1 years, SD = 0.73) that included an…

  4. Aspects of Girls' Friendships: Practice Implications for Internalizing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, Leslie E. R.; Epkins, Catherine C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children's friendship quality is a particularly important risk or protective factor for internalizing problems and loneliness. Past research indicates that relationship satisfaction is related to perceived similarity; however, it is unclear whether this relation is seen in girls' friendship quality and whether this relation is…

  5. Predicting Friendship Quality in Autism Spectrum Disorders and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauminger, Nirit; Solomon, Marjorie; Rogers, Sally J.

    2010-01-01

    The role played by social relationship variables (attachment security; mother-child relationship qualities) and social-cognitive capacities (theory of mind) was examined in both observed friendship behaviors and in children's descriptions of friendships (age 8-12) with high functioning children with autism spectrum disorders (HFASD) (n = 44) and…

  6. Friendship Quality in Adolescents with and without an Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, Leigh A.; Christensen, Lisa; Blacher, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Background: High friendship quality is often defined by high levels of intimacy, companionship, closeness and low levels of conflict. Quality friendships develop over time and may be influenced by both behaviour problems and social skills. Materials and methods: Participants were 103, 13-year-old adolescents with or without intellectual…

  7. Social-Perspective Coordination and Gifted Adolescents' Friendship Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masden, Catherine A.; Leung, Olivia N.; Shore, Bruce M.; Schneider, Barry H.; Udvari, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    This research examined links among academic ability, social-perspective coordination, and friendship quality, within the context of gifted adolescents' friendships. The sample consisted of 120 early adolescents (59 girls, 61 boys), 81 of whom were identified as gifted. Academic ability, sex, and grade significantly predicted social-perspective…

  8. Boys' Friendships during Adolescence: Intimacy, Desire, and Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, Niobe

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinal, mixed method research on friendships, conducted over the past two decades with Black, Latino, Asian, and European American boys, reveals three themes: (1) the importance for boys of being able to share their secrets with their close friends; (2) the importance of close friendships for boys' mental health; and (3) the loss of but…

  9. The Launch of the MA-6, Friendship 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-01-01

    The launch of the MA-6, Friendship 7, on February 20, 1962. Boosted by the Mercury-Atlas vehicle, a modified Atlas Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM), Friendship 7 was the first U.S. marned orbital flight and carried Astronaut John H. Glenn into orbit. Astronaut Glenn became the first American to orbit the Earth.

  10. Prosocial Tendencies Predict Friendship Quality, But Not for Popular Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorthuis, Astrid M. G.; Thomaes, Sander; Denissen, Jaap J. A.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; de Castro, Bram Orobio

    2012-01-01

    Is prosocial behavior a prerequisite for having good-quality friendships? This study (N=477, mean age=12.2 years) examined whether the link between children's prosocial tendencies and their perceived friendship quality was dependent on children's level of popularity in the peer group. Children's prosocial tendencies were assessed both as observed…

  11. How Friendship Network Characteristics Influence Subjective Well-Being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Horst, Mariska; Coffé, Hilde

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how friendship network characteristics influence subjective well-being (SWB). Using data from the 2003 General Social Survey of Canada, three components of the friendship network are differentiated: number of friends, frequency of contact, and heterogeneity of friends. We argue

  12. Cross-age friendship in 25 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Dykstra (Pearl); M. Fleischmann (Maria)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis paper focuses on individual and country-level circumstances shaping friendships between young and old to gain insight into conditions for intergenerational solidarity. Using European Social Survey data, findings show that relatively few people have cross-age friendships (18%

  13. Hannah Arendt and Karl Jaspers: The Time of Friendship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Jon

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an introduction to the enduring friendship between Hannah Arendt and Karl Jaspers. It shows how their intellectual development as public educators was sustained by their ongoing dialogue which flourished not in spite of but because of their huge differences of circumstance and personality. This friendship between two renowned…

  14. The Equity Consequences of School-Based Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nir, Adam E.; Miran, Meir

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which the introduction of school-based management (SBM) affects schools' incomes and educational equity? Design/methodology/approach: An analysis of financial reports coming from 31 SBM schools during a period of four sequential years reveals that the overall inequity among schools has…

  15. E-Learning and Evidence Based Practice in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quong, Terrence

    2016-01-01

    JCTIC has used open source software to develop a unique school online environment that has made evidence based practice viable in their school. In this paper the proposition is made that eLearning enables evidence based practice which in turn leads to improved student outcomes. Much has been written about evidence based practice in schools, but…

  16. 78 FR 42788 - School-Based Health Center Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration School-Based... Gadsden County. SUMMARY: HRSA will be transferring a School-Based Health Center Capital (SBHCC) Program... support the expansion of services at school-based health centers will continue. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION...

  17. An experimental investigation of the consequences and social functions of fat talk in friendship groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruwys, Tegan; Leverington, Carly T; Sheldon, Anne M

    2016-01-01

    Fat talk is a form of self-degrading, thin-ideal endorsing communication that occurs within female friendship groups. Previous studies have suggested negative associations with wellbeing, but have been predominantly correlational and based on self-report. This study aimed to assess the causal relationship between fat talk and the correlates of disordered eating (thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, negative affect, and dieting intentions) by experimentally manipulating fat talk in existing friendship groups and measuring naturalistic expression of fat talk and its effects. Participants were 85 women aged 17-25 who completed the experiment in friendship pairs. They were randomly assigned to a condition in which their friend expressed fat talk, positive body talk, or neutral talk. This study found evidence of a causal link between listening to friends fat talk and increased correlates of disordered eating. The negative effects of listening to fat talk were fully mediated by fat talk expression. This study also revealed a social function of fat talk, whereby participants rated their friends more positively when they were perceived to behave consistently with group norms, either pro- or anti-fat talk. Positive body talk showed none of the negative effects of fat talk, and was considered socially acceptable regardless of existing friendship group norms. These findings indicate that fat talk is a mechanism through which the thin ideal is transmitted between individuals. Interventions at the level of the friendship group to challenge norms and communication styles may break the link between societal risk factors and individual risk of eating disorders. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Developing a model of adolescent friendship formation on the internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Jochen; Valkenburg, Patti M; Schouten, Alexander P

    2005-10-01

    Previous research has been largely silent about what precisely influences online friendship formation and has ignored motives for online communication as potential explanations. Drawing on a sample of 493 adolescents, this study tested a path model of adolescent friendship formation including as predictors introversion/extraversion, online self-disclosure, motive for social compensation, and frequency of online communication. Our path analysis showed that extraverted adolescents self-disclosed and communicated online more frequently, which, in turn, facilitated the formation of online friendships. Introverted adolescents, by contrast, were more strongly motivated to communicate online to compensate for lacking social skills. This increased their chances of making friends online. Among introverted adolescents, a stronger motive for social compensation also led to more frequent online communication and online self-disclosure, resulting in more online friendships. The model suggests that the antecedents of online friendship formation are more complex than previously assumed and that motives for online communication should be studied more closely.

  19. Prospective Links between Friendship and Early Physical Aggression: Preliminary Evidence Supporting the Role of Friendship Quality through a Dyadic Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvas, Marie-Claude; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Cantin, Ste´phane

    2016-01-01

    Positive friendships have been related to decreasing levels of children's physical aggression over time. While this evidence calls for interventions aimed at helping children build good-quality friendships, tests of causality through experimental manipulations are still needed. The goal of this study was to examine whether an intervention aimed to…

  20. Patterns of Adolescent Friendships, Psychological Adjustment and Antisocial Behavior: The Moderating Role of Family Stress and Friendship Reciprocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciairano, Silvia; Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Roggero, Antonella; Bonino, Silvia; Beyers, Wim

    2007-01-01

    This study distinguishes different patterns of friendship quality in terms of support from and conflict with friends, and reciprocity. Associations between friendship patterns and adolescents' adjustment (self-perception, expectations for the future, depressive feelings, sense of alienation, lying, disobedience, and aggression) were hypothesized…

  1. Do physical and relational aggression explain adolescents' friendship selection? The competing roles of network characteristics, gender, and social status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Berger, Christian; Lindenberg, Siegwart

    2011-01-01

    The role of physical and relational aggression in adolescents' friendship selection was examined in a longitudinal sample of 274 Chilean students from 5th and 6th grade followed over 1 year. Longitudinal social network modeling (SIENA) was used to study selection processes for aggression while influence processes were controlled for. Furthermore, the effects of network characteristics (i.e., reciprocity and transitivity), gender, and social status on friendship selection were examined. The starting assumption of this study was that selection effects based on aggression might have been overestimated in previous research as a result of failing to consider influence processes and alternative characteristics that steer friendship formation. The results show that selection effects of both physical and relational aggression disappeared when network effects, gender, and social status were taken into account. Particularly gender and perceived popularity appeared to be far more important determinants of friendship selection over time than aggression. Moreover, a peer influence effect was only found for relational aggression, and not for physical aggression. These findings suggest that similarity in aggression among befriended adolescents can be considered to be mainly a by-product rather than a leading dimension in friendship selection. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Friendship relations from the perspective of children with experience of cancer treatment: a focus group study with a salutogenic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einberg, Eva-Lena; Svedberg, Petra; Enskär, Karin; Nygren, Jens M

    2015-01-01

    Friendships are significant to child development and health but diseases such as cancer can interrupt the contact with friends. The purpose of this study was to describe perceptions of friendship from the perspective of children undergoing cancer treatment, in order to build knowledge that can be used in a health promotion intervention for these children. Fifteen children between 8 and 12 years of age participated in focus groups, where a mixture of informative and creative techniques were used. The focus group discussions were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The analysis resulted in three generic categories, "Common interests and experiences," "Mutual empathic actions." and "Mutual trust and understanding," incorporating seven subcategories. Based on children's descriptions from a salutogenic perspective, friendship emerged as An equal and mutual commitment that evolves over time and with interactions face-to-face and digitally, a child perspective on friendship should be central to the development of health promotion interventions designed to support friendship relations of children treated for cancer. © 2014 by Association of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Nurses.

  3. Dementia and Friendship: The Quality and Nature of the Relationships That Remain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Phyllis Braudy

    2013-01-01

    Friendships are an integral part of the human experience. Yet, dementia often takes a toll on social relationships, and many friends withdraw. This research, however, focuses on friendships that remain, despite a diagnosis of dementia. It examines the quality of the friendships of people with dementia and long-term friendships. Data were collected…

  4. Physiological Reactivity Moderates the Association between Parental Directing and Young Adolescent Friendship Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Kelly M.; Erath, Stephen A.; Pettit, Gregory S.; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether the longitudinal association between parental directing of friendships (i.e., encouraging or discouraging certain friendships) and young adolescents' friendship adjustment (i.e., friendship quality and friends' positive characteristics) was moderated by skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR) to peer stress.…

  5. School-Based Primary School Sexuality Education for Migrant Children in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenli; Su, Yufen

    2014-01-01

    In May 2007, Beijing Normal University launched a programme of school-based sexuality education for migrant children in Xingzhi Primary School in Beijing. Over the past seven years, the project team has developed a school-based sexuality education curriculum using the "International Technical Guidance on Sexuality Education" published by…

  6. Spirituality, Values and the School's Ethos: Factors Shaping Leadership in a Faith-Based School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striepe, Michelle; Clarke, Simon; O'Donoghue, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Studies which examine how educational leadership in faith-based schools is understood and practised are few and far between in the research literature. This is surprising given the important role faith-based schools play within the Australian school system and the controversy that has often surrounded them. Taking into consideration the gap in the…

  7. School Based Management: A Detailed Guide for Successful Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Richard G.

    This book examines school-based management and provides strategies to implement management changes. The 14 chapters examine the components of good schools, including clarity of purpose, leadership, professionalism, lack of bureaucratic control, competition, and choice. The text describes the components of school-based management and the need for…

  8. School-based data and management of technological innovations in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    School-based data and management of technological innovations in public secondary schools in Cross River State. ... Global Journal of Educational Research ... Result indicated that: there is no significant positive relationship between school-based data and principals management of technological innovation.

  9. School-Based Experiential Outdoor Education: A Neglected Necessity

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Joan K.; Williams, Theresa

    2017-01-01

    In this research study, we hear the voices of middle school students, preservice teachers, and practicing middle school teachers in support of school-based experiential outdoor education. The benefits of engaging youth in memorably relevant learning, immersing them in physically active, field-based education, and providing them with authentic,…

  10. Strengthening School-Based Occupational Therapy through Peer Mentoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucey, Janet C.; Provident, Ingrid M.

    2018-01-01

    This article evaluates a peer mentoring experience for school-based practitioners and its effect on collaborative consultation practices. Best practice and public school policy promote the use of collaborative consultation services but school-based practitioners report significant barriers in achieving effective collaborative consultation…

  11. Nurse-Led School-Based Child Obesity Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Sharon; Lanningham-Foster, Lorraine M.

    2015-01-01

    School-based childhood obesity prevention programs have grown in response to reductions in child physical activity (PA), increased sedentariness, poor diet, and soaring child obesity rates. Multiple systematic reviews indicate school-based obesity prevention/treatment interventions are effective, yet few studies have examined the school nurse role…

  12. Social capital, friendship networks, and youth unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hällsten, Martin; Edling, Christofer; Rydgren, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Youth unemployment is a contemporary social problem in many societies. Youths often have limited access to information about jobs and limited social influence, yet little is known about the relationship between social capital and unemployment risk among youth. We study the effect of social capital on unemployment risk in a sample of 19 year olds of Swedish, Iranian, and Yugoslavian origin living in Sweden (N = 1590). We distinguish between two dimensions of social capital: occupational contact networks and friendship networks. First, ego's unemployment is found to be strongly associated with friends' unemployment among individuals of Yugoslavian origins and individuals of Swedish origin, but not Iranian origin. Second, occupational contact networks reduce unemployment risks for all groups, but especially so for Iranians. The effect sizes of the two dimensions are similar and substantial: going from low to high values on these measures is associated with a difference of some 60-70 percent relative difference in unemployment risk. The findings are robust to a number of different model specifications, including a rich set of social origin controls, personality traits, educational performance, friends' characteristics, and friendship network characteristics, as well as controls for geographical employment patterns. A sensitivity simulation shows that homogeneity bias need to be very strong to explain away the effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The dual role of friendship and antipathy relations in the marginalization of overweight children in their peer networks: The TRAILS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Haye, Kayla; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Lubbers, Miranda J; van Rijsewijk, Loes; Stolk, Ronald

    2017-01-01

    Weight-based stigma compromises the social networks of overweight children. To date, research on the position of overweight children in their peer network has focused only on friendship relations, and not on negative relationship dimensions. This study examined how overweight was associated with relations of friendship and dislike (antipathies) in the peer group. Exponential random graph models (ERGM) were used to examine friendship and antipathy relations among overweight children and their classmates, using a sub-sample from the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (N = 504, M age 11.4). Findings showed that overweight children were less likely to receive friendship nominations, and were more likely to receive dislike nominations. Overweight children were also more likely than their non-overweight peers to nominate classmates that they disliked. Together, the results indicate that positive and negative peer relations are impacted by children's weight status, and are relevant to addressing the social marginalization of overweight children.

  14. Origins and Predictors of Friendships in 6- to 8-Year-Old Children Born at Neonatal Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuser, Katharina M; Jaekel, Julia; Wolke, Dieter

    2018-02-01

    To test effects of gestational age (GA), early social experiences, and child characteristics on children's friendships and perceived peer acceptance. As part of the prospective Bavarian Longitudinal Study (1147 children, 25-41 weeks GA), children's friendships (eg, number of friends, frequency of meeting friends) and perceived peer acceptance were assessed before school entry (6 years of age) and in second grade (8 years of age) using child and parent reports. The parent-infant relationship was evaluated during the 5 months after birth. Child characteristics (ie, height, motor impairment, cognitive ability, behavioral problems) were measured at 6 years of age. Multiple regressions estimated effects of GA, parent-infant relationship, and child characteristics. Overall, children with higher GA had more friends, spent more time with friends, and were more accepted by peers at 6 years of age. Better parent-infant relationships, higher cognitive abilities, and fewer motor and behavioral problems predicted more friendships and higher peer acceptance after adjusting for sex, socioeconomic status, multiples, siblings, and special schooling. Across all GA groups, number of friends (child report: mean change, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.57-1.96) and peer acceptance (child report: mean change, 0.14; 95% CI, 0.09-0.19; parent report: mean change, 0.14; 95% CI, 0.11-0.17) increased with age, but the increase in number of friends was higher among preterm children (ie, interaction effect age*GA group: P = .034). Our results provide evidence of a dose-response effect of low GA on children's friendships and perceived peer acceptance. Improvements in early parenting and motor, cognitive, and behavioral development may facilitate friendships and peer acceptance for all children across the gestation spectrum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Qualities of online friendships with different gender compositions and durations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Grand H L; Chan, Darius K S; Tong, Po Yee

    2006-02-01

    This study was designed to examine the qualities of online friendships with different gender compositions that had been maintained for varying periods of time. A total of 167 Hong Kong Internet-users rated the qualities of their same-sex and cross-sex online friendships on measures such as intimacy, trust, self-disclosure, and relational satisfaction. A 2 (gender of respondents: male vs. female) x 2 (gender of online friends: same-sex vs. opposite-sex) x 3 (duration of friendships: less than 1 year vs. 1-2 years vs. more than 2 years) factorial design was adopted. MANOVA results reveal the three-way interaction effect on intimacy, trust, and relational satisfaction. Specifically, the qualities of male-female, female-male, and female-female online friendships were generally higher for those with a longer duration than those at the early stage of friendship development. However, the qualities of male-male friendships that had been maintained for more than 2 years were lower than those maintained for 2 years or less. These findings suggest that qualities of online friendships are subject to effects of gender composition and duration. The conceptual implications of these results are discussed.

  16. Peer influence and context: the interdependence of friendship groups, schoolmates and network density in predicting substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGloin, Jean Marie; Sullivan, Christopher J; Thomas, Kyle J

    2014-09-01

    This article focuses on the degree to which friends' influence on substance use is conditioned by the consistency between their behavior and that of schoolmates (individuals enrolled in the same school, but not identified as friends), contributing to the literature on the complexity of interactive social influences during adolescence. Specifically, it hypothesizes that friends' influence will diminish as their norms become less similar to that of schoolmates. The authors also propose that this conditioning relationship is related to the density of the friendship group. This study uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health (AddHealth) (n ~ 8,000, 55% female) to examine the interactive relationship between friend and schoolmate influences on adolescent substance use (smoking and drinking). The sample contains students ranging from age 11 to 22 and is 60% White. The findings demonstrate that, as the substance use of the friendship group becomes more dissimilar from schoolmates' substance use, the friendship group's influence on adolescent substance use diminishes. Further, the results demonstrate that this conditioning relationship does not emerge when the friendship group is highly dense.

  17. The impact of friendship ties on new product development student projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kylindri, Stamatia; Blanas, George; Tanev, Stoyan

    2013-01-01

    The competition between firms for more effective new product development (NPD) capabilities has posed the research question: what possibilities are there to improve traditional and knowledge based project team organisation by analysing the impact of social relationships between team members......? The authors of this article tested the hypothesis that friendships have a positive impact on project team effectiveness using the cohesion social network metric. The methodology involves a combination of qualitative and quantitative methodologies applicable to social network analysis (SNA) research...

  18. Risk-Based School Inspections: Impact of Targeted Inspection Approaches on Dutch Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehren, Melanie C.; Shackleton, Nichola

    2016-01-01

    In most countries, publicly funded schools are held accountable to one inspectorate and are judged against agreed national standards. Many inspectorates of education have recently moved towards more proportional risk-based inspection models, targeting high-risk schools for visits, while schools with satisfactory student attainment levels are…

  19. A Conceptual Model for School-Based Management Operation and Quality Assurance in Nigerian Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayeni, Adeolu Joshua; Ibukun, Williams Olusola

    2013-01-01

    This paper examined the School-Based Management Committee's (SBMC) involvement and effectiveness in school governance, curriculum implementation and students' learning outcomes in Nigerian secondary schools; the major challenges facing effective operation of SBMCs were identified as low capacity of key members of the SBMCs; poor attendance of…

  20. School-Based Drug Abuse Prevention Programs in High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manoj; Branscum, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Drug abuse, or substance abuse, is a substantial public health problem in the United States, particularly among high school students. The purpose of this article was to review school-based programs implemented in high schools for substance abuse prevention and to suggest recommendations for future interventions. Included were English language…

  1. A survey on awareness of parents about friendship between their children with an intellectual disability and children without a disability

    OpenAIRE

    渋谷, 真二; 今野, 和夫; SHIBUYA, Shinji; KONNO, Kazuo

    2009-01-01

    The awareness of parents about friendship between their children with an intellectual disability and children without a disability is an important factor for their children to make friends without a disability. A questionnare survey was used to parents of upper secondary department of special schools for students with an intellectual disability. They thought that their children had fewer opportunities to get involved with children without a disability. Many of them wished that their children ...

  2. Evidence-Based Family-School Interventions with Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Stacey L.

    2005-01-01

    Fifteen studies of family-school interventions with preschool children conducted between 1980 and 2002, and published in peer-reviewed journals, were reviewed and evaluated according to the criteria developed by the Task Force on Evidence-Based Intervention in School Psychology (Division 16 and Society for the Study of School Psychology Task…

  3. The Current Practices and Problems of School Based Supervision in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to identify the current practice and problems of school based supervision in government primary schools of Jile Timuga Woreda of Oromia Zone. A descriptive survey design of research methodology was employed. Regarding sampling, there were 39 primary schools grouped in 10 cluster ...

  4. Assessing the Outcomes of School-Based Partnership Resilience Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mampane, Ruth; Huddle, Christelle

    2017-01-01

    This study reports on the outcomes of educational psychology school-based intervention. The aim was to determine whether the intervention served as an educational pathway to resilience. Through a concurrent mixed-methods research design interpreted through a pragmatic lens, academic school performance of students in a rural school was used as an…

  5. Building school-based reading practices

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    context of the academic subjects which they study at school, rather than in areas traditionally associated with learners' out-of-school interests ... the majority of the learners had not seen their parents reading a book ..... Harvard University Press.

  6. School-Based Peer Sexual Harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopels, Sandra; Dupper, David R.

    1999-01-01

    Describes extent and impact of harassment; responses of victims, school personnel, and perpetrators to harassment; and legal redress available to victims. Includes specific steps social workers and other school personnel should take to prevent or alleviate such problems. (LBT)

  7. Educational Data Base and School Profile Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Eleanor Yin

    This report describes the development in 1986 of a management information system by the Sacramento City (California) Unified School District for use in high schools. A nine-page attachment, which comprises two-thirds of the report, offers profiles of selected schools drawn from the databases. Data sets of 200 information items, collected from all…

  8. DOD Recovery personnel and NASA technicians inspect Friendship 7 spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964-01-01

    Department of Defense Recovery personnel and spacecraft technicians from NASA adn McDonnell Aircraft Corp., inspect Astronaut John Glenn's Mercury spacecraft, Friendship 7, following its return to Cape Canaveral after recovery in the Atlantic Ocean.

  9. A randomized controlled trial testing the effectiveness of a universal school-based depression prevention program 'Op Volle Kracht' in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Yuli R; Van Zundert, Rinka Mp; Kuijpers, Rowella Cwm; Van Vlokhoven, Boukje S; Rensink, Hettie Fw; Engels, Rutger Cme

    2012-01-10

    The incidence of depressive symptoms increases during adolescence, from 10.0% to 24.5% at age 11 to 15, respectively. Experiencing elevated levels of depressive symptoms increases the risk of a depressive disorder in adulthood. A universal school-based depression prevention program Op Volle Kracht (OVK) was developed, based on the Penn Resiliency Program, aimed at preventing the increase of depressive symptoms during adolescence and enhancing positive development. In this study the effectiveness of OVK will be tested and possible mediators of program effects will be focus of study as well. The effectiveness of OVK will be tested in a randomized controlled trial with two conditions, intervention (OVK) and control condition (care as usual). Schools are randomly assigned to research conditions. OVK will be incorporated in the school curriculum, maximizing program attendance. OVK consists of 16 lessons of 50 min, given by trained psychologists to groups of 11-15 students. OVK contains Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, social skills training, problem solving and decision making. Outcomes are measured at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months follow up, to monitor long term program effects. Primary outcome is level of depressive symptoms, secondary outcomes are: anxiety, hopelessness, cognitive bias, substance use, truancy, life satisfaction, coping, self-efficacy, optimism, happiness, friendship, school performance and school attitude. The questionnaires for students will be administered in the school setting. Parents will complete a questionnaire at baseline only. In this paper the study into the effectiveness of the depression prevention program OVK was described. It is expected that OVK will prevent the increase in depressive symptoms during adolescence and enhance positive development in the intervention condition, compared to the control condition. If OVK will be effective, it can be implemented in the school context by which numerous adolescents can be reached. Netherlands Trial

  10. A randomized controlled trial testing the effectiveness of a universal school-based depression prevention program 'Op Volle Kracht' in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tak Yuli R

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of depressive symptoms increases during adolescence, from 10.0% to 24.5% at age 11 to 15, respectively. Experiencing elevated levels of depressive symptoms increases the risk of a depressive disorder in adulthood. A universal school-based depression prevention program Op Volle Kracht (OVK was developed, based on the Penn Resiliency Program, aimed at preventing the increase of depressive symptoms during adolescence and enhancing positive development. In this study the effectiveness of OVK will be tested and possible mediators of program effects will be focus of study as well. Method The effectiveness of OVK will be tested in a randomized controlled trial with two conditions, intervention (OVK and control condition (care as usual. Schools are randomly assigned to research conditions. OVK will be incorporated in the school curriculum, maximizing program attendance. OVK consists of 16 lessons of 50 min, given by trained psychologists to groups of 11-15 students. OVK contains Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, social skills training, problem solving and decision making. Outcomes are measured at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months follow up, to monitor long term program effects. Primary outcome is level of depressive symptoms, secondary outcomes are: anxiety, hopelessness, cognitive bias, substance use, truancy, life satisfaction, coping, self-efficacy, optimism, happiness, friendship, school performance and school attitude. The questionnaires for students will be administered in the school setting. Parents will complete a questionnaire at baseline only. Discussion In this paper the study into the effectiveness of the depression prevention program OVK was described. It is expected that OVK will prevent the increase in depressive symptoms during adolescence and enhance positive development in the intervention condition, compared to the control condition. If OVK will be effective, it can be implemented in the school context by which

  11. Personal, Editable and Always Accessible : An Affordance Approach to the Relationship Between Adolescents' Mobile Messaging Behavior and Their Friendship Quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanden Abeele, Mariek; Schouten, Alexander Peter; Antheunis, Marjolijn

    2017-01-01

    This study takes a perceived affordance approach to explain how differences in teenagers' mobile messaging behavior associate with indicators of friendship maintenance behavior. Based on a survey among 1943 teenagers, a structural equation model was tested in which their appreciation of three main

  12. Emotional intertexts: female romantic friendship and the anguish of marriage

    OpenAIRE

    Furneaux, Holly

    2009-01-01

    Romantic friendship between women has been a fertile ground for explorations of Victorian sensory culture, inciting nuanced attention to the emotional and erotic components of intimacy. Work in this area has advanced our understanding of the histories of gender, sexuality and the family and of the history of emotions. This essay takes a new approach to contests over the (in)compatibility of female friendship and marriage, exploring the rich vocabularies through which women’s pain at an intima...

  13. Adolescents' Social Skills in Friendship : The influence of sibling relationship

    OpenAIRE

    藤田, 文; Aya, Fujita

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of the sibling relationship on the adolescents' social skills in friendship. One hundred and seventy-seven undergraduate students were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding their sibling relationship and their social skills in friendship. Their sibling relationship was categorized eight types; close, intimate, hostile, dominate, intimate-hostile, intimate-dominate, hostile-dominate, separate. The result showed that the students ...

  14. School-based programmes for preventing smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Roger E; McLellan, Julie; Perera, Rafael

    2013-04-30

    Helping young people to avoid starting smoking is a widely endorsed public health goal, and schools provide a route to communicate with nearly all young people. School-based interventions have been delivered for close to 40 years. The primary aim of this review was to determine whether school smoking interventions prevent youth from starting smoking. Our secondary objective was to determine which interventions were most effective. This included evaluating the effects of theoretical approaches; additional booster sessions; programme deliverers; gender effects; and multifocal interventions versus those focused solely on smoking. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group's Specialised Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, ERIC, CINAHL, Health Star, and Dissertation Abstracts for terms relating to school-based smoking cessation programmes. In addition, we screened the bibliographies of articles and ran individual MEDLINE searches for 133 authors who had undertaken randomised controlled trials in this area. The most recent searches were conducted in October 2012. We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs) where students, classes, schools, or school districts were randomised to intervention arm(s) versus a control group, and followed for at least six months. Participants had to be youth (aged 5 to 18). Interventions could be any curricula used in a school setting to deter tobacco use, and outcome measures could be never smoking, frequency of smoking, number of cigarettes smoked, or smoking indices. Two reviewers independently assessed studies for inclusion, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Based on the type of outcome, we placed studies into three groups for analysis: Pure Prevention cohorts (Group 1), Change in Smoking Behaviour over time (Group 2) and Point Prevalence of Smoking (Group 3). One hundred and thirty-four studies involving 428,293 participants met the inclusion criteria. Some

  15. The role of inflexible friendship beliefs, rumination, and low self-worth in early adolescents' friendship jealousy and adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavallee, Kristen L; Parker, Jeffrey G

    2009-08-01

    Two focal social cognitive processes were evaluated in a structural model for their direct and indirect roles in early adolescents' jealousy surrounding their closest friend in a sample of 325 early adolescents (169 girls and 156 boys) ages 11-14 years. Individuals who are rigid and unrealistic about meeting their friendship needs were more vulnerable to feelings of jealousy than individuals who think more flexibly. Inflexible individuals also engage in more jealousy-driven surveillance and other problem behavior towards their friends. Stronger jealous feelings and behavior were related, in turn, to greater conflict with friends and to a vulnerability to emotional maladjustment. In addition, young adolescents who tended to ruminate over friendship problems were also more vulnerable to jealousy. Inflexible attitudes and friendship rumination were positively associated. Results extend recent models of friendship jealousy that focus only on early adolescents' self-worth.

  16. A provincial study of opportunities for school-based physical activity in secondary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, John J M; Allison, Kenneth R; LeMoine, Karen N; Adlaf, Edward M; Goodman, Jack; Faulkner, Guy E J; Lysy, Daria C

    2006-07-01

    Adolescents spend considerable time at school and thus it is important to understand their opportunities for school-based physical activity. This study surveyed Ontario secondary schools to identify the range of structured opportunities and their engagement by students. A questionnaire was mailed to key informants in 600 randomly selected secondary schools in Ontario, for which 474 respondents (79%) returned completed questionnaires. Curriculum-based physical education (PE) classes in grade nine were reported to be offered in all schools and these classes in grades 10, 11 and 12 were offered in almost all schools. Student enrollment in PE decreased from grades 9 to 12 (97.9%, 49.6%, 43.3% and 35.9%, respectively). Respondents reported that funding, timetable, facilities and resources made it somewhat difficult to implement the health and physical education curriculum in their schools. About two-thirds (65.5%) of the schools had an intramural program and 15.0% of students participated in it, whereas 97.2% of the schools had an inter-school sports program and 25.0% of students participated in it. Supervision issues made it difficult to provide intramural programs and funding made it difficult to provide inter-school sports programs. Although provision of physical activity opportunities in Ontario appears satisfactory, actual engagement by students is low. The results suggest that strategies to increase student participation in PE, intramural programs, and inter-school sports programs need further consideration.

  17. The GSA Difference: LGBTQ and Ally Experiences in High Schools with and without Gay-Straight Alliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Fetner

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We examine the lived experiences of high-school students who participated in lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ-centered activism of some kind, highlighting the promise of gay-straight alliance groups by comparing the experiences of students at schools with gay-straight alliances (GSA schools with the experiences of students at schools that did not have an LGBTQ-specific group (no-GSA schools. We compare students at GSA and no-GSA schools based on their experiences of harassment, experiences of support from authority figures, and patterns of friendships. We find that students at both types of schools experienced harassment and heard negative comments about lesbian and gay people. However, students at GSA schools reported more support from teachers and administrators than students at no-GSA schools, who have stories of teachers and administrators actively opposing equality for LGBTQ people. Students at GSA schools reported a wide variety of friendships across sexual identities, while students at no-GSA schools felt more isolated and withdrawn. This much-needed qualitative comparative analysis of students’ experiences brings a human face to the improved quality of life that schools with gay-straight alliances can bring to young people.

  18. School-based programmes for preventing smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R; Perera, R

    2006-07-19

    Smoking rates in adolescents are rising in some countries. Helping young people to avoid starting smoking is a widely endorsed goal of public health, but there is uncertainty about how to do this. Schools provide a route for communicating with a large proportion of young people, and school-based programmes for smoking prevention have been widely developed and evaluated. To review all randomized controlled trials of behavioural interventions in schools to prevent children (aged 5 to12) and adolescents (aged 13 to18) starting smoking. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group's Specialized Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsyclNFO, ERIC, CINAHL, Health Star, Dissertation Abstracts and studies identified in the bibliographies of articles. Individual MEDLINE searches were made for 133 authors who had undertaken randomized controlled trials in this area. Types of studies: those in which individual students, classes, schools, or school districts were randomized to the intervention or control groups and followed for at least six months. Children (aged 5 to12) or adolescents (aged 13 to18) in school settings. Types of interventions: Classroom programmes or curricula, including those with associated family and community interventions, intended to deter use of tobacco. We included programmes or curricula that provided information, those that used social influences approaches, those that taught generic social competence, and those that included interventions beyond the school into the community. We included programmes with a drug or alcohol focus if outcomes for tobacco use were reported. Types of outcome measures: Prevalence of non-smoking at follow up among those not smoking at baseline. We did not require biochemical validation of self-reported tobacco use for study inclusion. We assessed whether identified citations were randomized controlled trials. We assessed the quality of design and execution, and

  19. Integrating School-Based and Therapeutic Conflict Management Models at School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Oosterlinck, Franky; Broekaert, Eric

    2003-01-01

    Explores the possibility of integrating school-based and therapeutic conflict management models, comparing two management models: a school-based conflict management program, "Teaching Students To Be Peacemakers"; and a therapeutic conflict management program, "Life Space Crisis Intervention." The paper concludes that integration might be possible…

  20. School Based Management. OSSC Bulletin Vol. 23, No. 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Lawrence C.

    School-based management is an educational reform intended to reverse the trend toward increasing centralization of school administration. Though it has been claimed that centralization increases financial and educational equity, aids efficiency, and eases administration, examination of these claims reveals them to be based too often on incomplete,…

  1. Building Rural Communities through School-Based Agriculture Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael J.; Henry, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a substantive theory for community development by school-based agriculture programs through grounded theory methodology. Data for the study included in-depth interviews and field observations from three school-based agriculture programs in three non-metropolitan counties across a Midwestern state. The…

  2. Consultation: Creating School-Based Interventions. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkmeyer, Don, Jr.; Carlson, Jon

    Decades after consultation has become a mandated function of school counselors, consultants still seek effective ways to deliver this essential role. This book, geared towards mental health professionals, provides a set of skills for working with the school-based population. The ideas, based on Adlerian psychology, present a theory of consultation…

  3. School-Based Efforts to Prevent Cyberbullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchin, Justin W.; Hinduja, Sameer

    2012-01-01

    While bullying historically has occurred within or in close proximity to the school, advances in communication technologies have allowed would-be bullies to extend their reach. Cyberbullying--as it is termed--has become a significant concern among adolescents and adults alike. As a result, parents, school professionals, law enforcement, and youth…

  4. Friendship Dynamics of Adolescent Aggression, Prosocial Behavior, and Social Status: The Moderating Role of Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Huiyoung

    2017-11-01

    Interactions with friends are a salient part of adolescents' experience at school. Adolescents tend to form friendships with similar peers and, in turn, their friends influence adolescents' behaviors and beliefs. The current study investigated early adolescents' selection of friends and friends' influence with regard to physical aggression, prosocial behavior, and popularity and social preference (i.e., likeability) among fifth and sixth graders (N = 736, 52% girls at wave1, N = 677, 52% girls at wave 2) in elementary schools in South Korea. The moderating role of gender on early adolescents' friend selection and influence was also examined. With longitudinal social network analysis (RSiena), we found that youth tended to select friends with similar levels of physical aggression and popularity, and their friends influenced their own physical aggression and popularity over time. The higher youth were in social preference, the less likely they chose physically aggressive peers as friends. Boys were more likely to select highly popular peers as friends compared to girls, and influence effects for physical aggression and popularity were stronger for boys compared to girls. The results underscore the importance of gender in friendship dynamics among Asian early adolescents.

  5. Strengthening Purity: Moral Purity as a Mediator of Direct and Extended Cross-Group Friendships on Sexual Prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezzali, Loris; Brambilla, Marco; Giovannini, Dino; Paolo Colucci, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    The present research investigated whether enhanced perceptions of moral purity drive the effects of intergroup cross-group friendships on the intentions to interact with homosexuals. High-school students (N = 639) reported their direct and extended cross-group friendships with homosexuals as well as their beliefs regarding the moral character of the sexual minority. Participants further reported their desire to interact with homosexuals in the future. Results showed that both face-to-face encounters and extended contact with homosexuals increased their perceived moral purity, which in turn fostered more positive behavioral intentions. Results further revealed the specific role of moral purity in this sense, as differential perceptions along other moral domains (autonomy and community) had no mediation effects on behavioral tendencies toward homosexuals. The importance of these findings for improving intergroup relations is discussed, together with the importance of integrating research on intergroup contact and morality.

  6. The implementation of school-based lesson study at elementary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purnomo Purnomo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to describe and interpret the implementation of school-based lesson study in SDN I Kretek. This study uses the qualitative research. The data were collected through in-depth interviews, participant observation, field notes, and documentation. The data validity was determined through sources and techniques triangulation. The data were analyzed using the Interactive Analysis Model from Miles and Huberman. The results show: (1 the planning of school-based lesson study program at SDN 1 Kretek has been implemented from the beginning of the school year 2014/2015 by establishing school-based lesson study team. This team is responsible for planning, managing, and evaluating school-based lesson study program at SDN 1 Kretek, (2 school-based lesson study at SDN 1 Kretek is implemented in three phases, namely planning, implementation, and reflection, and (3 The evaluation of lesson study is conducted by each teacher who has conducted the open class and conducted thoroughly with a meeting by a team of school-based lesson study SDN 1 Kretek at the end of the school year.

  7. On school choice and test-based accountability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian W. Betebenner

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Among the two most prominent school reform measures currently being implemented in The United States are school choice and test-based accountability. Until recently, the two policy initiatives remained relatively distinct from one another. With the passage of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB, a mutualism between choice and accountability emerged whereby school choice complements test-based accountability. In the first portion of this study we present a conceptual overview of school choice and test-based accountability and explicate connections between the two that are explicit in reform implementations like NCLB or implicit within the market-based reform literature in which school choice and test-based accountability reside. In the second portion we scrutinize the connections, in particular, between school choice and test-based accountability using a large western school district with a popular choice system in place. Data from three sources are combined to explore the ways in which school choice and test-based accountability draw on each other: state assessment data of children in the district, school choice data for every participating student in the district choice program, and a parental survey of both participants and non-participants of choice asking their attitudes concerning the use of school report cards in the district. Results suggest that choice is of benefit academically to only the lowest achieving students, choice participation is not uniform across different ethnic groups in the district, and parents' primary motivations as reported on a survey for participation in choice are not due to test scores, though this is not consistent with choice preferences among parents in the district. As such, our results generally confirm the hypotheses of choice critics more so than advocates. Keywords: school choice; accountability; student testing.

  8. Social Networking as a Strategic Tool in the Management of School-Based Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eke, Chidi Idi; Singh, Shakila

    2018-01-01

    School-based violence is serious, and on the rise in South African schools. The violence affects learners, teachers, communities and the management of schools. Towards finding possible ways to manage school violence, this article presents social networking as a strategic tool in the management of school-based violence in high schools, based on the…

  9. Skookum Jim Friendship Centre retrofit training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-08-01

    The retrofit/renovation of the Skookum Jim Friendship Centre in Whitehorse, Yukon, provided an ideal opportunity to train ten carpenters as specialists in energy conserving construction at the community level throughout the Yukon. Through this project, the trainees have gained special skills through hands-on experience with many energy conserving materials and techniques. As well, the training sessions provided extensive information on applicable thermodynamic principles and building science technology. The crew of two instructors, ten trainees, and the foreman covered all aspects of residential/light commercial construction which apply to retrofit work. Training sessions included information on site-safety, and interpreting the National Building Code, as well as special attention to the air tightness and insulation levels in the building. In observing the operation of the new building during the first heating season, it was noted that the heat provided by the lighting in the building supplied the majority of space heating requirements. Back-up electrical heating was required only at temperatures approaching design temperature for the building. 6 Figs.

  10. Evaluation of school counseling and guidance services based on views of high school students

    OpenAIRE

    Fulya Yüksel-Şahin

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated school psychological counseling services based on high school students’ views. Participants were 235 students. “Student Personal Information Form” and “the School Guidance Services Scale” were used for data analysis. MANOVA and multiple regression procedures were used for data analysis. Results showed that students listed the guidance services from the most utilized to the least as follows: consultation, placement, follow-up, public and famil...

  11. The co-evolution of gossip and friendship in workplace social networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellwardt, Lea; Steglich, Christian; Wittek, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the co-evolution of friendship and gossip in organizations. Two contradicting perspectives are tested. The social capital perspective predicts that friendship causes gossip between employees, defined as informal evaluative talking about absent colleagues. The evolutionary

  12. The Dynamics of Friendships and Victimization in Adolescence: A Longitudinal Social Network Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sentse, M.; Dijkstra, J.K.; Salmivalli, C.; Cillessen, A.H.N.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the development of relational and physical victimization in adolescent friendship networks over time. Using longitudinal social network analysis (SIENA) it was simultaneously tested whether similarity in victimization contributed to friendship formation (selection effects)

  13. The compatibility of the concept of friendship to the role of an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The compatibility of the concept of friendship to the role of an educator in the Classroom. ... Friendship bridges the distance between educator and learner and brings the educator into the world of the learner, ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  14. School-based travel : a mobility assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    This project contributes to developing a technical infrastructure to support the Safe Routes to School (SRTS) Program, : specifically to monitor its growth and to evaluate its effectiveness. Since its inception in 2005, the SRTS program : mandated by...

  15. Friendship and Internal Migration in Brazil: Vulnerability and Coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnaldo Garcia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Friendship has been investigated in the context of international migration, but little is known about the subject in relation to internal migration, a phenomenon of great social importance in Brazil. The purpose of this article is to present and discuss data obtained in an investigation on the relations between internal migration and friendship as perceived by citizens from the state of Espírito Santo who were living in other states of Brazil, in the North, Northeast, Midwest, South and Southeast regions. Twenty adults born in the state and who had migrated to another Brazilian state participated in the investigation. The participants have been interviewed about how they perceived the relationship between friendship and migration and the data were subjected to thematic content analysis. Among the results difficulties to maintain friendships with people of the place of origin as well as difficulties in forming new friendships were observed. Friends were considered relevant for adaptation to the new state, affecting the perception of the same. The article also discusses the origin of friends, the perception of cultural differences and difficulties to make friends in another state. It is concluded that friends play a relevant role in the lives of Brazilian internal migrants and further investigations are necessary.

  16. Attitudes and Experiences of Close Interethnic Friendships Among Native Emerging Adults: A Mixed-Methods Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Merrill L.

    2017-01-01

    This study included 114 Native adults and 6 Native/non-Native pairs of friends (age 18-25). Experiences and attitudes for close interethnic friendships were investigated. Friendship patterns and predictors were quantitatively assessed for the 114 Natives, with qualitative examination of the development and qualities of the six friend pairs. Results of quantitative analysis revealed that 80% of this sample reported friendship investment with Whites, and 55% reported friendship investment wi...

  17. Levels of Participation of the School Stakeholders to the Different School-Initiated Activities and the Implementation of School-Based Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabardo, Jimmy Rey Opong

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the levels of participation of the school stakeholders to the different school-initiated activities and the implementation of school-based management (SBM) in selected schools in the Division of Davao del Sur for the school year 2014-2015 using a descriptive-correlational survey research design. A…

  18. Prospective content in the friendship conversations of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Richard A; Marshall, Sheila K; Murray, John

    2017-01-01

    Prospection is cognitive processes that involve constructing, encoding, and remembering the future. Less is known about the how these processes are evident in the prospective content of conversations. This study sought to identify and describe evidence of the prospective content in the conversations of friends as they transition to adulthood. The present secondary content analysis of the videotaped conversations of 15 young adult friendship dyads (n = 30, 16 females, 14 males, mean age = 21.3 years) in Canada examined these conversations based the following characteristics of prospection: simulation, reasoning about counterfactuals, constructing multiple possible futures, and episodic memory of the past. Four categories of prospective content were evident in these conversations, these processes were used sparingly in all but one conversation, and relatively few of them were collaborative in that dyad partners did not appear to serve to augment, clarify, or disconfirm prospective content. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. School-Based Management. School Management Digest, Series 1, No. 23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindelow, John

    Many educators advocate school-based management, a method of decentralization wherein the school, instead of the district office, becomes the primary unit of educational decision-making. This shift is part of American education's long-term oscillation between administrative centralization and decentralization. Centralization, say its critics, has…

  20. Latino Parents of English Learners in Catholic Schools: Home vs. School Based Educational Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Elizabeth M.; Heineke, Amy; Carr, Andrea L.; Camacho, Daniel; Israel, Marla Susman; Goldberger, Nancy; Clawson, Angela; Hill, Martin

    2017-01-01

    This study sought to expand the field's understanding of the educational involvement of Latino parents whose children were English Learners and attended Catholic schools. Specifically, we attempted to identify factors that facilitate as well as prohibit involvement in two home-based types of educational involvement and two specific school-based…

  1. School-Based Interventions for Overweight and Obesity in Minority School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Teresa; Weed, L. Diane; Touger-Decker, Riva

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity in the United States has resulted in a number of school-based health interventions. This article provides a review of research that addressed childhood overweight and obesity in minority, U.S. elementary schools. All studies reported some benefits in health behaviors and/or anthropometric…

  2. Integrating Expressive Therapies in School-Based Counseling: A Handbook for School Mental Health Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmiotto, Kimberley

    2013-01-01

    Research demonstrates that addressing mental health issues in children can yield both increased academic performance and better social-emotional skills. In the past, school-based mental health services for students have been implemented inconsistently and usually in combination with community partners. When school mental health interventions are…

  3. School-Based Health Promotion Intervention: Parent and School Staff Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino-Fernandez, Anna M.; Hernandez, Jennifer; Villa, Manuela; Delamater, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of childhood obesity is high, particularly among minority youth. The objective of this article was to evaluate parent and school staff perspectives of childhood health and weight qualitatively to guide the development of a school-based obesity prevention program for minority youth. Methods: Hispanic parents (N?=?9) of…

  4. Mentoring in Schools: An Impact Study of Big Brothers Big Sisters School-Based Mentoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Carla; Grossman, Jean Baldwin; Kauh, Tina J.; McMaken, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This random assignment impact study of Big Brothers Big Sisters School-Based Mentoring involved 1,139 9- to 16-year-old students in 10 cities nationwide. Youth were randomly assigned to either a treatment group (receiving mentoring) or a control group (receiving no mentoring) and were followed for 1.5 school years. At the end of the first school…

  5. Association of School-Based Influenza Vaccination Clinics and School Absenteeism--Arkansas, 2012-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gicquelais, Rachel E.; Safi, Haytham; Butler, Sandra; Smith, Nathaniel; Haselow, Dirk T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Influenza is a major cause of seasonal viral respiratory illness among school-aged children. Accordingly, the Arkansas Department of Health (ADH) coordinates >800 school-based influenza immunization clinics before each influenza season. We quantified the relationship between student influenza vaccination in Arkansas public schools…

  6. More Heads Are Better than One: School-Based Decision-Making in Varied School Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokoena, Sello; Machaisa, Rebotile

    2018-01-01

    In this multi-case qualitative study the degree to which school-based decision-making (SBDM) is understood and conceptualised by the members of school governing bodies (SGBs)--educators, chairpersons of SGBs, principals, and learner representative councils-as well the extent to which decisions were shared among the various groups represented on…

  7. Relational Benefits of Relational Aggression: Adaptive and Maladaptive Associations with Adolescent Friendship Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banny, Adrienne M.; Heilbron, Nicole; Ames, Angharad; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2011-01-01

    Two longitudinal studies examined associations between relational aggression and friendship quality during adolescence. In Study 1, 62 adolescents in Grades 6 (25.8%), 7 (32.3%), and 8 (41.9%) completed assessments of friendship affiliations, relational and overt aggression, and friendship quality at 2 time points, 1 year apart. Results using…

  8. Someone to Count On: Homeless, Male Drug Users and Their Friendship Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterk-Elifson, Claire; Elifson, Kirk W.

    1992-01-01

    A study exploring friendship relations of homeless, male drug users (aged between 21 and 50 years) through 27 in-depth interviews in Atlanta (Georgia) found that subjects were engaged in friendship networks that offered social support and that there was a relationship between friendships and patterns of crack cocaine use. (JB)

  9. Assessing the Relationship between Divergent Drinking and Perceptions of Friendship Quality between Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stogner, John; Boman, John H., IV; Miller, Bryan Lee

    2015-01-01

    The use of psychoactive drugs appears to have a clear influence on both friendship formation and friendship quality. Differences in the frequency of substance use are particularly likely to influence each friend's perceptions of their relationship with the other. However, the impact of divergent substance use patterns within a friendship dyad on…

  10. Measuring the Friendships of Young Children with Disabilities: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Lori E.; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe what has been learned over the past 35+ years of research on the friendships of young children with disabilities. An extensive literature review was conducted to critically examine the purposes that guided the friendship studies, the methods used to measure friendships, and the major findings of these…

  11. Friendship Satisfaction in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Nominated Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrina, Neysa; Carter, Mark; Stephenson, Jennifer; Sweller, Naomi

    2017-01-01

    The current study examined the level of friendship satisfaction of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their nominated friends (with and without diagnosis of ASD). A total of 77 target children with ASD and friends from 49 nominated friendships participated in the study. Relatively high levels of friendship satisfaction were reported…

  12. "We're Just Not Friends Anymore": Self-Knowledge and Friendship Endings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Mary

    2015-01-01

    A long standing argument in philosophy purports that friendship plays a considerable role in our self-knowledge and perspectives on the world, much of which can be accredited to the enduring influence of the Aristotelian conceptualisation of friendship. More recent thinking on friendship terminations has given cause to rethink and clarify the…

  13. Family Environment as a Predictor of the Quality of College Students' Friendships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Richard A.; King, Alan R.

    2008-01-01

    Family environment appears to be an important determinant of friendship quality. Despite this apparent link, few studies have explored how family environment relates to friendship, especially among college students. The present study examined the relationship between family environment and best friendships, by administering the Family Environment…

  14. Managing Blended Friendships: Using Empirical Data to Prepare Students and Employees for Relational Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsley Westerman, Catherine Y.; Park, Hee Sun

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigates how college students expect to react to inequity in blended friendships. Blended friendship is defined as a friendship that involves interaction at work and outside of work. Data from undergraduate students (N = 185) showed that liking and relational importance were found to be lower in underreward and overreward…

  15. The Importance of Friends: Friendship and Adjustment among 1st-Year University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buote, Vanessa M.; Pancer, S. Mark; Pratt, Michael W.; Adams, Gerald; Birnie-Lefcovitch, Shelly; Polivy, Janet; Wintre, Maxine Gallander

    2007-01-01

    In a study of new friendships and adjustment among 1st-year university students, students at six Canadian universities completed questionnaires that assessed the quality of new friendships and adjustment during their first academic year. In-depth, face-to-face interviews about students' new friendships were conducted with a subsample of these…

  16. Friendships Influence Hispanic Students' Implicit Attitudes toward White Non-Hispanics Relative to African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberson, Christopher L.; Porter, Michael K.; Gaffney, Amber M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the role of Hispanic students' friendships with White non-Hispanics (n-Hs) and African Americans (AAs) in predicting implicit and explicit prejudices toward these groups. Participants (N = 73) completed implicit and explicit attitude measures and a friendship questionnaire. Friendships were associated with implicit attitudes…

  17. Models for Delivering School-Based Dental Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, David A.; McManus, Joseph M.; Mitchell, Dennis A.

    2005-01-01

    School-based health centers (SBHCs) often are located in high-need schools and communities. Dental service is frequently an addition to existing comprehensive services, functioning in a variety of models, configurations, and locations. SBHCs are indicated when parents have limited financial resources or inadequate health insurance, limiting…

  18. Analysis of School Food Safety Programs Based on HACCP Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Kevin R.; Sauer, Kevin; Sneed, Jeannie; Kwon, Junehee; Olds, David; Cole, Kerri; Shanklin, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine how school districts have implemented food safety programs based on HACCP principles. Specific objectives included: (1) Evaluate how schools are implementing components of food safety programs; and (2) Determine foodservice employees food-handling practices related to food safety.…

  19. School-Based First Aid Training Programs: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveruzzi, Bianca; Buckley, Lisa; Sheehan, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Background: This review examines the breadth of first aid training delivered to school students and the components that are age appropriate to adolescents. Method: Eligible studies included school-based first aid interventions targeting students aged between 10 and 18 years. Online databases were searched, for peer-reviewed publications available…

  20. Family Involvement in School-Based Dysphagia Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, Maureen E.; Bailey, Rita L.; Nicholson, Joanna K.; Stoner, Julia B.

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a practitioner-friendly synthesis of existing literature on family involvement in the management of dysphagia for school-age. Research reviewed includes family perspectives on programs, therapists, and characteristics that comprise effective family involvement in school-based dysphagia management programs. Also included are…

  1. Process evaluation of school-based peer education for HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 2005, a survey was conducted among all the 27 high schools of Aden, which revealed low levels of knowledge on major prevention measures, and a high level of stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV (PLWH). The results served as a baseline for implementing a school-based peer education ...

  2. Comprehensive School-Based Physical Activity Promotion: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Heather; Beighle, Aaron; Carson, Russell L.; Castelli, Darla M.

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) participation levels among youth remain well below national recommendations. Thus, a variety of strategies to promote youth PA have been advocated, including multifaceted, school-based approaches. One identified as having great potential is a comprehensive school physical activity program (CSPAP). The goal of a CSPAP is to…

  3. School-Based Sexuality Education in Portugal: Strengths and Weaknesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Ana Cristina; Leal, Cláudia; Duarte, Cidália

    2016-01-01

    Portugal, like many other countries, faces obstacles regarding school-based sexuality education. This paper explores Portuguese schools' approaches to implementing sexuality education at a local level, and provides a critical analysis of potential strengths and weaknesses. Documents related to sexuality education in a convenience sample of 89…

  4. Effects of Problem Based Economics on High School Economics Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Neal; Hanson, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to assess student-level impacts of a problem-based instructional approach to high school economics. The curriculum approach examined here was designed to increase class participation and content knowledge for high school students who are learning economics. This study tests the effectiveness of Problem Based…

  5. The Democratic Deficit and School-Based Management in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimber, Megan; Ehrich, Lisa Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks to apply the theory of the democratic deficit to school-based management with an emphasis on Australia. This theory was developed to examine managerial restructuring of the Australian Public Service in the 1990s. Given similarities between the use of managerial practices in the public service and government schools, the…

  6. Holiness as friendship with Christ: Teresa of Avila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara K. Soughers

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Teresa of Avila, writing in the 16th century when ideas of holiness often excluded women and lay people, developed a radically inclusive understanding of holiness as friendship with Christ. Her idea also allowed for degrees of holiness, from those who completed only the necessary church requirements of confession and absolution all the way up to those who had a friendship that was modelled upon the relationship in the Song of Songs. It was a definition of holiness applicable to men and women, clergy, members of religious orders, and lay people. In addition, her understanding of holiness did not distinguish the holiness of ordinary lay people from that of the great saints of previous generations, for friendship with Christ was open to all.

  7. Cuteness, friendship, and identity in the brony community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo A. Peck-Suzuki

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available I examine the practices of fan productivity and gender negotiation in brony fandom, the community of primarily college-age men who are fans of My Little Pony: Friendship Is Magic (2010–. I examine the contours of brony textual and material practices, noting how productivity within the fandom plays a role in the negotiation of identity and community ethos. I also consider the implications of cuteness in the fandom and discuss how this aesthetic and its corresponding narrative have led to the development of a unique discursive mode among bronies, which I term the discourse of friendship. Drawing on Matthew Gutmann's theory of contradictory consciousness, I argue that the discourse of friendship is an innovative framework that encourages new ways of taking part in existing social institutions that destabilize hegemonic masculinity.

  8. Friendship Repertoires and Care Arrangement: A Praxeological Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahmann, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Friends are important companions and serve as sources for diverse dimensions of social support, including elderly care. Rather than researching populations that have already established care arrangements including friends, the author seeks to understand relationship systems with a focus on the inner logic friendship to consequently describe and understand involved care arrangements, be it with family members or friends. To illustrate the diversity of friendship repertoires, qualitative interviews with older adult Germans are analyzed regarding cognitive concepts of friendships in contrast to familiar ties as well as social practices around relationship systems. While some repertoires successfully include chosen ties in their care arrangements, others not only focus on family, they do not wish to receive care from friends. The article's praxeological approach highlights the need to reflect habitual differences when thinking about elderly informal care arrangements. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Social skills, friendship and happiness: a cross-cultural investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Melikşah; Jaafar, Jas; Bilyk, Nicholas; Ariff, Mohammad Raduan Mohd

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the associations between social skills, friendship quality, and happiness, and tested a mediational model positing that friendship quality would mediate the relationship between social skills and happiness among American and Malaysian college students. Although American students reported significantly higher levels of psychosocial well-being than Malaysian students, the study variables were positively associated with each other in both cultures. More importantly, findings supported the proposed model in both groups. Results suggest that part of the reason why social skills are associated with positive psychological well-being is because of friendship experiences. Overall, the findings of the present study reinforce, extend and cross-culturally generalize the presumed benefits of social skills in positive well-being elaborated by Segrin and Taylor (2007). The authors also provided suggestions for future research.

  10. High impact of implementation on school-based smoking prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bast, Lotus Sofie; Due, Pernille; Bendtsen, Pernille

    2016-01-01

    prevention trial-the X:IT study. METHODS: A cluster-randomized trial testing is a multi-component intervention to prevent smoking among adolescents in 94 Danish elementary schools (51 intervention, 43 control schools). Participants were grade 7 pupils (mean age 12.5 years). Data was collected by electronic...... into account the complexity of the concept nor the intervention. The objective of the present study was to develop an overall quantitative measure of implementation fidelity, to examine the degree of implementation fidelity and the association of implementation and effect of a randomized school-based smoking...... questionnaires among pupils at baseline (n = 4161), the first follow-up (n = 3764), and the second follow-up (n = 3269) and among school coordinators at intervention schools at the first and second follow-up (50 and 39 coordinators). INTERVENTION: The intervention included three components: (1) smoke-free school...

  11. Friendship Network Characteristics Are Associated with Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Jennifer; de la Haye, Kayla; Barnett, Lisa M; Allender, Steven

    2015-01-01

    There is limited understanding of the association between peer social networks and physical activity (PA), sedentary and screen-related behaviors. This study reports on associations between personal network characteristics and these important health behaviors for early adolescents. Participants were 310 students, aged 11-13 years, from fifteen randomly selected Victorian primary schools (43% response rate). PA and sedentary behaviors were collected via accelerometer and self-report questionnaire, and anthropometric measures via trained researchers. Participants nominated up to fifteen friends, and described the frequency of interaction and perceived activity intensity of these friends. Personal network predictors were examined using regression modelling for PA and sedentary/screen behavior. Perceived activity levels of friends, and friendships with very frequent interaction were associated with outside-of-school PA and/or sedentary/screen time. Differences according to sex were also observed in the association between network characteristics and PA and sedentary time. A higher number of friends and greater proportion of same sex friends were associated with boys engaging in more moderate-to-vigorous PA outside of school hours. PA intensity during school-day breaks was positively associated with having a greater proportion of friends who played sports for girls, and a greater proportion of male friends for boys. Friendship network characteristics are associated with PA and sedentary/screen time in late childhood/early adolescence, and these associations differ by sex. The positive influence of very active peers may be a promising avenue to strengthen traditional interventions for the promotion of PA and reduction in screen time.

  12. Psychosis screening practices in schools: A survey of school-based mental health providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Emily R; Chokran, Cole; Rodenhiser-Hill, Janine; Seidman, Larry J; Woodberry, Kristen A

    2018-05-04

    Many school districts in the United States employ mental health professionals to provide assessment, counselling and crisis interventions within the school setting; however, little is known about actual clinical practices of psychosis screening in schools. The aim of the present study is to examine attitudes and practices regarding psychosis screening among school mental health providers in metropolitan Boston, Massachusetts. School-based mental health clinicians (N = 100) completed an anonymous survey assessing familiarity, screening, and involvement with psychosis and psychosis risk prior to attending trainings on psychosis. Providers reported screening for psychosis less often than other mental health problems and rated themselves as less confident treating psychosis relative to other mental health concerns. Frequency of screening for psychosis was significantly associated with familiarity with psychosis assessment and case management, confidence providing treatment for individuals experiencing psychosis, and the number of students with or at risk for psychosis with whom providers had been involved. Frequency of screening for psychosis was not associated with years of practice, suggesting that both novice and experienced school-based providers may benefit from training on this issue. Community outreach via school-based provider training on assessment and management of psychosis may help to increase providers' understanding of psychosis and increase the practice of verbal or written screening for psychosis and psychosis risk within schools. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Integrating school-based and therapeutic conflict management models at schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Oosterlinck, Franky; Broekaert, Eric

    2003-08-01

    Including children with emotional and behavioral needs in mainstream school systems leads to growing concern about the increasing number of violent and nonviolent conflicts. Schools must adapt to this evolution and adopt a more therapeutic dimension. This paper explores the possibility of integrating school-based and therapeutic conflict management models and compares two management models: a school-based conflict management program. Teaching Students To Be Peacemakers; and a therapeutic conflict management program, Life Space Crisis Intervention. The authors conclude that integration might be possible, but depends on establishing a positive school atmosphere, the central position of the teacher, and collaborative and social learning for pupils. Further implementation of integrated conflict management models can be considered but must be underpinned by appropriate scientific research.

  14. Semiotic scaffolding of the social self in reflexivity and friendship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmeche, Claus

    2015-01-01

    scaffolding is a multi-level phenomenon. Focusing upon levels of semiosis specific to humans, the formation of the personal self and the role of friendship and similar interpersonal relations in this process is explored through Aristotle’s classical idea of the friend as ‘another self’, and sociologist...... Margaret Archer’s empirical and theoretical work on the interplay between individual subjectivity, social structure and interpersonal relations in a dynamics of human agency. It is shown that although processes of reflexivity and friendship can indeed be seen as instances of semiotic scaffolding...

  15. Responsibility, Authority, and Accountability in School-Based and Non-School-Based Management: Principals' Coping Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinshtain, Yael; Gibton, Dan

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to understand how primary school principals in Israel cope with the gaps between authority and responsibility in their work, deriving from partially implemented decentralization processes, and how this relates to school-based management (SBM) and accountability principles. Design/methodology/approach: Using…

  16. A cross-sectional investigation of parenting style and friendship as mediators of the relation between social class and mental health in a university community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Mark; Kelly, Benjamin M

    2015-10-05

    This study tested a novel explanation for the positive relation between social class and mental health among university students. Students with a higher social class were expected to have experienced more authoritative and less authoritarian parenting styles; these parenting styles were expected to lead to greater friendship and social integration at university; and greater friendship and integration were expected to lead to better mental health. To test this model, the researchers asked 397 Australian undergraduate students to complete an online survey. The research used a cross-sectional correlational design, and the data was analysed using bootstrapped multiple serial mediation tests. Consistent with predictions, parenting style, general friendship and support, and social integration at university mediated the relation between social class and mental health. The present results suggest that working-class parenting styles may inhibit the development of socially-supportive friendships that protect against mental health problems. The potential effectiveness of interventions based on (a) social integration and (b) parenting style is discussed. Future research in this area should employ a longitudinal research design in order to arrive at clearer causal conclusions about the relations between social class, parenting styles, friendship, social integration, and mental health.

  17. Teachers' Learning in School-Based Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postholm, May Britt; Waege, Kjersti

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose: Many researchers agree that teachers' learning processes are social and that teachers need to be brought together to learn from each other. Researchers have also stated that intellectual and pedagogical change requires professional development activities that take place over a period of time in school. The purpose of the…

  18. School-based human papillomavirus vaccination: An opportunity to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    School-based human papillomavirus vaccination: An opportunity to increase knowledge about cervical cancer and improve uptake of ... Poor knowledge about cervical cancer plays a role in limiting screening uptake. HPV ... Article Metrics.

  19. Resources available for school based mental health services in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Resources available for school based mental health services in Enugu urban and head teachers' knowledge of childhood mental health problems. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) ...

  20. Differences in Friendship Networks and Experiences of Cyberbullying Among Korean and Australian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jee Young; Kwon, Yeji; Yang, Soeun; Park, Sora; Kim, Eun-Mee; Na, Eun-Yeong

    2017-01-01

    Cyberbullying is one of the negative consequences of online social interaction. The digital environment enables adolescents to engage in online social interaction beyond the traditional physical boundaries of families, neighborhoods, and schools. The authors examined connections to friendship networks in both online and offline settings are related to their experiences as victims, perpetrators, and bystanders of cyberbullying. A comparative face-to-face survey of adolescents (12-15-year-olds) was conducted in Korea (n = 520) and Australia (n = 401). The results reveal that online networks are partially related to cyberbullying in both countries, showing the size of social network sites was significantly correlated with experience cyberbullying among adolescents in both countries. However there were cultural differences in the impact of friendship networks on cyberbullying. The size of the online and offline networks has a stronger impact on the cyberbullying experiences in Korea than it does in Australia. In particular, the number of friends in cliques was positively related to both bullying and victimization in Korea.

  1. Promoting healthy computer use among middle school students: a pilot school-based health promotion program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarelli, Marina; Portsmouth, Linda; Harris, Courtenay; Jacobs, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Introduction of notebook computers in many schools has become integral to learning. This has increased students' screen-based exposure and the potential risks to physical and visual health. Unhealthy computing behaviours include frequent and long durations of exposure; awkward postures due to inappropriate furniture and workstation layout, and ignoring computer-related discomfort. Describe the framework for a planned school-based health promotion program to encourage healthy computing behaviours among middle school students. This planned program uses a community- based participatory research approach. Students in Year 7 in 2011 at a co-educational middle school, their parents, and teachers have been recruited. Baseline data was collected on students' knowledge of computer ergonomics, current notebook exposure, and attitudes towards healthy computing behaviours; and teachers' and self-perceived competence to promote healthy notebook use among students, and what education they wanted. The health promotion program is being developed by an inter-professional team in collaboration with students, teachers and parents to embed concepts of ergonomics education in relevant school activities and school culture. End of year changes in reported and observed student computing behaviours will be used to determine the effectiveness of the program. Building a body of evidence regarding physical health benefits to students from this school-based ergonomics program can guide policy development on the healthy use of computers within children's educational environments.

  2. Friends Also Matter: Examining Friendship Adjustment Indices as Moderators of Anxious-Withdrawal and Trajectories of Change in Psychological Maladjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovic, Andrea; Bowker, Julie C.

    2017-01-01

    The present study evaluated whether 3 indices of friendship adjustment (mutual friendship involvement, friendship stability, friendship quality) are important, but overlooked, moderators of the impact of anxious-withdrawal on trajectories of psychological maladjustment during early adolescence. Participants included 271 young adolescents (51%…

  3. Physical Therapists' Perceptions of School-Based Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Sheryl L; Kuperstein, Janice; Effgen, Susan K

    2015-01-01

    Surveys have reported that most school-based physical therapists perceive ideal practices are not commonly implemented in their settings. Our aim was to obtain a more in-depth understanding of these perceptions through open-ended inquiry. Qualitative data were derived from voluntary open-ended responses provided upon completion of a survey regarding school-based physical therapy practice. Of the survey's 561 participants, 250 provided open-ended commentaries that were analyzed using interpretive phenomenology. Six qualitative themes emerged from the open-ended responses, including: In quest: Meeting students' school-based needs via physical therapy; Seeking relatedness: Finding working teams in the school system; Building understanding: Developing a voice/identity in the school context; Stretched beyond limits: Managing workloads; Networking: Coordinating services outside school to meet student needs; Defying definition: What does working in an educational model mean? School-based physical therapists seek to meet educationally relevant physical therapy needs of students, ages 3 to 21 years. Successes appear woven of a multitude of factors such as therapist expertise, team dynamics, and district supports.

  4. Mediating Role of Mindfulness on the Associations of Friendship Quality and Subjective Vitality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Umran; Akin, Ahmet; Uğur, Erol

    2016-10-01

    This research investigated the mediator role of mindfulness on the relationship between friendship quality and subjective vitality. Participants were 273 university students (M age = 21 years, SD = 1.1) who completed a questionnaire package that included the Friendship Quality Scale, the Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale, and the Subjective Vitality Scale. Both mindfulness and subjective vitality were correlated positively with friendship quality and subjective vitality was correlated positively with mindfulness. Mindfulness mediated the relationship between friendship quality and subjective vitality. Together, the findings illuminate the importance of friendship quality in psychological and cognitive adjustment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. The Most Beautiful Friendship: Revolution, War and Ends of Social Gravity in Syria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønd, Thomas Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    This article focuses on overlooked revolutionary friendship as a primary vehicle of revolutionary politics. It draws on ethnographic fieldwork among revolutionaries of Syria’s peaceful protest movements. The article depicts how friendships emerge in revolutionary moments. It analyzes the experience...... of friendship as a primary locus for revolutionary politics and as part of social transformations, which often occur during war and revolutions. Drawing on the anthropology of friendship and social theory, I demonstrate how new zones of social gravity were created in beautiful friendships challenging the neo...

  6. The Relationship Among School Safety, School Liking, and Students' Self-Esteem: Based on a Multilevel Mediation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinghui; Xuan, Xin; Chen, Fumei; Zhang, Cai; Luo, Yuhan; Wang, Yun

    2016-03-01

    Perceptions of school safety have an important effect on students' development. Based on the model of "context-process-outcomes," we examined school safety as a context variable to explore how school safety at the school level affected students' self-esteem. We used hierarchical linear modeling to examine the link between school safety at the school level and students' self-esteem, including school liking as a mediator. The data were from the National Children's Study of China (NCSC), in which 6618 fourth- to fifth-grade students in 79 schools were recruited from 100 counties in 31 provinces in China. Multilevel mediation analyses showed that the positive relationship between school safety at the school level and self-esteem was partially mediated by school liking, controlling for demographics at both student and school levels. Furthermore, a sex difference existed in the multilevel mediation model. For boys, school liking fully mediated the relationship between school safety at the school level and self-esteem. However, school liking partially mediated the relationship between school safety at the school level and self-esteem among girls. School safety should receive increasing attention from policymakers because of its impact on students' self-esteem. © 2016, American School Health Association.

  7. The spread of gossip in American schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, P. G.; da Silva, L. R.; Andrade, J. S., Jr.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2007-06-01

    Gossip is defined as a rumor which specifically targets one individual and essentially only propagates within its friendship connections. How fast and how far a gossip can spread is for the first time assessed quantitatively in this study. For that purpose we introduce the "spread factor" and study it on empirical networks of school friendships as well as on various models for social connections. We discover that there exists an ideal number of friendship connections an individual should have to minimize the danger of gossip propagation.

  8. School-Based Mental Health Services: Definitions and Models of Effective Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Beth; Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Cornell, Laura; Song, Samuel Y.

    2017-01-01

    School-based mental health services are those delivered by school-employed and community-employed providers in school buildings. With the implementation of provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (2010) that funds school-based health centers, school-based mental health services could become more broadly available in…

  9. Can a school-based hand hygiene program reduce asthma exacerbations among elementary school children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald, Joe K.; Zhang, Bin; McClure, Leslie A.; Bailey, William C.; Harrington, Kathy F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Viral upper respiratory infections have been implicated as a major cause of asthma exacerbations among school age children. Regular hand washing is the most effective method to prevent the spread of viral respiratory infections but, effective hand washing practices are difficult to establish in schools. Objectives This randomized controlled trial evaluated whether a standardized regimen of hand washing plus alcohol-based hand sanitizer could reduce asthma exacerbations more than schools’ usual hand hygiene practices. Methods This was a two year, community-based, randomized controlled crossover trial. Schools were randomized to usual care then intervention (Sequence 1) or intervention then usual care (Sequence 2). Intervention schools were provided with alcohol-based hand sanitizer, hand soap, and hand hygiene education. The primary outcome was the proportion of students experiencing an asthma exacerbation each month. Generalized estimating equations were used to model the difference in the marginal rate of exacerbations between sequences while controlling for individual demographic factors and the correlation within each student and between students within each school. Results 527 students with asthma were enrolled among 31 schools. The hand hygiene intervention did not reduce the number of asthma exacerbations as compared to the schools’ usual hand hygiene practices (p=0.132). There was a strong temporal trend as both sequences experienced fewer exacerbations during Year 2 as compared to Year 1 (phand hygiene behaviors and resources in usual care schools. Therefore, these results should be viewed cautiously. PMID:23069487

  10. School-based interventions to address bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K. Smith

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Following some background studies on the nature of school bullying, its prevalence, and the negative consequences it can have, this article reviews the history of anti-bullying interventions over the last 30 years. It considers several major programmes in detail, such as the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, KiVa, Steps to Respect, and Friendly Schools. The nature and evaluation of the interventions is discussed, followed by a review of meta-analyses of the programmes effectiveness. Issues considered are the effect at different ages; components of interventions; work with peers; disciplinary methods, non-punitive and restorative approaches; challenges regarding cyberbullying; the role of parents; the role of teachers and teacher training; set menu versus à la carte approaches; sustainability of interventions and societal context. Conclusions show that interventions have had some success, with traditional bullying. However, further progress is needed in strengthening theoretical underpinnings to interventions, and in tackling cyberbullying.

  11. Quality of friendships and motivation to change in adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmendier-Muehlschlegel, Anja; Rosewall, Juliet K; Smith, Jared G; Hugo, Pippa; Lask, Bryan

    2016-08-01

    This study explored the relationship between quality of friendships, motivation to change and peer support among young people receiving inpatient treatment for Anorexia Nervosa (AN). Thirty participants were recruited from three inpatient wards. Questionnaires assessed motivational stage, friendship functions and characteristics of friendships specific to AN. Three friendship functions - Help, Intimacy and Self-Validation - were significantly and positively correlated with greater motivational stage. Describing friends on the ward as supportive of adherence to the treatment program was positively associated with greater motivational stage and higher quality friendships. The association between motivation, friendship quality and peer support in treatment identifies close and supportive friendships among young people with AN as a potential target to improve outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Friendship, perceived mattering and happiness: a study of American and Turkish college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Melikşah; Ozen, Ayça; Doğan, Aysun

    2012-01-01

    Although it is well established that friendship is a consistent correlate of happiness, less is known about how friendship experiences might promote happiness. The current investigation addressed this gap by testing a mediational model proposing that perceived mattering explains the association of friendship quality with happiness among college students in Turkey and the United States. An alternative model suggesting friendship quality as the mediator was also tested to enhance confidence in the proposed model. SEM analyses revealed that perceived mattering mediated the association of friendship with happiness only in the American sample. In the Turkish sample, friendship quality mediated the association between mattering and happiness. Findings highlight the importance of cross-cultural research and suggest that the underlying processes and psychological mechanisms related to the friendship-happiness link might be different in different cultures.

  13. The Best Friendships of Shy/Withdrawn Children: Prevalence, Stability, and Relationship Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Kenneth H.; Wojslawowicz, Julie C.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Burgess, Kim B.

    2013-01-01

    The mutual best friendships of shy/withdrawn and control children were examined for prevalence, stability, best friend’s characteristics, and friendship quality. Using peer nominations of shy/socially withdrawn and aggressive behaviors, two groups of children were identified from a normative sample of fifth-grade children: shy/withdrawn (n = 169) and control (nonaggressive/nonwithdrawn; n = 163). Friendship nominations, teacher reports, and friendship quality data were gathered. Results revealed that shy/withdrawn children were as likely as control children to have mutual stable best friendships. Withdrawn children’s friends were more withdrawn and victimized than were the control children’s best friends; further, similarities in social withdrawal and peer victimization were revealed for withdrawn children and their friends. Withdrawn children and their friends reported lower friendship quality than did control children. Results highlight the importance of both quantitative and qualitative measures of friendship when considering relationships as risk and/or protective factors. PMID:16485175

  14. Adolescent health care: improving access by school-based service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, C; Mulligan, D; Kaufman, A; Davis, S; Hunt, K; Kalishman, N; Wallerstein, N

    1985-10-01

    Participants in this discussion of the potential of school-based health care services for adolescents included family medicine physicians, school health coordinators, a school nurse, and a community worker. It was noted that health care for adolescents tends to be either inaccessible or underutilized, largely because of a lack of sensitivity to adolescent culture and values. An ideal service for adolescents would offer immediate services for crises, strict confidentiality, ready access to prescribed medications, a sliding-scale scheme, and a staff that is tolerant of divergent values and life-styles. School-based pilot adolescent clinics have been established by the University of New Mexico's Department of Family, Community, and Emergency Medicine to test the community-oriented health care model. On-site clinics provide urgent medical care, family planning, pregnancy testing, psychological counseling, alcohol and drug counseling, and classroom health education. Experience with these programs has demonstrated the necessity for an alliance among the health team and the school administration, parents, and students. Financial, ethical, and political factors can serve as constraints to school-based programs. In some cases, school administrators have been resistant to the provision of contraception to students on school grounds and parents have been unwilling to accept the adolescent's right to confidentiality. These problems in part stem from having 2 separate systems, each with its own values, orientation, and responsibilities, housed in 1 facility. In addition, there have been problems generating awareness of the school-based clinic among students. Health education theater groups, peer counseling, and student-run community services have been effective, however, in increasing student participation. It has been helpful to mold clinic services to meet the needs identified by teenagers themselves. There is an interest not only in curative services, but in services focused

  15. The Relationship among School Safety, School Liking, and Students' Self-Esteem: Based on a Multilevel Mediation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinghui; Xuan, Xin; Chen, Fumei; Zhang, Cai; Luo, Yuhan; Wang, Yun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Perceptions of school safety have an important effect on students' development. Based on the model of "context-process-outcomes," we examined school safety as a context variable to explore how school safety at the school level affected students' self-esteem. Methods: We used hierarchical linear modeling to examine the link…

  16. Defining Boundaries between School and Work: Teachers and Students' Attribution of Quality to School-Based Vocational Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonasson, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    School-based vocational training has been organised to support students' boundary crossing between school and work. Such training has the potential to engage students in relevant work-oriented schooling. Drawing on theories of boundary connections and symbolic resources, it is argued that school participants define and attribute quality to…

  17. Mini-Enterprise Projects: Friendship, Business and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riese, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses how the mini-enterprise (ME) approach (Young Enterprise) can be understood as a tool for helping to achieve policy goals set for entrepreneurship. Analysis of 12 semi-structured interviews with 17-year-old students shows how social capital from friendship relations constitutes norms for interaction in MEs. To some extent,…

  18. Friendship Otherwise - Toward a Levinasian Description of Personal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    broad contours of his thought before offering a phenomenology of personal friendship in the wake of the limits .... the condition of possibility for life and action. We engage the ..... do not result in a “linking up” or “fusion” between me and my ...

  19. Social Withdrawal, Friendship, and Depressed Mood in Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aleva, A.E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/141299789; van Beek, Y.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/107292300

    2017-01-01

    Social withdrawal in children may develop into a depressed mood in early adolescence , through experiences of problematic peer relationships, while friendship may function as a buffer (Rubin, Coplan, & Bowker, 2009). Our study examines the predictive relation between social withdrawal and depressive

  20. Adolescent Friendship Relations and Developmental Outcomes: Ethnic and Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissink, Inge B.; Dekovic, Maja; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2009-01-01

    The first aim of the present study was to examine associations between different aspects of adolescent friendship relations (i.e., frequency of contact with friends, trust in friends, and perceived friends' deviance) on one hand, and adolescent problem behavior and self-esteem on the other hand. The second aim was to determine whether the findings…

  1. Friendship Otherwise - Toward a Levinasian Description of Personal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hermeneutics seeks to make the alien familiar, and deconstruction seeks to show that the familiar is always (already) alien. As this paper seeks to describe, a Levinasian reading of personal friendship involves both of these movements. In that Levinas, however, never explicitly addresses this relationship, the paper ...

  2. Asymmetry in the Perception of Friendship in Students Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancieri, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Several studies point out the link between sociability and academic results. In this paper, we highlight a phenomenon of asymmetry in the perception of friendship. This occurs when a student think he has more or less friends than he really has. We present an experimental method that allows us to analyze this question in relation with the academic…

  3. Creating Pretence and Sharing Friendship: Modal Expressions in Children's Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyte, Frances; Torr, Jane; Degotardi, Sheila

    2015-01-01

    Friendships and play provide children with opportunities for mutual engagement, which both require and facilitate children's language use. Modality is a semantic system in the language associated with children's learning. One way in which modality is realised is through linguistic expressions which allow speakers to moderate the degree of…

  4. The Strength of Friendship Ties in Proximity Sensor Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sekara, Vedran; Jørgensen, Sune Lehmann

    2014-01-01

    strength parameter to distinguish between observations, we demonstrate that weak links, compared to strong links, have a lower probability of being observed at later times, while such links—on average—also have lower link-weights and probability of sharing an online friendship. Further, the role of link...

  5. NASA Computational Case Study: The Flight of Friendship 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, David G.

    2012-01-01

    In this case study, we learn how to compute the position of an Earth-orbiting spacecraft as a function of time. As an exercise, we compute the position of John Glenn's Mercury spacecraft Friendship 7 as it orbited the Earth during the third flight of NASA's Mercury program.

  6. Camera aboard 'Friendship 7' photographs John Glenn during spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-01-01

    A camera aboard the 'Friendship 7' Mercury spacecraft photographs Astronaut John H. Glenn Jr. during the Mercury-Atlas 6 spaceflight (00302-3); Photographs Glenn as he uses a photometer to view the sun during sunsent on the MA-6 space flight (00304).

  7. Adolescent friendship relations and developmental outcomes: ethnic and gender differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wissink, I.B.; Dekovic, M.; Meijer, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The first aim of the present study was to examine associations between different aspects of adolescent friendship relations (i.e., frequency of contact with friends, trust in friends, and perceived friends' deviance) on one hand, and adolescent problem behavior and self-esteem on the other hand. The

  8. Interracial Friendships in College. NBER Working Paper No. 15970

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Braz; Stinebrickner, Ralph; Stinebrickner, Todd R.

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by the reality that the benefits of diversity on a college campus will be mitigated if interracial interactions are scarce or superficial, previous work has strived to document the amount of interracial friendship interaction and to examine whether policy can influence this amount. In this paper we take advantage of unique longitudinal…

  9. Encouraging Reflection and Critical Friendship in Preservice Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bognar, Branko; Krumes, Irena

    2017-01-01

    Reflectivity is an important professional competence of contemporary teachers. In order to explore how to encourage students' reflection, we conducted a two-year action research project impelling them to become mutual critical friends. For critical friendship communication and other project activities, we utilised Moodle--an online learning…

  10. On irregularity strength of disjoint union of friendship graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ahmad

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the vertex total and edge total modication of the well-known irregularity strength of graphs. We have determined the exact values of the total vertex irregularity strength and the total edge irregularity strength of a disjoint union of friendship graphs.

  11. Engaging with Dementia: Moral Experiments in Art and Friendship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Janelle S

    2017-06-01

    The box-office as well as critical success of the 2014 major motion picture Still Alice, starring Julianne Moore in the title role and based on the bestselling novel of the same name by the Harvard-trained neuroscientist Lisa Genova (Still Alice. Simon & Schuster, New York, 2009), marked an important moment in public cultural representations of people with dementia. Still Alice tells the story of Alice Howland, an eminent scientist whose increasing memory lapses are eventually diagnosed as early-onset Alzheimer's, and chronicles the transformations in her family relationships as her husband and three children respond to her decline in different ways. Alice's husband, her son, and her older daughter all respond by turning toward science, while her younger daughter Lydia seeks to engage her mother as she is now, and turns toward art and relationships. Taking Still Alice and the figure of Lydia as an entry point, I discuss arts-focused efforts to improve the lives of people with dementia, and draw upon ongoing interview-based research on the topic of dementia and friendship, to offer an account of some of the ways that people I have spoken with are actively experimenting with art and with relationships in the face of dementia. I argue that these efforts can be understood as "moral experiements," in the sense articulated by Cheryl Mattingly (Moral Laboratories: Family Peril and the Struggle for a Good Life. University of California Press, Berkeley, 2014). Although Lydia is a fictional character, her response to Alice's dementia points toward the kinds of moral experimentation that are in fact possible, and quietly being practiced, by ordinary people every day.

  12. Horizontal schools-based health programme in rural Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogie, James; Eder, Ben; Magnus, Dan; Amonje, Onguko David; Gant, Martina

    2017-09-01

    Primary school children in low-income countries are at risk of many diseases and poor health affects attendance, cognition and ability to learn. Developing school health and nutrition strategies has been extensively highlighted as a global priority, with a particular focus on complex programme design. However, such programmes are relatively untested in low-income settings. We implemented a complex school health and nutrition programme in two schools in Western Kenya over 3 years. There were numerous elements covering health policy, skills-based health education, infrastructure and disease prevention. A local non-governmental organisation, with involvement from local government and the community, performed programme implementation. Height-for-age, weight-for-age,height-for-weight, anaemia prevalence, academic performance and school attendance were the primary outcome measures. The programme improved nutrition, academic performance and anaemia prevalence. The number of underweight children fell from 20% to 11% (OR 0.51 95% CI 0.39 to 0.68 p=effect on school attendance, the reasons for which are unclear. These results are encouraging and demonstrate that complex schools health programmes can lead to positive gains in health, nutrition and importantly academic performance. There is a need for further evaluation of comprehensive school health interventions in poor communities. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. The research landscape of school-based sexuality education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roien, Line Anne; Graugaard, Christian; Simovska, Venka

    2018-01-01

    pupils 6 to 12 years of age. Design/methodology/approach - The paper draws upon the methodology of systematic research mapping and presents a broad overview of research on sexuality education in a school setting for pupils aged 6-16. We searched the leading bibliographic databases in the field, i...... a rare, if not the first, comprehensive overview of research on school-based sexuality education including a focus on school children 6 to 12 years of age.......Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to map and discuss the overall characteristics of international research on school-based sexuality education, published in academic journals, with a particular focus on the framing of non-conservative approaches including sex education research targeting...

  14. Fictive kinship as it mediates learning, resiliency, perseverance, and social learning of inner-city high school students of color in a college physics class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexakos, Konstantinos; Jones, Jayson K.; Rodriguez, Victor H.

    2011-12-01

    In this hermeneutic study we explore how fictive kinship (kin-like close personal friendship) amongst high school students of color mediated their resiliency, perseverance, and success in a college physics class. These freely chosen, processual friendships were based on emotional and material support, motivation, and caring for each other, as well as trust, common interests, and goals. Such close bonds contributed in creating a safe and supportive emotional space and allowed for friendly, cooperative competition within the physics classroom. Friends became the role models, source of support, and motivation for the fictive kinship group as well as for each other, as the group became the role model, source of support, and motivation for the individuals in it. Because of their friendships with one another, physics talk was extended and made part of their personal interactions outside the classroom. These social relationships and safe spaces helped the students cope and persevere despite their initial conflicting expectations of their success in physics. Our research thus expands on the concept of social learning by exploring student friendships and how they frame and mediate such a process.

  15. School-based sleep education program improves sleep and academic performance of school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Reut; Somerville, Gail; Bergmame, Lana; Fontil, Laura; Paquin, Soukaina

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based sleep education program aimed at improving the sleep and academic performance of school-age children. Using a community-based participatory research approach, we created a school-based sleep education program, "Sleep for Success"™ (SFS), composed of four distinct modules that addressed the children, their family and community, the school staff, and decision makers within the school setting. Implementation was carried out in three elementary schools. Seventy-one students participated in the evaluation of the program. The effectiveness of the SFS program was evaluated using non-randomized controlled before-and-after study groups (intervention and control) assessed over two time points (pre- and post-program implementation). Before (baseline) and after implementation, sleep and academic performance were measured using actigraphy and report card marks, respectively. In the intervention group, true sleep was extended by 18.2 min per night, sleep efficiency improved by 2.3%, and sleep latency was shortened by 2.3 min, and report card grades in mathematics and English improved significantly. No changes were noted in the control group. Participation in the sleep education program was associated with significant improvements in children's sleep and academic performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Role of Inflexible Friendship Beliefs, Rumination, and Low Self-Worth in Early Adolescents' Friendship Jealousy and Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavallee, Kristen L.; Parker, Jeffrey G.

    2009-01-01

    Two focal social cognitive processes were evaluated in a structural model for their direct and indirect roles in early adolescents' jealousy surrounding their closest friend in a sample of 325 early adolescents (169 girls and 156 boys) ages 11-14 years. Individuals who are rigid and unrealistic about meeting their friendship needs were more…

  17. Associations between Aspects of Friendship Networks, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behaviour among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Gavin R.; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Blackstaffe, Anita; Perry, Rosemary; Hawe, Penelope

    2014-01-01

    Background. Adolescent friendships have been linked to physical activity levels; however, network characteristics have not been broadly examined. Method. In a cross-sectional analysis of 1061 adolescents (11–15 years), achieving 60 minutes/day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and participating in over 2 hours/day of sedentary behaviour were determined based on friendship network characteristics (density; proportion of active/sedentary friends; betweenness centrality; popularity; clique membership) and perceived social support. Results. Adolescents with no friendship nominations participated in less MVPA. For boys and girls, a ten percent point increase in active friends was positively associated with achievement of 60 minutes/day of MVPA (OR 1.11; 95% CI 1.02–1.21, OR 1.14; 95% CI 1.02–1.27, resp.). For boys, higher social support from friends was negatively associated with achieving 60 minutes/day of MVPA (OR 0.63; 95% CI 0.42–0.96). Compared with low density networks, boys in higher density networks were more likely to participate in over 2 hours/day of sedentary behaviour (OR 2.93; 95% CI 1.32–6.49). Social support from friends also modified associations between network characteristics and MVPA and sedentary behaviour. Conclusion. Different network characteristics appeared to have different consequences. The proportion of active close friends was associated with MVPA, while network density was associated with sedentary behaviour. This poses challenges for intervention design. PMID:25328690

  18. Associations between Aspects of Friendship Networks, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behaviour among Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keri Jo Sawka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adolescent friendships have been linked to physical activity levels; however, network characteristics have not been broadly examined. Method. In a cross-sectional analysis of 1061 adolescents (11–15 years, achieving 60 minutes/day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA and participating in over 2 hours/day of sedentary behaviour were determined based on friendship network characteristics (density; proportion of active/sedentary friends; betweenness centrality; popularity; clique membership and perceived social support. Results. Adolescents with no friendship nominations participated in less MVPA. For boys and girls, a ten percent point increase in active friends was positively associated with achievement of 60 minutes/day of MVPA (OR 1.11; 95% CI 1.02–1.21, OR 1.14; 95% CI 1.02–1.27, resp.. For boys, higher social support from friends was negatively associated with achieving 60 minutes/day of MVPA (OR 0.63; 95% CI 0.42–0.96. Compared with low density networks, boys in higher density networks were more likely to participate in over 2 hours/day of sedentary behaviour (OR 2.93; 95% CI 1.32–6.49. Social support from friends also modified associations between network characteristics and MVPA and sedentary behaviour. Conclusion. Different network characteristics appeared to have different consequences. The proportion of active close friends was associated with MVPA, while network density was associated with sedentary behaviour. This poses challenges for intervention design.

  19. Site-Based Management in Education: Rochester City School District Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Alan

    This paper describes outcomes of a partnership between the Rochester City School District (New York) and the Kodak 21st Century Learning Challenge consulting program for improving school-based planning team (S-BPT) operations. The purpose of the school-based planning team is to involve the entire school community in improving school effectiveness.…

  20. Temporal associations of popularity and alcohol use among middle school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Joan S; Miles, Jeremy N V; D'Amico, Elizabeth J; Zhou, Annie J; Green, Harold D; Shih, Regina A

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study is to better understand the longitudinal cross-lagged associations between popularity, assessed through self-rating and peer nominations, and alcohol use among middle school students. The analytical sample comprises 1,835 sixth- to eighth-grade students who were initially recruited from three California middle schools and surveyed in the fall and spring semesters of 2 academic years. Students reported on their background characteristics, past-month alcohol use, and perceived popularity. Additionally, students provided school-based friendship nominations, which were used to calculate peer-nominated popularity. A cross-lagged regression approach within a structural equation modeling framework was used to examine the longitudinal relationship between popularity (self-rated and peer-nominated) and alcohol use. There was a statistically significant (p = .024) association between peer-nominated popularity and the probability of alcohol consumption at the subsequent survey, but not vice versa. Our results suggest that in a scenario where 8% of students are past-month drinkers, each increase of five friendship nominations is associated with a 30% greater risk of being a current drinker at the next wave. We found no evidence of longitudinal associations between past-month alcohol consumption and self-rated popularity. Popularity is a risk factor for drinking during the middle school years, with peer-nominated popularity being more predictive of use than self-perceptions of popularity. To inform alcohol prevention efforts for middle school students, additional research is needed to better understand why adolescents with a larger number of school-based friendship ties are more inclined to drink. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Amizades internacionais de universitários brasileiros: um estudo exploratório International friendships of Brazilian college students: an exploratory investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnaldo Garcia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Amizades internacionais, entre pessoas de diferentes nacionalidades e culturas, ainda são pouco conhecidas. Este artigo investigou as amizades internacionais de estudantes universitários brasileiros utilizando um questionário contendo questões fechadas e abertas, com a participação de 120 universitários de ambos os sexos. Foram investigados: a rede internacional de amigos, a comunicação com esses amigos, início, interesses comuns e dificuldades nas amizades e a relação com o país do amigo. Ao todo foram citados 331 amigos de 59 países. Estas amizades geralmente se iniciaram por contato pessoal e eram mantidas pela Internet. Os dados foram discutidos à luz das propostas de Robert Hinde. Sugere-se a possibilidade das amizades internacionais servirem de base para a ampliação da cooperação cultural e científica entre diferentes países.International friendships involving individuals from different nations and cultures have not been widely investigated. This paper investigated the international friendships of Brazilian college students with the participation of 120 students, 46 males and 74 females, who answered a questionnaire with open and closed questions on international friends network, communication with friends, friendship beginnings, shared interests and difficulties in friendships and the perception of the friend's country. In sum, 331 friends from 59 countries have been mentioned. Friendships usually started by personal contact but they were maintained by Internet. The theoretical framework proposed by Hinde was used to discuss and interpret data. It is suggested that international friendships should serve as basis for fostering cultural and scientific cooperation among countries.

  2. Deterrence's Element of Sanction Certainty: Friendships, Vicarious Experiences, and Underage Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowen, Thomas J; Boman, John H

    2018-01-09

    Underage drinking remains a pressing issue on college campuses across the United States. Though the most common form of addressing underage alcohol use on campuses is through deterrence-based policies, evidence suggests deterrence-based methods are ineffective and may produce negative outcomes. Using dyadic data, the objective of this study is to use a friendship-informed perspective on deterrence theory to examine how an individual's and his/her friend's perceptions of sanction certainty relate to self-reported underage alcohol use. Using multilevel mixed models which fall under the actor-partner interdependence modeling class, results demonstrate that respondents who perceive high levels of sanction certainty drink and heavily use alcohol more frequently than those who perceive low levels of sanction certainty. Additionally, those who have friends who perceive high levels of sanction certainty tend to drink at young ages significantly more frequently and in more dangerous patterns than those who have friends who perceive a low sanction certainty. The dyad members' levels of sanction certainty do not interact in relation to alcohol use. The significant relationships of the friends' sanction certainty support the notion of friendship-based deterrence. However, the consistent positive direction of all sanction certainty measures is the opposite of what deterrence theory hypothesizes. As such, it appears that deterrence is not only ineffective at stopping underage alcohol use on college campuses, but may be harmful due to increased rates of both drinking and high-risk drinking.

  3. Jean-Léon Gérôme and Stanisław Chlebowski: The Story of a Friendship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wójcik, Agata

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to present the story of the relationship between Jean-Léon Gérôme and Stanisław Chlebowski. The reconstruction of their friendship is partly based on yet unpublished source materials on the life and work of Chlebowski. The artists met in the early 1860s. Their acquaintance became closer in 1875 when Gérôme stayed in Istanbul at Chlebowski's house. When Chlebowski moved to France, Gérôme introduced him to the French artistic circles, offered him advice and suggested themes for his work. Their relationship was interrupted by Chlebowski's disease and his return to Poland. The last note of this friendship was the short story by Léontine de Nittis, published in 1892.

  4. Implementation of school based physical activity interventions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Patti-Jean; Nettlefold, Lindsay; Race, Douglas; Hoy, Christa; Ashe, Maureen C; Wharf Higgins, Joan; McKay, Heather A

    2015-03-01

    Implementation science is an emerging area in physical activity (PA) research. We sought to establish the current state of the evidence related to implementation of school-based PA models to explore 1) the relationship between implementation and health outcomes, and 2) factors that influence implementation. We searched 7 electronic databases (1995-2014) and included controlled studies of school-based PA programmes for healthy youth (6-18 y) measuring at least one physical health-related outcome. For objective 1, studies linked implementation level to student-level health outcome(s). For objective 2, studies reported factors associated with implementation. There was substantial variability in how health outcomes and implementation were assessed. Few studies linked implementation and health outcomes (n=15 interventions). Most (11/15) reported a positive relationship between implementation and at least one health outcome. Implementation factors were reported in 29 interventions. Of 22 unique categories, time was the most prevalent influencing factor followed by resource availability/quality and supportive school climate. Implementation evaluation supports scale-up of effective school-based PA interventions and thus population-level change. Our review serves as a call to action to 1) address the link between implementation and outcome within the school-based PA literature and 2) improve and standardize definitions and measurement of implementation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The dual role of friendship and antipathy relations in the marginalization of overweight children in their peer networks : The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de la Haye, Kayla; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Lubbers, Miranda J.; van Rijsewijk, Loes; Stolk, Ronald

    2017-01-01

    Weight-based stigma compromises the social networks of overweight children. To date, research on the position of overweight children in their peer network has focused only on friendship relations, and not on negative relationship dimensions. This study examined how overweight was associated with

  6. The Moderating Role of Popular Peers' Achievement Goals in 5th- and 6th-Graders' Achievement-Related Friendships: A Social Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laninga-Wijnen, Lydia; Ryan, Allison M.; Harakeh, Zeena; Shin, Huiyoung; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.

    2018-01-01

    This research investigated whether classroom-based peer norms for achievement goals moderate friendship selection, maintenance and influence processes related to academic achievement in 46 Grade 5 and Grade 6 classrooms (N = 901, 58.7% Grade 5 students, 48.5% boys). A distinction was made between peer norms for mastery (i.e., developing…

  7. Friendships and Fellowship: Living koinonia, martyria and diakonia in the Corinthian Church of South Africa – from the perspective of social capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Mbaya

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I argued that the rituals of baptism, After–burial ritual cleansing ceremonies, and the burning of the heifer [isitshisa], performed by members of the Corinthians Church of South Africa based in Durban and Phepheni, near Kokstad, generate friendships and fellowship [koinonia], and that these in turn promote witness [martyria] and service [diakonia] to the community.

  8. The Moderating Role of Popular Peers’ Achievement Goals in 5th- and 6th- graders Achievement-related Friendships : A Social Network Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnen, A.M.; Ryan, Allison; Harakeh, Z.; Shin, Huiyoung; Vollebergh, W.A.M.

    This research investigated whether classroom-based peer norms for achievement goals moderate friendship selection, maintenance and influence processes related to academic achievement in 46 5th and 6th grade classrooms (N = 901, 58.7% 5th grade students, 48.5% boys). A distinction was made between

  9. Biology Factual Knowledge at Eleventh Grade of Senior High School Students in Pacitan based on Favorite Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yustiana, I. A.; Paidi; Mercuriani, I. S.

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the Biology factual knowledge at eleventh grade of senior high school students in Pacitan based on favorite schools. This research was a descriptive research by using survey method. The population in this study was all of senior high school students in Pacitan. The sampling technique used purposive sampling technique and obtained 3 favorite schools and 3 non-favorite schools. The technique of collecting data used test form which was as the instrument of the research. Data analysis technique used Mann-Whitney U test. Based on the test, it was obtained p = 0,000 (p <0,05) so there was a significant difference between the factual knowledge of the students in the favorite schools and non-favorite schools in Pacitan. The factual knowledge of students in favorite schools was higher with an average of 5.32 while non-favorite schools were obtained an average of 4.36.

  10. Support for school-based obesity prevention efforts: attitudes among administrators at nationally representative samples of US elementary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Lindsey; Slater, Sandy J; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2013-08-01

    With the continued threat of childhood obesity, many public health intervention efforts focus on school settings. The current study sought to document administrator attitudes regarding obesity and interest in improving relevant school practices (i.e., nutrition and physical activity) in elementary schools. Mail-back surveys were used to gather data from public and private elementary schools during the 2006-2007, 2007-2008, 2008-2009, and 2010-2011 school years. In each year, a different set of items pertaining to administrator attitudes was included. Numbers of responding schools annually ranged from 259 to 336 private schools, and from 578 to 748 public schools. The vast majority of elementary school administrators (>90%) agreed that schools can play a role in addressing childhood obesity, physical education improves a variety of academic outcomes, and they were interested in improving practices at their school. Concern about childhood obesity and perceiving that schools can play a role in addressing obesity were both associated with more interest in improving school practices. However, only one-third of administrators agreed that parents were interested in participating in improving nutrition and physical activity practices, suggesting opportunities for efforts to improve collaboration. Administrators are generally very supportive of school-based efforts to improve nutrition and physical activity practices and see the value in doing so. Given the amount of time children spend in school, schools are an essential venue for efforts to address childhood obesity.

  11. Adolescents’ Responses to a School-Based Prevention Program Promoting Healthy Eating at School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roel C. J. Hermans

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundTo improve the effectiveness of school-based programs that aim to promote adolescents’ healthy food choices, it is essential to understand the views and behaviors of the target group. This study aimed to get a better understanding of adolescents’ food and health perceptions and their willingness to be involved in a specific school-based prevention program, i.e., the Dutch “Healthy School Canteen Program.”MethodsThis study used a mixed-methods research design. First, seven semi-structured focus groups were conducted using a selective sample of 42 Dutch adolescents (25 girls, 17 boys, aged 13–16 years. Second, an online survey among 133 adolescent respondents (72 girls, 61 boys, aged 12–19 years using snowball sampling was conducted. Content analysis was performed to make inferences about the focus group discussions, whereas statistical analyses were conducted to analyze the survey data.ResultsFindings from the group discussions indicated that healthy eating was only an issue of importance when adolescents perceived negative physical changes (e.g., with regard to looks or physical performance. Adolescents also indicated that they clearly wanted to make their own food and beverage choices at school. The quantitative data indicated that taste, price, and variety were seen as the most important aspects of a healthy food assortment (mean scores 8.1, 7.8, and 7.7 on a 10-point scale, respectively. In general, a majority of the adolescents (64% expressed that students should be involved in the organization of a healthy food environment in schools. At the same time, however, adolescents were not willing to participate themselves. This was mostly because they were skeptical about their ideas being heard and put into action by their schools.ConclusionSchool-based prevention programs, such as the Healthy School Program, should take into account that adolescents have a low risk perception of unhealthy eating and are seeking food

  12. School-based violence prevention strategy: a pilot evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakore, Rachel V; Apfeld, Jordan C; Johnson, Ronald K; Sathiyakumar, Vasanth; Jahangir, A Alex; Sethi, Manish K

    2015-07-01

    Violence has recently been reported among a primarily young, minority population in Nashville, Tennessee. School-based programs have been proven as effective methods of reducing violent behavior, beliefs, and actions that lead to violence among adolescents. Investigators implemented a rigorous search for an appropriate school-based violence prevention program for Metropolitan Nashville middle school students utilizing a systematic review and discussion group with victims of violence. 27 programs nation-wide were reviewed and 2 discussion groups with African American males under the age of 25 admitted to a level 1 trauma center for assault-related injuries were conducted. Our findings led to a single, evidence-based conflict resolution program. In conjunction with educators, we evaluated the program's effectiveness in a pilot study in a Nashville middle school with high rates of violence. 122 students completed the conflict resolution program and described their behavior and experiences with violence in a pre-test/post-test self-rate questionnaire. Results showed a significant decrease in violent behavior and an increase in students' competencies to deal with violence (p less than 0.05). This study shows that a reduction in violent behavior and beliefs among middle school students can be achieved through the implementation of a targeted violence intervention program. A larger-scale intervention is needed to develop more conclusive evidence of effectiveness. © 2015 KUMS, All rights reserved.

  13. Social Network Implications of Normative School Transitions in Non-Urban School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temkin, Deborah A.; Gest, Scott D.; Osgood, D. Wayne; Feinberg, Mark; Moody, James

    2018-01-01

    This article expands research on normative school transitions (NSTs) from elementary to middle school or middle to high school by examining the extent to which they disrupt structures of friendship networks. Social network analysis is used to quantify aspects of connectedness likely relevant to student experiences of social support. Data were…

  14. Early involvement in friendships predicts later plasma concentrations of oxytocin and vasopressin in juvenile rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Aliza Rachel Weinstein

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The neuropeptides oxytocin (OT and vasopressin (AVP are involved in social bonding in attachment relationships, but their role in friendship is poorly understood. We investigated whether rhesus macaques’ (Macaca mulatta friendships at age one predicted plasma OT and AVP at two later time points. Subjects were 54 rhesus macaques at the California National Primate Research Center. Blood was drawn during a brief capture-and-release in the home cage, and plasma assayed for OT and AVP using an enzyme immunoassay. Separate linear mixed models for each sex tested the effects of dominance rank, age, sampling time point, housing condition, parturition status, two blood draw timing measures, and five friendship types: proximity friendships, play friendships, reciprocal friendships (a preference for a peer that also preferred the subject, multiplex friendships (friendships displayed in more than one behavioral domain, and total number of friendships. Females’ number of reciprocal and play friendships at age one significantly predicted later OT; additionally, these two friendship types interacted with rank, such that high-ranking females with the fewest friendships had the highest OT concentrations. Friendship did not predict later OT levels in males, however proximity, play, reciprocal, and total number of friendships predicted males’ plasma AVP. Play and total number of friendships also tended to predict AVP in females. Our results show that peripheral measures of neuroendocrine functioning in juvenile rhesus monkeys are influenced by early involvement in friendships. Friendships have an especially strong impact on an individual’s psychosocial development, and our data suggest OT and AVP as potential underlying mechanisms. Moreover, sex differences in the functioning of the OT and AVP systems, and their relation to friendship, may have important clinical implications for the use of OT as a therapeutic, as well as informing the social context in

  15. Perceptions of intimacy and friendship reciprocity moderate peer influence on aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meter, Diana J; Casper, Deborah M; Card, Noel A

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that close friends' influence can exacerbate adolescents' aggressive behavior, but results of studies which examine whether friendships of greater or lesser qualities moderate peer influence effects are inconsistent. The present study tested whether the perception of the positive friendship quality of intimate exchange and friendship reciprocity moderated best friend influence on participant aggression over time. The 243 participants were approximately 12 years old and ethnically diverse. Neither intimate exchange nor reciprocity significantly moderated friend influence on aggression in a simple way, but the interaction of intimate exchange and friendship reciprocity predicted peer influence on participants' aggression over time. Specifically, highly intimate, nonreciprocal best friendships and less intimate, reciprocal best friendships showed greatest influence when friends' proportion of peer nominations for aggression was high. Reciprocity and intimacy should be considered when predicting peer influence on aggression. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Music Preferences, Friendship, and Externalizing Behavior in Early Adolescence: A SIENA Examination of the Music Marker Theory Using the SNARE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, Aart; Keijsers, Loes; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Ter Bogt, Tom

    2017-08-01

    Music Marker Theory posits that music is relevant for the structuring of peer groups and that rock, urban, or dance music preferences relate to externalizing behavior. The present study tested these hypotheses, by investigating the role of music preference similarity in friendship selection and the development of externalizing behavior, while taking the effects of friends' externalizing behavior into account. Data were used from the first three waves of the SNARE (Social Network Analysis of Risk behavior in Early adolescence) study (N = 1144; 50% boys; M age  = 12.7; SD = 0.47), including students who entered the first-year of secondary school. Two hypotheses were tested. First, adolescents were expected to select friends based both on a similarity in externalizing behavior and music genre preference. Second, a preference for rock, urban, or dance, music types was expected to predict the development of externalizing behavior, even when taking friends' influence on externalizing behavior into account. Stochastic Actor-Based Modeling indicated that adolescents select their friends based on both externalizing behavior and highbrow music preference. Moreover, both friends' externalizing behavior and a preference for dance music predicted the development of externalizing behavior. Intervention programs might focus on adolescents with dance music preferences.

  17. Sleep, School Performance, and a School-Based Intervention among School-Aged Children: A Sleep Series Study in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shenghui; Arguelles, Lester; Jiang, Fan; Chen, Wenjuan; Jin, Xingming; Yan, Chonghuai; Tian, Ying; Hong, Xiumei; Qian, Ceng; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Xiaobin; Shen, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    Background Sufficient sleep during childhood is essential to ensure a transition into a healthy adulthood. However, chronic sleep loss continues to increase worldwide. In this context, it is imperative to make sleep a high-priority and take action to promote sleep health among children. The present series of studies aimed to shed light on sleep patterns, on the longitudinal association of sleep with school performance, and on practical intervention strategy for Chinese school-aged children. Methods and Findings A serial sleep researches, including a national cross-sectional survey, a prospective cohort study, and a school-based sleep intervention, were conducted in China from November 2005 through December 2009. The national cross-sectional survey was conducted in 8 cities and a random sample of 20,778 children aged 9.0±1.61 years participated in the survey. The five-year prospective cohort study included 612 children aged 6.8±0.31 years. The comparative cross-sectional study (baseline: n = 525, aged 10.80±0.41; post-intervention follow-up: n = 553, aged 10.81±0.33) was undertaken in 6 primary schools in Shanghai. A battery of parent and teacher reported questionnaires were used to collect information on children’s sleep behaviors, school performance, and sociodemographic characteristics. The mean sleep duration was 9.35±0.77 hours. The prevalence of daytime sleepiness was 64.4% (sometimes: 37.50%; frequently: 26.94%). Daytime sleepiness was significantly associated with impaired attention, learning motivation, and particularly, academic achievement. By contrast, short sleep duration only related to impaired academic achievement. After delaying school start time 30 minutes and 60 minutes, respectively, sleep duration correspondingly increased by 15.6 minutes and 22.8 minutes, respectively. Moreover, intervention significantly improved the sleep duration and daytime sleepiness. Conclusions Insufficient sleep and daytime sleepiness commonly existed and

  18. Sleep, school performance, and a school-based intervention among school-aged children: a sleep series study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shenghui; Arguelles, Lester; Jiang, Fan; Chen, Wenjuan; Jin, Xingming; Yan, Chonghuai; Tian, Ying; Hong, Xiumei; Qian, Ceng; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Xiaobin; Shen, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    Sufficient sleep during childhood is essential to ensure a transition into a healthy adulthood. However, chronic sleep loss continues to increase worldwide. In this context, it is imperative to make sleep a high-priority and take action to promote sleep health among children. The present series of studies aimed to shed light on sleep patterns, on the longitudinal association of sleep with school performance, and on practical intervention strategy for Chinese school-aged children. A serial sleep researches, including a national cross-sectional survey, a prospective cohort study, and a school-based sleep intervention, were conducted in China from November 2005 through December 2009. The national cross-sectional survey was conducted in 8 cities and a random sample of 20,778 children aged 9.0±1.61 years participated in the survey. The five-year prospective cohort study included 612 children aged 6.8±0.31 years. The comparative cross-sectional study (baseline: n = 525, aged 10.80±0.41; post-intervention follow-up: n = 553, aged 10.81±0.33) was undertaken in 6 primary schools in Shanghai. A battery of parent and teacher reported questionnaires were used to collect information on children's sleep behaviors, school performance, and sociodemographic characteristics. The mean sleep duration was 9.35±0.77 hours. The prevalence of daytime sleepiness was 64.4% (sometimes: 37.50%; frequently: 26.94%). Daytime sleepiness was significantly associated with impaired attention, learning motivation, and particularly, academic achievement. By contrast, short sleep duration only related to impaired academic achievement. After delaying school start time 30 minutes and 60 minutes, respectively, sleep duration correspondingly increased by 15.6 minutes and 22.8 minutes, respectively. Moreover, intervention significantly improved the sleep duration and daytime sleepiness. Insufficient sleep and daytime sleepiness commonly existed and positively associated with the impairment of

  19. Sleep, school performance, and a school-based intervention among school-aged children: a sleep series study in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenghui Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sufficient sleep during childhood is essential to ensure a transition into a healthy adulthood. However, chronic sleep loss continues to increase worldwide. In this context, it is imperative to make sleep a high-priority and take action to promote sleep health among children. The present series of studies aimed to shed light on sleep patterns, on the longitudinal association of sleep with school performance, and on practical intervention strategy for Chinese school-aged children. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A serial sleep researches, including a national cross-sectional survey, a prospective cohort study, and a school-based sleep intervention, were conducted in China from November 2005 through December 2009. The national cross-sectional survey was conducted in 8 cities and a random sample of 20,778 children aged 9.0±1.61 years participated in the survey. The five-year prospective cohort study included 612 children aged 6.8±0.31 years. The comparative cross-sectional study (baseline: n = 525, aged 10.80±0.41; post-intervention follow-up: n = 553, aged 10.81±0.33 was undertaken in 6 primary schools in Shanghai. A battery of parent and teacher reported questionnaires were used to collect information on children's sleep behaviors, school performance, and sociodemographic characteristics. The mean sleep duration was 9.35±0.77 hours. The prevalence of daytime sleepiness was 64.4% (sometimes: 37.50%; frequently: 26.94%. Daytime sleepiness was significantly associated with impaired attention, learning motivation, and particularly, academic achievement. By contrast, short sleep duration only related to impaired academic achievement. After delaying school start time 30 minutes and 60 minutes, respectively, sleep duration correspondingly increased by 15.6 minutes and 22.8 minutes, respectively. Moreover, intervention significantly improved the sleep duration and daytime sleepiness. CONCLUSIONS: Insufficient sleep and daytime sleepiness

  20. Joint physical custody and neighborhood friendships in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prazen, Ariana; Wolfinger, Nicholas H; Cahill, Caitlin; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori

    2011-01-01

    Almost half of first marriages end in divorce, which in turn may produce joint physical custody arrangements. Seen by many states to be in the best interest of the child, joint physical custody is increasingly common. Yet much is unknown about its consequences for children. This article considers how joint physical custody arrangements affect children’s neighborhood friendships, an important component of child well-being because of their contributions to social and cognitive development. Thirteen parents and 17 children (aged 5–11) in 10 families, selected via convenience and snowball sampling, participated in semistructured interviews. The findings suggest that joint physical custody arrangements do not imperil children’s neighborhood friendships; indeed, most children and parents interviewed voiced contentment in this area.

  1. Graphs cospectral with a friendship graph or its complement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Abdollahi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Let $n$ be any positive integer and let $F_n$ be the friendship (or Dutch windmill graph with $2n+1$ vertices and $3n$ edges. Here we study graphs with the same adjacency spectrum as the $F_n$. Two graphs are called cospectral if the eigenvalues multiset of their adjacency matrices are the same. Let $G$ be a graph cospectral with $F_n$. Here we prove that if $G$ has no cycle of length $4$ or $5$, then $Gcong F_n$. Moreover if $G$ is connected and planar then $Gcong F_n$.All but one of connected components of $G$ are isomorphic to $K_2$.The complement $overline{F_n}$ of the friendship graph is determined by its adjacency eigenvalues, that is, if $overline{F_n}$ is cospectral with a graph $H$, then $Hcong overline{F_n}$.

  2. A Powerful Friendship: Theodore von Karman and Hugh L. Dryden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorn, Michael

    2003-01-01

    During their long personal friendship and professional association, Theodore von Karman (1882-1963) and Hugh L. Dryden (1898-1965) exercised a pivotal if somewhat elusive influence over American aeronautics and spaceflight. Both decisive figures in organizing scientists and engineers at home and abroad, both men of undisputed eminence in their technical fields, their range of contacts in government, academia, the armed forces, industry, and professional societies spanned the globe to an extent unparalleled then as now. Moreover, because they coordinated their activities closely, their combined influence far exceeded the sum of each one s individual contributions. This paper illustrates their personal origins as well as the foundations of their friendship, how their relationship became a professional alliance, and their joint impact on the world of aeronautics and astronautics during the twentieth century.

  3. Model-Based Learning Environment Based on The Concept IPS School-Based Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Darmadi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The results showed: (1 learning model IPS-oriented environment can grow and not you love the cultural values of the area as a basis for the development of national culture, (2 community participation, and the role of government in implementing learning model of IPS-based environment provides a positive impact for the improvement of management school resources, (3 learning model IPS-based environment effectively creating a way of life together peacefully, increase the intensity of togetherness and mutual respect (4 learning model IPS-based environment can improve student learning outcomes, (5 there are differences in the expression of attitudes and results learning among students who are located in the area of conflict with students who are outside the area of conflict (6 analysis of the scale of attitudes among school students da SMA result rewards high school students to the values of unity and nation, respect for diversity and peaceful coexistence, It is recommended that the Department of Education authority as an institution of Trustees and the development of social and cultural values in the province can apply IPS learning model based environments.

  4. Evaluating a School-Based Day Treatment Program for Students with Challenging Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Antoine Lewis

    2014-01-01

    Jade County Public Schools has provided school-based therapeutic day treatment in its public schools for more than 10 years. This program was adopted by the school system to provide an intervention in the school and classroom to address the challenging behaviors of students with emotional and behavioral disorders. Currently, three human services…

  5. Understanding game-based literacy practices in a school context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bremholm, Jesper; Brok, Lene Storgaard

    methodology, and the interventions will be carried out at 20 schools in Denmark and will consist of 4 specially designed game-based units in each of the subjects Danish (as L1), mathematics, and science in both 5th and 7th grade. Games include digital as well as analogue games, and we understand game...... in the 21st Century (GBL21), a five years large-scale intervention project launched in December 2017. The overall aim is to explore how and to what degree students develop 21st century skills through a game-based pedagogy in different school subjects. The GBL21 project is based on a mixed methods......-based learning as relating to the process of designing games, exploring game worlds, and reflecting on game activities in an educational context. The purpose of the qualitative strand is to explore how the game-based learning activities influence the literacy practices in the different classrooms. This includes...

  6. Friendship Selection and Influence Processes for Physical Aggression and Prosociality: Differences between Single-Sex and Mixed-Sex Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Berger, Christian

    2018-01-01

    The present study examined to what extent selection and influence processes for physical aggression and prosociality in friendship networks differed between sex-specific contexts (i.e., all-male, all-female, and mixed-sex classrooms), while controlling for perceived popularity. Whereas selection processes reflect how behaviors shape friendships, influence processes reveal the reversed pattern by indicating how friends affect individual behaviors. Data were derived from a longitudinal sample of early adolescents from Chile. Four all-male classrooms ( n  = 150 male adolescents), four all-female classrooms ( n  = 190 female adolescents), and eight mixed-sex classrooms ( n  = 272 students) were followed one year from grades 5 to 6 ( M age  = 13). Analyses were conducted by means of stochastic-actor-based modeling as implemented in RSIENA. Although it was expected that selection and influence effects for physical aggression and prosociality would vary by context, these effects showed remarkably similar trends across all-male, all-female, and mixed-sex classrooms, with physical aggression reducing and with prosociality increasing the number of nominations received as best friend in all-male and particularly all-female classrooms. Further, perceived popularity increased the number of friendship nominations received in all contexts. Influence processes were only found for perceived popularity, but not for physical aggression and prosociality in any of the three contexts. Together, these findings highlight the importance of both behaviors for friendship selection independent of sex-specific contexts, attenuating the implications of these gendered behaviors for peer relations.

  7. Flexible friends? Flexible working time arrangements, blurred work-life boundaries and friendship

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Vivi Bach; Lewis, Suzan

    2012-01-01

    The changing nature and demands of work raise concerns about how workers can find time for activities such as friendship and leisure, which are important for well-being. This article brings friendship into the work-life debate by exploring how individuals do friendship in a period characterised by time dilemmas, blurred work-life boundaries and increased employer- and employee-led flexible working. Interviews with employees selected according to their working time structures were supplemented...

  8. Sixth Conference on China-ASEAN People-to-People Friendship Organizations Held in Bangkok

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>With the theme of "Opportunities and Challenges of China-ASEAN Friendly Cooperation", the Sixth Conference on China-ASEAN People-to-People Friendship Organizations organized by the Thai-Chinese Friendship Association was held in Bangkok August 18 and 19. A delegation of China-ASEAN Association led by its president Gu Xiulian joined about 200 representatives from friendship-with-China organizations in 10 ASEAN countries.

  9. Qualities and Inequalities in Online Social Networks through the Lens of the Generalized Friendship Paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Momeni, Naghmeh; Rabbat, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The friendship paradox is the phenomenon that in social networks, people on average have fewer friends than their friends do. The generalized friendship paradox is an extension to attributes other than the number of friends. The friendship paradox and its generalized version have gathered recent attention due to the information they provide about network structure and local inequalities. In this paper, we propose several measures of nodal qualities which capture different aspects of their act...

  10. Networked Intimacy. Intimacy and Friendship among Italian Facebook users

    OpenAIRE

    Farci, Manolo; Rossi, Luca; Boccia Artieri, Giovanni; Giglietto, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the results of a qualitative study conducted with 120 Italian Facebook users to investigate how Facebook enables people to achieve a mutually constitutive intimacy with their own friendship network: a negotiation of intimacy in public through self-disclosure, where the affordances of the platform are useful to elicit significant reactions, validations and demonstrations of affection from others. We observed that, in order to achieve various levels of intimacy on Fac...

  11. An Alternative Collaborative Supervision Practice between University-Based Teachers and School-Based Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Annfrid R.

    2017-01-01

    There is an increased focus in teacher education on research-based teaching as a means to develop a more research-based professional knowledge. However, research from several Western countries shows that neither school-based nor university-based teachers are familiar with how to integrate research-based knowledge in professional teacher practice.…

  12. Brief Instrumental School-Based Mentoring for Middle School Students: Theory and Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillin, Samuel D.; Lyons, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of an intentionally brief school-based mentoring program. This academic goal-focused mentoring program was developed through a series of iterative randomized controlled trials, and is informed by research in social cognitive theory, cognitive dissonance theory, motivational interviewing, and research in academic…

  13. Adolescents' responses to a school-based prevention program promoting healthy eating at school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, R.C.J.; Bruin, H. de; Larsen, J.K.; Mensink, F.; Hoek, A.C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: To improve the effectiveness of school-based obesity prevention programs, it is essential to understand the views and behaviors of the target group. The present study aimed to get a better understanding of adolescents' food and health perceptions and their willingness to be involved in a

  14. Modernizing Schools in Mexico: The Rise of Teacher Assessment and School-Based Management Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echávarri, Jaime; Peraza, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the evolution of the teacher assessment policy and the origins of school-based management initiatives in the Mexican education context from the late 1980s until the last 2012-2013 Education Reform (RE2012-2013). Mexico joined the Global Education Reform Movement during the 1990s through the National Agreement for the…

  15. Arts-Based School Reform: A Whole School Studies One Painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Georgianna

    2001-01-01

    Describes arts-based, anchored instruction at Fair Arts IMPACT Elementary School (Columbus, Ohio), a five-week program centered around "Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte" (Georges Seurat). Addresses unit objectives such as understanding social climate with respect to race/gender discrimination and examining why people…

  16. School-Based First Aid Training Programs: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveruzzi, Bianca; Buckley, Lisa; Sheehan, Mary

    2016-04-01

    This review examines the breadth of first aid training delivered to school students and the components that are age appropriate to adolescents. Eligible studies included school-based first aid interventions targeting students aged between 10 and 18 years. Online databases were searched, for peer-reviewed publications available as at August 2014. A total of 20 journal articles were relevant to the review. Research supported programs with longer durations (3 hours or more). Most programs taught resuscitation alone and few included content that was context-specific and relevant to the target group. The training experience of the facilitator did not appear to impact on student outcomes. Incorporating both practical and didactic components was found to be an important factor in delivering material and facilitating the retention of knowledge. Educational resources and facilitator training were found to be common features of effective programs. The review supports first aid in school curriculum and provides details of key components pertinent to design of school-based first aid programs. The findings suggest that first aid training may have benefits wider than the uptake and retention of knowledge and skills. There is a need for future research, particularly randomized controlled trials to aid in identifying best practice approaches. © 2016, American School Health Association.

  17. A School-Based Suicide Risk Assessment Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccio, Dana E.

    2015-01-01

    Suicide remains the third leading cause of death among young people in the United States. Considering that youth who contemplate suicide generally exhibit warning signs before engaging in lethal self-harm, school-based mental health professionals can play a vital role in identifying students who are at risk for suicidal behavior. Nevertheless, the…

  18. A Renewed Focus on Strengths-Based Assessment in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climie, Emma; Henley, Laura

    2016-01-01

    School-based practitioners are often called upon to provide assessment and recommendations for struggling students. These assessments often open doors to specialised services or interventions and provide opportunities for students to build competencies in areas of need. However, these assessments often fail to highlight the abilities of these…

  19. An Innovative School-Based Intervention to Promote Healthy Lifestyles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piana, Natalia; Ranucci, Claudia; Buratta, Livia; Foglia, Elena; Fabi, Marta; Novelli, Francesca; Casucci, Simone; Reginato, Elisa; Pippi, Roberto; Aiello, Cristina; Leonardi, Alessia; Romani, Giannermete; De Feo, Pierpaolo; Mazzeschi, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To describe an innovative school-based intervention to promote healthy lifestyles. To evaluate its effects on children's food habits and to highlight the key components which contribute most to the beneficial effects obtained from children's, teachers' and parents' perspectives. Design: An educational tool to improve personal awareness,…

  20. Evidence-Based Secondary Transition Practices for Enhancing School Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Test, David W.; Fowler, Catherine H.; White, James; Richter, Sharon; Walker, Allison

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 28% of students with disabilities do not complete high school (National Longitudinal Transition Study-2, 2005). This increases the likelihood that these students will experience low wages, high rates of incarceration, and limited access to postsecondary education. This article reviews evidence-based secondary transition practices…

  1. Emotional Regulation: Considerations for School-Based Group Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustyniak, Kristine M.; Brooks, Morgan; Rinaldo, Vincent J.; Bogner, Roselind; Hodges, Shannon

    2009-01-01

    School-based professionals have entered the 21st century with a heightened call to address the emotional and behavioral concerns of youth. While cognitive-behavioral therapies and psychoeducational groups have demonstrated moderate effects with children and adolescents, there is little available research to assist clinicians in refining treatments…

  2. Attitude of teachers to school based adolescent reproductive health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adults may facilitate or obstruct healthy sexual behaviours by adolescents; hence information on their attitude towards adolescent sexual behaviour, including contraceptive use is important. The attitude of teachers to school-based adolescent reproductive health services was assessed among two hundred and twenty three ...

  3. Crisis Intervention Strategies for School-Based Helpers. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Thomas N., Ed.

    School-based helpers are helping professionals who work within educational settings and whose training and primary responsibility is to promote the mental health of students. Few resource materials provide these helpers with needed information and practical strategies--this text tries to meet that need. The 12 chapters here cover a wide range of…

  4. Health. Nevada Competency-Based Adult High School Diploma Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevada Univ., Las Vegas. Coll. of Education.

    This document is one of ten curriculum guides developed by the Nevada Competency-Based Adult High School Diploma (CBAHSD) Project. This curriculum guide on health is divided into ten topics. The topics included are Nutrition, Reproduction, Menstruation, Contraception, Alcohol Abuse, Tobacco, Immunization, Disease, Accident Prevention, and…

  5. Advancing School-Based Interventions through Economic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Tina M.; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Eninger, Lilianne

    2014-01-01

    Commentators interested in school-based prevention programs point to the importance of economic issues for the future of prevention efforts. Many of the processes and aims of prevention science are dependent upon prevention resources. Although economic analysis is an essential tool for assessing resource use, the attention given economic analysis…

  6. School-Based Adolescent Groups: The Sail Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, John L.; And Others

    The manual outlines the processes, policies, and actual program implementation of one component of a Minnesota program for emotionally disturbed adolescents (Project SAIL): the development of school-based therapy/intervention groups. The characteristics of SAIL students are described, and some considerations involved in providing group services…

  7. Intelligent Web-Based English Instruction in Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jiyou

    2015-01-01

    The integration of technology into educational environments has become more prominent over the years. The combination of technology and face-to-face interaction with instructors allows for a thorough, more valuable educational experience. "Intelligent Web-Based English Instruction in Middle Schools" addresses the concerns associated with…

  8. Current smoking among young adolescents: assessing school based contextual norms

    OpenAIRE

    Pokorny, S; Jason, L; Schoeny, M

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To extend research on the relation of school based contextual norms to current smoking among adolescents by using three analytic techniques to test for contextual effects. It was hypothesised that significant contextual effects would be found in all three models, but that the strength of these effects would vary by the statistical rigor of the model.

  9. Effects of a school-based pediatric obesity prevention program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a school-based pediatric obesity program for elementary children. Children (n = 782) were between the ages of 7 and 9 and in the 2nd grade. A total of 323 (189 males) children who exceeded the 85th percentile for BMI were randomized into an integrated health...

  10. The Impact of Community Violence on School-Based Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velsor-Friedrich, Barbara; Richards, Maryse; Militello, Lisa K.; Dean, Kyle C.; Scott, Darrick; Gross, Israel M.; Romeo, Edna

    2015-01-01

    Research conducted on youth exposure to violence has generally focused on documenting the prevalence of community violence and its emotional and behavioral implications. However, there is a dearth of information related to the impact of violence on the implementation and evaluation of community and school-based programs. This commentary examines…

  11. A history of adolescent school based vaccination in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Kirsten; Quinn, Helen; Menzies, Robert; McIntyre, Peter

    2013-06-30

    As adolescents have become an increasingly prominent target group for vaccination, school-based vaccination has emerged as an efficient and effective method of delivering nationally recommended vaccines to this often hard to reach group. School-based delivery of vaccines has occurred in Australia for over 80 years and has demonstrated advantages over primary care delivery for this part of the population. In the last decade school-based vaccination programs have become routine practice across all Australian states and territories. Using existing records and the recollection of experts we have compiled a history of school-based vaccination in Australia, primarily focusing on adolescents. This work is copyright. Apart from any use as permitted under the Copyright Act 1968, no part may be reproduced by any process without prior written permission from the Commonwealth. Requests and inquiries concerning reproduction and rights should be addressed to the Commonwealth Copyright Administration, Attorney General's Department, Robert Garran Offices, National Circuit, Barton ACT 2600 or posted at http://www.ag.gov.au/cca.

  12. Effects of a 12-week, school-based obesity management program on obese primary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Gyu Kim

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose:This study was designed to determine the effects of a school-based obesity-management program on obese primary school children. Methods:A total of 995 children (6&#8211;12 years old in a primary school were screened in March 2008, and of those, 101 obese students (44 boys and 57 girls, body mass index (BMI ?#249;5 percentile were enrolled for a study group. The school- based, obesity management program, which includes physical exercise and nutritional education, was conducted as part of an extracurricular program for 12 weeks. The measurement of height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure (BP, and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA was performed before and after the program. Results:Height and weight increased significantly (P&lt;0.05. The BMI and obesity index decreased significantly (P&lt;0.01. Systolic and diastolic BP decreased significantly (P&lt;0.01. BMI decreased in 61.4% of boys and 66.7% of girls. Protein and basal metabolic rate (BMR increased significantly on the BIA (P&lt;0.01. Fat decreased significantly (P&lt;0.05. The total body water (TBW and percent body fat (PBF decreased significantly (P&lt;0.01. The changes in protein, fat, TBW, PBF, and BMR significantly correlated to the change in BMI (P&lt;0.05. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, BMI change was significantly correlated to the changes in protein and fat content (P&lt;0.01. Conclusion:The school-based obesity management program is a very effective way to manage obesity for obese primary school children.

  13. Romantic relationships and psychological distress among adolescents: Moderating role of friendship closeness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Chong Man; Ruhl, Holly; Buhrmester, Duane

    2015-11-01

    The formation of romantic relationships and friendships in adolescence is a defining milestone in the progression toward social maturity. Thus, examining adolescents' friendship and romantic experiences serves a vital role in understanding their psychological adjustment. The main purposes of the current study were to examine (a) whether romantic involvement, romantic security, and friendship closeness were independently predictive of late adolescents' depression and loneliness, and (b) whether friendship closeness would moderate the negative effects of adolescents' lower degrees of romantic involvement and romantic security on depression and loneliness. Data came from 12th grade adolescents (N = 110, 53 females) as well as their parents and a same-sex best friend. Adolescents reported on their romantic involvement, romantic security, and psychological distress. Parent reports of adolescents' depressive symptoms and friend reports of friendship closeness were also included. Higher degrees of romantic involvement and friendship closeness were related to lower degrees of loneliness. Higher degrees of romantic security were related to lower degrees of depression and loneliness. The effect of romantic involvement on depression and loneliness was moderated by friendship closeness. Also, the effect of romantic security on loneliness was moderated by friendship closeness. Future research should focus on the interactive roles that friendships and romantic relationships play in the emergence of psychopathology during adolescence. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. “Is that right?” – Don Favareau, Don Corleone & the semiotics of friendship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmeche, Claus

    2017-01-01

    A chapter commenting specifically on John Poinsot's "Tractatus de Signis", John Deely's interpretation of Poinsot's mentioning of "friendship" as an example of a triadic relation, Don Favareau's contribution to the biosemiotic community, and Don Corleone as a symbol of a different kind of "friend......A chapter commenting specifically on John Poinsot's "Tractatus de Signis", John Deely's interpretation of Poinsot's mentioning of "friendship" as an example of a triadic relation, Don Favareau's contribution to the biosemiotic community, and Don Corleone as a symbol of a different kind...... of "friendship", and generally on the philosophy of friendship....

  15. "Making a good time": the role of friendship in living successfully with aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kyla; Davidson, Bronwyn; Worrall, Linda E; Howe, Tami

    2013-04-01

    Loss of friendship post-onset of aphasia is well documented, with reduced social network size and social isolation commonly reported. Because friendship has strong links to psychological well-being and health, increased knowledge about friendships of individuals with aphasia will have important clinical implications. This study aimed to explore the perspectives of 25 community dwelling individuals with chronic aphasia on the role of friendship in living successfully with aphasia. Thematic analysis of transcripts from semi-structured in-depth interviews revealed three over-arching themes relating to the role of friendship in participants' experience of life with aphasia: living with changes in friendships, good times together and support from friends, and the importance of stroke and aphasia friends. Overall, findings highlighted the valued role of friendship in living successfully with aphasia, while also providing evidence of how friendships change and evolve in both negative and positive ways following onset of aphasia. Clinicians are challenged to work creatively to address the role of friendship in life post-stroke in partnership with individuals with aphasia, their families, and friends.

  16. Irreconcilable demands: friendship and the question of the political in Aristotle, Kant and Schmitt

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Blair

    2017-01-01

    This thesis takes issue with the politics and ethics of friendship vis-à-vis the Western philosophic tradition, in particular, the work of Aristotle, Immanuel Kant and Carl Schmitt in the aftermath of Jacques Derrida’s study Politics of Friendship (Politiques de l’amitié). I consider the relation between philosophy, politics, ethics and friendship and ask in what ways we can use the topic of friendship as grounds for rethinking the demands of ethical responsibility and calls for new politica...

  17. Quality of college students' same-sex friendships as a function of personality and interpersonal competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festa, Candice C; Barry, Carolyn McNamara; Sherman, Martin F; Grover, Rachel L

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate personality traits and interpersonal competencies as predictors of the quality of same-sex friendships in young adulthood. Undergraduate students (N = 176), who attended a mid-Atlantic U.S., medium-sized university, completed self-report surveys on their personality, interpersonal competence, and friendship quality. Sex, class status, extraversion, agreeableness, and interpersonal competencies were associated with higher friendship quality, but only the interpersonal competence of self-disclosure significantly predicted friendship quality after controlling for sex, class status, and the five personality factors.

  18. The Role of School and Community-Based Programs in Aiding Latina/o High School Persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Donna M.; Kiyama, Judy Marquez

    2015-01-01

    This study documents the important role school and community-based programs have for sustaining the persistence of Latina/o high school students in an urban, low achieving school district. Consensus among student participants revealed these programs provided a safe space where students were able to develop "confianza" (mutual trust) with…

  19. Using a Computer-based Messaging System at a High School To Increase School/Home Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Mitzi K.

    Minimal communication between school and home was found to contribute to low performance by students at McDuffie High School (South Carolina). This report describes the experience of establishing a computer-based telephone messaging system in the high school and involving parents, teachers, and students in its use. Additional strategies employed…

  20. The Psychology School Mental Health Initiative: An Innovative Approach to the Delivery of School-Based Intervention Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Golden M.; Lean, Debra; Sweet, Susan D.; Moraes, Sabrina C.; Nelson, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests that schools have, by default, become the primary mental health system for students in Canada. The goal of the present study was to design, implement, and evaluate the Psychology School Mental Health Initiative (PSMHI). The PSMHI is an innovative attempt to increase the capacity of school-based psychology staff to deliver…