WorldWideScience

Sample records for school attendance excessive

  1. An Analysis of Florida's School Districts' Attendance Policies and their Relationship to High School Attendance Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Ryan Turner

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this non-experimental correlational study was to determine the relationship between the type of attendance policies in the high schools of the 67 Florida school districts, the size of the school district (number of high school students), the socioeconomic status SES) of the school district, and the average daily attendance rate of…

  2. Physical Environmental Barriers to School Attendance among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    environment were the major barriers to school attendance. Conclusion: To ... Key words: Parents/caregivers, children with disabilities, barriers. Introduction .... It is not safe to walk ... feeling, learning, behaviour, and fits or convulsions. [19] The ...

  3. Pre-School Attendance and Child Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    Earlier research suggests that children's development is shaped in their early years of life. This paper examines whether differences in day-care experiences during pre-school age are important for children's cognitive and language development at the age of 15. The analysis is based on class...... performance at the end of elementary schooling. We assess the effects of attended types and qualities of day-care institutions on various child outcomes as measured by school grades in mathematics, science, English and Danish for the whole Danish population as well as outcomes from the 2006 PISA Denmark...... survey and a 2007 PISA Copenhagen survey. We use administrative registries to generate indicators such as child-staff ratios, child-pedagogues ratios, and the share of male staff and of staff with non-Danish origins. Furthermore, we use information on the average levels of educational attainments...

  4. A Comparison of Sexual Minority Youth Who Attend Religiously Affiliated Schools and Their Nonreligious-School-Attending Counterparts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Brandon T.; Heck, Nicholas C.; Cochran, Bryan N.

    2015-01-01

    Sexual minority youth are an at-risk group for negative health outcomes. The present study compares descriptive characteristics and outness of sexual minority youth who attend religious schools to sexual minorities who do not attend religious schools, and also investigates if attending religiously affiliated schools is associated with levels of…

  5. Understanding Excessive School Absenteeism as School Refusal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Shanta R.; Orpinas, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    Understanding excessive absenteeism is important to ameliorating the negative outcomes associated with the behavior. The present study examined behavioral reinforcement profiles of school refusal behavior: negative reinforcement (avoidance) and positive reinforcement (gaining parental attention or receiving tangible benefits from not attending…

  6. Management of School Attendance in the UK: A Strategic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Prior to 1997, managing school attendance was the sole responsibility of the Department for Education and Skills (DfES). Since devolution, responsibility for school attendance has resided with each of the four UK-wide administrations. These are the Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF) in England; the Scottish Executive Education…

  7. Excessive Testing and Pupils in the Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the question of excessive testing in public schools, its value in the educational process, and the impact that excessive testing may have on the student and the family unit. While assessments are valuable when used properly, excessive testing may lead to problems with unforeseen consequences.

  8. Implementing Nunavut Education Act: Compulsory School Attendance Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwarteng, E. Fredua

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the implementation of Nunavut compulsory school attendance policy as part of the Nunavut Education Act (2002). Using a bottom-up approach to policy implementation in the literature and the author's six years teaching experience in Nunavut, the paper argues that the compulsory school attendance policy may not achieve its…

  9. Influence of Peer Victimization on School Attendance among Senior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    Senior Secondary School Students in Uromi Metropolis. Ojugo ... Key words: Peer victimization, Bullying, School Attendance, Students, Counselling ... challenges children face at school; as a growing number of students perceive their .... record in Secondary Schools in. Uromi Metropolis. Score Range. Grade. Interpretation.

  10. Exploring the school attendance of children with epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Piccin Zanni

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The childhood epilepsy is a chronic disease that can have an impact in various spheres of life of the child, including academic performance and school attendance. This study aimed to describe and compare the school attendance of children with epilepsy who attend mainstream and special schools. Participants were 56 children aged between 7 and 14 years who attended regular or special schools located in two Brazilian cities of medium size. To collect the information we used two instruments: Data sheet of identification and characterization of the child and Data sheet to record the attendance school. The results showed that children in special schools had higher rates of absenteeism compared to students in regular schools. Additionally, we observed that these children use more drugs and have implications on health more severe than children in regular schools. Thus, it is the childhood epilepsy as a disease complex that brings substantial effects on various areas of children’s lives by reinforcing the need for studies that might expand the knowledge to and the experiences associated with the education of these children.

  11. The Educational Benefits of Attending Higher Performing Schools: Evidence from Chicago High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allensworth, Elaine M.; Moore, Paul T.; Sartain, Lauren; de la Torre, Marisa

    2017-01-01

    Policymakers are implementing reforms with the assumption that students do better when attending high-achieving schools. In this article, we use longitudinal data from Chicago Public Schools to test that assumption. We find that the effects of attending a higher performing school depend on the school's performance level. At elite public schools…

  12. Classroom Carbon Dioxide Concentration, School Attendance, and Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaihre, Santosh; Semple, Sean; Miller, Janice; Fielding, Shona; Turner, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Background: We tested the hypothesis that classroom carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]) concentration is inversely related to child school attendance and educational attainment. Methods: Concentrations of CO[subscript 2] were measured over a 3-5?day period in 60 naturally ventilated classrooms of primary school children in Scotland. Concentrations of…

  13. An Evaluation of the Attendance Policy and Program and Its Perceived Effects on High School Attendance in Newport News Public Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Wayne Keith

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study is to determine the effects of the attendance policy and attendance program after one year of implementation in Newport News Public Schools with a total high school population of approximately 5,820 students. The school district recently implemented a new attendance policy and program to address high school student absenteeism. This multi-faceted study examined the effects of this new policy by conducting statistical analyses of attendance data, pro...

  14. Child Labour or School Attendance? Evidence from Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate what affects school attendance and child labour in an LDC, using data for Zambia. Since the data come from a household survey with information on all household members, it allows us to take account of unobserved household effects by introducing household specific...... effects in a logit model. The empirical analysis suggests that both economic and sociological variables are important determinants for the choice between school attendance and child labour. In particular, we find some support for the hypothesis that poverty forces households to keep their children away...

  15. Idiosyncratic Shocks, Child Labor and School Attendance in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharisma, Bayu

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of various idiosyncratic shocks against child labor, child labor hour and school attendance. Also, the role of the assets held by households as one of the coping strategies to mitigate the effects of shocks. The results show that various idiosyncratic shocks that encourage child labor is generally caused by crop…

  16. Family Integrants Obstructing Pupils' School Attendance and Girl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is hinged on finding out the family integrants obstructing pupils' school attendance, the girl – child education and proffering solution to it via counsellors' strategies. The samples were three hundred (300) parents and twenty (20) counsellors. This brought the total sample to three hundred and twenty (320).

  17. TEACHING, COEXISTENCE AND ATTENDANCE AT A TECHNOLOGICAL HIGH SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Carranza-Peña

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article, which stems from ethnographic research, shows the importance of faculty intervention in the classroom setting in encouraging student attendance. Our findings indicate that the habitus the educator establishes can either encourage youth to continue their studies, or lead them to drop out, thus placing them at risk of addictions, illegal activities, unemployment or low-paid jobs. The Pedagogy of Hope therefore provides an option for effecting large-scale changes in personal, school, family, community and socio-economic conditions. The paper’s conclusions include providing training to teaching faculties on coexistence issues; ensuring coordination between school and family, and emphasizing an integral approach to education as means of promoting school attendance.

  18. [Psychosocial aspects associated with excessive attendance in primary care paediatric clinics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Martín, Raquel; Sánchez Bayle, Marciano; Teruel de Francisco, Carmen

    2018-04-20

    Hyper-attendance is a significant problem in paediatric Primary Care clinics. The aim of our study was to analyse the level of attendance in these clinics and its relationship with certain psychosocial aspects of the families attending them. Observational descriptive study was conducted using questionnaires collected during a period of 6months, as well as recording the frequency of attendance in the previous 6months. A total of 346 questionnaires of children between 6months and 13years of age belonging to 2 urban Primary Care clinics in Madrid were completed. The raw data was analysed, and comparisons between groups and multivariate analysis were performed. The mean number of consultations in the last 6months, of the total included in the study, was 3.06 in the Primary Care centre, and 0.77 in the emergency services. It was considered over-frequent for those who had attended the Primary Care health centre 6 or more times in this period (>p90), of which there were 33 children (9.53%). In the multivariate analysis, the variables related to being frequent users of Primary Care clinics were: the presence of high level of anxiety in the parents (OR=5.50; 95%CI: 2.49-12.17, P<.0001), and the age of the children (OR=0.73; 95%CI: 0.58-0.91, P=.005). The model presented an area under the curve of 0.761 (95%CI: 0.678-0.945, P<.0001). The frequency of visits in paediatric Primary Care clinics is directly related to the high level of anxiety of the parents, and inversely to the age of the children. It would be advisable to detect and, if possible, intervene in cases of high parental anxiety in order to try to reduce the over-frequency in the paediatric primary health care. Copyright © 2018. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  19. Birth Order, Child Labor and School Attendance in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick M. Emerson; Andre Portela Souza

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of birth order on the child labor incidence and school attendance of Brazilian children. Evidence from the psychology and sociology literature suggests that earlier-born children tend to have higher innate abilities. The economic implications of these findings are that earlier-born children may have more intra-household resources directed to them when they are young, and better outcomes as adults in areas such as education and earnings. However, in the context ...

  20. Sleep habits of students attending elementary schools, and junior and senior high schools in Akita prefecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Takaubu; Funaki, Kensaku; Kanbayashi, Takashi; Kawamoto, Kentaro; Tsutsui, Kou; Saito, Yasushi; Aizawa, Rika; Inomata, Shoko; Shimizu, Tetsuo

    2002-06-01

    It is widely accepted that students in Japan sleep fewer hours than what they actually need. However, epidemiological data on sleep habits among students are scarce. The sleep habits and related problems among 1650 students in Akita prefecture were studied. The results revealed that schoolchildren attending elementary schools seemed to sleep for a sufficient number of hours, whereas students attending junior or senior high schools were not sleeping enough. In particular, approximately half of the students attending senior high schools answered that they slept 6 h or less on weekdays and nodded off during classes more than twice a week.

  1. 34 CFR 200.78 - Allocation of funds to school attendance areas and schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation of funds to school attendance areas and schools. 200.78 Section 200.78 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE... for the Within-District Allocation of Lea Program Funds § 200.78 Allocation of funds to school...

  2. Factors Affecting Non-Attendance in Irish Primary Schools and Reasons for Differences between Urban and Rural levels of Non-attendance

    OpenAIRE

    Gurhy, Anne Marie; Perry, Glen; Farrell, Mark

    2018-01-01

    This study will investigative the factors that influence school non-attendance, in designated disadvantaged Irish primary schools (DEIS1). Currently, no comprehensive data exists on the factors contributing to the levels and types of non-attendance within the Irish context. Since 2003/2004, the National Educational Welfare Board (NEWB, Appendix A) the agency with responsibility for school attendance, has collected specific data on attendance levels and the frequency of non-attendance across a...

  3. Physical Fitness, Grit, School Attendance, and Academic Performance among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, Jonathan M; Chen, Yen T; Castelli, Darla M

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of grit as a construct representing perseverance to overcoming barriers and the total number of school absences to academic performance (AP) while controlling for sociodemographics, fitness (i.e., PACER), and Body Mass Index (BMI). Adolescents ( N = 397, SD = 1.85; 80.9% females; 77.1% Hispanic) from an urban, minority-majority city in the Southern United States completed the FitnessGram® assessment of physical fitness (e.g., aerobic capacity and Body Mass Index (BMI)) and the valid and reliable short grit survey. The schools provided sociodemographics, attendance, and AP data for the adolescents. Adolescents with higher grit scores ( r s = 0.21, P < 0.001) and less total absences ( r s = -0.35, P < 0.001) performed better on AP. Hierarchical multiple regression indicated that grit and absences were associated with AP ( β = 0.13, P < 0.01 and β = -0.35, P < 0.001, resp.). Grit and a total number of absences are significant contributors to academic success, particularly among Hispanic adolescents. Further, grit and school attendance may serve as a better measure of protective factors over proximal health measures of cardiovascular health and BMI.

  4. School attendance in childhood cancer survivors and their siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Amy E; Tsangaris, Elena; Barrera, Maru; Guger, Sharon; Brown, Robert; Urbach, Stacey; Stephens, Derek; Nathan, Paul C

    2013-01-01

    To investigate school absenteeism among childhood cancer survivors and their siblings and examine factors related to absenteeism in survivors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among consecutive cancer survivors attending a large pediatric cancer survivor clinic. Absenteeism rates were obtained for survivors and their closest in age sibling from school report cards. Absenteeism was compared with a population control group of 167752 students using 1-sample t tests. The Child Vulnerability Scale, Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, and Behavior Assessment System for Children were administered to survivors. Univariate and multiple regression analyses assessed variables associated with days absent. One hundred thirty-one survivors (median age at assessment: 13.4 years, range 8.0-19.2; median age at diagnosis: 9.4 years, range 4.3-17.3) and 77 siblings (median age at assessment: 13 years, age range 7-18) participated. Survivors and siblings missed significantly more school days than the population control group (mean ± SD: 9.6 ± 9.2 and 9.9 ± 9.8 vs 5.0 ± 5.6 days, respectively, P sibling pairs (N = 77), there was no difference in absenteeism (9.6 ± 9.2 vs 9.9 ± 9.8 days, P = .85). Absenteeism in survivors was significantly associated with a low Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Physical Health Summary Score (P = .01). Parents' perception of their child's vulnerability and emotional and social functioning were not associated with absenteeism. Childhood cancer survivors and siblings miss more school than the general population. The only predictor of absenteeism in survivors is poor physical quality of health. More research should be devoted to school attendance and other outcomes in siblings of childhood cancer survivors. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Barriers to School Attendance and Gender Inequality: Empirical Evidence from a Sample of Ghanaian Schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Sharon; McCoy, Dana C.; Godfrey, Erin B.

    2016-01-01

    Governments in sub-Saharan Africa have made marked efforts to increase school enrollment. Yet attendance and completion rates remain low, particularly for girls. This study examines the reasons that school children do not attend school in a sample of Ghanaian students. Girls were more likely to miss school because a family member was sick, whereas…

  6. A Response to Intervention Model to Promote School Attendance and Decrease School Absenteeism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Christopher A.; Graczyk, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Background: Regular school attendance is foundational to children's success but school absenteeism is a common, serious, and highly vexing problem. Researchers from various disciplines have produced a rich yet diverse literature for conceptualizing problematic absenteeism that has led to considerable confusion and lack of consensus about a…

  7. Identification of dietary patterns of adolescents attending public schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinéia de Pinho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to identify the dietary patterns of adolescents attending public municipal schools in Northern Minas Gerais, Brazil, and to test the association between these patterns and socioeconomic variables and nutritional status of the adolescents. METHODS: this was an analytical, cross-sectional study with randomized sample of 474 adolescents of both genders, between 11 and 17 years of age, attending municipal public schools in the urban area of Montes Claros, MG, Brazil. The parents provided demographic and economic data. The nutritional status (body mass index - BMI of the adolescents was determined at school, and their dietary habits were assessed though the administration of the Food Frequency Questionnaire for Adolescents (FFQA. Based on 26 categories extracted from FFQA, dietary patterns were determined using principal component analysis (PCA and associated to anthropometric and socioeconomic factors using multiple regression analysis. RESULTS: the three dietary patterns identified, "junk food," "healthy," and "traditional", explained 23.26%, 6.90%, and 5.24% of data variability, respectively. Adolescents with per capita family income exceeding half a minimum wage were more likely to consume the "junk food" pattern (OR = 1.66; 95% CI = 1.07-2.56, and overweight adolescents had lower chances of eating the "healthy" food pattern (OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.35-0.91. CONCLUSIONS: deviations from the "healthy" patterns were not associated to low income, but rather to bad eating habits in the studied population. Overweight adolescents did not adhere to the "healthy" dietary pattern, emphasizing the need for nutritional education among them.

  8. Perceived not actual overweight is associated with excessive school absenteeism among U.S. adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Dustin T; Hansen, Andrew R; Woo Baidal, Jennifer; Lyn, Rodney; Hill, Ashley; Zhang, Jian

    Excess body weight has been reported to be associated with excessive school absenteeism (ESA), but less is known about the association with perceived body weight. The study objective was to weigh the relative influence of perceived and measured weight status on school attendance. We used the data from 3113 adolescents age 12-19 years who were interviewed as a part of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES), 2003-2008. Body weight and height were measured during the physical examination, while self-perceived body weight and the number of school days missed was assessed using questionnaires. Missing one or more days per school month (nine days per school year) was defined as, and indicative of, experiencing ESA. ESA was reported from 12.31 (SE=0.89) % of adolescents. The highest prevalence occurred among healthy weight adolescents who erroneously self-perceived as overweight [21.6 (4.77) %], two times higher than adolescents with obesity who self-perceived as "just right weight" [10.3 (2.87) %]. The adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) of ESA for healthy weight adolescents who erroneously self-perceived as "overweight" was 1.91 (95%CI=1.10-3.32) compared to healthy weight peers who correctly self-perceived as "just right" (reference group). The PRs were 0.99 (0.48-2.06) and 1.41 (0.86-2.32) respectively for adolescents with obesity who believed that their body weight was "just right" or "overweight". No significant differences were observed between boys and girls, young (12-15 years) and older adolescents (16-19 years). Perceived overweight rather than actual overweight is significantly associated ESA among adolescents. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 76 FR 61148 - Proposed Information Collection (Approval of School Attendance) Activity: Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... marriages, a change in course of instruction and termination of school attendance. Affected Public... (Approval of School Attendance) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Titles: a. Request for Approval of School...

  10. 20 CFR 664.310 - When is dropout status determined, particularly for youth attending alternative schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When is dropout status determined... INVESTMENT ACT Out-of-School Youth § 664.310 When is dropout status determined, particularly for youth attending alternative schools? A school dropout is defined as an individual who is no longer attending any...

  11. 78 FR 55121 - Submission for Review: Self-Certification of Full-Time School Attendance for the School Year, RI...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... Attendance for the School Year, RI 25-14 and Information; and Instructions for Completing the Self...-0032, Self-Certification of Full-Time School Attendance For The School Year, RI 25-14; and Information... technological collection techniques or other forms of information technology, e.g., permitting electronic...

  12. Causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exams and college attendance: random assignment in Seoul high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R; Choi, Jaesung

    2013-04-01

    Despite the voluminous literature on the potentials of single-sex schools, there is no consensus on the effects of single-sex schools because of student selection of school types. We exploit a unique feature of schooling in Seoul-the random assignment of students into single-sex versus coeducational high schools-to assess causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exam scores and college attendance. Our validation of the random assignment shows comparable socioeconomic backgrounds and prior academic achievement of students attending single-sex schools and coeducational schools, which increases the credibility of our causal estimates of single-sex school effects. The three-level hierarchical model shows that attending all-boys schools or all-girls schools, rather than coeducational schools, is significantly associated with higher average scores on Korean and English test scores. Applying the school district fixed-effects models, we find that single-sex schools produce a higher percentage of graduates who attended four-year colleges and a lower percentage of graduates who attended two-year junior colleges than do coeducational schools. The positive effects of single-sex schools remain substantial, even after we take into account various school-level variables, such as teacher quality, the student-teacher ratio, the proportion of students receiving lunch support, and whether the schools are public or private.

  13. School Attendance, Absenteeism, and Student Success. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Oregon Department of Education staff spoke with principals from five Oregon schools that had low rates of chronic absenteeism compared to schools with similar demographics during the 2014-15 school year: Echo Shaw Elementary School, Free Orchards Elementary School, Dayton Junior High School, Valor Middle School, and North Marion High School. Each…

  14. Causal Effects of Single-Sex Schools on College Entrance Exams and College Attendance: Random Assignment in Seoul High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R.; Choi, Jaesung

    2012-01-01

    Despite the voluminous literature on the potentials of single-sex schools, there is no consensus on the effects of single-sex schools because of student selection of school types. We exploit a unique feature of schooling in Seoul—the random assignment of students into single-sex versus coeducational high schools—to assess causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exam scores and college attendance. Our validation of the random assignment shows comparable socioeconomic backgrounds and prior academic achievement of students attending single-sex schools and coeducational schools, which increases the credibility of our causal estimates of single-sex school effects. The three-level hierarchical model shows that attending all-boys schools or all-girls schools, rather than coeducational schools, is significantly associated with higher average scores on Korean and English test scores. Applying the school district fixed-effects models, we find that single-sex schools produce a higher percentage of graduates who attended four-year colleges and a lower percentage of graduates who attended two-year junior colleges than do coeducational schools. The positive effects of single-sex schools remain substantial, even after we take into account various school-level variables, such as teacher quality, the student-teacher ratio, the proportion of students receiving lunch support, and whether the schools are public or private. PMID:23073751

  15. How Insecurity impacts on school attendance and school drop out among urban slum children in Nairobi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chimaraoke Izugbara

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses how perceptions of personal security can impact on school enrolment and attendance. It mainly focuses on threats of physical harm, crime, and community and domestic violence. These security fears can include insecurity that children suffer from as they go to school, maybe through the use of unsafe routes; insecurity that children feel at school; and the insecurity they suffer from in their homes. Although poverty can be a source and/or an indicator of insecurity, this paper does not focus solely on poverty as it is well covered elsewhere in the literature. The paper relies on qualitative data col- lected in Korogocho and Viwandani slum areas in Nairobi, Kenya between October and November 2004. The paper analyses data from individual interviews and focus group interviews and focuses on the narrative of slum dwellers on how insecurity impacts on educational attainment. The conclusion in this paper is that insecure neighbourhoods may have a negative impact on schooling. As a result policies that address insecurity in slum neighbourhoods can also improve school attendance and performance.

  16. School Attendance in Nigeria: Understanding the Impact and Intersection of Gender, Urban-Rural Residence, and Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazeem, Aramide; Jensen, Leif; Stokes, C. Shannon

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a research which examines the impact of religion, gender, and parental socioeconomic status on school attendance in Nigeria. Researchers found that both gender and parental socioeconomic status have significant impacts on school attendance. Although gender is an important determinant of school attendance, indicators of…

  17. The Relationship of School Uniforms to Student Attendance, Achievement, and Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowell, Russell Edward

    2012-01-01

    This causal-comparative study examined the relationship of school uniforms to attendance, academic achievement, and discipline referral rates, using data collected from two high schools in rural southwest Georgia county school systems, one with a uniforms program and one without a uniforms program. After accounting for race and students with…

  18. Time Series in Education: The Analysis of Daily Attendance in Two High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmans, Matthijs

    2011-01-01

    This presentation discusses the use of a time series approach to the analysis of daily attendance in two urban high schools over the course of one school year (2009-10). After establishing that the series for both schools were stationary, they were examined for moving average processes, autoregression, seasonal dependencies (weekly cycles),…

  19. Mind the Gap: How Students Differentially Perceive Their School's Attendance Policies in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saelzer, Christine; Lenski, Anna Eva

    2016-01-01

    Truant student behavior can be due to various reasons. Some of these reasons are located in schools. So far, little is known about how student perception of school rules is related to truancy. This study aims to identify types of school attendance policies and how these policies are associated with individual truancy. Self-reports from the German…

  20. Abbott Students Attending Charter Schools: Funding Disparities and Legal Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulkley, Katrina

    2007-01-01

    Most of New Jersey's charter schools are located in the state's poorer, urban school districts, or "Abbott" districts, and exclusively serve students from those communities. A number of other schools are located outside of the Abbott districts but enroll students from these districts. Specifically, of the 50 charter schools operating in…

  1. School Asthma Screening and Case Management: Attendance and Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moricca, Michelle L.; Grasska, Merry A.; BMarthaler, Marcia; Morphew, Tricia; Weismuller, Penny C.; Galant, Stanley P.

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is related to school absenteeism and underperformance in elementary students. This pilot study assessed whether school nurse case management (CM) in children identified with asthma impacts academic performance and school absenteeism in one school. A validated questionnaire was used to identify children at risk for asthma and CM was provided…

  2. School attendance, health-risk behaviors, and self-esteem in adolescents applying for working papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suss, A L; Tinkelman, B K; Freeman, K; Friedman, S B

    1996-01-01

    Since health-risk behaviors are often encountered in clusters among adolescents, it was hypothesized that adolescents with poor school attendance would be associated with more health-risk behaviors (e.g., substance use, violence) than those who attend school regularly. This study assessed the relationship between poor school attendance and health-risk behaviors, and described health-risk behaviors and self-esteem among adolescents seeking employment. In this cross-sectional study, school attendance (poor vs. regular attendance) was related to health-risk behaviors by asking 122 subjects seen at a New York City Working Papers Clinic to complete both a 72-item questionnaire about their health-risk behaviors and the 58-item Coopersmith Self-Esteem School Form Inventory. Chi-square and Fisher's Exact Tests were performed. The poor and regular attenders of school differed significantly in only 5 out of 44 items pertaining to health-risk behaviors. Self-esteem measures for the two groups did not differ from one another or from national norms. In this sample, depression "in general" (global) and "at home," but not "at school," were associated significantly with suicidal thoughts/attempts and serious past life events (e.g. family conflict, sexual abuse). There were no significant associations between depression or self-esteem and illicit substance or alcohol use. We found few associations between poor school attendance and health-risk behaviors in this sample of employment-seeking adolescents. The poor and regular attenders of school were similar in most aspects of their health-risk behaviors and self-esteem.

  3. Dietary habits and physical activity levels in Jordanian adolescents attending private versus public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayyem, R F; Al-Hazzaa, H M; Abu-Mweis, S S; Bawadi, H A; Hammad, S S; Musaiger, A O

    2014-07-08

    The present study examined differences in dietary habits and physical activity levels between students attending private and public high schools in Jordan. A total of 386 secondary-school males and 349 females aged 14-18 years were randomly recruited using a multistage, stratified, cluster sampling technique. Dietary habits and physical activity level were self-reported in a validated questionnaire. The prevalence of obesity was significantly higher among adolescents in private (26.0%) than in public schools (16.7%). The frequency of breakfast intake was significantly higher among adolescents in private schools, whereas French fries and sweets intake was significantly higher in public schools. Television viewing showed a significant interaction with school type by sex. A higher rate of inactivity was found among students attending private schools. Despite a slightly better overall dietary profile for students in private schools, they had a higher rate of overweight and obesity compared with those in public schools.

  4. Can Provision of Free School Uniforms harm Attendance? Evidence from Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Hidalgo; Mercedes Onofa; Hessel Oosterbeek; Juan Ponce

    2010-01-01

    This discussion paper resulted in an article in the Journal of Development Economics (2013). Volume 103, pages 43-51. To raise school attendance, many programs in developing countries eliminate orreduce private contributions to education. This paper documents an unintendednegative effect of such programs. Using data from a randomized experiment thatprovides free uniforms to primary school children in Ecuador, we find that the interventionhas a significantly negative impact on attendance. An e...

  5. Causal Effects of Single-Sex Schools on College Entrance Exams and College Attendance: Random Assignment in Seoul High Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R.; Choi, Jaesung

    2013-01-01

    Despite the voluminous literature on the potentials of single-sex schools, there is no consensus on the effects of single-sex schools because of student selection of school types. We exploit a unique feature of schooling in Seoul—the random assignment of students into single-sex versus coeducational high schools—to assess causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exam scores and college attendance. Our validation of the random assignment shows comparable socioeconomic backgroun...

  6. Investigation of a cluster of children with Down's syndrome born to mothers who had attended a school in Dundalk, Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, G; Nevin, N C; Mikkelsen, M; Karadima, G; Petersen, M B; Kelly, M; O'Sullivan, J

    2000-12-01

    To investigate a reported cluster of Down's syndrome in offspring of former pupils of a girls' school in Ireland, to establish the prevalence of Down's syndrome among live births in the area around the school, and to review the literature on the possible causes of reported clusters of Down's syndrome. Questionnaire survey of obstetric and personal histories of women who had attended the girls' school at Dundalk, County Louth, Republic of Ireland, at some time during 1956-7, and also of women who had attended another, nearby, girls' school during the same period. Comparison of observed numbers of cases of Down's syndrome identified by these surveys with maternal age adjusted expected numbers for the reported live births. Laboratory tests were conducted to verify and characterise the cases of Down's syndrome constituting the cluster. Retrospective collection and collation of data on Down's syndrome occurring among live births, and the compilation of maternal age specific incidences, in County Louth and in Newry and Mourne District in neighbouring Northern Ireland, during 1961-80. These rates were compared with reference rates and rates for other areas of Ireland. Six children with Down's syndrome were confirmed among 387 reported live births to women who had been pupils at the girls' school in Dundalk during 1956-7, compared with 0.69 expected (nominal p<10(-4)). Five of the affected births were to mothers under 30 years of age, against 0.15 expected (nominal p<10(-6)), although only four of these mothers were attending the school at any one time. The origin of the non-disjunction was found to be maternal first meiotic in four children, mitotic after fertilisation in another (with the youngest mother), and in the remaining one could not be determined. The marked excess of Down's syndrome in births to young mothers did not extend to offspring of former pupils of the other Dundalk girls' school surveyed, or to live births in County Louth generally or in adjacent Newry

  7. Sleep habits, excessive daytime sleepiness and school performance in high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Chol; Kim, Jinkwan; Lee, Sangduck; Ahn, Yongkyu; Joo, Soonjae

    2003-08-01

    A questionnaire survey was carried out to examine the sleep habits and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) of 3871 high school students with a mean age of 16.8 years in Korea. The results showed that mean total sleep time was 6.3 h/day for male students and 6.5 h/day for female students, which may be insufficient for adolescence during puberty. The overall prevalence of EDS (defined as an Epworth sleepiness scale score of >10) was 15.9% (14.9% for boys and 18.2% for girls). The prevalence of EDS increased significantly (P performance.

  8. School Quality Signals and Attendance in Rural Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jeffery H.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes school dropout in rural Guatemala using event history data and unusually detailed data on schools and teachers. Significant results for language of instruction, teacher education and fighting between students demonstrate the importance of accounting for school context influences on an outcome that has, historically, been…

  9. Indicated Truancy Interventions: Effects on School Attendance among Chronic Truant Students. Campbell Systematic Reviews. 2012:10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Brandy R.; McCrea, Katherine Tyson; Pigott, Terri D.; Kelly, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this systematic review was to examine the effects of interventions on school attendance to inform policy, practice, and research. The questions guiding this study were: (1) Do truancy programs with a goal of increasing student attendance for truant youth affect school attendance behaviors of elementary and secondary students…

  10. Learning Strategies of Students Attending a "Second Chance" School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartier, Sylvie C.; Langevin, Louise; Robert, Josianne

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted in Quebec with 608 students (aged 16-19) in four "second chance" schools of the greater Montreal area. The objectives were twofold: (a) to identify the strategies of these students in the context of five learning activities; and (b) to compare the strategies of students who had withdrawn from school after their…

  11. Patterns of and Influences on Elementary School Attendance in Early Victorian Industrial Monmouthshire 1839-1865

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, David C.; Davies, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Issues associated with school absenteeism have attracted considerable attention and have long been one of the focal points of government strategies for school improvement. Pupil non-attendance is not a new phenomenon and featured prominently in Her Majesty's Inspectors' reports from 1839. This paper outlines the patterns of and influences on…

  12. School Attendance and Child Labor in Ecuador. Policy Research Working Paper Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Acevedo, Gloria

    Data from Ecuador's Living Standard and Measurement Surveys were used to analyze the characteristics and determinants of child labor and schooling. Of particular interest was the influence of adult wages on child labor. Survey data on children aged 10-17 included sex, age, rural or urban residence, monthly wages, whether or not attending school,…

  13. The Impact of Location Alteration on School Attendance of Chicano Gang Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsaker, Alan C.

    The study examined whether a change in school site affected the school attendance of 13 male Chicano gang members, 13 to 18 years of age, admitted to a community-based delinquency and gang violence prevention project. Since an active Alternative Studies Program, designed for students with special learning problems or for working students, already…

  14. Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Dietary Patterns of Preadolescents Attending Schools in the Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepper, Martha J.; Chai, Weiwen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The present study examined dietary intake of fruit and vegetables and dietary patterns of preadolescents attending schools in the Midwest. Methods: A total of 506 students (11.2 ± 1.3 years) from four public and private schools in Nebraska completed a validated 41-item Food Frequency Questionnaire to assess their dietary intake.…

  15. Caring Teacher Qualities that Affect School Participation and Attendance: Student Portraits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Helen M.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the perspectives of four high school students focusing on the identification of caring teacher qualities and the influence those characteristics have on school participation and attendance. Data was collected using interviews rather than survey in order to hear the often-unheard voices of students. Portraits of each student…

  16. School (Non-)Attendance and "Mobile Cultures": Theoretical and Empirical Insights from Indigenous Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prout Quicke, Sarah; Biddle, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) Australians are significantly and substantially less likely to be attending school on a given day than their non-Indigenous counterparts. This has been shown to have long-term consequences for the development of the mainstream literacy and numeracy skills associated with formal schooling, as well…

  17. Enhancing the Capacity of School Nurses to Reduce Excessive Anxiety in Children: Development of the CALM Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Kelly L; Stewart, Catherine E; Muggeo, Michela A; Ginsburg, Golda S

    2015-08-01

    Excessive anxiety is among the most common psychiatric problems facing youth. Because anxious youth tend to have somatic complaints, many seek help from the school nurse. Thus, school nurses are in an ideal position to provide early intervention. This study addresses this problem and describes the plans to develop and test a new intervention (Child Anxiety Learning Modules; CALM), delivered by school nurses, to reduce child anxiety and improve academic functioning. An iterative development process including consultation with an expert panel, two open trials, and a pilot randomized controlled study comparing CALM to usual care is proposed. Feedback will be solicited from all participants during each phase and data on outcome measures will be provided by children, parents, teachers, and independent evaluators. Data will be collected on intervention satisfaction and feasibility. Primary outcomes that include child anxiety symptoms, classroom behavior, and school performance (e.g., attendance, grades, standardized test scores) will be collected at pre- and post-interventions and at a 3-month follow-up evaluation. Pediatric anxiety is a common problem that school nurses frequently encounter. Consequently, they are well positioned to play a key role in enhancing access to behavioral health interventions to reduce anxiety and may therefore make a significant positive public health impact. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Deaf children attending different school environments: sign language abilities and theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasuolo, Elena; Valeri, Giovanni; Di Renzo, Alessio; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Volterra, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined whether full access to sign language as a medium for instruction could influence performance in Theory of Mind (ToM) tasks. Three groups of Italian participants (age range: 6-14 years) participated in the study: Two groups of deaf signing children and one group of hearing-speaking children. The two groups of deaf children differed only in their school environment: One group attended a school with a teaching assistant (TA; Sign Language is offered only by the TA to a single deaf child), and the other group attended a bilingual program (Italian Sign Language and Italian). Linguistic abilities and understanding of false belief were assessed using similar materials and procedures in spoken Italian with hearing children and in Italian Sign Language with deaf children. Deaf children attending the bilingual school performed significantly better than deaf children attending school with the TA in tasks assessing lexical comprehension and ToM, whereas the performance of hearing children was in between that of the two deaf groups. As for lexical production, deaf children attending the bilingual school performed significantly better than the two other groups. No significant differences were found between early and late signers or between children with deaf and hearing parents.

  19. Do healthy school meals affect illness, allergies and school attendance in 8- to 11-year-old children?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Rikke Pilmann; Lauritzen, Lotte; Ritz, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives:A nutritionally adequate diet in childhood is important for health and resistance of allergies and infections. This study explored the effects of school meals rich in fish, vegetables and fibre on school attendance, asthma, allergies and illness in 797 Danish 8- to 11-year-o...

  20. Functional Assessment of School Attendance Problems : An Adapted Version of the School Refusal Assessment Scale-Revised

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heyne, D. A.; Vreeke, L. J.; Maric, M.; Boelens, H.; Van Widenfelt, B. M.

    2017-01-01

    The School Refusal Assessment Scale (SRAS) was developed to identify four factors that might maintain a youth’s school attendance problem (SAP), and thus be targeted for treatment. There is still limited support for the four-factor model inherent to the SRAS and its revision (SRAS-R). Recent studies

  1. Psychosocial Profile of Gifted Adolescents Attending a Public High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordaz-Villegas, Gabriela; Acle-Tomasini, Guadalupe

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The current models in the study of giftedness such as the Triadic Interdependence define it as a favorable outcome of the interaction between intrinsic (intellectual capacity, creativity and motivation) and extrinsic (family, peers, and school) factors. Based on this, the purpose of this study was to identify and establish a profile…

  2. Compulsory School Attendance in Nigeria: What are the Reasons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of analysis show that the problems of inadequate teachers; teachers' poor attitude to work; poverty; bullying unstable school calendar; poor supervision of teaching and learning including parents' wish are the significant reasons for wastage. The findings revealed further that male, old, poor and urban - resident ...

  3. Who attends recovery high schools after substance use treatment? A descriptive analysis of school aged youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner-Smith, Emily E; Finch, Andrew J; Hennessy, Emily A; Moberg, D Paul

    2018-06-01

    Recovery high schools (RHSs) are an alternative high school option for adolescents with substance use disorders (SUDs), designed to provide a recovery-focused learning environment. The aims of this study were to examine the characteristics of youth who choose to attend RHSs, and to compare them with local and national comparison samples of youth in recovery from SUDs who were not enrolled in RHSs. We conducted secondary analysis of existing data to compare characteristics of youth in three samples: (1) adolescents with SUDs who enrolled in RHSs in Minnesota, Texas, and Wisconsin after discharge from treatment (RHSs; n = 171, 51% male, 86% White, 4% African American, 5% Hispanic); (2) a contemporaneously recruited local comparison sample of students with SUDs who did not enroll in RHSs (n = 123, 60% male, 77% White, 5% African American, 12% Hispanic); and (3) a national comparison sample of U.S. adolescents receiving SUD treatment (n = 12,967, 73% male, 37% White, 15% African American, 30% Hispanic). Students enrolled in RHSs had elevated levels of risk factors for substance use and relapse relative to both the local and national comparison samples. For instance, RHS students reported higher rates of pre-treatment drug use, past mental health treatment, and higher rates of post-treatment physical health problems than adolescents in the national comparison sample. We conclude that RHSs serve a population with greater co-occurring problem severity than the typical adolescent in SUD treatment; programming offered at RHSs should attend to these complex patterns of risk factors. SUD service delivery policy should consider RHSs as an intensive recovery support model for the most high-risk students with SUDs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterizing Parents’ and School Staff’s Involvement with Student Attendance from the Perspective of School Staff in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norimasa Itakura

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relations between parents and various school staff involvement, and student attendance across time from the viewpoint of school staff in Japan. In addition, student attendance characteristics were classified to investigate potential differences among students related to time and involvement of parents and staff. The research participants were Japanese elementary, junior, and senior high school staff (N = 206 who consented to participate in the survey. All participants were sampled from various areas of Japan and recruited through a web-based survey. Data were collected by the polling organization Internet Research Service MELLINKS (Tokyo, Japan, through their web panel (see www.mellinks.co.jp. The results indicated that during the early period of support, there was no positive correlation between class teachers’ involvement and students’ attendance. However, during the late period of support, it had a positive correlation. Surprisingly, the school nurses’ involvement was critical even in the early periods. Furthermore, in the late period, the results of ANOVAs assessing difference among the student attendance categories showed that maintaining and recovery types had higher scores of parents’ and class teachers’ involvement than non-maintaining and declining types. This study suggests that flexibility of collaboration among parents and various school staff across time is an important component to support student attendance.

  5. The Effect of E-Learning on Learning and Interest in School Attendance among Elementary School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Seyedehsahar Shafieiosgouei; Nava Nourdad; Robab Hassantofighi; Seyyedreza Shafieioskouei

    2018-01-01

    The technological advances of the 21st century have impacted all spheres of life, including education. The world of books and pens is being replaced by computers at young ages. The present study aimed at investigating the effect of technology on Iranian elementary school students’ learning and interest in school attendance. The participants were 47 sixth grade students selected from two schools with and without technological support. The results of the study revealed a higher level of interes...

  6. Does Improved Water Access Increase Child School Attendance? A Quasi-Experimental Approach From Rural Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Y.; Cook, J.

    2012-12-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of improved water access on child school attendance using two years of primary panel data from a quasi-experimental study in Oromiya, Ethiopia. A predominant form of child labor in rural poor households in least developed countries is water collection. Girls are often the primary water collectors for households, and because of the time intensive nature of water collection improved water access may allow for time to be reallocated to schooling (Rosen and Vincent 1999; Nankhuni and Findeis 2004). Understanding how improved water access may increase schooling for girls has important development policy implications. Indeed, abundant research on returns to education suggests increased schooling for girls is tied to improved future child and maternal health, economic opportunities, and lower fertility rates (Handa 1996; Schultz 1998; Michaelowa 2000). The literature to date finds that improved water access leads to increased schooling; however, there still exists a clear gap in the literature for understanding this relationship for two reasons. First, only four studies have directly examined the relationship between improved water access and schooling in sub-Saharan Africa, and analyses have been limited due to the use of cross-sectional data and research designs (Nankhuni and Findeis 2004; Koolwal and Van de Walle 2010; Ndiritu and Nyangan 2011; Nauges and Strand 2011). Indeed, only two studies have attempted to control for the endogenous nature of water access. Second, all studies use a binary school enrollment indicator from household surveys, which may suffer from response bias and may be an imperfect measure for actual schooling. Respondents may feel pressured to report that their children are enrolled in school if, like in Ethiopia, there are compulsory education laws. This may result in an overestimation of school enrollment. In addition, most children from rural poor households combine work and school, and a binary indicator does

  7. Associations between usual school lunch attendance and eating habits and sedentary behaviour in French children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuisson, C; Lioret, S; Dufour, A; Volatier, J L; Lafay, L; Turck, D

    2012-12-01

    Our objective was to investigate whether school lunch attendance was associated with overall eating habits and sedentary behaviour in a French sample of children and adolescents. Data for the study were taken from the second French cross-sectional dietary survey (INCA2-2006-07). In total, 1413 school children aged 3-17 years old were classified according to their school type and their usual school lunch attendance. Eating habits included meal regularity, dietary diversity, purchase in vending machine, snacking habits and frequency of eating in fast-foods. Two composite indices of eating habits were derived from multiple correspondence analyses. Sedentary behaviour was assessed by the average daily screen times for TV and computer. The association between school lunch attendance and each variable was tested. Multivariate association between school lunch attendance and the composite indices of eating habits and sedentary behaviours was studied. In all, 69.0% (CI(95%): 64.2-73.9) of secondary school children and 63.0% (CI(95%): 58.5-67.5) of pre- and elementary school children usually attended school lunch at least once a week. Pre- and elementary school children attending school lunches showed a higher dietary diversity score (P=0.02) and ate morning snacks more frequently (P=0.02). In secondary school children, attending school canteen was related to a lower rate of skipping breakfast (P=0.04) and main meals (P=0.01). In all school children, school lunch attendance was simultaneously associated with healthier overall eating habits and less sedentary behaviour. In France, children attending school canteens seem to have healthier eating habits and display less sedentary behaviour, independently of their socio-economic and demographic background.

  8. The proportion of excessive fast-food consumption attributable to the neighbourhood food environment among youth living within 1 km of their school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxer, Rachel E; Janssen, Ian

    2014-04-01

    The study objective was to estimate the proportion of excessive fast-food consumption by youth that is attributable to living and attending school in a neighbourhood with a moderate or high density of fast-food restaurants. This was a cross-sectional study of 6099 Canadian youths (aged 11-15 years) from 255 school neighbourhoods. All participants lived within 1 km of their school. The density of chain fast-food restaurants within a 1-km circular buffer surrounding each school was determined using geographic information systems. Excessive fast-food consumption (≥2 times per week) was assessed by questionnaire. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations. The population attributable risk estimates of excessive fast-food consumption due to neighbourhood exposure to fast-food restaurants were determined based on the prevalence of exposure and the results from the logistic regression. Eight percent of participants were excessive fast-food consumers. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors (i.e., gender, race, and socioeconomic status), it was found that youths from neighbourhoods with a moderate (odds ratio (OR), 1.68; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-2.54) or high (OR 1.70; 95% CI 1.12-2.56) density of chain fast-food restaurants were more likely to be excessive fast-food consumers than were youths from neighbourhoods with no chain fast-food restaurants. Approximately 31% of excessive consumption was attributable to living in neighbourhoods with a moderate or high density of fast-food restaurants. Thus, the fast-food retail environment within which youth live and go to school is an important contributor to their eating behaviours.

  9. The impact of family size on children’s school attendance in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Kezia C. Bansagan; Hazel Joyce C. Panganiban

    2008-01-01

    Much empirical work has been done to determine the effects of family size on the education of children. Using a sample from the October 2006 Labor Force Survey, this paper attempts to determine the impact of family size on children’s education as measured by school attendance while considering socioeconomic factors. Results have shown that family size is significantly and negatively correlated with children’s school enrollment. Even after controlling for family size and birth-order effect, th...

  10. Association between nutritional status and subjective health status in chronically ill children attending special schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.F.M. Joosten (Koen); K. van der Velde (Kelly); P. Joosten (Pieter); H. Rutten (Hans); J.M. Hulst (Jessie); K. Dulfer (Karolijn)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: In hospitalized children with a chronic disease, malnutrition was associated with a lower subjective health status. In outpatient children with a chronic disease attending special schools, this association has never been studied. The aim of this study was to assess the

  11. Investigating Level of Mathematics Knowledge for Students Attending Vocational Schools in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colakoglu, Nurdan

    2013-01-01

    Students attend mathematics courses in Turkey for totally 11 years, throughout education life ranging from primary school to university, including eight years in primary education and three years in secondary education (four years based on new arrangement); however, level of mathematic knowledge of students is upsetting when they reach university…

  12. Parental Involvement in Middle School Predicting College Attendance for First-Generation Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Khanh; Rush, Ryan A.

    2016-01-01

    Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study, this report examined the relationship between parental involvement in eighth grade and college attendance by eight years after high school for students whose parents have no college education (i.e., first-generation students; n = 1,358) in comparison to students whose parents have some…

  13. Effect of Religious Attendance on Years of Schooling in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Madhu S.

    2016-01-01

    Using data from the USA, the study demonstrates that an individual's completed years of schooling later in life is positively related to his/her frequency of religious attendance during youth. Using the propensity score matching technique, the study shows that this relationship is causal. This conclusion remains valid for youths of different…

  14. AIDS Risk Among Students Attending Seventh-day Adventist Schools in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Gary L.; Hopp, Joyce W.; Marshak, Helen P. Hopp; Neish, Christine; Rhoads, Gayle

    1998-01-01

    Surveys of students attending Seventh-Day Adventist (SDA) high schools assessed sexual and drug-use behaviors that placed them at risk for contracting or transmitting HIV. Comparison of the results with data from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey indicated that SDA students had lower rates of sexual intercourse and substance use. Parental…

  15. Learning Barriers among Grade 6 Pupils Attending Rural Schools in Uganda: Implications to Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungi, Njora; Ngware, Moses; Mahuro, Gerald; Muhia, Nelson

    2017-01-01

    The paper uses multilevel analysis procedures to examine individual- and group-level learning barriers that have the greatest impact on pupil achievement in Uganda. The data for this study were collected in 2014 among 2711 Grade 6 pupils attending 82 schools in two rural districts of Iganga and Mayuge in Uganda. Data used in this paper are part of…

  16. Options for Educating Students Attending Department of Defense Schools in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    student engagement , which has a detrimental effect on student achievement. School Inputs Teacher quality is an important determinant of student learning...Poor attendance can also indicate low student engagement , which has a detrimental effect on student achievement. Students who are chronically

  17. Health-Related Quality of Life in Children Attending Special and Typical Education Greek Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, D.; Malliou, P.; Kofotolis, N.; Vlachopoulos, S. P.; Kellis, E.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine parental perceptions about Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) of typical education and special education students in Greece. The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) was administered to the parents of 251 children from typical schools, 46 students attending integration classes (IC) within a…

  18. Parent-reported problem behavior among children with sensory disabilities attending elementary regular schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maes, B; Grietens, H

    2004-01-01

    Parent-reported problem behaviors of 94 children with visual and auditory disabilities, attending elementary regular schools, were compared with problems reported in a general population sample of nondisabled children. Both samples were matched by means of a pairwise matching procedure, taking into

  19. Estimates of excess medically attended acute respiratory infections in periods of seasonal and pandemic influenza in Germany from 2001/02 to 2010/11.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias An der Heiden

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The number of patients seeking health care is a central indicator that may serve several different purposes: (1 as a proxy for the impact on the burden of the primary care system; (2 as a starting point to estimate the number of persons ill with influenza; (3 as the denominator data for the calculation of case fatality rate and the proportion hospitalized (severity indicators; (4 for economic calculations. In addition, reliable estimates of burden of disease and on the health care system are essential to communicate the impact of influenza to health care professionals, public health professionals and to the public. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using German syndromic surveillance data, we have developed a novel approach to describe the seasonal variation of medically attended acute respiratory infections (MAARI and estimate the excess MAARI attributable to influenza. The weekly excess inside a period of influenza circulation is estimated as the difference between the actual MAARI and a MAARI-baseline, which is established using a cyclic regression model for counts. As a result, we estimated the highest ARI burden within the last 10 years for the influenza season 2004/05 with an excess of 7.5 million outpatient visits (CI95% 6.8-8.0. In contrast, the pandemic wave 2009 accounted for one third of this burden with an excess of 2.4 million (CI95% 1.9-2.8. Estimates can be produced for different age groups, different geographic regions in Germany and also in real time during the influenza waves.

  20. Visible School Security Measures and Student Academic Performance, Attendance, and Postsecondary Aspirations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner-Smith, Emily E; Fisher, Benjamin W

    2016-01-01

    Many U.S. schools use visible security measures (security cameras, metal detectors, security personnel) in an effort to keep schools safe and promote adolescents' academic success. This study examined how different patterns of visible security utilization were associated with U.S. middle and high school students' academic performance, attendance, and postsecondary educational aspirations. The data for this study came from two large national surveys--the School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey (N = 38,707 students; 51% male, 77% White, MAge = 14.72) and the School Survey on Crime and Safety (N = 10,340 schools; average student composition of 50% male, 57% White). The results provided no evidence that visible security measures had consistent beneficial effects on adolescents' academic outcomes; some security utilization patterns had modest detrimental effects on adolescents' academic outcomes, particularly the heavy surveillance patterns observed in a small subset of high schools serving predominantly low socioeconomic students. The findings of this study provide no evidence that visible security measures have any sizeable effects on academic performance, attendance, or postsecondary aspirations among U.S. middle and high school students.

  1. An Investigation of Emotional Skills of Six-Year-Old Children Attending Nursery School According to Some Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmusoglu-Saltali, Neslihan; Arslan, Emel

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is for the emotional skills of six-year-old children attending nursery school according to some variables. The participants were 306 (135 girls and 171 boys) six-year-old children attending nursery school. Data were collected from Assessment of Children's Emotional Skills and personal information form. In order to analyze…

  2. AIDS risk among students attending Seventh-day Adventist school, in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, G L; Hopp, J W; Marshak, H P; Neish, C; Rhoads, G

    1998-04-01

    In 1995, a survey was conducted among students attending 69 Seventh-day Adventist (SDA) high schools within the United States and Canada. The survey assessed the extent that these students practiced sexual and drug-use behaviors which place them at risk for contracting or transmitting the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). A total of 1,748 respondents enrolled in grades 9 through 12 completed questionnaires similar to the instrument used in the 1993 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). Data were collected and compared to results from the 1993 YRBS. Students who attended SDA parochial schools reported lower rates of sexual intercourse compared to YRBS school counterparts (16.3% vs. 53.1%) and lower rates of all substances measured. Furthermore, respondents were more likely to engage in substance use and sexual intercourse if they had at least one parent who used tobacco, alcohol, or marijuana, as reported by the students.

  3. Role development of nurses for technology-dependent children attending mainstream schools in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Fumie; Suzuki, Machiko

    2015-04-01

    To describe the role development of nurses caring for medical technology-dependent children attending Japanese mainstream schools. Semi-structured interviews with 21 nurses caring for technology-dependent children were conducted and analyzed using the modified grounded theory approach. Nurses developed roles centered on maintaining technology-dependent children's physical health to support children's learning with each other, through building relationships, learning how to interact with children, understanding the children and the school community, and realizing the meaning of supporting technology-dependent children. These findings support nurses to build relationships of mutual trust with teachers and children, and learn on the job in mainstream schools. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Association between nutritional status and subjective health status in chronically ill children attending special schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Koen; van der Velde, Kelly; Joosten, Pieter; Rutten, Hans; Hulst, Jessie; Dulfer, Karolijn

    2016-04-01

    In hospitalized children with a chronic disease, malnutrition was associated with a lower subjective health status. In outpatient children with a chronic disease attending special schools, this association has never been studied. The aim of this study was to assess the association between nutritional status and subjective health status in chronically ill children attending special schools. Overall, 642 children, median age 9.8 years (IQR 7.7-11.5), 60 % male, 72 % Caucasian, were included in this prospective study in nine special schools for chronically ill children in the Netherlands. Overall malnutrition was assessed as: acute malnutrition (nutritional risk-screening tool STRONGkids. Subjective health status was assessed with EQ-5D. Overall, 16 % of the children had overall malnutrition: 3 % acute and 13 % chronic malnutrition. Nurses reported 'some/severe problems' on the health status dimensions mobility (15 %), self-care (17 %), usual activities (19 %), pain/discomfort (22 %), and anxiety/depression (22 %) in chronically ill children. Their mean visual analogue scale score (VAS) was 73.0 (SD 11.1). Malnutrition, medication usage, and younger age explained 38 % of the variance of the VAS score. The presence of overall malnutrition in chronically ill children attending special schools was associated with lower subjective health status, especially in younger children and in those with chronic medication usage. Therefore, it is important to develop and use profile-screening tools to identify these children.

  5. Early-stage primary school children attending a school in the Malawian School Feeding Program (SFP) have better reversal learning and lean muscle mass growth than those attending a non-SFP school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkhoma, Owen W W; Duffy, Maresa E; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A; Davidson, Philip W; McSorley, Emeir M; Strain, J J; O'Brien, Gerard M

    2013-08-01

    In developing countries, schoolchildren encounter a number of challenges, including failure to complete school, poor health and nutrition, and poor academic performance. Implementation of school feeding programs (SFPs) in less developed countries is increasing and yet there is mixed evidence regarding their positive effects on nutrition, education, and cognition at the population level. This study evaluated cognitive and anthropometric outcomes in entry-level primary school children in Malawi with the aim of generating evidence for the ongoing debate about SFPs in Malawi and other developing countries. A total of 226 schoolchildren aged 6-8 y in 2 rural Malawian public primary schools were followed for one school year. Children attending one school (SFP school) received a daily ration of corn-soy blend porridge, while those attending the other (non-SFP school) did not. Baseline and post-baseline outcomes included the Cambridge Neurological Test Automated Battery cognitive tests of paired associate learning, rapid visual information processing and intra-extra dimensional shift, and anthropometric measurements of weight, height, and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC). At follow-up, the SFP subcohort had a greater reduction than the non-SFP subcohort in the number of intra-extra predimensional shift errors made (mean 18.5 and 24.9, respectively; P-interaction = 0.02) and also showed an increase in MUAC (from 16.3 to 17.0; P-interaction learning and catch-up growth in lean muscle mass in children in the SFP school compared with children in the non-SFP school. These findings suggest that the Malawian SFP, if well managed and ration sizes are sustained, may have the potential to improve nutritional and cognitive indicators of the most disadvantaged children.

  6. Victimization from bullying among school-attending adolescents in grades 7 to 10 in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel Rudatsikira; Seter Siziya; Adamson Sinjani Muula

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Among school- attending adolescents, victimization from bullying is associated with anxiety, depression and poor academic performance. There are limited reports on victimization from bullying in Zambia; we therefore conducted this study to determine the prevalence and correlates for victimization from bullying among adolescents in grades 7 to 10 in the country in order to add information on the body of knowledge on victimization from bullying. Methods: The 2004 Zambia Gl...

  7. The relationship between school lunch attendance and the food intakes of French schoolchildren aged 3-17 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuisson, Carine; Lioret, Sandrine; Dufour, Ariane; Calamassi-Tran, Gloria; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Lafay, Lionel; Turck, Dominique

    2015-06-01

    Recently, school meal composition regulations have been implemented in France in order to improve the nutritional status of children. The present study investigated the link between school lunch attendance and the food intakes of schoolchildren aged 3-17 years. Second French cross-sectional dietary survey (2006-2007). Eating frequencies were assessed for twenty-four food groups with a 7 d food record. Eating locations were recorded for main meals. Food group intakes at weekday lunches were compared for the school canteen and for other locations. The children's overall dietary intake was compared based on school lunch attendance. Mainland France. Schoolchildren aged 3-17 years (n 1068). Lunchtime food intake differed between the school canteen and other locations. Some intakes at school canteens were more in accordance with the regulations (more fruit and vegetables, fish and dairy products, and less sandwiches, soft drinks, chocolate and confectionery), whereas others highlighted needs for improvement (more sweet biscuits and pastries, ice cream and dairy desserts, pizzas and salty pastries). Many of these differences were also observed in the children's overall diet: children regularly attending school lunches ate more mashed fruit, fish and sweet biscuits or pastries, and less sandwiches and soft drinks. The link between school lunch attendance and overall diet was less pronounced in secondary-school children. School canteen attendance is associated with both potentially beneficial and deleterious differences in the lunchtime and overall diets of French children. These findings are important to consider when setting national regulations for school meal composition.

  8. DISASTER AND YOUTH VIOLENCE: THE EXPERIENCE OF SCHOOL ATTENDING YOUTH IN NEW ORLEANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madkour, Aubrey S.; Johnson, Carolyn C.; Clum, Gretchen A.; Brown, Lisanne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Although disaster exposure is linked with increased child aggression, population-level trends are unknown. Pre- to post-Katrina changes in violence-related behaviors among New Orleans high school youth (ages 12-18) were assessed. Methods Data from the 2003 (pre-Katrina), 2005 (pre-Katrina) and 2007 (post-Katrina) New Orleans Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n=5,267) were utilized. Crude comparisons across years of population characteristics and violence behavior prevalence were made with chi-square analyses. Changes in violence-related behaviors over time were assessed with logistic regression models including indicators for survey years and controls for compositional changes. Results Age, gender and race/ethnicity of school-attending youth were stable across years. In models controlling for demographics, most behaviors were stable over time. Some changes were observed for all groups: dating violence and forced sex increased prior to the storm; weapon carrying and missing school due to feeling unsafe decreased after the storm. Among African American adolescents only, being threatened at school increased before Katrina. Conclusions Results do not support significant population-level increases in violent behavior among New Orleans school-attending youths post-Katrina. Factors that buffered New Orleans students from post-Katrina violence increases, such as population composition changes or increased supportive services, may explain these findings. PMID:21783056

  9. Disaster and youth violence: the experience of school-attending youth in New Orleans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madkour, Aubrey S; Johnson, Carolyn C; Clum, Gretchen A; Brown, Lisanne

    2011-08-01

    Although disaster exposure has been linked with increased child aggression by previous reports, population-level trends are unknown. Pre- to post-Katrina changes in violence-related behaviors among New Orleans high school youth (ages: 12-18 years) were assessed. Data from the 2003 (pre-Katrina), 2005 (pre-Katrina), and 2007 (post-Katrina) New Orleans Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n = 5,267) were used. Crude comparisons across years of population characteristics and violence behavior prevalence were made with χ(2) analyses. Changes in violence-related behaviors over time were assessed with logistic regression models including indicators for survey years and controls for compositional changes. Age, gender, and race/ethnicity of school-attending youth were stable across years. In models controlling for demographics, most behaviors were stable over time. Some changes were observed for all groups; dating violence and forced sex increased before the storm, whereas weapon-carrying and missing school as a result of feeling unsafe decreased after the storm. Among African American adolescents only, being threatened at school increased before Katrina. Results do not support significant population-level increases in violent behavior post-Katrina among school-attending youth in New Orleans. Factors that buffered New Orleans students from post-Katrina violence increases, such as population composition changes or increased supportive services, may explain these findings. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  10. Bullying and School Attendance: A Case Study of Senior High School Students in Ghana. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 41

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Mairead; Bosumtwi-Sam, Cynthia; Sabates, Ricardo; Owusu, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This monograph analyses the effects of bullying on school attendance among senior high school students in Ghana. A strong correlation is found between being bullied and having poor attendance. The effects of emotional problems and of peer friendships on this correlation are then examined. For both boys and girls, having emotional problems is…

  11. Using Group Counseling to Improve the Attendance of Elementary School Students with High Rates of Absenteeism: An Action Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb-Landman, Eleanor

    2012-01-01

    The foundations of academic and social learning are laid in the early years of school, and attendance is critical to school success. However, research suggests that chronic absenteeism is a significant problem at the elementary school level (Chang & Romero, 2008; Romero & Lee, 2007). This paper presents the results of an action research…

  12. An Examination of Barriers to Physical Education for Christian and Muslim Girls Attending Comprehensive Secondary Schools in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Dave; Hoyle, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    This study examined barriers to Physical Education (PE) in a sample of Christian and Muslim schoolgirls attending UK comprehensive secondary schools. Also assessed was whether religion and school year (age) had any impact upon barrier strength and if school year × religion interactions existed. A questionnaire was developed and exploratory factor…

  13. Daily Attendance Data. Chronic Absenteeism in Oregon Elementary Schools. Part 3 of 4. September 2016. Research Brief Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon Department of Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The Oregon Department of Education (ODE) partnered with 15 elementary schools to obtain and analyze student-level daily attendance records for 6,390 students. Schools ranged in size from just over 100 students to more than 600 students. Geographic locations also varied with 4 schools located in a city, 4 in a suburb, 4 in a town, and 3 in a rural…

  14. Effectiveness of school dental screening on stimulating dental attendance rates in Vikarabad town: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadde Praveen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The school dental screening program has been in existence from the beginning of 20 th century. Its value in encouraging attendance among school children is not fully established. Aim: The aim was to determine the effectiveness of school dental screening on stimulating dental attendance rates among school children in Vikarabad town. Objectives: (a To compare the dental attendance rates between 6-9 and 10-13 years old age groups, among male and female school children in Vikarabad town. (b To identify the type of dental treatment received by the school children. Materials and Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted among school children aged 6-13 years old from 16 schools that were randomly selected and divided into two groups. Eight schools had a dental screening program (study group = 300 children and had blanket referral cards and 8 schools that did not have the intervention (control group = 300. The dental attendance rates were determined after 3 months of follow-up period by evaluating the blanket referral cards for the study group and by an oral questionnaire for the control group. Results: The dental attendance rate was 27% for the study group and 18% for the control group which is statistically significant. The attendance rate was higher among 10-13 years of children both in test group and control groups. Among the children who visited the dentist, 53% in the control group and 69% from the test group got simple amalgam and glass ionomer cement restorations. Conclusion: The dental attendance rates were improved following school dental screening.

  15. Dental caries prevalence in children attending special needs schools in Johannesburg, Gauteng Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nqcobo, C B; Yengopal, V; Rudolph, M J; Thekiso, M; Joosab, Z

    2012-08-01

    Anecdotal evidence from clinical data in Johannesburg suggests that there is a high burden of dental caries among children with special health care needs (CSHCN) in Johannesburg. To determine the prevalence of dental caries and Unmet Treatment Needs in children with cerebral palsy, hearing, learning and mental disabilities attending special needs schools in Johannesburg and to compare these with data from the National Children's Oral Health Survey (NCOHS) METHODS: This cross-sectional analytical study comprised of 882 children attending five special needs schools in Johannesburg. Stratified randomised sampling of the participating schools was done and the schools were stratified by disability. Caries status was recorded via the dmft/DMFT index using WHO criteria and guidelines. The mean age of the participants was 10.5 years; with a caries prevalence of 27.55% and 33.56% in the primary and permanent dentition respectively. The highest unmet treatment need of 100% was found in the permanent dentition of the hearing impaired group followed by 90.77% in the primary dentition of the cerebral palsy group. In general no significant difference was found when the dmft/DMFT for CSHCN and NCOHS were compared except in the hearing impaired age groups four to five and six (both primary dentition) where significantly higher dmft scores (3.58 vs. 2.4; 3.85 vs. 2.9; p special health care needs had lower caries prevalence compared with the general population and higher unmet treatment needs regardless of the type of disability.

  16. Computerized Attendance Accounting and Emergency Assistance Communications: Viable Tools in Secondary School Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Vasel W.

    1971-01-01

    In the late 1968, the Space Technology Application Office at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) initiated a pilot study to determine whether technological aids could be developed that would help secondary school administrators cope with the volatile and chaotic situations that often accompany student activism, disorders, and riots. The study was conducted in cooperation with the Sacramento City Unified School District (SCUSD) and at the John F. Kennedy Senior High School (JFK) in Sacramento, California. The problems at JFK and in the SCUSD were identified and described to the JPL team by members of the Kennedy staff and personnel at various levels and departments within the school district. The JPL team of engineers restricted their scope to problems that appeared solvable, or at least partially solvable, through the use of technological systems. Thus far, two hardware systems have been developed for use in the school. The first, a personal emergency assistance communication system, has already been tested operationally at JFK and has met the objectives established for it. The second technological aid developed was a computerized attendance accounting system. This system has been fabricated, tested, and installed at JFK. Full-scale operational testing began in April 1971. While studies and hardware tests were in progress at JFK, contacts were made with several other schools in order that, insofar as practicable, hardware designs could allow for possible adaptation to schools other than JFK.

  17. High School Substance Use as a Predictor of College Attendance, Completion, and Dropout: A National Multi-cohort Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Megan E; Schulenberg, John E; O'Malley, Patrick M

    2016-05-01

    National data from Monitoring the Future were used to examine patterns and predictors of college attendance. Samples of American 12 th -grade students from 1977-2003 were followed for seven years (modal ages 18-25; N =10,020). College attendance and graduation patterns varied considerably over historical time and based on family background. Substance use during high school predicted a greater likelihood of never attending (for cigarettes, illegal drugs), of graduating from a 2-year rather than a 4-year school (for cigarettes), and of dropping out versus graduating from a 4-year school (for cigarettes, marijuana, and other illegal drugs). High school binge drinking predicted lower college dropout, but only in models also controlling for cigarette, marijuana, and other illicit drug use. This study provides a needed overview of adolescent predictors of patterns of college attendance among American young adults over the past three decades.

  18. Chronotype, Light Exposure, Sleep, and Daytime Functioning in High School Students Attending Morning or Afternoon School Shifts: An Actigraphic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeanne Sophie; Gaudreault, Michael M; Perron, Michel; Laberge, Luc

    2016-04-01

    Adolescent maturation is associated with delays of the endogenous circadian phase. Consequently, early school schedules may lead to a mismatch between internal and external time, which can be detrimental to adolescent sleep and health. In parallel, chronotype is known to play a role in adolescent health; evening chronotype adolescents are at higher risk for sleep problems and lower academic achievement. In the summer of 2008, Kénogami High School (Saguenay, Canada) was destroyed by fire. Kénogami students were subsequently relocated to Arvida High School (situated 5.3 km away) for the 2008-2009 academic year. A dual school schedule was implemented, with Arvida students attending a morning schedule (0740-1305 h) and Kénogami students an afternoon schedule (1325-1845 h). This study aimed to investigate the effects of such school schedules and chronotype on sleep, light exposure, and daytime functioning. Twenty-four morning and 33 afternoon schedule students wore an actigraph during 7 days to measure sleep and light exposure. Academic achievement was obtained from school. Subjects completed validated questionnaires on daytime sleepiness, psychological distress, social rhythms, school satisfaction, alcohol, and chronotype. Overall, afternoon schedule students had longer sleep duration, lower sleepiness, and lower light exposure than morning schedule students. Evening chronotypes (E-types) reported higher levels of sleepiness than morning chronotypes (M-types) in both morning and afternoon schedules. Furthermore, M-types attending the morning schedule reported higher sleepiness than M-types attending the afternoon schedule. No difference was found between morning and afternoon schedule students with regard to academic achievement, psychological distress, social rhythms, school satisfaction, and alcohol consumption. However, in both schedules, M-type had more regular social rhythms and lower alcohol consumption. In summary, this study emphasizes that an early school

  19. Assessment of exposure to traffic related air pollution of children attending schools near motorways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, Nicole A.H.; Vliet, Patricia H.N. van; Aarts, Francee; Harssema, Hendrik; Brunekreef, Bert

    2001-01-01

    To assess exposure to air pollution from traffic of children attending schools near motorways, traffic related air pollution (PM 2.5 , NO 2 and benzene) was measured in and outside 24 schools located within 400m of motorways in the Netherlands. Reflectance of PM 2.5 filters was measured as a proxy for elemental carbon (EC). The relationship between this proxy and measurements of EC was studied in a sub-sample and a high correlation was established. In both indoor and outdoor air, concentrations of PM 2.5 and 'soot' significantly increased with increasing truck traffic density and significantly decreased with increasing distance. Indoor NO 2 concentrations significantly increased with increasing car traffic. The percentage of time that the school was downwind of the motorway during the measurements was significantly associated with 'soot' and NO 2 , but no with PM 2.5 and benzene. Estimated yearly averaged concentrations, calculated after standardising for differences in the background concentrations during the measurements, showed an about 2.5 fold range in 'soot', benzene (indoors and outdoors) and NO 2 (indoors) concentrations. For PM 2.5 (indoors and outdoors) and NO 2 outdoors the range was smaller (1.4-1.7). Standardised concentrations were highly correlated with the results of two other approaches that were used to order the exposures at the schools. This study has shown that concentrations of air pollutants in and outside schools near motorways are significantly associated with distance, traffic density and composition, and percentage of time downwind. These variables can therefore be used to assess exposure to traffic related air pollution of subjects living near motorways. Furthermore, the yearly averaged concentrations of PM 2.5 , soot, NO 2 and benzene can be used as a more direct measure of long-term exposure in epidemiological studies of the children attending the 24 schools. (Author)

  20. School Choice: Education's Trickle Down Theory for Urban Students Attending Private Schools? Study II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapel, David E.; And Others

    This study investigated possible effects of school choice programs by surveying 200 private schools in large urban areas. The survey instrument requested information on school demography, possible effects of participation in a Choice program, costs, selection of students participating in Choice, and climate and parental involvement. Analysis of…

  1. Comparison of obesity, overweight and elevated blood pressure in children attending public and private primary schools in Benin City, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoh, W E; Israel-Aina, Y T; Sadoh, A E; Uduebor, J E; Shaibu, M; Ogonor, E; Enugwuna, F C

    2017-07-01

    Overweight and obesity in children, and adolescents is on the rise globally. Affected children are prone to cardio-metabolic problems later in life, especially hypertension. The prevalence of obesity/overweight may differ depending on school type. Private schools are attended mostly by children of the affluent, while public schools are attended predominantly by those in the low and middle socio-economic classes. To compare the prevalence of overweight, obesity and elevated blood pressure (BP) in pupils attending public and private primary schools in an urban community in Nigeria. In this cross sectional study, the BMI and BP of pupils in public and private primary schools, recruited by multistage sampling method, were measured. Their nutritional status was categorized using their BMI percentiles. Analysis was by SPSS. A total of 1466 pupils were recruited, 814(55.5%) were in public schools and 722(49.2%) were males. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher in private schools 11.8% and 11.7% compared to public schools 3.3% and 0.9%. The mean systolic BP of pupils in public schools 96.8 ± 12.5 mmHg was higher than that in private schools 95.5 ± 10.2 mmHg, p = 0.032. Distribution of pupils with prehypertension and hypertension between private and public schools was not significantly different. The prevalence of overweight and obesity is higher in pupils attending private schools compared to those in public school. Urgent measures are needed to stem this tide through education, weight reduction and physical activity programs, especially in pupils attending private schools.

  2. The Impact of Attending Religious Schools on the Moral Competencies of Accounting Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umaru Mustapha Zubairu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available For over a century, scholars have argued that religious education is crucial for the developed of students' moral competencies. This study sought to empirically test this assertion by comparing the moral competencies of two sets of Muslim accounting students: those who had attended a religious secondary school and those who attended a public (secular secondary school in Malaysia. The focus on accounting students is quite important in an era where the moral competencies of accountants has been in the public eye due to their complicity in the rash of financial scandals that have plagued the business world over the last two decades. The Muslim Accountant Moral Competency Test (MAMOC was developed by a collaboration with Islamic accounting scholars and was used to measure the students' moral competencies. Although the results revealed that there was no difference in the moral competencies of both sets of students, they both displayed satisfactory levels of moral competency which vindicates the Malaysian government's policy of mandating Islamic education in all secondary schools, whether religious or secular. 

  3. The association between child and adolescent emotional disorder and poor attendance at school: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finning, Katie; Moore, Darren; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Danielsson-Waters, Emilia; Ford, Tamsin

    2017-06-28

    Anxiety and depression are common in young people and are associated with a range of adverse outcomes. Research has suggested a relationship between emotional disorder and poor school attendance, and thus poor attendance may serve as a red flag for children at risk of emotional disorder. This systematic review aims to investigate the association between child and adolescent emotional disorder and poor attendance at school. We will search electronic databases from a variety of disciplines including medicine, psychology, education and social sciences, as well as sources of grey literature, to identify any quantitative studies that investigate the relationship between emotional disorder and school attendance. Emotional disorder may refer to diagnoses of mood or anxiety disorders using standardised diagnostic measures, or measures of depression, anxiety or "internalising symptoms" using a continuous scale. Definitions for school non-attendance vary, and we aim to include any relevant terminology, including attendance, non-attendance, school refusal, school phobia, absenteeism and truancy. Two independent reviewers will screen identified papers and extract data from included studies. We will assess the risk of bias of included studies using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Random effects meta-analysis will be used to pool quantitative findings when studies use the same measure of association, otherwise a narrative synthesis approach will be used. This systematic review will provide a detailed synthesis of evidence regarding the relationship between childhood emotional disorder and poor attendance at school. Understanding this relationship has the potential to assist in the development of strategies to improve the identification of and intervention for this vulnerable group. PROSPERO CRD42016052961.

  4. Outcome of Doctors Attending the European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology Winter Schools 2008-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Malcolm D C

    2017-01-01

    Since 1995, the European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology (ESPE) has hosted Winter School (WS), a 5-day interactive meeting of 25 trainees and 7 teachers designed to cover all main endocrine topics. The aim of the present study was to determine subsequent outcome in ex-WS "students." A questionnaire was sent in August 2016 to all ESPE WS participants between 2008 and 2014. Information was requested on job/training status at WS attendance and in 2016, and subsequent involvement with ESPE. Of 174 participants (144 women, 30 men) including 5 attending two WS, 129 (74.5%) responded. At the time of WS/2016 survey 58/3 participants were junior trainees, 38/21 senior trainees, and 33/101 consultants. One hundred and seventeen (90.6%) responders were still involved with endocrinology, 107 (82%) rating WS as having a strong/very strong influence on their careers. Following WS, 80/174 (46%) participants had attended at least one ESPE main meeting, 28 (16%) had been awarded ESPE fellowships, and 34 (19%) had become ESPE members. The great majority of WS participants responding to the questionnaire are still involved with endocrinology and rated WS as influential. This favourable outcome supports the continuing funding of WS and similar educational programmes. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Use of counselling services by school-attending adolescent girls in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azfredrick, Ezinwanne Christiana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the predictors and barriers to the use of school counselling services by school attending adolescent girls in south-east Nigeria. The study used a cross-sectional survey of 3065 adolescent girls, using a self-report counselling utilisation scale. Data were analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. About 80% of the participants had school counsellors and nearly half of the participants utilised the service. Regression results showed that father's level of education, availability of a counselling laboratory/room, contentment with the counselling services rendered predicted the use of the counselling service. Some of the barriers for non-use of school counselling services were shyness, fear and lack of confidentiality. School authorities will encourage uptake of counselling services by adolescents when adequate counselling consulting rooms are provided. This will increase confidence in adolescent clients and reduce fear attached to use of these services. This will improve their mental health and their academic performance.

  6. A Phenomenological Study of Sexual Harassment and Violence among Girls Attending High Schools in Urban Slums, Nairobi, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuya, Benta A.; Onsomu, Elijah O.; Moore, DaKysha; Sagwe, Jackline

    2012-01-01

    In 2003, 31% of young Kenyan women ages 15-24 reported sexual harassment and violence (SHV), with a majority experiencing sexual debut due to coercion (Central Bureau of Statistics, 2004). Data were obtained from a sample of 20 girls attending school in Kamu and Lafamu (pseudonyms used for the study sites), 10 girls who had dropped out of school,…

  7. Locating the Dropout Crisis. Which High Schools Produce the Nation's Dropouts? Where Are They Located? Who Attends Them? Report 70

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfanz, Robert; Legters, Nettie

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to locate the dropout crisis- to determine its scale and scope by identifying the number of high schools with severe dropout problems, detailing the states, cities, and locales where they are concentrated, and establishing who attends them. For this analysis of high schools across the country, two cut-points were…

  8. Examining Master Schedule Practices in Rio Grande Valley Schools: Effects on Student Attendance, Discipline, and Grade Point Averages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriaga, Benito T.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of the master schedule design on student attendance, discipline, and grade point averages. Unexcused and excused absences, minor and major infraction, and grade point averages in three high schools during the 2008-09 and 2009-10 school years were included in the study. The purpose was to examine if any difference…

  9. Enhancing the Capacity of School Nurses to Reduce Excessive Anxiety in Children: Development of the CALM Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Kelly L.; Stewart, Catherine E.; Muggeo, Michela A.; Ginsburg, Golda S.

    2015-01-01

    Problem: Excessive anxiety is among the most common psychiatric problems facing youth. Because anxious youth tend to have somatic complaints, many seek help from the school nurse. Thus, school nurses are in an ideal position to provide early intervention. This study addresses this problem and describes the plans to develop and test a new…

  10. Delayed high school start times later than 8:30am and impact on graduation rates and attendance rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeever, Pamela Malaspina; Clark, Linda

    2017-04-01

    The first purpose of this study was to investigate changes in high school graduation rates with a delayed school start time of later than 8:30am. The second aim of the study was to analyze the association between a delayed high school start time later than 8:30am and attendance rates. In the current study, a pre-post design using a repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to examine changes in attendance and graduation rates 2 years after a delayed start was implemented. Public high schools from 8 school districts (n=29 high schools) located throughout 7 different states. Schools were identified using previous research from the Children's National Medical Center's Division of Sleep Medicine Research Team. A total membership of more than 30,000 high school students enrolled in the 29 schools identified by the Children's National Medical Center's Research Team. A pre-post design was used for a within-subject design, controlling for any school-to-school difference in the calculation of the response variable. This is the recommended technique for a study that may include data with potential measurement error. Findings from this study linked a start time of later than 8:30am to improved attendance rates and graduation rates. Attendance rates and graduation rates significantly improved in schools with delayed start times of 8:30am or later. School officials need to take special notice that this investigation also raises questions about whether later start times are a mechanism for closing the achievement gap due to improved graduation rates. Copyright © 2017 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Dental caries among disabled individuals attending special schools in Vhembe district, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemutandani, M S; Adedoja, D; Nevhuhlwi, D

    2013-11-01

    To determine the prevalence of dental caries among disabled individuals attending special schools in Vhembe districts. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted from January to June 2012 among disabled individuals receiving special care in four specialised schools of Vhembe District. The research protocol had been approved by the Ethics Committee of the University of Limpopo, Polokwane Campus. Informed consent was obtained from the parents of the participants and from the respective school principals. Oral health examinations took place at the school under natural light, with participants seated on an ordinary chair/wheelchair. Dental caries examinations were carried out, using a mirror and wooden spatula in accordance with World Health Organisation (WHO) criteria and methods. Decayed, missing and filled primary and permanent teeth (dmft, DMFT) were recorded. All disabled individuals who were available during a screening period, were included. Those who were not available, as well as those whose health conditions could be compromised by dental examinations, were excluded. The number of decayed teeth ranged from 0-7 in children below 6 years, 0-12 in children below 11 years; and 0-17 among young adults. The mean decay scores and the numbers of missing teeth increased with age. Only 3 (0.04%) individuals had dental fillings. The mean dmft score of children under 6 years was 5.51 (+/- 2.1), ranging from zero to 8. The mean DMFT's of the 11-18 and 19 years and older groups were 7.38 (+/- 3.22) and 10.24 (+/- 2.97) respectively. Disabled individuals exhibited higher caries prevalence and unmet dental needs than the same age general population in Limpopo. Preventive measures and dental treatment should be considered urgent requirements at special needs schools in the Vhembe District.

  12. Intestinal helminth infections and nutritional status of children attending primary schools in Wakiso District, Central Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwanga, Francis; Francis, Lwanga; Kirunda, Barbara Eva; Orach, Christopher Garimoi

    2012-08-01

    A cross-sectional study to assess the prevalence of intestinal helminth infections and nutritional status of primary school children was conducted in the Wakiso district in Central Uganda. A total of 432 primary school children aged 6-14 years were randomly selected from 23 schools. Anthropometric measurements of weight, height, MUAC were undertaken and analyzed using AnthroPlus software. Stool samples were examined using a Kato-Katz method. The prevalence of stunting, underweight and moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) was 22.5%, 5.3% and 18.5% respectively. Males had a threefold risk of being underweight (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.17-9.4, p = 0.011) and 2 fold risk of suffering from MAM (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.21-3.48, p = 0.004). Children aged 10-14 years had a 2.9 fold risk of stunting (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.37-6.16, p = 0.002) and 1.9 risk of MAM (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.07-3.44, p = 0.019). Attending urban slum schools had 1.7 fold risk of stunting (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.03-2.75, p = 0.027). Rural schools presented a twofold risk of helminth infection (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.12-3.32, p = 0.012). The prevalence of helminth infections was (10.9%), (3.1%), (1.9%), (0.2%) for hookworm, Trichuriatrichiura, Schistosomamansoni and Ascarislumbricoides, respectively. The study revealed that 26.6%, 46% and 10.3% of incidences of stunting, underweight and MAM respectively were attributable to helminth infections.

  13. Cataract in children attending schools for the blind and resource centers in eastern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msukwa, Gerald; Njuguna, Margaret; Tumwesigye, Cillasy; Shilio, Bernadeth; Courtright, Paul; Lewallen, Susan

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to describe results of a representative sample of children who have undergone cataract surgery in schools for the blind in 4 African countries. Cross-sectional study. Children enrolled at schools for the blind in Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania, and Uganda. We used a population-proportional-to-size methodology to select a representative sample of schools for the blind and annexes and included all the children attending the selected schools. Trained teams using standardized examination methods and a modified World Health Organization form examined the children. The form was modified specifically to collect information on outcomes of cataract surgery. Operative status and postoperative visual acuity. Of 1062 children examined, 196 (18%) had undergone cataract surgery or had cataract as the major cause of visual impairment; 140 (71%) had bilateral surgery, 24 (12%) had unilateral surgery, and 32 (16%) had not had surgery. Of operated eyes, 118 (41%) had visual acuity > or =20/200. Intraocular lenses were implanted in 65% of the operated eyes. Eyes with intraocular lens were more likely to have better vision than those without (P for trend = 0.04). Amblyopia was the most common cause of poor visual acuity in children who had undergone cataract surgery. The number of children in the schools who receive cataract surgery has increased greatly since 1995. The high rate of amblyopia highlights the critical need for programs to find children earlier and to ensure adequate follow-up after surgery. Without such programs, the value of training pediatric surgeons will not be fully realized. The authors have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article.

  14. Knowledge of students attending a high school in Pretoria, South Africa, on diet, nutrition and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letlape, S V; Mokwena, K; Oguntibeju, O O

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to ascertain the knowledge of students on the composition of a healthy diet, daily nutritional requirements and the importance of regular exercise. A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire with closed and open-ended questions to assess students 'knowledge on diet, nutrition and exercise was conducted. The study group were students of Tswaing High School in Pretoria, South Africa, who were in attendance on a particular day when the study was conducted and who consented to participate in the study Only 500 students of the school participated in the study Results showed that 77% of the students do not have adequate knowledge on diet, nutrition and exercise while 23% of the students showed satisfactory knowledge. Approximately 26% and 16% of the students reported that they participated in rigorous and moderate exercise respectively The study also showed that the majority of the students were however not engaged in physical activities. Students at Tswaing High School do not have adequate knowledge on nutrition, diet and exercise. Their views on what exercise entails were found not to be satisfactory. Programmes/ information or seminars that could assist to inform students on the importance of diet and exercise are therefore suggested.

  15. Shiftworking families: parents' working schedule and sleep patterns of adolescents attending school in two shifts

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    Biserka Radoševic-Vidacek

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To explore whether parents' engagement in shift work affects the sleep habits of their adolescent children who attend school in two shifts. METHODS: The data were drawn from an extensive survey of sleep and daytime functioning of adolescents attending school one week in the morning and the other in the afternoon. The participants were 1,386 elementary and high school students (11-18 years old whose parents were both employed. The data were analyzed using MANOVA, with parents' work schedule, adolescents' gender and type of school as between-subject factors. RESULTS: Parents' working schedule significantly affected the sleep patterns of high school adolescents. When attending school in the morning, adolescents whose parents were both day workers woke up somewhat later than adolescents with one shiftworking parent. In addition, they slept longer than adolescents whose parents were both shift workers. On weekends, adolescents whose parents both worked during the day went to bed earlier than adolescents whose parents were both shiftworkers. They also had smaller bedtime delay on weekends with respect to both morning and afternoon shifts than adolescents for whom one or both parents worked shifts. A significant interaction between parents' working schedule, adolescents' gender and type of school was found for sleep extension on weekends after afternoon shift school. CONCLUSIONS: Parental involvement in shift work has negative effects on the sleep of high school adolescents. It contributes to earlier wake-up time and shorter sleep in a week when adolescents attend school in the morning, as well as to greater bedtime irregularity.OBJETIVO: Investigar se a ocupação de pais com o trabalho em turnos interfere nos hábitos de sono dos filhos adolescentes que freqüentam a escola em dois períodos distintos. MÉTODOS: Os dados foram coletados em uma extensa pesquisa sobre sono e atividades diurnas de adolescentes que freqüentavam a escola no

  16. Substance use and dietary practices among students attending alternative high schools: results from a pilot study

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    Hannan Peter J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substance use and poor dietary practices are prevalent among adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine frequency of substance use and associations between cigarette, alcohol and marijuana use and selected dietary practices, such as sugar-sweetened beverages, high-fat foods, fruits and vegetables, and frequency of fast food restaurant use among alternative high school students. Associations between multi-substance use and the same dietary practices were also examined. Methods A convenience sample of adolescents (n = 145; 61% minority, 52% male attending six alternative high schools in the St Paul/Minneapolis metropolitan area completed baseline surveys. Students were participants in the Team COOL (Controlling Overweight and Obesity for Life pilot study, a group randomized obesity prevention pilot trial. Mixed model multivariate analyses procedures were used to assess associations of interest. Results Daily cigarette smoking was reported by 36% of students. Cigarette smoking was positively associated with consumption of regular soda (p = 0.019, high-fat foods (p = 0.037, and fast food restaurant use (p = 0.002. Alcohol (p = 0.005 and marijuana use (p = 0.035 were positively associated with high-fat food intake. With increasing numbers of substances, a positive trend was observed in high-fat food intake (p = 0.0003. There were no significant associations between substance use and fruit and vegetable intake. Conclusions Alternative high school students who use individual substances as well as multiple substances may be at high risk of unhealthful dietary practices. Comprehensive health interventions in alternative high schools have the potential of reducing health-compromising behaviors that are prevalent among this group of students. This study adds to the limited research examining substance use and diet among at-risk youth. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01315743

  17. Kindergarten attendance may reduce developmental impairments in children: results from the Bavarian Pre-School Morbidity Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caniato, Riccardo N; Alvarenga, Marlies E; Stich, Heribert L; Jansen, Holger; Baune, Berhard T

    2010-08-01

    The relative risks and benefits of children attending kindergarten or pre-school remain uncertain and controversial. We used data from the Bavarian Pre-School Morbidity Survey (BPMS) to look at the prevalence of developmental impairments in pre-school children entering primary school and to assess if these were correlated with the duration of kindergarten attendance. We collected data from all school beginners in the district of Dingolfing, Bavaria from 2004 to 2007 (n = 4,005) and utilised a retrospective cross-sectional study design to review the information. The children were assessed for motor, cognitive, language and psychosocial impairments using a standardized medical assessment. Point prevalence of impairments of speech, cognition, motor functioning and psychosocial functioning were compared by chi(2)-test for the variable of time spent in kindergarten. We detected a high incidence of impairments, with boys showing higher rates than girls in all the areas assessed. Longer length of time spent in kindergarten was associated with reduced rates of motor, cognitive and psychosocial impairments. There was no clear correlation between length of kindergarten attendance and speech disorders. Kindergarten attendance may have a positive effect on a number of domains of development including motor, cognitive and psychosocial development, but no significant effect on speech impairments. Implications for public health policies are discussed.

  18. A prospective study of methamphetamine use as a predictor of high school non-attendance in Cape Town, South Africa

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    Parry Charles D

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This prospective study investigated the association between life-long methamphetamine and other drug use and high school non-attendance, in a sample of high school students in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods A random sample of 1535 high school students completed a baseline questionnaire in 2006, and were asked to complete a follow-up questionnaire 12 months later. The questionnaire included questions on substance use, including tobacco, alcohol, methamphetamine and cannabis use, demographic factors, and questions relating to school attendance and performance. Results Forty-three percent of the students surveyed at baseline did not complete a follow-up questionnaire after 12 months. Compared with students who were not using selected substances, an adjusted logistic regression model showed that life-time methamphetamine use in addition to other substances was significantly associated with non-attendance (OR = 2.58, 95% CI: 1.24 - 5.36 when other non-substance use factors (repeating a year at school and being older than the norm for current grade were taken into account. Conclusions Early identification of students with methamphetamine and other substance use problems, and a supportive rather than punitive school policy, may be valuable in improving high school completion and student retention rates.

  19. A Dynamical View of High School Attendance: An Assessment of Short-term and Long-term Dependencies in Five Urban Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmans, Matthijs

    2015-01-01

    While school attendance is a critical mediator to academic achievement, its time dependent characteristics are rarely investigated. To remedy situation, this paper reports on the analysis of daily attendance rates in five urban high schools over a seven-year period. Traditional time series analyses were conducted to estimate short-range and cyclical dependencies in the data. An Autoregressive Fractional Integrated Moving Average (ARFIMA) approach was used to address long-range correlational patterns, and detect signs of self-organized criticality. The analysis reveals a strong cyclical pattern (weekly) in all five schools, and evidence for self-organized criticality in one of the five. These findings illustrate the insufficiency of traditional statistical summary measures to characterize the distribution of daily attendance, and they suggest that daily attendance is not necessarily the stable and predictable feature of school effectiveness it is conventionally assumed to be. While educational practitioners can probably attest to the many of the irregularities in attendance patterns as well as some of their sources, a systematic description of these temporal aspects needs to be included in our assessment of daily attendance behavior to inform policy decisions, if only to better align formal research in this area with existing local knowledge about those patterns.

  20. Knowledge of sexual and reproductive health among adolescents attending school in Kelantan, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ab Rahman, Azriani; Ab Rahman, Razlina; Ibrahim, Mohd Ismail; Salleh, Halim; Ismail, Shaiful Bahri; Ali, Siti Hawa; Muda, Wan Manan Wan; Ishak, Maizun; Ahmad, Amaluddin

    2011-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the knowledge of sexual and reproductive health among adolescents attending school and to compare the levels of knowledge between males and females and between older and younger groups of adolescents. Across-sectional study was conducted among 1,034 secondary school students using a self administered validated questionnaire. The items with the fewest correct responses included: whether one can get pregnant after a single act of sexual intercourse (30.4%), whether sexual intercourse causes sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) (12.4%) and whether washing the vagina after sexual intercourse prevents pregnancy (17.0%). Their main source of sexual information was friends (64.4%). An independent t-test revealed the mean knowledge score was significantly higher among females than males on items assessing whether the genitalia may be touched freely by family members, females having attained menarche may become pregnant if having sex, whether pregnancy will occur if there is penetration of the penis into the vagina, whether premarital sexual intercourse causes pregnancy and if there is a relationship between abandoned babies and premarital pregnancies. The mean knowledge score assessing whether pregnancy can be prevented using condoms was higher among males than females. The mean knowledge scores were significantly higher among form four and form five students than forms one, two and three students. Lack of knowledge regarding important aspects of sexual and reproductive health warrant the need to strengthen sexual and reproductive health education.

  1. Predictors of excessive use of social media and excessive online gaming in Czech teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilková, Jana; Chomynová, Pavla; Csémy, Ladislav

    2017-12-01

    Background and aims Young people's involvement in online gaming and the use of social media are increasing rapidly, resulting in a high number of excessive Internet users in recent years. The objective of this paper is to analyze the situation of excessive Internet use among adolescents in the Czech Republic and to reveal determinants of excessive use of social media and excessive online gaming. Methods Data from secondary school students (N = 4,887) were collected within the 2015 European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs. Logistic regression models were constructed to describe the individual and familial discriminative factors and the impact of the health risk behavior of (a) excessive users of social media and (b) excessive players of online games. Results The models confirmed important gender-specific distinctions - while girls are more prone to online communication and social media use, online gaming is far more prevalent among boys. The analysis did not indicate an influence of family composition on both the excessive use of social media and on excessive online gaming, and only marginal effects for the type of school attended. We found a connection between the excessive use of social media and binge drinking and an inverse relation between excessive online gaming and daily smoking. Discussion and conclusion The non-existence of significant associations between family environment and excessive Internet use confirmed the general, widespread of this phenomenon across the social and economic strata of the teenage population, indicating a need for further studies on the topic.

  2. Depression and anxiety among Grade 11 and 12 learners attending schools in central Bloemfontein

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    M A A Strydom

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Anxiety disorders are the most common childhood psychiatric disorders. Previous research suggests that South African rates may be high. Our study examined the prevalence and severity of anxiety and depression among Grade 11 and 12 learners attending schools in central Bloemfontein. Learners’ perception of the important stressors as well as the most relevant coping strategies were investigated. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted by using self-assessment rating scales and questionnaires. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS was used to screen for anxiety and depressive symptoms. Participants were provided with an additional list of possible stressors and coping skills, from which they identified those applicable to themselves. All students enrolled in Grades 11 and 12 at the selected schools during August 2009 were eligible for inclusion. Results. Five hundred and fifteen learners participated in the study, of whom 32.0% presented with moderate or severe anxiety and 5.3% with moderate or severe depressive symptoms. Mild symptoms were reported by an additional 29.0% on the anxiety subscale and 14% on the depression subscale of the HADS. Academic workload was reported as the main source of stress (81.4%. Conclusions. Although the study has limitations in terms of methodology and size, resulting in undetermined validity, it indicates possible higher prevalence rates for anxiety and depression than in previous South African studies and worldwide prevalence rates for adolescents. Pupils were generally hesitant to seek help from formal assistance structures provided by the schools, and preferred discussing problems with parents or friends.

  3. Hidden Gains: Effects of Early U.S. Compulsory Schooling Laws on Attendance and Attainment by Social Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Research on early compulsory schooling laws finds minimal effects on attendance but fails to investigate heterogeneous effects. Similarly, research proposes limited contexts in which expansion policies can increase equality but has difficulty separating policy and cohort effects. Capitalizing on within-country variation in timing of early…

  4. The Prevalence and Determinants of Overweight and Obesity among French Youths and Adults with Intellectual Disabilities Attending Special Education Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begarie, Jerome; Maiano, Christophe; Leconte, Pascale; Ninot, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the prevalence of overweight and obesity and a panel of potential determinants among French youths and adults with an intellectual disability (ID). The sample used consisted of 1120 youths and adults with an ID, from 5 to 28 years old, attending a French special education school. The results indicated that 19.8% of the…

  5. Experiences of Caregivers in Healthcare for and Social Support of HIV Positive Children Attending Schools in Bangkok

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    Duangkamol Wattradul, DNS, RN

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Our findings can inform the design of systems for educational and social support alongside adequate healthcare for children living with HIV/AIDS attending school. The Thai government needs to establish collaboration between the educational and health sectors to reduce the stigma of HIV, promote acceptance and provide support.

  6. 76 FR 29805 - Submission for Review: Verification of Full-Time School Attendance, RI 25-49

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... other technological collection techniques or other forms of information technology, e.g., permitting... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Verification of Full-Time School Attendance... Federal agencies the opportunity to comment on a revised information collection request (ICR) 3206-0215...

  7. Attendance, Performance and the Acquisition of Early Literacy Skills: A Comparison of Indigenous and Non-Indigenous School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrich, John; Wolgemuth, Jennifer R.; Helmer, Janet; Oteng, Georges; Lea, Tess; Bartlett, Claire; Smith, Heather; Emmett, Sue

    2010-01-01

    As part of an evaluation of a web-based early literacy intervention, ABRACADABRA, a small exploratory study was conducted over one term in three primary schools in the Northern Territory. Of particular concern was the relationship between attendance and the acquisition of early literacy skills of Indigenous and non-Indigenous children. Using the…

  8. Comparing among the Experiences of Self-Cutting, Hitting, and Scratching in Chinese Adolescents Attending Secondary Schools: An Interview Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jianing; Ma, Congfen; Lin, Min-Pei; Leung, Freedom

    2015-01-01

    This study examined adolescents' experiences associated with nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and compared among the experiences of self-cutting, hitting, and scratching. Participants included 42 Chinese adolescents attending secondary schools. They had at least three NSSI episodes in the preceding year. Information about their experiences of NSSI…

  9. [Realities and professional expectations of medical students attending Guinea Bissau's medical school in 2007 school year].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronteira, Inês; Rodrigues, Amabélia; Pereira, Camilo; Silva, Augusto P; Mercer, Hugo; Dussault, Guilles; Ferrinho, Paulo

    2011-01-01

    In Guinea Bissau, the majority of university level professionals are still being trained abroad and most of them do not return to their country. This was a major incentive for creating Guinea Bissau's Medical School. An observational, cross-sectional, analytic study was conducted on the second trimester of 2007 to characterize the socio-demographic, familial and educational profile of medical students, their satisfaction levels, difficulties and expectations concerning the medicine course. A questionnaire was used and a response rate of 63% achieved (81 students). Data was analyzed using SPSS v.17 for descriptive statistics. Students are very committed to their education. They tend to decide to take the medicine course early in their lives and are influenced by their relatives. They choose to be medical doctors because they like it but also for altruistic reasons and the desire to save lives. Although many face financial and material difficulties, they tend to have success in their academic live. They live with their parents, do not have children and some have side jobs to provide for extra income to help with their education. They expect their education to make them good doctors in any part of the world and want to work simultaneously in the public (to serve their country and pay their debt to the State) and in the private sector (to enhance their income). The large majority wants to work in a hospital, in Bissau, and to be a pediatrician or obstetrician. They have unreasonably high expectations concerning their future income as medical doctors.

  10. Effects of a free school breakfast programme on school attendance, achievement, psychosocial function, and nutrition: a stepped wedge cluster randomised trial

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    Maddison Ralph

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Approximately 55,000 children in New Zealand do not eat breakfast on any given day. Regular breakfast skipping has been associated with poor diets, higher body mass index, and adverse effects on children's behaviour and academic performance. Research suggests that regular breakfast consumption can improve academic performance, nutrition and behaviour. This paper describes the protocol for a stepped wedge cluster randomised trial of a free school breakfast programme. The aim of the trial is to determine the effects of the breakfast intervention on school attendance, achievement, psychosocial function, dietary habits and food security. Methods/Design Sixteen primary schools in the North Island of New Zealand will be randomised in a sequential stepped wedge design to a free before-school breakfast programme consisting of non-sugar coated breakfast cereal, milk products, and/or toast and spreads. Four hundred children aged 5-13 years (approximately 25 per school will be recruited. Data collection will be undertaken once each school term over the 2010 school year (February to December. The primary trial outcome is school attendance, defined as the proportion of students achieving an attendance rate of 95% or higher. Secondary outcomes are academic achievement (literacy, numeracy, self-reported grades, sense of belonging at school, psychosocial function, dietary habits, and food security. A concurrent process evaluation seeks information on parents', schools' and providers' perspectives of the breakfast programme. Discussion This randomised controlled trial will provide robust evidence of the effects of a school breakfast programme on students' attendance, achievement and nutrition. Furthermore the study provides an excellent example of the feasibility and value of the stepped wedge trial design in evaluating pragmatic public health intervention programmes. Trial Registration Number Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry

  11. Effects of a free school breakfast programme on school attendance, achievement, psychosocial function, and nutrition: a stepped wedge cluster randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Turley, Maria; Gorton, Delvina; Jiang, Yannan; Michie, Jo; Maddison, Ralph; Hattie, John

    2010-11-29

    Approximately 55,000 children in New Zealand do not eat breakfast on any given day. Regular breakfast skipping has been associated with poor diets, higher body mass index, and adverse effects on children's behaviour and academic performance. Research suggests that regular breakfast consumption can improve academic performance, nutrition and behaviour. This paper describes the protocol for a stepped wedge cluster randomised trial of a free school breakfast programme. The aim of the trial is to determine the effects of the breakfast intervention on school attendance, achievement, psychosocial function, dietary habits and food security. Sixteen primary schools in the North Island of New Zealand will be randomised in a sequential stepped wedge design to a free before-school breakfast programme consisting of non-sugar coated breakfast cereal, milk products, and/or toast and spreads. Four hundred children aged 5-13 years (approximately 25 per school) will be recruited. Data collection will be undertaken once each school term over the 2010 school year (February to December). The primary trial outcome is school attendance, defined as the proportion of students achieving an attendance rate of 95% or higher. Secondary outcomes are academic achievement (literacy, numeracy, self-reported grades), sense of belonging at school, psychosocial function, dietary habits, and food security. A concurrent process evaluation seeks information on parents', schools' and providers' perspectives of the breakfast programme. This randomised controlled trial will provide robust evidence of the effects of a school breakfast programme on students' attendance, achievement and nutrition. Furthermore the study provides an excellent example of the feasibility and value of the stepped wedge trial design in evaluating pragmatic public health intervention programmes. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) - ACTRN12609000854235.

  12. Improving Attendance and Retention in Out-of-School Time Programs. Research-to-Results Practitioner Insights. Publication # 2007-17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Elena; Wilson, Brooke; Valladares, Sherylls; Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta

    2007-01-01

    Regular participation in out-of-school time activities is associated with benefits for children. However, children cannot reap the benefits of program participation if they do not attend programs in the first place. This brief focuses on ways in which out-of-school time programs can improve the attendance and retention of children and youth in…

  13. The mental health of children of migrant workers in Beijing: the protective role of public school attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qin; Li, Hong; Zou, Hong; Cross, Wendi; Bian, Ran; Liu, Yan

    2015-08-01

    The present study aims to understand the mental health status of an understudied group of migrant children - children of migrant workers in China. A total of 1,466 children from Beijing participated in the study that compared migrant children (n = 1,019) to their local peers (n = 447) in public and private school settings. Results showed that overall, migrant children reported more internalizing and externalizing mental health problems and lower life satisfaction than local peers. However, public school attendance served as a protective factor for migrant children's mental health. The mental health status of migrant children attending public schools, including externalizing problems as well as friend and school satisfaction, was not different from local children. In addition, our data indicates that the protective effect of public school attendance for migrant children may be even more salient among girls than boys, and for younger children than older children. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Prevalence of dental caries in people attending special schools in Hyderabad-Secunderabad, India

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    Mahesh Kumar Duddu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the decayed, missing, filled primary and permanent teeth (dmft-DMFT indices and its association with the type of disability in 856 disabled individuals attending special schools in twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad, Andhra Pradesh State, India. Materials and Methods: Participants were grouped according to their disability such as: Mild, moderate, severe mental retardation, hearing and speech defect and others (39 (including Down′s syndrome [20], autism [9], hyperactive [4], microcephaly [2], border line cases [4]. Examination was carried out at their schools, with participants seated in ordinary chairs and examined under natural light with mouth mirror and probe. Subjects were of different age groups ranging from 1 to 55 years. Statistical Analysis Used: Analysis of variance with post-hoc Games-Howell test was used for statistical analysis. Results: Mean dmft; DMFT scores were as follows: 2-6 years: 1.58 ± 1.9; 2.18 ± 2.94, 7-12 years: 1.1 ± 2.4; 1.9 ± 2.13, 13-30 years: 2.38 ± 2.5, 30+ years: 2.13 ± 3.2. Overall only 23% of subjects were caries free. "dmft" was statistically higher among moderate mentally retarded group while DMFT was statistically higher in mild and moderate mentally retarded groups. Conclusions: These findings emphasize the need of educating parents and caregivers of disabled individuals in preventive dental procedures, especially those of the mild and moderate mentally challenged group.

  15. Dr. David Sawyer, Mickey Mouse and Dr. David Brown attend a ceremony at Ronald McNair Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Dr. David Sawyer (left), Superintendent of the Brevard County School District, Mickey Mouse, and Dr. David Brown, a NASA astronaut, attend a tribute to NASA astronaut Ronald McNair held in the gymnasium of Ronald McNair Magnet School in Cocoa, Fla. During the tribute, Walt Disney World presented a portrait of McNair to the school, which had previously been renamed for the fallen astronaut. McNair was one of a crew of seven who lost their lives during an accident following launch of the Space Shuttle Challenger in January 1986.

  16. Family environment, coping, and mental health in adolescents attending therapeutic day schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Erin M; Donenberg, Geri R; Emerson, Erin; Wilson, Helen W; Brown, Larry K; Houck, Christopher

    2014-10-01

    This study examined associations among family environment, coping, and emotional and conduct problems in adolescents attending therapeutic day schools due to mental health problems. Adolescents (N = 417; 30.2% female) ages 13-20 (M = 15.25) reported on their family environment (affective involvement and functioning), coping (emotion-focused support-seeking, cognitive restructuring, avoidant actions), and emotional and conduct problems. Poorer family environment was associated with less emotion-focused support-seeking and cognitive restructuring, and more emotional and conduct problems. Emotional problems were negatively associated with cognitive restructuring, and conduct problems were negatively associated with all coping strategies. Cognitive restructuring accounted for the relationship between family environment and emotional problems. Cognitive restructuring and emotion-focused support-seeking each partially accounted for the relationship between family functioning and conduct problems, but not the relationship between family affective involvement and conduct problems. Findings implicate the role of coping in the relationship between family environment and adolescent mental health. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Differences in exam performance between pupils attending selective and non-selective schools mirror the genetic differences between them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Woolley, Emily; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Selzam, Saskia; Rimfeld, Kaili; Krapohl, Eva; von Stumm, Sophie; Asbury, Kathryn; Dale, Philip S.; Young, Toby; Allen, Rebecca; Kovas, Yulia; Plomin, Robert

    2018-03-01

    On average, students attending selective schools outperform their non-selective counterparts in national exams. These differences are often attributed to value added by the school, as well as factors schools use to select pupils, including ability, achievement and, in cases where schools charge tuition fees or are located in affluent areas, socioeconomic status. However, the possible role of DNA differences between students of different schools types has not yet been considered. We used a UK-representative sample of 4814 genotyped students to investigate exam performance at age 16 and genetic differences between students in three school types: state-funded, non-selective schools (`non-selective'), state-funded, selective schools (`grammar') and private schools, which are selective (`private'). We created a genome-wide polygenic score (GPS) derived from a genome-wide association study of years of education (EduYears). We found substantial mean genetic differences between students of different school types: students in non-selective schools had lower EduYears GPS compared to those in grammar (d = 0.41) and private schools (d = 0.37). Three times as many students in the top EduYears GPS decile went to a selective school compared to the bottom decile. These results were mirrored in the exam differences between school types. However, once we controlled for factors involved in pupil selection, there were no significant genetic differences between school types, and the variance in exam scores at age 16 explained by school type dropped from 7% to <1%. These results show that genetic and exam differences between school types are primarily due to the heritable characteristics involved in pupil admission.

  18. Does breakfast-club attendance affect schoolchildren's nutrient intake? A study of dietary intake at three schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belderson, Pippa; Harvey, Ian; Kimbell, Rosemary; O'Neill, Jennifer; Russell, Jean; Barker, Margo E

    2003-12-01

    Lack of breakfast has been implicated as a factor contributing to children's poor diets and school performance. Breakfast-club schemes, where children are provided with breakfast in school at the start of the school day, have been initiated by the Department of Health in schools throughout England, UK. The aim of the present study was to compare the energy and nutrient intakes of schoolchildren who attended breakfast clubs (attendee subjects) with those who did not (control subjects). Three different schools were studied, involving a total of 111 children aged between 9 and 15 years. There were fifty-nine attendee and fifty-two control subjects. The two groups were matched for eligibility for school meals. All subjects completed a 3 d weighed food diary for estimation of nutrient intake. Height and weight were measured and BMI calculated. Nutrient intake data were analysed using a general linear model with age as a covariate. The demographic and anthropometric characteristics of the attendee and control subjects were similar. Children who attended breakfast clubs had significantly greater intakes of fat (% energy), saturated fat (% energy) and Na than control subjects. Thus, in these schools breakfast-club participation was not associated with superior nutrient intake or improvements in dietary pattern.

  19. Victimization from bullying among school-attending adolescents in grades 7 to 10 in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Rudatsikira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Among school- attending adolescents, victimization from bullying is associated with anxiety, depression and poor academic performance. There are limited reports on victimization from bullying in Zambia; we therefore conducted this study to determine the prevalence and correlates for victimization from bullying among adolescents in grades 7 to 10 in the country in order to add information on the body of knowledge on victimization from bullying. METHODS: The 2004 Zambia Global School-based Health Survey (GSHS data among adolescents in grades 7 to 10 were obtained from the World Health Organization. We estimated the prevalence of victimization from bullying. We also conducted weighted multivariate logistic regression analysis to determine independent factors associated with victimization from bullying, and report adjusted odds ratios (AOR and their 95% confidence intervals (CI. RESULTS: Of 2136 students who participated in the 2004 Zambia GSHS, 1559 had information on whether they were bullied or not. Of these, 1559 students, 62.8% (60.0% of male and 65.0% of female participants reported having been bullied in the previous 30 days to the survey. We found that respondents of age less than 14 years were 7% (AOR=0.93; 95%CI [0.91, 0.95] less likely to have been bullied compared to those aged 16 years or older. Being a male (AOR=1.07; 95%CI [1.06, 1.09], lonely (AOR=1.24; 95%CI [1.22, 1.26], worried (AOR=1.12; 95%CI [1.11, 1.14], consuming alcohol (AOR=2.59; 95%CI [2.55, 2.64], missing classes (AOR=1.30; 95%CI [1.28, 1.32], and considering attempting suicide (AOR=1.20; 95%CI [1.18, 1.22] were significantly associated with bullying victimization. CONCLUSIONS: Victimization from bullying is prevalent among in-school adolescents in grades 7 to 10 in Zambia, and interventions to curtail it should consider the factors that have been identified in this study.

  20. Victimization from bullying among school-attending adolescents in grades 7 to 10 in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siziya, Seter; Rudatsikira, Emmanuel; Muula, Adamson S

    2012-01-01

    Among school- attending adolescents, victimization from bullying is associated with anxiety, depression and poor academic performance. There are limited reports on victimization from bullying in Zambia; we therefore conducted this study to determine the prevalence and correlates for victimization from bullying among adolescents in grades 7 to 10 in the country in order to add information on the body of knowledge on victimization from bullying. The 2004 Zambia Global School-based Health Survey (GSHS) data among adolescents in grades 7 to 10 were obtained from the World Health Organization. We estimated the prevalence of victimization from bullying. We also conducted weighted multivariate logistic regression analysis to determine independent factors associated with victimization from bullying, and report adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Of 2136 students who participated in the 2004 Zambia GSHS, 1559 had information on whether they were bullied or not. Of these, 1559 students, 62.8% (60.0% of male and 65.0% of female) participants reported having been bullied in the previous 30 days to the survey. We found that respondents of age less than 14 years were 7% (AOR=0.93; 95%CI [0.91, 0.95]) less likely to have been bullied compared to those aged 16 years or older. Being a male (AOR=1.07; 95%CI [1.06, 1.09]), lonely (AOR=1.24; 95%CI [1.22, 1.26]), worried (AOR=1.12; 95%CI [1.11, 1.14]), consuming alcohol (AOR=2.59; 95%CI [2.55, 2.64]), missing classes (AOR=1.30; 95%CI [1.28, 1.32]), and considering attempting suicide (AOR=1.20; 95%CI [1.18, 1.22]) were significantly associated with bullying victimization. Victimization from bullying is prevalent among in-school adolescents in grades 7 to 10 in Zambia, and interventions to curtail it should consider the factors that have been identified in this study.

  1. Do healthy school meals affect illness, allergies and school attendance in 8- to 11-year-old children? A cluster-randomised controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, R P; Lauritzen, L; Ritz, C; Dyssegaard, C B; Astrup, A; Michaelsen, K F; Damsgaard, C T

    2015-05-01

    A nutritionally adequate diet in childhood is important for health and resistance of allergies and infections. This study explored the effects of school meals rich in fish, vegetables and fibre on school attendance, asthma, allergies and illness in 797 Danish 8- to 11-year-old children. No comparable studies conducted in high-income settings have been identified. The OPUS School Meal Study was a cluster-randomised cross-over trial. Children from third and fourth grades at nine Danish schools received school meals or usual packed lunch (control) for two 3-month periods. Occurrence and duration of illnesses, asthma and allergies during the last 14 days were recorded by parental questionnaires at baseline and after each 3-month period. Self-reported well-being was assessed by visual analogue scales. The school meals did not affect school attendance, parent-reported occurrence or duration of asthma and allergies or self-reported well-being. The most common symptoms of illness were stomach pain (24%), headache (28%) and cold (24%). A slightly higher number of children experienced headaches in the school meal (27%) compared with the control period (22%) (P=0.02). However, subgroup analyses showed that this effect was only seen in children eating school meals in the classroom (P=0.007), and not in common dining areas (P=0.2). No effect was found on other symptoms of illness. Provision of nutritionally balanced school meals did not affect school attendance, asthma, allergies, illness or well-being in 8- to 11-year-old children. The slight increase in occurrence of headaches seems to be related to the physical eating environment.

  2. Preschool Attendance in Chicago Public Schools: Relationships with Learning Outcomes and Reasons for Absences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Stacy B.; Gwynne, Julia A.; Stitziel Pareja, Amber; Allensworth, Elaine M.; Moore, Paul; Jagesic, Sanja; Sorice, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Significant attention is currently focused on ensuring that children are enrolled in preschool. However, regular attendance is also critically important. Children with better preschool attendance have higher kindergarten readiness scores, this is especially true for students entering with low skills. Unfortunately, many preschool-aged children are…

  3. Canada's residential school system: measuring the intergenerational impact of familial attendance on health and mental health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Christina; Feeny, David; Tompa, Emile

    2016-11-01

    We estimate the intergenerational relationship between the residential school (RS) attendance of an older generation family member and the physical and mental health of a younger generation. Data from the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey (APS) is used to examine the relationship between previous generational family RS attendance and the current physical and mental health of off-reserve First Nations, Métis and Inuit Canadians. Five outcomes are considered (self-perceived health, mental health, distress, suicidal ideation and suicide attempt). Direct (univariate) and indirect (multivariate) effects of family RS attendance are examined for each dependent variable. We draw from the general and indigenous-specific social determinants of health literature to inform the construction of our models. Familial RS attendance is shown to affect directly all five health and mental health outcomes, and is associated with lower self-perceived health and mental health, and a higher risk for distress and suicidal behaviours. Background, mediating and structural-level variables influence the strength of association. Odds of being in lower self-perceived health remain statistically significantly higher with the presence of familial attendance of RS when controlling for all covariates. The odds of having had a suicide attempt within the past 12 months remain twice as high for those with familial attendance of RS. Health disparities exist between indigenous and non-indigenous Canadians, an important source of which is a family history of RS attendance. This has implications for clinical practice and Canadian public health, as well as countries with similar historical legacies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Climate warming causes declines in crop yields and lowers school attendance rates in Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Trevon L; Sesink Clee, Paul R; Njabo, Kevin Y; Tróchez, Anthony; Morgan, Katy; Meñe, Demetrio Bocuma; Anthony, Nicola M; Gonder, Mary Katherine; Allen, Walter R; Hanna, Rachid; Smith, Thomas B

    2018-01-01

    Although a number of recent studies suggest that climate associated shifts in agriculture are affecting social and economic systems, there have been relatively few studies of these effects in Africa. Such studies would be particularly useful in Central Africa, where the impacts of climate warming are predicted to be high but coincide with an area with low adaptive capacity. Focusing on plantain (Musa paradisiaca), we assess whether recent climate change has led to reduced yields. Analysis of annual temperature between 1950 and 2013 indicated a 0.8°C temperature increase over this 63-year period - a trend that is also observed in monthly temperatures in the last twenty years. From 1991 to 2011, there was a 43% decrease in plantain productivity in Central Africa, which was explained by shifts in temperature (R 2 =0.68). This decline may have reduced rural household wealth and decreased parental investment in education. Over the past two decades, there was a six month decrease in the duration of school attendance, and the decline was tightly linked to plantain yield (R 2 =0.82). By 2080, mean annual temperature is expected to increase at least 2°C in Central Africa, and our models predict a concomitant decrease of 39% in plantain yields and 51% in education outcomes, relative to the 1991 baseline. These predictions should be seen as a call-to-action for policy interventions such as farmer training programs to enhance the adaptive capacity of food production systems to mitigate impacts on rural income and education. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Associations of Caffeinated Beverage Consumption and Screen Time with Excessive Daytime Sleepiness in Korean High School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Jun, Nuri; Lee, Aeri; Baik, Inkyung

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated caffeinated beverage consumption and screen time in the association with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and sleep duration. We conducted a cross-sectional study including 249 Korean male high school students. These participants responded to a questionnaire inquiring the information on lifestyle factors, consumption of caffeinated beverages, time spent for screen media, and sleep duration as well as to the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) questionnaire. EDS was...

  6. Risk-associated health disorders occuring in junior schoolchildren who attend schools with higher stress and intensity of educational process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Zaitseva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We performed comparative sanitary-hygienic assessment of regime, stress and intensity of educational process in different educational establishments, a comprehensive secondary school and an innovative educational establishment - lyceum. We detected that studying regime tended to be tight, classes were longer and more intense than in an ordinary school, and educational process involved considerable intellectual, sensory and emotional loads for children; such loads reached "1st category intense" level. Schoolchildren attending lyceums are also busy with additional educational programs and it significantly increases length of total educational load on them. By the end of a school year 20% of lyceum pupils suffer from sympathoadrenal system overstress and it doesn't only determine emotional tonus level in children but also leads to disorders in concentration and decision-making speed, lower reading speed and articulation, slower motor reactions. 15% of lyceum pupils have higher activity of autonomous nervous system and lower adaptation of cardiovascular system to psycho emotional and physical loads. Lyceum pupils also run 2.5 times higher risk of chronic nervous system diseases evolvement than school children attending ordinary schools. Autonomous nervous system disorders, posture disorders and nutrition disorders are predominant nosologic pathology forms in lyceum pupils as they occur in them 1.6-2.9 times more frequent than in schoolchildren of the same age who attend an ordinary comprehensive school. We detected direct correlation between higher intellectual and emotional components of educational process, and total educational intensity as well, and frequency of autonomous system disorders and musculoskeletal system diseases in pupils.

  7. Explanations for female excess psychosomatic symptoms in adolescence: evidence from a school-based cohort in the West of Scotland

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    West Patrick B

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background By mid adolescence there is an excess in female physical and/or psychosomatic, as well as psychological morbidity. This paper examines the contribution of a range of factors (self-esteem, body image, gender-role orientation, body mass index, smoking and physical activity to explaining the female excess in three psychosomatic symptoms (headaches, stomach ache/sickness, and dizziness and depressive mood at age 15. Methods A cohort of 2,196 school pupils (analyses restricted to 2,005 with complete data surveyed at age 15. All measures were obtained via self-completion questionnaires, apart from body mass index, derived from measured height and weight. Analyses examined (a sex differences in each potential explanatory factor; (b their associations with the health measures; (c the effect of adjustment for these factors on sex differences in the health measures; and (d the existence of interactive effects between sex and the explanatory factors on the health measures Results Each potential explanatory factor was significantly differentiated by sex. Self-esteem, body image (represented by weight-related worries, smoking and physical activity were related to the health measures. These factors accounted for one third of the female excess in headaches and stomach problems, half the excess in dizziness and almost all that in respect of depressive mood. Self-esteem and body image were the factors most consistently related to health, and adjustment for these resulted in the largest reductions in the odds of a female excess in both the psychosomatic symptoms and depressive mood. Conclusion Adjustment for a range of potential psychosocial and behavioural factors largely explains (statistically excess female depressive mood. These factors also partially explain the female excess in certain psychosomatic symptoms.

  8. School absenteeism among school-aged children with medically attended acute viral respiratory illness during three influenza seasons, 2012-2013 through 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Huong Q; Peterson, Siri H; King, Jennifer P; Meece, Jennifer K; Belongia, Edward A

    2017-05-01

    Acute respiratory illnesses (ARIs) are common in school-aged children, but few studies have assessed school absenteeism due to specific respiratory viruses. To evaluate school absenteeism among children with medically attended ARI due to common viruses. We analyzed follow-up surveys from children seeking care for acute respiratory illness who were enrolled in the influenza vaccine effectiveness study at Marshfield Clinic during the 2012-2013 through 2014-2015 influenza seasons. Archived influenza-negative respiratory swabs were retested using multiplex RT-PCR to detect 16 respiratory virus targets. Negative binomial and logistic regression models were used to examine the association between school absence and type of respiratory viruses; endpoints included mean days absent from school and prolonged (>2 days) absence. We examined the association between influenza vaccination and school absence among children with RT-PCR-confirmed influenza. Among 1027 children, 2295 days of school were missed due to medically attended ARIs; influenza accounted for 39% of illness episodes and 47% of days missed. Mean days absent were highest for influenza (0.96-1.19) and lowest for coronavirus (0.62). Children with B/Yamagata infection were more likely to report prolonged absence than children with A/H1N1 or A/H3N2 infection [OR (95% CI): 2.1 (1.0, 4.5) and 1.7 (1.0, 2.9), respectively]. Among children with influenza, vaccination status was not associated with prolonged absence. School absenteeism due to medically attended ARIs varies by viral infection. Influenza B infections accounted for the greatest burden of absenteeism. © 2016 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. A survey of severe visual impairment and blindness in children attending thirteen schools for the blind in sri lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zoe; Muecke, James; Edussuriya, Kapila; Dayawansa, Ranasiri; Hammerton, Michael; Kong, Aimee; Sennanayake, Saman; Senaratne, Tissa; Marasinghe, Nirosha; Selva, Dinesh

    2011-02-01

    To identify the causes of blindness and severe visual impairment (BL/SVI) in children attending schools for the blind in Sri Lanka, and to provide optical devices and ophthalmic treatment where indicated. Two hundred and six children under 16 years from 13 schools for the blind in Sri Lanka were examined by a team of ophthalmologists and optometrists. Data were entered in the World Health Organization Prevention of Blindness Eye Examination Record for Childhood Blindness (WHO/PBL ERCB). Of the 206 children, 83.5% were blind (BL = Visual acuity [VA] schools for the blind in Sri Lanka had potentially avoidable causes of BL/SVI. Vision could also be improved in a third of children. The data support the need to develop specialized pediatric ophthalmic services, particularly in the face of advancing neonatal life support in Sri Lanka, and the need for increased provision of optical support.

  10. Who Attends Charter Schools and How Are Those Students Doing? Exploratory Analysis of NAEP Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudowsky, Naomi; Ginsburg, Alan

    2012-01-01

    This report examines what the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) can tell us about charter school enrollment and student performance compared to that of regular public schools. The study uses NAEP reading and mathematics data from 2011 and the earlier years when charter school data first became available (2003 for grade 4; 2005 for…

  11. Middle School Learning, Academic Emotions and Engagement as Precursors to College Attendance

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Pedro, Maria Ofelia Clarissa Z.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation research focuses on assessing student behavior, academic emotions, and knowledge within a middle school online learning environment, and analyzing potential effects on students' interests and choices related to decisions about going to college. Using students' longitudinal data ranging from their middle school, to high school, to…

  12. School Violence Prevention: Climate and Moral Perspectives of Sixth through Eighth Grade Students Attending a Southern California Catholic School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Diane Diaz

    2010-01-01

    The need for U.S. teachers to better understand School Violence Prevention is growing. Evidence suggests however, that 10 years and 10 billion dollars after the Columbine High School massacre, our public schools are not safer (www.community-matters.org). There has been an "after the fact" approach to the problem of school violence. After…

  13. The Salience of Selected Variables on Choice for Movie Attendance among High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Bruce A.

    A questionnaire was designed for a study assessing both the importance of 28 variables in movie attendance and the importance of movie-going as a leisure-time activity. Respondents were 130 ninth and twelfth grade students. The 28 variables were broadly organized into eight categories: movie production personnel, production elements, advertising,…

  14. Abdominal obesity in adolescent girls attending a public secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Deposition of excess fat in the abdominal region is strongly associated with the metabolic disturbances thought to underlie many obesity related complications. Aim: To determine the prevalence of abdominal obesity using waist circumference inadolescents' girls attending a public secondary school in Port ...

  15. Ocular Morbidity among Children Attending Government and Private Schools of Kathmandu Valley

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    R K Shrestha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children from the developing world are more prone to going blind from avoidable and preventable causes. In Nepal, children in private schools are reported to have a higher ocular morbidity than those in government schools, with myopia being the major cause of the morbidity. This study was designed to evaluate ocular morbidity in students from both types of school. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, comparative study among students from government and private schools of Kathmandu. Eye examination was carried out evaluating visual acuity, color vision, refractive status, binocular vision status, and anterior and posterior segment findings. Results: A total of 4,228 students from government and private schools were evaluated. The prevalence of ocular morbidity was 19.56 % with refractive error (11.9 % being the major cause of the morbidity, followed by strabismus and infective disorders. No signifi cant difference in the prevalence of ocular morbidity and refractive status was found in the students from government and private schools. Conclusions: A signifi cant number of children of school-going age have ocular morbidity with no signifi cant difference in the prevalence in the students from government and private schools. Research exploring the effect of various risk factors in the progression of myopia would be helpful to investigate the refractive status in children from these different types of schools. Keywords: Myopia, ocular morbidity, school Students

  16. Ocular morbidity among children attending government and private schools of Kathmandu valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, R K; Joshi, M R; Ghising, R; Rizyal, A

    2011-01-01

    Children from the developing world are more prone to going blind from avoidable and preventable causes. In Nepal, children in private schools are reported to have a higher ocular morbidity than those in government schools, with myopia being the major cause of the morbidity. This study was designed to evaluate ocular morbidity in students from both types of school. This was a cross-sectional, comparative study among students from government and private schools of Kathmandu. Eye examination was carried out evaluating visual acuity, color vision, refractive status, binocular vision status, and anterior and posterior segment findings. A total of 4,228 students from government and private schools were evaluated. The prevalence of ocular morbidity was 19.56 % with refractive error (11.9 %) being the major cause of the morbidity, followed by strabismus and infective disorders. No significant difference in the prevalence of ocular morbidity and refractive status was found in the students from government and private schools. A significant number of children of school-going age have ocular morbidity with no significant difference in the prevalence in the students from government and private schools. Research exploring the effect of various risk factors in the progression of myopia would be helpful to investigate the refractive status in children from these different types of schools.

  17. The effect of attending steiner schools during childhood on health in adulthood: a multicentre cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, H Felix; Binting, Sylvia; Bockelbrink, Angelina; Heusser, Peter; Hueck, Christoph; Keil, Thomas; Roll, Stephanie; Witt, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    It is speculated that attending Steiner schools, whose pedagogical principles include an account for healthy psycho-physical development, may have long-term beneficial health effects. We examined whether the current health status differed between former attendees of German Steiner schools and adults from the general population. Furthermore, we examined factors that might explain those differences. We included former Steiner school attendees from 4 schools in Berlin, Hanover, Nuremberg and Stuttgart and randomly selected population controls. Using a self-report questionnaire we assessed sociodemographics, current and childhood lifestyle and health status. Outcomes were self-reports on 16 diseases: atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cardiac arrhythmia, cardiac insufficiency, angina pectoris, arteriosclerosis, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, osteoarthritis, rheumatism, cancer, diabetes, depression and multiple sclerosis. Furthermore, participants rated the symptom burden resulting from back pain, cold symptoms, headache, insomnia, joint pain, gastrointestinal symptoms and imbalance. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios were calculated for each outcome. 1136 Steiner school attendees and 1746 controls were eligible for analysis. Both groups were comparable regarding sex, age and region, but differed in nationality and educational status. After adjusting for possible confounders, we found statistically significant effects of Steiner school attendance for osteoarthritis (OR 0.69 [0.49-0.97]) and allergic rhinitis (OR 0.77, [0.59-1.00]) as well as for symptom burden from back pain (OR 0.80, [0.64-1.00]), insomnia (OR 0.65, [0.50-0.84]), joint pain (OR 0.62, [0.48-0.82]), gastrointestinal symptoms (OR 0.76, [0.58-1.00]) and imbalance (OR 0.60, [0.38-0.93]). The risk of most examined diseases did not differ between former Steiner school attendees and the general population after adjustment for

  18. Impact of singular excessive computer game and television exposure on sleep patterns and memory performance of school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworak, Markus; Schierl, Thomas; Bruns, Thomas; Strüder, Heiko Klaus

    2007-11-01

    Television and computer game consumption are a powerful influence in the lives of most children. Previous evidence has supported the notion that media exposure could impair a variety of behavioral characteristics. Excessive television viewing and computer game playing have been associated with many psychiatric symptoms, especially emotional and behavioral symptoms, somatic complaints, attention problems such as hyperactivity, and family interaction problems. Nevertheless, there is insufficient knowledge about the relationship between singular excessive media consumption on sleep patterns and linked implications on children. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of singular excessive television and computer game consumption on sleep patterns and memory performance of children. Eleven school-aged children were recruited for this polysomnographic study. Children were exposed to voluntary excessive television and computer game consumption. In the subsequent night, polysomnographic measurements were conducted to measure sleep-architecture and sleep-continuity parameters. In addition, a visual and verbal memory test was conducted before media stimulation and after the subsequent sleeping period to determine visuospatial and verbal memory performance. Only computer game playing resulted in significant reduced amounts of slow-wave sleep as well as significant declines in verbal memory performance. Prolonged sleep-onset latency and more stage 2 sleep were also detected after previous computer game consumption. No effects on rapid eye movement sleep were observed. Television viewing reduced sleep efficiency significantly but did not affect sleep patterns. The results suggest that television and computer game exposure affect children's sleep and deteriorate verbal cognitive performance, which supports the hypothesis of the negative influence of media consumption on children's sleep, learning, and memory.

  19. Use of ecstasy and other psychoactive substances among school-attending adolescents in Taiwan: national surveys 2004–2006

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    Huang Wei-Lun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the backdrop of a global ecstasy epidemic, this study sought to examine the trend, correlates, and onset sequence of ecstasy use among adolescents in Taiwan, where a well-established gateway drug such as marijuana is much less popular. Methods A multistage probability survey of school-attending adolescents in grades 7, 9, 10, and 12, aged 11–19 years, was conducted in 2004, 2005, and 2006. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire elicited response rates ranging from 94.3% to 96.6%. The sample sizes were 18232 respondents in 2004, 17986 in 2005, and 17864 in 2006. Results In terms of lifetime prevalence and incidence, ecstasy and ketamine by and large appeared as the first and second commonly used illegal drugs, respectively, among middle (grades 7 and 9 and high school students (grades 10 and 12 during the 3-year survey period; however, this order was reversed in the middle school-aged students starting in 2006. Having sexual experience, tobacco use, and betel nut use were factors consistently associated with the onset of ecstasy use across years. The majority of ecstasy users had been involved in polydrug use, such as the use of ketamine (41.4%–53.5%, marijuana (12.7%–18.7%, and methamphetamine (4.2%–9.5%. Conclusion From 2004 to 2006, a decline was noted in the prevalence and incidence rate of ecstasy, a leading illegal drug used by school-attending adolescents in Taiwan since the early 2000s. The emerging ketamine use trend may warrant more attention in the future.

  20. Alcohol and Drug Use among Gang Members: Experiences of Adolescents Who Attend School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swahn, Monica H.; Bossarte, Robert M.; West, Bethany; Topalli, Volkan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Problems related to gangs have been noted in large cities and in many schools across the United States. This study examined the patterns of alcohol, drug use, and related exposures among male and female high school students who were gang members. Methods: Analyses were based on the Youth Violence Survey, conducted in 2004, and…

  1. Estimating the Effects of Students' Social Networks: Does Attending a Norm-Enforcing School Pay Off?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Brian V.

    2010-01-01

    In an attempt to forge tighter social relations, small school reformers advocate school designs intended to create smaller, more trusting, and more collaborative settings. These efforts to enhance students' social capital in the form of social closure are ultimately tied to improving academic outcomes. Using data derived from ELS: 2002, this study…

  2. Association of a full-day vs part-day preschool intervention with school readiness, attendance, and parent involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Arthur J; Richardson, Brandt A; Hayakawa, Momoko; Lease, Erin M; Warner-Richter, Mallory; Englund, Michelle M; Ou, Suh-Ruu; Sullivan, Molly

    2014-11-26

    Early childhood interventions have demonstrated positive effects on well-being. Whether full-day vs part-day attendance improves outcomes is unknown. To evaluate the association between a full- vs part-day early childhood program and school readiness, attendance, and parent involvement. End-of-preschool follow-up of a nonrandomized, matched-group cohort of predominantly low-income, ethnic minority children enrolled in the Child-Parent Centers (CPC) for the full day (7 hours; n = 409) or part day (3 hours on average; n = 573) in the 2012-2013 school year in 11 schools in Chicago, Illinois. The Midwest CPC Education Program provides comprehensive instruction, family-support, and health services from preschool to third grade. School readiness skills at the end of preschool, attendance and chronic absences, and parental involvement. The readiness domains in the Teaching Strategies GOLD Assessment System include a total of 49 items with a score range of 105-418. The specific domains are socioemotional with 9 items (score range, 20-81), language with 6 items (score range, 15-54), literacy with 12 items (score range, 9-104), math with 7 items (score, 8-60), physical health with 5 items (score range, 14-45), and cognitive development with 10 items (score range, 18-90). Full-day preschool participants had higher scores than part-day peers on socioemotional development (58.6 vs 54.5; difference, 4.1; 95% CI, 0.5-7.6; P = .03), language (39.9 vs 37.3; difference, 2.6; 95% CI, 0.6-4.6; P = .01), math (40.0 vs 36.4; difference, 3.6; 95% CI, 0.5-6.7; P = .02), physical health (35.5 vs 33.6; difference, 1.9; 95% CI, 0.5-3.2; P = .006), and the total score (298.1 vs 278.2; difference, 19.9; 95% CI, 1.2-38.4; P = .04). Literacy (64.5 vs 58.6; difference, 5.9; 95% CI, -0.07 to 12.4; P = .08) and cognitive development (59.7 vs 57.7; difference, 2.0; 95% CI, -2.4 to 6.3; P = .38) were not significant. Full-day preschool graduates also had higher

  3. Parental concerns in parents of children attending pre- and primary school: analysis of the Portuguese population by District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Algarvio

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, our aim was to assess and analyze parental concerns by Portuguese District. Methods: The participants were 3842 parents of children between 3 and 10 years old, attending preschool and primary school, from 820 public schools in 18 Portuguese Districts. Parents completed a sociodemographic questionnaire, and a Parental Concerns Scale, composed by 5 subscales, family and school problems; feeding, sleep and physical complaints; preparation; fears; and negative behaviors. Results: Portuguese parents concerned about all the dimensions considered in this study. The highest level of concern was obtained in family and school problems, and the lowest level of concern about their children’s fears. There were significant differences between Districts, parents from Porto and Bragança showed the highest levels of concern. Parents from Coimbra, Évora, Beja e Portalegre, presented the lowest levels of concern. Conclusion: Parental concerns are an aspect of general parenting and must be considered by health professionals to promote healthier parents-children relationships. Geographic differences should be further investigated.

  4. Comparison of asthma prevalence among African American teenage youth attending public high schools in rural Georgia and urban Detroit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ownby, Dennis R; Tingen, Martha S; Havstad, Suzanne; Waller, Jennifer L; Johnson, Christine C; Joseph, Christine L M

    2015-09-01

    The high prevalence of asthma among urban African American (AA) populations has attracted research attention, whereas the prevalence among rural AA populations is poorly documented. We sought to compare the prevalence of asthma among AA youth in rural Georgia and urban Detroit, Michigan. The prevalence of asthma was compared in population-based samples of 7297 youth attending Detroit public high schools and in 2523 youth attending public high schools in rural Georgia. Current asthma was defined as a physician diagnosis and symptoms in the previous 12 months. Undiagnosed asthma was defined as multiple respiratory symptoms in the previous 12 months without a physician diagnosis. In Detroit, 6994 (95.8%) youth were AA compared with 1514 (60.0%) in Georgia. Average population density in high school postal codes was 5628 people/mile(2) in Detroit and 45.1 people/mile(2) in Georgia. The percentages of poverty and of students qualifying for free or reduced lunches were similar in both areas. The prevalence of current diagnosed asthma among AA youth in Detroit and Georgia was similar: 15.0% (95% CI, 14.1-15.8) and 13.7% (95% CI, 12.0-17.1) (P = .22), respectively. The prevalence of undiagnosed asthma in AA youth was 8.0% in Detroit and 7.5% in Georgia (P = .56). Asthma symptoms were reported more frequently among those with diagnosed asthma in Detroit, whereas those with undiagnosed asthma in Georgia reported more symptoms. Among AA youth living in similar socioeconomic circumstances, asthma prevalence is as high in rural Georgia as it is in urban Detroit, suggesting that urban residence is not an asthma risk factor. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Does the local food environment around schools affect diet? Longitudinal associations in adolescents attending secondary schools in East London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Dianna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The local retail food environment around schools may act as a potential risk factor for adolescent diet. However, international research utilising cross-sectional designs to investigate associations between retail food outlet proximity to schools and diet provides equivocal support for an effect. In this study we employ longitudinal perspectives in order to answer the following two questions. First, how has the local retail food environment around secondary schools changed over time and second, is this change associated with change in diet of students at these schools? Methods The locations of retail food outlets and schools in 2001 and 2005 were geo-coded in three London boroughs. Network analysis in a Geographic Information System (GIS ascertained the number, minimum and median distances to food outlets within 400 m and 800 m of the school location. Outcome measures were ‘healthy’ and ‘unhealthy’ diet scores derived from adolescent self-reported data in the Research with East London Adolescents: Community Health Survey (RELACHS. Adjusted associations between distance from school to food retail outlets, counts of outlets near schools and diet scores were assessed using longitudinal (2001–2005 n=757 approaches. Results Between 2001 and 2005 the number of takeaways and grocers/convenience stores within 400 m of schools increased, with many more grocers reported within 800 m of schools in 2005 (p Conclusions The results provide some evidence that the local food environment around secondary schools may influence adolescent diet, though effects were small. Further research on adolescents’ food purchasing habits with larger samples in varied geographic regions is required to identify robust relationships between proximity and diet, as small numbers, because of confounding, may dilute effect food environment effects. Data on individual foods purchased in all shop formats may clarify the frequent, overly simple

  6. Pathways through Secondary School in a Comprehensive System: Does Parental Education and School Attended Affect Students' Choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesters, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    As the Australian labour market restructured during the 1980s and 1990s, Year 12 retention rates more than doubled between 1983 and 1993 secondary schools diversified to include vocational education and training programs as alternative pathways through school. From a human capital perspective, the completion of vocational qualifications in school…

  7. Success in These Schools? Visual Counternarratives of Young Men of Color and Urban High Schools They Attend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Shaun R.

    2015-01-01

    The overwhelming majority of published scholarship on urban high schools in the United States focuses on problems of inadequacy, instability, underperformance, and violence. Similarly, across all schooling contexts, most of what has been written about young men of color continually reinforces deficit narratives about their educational possibility.…

  8. Assessment of the Psychosocial Development of Children Attending Nursery Schools in Karen Refugee Camps in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Akiko

    2013-01-01

    The Karen, an ethnic minority group in Burma, have experienced a prolonged state of exile in refugee camps in neighboring Thailand because of ethnic conflict in their home country. Nursery schools in the three largest Karen refugee camps aim to promote the psychosocial development of young children by providing a child-centered, creative,…

  9. The Effect of Early Childhood Developmental Program Attendance on Future School Enrollment in Rural North India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Gautam; Viren, Vejoya

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of prior participation in early childhood developmental programs, considered endogenous, upon 7-18 years olds' school enrollment in rural North India. Analyses by age group of data from the World Bank's 1997-98 Survey of Living Conditions in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar reveal that 7-10 year olds, 11-14 year olds, and…

  10. Carnegie Units and High School Attendance Policies: An Absence of Thought?!?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outhouse, Craig Michael

    2012-01-01

    This case was developed as part of a doctoral course for educational administration students who were specializing in K-12 educational administration. It could be used in a leadership, special education, or policy course for future school leaders or teachers. Currently, most educational institutions use Carnegie Units to structure how students…

  11. A Collaborative Bovine Artificial Insemination Short Course for Students Attending a Caribbean Veterinary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Joseph C.; Robinson, James Q.; DeJarnette, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) of cattle is a critical career skill for veterinarians interested in food animal practice. Consequently, Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine Student Chapter of the American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Select Sires, and University of Idaho Extension have partnered to offer an intensive 2-day course to…

  12. Risk of overweight and obesity in preschoolers attending private and philanthropic schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Viviane Gabriela; Schoeps, Denise de Oliveira; Souza, Sônia Buongermino de; Souza, José Maria Pacheco de; Leone, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    To assess the risk prevalence of overweight and obesity in children enrolled in private and philanthropic preschools in the State of São Paulo. Comparison of two cross sectional studies with children enrolled in private preschools (PPS) or philanthropic (PHP) of the São Paulo Metropolitan Region. Both surveys evaluated the children's environment. To determine the risk of overweight, excess weight and obesity, body mass index (BMI) values were transformed into z scores (according to the World Health Organization - 2006 and 2007). The risk prevalence of overweight (≥ 1 BMIz < 2) in PPS was 21.9% and 24.6% in PHP, with PR = 1.12 (95% CI: 0.96-1.32), without statistical difference. Considering the children with overweight or obesity, (BMIz ≥ 2) the prevalence in PPS was 14.3% and in PHP was 9.0%, with PR = 1.54 (95% CI: 1.23-1.93), p = 0.0002. Overweight and obesity prevalence in males in PPS was 16.4% (n = 409) and in PHP, 11.1% (n = 829), PR = 1.48 (95% CI: 1.10-1.98) and in females it was 12.5% (n = 400) in the PPS and 6.6% (n = 698) in PHP, corresponding to PR = 1.90 (95% CI: 1.30-2.78), both significant differences. Both groups showed a similar and very high prevalence of weight excess. However, overweight and obesity showed a higher prevalence in children from private preschools. This indicates that even though a better socioeconomic level is still a risk factor for overweight and obesity in preschoolers, the same does not seem to occur when analyzing the risk of overweight.

  13. Factors Associated with Tobacco Use in Students Attending Local Government Schools in Mumbai, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Nilesh; Todankar, Priyamvada; Mandal, Gauri; Gupte, Himanshu; Thawal, Vaibhav; Bhutia, Tshering; Choudhuri, Leni

    2016-12-01

    Purpose: Factors associated with ever-use and differences between ever-users and non-users of tobacco among adolescent school students from low income families in Mumbai were assessed. Materials and Methods: A self-administered questionnaire, completed by 1918 students from grades 7, 8 and 9 in 12 schools managed by the city municipal corporation in July 2015, gathered data on socio-demographic characteristics, tobacco use and tobacco-related knowledge, attitudes and beliefs. Results: Although only 1% of respondents thought tobacco was cool, nearly 35% were unaware of associations between tobacco use and health problems. Male students were almost twice as likely (OR=2.5, P <= 0.05) to have ever used tobacco compared to females and Supari (areca nut) users were eight times more likely (OR=8.99, P < 0.001) than Supari non -users. Tobacco-users were more likely to agree with statements: ‘People who use tobacco have more friends’ (OR=2.8, P = 0.004), ‘Smoking relieves stress’ (OR=5.6, P = 0.002) and ‘It is possible to purchase any tobacco product within 100 yards of school’ (OR=10.8, P < 0.001). Conclusion: This study highlights the gains made by tobacco prevention campaigns in that almost all students did not consider tobacco as cool or a stress reliever. However, they still need education about health consequences of tobacco-use. In addition, Supari use has to be addressed in school-based tobacco prevention and cessation initiatives. Furthermore, programs must also address perceptions and norms related to peers and tobacco use and ensure active implementation of existing laws. Such integrated measures will help ensure tobacco-free spaces around schools. Creative Commons Attribution License

  14. Burns and scalds in pre-school children attending accident and emergency: accident or abuse?

    OpenAIRE

    Benger, J; McCabe, S

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To assess how frequently and adequately information relating to the possibility of non-accidental injury (NAI) is documented and considered by doctors assessing pre-school children with burns and scalds in the accident and emergency (A&E) department, and to determine the effect of introducing a routine reminder mechanism into the A&E notes, coupled with an improved programme of NAI education and awareness.

  15. Substance use and dietary practices among students attending alternative high schools: results from a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Arcan, Chrisa; Kubik, Martha Y; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Hannan, Peter J; Story, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Substance use and poor dietary practices are prevalent among adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine frequency of substance use and associations between cigarette, alcohol and marijuana use and selected dietary practices, such as sugar-sweetened beverages, high-fat foods, fruits and vegetables, and frequency of fast food restaurant use among alternative high school students. Associations between multi-substance use and the same dietary practices were also exa...

  16. The attendance of women in mammographic early detection programme and the results of the observation of the breast glands condition. 1. The attendance of higher schools female employees in mammography examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romejko, M.; Kleszczewska, J.; Liszek, A.; Tarlowska, L.; Wronkowski, Z.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the first part of this work is to assess the attendance in the early detection (mammography) in female employees of Warsaw-based higher schools aged 40-69. During the 4.5 year period (1985-1989) 1325 female employees of higher schools (23.5% of the schools' total employment) turned up to the Female Cancer Prevention Center of The Higher Schools' Medical Center (ZOZ) in Warsaw. Observation of this group continued until June 30, 1992. Majority of the women (56.5%) showed up only once, 21.7% came twice, and 21.8% at least three times. Out of the 1021 women (77% of all the examined female employees) who showed no symptoms in the first test, only 37% came again for the second checkup. Out of the 305 women who had changes detected in their X-ray images, 66% turned up for the second test. 23 women (1.7%) had suspicious mammography results or typical cancer symptoms in the first test. The present work shows that the reason of the insufficient attendance of higher schools' female employees in early detection programs need to be investigated and that a more efficient early detection system must be developed. (author)

  17. Survey of low vision among students attending schools for the blind in Nigeria: a descriptive and interventional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosuro, Adedamola L; Ajaiyeoba, Ayotunde I; Bekibele, Charles O; Eniola, Michael S; Adedokun, Babatunde A

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of low vision among students attending all the schools for the blind in Oyo State, Nigeria. The study set out to determine the proportion of students with low vision/severe visual impairment after best correction, to determine the causes of the low vision, to document the associated pathologies, to determine the types of treatment and visual aid devices required, and to provide the visual aids needed to the students in the schools. All schools students for the blind in Oyo State were evaluated between August 2007 and January 2008. All the students underwent a thorough ophthalmic examination that included measurement of visual acuity, retinoscopy and subjective refraction, tests for visual aids where indicated, and a structured questionnaire was administered. A total of 86 students were included in the study and the mean age was 19.4 ± 8.19 years. Twenty six (30%) were under 16 years of age. The most common cause of blindness was bilateral measles keratopathy/vitamin A deficiency (VAD) in 25 students (29.1%). The most common site affected was the cornea in 25 students (29.1%), the lens in 23 (26.7%), and the retina/optic nerve in 16 (18.6%). Preventable blindness was mainly from measles keratopathy/VAD (29.1%). Eleven students benefited from refraction and correction with visual aids; two having severe visual impairment (SVI), and nine having visual impairment (VI) after correction. The prevalence of low vision in the schools for the blind in Oyo State is 2.3%, while the prevalence of visual impairment is 10.5%. These results suggest that preventable and treatable ocular conditions are the source of significant childhood blindness in Oyo State.

  18. School Connectedness and Protection from Symptoms of Depression in Sexual Minority Adolescents Attending School in Atlantic Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Maria N.; Asbridge, Mark; Langille, Donald B.

    2018-01-01

    Background: In examining associations of sexual orientation, school connectedness (SC), and depression, no studies have used a continuum of sexual orientation. Additionally, no study has examined whether individuals with higher SC within subgroups of the continuum of sexual orientation are protected from symptoms of depression when compared to…

  19. Nutritional status of adolescents attending the Iranian secondary school in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Maryam; Msl, Huang; Mohd Taib, Mohd Nasir; Zarei, Fatemeh

    2014-07-29

    The aim or this study was to determine factors associated with body weight status among Iranian adolescents in the two Secondary Schools run by the Embassy in Kuala Lumpur. A self administered questionnaire was used to assess socio demographic characteristics, physical activity, and body image. Dietary intake was recorded through individual interviews with the researcher. The Physical Activity Questionnaire for children (PAQ-C) was used to evaluate levels of physical activity of the adolescents. One-third (32.2%) of respondents were of normal weight, 14.5% and 11.1% were overweight and obese respectively, while 18.6% and 23.6% were severe thinness and thinness respectively. While the distribution of obese respondents by gender was almost the same, overweight females (16.4%) exceeded overweight males (12.7%) and although more females were in the thinness category (24.7% compared to 22.7%), more males were severely thin (20.0%) compared to 17.1% of the females. Body weight status was significantly associated with age (p school to design intervention programs to improve the body weight status of their students.

  20. Prevalence and Correlates of Self-Reported ADHD Symptoms in Children Attending School in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaisoorya, T S; Beena, K V; Beena, M; Ellangovan, K; George, Sanju; Thennarasu, K; Srinath, Shoba

    2016-09-02

    To study the prevalence and correlates of self-reported ADHD symptoms among school-going adolescents from Kerala, India. Seven thousand five hundred sixty students from Classes 8, 10, and 12, aged 12 to 19 years, across 73 schools selected by cluster random sampling, were invited to participate, but only 7,150 successfully completed the questionnaire incorporating standardized instruments. Three hundred five (4.3%) self-reported symptoms for ADHD combined type, 131 (1.8%) for ADHD hyperactive-impulsive type, and 102 (1.4%) for ADHD inattentive type with a male predominance. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that those with symptoms of ADHD (combined type) compared with the non-ADHD group had poorer academic performance, significantly higher substance use, psychological distress, suicidality, and sexual abuse. The high prevalence of self-reported ADHD symptoms and its association with negative correlates previously reported in literature in those with a diagnosis of ADHD suggests that clinically significant self-reported ADHD symptoms could be as disabling as ADHD. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Gender differences in first-year dental students' motivation to attend dental school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarbecz, Mark; Ross, Judith A

    2002-08-01

    Women's role in the field of dentistry has historically been limited to the dental auxiliary fields, rather than that of D.D.S. or D.M.D. Today, women are nearly 38 percent of U.S. dental school students and 14 percent of active practitioners. The slow(er) influx of women into dentistry has been little studied by dental educators. During the 2000-01 academic year, we conducted a survey of first-year dental students at a sample of publicly funded U.S. dental schools. The purpose of the survey was to assess gender differences in motives for pursuing a dental career. The data show that male dental students rate self-employment and business-related motives as more important, while female dental students rate people-oriented motives more highly. Factor analysis revealed four distinct clusters of motives for pursuing a dental career: a financial motive, a business-oriented motive, a people-oriented or caring motive, and a flexibility motive. Women scored significantly higher than men on the caring factor, whereas the reverse was true on the business factor. Male and female students rated financial and flexibility motives equally. The implications of the results for attracting students to the profession of dentistry are discussed.

  2. Massage and Storytelling Reduce Aggression and Improve Academic Performance in Children Attending Elementary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Lia Lopes; Voos, Mariana Callil; de Almeida, Maria Helena Morgani; Caromano, Fátima Aparecida

    2017-01-01

    Aggressive behaviors must be addressed in elementary schools. Massage and storytelling can be strategies to deal with aggression because both involve experience exchange and social interaction. Both can decrease stress and anxiety and increase self-esteem. To evaluate the effect of two interventions (massage and storytelling) on aggressive behaviors and academic performance of elementary school children. Three groups ( n = 35 children in each group) of the second grade participated (aged 6.5-8.1 years). One group received ten extra classes of massage (MG), another group received extra classes of storytelling (SG), and the control group received extra classes of random subjects (CG). Extra classes lasted for 50 minutes, once a week. Aggressive behaviors were recorded on diaries, by the teachers and the coordinator. The frequency of aggressive behaviors and the academic performance of MG, SG, and CG were observed for six months and the groups were compared. ANOVAs evidenced that MG and SG, but not CG, showed a reduction in aggressive behaviors registered by the teachers and coordinator, after the intervention. Academic performance of MG and SC improved after the intervention ( p < 0.05).

  3. Racial bullying and adolescent substance use: An examination of school-attending young adolescents in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Andrea L; Carlisle, Shauna K

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the association between race and racial bullying (bullying due to one's race), in relation to youth substance use in school attending young adolescents in the United States. Weighted unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models were run to assess if racial bullying involvement was associated with youth substance use. Data for this study come from the Health Behaviors in School-Aged Children survey (n = 7,585). An association between racial bullying status (not involve, bullying victim, bullying perpetrator, or mixed bullying victim/perpetrator) and youth substance was identified in this study. Racial bully perpetrators were most likely to have used cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana, followed by youth in the mixed victim/perpetrator group. When analyses were stratified by race, non-Hispanic White and Hispanic youth experienced an increased risk of cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use if in the perpetrator or mixed group (compared to those not involved with racial bullying). Non-Hispanic White and Asian youth were also more likely to report marijuana use if in the victim group. Non-Hispanic Black youth were more likely to use alcohol and marijuana if they were a perpetrator or in the mixed group, but they were not more likely to use cigarettes. Differences appear to exist in relation to racial bullying experience and substance across racial/ethnic group among youth in grades 7-10. Implications for prevention and educational professionals are discussed.

  4. Smoking patterns among adolescents with asthma attending upper secondary schools: a community-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Precht, Dorthe Hansen; Keiding, Lis; Madsen, Mette

    2003-01-01

    adjusted for age, gender, parents' job and smoking, family type, body mass index, and exercise habits. RESULTS: In total, 37.7% smoked currently and 16.5% smoked daily; more girls than boys smoked. More pupils with asthma than without smoked daily (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.15; 95% confidence interval......OBJECTIVE: Smoking among people who have asthma may be a serious health problem. We studied the prevalence of smoking and the relations between smoking and asthma, symptoms, medicine, and gender differences among adolescents with asthma. METHODS: A national cross-sectional study on health...... and lifestyles was performed in 1996-1997 using a computerized questionnaire in upper secondary schools in Denmark. We included 1887 pupils with asthma (defined as self-reported asthma diagnosed by a physician) and 20 688 controls. Smoking was categorized as daily, occasional, ex-smokers, and never smoked. We...

  5. School attendance as a civic duty v. home education as a human right

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Reimer

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the legal situation of home education in Germany as a multi-level problem touching upon German constitutional law, State (Länder constitutional law as well as administrative law, and the liberties of the European Convention of Human Rights. Whereas the parents’ right to care for their children is explicitly granted by German Basic Law, the state’s mandate to educate is seen by the courts as a conflicting principle that usually prevails and justifies compulsory schooling. Exceptions are rarely accepted. The article argues that this mainstream interpretation of the law is unconvincing and not in line with legal reasoning in German constitutional law in general.

  6. EVALUATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE VO2 OF ATHLETES THAT ATTEND A SOCCER SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Bittencourt Oliveira

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to identify the effects from technical and physical activities on the VO2, of male athletes aged 14 to 15, participants of a soccer school, in the municipality of Rio Pardo - RS. The semi-experimental research involved 10 male adolescents. For the VO2 evaluation the 12 minute Cooper test was used. Interval-training work was applied, at which the athletes exercised 75% of their maximum speed, in 60-meter runs. After training for two months (at least two sessions a week the Cooper post-test was applied to check the improvement of the VO2. As results of this study, we can draw the conclusion that all adolescents involved in this training showed considerable improvement in their maximum VO2, especially the 15-year-old teens, who managed to obtain a much higher percentage level.

  7. Severe hypertensive syndrome – descriptive study with adolescents attended at a maternity school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Gregório Lima

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This is an exploratory and descriptive study with the objective of analyzing the clinical and obstetric data related to the severe hypertensive disorders in adolescents assisted at a maternity school of Recife. The population was consisted of 186 pregnant adolescents with severe preeclampsia and/or eclampsia between 2003 and 2008. The age ranged between 15 and 19 years; they were black, single and had low education. Most of them were primiparas but the pregnancy recurrence was configured at 16% of cases. They did six or more prenatal consultations. The pregnancy progressed to term and the most frequent type of delivery was cesarean section. The comorbidities identified were changes in amniotic fluid volume, hemorrhages and infections. There were also identified cases of intrauterine growth retardation, prematurity, jaundice, hypoxia and low birth weight. It was concluded that teenage pregnancy associated with severe hypertensive syndrome is related to severe maternal, fetal and neonatal complications.

  8. Awareness, acceptability and uptake of human papilloma virus vaccine among Cameroonian school-attending female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayissi, Claudine Akono; Wamai, Richard G; Oduwo, Geofrey O; Perlman, Stacey; Welty, Edith; Welty, Thomas; Manga, Simon; Ogembo, Javier Gordon

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess awareness, knowledge and beliefs about HPV, cervical cancer HPV vaccine and willingness to vaccinate among adolescent females aged 12-26 years at clinics and schools in the North West Region of Cameroon where the Cameroon Baptist Convention Health Services (CBCHS) conducted a sensitization and education campaign. A questionnaire survey was administered among female adolescents in schools and clinics. Descriptive statistics including frequencies, percentages and proportions were generated for independent variables and bivariate analyses (Chi square test) were used to assess the relationship between independent and outcome variables. Data were analyzed using SAS Version 9.2. Out of a sample of 650 adolescent girls 553 willingly participated in this anonymous survey. Awareness of HPV (86.8%), cervical cancer (82.3%), and prevention of HPV infections through vaccination (75.9%) was significantly higher than in previous studies conducted in Cameroon and other developing countries. Higher perceptions of risk were associated with being sexually active (p = 0.0013), age (p = 0.0031) and level of education (p = 0.0274). Age and educational level were associated with HPV knowledge (p = 0.007 and p = 0.0008), respectively. The mean level of interest in HPV vaccination was 4.0 (SD = 1.27), which is above the mean. Our data indicate high awareness about HPV, cervical cancer and HPV vaccine among adolescents, and interest in receiving the vaccine and learning about the disease. CBCHS' community education strategy effectively raised acceptability and generated demand for HPV vaccine, making it a potential model for HPV immunization in Cameroon and other developing countries.

  9. Obesity among children attending elementary public schools in São Paulo, Brazil: a case--control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabela da Costa, Ribeiro; Taddei, José Augusto A C; Colugnatti, Fernando

    2003-10-01

    To describe obesity among students of public schools in São Paulo and to identify risk factors for this nutritional and physical activity disorder. Case-control study of obese and non-obese schoolchildren to study risk factors for obesity. Anthropometric survey including 2519 children attending eight elementary public schools in São Paulo, Brazil. Schoolchildren aged 7-10 years, of whom 223 were obese (cases; weight-for-height greater than or equal to two standard deviations (>or=2SD) above the median of the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) reference population) and 223 were eutrophic (controls; weight-for-height +/-1SD from NCHS median). Parents or guardians of the 446 cases and controls were interviewed about the children's eating behaviours and habits. The prevalence of obesity (weight-for-height >or=2SD) in the surveyed population was 10.5%. A logistic regression model fitted to the case-control dataset showed that obesity was positively associated with the following factors: birth weight >or=3500 g (odds ratio (OR) 1.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.21-2.78), child's appetite at meals (OR 3.81, 95% CI 2.49-5.83), watching television for 4 h per day or longer (OR 2.07, 95% CI 1.32-3.24), mother's schooling >4 years (OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.25-2.75) and parents' body mass index >or=30 kg x m(-2) (OR 2.50, 95% CI 1.43-4.37). The explanatory multivariate model points to preventive measures that would encourage knowledge of the children and their guardians in relation to a balanced diet and a less sedentary lifestyle, such as reducing television viewing. Schoolchildren with a birth weight of 3500 g or more or whose parents are obese should receive special attention in the prevention of obesity.

  10. Pre-existing adversity, level of child protection involvement, and school attendance predict educational outcomes in a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, Miriam J; Taylor, Catherine L; O'Donnell, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Maltreatment largely occurs in a multiple-risk context. The few large studies adjusting for confounding factors have raised doubts about whether low educational achievement results from maltreatment or co-occurring risk factors. This study examined prevalence, risk and protective factors for low educational achievement among children involved with the child protection system compared to other children. We conducted a population-based record-linkage study of children born in Western Australia who sat national Year 3 reading achievement tests between 2008 and 2010 (N=46,838). The longitudinal study linked data from the Western Australian Department of Education, Department of Child Protection and Family Support, Department of Health, and the Disability Services Commission. Children with histories of child protection involvement (unsubstantiated maltreatment reports, substantiations or out-of-home care placement) were at three-fold increased risk of low reading scores. Adjusting for socio-demographic adversity partially attenuated the increased risk, however risk remained elevated overall and for substantiated (OR=1.68) and unsubstantiated maltreatment (OR=1.55). Risk of low reading scores in the out-of-home care group was fully attenuated after adjusting for socio-demographic adversity (OR=1.16). Attendance was significantly higher in the out-of-home care group and served a protective role. Neglect, sexual abuse, and physical abuse were associated with low reading scores. Pre-existing adversity was also significantly associated with achievement. Results support policies and practices to engage children and families in regular school attendance, and highlight a need for further strategies to prevent maltreatment and disadvantage from restricting children's opportunities for success. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Internalization of Jewish Values by Children Attending Orthodox Jewish Schools, and Its Relationship to Autonomy-Supportive Parenting and Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lori R.; Milyavskaya, Marina; Koestner, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the way in which children attending Orthodox Jewish schools internalize the value of both their Jewish studies and secular studies, as well as the value of Jewish cultural practices. A distinction was made between identified internalization, where children perceive Jewish studies and Jewish culture to be an important…

  12. Progression of impairment in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder through the transition out of high school: Contributions of parent involvement and college attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Andrea L; Strickland, Noelle J; Murray, Desiree W; Tamm, Leanne; Swanson, James M; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Arnold, L Eugene; Molina, Brooke S G

    2016-02-01

    Long-term, prospective follow-up studies of children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show that symptoms tend to decline with age, but impairments in daily life functioning often persist into adulthood. We examined the developmental progression of impairments before and after the transition out of high school in relation to parent involvement during adolescence, parent support during adulthood, and college attendance, using 8 waves of data from the prospective 16-year follow-up of the Multimodal Treatment of ADHD (MTA) study. Participants were 548 proband children diagnosed with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) ADHD Combined Type and 258 age- and sex-matched comparison children (Local Normative Comparison Group; LNCG) randomly sampled from probands' schools. Impairment was assessed consistently by parent report from childhood through adulthood. Results showed that impairment worsens over time both before and after the transition to adulthood for those with ADHD histories, in contrast to non-ADHD peers, whose impairments remained stably low over time. However, impairment stabilized after leaving high school for young adults with ADHD histories who attended college. Involved parenting in adolescence was associated with less impairment overall. Attending college was associated with a stable post-high school trajectory of impairment regardless of parents' involvement during adolescence, but young adults with histories of involved parenting and who attended college were the least impaired overall. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. The response of 1578 school leavers to a campaign combining commercial, Health Boards' and GDPs' sponsorship in an effort to improve dental attendance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craven, R; Blinkhorn, A S; Schou, L

    1993-01-01

    A dental health promotion campaign was developed by Forth Valley Health Board in conjunction with the Scottish Health Education Group and the Department of Marketing at Strathclyde University. The aim was to encourage dental attendance among early school leavers. The emphasis was on the contribut...

  14. Assessing Outgroup Prejudice among 13-15-Year-Old Students Attending Catholic and Protestant Secondary Schools in Northern Ireland: An Empirical Enquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Leslie J.; Village, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Northern Ireland has been and remains a religiously divided community. This study sets out to examine outgroup prejudice among a sample of 1799 13-15-year-old students attending Catholic or Protestant schools and employs both bivariate analyses and hierarchical modelling to chart the associations between outgroup prejudice and personal factors…

  15. Associations of Caffeinated Beverage Consumption and Screen Time with Excessive Daytime Sleepiness in Korean High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Nuri; Lee, Aeri; Baik, Inkyung

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated caffeinated beverage consumption and screen time in the association with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and sleep duration. We conducted a cross-sectional study including 249 Korean male high school students. These participants responded to a questionnaire inquiring the information on lifestyle factors, consumption of caffeinated beverages, time spent for screen media, and sleep duration as well as to the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) questionnaire. EDS was defined as ESS scores of 9 or greater. Students with EDS consumed greater amount of chocolate/cocoa drinks and spent longer time for a TV and a mobile phone than those without EDS (p students with short sleep (≤ 6 hours) consumed greater amount of coffee than others whereas students with long sleep (> 8 hours) consumed greater amount of chocolate/cocoa drinks than others (p sleep duration. Although these findings do not support causal relationships, they suggest that screen time is associated with EDS, but not with sleep duration, and that consumption of certain types of caffeinated beverages is associated with EDS and sleep duration. Adolescents may need to reduce screen time and caffeine consumption to improve sleep quality and avoid daytime sleepiness.

  16. A survey of visual impairment and blindness in children attending four schools for the blind in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sia, David I T; Muecke, James; Hammerton, Michael; Ngy, Meng; Kong, Aimee; Morse, Anna; Holmes, Martin; Piseth, Horm; Hamilton, Carolyn; Selva, Dinesh

    2010-08-01

    To identify the causes of blindness and severe visual impairment (BL/SVI) in children attending four schools for the blind in Cambodia and to provide spectacles, low vision aids, orientation and mobility training and ophthalmic treatment. Children schools for the blind in Cambodia. Causes of visual impairment and blindness were determined and categorized using World Health Organization methods. Of the 95 children examined, 54.7% were blind (BL) and 10.5% were severely visually impaired (SVI). The major anatomical site of BL/SVI was the lens in 27.4%, cornea in 25.8%, retina in 21% and whole globe in 17.7%. The major underlying etiologies of BL/SVI were hereditary factors (mainly cataract and retinal dystrophies) in 45.2%, undetermined/unknown (mainly microphthalmia and anterior segment dysgenesis) in 38.7% and childhood factors in 11.3%. Avoidable causes of BL/SVI accounted for 50% of the cases; 12.9% of the total were preventable with measles being the commonest cause (8.1% of the total); 37.1% were treatable with cataracts and glaucoma being the commonest causes (22.6% and 4.8% respectively). More than 35% of children required an optical device and 27.4% had potential for visual improvement with intervention. Half of the BL/SVI causes were potentially avoidable. The data support the need for increased coverage of measles immunization. There is also a need to develop specialized pediatric ophthalmic services for the management of surgically remediable conditions, to provide optometric, low vision and orientation and mobility services. Genetic risk counseling services also may be considered.

  17. Parents', nurses', and educators' perceptions of risks and benefits of school attendance by children who are medically fragile/technology-dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Roberta S; Rohr, Julie A

    2002-10-01

    Few studies have focused on school activities of children who are medically fragile/technology-dependent. This article reports on an exploratory, interpretive study that examined the perceptions of parents, nurses, and educators with regard to their school concerns and strategies for ensuring the safety and health of these students. Informants all believed that attending school provided benefits to most children who are medically fragile/technology-dependent, including opportunities for skill acquisition, socialization, and respite care for families. However, they also perceived that there were real risks involved, including obtaining appropriate care, exposure to infection, and social isolation or teasing. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  18. CHARACTERIZATION OF SCHOOL ATTENDANCE OF STUDENTS WITH PHYSICAL DISABILITIES IN A CITY OF SÃO PAULO STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Garcia Gonçalves

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to characterize the educational services offered to students with physical disabilities in a Municipal Education of a midsize city of São Paulo state. We gathered the data through document analysis and application of semi-structured interviews. We recorded the data on audio, transcribed and analyzed them. We categorized them into two categories, the first of which referred to the attendance policies and second, the organization of care for students with physical disabilities. The results showed that the system investigated showed accessibility policies supporting the use of assistive technology for students with disabilities enrolled in regular education, despite not indicate the need for specialized educational services when the student has no associated cognitive impairment. We concluded that there are myriad factors to contemplate the school inclusion of students with physical disabilities and that many actions are needed to ensure education and social participation of this target audience. Keywords: Special Education. Physical Disabilities. Specialized Educational Services. Assistive Technology.

  19. AN EVALUATION OF THE COMMUNICATION SKILLS AND EMPATHIC TENDENCIES OF STUDENTS ATTENDING POLICE VOCATIONAL SCHOOL OF HIGHER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür DİNÇER

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to find out whether Police Vocational School of Higher Education students comprehend the duties and responsibilities of being a police correctly and practice what has to be done through correct methods within this context; to e valuate their empathy tendencies and communication skills; to find solutions if they have any shortcomings in communication skills; to make up for their shortcomings in showing empathy or to strengthen their existing skills. The study included a total of 9 09 students attending Samsun 19 Mayıs Police Vocational School of Higher Education. Of these 909 students, 207 (45,6% females and 247 (54,4% males were in their first year while 252 (55,4% males and 203 (%44,6 females were in their second year. The dat a was collected through a 25 - item 5 likert scale developed by Korkut (1996 in order to understand how individuals evaluate their communication skills. The scale is scored from (1 never to (5 always. To find out empathy tendencies, Empathic Tendencies Sc ale developed by Dökmen (1988 was used. The scale is a Likert type scale; it includes 20 questions which are scored from 1 to 5. The lowest score a person can get from the scale is 20 while the highest score is 100. Frequency percentage was used to find o ut the age distribution of the group. Mean and standard deviation were used to present the group’s communication skill levels and independent groups t - test was used to present the state of differentiation based on gender, age and question factor. General c ommunication skills of the research group were below the average communication level score while their empathy tendencies were high. There were significant differences in communication levels in terms of their year of study, gender and their department at high school (P<0,05. As a result, studies of individual development in the education of professional groups which are interlocked with humans will enable an increase in

  20. Shadow Education in Malaysia: Identifying the Determinants of Spending and Amount of Time Attending Private Supplementary Tutoring of Upper Secondary School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Da Wan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the determinants of spending and the amount of time attending private supplementary tutoring, or commonly known as private tuition, in Malaysia. Based on 343 self-reported questionnaires with upper secondary students across three states in Malaysia and using multiple regression analysis, we identified ethnicity, father’s level of education and past academic performance as significant determinants of spending and amount of time attending private tuition. However, interestingly, we found that while geographical location and participation in internal tuition in schools were also determinants of spending, these two were not significant in determining the amount of time attending private supplementary tutoring. The identification of determinants of spending and amount of time, and in addition, the differences between these two illustrates the economic and educational dimensions of shadow education. More importantly, the insight also contributes to the formulation of possible interventions that can improve quality and reduce inequality in the mainstream education system.

  1. Successful Attendance Policies and Programs. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Partnerships, Inc., 2012

    2012-01-01

    What steps can be taken to assure that High School students have the best attendance possible? It is commonly believed and well supported by research that students who attend school regularly are more successful than those who do not. The challenge for high schools is to design and implement attendance policies and programs that monitor,…

  2. Maternal alcohol use disorder and child school attendance outcomes for non-Indigenous and Indigenous children in Western Australia: a population cohort record linkage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafekost, Katherine; Lawrence, David; O'Leary, Colleen; Bower, Carol; Semmens, James; Zubrick, Stephen R

    2017-07-11

    Examine the relationship between maternal alcohol use disorder and child school attendance outcomes for non-Indigenous and Indigenous children in Western Australia. Population cohort study. Routinely collected linked administrative health, education and child protection data. Those in-scope for the study were women with a birth recorded on the Western Australian Midwives Notification System (1989-2007). Women who had an alcohol-related diagnosis (International Classification of Diseases Revisions 9/10) recorded on the Hospital Morbidity, Mental Health Inpatients and Outpatients, and Drug and Alcohol Office data sets formed the exposed group. The comparison cohort was frequency-matched to the exposed cohort based on maternal age within Indigenous status and child's year of birth. Child's school attendance was obtained from the Department of Education (2008-2012). Poor attendance was defined as alcohol use disorder was significantly associated with increased odds of poor attendance (non-Indigenous: OR=1.61, 95% CI 1.50 to 1.74; Indigenous: OR=1.66, 95% CI 1.54 to 1.79). With adjustment for maternal and child factors, there was no significant difference between the timing of alcohol diagnosis relative to pregnancy and attendance outcomes. The population attributable fraction was higher in the Indigenous cohort than the non-Indigenous cohort (6.0% vs 1.3%). Maternal alcohol use disorder was associated with a significantly increased odds of poor school attendance for non-Indigenous and Indigenous children. There was no significant difference between the timing of diagnoses and odds of poor school attendance. This suggests that the effect of maternal alcohol use disorder may not be driven by the neurodevelopmental effects of alcohol exposure in utero, but may be mediated through family or social factors for which we were unable to adjust. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No

  3. Prevalence of hypodontia in nine- to fourteen-year-old children who attended the Mashhad School of Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajami, Behgat-al-molok; Shabzendedar, Mahboobeh; Mehrjerdian, Maryam

    2010-01-01

    Hypodontia is defined as the congenital absence of one or a few teeth, and is also the most common anomaly in dental development. This condition occurs either individually or as part of the symptoms of a syndrome, and it is more common in permanent teeth than in deciduous teeth, reporting a prevalence of between 1.6 and 9.6%. The objective of this study is to investigate the prevalence of hypodontia for permanent teeth in nine- to 14-year-old children who attended the Mashhad School of Dentistry in 2007. We conducted this descriptive, analytical, cross-sectional study, to determine the mentioned aims. In this descriptive, cross-sectional study, panoramic radiographs belonging to 600 children (351 girls and 249 boys), aged nine to 14 years, were available for examination. All related findings were recorded in the respective forms. The data were processed using Exact and Chi-square tests. The prevalence of hypodontia in the girls was 9.2%, in the boys 8.8%, and in both sexes combined 9%. The most and the least frequent cases of absent teeth were the mandibular second premolars and the maxillary central incisor (only one child), respectively. The most commonly absent teeth were the mandibular second premolars, the maxillary lateral incisors, the mandibular central incisor, and the maxillary second premolars, in that order. This study showed a high frequency of hypodontia among the understudied population. Thus, due to the complicated treatment, accurate examination of children for on-time diagnosis of this developmental anomaly is crucial.

  4. Sonolência diurna excessiva em pré-vestibulandos Excessive daytime sleepiness in senior high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Souza

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O sono é um fenômeno que interfere nos aspectos cognitivos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a prevalência da sonolência diurna excessiva (SDE em pré-vestibulandos de Campo Grande, MS. MÉTODOS: Foram entrevistados 378 alunos com a escala de sonolência Epworth (ESE. As variáveis foram: sexo, uso esporádico de bebidas alcoólicas e fumo, relato de sinais e sintomas depressivos, renda familiar total dos membros do lar e idade. Foram empregados os testes qui-quadrado e de análise de variância. RESULTADOS: Em relação ao gênero, 50,3% eram homens e 49,7% mulheres; 39,2% ingeriam álcool; 6,6% fumavam e 33% já tinham tido depressão na vida. Entre os alunos, 55,8% tinham SDE, 5,3% eram indicativos de ter distúrbio respiratório ou síndrome da apnéia do sono. Foram detectadas associações entre as variáveis consumo de álcool e tabagismo, em relação à ESE. CONCLUSÕES: Foi alta a prevalência de SDE, sendo detectadas associações entre as variáveis uso esporádico de álcool e fumo, em relação à ESE. Novos estudos devem ser realizados a fim de prevenir as alterações cognitivas entre os pré-vestibulandos que apresentam SDE ou outro distúrbio do sono.OBJETIVE: Sleep is a phenomenon that has influence on cognitive aspects. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS prevalence. METHODS: 378 senior high school students from a school of Campo Grande-MS, Brazil, were interview with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. The variables that were crosSDE with the scale were: sex, alcohol use, smoking, symptoms of depression, family income and age. For the analysis it was uSDE the chi2 test and the variance analysis test. RESULTS: Our sample consisted of 50,3% boys and 49,7% girls, 39,2% were alcohol drinkers, 6,6% were smokers and 33% had already had depression. The overall prevalence of EDS was 55,8% and of respiratory disturbance or sleep apnea was 5,3%. We found relationships

  5. A Statewide Look at Attendance and Chronic Absenteeism in Elementary Schools in Oregon. Chronic Absenteeism in Oregon Elementary Schools. Part 1 of 4. September 2016. Research Brief Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon Department of Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This brief highlights the importance of using a measure like chronic absenteeism, rather than average daily attendance, in order to identify concerning patterns in elementary attendance rates. The chronic absenteeism measurement is better able to shine a light on the number of individual students struggling with attendance. Subsequent briefs in…

  6. From kitchen to classroom: Assessing the impact of cleaner burning biomass-fuelled cookstoves on primary school attendance in Karonga district, northern Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Christine A; Crampin, Amelia C; Mortimer, Kevin; Dube, Albert; Malava, Jullita; Johnston, Deborah; Unterhalter, Elaine; Glynn, Judith R

    2018-01-01

    Household air pollution from burning solid fuels is responsible for an estimated 2.9 million premature deaths worldwide each year and 4.5% of global disability-adjusted life years, while cooking and fuel collection pose a considerable time burden, particularly for women and children. Cleaner burning biomass-fuelled cookstoves have the potential to lower exposure to household air pollution as well as reduce fuelwood demand by increasing the combustion efficiency of cooking fires, which may in turn yield ancillary benefits in other domains. The present paper capitalises on opportunities offered by the Cooking and Pneumonia Study (CAPS), the largest randomised trial of biomass-fuelled cookstoves on health outcomes conducted to date, the design of which allows for the evaluation of additional outcomes at scale. This mixed methods study assesses the impact of cookstoves on primary school absenteeism in Karonga district, northern Malawi, in particular by conferring health and time and resource gains on young people aged 5-18. The analysis combines quantitative data from 6168 primary school students with in-depth interviews and focus group discussions carried out among 48 students in the same catchment area in 2016. Negative binomial regression models find no evidence that the cookstoves affected primary school absenteeism overall [IRR 0.92 (0.71-1.18), p = 0.51]. Qualitative analysis suggests that the cookstoves did not sufficiently improve household health to influence school attendance, while the time and resource burdens associated with cooking activities-although reduced in intervention households-were considered to be compatible with school attendance in both trial arms. More research is needed to assess whether the cookstoves influenced educational outcomes not captured by the attendance measure available, such as timely arrival to school or hours spent on homework.

  7. The influence of averageness on judgments of facial attractiveness: no own-age or own-sex advantage among children attending single-sex schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vingilis-Jaremko, Larissa; Maurer, Daphne; Gao, Xiaoqing

    2014-04-01

    We examined how recent biased face experience affects the influence of averageness on judgments of facial attractiveness among 8- and 9-year-old children attending a girls' school, a boys' school, and a mixed-sex school. We presented pairs of individual faces in which one face was transformed 50% toward its group average, whereas the other face was transformed 50% away from that average. Across blocks, the faces varied in age (adult, 9-year-old, or 5-year-old) and sex (male or female). We expected that averageness might influence attractiveness judgments more strongly for same-age faces and, for children attending single-sex schools, same-sex faces of that age because their prototype(s) should be best tuned to the faces they see most frequently. Averageness influenced children's judgments of attractiveness, but the strength of the influence was not modulated by the age of the face, nor did the effects of sex of face differ across schools. Recent biased experience might not have affected the results because of similarities between the average faces of different ages and sexes and/or because a minimum level of experience with a particular group of faces may be adequate for the formation of a veridical prototype and its influence on judgments of attractiveness. The results suggest that averageness affects children's judgments of the attractiveness of the faces they encounter in everyday life regardless of age or sex of face. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. What Works Clearinghouse Quick Review: "Meeting the Challenge of Combating Chronic Absenteeism: Impact of the NYC Mayor's Interagency Task Force on Chronic Absenteeism and School Attendance and Its Implications for Other Cities"

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of an intervention designed to reduce rates of chronic student absenteeism in New York City public schools. The study authors reported that schools participating in the intervention experienced greater reductions in rates of student chronic absenteeism than the comparison schools. Students who attended the…

  9. ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENCES BETWEEN BOYS ATTENDING A FOOTBALL SCHOOL AND THOS WHO DO NOT DO SPORT WITH SPECIFIC-MOTOR ABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Molnar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The subject sample of 240 boys aged 7-14 was divided to two subsamples of 120 boys each (active participants of “ЯMR Vojvodina” football school since the age of 7, and boys involved in sports, who regularly attended classes of physical education at school. The sample was subjected to 11 tests for evaluation of specific–motor abilities. The purpose of this research was to determine whether there are or there are not any differences in specific- motor abilities of subjects of the same age depending whether they play any sport or not. Analysis of results processed by discriminative analysis showed that the boys who attended football school achieved much better results in tests for evaluation of specific motor abilities than the boys who did not. At the age of 7-8, the differences can be attributed to efficient selection rather than the program contents due to the fact that they are beginners, whereas at older ages, these differences, being even higher in boys doing sports, can be attributed to the effects of program contents in the football school.

  10. The Impact of a Childhood Cancer Diagnosis on the Children and Siblings' School Attendance, Performance, and Activities: A Qualitative Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsimicalis, Argerie; Genest, Laurence; Stevens, Bonnie; Ungar, Wendy J; Barr, Ronald

    Families of children with cancer are confronted with unexpected out-of-pocket expenses and productivity costs associated with the diagnosis. One productivity cost that falls on children is the impact of cancer on children's school attendance, performance, and activities (eg, play, friendships, and socialization). Nested within the Childhood Cancer Cost Study, this qualitative descriptive study used convenience sampling to recruit and interview parents of children newly diagnosed with cancer. Content analysis techniques were used to inductively descriptive the semistructured interview data. Sixty-six parents of 65 children with cancer and of 73 siblings participated. The most commonly reported productivity loss in children with cancer was school absenteeism mainly due to cancer treatment. Children fell behind their classmates academically and lost important social time with peers. A few siblings also fell behind their peers primarily due to limited parental attention. Parents adopted various strategies to lessen the impact of the diagnosis on their children's school attendance, performance, and activities. Providing parents with additional resources and support may optimize their children's academic and social reintegration into school.

  11. Dental attendance, perceptions of cost and self-care of school year 12 and 13 students: A focus on Southland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Colleen; Densie, Ian Kenneth; Morgan, Christian

    2015-12-01

    Adolescents and emerging adults can provide dentists with many challenges. Little information is available on their perceptions of dental costs once they turn 18 and dentistry is no longer State-funded. The aim of this study was to explore the use of dental care by Southland students in years 12 and 13, their perceptions of the cost of four common dental procedures, self-related oral health and dental self-care habits, time off school related to dental problems, and knowledge and views regarding fluoride. After ethical approval, a 26-question survey was conducted of all Southland students in years 12 and 13. Data were statistically analysed in SPSS version 20 with the alpha value set at 0.05. The participation rate was 49.6%. Regular attendance for examinations was reported by 77.5% with non-attendance mainly related to attitudes around lack of importance or necessity. Reported dental attendance varied according to gender, ethnicity and decile rating of school attended. Although some were accurate in their estimations of dental costs, the standard deviation for all procedures was large. The majority thought that costs put people off going to the dentist. While 74.8% brushed their teeth at least twice daily, only 26.6% flossed regularly. Knowledge regarding fluoride was lacking. It may be advantageous to include education regarding costs of dental care with patients of this age. This may motivate them to improve their self-care and ensure that their oral health is of a high standard before their dental needs are no longer State-funded.

  12. An examination of Indiana Early College High School students who attended Purdue University between 2006 and 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkham, Lisa P

    2016-01-01

    Early College High Schools (ECHS) are an educational intervention designed to promote rigor in high school education along with increased post-secondary access and success for disadvantaged students. Based on evidence, the Early College High School program is effective at helping students who traditionally are not in college-bound tracks find their way into that path. ECHSs provide a comprehensive, rigorous high school experience allowing students to earn an associate’s degree along with the ...

  13. Connecting Attendance and Academic Outcomes. Chronic Absenteeism in Oregon Elementary Schools. Part 2 of 4. September 2016. Research Brief Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon Department of Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This report highlights several trends in Oregon that show the correlation between chronic absenteeism and various academic outcomes. Oregon student patterns follow the national trend in that students with better attendance have better outcomes. Fifth-grade chronic absenteeism is a moderately strong predictor of chronic absenteeism in subsequent…

  14. Excessive growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanaswamy, Vasudha; Rettig, Kenneth R; Bhowmick, Samar K

    2008-09-01

    Tall stature and excessive growth syndrome are a relatively rare concern in pediatric practice. Nevertheless, it is important to identify abnormal accelerated growth patterns in children, which may be the clue in the diagnosis of an underlying disorder. We present a case of pituitary gigantism in a 2 1/2-year-old child and discuss the signs, symptoms, laboratory findings, and the treatment. Brief discussions on the differential diagnosis of excessive growth/tall stature have been outlined. Pituitary gigantism is very rare in the pediatrics age group; however, it is extremely rare in a child that is less than 3 years of age. The nature of pituitary adenoma and treatment options in children with this condition have also been discussed.

  15. Objectively Measured Physical Activity Levels among Ethnic Minority Children Attending School-Based Afterschool Programs in a High-Poverty Neighborhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngdeok Kim, Marc Lochbaum

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ethnic minority children living in high poverty neighborhoods are at high risk of having insufficient physical activity (PA during school days and, thus, the importance of school as a place to facilitate PA in these underserved children has been largely emphasized. This study examined the levels and patterns of PA in minority children, with particular focus on the relative contributions of regular physical education (PE and school-based afterschool PA program in promoting moderate- and vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA during school days. PA data were repeatedly measured using a Polar Active accelerometer across multiple school days (M = 5.3 days per child, from seventy-five ethnic minority children attending a Title I public elementary school in a high-poverty neighborhood in the US. The minutes and percentage of MVPA accumulated during school, PE, and afterschool PA program were compared to the current recommendations (≥30-min of MVPA during school hours; and ≥50% of MVPA during PE or afterschool PA program as well as by the demographic characteristics including sex, grade, ethnicity, and weight status using a general linear mixed model that accounts for repeated observations. On average, children spent 41.6 mins (SE = 1.8 of MVPA during school hours and of those, 14.1 mins (SE = 0.6 were contributed during PE. The average proportion of time spent in MVPA during PE was 31.3% (SE = 1.3, which was significantly lower than the recommendation (≥50% of MVPA, whereas 54.2% (SE = 1.2 of time in afterschool PA program were spent in MVPA. The percentage of monitoring days meeting current recommendations were 69.5% (SE = 0.03, 20.8% (SE = 0.02, and 59.6% (SE = 0.03 for during school, PE, and afterschool PA program, respectively. Our findings highlighted that school-based afterschool PA, in addition to regular PE classes, could be of great benefit to promote PA in minority children during school days. Further research and practice are still needed to

  16. [Low level auditory skills compared to writing skills in school children attending third and fourth grade: evidence for the rapid auditory processing deficit theory?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptok, M; Meisen, R

    2008-01-01

    The rapid auditory processing defi-cit theory holds that impaired reading/writing skills are not caused exclusively by a cognitive deficit specific to representation and processing of speech sounds but arise due to sensory, mainly auditory, deficits. To further explore this theory we compared different measures of auditory low level skills to writing skills in school children. prospective study. School children attending third and fourth grade. just noticeable differences for intensity and frequency (JNDI, JNDF), gap detection (GD) monaural and binaural temporal order judgement (TOJb and TOJm); grade in writing, language and mathematics. correlation analysis. No relevant correlation was found between any auditory low level processing variable and writing skills. These data do not support the rapid auditory processing deficit theory.

  17. 76 FR 54810 - Submission for Review: 3206-0215, Verification of Full-Time School Attendance, RI 25-49

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ... other technological collection techniques or other forms of information technology, e.g., permitting... or faxed to (202) 395-6974. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: RI 25-49, Verification of Full-Time School... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: 3206-0215, Verification of Full-Time School...

  18. A survey of severe visual impairment in children attending schools for the blind in a coastal district of Andhra Pradesh in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaiah, S; Subba Rao, B; Lakshmi Narasamma, K; Amit, G

    2012-08-01

    To identify the major causes of severe childhood visual impairment and blindness among students attending schools for the blind in a coastal district of Andhra Pradesh (AP) in South India. Children ≤ 16 years of age attending six schools for the blind in the study area were interviewed and examined in the year 2009, and causes were classified according to the World Health Organization Program for Prevention of Blindness (WHO/PBL) childhood blindness proforma. A total of 113 children underwent a detailed eye examination by an experienced ophthalmologist. The major causes of blindness were congenital eye anomalies in 46 children (41.4; 95% confidence interval (CI): 32.3-50.6), followed by retinal disorders in 21 children (18.9%; 95% CI: 11.6-26.2), cataract in 9 children (9.7%; 95% CI: 2.9-12.9), and corneal conditions (scar and Staphyloma) in 8 children (7.1%; 95% CI: 2.4-11.8). More than half the children (56.6%) were blind due to conditions that could have been treated or prevented. Congenital anomalies were found to be the most common cause of blindness. The majority of the cases were due to avoidable causes of blindness. Therefore, robust screening measures may help reduce the burden of visual impairment in children.

  19. Parental coping, depressive symptoms, and children's asthma control and school attendance in low-income, racially, and ethnically diverse urban families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Erin M; Kumar, Harsha; Alba-Suarez, Juliana; Sánchez-Johnsen, Lisa

    2017-10-01

    Low-income urban children of color are at elevated risk for poor asthma control. This cross-sectional study examined associations among parents' coping (primary control, secondary control, and disengagement), parental depressive symptoms, and children's asthma outcomes (asthma control and school attendance) in a predominantly low-income, racially/ethnically diverse sample of families. Parents (N = 78; 90% female) of children (33% female; 46% Black; 38% Latino) aged 5-17 years (M = 9.5 years) reported on their own coping and depressive symptoms, their child's asthma control, and full and partial days of school missed due to asthma. Parents' secondary control coping (i.e., coping efforts to accommodate/adapt to asthma-related stressors) was negatively correlated, and disengagement coping (i.e. coping efforts to avoid/detach from stressors) was positively correlated, with their depressive symptoms. Secondary control coping was also correlated with fewer partial days of school missed. Primary control coping (i.e., coping efforts to change stressors) was not associated with depressive symptoms or asthma outcomes. Parents' depressive symptoms were also positively correlated with poorer asthma control and partial days of school missed. Regression models showed direct and indirect effects of secondary control and disengagement coping on asthma outcomes via depressive symptoms, after controlling for demographic factors. Parents' secondary control and disengagement coping are related to children's asthma outcomes. Secondary control coping may support parents' mental health and children's asthma control in low-income urban families.

  20. Еvaluation of health status of children attending primary schools with different organization of physical education lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratiuk, Oleksandra S.; Korshun, Maria M.; Garkavyi, Serhii I.; Garkavyi, Serhii S.

    2018-01-01

    The mandatory swimming lesson in primary schools, equipped with swimming pools, was introduced without studying of its health-saving effectiveness. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the health status of pupils studying in schools with different organization of physical education lessons. Cross-sectional study was organized in two schools with different organization of physical education lessons. The experimental group (E) consisted of 408 children of 1‑4 year of study (210 girls and 198 boys) who during one of the lessons of physical education were engaged in swimming in the school basin. Control group (C) consisted of 279 primary school children (210 girls and 156 boys) from a neighboring educational institution where all physical education lessons were organized in the gym. The health status was evaluated using classical method of complex assessment of the state of health with the subsequent assignment of each child to one of the health groups. In result of evaluation of state of health there was established that among pupils from E group the proportion of boys with harmonious anthropometric parameters is higher (pprimary school has positive effect on health status of children.

  1. Cheaper by the Dozen: Using Sibling Discounts at Catholic Schools to Estimate the Price Elasticity of Private School Attendance. NBER Working Paper No. 15461

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynarski, Susan; Gruber, Jonathan; Li, Danielle

    2009-01-01

    The effect of vouchers on sorting between private and public schools depends upon the price elasticity of demand for private schooling. Estimating this elasticity is empirically challenging because prices and quantities are jointly determined in the market for private schooling. We exploit a unique and previously undocumented source of variation…

  2. Health behaviors and mental health of students attending alternative high schools: a review of the research literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Karen E; Taliaferro, Lindsay A

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this review is to describe current knowledge about health-risk behaviors and mental health among alternative high school students. Substance use, diet and/or physical activity, sexual-risk behaviors, mental health, and violence were reviewed. Students were described as marginalized youth facing significant social environmental challenges. Findings from 43 studies published from 1997-2010 suggested a high prevalence of health-risk behaviors among alternative high school students. Very few studies were conducted by nurse researchers. Suggestions for future research include addressing social environmental factors, resiliency, and emotional/mental health outcomes. Alternative high schools offer a venue to conduct research and implement nursing interventions with high-risk, yet resilient, youth. © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Comparative description of migrant farmworkers versus other students attending South Texas schools: demographic, academic, and health characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Sharon P; Weller, Nancy F; Fox, Erin E; Cooper, Sara R; Shipp, Eva M

    2005-08-01

    Little is known about academic performance, health, and social functioning of youth from migrant farmworker families. This study was designed to compare demographic, academic, health, and social data between migrant and nonmigrant youth residing in South Texas. Anonymous cross-sectional survey data were collected from 6954 middle and 3565 high school students. About 5% of South Texas middle and high school students reported belonging to a migrant family. Compared with nonmigrant students, migrant youth were more likely to miss and arrive late to school, sleep in class, and study fewer hours weekly. Migrant students reported fewer hours of nightly sleep, fewer hours spent with their friends, and more minor illnesses than nonmigrant youth. These results demonstrate the need for interventions specifically targeted to this vulnerable adolescent population.

  4. Scientists from all over the world attend the 2005 Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn summer school at Karlsruhe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, V.H.; Fischer, U.

    2005-01-01

    The Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School annually organized alternately by the Karlsruhe Research Center and the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA), Cadarche, France, this year was held at the Karlsruhe Congress Center. In line with the mission of the School to disseminate nuclear competence an a broad basis among young scientists from all over the world, lectures covered reactor physics, nuclear fuels, and nuclear systems. Speakers from leading international research institutions presented introductions to their respective fields, outlined the current state of the art, and also highlighted areas in need of further development and, thus, likely to offer challenges to young scientists. Next year's Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School will be organized by CEA and held at Cadarache, France. (orig.)

  5. Prevalence and Distribution of Oral Mucosal Lesions by Sex and Age Categories: A Retrospective Study of Patients Attending Lebanese School of Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami El Toum

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prevalence and distribution of oral mucosal lesions in a sample of Lebanese population attending the School of Dentistry of Lebanese University is necessary to evaluate their oral health situation. Objectives. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and distribution of oral mucosal lesions of patients attending the School of Dentistry. Methods. A descriptive study was carried out by retrospectively examining a total of 231 medical and clinical examination record files of patients, attending the School of Dentistry Lebanese University for multidisciplinary dental treatments. 178 medical records were retained. Each medical and clinical examination record was done by an undergraduate student and then evaluated by a doctor. The record file included a civil status, chief complaint, medical history, and extraoral and intraoral clinical examination during the period between October 2014 and May 2015. Exclusion criteria were lack of written information in their medical and clinical examination record and being nonevaluated by a doctor. Data regarding age, gender, socioeconomic status, chief complaint, systemic diseases, and drugs intake were collected by using a questionnaire while the type of extraoral and oral mucosal lesions by clinical examination. Results. The sample consisted of 102 (57.3% females and 76 (42.7% males. The age ranged from 10 to 92 years with a mean age of 40.1 years. Among these subjects, 110 (61.8% presented with one or more lesions. All patients were Lebanese. The most common lesion diagnosed was coated/hairy tongue affecting 17.4% of the subjects, followed by melanotic macule (11.2%, gingivitis (9.6, linea alba (6.2%, tongue depapillation (5.1, leukoplakia (5.1, traumatic fibroma (4.5, frictional keratosis (3.9%, fissured tongue (3.9%, hemangiomas (3.9%, Fordyce granules (3.9%, dry mucosa (3.4, angular cheilitis (2.2, gingival hyperplasia (2.2, and crenulated tongue (1.7%. Overall, the prevalence

  6. Clinical Implications of Diffuse Excessive High Signal Intensity (DEHSI on Neonatal MRI in School Age Children Born Extremely Preterm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Broström

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain carried out during the neonatal period shows that 55-80% of extremely preterm infants display white matter diffuse excessive high signal intensity (DEHSI. Our aim was to study differences in developmental outcome at the age of 6.5 years in children born extremely preterm with and without DEHSI.This was a prospective cohort study of 83 children who were born in Stockholm, Sweden, between 2004 and 2007, born at gestational age of < 27 weeks + 0 days and who underwent an MRI scan of their brain at term equivalent age. The outcome measures at 6.5 years included testing 66 children with the modified Touwen neurology examination, the Movement Assessment Battery for Children 2, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition, Beery Visual-motor Integration test-Sixth Edition, and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Group-wise comparisons were done between children with and without DEHSI using Student t-test, Mann Whitney U test, Chi square test and regression analysis.DEHSI was detected in 39 (59% of the 66 children who were assessed at 6.5 years. The presence of DEHSI was not associated with mild neurological dysfunction, scores on M-ABC assessment, cognition, visual-motor integration, or behavior at 6.5 years.The presence of qualitatively defined DEHSI on neonatal MRI did not prove to be a useful predictor of long-term impairment in children born extremely preterm.

  7. The effects of problem-solving skills training based on metacognitive principles for children with acquired brain injury attending mainstream schools: a controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, D Y K; Fong, K N K

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effects of an explicit problem-solving skills training programme based on metacognitive principles for children with acquired brain injury (ABI) who attend mainstream schools. Thirty-two children with moderate to severe ABI studying in mainstream schools were allocated randomly by matched pairs to either an experimental or a comparison group. The participants in the experimental group received problem-solving skills training based on metacognitive principles, while those in the comparison group were on a waiting list to receive the experimental intervention shortly after the intervention in the experimental group had been completed. All participants were measured pre- and post-intervention using measures of abstract reasoning, metacognition, problem-solving functional behaviour in the home environment or social situations and individual goal-directed behaviour. Significant differences in post-test scores were found for all measurements between children in the experimental group and those in the comparison group, using the baselines of dependent variables, years of schooling and the full IQ scores as the covariates. The results of this study supported the use of explicit problem-solving skills training to improve daily functioning for children with ABI, and the need for a larger-scale, randomised controlled study with long-term follow-up.

  8. High and low use of electronic media during nighttime before going to sleep: A comparative study between adolescents attending a morning or afternoon school shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrona-Palacios, Arturo

    2017-12-01

    This study compared the effects of time spent on electronic media devices during nighttime before going to sleep on the sleep-wake cycle, daytime sleepiness, and chronotype in 568 Mexican students (288 girls, mean age = 14.08) attending a double school shift system (287 from morning shift and 281 from afternoon shift). Students completed anonymous self-report questionnaires. Results suggest that high exposure to an electronic media device may have an impact on their sleep-wake cycle, regardless of their school shift. Adolescents from the afternoon shift reported more time spent on devices. Those from the morning shift reported daytime sleepiness with the use of MP3 player, and from the afternoon shift with the use of computer, MP3 player, and television. Both school shifts reported an intermediate chronotype with all electronic media devices, but the afternoon shift with a tendency towards eveningness with the use of the computer, smartphone, and MP3 player. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of Culturally Aligned Supports on Native Hawaiian High School Students' College Attendance: A Qualitative Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Kelly D.; Hitchcock, Caryl H.

    2018-01-01

    The contemporary education system in the United States is inadequate in the provision of services to assure that all students exit high school with the knowledge and skills necessary to enter postsecondary education or the workforce. This is particularly true for indigenous youth (Tanabe & Mobley, 2011). According to scholars, dual enrollment…

  10. Effects of school start time on students' sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, and attendance: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Jennifer M; Moyer, Anne

    2017-12-01

    Research conducted over the past three decades finds that many children and adolescents do not meet recommended sleep guidelines. Lack of sleep is a predictor of a number of consequences, including issues at school such as sleepiness and tardiness. Considering the severity of this public health issue, it is essential to understand more about the factors that may compromise children's and adolescents' sleep. This meta-analysis examined the effects of school start time (SST) on sleep duration of students by aggregating the results of five longitudinal studies and 15 cross-sectional comparison group studies. Results indicated that later starting school times are associated with longer sleep durations. Additionally, later start times were associated with less daytime sleepiness (7 studies) and tardiness to school (3 studies). However, methodological considerations, such as a need for more longitudinal primary research, lead to a cautious interpretation. Overall, this systematic analysis of SST studies suggests that delaying SST is associated with benefits for students' sleep and, thus, their general well-being. Copyright © 2017 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A survey of visual impairment and blindness in children attending seven schools for the blind in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muecke, James; Hammerton, Michael; Aung, Yee Yee; Warrier, Sunil; Kong, Aimee; Morse, Anna; Holmes, Martin; Yapp, Michael; Hamilton, Carolyn; Selva, Dinesh

    2009-01-01

    To determine the causes of visual impairment and blindness amongst children in schools for the blind in Myanmar; to identify the avoidable causes of visual impairment and blindness; and to provide spectacles, low vision aids, orientation and mobility training and ophthalmic treatment where indicated. Two hundred and eight children under 16 years of age from all 7 schools for the blind in Myanmar were examined and the data entered into the World Health Organization Prevention of Blindness Examination Record for Childhood Blindness (WHO/PBL ERCB). One hundred and ninety nine children (95.7%) were blind (BL = Visual Acuity [VA] schools for the blind in Myanmar had potentially avoidable causes of SVI/BL. With measles being both the commonest identifiable and commonest avoidable cause, the data supports the need for a measles immunization campaign. There is also a need for a dedicated pediatric eye care center with regular ophthalmology visits to the schools, and improved optometric, low vision and orientation and mobility services in Myanmar.

  12. 77 FR 33007 - Submission for Review: Initial Certification of Full-Time School Attendance, RI 25-41

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ..., electronic, mechanical, or other technological collection techniques or other forms of information technology... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Initial Certification of Full-Time School... and other federal agencies the opportunity to comment on a revised information collection request (ICR...

  13. 77 FR 71200 - Submission for Review: Initial Certification of Full-Time School Attendance, RI 25-41

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-29

    ..., mechanical, or other technological collection techniques or other forms of information technology, e.g... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Initial Certification of Full-Time School... and other federal agencies the opportunity to comment on a revised information collection request (ICR...

  14. Music as Engaging, Educational Matrix: Exploring the Case of Marginalised Students Attending an "Alternative" Music Industry School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleaver, David; Riddle, Stewart

    2014-01-01

    "Harmony High" is an alternative school where music functions as an educational magnet to attract marginalised students who have disengaged from the mainstream. Through an investigation of the student perspective, we discover that while acting as a magnet, music also becomes the educational matrix or "heart and soul" that helps…

  15. Social Justice Leadership: Advocating Equity, Access and Opportunity for Black Students Attending Urban High-Poverty Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pounders, Cherise

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to explore and describe the lived experiences and perspectives of 4 elementary school principals and 4 instructional leaders committed to social justice practices who have improved and sustained grade level performance in reading with Black students for the duration of 3 consecutive years.…

  16. Social and emotional difficulties in children with ADHD and the impact on school attendance and healthcare utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Classi Peter

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to examine the impact of co-occurring social and emotional difficulties on missed school days and healthcare utilization among children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Methods Data were from the 2007 U.S. National Health Interview Survey (NHIS and were based on parental proxy responses to questions in the Sample Child Core, which includes questions on demographics, health, healthcare treatment, and social and emotional status as measured by questions about depression, anxiety, and phobias, as well as items from the brief version of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between co-occurring social and emotional difficulties with missed school days and healthcare utilization, adjusting for demographics. Results Of the 5896 children aged 6–17 years in the 2007 NHIS, 432 (7.3% had ADHD, based on parental report. Children with ADHD and comorbid depression, anxiety, or phobias had significantly greater odds of experiencing > 2 weeks of missed school days, ≥ 6 visits to a healthcare provider (HCP, and ≥ 2 visits to the ER, compared with ADHD children without those comorbidities (OR range: 2.1 to 10.4. Significantly greater odds of missed school days, HCP visits, and ER visits were also experienced by children with ADHD who were worried, unhappy/depressed, or having emotional difficulties as assessed by the SDQ, compared with ADHD children without those difficulties (OR range: 2.2 to 4.4. Conclusions In children with ADHD, the presence of social and emotional problems resulted in greater odds of missed school days and healthcare utilization. These findings should be viewed in light of the limited nature of the parent-report measures used to assess social and emotional problems.

  17. Effectiveness of a randomized school-based intervention involving families and teachers to prevent excessive weight gain among adolescents in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana B Cunha

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based intervention involving the families and teachers that aimed to promote healthy eating habits in adolescents; the ultimate aim of the intervention was to reduce the increase in body mass index (BMI of the students.Paired cluster randomized school-based trial conducted with a sample of fifth graders.Twenty classes were randomly assigned into either an intervention group or a control group.From a total of 574 eligible students, 559 students participated in the study (intervention: 10 classes with 277 participants; control: 10 classes with 282 participants. The mean age of students was 11 years.Students attended 9 nutritional education sessions during the 2010 academic year. Parents/guardians and teachers received information on the same subjects.Changes in BMI and percentage of body fat.Intention-to-treat analysis showed that changes in BMI were not significantly different between the 2 groups (β = 0.003; p = 0.75. There was a major reduction in the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and cookies in the intervention group; students in this group also consumed more fruits.Encouraging the adoption of healthy eating habits promoted important changes in the adolescent diet, but this did not lead to a reduction in BMI gain. Strategies based exclusively on the quality of diet may not reduce weight gain among adolescents.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01046474.

  18. Anti-Toxocara antibodies detected in children attending elementary school in Vitoria, State of Espírito Santo, Brazil: prevalence and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Paranhos Fragoso

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of anti-Toxocara antibodies in serum from 7-year-old children attending elementary school in Vitória-ES, Brazil and to correlate these antibodies with socio-demographic factors, the presence of intestinal helminths, blood eosinophil numbers, past history of allergy or asthma, and clinical manifestations of helminth infections. METHODS: The detection of anti-Toxocara antibodies was performed using an ELISA (Cellabs Pty Ltdon serum from 391 children who had already been examined by fecal examination and blood cell counts. Data from clinical and physical examinations were obtained for all children. RESULTS: The prevalence of anti-Toxocara antibodies was 51.6%, with no gender differences. No significant differences were observed between positive serology and the presence or absence of intestinal worms (60.3 and 51.7%, respectively; p = 0.286. The only variables significantly related to positive serology were onycophagy and the use of unfiltered water. Although eosinophilia (blood eosinophil count higher than 600/mm³ was significantly related to the presence of a positive ELISA result, this significance disappeared when we considered only children without worms or without a past history of allergy or asthma. No clinical symptoms related to Toxocara infection were observed. CONCLUSIONS: There is a high prevalence of anti-Toxocara antibodies in children attending elementary schools in Vitória, which may be partially related to cross-reactivity with intestinal helminths or to a high frequency of infection with a small number of Toxocara eggs.

  19. Performance of Low-Income Dual Language Learners Attending English-Only Schools on the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Fourth Edition, Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragan, Beatriz; Castilla-Earls, Anny; Martinez-Nieto, Lourdes; Restrepo, M Adelaida; Gray, Shelley

    2018-04-05

    The aim of this study was to examine the performance of a group of Spanish-speaking, dual language learners (DLLs) who were attending English-only schools and came from low-income and low-parental education backgrounds on the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Fourth Edition, Spanish (CELF-4S; Semel, Wiig, & Secord, 2006). Spanish-speaking DLLs (N = 656), ages 5;0 (years;months) to 7;11, were tested for language impairment (LI) using the core language score of the CELF-4S and the English Structured Photographic Expressive Language Test (Dawson, Stout, & Eyer, 2003). A subsample (n = 299) was additionally tested using a Spanish language sample analysis and a newly developed Spanish morphosyntactic measure, for identification of children with LI and to conduct a receiver operating characteristics curve analysis. Over 50% of the sample scored more than 1 SD below the mean on the core language score. In our subsample, the sensitivity of the CELF-4S was 94%, and specificity was 65%, using a cutoff score of 85 as suggested in the manual. Using an empirically derived cutoff score of 78, the sensitivity was 86%, and the specificity was 80%. Results suggest that the CELF-4S overidentifies low-income Spanish-English DLLs attending English-only schools as presenting with LI. For this sample, 1 in every 3 Latino children from low socioeconomic status was incorrectly identified with LI. Clinicians should be cautious when using the CELF-4S to evaluate low-income Spanish-English DLLs and ensure that they have converging evidence before making diagnostic decisions.

  20. Association of nursery and early school attendance with later health behaviours, biomedical risk factors, and mortality: evidence from four decades of follow-up of participants in the 1958 birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batty, G David; Ploubidis, George B; Goodman, Alissa; Bann, David

    2018-03-14

    Although early life education for improved long-term health and the amelioration of socioeconomically generated inequalities in chronic disease is advocated in influential policy statements, the evidence base is very modest. To address this dearth of evidence using data from a representative UK national birth cohort study. The analytical sample comprised men and women in the 1958 birth cohort study with prospectively gathered data on attendance at nursery or primary school before the age of 5 years who had gone on to participate in social survey at 42 years (n=11 374), or a biomedical survey at 44/5 years of age (n=9210), or had data on vital status from 18 to 55 years (n=17 657). Relative to study members who had not attended nursery, in those who had, there was in fact a higher prevalence of smoking and high alcohol intake in middle age. Conversely, nursery attenders had more favourable levels of lung function and systolic blood pressure in middle age. This apparent association between nursery attendance and lower systolic blood pressure was confined to study members from more deprived social backgrounds of origin (P value for interaction 0.030). There was no apparent link between early school attendance and any behavioural or biological risk factor. Neither nursery nor early school attendance was clearly related to mortality risk. We found no clear evidence for an association of either attendance at nursery or primary school before the age of 5 years and health outcomes around four decades later. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Effects of After-School Programs on Attendance and Externalizing Behaviors with Primary and Secondary School Students: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Brandy R.; Kremer, Kristen P.; Polanin, Joshua R.; Vaughn, Michael G.; Sarteschi, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the number and types of after-school programs (ASPs) have increased substantially as a result of increased federal and private spending and because ASPs are perceived to provide wide-ranging and far-reaching benefits to students, families, schools and the public. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis is…

  2. Patterns of Sexual Behavior in Lowland Thai Youth and Ethnic Minorities Attending High School in Rural Chiang Mai, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Aurpibul, Linda; Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat; Musumari, Patou Masika; Srithanaviboonchai, Kriengkrai; Tarnkehard, Surapee

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The rural areas of Northern Thailand are home to a large cultural diversity of ethnic minority groups. Previous studies have shown that young people in rural Thailand have low levels of knowledge on HIV/AIDS and high sexual risks. We compared sexual behaviors between the lowland Thai youth and the youth from ethnic minority groups. Methods and findings: This is a cross-sectional quantitative study conducted among high-school Thai and ethnic students in Chiang Mai. From a total 1...

  3. Male gender, school attendance and sports participation are positively associated with health-related quality of life in children and adolescents with congenital bleeding disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limperg, P F; Joosten, M M H; Fijnvandraat, K; Peters, M; Grootenhuis, M A; Haverman, L

    2018-02-08

    This study assesses health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and variables associated with HRQOL, in children and adolescents with haemophilia and congenital bleeding disorders (CBD) in the Netherlands. Patients Differences and effect sizes in HRQOL compared to healthy peers, and between hemophilia severity groups, were tested using Mann Whitney U-tests. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to assess variables associated with HRQOL. Data of 145 patients (81%) were analyzed (N = 32 with severe haemophilia). Children (0-12 years) show no significant impairments in HRQOL compared to healthy peers. Adolescent boys (13-18 years) with CBD report a slightly higher HRQOL on the total and emotional functioning scales than healthy peers (small-moderate effect sizes). In contrast, adolescent girls experience lower HRQOL on total, social functioning and psychosocial health scales compared to healthy peers (moderate effect sizes). No differences between severity groups were found in HRQOL, but more problem behaviour was found in young boys (0-5 years) with severe haemophilia. Male gender, participation in sports and school attendance are positively associated with HRQOL. Parental country of birth, type of treatment and number of bleeds are not associated with HRQOL. Continuing monitoring HRQOL in daily clinical practice for children with CBD is important, since possible influencing psychosocial factors can change over time, with special focus on adolescent girls, sports participation and school absence. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. [Educational program had a positive effect on the intake of fat, fruits and vegetables and physical activity in students attending public elementary schools of Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quizán-Plata, Trinidad; Villarreal Meneses, Liliana; Esparza Romero, Julián; Bolaños Villar, Adriana V; Díaz Zavala, R Giovanni

    2014-09-01

    Poor diet and lack of physical activity are the most important risk factors of mortality and burden of disease in Mexico and many other countries around the world. The purpose of this research was to analyze the effect of an educational intervention on The consumption of fruits, vegetables, fat, physical activity and inactivity in students attending public primary school of Sonora Mexico. The intervention consisted of educational workshops on nutrition and physical activity aimed to the students and educational talks on nutrition and physical activity aimed to parents. Anthropometric, 24 hours recall, nutrition-knowledge, and physical-activity questionnaires pre- and post-intervention were applied in order to evaluate changes in both groups. 126 of the initial 129 students (97.7%) were evaluated at the end of the intervention. the consumption of fruits and vegetables was significantly higher after the intervention (p=0.0032) and the consumption of total fat decreased (p=0.02) in the intervention schools. Moreover, intervention increased physical activity (p=0.04) and decreased sedentary activities (p=0.006). Intervention students obtained higher knowledge in nutrition (p=0.05) at the end of intervention. The intervention had a positive effect on improve fruits, vegetables and fat consumption, physical activity and nutrition knowledge. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  5. [Prevalence of sexual intercourse and associated factors among adolescents attending schools in Goiânia in the state of Goiás, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Reinaldo Satoru Azevedo; Leles, Cláudio Rodrigues; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Sardinha, Luciana Monteiro Vasconcelos; Freire, Maria do Carmo Matias

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the prevalence of sexual intercourse among adolescents in a Brazilian city and its association with sociodemographic factors, health-risk behaviors, and body image perception. A cross-sectional study was conducted using data from the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE), carried out in 2009. The sample comprised schoolchildren enrolled in the 9th year in the city of Goiânia, Goiás (n= 3,099), mostly aged between 13 and 15. The dependent variable was the reporting of sexual intercourse at least once. To identify variables associated with sexual activity, Poisson regression analysis was used. The prevalence of sexual intercourse at least once in the adolescents' lifetime was 26.5% (95% CI= 23.8-29.4). Prevalence was higher among males, those aged 14 years or older, who reported not living with their mother or with their father, who attended public schools, reported alcohol, tobacco or other drug use, and were involved in fights and family violence. The conclusion reached was that the prevalence of sexual intercourse was high and associated with poor sociodemographic conditions, health-risk behaviors and violence. These factors should be considered in the health promotion strategies seeking more safe and healthy sexual behavior during adolescence.

  6. Relationships between nutrition-related knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavior for fifth grade students attending Title I and non-Title I schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Elisha; Chai, Weiwen; Albrecht, Julie A

    2016-01-01

    The Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) is a widely used theory for nutrition education programming. Better understanding the relationships between knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavior among children of various income levels can help to form and improve nutrition programs, particularly for socioeconomically disadvantaged youth. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavior among fifth grade students attending Title I (≥40% of students receiving free or reduced school meals) and non-Title I schools (students receiving free or reduced school meals). A validated survey was completed by 55 fifth grade students from Title I and 122 from non-Title I schools. Differences in knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavior scores between groups were assessed using t test and adjusted for variations between participating schools. Regression analysis was used to determine the relationships between knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavior. In adjusted models, the Title I group had significantly lower scores on several knowledge items and summary knowledge (P = 0.04). The Title I group had significantly lower scores on several behavior variables including intakes of fruits (P = 0.02), vegetables (P = 0.0005), whole grains (P = 0.0003), and lean protein (P = 0.047), physical activity (P = 0.002) and summary behavior (P = 0.001). However the Title I group scored higher on self-efficacy for meal planning (P = 0.04) and choosing healthy snacks (P = 0.036). Both self-efficacy (β = 0.70, P knowledge (β = 0.35, P = 0.002) strongly predicted behavior; however, only self-efficacy remained significant in the Title I group (self-efficacy, β = 0.82, P = 0.0003; knowledge, β = 0.11, P = 0.59). Results demonstrate disparities in nutrition knowledge and behavior outcomes between students surveyed from Title I and non-Title I schools, suggesting more resources may be necessary for lower income populations

  7. Patterns of Sexual Behavior in Lowland Thai Youth and Ethnic Minorities Attending High School in Rural Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurpibul, Linda; Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat; Musumari, Patou Masika; Srithanaviboonchai, Kriengkrai; Tarnkehard, Surapee

    2016-01-01

    The rural areas of Northern Thailand are home to a large cultural diversity of ethnic minority groups. Previous studies have shown that young people in rural Thailand have low levels of knowledge on HIV/AIDS and high sexual risks. We compared sexual behaviors between the lowland Thai youth and the youth from ethnic minority groups. This is a cross-sectional quantitative study conducted among high-school Thai and ethnic students in Chiang Mai. From a total 1215 participants, 487 (40.1%) were lowland Thai and 728 (59.9%) were from ethnic minorities. Overall, 17.9% of respondents reported "ever had sex." Lowland Thai adolescents were more likely to have ever had sex compared with ethnic minority adolescents (AOR, 1.61; CI, 1.06-2.45; P< 0.01). A higher proportion of lowland Thai respondents reported having ≥ 2 lifetime sexual partners (51.9% vs. 33.3%, P = 0.003), or currently having a boy/girlfriend (59.9% vs. 45.3%, P< 0.001) compared to ethnic minority adolescents. Consistent condom use was low in both groups (22.6%). The common significant factors associated with "ever had sex" in both groups were "ever drunk alcohol in the past year" and "currently having a boy/girlfriend." Specifically, for lowland Thai youth, being around the age of 17 or 18 years and "ever used methamphetamine in the past year" were associated with increased odds of "ever had sex". For ethnic minority adolescents, being female and belonging to religions other than Buddhism were associated with decreased odds of "ever had sex". A substantially higher proportion of lowland Thai engage in risky sexual behaviors when compared to ethnic minorities. However, both groups remained vulnerable to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. To minimize sexual risks, education program and school-based interventions are warranted to increase awareness of young people about risky behaviors and to promote essential life skills.

  8. Prevalence of overweight, obesity and hypertension in adolescents attending an art school. DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2011v13n4p272

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Torres

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional analytical study involving the population of adolescent students attending the Nigelia Soria Public School and Art Institute (n=213, 24% boys, 76% girls in the two career paths (non-physical: visual arts and music, and physical artistic activities: dance was conducted. Anthropometric variables, blood pressure (systolic, SBP, and diastolic, DBP, and heart rate were measured. A semi-structured questionnaire collecting personal data regarding non-communicable chronic diseases, trauma, menstrual cycle, non-school physical activity, inactivity, and sleep duration was administered. The participation rate was 70%. In boys (age 15.6±1.8 years, the prevalence rates of low weight, eutrophy, overweight, and obesity were 0%, 87.5%, 12.5% and 0%, respectively. In girls (age 15.5±1.7 years, these rates were 1.1%, 86%, 8.6%, and 4.3%. Body mass index was significantly associated with waist circumference and brachial circumference in both genders (p<0.001. In the overweight/obesity group, two students were diagnosed with isolated systolic hypertension (SBP 90th percentile. A eutrophic male student with SBP/DBP 90th percentile was confirmed as borderline by 24-h blood pressure measurement. In the group of overweight/obese girls, two students were identified with isolated SBP 90th percentile, one with isolated DBP 90th percentile, and two with SBP/DBP 90th percentile. The nutritional status of students is satisfactory, with a high proportion of young healthy adolescents of both genders. However, the implementation of this protocol permitted to identify adolescents with high blood pressure, overweight, and obesity. These factors may pose a health risk considering the school activity of these students.

  9. Prevalence of overweight, obesity and hypertension in adolescents attending an art school. DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2011v13n4p272

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Torres

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional analytical study involving the population of adolescent students attending the Nigelia Soria Public School and Art Institute (n=213, 24% boys, 76% girls in the two career paths (non-physical: visual arts and music, and physical artistic activities: dance was conducted. Anthropometric variables, blood pressure (systolic, SBP, and diastolic, DBP, and heart rate were measured. A semi-structured questionnaire collecting personal data regarding non-communicable chronic diseases, trauma, menstrual cycle, non-school physical activity, inactivity, and sleep duration was administered. The participation rate was 70%. In boys (age 15.6±1.8 years, the prevalence rates of low weight, eutrophy, overweight, and obesity were 0%, 87.5%, 12.5% and 0%, respectively. In girls (age 15.5±1.7 years, these rates were 1.1%, 86%, 8.6%, and 4.3%. Body mass index was significantly associated with waist circumference and brachial circumference in both genders (p<0.001. In the overweight/obesity group, two students were diagnosed with isolated systolic hypertension (SBP 90th percentile. A eutrophic male student with SBP/DBP 90th percentile was confirmed as borderline by 24-h blood pressure measurement. In the group of overweight/obese girls, two students were identified with isolated SBP 90th percentile, one with isolated DBP 90th percentile, and two with SBP/DBP 90th percentile. The nutritional status of students is satisfactory, with a high proportion of young healthy adolescents of both genders. However, the implementation of this protocol permitted to identify adolescents with high blood pressure, overweight, and obesity. These factors may pose a health risk considering the school activity of these students.

  10. WWC Review of the Report "Meeting the Challenge of Combating Chronic Absenteeism: Impact of the NYC Mayor's Interagency Task Force on Chronic Absenteeism and School Attendance and Its Implications for Other Cities." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The 2013 study, "Meeting the Challenge of Combating Chronic Absenteeism: Impact of the NYC Mayor's Interagency Task Force on Chronic Absenteeism and School Attendance and Its Implications for Other Cities", examined the impact of the strategies developed by an interagency task force in New York City to combat chronic absenteeism in…

  11. Patterns of Sexual Behavior in Lowland Thai Youth and Ethnic Minorities Attending High School in Rural Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Aurpibul

    Full Text Available The rural areas of Northern Thailand are home to a large cultural diversity of ethnic minority groups. Previous studies have shown that young people in rural Thailand have low levels of knowledge on HIV/AIDS and high sexual risks. We compared sexual behaviors between the lowland Thai youth and the youth from ethnic minority groups.This is a cross-sectional quantitative study conducted among high-school Thai and ethnic students in Chiang Mai. From a total 1215 participants, 487 (40.1% were lowland Thai and 728 (59.9% were from ethnic minorities. Overall, 17.9% of respondents reported "ever had sex." Lowland Thai adolescents were more likely to have ever had sex compared with ethnic minority adolescents (AOR, 1.61; CI, 1.06-2.45; P< 0.01. A higher proportion of lowland Thai respondents reported having ≥ 2 lifetime sexual partners (51.9% vs. 33.3%, P = 0.003, or currently having a boy/girlfriend (59.9% vs. 45.3%, P< 0.001 compared to ethnic minority adolescents. Consistent condom use was low in both groups (22.6%. The common significant factors associated with "ever had sex" in both groups were "ever drunk alcohol in the past year" and "currently having a boy/girlfriend." Specifically, for lowland Thai youth, being around the age of 17 or 18 years and "ever used methamphetamine in the past year" were associated with increased odds of "ever had sex". For ethnic minority adolescents, being female and belonging to religions other than Buddhism were associated with decreased odds of "ever had sex".A substantially higher proportion of lowland Thai engage in risky sexual behaviors when compared to ethnic minorities. However, both groups remained vulnerable to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. To minimize sexual risks, education program and school-based interventions are warranted to increase awareness of young people about risky behaviors and to promote essential life skills.

  12. Oral health status and treatment needs of hearing impaired children attending a special school in Bhimavaram, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Study Design: The study design was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in November 2012 at SVS special school for deaf, Bhimavaram, India. This study involved 180 CHI of both genders, aged 6-16 years, divided into Group-I (6-8 years, Group-II (9-12 years, and Group-III (13-16 years. Oral health status and treatment needs were recorded using methods and standards recommended by the WHO for Oral Health Surveys, 1997. Dental caries prevalence (decayed, missing, and filled teeth [DMFT/dmft], gingivitis levels (Lφe, Silness Gingival Index, plaque levels (Silness, Lφe Plaque index, and treatment needs were the parameters recorded and analyzed. Statistical Analysis: Z-test for proportion, one-way analysis of variance, and Chi-square test were used to analyze the data. Results: Prevalence of dental caries in the sample was found to be 65% with a mean level of caries prevalence (DMFT of 1.6 ± 1.3 in Group-I, 1.9 ± 1.2 in Group-II, and 2.2 ± 1.2 in Group-III. About 91.7% of the total children examined needs treatment. The mean plaque and gingivitis scores of the sample were 1.70 ± 0.61 and 1.59 ± 0.58, respectively. Conclusion: These findings imply the overwhelming situation of CHI in oral health perspective. Hence, prevention-based educational and motivational programs should be targeted to this vital group to achieve adequate oral hygiene levels.

  13. A Pilot Study of a 6-Week Parenting Program for Mothers of Pre-school Children Attending Family Health Centers in Karachi, Pakistan

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    Yasmin Khowaja

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Recently, parenting programs to address behavioural and emotional problems associated with child maltreatment in developing countries have received much attention. There is a paucity of literature on effective parent education interventions in the local context of Pakistan. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of offering a 6-week parenting program for mothers of pre-school children attending family health centres (FHCs in Karachi, the largest metropolitan city of Pakistan. Methods A pilot quasi-experimental trial was conducted. Two FHCs were selected, one as the intervention and the second as the control. A total of 57 mothers of pre-school children (n = 30 intervention; n = 27 control participated in this study. Mothers in the intervention group received SOS Help for parents module, while mothers in the control group received information about routine childcare. A parenting scale (PS was administered before the program was implemented and repeated 2 weeks after the program was completed in both groups. Statistical analysis was performed to compare participants’ attributes. Descriptive analysis was conducted to compare pre- and post-test mean scores along with standard deviation for parenting subscales in the intervention and control groups. Results A total of 50 mothers (n = 25 intervention; n = 25 control completed the 6-week program. Attrition was observed as 5/30 (17% in the intervention arm and 2/27 (2% in the control arm. Mothers commonly reported the burden of daily domestic and social responsibilities as the main reason for dropping out. Furthermore, the majority of participants in the control group recommended increasing the duration of weekly sessions from 1 to 1.5 hours, thereby decreasing the program period from 6 to 4 weeks. Mothers in intervention group reported substantial improvement in parenting skills as indicated by mean difference in their pre- and post-test scores for laxness and over

  14. Feeding styles, parenting styles and snacking behaviour in children attending primary schools in multiethnic neighbourhoods: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; van de Gaar, Vivian M; Jansen, Wilma; Mieloo, Cathelijne L; van Grieken, Amy; Raat, Hein

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate whether feeding styles and parenting styles are associated with children’s unhealthy snacking behaviour and whether the associations differ according to children’s ethnic background. Method Cross-sectional data from the population-based ‘Water Campaign’ study were used. Parents (n=644) of primary school children (6–13 years) completed a questionnaire covering sociodemographic characteristics, feeding style dimensions (‘control over eating’, ‘emotional feeding’, ‘encouragement to eat’ and ‘instrumental feeding’), parenting style dimensions (‘involvement’ and ‘strictness’) and children’s unhealthy snacking behaviour. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine whether feeding styles and parenting styles were associated with children’s unhealthy snacking behaviour. Result Overall, children whose parents had a higher extent of ‘control over eating’ had a lower odds of eating unhealthy snacks more than once per day (OR, 0.57; 95% CI 0.42 to 0.76). Further stratified analysis showed that ‘control over eating’ was associated with less unhealthy snacking behaviour only in children with a Dutch (OR, 0.37; 95% CI 0.20 to 0.68) or a Moroccan/Turkish (OR, 0.44; 95% CI 0.25 to 0.77) ethnic background. ‘Encouragement to eat’ was associated with a lower odds of eating unhealthy snacks every day in children with a Dutch ethnic background only (OR, 0.48; 95% CI 0.25 to 0.90). ‘Instrumental feeding’ was associated with a higher odds of eating unhealthy snacks more than once a day in children with a Moroccan/Turkish ethnic background only (OR, 1.43; 95% CI 1.01 to 2.04). Conclusion Our results suggest that ‘control over eating’ may be associated with less unhealthy snack consumption in children. The associations of feeding styles and parenting styles with children’s unhealthy snacking behaviour differed between children with different ethnic

  15. Feeding styles, parenting styles and snacking behaviour in children attending primary schools in multiethnic neighbourhoods: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; van de Gaar, Vivian M; Jansen, Wilma; Mieloo, Cathelijne L; van Grieken, Amy; Raat, Hein

    2017-07-13

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether feeding styles and parenting styles are associated with children's unhealthy snacking behaviour and whether the associations differ according to children's ethnic background. Cross-sectional data from the population-based 'Water Campaign' study were used. Parents (n=644) of primary school children (6-13 years) completed a questionnaire covering sociodemographic characteristics, feeding style dimensions ('control over eating', 'emotional feeding', 'encouragement to eat' and 'instrumental feeding'), parenting style dimensions ('involvement' and 'strictness') and children's unhealthy snacking behaviour. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine whether feeding styles and parenting styles were associated with children's unhealthy snacking behaviour. Overall, children whose parents had a higher extent of 'control over eating' had a lower odds of eating unhealthy snacks more than once per day (OR, 0.57; 95% CI 0.42 to 0.76). Further stratified analysis showed that 'control over eating' was associated with less unhealthy snacking behaviour only in children with a Dutch (OR, 0.37; 95% CI 0.20 to 0.68) or a Moroccan/Turkish (OR, 0.44; 95% CI 0.25 to 0.77) ethnic background. 'Encouragement to eat' was associated with a lower odds of eating unhealthy snacks every day in children with a Dutch ethnic background only (OR, 0.48; 95% CI 0.25 to 0.90). 'Instrumental feeding' was associated with a higher odds of eating unhealthy snacks more than once a day in children with a Moroccan/Turkish ethnic background only (OR, 1.43; 95% CI 1.01 to 2.04). Our results suggest that 'control over eating' may be associated with less unhealthy snack consumption in children. The associations of feeding styles and parenting styles with children's unhealthy snacking behaviour differed between children with different ethnic backgrounds. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the

  16. Excess Entropy and Diffusivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Excess Entropy and Diffusivity. Excess entropy scaling of diffusivity (Rosenfeld,1977). Analogous relationships also exist for viscosity and thermal conductivity.

  17. Does partner selection mediate the relationship between school attendance and HIV/HSV-2 among adolescent girls and young women in South Africa: An analysis of HPTN 068 data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, Marie Cd; Edwards, Jessie K; Miller, William C; Aiello, Allison E; Halpern, Carolyn T; Julien, Aimée; Rucinski, Katherine B; Selin, Amanda; Twine, Rhian; Hughes, James P; Wang, Jing; Agyei, Yaw; Gómez-Olivé, F Xavier; Wagner, Ryan G; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Macphail, Catherine; Kahn, Kathleen; Pettifor, Audrey

    2018-05-22

    Similar prior publications by the first author using the same data source include: Stoner M.C.D, Edwards J, Miller W, Aiello A, Halpern C, Selin A, Hughes J, Wang J, Laeyendecker O, Agyei Y, McPhail C, Kahn K, Pettifor A.(2017) The effect of schooling on incident HIV and HSV-2 infection in young South African women enrolled in HPTN 068. AIDS. 24;31(15):2127-213. PMC5599334. Stoner M.C.D, Edwards J, Miller W, Aiello A, Halpern C, Julien Suarez, Selin A, Hughes J, Wang J, McPhail C, Kahn K, Pettifor A. (2017) The effect of schooling on age-disparate relationships and number of sexual partners among young women in rural South Africa enrolled in HPTN 068. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 76 (5):e107-e114. PMC56801112This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License 4.0 (CCBY-NC), where it is permissible to download, share, remix, transform, and buildup the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be used commercially without permission from the journal.Abstract OBJECTIVE:: School attendance prevents HIV and HSV-2 in adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) but the mechanisms to explain this relationship remain unclear. Our study assesses the extent to which characteristics of sex partners, partner age and number, mediate the relationship between attendance and risk of infection in AGYW in South Africa. We use longitudinal data from the HPTN 068 randomized controlled trial in rural South Africa where girls were enrolled in early adolescence and followed in the main trial for over three years. We examined older partners and number of partners as possible mediators. We use the parametric g-formula to estimate 4-year risk differences for the effect of school attendance on cumulative incidence of HIV/HSV-2 overall and the controlled direct effect (CDE) for mediation. We examined mediation separately and jointly for the mediators of interest. We found that young women with high attendance in school had

  18. Understanding Barriers and Solutions Affecting Preschool Attendance in Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susman-Stillman, Amy; Englund, Michelle M.; Storm, Karen J.; Bailey, Ann E.

    2018-01-01

    Preschool attendance problems negatively impact children's school readiness skills and future school attendance. Parents are critical to preschoolers' attendance. This study explored parental barriers and solutions to preschool attendance in low-income families. School-district administrative data from a racially/ethnically diverse sample of…

  19. Assessment of Knowledge Regarding Oral Hygiene among Parents of Pre-School Children Attending Pediatric Out Patient Department in Dhulikhel Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, K; Shrestha, D; Ghimire, N; Younjan, R; Sanjel, S

    2015-01-01

    Level of knowledge regarding oral hygiene among the parents of pre-school children plays an important role on maintaining the good oral hygiene of their children. In Nepal, sufficient research has not been carried out on this area. Objective of this study is to assess the level of knowledge on oral hygiene of preschool children's parents attending pediatric outpatient department in Dhulikhel Hospital. A descriptive study was conducted from November 2012 to January 2013 among one hundred parents of preschool children visiting pediatrics outpatient department of Dhulikhel Hospital. Paper and pencil based semi structured questionnaire was used for collecting data. Questions related to demographic information and knowledge were asked. Thirty questions were used for assessing knowledge level. Knowledge score was calculated by allocating one point for each correct answer and zero point for each wrong answer. Analyzed data were presented in terms of numbers and percentages. Total knowledge scores were categorized based on percentage. Knowledge score was categorized on four group - exclusive intervals - namely-poor (0-40%), moderate (40-60%), good (60-80%) and excellent (80-100%). Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis test were applied to check significance difference and chisquare test was used to check association among different background characteristic. It was found that 81% had moderate knowledge, 15% had poor knowledge and 4% had good knowledge about oral hygiene. Median knowledge score was found to be 15 with range 10 to 21. Following variables were found to be significant difference on knowledge category: Education status (poral health problem (p = 0.008), Further significant association was found between knowledge category and educational status (pknowledge category and past experience (pKnowledge regarding oral hygiene was found satisfactory among the parents of preschool children visiting pediatric OPD of Dhulikhel Hospital.

  20. Drug use and antisocial behavior among adolescents attending public schools in Brazil Uso de drogas e comportamento antissocial entre adolescentes de escolas públicas no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Lüdke Nardi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Drug use is a social and a public health problem that has been related with antisocial behavior. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between drug use and antisocial behavior among adolescents attending public schools in Brazil. METHOD: A total of 7,176 adolescents from low-income neighborhoods and public schools aged 14 to 19 years were assessed in five geographical regions in Brazil. Data on biosociodemographic characteristics and on drug use and antisocial behavior were assessed from complete answers to a national survey on risk and protective factors among adolescents. RESULTS: Over 80% of the adolescents who used alcohol and cigarettes were between 14 and 17 years old. The percentage of participants with antisocial behaviors was significantly higher among users of marijuana, cocaine, or crack than among adolescents who were not drug users. CONCLUSIONS: Prevention programs aimed at reducing substance use might help to decrease antisocial behaviors.INTRODUÇÃO: O uso de drogas é um problema social e de saúde pública que tem sido relacionado a comportamentos antissociais. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a relação entre uso de drogas e comportamento antissocial em adolescentes de escolas públicas no Brasil. MÉTODO: No total, 7.176 jovens com idades entre 14 e 19 anos estudantes de escolas públicas das cinco regiões geográficas do Brasil foram avaliados. Foram utilizados dados biossociodemográficos e sobre uso de drogas e comportamento antissocial obtidos na Pesquisa Nacional sobre Fatores de Risco e Proteção da Juventude Brasileira. RESULTADOS: Mais de 80% dos adolescentes que fizeram uso de bebidas alcoólicas e cigarro tinham entre 14 e 17 anos. O percentual de pacientes com comportamento antissocial foi significativamente maior entre usuários de maconha, cocaína ou crack do que entre adolescentes não usuários. CONCLUSÕES: Programas de prevenção direcionados à redução do uso de subst

  1. Um caminho para atender às diferenças na escola A pathway to attend to differences at school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Portieri Monteiro

    2010-04-01

    atmosphere since the onset and implementation of the program at a Jewish school in Rio. The program's central idea is to work with the concepts of active learning and multiple intelligences as proposed by Piaget, Dewey, and Gardner. To analyze the PIE we used a qualitative approach with the participants of the study through semi-structured interviews and observations in classrooms of the 1st to 5th years of fundamental education. The analysis of the data was based on the theoretical framework. The results indicate that, after the implementation of the program, the professionals involved gained in motivation to search for information and refresh their knowledge in order to attend to the differences between the pupils, making use of diversified strategies and thus encouraging a more dynamic work that facilitates the development of students' autonomy. In terms of difficulties faced in the development of the program, there was mention to the need to revise timetables, and to the fact that teachers now have to go through more extensive curricula. The school is still in the process of adapting to this innovative program, and therefore it is very important that the professionals involved constantly reevaluate the development of the program, trying to identify modifications and alternatives as difficulties arise.

  2. Neighbourhood socioeconomic status and maternal factors at birth as moderators of the association between birth characteristics and school attainment: a population study of children attending government schools in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malacova, E; Li, J; Blair, E; Mattes, E; de Klerk, N; Stanley, F

    2009-10-01

    This article investigates whether reading and writing skills among children of equivalent perinatal characteristics differ by neighbourhood socioeconomic status and maternal factors. Notifications of births for all non-Aboriginal singletons born in 1990-7 in Western Australia subsequently attending government primary schools were linked to the State literacy tests in grade three and with information on socioeconomic status of the school and the residential area. Using multilevel modelling, the associations between birth characteristics (gestational age, intrauterine growth, birth order and Apgar score at 5 minutes) and literacy attainment in grade three were examined in models that included socioeconomic and demographic factors of the child, mother and community. Higher percentages of optimal head circumference and birth length and term birth were positively and independently associated with literacy scores. A higher percentage of optimal birth weight was associated with higher reading scores especially for children born to mothers residing in educationally advantaged areas. First birth was positively associated with reading and writing attainment: this association was stronger for children born to single mothers and additional advantage in writing was also associated with first birth in children living in disadvantaged areas. These findings suggest that having suboptimal growth in utero or an older sibling at birth increases vulnerability to poor literacy attainment especially among children born to single mothers or those in disadvantaged neighbourhoods. These data provide evidence for advocating lifestyles compatible with optimum fetal growth and socioeconomic conditions conducive to healthy lifestyles, particularly during pregnancy.

  3. Performance of Spot Photoscreener in Detecting Amblyopia Risk Factors in Chinese Pre-school and School Age Children Attending an Eye Clinic.

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    Yajun Mu

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effectiveness of Spot photoscreener in detecting amblyopia risk factors meeting 2013 the American Association of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus (AAPOS criteria in Chinese preschool and school-age children.One hundred and fifty-five children (310 eyes, aged between 4 to 7 years (5.74 ± 1.2 years underwent complete ophthalmologic examination, photoscreening, and cycloplegic retinoscopy refraction. The agreement of the results obtained with the photoscreening and retinoscopy was evaluated by linear regression and Bland-Altman plots. The sensitivity and specificity of detecting amblyopia risk factors were calculated based on the AAPOS 2013 guidelines. The overall effectiveness of detecting amblyopia risk factors was analyzed with Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curves.The mean refractive errors measured with the Spot were: spherical equivalent (SE = 0.70 ± 1.99 D, J0 = 0.87 ± 1.01 D, J45 = 0.09 ± 0.60 D. The mean results from retinoscopy were: SE = 1.19 ± 2.22 D, J0 = 0.77 ± 1.00 D, J45 = -0.02 ± 0.45 D. There was a strong linear agreement between results obtained from those two methods (R2 = 0.88, P<0.01. Bland-Altman plot indicated a moderate agreement of cylinder values between the two methods. Based on the criteria specified by the AAPOS 2013 guidelines, the sensitivity and specificity (in respective order for detecting hyperopia were 98.31% and 97.14%; for detecting myopia were 78.50% and 88.64%; for detecting astigmatism were 90.91% and 80.37%; for detecting anisometropia were 93.10% and 85.25%; and for detection of strabismus was 77.55% and 88.18%.The refractive values measured from Spot photoscreener showed a moderate agreement with the results from cycloplegic retinoscopy refraction, however there was an overall myopic shift of -0.49D. The performance in detecting individual amblyopia risk factors was satisfactory, but could be further improved by optimizing criteria based on ROC curves.

  4. Boosting Student Attendance: Beyond Stickers, Stars, and Candy Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, Vicky; Lopez, Patrick; Stahlke, Tim; Stamp, Jeanne

    2016-01-01

    We know that students cannot learn if they are not in school, and that students with economic challenges miss school more frequently than other students. What obstacles create this attendance gap, and how can school districts provide the supports to improve attendance for these students? The authors of this article, who work with the Texas…

  5. Shadow Education in Malaysia: Identifying the Determinants of Spending and Amount of Time Attending Private Supplementary Tutoring of Upper Secondary School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Chang Da Wan; Benedict Weerasena

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the determinants of spending and the amount of time attending private supplementary tutoring, or commonly known as private tuition, in Malaysia. Based on 343 self-reported questionnaires with upper secondary students across three states in Malaysia and using multiple regression analysis, we identified ethnicity, father’s level of education and past academic performance as significant determinants of spending and amount of time attending private tuition. However, interestin...

  6. Special care with special child-oral health status of differently abled children attending special schools in Delhi: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Prasad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral health is an essential component of overall health. Oral health maintenance is more complex for the physically challenged children; the essential problem is lack of cooperation and coordination because of their physical or mental inability. Thus, physically challenged children are considered as a high-risk group for having dental problems. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess dental caries experience, oral hygiene status, periodontal status, and prevalence of malocclusion among differently abled children attending special schools in Delhi. Materials and Methods: A total of 1060 (610 males and 450 females, differently abled children were included in the study. The children were grouped into visually impaired, hearing and speech impaired, and orthopedic physically challenged only. Clinical examination was recorded using Dentition Status and Treatment Need Index and periodontal status recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO, 2013 and examination for malocclusion was made according to the Dental Aesthetic Index as described by the WHO Oral Health Survey 1997. The Simplified Oral Hygiene Index introduced by John C Greene and Jack R Vermillion in 1964 was used to assess the oral hygiene status. Results: Out of 1060 physically challenged children, 56.4% (598 had dental caries with the mean index or decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT being 1.10 (standard deviation ±1.26. It was observed that prevalence of dental caries was high in visually impaired group (63.2% and least in hearing and speech impaired group (51.7%. The overall oral hygiene status recorded was good in 58.5%, fair in 40.8%, and poor in 0.7% of the study population. Conclusion: The cumulative neglect of oral health was seen among the physically challenged children. Children with visual impairment had much more poorer oral health when compared to the hearing and speech impairment and orthopedically physically challenged group. An improved accessibility

  7. If We Build It, We Will Come: Impacts of a Summer Robotics Program on Regular Year Attendance in Middle School. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Iver, Martha Abele; Mac Iver, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    Recognizing the importance of both keeping middle school students engaged and improving their math skills, Baltimore City Public Schools (City Schools) developed a summer school STEM program involving not only math and science instruction but also the experience of building a robot and competing with those robots in a city-wide tournament.…

  8. Lactancia materna y su relación con el exceso de peso corporal en adolescentes de secundaria básica Breastfeeding and its relation to corporal excess weight in secondary school adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eumelia Ondina Terrero

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el sobrepeso y la obesidad, factores de riesgo aterosclerótico, se incrementan de manera creciente en todas las edades. Las trasgresiones de la lactancia materna han sido relacionadas frecuentemente con el exceso de peso. Objetivos: contribuir al esclarecimiento de la relación entre la duración de la lactancia materna y el exceso de peso (sobrepeso y obesidad en adolescentes. Métodos: estudio observacional de casos y controles en 344 adolescentes que estudian en la Secundaria Básica Urbana "Benito Juárez" del área de salud del policlínico "Antonio Guiteras Holmes" en La Habana Vieja, realizado entre enero de 2005 y enero de 2006. A todos los estudiantes se les realizaron mediciones antropométricas de peso corporal, talla y circunferencia de cintura. El grupo control se conformó con los estudiantes normopeso. La asociación estadística entre la duración de la lactancia materna y el exceso de peso corporal se determinó mediante el cálculo de odds ratio con un nivel de significación de pIntroduction: the excess weight and obesity are atherosclerosis risks increasing in all ages. Transgressions of breastfeeding have been related frequently to excess weight. Objectives: to contribute to clearing up of relation between the length of breastfeeding and the excessive body weight (excess weight and obesity in adolescents. Methods: this is an observational study of cases and controls conducted in 344 adolescents studying in "Benito Juárez" Urban Secondary School (UBS from health area of "Antonio Guiteras Holmes" Polyclinic in Habana Vieja (January, 2005 to January, 2006. In all students we made anthropometry measurements of body weight, height and waist circumference. Control group included students with normal weight. Statistical association between breastfeeding and corporal excess weight was determined by odds ratio calculus con a 95 % accuracy. Results: it was verified the 14 % of excess weight and the 4% of obesity. The

  9. Teachers' Knowledge of Anxiety and Identification of Excessive Anxiety in

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headley, Clea; Campbell, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined primary school teachers' knowledge of anxiety and excessive anxiety symptoms in children. Three hundred and fifteen primary school teachers completed a questionnaire exploring their definitions of anxiety and the indications they associated with excessive anxiety in primary school children. Results showed that teachers had an…

  10. Do indoor environments in schools influence student performance? A review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendell, Mark J.; Heath, Garvin A.

    2004-11-24

    Limited research is available on potential adverse effects of school environments on academic performance, despite strong public concern. We examine the scientific evidence relevant to this relationship by reviewing available research relating schools and other indoor environments to human performance or attendance. As a primary focus, we critically review evidence for direct relationships between indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in buildings and performance or attendance. As a secondary focus, we summarize, without critique, evidence on potential connections indirectly linking IEQ to performance or attendance: relationships between IEQ and health, between health and performance or attendance, and between attendance and performance. The most persuasive direct evidence showed increases in indoor concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and outdoor concentrations of several specific pollutants to be related to reduced school attendance. The most persuasive indirect evidence showed indoor dampness and microbiologic pollutants to be related to asthma and respiratory infections, which have in turn been related to reduced performance and attendance. Furthermore, a substantial scientific literature links poor IEQ (e.g., low ventilation rate, excess moisture or formaldehyde) with respiratory and other health effects in children and adults. Overall, evidence suggests that poor IEQ in schools can influence the performance and attendance of students, primarily through health effects from indoor pollutants. Also, inadequate IEQ in schools seems sufficiently common to merit strong public concern. Evidence is available to justify (1) immediate actions to protect IEQ in schools and (2) focused research on exposures, prevention, and causation, to better guide policies and actions on IEQ in schools.

  11. A Policy Analysis of Student Attendance Standards Related to State Education Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilliams, Mary Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a project report of a policy analysis of state attendance information available to public schools. Current state attendance information rarely expands beyond compulsory attendance law. It is vague, non-existent or difficult to find. Research provides strong links between student attendance and achievement. Informed school leaders…

  12. Church attendance and self-esteem among adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Robbins, Mandy; Francis, Leslie J.; Williams, Emyr

    2007-01-01

    A total of 279 young people (123 males and 156 females) aged between 12 and 16 years of age attending one school in Wales completed the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory alongside a measure of frequency of church attendance. The data indicate a small positive correlation (r = .18) between self-esteem and church attendance.

  13. Excesso de peso, pressão arterial e atividade física no deslocamento à escola Excess weight, arterial pressure and physical activity in commuting to school: correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly S. Silva

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A prevalência de obesidade e pressão arterial (PA tem aumentado em crianças e adolescentes, enquanto os domínios da atividade física declinaram. OBJETIVO: Identificar e associar o excesso de peso, de gordura corporal e de PA elevada entre os estudantes ativos e passivos no deslocamento à escola. MÉTODOS: Participaram do estudo 1.570 escolares de 7 a 12 anos de idade, de João Pessoa, PB. Os estudantes responderam a um questionário sobre a forma de deslocamento à escola (ativo = caminhada/bicicleta ou passivo = carro/moto/ônibus e o tempo despendido. O excesso de peso foi determinado no IMC > 25 kg/m², a gordura no percentil > 85 da dobra tricipital e a PA elevada no percentil > 90. Na análise, utilizaram-se o teste qui-quadrado e a regressão de Poisson. RESULTADOS: O deslocamento ativo associou-se à menor prevalência de excesso de peso e de gordura, em relação ao passivo (p 0,05 CONCLUSÃO: O deslocamento passivo à escola associou-se ao excesso de peso e gordura, e dissociou-se da PA elevada. O excesso de peso associou-se ao excesso de gordura e à PA elevada. É preciso prevenir o excesso de peso, como meio de evitar o acúmulo de gordura e o aumento da PA.BACKGROUND: The prevalence of obesity and elevated arterial pressure (AP has increased in children and adolescents, whereas physical activity has decreased. OBJECTIVE: To identify and correlate excess weight, body fat and elevated AP among active and passive students with the way they commute to school. METHODS: One thousand five hundred and seventy students aged 7 to 12 years participated in the study conducted in João Pessoa, state of Paraíba. Students completed a questionnaire about the way they commuted to school (active = walking/biking or passive = by car/motorcycle/bus and the time spent traveling to school. Excess weight was determined by BMI > 25 kg/m², excess body fat as > 85th percentile for tricipital fold measurement, and high AP as >90th

  14. Effect of the Transcendental Meditation Program on Graduation, College Acceptance and Dropout Rates for Students Attending an Urban Public High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    High school graduation rates nationally have declined in recent years, despite public and private efforts. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether practice of the Quiet Time/Transcendental Meditation® program at a medium-size urban school results in higher school graduation rates compared to students who do not receive training…

  15. Teachers' Perceptions of the Availability and Need of a Support Program for Students with Learning Difficulties Attending Elementary Schools in the Atlantic Union Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coke, Lileth Althea

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the Study. Support programs have been known to be very effective in helping students succeed academically, socially, behaviorally, and emotionally. The purpose of this study was to investigate teachers' perceptions of the availability and need of a support program for students with learning difficulties who attend elementary schools…

  16. The Effect Of School Feeding Programme On Primary School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Effect Of School Feeding Programme On Primary School Attendance In ... and SFP were significant variables which affect attendance of children in school. ... the school-feeding programme [SFP] succeeded in increasing parent's income.

  17. Excessive Daytime Sleepiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Selvi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Excessive daytime sleepiness is one of the most common sleep-related patient symptoms, with preva-lence in the community estimated to be as high as 18%. Patients with excessive daytime sleepiness may exhibit life threatening road and work accidents, social maladjustment, decreased academic and occupational performance and have poorer health than comparable adults. Thus, excessive daytime sleepiness is a serious condition that requires investigation, diagnosis and treatment primarily. As with most medical condition, evaluation of excessive daytime sleepiness begins a precise history and various objective and subjective tools have been also developed to assess excessive daytime sleepiness. The most common causes of excessive daytime sleepiness are insufficient sleep hygiene, chronic sleep deprivation, medical and psychiatric conditions and sleep disorders, such as obstructive sleep apnea, medications, and narcolepsy. Treatment option should address underlying contributors and promote sleep quantity by ensuring good sleep hygiene. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(2: 114-132

  18. The account system for students school‘s attendance

    OpenAIRE

    Birgėlienė, Raminta

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY The account system for students school‘s attendance The purpose of the created students school‘s attendance account system is to assist teachers in registering, observing and making reports on students school‘s attendance. This work presents the of secondary school students���result attendance account transferred to the informatics system. The system includes the analysis, separable processes, adjustable structured analysis and projections‘methods, which allow dealing with a real prob...

  19. Attendance as control

    OpenAIRE

    Beckton, Julian

    2013-01-01

    Student attendance in higher education, particularly at lectures, is a topic that researchers have largely neglected, other than in relatively small scale studies. This paper reviews university attendance policies based on documentary research in university web sites. While there are acknowledged methodological limitations to this approach, some universities are beginning to implement automated recording of student attendance in UK higher education and others are debating the merits of doing ...

  20. [Natural evolution of excess body weight (overweight and obesity) in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durá Travé, T; Gallinas Victoriano, F

    2013-11-01

    To analyze the chronological evolution of excess body weight (overweight and obesity) in order to raise public awareness within the different areas of intervention (family, school, business environment, health services) and to take effective actions. Weight, height and body mass index (BMI) of 604 healthy subjects (307 males and 297 females) have been recorded at birth and at the age of 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 years. The excess body weight has been calculated according to national references from Ferrández et al. Prevalence of excess body weight at age 14 years was significantly higher (P<.05) in males (29%) than in females (12.8%). BMI (kg/m2) was significantly higher (P<.05) for both sexes in every age period, except for birth and age 1 year, in those patients with excess body weight at age 14, with respect to patients with normal nutritional status of the same age. Those groups with excess body weight at age 14 showed a BMI (Z-score) reaching overweight or obesity levels at age 4, and progressively increasing. Excess body weight probably starts at early stages in life, when dietary habits of the child depends almost exclusively on family habits, and may be aggravated during school attendance. Finally, a disproportionate weight increase occurs in adolescence that is probably related to unhealthy dietary habits and way of life. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of influenza vaccination on respiratory illness rates in children attending private boarding schools in England, 2013-2014: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brousseau, N; Green, H K; Andrews, N; Pryse, R; Baguelin, M; Sunderland, A; Ellis, J; Pebody, R

    2015-12-01

    Several private boarding schools in England have established universal influenza vaccination programmes for their pupils. We evaluated the impact of these programmes on the burden of respiratory illnesses in boarders. Between November 2013 and May 2014, age-specific respiratory disease incidence rates in boarders were compared between schools offering and not offering influenza vaccine to healthy boarders. We adjusted for age, sex, school size and week using negative binomial regression. Forty-three schools comprising 14 776 boarders participated. Almost all boarders (99%) were aged 11-17 years. Nineteen (44%) schools vaccinated healthy boarders against influenza, with a mean uptake of 48·5% (range 14·2-88·5%). Over the study period, 1468 respiratory illnesses were reported in boarders (5·66/1000 boarder-weeks); of these, 33 were influenza-like illnesses (ILIs, 0·26/1000 boarder-weeks) in vaccinating schools and 95 were ILIs (0·74/1000 boarder-weeks) in non-vaccinating schools. The impact of vaccinating healthy boarders was a 54% reduction in ILI in all boarders [rate ratio (RR) 0·46, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·28-0·76]. Disease rates were also reduced for upper respiratory tract infections (RR 0·72, 95% CI 0·61-0·85) and chest infections (RR 0·18, 95% CI 0·09-0·36). These findings demonstrate a significant impact of influenza vaccination on ILI and other clinical endpoints in secondary-school boarders. Additional research is needed to investigate the impact of influenza vaccination in non-boarding secondary-school settings.

  2. How Many Central City High Schools Have A Severe Dropout Problem, Where Are They Located, and Who Attends Them? Initial Estimates Using the Common Core of Data

    OpenAIRE

    Balfanz, Robert; Legters, Nettie

    2001-01-01

    The analysis presented in this paper strongly suggests that about half of the high schools in the nation’s 35 largest cities have severe dropout rates. It further shows that high schools with weak promoting power and by implication high dropout rates are found in almost all of the largest cities but they are particularly concentrated in Midwestern and Northern industrial cities and Texas.

  3. Hyperhidrosis (Excessive Sweating)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who have this type are otherwise healthy. In medical terminology, the word “primary” means that the cause is not another medical condition. Secondary hyperhidrosis In medical terminology, “secondary” means that the excessive sweating (hyperhidrosis) has ...

  4. Scientists from all over the world attend the 2007 - Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School on Nuclear Reactors, ''Physics, Fuels and Systems''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, U.; Sanchez-Espinoza, V.H.

    2007-01-01

    For more than ten years, the Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School has been organized alternately by the Karlsruhe Research Center in Germany and the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA), Cadarache, in France. This year, the Summer School was held at the Center for Advanced Training in Technology and the Environment of the Karlsruhe Research Center on August 29 to September 7. The overarching topic of the event was the sustainability of nuclear power, including topical issues of generation-IV reactor concepts, transmutation and actinide separation, and geologic final storage. Next year's Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School will be organized by CEA at Aix-en-Provence together with the Nuclear Safety Research Program of the Karlsruhe Research Center. (orig.)

  5. Clinic Attenders with Autism or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Cognitive Profile at School Age and Its Relationship to Preschool Indicators of Language Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagberg, Bibbi S.; Miniscalco, Carmela; Gillberg, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Many studies have shown that children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have had early indicators of language delay. The aim of the present study was to examine the cognitive profile of school age children referred to a specialist clinic for ASD, ADHD, or both, and relate this profile…

  6. "Coming Out" as Pregnant or Having a Baby While Attending School: Experiences and Challenges of Scottish Schoolgirl Mothers/Mothers-to-Be

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Beverley

    2016-01-01

    Concerns exist about schoolgirls disengaging from education, becoming pregnant, dropping out of school and having lower-level or fewer qualifications. Few studies have considered the experiences and challenges that schoolgirls who become mothers face when continuing in education. This article discusses the experiences and challenges of Scottish…

  7. Student and Teacher Attendance: The Role of Shared Goods in Reducing Absenteeism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banerjee, Ritwik; King, Elizabeth; Orazem, Peter

    2012-01-01

    . Controlling for the endogeneity of teacher and student attendance, the most powerful factor raising teacher attendance is the attendance of the children in the school, and the most important factor influencing child attendance is the presence of the teacher. The results suggest that one important avenue...

  8. Superconductors with excess quasiparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elesin, V.F.; Kopaev, Y.V.

    1981-01-01

    This review presents a systematic kinetic theory of nonequilibrium phenomena in superconductors with excess quasiparticles created by electromagnetic or tunnel injection. The energy distributions of excess quasiparticles and of nonequilibrium phonons, dependence of the order parameter on the power and frequency (or intensity) of the electromagnetic field, magnetic properties of nonequilibrium superconductors, I-V curves of superconductor-insulator-superconductor junctions, and other properties are described in detail. The stability of superconducting states far from thermodynamic equilibrium is investigated and it is shown that characteristic instabilities leading to the formation of nonuniform states of a new type or phase transitions of the first kind are inherent to superconductors with excess quasiparticles. The results are compared with experimental data

  9. Excess wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2005-01-01

    Expansion of wind power is an important element in Danish climate change abatement policy. Starting from a high penetration of approx 20% however, momentary excess production will become an important issue in the future. Through energy systems analyses using the EnergyPLAN model and economic...... analyses it is analysed how excess productions are better utilised; through conversion into hydrogen of through expansion of export connections thereby enabling sales. The results demonstrate that particularly hydrogen production is unviable under current costs but transmission expansion could...

  10. Improving the Quantity and Quality of Attendance Data to Enhance Student Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Eleri; Price, Trevor; Lloyd, Steve; Thomas, Steve

    2005-01-01

    This article draws attention to local and global attendance monitoring in higher education. The paper outlines benefits of attendance monitoring for both the individual learner and university, and compares traditional paper-based attendance monitoring systems with an electronic system piloted in the Business School and School of Technology at the…

  11. Associations of television viewing time with excess body weight among urban and rural high-school students in regional mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fei; Li, JieQuan; Ware, Robert S; Owen, Neville

    2008-09-01

    To examine the relationship between television (TV) viewing and body mass index (BMI) among adolescents in a region of mainland China. Population-based cross-sectional study, conducted between September and November of 2004, on a sample of enrolled high-school students aged 12-18 years. One hundred and sixty-eight classes randomly selected from both urban and rural areas and belonging to 15 senior and 41 junior high schools in Nanjing, China, with a regional population of 6.0 million. In total 6848 students participated; 47.7 % from urban and 52.3 % from rural areas; 49.0 % male and 51.0 % female. The response rate among eligible participants was 89.3 %. The proportion of overweight was 6.6 % according to the criteria of overweight recommended for Chinese adolescents. Boys than girls (8.9 % vs. 4.4 %) had higher odds of being overweight (odds ratio (OR) 2.12, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.74, 2.60), while the proportion of overweight was significantly lower among rural students than urban students (4.5 % vs. 8.9 %; OR 0.49, 95 % CI 0.40, 0.60). Those students who watched TV for more than 7 h/week had a 1.5 times greater odds of being overweight relative to their counterparts who watched TV for 7 h/week or less (adjusted OR 1.51, 95 % CI 1.24, 1.82). Furthermore, there was a positive linear relationship between TV viewing time and BMI, even after adjusting for age, gender, residence area, time spent in study, in sleeping and in physical activity, and monthly pocket money. Viewing TV might increase the likelihood of being overweight for Chinese adolescents in China.

  12. The ‘Friendship Dynamics of Religion,’ or the ‘Religious Dynamics of Friendship’? A Social Network Analysis of Adolescents Who Attend Small Schools*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheadle, Jacob E.; Schwadel, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Longitudinal social network data on adolescents in seven schools are analyzed to reach a new understanding about how the personal and interpersonal social dimensions of adolescent religion intertwine together in small school settings. We primarily address two issues relevant to the sociology of religion and sociology in general: (1) social selection as a source of religious homophily and (2) friend socialization of religion. Analysis results are consistent with Collins’ interaction ritual chain theory, which stresses the social dimensions of religion, since network-religion autocorrelations are relatively substantial in magnitude and both selection and socialization mechanisms play key roles in generating them. Results suggest that socialization plays a stronger role than social selection in four of six religious outcomes, and that more religious youth are more cliquish. Implications for our understanding of the social context of religion, religious homophily, and the ways we model religious influence, as well as limitations and considerations for future research, are discussed. PMID:23017927

  13. Scientists from all over the world attend the ''Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School 2009'' at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Espinoza, Victor Hugo; Fischer, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    The ''Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School'' is organized each year alternately by the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology and the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA), Cadarache. This year's Summer School, the 15th since its foundation, was run at the Advanced Training Center (FTU) of KIT Campus Nord on August 26 to September 4. The key topic this year was ''The Challenges in Implementing Fast Reactor Technology.'' These are the items discussed: Principles and challenges of future fast reactor designs, Fuels, fuel cycle, and recycling of minor actinides, Innovative cladding tube and structural materials, Special aspects of coolants and the challenges they pose, Fast reactor safety. Experts from 8 leading international research establishments and universities presented and discussed with the 58 participants from 16 countries the current state of the art and the latest development trends in the topics listed above. (orig.)

  14. Disposition of excess material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    This paper reviews briefly the means available to an enrichment customer to dispose of excess material scheduled for delivery under a fixed-commitment contract, other than through termination of the related separative work. The methods are as follows: (1) sales; (2) use in facilities covered by other DOE contracts; and (3) assignment

  15. HIV Excess Cancers JNCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2010, an estimated 7,760 new cancers were diagnosed among the nearly 900,000 Americans known to be living with HIV infection. According to the first comprehensive study in the United States, approximately half of these cancers were in excess of what wo

  16. Computer program for the automated attendance accounting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulson, P.; Rasmusson, C.

    1971-01-01

    The automated attendance accounting system (AAAS) was developed under the auspices of the Space Technology Applications Program. The task is basically the adaptation of a small digital computer, coupled with specially developed pushbutton terminals located in school classrooms and offices for the purpose of taking daily attendance, maintaining complete attendance records, and producing partial and summary reports. Especially developed for high schools, the system is intended to relieve both teachers and office personnel from the time-consuming and dreary task of recording and analyzing the myriad classroom attendance data collected throughout the semester. In addition, since many school district budgets are related to student attendance, the increase in accounting accuracy is expected to augment district income. A major component of this system is the real-time AAAS software system, which is described.

  17. Impact of Attendance Policies on Course Attendance among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenneville, Tiffany; Jordan, Cary

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to investigate whether having a graded attendance policy would have an effect on course attendance among college students, and (b) to examine beliefs about education and attendance policies among college students. Results support the utility of graded attendance policies for increasing class attendance…

  18. 'WE CAN'T GET WORMS FROM COW DUNG': REPORTED KNOWLEDGE OF PARASITISM AMONG PASTORALIST YOUTH ATTENDING SECONDARY SCHOOL IN THE NGORONGORO CONSERVATION AREA, TANZANIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Rita Isabel; Hatfield, Jennifer; Kutz, Susan; Olemshumba, Saningo; Van Der Meer, Frank; Manyama, Mange; Bastien, Sheri

    2016-11-01

    Records at the Endulen Hospital in the Ngorongoro Conservation Area (NCA), Tanzania, reveal that soil-transmitted helminth infections and protozoa are consistently in the top ten diagnoses for Maasai pastoralists, indicating a significant public health concern. Nevertheless, Maasai pastoralist adaptations to life in close proximity to livestock and to unreliable access to water raise important questions about experiences of, and resiliency to, parasitic infections. Though these infections are particularly prevalent among youth in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), a focus on resiliency highlights local capacity to recover from and prevent illness. For instance, how is human parasitism perceived and experienced among communities displaying behaviours that studies have associated with transmission of diarrhoeal diseases, such as open defecation? Among these communities, how is parasitism seen to impact the health and development of children? And, what resources are available to endure or mitigate this heavy disease burden among affected communities? This study draws on formative research carried out in May 2014 in anticipation of an innovative school-based and youth-driven water, sanitation and hygiene education intervention rolled out in two boarding schools in the NCA in subsequent months. The initiative is grounded in a One Health approach to health promotion, drawing on partnerships in medicine, public health and veterinary medicine to appreciate the unique interactions between humans, animals and the environment that shape well-being among pastoralist communities. Qualitative data generated through group discussions with secondary school youth (n=60), Maasai teachers (n=6) and a women's group (n=8) in the NCA convey existing knowledge of the prevalence, prevention and treatment of human parasitism. An underlying principle of the larger initiative is to engage youth as creative agents of change in developing and sustaining locally relevant health promotion

  19. Quantification of physical activity using the QAPACE Questionnaire: a two stage cluster sample design survey of children and adolescents attending urban school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Nicolas; Sanchez, Carlos E; Patino, Efrain; Lozano, Benigno; Thalabard, Jean C; LE Bozec, Serge; Rieu, Michel

    2016-05-01

    Quantification of physical activity as energy expenditure is important since youth for the prevention of chronic non communicable diseases in adulthood. It is necessary to quantify physical activity expressed in daily energy expenditure (DEE) in school children and adolescents between 8-16 years, by age, gender and socioeconomic level (SEL) in Bogotá. This is a Two Stage Cluster Survey Sample. From a universe of 4700 schools and 760000 students from three existing socioeconomic levels in Bogotá (low, medium and high). The random sample was 20 schools and 1840 students (904 boys and 936 girls). Foreshadowing desertion of participants and inconsistency in the questionnaire responses, the sample size was increased. Thus, 6 individuals of each gender for each of the nine age groups were selected, resulting in a total sample of 2160 individuals. Selected students filled the QAPACE questionnaire under supervision. The data was analyzed comparing means with multivariate general linear model. Fixed factors used were: gender (boys and girls), age (8 to 16 years old) and tri-strata SEL (low, medium and high); as independent variables were assessed: height, weight, leisure time, expressed in hours/day and dependent variable: daily energy expenditure DEE (kJ.kg-1.day-1): during leisure time (DEE-LT), during school time (DEE-ST), during vacation time (DEE-VT), and total mean DEE per year (DEEm-TY) RESULTS: Differences in DEE by gender, in boys, LT and all DEE, with the SEL all variables were significant; but age-SEL was only significant in DEE-VT. In girls, with the SEL all variables were significant. The post hoc multiple comparisons tests were significant with age using Fisher's Least Significant Difference (LSD) test in all variables. For both genders and for all SELs the values in girls had the higher value except SEL high (5-6) The boys have higher values in DEE-LT, DEE-ST, DEE-VT; except in DEEm-TY in SEL (5-6) In SEL (5-6) all DEEs for both genders are highest. For SEL

  20. Body-esteem of pupils who attended single-sex versus mixed-sex schools: a cross-sectional study of intrasexual competition and peer victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Eryigit-Madzwamuse, Suna; Patra, Chanchala; Smith, Joshua H; Wolke, Dieter

    2014-10-01

    In intrasexual competition (competition for reproductive resources), bullying can be viewed as a tool to devalue competitors, gain a high status and a powerful, dominant position in the peer group which may lead to beneficial gains such as access to potential romantic partners. This study investigated the relationship between intrasexual competition, bullying victimization and body-esteem, in single-sex versus mixed-sex schools. 420 participants completed a body-esteem scale, a retrospective bullying questionnaire, and intrasexual competition scales. Our results showed that relational victimization was associated with low body-esteem for both females and males. Females in single-sex schools experienced higher intrasexual competition which in turn was associated with their body-esteem directly and indirectly via relational victimization. In males, intrasexual competition was indirectly associated with body-esteem via relational victimization. Interventions to improve body esteem may focus on reducing intrasexual competition and peer victimization. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Why September Matters: Improving Student Attendance. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Linda S.

    2014-01-01

    This brief examines absences in September and students' attendance over the rest of the year. Attendance should be addressed before it becomes problematic. Chronic absenteeism, missing more than 20 days of a school year, is an early indicator of disengagement. High absence rates have negative consequences not only for individual students, but also…

  2. Point-Counterpoint: Should Attendance Be Required in Collegiate Classrooms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Jo Ann M.; Lohrey, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines two divergent viewpoints about whether or not class attendance should be mandatory in higher education. The authors, both accounting professors at the same institution, delineate their respective viewpoints citing school policy, federal regulations and academic freedom as factors which motivate their attendance policy.

  3. Indigenous Australians and Preschool Education: Who Is Attending?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the individual, family, household and area level characteristics associated with preschool attendance for Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians (aged three to five years who are not at school). Controlling for these factors explains all of the difference between Indigenous and non-Indigenous attendance rates for…

  4. Level ofnutrition and nutrition disorders as well as characteristics ofdietary habits and physical activity among 6–13-year-old children attending selected primary schools in Opole and Silesia Provinces in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Jonczyk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: Analysis of nutrition disorders, learning about eating habits and characterising physical activity among primary school children at the age of 6–13, living in the rural areas of Silesia and Opole Provinces in Poland. Material and methods: The study included the parents of children at the age 6–13 attending selected primary schools and living in rural areas of Silesia (Wielowieś, Boruszowice, Wojska, Potępa, Świerklaniec and Opole (Kielcza Provinces. The research group comprised 410 pupils: 217 boys (52.93% and 193 girls (47.07%. On the basis of obtained data, BMI index was calculated and a nutritional level was assessed. Moreover, the statistical analysis of dietary habits and physical activity of studied children was also performed. Results: Nearly 38% of studied children are overweight or obese. Furthermore, 17% are malnourished Every second child has a proper number of meals per day. Above 60% of pupils eat first and second breakfast every day. Merely 3.66% of children eat five or more portions of fruit and vegetables daily. Less than 62% of students declare to drink milk or eat dairy products. Over 83% of the respondents declare that their children eat meat several times a week. Over 28% of children have sweets or salty snacks every day. As for physical activity, about 59% of children prefer spending free time outdoors but approximately 22% of pupils practise sport regularly. Conclusion: This study revealed that students attending primary schools in selected rural areas are characterised by improper dietary habits. Their way of eating is not balanced in a right way – it is mainly based on meat and snacks like sweets. Furthermore, children eat few fruit and vegetables, highfibre products and drink little milk. Behaviours connected with physical activity are also inappropriate – children dedicate too little time to physical activity a week.

  5. Excessive crying in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Halpern

    2016-05-01

    Conclusion: Excessive crying in the early months is a prevalent symptom; the pediatrician's attention is necessary to understand and adequately manage the problem and offer support to exhausted parents. The prescription of drugs of questionable action and with potential side effects is not a recommended treatment, except in extreme situations. The effectiveness of dietary treatments and use of probiotics still require confirmation. There is incomplete evidence regarding alternative treatments such as manipulation techniques, acupuncture, and use of the herbal supplements and behavioral interventions.

  6. Post traumatic stress disorder among former child soldiers attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post traumatic stress disorder among former child soldiers attending a rehabilitative service ... school in northern Uganda with a case of mass psychotic behavior. ... Methods: Data on post-traumatic stress disorder, depressed mood, physical ...

  7. Scientists from all over the world attended the 'Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School 2011' at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Victor H.; Fischer, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) and the Commissariat r leEnergie Atomique et Aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Cadarache, alternate in organizing the annual 'Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School.' This year's event, the 17th since its inception, was held in Karlsruhe, Germany on August 25 to September 3. Its topic was 'High-fidelity Modeling for Nuclear Reactors: Challenges and Prospects.' Here is a list of the subjects covered: - Status and perspectives of modeling and its role in design, operation, and safety. - Thermal hydraulics of nuclear reactors and simulation of 2 phase flows. - Structural mechanics, structure? fluid interaction, and seismic safety. - Advanced simulation in neutronics and reactor physics. - Progress in simulating fuel and materials behavior. - Multiphysics and uncertainty analysis methods. Experts from eight leading international research institutions and universities presented, and discussed with the 59 participants from 19 countries, the current state of the art and most recent development trends in the subjects listed above. (orig.)

  8. ACTIVATION PARAMETERS AND EXCESS THERMODYANAMIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Applying these data, viscosity-B-coefficients, activation parameters (Δμ10≠) and (Δμ20≠) and excess thermodynamic functions, viz., excess molar volume (VE), excess viscosity, ηE and excess molar free energy of activation of flow, (GE) were calculated. The value of interaction parameter, d, of Grunberg and Nissan ...

  9. Mothers' perception of excessive crying in infancy in south eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We undertook this study to determine the prevalence of excessive crying in our area of practice and also determine associated factors. Method: This was a cross sectional, questionnaire based descriptive study on mothers' perception of their infants' crying. Subjects were mother/ infant pairs attending the well baby clinics at ...

  10. Seasonal prevalence and incidence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis and associated diarrhoea in children attending pre-schools in Kafue, Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwila, J.; Phiri, I.G.K.; Enemark, Heidi L.

    2011-01-01

    Prevalence, incidence and seasonal variation of Cryptosporidium and Giardia duodenalis were studied over a 12-month period in 100 children from four pre-schools in Kafue, Zambia. Questionnaire data and a single stool sample were collected monthly from each child. Samples were processed using...... a commercial kit (Meridian Diagnostics Inc., USA) and oo(cysts) visualised by immunofluorescence microscopy. Cryptosporidium was detected in 30.7% (241/786; 95% CI = 27.5-33.9) while G. duodenalis was detected in 29.0% (228/786; 95% CI = 25.8-32.2). A total of 86% experienced one or more episodes...... of cryptosporidiosis while 75% had giardiasis. Cumulative incidence per 100 children was 75.4 for Cryptosporidium and 49.0 for G. duodenalis. Both infections were significantly more common in the wet compared to the dry season (34.8%, 162/466 vs. 24.7%, 79/320, P = 0.003 and 35.2%, 164/466 vs. 20.0%, 64/320, P

  11. Excessive crying in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Halpern

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Review the literature on excessive crying in young infants, also known as infantile colic, and its effects on family dynamics, its pathophysiology, and new treatment interventions. Data source: The literature review was carried out in the Medline, PsycINFO, LILACS, SciELO, and Cochrane Library databases, using the terms “excessive crying,” and “infantile colic,” as well technical books and technical reports on child development, selecting the most relevant articles on the subject, with emphasis on recent literature published in the last five years. Summary of the findings: Excessive crying is a common symptom in the first 3 months of life and leads to approximately 20% of pediatric consultations. Different prevalence rates of excessive crying have been reported, ranging from 14% to approximately 30% in infants up to 3 months of age. There is evidence linking excessive crying early in life with adaptive problems in the preschool period, as well as with early weaning, maternal anxiety and depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and other behavioral problems. Several pathophysiological mechanisms can explain these symptoms, such as circadian rhythm alterations, central nervous system immaturity, and alterations in the intestinal microbiota. Several treatment alternatives have been described, including behavioral measures, manipulation techniques, use of medication, and acupuncture, with controversial results and effectiveness. Conclusion: Excessive crying in the early months is a prevalent symptom; the pediatrician's attention is necessary to understand and adequately manage the problem and offer support to exhausted parents. The prescription of drugs of questionable action and with potential side effects is not a recommended treatment, except in extreme situations. The effectiveness of dietary treatments and use of probiotics still require confirmation. There is incomplete evidence regarding alternative treatments

  12. Does contact by a family nurse practitioner decrease early school absence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Jill; Price, Marva; Kotch, Jonathan; Willis, Stephanie; Fisher, Michael; Silva, Susan

    2012-02-01

    Chronic early school absence (preschool through third grade) is associated with school failure. The presence of school nurses may lead to fewer absences, and nurse practitioners in school-based health centers (SBHCs) can facilitate a healthier population resulting in improved attendance. Efforts to get students back to school are unexplored in nursing literature. This article describes a nursing intervention to decrease early school absence in two elementary schools K-3 (N = 449) and a Head Start program (N = 130). The Head Start Family Nurse Practitioner (FNP) contacted families of chronically and excessively absent students by telephone, clinic visit at school, or home visit. The aggregate percentage attendance was evaluated by grades (preschool to third grade), schools (Head Start, Elementary Schools 1 and 2), and grades and schools and compared with publicly available school district aggregate data. There were statistically significant increases in attendance from Year 1 to Year 2 at p < .05 at the elementary level but not at the Head Start level. Student demographics, types of contacts, absence reasons (including sick child), and medical diagnoses are described.

  13. The Virtual Diphoton Excess

    CERN Document Server

    Stolarski, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Interpreting the excesses around 750 GeV in the diphoton spectra to be the signal of a new heavy scalar decaying to photons, we point out the possibility of looking for correlated signals with virtual photons. In particular, we emphasize that the effective operator that generates the diphoton decay will also generate decays to two leptons and a photon, as well as to four leptons, independently of the new resonance couplings to $Z\\gamma$ and $ZZ$. Depending on the relative sizes of these effective couplings, we show that the virtual diphoton component can make up a sizable, and sometimes dominant, contribution to the total $2\\ell \\gamma$ and $4\\ell$ partial widths. We also discuss modifications to current experimental cuts in order to maximize the sensitivity to these virtual photon effects. Finally, we briefly comment on prospects for channels involving other Standard Model fermions as well as more exotic decay possibilities of the putative resonance.

  14. Abundance, Excess, Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rox De Luca

    2016-02-01

    Her recent work focuses on the concepts of abundance, excess and waste. These concerns translate directly into vibrant and colourful garlands that she constructs from discarded plastics collected on Bondi Beach where she lives. The process of collecting is fastidious, as is the process of sorting and grading the plastics by colour and size. This initial gathering and sorting process is followed by threading the components onto strings of wire. When completed, these assemblages stand in stark contrast to the ease of disposability associated with the materials that arrive on the shoreline as evidence of our collective human neglect and destruction of the environment around us. The contrast is heightened by the fact that the constructed garlands embody the paradoxical beauty of our plastic waste byproducts, while also evoking the ways by which those byproducts similarly accumulate in randomly assorted patterns across the oceans and beaches of the planet.

  15. Topiramate Induced Excessive Sialorrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersel Dag

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well-known that drugs such as clozapine and lithium can cause sialorrhea. On the other hand, topiramate has not been reported to induce sialorrhea. We report a case of a patient aged 26 who was given antiepileptic and antipsychotic drugs due to severe mental retardation and intractable epilepsy and developed excessive sialorrhea complaint after the addition of topiramate for the control of seizures. His complaints continued for 1,5 years and ended after giving up topiramate. We presented this case since it was a rare sialorrhea case induced by topiramate. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of sialorrhea development which causes serious hygiene and social problems when they want to give topiramate to the patients using multiple drugs.

  16. Scientists from all over the world attend the 2005 Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn summer school at Karlsruhe; Wissenschaftler aus aller Welt bei der ''Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School 2005'' in Karlsruhe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, V.H.; Fischer, U. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Inst. fuer Reaktorsicherheit, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2005-10-01

    The Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School annually organized alternately by the Karlsruhe Research Center and the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA), Cadarche, France, this year was held at the Karlsruhe Congress Center. In line with the mission of the School to disseminate nuclear competence an a broad basis among young scientists from all over the world, lectures covered reactor physics, nuclear fuels, and nuclear systems. Speakers from leading international research institutions presented introductions to their respective fields, outlined the current state of the art, and also highlighted areas in need of further development and, thus, likely to offer challenges to young scientists. Next year's Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School will be organized by CEA and held at Cadarache, France. (orig.)

  17. Attending to auditory memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Jacqueline F; Moscovitch, Morris; Alain, Claude

    2016-06-01

    Attention to memory describes the process of attending to memory traces when the object is no longer present. It has been studied primarily for representations of visual stimuli with only few studies examining attention to sound object representations in short-term memory. Here, we review the interplay of attention and auditory memory with an emphasis on 1) attending to auditory memory in the absence of related external stimuli (i.e., reflective attention) and 2) effects of existing memory on guiding attention. Attention to auditory memory is discussed in the context of change deafness, and we argue that failures to detect changes in our auditory environments are most likely the result of a faulty comparison system of incoming and stored information. Also, objects are the primary building blocks of auditory attention, but attention can also be directed to individual features (e.g., pitch). We review short-term and long-term memory guided modulation of attention based on characteristic features, location, and/or semantic properties of auditory objects, and propose that auditory attention to memory pathways emerge after sensory memory. A neural model for auditory attention to memory is developed, which comprises two separate pathways in the parietal cortex, one involved in attention to higher-order features and the other involved in attention to sensory information. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Compulsory Attendance Policies: About Age or Intervention? SREB Focus Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, SREB state policy-makers have focused on actions to reduce dropout rates and increase high school graduation rates. Some policy-makers have suggested that raising their state's compulsory attendance age (often called the dropout age) to require students to stay in school until age 17 or 18 is an important step. However,…

  19. Increasing Student Attendance: A Study Comparing Superintendents' Knowledge of Best Practices to Enacted Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isom, Dena K.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes a problem-based learning project focused on the information available to superintendents related to improving student attendance. This information has the potential to assist school districts in improving the attendance of each student as is required by attendance standards such as those of the fifth version of the Missouri…

  20. Favouring New Indigenous Leadership: Indigenous Students Attending Higher Education in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Manuel Lopez

    2016-01-01

    The opportunities to attend higher education in Mexico have traditionally been offered to the middle class population since around 30% of students who finish high school are able to attend higher education. The main reason for this low attendance is the poverty in which much of the population lives and the lack of higher education institutions in…

  1. The Value of Attending a Women's College: Education, Occupation, and Income Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riordan, Cornelius

    1994-01-01

    A study using data from the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 compared effects of attendance at a women's college for one to six years (n=125) with attendance at only coeducational colleges (n=1832). Findings indicated significant occupational achievement benefits were realized for each year of attendance at a women's…

  2. Child Labor and School Attendance in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyi, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest incidence of child labor in the world and estimates show that it continues to grow. This paper examines the causes and magnitude of child labor in Kenya. Unlike previous studies that examined child labor as only an economic activity, this paper includes household chores. Including household chores is important…

  3. Rural/Nonrural Differences in College Attendance Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Soo-Yong; Irvin, Matthew J; Meece, Judith L

    Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988, this study documented college attendance patterns of rural youth in terms of the selectivity of first postsecondary institution of attendance, the timing of transition to postsecondary education, and the continuity of enrollment. The study also examined how these college attendance patterns among rural students differed from those among their non-rural counterparts and which factors explained these rural/nonrural differences. Results showed that rural youth were less likely than their nonrural counterparts to attend a selective institution. In addition, rural youth were more likely to delay entry to postsecondary education, compared to their urban counterparts. Finally, rural students were less likely than their urban counterparts to be continuously enrolled in college. Much of these rural/nonrural disparities in college attendance patterns were explained by rural/nonrural differences in socioeconomic status and high school preparation. Policy implications, limitations of the study, and future research directions are also discussed.

  4. Prevalence of excessive screen time and associated factors in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Marcela Sales de Lucena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of excessive screen time and to analyze associated factors among adolescents. Methods: This was a cross-sectional school-based epidemiological study with 2874 high school adolescents with age 14-19 years (57.8% female from public and private schools in the city of João Pessoa, PB, Northeast Brazil. Excessive screen time was defined as watching television and playing video games or using the computer for more than 2 h/day. The associated factors analyzed were: sociodemographic (gender, age, economic class, and skin color, physical activity and nutritional status of adolescents. Results: The prevalence of excessive screen time was 79.5% (95%CI 78.1-81.1 and it was higher in males (84.3% compared to females (76.1%; p<0.001. In multivariate analysis, adolescent males, those aged 14-15 year old and the highest economic class had higher chances of exposure to excessive screen time. The level of physical activity and nutritional status of adolescents were not associated with excessive screen time. Conclusions: The prevalence of excessive screen time was high and varied according to sociodemographic characteristics of adolescents. It is necessary to develop interventions to reduce the excessive screen time among adolescents, particularly in subgroups with higher exposure.

  5. Day-care attendance and child development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    Earlier research suggests that children’s development is shaped in their early years of life. This paper examines whether differences in day-care experiences during pre-school age are important for children’s cognitive and language development at the age of 15. The analysis is based on class...... performance at the end of elementary schooling. We assess the effects of attended types and qualities of day-care institutions on various child outcomes as measured by school grades in mathematics, science, English and Danish for the whole Danish population as well as outcomes from the 2006 PISA Denmark...... survey and a 2007 PISA Copenhagen survey. We use administrative registries to generate indicators such as child-staff ratios, child-pedagogues ratios, and the share of male staff and of staff with non-Danish origins. Furthermore, we use information on the average levels of educational attainments...

  6. Scientists from all over the world attend the Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn summer school at the Karlsruhe Research Center; Wissenschaftler aus aller Welt bei der Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School im Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinzel, V.

    2003-11-01

    The Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School organized jointly by the Karlsruhe Research Center and the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique was held in Karlsruhe in 2003 for the third time. The main topics this year focused on recent developments and findings in the fields of fuels and materials for reactors. Applications of nuclear technology beyond the confines of electricity generation were covered in discussions shout methods of hydrogen production. Specialized seminars dealt with current aspects of fusion research and the activities of the Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU). (orig.)

  7. Cyber-Truancy: Addressing Issues of Attendance in the Digital Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archambault, Leanna; Kennedy, Kathryn; Bender, Stacy

    2013-01-01

    Although mandatory attendance is easily determined in a traditional, brick-and-mortar school, monitoring and enforcing attendance and truancy in an online environment is less obvious. Despite this challenge, virtual schools, especially those that are publicly funded, have a requirement to ensure that students who are enrolled are actually logging…

  8. The Argument Is Not Compulsory Law, but How Attendance Is Recorded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Michael; Hemmer, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines attendance accounting policies and practices for students enrolled in public schools in Texas and in alternative schools of choice (ASC) in particular. Technology advancement allows students to complete their coursework virtually anywhere they have internet access; however, conventional state attendance policies still require…

  9. Improving children's behaviour and attendance through the use of parenting programmes: an examination of good practice

    OpenAIRE

    Hallam, Susan; Rogers, Lynne; Shaw, Jacqueline

    2004-01-01

    There is powerful evidence that attendance at school and academic performance are positively related and that those who are excluded and do not attend school regularly, whatever the reasons, are more likely to become involved in crime. Recently, much emphasis has been put on the role that parents can play in improving the attendance and behaviour of their children. The Anti-Social Behaviour Act 2003 introduced new powers for Local Education Authorities (LEAs) to apply for a parenting order to...

  10. CBP Time and Attendance Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The TAMS, supports time and attendance (payroll), overtime cap monitoring, overtime scheduling functions, budget reporting, staffing level reporting, and a variety...

  11. Do young people attending addiction services differ from those attending youth mental health services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Grant; Merry, Sally; Robinson, Elizabeth

    2010-07-01

    We aimed to describe and compare the self-reported substance use, psychopathology and psychosocial morbidity in adolescents attending two adolescent outpatient services, a triage-based mental health service and an engagement-focused addiction service in Auckland, New Zealand. A naturalistic cross-section of 131 (addiction service = 67, mental health service = 64) 14-18-year-old boys and girls attending each service completed a standardised screening and assessment instrument, the Drug Use Screening Inventory-Revised. The Drug Use Screening Inventory-Revised measures self-reported problems across 10 domains of functioning, including substance use, behaviour, psychiatric symptoms and school and family functioning. Descriptive statistics were used to provide an overview of the self-reported morbidity in each group and t-tests were used to determine differences between the two groups. Adolescents attending the addiction service reported significantly more problems with substance use, school performance and peer relationships than those attending the mental health service. There was no significant difference in reported psychiatric symptoms, behavioural problems, social competency, health problems, family problems, difficulties in work functioning or leisure time between the two groups. Young people presenting to engagement-focused substance use services report similar difficulties to those at mental health services across most areas of psychosocial functioning. Addiction services may require equivalent staffing expertise and workforce development to that in mental health to effectively meet young people's needs.

  12. Attendance, Employability, Student Performance and Electronic Course Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sund, Kristian J.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter discusses the possible detrimental effects of low attendance on the achievement of important learning outcomes in terms of "soft" employability-enhancing skills among undergraduate students in business schools, and explores how the use of learning technologies may contribute to high...... or low class attendance levels. The chapter describes the exploratory results of a survey carried out among final year bachelor students attending a strategic management course, the findings of which suggest that a significant number of students view virtual learning environments as a substitute...

  13. Attendance Policies, Student Attendance, and Instructor Verbal Aggressiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jason; Forbus, Robert; Cistulli, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The authors utilized an experimental design across six sections of a managerial communications course (N = 173) to test the impact of instructor verbal aggressiveness and class attendance policies on student class attendance. The experimental group received a policy based on the principle of social proof (R. B. Cialdini, 2001), which indicated…

  14. Does excessive pronation cause pain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, C G; Nielsen, Rasmus Gottschalk N; Rathleff, Michael Skovdal

    2008-01-01

    Excessive pronation could be an inborn abnormality or an acquired foot disorder caused by overuse, inadequate supported shoes or inadequate foot training. When the muscles and ligaments of the foot are insufficient it can cause an excessive pronation of the foot. The current treatment consist of ...

  15. School Refusal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Mary

    2008-01-01

    School attendance is an ongoing concern for administrators, particularly in middle level and high school. Frequent absences affect student learning, test scores, and social development. Absenteeism is often the result of emotional disorders, such as anxiety or depression. Administrators who understand the causes of school refusal behavior and are…

  16. Does Excessive Pronation Cause Pain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Carsten Møller; Olesen Gammelgaard, Christian; Nielsen, R. G.

    Excessive pronation could be an inborn abnormality or an acquired foot disorder caused by overuse, inadequate supported shoes or inadequate foot training. When the muscles and ligaments of the foot are insufficient it can cause an excessive pronation of the foot. The current treatment consist...... of antipronation shoes or insoles, which latest was studied by Kulce DG., et al (2007). So far there have been no randomized controlled studies showing methods that the effect of this treatment has not been documented. Therefore the authors can measure the effect of treatments with insoles. Some of the excessive...

  17. School Segregation, Charter Schools, and Access to Quality Education*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, John R.; Burdick-Will, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Race, class, neighborhood, and school quality are all highly inter-related in the American educational system. In the last decade a new factor has come into play, the option of attending a charter school. We offer a comprehensive analysis of the disparities among public schools attended by white, black, Hispanic, Asian, and Native American children in 2010–2011, including all districts in which charter schools existed. We compare schools in terms of poverty concentration, racial composition, and standardized test scores, and we also examine how attending a charter or non-charter school affects these differences. Black and Hispanic (and to a lesser extent Native American and Asian) students attend elementary and high schools with higher rates of poverty than white students. Especially for whites and Asians, attending a charter school means lower exposure to poverty. Children’s own race and the poverty and charter status of their schools affect the test scores and racial isolation of schools that children attend in complex combinations. Most intriguing, attending a charter school means attending a better performing school in high-poverty areas but a lower performing school in low-poverty areas. Yet even in the best case the positive effect of attending a charter school only slightly offsets the disadvantages of black and Hispanic students. PMID:27616813

  18. Day-care attendance and child development:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    performance at the end of elementary schooling. We assess the effects of attended types and qualities of day-care institutions on various child outcomes as measured by school grades in mathematics, science, English and Danish for the whole Danish population as well as outcomes from the 2006 PISA Denmark...... survey and a 2007 PISA Copenhagen survey. We use administrative registries to generate indicators such as child-staff ratios, child-pedagogues ratios, and the share of male staff and of staff with non-Danish origins. Furthermore, we use information on the average levels of educational attainments......, of total work experiences, ages and hourly wages of staff members. Those indicators show the expected correlations with children’s development outcomes, better day-care quality being linked to better child outcomes ten years later. We use rich administrative information about the children’s background...

  19. Weather and Tourism: Thermal Comfort and Zoological Park Visitor Attendance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Perkins

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Weather events have the potential to greatly impact business operations and profitability, especially in outdoor-oriented economic sectors such as Tourism, Recreation, and Leisure (TRL. Although a substantive body of work focuses on the macroscale impacts of climate change, less is known about how daily weather events influence attendance decisions, particularly relating to the physiological thermal comfort levels of each visitor. To address this imbalance, this paper focuses on ambient thermal environments and visitor behavior at the Phoenix and Atlanta zoos. Daily visitor attendances at each zoo from September 2001 to June 2011, were paired with the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET to help measure the thermal conditions most likely experienced by zoo visitors. PET was calculated using hourly atmospheric variables of temperature, humidity, wind speed, and cloud cover from 7 a.m. to 7 p.m. at each zoological park location and then classified based on thermal comfort categories established by the American Society of Heating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE. The major findings suggested that in both Phoenix and Atlanta, optimal thermal regimes for peak attendance occurred within “slightly warm” and “warm” PET-based thermal categories. Additionally, visitors seemed to be averse to the most commonly occurring thermal extreme since visitors appeared to avoid the zoo on excessively hot days in Phoenix and excessively cold days in Atlanta. Finally, changes in the daily weather impacted visitor attendance as both zoos experienced peak attendance on days with dynamic changes in the thermal regimes and depressed attendances on days with stagnant thermal regimes. Building a better understanding of how weather events impact visitor demand can help improve our assessments of the potential impacts future climate change may have on tourism.

  20. The Zulu traditional birth attendant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some of the important practices of Zulu traditional birth attendants ... the people as regards pregnancy and labour. This article docu- .... into account previous perinatal deaths. ... They were either widows or married to husbands unable to work.

  1. Appointment attendance at a remote rural dental training facility in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalloo, Ratilal; McDonald, Jenny M

    2013-08-02

    Non-attended appointments have impacts on the operations of dental clinics. These impacts vary from lost productivity, loss of income and loss of clinical teaching hours. Appointment data were analysed to assess the percentage of completed, failed to attend (FTA) and cancelled appointments at an Australian remote rural student dental clinic training facility. The demographic and time characteristics of FTA and cancelled appointments were analysed using simple and multivariate multinomial regression analysis, to inform interventions that may be necessary. Over the 2-year study period a total of 3,042 appointments were made. The percentage of FTA was 21.3% (N = 648) and cancelled appointments 13.7% (N = 418). The odds of an FTA were in excess of 4 times higher in patients aged 19-25 years (OR = 4.1; 95% CI = 2.3-7.3) and 26-35 years (OR = 4.4; 95% CI = 2.5-7.9) compared to patients 65 years and older. The odds of an FTA was 2.3 (95% CI = 1.8-3.1) times higher in public patients compared to private patients. The odds of a cancellation was 1.7 (95% CI = 1.1-2.6) times higher on a Friday compared to a Monday and 1.8 (95% CI = 1.1-2.9) times higher on the last appointment of the day compared to the first appointment. For cancelled appointments, 71.3% were cancelled on the day of the appointment and 16.6% on the day before. Non-attended appointments (FTA or cancelled) were common at this remote rural dental clinic training facility. Efforts to reduce these need to be implemented; including telephonic reminders, educating the community on the importance of attending their appointments, block booking school children and double booking or arranging alternative activities for the students at times when non-attendance is common.

  2. ¿Qué Efecto Tiene Asistir a Sala Cuna y Jardín Infantil Desde los Tres Meses Hasta los Cuatro Años de Edad?: Estudio Longitudinal en la Junta Nacional de Jardines Infantiles What Is the Effect of Attending Nursery School Between Three Months and Four Years of Age?: A Longitudinal Study in the National Preschool Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Seguel

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio longitudinal cuasi-experimental con grupo de comparación examinó el efecto de asistir desde 1 a 4 años de edad a jardines de la Junta Nacional de Jardines Infantiles (JUNJI de Chile sobre el desarrollo/aprendizaje de los párvulos y el efecto diferencial de asistir a partir de los 3 años. El muestreo fue bietápico (41 jardines y 427 niños al inicio y estratificado por región del país. El grupo de comparación, con características socioeconómicas similares (184 niños al inicio, no asistía a sala cuna. Los niños fueron evaluados anualmente con el Inventario de Desarrollo Battelle. También se recogieron variables familiares y educativas con entrevistas semi-estructuradas y pautas de observación. Comparaciones usando Propensity Score Matching y análisis de Mínimos Cuadrados Ordinarios arrojaron que alrededor del 80% de los niños cursa un desarrollo normal, independientemente de que asistan a los jardines infantiles JUNJI o permanezcan en sus casas. Asistir desde los 3 años tendría un efecto positivo en el desarrollo infantil. La calidad de las prácticas pedagógicas en lactantes y la actitud didáctica familiar explicarían mayormente el desarrollo de los párvulos.This quasi-experimental longitudinal study with comparison group examined the effect on the learning and developmental levels of infants attending the National Preschool Association (JUNJI nursery schools in Chile (between 3 months and 4 years of age and the differential effect of attending them from 3 years of age onward. A two-stage (41 nurseries and 427 children at the beginning and stratified sample by region was used. The comparison group, with similar socioeconomic characteristics (184 children at the beginning, did not attend a nursery school. Children were assessed yearly with the Battelle Developmental Inventory. Family and educational variables were collected using semi-structured interviews and an observational guideline. Comparisons using

  3. Aspects of birth history and outcome in diplegics attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim. We aimed to study functional mobility and visual performance in spastic diplegic children and adolescents attending specialised schools. Methods. Spastic diplegia (SD) was confirmed by clinical examination. Birth and related history were added to explore relationships between SD, birth weight (BW) and duration of ...

  4. Impact of Attendance Policy on Adult College Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Tracinal S.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative evaluation focused on the problem of student attrition at a northern California college, its attendance policy, the policy's impact on previous students' decisions to persist in school, and on administrators' attempts to increase retention. The purpose for this study was to evaluate the participants' perceptions about their…

  5. Linking Teacher Quality, Student Attendance, and Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershenson, Seth

    2016-01-01

    Research on the effectiveness of educational inputs, particularly research on teacher effectiveness, typically overlooks teachers' potential impact on behavioral outcomes, such as student attendance. Using longitudinal data on teachers and students in North Carolina I estimate teacher effects on primary school student absences in a value-added…

  6. Attending National Library Legislative Day: Why Is It Important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Robyn

    2009-01-01

    Prior to this year, the National Library Legislative Day never really held much importance for the author as a school library media specialist. However, this feeling changed after she attended her first National Library Legislative Day in May of 2008. The goal of this day is to allow everyday practicing professionals to speak with their national…

  7. Teacher-Provided Positive Attending to Improve Student Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perle, Jonathan G.

    2016-01-01

    A teacher serves many important roles within a classroom, including an educator and a manager of child behavior. Inattention, overactivity, and noncompliance have long been cited as some of the most common areas of reported difficulty for schools (Axelrod & Zank, 2012; Goldstein, 1995). The evidence-based practice of positive attending (i.e.,…

  8. Student attendance and student achievement: a tumultuous and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2001-12-21

    Dec 21, 2001 ... students must be present in school in order to benefit from academic program in .... attend class but passed with sometimes very high scores (e.g. 83% in CBS ..... done outside class or interaction forms, through online learning plat-form. ... also has obliged all journalism students to possess either an iPhone.

  9. Using Attendance Worksheets to Improve Student Attendance, Participation, and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, Edward

    2013-06-01

    As science instructors we are faced with two main barriers with respect to student learning. The first is motivating our students to attend class and the second is to make them active participants in the learning process once we have gotten them to class. As we head further into the internet age this problem only gets exacerbated as students have replaced newspapers with cell phones which can surf the web, check their emails, and play games. Quizzes can motivated the students to attend class but do not necessarily motivate them to pay attention. Active learning techniques work but we as instructors have been bombarded by the active learning message to the point that we either do it already or refuse to. I present another option which in my classroom has doubled the rate at which students learn my material. By using attendance worksheets instead of end of class quizzes I hold students accountable for not just their attendance but for when they show up and when they leave the class. In addition it makes the students an active participant in the class even without using active learning techniques as they are writing notes and answering the questions you have posed while the class is in progress. Therefore using attendance worksheets is an effective tool to use in order to guide student learning.

  10. 24 CFR 236.60 - Excess Income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excess Income. 236.60 Section 236... § 236.60 Excess Income. (a) Definition. Excess Income consists of cash collected as rent from the... Rent. The unit-by-unit requirement necessitates that, if a unit has Excess Income, the Excess Income...

  11. School food, politics and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundy, Donald A P; Drake, Lesley J; Burbano, Carmen

    2013-06-01

    An analysis undertaken jointly in 2009 by the UN World Food Programme, The Partnership for Child Development and the World Bank was published as Rethinking School Feeding to provide guidance on how to develop and implement effective school feeding programmes as a productive safety net and as part of the efforts to achieve Education for All. The present paper reflects on how understanding of school feeding has changed since that analysis. Data on school feeding programme outcomes were collected through a literature review. Regression models were used to analyse relationships between school feeding costs (from data that were collected), the per capita costs of primary education and Gross Domestic Product per capita. Data on the transition to national ownership, supply chains and country examples were collected through country case studies. School feeding programmes increase school attendance, cognition and educational achievement, as well as provide a transfer of resources to households with possible benefits to local agricultural production and local market development. Low-income countries exhibit large variations in school feeding costs, with concomitant opportunities for cost containment. Countries are increasingly looking to transition from externally supported projects to national programmes. School feeding is now clearly evident as a major social programme in most countries with a global turnover in excess of $US 100 billion. This argues for a continuing focus on the evidence base with a view to helping countries ensure that their programmes are as cost-effective as possible. Clear policy advice has never been more important.

  12. Excessive or unwanted hair in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypertrichosis; Hirsutism; Hair - excessive (women); Excessive hair in women; Hair - women - excessive or unwanted ... Women normally produce low levels of male hormones (androgens). If your body makes too much of this ...

  13. Excessive masturbation after epilepsy surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmen, Mine; Erdogan, Ayten; Duvenci, Sirin; Ozyurt, Emin; Ozkara, Cigdem

    2004-02-01

    Sexual behavior changes as well as depression, anxiety, and organic mood/personality disorders have been reported in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients before and after epilepsy surgery. The authors describe a 14-year-old girl with symptoms of excessive masturbation in inappropriate places, social withdrawal, irritability, aggressive behavior, and crying spells after selective amygdalohippocampectomy for medically intractable TLE with hippocampal sclerosis. Since the family members felt extremely embarrassed, they were upset and angry with the patient which, in turn, increased her depressive symptoms. Both her excessive masturbation behavior and depressive symptoms remitted within 2 months of psychoeducative intervention and treatment with citalopram 20mg/day. Excessive masturbation is proposed to be related to the psychosocial changes due to seizure-free status after surgery as well as other possible mechanisms such as Kluver-Bucy syndrome features and neurophysiologic changes associated with the cessation of epileptic discharges. This case demonstrates that psychiatric problems and sexual changes encountered after epilepsy surgery are possibly multifactorial and in adolescence hypersexuality may be manifested as excessive masturbation behavior.

  14. Flight Attendant Fatigue: A Quantitative Review of Flight Attendant Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Hellesoy, 1994; Hunt & Space, 1994; Nagda & Koontz , 2003; Nesthus et al., 2007; Rayman, 1997; Smolensky, Lee, Mott, & Colligan, 1982; Tashkin...www.boeing. com/commercial/cabinair/ventilation.pdf Nagda, N.L., & Koontz , M.D. (2003). Review of studies on flight attendant health and comfort in

  15. School Progress Report 2012. Montgomery County Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County Public Schools, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The 2012 School Progress Report for Montgomery County Public Schools (MCPS) provides state, county, and individual school performance data, as well as information on student attendance, high school graduation rates, and the professional qualifications of teachers at the state, district, and school levels. Montgomery County primary schools are…

  16. School Progress Report 2013. Montgomery County Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County Public Schools, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The 2013 School Progress Report for Montgomery County Public Schools (MCPS) provides state, county, and individual school performance data, as well as information on student attendance, high school graduation rates, and the professional qualifications of teachers at the state, district, and school levels for the 2012-2013 school year. Montgomery…

  17. Church Attendance and Religious Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Nilsen Kvande

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that gender may moderate the relationship between religiousness and mental health in most countries, but few studies have been conducted in Norway and Denmark. This study examined gender differences in religious experiences and church attendance as predictors of existential well-being among 295 women and 233 men from the general Norwegian population. Analyses showed that the structural equation models for women and men did not differ significantly on the global level. The models for women and men, however, showed different patterns. Among men, church attendance and negative religious experiences predicted existential well-being; among women, positive and negative religious experiences were related to existential well-being, but church attendance was not. The present findings suggest that men may benefit more from active religiousness, whereas women may benefit more from affective religiousness. Comparing these results with research in other cultural contexts, we find that different operationalizations of church attendance yield the same types of patterns across cultural contexts. Consequently, the benefits of religiousness may be similar for women and men irrespective of cultural context.

  18. Attendance Policies and Student Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risen, D. Michael

    2007-01-01

    The details described in this case study examine the issues related to attendance policies and how such policies might be legally used to affect student grades. Concepts discussed should cause graduate students in educational administration to reflect on the issues presented from various points of view when the students complete an analysis of the…

  19. Excess Early Mortality in Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Thomas Munk; Nordentoft, Merete; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is often referred to as one of the most severe mental disorders, primarily because of the very high mortality rates of those with the disorder. This article reviews the literature on excess early mortality in persons with schizophrenia and suggests reasons for the high mortality...... as well as possible ways to reduce it. Persons with schizophrenia have an exceptionally short life expectancy. High mortality is found in all age groups, resulting in a life expectancy of approximately 20 years below that of the general population. Evidence suggests that persons with schizophrenia may...... not have seen the same improvement in life expectancy as the general population during the past decades. Thus, the mortality gap not only persists but may actually have increased. The most urgent research agenda concerns primary candidates for modifiable risk factors contributing to this excess mortality...

  20. Severe rhabdomyolysis after excessive bodybuilding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsterer, J; Zuntner, G; Fuchs, M; Weinberger, A

    2007-12-01

    A 46-year-old male subject performed excessive physical exertion during 4-6 h in a studio for body builders during 5 days. He was not practicing sport prior to this training and denied the use of any aiding substances. Despite muscle aching already after 1 day, he continued the exercises. After the last day, he recognized tiredness and cessation of urine production. Two days after discontinuation of the training, a Herpes simplex infection occurred. Because of acute renal failure, he required hemodialysis. There were absent tendon reflexes and creatine kinase (CK) values up to 208 274 U/L (normal: <170 U/L). After 2 weeks, CK had almost normalized and, after 4 weeks, hemodialysis was discontinued. Excessive muscle training may result in severe, hemodialysis-dependent rhabdomyolysis. Triggering factors may be prior low fitness level, viral infection, or subclinical metabolic myopathy.

  1. Verification of excess defense material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearey, B.L.; Pilat, J.F.; Eccleston, G.W.; Nicholas, N.J.; Tape, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    The international community in the post-Cold War period has expressed an interest in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) using its expertise in support of the arms control and disarmament process in unprecedented ways. The pledges of the US and Russian presidents to place excess defense materials under some type of international inspections raises the prospect of using IAEA safeguards approaches for monitoring excess materials, which include both classified and unclassified materials. Although the IAEA has suggested the need to address inspections of both types of materials, the most troublesome and potentially difficult problems involve approaches to the inspection of classified materials. The key issue for placing classified nuclear components and materials under IAEA safeguards is the conflict between these traditional IAEA materials accounting procedures and the US classification laws and nonproliferation policy designed to prevent the disclosure of critical weapon-design information. Possible verification approaches to classified excess defense materials could be based on item accountancy, attributes measurements, and containment and surveillance. Such approaches are not wholly new; in fact, they are quite well established for certain unclassified materials. Such concepts may be applicable to classified items, but the precise approaches have yet to be identified, fully tested, or evaluated for technical and political feasibility, or for their possible acceptability in an international inspection regime. Substantial work remains in these areas. This paper examines many of the challenges presented by international inspections of classified materials

  2. Excess water dynamics in hydrotalcite: QENS study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dynamics of excess water in hydrotalcite sample with varied content of excess water are reported. Translational motion of excess water can be best described by random transla- tional jump diffusion model. The observed increase in translational diffusivity with increase in the amount of excess water is attributed to the ...

  3. 34 CFR 300.16 - Excess costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excess costs. 300.16 Section 300.16 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.16 Excess costs. Excess costs means those costs that... for an example of how excess costs must be calculated.) (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1401(8)) ...

  4. Traditional birth attendants lack basic information on HIV and safe delivery practices in rural Mysore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhivanan, Purnima; Kumar, Bhavana N; Adamson, Paul; Krupp, Karl

    2010-09-22

    There is little research on HIV awareness and practices of traditional birth attendants (TBA) in India. This study investigated knowledge and attitudes among rural TBA in Karnataka as part of a project examining how traditional birth attendants could be integrated into prevention-of-mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programs in India. A cross-sectional survey was conducted between March 2008 and January 2009 among TBA in 144 villages in Mysore Taluk, Karnataka. Following informed consent, TBA underwent an interviewer-administered questionnaire in the local language of Kannada on practices and knowledge around birthing and HIV/PMTCT. Of the 417 TBA surveyed, the median age was 52 years and 96% were Hindus. A majority (324, 77.7%) had no formal schooling, 88 (21.1%) had up to 7 years and 5 (1%) had more than 7 yrs of education. Only 51 of the 417 TBA (12%) reported hearing about HIV/AIDS. Of those who had heard about HIV/AIDS, only 36 (72%) correctly reported that the virus could be spread from mother to child; 37 (74%) identified unprotected sex as a mode of transmission; and 26 (51%) correctly said healthy looking people could spread HIV. Just 22 (44%) knew that infected mothers could lower the risk of transmitting the virus to their infants. An overwhelming majority of TBA (401, 96.2%) did not provide antenatal care to their clients. Over half (254, 61%) said they would refer the woman to a hospital if she bled before delivery, and only 53 (13%) felt referral was necessary if excessive bleeding occurred after birth. Traditional birth attendants will continue to play an important role in maternal child health in India for the foreseeable future. This study demonstrates that a majority of TBA lack basic information about HIV/AIDS and safe delivery practices. Given the ongoing shortage of skilled birth attendance in rural areas, more studies are needed to examine whether TBA should be trained and integrated into PMTCT and maternal child health programs in

  5. Family- and school-based correlates of energy balance-related behaviours in 10-12-year-old children: a systematic review within the ENERGY (EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth) project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloigne, M.; Van Lippevelde, W.; Maes, L.; Brug, J.; de Bourdeaudhuij, I.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify family- and school-based correlates of specific energy balance-related behaviours (physical activity, sedentary behaviour, breakfast consumption, soft drink consumption) among 10-12-year-olds, using the EnRG framework (Environmental Research framework for weight Gain

  6. Speech-based Class Attendance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizel Amri, Umar; Nur Wahidah Nik Hashim, Nik; Hazrin Hany Mohamad Hanif, Noor

    2017-11-01

    In the department of engineering, students are required to fulfil at least 80 percent of class attendance. Conventional method requires student to sign his/her initial on the attendance sheet. However, this method is prone to cheating by having another student signing for their fellow classmate that is absent. We develop our hypothesis according to a verse in the Holy Qur’an (95:4), “We have created men in the best of mould”. Based on the verse, we believe each psychological characteristic of human being is unique and thus, their speech characteristic should be unique. In this paper we present the development of speech biometric-based attendance system. The system requires user’s voice to be installed in the system as trained data and it is saved in the system for registration of the user. The following voice of the user will be the test data in order to verify with the trained data stored in the system. The system uses PSD (Power Spectral Density) and Transition Parameter as the method for feature extraction of the voices. Euclidean and Mahalanobis distances are used in order to verified the user’s voice. For this research, ten subjects of five females and five males were chosen to be tested for the performance of the system. The system performance in term of recognition rate is found to be 60% correct identification of individuals.

  7. Excess electron transport in cryoobjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eshchenko, D.G.; Storchak, V.G.; Brewer, J.H.; Cottrell, S.P.; Cox, S.F.J.

    2003-01-01

    Experimental results on excess electron transport in solid and liquid phases of Ne, Ar, and solid N 2 -Ar mixture are presented and compared with those for He. Muon spin relaxation technique in frequently switching electric fields was used to study the phenomenon of delayed muonium formation: excess electrons liberated in the μ + ionization track converge upon the positive muons and form Mu (μ + e - ) atoms. This process is shown to be crucially dependent upon the electron's interaction with its environment (i.e., whether it occupies the conduction band or becomes localized in a bubble of tens of angstroms in radius) and upon its mobility in these states. The characteristic lengths involved are 10 -6 -10 -4 cm, the characteristic times range from nanoseconds to tens microseconds. Such a microscopic length scale sometimes enables the electron spend its entire free lifetime in a state which may not be detected by conventional macroscopic techniques. The electron transport processes are compared in: liquid and solid helium (where electron is localized in buble); liquid and solid neon (where electrons are delocalized in solid and the coexistence of localized and delocalized electrons states was found in liquid recently); liquid and solid argon (where electrons are delocalized in both phases); orientational glass systems (solid N 2 -Ar mixtures), where our results suggest that electrons are localized in orientational glass. This scaling from light to heavy rare gases enables us to reveal new features of excess electron localization on microscopic scale. Analysis of the experimental data makes it possible to formulate the following tendency of the muon end-of-track structure in condensed rare gases. The muon-self track interaction changes from the isolated pair (muon plus the nearest track electron) in helium to multi-pair (muon in the vicinity of tens track electrons and positive ions) in argon

  8. Study of Using Excess Stock to Reduce Naval Aviation Depot-Level Repairable Piece Part Backorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    used to develop and run the comparison of the backorders and excess stock records. Python is chosen because of its ease of learning and use...sustainable source of bit-piece parts for future requisitions. 14. SUBJECT TERMS naval aviation AVDLRs, backorder, excess, DLA, WSS, FRC, Python ...SCHOOL December 2016 Approved by: Geraldo Ferrer Eddine Dahel Peter Ward Bryan Hudgens Academic Associate

  9. The Copenhagen School Health Records Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jennifer L; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2011-01-01

    The Copenhagen School Health Records Register is an electronic register of health examination information on 372,636 children who attended school in Copenhagen, Denmark from 1936 to 2005.......The Copenhagen School Health Records Register is an electronic register of health examination information on 372,636 children who attended school in Copenhagen, Denmark from 1936 to 2005....

  10. Excess electron transport in cryoobjects

    CERN Document Server

    Eshchenko, D G; Brewer, J H; Cottrell, S P; Cox, S F J

    2003-01-01

    Experimental results on excess electron transport in solid and liquid phases of Ne, Ar, and solid N sub 2 -Ar mixture are presented and compared with those for He. Muon spin relaxation technique in frequently switching electric fields was used to study the phenomenon of delayed muonium formation: excess electrons liberated in the mu sup + ionization track converge upon the positive muons and form Mu (mu sup + e sup -) atoms. This process is shown to be crucially dependent upon the electron's interaction with its environment (i.e., whether it occupies the conduction band or becomes localized in a bubble of tens of angstroms in radius) and upon its mobility in these states. The characteristic lengths involved are 10 sup - sup 6 -10 sup - sup 4 cm, the characteristic times range from nanoseconds to tens microseconds. Such a microscopic length scale sometimes enables the electron spend its entire free lifetime in a state which may not be detected by conventional macroscopic techniques. The electron transport proc...

  11. Attending Behaviors of ADHD Children in Math and Reading Using Various Types of Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Mary Jane; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Compared the effects of using various computer software programs on the attending behavior of children with attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD). Found that the attention of ADHD children increased while they used software with a game format when animation was not excessive. Other factors affecting nonattending behaviors included the…

  12. Automated attendance management and alert system | Rahim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Automated attendance management and alert system. ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... AAMAS provides various functions, from managing and recording students' attendance record, to sending automatic alerts to students ...

  13. Impact of conference attendance on librarians' leadership ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... attendance to leadership developments hows approximately 0.370.m Conference attendance was highly recommended as a means of enhancing leadership development of academic librarians. Keywords: Experiential learning, self efficacy, attitude, Conference, Impact, Leadership, Teamwork, development, brainstorm, ...

  14. Attendance Control System based on RFID technology

    OpenAIRE

    Nurbek Saparkhojayev; Selim Guvercin

    2012-01-01

    In Kazakhstan, checking students' attendance is one of the important issues for universities, because many universities evaluate students attendance and while giving the final grade, professors consider their total number of appearances on classes during the whole semester. This brings to the idea of having some tool to control students attendance. Some universities prefer to use paper sheet for controlling attendance, whereas some universities prefer to use paper sheet for checking students'...

  15. 29 CFR 785.28 - Involuntary attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Involuntary attendance. 785.28 Section 785.28 Labor... POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS HOURS WORKED Application of Principles Lectures, Meetings and Training Programs § 785.28 Involuntary attendance. Attendance is not voluntary, of...

  16. 34 CFR 668.166 - Excess cash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the Secretary for the costs the Secretary incurred in providing that excess cash to the institution... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excess cash. 668.166 Section 668.166 Education..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Cash Management § 668.166 Excess cash. (a...

  17. 10 CFR 904.10 - Excess energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess energy. 904.10 Section 904.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.10 Excess energy. (a) If excess Energy is determined by the United States to be available...

  18. 7 CFR 985.56 - Excess oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess oil. 985.56 Section 985.56 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Volume Limitations § 985.56 Excess oil. Oil of any class in excess of a producer's applicable annual allotment shall be identified as...

  19. Perception of Sexuality Education amongst Secondary School

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    school students attending a series of Schools debates in Port. Harcourt Metropolis. ... 31(2): 109–113. Keywords:Perceptions, sexuality education, secondary school, students. ..... implications for counseling practices. European Journal of ...

  20. Ocena wiedzy uczniów warszawskich szkół średnich na temat skutków zdrowotnych wynikających z nadmiernego korzystania z promieniowania ultrafioletowego (UV = Knowledge assessment about health effects caused by excessive use of ultraviolet radiation (UV among high school students in Warsaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Koczkodaj

    2016-05-01

    Abstract 1. Introduction and aim Ultraviolet radiation is present in the daily life of every human being. The constantly growing number of new cases of skin cancer in Poland and in the world can suggest a lack of adequate knowledge of photoprotection. Raising public awareness, especially among young people about the health effects of excessive UV radiation use, plays a key role in relation to their current and future health. The aim of the study was to assess the level of knowledge among high school students in Warsaw about the health effects resulting from excessive use of ultraviolet radiation, as well as knowledge concerning health behaviors of young people using UV radiation. 2. Material and methods The study group consists of 153 students from Warsaw high schools. The gender distribution was random, the age range of the respondents was 17 to 19 years. The study was conducted using paper questionnaire, consisting of 29 questions. To examine the relationship between the selected traits has been applied test of independence chi-square (χ2 (STATISTICA12 package. In tests the level of significance was p≤0.05. Depending on the size used appropriate amendments to the chi-square test. 3. Results and conclusions There was no relationship between such features as: the use of tanning devices and perception of skin burns as a carcinogenic factor, the use of the solarium and regularly reviewing pigmented moles, the occurrence of malignant melanoma of the skin in the past in the family and the use of tanning devices, the occurrence of skin burns and frequency of use of formulations with UV protection. This may indicate incomplete knowledge of the respondents in terms of the impact of UV on human health.

  1. More than just a meal: Breakfast club attendance and children’s social relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret (Greta Anne Defeyter

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The health benefits of school food have been widely promoted in recent years while the social opportunities that surround eating occasions at school have received little attention. Breakfast clubs, which take place at the start of the school day, offer a unique opportunity for children to consume a breakfast meal on their school premises in the company of their peers. Alternatively, after school clubs, which take place on school premises at the end of the school day, whilst also providing children with social opportunities tend to focus on sports engagement and skill development. The aim of the current paper is to investigate whether attendance at breakfast clubs and after school clubs has an impact on children’s friendship quality and experiences of peer victimization. Breakfast club attendees, after-school club attendees and non-attendees completed the Friendship Qualities Scale (FQS and the Multidimensional Peer Victimization Scale (MPVS at two time points. Time 1 data were collected two months after the introduction of school clubs. Time 2 data were then collected on the same measures again six months later. Results of the analyses of Time 1 data showed no significant differences between groups on any of the measures at Time 1. However, at Time 2 breakfast club attendees showed improved levels of friendship quality compared to the other two groups. Moreover, analysis of the MPVS data at Time 2 showed that children who attended breakfast club or after school club experienced a decline in victimization across time. The current findings suggest that breakfast club attendance facilitates the quality of children’s relationships with their best friend over time. Additionally, attendance at a breakfast or after school club was associated with a reduction in victimization over time. The results have implications for utilization of breakfast and after school clubs to aid children’s social relationships in school over time.

  2. Excessive iodine intake during pregnancy in Somali refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassim, Ismail A R; Ruth, Laird J; Creeke, Paul I; Gnat, Danielle; Abdalla, Fathia; Seal, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    Iodine deficiency and excess are both associated with adverse health consequences, with fetuses, children and pregnant women being most vulnerable to the devastating effects of severe deficiency. It is often assumed that the iodine status of a population if displaced or in a remote or emergency situation is low. However, there is little evidence available to support this assumption, especially among long-term food-aid-dependent pregnant women. An effectiveness trial of a prenatal multiple-micronutrient supplement that contained 150 µg day(-1) iodine was conducted in two refugee camps in the North Eastern Province of Kenya in 2002. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was measured in a subsample of pregnant women attending antenatal care in Dagahaley (control camp) (n = 74) and Ifo (intervention camp) (n = 63). There was no significant difference in median UIC between the two camps (P = 0.118). The combined median UIC was 730 µg L(-1) (interquartile range, 780) (5.77 µmol L(-1)) and exceeded the upper safe limit of 500 µg L(-1) (3.95 µmol L(-1)) for pregnant women (P refugee camps. Further research needs to be conducted to investigate the source of excess iodine, to determine the measures needed to address excessive iodine intake and to reconsider the World Health Organization/World Food Programme/United Nations Children's Fund guidance on supplementation of vulnerable groups in emergencies.

  3. Effect of weather on football attendances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, J A

    1984-01-01

    On the premise that weather should have an effect on spectator attendance at sports events in outdoor settings (a topic which has received surprisingly little formalized study), the author examined the record of home attendances for three football teams in Scotland. In general, it was found that the greater the rainfall on the day of the match the lower the attendance. Dividing spectators into different groups, it was further found that an additional hour of sunshine was associated 162 more adults attending Aberdeen matches, while high temperatures appeared to increase juvenile attendance (by 57 for ever 1 deg. C. rise in temperature). Weather disruption of football games is attended by a number of costs, both direct and indirect. Quantifying the impact of weather can shed substantial light on the problem of scheduling for the season. For example, since certain periods are, on average, wetter than others, rescheduling to drier periods might encourage greater attendance.

  4. Medical Ethics and Protection from Excessive Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzicka, I.

    1998-01-01

    Among artificial sources of ionic radiation people are most often exposed to those emanating from X-ray diagnostic equipment. However, responsible usage of X-ray diagnostic methods may considerably reduce the general exposure to radiation. A research on rational access to X-ray diagnostic methods conducted at the X-ray Cabinet of the Tresnjevka Health Center was followed by a control survey eight years later of the rational methods applied, which showed that the number of unnecessary diagnostic examining was reduced for 34 % and the diagnostic indications were 10-40 $ more precise. The results therefore proved that radiation problems were reduced accordingly. The measures applied consisted of additional training organized for health care workers and a better education of the population. The basic element was then the awareness of both health care workers and the patients that excessive radiation should be avoided. The condition for achieving this lies in the moral responsibility of protecting the patients' health. A radiologist, being the person that promotes and carries out this moral responsibility, should organize and hold continual additional training of medical doctors, as well as education for the patients, and apply modern equipment. The basis of such an approach should be established by implementing medical ethics at all medical schools and faculties, together with the promotion of a wider intellectual and moral integrity of each medical doctor. (author)

  5. Phytoextraction of excess soil phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Nilesh C.; Starnes, Daniel L.; Sahi, Shivendra V.

    2007-01-01

    In the search for a suitable plant to be used in P phytoremediation, several species belonging to legume, vegetable and herb crops were grown in P-enriched soils, and screened for P accumulation potentials. A large variation in P concentrations of different plant species was observed. Some vegetable species such as cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and yellow squash (Cucurbita pepo var. melopepo) were identified as potential P accumulators with >1% (dry weight) P in their shoots. These plants also displayed a satisfactory biomass accumulation while growing on a high concentration of soil P. The elevated activities of phosphomonoesterase and phytase were observed when plants were grown in P-enriched soils, this possibly contributing to high P acquisition in these species. Sunflower plants also demonstrated an increased shoot P accumulation. This study shows that the phytoextraction of phosphorus can be effective using appropriate plant species. - Crop plants such as cucumber, squash and sunflower accumulate phosphorus and thus can be used in the phytoextraction of excess phosphorus from soils

  6. Phytoextraction of excess soil phosphorus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Nilesh C. [Department of Biology, Western Kentucky University, 1906 College Heights Boulevard 11080, Bowling Green, KY 42101-1080 (United States); Starnes, Daniel L. [Department of Biology, Western Kentucky University, 1906 College Heights Boulevard 11080, Bowling Green, KY 42101-1080 (United States); Sahi, Shivendra V. [Department of Biology, Western Kentucky University, 1906 College Heights Boulevard 11080, Bowling Green, KY 42101-1080 (United States)]. E-mail: shiv.sahi@wku.edu

    2007-03-15

    In the search for a suitable plant to be used in P phytoremediation, several species belonging to legume, vegetable and herb crops were grown in P-enriched soils, and screened for P accumulation potentials. A large variation in P concentrations of different plant species was observed. Some vegetable species such as cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and yellow squash (Cucurbita pepo var. melopepo) were identified as potential P accumulators with >1% (dry weight) P in their shoots. These plants also displayed a satisfactory biomass accumulation while growing on a high concentration of soil P. The elevated activities of phosphomonoesterase and phytase were observed when plants were grown in P-enriched soils, this possibly contributing to high P acquisition in these species. Sunflower plants also demonstrated an increased shoot P accumulation. This study shows that the phytoextraction of phosphorus can be effective using appropriate plant species. - Crop plants such as cucumber, squash and sunflower accumulate phosphorus and thus can be used in the phytoextraction of excess phosphorus from soils.

  7. Traditional birth attendants in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. M. Smit

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs and traditional healers form an important link in the chain of health personnel providing primary health care in Malawi. In spite of the establishment of hospitals and health centres, it is to these traditional healers and TBAs that the majority of people turn in times of sickness and child-birth. Approximately 60 percent of all deliveries in Malawi occur in the villages. It is therefore important that due regard be paid to the activities of these traditional practitioners in order to ensure the achievement of the goal - "Health for all by the year 2000". The training of TBAs is seen as part of the Maternal and Child Health Services in the country.

  8. Traditional birth attendants in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. M. Smit

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs and traditional healers form an important link in the chain of health personnel providing primary health care in Malawi. In spite of the establishment of hospitals and health centres, it is to these traditional healers and TBAs that the majority of people turn in times of sickness and child-birth. Approximately 60 percent of all deliveries in Malawi occur in the villages. It is therefore important that due regard be paid to the activities of these traditional practitioners in order to ensure the achievement of the goal - "Health for all by the year 2000". The training of TBAs is seen as part of the Maternal and Child Health Services in the country.

  9. Grade retention risk among children with asthma and other chronic health conditions in a large urban school district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonie, Sheniz; Cross, Chad L; Guillermo, Chrisalbeth J; Gupta, Tina

    2010-09-01

    Asthma accounts for 12.8 million missed school days for children nationwide. Whether this excess absenteeism contributes to poor outcomes such as grade retention is of interest. The Clark County School District in Las Vegas, NV has incorporated the Federal "No Child Left Behind Act," which states that absences per individual in excess of 10 per school year are considered unapproved and may put a child at risk for repeating a grade. The purpose of this study was to determine if children with asthma are at increased risk for absenteeism associated with grade retention. Secondary data were obtained for students in attendance for the 2006-2007 school year. Days absent were weighted for enrollment time. Frequencies were obtained using descriptive statistics, and multivariate logistic regression was used to model the odds of absenteeism > 10 days per year. Of 300 881 students, 27 299 (9.1%) reported having asthma, as determined by school health records. The population was 52% male, 37% white, and 39% Hispanic. Significant predictors of missing > 10 days per school year included ethnicity, gender, grade, and health status (P 10 school days per year compared with healthy students or those with a medical condition other than asthma (P grade point average by race, gender, and asthma status. Children with asthma have a greater risk of absenteeism associated with grade retention. Therefore, improved asthma management and tailored education is necessary to identify and eliminate asthma triggers in the home and school setting for school-aged children.

  10. Comparing resident cataract surgery outcomes under novice versus experienced attending supervision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puri S

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sidharth Puri,1 Amanda E Kiely,2 Jiangxia Wang,3 Alonzo S Woodfield,4 Saras Ramanathan,5 Shameema Sikder21Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 2Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 3Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, 4Kaiser Permanente South Sacramento Medical Center, Sacramento, 5San Francisco School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USAPurpose: To determine whether supervision by an attending new to surgical teaching or an experienced attending measurably influences intraoperative complications rates or outcomes in phacoemulsification performed by ophthalmology residents.Setting: Single tertiary hospital.Design: Retrospective cohort study. Methods: Resident-performed phacoemulsification cases supervised by one novice attending (N=189 and experienced attending (N=172 over 1 year were included. Data included: resident year, patient age, sex, preoperative risk factors (4+ dense/white/brunescent cataracts, Flomax, zonular dialysis, pseudoexfoliation, glaucoma risk, post-vitrectomy, intraoperative risk factors (Trypan blue, iris hooks, and intraoperative complications (capsule tears, vitreous loss, zonular dialysis, zonular dehiscence, burns, nuclear fragment loss, Descemet’s tear. Experienced attending data were compared against those of the novice attending.Results: Regarding preoperative risks, experienced attending cases more likely involved 4+ cataract (P=0.005, Flomax (P<0.001, or glaucoma risk (P=0.001. For intraoperative risks, novice attending cases more likely involved Trypan blue (P<0.001. Regarding complications, novice attending cases were associated with vitreous loss (P=0.002 and anterior capsule tears (P<0.001. When comparing total complications, the novice attending was more likely to have both increased number of cases with complications and total complications than the experienced attending. The novice

  11. How parents can affect excessive spending of time on screen-based activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brindova, Daniela; Pavelka, Jan; Sevcikova, Anna; Zezula, Ivan; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study is to explore the association between family-related factors and excessive time spent on screen-based activities among school-aged children. Methods: A cross-sectional survey using the methodology of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study was performed

  12. Androgen excess: Investigations and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizneva, Daria; Gavrilova-Jordan, Larisa; Walker, Walidah; Azziz, Ricardo

    2016-11-01

    Androgen excess (AE) is a key feature of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and results in, or contributes to, the clinical phenotype of these patients. Although AE will contribute to the ovulatory and menstrual dysfunction of these patients, the most recognizable sign of AE includes hirsutism, acne, and androgenic alopecia or female pattern hair loss (FPHL). Evaluation includes not only scoring facial and body terminal hair growth using the modified Ferriman-Gallwey method but also recording and possibly scoring acne and alopecia. Moreover, assessment of biochemical hyperandrogenism is necessary, particularly in patients with unclear or absent hirsutism, and will include assessing total and free testosterone (T), and possibly dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and androstenedione, although these latter contribute limitedly to the diagnosis. Assessment of T requires use of the highest quality assays available, generally radioimmunoassays with extraction and chromatography or mass spectrometry preceded by liquid or gas chromatography. Management of clinical hyperandrogenism involves primarily either androgen suppression, with a hormonal combination contraceptive, or androgen blockade, as with an androgen receptor blocker or a 5α-reductase inhibitor, or a combination of the two. Medical treatment should be combined with cosmetic treatment including topical eflornithine hydrochloride and short-term (shaving, chemical depilation, plucking, threading, waxing, and bleaching) and long-term (electrolysis, laser therapy, and intense pulse light therapy) cosmetic treatments. Generally, acne responds to therapy relatively rapidly, whereas hirsutism is slower to respond, with improvements observed as early as 3 months, but routinely only after 6 or 8 months of therapy. Finally, FPHL is the slowest to respond to therapy, if it will at all, and it may take 12 to 18 months of therapy for an observable response. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Preschool Attendance: How Researchers and Practitioners Are Working Together to Understand and Address Absenteeism among Our Youngest Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Stacy B.; Gwynne, Julia; Allensworth, Elaine M.; Fatani, Serah

    2016-01-01

    Consistent school attendance is a key foundation of student learning. While missing one or two school days each year is not likely to have serious consequences, chronic absenteeism (missing 10% or more of enrolled school days) can seriously undermine the learning process (Allensworth & Easton, 2007). Given national efforts to increase the…

  14. Missing School Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfanz, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Results of a survey conducted by the Office for Civil Rights show that 6 million public school students (13%) are not attending school regularly. Chronic absenteeism--defined as missing more than 10% of school for any reason--has been negatively linked to many key academic outcomes. Evidence shows that students who exit chronic absentee status can…

  15. The effect of phonics-enhanced Big Book reading on the language and literacy skills of 6-year-old pupils of different reading ability attending lower SES schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Laura; Nicholson, Tom

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the literacy achievement of lower socioeconomic status (SES) children by combining explicit phonics with Big Book reading. Big Book reading is a component of the text-centered (or book reading) approach used in New Zealand schools. It involves the teacher in reading an enlarged book to children and demonstrating how to use semantic, syntactic, and grapho-phonic cues to learn to read. There has been little research, however, to find out whether the effectiveness of Big Book reading is enhanced by adding explicit phonics. In this study, a group of 96 second graders from three lower SES primary schools in New Zealand were taught in 24 small groups of four, tracked into three different reading ability levels. All pupils were randomly assigned to one of four treatment conditions: a control group who received math instruction, Big Book reading enhanced with phonics (BB/EP), Big Book reading on its own, and Phonics on its own. The results showed that the BB/EP group made significantly better progress than the Big Book and Phonics groups in word reading, reading comprehension, spelling, and phonemic awareness. In reading accuracy, the BB/EP and Big Book groups scored similarly. In basic decoding skills the BB/EP and Phonics groups scored similarly. The combined instruction, compared with Big Book reading and phonics, appeared to have no comparative disadvantages and considerable advantages. The present findings could be a model for New Zealand and other countries in their efforts to increase the literacy achievement of disadvantaged pupils. PMID:25431560

  16. Achievement in Boys' Schools 2010-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Cathy; Berg, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    This report explores the achievement of school leavers from state and state-integrated boys' schools. The analysis from 2010 to 2012 shows school leavers from state boys' schools had higher qualifications than their male counterparts who attended state co-educational schools. The research was carried out for the Association of Boys' Schools of New…

  17. Cost-effectiveness of a school-based health promotion program in Canada: A life-course modeling approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Paul Ekwaru

    Full Text Available The Alberta Project Promoting active Living and healthy Eating in Schools (APPLE Schools has been recognized as a "best practice" in preventing childhood obesity. To inform decision making on the economic implications of APPLE Schools and to justify investment, we evaluated the project's cost-effectiveness following a life-course approach.We developed a state transition model for the lifetime progression of body weight status comparing elementary school students attending APPLE Schools and control schools. This model quantified the lifetime impact of APPLE Schools in terms of prevention of excess body weight, chronic disease and improved quality-adjusted life years (QALY, from a school system's cost perspective. Both costs and health outcomes were discounted to their present value using 3% discount rate.The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio(ICER of APPLE schools was CA$33,421 per QALY gained, and CA$1,555, CA$1,709 and CA$14,218 per prevented person years of excess weight, obesity and chronic disease, respectively. These estimates show that APPLE Schools is cost effective at a threshold of ICER < CA$50,000. In probabilistic sensitivity analysis, APPLE Schools was cost effective more than 64% of the time per QALY gained, when using a threshold of ICERSchool-based health promotion, such as APPLE Schools is a cost-effective intervention for obesity prevention and reduction of chronic disease risk over the lifetime. Expanding the coverage and allocating resources towards school-based programs like the APPLE Schools program, is likely to reduce the public health burden of obesity and chronic diseases.

  18. Understanding the Effects of Rurality and Socioeconomic Status on College Attendance and Institutional Choice in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koricich, Andrew; Chen, Xi; Hughes, Rodney P.

    2018-01-01

    This study seeks to update past studies of rural youth by examining college attendance and choice decisions for students who graduated from rural high schools, while also conducting an examination of how the effects of socioeconomic status manifest differently by locale. Logistic regression is used to study the postsecondary attendance and…

  19. Excess cash holdings and shareholder value

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Edward; Powell, Ronan

    2011-01-01

    We examine the determinants of corporate cash holdings in Australia and the impact on shareholder wealth of holding excess cash. Our results show that a trade-off model best explains the level of a firm’s cash holdings in Australia. We find that 'transitory' excess cash firms earn significantly higher risk-adjusted returns compared to 'persistent' excess cash firms, suggesting that the market penalises firms that hoard cash. The marginal value of cash also declines with larger cash balances, ...

  20. Correlations between attitude toward Christianity, prayer, and church attendance among 9- to 11-yr.-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Mandy; Babington, Peter; Francis, Leslie J

    2004-02-01

    Data provided by 150 9- to 11-yr.-old primary school pupils in England showed scores on the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity more highly correlated with (personal) prayer (r = .57) than with (public) church attendance (r = .23), providing support for the view that attitude scales access a deeper level of religiosity less contaminated by those contextual and social factors which may influence public church attendance more than personal prayer.

  1. The return of the Traditional Birth Attendant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Lane

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sub–Saharan Africa and Southern Asia lag behind other regions in the provision of antenatal care and skilled attendance at birth (although typically attended by a family member or villager and over 32 million of the 40 million births not attended by skilled health personnel in 2012 occurred in rural areas. Overall, one–quarter of women in developing nations still birth alone or with a relative to assist them.

  2. Parents and the School Dropout Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Earl E.; Killingsworth, Jerry

    1987-01-01

    The school dropout problem is discussed, with suggestions for parents on ensuring that their children do not become part of the dropout population, including; monitoring children's school attendance patterns; making sure children understand how important school and attendance is; maintaining close contact with teachers; and helping children…

  3. Excessive sedentary time during in-patient stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Matthew; Snow, John Charles; Kirkland, Megan C; Kelly, Liam P; Gehue, Maria; Downer, Matthew B; McCarthy, Jason; Ploughman, Michelle

    2018-04-03

    Background and Purpose Previous research suggests that patients receiving inpatient stroke rehabilitation are sedentary although there is little data to confirm this supposition within the Canadian healthcare system. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to observe two weeks of inpatient rehabilitation in a tertiary stroke center to determine patients' activity levels and sedentary time. Methods Heart rate (HR) and accelerometer data were measured using an Actiheart monitor for seven consecutive days, 24 h/day, on the second week and the last week of admission. Participants or their proxies completed a daily logbook. Metabolic equivalent (MET) values were calculated and time with MET rehabilitation, there was excessive sedentary time and therapy sessions were less frequent and of lower intensity than recommended levels. Conclusions In this sample of people attending inpatient stroke rehabilitation, institutional structure of rehabilitation rather than patient-related factors contributed to sedentary time.

  4. Syndromes associated with nutritional deficiency and excess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, Melinda; Yan, Albert C

    2010-01-01

    Normal functioning of the human body requires a balance between nutritional intake and metabolism, and imbalances manifest as nutritional deficiencies or excess. Nutritional deficiency states are associated with social factors (war, poverty, famine, and food fads), medical illnesses with malabsorption (such as Crohn disease, cystic fibrosis, and after bariatric surgery), psychiatric illnesses (eating disorders, autism, alcoholism), and medications. Nutritional excess states result from inadvertent or intentional excessive intake. Cutaneous manifestations of nutritional imbalance can herald other systemic manifestations. This contribution discusses nutritional deficiency and excess syndromes with cutaneous manifestations of particular interest to clinical dermatologists. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. The Community College Effect Revisited: The Importance of Attending to Heterogeneity and Complex Counterfactuals*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Jennie E.; Pfeffer, Fabian T.; Goldrick-Rab, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Community colleges are controversial educational institutions, often said to simultaneously expand college opportunities and diminish baccalaureate attainment. We assess the seemingly contradictory functions of community colleges by attending to effect heterogeneity and to alternative counterfactual conditions. Using data on postsecondary outcomes of high school graduates of Chicago Public Schools, we find that enrolling at a community college penalizes more advantaged students who otherwise would have attended four-year colleges, particularly highly selective schools; however, these students represent a relatively small portion of the community college population, and these estimates are almost certainly biased. On the other hand, enrolling at a community college has a modest positive effect on bachelor's degree completion for disadvantaged students who otherwise would not have attended college; these students represent the majority of community college goers. We conclude that discussions among scholars, policymakers, and practitioners should move beyond considering the pros and cons of community college attendance for students in general to attending to the implications of community college attendance for targeted groups of students. PMID:25825705

  6. Investigation to identify the inhibitors and facilitators of excessive absenteeism in a mining environment / Dianne Williamson

    OpenAIRE

    Williamson, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to identify the facilitators and inhibitors of excessive absenteeism in a mining environment. Absenteeism can be one of the most important human resource issues in any organisation. Absenteeism can be really difficult, but with good understanding of what causes absenteeism and how to reduce it, organisations can limit the negative side effects of employee attendance issues. Absenteeism is not only a behaviour caused by an individual's character...

  7. Comparison of motor and cognitive performance of children attending public and private day care centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana M. Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Given that environmental factors, such as the school environment, can influence child development, more attention should be paid to the development of children attending day care centers. OBJECTIVE: Todetermine whether there are differences in the gross motor, fine motor, or cognitive performances of children between 1 and3 years-old of similar socioeconomic status attending public and private day care centers full time. METHOD: Participants were divided into 2 groups, 1 of children attending public day care centers (69 children and another of children attending private day care centers (47 children. All children were healthy and regularly attended day care full time for over 4 months. To assess cognitive, gross and fine motor performance, the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development III was used. The Mann-Whitney test was used for comparative analyses between groups of children between 13 and 24 months, 25 and 41 months, and 13 and 41 months. RESULTS: Children in public day care centers exhibited lower scores on the cognitive development scale beginning at 13 months old. The fine and gross motor performance scores were lower in children over the age of 25 months attending public centers. Maternal education was not related to the performance of children in either group. CONCLUSION: The scores of cognitive performance as well as fine and gross motor performance of children of similar socioeconomic status who attend public day care centers are lower than children attending private daycare centers.

  8. Cost-effectiveness of a school-based health promotion program in Canada: A life-course modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekwaru, John Paul; Ohinmaa, Arto; Tran, Bach Xuan; Setayeshgar, Solmaz; Johnson, Jeffrey A; Veugelers, Paul J

    2017-01-01

    The Alberta Project Promoting active Living and healthy Eating in Schools (APPLE Schools) has been recognized as a "best practice" in preventing childhood obesity. To inform decision making on the economic implications of APPLE Schools and to justify investment, we evaluated the project's cost-effectiveness following a life-course approach. We developed a state transition model for the lifetime progression of body weight status comparing elementary school students attending APPLE Schools and control schools. This model quantified the lifetime impact of APPLE Schools in terms of prevention of excess body weight, chronic disease and improved quality-adjusted life years (QALY), from a school system's cost perspective. Both costs and health outcomes were discounted to their present value using 3% discount rate. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio(ICER) of APPLE schools was CA$33,421 per QALY gained, and CA$1,555, CA$1,709 and CA$14,218 per prevented person years of excess weight, obesity and chronic disease, respectively. These estimates show that APPLE Schools is cost effective at a threshold of ICER Schools was cost effective more than 64% of the time per QALY gained, when using a threshold of ICERSchool-based health promotion, such as APPLE Schools is a cost-effective intervention for obesity prevention and reduction of chronic disease risk over the lifetime. Expanding the coverage and allocating resources towards school-based programs like the APPLE Schools program, is likely to reduce the public health burden of obesity and chronic diseases.

  9. [Excess weight and abdominal obesity in Galician children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Santiago-Pérez, María Isolina; Leis, Rosaura; Martínez, Ana; Malvar, Alberto; Hervada, Xurxo; Suanzes, Jorge

    2017-12-06

    The excess of weight, mainly obesity, during childhood and adolescence increases morbimortality risk in adulthood. The aim of this article is to estimate both the overall prevalence, as well as according to age and gender, of underweight, overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity among schoolchildren aged between 6-15-years-old in the school year 2013-2014. Data were taken from a cross-sectional community-based study carried out on a representative sample, by gender and age, of the Galician population aged between 6 and 15 years-old. The prevalence of underweight, overweight, and obese children (Cole's cut-off criteria) and abdominal obesity (Taylor's cut-off criteria) were estimated after performing objective measurements of height, weight and waist circumference at school. A total of 7,438 students were weighed and measured in 137 schools. The prevalence of overweight and obese individuals was 24.9% and 8.2%, respectively. The prevalence of abdominal obesity was 25.8%, with 4% of children with normal weight having abdominal obesity. These data highlight the need to promote primary prevention measures at early ages in order to decrease the occurrence of the premature onset of disease in the future. The prevalence of excess weight is underestimated if abdominal obesity is not taken into consideration. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  10. Bladder calculus presenting as excessive masturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Alwis, A C D; Senaratne, A M R D; De Silva, S M P D; Rodrigo, V S D

    2006-09-01

    Masturbation in childhood is a normal behaviour which most commonly begins at 2 months of age, and peaks at 4 years and in adolescence. However excessive masturbation causes anxiety in parents. We describe a boy with a bladder calculus presenting as excessive masturbation.

  11. Measuring excess capital capacity in agricultural production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhengfei, G.; Kumbhakar, S.C.; Myers, R.J.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the concept "excess capital capacity" and employ a stochastic input requirement frontier to measure excess capital capacity in agricultural production. We also propose a two-step estimation method that allows endogenous regressors in stochastic frontier models. The first step uses

  12. The excessively crying infant : etiology and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akhnikh, S.; Engelberts, A.C.; Sleuwen, B.E. van; Hoir, M.P. L’; Benninga, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Excessive crying, often described as infantile colic, is the cause of 10% to 20% of all early pediatrician visits of infants aged 2 weeks to 3 months. Although usually benign and selflimiting, excessive crying is associated with parental exhaustion and stress. However, and underlying organic cause

  13. Part B Excess Cost Quick Reference Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Wayne; Beridon, Virginia; Hamre, Kent; Morse, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    This Quick Reference Document has been prepared by the Regional Resource Center Program ARRA/Fiscal Priority Team to aid RRCP State Liaisons and other (Technical Assistance) TA providers in understanding the general context of state questions surrounding excess cost. As a "first-stop" for TA providers in investigating excess cost…

  14. Community College Attendance and Socioeconomic Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sueuk; Pascarella, Ernest T.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study, 1988 (NELS: 88), this paper documents differences in the socioeconomic plans of students in two-year and four-year colleges. We found attendance at a two-year college led to a modest but statistically significant disadvantage in socioeconomic plans. However, the impact of attending a…

  15. A Study on Attendance and Academic Achievement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sund, Kristian J.; Bignoux, Stephane

    In this study we attempt to answer Romer’s (1993) question: “Should attendance be mandatory?” Contrary to many existing studies, we conclude that in the case of business and management programs the answer is ‘no’. In a study of over 900 undergraduate strategy students, spanning four academic years......, we examine the link between attendance and exam results. Unlike prior research on this topic, our findings show that attendance is not the best determinant of student performance. We find instead that the best determinant of student performance for third year bachelor students is their over......-all degree classification, which we see as a proxy for academic ability. We suggest that attendance may simply be a reflection of student conscientiousness, engagement and motivation. We also challenge the assumptions about gender differences found in prior research on student attendance and student...

  16. School Choice Outcomes in Post-Katrina New Orleans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Jill M.; Vaughan, Debra Y.

    2013-01-01

    Today, over 80% of public school students in New Orleans attend charter schools, and just 37% of students attend school in their neighborhood (Louisiana Department of Education, 2011; Scott S. Cowen Institute for Public Education Initiatives, 2011). This study examines school choice participation and outcomes in New Orleans by analyzing the extent…

  17. School Uniforms in Urban Public High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draa, Virginia Ann Bendel

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not the implementation of a mandatory uniform policy in urban public high schools improved school performance measures at the building level for rates of attendance, graduation, academic proficiency, and student conduct as measured by rates of suspensions and expulsions. Sixty-four secondary…

  18. Special Education Enrollment and Classification in Louisiana Charter Schools and Traditional Schools. REL 2018-288

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Patrick J.; Lasserre-Cortez, Shannon

    2018-01-01

    Charter schools are public schools authorized to operate with some independence from district or state public school regulations, while still being held accountable for student outcomes. Like traditional schools operated by school districts, charter schools are free and are intended to be open to all students who desire to attend. This study…

  19. Should Attendance Be Required in Lecture Classrooms in Dental Education? Two Viewpoints: Viewpoint 1: Attendance in the Lecture Classroom Should Be Required and Viewpoint 2: Attendance Should Not Be Required in the Lecture Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Christopher W; Parise, Mary; Seminario, Ana Lucia; Mendez, Maria Jose Cervantes; Piskorowski, Wilhelm; Silva, Renato

    2016-12-01

    This Point/Counterpoint discusses the long-argued debate over whether lecture attendance in dental school at the predoctoral level should be required. Current educational practice relies heavily on the delivery of content in a traditional lecture style. Viewpoint 1 asserts that attendance should be required for many reasons, including the positive impact that direct contact of students with faculty members and with each other has on learning outcomes. In lectures, students can more easily focus on subject matter that is often difficult to understand. A counter viewpoint argues that required attendance is not necessary and that student engagement is more important than physical classroom attendance. This viewpoint notes that recent technologies support active learning strategies that better engage student participation, fostering independent learning that is not supported in the traditional large lecture classroom and argues that dental education requires assimilation of complex concepts and applying them to patient care, which passing a test does not ensure. The two positions agree that attendance does not guarantee learning and that, with the surge of information technologies, it is more important than ever to teach students how to learn. At this time, research does not show conclusively if attendance in any type of setting equals improved learning or ability to apply knowledge.

  20. The @school project : developmental considerations in the design and delivery of cognitive-behavioural therapy for adolescent school refusal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauter, Floor Margriet

    2010-01-01

    School refusal is an attendance problem characterized by a young person’s difficulty in going to school, accompanied by emotional distress on the part of the young person and parental attempts to return the young person to regular school attendance. Prolonged absence from school has serious short-

  1. School Reform in a High Poverty Elementary School: A Grounded Theory Case Study of Capacity Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodman, Stephanie Lynn

    2011-01-01

    There is a persistent and significant gap in the achievement of students who attend high-poverty schools and those who attend low-poverty schools. Students in high-poverty schools, the majority of whom are African American and Hispanic, are not achieving the same levels of academic success as their low-poverty or White counterparts. Retention…

  2. 75 FR 27572 - Monthly Report of Excess Income and Annual Report of Uses of Excess Income

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... Income and Annual Report of Uses of Excess Income AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD... permitted to retain Excess Income for projects under terms and conditions established by HUD. Owners must request to retain some or all of their Excess Income. The request must be submitted through http://www.pay...

  3. Excessive crying in infants with regulatory disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Duran, M; Sauceda-Garcia, J M

    1996-01-01

    The authors point out a correlation between regulatory disorders in infants and the problem of excessive crying. The literature describes other behavioral problems involving excessive crying in very young children, but with little emphasis on this association. The recognition and diagnosis of regulatory disorders in infants who cry excessively can help practitioners design appropriate treatment interventions. Understanding these conditions can also help parents tailor their caretaking style, so that they provide appropriate soothing and stimulation to their child. In so doing, they will be better able to develop and preserve a satisfactory parent-child relationship, as well as to maintain their own sense of competence and self-esteem as parents.

  4. An evaluation of the impact of 'Lifeskills' training on road safety, substance use and hospital attendance in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teyhan, Alison; Cornish, Rosie; Macleod, John; Boyd, Andy; Doerner, Rita; Sissons Joshi, Mary

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate if attendance at Lifeskills, a safety education centre for children in Year 6 (10-11 years), is associated with engagement in safer behaviours, and with fewer accidents and injuries, in adolescence. The sample are participants in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children who attended school in the Lifeskills catchment area in Year 6; 60% attended Lifeskills. At 14-15 years, participants (n approximately 3000, varies by outcome) self-reported road safety behaviours and accidents, and perceived health effects and use of alcohol, cannabis, and tobacco. Additional outcomes from linkage to Hospital Episodes Statistics were available for a sub-sample (n=1768): hospital admittance (for accident-related reason, from 11-16 years) and A&E attendance (for any reason, from approximately 14-16 years). Children who attended Lifeskills were more likely to report using pedestrian crossings on their way to school than children who did not attend (59% versus 52%). Lifeskills attendance was unrelated to the ownership of cycle helmets, or the use of cycle helmets, seat belts, or reflective/fluorescent clothing, or to A&E attendance. Use of cycle helmets (37%) and reflective/fluorescent clothing (<4%) on last cycle was low irrespective of Lifeskills attendance. Lifeskills attendance was associated with less reported smoking and cannabis use, but was generally unrelated to perceptions of the health impact of substance use. Lifeskills attendance was associated with some safer behaviours in adolescence. The overall low use of cycle helmets and reflective/fluorescent clothing evidences the need for powerful promotion of some safer behaviours at Lifeskills and at follow-up in schools. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. More than Just a Meal: Breakfast Club Attendance and Children's Social Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defeyter, Margaret Anne; Graham, Pamela Louise; Russo, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    The health benefits of school food have been widely promoted in recent years while the social opportunities that surround eating occasions at school have received little attention. Breakfast clubs (BCs), which take place at the start of the school day, offer a unique opportunity for children to consume a breakfast meal on their school premises in the company of their peers. Alternatively, after-school clubs (ASCs), which take place on school premises at the end of the school day, whilst also providing children with social opportunities tend to focus on sports engagement and skill development. The aim of the current paper is to investigate whether attendance at BCs and ASCs has an impact on children's friendship quality and experiences of peer victimization. BC attendees, ASC attendees, and non-attendees completed the Friendship Qualities Scale and the Multidimensional Peer Victimization Scale (MPVS) at two time points. Time-1 data were collected 2 months after the introduction of school clubs. Time-2 data were then collected on the same measures again 6 months later. Results of the analyses of Time-1 data showed no significant differences between groups on any of the measures at Time-1. However, at Time-2, BC attendees showed improved levels of friendship quality compared to the other two groups. Moreover, analysis of the MPVS data at Time-2 showed that children who attended BC or ASC experienced a decline in victimization across time. The current findings suggest that BC attendance facilitates the quality of children's relationships with their best friend over time. Additionally, attendance at a breakfast or ASC was associated with a reduction in victimization over time. The results have implications for utilization of breakfast and ASCs to aid children's social relationships in school over time.

  6. The influence of school choice policy on active school commuting: a case study of a middle-sized school district in Oregon

    OpenAIRE

    Yizhao Yang; Steve Abbott; Marc Schlossberg

    2012-01-01

    School choice policy has implications for school travel as it allows students to attend schools farther from their residence than their neighborhood schools. This paper uses a case study from Oregon to investigate how school choice affects parents’ school travel decision making and the degree to which school choice affects children’s walking or biking to school. The research shows that school choice is associated with lengthened school travel distance and parents’ greater willingness to drive...

  7. Attending physician work hours: ethical considerations and the last doctor standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, Mark R; Peterec, Steven M

    2009-08-01

    Based at least in part on concerns for patient safety and evidence that long shifts are associated with an increased risk of physician error, residents' and fellows' work hours have been strictly limited for the past several years. Little attention has been paid, however, to excessive attending physician shift duration, although there seems to be no reason to assume that this common practice poses any less risk to patients. Potential justifications for allowing attending physicians to work without hourly limits include physician autonomy, workforce shortages in certain communities or subspecialties, continuity of care, and financial considerations. None of these clearly justify the apparent increased risk to patients, with the exception in some settings of workforce shortage. In many hospital settings, the practice of allowing attending physicians to work with no limit on shift duration could pose an unnecessary risk to patients.

  8. Explaining CMS lepton excesses with supersymmetry

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Prof. Allanach, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    1) Kostas Theofilatos will give an introduction to CMS result 2) Ben Allanach: Several CMS analyses involving di-leptons have recently reported small 2.4-2.8 sigma local excesses: nothing to get too excited about, but worth keeping an eye on nonetheless. In particular, a search in the $lljj p_T$(miss) channel, a search for $W_R$ in the $lljj$ channel and a di-leptoquark search in the $lljj$ channel and $ljj p_T$(miss) channel have all yielded small excesses. We interpret the first excess in the MSSM, showing that the interpretation is viable in terms of other constraints, despite only having squark masses of around 1 TeV. We can explain the last three excesses with a single R-parity violating coupling that predicts a non-zero contribution to the neutrinoless double beta decay rate.

  9. The High Price of Excessive Alcohol Consumption

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the October 2011 release of a report estimating the economic cost of excessive drinking. Excessive alcohol consumption cost the U. S. $223.5 billion in 2006, or about $1.90 per drink. Over three-quarters (76%) of these costs were due to binge drinking, defined as consuming 4 or more alcoholic beverages per occasion for women or 5 or more drinks per occasion for men.

  10. Romanian welfare state between excess and failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ciuraru-Andrica

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Timely or not, our issue can bring back to life some prolific discussions, sometimes diametrical. We strike the social assistance, where, at this moment, is still uncertain if, once unleashed the excess, the failure will come inevitably or there is a “Salvation Ark”. However, the difference between the excess and the failure of the welfare state is almost intangible, the reason of his potential failure being actually the abuses made until the start of depression.

  11. Brazilian air traffic controllers exhibit excessive sleepiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas, Valdenilson Ribeiro; de Almeida, Cláudia Ângela Vilela; Martins, Hugo André de Lima; Alves, Carlos Frederico de Oliveira; Alves, Marcos José Pinheiro Cândido; Carneiro, Severino Marcos de Oliveira; Ribas, Valéria Ribeiro; de Vasconcelos, Carlos Augusto Carvalho; Sougey, Everton Botelho; de Castro, Raul Manhães

    2011-01-01

    Excessive sleepiness (ES) is an increased tendency to initiate involuntary sleep for naps at inappropriate times. The objective of this study was to assess ES in air traffic controllers (ATCo). 45 flight protection professionals were evaluated, comprising 30 ATCo, subdivided into ATCo with ten or more years in the profession (ATCo≥10, n=15) and ATCo with less than ten years in the profession (ATCoair traffic controllers exhibit excessive sleepiness.

  12. Could inter-agency working reduce emergency department attendances due to alcohol consumption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benger, J; Carter, R

    2008-06-01

    Excess alcohol consumption and associated harms in terms of health, crime and disorder have been highlighted by the government and media, causing considerable public concern. This study quantified the number of patient attendances at an urban adult and children's emergency department (ED) directly attributable to alcohol intoxication, and investigated ways in which the inter-agency sharing of anonymised information could be used to design, implement and monitor interventions to reduce these harms. Intoxicated patients attending either the adult or children's ED were prospectively identified by qualified nursing staff and anonymised data collected by a dedicated researcher. Collaboration and data sharing between health, police, social services, university experts and local authorities was achieved through the establishment of steering and operational groups with agreed objectives and the formation of a shared anonymised database. The proportion of patients attending the ED as a result of alcohol intoxication was 4% in adults and <1% in children. 70% of patients were male, with a mean age of 30 years, and 72% attended between 20.00 and 08.00 h. The most common reason for ED attendance was accident (34%), followed closely by assault (30%). 27% of patients had done most of their drinking at home, 36% in a pub and 16% in a nightclub. Inter-agency collaboration proved highly successful: pooling of anonymised data created a much clearer picture of the extent of the problem and immediately suggested strategies for intervention. The initiative to achieve inter-agency collaboration and data sharing was highly successful, with clear potential for the development and implementation of interventions that will reduce ED attendance due to excess alcohol consumption.

  13. Metabolic Syndrome among Undergraduate Students Attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A total of 384 first-year students attending university medical clinics for obligatory medical ... Keywords: Metabolic syndrome, Obesity, Hypertension, Diabetes, Dyslipidemia, ..... requires the attention of all health professionals.

  14. Employee Lounge Attendant | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Job Summary Under the direction of the Chief, Conference Management, the Employee Lounge Attendant is responsible to prepare coffee, beverages, and ... The incumbent also assists with food preparation for daily meals as well as ensure ...

  15. Faculty and student perceptions about attendance policies in baccalaureate nursing programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth-Sahd, Lisa A; Schneider, Melissa A

    2014-01-01

    To understand perceptions of faculty and students about attendance policies in baccalaureate nursing programs. Classroom attendance is an issue of debate across academic disciplines. A mixed-methods study was conducted using qualitative data from a stratified random sample of 65 accredited baccalaureate nursing programs; 591 students and 91 faculty from 19 schools responded. Sixty-two percent of faculty thought students who missed class exhibited unprofessional behavior; 69 percent believed students who missed class were less successful in the clinical setting. Students (57 percent) and faculty (66 percent) believed there should be an attendance policy. Twenty-nine students reported needing a break in workload (16.8 percent) or did not find class time valuable (11.8 percent). Variability exists in student and faculty beliefs regarding attendance policies. Understanding these viewpoints and utilizing creative teaching approaches will facilitate learning and create an environment of teamwork and mutual respect.

  16. Attendance and Exam Performance at University

    OpenAIRE

    David O. Allen; Don J. Webber

    2006-01-01

    Marburger (2006) explored the link between absenteeism and exam performance by assessing the impact on absenteeism of removing a university wide policy of mandatory attendance for a single class. His results indicate that while an attendance policy has a strong impact on reducing absenteeism the link between absenteeism and exam performance is weak.This paper presents an alternative exploration into the link between absenteeism and exam performance by assessing the impact of implementing a mo...

  17. A campaign encouraging dental attendance among adolescents in Scotland: the barriers to behaviour change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craven, R C; Blinkhorn, A S; Schou, L

    1994-01-01

    Qualitative consumer research was used to develop a health promotion campaign for school pupils aged 15-17 years to encourage them to attend a dentist for examination. The campaign used a combination of conventional health education about the benefits of dental care together with incentives...... for attending. The emphasis throughout was to establish an association with young style and group norms of social attractiveness. This study was part of the evaluation of the campaign. The aim was to identify the characteristics of those who responded positively to the campaign and to identify barriers...... to behaviour change. Those who responded were mainly female, intended to stay on at school beyond the age of 16 years and were more likely to be frequent attenders. Apathy and a lack of felt need were the main barriers to responding. Easier access to care and targeting a younger age group might enhance...

  18. The Relationship between Teacher Regard and College Attendance Expectations: Socioeconomic and Racial-Ethnic Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinchak, Nicolo P.

    2018-01-01

    This study uses data from wave one of the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent to Adult Health to analyze the relationship between middle and secondary school students' perceptions of their teachers, or "teacher regard," and students' expectations for college attendance. Variation in this relationship is further examined by…

  19. A Randomized Experiment Using Absenteeism Information to "Nudge" Attendance. REL 2017-252

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Todd; Duncan, Teresa; Wolford, Tonya; Ternovski, John; Subramanyam, Shruthi; Reitano, Adrienne

    2017-01-01

    Reducing student absenteeism is a key part of the School District of Philadelphia's plan to boost graduation rates. One of the district's goals is to increase guardians' awareness of absenteeism, with the hope that greater awareness will lead to guardians' taking a more active role in improving their student's attendance and academic performance.…

  20. Divergent Urban-Rural Trends in College Attendance: State Policy Bias and Structural Exclusion in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Tony; Jiang, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Despite the massive expansion of higher education in China since 1998, the cohort trends of urban and rural "hukou" holders in college attendance have widened sharply. Prevailing explanations emphasize the advantages of urban students over rural students in school quality and household financial resources. We propose the structural…

  1. Student Motivation for Learning in Ghana: Relationships with Caregivers' Values toward Education, Attendance, and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Dana Charles; Wolf, Sharon; Godfrey, Erin B.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the role that Ghanaian caregivers' values toward education play in shaping students' intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation for learning, and the ways these values and motivational orientations predict school attendance and achievement. Study participants included 88 students (M?=?11.63 years; 48% female) from two primary…

  2. Minimum Wage and Community College Attendance: How Economic Circumstances Affect Educational Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Betsy

    2013-01-01

    How do changes in minimum wages affect community college enrollment and employment? In particular, among adults without associate's or bachelor's degrees who may earn near the minimum wage, do endowment effects of a higher minimum wage encourage school attendance? Among adults without associate's or bachelor's degrees who may earn near the minimum…

  3. Kinvolved: Utilizing Technology to Communicate, Evaluate, and Advocate for Improved Attendance and Family and Community Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Miriam; Meis, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    The American K-12 grade education system is experiencing a truancy crisis. Nationally, 15%, or 7.5 million students, miss an entire month of school annually [1], with that rate frequently doubling or even tripling among students from underserved communities [2]. Research has identified attendance as one of three primary indicators of high school…

  4. The One-Child Policy and School Attendance in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juhua

    2007-01-01

    In addition to its goal of limiting China's population growth, a key purpose of China's one-child policy is to improve children's well-being. The government has made a strenuous effort to limit parents' childbearing in exchange for the greater opportunities it provides for their only children, including educational opportunities. In this article,…

  5. Suicidal ideation among school-attending adolescents in Dar es ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: A total of 2,176 students aged 11-16 years participated. ... well-being including: depression (Cash & Bridge, 2009), loneliness .... the past 30 days, how often did your parents or guardians understand your problems and worries?".

  6. Identification of dietary patterns of adolescents attending public schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinéia de Pinho

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: deviations from the “healthy” patterns were not associated to low income, but rather to bad eating habits in the studied population. Overweight adolescents did not adhere to the “healthy” dietary pattern, emphasizing the need for nutritional education among them.

  7. Antidepressant induced excessive yawning and indifference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Palazzo Nazar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Antidepressant induced excessive yawning has been described as a possible side effect of pharmacotherapy. A syndrome of indifference has also been described as another possible side effect. The frequency of those phenomena and their physiopathology are unknown. They are both considered benign and reversible after antidepressant discontinuation but severe cases with complications as temporomandibular lesions, have been described. Methods We report two unprecedented cases in which excessive yawning and indifference occurred simultaneously as side effects of antidepressant therapy, discussing possible physiopathological mechanisms for this co-occurrence. Case 1: A male patient presented excessive yawning (approximately 80/day and apathy after venlafaxine XR treatment. Symptoms reduced after a switch to escitalopram, with a reduction to 50 yawns/day. Case 2: A female patient presented excessive yawning (approximately 25/day and inability to react to environmental stressors with desvenlafaxine. Conclusion Induction of indifference and excessive yawning may be modulated by serotonergic and noradrenergic mechanisms. One proposal to unify these side effects would be enhancement of serotonin in midbrain, especially paraventricular and raphe nucleus.

  8. New vector bosons and the diphoton excess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge de Blas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We consider the possibility that the recently observed diphoton excess at ∼750 GeV can be explained by the decay of a scalar particle (φ to photons. If the scalar is the remnant of a symmetry-breaking sector of some new gauge symmetry, its coupling to photons can be generated by loops of the charged massive vectors of the broken symmetry. If these new W′ vector bosons carry color, they can also generate an effective coupling to gluons. In this case the diphoton excess could be entirely explained in a simplified model containing just φ and W′. On the other hand, if W′ does not carry color, we show that, provided additional colored particles exist to generate the required φ to gluon coupling, the diphoton excess could be explained by the same W′ commonly invoked to explain the diboson excess at ∼2 TeV. We also explore possible connections between the diphoton and diboson excesses with the anomalous tt¯ forward–backward asymmetry.

  9. Where There Are (Few) Skilled Birth Attendants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prata, Ndola; Rowen, Tami; Bell, Suzanne; Walsh, Julia; Potts, Malcolm

    2011-01-01

    Recent efforts to reduce maternal mortality in developing countries have focused primarily on two long-term aims: training and deploying skilled birth attendants and upgrading emergency obstetric care facilities. Given the future population-level benefits, strengthening of health systems makes excellent strategic sense but it does not address the immediate safe-delivery needs of the estimated 45 million women who are likely to deliver at home, without a skilled birth attendant. There are currently 28 countries from four major regions in which fewer than half of all births are attended by skilled birth attendants. Sixty-nine percent of maternal deaths in these four regions can be attributed to these 28 countries, despite the fact that these countries only constitute 34% of the total population in these regions. Trends documenting the change in the proportion of births accompanied by a skilled attendant in these 28 countries over the last 15-20 years offer no indication that adequate change is imminent. To rapidly reduce maternal mortality in regions where births in the home without skilled birth attendants are common, governments and community-based organizations could implement a cost-effective, complementary strategy involving health workers who are likely to be present when births in the home take place. Training community-based birth attendants in primary and secondary prevention technologies (e.g. misoprostol, family planning, measurement of blood loss, and postpartum care) will increase the chance that women in the lowest economic quintiles will also benefit from global safe motherhood efforts. PMID:21608417

  10. Epidemiology of frequent attenders: a 3-year historic cohort study comparing attendance, morbidity and prescriptions of one-year and persistent frequent attenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ter Riet Gerben

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background General Practitioners spend a disproportionate amount of time on frequent attenders. So far, trials on the effect of interventions on frequent attenders have shown negative results. However, these trials were conducted in short-term frequent attenders. It would be more reasonable to target intervention at persistent frequent attenders. Typical characteristics of persistent frequent attenders, as opposed to 1-year frequent attenders and non-frequent attenders, may generate hypotheses regarding modifiable factors on which new randomized trials may be designed. Methods We used the data of all 28,860 adult patients from 5 primary healthcare centers. Frequent attenders were patients whose attendance rate ranked in the (age and sex adjusted top 10 percent during 1 year (1-year frequent attenders or 3 years (persistent frequent attenders. All other patients on the register over the 3-year period were referred to as non-frequent attenders. The lists of medical problems coded by the GP using the International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC were used to assess morbidity. First, we determined which proportion of 1-year frequent attenders was still a frequent attender during the next two consecutive years and calculated the GPs' workload for these patients. Second, we compared morbidity and number of prescriptions for non-frequent attenders, 1-year frequent attenders and persistent frequent attenders. Results Of all 1-year frequent attenders, 15.4% became a persistent frequent attender equal to 1.6% of all patients. The 1-year frequent attenders (3,045; 10.6% were responsible for 39% of the face-to-face consultations; the 470 patients who would become persistent frequent attenders (1.6% were responsible for 8% of all consultations in 2003. Persistent frequent attenders presented more social problems, more psychiatric problems and medically unexplained physical symptoms, but also more chronic somatic diseases (especially diabetes

  11. Uniforms in the Middle School: Student Opinions, Discipline Data, and School Police Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Jafeth E.; Yoxsimer, Andrew; Hill, George C.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated public middle school students' opinions on the benefits of wearing a school uniform. A review of related literature is provided along with results of the opinions obtained from 604 seventh- and eighth-grade middle school students attending a public school in Nevada that had recently initiated a school uniform policy.…

  12. The Effect of High School Shootings on Schools and Student Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beland, Louis-Philippe; Kim, Dongwoo

    2016-01-01

    We analyze how fatal shootings in high schools affect schools and students using data from shooting databases, school report cards, and the Common Core of Data. We examine schools' test scores, enrollment, number of teachers, graduation, attendance, and suspension rates at schools that experienced a shooting, employing a difference-in-differences…

  13. Limiting law excess sum rule for polyelectrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landy, Jonathan; Lee, YongJin; Jho, YongSeok

    2013-11-01

    We revisit the mean-field limiting law screening excess sum rule that holds for rodlike polyelectrolytes. We present an efficient derivation of this law that clarifies its region of applicability: The law holds in the limit of small polymer radius, measured relative to the Debye screening length. From the limiting law, we determine the individual ion excess values for single-salt electrolytes. We also consider the mean-field excess sum away from the limiting region, and we relate this quantity to the osmotic pressure of a dilute polyelectrolyte solution. Finally, we consider numerical simulations of many-body polymer-electrolyte solutions. We conclude that the limiting law often accurately describes the screening of physical charged polymers of interest, such as extended DNA.

  14. Explaining excess morbidity amongst homeless shelter users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benjaminsen, Lars; Birkelund, Jesper Fels

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: This article analyses excess morbidity amongst homeless shelter users compared to the general Danish population. The study provides an extensive control for confounding and investigates to what extent excess morbidity is explained by homelessness or other risk factors. METHODS: Data set...... includes administrative micro-data for 4,068,926 Danes who were 23 years or older on 1 January 2007. Nationwide data on shelter use identified 14,730 individuals as shelter users from 2002 to 2006. Somatic diseases were measured from 2007 to 2011 through diagnosis data from hospital discharges. The risk...... of somatic diseases amongst shelter users was analysed through a multivariate model that decomposed the total effect into a direct effect and indirect effects mediated by other risk factors. RESULTS: The excess morbidity associated with shelter use is substantially lower than in studies that did not include...

  15. Associations between classroom CO2 concentrations and student attendance in Washington and Idaho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shendell, D G; Prill, R; Fisk, W J; Apte, M G; Blake, D; Faulkner, D

    2004-10-01

    Student attendance in American public schools is a critical factor in securing limited operational funding. Student and teacher attendance influence academic performance. Limited data exist on indoor air and environmental quality (IEQ) in schools, and how IEQ affects attendance, health, or performance. This study explored the association of student absence with measures of indoor minus outdoor carbon dioxide concentration (dCO(2)). Absence and dCO(2) data were collected from 409 traditional and 25 portable classrooms from 22 schools located in six school districts in the states of Washington and Idaho. Study classrooms had individual heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, except two classrooms without mechanical ventilation. Classroom attributes, student attendance and school-level ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status (SES) were included in multivariate modeling. Forty-five percent of classrooms studied had short-term indoor CO(2) concentrations above 1000 p.p.m. A 1000 p.p.m. increase in dCO(2) was associated (P student absence. Annual ADA was 2% higher (P student attendance, and occupant health and student performance, with longer term indoor minus outdoor CO(2) concentrations and more accurately measured ventilation rates. If our findings are confirmed, improving classroom ventilation should be considered a practical means of reducing student absence. Adequate or enhanced ventilation may be achieved, for example, with educational training programs for teachers and facilities staff on ventilation system operation and maintenance. Also, technological interventions such as improved automated control systems could provide continuous ventilation during occupied times, regardless of occupant thermal comfort demands.

  16. Attendance and alcohol use at parties and bars in college: a national survey of current drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harford, Thomas C; Wechsler, Henry; Seibring, Mark

    2002-11-01

    This study examines attendance and alcohol use at parties and bars among college students by gender, residence, year in school and legal drinking age. The study participants were respondents in the 1997 and 1999 Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study (CAS). The combined sample consisted of 12,830 students (61% women) who reported use of alcohol in the past 30 days prior to interview. Their responses provided information on attendance and alcohol use at parties (dormitory, fraternity, off campus) and off-campus bars. Logistic regression analyses examined the influence of gender, residence, year in school and legal drinking age related to attendance, drinking/non-drinking and heavy drinking (5 or more drinks) at each select setting. Consistent with the literature, fraternity/ sorority parties were occasions of heavy drinking (49%) among drinkers in those settings, yet they drew upon smaller proportions of students (36%) when compared to off-campus parties (75%) and off-campus bars (68%). Off-campus parties (45%) and bars (37%) were also occasions for heavy drinking among drinkers in these settings. College residence was shown to relate to differential exposure to drinking settings, but residence had less impact on the decision to drink and the level of heavy drinking. Attendance at parties decreased with advance in school years, but attendance at off-campus bars increased. Although heavy drinking at off-campus bars decreased with advancing grade year in school, slightly higher proportions of under-age students (41%) compared to students of legal drinking age (35%) exhibited heavy drinking at off-campus bars. The identification of high-risk settings and their correlates serves to better understand the development of heavy drinking on college campuses. Off-campus parties, as compared to campus parties and bars, may pose greater difficulties related to successful intervention.

  17. Evaluation of a workplace brief intervention for excessive alcohol consumption: the workscreen project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, R; Kehoe, L; Heather, N; Wodak, A

    2000-01-01

    The workplace provides a useful setting for early identification and intervention with individuals who have unhealthy lifestyles. The objective was to evaluate the effects of a workplace-based lifestyle intervention (Workscreen) to reduce excessive drinking. There were eight Australia Post networks randomly allocated to experimental and control conditions, comprising 67 worksites and 1206 employees. The experimental condition involved a broad spectrum lifestyle campaign, incorporating support from management, employee awareness of health, and brief interventions for high-risk behaviors, including excessive alcohol use. Focus groups identified relevant cultural factors. Changes in workplace culture and employee behavior were assessed 10 months after baseline. Males and females were analyzed separately. Over half of APOST employees participated at each screening point. In the experimental condition 61% of employees overall and 58% of those identified as excessive drinkers in Phase 1 responded to the lifestyle campaign by attending health assessments. Analyses focusing on the organization as a whole did not reveal significant reductions in excessive alcohol consumption among men or women. However, a significant reduction in number of drinks was observed in the experimental condition among women for whom completion of baseline and follow-up could be confirmed (P workplace-based lifestyle campaign can assist self-selected employees in reducing their alcohol consumption. There was a moderately high level of participation among those identified as drinking excessively, which supports our approach of embedding a low-intensity alcohol program within the context of a broader health promotion campaign. Copyright 2000 American Health Foundation and Academic Press.

  18. Father Attendance in Nurse Home Visitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, John R.; Olds, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to examine the rates and predictors of father attendance at nurse home visits in replication sites of the Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP). Early childhood programs can facilitate father involvement in the lives of their children, but program improvements require an understanding of factors that predict father involvement. The sample consisted of 29,109 low-income, first-time mothers who received services from 694 nurses from 80 sites. We conducted mixed-model multiple regression analyses to identify population, implementation, site, and nurse influences on father attendance. Predictors of father attendance included a count of maternal visits (B = 0.12, SE = 0.01, F = 3101.77), frequent contact between parents (B = 0.61, SE = 0.02, F = 708.02), cohabitation (B = 1.41, SE = 0.07, F = 631.51), White maternal race (B = 0.77, SE = 0.06, F = 190.12), and marriage (B = 0.42, SE = 0.08, F = 30.08). Random effects for sites and nurses predicted father-visit participation (2.7 & 6.7% of the variance, respectively), even after controlling for population sociodemographic characteristics. These findings suggest that factors operating at the levels of sites and nurses influence father attendance at home visits, even after controlling for differences in populations served. Further inquiry about these influences on father visit attendance is likely to inform program-improvement efforts. PMID:25521707

  19. Scientists from all over the world attend the 2007 - Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School on Nuclear Reactors, 'Physics, Fuels and Systems'; Wissenschaftler aus aller Welt bei der 2007 Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School on Nuclear Reactors 'Physics, Fuels and Systems'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, U.; Sanchez-Espinoza, V.H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Reaktorsicherheit

    2007-12-15

    For more than ten years, the Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School has been organized alternately by the Karlsruhe Research Center in Germany and the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA), Cadarache, in France. This year, the Summer School was held at the Center for Advanced Training in Technology and the Environment of the Karlsruhe Research Center on August 29 to September 7. The overarching topic of the event was the sustainability of nuclear power, including topical issues of generation-IV reactor concepts, transmutation and actinide separation, and geologic final storage. Next year's Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School will be organized by CEA at Aix-en-Provence together with the Nuclear Safety Research Program of the Karlsruhe Research Center. (orig.)

  20. The High Price of Excessive Alcohol Consumption

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-10-17

    This podcast is based on the October 2011 release of a report estimating the economic cost of excessive drinking. Excessive alcohol consumption cost the U. S. $223.5 billion in 2006, or about $1.90 per drink. Over three-quarters (76%) of these costs were due to binge drinking, defined as consuming 4 or more alcoholic beverages per occasion for women or 5 or more drinks per occasion for men.  Created: 10/17/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.   Date Released: 10/17/2011.

  1. Excess Sodium Tetraphenylborate and Intermediates Decomposition Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, M.J.

    1998-12-07

    The stability of excess amounts of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) in the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) facility depends on a number of variables. Concentration of palladium, initial benzene, and sodium ion as well as temperature provide the best opportunities for controlling the decomposition rate. This study examined the influence of these four variable on the reactivity of palladium-catalyzed sodium tetraphenylborate decomposition. Also, single effects tests investigated the reactivity of simulants with continuous stirring and nitrogen ventilation, with very high benzene concentrations, under washed sodium concentrations, with very high palladium concentrations, and with minimal quantities of excess NaTPB.

  2. On the excess energy of nonequilibrium plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timofeev, A. V.

    2012-01-01

    The energy that can be released in plasma due to the onset of instability (the excess plasma energy) is estimated. Three potentially unstable plasma states are considered, namely, plasma with an anisotropic Maxwellian velocity distribution of plasma particles, plasma with a two-beam velocity distribution, and an inhomogeneous plasma in a magnetic field with a local Maxwellian velocity distribution. The excess energy can serve as a measure of the degree to which plasma is nonequilibrium. In particular, this quantity can be used to compare plasmas in different nonequilibrium states.

  3. Excess Readmission vs Excess Penalties: Maximum Readmission Penalties as a Function of Socioeconomics and Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caracciolo, Chris; Parker, Devin; Marshall, Emily; Brown, Jeremiah

    2017-08-01

    The Hospital Readmission Reduction Program (HRRP) penalizes hospitals with "excess" readmissions up to 3% of Medicare reimbursement. Approximately 75% of eligible hospitals received penalties, worth an estimated $428 million, in fiscal year 2015. To identify demographic and socioeconomic disparities between matched and localized maximum-penalty and no-penalty hospitals. A case-control study in which cases included were hospitals to receive the maximum 3% penalty under the HRRP during the 2015 fiscal year. Controls were drawn from no-penalty hospitals and matched to cases by hospital characteristics (primary analysis) or geographic proximity (secondary analysis). A selectiion of 3383 US hospitals eligible for HRRP. Thirty-nine case and 39 control hospitals from the HRRP cohort. Socioeconomic status variables were collected by the American Community Survey. Hospital and health system characteristics were drawn from Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, American Hospital Association, and Dartmouth Atlas of Health Care. The statistical analysis was conducted using Student t tests. Thirty-nine hospitals received a maximum penalty. Relative to controls, maximum-penalty hospitals in counties with lower SES profiles are defined by increased poverty rates (19.1% vs 15.5%, = 0.015) and lower rates of high school graduation (82.2% vs 87.5%, = 0.001). County level age, sex, and ethnicity distributions were similar between cohorts. Cases were more likely than controls to be in counties with low socioeconomic status; highlighting potential unintended consequences of national benchmarks for phenomena underpinned by environmental factors; specifically, whether maximum penalties under the HRRP are a consequence of underperforming hospitals or a manifestation of underserved communities. © 2017 Society of Hospital Medicine

  4. School-Within-A-School (Hawaii Nui High) Hilo High School Report 1969-70.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Social Welfare Development and Research Center.

    The second year of operation of Hilo High School's "School-Within-A-School" [SWS] program is evaluated in this paper. Planning, training, and program implementation are described in the document. The following are the results of the program: There was an improvement in attendance among project students when compared to their record in…

  5. Bullying in German Boarding Schools: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Jens P.; Pinquart, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents who attend boarding schools share more time with peers than do students from day schools which, in turn, could provide more opportunities for bullying. Furthermore, some students attend boarding schools because of former social problems. In order to analyse the role of these factors, we examined the bullying behaviour of 706 German…

  6. After-School Academic Enrichment Programs. Information Capsule. Volume 1509

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, Christie

    2016-01-01

    The number of U.S. children attending after-school programs has been steadily increasing. In 2014, the most recent year for which data were available, approximately 10.2 million students, representing about 23 percent of U.S. families, were enrolled in an after-school program. Of the students attending after-school programs, the majority do so at…

  7. 26 CFR 54.4981A-1T - Tax on excess distributions and excess accumulations (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Revenue Code of 1986, as added by section 1133 of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 (Pub. L. 99-514) (TRA '86...) Determine the value of the individual's adjusted account balance on the next valuation date by adding (or... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax on excess distributions and excess...

  8. Does Attendance Matter? An Examination of Student Attitudes, Participation, Performance and Attendance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massingham, Peter; Herrington, Tony

    2006-01-01

    Non attendance of lectures and tutorials appears to be a growing trend. The literature suggests many possible reasons including students' changing lifestyle, attitudes, teaching and technology. This paper looks at the reasons for non attendance of students in the Faculty of Commerce at the University of Wollongong and identifies relationships…

  9. RFID and IOT for Attendance Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedy Irawan Joseph

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, RFID technology has been widely used in various sectors, such as in-education, transportation, agriculture, animal husbandry, store sales and other sectors. RFID utilization in education is student attendance monitoring system, by using Internet of Things (IoT and Cloud technology, it will produce a real time attendance monitoring system that can be accessed by various parties, such as lecturer, campus administration and parents. With this monitoring system if there are students who are not present can be immediately discovered and can be taken immediate action and the learning process can run smoothly.

  10. Excessive daytime sleepiness among depressed patients | Mume ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) has been reported among depressed patients in many populations. Many depressed patients seek medical attention partly to deal with EDS, but this sleep disorder is often overlooked in clinical practice. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine the ...

  11. Excessive daytime sleepiness, nocturnal sleep duration and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and objectives. Short nocturnal sleep duration resulting in sleep debt may be a cause of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Severity of depression (psychopathology) has been found to be directly related to EDS. There is an association between sleep duration and mental health, so there may therefore be an ...

  12. Excess Sodium Tetraphenylborate and Intermediates Decomposition Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, M.J.; Peterson, R.A.

    1998-04-01

    The stability of excess amounts of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) in the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) facility depends on a number of variables. Concentration of palladium, initial benzene, and sodium ion as well as temperature provide the best opportunities for controlling the decomposition rate. This study examined the influence of these four variables on the reactivity of palladium-catalyzed sodium tetraphenylborate decomposition. Also, single effects tests investigated the reactivity of simulants with continuous stirring and nitrogen ventilation, with very high benzene concentrations, under washed sodium concentrations, with very high palladium concentrations, and with minimal quantities of excess NaTPB. These tests showed the following.The testing demonstrates that current facility configuration does not provide assured safety of operations relative to the hazards of benzene (in particular to maintain the tank headspace below 60 percent of the lower flammability limit (lfl) for benzene generation rates of greater than 7 mg/(L.h)) from possible accelerated reaction of excess NaTPB. Current maximal operating temperatures of 40 degrees C and the lack of protection against palladium entering Tank 48H provide insufficient protection against the onset of the reaction. Similarly, control of the amount of excess NaTPB, purification of the organic, or limiting the benzene content of the slurry (via stirring) and ionic strength of the waste mixture prove inadequate to assure safe operation

  13. Excess Sodium Tetraphenylborate and Intermediates Decomposition Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, M.J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Peterson , R.A.

    1998-04-01

    The stability of excess amounts of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) in the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) facility depends on a number of variables. Concentration of palladium, initial benzene, and sodium ion as well as temperature provide the best opportunities for controlling the decomposition rate. This study examined the influence of these four variables on the reactivity of palladium-catalyzed sodium tetraphenylborate decomposition. Also, single effects tests investigated the reactivity of simulants with continuous stirring and nitrogen ventilation, with very high benzene concentrations, under washed sodium concentrations, with very high palladium concentrations, and with minimal quantities of excess NaTPB. These tests showed the following.The testing demonstrates that current facility configuration does not provide assured safety of operations relative to the hazards of benzene (in particular to maintain the tank headspace below 60 percent of the lower flammability limit (lfl) for benzene generation rates of greater than 7 mg/(L.h)) from possible accelerated reaction of excess NaTPB. Current maximal operating temperatures of 40 degrees C and the lack of protection against palladium entering Tank 48H provide insufficient protection against the onset of the reaction. Similarly, control of the amount of excess NaTPB, purification of the organic, or limiting the benzene content of the slurry (via stirring) and ionic strength of the waste mixture prove inadequate to assure safe operation.

  14. Can Excess Bilirubin Levels Cause Learning Difficulties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, E.; Naude, H.; Becker, P. J.

    2002-01-01

    Examined learning problems in South African sample of 7- to 14-year-olds whose mothers reported excessively high infant bilirubin shortly after the child's birth. Found that this sample had lowered verbal ability with the majority also showing impaired short-term and long-term memory. Findings suggested that impaired formation of astrocytes…

  15. Excessive daytime sleepiness among depressed patients | Mume ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) has been reported among depressed patients in many populations. Many depressed patients seek medical attention partly to deal with EDS, but this sleep disorder is often overlooked in clinical practice. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine the ...

  16. Phospholipids as Biomarkers for Excessive Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    NUMBER Phospholipids as Biomarkers for Excessive Alcohol Use 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0497 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...suspected of alcohol abuse. Toxicol Lett, 151(1), 235-241. Graham, D. P., Cardon , A. L., & Uhl, G. R. (2008). An update on substance use and treatment

  17. Excessive infant crying: Definitions determine risk groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; Brugman, E.; Hirasing, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    We assessed risk groups for excessive infant crying using 10 published definitions, in 3179 children aged 1-6 months (response: 96.5%). Risk groups regarding parental employment, living area, lifestyle, and obstetric history varied by definition. This may explain the existence of conflicting

  18. Excessive prices as abuse of dominance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Lisbeth; Møllgaard, Peter

    2007-01-01

    firm abused its position by charging excessive prices. We also test whether tightening of the Danish competition act has altered the pricing behaviour on the market. We discuss our results in the light of a Danish competition case against the dominant cement producer that was abandoned by the authority...

  19. Excessive oral intake caffeine altered cerebral cortex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Caffeine is commonly consumed in an effort to enhance speed in performance and wakefulness. However, little is known about the deleterious effects it can produce on the brain, this study aimed at determining the extents of effects and damage that can be caused by excessive consumption of caffeine on the cerebral cortex ...

  20. 43 CFR 426.12 - Excess land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... advertise the sale of the property in farm journals and in newspapers within the county in which the land...; (ii) A recordable contract is amended to remove excess land when the landowner's entitlement increases... eligible buyer at a price and on terms approved by Reclamation; (C) The sale from the previous landowner is...

  1. Excessive Gambling and Online Gambling Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirola, Anu; Kaakinen, Markus; Oksanen, Atte

    2018-04-05

    The Internet provides an accessible context for online gambling and gambling-related online communities, such as discussion forums for gamblers. These communities may be particularly attractive to young gamblers who are active Internet users. The aim of this study was to examine the use of gambling-related online communities and their relevance to excessive gambling among 15-25-year-old Finnish Internet users (N = 1200). Excessive gambling was assessed by using the South Oaks Gambling Screen. Respondents were asked in a survey about their use of various kinds of gambling-related online communities, and sociodemographic and behavioral factors were adjusted. The results of the study revealed that over half (54.33%) of respondents who had visited gambling-related online communities were either at-risk gamblers or probable pathological gamblers. Discussion in these communities was mainly based on sharing gambling tips and experiences, and very few respondents said that they related to gambling problems and recovery. In three different regression models, visiting gambling-related online communities was a significant predictor for excessive gambling (with 95% confidence level) even after adjusting confounding factors. The association of visiting such sites was even stronger among probable pathological gamblers than among at-risk gamblers. Health professionals working with young people should be aware of the role of online communities in terms of development and persistence of excessive gambling. Monitoring the use of online gambling communities as well as utilizing recovery-oriented support both offline and online would be important in preventing further problems. Gambling platforms should also include warnings about excessive gambling and provide links to helpful sources.

  2. Psychosocial Interventions for School Refusal with Primary and Secondary School Students: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Brandy Maynard; Kristen E. Brendel; Jeffery J. Bulanda; David Heyne; Aaron M. Thompson; Therese D. Pigott

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND School refusal is a psychosocial problem characterized by a student’s difficulty attending school and, in many cases, substantial absence from school (Heyne & Sauter, 2013). It is often distinguished from truancy, in part because of the severe emotional distress associated with having to attend school and the absence of severe antisocial behavior. Truancy, on the other hand, is not typically associated with emotional distress and is commonly associated with severe externalizing ...

  3. Post-Secondary Attendance by Parental Income in the U.S. and Canada: What Role for Financial Aid Policy? NBER Working Paper No. 17218

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belley, Philippe; Frenette, Marc; Lochner, Lance

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of tuition and need-based financial aid policies for family income--post-secondary (PS) attendance relationships. We first conduct a parallel empirical analysis of the effects of parental income on PS attendance for recent high school cohorts in both the U.S. and Canada using data from the 1997 Cohort of the…

  4. Incidence of cancer among Finnish airline cabin attendants. 1967-92

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pukkala, E. [Finnish Cancer Registry, Helsinki (Finland); Auvinen, A. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK), Helsinki (Finland); Wahlberg, G. [Finnish Flight Attendants Association, Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-09-09

    The objective was to assess whether occupational exposure among commercial airline cabin attendants are associated with risk of cancer. A significant excess of breast cancer (standardised incidence ratio 1.87 (95% confidence interval 1.15 to 2.23)) and bone cancer (15.10 (1.82 to 54.40)) was found among female workers. The risk of breast cancer was most prominent 15 years after recruitment. Risks of leukaemia (3.57 (0.43 to 12.9)) and skin melanoma (2.11 (0.43 to 6.15)) were not significantly raised. Among men, one lymphoma and one Kaposi`s sarcoma were found (expected number of cases 1.6). Although the lifestyle of cabin attendants is different from that of the reference population - for example, in terms of social status and parity - concentration of the excess risks to primary sites sensitive to radiation suggests that ionising radiation during flights may add to that cancer risk of all flight personnel. Otherwise the lifestyle of cabin attendants did not seem to affect their risks of cancer. (author).

  5. Incidence of cancer among Finnish airline cabin attendants. 1967-92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pukkala, E.; Auvinen, A.; Wahlberg, G.

    1995-01-01

    The objective was to assess whether occupational exposure among commercial airline cabin attendants are associated with risk of cancer. A significant excess of breast cancer (standardised incidence ratio 1.87 (95% confidence interval 1.15 to 2.23)) and bone cancer (15.10 (1.82 to 54.40)) was found among female workers. The risk of breast cancer was most prominent 15 years after recruitment. Risks of leukaemia (3.57 (0.43 to 12.9)) and skin melanoma (2.11 (0.43 to 6.15)) were not significantly raised. Among men, one lymphoma and one Kaposi's sarcoma were found (expected number of cases 1.6). Although the lifestyle of cabin attendants is different from that of the reference population - for example, in terms of social status and parity - concentration of the excess risks to primary sites sensitive to radiation suggests that ionising radiation during flights may add to that cancer risk of all flight personnel. Otherwise the lifestyle of cabin attendants did not seem to affect their risks of cancer. (author)

  6. Perda precoce de molares permanentes e fatores associados em escolares de 9, 12 e 15 anos da rede pública municipal de Campina Grande, Estado da Paraíba, Brasil = Early loss of permanent molars and associated factors in schoolchildren aged 9, 12 and 15 years attending public schools in Campina Grande, Paraíba State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francineide Guimarães Carneiro de Melo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou a perda precoce de molares permanentes em escolares da rede pública de Campina Grande, Estado da Paraíba, com idades de nove, 12 e 15 anos. A amostra compreendeu 873 escolares, aleatoriamente selecionados. O instrumento de coleta consistiu de um questionário e de uma ficha clínica. As variáveis do estudo compreenderam os aspectos relativos à perda dentária (tipo de elemento dental, localização na arcada dentária e a região do arco, à prevenção e à autopercepção em saúde bucal. A análise estatística compreendeu a distribuição de frequências e os testes do Qui-quadrado e Exato de Fisher. Os resultados revelaram a prevalência de 17,2% de perda dentária, sem diferenças entre os sexos, frequência de escovação e palestra educativa (p > 0,05. Os elementos dentários 36 (42,5% e 46 (33,9% foram os mais frequentemente perdidos. Observou-se a associação positiva entre perda dentária e as variáveis idade, visita ao cirurgião-dentista (OR = 2,19; IC95%: 1,35-3,59, satisfação com o sorriso (OR = 0,40; IC95%: 0,24-0,65 e a dificuldade na mastigação (OR = 2,16; IC95%: 1,48- 3,16. Conclui-se que a prevalência da perda precoce de molares permanentes foi elevada, sendo necessária a imediata adoção de ações curativas a fim de reduzir a perda precoce desses elementos dentários.This study evaluate the early loss of permanent molars in schoolchildren aged 9, 12 and 15 years attending public schools in the city of Campina Grande, Paraíba State, Brazil. The sample was composed of 873 randomly selected schoolchildren. The instrument for data collection was a questionnaire and a clinical chart. The following variables were analyzed: tooth loss (tooth type, localization in the dental arch and region of the arch, prevention and selfperception of oral health. The statistical analysis was done by frequency distribution and the chisquare and fisher’s exact tests were used. The results showed a prevalence of

  7. Catholic High Schools and Rural Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, William

    1997-01-01

    A study of national longitudinal data examined effects of rural Catholic high schools on mathematics achievement, high school graduation rates, and the likelihood that high school graduates attend college. Findings indicate that rural Catholic high schools had a positive effect on mathematics test scores and no effect on graduation rates or rates…

  8. Swaziland's traditional birth attendants survey | Lech | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) Survey in Swaziland was undertaken between March 27th 1996 and April 8th 1996. The objective of the survey was to generate reliable information regarding activities of TBAs in Swaziland. The survey was conducted in 25 Chiefdoms sampled out of a total of 206 Chiefdoms ...

  9. Differential campsite pricing and campground attendance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur F. LaPage; Paula L. Cormier; George T. Hamilton; Alan D. Cormier

    1975-01-01

    Several changes in the characteristics of campers' visits were discovered by comparing camping permit data before and after the start of differential campsite pricing at a New Hampshire state park campground in 1973. Differentials included a premium charge for waterfront sites and a preferential rate for New Hampshire residents. Attendance by state residents...

  10. Service Station Attendant. Performance Objectives. Basic Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, John

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 24 terminal objectives for a basic secondary level service station attendant course. The materials were developed for a two-semester course (2 and 3 hours daily). The specialized classroom and shop experiences are designed to enable the student…

  11. Vaginal Trichomoniasis among Patients Attending Primary Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trichomoniasis is widely distributed all over the world and remains a common infection among female patients attending sexually transmitted disease clinics. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of trichomonal infection in HIV/AIDS and non-HIV control groups of patients in a population of women.

  12. Electronic Attendance Application Using Raspberry Pi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Dzul Aiman Aslan; Saaidi Ismail; Mohamad Safuan Sulaiman

    2016-01-01

    Raspberry Pi is a cheap mini-computer that officially runs on a Linux distribution Operating System (OS) such as Raspbian. It has many input and output mechanisms simulating a computer which make it useful replacement for a computer system. SimpleCV, an open source python-based image processing software and Telegram, a popular social application provide API that allow communication trough a device such as Raspberry Pi. Combining these two, an electronic attendance has been developed using open source basis, and the electronic attendance also provide enhancement of current system that is to record the person face and sending information through Telegram application. The methodology include gathering requirements on remaining system and test it on Linux which will discuss further. This project is serve as a prototype for enhancement of current Commersial Of The Shelf (COTS) electronic attendance that only record ID of the attendees. In the future, the electronic attendance can be enhanced with many features and should be make in-a-box for commercialization. (author)

  13. Attendance at NHS mandatory training sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Darren

    2015-02-17

    To identify factors that affect NHS healthcare professionals' attendance at mandatory training sessions. A quantitative approach was used, with a questionnaire sent to 400 randomly selected participants. A total of 122 responses were received, providing a mix of qualitative and quantitative data. Quantitative data were analysed using statistical methods. Open-ended responses were reviewed using thematic analysis. Clinical staff value mandatory training sessions highly. They are aware of the requirement to keep practice up-to-date and ensure patient safety remains a priority. However, changes to the delivery format of mandatory training sessions are required to enable staff to participate more easily, as staff are often unable to attend. The delivery of mandatory training should move from classroom-based sessions into the clinical area to maximise participation. Delivery should be assisted by local 'experts' who are able to customise course content to meet local requirements and the requirements of different staff groups. Improved arrangements to provide staff cover, for those attending training, would enable more staff to attend training sessions.

  14. Psychological distress and symptoms among patients attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The study was carried out to investigate the manifestations of psychological distress and symptoms among individuals receiving treatment for sexually transmitted diseases and to compare them with individuals who were not suffering from sexually transmitted diseases. Methods: Patients attending the sexually ...

  15. Malaria parasitemia amongst pregnant women attending selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study to determine malaria parasitemia amongst 300 randomly selected pregnant women attending government and private healthcare facilities in Rivers State was carried out. Blood samples were obtained through venous procedure and the presence or absence of Plasmodium was determined ...

  16. Scientists from all over the world attend the ''Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School 2009'' at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT); Wissenschaftler aus aller Welt bei der ''Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School 2009'' am Karlsruhe Institute of Technologie (KIT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Espinoza, Victor Hugo; Fischer, Ulrich [Karlsruhe Inst. of Tech. (KIT), Campus Nord/Inst. for Neutron Physics and Reactor Tech. (INR), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    The ''Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School'' is organized each year alternately by the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology and the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA), Cadarache. This year's Summer School, the 15th since its foundation, was run at the Advanced Training Center (FTU) of KIT Campus Nord on August 26 to September 4. The key topic this year was ''The Challenges in Implementing Fast Reactor Technology.'' These are the items discussed: Principles and challenges of future fast reactor designs, Fuels, fuel cycle, and recycling of minor actinides, Innovative cladding tube and structural materials, Special aspects of coolants and the challenges they pose, Fast reactor safety. Experts from 8 leading international research establishments and universities presented and discussed with the 58 participants from 16 countries the current state of the art and the latest development trends in the topics listed above. (orig.)

  17. Culture, Motivation, and Vocational Decision-Making of Australian Senior High School Students in Private Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae Yup; McCormick, John; Gregory, Gary; Barnett, Kerry

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the roles of culture and motivation in the occupational decisions of senior high school students attending private schools. A theoretical framework guided the study. A questionnaire was administered to 492 Grade 11 students attending a stratified random sample of six independent (private) schools…

  18. The effects of medical school on health outcomes: Evidence from admission lotteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leuven, E.; Oosterbeek, H.; de Wolf, I.

    2013-01-01

    This paper estimates the effects of attending medical school on health outcomes by exploiting that admission to medical school in the Netherlands is determined by a lottery. Among the applicants for medical school, people who attended medical school have on average 1.5 more years of completed

  19. ILLUSION OF EXCESSIVE CONSUMPTION AND ITS EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUNGIU-PUPĂZAN MARIANA CLAUDIA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to explore, explain and describe this phenomenon to a better understanding of it and also the relationship between advertising and the consumer society members. This paper aims to present an analysis of excessive and unsustainable consumption, the evolution of a phenomenon, and the ability to find a way to combat. Unfortunately, studies show that this tendency to accumulate more than we need to consume excess means that almost all civilizations fined and placed dogmatic among the values that children learn early in life. This has been perpetuated since the time when the goods or products does not get so easy as today. Anti-consumerism has emerged in response to this economic system, not on the long term. We are witnessing the last two decades to establish a new phase of consumer capitalism: society hiperconsumtion.

  20. Country Fundamentals and Currency Excess Returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daehwan Kim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We examine whether country fundamentals help explain the cross-section of currency excess returns. For this purpose, we consider fundamental variables such as default risk, foreign exchange rate regime, capital control as well as interest rate in the multi-factor model framework. Our empirical results show that fundamental factors explain a large part of the cross-section of currency excess returns. The zero-intercept restriction of the factor model is not rejected for most currencies. They also reveal that our factor model with country fundamentals performs better than a factor model with usual investment-style factors. Our main empirical results are based on 2001-2010 balanced panel data of 19 major currencies. This paper may fill the gap between country fundamentals and practitioners' strategies on currency investment.