Ewing, Bradley T.
Examines whether those who participated in high school athletics have a different pattern of marijuana use than comparable nonathletes. Male athletes have a higher incidence of marijuana use than nonathletes. The opposite is true for female athletes who are more likely than nonathletes to try marijuana after high school. (MKA)
McNamara, Timothy K.
Discusses Yellow Springs Exempted Village School District Board of Education vs Ohio High School Athletic Association where U.S. District Court in Ohio held unconstitutional a state athletic association rule prohibiting girls from participating on the same team as boys in contact sports. Available from City School of Law, 5100 Rockhill Road, K.C.,…
Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Raso, Samantha R.; Pagnotta, Kelly D.; Stearns, Rebecca L.; Casa, Douglas J.
Context In its best-practices recommendation, the Inter-Association Task Force for Preventing Sudden Death in Secondary School Athletics Programs urged all high schools to have a certified athletic trainer (AT) on staff. Despite the recommendation, many high schools lack the medical services of an AT. Objective To examine the barriers that athletic directors (ADs) face in hiring ATs in public high schools and in providing medical coverage for their student-athletes. Design Qualitative study. Setting Semistructured telephone interviews. Patients or Other Participants Twenty full-time public high school ADs (17 men, 3 women) from various geographical regions of the United States (6 North, 4 South, 4 Midwest, 6 West) participated. Data saturation guided the total number of participants. Data Collection and Analysis We completed telephone interviews guided by a semistructured questionnaire with all participants. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Multiple-analyst triangulation and peer review were included as steps to establish data credibility. We analyzed the data using the principles of the general inductive approach. Results We identified 3 themes. Lack of power represented the inability of an AD to hire an AT, which was perceived to be a responsibility of the superintendent and school board. Budget concerns pertained to the funding allocated to specific resources within a school, which often did not include an AT. Nonbudget concerns represented rural locations without clinics or hospitals nearby; misconceptions about the role of an AT, which led to the belief that first-aid–trained coaches are appropriate medical providers; and community support from local clinics, hospitals, and volunteers. Conclusions Many ADs would prefer to employ ATs in their schools; however, they perceive that they are bound by the hiring and budgeting decisions of superintendents and school boards. Public school systems are experiencing the consequences of national budget
Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Raso, Samantha R; Pagnotta, Kelly D; Stearns, Rebecca L; Casa, Douglas J
In its best-practices recommendation, the Inter-Association Task Force for Preventing Sudden Death in Secondary School Athletics Programs urged all high schools to have a certified athletic trainer (AT) on staff. Despite the recommendation, many high schools lack the medical services of an AT. To examine the barriers that athletic directors (ADs) face in hiring ATs in public high schools and in providing medical coverage for their student-athletes. Qualitative study. Semistructured telephone interviews. Twenty full-time public high school ADs (17 men, 3 women) from various geographical regions of the United States (6 North, 4 South, 4 Midwest, 6 West) participated. Data saturation guided the total number of participants. We completed telephone interviews guided by a semistructured questionnaire with all participants. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Multiple-analyst triangulation and peer review were included as steps to establish data credibility. We analyzed the data using the principles of the general inductive approach. We identified 3 themes. Lack of power represented the inability of an AD to hire an AT, which was perceived to be a responsibility of the superintendent and school board. Budget concerns pertained to the funding allocated to specific resources within a school, which often did not include an AT. Nonbudget concerns represented rural locations without clinics or hospitals nearby; misconceptions about the role of an AT, which led to the belief that first-aid-trained coaches are appropriate medical providers; and community support from local clinics, hospitals, and volunteers. Many ADs would prefer to employ ATs in their schools; however, they perceive that they are bound by the hiring and budgeting decisions of superintendents and school boards. Public school systems are experiencing the consequences of national budget cuts and often do not have the freedom to hire ATs when other school staff are being laid off.
Miyashita, Theresa L; Diakogeorgiou, Eleni; Hellstrom, Brian; Kuchwara, Nick; Tafoya, Erica; Young, Lori
The perception high school athletes have regarding concussions may influence their injury-reporting behavior, and if their perceptions are based on incorrect or incomplete information, they may be at risk for subsequent head injuries. To determine whether the recent influx of concussion information has had a positive impact on high school athletes' knowledge of concussions, to determine their perceptions regarding the severity of a concussion injury, and to determine whether receiving correct information will potentially alter their future reporting behavior. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 4. A total of 454 high school athletes (212 females, 242 males; mean age, 15.7 ± 1.15 years) from 6 different schools participated in an anonymous survey. The researchers met with teams individually at their high schools to collect data and provide an educational intervention regarding sports-related concussions. The survey questions assessed the athletes' personal injury histories and perceptions and knowledge of the severity of concussion injuries. There was a difference in the number of athletes who reported having their "bell rung" (n = 297) versus the number of athletes reporting at least 1 concussion (n = 172) (t (453) = -11.60, P = .000, d = -0.54). There was also a difference in the number of athletes who reported a history of at least 1 concussion at the beginning of the study session (n = 172) versus the number of athletes who reported at least 1 concussion at the end of the session (n = 292) (t (453) = -12.018, P = .000, d = 0.732). Fifty percent of athletes also stated that the importance of a game/event should dictate when they return to play. High school athletes continue to fail to realize when they have sustained a concussion. Additionally, athletes lack understanding regarding the severity and seriousness of a concussion. A better effort at formalized education must be made if the culture of sports is to change. Allied health care professionals need
Compares academic performance, behavior, and commitment of basketball and volleyball athletes and nonathletes in a rural Canadian high school. Compares mid-term and final grades in each school discipline, disciplinary visits to administrators, and misbehavior demerits. Estimates athletes' mean weekly time commitment in each sport. Athletes matched…
Considers the costs and benefits of high school sports programs as typified by those in Colorado Springs (Colorado), informally assessing the attitudes of players, coaches, parents, and district administrators concerning the role of athletics in the educational setting and in the community at large. (PGD)
Rhea, Deborah J.; Lantz, Christopher D.
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between sports participation and self-reported violent, delinquent, and aggressive behaviors in rural high school populations. Three-hundred and thirty-eight athletes and non-athletes from four rural high schools completed the YRBSS and the Conflict Behavior Scale (CBS). The results…
Rosendahl, J; Bormann, B; Aschenbrenner, K; Aschenbrenner, F; Strauss, B
The purpose of this study was to examine weight concerns, dieting, body dissatisfaction as well as eating behavior of German high school athletes and to compare disordered eating behavior of these athletes with regular high school students. Five hundred and seventy-six young athletes of Elite Sports Schools in the German state of Thuringia and a reference group consisting of 291 non-athletes from regular high schools completed a questionnaire regarding eating behavior and attitudes, dietary history, body image and demographics. The Eating Attitude Test was used to measure disordered eating. Athletes did not show a higher frequency of disordered eating than non-athletes. A binary logistic regression analysis revealed that gender and dietary experience, but not group (athletes vs non-athletes), were significant predictors of disordered eating. It can be concluded that dietary experience and female gender proved to be important risk factors of disordered eating. Participation in sports seems to be protective for developing serious eating problems, especially in girls. Potentially, regular monitoring of athletic performance by coaches might be a reason for this finding.
Carr, Christopher N.; And Others
High school student athletes and nonathletes were assessed on self-report inventory concerning frequency of alcohol use, intoxication, and attitudes about adolescent alcohol and drug use. Results indicated that male athletes consumed alcohol significantly more than male nonathletes and that male athletes drank alcohol to intoxication at…
Naylor, Adam H.; Gardner, Doug; Zaichkowsky, Len
High school students (N=1,515) in Massachusetts were surveyed about whether participation in athletics promoted a healthier lifestyle and decreased use of recreational drugs. Participation in athletics did promote a healthier lifestyle and athletes were significantly less likely to use cocaine, psychedelic drugs, or smoke cigarettes. However, work…
Georgakis, Steve; Evans, John Robert; Warwick, Leanne
While sport and student-athletes have featured in the Australian education system since compulsory schooling, there has been no analysis to date of the link between academic achievement and elite student-athletes. However, this is in stark contrast to the United States of America (US), where student-athletes have been the subject of sustained…
Cirillo, Joseph John
This mixed-methods study with a narrative component explored the effect athletic participation played on the academic achievement of senior student-athletes and non-athlete in a public school in Northern New Jersey. The motivation for the study was the conflicting perceptions and research as related to the impact athletic participation had on…
Post, Eric G; Thein-Nissenbaum, Jill M; Stiffler, Mikel R; Brooks, M Alison; Bell, David R; Sanfilippo, Jennifer L; Trigsted, Stephanie M; Heiderscheit, Bryan C; McGuine, Timothy A
Sport specialization is a strategy to acquire superior sport performance in 1 sport but is associated with increased injury risk. Currently, the degree of high school specialization among Division I athletes is unknown. College athletes will display increased rates of specialization as they progress through their high school careers. Descriptive epidemiological study. Level 4. Three hundred forty-three athletes (115 female) representing 9 sports from a Midwest Division I University completed a previously utilized sport specialization questionnaire regarding sport participation patterns for each grade of high school. McNemar and chi-square tests were used to investigate associations of grade, sport, and sex with prevalence of sport specialization category (low, moderate, high) (a priori P ≤ 0.05). Specialization increased throughout high school, with 16.9% (n = 58) and 41.1% (n = 141) of athletes highly specialized in 9th and 12th grades, respectively. Football athletes were less likely to be highly specialized than nonfootball athletes for each year of high school ( P 0.23). The majority of Division I athletes were not classified as highly specialized throughout high school, but the prevalence of high specialization increased as athletes progressed through high school. Nonfootball athletes were more likely to be highly specialized than football athletes at each grade level. Most athletes who are recruited to participate in collegiate athletics will eventually specialize in their sport, but it does not appear that early specialization is necessary to become a Division I athlete. Athletes should be counseled regarding safe participation in sport during high school to minimize injury and maximize performance.
Olympia, Robert P; Dixon, Trevor; Brady, Jodi; Avner, Jeffrey R
To use nationally published guidelines to examine the preparedness of schools in the United States to respond to emergencies associated with school-based athletics. A questionnaire, mailed to 1000 randomly selected members of the National Athletic Trainers' Association, included questions on the clinical background of the athletic trainer, the demographic features of their school, the preparedness of their school to manage life-threatening athletic emergencies, the presence of preventative measures to avoid potential sport-related emergencies, and the immediate availability of emergency equipment. Of the 944 questionnaires delivered, 643 (68%) were returned; of these, 521 (81%) were eligible for analysis (55% usable response rate). Seventy percent (95% confidence interval [CI], 66-74) of schools have a Written Emergency Plan (WEP), although 36% (95% CI, 30-40) of schools with a WEP do not practice the plan. Thirty-four percent (95% CI, 30-38) of schools have an athletic trainer present during all athletic events. Sports previously noted to have higher rates of fatalities/injuries based on published literature, such as ice hockey and gymnastics, had, according to our data, less coverage by athletic trainers compared with other sports with lower rates of fatalities/injuries. Athletic trainers reported the immediate availability of the following during athletic events: cervical spine collar (62%, 95% CI, 58-66), automatic electronic defibrillator (61%, 95% CI, 57-65), epinephrine autoinjector (37%, 95% CI, 33-41), bronchodilator metered-dose inhaler (36%, 95% CI, 32-40). Although schools are in compliance with many of the recommendations for school-based athletic emergency preparedness, specific areas for improvement include practicing the WEP several times a year, linking all areas of the school directly with emergency medical services, increasing the presence of athletic trainers at athletic events (especially sports with a higher rate of fatalities
This study examines the relationship between athletics, athletic leadership, and academic achievement. This is likely to be a tricky issue as athletes and athletic leaders are not likely to be a random group of students. To address this issue I control for school fixed effects and instrument the endogenous variables with height. I find that…
Frommer, Leah J; Gurka, Kelly K; Cross, Kevin M; Ingersoll, Christopher D; Comstock, R Dawn; Saliba, Susan A
...% of all high school athletes who participate in contact sports. As more females participate in sports, understanding possible differences in concussion symptoms between sexes becomes more important...
Wham, George S; Saunders, Ruth; Mensch, James
Research suggests that appropriate medical care for interscholastic athletes is frequently lacking. However, few investigators have examined factors related to care. To examine medical care provided by interscholastic athletics programs and to identify factors associated with variations in provision of care. Cross-sectional study. Mailed and e-mailed survey. One hundred sixty-six South Carolina high schools. The 132-item Appropriate Medical Care Assessment Tool (AMCAT) was developed and pilot tested. It included 119 items assessing medical care based on the Appropriate Medical Care for Secondary School-Age Athletes (AMCSSAA) Consensus Statement and Monograph (test-retest reliability: r = 0.89). Also included were items assessing potential influences on medical care. Presence, source, and number of athletic trainers; school size; distance to nearest medical center; public or private status; sports medicine supply budget; and varsity football regional championships served as explanatory variables, whereas the school setting, region of state, and rate of free or reduced lunch qualifiers served as control variables. The Appropriate Care Index (ACI) score from the AMCAT provided a quantitative measure of medical care and served as the response variable. The ACI score was determined based on a school's response to items relating to AMCSSAA guidelines. Regression analysis revealed associations with ACI score for athletic training services and sports medicine supply budget (both P athletic trainer and the size of the sports medicine supply budget. The AMCAT offers an evaluation of medical care provided by interscholastic athletics programs. In South Carolina schools, athletic training services and the sports medicine supply budget were associated with higher levels of medical care. These results offer guidance for improving the medical care provided for interscholastic athletes.
Gayles, Joy Gaston; Baker, Ashley R
This chapter discusses the transition from high school to college for student-athletes. The concepts of athlete identity and leadership development are discussed through the lens of the high school athlete who attends college as a collegiate athlete and those students who are dealing with a loss of their high school athlete identity. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.
Mikulan, Rita; Piko, Bettina E
Due to chronic dissatisfaction with body weight in youth, efforts to lose weight often lead to pathological dietary behaviours. Regular and heavy sports activity may contribute to the optimization of body weight, not only by elevating the energy utilization but also by increasing the health consciousness and the tendency to self-monitor. Research generally finds a beneficial role of extracurricular sports activity in body weight control. Therefore, we aim to analyze how regular, heavy sports activity (more precisely, competitive sports) may contribute to body weight control among two groups of youth: athletes and non-athletes. Our study was carried out using 347 adolescents; among them there were 91 athletes and 259 controls. The subjects completed self-administered questionnaires concerning their body weight control and dietary habits. We found that girls were less satisfied with their body weight and reported dieting more frequently with a greater emphasis on healthy dieting than boys. Sport influenced these strong gender differences only regarding healthy dieting, young male athletes laid a larger emphasis on healthy diets than their non-athlete counterparts, therefore their attitude became similar to that of female athletes and non-athletes. We conclude that despite the normal weight in high school students, episodes of dieting that might contribute to eating disorders were quite frequent. This was not influenced by the students' extracurricular sports activity. A greater monitoring of male athletes' and their friend's diet draw attention to the need for developing health education programs specific to boys.
Fletcher, Erica N; McKenzie, Lara B; Comstock, R Dawn
.... To compare patterns of athletes with basketball-related injuries presenting to US emergency departments from 2005 through 2010 and the high school athletic training setting from the 2005-2011 seasons...
Wham, George S.; Saunders, Ruth; Mensch, James
Abstract Context: Research suggests that appropriate medical care for interscholastic athletes is frequently lacking. However, few investigators have examined factors related to care. Objective: To examine medical care provided by interscholastic athletics programs and to identify factors associated with variations in provision of care. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Mailed and e-mailed survey. Patients or Other Participants: One hundred sixty-six South Carolina high schools. Intervention(s): The 132-item Appropriate Medical Care Assessment Tool (AMCAT) was developed and pilot tested. It included 119 items assessing medical care based on the Appropriate Medical Care for Secondary School-Age Athletes (AMCSSAA) Consensus Statement and Monograph (test-retest reliability: r = 0.89). Also included were items assessing potential influences on medical care. Presence, source, and number of athletic trainers; school size; distance to nearest medical center; public or private status; sports medicine supply budget; and varsity football regional championships served as explanatory variables, whereas the school setting, region of state, and rate of free or reduced lunch qualifiers served as control variables. Main Outcome Measure(s): The Appropriate Care Index (ACI) score from the AMCAT provided a quantitative measure of medical care and served as the response variable. The ACI score was determined based on a school's response to items relating to AMCSSAA guidelines. Results: Regression analysis revealed associations with ACI score for athletic training services and sports medicine supply budget (both P sports medicine supply budget. Conclusions: The AMCAT offers an evaluation of medical care provided by interscholastic athletics programs. In South Carolina schools, athletic training services and the sports medicine supply budget were associated with higher levels of medical care. These results offer guidance for improving the medical care provided for
Pryor, Riana R; Casa, Douglas J; Vandermark, Lesley W; Stearns, Rebecca L; Attanasio, Sarah M; Fontaine, Garrett J; Wafer, Alex M
Authors of the most recent study of athletic training (AT) services have suggested that only 42% of secondary schools have access to athletic trainers. However, this study was limited by a small sample size and was conducted more than 10 years ago. To determine current AT services in public secondary schools. Cross-sectional study. Public secondary schools in the United States. A total of 8509 (57%) of 14,951 secondary schools from all 50 states and Washington, DC, responded to the survey. Data on AT services were collected for individual states, National Athletic Trainers' Association districts, and the nation. Of the 8509 schools that responded, 70% (n = 5930) had AT services, including full-time (n = 3145, 37%), part-time (n = 2619, 31%), and per diem (n = 199, 2%) AT services, and 27% (n = 2299) had AT services from a hospital or physical therapy clinic. A total of 4075 of 8509 schools (48%) provided coverage at all sports practices. Eighty-six percent (2,394,284/2,787,595) of athletes had access to AT services. Since the last national survey, access to AT services increased such that 70% of respondent public secondary schools provided athletic trainers at sports games or practices. Approximately one-third of all public secondary schools had full-time athletic trainers. This number must increase further to provide appropriate medical coverage at athletic practices and games for secondary school athletes.
Thein-Nissenbaum, Jill M.; Rauh, Mitchell J.; Carr, Kathleen E.; Loud, Keith J.; McGuine, Timothy A.
Context: The female athlete triad describes the interrelatedness of energy availability, menstrual function, and bone density. Although associations between triad components and musculoskeletal injury (INJ) have been reported in collegiate athletes, limited information exists about menstrual irregularity (MI) and INJ in the high school population. Objective: To determine the prevalence of and relationship between MI and INJ in high school athletes. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: High schools. Patients or Other Participants: The sample consisted of 249 female athletes from 3 high schools who competed in 33 interscholastic, school-sponsored sport teams, dance teams, and cheerleading or pom-pon squad during the 2006–2007 school year. Each athlete remained on the roster throughout the season. Main Outcome Measure(s): Participants completed a survey regarding injury type, number of days of sport participation missed, and menstrual history in the past year. Results: The prevalences of MI and INJ were 19.7% and 63.1%, respectively. Athletes who reported MI sustained a higher percentage of severe injuries (missing ≥22 days of practice or competition) than did athletes who reported normal menses. Although the trend was not significant, athletes with MI were almost 3 times more likely to sustain an injury resulting in 7 or more days of time lost from sport (odds ratio = 2.7, 95% confidence interval = 0.8, 8.8) than those who sustained an injury resulting in 7 or fewer days of time lost. Conclusions: The incidences of MI and INJ in this high school population during the study period were high. Athletes who reported MI sustained a higher percentage of severe injuries than did athletes who reported normal menses. Education programs to increase knowledge and improve management of MI and its potential effects on injury in female high school athletes are warranted. PMID:22488233
Thein-Nissenbaum, Jill M; Rauh, Mitchell J; Carr, Kathleen E; Loud, Keith J; McGuine, Timothy A
The female athlete triad describes the interrelatedness of energy availability, menstrual function, and bone density. Although associations between triad components and musculoskeletal injury (INJ) have been reported in collegiate athletes, limited information exists about menstrual irregularity (MI) and INJ in the high school population. To determine the prevalence of and relationship between MI and INJ in high school athletes. Cross-sectional study. High schools. The sample consisted of 249 female athletes from 3 high schools who competed in 33 interscholastic, school-sponsored sport teams, dance teams, and cheerleading or pom-pon squad during the 2006-2007 school year. Each athlete remained on the roster throughout the season. Participants completed a survey regarding injury type, number of days of sport participation missed, and menstrual history in the past year. The prevalences of M I and INJ were 19.7% and 63.1 %, respectively. Athletes who reported MI sustained a higher percentage of severe injuries (missing ≥ 22 days of practice or competition) than did athletes who reported normal menses. Although the trend was not significant, athletes with MI were almost 3 times more likely to sustain an injury resulting in 7 or more days of time lost from sport (odds ratio = 2.7, 95% confidence interval = 0.8, 8.8) than those who sustained an injury resulting in 7 or fewer days of time lost. The incidences of MI and INJ in this high school population during the study period were high. Athletes who reported MI sustained a higher percentage of severe injuries than did athletes who reported normal menses. Education programs to increase knowledge and improve management of MI and its potential effects on injury in female high school athletes are warranted.
Ramirez, Marizen; Yang, Jingzhen; Bourque, Linda; Javien, John; Kashani, Saman; Limbos, Mary Ann; Peek-Asa, Corinne
Physical activity in sports comes with an inherent risk for injury. For children with disabilities, their injury risk may be complicated by preexisting disability. However, very little research exists on sports injuries to young athletes with disabilities. To best manage potential injuries to children with disabilities, data on sports injury patterns are needed. The purpose of this study was to measure the frequency of and risk factors for injury to high school athletes with disabilities. A total of 210 athletes from 8 special education high schools that are part of an interscholastic sports league participated in the study. Seven of the 8 schools were followed for 1 season each of basketball, softball, soccer, and field hockey, and 1 school enrolled only during field hockey. Data were collected from coaches on daily exposure sessions (game, practice, and conditioning, as well as length of session), athlete characteristics (disability, gender, age, seizure history, and behavioral problems), and nature of injuries resulting in any type of medical treatment. Thirty-eight injuries were reported among 512 special athletes for a rate of 2.0 per 1000 athlete exposures. Soccer (3.7 per 1000) had the highest rate of injury. More than half of the injuries were abrasions and contusions. Those at highest risk for injury were athletes with autism, athletes with histories of seizures, and starters. Athletes with autism had approximately 5 times the injury rate of athletes with mental disabilities. Athletes with seizures had >2.5 times the rate of injury reported among those with no seizure history. This adapted sports program is a reasonably safe activity for children with disabilities. Nonetheless, findings have important implications for prevention. The preparticipation medical examination may be an excellent opportunity to create special guidelines, particularly for athletes with autism and seizure history.
Naser Rashiti; Lulzim Ibri; Omer Špirtović
The research is conducted on a sample of 120 male students at high school in Prizren. The sample consists of two sub-samples. The first one includes 60 athletes, and the second consists of 60 non-athletes. Four (4) anthropometric measures and four (4) functional tests are applied to them in order to determine if there is statistically significant difference within the anthropometric and functional characteristics between the two sub-samples. The obtained results point to the conclusion that s...
Wallace, Jessica; Covassin, Tracey; Nogle, Sally; Gould, Daniel; Kovan, Jeffrey
Background: We determined differences in knowledge of concussion and reporting behaviors of high school athletes attending urban and suburban high schools, and whether a relationship exists between underreporting and access to an athletic trainer in urban schools. Methods: High school athletes (N = 715) from 14 high schools completed a validated…
Wallace, Jessica; Covassin, Tracey; Nogle, Sally; Gould, Daniel; Kovan, Jeffrey
Increased sport participation and sport-related concussion incidence has led to an emphasis on having an appropriate medical professional available to high school athletes. The medical professional best suited to provide medical care to high school athletes is a certified athletic trainer (AT). Access to an AT may influence the reporting of sport-related concussion in the high school athletic population; however, little is known about how the presence of an AT affects concussion knowledge, prevention, and recognition. To evaluate knowledge of concussion and reporting behaviors in high school athletes who did or did not have access to an AT. Cross-sectional study. Survey. A total of 438 athletes with access to an AT and 277 without access to an AT. A validated knowledge-of-concussion survey consisting of 83 items addressing concussion history, concussion knowledge, scenario questions, signs and symptoms of a concussion, and reasons why an athlete would not report a concussion. The independent variable was access to an AT. We examined the proportion of athletes who correctly identified knowledge of concussion, signs and symptoms of concussion, and reasons why high school student-athletes would not disclose a potential concussive injury by access to an AT. Frequency statistics, χ 2 tests, independent t tests, and linear regression were conducted to analyze the data. The underreporting of concussion among high school athletes was 55%. Athletes with access to an AT had more knowledge of concussion than did athletes without such access (P ≤ .001). Chi-square tests did not demonstrate a significant relationship between AT access and a higher percentage reporting concussions. High school athletes with access to an AT had more concussion knowledge, but they did not report suspected concussions to an authority figure more frequently than athletes without access to an AT.
Sobal, J; Marquart, L F
Vitamin/mineral supplements are consumed by adolescent athletes motivated both by general health concerns and a desire for improved athletic performance. Supplement use by high school athletes was examined using a questionnaire administered to 742 athletes at all nine schools in one rural county. A total of 38% used supplements, with supplement use not differing by gender or grade in school. Athletes with aspirations to participate in college sports more often consumed supplements. Healthy growth, treating illness, and sports performance were the most important reasons for supplement use, with parents, doctors, and coaches being the greatest influences on use. Most athletes (62%), especially boys, believed supplement consumption improved athletic performance. Supplement use by these adolescents appears to be motivated more by health reasons than sports performance. It is suggested that it may be useful to assess vitamin/mineral supplement use by adolescents and to provide education and counseling about diet, nutrition, and exercise for those who use them as ergogenic aids to improve athletic performance.
Purpose: The purpose of this study focused specifically on examining the status of and the promotion of two elite athlete programmes (EAPs), the students/elite athlete selection process and available post-school options. The research was guided by Michel Foucault's work in understanding the relationship between power and knowledge. Participants,…
Some students who participate in athletic activities transfer the skills acquired in a sports context into other areas of life, while others do not. To identify the specific skills that are transferred or not from sports to the school environment, two inventories were developed: the "Psychological Skills Inventory for Athletic Clubs" and the "Psychological Skills Inventory for School Life." These inventories enable a comparison of skills in a sport context with skills in a school context. In the first stage, 307 Japanese first-year university students who had participated in high school athletic clubs volunteered to take part in a survey to develop these inventories. Analyses indicated that both inventories comprised identical subscales of intrapersonal and interpersonal skills. In the second stage, the reliability and validity of these inventories was confirmed for 531 Japanese high school students who were members of athletic clubs for sports such as soccer and baseball.
Full Text Available The research is conducted on a sample of 120 male students at high school in Prizren. The sample consists of two sub-samples. The first one includes 60 athletes, and the second consists of 60 non-athletes. Four (4 anthropometric measures and four (4 functional tests are applied to them in order to determine if there is statistically significant difference within the anthropometric and functional characteristics between the two sub-samples. The obtained results point to the conclusion that significant differences can be determined in favour of the sub-sample of athletes with the following variables: maximum chest volume (AODG, minimum chest volume (AOMG, the number of inspirations within a minute before loading (FRB1, the number of inspirations within a minute after loading (FRB2, maximum lung capacity before loading (FCV1, and maximum lung capacity after loading (FCV2.
Athlete's foot is a common infection caused by a fungus. It most often affects the space between the toes. ... skin between your toes. You can get athlete's foot from damp surfaces, such as showers, swimming pools, ...
A gifted student-athlete, Charlie Bloomfield is introduced to athlete's journals by his coaches at Burke Mountain Academy (Vermont), an elite American ski school. Used by Olympians and professionals alike, journals provide athletes with ways to organize and reflect on training and competitions. Athlete's journals help gifted male athletes address…
Lee, Keunchul; Kang, Sangwook; Kim, Inwoo
We tested the structural relationships between stress, burnout, athletic identity, and athlete satisfaction in student athletes attending Korea's physical education high schools and analyzed the differences between paths by ego resilience. Data were collected from student athletes at three Korean physical education high schools. Before data collection, each instruments' content validity was confirmed, and after data collection, construct validity was tested using factor analysis. The results were derived using reliability testing, descriptive statistics, correlation analyses, and structural equation modeling. After testing the final research model, the following results were obtained: (a) high levels of stress had a strong correlation with burnout and high levels of burnout was negatively related to athletic identity and athlete satisfaction; (b) in our model, burnout showed full mediation of the relationship between stress and athlete identity/athletic satisfaction; and (c) the high ego resilience group showed a weaker relationship compared to the low ego resilience group in the pathways from stress → burnout and burnout → athletic identity/athlete satisfaction.
Geisner, Irene Markman; Grossbard, Joel; Tollison, Sean; Larimer, Mary E.
Background: High school students involved in athletics may face additional stressors and engage in more problematic behaviors, such as drinking, dieting, and gambling, than non-athletes, especially as they near the end of their high school experience. Studies have, in general, found mixed results as to whether sports serve a protective factor or…
Wojtys, Edward M; Jannausch, Mary L; Kreinbrink, Jennifer L; Harlow, Siobán D; Sowers, MaryFran R
.... To test the hypotheses that (1) the estradiol-progesterone profile of high school adolescent girls participating in training, conditioning, and competition would differ from that of physically inactive, age-matched adolescent girls...
McDonald, Tracy; Burghart, Mark A; Nazir, Niaman
Underreporting of concussions and concussion-like symptoms in athletes continues to be a serious medical concern and research focus. Despite mounting worry, little evidence exists examining incidence of underreporting and documenting characteristics of head injury in female athletes participating in high school sports. This study examined the self-reporting behaviors of female high school athletes. Seventy-seven athletes participated, representing 14 high school sports. Nearly half of the athletes (31 participants) reported a suspected concussion, with 10 of the 31 athletes refraining from reporting symptoms to training staff after injury. Only 66% reported receiving concussion education. Concussion education appeared to have no relationship with diagnosed concussion rates in athletes, removing athletes from play, or follow-up medical care after injury. In conclusion, female high school athletes underreport signs and symptoms of concussions. Concussion education should occur at higher rates among female athletes to influence reporting behaviors.
Koester, Michael C; Amundson, Chris L
The American Heart Association (AHA) recommends cardiovascular screening and injury history for all student-athletes to prevent sudden cardiac death and related problems. No standard preparticipation physical evaluation (PPE) form is currently required, and the qualifications of those who perform these evaluations vary. To assess the PPE process of high school student-athletes in Oregon. A survey was mailed to the athletic directors at 258 Oregon high schools that were members of the Oregon Schools Activities Association (OSAA) and had interscholastic athletic programs for the 1999-2000 school year. Directors were asked to complete the survey and return it with a copy of the PPE form they used if they were not already using the recommended form. Responses were received from 154 (60%) of the 258 high schools surveyed. Seventy-five (53%) of the 142 forms evaluated contained fewer than 5 of the AHA recommendations for cardiac screening. Forty-two schools (27%) were implementing the PPE form recommended by the OSAA. Most Oregon high schools were not adequately screening student-athletes for injury history or for cardiovascular conditions as recommended by the AHA. We recommend required use of an approved PPE form and specific guidelines for healthcare providers who perform the exam.
Pedersen, Mark; Doyle, Matthew R.; Beste, Alan; Diekema, Daniel J.; Zimmerman, M. Bridget; Herwaldt, Loreen A.
Objective To assess high school athletic programs’ infection prevention policies and procedures and to estimate the frequency of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) among Iowa’s high school athletes. Methods An on-line survey of high school athletic programs. Results Nearly 60% of programs responded. Schools in higher classifications were more likely to have a certified athletic trainer (AT; P high school athletes. Staff should review and update their infection prevention policies. Athletic programs need resources to support infection prevention efforts. PMID:24027469
Schneider, Kyle; Meeteer, Wesley; Nolan, Jill A; Campbell, H David
The purpose of this study was to determine the level of implementation of emergency preparedness procedures and administrative procedures to provide appropriate medical coverage to high school athletics in the predominantly rural US state of West Virginia. Particular attention was given to determine the extent to which the schools provided the recommendations for best practice in the National Athletic Trainers Association consensus statement outlining appropriate medical coverage for high school athletics. A listing of all public schools participating in the state high school athletic association with at least one team participating in interscholastic competition was obtained from the state Department of Education office. An electronic survey was sent to the principal at each high school with instructions that an administrator or sports medicine professional complete the survey. A total of 62 respondents completed the survey (49.6% response rate). Most respondents were principals (92%), followed by athletic administrators (8%). The majority of schools reported a rural zip code at the school level based on the Rural Urban Community Area Codes. Measures assessed the school demographics, including size and rurality. Additional measures assessed the development and implementation of a comprehensive athletic healthcare administrative system, and the development and implementation of a comprehensive emergency action plan. The majority of respondents reported that there was a consent form on file for student athletes (91%) and comprehensive insurance was required for participation (80%). A third of the respondents (33%) reported that all members of the coaching staff were certified in first aid and cardiac pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and 31% reported 'never' when asked if all coaches were required to be certified in CPR and first aid. When asked if there was a written emergency action plan (EAP) that outlines procedures to follow in emergency situations during athletic
Douglas, P D; Douglas, J G
The purpose of this study was to analyze the food practices and nutrition knowledge of high school athletes currently participating in interscholastic sports and to evaluate differences in terms of selected sports variables. The data for the study were obtained by a questionnaire administered to a sample of 943 athletes from randomly selected high schools in Connecticut. The stated hypotheses were tested statistically using analysis of variance, t-tests, and Pearson correlation coefficients where appropriate. The results of the study indicated that the female athletes had better knowledge of nutrition but poorer food practices than the male athletes. There were also significant relationships between sport forms, seasons, and nutrition knowledge and food practices. High school athletes perceived their best source of nutrition knowledge to be their parents. Results on the nutrition knowledge component of the instrument showed that out of 48 possible answers, the mean correct was 26.4, while out of a possible score of 5, the mean score for food practices was 2.2. Because a positive relationship existed between the number of sport seasons and nutrition knowledge and food practice scores, sport participation may be a catalyst for learning about nutrition.
Baugh, Robert J.
Due to the lack of information relating to drug use and abuse among high school athletes, the author conducted a survey of 2,063 college students in universities in eastern Kentucky. The attempt was to determine what practices these college freshmen and sophomores had observed or experienced while in high school. Over 65% of the males and 27% of…
Fletcher, Erica N; McKenzie, Lara B; Comstock, R Dawn
Basketball is a popular US high school sport with more than 1 million participants annually. To compare patterns of athletes with basketball-related injuries presenting to US emergency departments from 2005 through 2010 and the high school athletic training setting from the 2005-2011 seasons. Descriptive epidemiology study. Data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System of the US Consumer Product Safety Commission and the High School Reporting Information Online database. Complex sample weights were used to calculate national estimates of basketball-related injuries for comparison. Adolescents from 13 to 19 years of age treated in US emergency departments for basketball-related injuries and athletes from 13 to 19 years of age from schools participating in High School Reporting Information Online who were injured while playing basketball. Nationally, an estimated 1,514,957 (95% confidence interval = 1,337,441, 1,692,474) athletes with basketball-related injuries reported to the emergency department and 1,064,551 (95% confidence interval = 1,055,482, 1,073,620) presented to the athletic training setting. Overall, the most frequent injuries seen in the emergency department were lacerations and fractures (injury proportion ratios [IPRs] = 3.45 and 1.72, respectively), whereas those seen in the athletic training setting were more commonly concussions and strains/sprains (IPRs = 2.23 and 1.19, respectively; all P values basketball players presenting for treatment in the emergency department and the athletic training setting. Understanding differences specific to clinical settings is crucial to grasping the full epidemiologic and clinical picture of sport-related injuries. Certified athletic trainers play an important role in identifying, assessing, and treating athletes with sport-related injuries who might otherwise present to clinical settings with higher costs, such as the emergency department.
Hayes, Robert Wayne; Tevis, Betty W.
Analysis of a survey of senior high school students revealed significant differences between males and females, and between athletes and non-athletes in their attitudes and behaviors toward alcohol and drinking behavior. (MJB)
Sobal, Jeffery; Marquart, Leonard F.
Examined supplement use among 742 athletes. Thirty-eight percent used supplements with usage not differing by gender or grade in school. Those wishing to participate in college sports more often consumed supplements. Healthy growth, illness, and sports performance given as reasons for use. Parents, doctors, and coaches influenced usage. (RJM)
Shields, Edgar W., Jr.
Examines verbal and physical intimidation and physical violence in high school athletics by program and sport. Antecedents were identified via principal component analysis, including contextual setting, attitude, pressure, and coaching. Coaching was the only significant overall predictor and only significant predictor of verbal intimidation in…
Fuller, Rhema D.; Lawrence, S. Malia; Harrison, C. Keith; Eyanson, Jeff; Osika, Lauren
The purpose of the study reported in this article was to investigate high school teachers' perceptions of special privilege given to student-athletes. Additionally, researchers sought to explore teachers' perceptions as to why these privileges exist and who controls them. Qualitative data were collected from the teaching staff (N = 40) at one high…
As professional sports grew into a multibillion-dollar enterprise, colleges followed suit. Small programs grew big; big programs grew huge, all chasing ESPN glory and cash. So, in turn, high school athletics programs grow, emulating their big siblings. There is a widespread consensus that the nation's public education systems are in serious…
Yell, Mitchell L.; Losinski, Mickey L.; Katsiyannis, Antonis
On January 25, 2013 the Office of Civil Rights (OCR) in the U.S. Department of Education issued a Dear Colleague letter (DCL) that addressed the obligations of school districts under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act regarding the participation of students with disabilities in extracurricular athletic activities (U.S. Department of Education,…
Helms, Katie E.
Sports participation can result in strong associations with the athlete role for participants. While strong athletic identity can have positive implications, it can also create vulnerability to emotional difficulty following exit from sport (Brewer, 1993). Exit from sport is inevitable, resulting from a wide range of sources such as injury, aging,…
Carey, Richard J.
Reviews past and present views of the working relationship between a school's nurse and athletic trainer and discusses the author's own study which revealed that, compared to trainers, school nurses possess insufficient knowledge to assume adequate injury management. Offers a sample job description for a head athletic trainer. (WD)
Boden, Barry P; Pierpoint, Lauren A; Boden, Rebecca G; Comstock, R Dawn; Kerr, Zachary Y
Although eye injuries constitute a small percentage of high school and college sports injuries, they have the potential to be permanently debilitating. Eye injury rates will vary by sport, sex, and between the high school and college age groups. Descriptive epidemiology study. Level 3. Data from eye injury reports in high school and college athletes were obtained from the National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance System, High School Reporting Information Online (HS RIO) database over a 10-year span (2005-2006 through 2014-2015 school years) and the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Injury Surveillance Program (ISP) over an 11-year span (2004-2005 through 2014-2015 school years). Injury rates per 100,000 athlete-exposures (AEs), injury rate ratios (RRs), and 95% CIs were calculated. Distributions of eye injuries by diagnosis, mechanism, time loss, and surgery needs were also examined. A total of 237 and 273 eye injuries were reported in the HS RIO and the NCAA ISP databases, respectively. The sports with the highest eye injury rates (per 100,000 AEs) for combined high school and college athletes were women's basketball (2.36), women's field hockey (2.35), men's basketball (2.31), and men's wrestling (2.07). Overall eye injury rates at the high school and college levels were 0.68 and 1.84 per 100,000 AEs, respectively. Eye injury rates were higher in competition than practice in high school (RR, 3.47; 95% CI, 2.69-4.48) and college (RR, 3.13; 95% CI, 2.45-3.99). Most injuries were contusions (high school, 35.9%; college, 33.3%) and due to contact (high school, 89.9%; college, 86.4%). Only a small percentage of injuries resulted in time loss over 21 days (high school, 4.2%; college, 3.0%). Eye injury rates and patterns vary by sport, sex, and between the high school and college age groups. Although severe injuries do occur, most eye injuries sustained by high school and college athletes are minor, with limited time loss and full recovery
Baker, Jason M.
It is imperative that school administrators, athletic directors, and interscholastic/athletic associations become knowledgeable in the area of interscholastic athletics at the secondary level and fully understand its potential for litigation. Thus, the purpose of this research study is to examine issues, outcomes, and legal trends involving…
Kolodziej, Andrea; Ploeg, Adam
The number of high school students who participate in athletics has increased over the past decade. There has also been an increased emphasis placed on athletic involvement and physical strength and ability. This has led to increased awareness of athletic injuries such as concussions. While concussions are not a new injury, the medical community…
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Pike, Alicia; Pryor, Riana R.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Stearns, Rebecca L.; Casa, Douglas J.
Context: Availability of athletic trainer (AT) services in US secondary schools has recently been reported to be as high as 70%, but this only describes the public sector. The extent of AT coverage in private secondary school settings has yet to be investigated and may differ from the public secondary school setting for several reasons, including differences in funding sources. Objective: To determine the level of AT services in US private secondary schools and identify the reasons why some schools did not employ ATs. Design: Concurrent mixed-methods study. Setting: Private secondary schools in the United States. Patients or Other Participants: Of 5414 private secondary schools, 2044 (38%) responded to the survey. Main Outcome Measure(s): School administrators responded to the survey via telephone or e-mail. This instrument was previously used in a study examining AT services among public secondary schools. Descriptive statistics provided national data. Open-ended questions were evaluated through content analysis. Results: Of the 2044 schools that responded, 58% (1176/2044) offered AT services, including 28% (574/2040) full time, 25% (501/2042) part time, 4% (78/1918) per diem, and 20% (409/2042) from a hospital or clinic. A total of 84% (281 285/336 165) of athletes had access to AT services. Larger private secondary schools were more likely to have AT services available. Barriers to providing AT services in the private sector were budgetary constraints, school size and sports, and lack of awareness of the role of an AT. Conclusions: More than half of the surveyed private secondary schools in the United States had AT services available; however, only 28% had a full-time AT. This demonstrates the need for increased medical coverage to provide athletes in this setting the appropriate level of care. Budgetary concerns, size of the school and sport offerings, and lack of awareness of the role of the AT continued to be barriers in the secondary school setting. PMID
Pike, Alicia; Pryor, Riana R; Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Stearns, Rebecca L; Casa, Douglas J
Availability of athletic trainer (AT) services in US secondary schools has recently been reported to be as high as 70%, but this only describes the public sector. The extent of AT coverage in private secondary school settings has yet to be investigated and may differ from the public secondary school setting for several reasons, including differences in funding sources. To determine the level of AT services in US private secondary schools and identify the reasons why some schools did not employ ATs. Concurrent mixed-methods study. Private secondary schools in the United States. Of 5414 private secondary schools, 2044 (38%) responded to the survey. School administrators responded to the survey via telephone or e-mail. This instrument was previously used in a study examining AT services among public secondary schools. Descriptive statistics provided national data. Open-ended questions were evaluated through content analysis. Of the 2044 schools that responded, 58% (1176/2044) offered AT services, including 28% (574/2040) full time, 25% (501/2042) part time, 4% (78/1918) per diem, and 20% (409/2042) from a hospital or clinic. A total of 84% (281 285/336 165) of athletes had access to AT services. Larger private secondary schools were more likely to have AT services available. Barriers to providing AT services in the private sector were budgetary constraints, school size and sports, and lack of awareness of the role of an AT. More than half of the surveyed private secondary schools in the United States had AT services available; however, only 28% had a full-time AT. This demonstrates the need for increased medical coverage to provide athletes in this setting the appropriate level of care. Budgetary concerns, size of the school and sport offerings, and lack of awareness of the role of the AT continued to be barriers in the secondary school setting.
Toresdahl, Brett G; Rao, Ashwin L; Harmon, Kimberly G; Drezner, Jonathan A
An accurate estimate of the incidence of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) in high school student athletes is needed to guide prevention strategies. To prospectively investigate SCA rates in high school student athletes vs student nonathletes. A prospective observational study of 2149 US high schools participating in the National Registry for AED Use in Sports was conducted from August 2009 to July 2011. Schools were contacted quarterly to collect and review SCA cases occurring on school campus. Ninety-five percent (2045) of the schools confirmed participation for the entire 2-year period. The average numbers of total students and student athletes per school were 963 and 367, respectively, providing more than 4.1 million total student-years and more than 1.5 million student athlete-years of surveillance. Twenty-six cases of SCA occurred in students, including 18 cases in student athletes-all during exercise. The incidence of SCA in all students was 0.63 per 100,000; in student athletes, 1.14 per 100,000; and in student nonathletes, 0.31 per 100,000. The relative risk of SCA in student athletes vs nonathletes was 3.65 (95% confidence interval 1.6-8.4; P student athletes with SCA were boys, resulting in an incidence of 1.73 per 100,000 in boys and 0.31 per 100,000 in girls and a relative risk in male compared with female student athletes of 5.65 (95% confidence interval 1.3-24.6; P student athletes is higher than previous estimates and may justify more advanced cardiac screening and improved emergency planning in schools. Copyright © 2014 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hodge, Frank; Tanlu, Lloyd
In 2008-2009, the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) generated television and marketing revenues of approximately $591 million, college sports apparel sales topped $4 billion, and several schools signed multimedia-rights deals for more than $100 million (Berkowitz, 2009; National Collegiate Athletic Association, 2009). At the Division…
Kerr, Zachary Y; Lynall, Robert C; Roos, Karen G; Dalton, Sara L; Djoko, Aristarque; Dompier, Thomas P
Research on non-time-loss (NTL) injuries, which result in less than 24 hours of restriction from participation, is limited. To describe the epidemiology of NTL injuries among collegiate and high school student-athletes. Descriptive epidemiology study. Aggregate injury and exposure data collected from a convenience sample of National College Athletic Association varsity teams and 147 high schools in 26 states. Collegiate and high school student-athletes participating in men's and boys' baseball, basketball, football, lacrosse, soccer, and wrestling and women's and girls' basketball, field hockey, lacrosse, soccer, softball, and volleyball during the 2009-2010 through 2013-2014 and the 2011-2012 through 2013-2014 academic years, respectively, participated. Collegiate student-athletes participating in men's and women's ice hockey were also included. Injury data from the National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance Program and the National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network were analyzed. Injury counts, rates per 1000 athlete-exposures (AEs), and rate ratios were reported with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 11 899 and 30 122 NTL injuries were reported in collegiate and high school student-athletes, respectively. The proportion of NTL injuries in high school student-athletes (80.3%) was 1.61 times greater than that of collegiate student-athletes (49.9%; 95% CI = 1.59, 1.63). The NTL injury rate in high school student-athletes (8.75/1000 athlete-exposures [AEs]) was 2.18 times greater than that of collegiate student-athletes (4.02/1000 AEs; 95% CI = 2.13, 2.22). Men's ice hockey (5.27/1000 AEs) and boys' football (11.94/1000 AEs) had the highest NTL injury rates among collegiate and high school athletes, respectively. Commonly injured body parts in collegiate and high school student-athletes were the hip/thigh/upper leg (17.5%) and hand/wrist (18.2%), respectively. At both levels, contusions
Dizdarevic, Ismar; Low, Sara; Currie, Dustin W; Comstock, R Dawn; Hammoud, Sommer; Atanda, Alfred
The elbow is the second most commonly dislocated major joint in the general population. Previous studies that focused on emergency department populations indicate that such injuries occur most frequently among adolescent athletes. To describe the epidemiological rates and patterns of sports-related elbow dislocations in high school athletes. Descriptive epidemiology study. Sports-related injury data for the 2005-2006 through 2013-2014 academic years from a national convenience sample of high schools participating in the National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance Study (High School Reporting Information Online [RIO]) were analyzed. Certified athletic trainers participating in High School RIO reported 115 of 1246 (9.2%) elbow injuries as elbow dislocations. A total of 30,415,179 athlete exposures (AEs) were reported during the study period, resulting in a dislocation rate of 0.38 per 100,000 AEs. The majority of the dislocations resulted from boys' wrestling (46.1%) and football (37.4%). Elbow dislocation rates were higher in competition than in practice. Also, 91.3% of dislocations occurred in boys' sports. Among both boys (60.4%) and girls (88.9%), the majority of injuries occurred during varsity sports activities. Contact with another person was the most common injury mechanism (46.9%), followed by contact with the playing surface (46.0%). Dislocations more commonly resulted in removal from play for more than 3 weeks (23.4% vs 6.9%, respectively) or medical disqualification (36.9% vs 7.0%, respectively) compared with other elbow injuries. Dislocations were also more likely to result in surgical treatment than other elbow injuries (13.6% vs 4.7%, respectively). In high school athletes, elbow dislocations result in longer removal from play and are more likely to require surgical treatment than nondislocation-associated elbow injuries. Rates and patterns of elbow dislocations vary by sport. In high-risk sports, focused sport-specific prevention
Buckley, Patrick S.; Bishop, Meghan; Kane, Patrick; Ciccotti, Michael C.; Selverian, Stephen; Exume, Dominique; Emper, William; Freedman, Kevin B.; Hammoud, Sommer; Cohen, Steven B.; Ciccotti, Michael G.
Background: Youth participation in organized sports in the United States is rising, with many athletes focusing on a single sport at an increasingly younger age. Purpose: To retrospectively compare single-sport specialization in current high school (HS), collegiate, and professional athletes with regard to the rate and age of specialization, the number of months per year of single-sport training, and the athlete’s perception of injury related to specialization. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A survey was distributed to HS, collegiate, and professional athletes prior to their yearly preparticipation physical examination. Athletes were asked whether they had chosen to specialize in only 1 sport, and data were then collected pertaining to this decision. Results: A total of 3090 athletes completed the survey (503 HS, 856 collegiate, and 1731 professional athletes). A significantly greater percentage of current collegiate athletes specialized to play a single sport during their childhood/adolescence (45.2% of HS athletes, 67.7% of collegiate athletes, and 46.0% of professional athletes; P sport specialization differed between groups and occurred at a mean age of 12.7 ± 2.4 (HS), 14.8 ± 2.5 (collegiate), and 14.1 ± 2.8 years (professional) (P sport-related injury than current professional athletes (25.4%) (P sport during childhood/adolescence. Conclusion: This study provides a foundation for understanding current trends in single-sport specialization in all athletic levels. Current HS athletes specialized, on average, 2 years earlier than current collegiate and professional athletes surveyed. These data challenge the notion that success at an elite level requires athletes to specialize in 1 sport at a very young age. PMID:28812031
Filsinger, Lora C.
As schools and school districts continue to face budget reductions, school officials must thoroughly evaluate and determine from which programs to decrease funding. Athletic programs are one area that has received much scrutiny for receiving these cuts. If research reveals a significant relationship between athletic involvement and academic…
Standards of conduct, roles, and responsibilities expected of athletic trainers should be developed and disseminated. These guidelines could be used in court to show that the athletic trainer was following basic standards if he should be charged with liability. A review of liability cases involving athletic injuries received while athletes were…
There continues to be oppression among female athletes, even after the enactment of Title IX in 1972. Female athletes in secondary schools deal with low self-esteem, eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia, and depression. Female athletes struggle with societal pressures to maintain a model-like figure, while trying to train and perform for…
Yard, Ellen E; Gilchrist, Julie; Haileyesus, Tadesse; Murphy, Matthew; Collins, Christy; McIlvain, Natalie; Comstock, R Dawn
Heat illness is a leading cause of death and disability among U.S. high school athletes. To examine the incidence and characteristics of heat illness among high school athletes, CDC analyzed data from the National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance Study for the period 2005-2009. During 2005-2009, the 100 schools sampled reported a total of 118 heat illnesses among high school athletes resulting in ≥1day of time lost from athletic activity, a rate of 1.6 per 100,000 athlete-exposures, and an average of 29.5 time-loss heat illnesses per school year. The average corresponds to a weighted average annual estimate of 9,237 illnesses nationwide. The highest rate of time-loss heat illness was among football players, 4.5 per 100,000 athlete-exposures, a rate 10 times higher than the average rate (0.4) for the eight other sports. Time-loss heat illnesses occurred most frequently during August (66.3%) and while practicing or playing football (70.7%). No deaths were reported. Consistent with guidelines from the National Athletic Trainers' Association, to reduce the risk for heat illness, high school athletic programs should implement heat-acclimatization guidelines (e.g., set limits on summer practice duration and intensity). All athletes, coaches, athletic trainers, and parents/guardians should be aware of the risk factors for heat illness, follow recommended strategies, and be prepared to respond quickly to symptoms of illness. Coaches also should continue to stress to their athletes the importance of maintaining proper hydration before, during, and after sports activities. By implementing preventive recommendations and quickly recognizing and responding to heat illness, coaches, athletic trainers, and the sporting community can prevent future deaths. Copyright © 2010 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Williams, Richelle M; Welch, Cailee E; Parsons, John T; McLeod, Tamara C Valovich
Sport-related concussion can affect athletes' sport participation and academic success. With the recent emphasis on cognitive rest, student-athletes may benefit from academic accommodations (AA) in the classroom; however, athletic trainers' (ATs') perceived familiarity with, and use of, AA is unknown. To assess secondary school ATs' perceived familiarity with, attitudes and beliefs about, and incorporation of AA for student-athletes after sport-related concussion. A secondary purpose was to determine whether employment status altered familiarity and use of AA. Cross-sectional study. Online survey. Of 3286 possible respondents, 851 secondary school ATs accessed the survey (response rate = 25.9%; 308 men [36.2%], 376 women [44.2%], 167 respondents [19.6%] with sex information missing; age = 37.3 ± 10.1 years). Participants were solicited via e-mail to complete the Beliefs, Attitudes and Knowledge Following Pediatric Athlete Concussion among Athletic Trainers employed in the secondary school setting (BAKPAC-AT) survey. The BAKPAC-AT assessed ATs' perceived familiarity, perceptions, and roles regarding 504 plans, Individualized Education Programs (IEPs), and returning student-athletes to the classroom. Independent variables were employment status (full time versus part time), employment model (direct versus outreach), years certified, and years of experience in the secondary school setting. The dependent variables were participants' responses to the AA questions. Spearman rank-correlation coefficients were used to assess relationships and Mann-Whitney U and χ(2) tests (P sport-related concussions they managed received AA. Respondents employed directly by the school were more familiar with 504 plans (P < .001) and IEPs (P < .001) and had a greater belief that ATs should have a role in AA. Both the number of years certified and the years of experience at the secondary school were significantly correlated with perceived familiarity regarding 504 plans and IEPs. The ATs
Pike, Alicia M; Pryor, Riana R; Vandermark, Lesley W; Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Casa, Douglas J
The presence of athletic trainers (ATs) in secondary schools to provide medical care is crucial, especially with the rise in sports participation and resulting high volume of injuries. Previous authors have investigated the level of AT services offered, but the differences in medical care offered between the public and private sectors have not been explored. To compare the level of AT services in public and private secondary schools. Concurrent mixed-methods study. Public and private secondary schools in the United States. A total of 10 553 secondary schools responded to the survey (8509 public, 2044 private). School administrators responded to the survey via telephone or e-mail. Descriptive statistics depict national data. Open-ended questions were evaluated through content analysis. A greater percentage of public secondary schools than private secondary schools hired ATs. Public secondary schools provided a higher percentage of full-time, part-time, and clinic AT services than private secondary schools. Only per diem AT services were more frequent in the private sector. Regardless of the extent of services, reasons for not employing an AT were similar between sectors. Common barriers were budget, school size, and lack of awareness of the role of an AT. Unique to the public sector, remote location was identified as a challenge faced by some administrators. Both public and private secondary schools lacked ATs, but higher percentages of total AT services and full-time services were available in the public sector. Despite differences in AT services, both settings provided a similar number of student-athletes with access to medical care. Barriers to hiring ATs were comparable between public and private secondary schools; however, remote location was a unique challenge for the public sector.
Elliot, Diane L.; Goldberg, Linn; Moe, Esther L.; DeFrancesco, Carol A.; Durham, Melissa B.; McGinnis, Wendy; Lockwood, Chondra
Adolescence and emerging adulthood are critical windows for establishing life-long behaviors. We assessed long-term outcomes of a prospective randomized harm reduction/health promotion program for female high school athletes. The intervention's immediate beneficial effects on diet pill use and unhealthy eating behaviors have been reported;…
Benson, Kirsten F.
This qualitative study interviewed eight academically "at risk" African American athletes at a southeastern university with a major revenue-producing football program. Analysis suggested that the athletes' marginal academic performance was constructed in a system of interrelated practices engaged in by all the significant members of the academic…
Heat illness during practice or competition is a leading cause of death and disability among U.S. high school athletes. An estimated 7.5 million students participate in high school sports annually. To examine the incidence and characteristics of heat illness among high school athletes, CDC analyzed data from the National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance Study for the period 2005-2009, which includes the 2005-06, 2006-07, 2007-08 and 2008-09 school years. During 2005-2009, the 100 schools sampled reported a total of 118 heat illnesses among high school athletes resulting in >or=1 days of time lost from athletic activity (i.e., time-loss heat illness), a rate of 1.6 per 100,000 athlete-exposures and an average of 29.5 time-loss heat illnesses per school year. The average corresponds to a weighted average annual estimate of 9,237 illnesses nationwide. The highest rate of time-loss heat illness was among football players, 4.5 per 100,000 athlete-exposures, a rate 10 times higher than the average rate (0.4) for the eight other sports. Time-loss heat illnesses occurred most frequently during August (66.3%) and while practicing or playing football (70.7%). No deaths were reported. Consistent with guidelines from the National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA), to reduce the risk for heat illness, high school athletic programs should implement heat-acclimatization guidelines (e.g., set limits on summer practice duration and intensity). All athletes, coaches, athletic trainers, and parents/guardians should be aware of the risk factors for heat illness, follow recommended strategies, and be prepared to respond quickly to symptoms of illness. Coaches also should continue to stress to their athletes the importance of maintaining proper hydration before, during, and after sports activities.
Asci, F. Hulya; Gokment, Hulya; Tiryaki, Gul; Asci, Alper
Examines differences in self-concept and body image satisfaction and the relation between self-concept and body image among high school athletes (n=174) and nonathletes (n=174). Results suggest that those exhibiting a positive body image were more confident in school, athletic events, and general life than those with a negative body image. (RJM)
The purpose of this study is to determine to what extent private school athletic administrators have implemented programming specifically aimed at combatting the problem of childhood sexual abuse in sport. The study examined published policies and procedures overseen by private school athletic administrators to determine to what extent their…
Data on public secondary schools in Arkansas were gathered for two separate school years, 2005-2006 (N = 278) and 2006-2007 (N = 279), to determine if there was an association between athletic expenditures and student academic achievement. Prior to this research, there was little empirical evidence demonstrating any effect that athletic spending…
Palmer, James; And Others
Describes four-day drug prevention institute designed to prepare high school senior athletes to present prevention activities to junior high and elementary students and to provide early intervention for those athletes who were already experimenting with drugs themselves. Positive response from local school, civic, and community leaders and…
O'Neill, Maureen; Calder, Angela; Allen, Bill
Little is known about Australian high-performance school-age athletes' experiences as victims of the tall poppy syndrome. Tall poppies are successful individuals bullied by those who are less successful in order to "normalize them." Nineteen current or previous national or international high-performance school-age athletes were…
Eichner, Edward R.
Diagnosing anemia in athletes is complicated because athletes normally have a pseudoanemia that needs no treatment. Athletes, however, can develop anemia from iron deficiency or footstrike hemolysis, which require diagnosis and treatment. (Author/MT)
Barber Foss, Kim D; Myer, Greg D; Hewett, Timothy E
An estimated 30 to 40 million school children participate in sports in the United States; 34% of middle-school participants become injured and seek medical treatment at an annual cost close to $2 billion. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the injury incidence and rates in female athletes in the middle-school setting during the course of 3 seasons. Female basketball, soccer, and volleyball players were recruited from a single county public school district in Kentucky consisting of 5 middle schools. A total of 268 female athletes (162 basketball, 26 soccer, and 80 volleyball) participated. Athletes were monitored for sports-related injury and number of athlete exposures (AEs) by an athletic trainer. Injury rates were calculated for specific types of injuries within each sport. Injury rates for games and practices were also calculated and compared for each sport. A total of 134 injuries were recorded during the 3 sport seasons. The knee was the most commonly injured body part (99 injuries [73.9%]), of which patellofemoral dysfunction (31.3%), Osgood-Schlatter disease (10.4%), and Sinding-Larsen-Johansson/patella tendinosis (9%) had the greatest incidence. The ankle was the second most commonly injured body part, accounting for 16.4% of all injuries. The overall rates of injury by sport were as follows: soccer, 6.66 per 1000 AEs; volleyball, 3.68 per 1000 AEs; and basketball, 2.86 per 1000 AEs. Female middle-school athletes displayed comparable injury patterns to those seen in their high-school counterparts. Future work is warranted to determine the potential for improved outcomes in female middle-school athletes with access to athletic training services. As the participation levels and number of injuries continue to rise, middle-school athletes demonstrate an increasing need for medical services provided by a certified athletic trainer.
Barber Foss, Kim D.; Myer, Greg D.; Hewett, Timothy E.
Background An estimated 30 to 40 million school children participate in sports in the United States; 34% of middle-school participants become injured and seek medical treatment at an annual cost close to $2 billion. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the injury incidence and rates in female athletes in the middle-school setting during the course of 3 seasons. Methods Female basketball, soccer, and volleyball players were recruited from a single county public school district in Kentucky consisting of 5 middle schools. A total of 268 female athletes (162 basketball, 26 soccer, and 80 volleyball) participated. Athletes were monitored for sports-related injury and number of athlete exposures (AEs) by an athletic trainer. Injury rates were calculated for specific types of injuries within each sport. Injury rates for games and practices were also calculated and compared for each sport. Results A total of 134 injuries were recorded during the 3 sport seasons. The knee was the most commonly injured body part (99 injuries [73.9%]), of which patellofemoral dysfunction (31.3%), Osgood-Schlatter disease (10.4%), and Sinding-Larsen-Johansson/patella tendinosis (9%) had the greatest incidence. The ankle was the second most commonly injured body part, accounting for 16.4% of all injuries. The overall rates of injury by sport were as follows: soccer, 6.66 per 1000 AEs; volleyball, 3.68 per 1000 AEs; and basketball, 2.86 per 1000 AEs. Conclusions Female middle-school athletes displayed comparable injury patterns to those seen in their high-school counterparts. Future work is warranted to determine the potential for improved outcomes in female middle-school athletes with access to athletic training services. Clinical Relevance As the participation levels and number of injuries continue to rise, middle-school athletes demonstrate an increasing need for medical services provided by a certified athletic trainer. PMID:24875981
Salzman, Garrett A; Burke, Rita V; Muller, Valerie M; Spurrier, Ryan G; Zaslow, Tracy L; Upperman, Jeffrey S
The need for medical care for student athletes is mounting, as participation in high school athletics is continuing to rise. This study assessed medical care available to high school student athletes in a large, urban school district in California that has not been studied since 2002. By surveying athletic directors and coaches, we expected to find inadequate availability of medical care in the studied district and predicted that care would be more widely available for student athletes at larger high schools. We developed and validated a questionnaire assessing practice and game coverage, emergency preparedness, treatment, and injury prevention measures. The survey was administered to athletic directors and coaches at a school district athletic directors' meeting. Forty-three (57%) of 75 distributed surveys were completed. We found that 70% of schools did not staff a healthcare provider for practices, 28% did not staff home games, and 30% did not staff away games, for any sports. We found no significant differences between school sizes with respect to physician referrals after a student was injured, provision of health education, or implementation of emergency action plans. Although these data do not support our hypothesis of larger schools providing better medical care, it suggests that there are multiple areas of inadequate healthcare regardless of school size. We identified numerous gaps; thus, future work will examine the impact of these gaps. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Kroshus, Emily; Fischer, Anastasia N.; Nichols, Jeanne F.
Female high school athletes are an at-risk population for the Female Athlete Triad--a syndrome including low energy availability (with or without disordered eating), menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density. School nurses can play an important role in reducing the health burden of this syndrome, by educating coaches and athletes, and by…
Lander, Linda; Durentini, Carol L.
This study of gender differences in the sport socialization process of high school varsity athletes examined: (1) the primary and secondary patterns of sport involvement by significant others; and (2) the primary sources of motivation for athletes' entrance into sport and continued sport involvement. A 96-item Sport Participation Inventory was…
Clarke, Paul T.
In most Canadian jurisdictions, high school athletics are still governed by outdated and sexist views about participation. The author argues that the current approach is discriminatory and violates human rights laws. In addition, a careful analysis of the jurisprudence reveals a host of specious arguments that keeps athletically talented female…
Hart, Lawrence; Gary, Juneau Mahan; Duhamel, Christie Creney; Homefield, Kimberly
For the middle school-aged female athlete, self-esteem, empowerment, and self-confidence are often bolstered through participation in interscholastic competitive sports. These traits are also traits of leadership. This digest discusses how many contributing factors and people mold the student athlete into a leader but the process must be…
Almquist, Jon; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C; Cavanna, Angela; Jenkinson, Dave; Lincoln, Andrew E; Loud, Keith; Peterson, Bart C; Portwood, Craig; Reynolds, John; Woods, Thomas S
Objective: To present the recommendations made by the Appropriate Medical Care for Secondary School-Aged Athletes Task Force and to summarize the subsequent monograph developed around 11 consensus points. Data Sources: The MEDLINE, CINAHL, and SportDiscus databases were searched for relevant literature regarding secondary school-aged athletes; health care administration; preparticipation physical examination; facilities; athletic equipment; emergency action planning; environmental conditions; recognition, evaluation, and treatment of injuries; rehabilitation and reconditioning; psychosocial consultation; nutrition; and prevention strategies. Conclusions and Recommendations: Organizations that sponsor athletic programs for secondary school-aged athletes should establish an athletic health care team to ensure that appropriate medical care is provided to all participants. The 11 consensus points provide a framework—one that is supported by the medical literature and case law—for the development of an athletic health care team and for assigning responsibilities to the team, administrators, and staff members of institutions sponsoring secondary school and club-level athletic programs. PMID:18668175
Broglio, Steven P; Surma, Tyler; Ashton-Miller, James A
Researchers are striving to understand the biomechanics of concussive injury that occur in the context of sport by using a number of methodologies. Animal models, video reconstruction, and helmet-based accelerometers have all been used, but have their limitations. The Head Impact Telemetry (HIT) System permits the real-time in vivo tracking of all impacts that occur on the football field and has been used in both the high school and collegiate setting. This review provides a theoretical discussion of concussion mechanics and examines the current literature on the effects of the number of impacts, impact magnitude, impact distribution, and concussion threshold in high school and collegiate football athletes recorded by the HIT System.
O'Neill, Maureen M.; Calder, Angela A.; Hinz, Beverley
This paper emerged from a larger project about Australian high performance school age athletes self-identified problems in balancing their academic and sporting lives. Teachers of student-athletes are ideally placed to observe stresses faced by these students, but little is published about teacher perspectives on this topic. A qualitative analysis…
Moriarty, Dick; Leduc, Larry
This article presents the results of a public attitude survey of a quota sample of approximately 4,000 age 18 and older Canadians, in which respondents were asked to express their opinion on who should own and operate professional athletics, national and international amateur athletics, and school/amateur sport. Attitude was also assessed on what…
Kumar, Nikhil; Saini, Divya; Froelicher, Victor
Background The addition of the ECG to the preparticipation examination (PPE) of high school athletes has been a topic for debate. Defining the difference between the high school male and female ECG is crucial to help initiate its implementation in the High School PPE. Establishing the different parameters set for the male and female ECG would help to reduce false positives. We examined the effect of gender on the high school athlete ECG by obtaining and analyzing ECG measurements of high school athletes from Henry M. Gunn High School. Methods In 2011 and 2012, computerized Electrocardiograms were recorded and analyzed on 181 athletes (52.5% male; mean age 16.1±1.1 years) who participated in 17 different sports. ECG statistics included intervals and durations in all 3 axes (X, Y, Z) to calculate 12 lead voltage sums, QRS Amplitude, QT interval, QRS Duration, and the sum of the R wave in V5 and the S Wave in V2 (RS Sum). Results By computer analysis, we demonstrated that male athletes had significantly greater QRS duration, Q-wave duration, and T wave amplitude. (Phigh school athletes are strongly associated with gender. However, body size does not correlate with the aforementioned ECG measurements. Our tables of the gender-specific parameters can help facilitate the development of a more large scale and in-depth ECG analysis for screening high school athletes in the future. PMID:23301064
Chrisman, Sara P; Quitiquit, Celeste; Rivara, Frederick P
To identify barriers to concussive symptom reporting in high school athletics. We conducted a qualitative focus group study with varsity high school athletes from three football, two boys' soccer, and four girls' soccer teams in the Seattle, WA, area (50 participants). Professional moderators led the groups with a standardized script that discussed concussion knowledge as well as hypothetical concussion scenarios. Focus groups were recorded and transcribed, and transcripts were analyzed by two investigators using thematic analysis with Atlas.ti. Athletes could describe multiple signs and symptoms of concussion. Athletes also understood the dangers of concussions, and all groups mentioned the possibility of death or long-term disability. However, when confronted with scenarios involving concussive symptoms, athletes reported they would not stop playing. They would either continue to play (6/9 groups) or would take a brief break and then return to play (3/9 groups). Several barriers seemed to explain athletes' responses. Athletes wanted to keep playing and knew that reporting symptoms might result in being removed from the game. In addition, concussive symptoms were nonspecific, and thus could be mistaken for another etiology. Finally, athletes were hesitant to report symptoms to coaches if they did not result in significant pain or disability. There are several barriers to concussive symptom reporting in high school athletics. Athlete concussion knowledge does not seem to be a barrier, but coach approachability may be an issue. Interventions that seek to improve coach communication with athletes regarding concussion management might increase symptom reporting. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB is a common condition among adolescent athletes. There has been no study examining the prevalence of EIB among adolescent athletes in Indonesia. This study aimed to get the prevalence of EIB among Ragunan Sport School athletes by laboratory exercise challenge. Subjects performed static cycle ergometer exercise (Monark, Sweden to reach minimal workload of 90% maximal heart rate. Force expiratory ventilation (FEV₁ was examined by spirometry (Minato AS-PAL, Japan at minute 0, 5, 10 and 20 post exercise. The EIB was defined as a decline of FEV₁ as much as 10% or more from baseline value. Room temperature and humidity were 28°C-31°C and 74%-82% respectively. There were 168 athletes from 12 sport types who participated in this study. Among them, 23 athletes (13.7% were EIB positive. The highest percentage of EIB was in taekwondo (54.5%. Sixteen athletes with EIB (70% were from less asthmogenic sports. Athletes with EIB consisted of 17 (17.5% females and 6 (8.4% males. In conclusion, the prevalence of EIB among adolescent athletes was moderately high, and was more prevalent in female. More over, laboratory exercise challenge could elicit EIB in less asthmogenic sport. (Med J Indones 2008; 17: 33-6Keywords: adolescent athlete, asthmogenic sports
Dewitt, Terry L; Unruh, Scott A; Seshadri, Srivatsa
Medical organizations have recommended that administrators, parents, and community leaders explore every opportunity to make interscholastic athletic programs safe for participation, including employing athletic trainers at practices and competitive events. To determine the overall level of medical services provided for secondary school-aged athletes at high school athletic events in a rural southern state, to evaluate the employment of athletic trainers in the provision of medical services in secondary schools, and to compare athletic training medical services provided at athletic events among schools of various sizes. Cross-sectional study. Questionnaires were sent to administrators at 199 secondary schools. A total of 144 administrators, including interscholastic athletic directors and school principals, from 199 secondary schools participated (72% response rate). Participants completed the Self-Appraisal Checklist for Health Supervision in Scholastic Athletic Programs from the American Academy of Pediatrics, which has been demonstrated to be valid and reliable. The Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used to measure differences in groups. We found differences in cumulative scores when measuring between institutional classifications (P ≤ .05). Cumulative scores for the Event Coverage section of the instrument ranged from 80.5 to 109.6 out of a total possible score of 126. We also found differences in several factors identified in the Event Coverage section (P ≤ .05). The number of coaching staff certified in cardiopulmonary resuscitation or first aid was minimal. Most schools did not have a plan for providing minimal emergency equipment, ice, or water for visiting teams. We found that 88% (n = 7) of the 8 essential Event Coverage components that the American Academy of Pediatrics deems important were not addressed by schools represented in our study.
Williams, Richelle M; Puetz, Tim W; Giza, Christopher C; Broglio, Steven P
Concussion diagnosis and management is made through the clinical exam using assessment tools that include self-report symptomatology, postural control, and cognitive evaluations. The specific timing of concussion resolution varies between individuals. However, despite a lack of research in concussion recovery, it is widely accepted that the majority of young adults will recover in 7-10 days, with youth athletes taking longer. The purpose of this review is to directly compare the recovery duration among high school and collegiate athletes on symptom reports and cognitive assessments following concussion. Data were collected from a literature search comprising high school or college athletes only. This included studies (n = 6) that reported symptom or cognitive performance recovery to the exact day. High school athletes self-reported symptom recovery at 15 days compared with 6 days in collegiate athletes. Both college and high school athletes showed cognitive recovery at similar rates of 5 and 7 days. This review only included articles that were directly related to concussed high school or college athletes. Additionally, athletes in the high school and college setting typically receive a battery of neurocognitive tests that may not be as sensitive or as comprehensive as a full neuropsychological exam. The review finds that neurocognitive recovery rates are similar among high school and college athletes, while symptom reporting shows longer recovery time points in high school than in college. An individualized and stepwise concussion management plan is important for proper concussion recovery regardless of age.
Kroshus, Emily; Sherman, Roberta T; Thompson, Ron A; Sossin, Karen; Austin, S Bryn
The objective of this study was to assess high school coaches' knowledge, attitudes, communication, and management decisions with respect to the Female Athlete Triad and to determine whether results are patterned by coach gender. Data were obtained through an online survey of high school coaches (n = 227). Significant differences were found between male and female coaches in certain attitudes and communication behaviors related to eating and menstrual irregularity. School or district level policies may help reduce these differences and may help mitigate the health consequences for athletes related to possible differential prevention and detection of the comorbidities of the Female Athlete Triad.
Brooks, M Alison; Schiff, Melissa A; Koepsell, Thomas D; Rivara, Frederick P
To determine the prevalence and predictors of preseason conditioning among high school athletes. Cross-sectional survey of 451 high school athletes participating on girls and boys track and boys soccer teams in five public high schools in Seattle, WA, spring 2005. Questions were modified from validated surveys of physical activity for adolescents. The main outcome measure was meeting criteria for adequate preseason conditioning, which specify a combination of aerobic conditioning (vigorous exercise for at least 300 min x wk(-1)) and stretching and strengthening exercises (at least three times a week for any duration). Log-binomial regression was performed to examine factors associated with preseason conditioning. The majority of athletes met the criteria for each of the components (59% for aerobic conditioning, 62% for stretching, 63% for strengthening). As defined by meeting the criteria for all three components, 33% of the athletes had adequate preseason conditioning. Of those athletes meeting criteria for all three components, the majority reported at least 1 month of conditioning to prepare for the season. Varsity athletes were more likely to meet the preseason conditioning criteria compared with junior varsity athletes (38 vs 25%, prevalence ratio 1.5, 95% CI 1.0-2.1). Athletes who reported help with conditioning from a coach were twice as likely to have adequate preseason conditioning compared with those who did not receive help from a coach (45 vs 23%, prevalence ratio 1.8, 95% CI 1.3-2.4). The majority of athletes in this study did meet criteria for each individual conditioning component (aerobic, stretching, strengthening), but only a minority met all three criteria. These findings highlight the need for school- or coach-sponsored involvement to ensure that all athletes engage in comprehensive preseason conditioning programs.
Rugg, Caitlin; Kadoor, Adarsh; Feeley, Brian T; Pandya, Nirav K
Athletes who specialize in their sport at an early age may be at risk for burnout, overuse injury, and reduced attainment of elite status. Timing of sport specialization has not been studied in elite basketball athletes. National Basketball Association (NBA) players who played multiple sports during adolescence would be less likely to experience injury and would have higher participation rates in terms of games played and career length compared with single-sport athletes. Descriptive epidemiology study. First-round draft picks from 2008 to 2015 in the NBA were included in the study. From publically available records from the internet, the following data were collected for each athlete: participation in high school sports, major injuries sustained in the NBA, percentage of games played in the NBA, and whether the athlete was still active in the NBA. Athletes who participated in sports in addition to basketball during high school were defined as multisport athletes and were compared with athletes who participated only in basketball in high school. Two hundred thirty-seven athletes were included in the study, of which 36 (15%) were multisport athletes and 201 (85%) were single-sport athletes in high school. The multisport cohort played in a statistically significantly greater percentage of total games (78.4% vs 72.8%; P high school, those who were multisport athletes participated in more games, experienced fewer major injuries, and had longer careers than those who participated in a single sport. Further research is needed to determine the reasons behind these differences.
Stokes, John V; Luiselli, James K; Reed, Derek D
We evaluated an intervention that combined task analysis and differential reinforcement for teaching tackling skills to 2 high school football athletes. As a result of intervention, both players tackled more proficiently in practice drills and maintained proficient tackling during games.
Nelson, Alex J; Collins, Christy L; Yard, Ellen E; Fields, Sarah K; Comstock, R Dawn
Ankle injuries are the most common sport-related injuries. To date, no studies have been published that use national data to present a cross-sport, cross-sex analysis of ankle injuries among US high school athletes...
Pernick, Yael; Nichols, Jeanne F; Rauh, Mitchell J; Kern, Mark; Ji, Ming; Lawson, Mandra J; Wilfley, Denise
...–6] . Less is known regarding the prevalence of DE in high-school athletes. As DE puts women at greater risk for eating disorders and associated co-morbidities  , early recognition of DE attit...
Chamberlin, Jacob M; Fry, Mary D; Iwasaki, Susumu
Chamberlin, JM, Fry, MD, and Iwasaki, S. High school athletes' perceptions of the motivational climate in their off-season training programs. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 736-742, 2017-Athletes benefit tremendously from working hard in off-season training (OST) because it sets them up to avoid injuries and perform their best during the season. Ironically, many athletes struggle to stay motivated to participate regularly in this training. Research has highlighted the benefits for athletes perceiving a caring and task-involving climate, where they gauge their success based on their personal effort and improvement, and perceive each member of the team is treated with mutual kindness and respect. Athletes who perceive a caring and task-involving climate on their teams are more likely to report greater adaptive motivational responses. Research has not currently examined athletes' perceptions of the climate in OST programs. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between athletes' perceptions of the climate in an OST program and their motivational responses. High school athletes (N = 128; 90 males 35 females; mean age = 15.3 years) participating in summer OST programs completed a survey that included measures of intrinsic motivation, commitment, their valuing OST, feeling like it is their decision to participate in OST, their perceptions that their teammates take OST seriously, and attendance. A canonical correlation revealed that athletes, who perceived a highly caring and task-involving climate reported higher intrinsic motivation, value of and commitment to OST; attendance; and perceived teammates take OST seriously. Results suggest that creating a caring and task-involving climate in OST programs may help athletes optimize their motivation to participate in important strength and conditioning programs.
Miller, Madeline M; Trapp, Jessica L; Post, Eric G; Trigsted, Stephanie M; McGuine, Timothy A; Brooks, M Alison; Bell, David R
Sport specialization and movement asymmetry have been separately discussed as potential risk factors for lower extremity injury. Early specialization may lead to the development of movement asymmetries that can predispose an athlete to injury, but this has not been thoroughly examined. Athletes rated as specialized would exhibit greater between-limb anterior reach asymmetry and decreased anterior reach distance on the Y-balance test (YBT) as compared with nonspecialized high school athletes, and these differences would not be dependent on sex. Cross-sectional study. Level 3. Two hundred ninety-five athletes (117 male, 178 female; mean age, 15.6 ± 1.2 years) from 2 local high schools participating in basketball, soccer, volleyball, and tennis responded to a questionnaire regarding sport specialization status and performed trials of the YBT during preseason testing. Specialization was categorized according to 3 previously utilized specialization classification methods (single/multisport, 3-point scale, and 6-point scale), and interactions between specialization and sex with Y-balance performance were calculated using 2-way analyses of variance. Single-sport male athletes displayed greater anterior reach asymmetry than other interaction groups. A consistent main effect was observed for sex, with men displaying greater anterior asymmetry and decreased anterior reach distance than women. However, the interaction effects of specialization and sex on anterior Y-balance performance varied based on the classification method used. Single-sport male athletes displayed greater anterior reach asymmetry on the YBT than multisport and female athletes. Specialization classification method is important because the 6- and 3-point scales may not accurately identify balance abnormalities. Male athletes performed worse than female athletes on both of the Y-balance tasks. Clinicians should be aware that single-sport male athletes may display deficits in dynamic balance, potentially
Brown, Katie Nicole
Adolescence is a time of increased control over food choices and dietary practices. Participating in high school sports or attending college presents unique nutritional concerns and health risks. Some female high school athletes have low energy availability (consuming inadequate calories to compensate for exercise energy expenditure), which can result in menstrual dysfunction, bone loss, and injury, also known as the female athlete triad (Triad). College students who consume diets low in frui...
Gius, Mark P.
The purpose of the present study is to determine the effects of two select types of high school extracurricular activities on future earnings: athletics and the National Honor Society. Utilizing data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and a two-stage least squares estimation technique, the results of the present study indicate that high school athletes earn more in later years than honor society students. In fact, after controlling for academic achievement, honor society stud...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The addition of the ECG to the preparticipation examination (PPE of high school athletes has been a topic for debate. Defining the difference between the high school male and female ECG is crucial to help initiate its implementation in the High School PPE. Establishing the different parameters set for the male and female ECG would help to reduce false positives. We examined the effect of gender on the high school athlete ECG by obtaining and analyzing ECG measurements of high school athletes from Henry M. Gunn High School. METHODS: In 2011 and 2012, computerized Electrocardiograms were recorded and analyzed on 181 athletes (52.5% male; mean age 16.1 ± 1.1 years who participated in 17 different sports. ECG statistics included intervals and durations in all 3 axes (X, Y, Z to calculate 12 lead voltage sums, QRS Amplitude, QT interval, QRS Duration, and the sum of the R wave in V5 and the S Wave in V2 (RS Sum. RESULTS: By computer analysis, we demonstrated that male athletes had significantly greater QRS duration, Q-wave duration, and T wave amplitude. (P<0.05. By contrast, female athletes had a significantly greater QTc interval. (P<0.05. CONCLUSION: The differences in ECG measurements in high school athletes are strongly associated with gender. However, body size does not correlate with the aforementioned ECG measurements. Our tables of the gender-specific parameters can help facilitate the development of a more large scale and in-depth ECG analysis for screening high school athletes in the future.
De La Torre, Dena M.; Snell, B. J.
The female athlete triad comprises 3 individual but interrelated conditions associated with athletic training: disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Each condition is of medical concern, but when found within the triad, they can have serious medical consequences. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of…
Tsushima, William T; Geling, Olga; Arnold, Monica; Oshiro, Ross
To assess the effects of two sports-related concussions on neuropsychological functioning and symptom reporting, the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) was administered to 483 high school athletes. Three groups of athletes were determined based on the number of previous concussions: no concussion (n = 409), 1 concussion (n = 58), and 2 concussions (n = 16). The results showed that the three groups did not differ in terms of their ImPACT composite scores (Verbal Memory, Visual Memory, Reaction Time, and Processing Speed) and the Total Symptom Score. As there are only a few studies that have reported the sequelae of 2 concussions in high school athletes, it is premature to declare that a repeated concussion does not have persistent neurocognitive effects on high school athletes.
Linking Perceptions of School Belonging to Academic Motivation and Academic Achievement Amongst Student Athletes: A Comparative Study Between High-Revenue Student Athletes and Non-Revenue Student Athletes
Anderson, Christine Marie
In this study, I examined the relationship that exists among school belonging, achievement motivation, and academic achievement in a sample of student-athletes at UC Berkeley. The goal of the study was to achieve a deeper understanding of how and why achievement motivation and academic achievement is often discrepant between revenue and non-revenue athletes (Howard-Hamilton & Sina, 2001; Simons, Covington, & Van Rheenen, 1999). By examining the relationship between sense of school belonging...
Sabo, D F; Miller, K E; Farrell, M P; Melnick, M J; Barnes, G M
To determine whether high school athletic participation among adolescents in Western New York was associated with reduced rates of sexual behavior and pregnancy involvement. A secondary analysis of data from the Family and Adolescent Study, a longitudinal study of a random sample of adolescents (ages 13-16 years) from 699 families living in households in Western New York. A general population sample was obtained with characteristics closely matching the census distributions in the area. Interview and survey methods provided data on athletic participation, frequency of sexual relations during the past year, and risk for pregnancy. Bivariate correlations were used to examine relationships among athletic participation, demographic and control variables, and measures of sexual behavior and pregnancy rates. Next, path analyses were done in order to test for hypothesized relationships between athletic participation, sexual behavior, and pregnancy involvement while controlling for age, race, income, family cohesion, and non-athletic forms of extracurricular activity. Variables that were significantly associated with sexual behavior and/or pregnancy involvement were presented for both sexes within the resulting multivariate models. Lower income and higher rates of sexual activity were associated with higher rates of pregnancy involvement for both sexes. Family cohesion was associated with lower sexual activity rates for both sexes. For girls, athletic participation was directly related to reduced frequency of sexual behavior and, indirectly, to pregnancy risk. Male athletes did not exhibit lower rates of sexual behavior and involvement with pregnancy than male non-athletes. Boys who participated in the arts, however, did report lower rates of sexual behavior and, indirectly, less involvement with pregnancy. Female adolescents who participated in sports were less likely than their non-athletic peers to engage in sexual activity and/or report a pregnancy. Among male
Full Text Available Claudia L Reardon, Shane Creado Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA Abstract: Drug abuse occurs in all sports and at most levels of competition. Athletic life may lead to drug abuse for a number of reasons, including for performance enhancement, to self-treat otherwise untreated mental illness, and to deal with stressors, such as pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from sport. This review examines the history of doping in athletes, the effects of different classes of substances used for doping, side effects of doping, the role of anti-doping organizations, and treatment of affected athletes. Doping goes back to ancient times, prior to the development of organized sports. Performance-enhancing drugs have continued to evolve, with “advances” in doping strategies driven by improved drug testing detection methods and advances in scientific research that can lead to the discovery and use of substances that may later be banned. Many sports organizations have come to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs and have very strict consequences for people caught using them. There is variable evidence for the performance-enhancing effects and side effects of the various substances that are used for doping. Drug abuse in athletes should be addressed with preventive measures, education, motivational interviewing, and, when indicated, pharmacologic interventions. Keywords: doping, athletes, steroids, drug abuse, mental illness
Taylor, Mary Ellen; Sanner, Jennifer E
Sports-related concussion or traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a frequent occurrence among high school athletes. Long-term and short-term effects of TBI on the athlete's developing brain can be minimized if the athlete reports and is effectively treated for TBI symptoms. Knowledge of concussion symptoms and a school culture of support are critical in order to promote the student's intention to report TBI symptoms. The purpose of this systematic review is to examine the relationship between the high school athlete's concussion knowledge and an intention to report TBI symptoms. One hundred eleven articles were retrieved and four articles met established criteria and were included in this systematic review. A link appears to exist between high school athlete concussion knowledge and an intention to report TBI symptoms. School nurses can provide a supportive environment and concussion knowledge to the high school athlete in order to ultimately facilitate TBI symptom reporting.
Bell, David R; Post, Eric G; Trigsted, Stephanie M; Hetzel, Scott; McGuine, Timothy A; Brooks, M Alison
The prevalence of sport specialization in high school athletes is unknown. This information is needed to determine the scope of this issue in an active population. To determine the prevalence of sport specialization in high school athletes and to determine if specialization is influenced by classification method, year in school, sex, and school size. A secondary purpose was to determine if highly specialized athletes would be more likely to report a history of lower extremity injuries. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. High school athletes between the ages of 13 and 18 years from 2 local high schools completed both a sport specialization survey and an injury history survey. Athletes were classified into low, moderate, or high specialization groups using a recently developed 3-point system and were also classified using a self-classification method. A total of 302 athletes completed the surveys and were classified as low specialization (n = 105, 34.8%), moderate specialization (n = 87, 28.8%), or high specialization (n = 110, 36.4%). Athletes from the small school were more likely to be classified in the low specialization group (low, 43%; moderate, 32%; high, 25%) compared with those from the large school (low, 26%; moderate, 26%; high, 48%) (P Athletes in the high specialization group were more likely to report a history of overuse knee injuries (n = 18) compared with moderate (n = 8) or low specialization (n = 7) athletes (P = .048). Athletes who trained in one sport for more than 8 months out of the year were more likely to report a history of knee injuries (odds ratio [OR], 2.32; 95% CI, 1.22-4.44; P = .009), overuse knee injuries (OR, 2.93; 95% CI, 1.16-7.36; P = .018), and hip injuries (OR, 2.74; 95% CI, 1.09-6.86; P = .026). Using the self-classification method, more participants self-classified as multisport (n = 213, 70.5%) than single sport (n = 89, 29.5%). Athletes from the small school were more likely to classify themselves as multisport (n
Johnson, C; Powers, P S; Dick, R
To present findings from a collaborative study with the National College Athletic Association regarding the prevalence of disordered eating among student athletes. 1,445 student athletes from 11 Division 1 schools were surveyed using a 133-item questionnaire. Results indicated that 1.1% of the females met DSM-IV criteria for bulimia nervosa versus 0% for males. None of the student athletes met DSM-IV criteria for anorexia nervosa. 9.2% of the females were identified as having clinically significant problems with bulimia versus .01% of the males. 2.85% of the females were identified as having a clinically significant problem with anorexia nervosa versus 0% for males. 10.85% of the females reported binge eating on a weekly or greater basis versus 13.02% of the males 5.52% of the females reported purging behavior (vomiting, laxatives, diuretics) on a weekly or greater basis versus 2.04% for the males. Results from the current investigation are more conservative than previous studies of student athletes, but comparable to another large study of elite Norwegian athletes. Reasons for these differences are discussed. Clearly female athletes report more difficulty with disordered eating than male athletes. Some specific risk factors for female athletes are discussed.
Nearly eight million high school students participate in sports in the United States annually. High school athletic coaches have a unique position to impact students athletically and personally. While coaches play a critical role in the lives of student-athletes, there is no mandated professional development or certification required by most states and school districts (Collins, Barber, Moore, & Laws, 2011; Winchester, Culver, & Camiré, 2012a, 2012b). The problem is that there is a major di...
Shields, Edgar W., Jr.
Athletic directors in North Carolina (n=215) completed a questionnaire that broadly examined substance abuse of high school student athletes. Results were compared with the general student body and with a national survey of athletic directors' perceptions. Drug abuse among student-athletes was perceived to be of lesser magnitude regionally than…
Francois, Denise; And Others
A bibliography on collegiate athletics with approximately 400 items is presented. Topics include: sports administration, sports histories, women's athletics, physical education, problems and scandals, sports organizations, sports and health, and references on many specific sports, especially football. (JMD)
Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Skårderud, Finn
Over the past 20 years, a number of studies have been published that generally suggest a higher frequency of eating disorders among athletes than among non-athletes. Participation in competitive sport has also been considered an important factor related to the development of eating disorders. Taken together, most studies have suggested that eating disorders are particularly prevalent in sports that emphasise leanness or low body weight. However, some studies suggest a similar or lower prevalence of eating disorders compared with controls or athletes at a lower competitive level. Athletes constitute a unique population and the impact of factors such as training, eating pattern, extreme diets, restriction of food intake and psychopathological profile among them must be evaluated differently from that among non-athletes. A concerted effort by coaches, athletic trainers, parents, athletes and healthcare personnel is optimal in order to recognise, prevent and treat eating disorders in athletes.
Clark, R Preston
The author considers monetary investment in student-athletes. The disparity among the amount of money spent on the average student and the amount of money spent on the average athlete is staggering...
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Nichols, Jeanne F; Rauh, Mitchell J; Barrack, Michelle T; Barkai, Hava-Shoshana; Pernick, Yael
The authors' purpose was to determine the prevalence and compare associations of disordered eating (DE) and menstrual irregularity (MI) among high school athletes. The Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and a menstrual-history questionnaire were administered to 423 athletes (15.7 +/- 1.2 y, 61.2 +/- 10.2 kg) categorized as lean build (LB; n = 146) or nonlean build (NLB; n = 277). Among all athletes, 20.0% met the criteria for DE and 20.1% for MI. Although the prevalence of MI was higher in LB (26.7%) than NLB (16.6%) athletes (P = 0.01), no differences were found for DE. For both sport types, oligo/amenorrheic athletes consistently reported higher EDE-Q scores than eumenorrheic athletes (P < 0.05). Athletes with DE were over 2 times as likely (OR = 2.3, 95%CI: 1.3, 4.2) to report oligo/amenorrhea than athletes without DE. These data establish an association between DE and MI among high school athletes and indicate that LB athletes have more MI but not DE than NLB athletes.
Hook, Lacole L.
Athletic departments in National Collegiate Athletic Association Football Bowl Subdivision universities provide academic support services to their student-athletes. Even though student-athletes receive help including career assistance from academic counselors, some studies have found that student-athletes are behind non-athletes in career…
von Rosen, Philip; Heijne, Annette; Frohm, Anna; Fridén, Cecilia
Objective Female adolescent athletes seem to use oral contraceptives (OCs) in the same proportion as the general population. In athletes not using OCs, menstrual irregularity (MI) is reported to be common but there are few studies of MI in adolescent athletes. The aim of the study was to survey menarche, menstrual irregularity and use of OCs in adolescent athletes in the National Sports High Schools in Sweden. A further aim was to study the associations between current sport injury and menstrual irregularity as well as use of OCs. Subjects Two hundred and ninety-eight female adolescent athletes at Swedish National Sports High Schools. Methods A web-based questionnaire containing questions related to menstrual status, contraception and current injury. Results One third (32.6%) of the athletes used OCs and of the remaining athletes 31.8% had MI. The group of athletes with MI had a significantly (p = 0.038; Cohen's d, 0.32) lower BMI and consisted of a significantly (p = 0.043) higher proportion of endurance athletes. OC users were less likely to participate in endurance sports compared to non-OC users (p = 0.024). Current injury was equally distributed in the OC and the non-OC group but athletes with MI had fewer sports injuries compared to eumenorrheic women. Conclusion OCs are frequently used among athletes at Swedish National Sports High Schools. OC users were less likely to participate in endurance sports compared to non-OC users. MI was common and athletes with MI had lower BMI compared to eumenorrheic athletes. Sports injuries were not associated with use of OC and eumenorrheic athletes had a higher proportion of current injury.
Mandali, Swarna L.
Good nutrition is important for optimal athletic performance. Adolescent athletes often depend on their coaches for nutritional information on weight management, dietary supplements, and dietary practices. Some dietary practices, such as vegetarianism, have the potential to be harmful to the adolescent athlete if not followed with careful…
Gayles, Joy Gaston
Prior to the 1980s, the literature on the experiences of collegiate student athletes was rather scarce. Since that time the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) has passed several eligibility rules to address concerns about the academic performance and the overall experience of student athletes on college campuses. As such, the…
Toresdahl, Brett; Courson, Ron; Börjesson, Mats; Sharma, Sanjay; Drezner, Jonathan
Medical providers at sporting events must be well-trained in the care of cardiac emergencies. Optimal outcomes are most likely achieved through comprehensive emergency planning that ensures prompt and appropriate care. The diversity of athletic venues, as well as the age and competition level of different athlete populations, present challenges to the provision of appropriate emergency care in sport. An efficient and coordinated medical response to cardiac emergencies requires an established emergency action plan, training of potential first responders in cardiopulmonary resuscitation and use of an automated external defibrillator, coordinating communication and transportation systems, and ensuring access to appropriate medical equipment and supplies. Prompt recognition and early defibrillation are critical in the management of athletes suffering sudden cardiac arrest. This article reviews emergency planning and cardiac care in athletics, with special considerations presented for the school, large arena, mass event and Olympic settings.
Murphy, Ashley; Kaufman, Marla S; Molton, Ivan; Coppel, David B; Benson, John; Herring, Stanley A
To evaluate awareness of concussion assessment methods and to determine whether there are differences among Washington State high school football coaches and athletic trainers in urban versus rural school districts. A Catalyst WebQ survey link was randomly sent by e-mail to varsity head football coaches, athletic trainers, and athletic directors in Washington State school districts. Survey participants were high school varsity head football coaches and athletic trainers from a total of 106 Washington State high schools. A 12-item questionnaire on Catalyst WebQ was distributed via e-mail. The survey inquired about use of the methods of concussion assessment, both on the field and for follow-up; participants' concussion education training; and familiarity with Washington State's Zackery Lystedt Law. The survey examined differences in concussion management practices between rural and urban school districts and also between coaches and athletic trainers in Washington State, specifically regarding the use of the Standardized Concussion Assessment Tool 2 (SCAT2) and neurocognitive testing (NCT). Twenty-seven of 48 respondents (56%) used the SCAT2 for on-the-field assessment; urban respondents were significantly more likely to use SCAT2 (P medical literature for the evaluation and management of concussions. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Weber, Michelle L.; Welch, Cailee E.; Parsons, John T.; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate school nurses' familiarity and perceptions regarding academic accommodations for student-athletes following sport-related concussion. School nurses (N = 1,246) accessed the survey School Nurses' Beliefs, Attitudes and Knowledge of Pediatric Athletes with Concussions (BAKPAC-SN). The BAKPAC-SN contained…
Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to widen knowledge about motivation of elite, recreational athletes and non-athletes. Participants from the elite athletes group (n = 35, 16.7 ± .70 years old were football players of the Slovak national team. Recreational athletes (n = 31, 16.8 ± .80 years old and non-athletes (n = 29, 15.7 ± .60 years old are visiting Grammar School in Zvolen. D-M-V standardized questionnaire was used to determine performance motivation. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov's test disconfirmed the null hypothesis on the normality of data. We used the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests to determine the statistical significance of the differences. The results showed that there were significant (p .0.01 differences with large effect size (η2 ≥ .14 in all the three (the performance motives scale, the anxiety inhibiting performance scale and the anxiety supporting performance scale dimensions among the research groups. The motivation of elite athletes is significantly higher (p = .048; r = .25 compared to the recreational athletes. Also, compared to the non-athletes, the level of performance motivation is significantly higher (p = .002; r = .51 in the elite athletes. Based on the results of the study we can formulate the statement that the level of performance motivation is contingent on the level of sport activity.
Fuller, Rhema; Harrison, C. Keith; Bukstein, Scott; Martin, Brandon E.; Lawerence, Malia; Parks, Cliff
The purpose of this article is to examine how the high school setting assisted the leadership development of African American males. Additionally, we explored how the leadership developed in high school was applied in the post-high school setting. We utilized purposeful sampling to identify and recruit African American male scholar-athletes (N =…
Januário, Nuno M S; Rosado, Antonio F; Mesquita, Isabel
Athletes' retention of information conveyed in coaches' feedback during training was examined, considering the nature of the information transmitted by each coach (extensions, total number of ideas transmitted, and total number of repeated ideas), athletes' characteristics, (ages, genders, school levels, and practice levels), and athletes' perceptions (relevance and acceptance of coaches' information, task motivational levels, and athletes' attention levels). Participants were 193 athletes (79 boys, 114 girls; 9 to 13 years of age) and 6 coaches. Feedback was both audio and video recorded and all athletes were interviewed. All coaches' feedback and athletes' recollections were subjected to content analysis. Information was completely retained in 31.60% of feedback episodes. Athletes' mean per-episode information retention was 63.0%. Three variables appeared to b e predictiveathletes' retention: athletes' practice levels (p = -.25), attention to coaches' provision of feedback (P = .17), and the number of different ideas transmitted by each coach (P = -.90).
Anttonen, Vuokko; Kemppainen, Anna; Niinimaa, Ahti; Pesonen, Paula; Tjäderhane, Leo; Jaana, Laitinen
Active sports require sufficient energy intake. How do young athletes meet this need? The aim of this study was to investigate self-reported health and oral behaviors of young athletes and to compare them with a population-based sample of ordinary adolescents. A computer-based questionnaire on oral hygiene habits and dietary habits was conducted in two junior high schools with special classes for athletes in 2011. Adolescents of similar age (n=1230) attending ordinary classes had responded the same questionnaire earlier in the city of Oulu (in 2004) and in Kajaani, Finland (in 2006-2007). Answers to individual questions as well as sum scores of the answers were analyzed. The answers of the athletes and ordinary adolescents were analyzed by gender using cross-tabulation and chi-square testing. The mean sum score of the athletes indicated their more favorable health behavior compared with the other adolescents. They also ate more frequently the four daily than the others; in addition, they ate the school lunch as an entity which it was intended. However, the athlete boys consumed more fizzy/soft drinks and ate chocolate more often than the rest. The athletes also brushed their teeth more frequently than ordinary adolescents. Oral health behavior of the girls was better than that of the boys. Health behavior of the young athletes is better than that of other adolescents. Continuous oral health education should be targeted to all adolescents; growing boys should be target group of information on healthy sources of energy. © 2013 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Young, Thomas E; Chen, Mark
The purpose of this study was to evaluate data on concussion prevalence in 1 geographic location and to identify which sports have a higher prevalence of concussion in the Marion County, Florida, school district. High school athletic trainers in Marion County, Florida, are required to compile statistics related to number of participants and concussions sustained in the county school district during each season. They provided the data for the 2011-2012 school year to independent analysts with the permission of the athletic director. The study evaluated 3689 student-athletes (2102 male, 1587 female), and 34 concussions (24 male, 10 female) were reported. Concussions were self-reported by the athletes and diagnosed by trainers on field or by follow-up after physician referral. Consent was included in consent to participate in interscholastic athletics, and all athletes enrolling in a sport during the 2011-2012 academic year were included regardless of participation level. Number of participants and concussions sustained was calculated per 100 participants for each sport and in total for 1 year. The percentages of concussions per sport were as follows: basketball, 1.83%; cheerleading, 0.40%; football, 2.83%; soccer, 1.84%; track and field, 0.44%; and wrestling, 0.70%. Ten additional sports were included in the study but had no reported concussions. Total prevalence for the district was 0.922% (1.14% male, 0.63% female) during a 1-year period. The concussion prevalence in this district during the 2011-2012 school year was just under 1%. The sport reporting the highest prevalence was football, followed by soccer. Females reported a higher rate of concussions than males in sports played by both male and female participants. This highlights the need to minimize risk for concussion, especially in noncollision contact sports, and in female athletes.
Kerr, Zachary Y; Cortes, Nelson; Caswell, Amanda M; Ambegaonkar, Jatin P; Hallsmith, Kaitlin Romm; Milbert, A Frederick; Caswell, Shane V
Concussion incidence estimates in middle school sports settings are limited. This study examines concussion incidence in nine U.S. middle schools during the 2015-2016 school year. Concussion data originated from nine public middle schools in Prince William County, Virginia, during the 2015-2016 school year. Certified athletic trainers collected concussion and athlete exposure (AE) data in school-sanctioned games and practices in boys' baseball, basketball, football, soccer, track, and wrestling; and girls' basketball, cheerleading, soccer, softball, track, and volleyball. Athletic trainers also acquired data on non-school sanctioned sport concussions. In 2017, concussion rates were calculated per 1,000 AEs. Injury rate ratios with 95% CIs compared rates between games and practices and by sex. Overall, 73 concussions were reported, of which 21.9% were from non-school sanctioned sport settings. The 57 remaining game and practice concussions were reported during 76,384 AEs, for a concussion rate of 0.75/1,000 AEs. Football had the highest concussion rate (2.61/1,000 AEs). Concussion rates were higher in games versus practices (injury rate ratio=1.83, 95% CI=1.06, 3.15), and in girls versus boys in sex-comparable sports, i.e., baseball/softball, basketball, soccer, and track (injury rate ratio=3.73, 95% CI=1.24, 11.23). Current findings parallel those found in high school and college sports settings in that higher concussion rates were reported in girls and competitions. However, concussion rates exceeded those recently reported in high school and youth league settings, highlighting the need for continued research in the middle school sports setting. Given that one in five concussions were from non-school sanctioned sport settings, prevention efforts in middle school sports settings should consider sport and non-sport at-risk exposure. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Alasti, Mohammad; Omidvar, Bita; Jadbabaei, Mohammad Hossein
Regular participation in intensive physical exercise is associated with electro-morphological changes in the heart. This benign process is called athlete's heart. Athlete's heart resembles few pathologic conditions in some aspects. So differentiation of these conditions is very important which otherwise may lead to a catastrophic event such as sudden death. The most common causes of sudden death in young athletes are cardiomyopathies, congenital coronary anomalies, and ion channelopathies. The appropriate screening strategy to prevent sudden cardiac death in athletes remains a challenging issue. The purpose of this review is to describe the characteristics of athlete's heart and demonstrate how to differentiate it from pathologic conditions that can cause sudden death.
Kerr, Zachary Y; Zuckerman, Scott L; Wasserman, Erin B; Covassin, Tracey; Djoko, Aristarque; Dompier, Thomas P
To our knowledge, little research has examined concussion across the youth/adolescent spectrum and even less has examined concussion-related outcomes (ie, symptoms and return to play). To examine and compare sport-related concussion outcomes (symptoms and return to play) in youth, high school, and collegiate football athletes. Athletic trainers attended each practice and game during the 2012 to 2014 seasons and reported injuries. For this descriptive, epidemiological study, data were collected from youth, high school, and collegiate football teams, and the analysis of the data was conducted between July 2015 and September 2015. The Youth Football Surveillance System included more than 3000 youth football athletes aged 5 to 14 years from 118 teams, providing 310 team seasons (ie, 1 team providing 1 season of data). The National Athletic Treatment, Injury, and Outcomes Network Program included 96 secondary school football programs, providing 184 team seasons. The National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance Program included 34 college football programs, providing 71 team seasons. We calculated the mean number of symptoms, prevalence of each symptom, and the proportion of patients with concussions that had long return-to-play time (ie, required participation restriction of at least 30 days). Generalized linear models were used to assess differences among competition levels in the mean number of reported symptoms. Logistic regression models estimated the odds of return to play at less than 24 hours and at least 30 days. Overall, 1429 sports-related concussions were reported among youth, high school, and college-level football athletes with a mean (SD) of 5.48 (3.06) symptoms. Across all levels, 15.3% resulted return to play at least 30 days after the concussion and 3.1% resulted in return to play less than 24 hours after the concussion. Compared with youth, a higher number of concussion symptoms were reported in high school athletes (β = 1.39; 95
Toffan, Adam; Alexander, Marion J L; Peeler, Jason
The purpose of the study was to compare the most effective joint movements, segment velocities and body positions to perform the fastest and most accurate pass of high school and university football quarterbacks. Secondary purposes were to develop a quarterback throwing test to assess skill level, to determine which kinematic variables were different between high school and university athletes as well as to determine which variables were significant predictors of quarterback throwing test performance. Ten high school and ten university athletes were filmed for the study, performing nine passes at a target and two passes for maximum distance. Thirty variables were measured using Dartfish Team Pro 4.5.2 video analysis system, and Microsoft Excel was used for statistical analysis. University athletes scored slightly higher than the high school athletes on the throwing test, however this result was not statistically significant. Correlation analysis and forward stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed on both the high school players and the university players in order to determine which variables were significant predictors of throwing test score. Ball velocity was determined to have the strongest predictive effect on throwing test score (r = 0.900) for the high school athletes, however, position of the back foot at release was also determined to be important (r = 0.661) for the university group. Several significant differences in throwing technique between groups were noted during the pass, however, body position at release showed the greatest differences between the two groups. High school players could benefit from more complete weight transfer and decreased throw time to increase throwing test score. University athletes could benefit from increased throw time and greater range of motion in external shoulder rotation and trunk rotation to increase their throwing test score. Coaches and practitioners will be able to use the findings of this research to
Knowles, S B; Marshall, S W; Miller, T; Spicer, R; Bowling, J M; Loomis, D; Millikan, R W; Yang, J; Mueller, F O
To estimate the economic cost of injuries in a population of US high school varsity athletes. The North Carolina High School Athletic Injury Study, conducted from 1996 to 1999, was a prospective cohort study of injury incidence and severity. A two-stage cluster sampling technique was used to select athletic teams from 100 high schools in North Carolina. An injury cost model was used to estimate the economic cost of injury. Varsity athletes from 12 sports: football, girls' and boy's soccer, girls' and boys' track, girls' and boy's basketball, baseball, softball, wrestling, volleyball, and cheerleading. Descriptive data were collected at the time of injury. Three types of costs were estimated: medical, human capital (medical costs plus loss of future earnings), and comprehensive (human capital costs plus lost quality of life). The annual statewide estimates were $9.9 million in medical costs, $44.7 million in human capital costs, and $144.6 million in comprehensive costs. The mean medical cost was $709 per injury (95% CI $542 to $927), $2223 per injury (95% CI $1709 to $2893) in human capital costs, and $10,432 per injury (95% CI $8062 to $13,449) in comprehensive costs. Sport and competition division were significant predictors of injury costs. Injuries among high school athletes represent a significant economic cost to society. Further research should estimate costs in additional populations to begin to develop cost-effective sports injury prevention programs.
Anderson, Barton E; Neumann, Matthew L; Huxel Bliven, Kellie C
The functional movement screen (FMS) is commonly used to assess movement capacity and determine injury risk. Evidence suggests that athletes who score 14 points or less on the FMS are at increased risk for injury, but differences between males and females have been minimally studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate sex differences in FMS scores of secondary school athletes. Using a cross-sectional study design, 60 healthy secondary school athletes performed the FMS, which is composed of 7 functional movement tasks (deep squat, hurdle step, inline lunge, shoulder mobility, active straight-leg raise, trunk stability push-up, and rotary stability) and 3 clearance screens. Dependent variables were FMS total composite score and individual task scores; secondary analyses were performed using total research score and individual task research scores when indicated. Lower scores indicated functional movement deficits and increased injury risk. Healthy secondary school female athletes scored lower on the total composite (p = 0.004) than healthy secondary school male athletes. Females also scored lower on the following individual FMS tasks: inline lunge (p movement patterns. Clinicians should be aware of possible sex differences when using the FMS and developing injury prevention programs.
Agaku, Israel T; Singh, Tushar; Jones, Sherry Everett; King, Brian A; Jamal, Ahmed; Neff, Linda; Caraballo, Ralph S
Athletes are not a typical at-risk group for smoking combustible tobacco products, because they are generally health conscious and desire to remain fit and optimize athletic performance (1). In contrast, smokeless tobacco use historically has been associated with certain sports, such as baseball (2). Athletes might be more likely to use certain tobacco products, such as smokeless tobacco, if they perceive them to be harmless (3); however, smokeless tobacco use is not safe and is associated with increased risk for pancreatic, esophageal, and oral cancers (4). Tobacco use among youth athletes is of particular concern, because most adult tobacco users first try tobacco before age 18 years (5). To examine prevalence and trends in current (≥1 day during the past 30 days) use of combustible tobacco (cigarettes, cigars) and smokeless tobacco (chewing tobacco, snuff, or dip [moist snuff]) products among athlete and nonathlete high school students, CDC analyzed data from the 2001–2013 National Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. Current use of any tobacco (combustible or smokeless tobacco) significantly declined from 33.9% in 2001 to 22.4% in 2013; however, current smokeless tobacco use significantly increased from 10.0% to 11.1% among athletes, and did not change (5.9%) among nonathletes. Furthermore, in 2013, compared with nonathletes, athletes had significantly higher odds of being current smokeless tobacco users (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.77, ptobacco users (AOR = 0.80, ptobacco control and prevention measures targeting youth athletes regarding the health risks associated with all forms of tobacco use.
Braun, Tim; Kahanov, Leamor; Dannelly, Kathleen; Lauber, Christine
Position papers offer solutions to manage community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA), yet few studies establish the infection rate, management protocols, and referral practices among student-athletes. Over the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 school years, we assessed the annual CA-MRSA infection incidence, sport risk, referral practices, and management steps among high school and intercollegiate athletics. This study targeted high school and intercollegiate athletic programs in the Northeastern United States. For the 2012-2013 study, 156 athletic trainers completed a one-time questionnaire. In the 2013-2014 study, 87 athletic trainers reported data bimonthly during the academic year. Each questionnaire targeted demographic information, physician-confirmed CA-MRSA infection occurrence, and management of CA-MRSA infections and bacterial skin lesions. The CA-MRSA infection incidence was 15.5 per 10,000 athletes (95% confidence interval [CI], 13-19) in 2012-2013 and 16.3 per 10,000 athletes (95% CI, 13-21) in 2013-2014. The CA-MRSA infection incidence was higher in wrestling and football compared to the general student-athlete population. During the 2012-2013 study, the wrestling incidence rate was 90.2 per 10,000 (95% CI, 62-132); the football incidence rate was 42.3 per 10,000 (95% CI, 31-59). In the 2013-2014 study, the wrestling incidence rate was 89.0 per 10,000 (95% CI, 50-158); the football incidence rate was 61.4 per 10,000 (95% CI, 42-90). In both studies, primary care and general physicians received over 60% (2012-2013: 60.5%, n = 133; 2013-2014: 66.5%, n = 125) of referrals. In the 2012-2013 study, respondents indicated that student-athlete isolation and setting decontamination were common management steps used (58.1%, n = 306). The incidence of CA-MRSA infections among student-athletes remains high. Therefore, it is critical that sports medicine providers continually reassess management protocols and best practices.
Melnick, Merrill J.; Miller, Kathleen E.; Sabo, Donald F.; Barnes, Grace M.; Farrell, Michael P.
Although seat belts save lives, adolescents may be disproportionately likely to omit their use. Using data from the 1997 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a national survey of over 16,000 U.S. public and private high school students, we employed a series of logical regression analyses to examine cross-sectional associations between past-year athletic participation and regular seat belt omission. Controlling for the effects of gender, age, race, parental education, and school urbanicity, student athletes were significantly less likely than nonathletes to report seat belt omission. Separate gender-specific analyses showed that this effect was significant for girls but only marginally significant for boys; in addition, the effect was strongest for adolescents who participated on three or more school or community sports teams. Possible explanations for the relationship between athletic participation and seat belt omission, including Jessor’s problem behavior syndrome, prosocial sport subcultures, and sensation seeking, are considered. PMID:19797539
Welch, Christine H.
The purpose of the study was to determine high school administrators' perceptions of the future of women as athletic directors in the state of Missouri. Superintendents, high school principals, athletic directors (ADs) in Missouri completed a Likert survey in an effort to understand perceptual context as to why more women are not in positions as…
Denhart, Matthew; Vedder, Richard
For most colleges and universities in the United States, intercollegiate athletics is a losing financial proposition. The vast majority ICA departments do not break even and require subsidization from the institution as a whole. When schools are forced to heavily subsidize athletics, ICA serves to impose an "athletics tax" on other dimensions of…
An athletic training curriculum for the training of high school coaches and physical education teachers in Virginia includes courses on: (1) athletic injuries--a basic study of human physiology and anatomy relevant to different athletic injuries; (2) the art and science of sports medicine--prevention, evaluation, treatment, and rehabilitation of…
Miller, Michael B; Johnson, Cleverick D; Cooley, Ralph A; Sharp, Holly; Servos, Thomas A
This survey recorded utilization levels of stock and custom mouthguards among middle and high school athletes in a US metropolitan area and gathered data on the prevalence of traumatic injuries that have occurred as a consequence of school-based athletic competition. The data also included reasons for the athletes' noncompliance. A 23-question, online survey form was developed. A geographically diverse list of public and private schools in the Houston metropolitan area was identified and included 30 public middle schools, 32 public high schools, 8 private middle schools, and 10 private high schools. The sports surveyed were baseball, basketball, field hockey, football, lacrosse, soccer, softball, volleyball, and wrestling. Only 1 private middle school participated. Only 5 of 32 public high schools and 1 private high school participated, representing response rates of 16% and 10%, respectively. Overall, there were 503 responses, and 56% of the respondents did not have a mouthguard. Among athletes who owned a mouthguard, most (70%) had stock versions purchased in a retail store, while 11% had a custom mouthguard fabricated by a dentist, and 19% had both types. The most frequent reasons cited for not wearing a mouthguard were forgetting to use it and a lack of comfort. The injury rates reported by respondents in the stock and custom mouthguard groups were 26% and 9%, respectively. A consistent, concerted effort by local dental societies should be aimed at school administrators and coaches to encourage enforcement or reinforcement of mouthguard usage policies among high school athletes, but, ultimately, parents need to step up to protect their children.
Lyznicki, James M.; Riggs, Joseph A.; Champion, Hunter C.
Identifies professional responsibilities, educational requirements, and current use of certified athletic trainers in prevention and care of high school sports injuries, using literature from the MEDLINE and Health STAR databases. Whereas most high school sports injuries are minor, adequately trained personnel should be present to ensure early…
Beaubier, Dean M.; Gadbois, Shannon A.; Stick, Sheldon L.
In 2004 twin sisters Amy and Jesse Pasternak competed for the prospect of playing high school hockey, vying for the boys' team rather than the girls'. The sisters' opportunities were negated by the Manitoba High School Athletic Association (MHSAA). This paper examines the 2006 decision by the Manitoba Human Rights Commission and a 2008 judgment by…
Raye, Christopher M.
The end of high school marks the time when the most number of individuals will end their participation playing sports at a competitive level. For those pursuing higher education, it has been viewed as a stressful experience for many freshmen. Former high school athletes that enter college as "students" and not…
Kahlenberg, Cynthia A; Nair, Rueben; Monroe, Emily; Terry, Michael A; Edwards, Sara L
Youth participation in competitive athletics has significantly increased in the past two decades. There has also been a recent rise in the number of sports injuries that physicians are seeing in young athletes. The objective of this study was to assess the likelihood of sports injuries based on several risk factors in a general sample of athletes at a suburban-area high school. This was a cross-sectional study. An online survey was distributed to 2,200 student-athletes at a local high school with a mean age of 15.9 years. Four hundred eighty four (22%) complete responses were received. Data collected in the survey included demographics, frequency of sports participation, level of participation, types of sports played, participation in cross-training, injuries incurred, use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and treatment for sports injuries. Athletes played an average of 1.6 different sports. The average number of hours of participation in sports annually was 504.3 ± 371.6 hours. The average total number of sports injuries experienced by athletes in our study was 1.7 per participant. 80.8% of respondents reported having sustained at least one sports injury. A higher total number of hours per year of sports participation and playing a contact sport were significantly associated with more reported lifetime sports injuries. Older age, playing a contact sport, and playing on a travel/club team were associated with students using NSAIDs for sports injuries. Older age, playing a contact sport, and doing cross training are also associated with having had surgery for a sports injury. Although more hours of participation and playing a contact sport may lead to an increased number of injuries, this risk must be weighed against the myriad of benefits that sports provide for young athletes.
Rhea, Matthew R.; Peterson, M.D.; Lunt, K. T.; Naclerio Ayllón, Fernando José
Resisted jumping devices and resisted plyometric training have become more common in recent years. The effectiveness of such training has yet to be determined among high school athletes. Sixty-four high school athletes (50 boys and 14 girls) from a variety of sports were divided into 2 groups and participated in a training intervention that differed only by the use of the VertiMax jump trainer in 1 group. Lower-body power was tested before and after the intervention and compared statistically...
Rosenthal, Joseph A; Foraker, Randi E; Collins, Christy L; Comstock, R Dawn
High school athletes are at risk for concussions. Although a previously published study showed an increase in concussion rates for a single school district, it remains unknown if the rate of concussions among high school athletes is increasing nationally. To investigate national high school athlete concussion rates over time. Descriptive epidemiologic study. The rate of concussions per 1000 athlete-exposures was calculated for academic years 2005-2006 through 2011-2012 using the High School Reporting Information Online sports injury surveillance system. During the 7-year period of this study, High School Reporting Information Online captured 4024 concussions with overall concussion diagnosis rates increasing significantly from 0.23 to 0.51 (P = .004). Concussion diagnosis rates increased for each of the 9 sports studied, with 5 sports having statistically significant increases over this 7-year period. The study analysis indicates that national concussion diagnosis rates for high school sports have increased significantly over time. © 2014 The Author(s).
Pantano, Kathleen J
The purpose of this study was to investigate knowledge high school coaches have about the female athlete triad and to determine if gender differences in knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors exist. Cross-sectional survey. Twenty-six high schools in and around the vicinity of Cleveland, Ohio. Two-hundred currently employed high school coaches. Participants completed a 30-question survey used to assess knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors coaches had about the female athlete triad. Descriptive statistics (means, SD, frequency) and gender differences in response to triad knowledge, attitude, and behavior questions. One hundred twenty-three high school coaches completed the survey. Survey respondents were between 25 and 35 years of age, coached for 6-10 years, and coached female athletes 75%-100% of the time. Twenty-four percent reported "having heard of the triad" and 14% (17 of 123) were able to correctly name all of its components. There were no significant differences between gender and the coach's ability to correctly name the 3 triad components (t = 1.47, P = .14). There was no correlation between coach gender (r = 0.13, P = .07), age (r = 0.07, P = .42), number of years of coaching (r = 0.014, P = .88), and coach's knowledge of the triad components, respectively. Female athletes might be at risk for developing the female athlete triad and high school coaches can be instrumental in identifying athletes who are at risk. This study showed that gaps in knowledge about the triad exist and that educating coaches about the condition could serve as an important means of prevention for the condition. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kerr, Zachary Y.; Dompier, Thomas P.; Dalton, Sara L.; Miller, Sayers John; Hayden, Ross; Marshall, Stephen W.
Context Research is limited on the extent and nature of the care provided by athletic trainers (ATs) to student-athletes in the high school setting. Objective To describe the methods of the National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network (NATION) project and provide the descriptive epidemiology of AT services for injury care in 27 high school sports. Design Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting Athletic training room (ATR) visits and AT services data collected in 147 high schools from 26 states. Patients or Other Participants High school student-athletes participating in 13 boys' sports and 14 girls' sports during the 2011−2012 through 2013−2014 academic years. Main Outcome Measure(s) The number of ATR visits and individual AT services, as well as the mean number of ATR visits (per injury) and AT services (per injury and ATR visit) were calculated by sport and for time-loss (TL) and non–time-loss (NTL) injuries. Results Over the 3-year period, 210 773 ATR visits and 557 381 AT services were reported for 50 604 injuries. Most ATR visits (70%) were for NTL injuries. Common AT services were therapeutic activities or exercise (45.4%), modalities (18.6%), and AT evaluation and reevaluation (15.9%), with an average of 4.17 ± 6.52 ATR visits and 11.01 ± 22.86 AT services per injury. Compared with NTL injuries, patients with TL injuries accrued more ATR visits (7.76 versus 3.47; P school student-athletes and demonstrate that patients with NTL injuries require substantial amounts of AT services. PMID:26678290
Kerr, Zachary Y; Lynall, Robert C; Mauntel, Timothy C; Dompier, Thomas P
Reported injury rates and services in sports injury surveillance may be influenced by the employment setting of the certified athletic trainers (ATs) reporting these data. To determine whether injury rates and the average number of AT services per injury in high school football varied by AT employment status. Cross-sectional study. We used data from the National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network and surveyed ATs about their employment setting. Forty-four responding ATs (37.9% of all National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network participants) worked at high schools with football programs and were included in this study. Fourteen ATs were full-time employees of the high school, and 30 ATs were employed as outreach ATs (i.e., full-time and part-time ATs from nearby clinics, hospitals, and graduate school programs). We calculated injury rates per 1000 athlete-exposures and average number of AT services per injury. Reported injury rates and services per injury were greater among full-time school employees compared with outreach ATs. However, injury rates did not differ when restricted to time-loss injuries only. Our findings suggest that ATs who are full-time school employees may be able to identify and care for more patients with injuries.
Oppliger, Robert A; Bartok, Cynthia
Dehydration not only reduces athletic performance, but also places athletes at risk of health problems and even death. For athletes, monitoring hydration has significant value in maximising performance during training and competition. It also offers medical personnel the opportunity to reduce health risks in situations where athletes engage in intentional weight loss. Simple non-invasive techniques, including weight monitoring and urine tests, can provide useful information. Bioimpedance methods tend to be easy to use and fairly inexpensive, but generally lack the precision and accuracy necessary for hydration monitoring. Blood tests appear to be the most accurate monitoring method, but are impractical because of cost and invasiveness. Although future research is needed to determine which hydration tests are the most accurate, we encourage sports teams to develop and implement hydration monitoring protocols based on the currently available methods. Medical personnel can use this information to maximise their team's athletic performance and minimise heat- and dehydration-related health risks to athletes.
Lebrun, Constance M
An important duty of any sports medicine physician is the care of athletes on the field and at the sidelines. Orthopaedic surgeons, who are trained to treat most musculoskeletal injuries, may not be as well prepared to treat the variety of medical issues and emergencies that are encountered in the "on-the-field" setting. In treating adolescent and high school athletes, advance preparation by the physician is critical for such entities as exercise-induced asthma, anaphylaxis, certain cardiac conditions, seizures, diabetes, and heat illnesses. The initial approach to the athlete who "goes to ground" always remains the same--management of the airway (with cervical spine precautions); establishment and maintenance of breathing and circulation; a limited neurologic examination to assess function; and removal of the athlete from the hazardous environment. Additional treatment is dictated by the specific illness or injury. As is usually the case, prevention is the best form of treatment. Many conditions can be detected at the preparticipation physical examination, which includes a thorough history and focused physical examination. Specific cardiovascular conditions that may be screened for include hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, Marfan syndrome, some congenital coronary artery abnormalities, and electrophysiologic rhythm disturbances. This examination also offers one of the best opportunities to provide information to athletes regarding optimal management of any chronic medical diseases. In preparation for an athletic event, excessive environmental heat and humidity may be addressed with several preventive strategies. Physicians also may be asked to provide counseling and make decisions about return to play for athletes who have had certain infectious diseases, including upper and lower respiratory infections and infectious mononucleosis.
Shruti Pandey; Vasudeva Singh
Aim – is to provide a comprehensive information regarding the nutritional needs of athletes, followed by female athletes who have a higher necessity for Iron. Sports and nutrition are directly related to each other. Taking into consideration the fact that sports person need more energy to carry out their sporting activity effectively, it becomes of prime importance to take care for sports performance. Athletes must supposedly eat the perfect ratio of Protein, carbohydrate and fat at each meal...
Green, D.J; Spence, A; Rowley, N; Thijssen, D.H.J; Naylor, L.H
Whilst the existence of a specific phenotype characterized as 'athlete's heart' is generally acknowledged, the question of whether athletes exhibit characteristic vascular adaptations has not been specifically addressed...
Breitbach, Anthony P; Brown, Sara D
Accredited Athletic Training Education programs (ATEPs) are sponsored by over 350 universities and are housed in a variety of academic units ranging from schools of education to schools of health professions. There are advantages to all stakeholders housing ATEPs in schools of health professions. Formed in the 1960s, many of the early ATEPs were housed in schools of education, when most program faculty and staff were employed by athletics departments and the profession had a distinct curricular connection to coaching. Athletic training has since evolved to a health care profession, and its educational processes need to reflect this model. By housing ATEPs in units that educate other health care providers, many efficiencies and collaborative opportunities are introduced with a resulting overall improvement in the quality of the professional education of athletic trainers. The authors, directors of ATEPs housed in schools of health professions, provide examples of these benefits, which include opportunities for participation in interprofessional initiatives; opportunities for faculty development and collaborative teaching among like-minded faculty; improved mechanisms for scholarship, support and funding mechanisms; and economies of scale in terms of program delivery requirements.
Bush, Ruth A
The present study investigated whether moderate, organized physical activity during high school has a positive residual effect on bone mineral density (BMD) in 30-35-year-old females. Seventy-three female former high-school varsity athletes and 67 self-reported low-activity age-matched controls completed a collegiate women's health survey and participated in a one-time clinical visit with bone scan. Lumbar (L1-L4) spine BMD, total hip BMD, percentage body fat, age at menarche, history of amenorrhea, family history of osteoporosis, college alcohol consumption, number of high school varsity seasons, as well as current nutritional intake (including calcium), number of weekly weight training sessions, and caloric expenditure were assessed. Using a saturated linear regression model, current percentage body fat and number of high school seasons predicted 22% of the observed variation in total hip BMD and 25% of the observed variation of lumbar (L1-L4) spine BMD (Pschool athletes were more likely to be frequent adult exercisers (PAthletic participants were more likely to have denser hip and spine bones than low-activity controls. Results suggest that participation in high school athletics is associated with greater BMD. Additionally, the varsity athletes continued to exercise frequently in their early 30s.
Hoffmann, John P
This research investigates the effects of extracurricular activities on alcohol use among male (n = 4,495) and female (n = 5,398) adolescents who participated in the 1990-92 National Education Longitudinal Study. Previous studies have assessed the association between extracurricular activities and alcohol use, but none have explored whether the association depends on the school context. Using a multilevel model, I examine whether school-level factors affect the relationship between involvement in athletic or nonathletic activities and changes in adolescent alcohol use from 1990 to 1992. The results indicate that the negative association between nonathletic activities and alcohol use is stronger among males in low-minority-population schools. Moreover the positive association between athletic involvement and alcohol use is stronger among females in lower-socioeconomic-status schools and males in higher-socioeconomic-status schools. I propose that these results reflect variation in high school cultures and in the resources available to schools.
Register-Mihalik, Johna K; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; McLeod, Tamara C Valovich; Linnan, Laura A; Mueller, Frederick O; Marshall, Stephen W
Many athletes continue to participate in practices and games while experiencing concussion-related symptoms, potentially predisposing them to subsequent and more complicated brain injuries. Limited evidence exists about factors that may influence concussion-reporting behaviors. To examine the influence of knowledge and attitude on concussion-reporting behaviors in a sample of high school athletes. Cross-sectional study. Participants completed a validated survey instrument via mail. A total of 167 high school athletes (97 males, 55 females, 5 sex not indicated; age = 15.7 ± 1.4 years) participating in football, soccer, lacrosse, or cheerleading. Athlete knowledge and attitude scores served as separate predictor variables. We examined the proportion of athletes who reported continuing to participate in games and practices while symptomatic from possible concussion and the self-reported proportion of recalled concussion and bell-ringer events disclosed after possible concussive injury. Only 40% of concussion events and 13% of bell-ringer recalled events in the sample were disclosed after possible concussive injury. Increased athlete knowledge of concussion topics (increase of 1 standard deviation = 2.8 points) was associated with increased reporting prevalence of concussion and bell-ringer events occurring in practice (prevalence ratio [PR] = 2.27, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.60, 3.21) and the reporting prevalence of bell-ringer-only events overall (PR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.38, 2.54). Athlete attitude scores (increase of 1 standard deviation = 11.5 points) were associated with decreases in the proportion of athletes stating they participated in games (PR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.66, 0.82) and practices (PR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.59, 0.77) while symptomatic from concussions. Most recalled concussion events in our study were not reported to a supervising adult. Clinicians should be aware that knowledge and attitude influence concussion reporting. Clinicians and administrators
Watson, Andrew M
Sleep is an essential component of health and well-being, with significant impacts on physical development, emotional regulation, cognitive performance, and quality of life. Along with being an integral part of the recovery and adaptive process between bouts of exercise, accumulating evidence suggests that increased sleep duration and improved sleep quality in athletes are associated with improved performance and competitive success. In addition, better sleep may reduce the risk of both injury and illness in athletes, not only optimizing health but also potentially enhancing performance through increased participation in training. Despite this, most studies have found that athletes fail to obtain the recommended amount of sleep, threatening both performance and health. Athletes face a number of obstacles that can reduce the likelihood of obtaining proper sleep, such as training and competition schedules, travel, stress, academic demands, and overtraining. In addition, athletes have been found to demonstrate poor self-assessment of their sleep duration and quality. In light of this, athletes may require more careful monitoring and intervention to identify individuals at risk and promote proper sleep to improve both performance and overall health. This review attempts to highlight the recent literature regarding sleep issues in athletes, the effects of sleep on athletic performance, and interventions to enhance proper sleep in athletes.
MacDonald, James; Duerson, Drew
Baseline assessments using computerized neurocognitive tests are frequently used in the management of sport-related concussions. Such testing is often done on an annual basis in a community setting. Reliability is a fundamental test characteristic that should be established for such tests. Our study examined the test-retest reliability of a computerized neurocognitive test in high school athletes over 1 year. Repeated measures design. Two American high schools. High school athletes (N = 117) participating in American football or soccer during the 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 academic years. All study participants completed 2 baseline computerized neurocognitive tests taken 1 year apart at their respective schools. The test measures performance on 4 cognitive tasks: identification speed (Attention), detection speed (Processing Speed), one card learning accuracy (Learning), and one back speed (Working Memory). Reliability was assessed by measuring the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) between the repeated measures of the 4 cognitive tasks. Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated as a secondary outcome measure. The measure for identification speed performed best (ICC = 0.672; 95% confidence interval, 0.559-0.760) and the measure for one card learning accuracy performed worst (ICC = 0.401; 95% confidence interval, 0.237-0.542). All tests had marginal or low reliability. In a population of high school athletes, computerized neurocognitive testing performed in a community setting demonstrated low to marginal test-retest reliability on baseline assessments 1 year apart. Further investigation should focus on (1) improving the reliability of individual tasks tested, (2) controlling for external factors that might affect test performance, and (3) identifying the ideal time interval to repeat baseline testing in high school athletes. Computerized neurocognitive tests are used frequently in high school athletes, often within a model of baseline testing
Rauh, Mitchell J; Nichols, Jeanne F; Barrack, Michelle T
...) and musculoskeletal injury among girls in high school sports. Prospective cohort study. The sample consisted of 163 female athletes competing in 8 interscholastic sports in southern California during the 2003-2004 school year...
Taylor, Mary Ellen; Sanner, Jennifer E.
Sports-related concussion or traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a frequent occurrence among high school athletes. Long-term and short-term effects of TBI on the athlete's developing brain can be minimized if the athlete reports and is effectively treated for TBI symptoms. Knowledge of concussion symptoms and a school culture of support are critical…
Buss, Bryan F.; Mueller, Shawn W.; Theis, Max; Keyser, Alison; Safranek, Thomas J.
Methicillin-resistant "Staphylococcus aureus" (MRSA) is an emerging cause of skin and soft-tissue infections among athletes. To determine statewide incidence among high school athletes, we surveyed all 312 Nebraska high schools regarding sport programs offered, program-specific participation numbers, number of athletes with…
Francois, Lucas D.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not a significant difference existed in the overall academic performance of athletes when compared to non-athletes at one rural high school in Wisconsin. The study was important to the field of educational leadership because in the current environment of accountability, educational leaders need…
Kulesza, Magdalena; Grossbard, Joel R.; Kilmer, Jason; Copeland, Amy L.; Larimer, Mary E.
The current Web-based survey investigated the association between team or individual sport participation (or both) and self-reported alcohol and tobacco use among high school athletes (N = 1,275) transitioning to college. Peak blood alcohol concentration, weekly drinking, and alcohol-related problems were significantly lower among athletes in…
Cranmer, Gregory A.; Brann, Maria; Anzur, Christine K.
This article focuses on how coaches can utilize a prosocial coaching behavior referred to as confirmation to promote positive experiences and development for youth and high school athletes. Confirmation centers on making athletes feel recognized, valued, supported and connected to others--all of which are goals of modern prosocial coaching…
Fritz, Stephanie A.; Long, Marcus; Gaebelein, Claude J.; Martin, Madeline S.; Hogan, Patrick G.; Yetter, John
Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are frequent in student athletes and are often caused by community-associated methicillin-resistant "Staphylococcus aureus" (CA-MRSA). We evaluated the awareness of CA-MRSA among high school coaches and athletic directors in Missouri (n = 4,408) and evaluated hygiene practices affecting SSTI…
Huang, D B; Cherek, D R; Lane, S D
This study investigated the relationship between aggression and type of sports involvement in high school age boys. Athletes (16 boys), ages 15 to 18 years, were separated into two groups, one of 8 athletes who participated in sports with high physical contact, e.g., football and basketball, and the other of 8 athletes who participated in low contact sports, e.g., track and baseball. Students participated in six 25-min. Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm sessions. The paradigm is an established laboratory model of aggression with three response options: (1) a point-maintained response, (2) an aggressive response, and (3) an escape response. Analysis indicated that the only difference between the groups was that individuals who participated in high contact sports emitted significantly more aggressive responses than individuals who participated in low contact sports. Similarly, psychometric measures of aggression indicated that individuals in the former group self-reported more behavioral incidents of aggression than those in the latter group.
Goldberg, Linn; Eliot, Diane
This article will provide information about two worthwhile programs that deal with education of high school athletes about use and abuse of steroids and other areas. Based on rationale and expressed need, program descriptions will be provided including summaries of relevant program results. Guidelines for what practitioners need to consider when…
The current review aims to evaluate the literature on eating disorders and athletes with the purpose of making recommendations for sport psychologists and other relevant personnel on how to proceed in identifying, managing, and preventing eating disorders in school settings. Whereas the intention of this review is to make recommendations for…
Gilbert, Jenelle N.
Coaches lacking a formal background in sport psychology may shy away from teaching these skills in favor of teaching physical skills with which they are more familiar. Other coaches may assume that athletes will learn sport psychology skills as a byproduct of their coaching pedagogy. Regardless, high school coaches are responsible for teaching…
Stokes, John V.; Luiselli, James K.; Reed, Derek D.
Between 2001 and 2005, football-related injuries accounted for 1,060,823 emergency room visits to U.S. hospitals (Mello, Myers, Christian, Palmisciano, & Linakis, 2009). Among high school football athletes, statistics reveal that for the period of 1984 to 1999, there were 63 injuries resulting in permanent disability (Mueller, 2001). Additional…
Ray, Tamela J.
In this qualitative study of public high school athletic directors (ADs), the experiences and contacts of eight White ADs (four men and four women) that influenced their ability to attain (achieve) and retain (maintain) the AD position are examined, compared and analyzed, with a specific focus on gender. Specifically, this study examines the…
Thompson, Lisa Dawn
The purpose of the study was twofold: to explore how school counselors and athletic educators experienced implementing the 2010 Massachusetts Anti-bullying law and to explore how participants experienced using the Sharevision structured group reflection process as the format for group discussions. The Sharevision structured group reflection…
Rahill, Stephanie A.; Norman, Krystal; Tomaschek, Amanda
This study examined a university-school district partnership intended to increase fourth grade students' awareness of college opportunities and to increase university student-athletes' understanding of the needs in the local community. A mixed methods design was used to evaluate whether the partnership met goals for the fourth grade students, the…
Rivara, Frederick P; Schiff, Melissa A; Chrisman, Sara P; Chung, Shana K; Ellenbogen, Richard G; Herring, Stanley A
Increasing attention has been paid to concussions and especially sports-related concussions in youth. To prevent an inappropriate return to play while symptomatic, nearly all states have now passed legislation on youth sports-related concussions. To determine (1) the incidence of sports-related concussions in high school athletes using a unique system to collect reports on concussions, (2) the proportion of athletes with concussions who play with concussive symptoms, and (3) the effect of the type and modality of coach education on the likelihood of athletes reporting symptoms to the coach or playing with concussive symptoms. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. This study was conducted with high school football and girls' soccer athletes playing in fall 2012 and their coaches and parents in 20 urban or rural high schools in Washington State. The main outcome was the incidence of concussions per 1000 athlete-exposures (AEs), the proportion of concussed athletes who played with concussive symptoms, and the association of coach concussion education with coach awareness of athletes with concussive symptoms. Among the 778 athletes, the rate of concussions was 3.6 per 1000 AEs and was identical for the 2 sports studied. The cumulative concussion incidence over the course of the season was similar in girls' soccer (11.1%) and football (10.4%). Sixty-nine percent of concussed athletes reported playing with symptoms, and 40% reported that their coach was not aware of their concussion. Most measures of coach concussion education were not associated with coach awareness of concussions in their athletes, although the modalities of a video and quiz were associated with a lower likelihood of coach awareness. More objective and accurate methods are needed to identify concussions. Changes in athlete attitudes on reporting concussive symptoms will likely not be accomplished through legislation alone.
Linking Perceptions of School Belonging to Academic Motivation and Academic Achievement amongst Student Athletes: A Comparative Study between High-Revenue Student Athletes and Non-Revenue Student Athletes
Anderson, Christine Marie
In this study, I examined the relationship that exists among school belonging, achievement motivation, and academic achievement in a sample of student-athletes at UC Berkeley. The goal of the study was to achieve a deeper understanding of how and why achievement motivation and academic achievement is often discrepant between revenue and…
Baugh, Christine M.; Kerr, Zachary Y.
Context: Data on high school (HS) rowing injuries are lacking. Objective: To describe the epidemiology of HS boys' and girls' rowing injuries during the 2011–2012 through 2013–2014 academic years. Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting: Injury and exposure data from 8 and 11 boys' and girls' rowing programs providing 13 and 17 team-seasons of data, respectively. Patients or Other Participants: High school boys' and girls' varsity rowing student-athletes. Intervention(s): High school rowing data from the National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network. Main Outcome Measure(s): Injury rates and rate ratios were reported with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: In HS boys' and girls' rowing, 59 and 190 injuries were reported, respectively, for rates of 2.39/1000 athlete-exposures (95% CI = 1.78, 3.00) and 8.60/1000 athlete-exposures (95% CI = 7.38, 9.82). The girls' rowing injury rate was 3.60 times that of boys' (95% CI = 2.69, 4.82). Conclusions: These findings suggest a higher injury rate among HS female rowers than HS male rowers. Additional research exploring reasons for the sex difference is warranted. PMID:27049926
Baugh, Christine M; Kerr, Zachary Y
Data on high school (HS) rowing injuries are lacking. To describe the epidemiology of HS boys' and girls' rowing injuries during the 2011-2012 through 2013-2014 academic years. Descriptive epidemiology study. Injury and exposure data from 8 and 11 boys' and girls' rowing programs providing 13 and 17 team-seasons of data, respectively. High school boys' and girls' varsity rowing student-athletes. High school rowing data from the National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network. Injury rates and rate ratios were reported with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). In HS boys' and girls' rowing, 59 and 190 injuries were reported, respectively, for rates of 2.39/1000 athlete-exposures (95% CI = 1.78, 3.00) and 8.60/1000 athlete-exposures (95% CI = 7.38, 9.82). The girls' rowing injury rate was 3.60 times that of boys' (95% CI = 2.69, 4.82). These findings suggest a higher injury rate among HS female rowers than HS male rowers. Additional research exploring reasons for the sex difference is warranted.
Lederman, Douglas; Farrell, Charles S.
A rift among college presidents perils the drive to reform college sports. Cost-cutting measures proposed by the presidents were defeated by NCAA members. Five athletic directors with widely differing programs view their own budget dilemmas, and college officials assail the decision permitting ineligible athletes to play professional football.…
Sherman, Roberta Trattner; Thompson, Ron A.
The Female Athlete Triad is a syndrome of the interrelated components of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Sometimes inadvertently, but more often by willful dietary restriction, many female athletes do not ingest sufficient calories to adequately fuel their physical or sport activities, which can disrupt menstrual functioning,…
... have a lasting effect on how strong a woman's bones are later in life. Who Gets Female Athlete Triad? Many girls have concerns about the size and shape of their bodies. But being a highly competitive athlete and participating in a sport that requires you to train extra hard can ...
Nielsen, Thomas Heine
The paper discusses Olympia as a panhellenic venue for athletics and the city-state interaction which took place at the sanctuary......The paper discusses Olympia as a panhellenic venue for athletics and the city-state interaction which took place at the sanctuary...
The athletic demands of cheerleading are often overlooked. In order to identify risks and develop injury prevention plans for this population, cheerleaders must first be recognized as the athletes they are. Recommendations for specifics of the preparticipation physicals for cheerleaders are provided. The need for evaluation of their development, nutrition, and associated risk cannot be overstressed.
Roos, Karen G; Marshall, Stephen W; Kerr, Zachary Y; Golightly, Yvonne M; Kucera, Kristen L; Myers, Joseph B; Rosamond, Wayne D; Comstock, R Dawn
Overuse injuries result from microtrauma due to repetitive loading combined with insufficient tissue recovery time and can result in both immediate and long-term time loss from sports. Overuse injury rates and patterns differ across college and high school populations, sport, and sex. Descriptive epidemiology study. Surveillance data for 16 sports from the National Collegiate Athletic Association's Injury Surveillance System (NCAA ISS; 2004-2005 through 2008-2009) and 14 sports from High School Reporting Information Online (High School RIO; 2006-2007 through 2012-2013) were analyzed. All reported injuries had an injury mechanism of overuse/gradual onset (college) or overuse/chronic (high school). Overuse injury incidence rates were calculated, and rate ratios with 95% CIs were used to compare subgroups. The rate of overuse injury was 3.28 times higher in college than high school sports (95% CI, 3.12-3.44). The rate of overuse injury among sex-comparable sports was higher in female than male athletes in both populations (college rate ratio, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.16-1.35; high school rate ratio, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.43-1.68). The lower extremity was the most commonly injured body site (college, 69.4%; high school, 70.4%). A larger proportion of overuse injuries among college athletes resulted in time loss of more than 21 days (college, 20.4%; high school, 7.7%) and surgery (college, 5.2%, high school, 2.5%). Overuse injuries can impose a significant burden on college and high school athletes. Interventions addressing prevention of overuse injury are needed. © 2015 The Author(s).
VanScoy, Rachel M; DeMartini, Julie K; Casa, Douglas J
Exertional heat illnesses (EHI) occur in various populations and settings. Within a school setting, there are student athletes who take part in physical activity where the risk of EHI is increased. The National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA) released an updated position statement on EHI in September of 2015. This article is a summary of the position statement. The sports medicine team, including school nurses and athletic trainers, provides quality health care to these physically active individuals. Thus, it is important for school nurses to understand the prevention, recognition, and treatment of EHI. © 2016 The Author(s).
Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Backer, Vibeke
Asthma is frequently found among elite athletes performing endurance sports such as swimming, rowing and cross-country skiing. Although these athletes often report symptoms while exercising, they seldom have symptoms at rest. Moreover, compared with nonathletic asthmatic individuals, elite athletes...... their physical capacity. Elite athletes should undergo comprehensive assessment to confirm an asthma diagnosis and determine its degree of severity. Treatment should be as for any other asthmatic individual, including the use of ß2-agonist, inhaled steroid as well as leukotriene-antagonist. It should, however......, be noted that daily use of ß-agonists could expose elite athletes to the risk of developing tolerance towards these drugs. Use of ß2-agonist should be replaced with daily inhaled corticosteroid treatment, the most important treatment of exercise-induced asthma. All physicians treating asthma should...
Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Backer, Vibeke
Asthma is frequently found among elite athletes performing endurance sports such as swimming, rowing and cross-country skiing. Although these athletes often report symptoms while exercising, they seldom have symptoms at rest. Moreover, compared with nonathletic asthmatic individuals, elite athletes...... their physical capacity. Elite athletes should undergo comprehensive assessment to confirm an asthma diagnosis and determine its degree of severity. Treatment should be as for any other asthmatic individual, including the use of β2-agonist, inhaled steroid as well as leukotriene-antagonist. It should, however......, be noted that daily use of β-agonists could expose elite athletes to the risk of developing tolerance towards these drugs. Use of β2-agonist should be replaced with daily inhaled corticosteroid treatment, the most important treatment of exercise-induced asthma. All physicians treating asthma should...
Rankin, James M.
The distribution of resources to athletic training programs varies greatly, depending on the size and scope of the athletic program. No research has been found that assesses the differences in dollars allocated within various athletic training settings or assesses whether the different program levels allocate similar proportions of their resources to like categories of expenditures. In this study, I assessed the financial resources available to athletic training programs at major football NCA...
Kerr, Zachary Y; Collins, Christy L; Pommering, Thomas L; Fields, Sarah K; Comstock, R Dawn
To investigate the epidemiology of dislocations/separations in a nationally representative sample of high school student-athletes participating in 9 sports. Descriptive epidemiologic study. Sports injury data for the 2005-2009 academic years were collected using an Internet-based injury surveillance system, Reporting Information Online (RIO). A nationally representative sample of 100 US high schools. Injuries sustained as a function of sport and gender. Dislocation/separation rates, body site, outcome, surgery, and mechanism. Dislocations/separations represented 3.6% (n = 755) of all injuries. The most commonly injured body sites were the shoulder (54.9%), wrist/hand (16.5%), and knee (16.0%); 18.4% of dislocations/separations were recurrences of previous injuries at the same body site; 32.3% of injuries were severe (ie, student-athletes unable to return to play within 3 weeks of the injury date), and 11.8% required surgical repair. The most common mechanisms of injury were contact with another player (52.4%) and contact with the playing surface (26.4%). Injury rates varied by sport. In gender-comparable sports, few variations in patterns of injury existed. Rates were highest in football (2.10 per 10 000 athletic exposures) and wrestling (1.99) and lowest in baseball (0.24) and girls' soccer (0.27). Although dislocation/separation injuries represent a relatively small proportion of all injuries sustained by high school student-athletes, the severity of these injuries indicates a need for enhanced injury prevention efforts. Developing effective targeted preventive measures depends on increasing our knowledge of dislocation/separation rates, patterns, and risk factors among high school athletes.
Rooney, Kevin F.
Athletic trainers work in clinical settings such as secondary schools, colleges and universities, sports medicine clinics, professional sports, hospitals, and other healthcare environments. However, with the rapid expansion of athletic training education programs (ATEP) over the years, another role for the athletic trainer has developed, the…
Marar, Mallika; McIlvain, Natalie M; Fields, Sarah K; Comstock, R Dawn
In the United States (US), an estimated 300,000 sports-related concussions occur annually. Among individuals 15 to 24 years of age, sports are second only to motor vehicle crashes as the leading cause of concussions. To investigate the epidemiology of concussions in high school athletes by comparing rates and patterns of concussion among 20 sports. Descriptive epidemiology study. Using an Internet-based data collection tool, RIO, certified athletic trainers from a large, nationally disperse sample of US high schools reported athlete exposure and injury data for 20 sports during the 2008-2010 academic years. During the study period, 1936 concussions were reported during 7,780,064 athlete-exposures (AEs) for an overall injury rate of 2.5 per 10,000 AEs. The injury rate was higher in competition (6.4) than practice (1.1) (rate ratio [RR], 5.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.2-6.3). The majority of concussions resulted from participation in football (47.1%, n = 912), followed by girls' soccer (8.2%, n = 159), boys' wrestling (5.8%, n = 112), and girls' basketball (5.5%, n = 107). Football had the highest concussion rate (6.4), followed by boys' ice hockey (5.4) and boys' lacrosse (4.0). Concussions represented a greater proportion of total injuries among boys' ice hockey (22.2%) than all other sports studied (13.0%) (injury proportion ratio [IPR], 1.7; 95% CI, 1.4-2.1; P sports, girls had a higher concussion rate (1.7) than boys (1.0) (RR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.4-2.0). The most common mechanisms of injury were player-player contact (70.3%) and player-playing surface contact (17.2%). In more than 40% of athletes in sports other than girls' swimming and girls' track, concussion symptoms resolved in 3 days or less. Athletes most commonly returned to play in 1 to 3 weeks (55.3%), with 22.8% returning in less than 1 week and 2.0% returning in less than 1 day. Although interest in sports-related concussions is usually focused on full-contact sports like football and ice hockey
Barkai, Hava-Shoshana; Nichols, Jeanne F; Rauh, Mitchell J; Barrack, Michelle T; Lawson, Mandra J; Levy, Susan S
Weight-bearing exercise during adolescence may enhance peak bone mineral density (BMD) and reduce osteoporosis risk. The association of sports participation before and after menarche with areal BMD (by central DXA) was investigated in 99 female high school athletes (age 15.5+/-1.3 year). The frequency and duration of structured sports (school-based or other organized team) were assessed using an interviewer-assisted questionnaire. Overall, the average number of years of weight-bearing sport participation was 7.4+/-3.4 years; 72% of the athletes began sport participation before menarche. Training patterns and BMD were examined by tertiles of yearly weight-bearing sport participation (hours/year) before (WBpre), after (WBpost) menarche, and in total (WBtotal). After adjusting for chronological age, gynecological age, and BMI, compared to athletes in the WBtotal low tertile, athletes in the WBtotal high tertile had significantly greater BMD at the spine (p=0.009), total hip (p=0.03), trochanter (p=0.03), and total body (p=0.009). Similar patterns were found by WBpre or WBpost status, separately, with the exception of spine BMD which was significantly different across tertiles in WBpost only (presults indicate that near year-round participation in structured weight-bearing sports during early adolescence may help young girls optimize bone mineral accrual during these critical years, and may decrease their risk of osteoporosis with advancing age.
Metzl, J D; Small, E; Levine, S R; Gershel, J C
Creatine is a nutritional supplement that is purported to be a safe ergogenic aid in adults. Although as many as 28% of collegiate athletes admit taking creatine, there is little information about creatine use or potential health risk in children and adolescents. Although the use of creatine is not recommended in people less than 18 years of age, numerous anecdotal reports indicate widespread use in young athletes. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency, risk factors, and demographics of creatine use among middle and high school student athletes. Before their annual sports preparticipation physical examinations, middle and high school athletes aged 10 to 18 in Westchester County, a suburb north of New York City, were surveyed in a confidential manner. Information was collected regarding school grade, gender, specific sport participation, and creatine use. Overall, 62 of 1103 participants (5.6%) admitted taking creatine. Creatine use was reported in every grade, from 6 to 12. Forty-four percent of grade 12 athletes surveyed reported using creatine. Creatine use was significantly more common (P sport, use was significantly more common among football players, wrestlers, hockey players, gymnasts, and lacrosse players (P performance (74.2% of users) and improved appearance (61.3%), and the most common reason cited for not taking creatine was safety (45.7% of nonusers). Despite current recommendations against use in adolescents less than 18 years old, creatine is being used by middle and high school athletes at all grade levels. The prevalence in grades 11 and 12 approaches levels reported among collegiate athletes. Until the safety of creatine can be established in adolescents, the use of this product should be discouraged.
Scott, Sandra E.
Describes Athletes Caring Together-Informing, Organizing and Networking (ACTION), a chemical health program targeted at student athletes developed by the New York State Public High School Athletic Association (NYSPHSAA). ACTION focuses on athletes, coaches, and parents without increasing staffing or funding. Includes a list of trainers. (FMW)
Smith, Laura J; Creps, James R; Bean, Ryan; Rodda, Becky; Alsalaheen, Bara
Lower extremity injuries account for 32.9% of the overall injuries in high school athletes. Previous research has suggested that asymmetry greater than 4cm using the Y-Balance TestTM Lower Quarter (YBT-LQ) in the anterior direction is predictive of non- contact injuries in adults and collegiate athletes. The prevalence of asymmetries or abnormal YBT-LQ performance is not well documented for adolescents. The primary purposes of this study are: 1) to characterize the prevalence of YBT-LQ asymmetries and performance in a cross-sectional sample of adolescents, 2) to examine possible differences in performance on the YBT-LQ between male and female adolescents, and 3) to describe the test-retest reliability of the YBT-LQ in a subsample of adolescents. Observational cross-sectional study. High-school athletes completed the YBT-LQ as main outcome measure. 51 male, 59 female high-school athletes participated in this study. Asymmetries greater than 4cm in the posteromedial (PM) reach direction were most prevalent for male (54.9%) and female (50.8%) participants. Females presented with slightly higher composite scores. Good reliability (ICC = 0.89) was found for the anterior (ANT) direction, and moderate reliability with 0.76 for posterolateral (PL) and 0.63 for PM directions. The MDC95 for the ANT direction was 6% and 12% for both the PL and PM directions. The YBT-LQ performance can be beneficial in assessing recovery in an injured extremity compared to the other limb. However, due to the large MDC95, noted in the PM and PL directions, the differences between sequential testing cannot be attributed to true change in balance unless they exceed the MDC95. In this study, 79% of the athletes presented with at least one asymmetry in YBT-LQ reach distances. Moderate reliability in the PL and PM directions warrants reexamination of the definition of asymmetry in these directions.
Melnick, Merrill J.; Miller, Kathleen E.; Sabo, Donald F.; Barnes, Grace M.; Farrell, Michael P.
Although seat belts save lives, adolescents may be disproportionately likely to omit their use. Using data from the 1997 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a national survey of over 16,000 U.S. public and private high school students, we employed a series of logical regression analyses to examine cross-sectional associations between past-year athletic participation and regular seat belt omission. Controlling for the effects of gender, age, race, parental education, and school urbanicity, student ath...
Ni Luh Gede Karyamitha
Full Text Available Soccer is a favorite sport for people around the world including in Indonesia. Not only the method of training or talent that will determine the achievement, but the intake of daily nutrients directly proper also provide a positive influence on performance and achievements of athletes. The purpose of this study was to determine the adequacy of nutrition, physical activity, and nutritional status of young men athletes soccer. This study useds cross-sectional method. The number of samples taken as much as 96 athletes from all senior high schools in Denpasar and selected systematic random sampling. Results showed the average level of nutritional adequacy of athletes still in the category of less (<80%. Respectively for energy, carbohydrates, proteins, and fats are 75.95%, 77.24%, 78.96% and 75.83%. If seen the proportion of athletes that sufficient levels of nutrients in enough categories, then each for energy, carbohydrates, proteins, and fats are 58.3%, 57.3%, 51%, and 53.1%. Level of physical activity in athletes only low (56.3% and moderate category (43.8%. Most athletes have normal nutritional status (94.8%, there was only 1% having thin status, and 4.2% had nutritional status of overweight. The advice can be given to provide knowledges that related with intake of nutrients for the coaches and athletes, increasing physical activity for athletes who have low physical activity, and can be the nutritional status as a selection soccer athletes. However, further research can be done is to measure the physical endurance athletes associated with the intake of nutrients or physical activity.
Economopoulos, Kostas J.; Milewski, Matthew D.; Hanks, John B.; Hart, Joseph M.; Diduch, David R.
Background: Two of the most common causes of groin pain in athletes are femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and athletic pubalgia. An association between the 2 is apparent, but the prevalence of radiographic signs of FAI in patients undergoing athletic pubalgia surgery remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of radiologic signs of FAI in patients with athletic pubalgia. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that patients with athletic pubalgia would have a high prevale...
Abbas, Kausar; Shenk, Trey E; Poole, Victoria N; Robinson, Meghan E; Leverenz, Larry J; Nauman, Eric A; Talavage, Thomas M
Sub-concussive head impacts are identified as a source of accrued damage. Football athletes experience hundreds of such blows each season. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to prospectively study changes in Default Mode Network connectivity for clinically asymptomatic high school football athletes. Athletes exhibited short-term changes relative to baseline and across sessions.
Morley, Nicholas; Grant, Thomas; Blount, Kevin; Omar, Imran
Athletic pubalgia, or "sports hernia", represents a constellation of pathologic conditions occurring at and around the pubic symphysis. These injuries are primarily seen in athletes or those involved in athletic activity. In this article, we review the sonographic appearance of the relevant complex anatomy, scanning technique for ultrasound evaluation of athletic pubalgia, and the sonographic appearances of associated pathologic conditions.
Darrow, Cory J; Collins, Christy L; Yard, Ellen E; Comstock, R Dawn
Over 7 million students participate in high school athletics annually. Despite numerous health benefits, high school athletes are at risk for injury. Severe injury rates and patterns differ by gender and type of exposure. Study Design Descriptive epidemiology study. Sports-related injury data were collected during the 2005-2007 academic years from 100 nationally representative United States high schools via RIO (Reporting Information Online). Severe injury was defined as any injury that resulted in the loss of more than 21 days of sports participation. Participating certified athletic trainers (ATCs) reported 1378 severe injuries during 3 550 141 athlete-exposures (0.39 severe injuries per 1000 athletic exposures). Football had the highest severe injury rate (0.69), followed by wrestling (0.52), girls' basketball (0.34), and girls' soccer (0.33). The rate in all boys' sports (0.45) was higher than all girls' sports (0.26) (rate ratio [RR], 1.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.54-1.98; P sports (soccer, basketball, and baseball/softball), girls sustained a higher severe injury rate (0.29) than boys (0.23) (RR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.08-1.52; P = .006). More specifically, girls' basketball had a higher rate (0.34) than boys' basketball (0.24) (RR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.10-1.86; P = .009). Differences between boys' and girls' soccer and baseball/softball were not statistically significant. The severe injury rate was greater in competition (0.79) than practice (0.24) (RR, 3.30; 95% CI, 2.97-3.67; P sports injuries, 0.3% resulted in medical disqualification for the athletes' career, and an additional 56.8% resulted in medical disqualification for the entire season. One in 4 (28.3%) severe injuries required surgery, with over half (53.9%) being knee surgeries. Severe injury rates and patterns varied by sport, gender, and type of exposure. Because severe injuries negatively affect athletes' health and often place an increased burden on the health care system, future research should
Meron, Adele; McMullen, Christopher; Laker, Scott R; Currie, Dustin; Comstock, R Dawn
More than 7 million athletes participate in high school (HS) sports annually, with both the benefits of physical activity and risks of injury. Although catastrophic cervical spine injuries have been studied, limited data are available that characterize less-severe cervical spine injuries in HS athletes. To describe and compare cervical spine injury rates and patterns among U.S. HS athletes across 24 sports over a 10-year period. Descriptive epidemiology study. National sample of high schools participating in the High School Reporting Information Online injury surveillance system. Athletes from participating schools injured in a school sanctioned practice, competition, or performance during the 2005-2006 through 2014-2015 academic years. Cervical spine injury data captured by the High School Reporting Information Online system during the 10-year study period were examined. Cervical spine injury was defined as any injury to the cervical spinal cord, bones, nerves, or supporting structures of the cervical spine including muscles, ligaments, and tendons. Cervical spine injury rates, diagnoses, mechanisms, and severities. During the study period, 1080 cervical spine injuries were reported during 35,581,036 athlete exposures for an injury rate of 3.04 per 100,000 athlete exposures. Injury rates were highest in football (10.10), wrestling (7.42), and girls' gymnastics (4.95). Muscle injuries were most common (63.1%), followed by nerve injuries (20.5%). A larger proportion of football injuries were nerve injuries compared with all other sports (injury proportion ratio 3.31; confidence interval 2.33-4.72), whereas in boys' ice hockey fractures represented a greater proportion of injuries compared with all other sports (injury proportion ratio 7.64; confidence interval 2.10-27.83). Overall, the most common mechanisms of injury were contact with another player (70.7%) and contact with playing surface (16.1%). Cervical spine injury rates and patterns vary by sport and gender
Rhea, Matthew R; Peterson, Mark D; Lunt, Kregg T; Ayllón, Fernando Naclerio
Resisted jumping devices and resisted plyometric training have become more common in recent years. The effectiveness of such training has yet to be determined among high school athletes. Sixty-four high school athletes (50 boys and 14 girls) from a variety of sports were divided into 2 groups and participated in a training intervention that differed only by the use of the VertiMax jump trainer in 1 group. Lower-body power was tested before and after the intervention and compared statistically for differences between the groups. Athletes from both groups followed a periodized training program with resistance exercises performed 2 or 3 days per week, and sprint and plyometric training (i.e., training control group) or sprint, plyometric, and VertiMax training (i.e., VertiMax group) 1 or 2 days per week, for 12 total weeks. In addition to the traditional compound lower-body lifts and equated sprint work, the VertiMax group performed supplementary exercises on the VertiMax training apparatus. The average improvement in power observed in the training control group was 49.50 +/- 97.83 W, and the increase in power in the VertiMax group was 217.14 +/- 99.21 W. The differences in power after the test and improvements in power with training were found to differ between the groups (P VertiMax training group. Combined with previous research with college athletes, these data show the added effectiveness of resisted jump training on the VertiMax among athletes for the development of lower-body power.
Joseph, Allan M; Collins, Christy L; Henke, Natalie M; Yard, Ellen E; Fields, Sarah K; Comstock, R Dawn
The knee joint is the second most commonly injured body site after the ankle and the leading cause of sport-related surgeries. Knee injuries, especially of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), are among the most economically costly sport injuries, frequently requiring expensive surgery and rehabilitation. To investigate the epidemiology of ACL injuries among high school athletes by sport and sex. Descriptive epidemiology study. Using an Internet-based data-collection tool, Reporting Information Online (RIO), certified athletic trainers from 100 nationally representative US high schools reported athlete-exposure and injury data for athletes from 9 sports during the 2007/08-2011/12 academic years. The outcome of interest in this study was ACL injuries. During the study period, 617 ACL injuries were reported during 9 452 180 athlete exposures (AEs), for an injury rate of 6.5 per 100 000 AEs. Nationally, in the 9 sports studied, an estimated 215 628 ACL injuries occurred during the study period. The injury rate was higher in competition (17.6) than practice (2.4; rate ratio [RR] = 7.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 6.08, 8.68). Girls' soccer had the highest injury rate (12.2) followed by boys' football (11.1), with boys' basketball (2.3) and boys' baseball (0.7) having the lowest rates. In sex-comparable sports, girls had a higher rate (8.9) than boys (2.6; RR = 3.4, 95% CI = 2.64, 4.47). Overall, 76.6% of ACL injuries resulted in surgery. The most common mechanisms of injury were player-to-player contact (42.8%) and no contact (37.9%). Anterior cruciate ligament injury rates vary by sport, sex, and type of exposure. Recognizing such differences is important when evaluating the effectiveness of evidence-based, targeted prevention efforts.
Duellman, Margaret C; Lukaszuk, Judith M; Prawitz, Aimee D; Brandenburg, Jason P
Protein supplements commonly are ingested by athletes to improve strength, agility, and speed. While athletes require a higher amount of protein (g.kg body weight) than nonathletes do to support protein synthesis, they do not necessarily need to consume protein from supplemental sources. To date, no studies have shown an advantage of ingesting protein supplements over natural, protein-containing foods; therefore, dietary sources of protein may be just as effective as protein supplemental sources in the regulation of muscle protein synthesis. Misconceptions regarding protein supplement effectiveness may originate from athletes' nutrition information sources. A survey questionnaire queried high school football players about sources of information and measured protein supplement misconceptions by using scores on a Protein Supplement Misconceptions Index. Sixty-one high school football players participated in the study; 39 were protein supplementers, and 22 were non-protein supplementers. There was a significant difference between index scores of protein supplementers and non-protein supplementers (t = -3.4, p = 0.001), indicating that protein supplementers had a greater level of misconceptions than non-protein supplementers did. Bonferroni post hoc procedures used with individual index items revealed that protein supplementers were more likely than non-protein supplementers to agree that "athletes should take protein supplements" (p = 0.001) and needed them "to gain as much muscle as possible" (p = 0.001). Greater misconceptions for protein supplementers may have resulted from the sources chosen for information and advice. Since coaches, parents, and friends were the primary sources of advice about protein supplements for protein supplementers, it would be valuable to provide nutrition education to these groups concurrently with educating young athletes to dispel ongoing misconceptions regarding the need for and effectiveness of protein supplements.
There has been a long standing controversy on the role of a resting electrocardiogram (ECG) in the preparticipation examination of athletes, as well as in children and adolescents, in leisure time and competitive athletes. Besides other arguments, this was due to the limited validity, which led to false positive and false negative findings. Recent studies from different research groups yielded a significant improvement in establishing ECG criteria in athletes to discriminate normal from abnormal or pathological findings in athletes. This is additionally supported and improved by a software-based ECG device considering the new Seattle criteria. These new criteria from the Seattle conference reliably discriminate normal from abnormal findings. Frequent ECG findings in athletes, especially in those engaged in endurance sports are sinus bradycardia, atrioventricular (AV) block and signs of left ventricular hypertrophy. Abnormal findings are related to structural left ventricular alterations due to cardiomyopathy, mainly hypertrophic with or without outflow tract obstruction, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) and dilated cardiomyopathy. The ECG findings suggestive of electrical conductance disorders are observed in channelopathies, Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome supraventricular arrhythmias or disturbances of cardiac conduction. The main diseases are long or short QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. Atrial fibrillation, mostly paroxysmal, is also now more frequently observed especially in middle aged endurance athletes. Interpretation of ECG in young and older athletes requires in-depth knowledge in cardiology and sports medicine. The interpretation can only be carried out by considering medical history, clinical examination and ethnicity. Profound and long-term experience of athlete's ECG interpretation is required to protect athletes and to prevent cardiac emergencies.
Albert W. Pearsall IV
Full Text Available The use of oral corticosteroid (OCS drugs is advocated because of their potent anti-inflammatory effects. They also possess many potential adverse effects. No study has assessed physician prescribing practices of OCS therapy in high school (HS or college (COL athletes. This paper reports the prescribing patterns of sports medicine physicians who used short-term OCS therapy and to describe associated complications in HS and COL athletes within a 24- month period. An internet link to a descriptive epidemiology survey was included in an e-mail to all members of the Arthroscopy Association of North America and the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine. Descriptive statistics and correlation analysis were used to examine responses. Total response rate was 32% (615/1,928. Sixty-six percent of the physicians indicated prescribing OCS to both groups of athletes, while 29% reported prescribing OCS to COL athletes and 5% to HS athletes for musculoskeletal injuries. Physicians who prescribed multiple OCS regimens to the same athlete within the same season (P = 0.01 and physicians who prescribed OCS to the skeletally immature athlete (P = 0.009 reported more complications than other physicians. Among the 412 physicians who did not prescribe OCS in the treatment of athletic induced musculoskeletal injury, 251 (61% cited a risk of developing medical complications as the primary reason for avoiding use. The reported number of medical complications was low with no cases of avascular necrosis reported for the 2-year recall period. Orthopaedic surgeons who treated athletic induced musculoskeletal injuries with a short-term course of oral corticosteroids reported that high school and college athletes benefited with few medical complications
Kay, Melissa C C; Welch, Cailee E; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C
Concussions are one of the most common sport-related injuries affecting athletes participating at all levels across a variety of sports. It has been reported that up to 3.8 million concussive events occur per year that are sports-related. One significant issue with identifying concussions is that a clinical diagnosis is based on the presence of signs and symptoms, which are self-reported by the patient. In the adolescent population, injury to the brain is possible with even the slightest insult, which can affect recovery and predispose them to subsequent concussions. Recent legislative efforts have included athlete education as a means to improve concussion reporting. More specifically, all 50 US states and the District of Columbia have implemented concussion legislation that includes some type of concussion education protocol, but there is still little evidence to suggest that enhanced knowledge levels result in behavior changes, including improved concussion-reporting practices. It is unclear what factors make an adolescent athlete more or less likely to report the symptoms of a concussion. What factors positively or negatively influence secondary school athletes' likelihood of reporting symptoms of sport-related concussions?
Hull, James; Jackson, Anna; Dickinson, John W.
Cough is the most common respiratory symptom reported by athletes and can significantly impact on health status, ability to train and athletic performance. The presence of cough in an athlete is typically taken to indicate exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB), yet in many athletes with chronic cough there is no objective evidence of airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) or heightened airway inflammation. Moreover, cough in athletes often fails to respond to a therapeutic asthma strategy, th...
McGuine, Timothy A; Keene, James S
Ankle sprains are the most common musculoskeletal injuries that occur in athletes, and they have a profound impact on health care costs and resources. A balance training program can reduce the risk of ankle sprains in high school athletes. Randomized controlled clinical trial; Level of evidence, 1. Seven hundred and sixty-five high school soccer and basketball players (523 girls and 242 boys) were randomly assigned to either an intervention group (27 teams, 373 subjects) that participated in a balance training program or to a control group (28 teams, 392 subjects) that performed only standard conditioning exercises. On-site athletic trainers recorded athlete exposures and sprains. The rate of ankle sprains was significantly lower for subjects in the intervention group (6.1%, 1.13 of 1000 exposures vs 9.9%, 1.87 of 1000 exposures; P = .04). Athletes with a history of an ankle sprain had a 2-fold increased risk of sustaining a sprain (risk ratio, 2.14), whereas athletes who performed the intervention program decreased their risk of a sprain by one half (risk ratio, 0.56). The ankle sprain rate for athletes without previous sprains was 4.3% in the intervention group and 7.7% in the control group, but this difference was not significant (P = .059). A balance training program will significantly reduce the risk of ankle sprains in high school soccer and basketball players.
Litwin, Demetrius E M; Sneider, Erica B; McEnaney, Patrick M; Busconi, Brian D
Athletic pubalgia or sports hernia is a syndrome of chronic lower abdomen and groin pain that may occur in athletes and nonathletes. Because the differential diagnosis of chronic lower abdomen and groin pain is so broad, only a small number of patients with chronic lower abdomen and groin pain fulfill the diagnostic criteria of athletic pubalgia (sports hernia). The literature published to date regarding the cause, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of sports hernias is confusing. This article summarizes the current information and our present approach to this chronic lower abdomen and groin pain syndrome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
In brief: A panel of exercise physiologists and physicians involved with athletes discuss the little-understood subject of overtraining. It is the point where too much training puts the athlete over-rather than at-his or her peak. The panel discusses the signs and causes of overtraining and suggests ways to prevent it by monitoring post-workout weight, evening fluid intake, time to bed, loss of sleep, and morning heart rate. They stress the importance of the coach and emphasize that good communication and ongoing concern for athletes as individuals can go a long way toward preventing overtraining.
McLeod, Tamara C Valovich; Bliven, Kellie C Huxel; Lam, Kenneth C; Bay, R Curtis; Valier, Alison R Snyder; Parsons, John T
Increased rates of sport participation and sport-related injury have led to greater emphasis on and attention to medical care of student-athletes in the secondary school setting. Access to athletic training services is seen as a critical factor for delivering adequate injury prevention and medical care to student-athletes. However, few data are available regarding practice characteristics of athletic trainers (ATs) in this setting. To characterize the practices of secondary school athletic trainers (ATs). Descriptive study. Web-based survey. A total of 17 558 ATs with current National Athletic Trainers' Association membership were identified for survey distribution. Of these, 4232 ATs indicated that they practiced in the secondary school setting, and 4045 completed some part of the survey. A Web-based survey was used to obtain demographic information about ATs and their secondary schools and characteristics of athletic training practice. Descriptive data regarding the athletic trainer's personal characteristics, secondary school characteristics, and practice patterns are reported as percentages and frequencies. Most respondents were in the early stages of their careers and relatively new to the secondary school practice setting. Nearly two-thirds (62.4%; n = 2522) of respondents had 10 or fewer years of experience as secondary school ATs, 52% (n = 2132) had been certified for 10 or fewer years, and 53.4% (n = 2164) had 10 or fewer years of experience in any practice setting. The majority of respondents (85%) worked in public schools with enrollment of 1000 to 1999 (35.5%) and with football (95.5%). More than half of respondents were employed directly by their school. Most respondents (50.6%) reported an athletic training budget of less than $4000. The majority of ATs performed evaluations (87.5%) on-site all of the time, with a smaller percentage providing treatments (73.3%) or rehabilitation (47.4%) services all of the time. This is the first study to describe
Non-selective Division III institutions often face challenges in meeting their enrollment goals. To ensure their continued viability, these schools recruit large numbers of student athletes. As a result, when compared to FBS (Football Bowl Division) institutions these schools have a much higher percentage of student athletes on campus and a…
Full Text Available It is well documented that regular physical activity has a beneficial effect on human health by affecting the metabolic processes that are of fundamental importance in the body’s functions, such as insulin sensitivity and glucose disposal, as well as lipid and lipoprotein turnover. On the other hand, there is a wealth of studies which indicate that strenuous, regular physical activity, such as that performed by high performance athletes, may be detrimental for the athletes’ health especially in women. This review focuses on the factors that contribute to health problems in female athletes, named the female athlete triad, which includes excessive dieting, menstrual dysfunctions (anovulatory menstrual cycles, oligomenorrhea, amenorrhea and a low bone mineral density (BMD. As a result of these factors, women who participate in sports, especially those focused on leanness, need special attention and education from health professionals, coaches and the athletes themselves to prevent the detrimental effects of an inadequate energy supply against high energy demands.
... be due to an eating disorder, such as anorexia.Girls and women may be at risk for the female athlete triad if they:are a competitive athleteplay sports that require them to maintain a certain weight ...
.org Sports Hernia (Athletic Pubalgia) Page ( 1 ) A sports hernia is a painful, so tissue injury that occurs in ... groin area. It most o en occurs during sports that require sudden changes of direction or intense ...
Collins, Kathryn; And Others
Over a two-year period this study evaluated the condition of 65 athletes with nerve injuries. These injuries represent the spectrum of nerve injuries likely to be encountered in sports medicine clinics. (Author/MT)
Perry, Tekla S.
The real-world meeting of electronics, computer monitoring, control systems, and mathematics, introduced in the context of sports, is described. Recent advances in the field of biomechanics and its use in improving athletic performance are discussed. (KR)
Full Text Available Aim – is to provide a comprehensive information regarding the nutritional needs of athletes, followed by female athletes who have a higher necessity for Iron. Sports and nutrition are directly related to each other. Taking into consideration the fact that sports person need more energy to carry out their sporting activity effectively, it becomes of prime importance to take care for sports performance. Athletes must supposedly eat the perfect ratio of Protein, carbohydrate and fat at each meal and snack to control the hormonal systems and thus reach their maximum performance and ideal weight .The carbohydrate/protein/fat ratio of the 40-30-30 diet allegedly maintains the proper balance between the hormones insulin and glucagon. The present review focuses on the intake for a wholesome nutrient and well balanced diet for better performance among male as well as female athletes.
Assad, Ana Paula Luppino; Abreu, Andressa Silva; Seguro, Luciana Parente Costa; Guedes, Lissiane Karine Noronha; Lima, Fernanda Rodrigues; Pinto, Ana Lucia de Sá
The adolescent athletes are at greater risk of low back pain and structural spine injuries. Spondylolysis is responsible for the majority of back pain cases in young athletes, rarely occurring in adults. We report a case of a 13-year-old judo female athlete, who came to our service with 5 months of progressive low back pain during training which was initially attributed to mechanical causes, without any further investigation by imaging methods. At admission, the patient had lumbar deformity, antalgic posture and bilaterally positive unipodalic lumbar hyperextension maneuver. After a research which showed spondyloptosis, the patient underwent surgery. In this article, we discuss, based on this case report, the diagnostic approach to low back pain in young athletes, since the complaint of chronic back pain can be a marker of a structural lesion that may be permanent and bring irreversible functional loss.
Kroshus, Emily; Rivara, Frederick P; Whitlock, Kathryn B; Herring, Stanley A; Chrisman, Sara P D
First, to assess whether teams at schools with an athletic trainer (AT) on staff had a higher number of diagnosed concussions than teams without medical personnel present. Second, to assess whether the variability in employment of a certified AT by Washington state high schools is patterned by socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. Cross-sectional survey. Washington state public high schools. Stratified random sample of football and soccer coaches (n = 270 teams, 144 schools). Presence of an AT and school characteristics (percentage of students qualifying for free or reduced price lunch, rural location, enrollment). Football and boys' soccer teams at schools with an AT had a significantly greater number of athletes with diagnosed concussions compared to teams at schools without an AT (P girls' soccer. Schools with an AT on staff were significantly more likely than schools without an AT to be in an urban location (P sport and underscores the challenges to AT staffing in lower resource settings. These findings cause us to critically reflect on the threshold for medical oversight in contact and collision sport from the perspective of risk prevention, and the extent to which disparities in this medical oversight are acceptable in the public school setting. Strategies for increasing AT staffing in high school sports settings should be explored given their demonstrated benefit in diagnosing concussions.
Hassan, Abdul-Rahman; Lam, Michael Huen Sum; Ku, Susanna; Li, William Ho Cheung; Lee, Ka Yiu; Ho, Eva; Flint, Stuart W.; Wong, Anthony Siu Wo
Dropout of sport is an issue in sport and public health domains. The aim of this study was to identify the potential dropout reasons of school athletes and to examine if their perception of dropout was affected by the previous dropout experience. There were 50 subjects who were divided into two groups based on their previous dropout experience (Dropout Group=22, No Dropout Group=28). They filled a questionnaire about potential dropout reasons of the current sport. Coach and teammates were two...
武内, 政幸; 岡田, 龍司; 平山, 聡子; マツモト, デービット
This study of which aim is to promote and develop Judo correctly and establish teaching methods and teaching philosophy as instructors is about the relationship between Judo training and positive spiritual and psychological outcome, by measuring the psychological characteristics which are necessary for intercultural adjustment among judo athletes in Japan. To test this hypothesis, we collected data on the ICAPS (intercultural Adjustment Potential Scale) from 141 Japanese high-school male Judo...
Sudden death is rare in the young athlete. The causes may vary. In the US, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy plays the predominant role whereas in Europe right ventricular arrhythmogenic dysplasia and atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries are more frequent. Other causes such as congenital anomalies of the coronary vessels, myocarditis, Marfan's disease, the long QT, the Brugada and the Wollf-Parkinson-White syndromes exist, but are rare. Attentive preparticipation screening (clinical history and medical examination) is mandatory in all future young athletes.
Dilek Ongan; Gülgün Ersoy
Vegetarian diets have been mentioned on having long and short term beneficial effects while they are important parts of the Western countries. Vegetarians are not homogeneous groups and subjects are motivated to be on a vegetarian diet because of culturel and regional reasons, ethical concerns including animal rights, health parameters and environmental situations. And these reasons differ from vegetarian and omnivour athletes. Athletes, especially endurance ones (sprinters, cyclists, triathl...
Full Text Available Olympic weightlifting movements and their variations are believed to be among the most effective ways to improve power, strength, and speed in athletes. This study investigated the effects of two Olympic weightlifting variations (hang cleans and hang snatches, on power (vertical jump height, strength (1RM back squat, and speed (40-yard sprint in female collegiate athletes. 23 NCAA Division I female athletes were randomly assigned to either a hang clean group or hang snatch group. Athletes participated in two workout sessions a week for six weeks, performing either hang cleans or hang snatches for five sets of three repetitions with a load of 80-85% 1RM, concurrent with their existing, season-specific, resistance training program. Vertical jump height, 1RM back squat, and 40-yard sprint all had a significant, positive improvement from pre-training to post-training in both groups (p≤0.01. However, when comparing the gain scores between groups, there was no significant difference between the hang clean and hang snatch groups for any of the three dependent variables (i.e., vertical jump height, p=0.46; 1RM back squat, p=0.20; and 40-yard sprint, p=0.46. Short-term training emphasizing hang cleans or hang snatches produced similar improvements in power, strength, and speed in female collegiate athletes. This provides strength and conditioning professionals with two viable programmatic options in athletic-based exercises to improve power, strength, and speed.
Takahashi, Saeko; Okuwaki, Toru
We investigated the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries among athletes in junior high school and high school by retrospectively reviewing Japan Sports Council notification data registered over a period of 10 years. The total number of ACL injuries during the 10-year period was 30,458, with an incidence of 0.81 per 1000 athlete-years. Among those with ACL injuries, the ratio of girls to boys was 2.8, and incidence of injury was significantly greater among girls than boys (1.36 as against 0.48). Athletes in the 11th grade demonstrated the highest incidence of ACL injuries. We also found that the greatest incidence of ACL injuries was among female high school basketball players; the second highest being among female high school Judo athletes. For sports with a greater number of ACL injuries and a higher injury rate, it is necessary to obtain more detailed data and analysis to determine an effective prevention programme.
Wikman, Johan Michael; Ryom, Knud Eske; Stelter, Reinhard
This study reports the effects of a recovery intervention in young elite athletes in high school. The scissors model (Kellmann & Kallus, 2001) was used as a theoretical foundation for the intervention. An intervention group (n = 40) participated in 12 weekly intervention sessions, while the control...
Pitney, William A; Weuve, Celest; Mazerolle, Stephanie M
Workplace bullying (WPB) has recently received much attention in society. Research on WPB in athletic training practice settings is limited. To determine the prevalence of WPB in the secondary school setting and explore the factors related to it. Mixed-methods study. Secondary school. A total of 567 athletic trainers (women = 322 [56.8%], men = 245 [43.2%]), aged 36.5 ± 11.1 years with 11.9 ± 9.5 years of experience took part in phase I. Ten participants (7 women and 3 men), aged 39.3 ± 10.1 years with 14.3 ± 8.3 years of experience, took part in phase II. For the online survey, we used the previously validated and reliable (Cronbach α = .84) Athletic Training Workplace Environment Survey, which included the Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised. The prevalence of WPB was measured with descriptive statistics, and χ 2 analyses were used to compare differences between groups (ie, females and males, perpetrators' titles). The interview data were examined using an inductive content analysis. Of the participants, 44 (7.8%) were empirically identified as targets of bullying, though a higher percentage (12.4%, n = 70) self-identified as bullying targets. Men and women did not differ with respect to having experienced WPB, but more perpetrators were male (71.6%, n = 48) than female (28.4%, n = 19; χ 2 1 = 12.55, P = discrimination were antecedents of bullying. Stress, depression, and sleep disturbances were reported consequences. Participants coped with bullying by avoidance and role refocusing. Bullying was experienced by a small percentage of athletic trainers in the secondary school setting, a contrast to the findings in the collegiate practice setting.
Onate, James A; Starkel, Cambrie; Clifton, Daniel R
The fourth edition of the Preparticipation Physical Evaluation recommends functional testing for the musculoskeletal portion of the examination; however, normative data across sex and grade level are limited.3 Establishing normative data can provide clinicians reference points with which to compare their patients, potentially aiding in the development of future injury-risk assessments and injury-mitigation programs. To establish normative functional performance and limb-symmetry data for high school-aged male and female athletes in the United States. Cross-sectional study. Athletic training facilities and gymnasiums across the United States. A total of 3951 male and female athletes who participated on high school-sponsored basketball, football, lacrosse, or soccer teams enrolled in this nationwide study. Functional performance testing consisted of 3 evaluations. Ankle-joint range of motion, balance, and lower extremity muscular power and landing control were assessed via the weight-bearing ankle-dorsiflexion- lunge, single-legged anterior-reach, and anterior single-legged hop-for-distance (SLHOP) test, respectively. We used 2-way analyses of variance and χ2 analyses to examine the effects of sex and grade level on ankle-dorsiflexion-lunge, single-legged anterior-reach, and SLHOP performance and symmetry. The SLHOP performance differed between sexes (males = 187.8% ± 33.1% of limb length, females = 157.5% ± 27.8% of limb length; t = 30.3, P performance. We observed differences for SLHOP and ankle-dorsiflexion-lunge performance between grade levels, but these differences were not clinically meaningful. We demonstrated differences in normative data for lower extremity functional performance during preparticipation physical evaluations across sex and grade levels. The results of this study will allow clinicians to compare sex- and grade-specific functional performances and implement approaches for preventing musculoskeletal injuries
Pitney, William A.; Weuve, Celest; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.
Context: Workplace bullying (WPB) has recently received much attention in society. Research on WPB in athletic training practice settings is limited. Objective: To determine the prevalence of WPB in the secondary school setting and explore the factors related to it. Design: Mixed-methods study. Setting: Secondary school. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 567 athletic trainers (women = 322 [56.8%], men = 245 [43.2%]), aged 36.5 ± 11.1 years with 11.9 ± 9.5 years of experience took part in phase I. Ten participants (7 women and 3 men), aged 39.3 ± 10.1 years with 14.3 ± 8.3 years of experience, took part in phase II. Data Collection and Analysis: For the online survey, we used the previously validated and reliable (Cronbach α = .84) Athletic Training Workplace Environment Survey, which included the Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised. The prevalence of WPB was measured with descriptive statistics, and χ2 analyses were used to compare differences between groups (ie, females and males, perpetrators' titles). The interview data were examined using an inductive content analysis. Results: Of the participants, 44 (7.8%) were empirically identified as targets of bullying, though a higher percentage (12.4%, n = 70) self-identified as bullying targets. Men and women did not differ with respect to having experienced WPB, but more perpetrators were male (71.6%, n = 48) than female (28.4%, n = 19; χ21 = 12.55, P = bullies being coaches or administrators (χ26 = 33.82, P = bullying. Stress, depression, and sleep disturbances were reported consequences. Participants coped with bullying by avoidance and role refocusing. Conclusions: Bullying was experienced by a small percentage of athletic trainers in the secondary school setting, a contrast to the findings in the collegiate practice setting. PMID:27718590
Eldridge, James A; Palmer, Ty B; Gillis, Kyle; Lloyd, Richard; Squires, William G; Murray, Tinker D
The Toronto Charter for Physical Activity (2010) and several national physical activity plans advocate sports participation as an important part of population targeted physical activity for youth. Emerging research evidence also suggests that sports participation during adolescents is linked to significant positive correlations with academic and behavioral performance. The purpose of this study was to compare academic and behavioral performance between male and female public school athletes (Total N=11,139; 38% Female) and non-athletes (Total N=23,891; 52% Female) in a convenient, ethnicity diverse, sample (grades 7-12) from the state of Texas (USA). We examined the passing rates of individual athletes and non-athletes on standardized tests (Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills, TAKS) for math, language arts, reading, writing, science, and social studies. We also examined the percentage of athletes and non-athletes for being "at risk," for dropping out of school and for the total average number of disciplinary actions. Chi-Square statistical analyses comparing athletes to non-athletes showed that athletes scored significantly better (psports is positively correlated to better academic and behavioral performances for athletes compared to non-athletes.
Felipe Bittencourt Oliveira
Full Text Available The goal of this study was to identify the effects from technical and physical activities on the VO2, of male athletes aged 14 to 15, participants of a soccer school, in the municipality of Rio Pardo - RS. The semi-experimental research involved 10 male adolescents. For the VO2 evaluation the 12 minute Cooper test was used. Interval-training work was applied, at which the athletes exercised 75% of their maximum speed, in 60-meter runs. After training for two months (at least two sessions a week the Cooper post-test was applied to check the improvement of the VO2. As results of this study, we can draw the conclusion that all adolescents involved in this training showed considerable improvement in their maximum VO2, especially the 15-year-old teens, who managed to obtain a much higher percentage level.
Parnabas, vincent; Mahamood, Yahaya; Parnabas, Julinamary; Nazaruddin, Muhamad Nizam; Abdullah, Nagoor Meera; Omar-Fauzee, Mohd Soffian
The aim of this research was to identify the USAge of drugs on athletes by focusing on gender and different categories level of athletes. The sample, which was chosen randomly consisted of 115 athletes, consisting of national athletes (N=35), state athletes (N=35), district athletes (N=19), and university athletes (N=26). Based on gender, the present research consists of 70 male and 45 female athletes. Drug Usage Questionnaire, were used to collect the data. The result showed that the main mo...
.... The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible positive effects of sportsmanship on sleep quality and to assess the possible differences in sleep quality between athletes and non-athletes...
Register-Mihalik, Johna K; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C; Linnan, Laura A; Mueller, Frederick O; Marshall, Stephen W
Context: Many athletes continue to participate in practices and games while experiencing concussion-related symptoms, potentially predisposing them to subsequent and more complicated brain injuries...
McGuine, Timothy A; Post, Eric G; Hetzel, Scott J; Brooks, M Alison; Trigsted, Stephanie; Bell, David R
Sport specialization is associated with an increased risk of musculoskeletal lower extremity injuries (LEIs) in adolescent athletes presenting in clinical settings. However, sport specialization and the incidence of LEIs have not been investigated prospectively in a large population of adolescent athletes. To determine if sport specialization was associated with an increased risk of LEIs in high school athletes. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Participants (interscholastic athletes in grades 9-12) were recruited from 29 Wisconsin high schools during the 2015-2016 school year. Participants completed a questionnaire identifying their sport participation and history of LEIs. Sport specialization of low, moderate, or high was determined using a previously published 3-point scale. Athletic trainers reported all LEIs that occurred during the school year. Analyses included group proportions, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs, and days lost due to injury (median and interquartile range [IQR]). Multivariate Cox proportional hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs were calculated to investigate the association between the incidence of LEIs and sport specialization level. A total of 1544 participants (50.5% female; mean age, 16.1 ± 1.1 years) enrolled in the study, competed in 2843 athletic seasons, and participated in 167,349 athlete-exposures. Sport specialization was classified as low (59.5%), moderate (27.1%), or high (13.4%). Two hundred thirty-five participants (15.2%) sustained a total of 276 LEIs that caused them to miss a median of 7.0 days (IQR, 2.0-22.8). Injuries occurred most often to the ankle (34.4%), knee (25.0%), and upper leg (12.7%) and included ligament sprains (40.9%), muscle/tendon strains (25.4%), and tendinitis/tenosynovitis (19.6%). The incidence of LEIs for moderate participants was higher than for low participants (HR, 1.51 [95% CI, 1.04-2.20]; P = .03). The incidence of LEIs for high participants was higher than for low participants (HR, 1.85 [95% CI, 1
Sombito, Lester Jamili
Understanding of the persistence of student-athletes in athletics at the D-III level is complex. This research study investigated the issue of student-athlete retention by focusing on Division III (D-III) student-athlete persistence in athletics by asking the following research question, "To what extent do freshman student-athletes persist in…
Chen, Lung Hung; Kee, Ying Hwa
Two cross-sectional studies were conducted to examine the relationships between gratitude and athletes' well-being. Study 1 examines the relationship between dispositional gratitude and well-being, while Study 2 investigates the relationship between sport-domain gratitude and well-being. In Study 1, 169 Taiwanese senior high school athletes (M =…
High school athletes represent the largest group of individuals affected by sudden cardiac death, with an estimated incidence of once or twice per week. Structural cardiovascular abnormalities are the most frequent cause of sudden cardiac death. Athletes participating in basketball, football, track, soccer, baseball, and swimming were found to…
American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.
This handbook contains nutritional information for athletic coaches and others who provide this information and guidance to high school and college students. The purposes of the handbook are to review briefly the content of a sound basic diet and to analyze theories and practices that would relate to nutrition and athletic performance. The…
Cooper, Kenneth J.
Is playing big-time college sports an extracurricular activity or a job? Two law professors at Michigan State University, Robert and Amy McCormick, think it is definitely a job for football and basketball players on athletic scholarships at Division I schools. The married couple has added a new dimension to the long debate over paying athletes by…
Ingram, Jay G; Fields, Sarah K; Yard, Ellen E; Comstock, R Dawn
The knee joint is the second most commonly injured body site and the leading cause of high school sports-related surgeries. Knee injuries are among the most economically costly sports injuries and may require subsequent surgery or extensive and expensive rehabilitation. To report the incidence, risk, and severity of high school knee injuries across sports, genders, and type of exposure. Descriptive epidemiology study. During the 2005-2006 and 2006-2007 school years, 100 US high schools were randomly selected for a nationally representative sample. Certified athletic trainers tracked injuries using an online injury surveillance system, High School RIO, in 9 high school sports. There were 1383 knee injuries reported during 3,551131 athlete exposures for a rate of 3.89 knee injuries per 10,000 athlete exposures. Although boys had a higher overall rate of knee injury (rate ratio, 1.38; confidence interval, 1.22-1.55), girls were twice as likely to sustain knee injuries requiring surgery (major knee injuries) than were boys (injury proportion ratio, 1.98; confidence interval, 1.45-2.70) and twice as likely to incur noncontact major knee injuries (injury proportion ratio, 1.98; confidence interval, 1.23-3.19) as were boys. Although illegal play was identified as a contributing factor in only 5.7% of all knee injuries, 20% of knee injuries resulting from illegal play required surgery. Knee injury rates and patterns varied by sport, gender, and type of exposure. Identified gender differences included differences in injury rates, injury severity, and basic injury mechanism. Further surveillance is crucial for the development of targeted, evidence-based injury prevention strategies to reduce the morbidity and economic impact of knee surgeries.
Aug 22, 2012 ... Objectives: To explore the female athlete triad components in university track and field athletes, as well as calculate estimated energy availability. ... Athletes with menstrual pattern changes had lower spine [1.043 (0.975-1.059) vs. ..... subject burden and fatigue, and establishing the exact cut-off point.
Kissinger, Daniel B.; Newman, Richard; Miller, Michael T.; Nadler, Daniel P.
Community college student athletes are unique in their setting in the world of college student athletes. Many compete for the love of their sport, while others have aspirations for transferring to major colleges to continue their participation. The current study made use of the Athletic Identity Measurement Scale with a sample of nearly 400…
This paper seeks to explore the attraction and the beauty of the contemporary athletic body. It will be suggested that a body shaped through muscular bulk and definition has come to be seen as aesthetically normative. This body differs from the body of athletes from the early and mid-twentieth century. It will be argued that the contemporary body is not merely the result of advances in sports science, but rather that it is expressive of certain meanings and values. The visual similarity of the contemporary athletic body and that of the comic book superhero suggests that both bodies carry a similar potential for narrative story-telling, and that their attraction is bound up with this narrative potential. The superhero and athlete live meaningful lives, pursuing clear and morally unambiguous goals. The aesthetic attraction of the body lies in its capacity to facilitate the articulation of a story of a meaningful life, and to do so in the face of the growing anomie and thus meaninglessness of life as experienced in contemporary society. Athleticism offers an illusion of meaning, serving to reproduce dominant justificatory narratives and social stereotypes. Yet, as an illusion of meaning, it may be challenged and negotiated, not least with respect to its bias towards a certain form of the male body. The female athletic body disrupts the illusion, opening up new existential possibilities, new ways of living and being, and thus new, and potentially disruptive, narratives.
Tayrose, Gregory A.; Beutel, Bryan G.; Cardone, Dennis A.; Sherman, Orrin H.
Context: With the ever-increasing number of masters athletes, it is necessary to understand how to best provide medical support to this expanding population using a multidisciplinary approach. Evidence Acquisition: Relevant articles published between 2000 and 2013 using the search terms masters athlete and aging and exercise were identified using MEDLINE. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Results: Preparticipation screening should assess a variety of medical comorbidities, with emphasis on cardiovascular health in high-risk patients. The masters athlete should partake in moderate aerobic exercise and also incorporate resistance and flexibility training. A basic understanding of physiology and age-related changes in muscle composition and declines in performance are prerequisites for providing appropriate care. Osteoarthritis and joint arthroplasty are not contraindications to exercise, and analgesia has an appropriate role in the setting of acute or chronic injuries. Masters athletes should follow regular training regimens to maximize their potential while minimizing their likelihood of injuries. Conclusion: Overall, masters athletes represent a unique population and should be cared for utilizing a multidisciplinary approach. This care should be implemented not only during competitions but also between events when training and injury are more likely to occur. Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): B. PMID:26131307
Terry, P C; Howe, B L
The study examined the coaching preferences of 80 male and 80 female athletes, as measured by the Leadership Scale for Sports (Chelladurai and Saleh, 1978, 1980). In addition, it attempted to assess the applicability to sport of the Life-cycle and Path-goal theories of leadership. Comparisons between groups were made on the basis of sex, age, and type of sport. A MANOVA indicated that athletes in independent sports preferred more democratic behaviour (p less than .001) and less autocratic behaviour (p = .028) than athletes in interdependent sports. No differences in coaching preferences were found which could be attributed to the age or sex of the athlete, or the variability of the sports task. These results partially supported the Path-goal theory, but did not support the Life-cycle theory. Athletes of all groups tended to favour coaches who displayed training behaviour and rewarding behaviour "often", democratic behaviour and social support behaviour "occasionally", and autocratic behaviour "seldom". This consistency may be a useful finding for those organizations and institutions interested in preparing coaches.
Kuhn, Andrew Warren; Solomon, Gary S
Computerized neuropsychological testing batteries have provided a time-efficient and cost-efficient way to assess and manage the neurocognitive aspects of patients with sport-related concussion. These tests are straightforward and mostly self-guided, reducing the degree of clinician involvement required by traditional clinical neuropsychological paper-and-pencil tests. To determine if self-reported supervision status affected computerized neurocognitive baseline test performance in high school athletes. Retrospective cohort study. Supervised testing took place in high school computer libraries or sports medicine clinics. Unsupervised testing took place at the participant's home or another location with computer access. From 2007 to 2012, high school athletes across middle Tennessee (n = 3771) completed computerized neurocognitive baseline testing (Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing [ImPACT]). They reported taking the test either supervised by a sports medicine professional or unsupervised. These athletes (n = 2140) were subjected to inclusion and exclusion criteria and then matched based on age, sex, and number of prior concussions. We extracted demographic and performance-based data from each de-identified baseline testing record. Paired t tests were performed between the self-reported supervised and unsupervised groups, comparing the following ImPACT baseline composite scores: verbal memory, visual memory, visual motor (processing) speed, reaction time, impulse control, and total symptom score. For differences that reached P < .05, the Cohen d was calculated to measure the effect size. Lastly, a χ(2) analysis was conducted to compare the rate of invalid baseline testing between the groups. All statistical tests were performed at the 95% confidence interval level. Self-reported supervised athletes demonstrated better visual motor (processing) speed (P = .004; 95% confidence interval [0.28, 1.52]; d = 0.12) and faster reaction time (P
Patel, Dilip R.; Greydanus, Donald E.; Pratt, Helen D.; Phillips, Elaine L.
Reviews research on eating disorders in adolescent athletes, including prevalence, its uncommonness among male athletes, risk factors, medical complications, prevention strategies, and implications for sport and exercise participation, management, and prognosis. (EV)
Hinton, Pamela S
Iron is a trace mineral that is highly significant to endurance athletes. Iron is critical to optimal athletic performance because of its role in energy metabolism, oxygen transport, and acid-base balance...
Johnson, Karen E; McRee, Annie-Laurie
Preparticipation examinations (PPEs), or sports physicals, present opportunities for health care providers to identify and discuss common adolescent health-risk behaviors. We sought to examine the prevalence of health-risk behaviors among high school athletes and the proportion of providers who address these behaviors during PPEs. For this descriptive study we used data from two statewide surveys: a survey of adolescents (n = 46,492) and a survey of nurse practitioners and physicians (n = 561). The most prevalent risk behaviors reported by student athletes were low levels of physical activity (70%), bullying perpetration (41%), and alcohol use (41%). Most providers (≥75%) addressed many common risk behaviors during PPEs but fewer addressed bullying, violence, and prescription drug use. Topics discussed differed by provider type and patient population. Many providers addressed critical threats to adolescent health during PPEs, but findings suggest potential disconnects between topics addressed during PPEs and behaviors of athletes. Copyright © 2015 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chin, Chun-Yip; Chow, Gary Chi-Ching; Hung, Kwong-Chung; Kam, Lik-Hang; Chan, Ka-Chun; Mok, Yuen-Ting; Cheng, Nga-Mei
The previous investigations in diurnal variation of endurance sports performance did not reach a consensus and have been limited. This study would be a valuable resource for endurance sports trainers and event managers to plan their training and competition in a specific time of day. The aim of this study is to find out the diurnal variation in cardiovascular endurance performance in the young athletes. Thirty five athlete students (15.17 ± 1.62 years) participated in this study. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), post-exercise percentage of maximal heart rate (MHR% post-ex), post-exercise body temperature (BTemppost-ex), and post exercise blood lactic acid level (LApost-ex) were measured in this study. Three non-consecutive testings: A) Morning (09:00-10:00; AM), B) Noon (12:00-13:00; NN) and C) Afternoon (16:00-17:00; PM) were conducted. Participants were required to follow the meal plan and resting schedule for all testing days. VO2max was significantly higher at NN (F2. 68 = 3.29, P performance was found and the highest exercise VO2max was identified at noon. Secondary school students or young athletes are recommended to have sports training related to VO2max at noon for the purpose of maximizing training effectiveness.
Caron, Jeffrey G; Rathwell, Scott; Delaney, J Scott; Johnston, Karen M; Ptito, Alain; Bloom, Gordon A
Although experts have noted that adolescent athletes should be educated about concussions to improve their safety, there is no agreement on the most effective strategy to disseminate concussion education. The purpose of this study was to develop, implement and assess a concussion education programme. More precisely, four interactive oral presentations were delivered to high school student-athletes (N = 35, Mage = 15.94, SD = 0.34) in a large urban centre. Participants completed a questionnaire at three time-points during the season to measure changes in their knowledge (CK) and attitudes (CA) of concussions, and focus group interviews were conducted following the concussion education programme. Questionnaire data revealed participants' post-intervention CK scores were higher than their pre-intervention scores. During the focus groups, the student-athletes said they acquired CK about the role of protective equipment and symptom variability, and in terms of CA, they intended to avoid dangerous in-game collisions in the future. Our study was the first to create and deliver a concussion education intervention across multiple time-points, and to use mixed-methods in its assessment. These findings may be of interest to researchers, practitioners and stakeholders in sport who are invested in making the sport environment safer through concussion education and awareness.
Price, David E; McWilliams, Andrew; Asif, Irfan M; Martin, Anthony; Elliott, Spencer D; Dulin, Michael; Drezner, Jonathan A
The best protocol for cardiovascular preparticipation screening (PPS) in young athletes is uncertain. The purpose of this study was to determine the value of integrating electrocardiographic (ECG) testing with standard history and physical examination during PPS to identify potentially serious cardiovascular abnormalities in young athletes. A total of 2017 high school athletes seeking clearance for competitive sports were prospectively evaluated using a standardized history and physical examination, 12-lead ECG, and two-dimensional echocardiogram (echo). Primary outcome measures included the identification of cardiac disorders associated with sudden cardiac death. Secondary outcome measures included identification of abnormal, but nonlethal, cardiac conditions that required medical follow-up. Of these athletes, 14.7% had an abnormal history or physical examination and 3.1% had an abnormal ECG based on modern ECG interpretation criteria. Five primary outcomes (1 hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, 4 Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome) and four secondary outcomes were identified. History and physical examination detected 40% of primary and 50% of secondary abnormalities. ECG detected all five primary abnormalities but none of the secondary abnormalities. Echo was abnormal in 1.2% and detected one primary and four secondary abnormalities. The false-positive rates for primary and secondary outcomes for history and physical examination and ECG were 14.5% and 2.8%, respectively. ECG adds value to PPS through increased detection of arrhythmogenic and structural cardiovascular conditions associated with sudden cardiac death. Use of modern ECG interpretation standards allows a low false-positive rate. Routine echo may detect other clinically important cardiac abnormalities, but its role in PPS remains uncertain. Copyright © 2014 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Iverson, Grant L.; Silverberg, Noah D.; Mannix, Rebekah; Maxwell, Bruce A.; Atkins, Joseph E.; Zafonte, Ross; Berkner, Paul D.
Importance Every state in the United States has passed legislation for sport-related concussion, making this health issue important for physicians and other health care professionals. Safely returning athletes to sport after concussion relies on accurately determining when their symptoms resolve. Objective To evaluate baseline concussion-like symptom reporting in uninjured adolescent student athletes. Design, Setting, and Participants In this cross-sectional, observational study, we studied 31 958 high school athletes from Maine with no concussion in the past 6 months who completed a preseason baseline testing program between 2009 and 2013. Results Symptom reporting was more common in girls than boys. Most students with preexisting conditions reported one or more symptoms (60%-82% of boys and 73%-97% of girls). Nineteen percent of boys and 28% of girls reported having a symptom burden resembling an International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10) diagnosis of postconcussional syndrome (PCS). Students with preexisting conditions were even more likely to endorse a symptom burden that resembled PCS (21%-47% for boys and 33%-72% for girls). Prior treatment of a psychiatric condition was the strongest independent predictor for symptom reporting in boys, followed by a history of migraines. For girls, the strongest independent predictors were prior treatment of a psychiatric condition or substance abuse and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The weakest independent predictor of symptoms for both sexes was history of prior concussions. Conclusions and Relevance In the absence of a recent concussion, symptom reporting is related to sex and preexisting conditions. Consideration of sex and preexisting health conditions can help prevent misinterpretation of symptoms in student athletes who sustain a concussion. PMID:26457403
State high school athletic associations are tasked with facilitating equitable athletic opportunities for all member schools. To accomplish this task, state associations implement rules designed to ensure competitive balance (Johnson, Tracy, & Pierce, 2015). With over 7.8 million participants, interscholastic athletics are extremely popular…
Howard-Hamilton, Mary F.; Sina, Julie A.
Discusses how college affects student athletes. Research cited includes studies using theories of student development and results from the National Study on Student Learning that describe the desired outcomes of college for student athletes. Discusses implications for policies and practices that address the critical needs of student athletes.…
Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E.; McBee, Sheldon
Nutritional needs for peak athletic performance include sufficient calorie intake, adequate hydration, and attention to timing of meals. Student athletes and their advisors often are misinformed or have misconceptions about sports nutrition. This paper identifies nutritional needs of young athletes, reviews common misconceptions, and examines the…
Webber, Kelly; Stoess, Amanda Ireland; Forsythe, Hazel; Kurzynske, Janet; Vaught, Joy Ann; Adams, Bailey
Background/Objectives: Collegiate athletes generally appear healthy according to weight for height and body fat standards. Despite the fact that there are well known connections between athletic performance and nutrition, little is known about the diets of collegiate athletes. The objective of this study was to determine the diet quality of 138…
Many colleges award more merit-based scholarship money to athletes than to all other undergraduates combined. Critics say this sends disturbing messages about institutional priorities. Others claim athletic scholarships derive from sports-related income. Awarding of athletic scholarships based on need would partially alleviate the problem. (MSE)
I remain deeply concerned by the situation involving our three student-athletes. I remain concerned with the known behavior regardless of the judicial disposition. All of us in the Athletics Department believe behavior above reproach should be the norm for Virginia Tech student-athletes.
Olympia, Robert P; Brady, Jodi
Approximately 7.6 million high school students in the United States participate in sports. Although most sport-related injuries in adolescents are considered minor emergencies, life-threatening illnesses or injuries may occur, such as sudden cardiac arrest, heat stroke, status asthmaticus and exercise-induced asthma, catastrophic brain injuries, cervical spine injuries, heat- and cold-related illness, blunt chest/abdominal injuries, and extremity fractures resulting in compartment syndrome. Emergency preparedness in athletics involves the identification of and planning for medical services to promote the safety of the athlete, to limit injury, and to provide medical care at the site of practice or competition. Several national organizations have published guidelines for emergency preparedness in school-based athletics. Our article reviews guidelines for emergency preparedness put forth by the Sideline Preparedness collaboration (comprised of 6 major professional associations, including the American Academy of Family Physicians, American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons, American College of Sports Medicine, American Medical Society for Sports Medicine, American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine, and American Osteopathic Academy of Sports Medicine), the National Athletic Trainers' Association, the American Academy of Pediatrics' Committee on School Health, and the American Heart Association. Additionally, we review published data examining compliance of US high schools with these recommendations for emergency preparedness in school-based athletics, determine deficiencies, and provide recommendations for improvement based on these deficiencies.
Slauterbeck, James R; Reilly, Autumn; Vacek, Pamela M; Choquette, Rebecca; Tourville, Timothy W; Mandelbaum, Bert; Johnson, Robert J; Beynnon, Bruce D
Static and dynamic exercises are performed before activity to decrease injury risk and increase performance. Although evidence supports using dynamic over static stretching and performing Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) 11+ as a dynamic prepractice routine, we do not know the frequency at which these exercises are utilized in high school populations. We hypothesize that there is a wide variety of preparticipation exercises performed by high school athletes, and that few high school teams perform FIFA 11+ as an injury prevention program in its entirety. Observational study. Level 4. High school prepractice routines were observed for 185 teams (football, soccer, basketball, and lacrosse) over 1 season. The percentages of team warm-up routines that included components of FIFA 11+ were calculated, and the chi-square test was used to compare sex, sport, and level of competition. Of a total 644 warm-up observations, 450 (69.9%) included only non-FIFA 11+ exercises, 56 (8.7%) included at least 1 FIFA 11+ exercise, and 38 (5.9%) included only jogging; 69 (10.6%) consisted only of sport-specific activities. The type of warm-up differed significantly between males and females ( P = 0.002), sports ( P < 0.001), and level of competition ( P < 0.001). Static stretching and athletes stretching on their own were observed in 14% and 15% of all observations. No team performed the FIFA 11+ injury prevention routine in its entirety. The type of warm-up differed by sex, sport, and level of competition. Static stretching was performed more frequently than anticipated, and an entire FIFA 11+ warm-up was never performed. We need to identify the exercises that decrease injury and increase performance and better inform the athletic population about the risks and benefits of static and dynamic warm-up programs.
Vick, Timothy Lee
This study investigated the relationship of size, wealth, and district type to athletic success and found that wealth and size were important predictors of athletic performance. The relationship of these variables to performance was anticipated in a theory of differentiation propounded by Blau and Schoenerr (1971). The authors theorized that…
Loucks, Anne B; Kiens, Bente; Wright, Hattie H
Abstract This review updates and complements the review of energy balance and body composition in the Proceedings of the 2003 IOC Consensus Conference on Sports Nutrition. It argues that the concept of energy availability is more useful than the concept of energy balance for managing the diets...... of athletes. It then summarizes recent reports of the existence, aetiologies, and clinical consequences of low energy availability in athletes. This is followed by a review of recent research on the failure of appetite to increase ad libitum energy intake in compensation for exercise energy expenditure...
Han, D H; Kim, S M; Zaichkowsky, L
The main purpose of our research was to examine attachment type and competition anxiety in high school student athletes and general high school students. We recruited 465 student athletes and 543 general students to participate in our study. The Revised Korean version of the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (K-ECRS) and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2) were given to all students. In χ2 tests, athletes showed attachment types in the following order of prevalence: fearful, dismissive, and preoccupied, compared to the fearful, preoccupied, and dismissive order observed in general students. In parametric, independent t-tests, athletes reported significantly higher cognitive anxiety scores, relative to general students. Further, athletes with insecure attachment compared to those with secure attachment reported higher cognitive anxiety scores and self-confidence scores. In both the athletes with insecure attachment and general students with insecure attachment groups, the K-ECRS anxiety subscale was significantly correlated with CSAI-2 total score. In post hoc analysis in the athletes with insecure attachment group, the K-ECRS anxiety subscale was also significantly correlated with the CSAI-2 cognitive anxiety subscale. These results suggest that anxious athletes with an insecure attachment style tend to exaggerate threats from both external and internal sources, which negatively affect their performances.
Sarah K. Fields
Full Text Available Sports and energy (S/E drinks are commonly used by high school (HS athletes, yet little is known about this population’s consumption patterns or the drinks’ side-effects. The objectives of this pilot study were to survey HS athletes about their use of S/E drinks and assess potential side-effects. One hundred American HS athletes (72 were female; 27 were male; one did not identify gender were part of a cross-sectional internet-based survey. The mean age of the athletes was 16.0 ± 1.1 years. The athletes self-reported S/E consumption patterns, motivations for consumption, and drink side-effects. Nearly two-thirds (59.5% of athletes surveyed were at least occasional users of sports drinks, and more than one-third (37.3% were at least occasional users of energy drinks. Of the athletes who had ever drunk an S/E drink, 49.5% drank their first sport drink at ≤ 8 years and 41.3% consumed their first energy drink ≤ 11–12 years of age. The most common motivation for consumption of sports drinks was to rehydrate (84.1% and of energy drinks was to gain energy (61.8%. Side effects of S/E drinks were frequently reported; 25.3% of energy drink users reporting being nervous/jittery after consumption. Thus HS athletes should be cautioned about consumption of S/E drinks until more is understood about their short- and long-term side-effects.
Conatser, Phillip; Naugle, Keith; Tillman, Mark; Stopka, Christine
Certified athletic trainers (ATs) are often the first health care providers to treat injured athletes. However, few researchers have studied ATs' beliefs concerning working with Special Olympics athletes. To examine ATs' beliefs toward working with Special Olympics athletes by using the theory of planned behavior model and to examine the influence of moderator variables. Cross-sectional survey. Athletic Trainers' Beliefs Toward Special Olympics Athletes survey instruments were mailed to 147 directors of Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs-accredited athletic training education programs (ATEPDs) in 43 states and 120 cities. One hundred twenty ATEPDs (44 women, 76 men). We used stepwise multiple regression analysis to determine whether attitude toward the behavior, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control predicted intention and to determine which moderator variables predicted attitude toward the behavior, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control. Pearson product moment correlations were used to determine ATEPDs' beliefs about how competent they felt working with Special Olympics athletes and whether they were currently working with these athletes. We found that subjective norm, attitude toward the behavior, and perceived behavioral control predicted intention (R = 0.697, R(2) = 0.486, F(3,112) = 35.3, P Olympics athletes, completion of 1 or more courses in adapted physical activity, ATEPDs' competence, completion of 1 or more special education courses, and sex (R = 0.589, R(2) = 0.347, F(5,111) = 11.780, P Olympics athletes and more Special Olympics certifications (R = 0.472, R(2) = 0.222, F(2,112) = 16.009, P Olympics athletes, and a higher educational degree (R = 0.642, R(2) = 0.412, F(4,113) = 19.793, P Olympics athletes; however, their subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and intention beliefs were unfavorable. The ATEPDs reported they did not feel competent to work with Special Olympics athletes.
Fuhrman, Joel; Ferreri, Deana M
Vegetarian diets are associated with several health benefits, but whether a vegetarian or vegan diet is beneficial for athletic performance has not yet been defined. Based on the evidence in the literature that diets high in unrefined plant foods are associated with beneficial effects on overall health, lifespan, immune function, and cardiovascular health, such diets likely would promote improved athletic performance as well. In this article, we review the state of the literature on vegetarian diets and athletic performance, discuss prevention of potential micronutrient deficiencies that may occur in the vegan athlete, and provide strategies on meeting the enhanced caloric and protein needs of an athlete with a plant-based diet.
Borgen, J S; Corbin, C B
In brief: Research has indicated that 4% to 19% of female college students have eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, anorexia athletica, or bulimia. To determine the extent to which preoccupation with weight and tendencies toward eating disorders are problems among female athletes, we analyzed the responses to a questionnaire completed by 168 college women-101 nonathletes, 35 athletes whose sports emphasize leanness, and 32 athletes whose sports do not emphasize leanness. The results showed that 6% of the nonathletes, 20% of the athletes in sports that emphasize leanness, and 10% of all the athletes were either exceptionally preoccupied with weight or had tendencies toward eating disorders.
Nelson, Lindsay D; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Barr, William B; Hammeke, Thomas A; Randolph, Christopher; Ahn, Kwang Woo; Wang, Yanzhi; McCrea, Michael A
Younger age has been hypothesized to be a risk factor for prolonged recovery after sport-related concussion, yet few studies have directly evaluated age differences in acute recovery. To compare clinical recovery patterns for high school and collegiate athletes. Prospective cohort study. Large, multicenter prospective sample collected from 1999-2003 in a sports medicine setting. Concussed athletes (n = 621; 545 males and 76 females) and uninjured controls (n = 150) participating in high school and collegiate contact and collision sports (79% in football, 15.7% in soccer, and the remainder in lacrosse or ice hockey). Participants underwent evaluation of symptoms (Graded Symptom Checklist), cognition (Standardized Assessment of Concussion, paper-and-pencil neuropsychological tests), and postural stability (Balance Error Scoring System). Athletes were evaluated preinjury and followed serially at several time points after concussive injury: immediately, 3 hours postinjury, and at days 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, and 45 or 90 (with neuropsychological measures administered at baseline and 3 postinjury time points). Comparisons of concussed high school and collegiate athletes with uninjured controls suggested that high school athletes took 1 to 2 days longer to recover on a cognitive (Standardized Assessment of Concussion) measure. Comparisons with the control group on other measures (symptoms, balance) as well as direct comparisons between concussed high school and collegiate samples revealed no differences in the recovery courses between the high school and collegiate groups on any measure. Group-level recovery occurred at or before 7 days postinjury on all assessment metrics. The findings suggest no clinically significant age differences exist in recovery after sport-related concussion, and therefore, separate injury-management protocols are not needed for high school and collegiate athletes.
Mitchell, Joshua; Graham, William; Best, Thomas M.; Collins, Christy; Currie, Dustin W.; Comstock, R. Dawn; Flanigan, David C.
Purpose Knowledge of epidemiologic trends of meniscal injuries in young active populations is limited. Better awareness of injury patterns is a first step to lowering injury rates. Our hypothesis was that meniscal injuries in high school athletes would vary by gender, sport, and type of exposure. Methods During 2007–2013, a large nationally disperse sample of US high schools reported athlete exposure and injury data for 22 sports by having certified athletic trainers complete an internet-based data collection tool. Results 1,082 meniscal injuries were reported during 21,088,365 athlete-exposures for an overall injury rate of 5.1 per 100,000 athlete exposures. The overall rate of injury was higher in competition (11.9) than practice (2.7) (RR = 4.4; 95% CI, 3.9–5.0), and 12/19 sports showed significantly higher injury rates in competition compared to practice. Of all injuries, 68.0% occurred in boys, yet among the gender-comparable sports of soccer, basketball, track and field, lacrosse, and baseball/softball injury rates were higher for girls than boys (5.5 and 2.5, respectively, RR = 2.2; 95% CI, 1.8–2.7). Contact injury represented the most common mechanism (55.9%). Surgery was performed for the majority of injuries (63.8%), and 54.0% of athletes had associated intra-articular knee pathology. Conclusions Meniscal injury patterns among high school athletes vary by gender, sport, and type of exposure. Overall rates are higher for boys, but this is driven by football; however in gender-comparable sports girls may be at higher risk for meniscal injury. Our study is clinically relevant because recognition of distinct differences in these injury patterns will help drive evidence-based, targeted injury prevention strategies and efforts. Level of Evidence Level III PMID:26506845
Schoor, F.R. van de; Aengevaeren, V.L.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Oxborough, D.L.; George, K.P.; Thompson, P.D.; Eijsvogels, T.M.H.
Myocardial fibrosis (MF) is a common phenomenon in the late stages of diverse cardiac diseases and is a predictive factor for sudden cardiac death. Myocardial fibrosis detected by magnetic resonance imaging has also been reported in athletes. Regular exercise improves cardiovascular health, but
Lynch, T Sean; Bedi, Asheesh; Larson, Christopher M
Historically, athletic hip injuries have garnered little attention; however, these injuries account for approximately 6% of all sports injuries and their prevalence is increasing. At times, the diagnosis and management of hip injuries can be challenging and elusive for the team physician. Hip injuries are seen in high-level athletes who participate in cutting and pivoting sports that require rapid acceleration and deceleration. Described previously as the "sports hip triad," these injuries consist of adductor strains, osteitis pubis, athletic pubalgia, or core muscle injury, often with underlying range-of-motion limitations secondary to femoroacetabular impingement. These disorders can happen in isolation but frequently occur in combination. To add to the diagnostic challenge, numerous intra-articular disorders and extra-articular soft-tissue restraints about the hip can serve as pain generators, in addition to referred pain from the lumbar spine, bowel, bladder, and reproductive organs. Athletic hip conditions can be debilitating and often require a timely diagnosis to provide appropriate intervention.
Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) is often used in athletes to image cardiac anatomy and function and is increasingly requested in the context of screening for pathology that can cause sudden cardiac death (SCD). In this thesis, patterns of cardiac adaptation to sports are investigated with
Barroso, Guilherme Campos; Thiele, Edilson Schwansee
This article had the aim of demonstrating the physiology, diagnosis and treatment of muscle injuries, focusing on athletes and their demands and expectations. Muscle injuries are among the most common complaints in orthopedic practice, occurring both among athletes and among non-athletes. These injuries present a challenge for specialists, due to the slow recovery, during which time athletes are unable to take part in training and competitions, and due to frequent sequelae and recurrences of the injuries. Most muscle injuries (between 10% and 55% of all injuries) occur during sports activities. The muscles most commonly affected are the ischiotibial, quadriceps and gastrocnemius. These muscles go across two joints and are more subject to acceleration and deceleration forces. The treatment for muscle injuries varies from conservative treatment to surgery. New procedures are being used, like the hyperbaric chamber and the use of growth factors. However, there is still a high rate of injury recurrence. Muscle injury continues to be a topic of much controversy. New treatments are being researched and developed, but prevention through muscle strengthening, stretching exercises and muscle balance continues to be the best "treatment".
Full Text Available Background: Adolescence is a period of rapid biological and behavioral changes that may expand the risk of mental health issues. Objective: This study aimed to compare the mental health of male and female athletes and non-athletes among a high school student groups. Methodology: On this base 100 students (50 athletes and 50 non-athletes, Mage = 16 (SD = ±1 were selected through multi stage random sampling and divided equally into four groups (female athlete / non-athlete, male athlete / non-athlete. General Health Questionnaire designed by Goldberg and Hiller (1979 was used for data collections. Results: The analysis of one-way ANOVA displayed significant differences between the mean scores in mental health among the groups in terms of mental health, F (3, 96 =39, P = .01 with less prevalence of these symptoms among athletes comparing to non-athletes. Conclusion: Increasing opportunities for students to take part in sport competitions can protect them against poor psychological well-being. Keywords: Mental Health; Depression; Anxiety; Social dysfunction; Somatic
Changstrom, Bradley G; Brou, Lina; Khodaee, Morteza; Braund, Cortney; Comstock, R Dawn
High school athletes in the United States sustain millions of injuries annually, approximately 10% of which are fractures. However, there is no clear estimate of the number of stress fractures sustained by high school athletes annually despite reports that stress fractures account for 0.7% to 20% of injuries seen in sports medicine clinics. This suggests a high utilization of resources for a potentially preventable injury. In addition, stress fractures have been associated with low energy availability and disordered eating in young athletes, highlighting the importance of early recognition and intervention. To investigate stress fracture rates and patterns in a large national sample of US high school athletes. Descriptive epidemiologic study. Data from High School RIO (Reporting Information Online), a national sports injury surveillance study, were analyzed to describe rates and patterns of stress fracture injury sustained from 2005-2006 through 2012-2013, across sports and by sex. From 2005-2006 through 2012-2013, a total of 51,773 injuries were sustained during 25,268,873 athlete-exposures, of which 389 (0.8%) were stress fractures, resulting in an overall stress fracture rate of 1.54 per 100,000 athlete-exposures. Rates per 100,000 athlete-exposures were highest in girls' cross country (10.62), girls' gymnastics (7.43), and boys' cross country (5.42). In sex-comparable sports, girls sustained more stress fractures (63.3%) than did boys (36.7%) and had higher rates of stress fracture (2.22 vs 1.27; rate ratio, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.38-2.23). The most commonly injured sites were the lower leg (40.3% of all stress fractures), foot (34.9%), and lower back/lumbar spine/pelvis (15.2%). Management was nonsurgical in 98.7% of the cases, and 65.3% of injuries resulted in ≥3 weeks of time loss, medical disqualification, or an end to the season before athletes could return to play. Although a rare injury, stress fractures cause considerable morbidity for high school athletes
Rauh, Mitchell J; Nichols, Jeanne F; Barrack, Michelle T
Prior authors have reported associations among increased risk of injury and factors of the female athlete triad, as defined before the 2007 American College of Sports Medicine position stand, in collegiate and adult club sport populations. Little is known about this relationship in an adolescent competitive sports population. To examine the relationship among disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density (BMD) and musculoskeletal injury among girls in high school sports. Prospective cohort study. The sample consisted of 163 female athletes competing in 8 interscholastic sports in southern California during the 2003-2004 school year. Each participant was followed throughout her respective sport season for occurrence of musculoskeletal injuries. Data collected included daily injury reports, the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire that assessed disordered eating attitudes and behaviors, a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan that measured BMD and lean tissue mass, anthropometric measurements, and a questionnaire on menstrual history and demographic characteristics. Sixty-one athletes (37.4%) incurred 90 musculoskeletal injuries. In our BMD z score model of sport season. In our BMD z score model of disordered eating (Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire score >or=4.0), a history of oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea during the past year, and a low BMD (z score disordered eating, oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea, and low BMD were associated with musculoskeletal injuries in these female high school athletes. Programs designed to identify and prevent disordered eating and menstrual dysfunction and to increase bone mass in athletes may help to reduce musculoskeletal injuries.
Roberts, William O; Stovitz, Steven D
This study sought to determine the incidence of sudden cardiac death (SCD) during Minnesota State High School League (MSHSL) games and practices for high school (HS) athletes (12 to 19 years of age, with most age 15 to 18 years of age) using a uniform statewide pre-participation health screening examination (PPE) form every 3 years on a defined population across 19 academic years. Adding electrocardiographic screening is being considered by some to reduce cardiac death rates in athletes, but the death rates in defined groups screened by the current U.S. PPE recommendations are unknown. MSHSL participation records were surveyed to determine the number of unduplicated athletes for 1993/1994 through 2011/2012 academic years, and catastrophic insurance records were used to find cardiac deaths. There were 4 SCDs (2 cross country, 1 basketball, 1 wrestling), all male, during practice or games in 1,666,509 unduplicated athletes participating in ≥ 1 sports. The incidence of SCD in athletes screened every 3 years with a history and physical during MSHSL activities is 0.24 per 100,000 athlete-years over 19 years and 0.11 per 100,000 athlete-years over the past decade. The incidence of SCD in athletes screened every 3 years with standard PPE during MSHSL activities is 0.24 per 100,000 athlete-years in 19 academic years. This incidence is much lower than that observed in studies of Division 1 National Collegiate Athletic Association and Italian athletes (ages 18 to 25 and mean age 24 years, respectively). Our data do not warrant screening HS athletes with electrocardiography to prevent SCD episodes. The decision to screen athletes with electrocardiography should consider age, training intensity, and genetic predisposition. Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Apostolos TH Stergioulas
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to record injuries in track & field events that were sustained by students who attended the athletic schools during a one-year period. From September 2009 to May 2010, the researchers observed 2045 students (883 males and 1163 females, who were participating in track and field events at the mentioned schools. During the study period 150 injuries were recorded, which accounted for 13.3% of all injuries sustained by students. Most of the injuries (34% according to the diagnosis were sprains and strains and occurred during the months of February, December and January. A large percentage of the injuries (45.4% were sustained by students who attended the Athletic Schools, which operated in the urban region. Students who attended the second class sustained more injuries than the other classes (first and third. Students who were practising or competing on a tartan playing surface were more likely to sustain an injury. Knee and ankle were the most frequent anatomical sites in which injuries (43.9% occurred. Additionally, 80.0% of injuries occurred in students who were practising or competing in running events. No statistical differences were observed in all above mentioned parameters amongst male and female students. Physical education (P.E. teachers should place more emphasis on prevention measures. These measures should include proper supervision of students during training, warming up and cooling down sessions with stretching techniques. By following these suggestions students will compete in a safe and healthy environment.
Onate, James A; Everhart, Joshua S; Clifton, Daniel R; Best, Thomas M; Borchers, James R; Chaudhari, Ajit M W
A stated goal of the preparticipation physical evaluation (PPE) is to reduce musculoskeletal injury, yet the musculoskeletal portion of the PPE is reportedly of questionable use in assessing lower extremity injury risk in high school-aged athletes. The objectives of this study are: (1) identify clinical assessment tools demonstrated to effectively determine lower extremity injury risk in a prospective setting, and (2) critically assess the methodological quality of prospective lower extremity risk assessment studies that use these tools. A systematic search was performed in PubMed, CINAHL, UptoDate, Google Scholar, Cochrane Reviews, and SportDiscus. Inclusion criteria were prospective injury risk assessment studies involving athletes primarily ages 13 to 19 that used screening methods that did not require highly specialized equipment. Methodological quality was evaluated with a modified physiotherapy evidence database (PEDro) scale. Nine studies were included. The mean modified PEDro score was 6.0/10 (SD, 1.5). Multidirectional balance (odds ratio [OR], 3.0; CI, 1.5-6.1; P < 0.05) and physical maturation status (P < 0.05) were predictive of overall injury risk, knee hyperextension was predictive of anterior cruciate ligament injury (OR, 5.0; CI, 1.2-18.4; P < 0.05), hip external:internal rotator strength ratio of patellofemoral pain syndrome (P = 0.02), and foot posture index of ankle sprain (r = -0.339, P = 0.008). Minimal prospective evidence supports or refutes the use of the functional musculoskeletal exam portion of the current PPE to assess lower extremity injury risk in high school athletes. Limited evidence does support inclusion of multidirectional balance assessment and physical maturation status in a musculoskeletal exam as both are generalizable risk factors for lower extremity injury.
Rappoport, W.J. [Arizona Heart Inst., Phoenix, AZ (United States); Steingard, P.M. [Phoenix Suns, Phoenix, AZ (United States)
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is the leading cause of sudden death during vigorous exercise. Early identification of this abnormality by ECG screening of high-school athletes before they participate in competitive sports helps save lives. (orig.)
Soltz, Donald F.
Presents results from a Colorado study of the academic performance of high school student athletes. Results from the study suggest that student athletes' grades do not suffer as a result of participation in sports. The grade point averages of the student athletes in this study were higher than those of nonparticipating students. (MD)
Virginia Tech recently completed a comprehensive self study as part of the NCAA Division I Athletics Certification program, which is required of all NCAA member schools to ensure integrity in the operation of athletics programs at the university, and has been fully certified by the NCAA's Committee on Athletics Certification.
Deighan, William P., Comp.; And Others
Materials useful in drug and alcohol abuse prevention programs directed towards high school athletes are contained in this document. Nine topic areas are covered: (1) effects of athletics on young people, such as pressure to win; (2) reasons athletes use drugs and alcohol, including coping with stress and feeling good; (3) enabling behaviors of…
Matic, George T; Sommerfeldt, Mark F; Best, Thomas M; Collins, Christy L; Comstock, R Dawn; Flanigan, David C
The popularity of ice hockey has grown in recent years and injuries are a concern given the physical nature of the sport. We sought to report the rates, mechanisms, and severity of boys' US high school ice hockey injuries. We hypothesized that body checking would be a major source of injury and that concussions would be common. We also expected to find that competition would have a higher rate of injury than practice. Descriptive epidemiology study. Boys' US high school ice hockey injury data from 2008/2009 through 2012/2013 academic years were obtained from the National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance System, High School Reporting Information Online database. The primary outcome was rate of injury per 10,000 athlete exposures (AEs). Overall, 724 boys ice hockey injuries occurred during 311,817 AEs for an injury rate of 23.2 per 10,000 AEs. Injury rates were significantly higher during competition compared to practice (rate ratio = 7.8, 95% confidence interval: 6.5-9.4). Concussion was the most frequent injury reported at a rate of 6.4 per 10,000 AEs. Body checking was the mechanism of injury in over 46% of injuries. The head/face/neck region (33.8%) and upper arm/shoulder region (20.6%) were the most commonly injured body sites. Just over 6% of injuries resulted in surgical intervention. Injuries among high school ice hockey athletes are common. Increases in the number of high school ice hockey injuries will likely parallel the increase in high school ice hockey participation in the United States.
Faulkner, Michel J.
The Career Development Workshop For Athletes was designed to aid in the comprehensive career development effort at Virginia Tech. The pilot research project involved 40 active freshman varsity football players enrolled during Fall and Winter quarters of the 1984-85 school year. The 40 students were randomly selected from a pool of 65 freshman football players. The experimental design was a two stage stratification. The first stage was selection and the second stage was as...
Hassan, Abdul-Rahman; Lam, Michael Huen Sum; Ku, Susanna; Li, William Ho Cheung; Lee, Ka Yiu; Ho, Eva; Flint, Stuart W; Wong, Anthony Siu Wo
Dropout of sport is an issue in sport and public health domains. The aim of this study was to identify the potential dropout reasons of school athletes and to examine if their perception of dropout was affected by the previous dropout experience. There were 50 subjects who were divided into two groups based on their previous dropout experience (Dropout Group=22, No Dropout Group=28). They filled a questionnaire about potential dropout reasons of the current sport. Coach and teammates were two predominated reasons of dropout; Influence of parent and training seemed to affect the termination of the sport to a lesser extent. Moreover, the perception of social value and lost focus were significantly different between two groups. Character of coach and teammates affect the engagement of training in school athletes. However, the parental influence had less influence than expected. Training intensity played little role as the dropout reason. Previous experience of dropout had an impact of potential dropout reasons on their current sport training.
Gordon, Robert L.
Four issues involving the student-athlete are identified as important to academic advising: the relationship between athletic participation and academic performance, individual differences among student-athletes, the possible conflict in the role of student and athletes, and the debate over the need for special programs for student-athletes. (MLW)
Sufficient sleep or sleep of sufficient quality is essential for the health of children, adolescents and adults, as sleep influences almost all dimensions of life. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible positive effects of sportsmanship on sleep quality and to assess the possible differences in sleep quality between athletes and non-athletes. Sedentary or non-athletes subjects (n=103) and athletes (n=93) participated in this study. The Turkish version of Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index was used to assess the points associated with sleep quality of participants before and one month after wet cupping therapy. Athletes had statistically significantly higher Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index parameters compared with non-athletes. Long-term exercise or physical fitness is advised for better health and a life without stress, anxiety and depression and also for the normal brain function and emotional stability.
Taub, Diane E.; Blinde, Elaine M.
Comparison of high school female athletes (n=100) and nonathletes (N=112) revealed that athletes were more likely than nonathletes to possess certain behavioral and psychological correlates of eating disorders. There were few differences among various sport teams. Gender-role orientation was generally not critically variable. (Author/NB)
Economopoulos, Kostas J; Milewski, Matthew D; Hanks, John B; Hart, Joseph M; Diduch, David R
Two of the most common causes of groin pain in athletes are femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and athletic pubalgia. An association between the 2 is apparent, but the prevalence of radiographic signs of FAI in patients undergoing athletic pubalgia surgery remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of radiologic signs of FAI in patients with athletic pubalgia. We hypothesized that patients with athletic pubalgia would have a high prevalence of underlying FAI. Case series. Level 4. A retrospective review of all patients evaluated at our institution with athletic pubalgia who underwent surgical treatment (ie, for sports hernia) from 1999 to 2011 was performed. The radiographs of patients with athletic pubalgia were reviewed for radiographic signs of FAI. Alpha angles were measured using frog-leg lateral radiographs. Pincer lesions were identified by measuring the lateral center-edge angle and identifying the presence of a "crossover" sign on anteroposterior radiographs. Phone follow-up was performed 2 years or more after the initial sports hernia surgery to evaluate recurrent symptoms. Forty-three patients underwent 56 athletic pubalgia surgeries. Radiographic evidence of FAI was identified in at least 1 hip in 37 of 43 patients (86%). Cam lesions were identified in 83.7% of the population; the alpha angle averaged 66.7° ± 17.9° for all hips. Pincer lesions were present in 28% of the hips. Eight patients had recurrent groin pain, 3 patients had revision athletic pubalgia surgery, and 1 had hip arthroscopy. The study demonstrates a high prevalence of radiographic FAI in patients with athletic pubalgia. Underlying FAI may be a cause of continued groin pain after athletic pubalgia surgery. Patients with athletic pubalgia should be evaluated closely for FAI.
McCauley, Heather L; Jaime, Maria Catrina D; Tancredi, Daniel J; Silverman, Jay G; Decker, Michele R; Austin, S Bryn; Jones, Kelley; Miller, Elizabeth
School-based athletic programs remain an important context for violence prevention efforts although a better understanding of how gender attitudes and abuse perpetration differ among athletes is needed. We analyzed baseline survey data from the "Coaching Boys into Men" study-a school-based cluster-randomized trial in 16 high schools in Northern California. We describe relationships among gender-inequitable attitudes, sport type, and recent adolescent relationship abuse perpetration among a sample of male athletes (n = 1,648). Gender-inequitable attitudes (adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 3.26; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.56, 4.15), participation in both high school football and basketball (AOR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.37, 3.18), and participation in football only (AOR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.02, 2.22) emerged as independently associated with recent ARA perpetration. Findings warrant targeted violence prevention efforts among male high school athletes that incorporate discussions of gender attitudes and healthy relationships, especially among sports teams at greater risk of adolescent relationship abuse perpetration. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kurowski, Brad; Pomerantz, Wendy J; Schaiper, Courtney; Gittelman, Michael A
Many organizations and health care providers support educating high school (HS) athletes about concussions to improve their attitudes and behaviors about reporting. The objectives of this study were to determine if previous education, sport played, and individual factors were associated with better knowledge about concussion and to determine if more knowledge was associated with improved self-reported attitudes toward reporting concussions among HS athletes. We conducted a survey of HS athletes aged 13 years to 18 years from two large, urban HSs. Players were recruited from selected seasonal (fall and winter) as well as men and women's sports. During preseason, each participant was given a survey asking about his or her previous education, current knowledge, and self-reported attitudes and behaviors about reporting concussions. Bivariate and multivariate linear regression was used to evaluate the association of age, sex, sport, and previous concussion education with knowledge and self-reported attitudes and behaviors about reporting concussions. Surveys were completed by 496 athletes. The median age was 15 years, and 384 (77.4%) were male. A total of 212 (42.7%) participated in football, 123 (24.8%) in soccer, 89 (17.9%) in basketball, and 72 (14.5%) in wrestling. One hundred sixteen (23.4%) reported a history of concussion. Improved knowledge regarding concussions was not associated with improved self-reported behaviors (p = 0.63) in bivariate regression models. The multivariate model demonstrated that older age (p = 0.01) and female sex (p = 0.03) were associated with better knowledge. Younger age (p = 0.01), female sex (p = 0.0002), and soccer participation (p = 0.02) were associated with better self-reported behaviors around reporting concussions. Previous education on concussions was less predictive of knowledge about concussions when controlling for other factors such as sport and sex. Younger age, female sex, and soccer participation were more likely to be
MacDonald, James; Wilson, Julie; Young, Julie; Duerson, Drew; Swisher, Gail; Collins, Christy L; Meehan, William P
A common sequela of concussions is impaired reaction time. Computerized neurocognitive tests commonly measure reaction time. A simple clinical test for reaction time has been studied previously in college athletes; whether this test is valid and reliable when assessing younger athletes remains unknown. Our study examines the reliability and validity of this test in a population of high school athletes. Cross-sectional study. Two American High Schools. High school athletes (N = 448) participating in American football or soccer during the academic years 2011 to 2012 and 2012 to 2013. All study participants completed a computerized baseline neurocognitive assessment that included a measure of reaction time (RT comp), in addition to a clinical measure of reaction time that assessed how far a standard measuring device would fall prior to the athlete catching it (RT clin). Validity was assessed by determining the correlation between RT clin and RT comp. Reliability was assessed by measuring the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) between the repeated measures of RT clin and RT comp taken 1 year apart. In the first year of study, RT clin and RT comp were positively but weakly correlated (rs = 0.229, P Reaction time impairment commonly results from concussion and is among the most clinically important measures of the condition. The device evaluated in this study has previously been investigated as a reaction time measure in college athletes. This study investigates the clinical generalizability of the device in a younger population. A video abstract showing how the RT clin device is used in practice is available as Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JSM/A43.
Mohammad Hossein Jadbabaei
Full Text Available Regular participation in intensive physical exercise is associated with electro-morphological changes in the heart. This benign process is called athlete’s heart. Athlete’s heart resembles few pathologic conditions in some aspects. So differentiation of these conditions is very important which otherwise may lead to a catastrophic event such as sudden death. The most common causes of sudden death in young athletes are cardiomyopathies, congenital coronary anomalies, and ion channelopathies.The appropriate screening strategy to prevent sudden cardiac death in athletes remains a challenging issue. The purpose of this review is to describe the characteristics of athlete’s heart and demonstrate how to differentiate it from pathologic conditions that can cause sudden death.
Pruna, Ricard; Lizarraga, Antonia; Domínguez, David
Practicing sports at a professional level requires the body to be in good health. The fact of carrying out a continuous and high intensity physical activity in the presence of pathological conditions and/or a maladaptation of the body can be detrimental to the athletes' health and, therefore, to their performance. Many of the problems that arise in the sports field could be prevented with a periodic and well-structured medical assessment. In this review, we describe the protocol of the medical service of a high-level sports club for the assessment of its professional athletes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Ensign, Kristine A; Yiamouyiannis, Athena; White, Kristi M; Ridpath, B David
Researchers have investigated heterosexuals' attitudes toward homosexuals, focusing on factors such as sex, race, religion, education, and contact experiences. However, in the context of sport, this research is deficient. We found no published literature investigating athletic trainers (ATs') attitudes toward lesbian, gay, and bisexual student-athletes (LGB). To determine heterosexual ATs' attitudes toward LGB student-athletes in the National Collegiate Athletic Association. Cross-sectional study. E-mailed survey. A total of 964 ATs employed at member institutions. We measured attitudes using the Attitudes Toward Lesbian, Gay Men, and Bisexuals (ATLGB) Scale. To determine the extent to which sex, religion, and whether having an LGB friend or family member had an effect on ATs' attitudes, we performed analysis of variance. To establish the effect of age on ATs' attitudes, we calculated a Pearson correlation. We used an independent t test to identify differences between ATs who reported working with LGB student-athletes and ATs who did not. With ATLGB score as the dependent factor, a main effect was noted for sex, religion, and having an LGB friend or family member (P student-athletes on their teams and ATs who were not (P student-athletes, especially females, those who have an LGB friend or family member, and those who are aware of LGB student-athletes. Still, it is important to provide an open environment in the athletic training room for all student-athletes.
Gaskins, S E; deShazo, W F
In brief: A number of universities have started screening intercollegiate athletes for drugs. A 26-item questionnaire administered to students, athletes, former athletes, parents of athletes, high school athletes, alumni, faculty members, and coaches at the University of Alabama revealed significant differences between student and nonstudent perceptions of drug abuse as a problem. There was widespread support for the screening program among nonathletes but significantly less support among the athletes.
Full Text Available As obesity and cardiovascular mortality has recently increased, sporting activities are recommended to people of all age groups more than past decades. Sudden cardiac death during sporting events resonate in a wide range of media and cause serious concern to the families. In order to reduce mortality, athlete screening has been raised. There is a disagreement about how to do the most effective and the least costly screening, also the necessity of screening. The American Heart Academy recommends screening with only history and physical examination, while European Society of Cardiology considers the inclusion of the electrocardiography. During sports activities, in response to the growing needs for the heart, a number of structural and electrical changes in the heart of athlete occur. This situation is briefly defined as the athlete heart. Although it is considered to be due to physiological changes in the athlete's heart, these changes are reflected in electrocardiography and they increase the number of false-positive cases. In 2010, European Society of Cardiology divided findings into two groups as physiological and pathological findings in order to prevent this confusion. With these criteria, it was aimed to increase the sensitivity of electrocardiography while reducing the false-positive rates. Despite all the precautions sudden cardiac death could not be completely precluded. Because of this, as well as the protective measures; cautions after the incident are also important. In the emergency plan, knowledgeable and experienced team of resuscitation and external cardiac defibrillator dissemination campaigns are the first things coming to mind. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(4.000: 575-590
Mohammad Hossein Jadbabaei; Bita Omidvar; Mohammad Alasti
Regular participation in intensive physical exercise is associated with electro-morphological changes in the heart. This benign process is called athlete’s heart. Athlete’s heart resembles few pathologic conditions in some aspects. So differentiation of these conditions is very important which otherwise may lead to a catastrophic event such as sudden death. The most common causes of sudden death in young athletes are cardiomyopathies, congenital coronary anomalies, and ion channelopathies. Th...
Senem Ozgur; Selmin Karademir
As obesity and cardiovascular mortality has recently increased, sporting activities are recommended to people of all age groups more than past decades. Sudden cardiac death during sporting events resonate in a wide range of media and cause serious concern to the families. In order to reduce mortality, athlete screening has been raised. There is a disagreement about how to do the most effective and the least costly screening, also the necessity of screening. The American Heart Academy recommen...
Goolsby, Marci A.; Boniquit, Nicole
Context: The health of the skeletal system is important for athletes young and old. From the early benefits of exercise on bones to the importance of osteoporosis prevention and treatment, bone health affects the ability to be active throughout life. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed articles dating from 1986 to 2016 were used for the review. Relevant terms such as keywords and section titles of the article were searched and articles identified were reviewed for relevance to this article. Study De...
Bardo, David B.
The Communities For Equity was a group of Michigan mothers who filed a Title IX discrimination suit against the Michigan High School Athletic Association due to its athletic scheduling practices. The 10-year court battle went all the way to the U.S. Supreme Court. This case study reviewed the policy decisions of the Wisconsin Interscholastic…
Moon, Jordan R; Tobkin, Sarah E; Costa, Pablo B; Smalls, Marcus; Mieding, William K; O'Kroy, Joseph A; Zoeller, Robert F; Stout, Jeffrey R
The purpose of this study was to validate the percentage of body fat (%BF) values estimated from the BOD POD (BP) with those obtained from hydrostatic weighing (HW) in athletic American high school boys. Additionally, the %BF values measured via near-infrared interactance (NIR), bioelectrical impedance (BIA), and skinfold (SF) were compared to HW to determine the validity of these measures. Thirty white boys (mean age +/- SD = 15.8 +/- 1.0 years) who where currently participating in organized sports volunteered to have their %BF estimated. Measurements were obtained from NIR, BP, BIA, and SF in random order and concluded with HW. The findings from the present study indicated that the NIR and BIA instruments produced significant (P 4.0%BF). The BP produced a significantly (P 0.008) and had the lowest TE values compared to HW. These data suggest that the BP can produce acceptable body fat measures for athletic white boys but is not superior to estimates made by the SF equations used in this study.
Juan Antonio Moreno Murcia
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between motivational characteristics and dispositional flow. In order to accomplish this goal, motivational profiles emerging from key constructs within Achievement Goal Theory and Self-Determination Theory were related to the dispositional flow measures. A sample of 413 young athletes (Age range 12 to 16 years completed the PMCSQ-2, POSQ, SMS and DFS measures. Cluster analysis results revealed three profiles: a "self-determined profile" characterised by higher scores on the task-involving climate perception and on the task orientation; a "non-self-determined profile", characterised by higher scores on ego-involving climate perception and ego orientation; and a "low self-determined and low non-self-determined profile" which had the lowest dispositional flow. No meaningful differences were found between the "self-determined profile" and the "non-self-determined profile" in dispositional flow. The "self-determined profile" was more commonly associated with females, athletes practising individual sports and those training more than three days a week. The "non-self-determined profile" was more customary of males and athletes practising team sports as well as those training just two or three days a week
Goolsby, Marci A; Boniquit, Nicole
The health of the skeletal system is important for athletes young and old. From the early benefits of exercise on bones to the importance of osteoporosis prevention and treatment, bone health affects the ability to be active throughout life. PubMed articles dating from 1986 to 2016 were used for the review. Relevant terms such as keywords and section titles of the article were searched and articles identified were reviewed for relevance to this article. Clinical review. Levels 1 through 4 evidence included. There is strong evidence that exercise benefits bone health at every age and is a critical factor in osteoporosis prevention and treatment. Vitamin D, calcium, and hormones play vital roles in ensuring optimal bone health. When there is an imbalance between exercise and nutrition, as seen in the female athlete triad, bone health is compromised and can lead to bone stress injuries and early osteoporosis. Both of these can lead to morbidity and lost time from training and competition. Thus, early recognition and appropriate treatment of the female athlete triad and other stress fracture risk factors are vital to preventing long-term bone health problems. To optimize bone health, adequate nutrition, appropriate weightbearing exercise, strength training, and adequate calcium and vitamin D are necessary throughout life.
Rosenbaum, Yoseph A; Awan, Hisham M
Hand and wrist injuries in athletes are common, representing between 3 and 25% of all sports injuries. As many as a quarter of all sports injuries involve the hand or wrist. We review the recent literature regarding acute hand injuries in athletes based on the structures involved - bone, muscle/tendon, ligament, and neurovascular - including diagnosis and pathophysiology of these injuries, focusing on athlete-specific facets of treatment, and when available, opinions on return to play.
Andersen, Lars Juel; Rasmusen, Hanne; Madsen, Jan Kyst; Hansen, Peter Riis
Sudden cardiac death in competing athletes is usually caused by unsuspected heart disease, and pre-participation screening may reduce the incidence of this tragic event. Although the cost-effectiveness of screening programs is unclear, international sports associations are currently implementing mandatory screening of elite athletes. During the first year of screening in the top Danish soccer league, all athletes were found to be eligible for continued participation in the game, suggesting that concern about false positive screening results may be exaggerated.
Berthaudin, A; Schindler, M; Ziltener, J-L; Menetrey, J
Athletic pubalgia is a painful and complex syndrom encountered by athletes involved in pivoting and cutting sports such as hockey and soccer. To date, there is no real consensus on the criteria for a reliable diagnostic, the different investigations, and the appropriate therapy. Current literature underlines intrinsic and extrinsic factors contributing to athletic pubalgia. This review article reports upon two novelties related to the issue: the importance and efficience of prevention program and the association of femoro-acetabular impingement with the pubalgia.
Jill Anne McDowall
This paper reviews studies of supplement use among child and adolescent athletes, focusing on prevalence and type of supplement use, as well as gender comparisons. Supplement use among adult athletes has been well documented however there are a limited number of studies investigating supplement use by child and adolescent athletes. A trend in the current literature revealed that the most frequently used supplements are in the form of vitamin and minerals. While health and illness prevention a...
... by the concept "IAAF Kids' athletics" in the primary school physical education lessons could contribute to a major change in the children's understanding and practice of track and field events and to a much faster integration of all pupils. At the end of the research, the concept of team work was received very well by the pupils, the children forming real teams.
Frisch, Kayt E.; Clark, Jacob; Hanson, Chad; Fagerness, Chris; Conway, Adam; Hoogendoorn, Lindsay
Background: Shoulder pain is becoming increasingly problematic in young players as volleyball gains popularity. Associations between repetitive motion and pain and overuse injury have been observed in other overhand sports (most notably baseball). Studies of adult athletes suggest that there is a shoulder pain and overuse problem present in volleyball players, but minimal research has been done to establish rates and causes in juvenile participants. Purpose: To establish rates of shoulder pain, regardless of whether it resulted in a loss of playing time, in female high school volleyball players. A secondary goal was to determine whether high repetition volumes correlated with an increased likelihood of experiencing pain. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: A self-report survey focusing on the prevalence of pain not associated with a traumatic event in female high school youth volleyball players was developed. Survey questions were formulated by certified athletic trainers, experienced volleyball coaches, and biomechanics experts. Surveys were received from 175 healthy, active high school volleyball players in Iowa, South Dakota, and Minnesota. Results: Forty percent (70/175) of active high school volleyball players remembered experiencing shoulder pain not related to traumatic injury, but only 33% (23/70) reported taking time off to recover from the pain. Based on these self-reported data, activities associated with significantly increased risk of nontraumatic shoulder pain included number of years playing competitive volleyball (P = .01) and lifting weights out of season (P = .001). Players who reported multiple risk factors were more likely to experience nontraumatic shoulder pain. Conclusion: When using time off for recovery as the primary injury criterion, we found that the incidence of shoulder pain is more than twice as high as the incidence of injury reported by previous studies. Findings also indicated that the incidence of shoulder pain
Frisch, Kayt E; Clark, Jacob; Hanson, Chad; Fagerness, Chris; Conway, Adam; Hoogendoorn, Lindsay
Shoulder pain is becoming increasingly problematic in young players as volleyball gains popularity. Associations between repetitive motion and pain and overuse injury have been observed in other overhand sports (most notably baseball). Studies of adult athletes suggest that there is a shoulder pain and overuse problem present in volleyball players, but minimal research has been done to establish rates and causes in juvenile participants. To establish rates of shoulder pain, regardless of whether it resulted in a loss of playing time, in female high school volleyball players. A secondary goal was to determine whether high repetition volumes correlated with an increased likelihood of experiencing pain. Descriptive epidemiology study. A self-report survey focusing on the prevalence of pain not associated with a traumatic event in female high school youth volleyball players was developed. Survey questions were formulated by certified athletic trainers, experienced volleyball coaches, and biomechanics experts. Surveys were received from 175 healthy, active high school volleyball players in Iowa, South Dakota, and Minnesota. Forty percent (70/175) of active high school volleyball players remembered experiencing shoulder pain not related to traumatic injury, but only 33% (23/70) reported taking time off to recover from the pain. Based on these self-reported data, activities associated with significantly increased risk of nontraumatic shoulder pain included number of years playing competitive volleyball (P = .01) and lifting weights out of season (P = .001). Players who reported multiple risk factors were more likely to experience nontraumatic shoulder pain. When using time off for recovery as the primary injury criterion, we found that the incidence of shoulder pain is more than twice as high as the incidence of injury reported by previous studies. Findings also indicated that the incidence of shoulder pain may be correlated with volume of previous volleyball experience.
... fullstory_167201.html Lower Back Injuries Plague Many Athletes Surgery should be a last resort for 3 ... News) -- Back injuries are common, especially among competitive athletes. Nearly 1 in 3 athletes playing professional or ...
Dunn, Ian F; Proctor, Mark R; Day, Arthur L
Lumbar spine injuries in athletes are not uncommon and usually take the form of a mild muscle strain or sprain. More severe injuries sustained by athletes include disc herniations, spondylolistheses, and various types of fracture. The recognition and management of these injuries in athletes involve the additional consideration that to return to play, the lumbar spine must be able to withstand forces similar to those that were injurious. The authors consider common lumbar spine injuries in athletes and discuss management principles for neurosurgeons that are relevant to this population.
Arieli, Rakefet; Lahav, Yair
Use of performance-enhancing supplements occurs at all levels of sports, from recreational athletes to professional athletes. Although some supplements do enhance athletic performance, many have no proven benefits and have adverse effects. Nutritional supplements are categorized into the following categories: I. Apparently Effective. II. Possibly Effective. III. Too Early To Tell. IV. Apparently Ineffective. This article will review 4 ergogenic supplements which are categorized in the first category--"Apparently Effective"--1) Buffer agents 2) Creatine 3) Caffeine and 4 Nitric Oxide. Given the widespread use of performance enhancing supplements, physicians, and dietitians should be prepared to counsel athletes about their effectiveness, safety and legality.
.... Common overuse injuries in runners and other endurance athletes include patellofemoral pain syndrome, iliotibial band friction syndrome, medial tibial stress syndrome, Achilles tendinopathy, plantar...
Potteiger, Jeffrey A.; Stilger, Vincent G.
Recent surveys indicate that the use of androgenic-anabolic steroids (anabolic steroids) is prevalent among adolescent athletes, particularly those in high school. The cost of clinical drug testing makes it impractical to use random testing to identify users of these ergogenic aids. The athletic trainer is often in a position to identify anabolic steroid users if he/she knows the clinical signs and symptoms. In this article, we briefly discuss the history of anabolic steroid use, how they wor...
Kraeutler, Matthew J; Currie, Dustin W; Kerr, Zachary Y; Roos, Karen G; McCarty, Eric C; Comstock, R Dawn
Shoulder dislocations occur frequently in athletes across a variety of sports. This study provides an updated descriptive epidemiological analysis of shoulder dislocations among high school and college athletes and compares injury rates and patterns across these age groups. There would be no difference in injury rates/patterns between high school and college athletes. Descriptive epidemiology study. Level 3. Shoulder dislocation data from the High School Reporting Information Online (RIO) and the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Injury Surveillance Program (ISP) databases were analyzed from the 2004/2005 through 2013/2014 (NCAA) or 2005/2006 through 2013/2014 (RIO) academic years in 11 different sports. Rate ratios (RRs) and injury proportion ratios (IPRs) were calculated to make comparisons between age groups. During the study period, 598 shoulder dislocations were reported during 29,249,482 athlete-exposures (AEs) among high school athletes, for an overall shoulder dislocation rate of 2.04 per 100,000 AEs; 352 shoulder dislocations were reported during 13,629,533 AEs among college athletes, for an overall injury rate of 2.58 per 100,000 AEs. College athletes had a higher rate of shoulder dislocation than high school athletes (RR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.11-1.44). However, the injury rate in football was lower in collegiate than high school athletes (RR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.43-0.62). Surgery was performed to correct 28.0% of high school and 29.6% of college shoulder dislocations. Shoulder dislocations resulted in longer return-to-play times than other shoulder injuries. Overall, shoulder dislocation rates were higher among collegiate than high school athletes. This may be due to greater contact forces involved in sports at higher levels of play, although the increased rate in high school football warrants additional research. Higher shoulder dislocation rates within collegiate athletics are likely due to the higher level of intensity at this level of play, with
Yang, Jingzhen; Comstock, R Dawn; Yi, Honggang; Harvey, Hosea H; Xun, Pengcheng
To examine the trends of new and recurrent sports-related concussions in high-school athletes before and after youth sports traumatic brain injury laws. We used an interrupted time-series design and analyzed the concussion data (2005-2016) from High School Reporting Injury Online. We examined the trends of new or recurrent concussion rates among US representative high-school athletes participating in 9 sports across prelaw, immediate-postlaw, and postlaw periods by using general linear models. We defined 1 athlete exposure as attending 1 competition or practice. We included a total of 8043 reported concussions (88.7% new, 11.3% recurrent). The average annual concussion rate was 39.8 per 100 000 athlete exposures. We observed significantly increased trends of reported new and recurrent concussions from the prelaw, through immediate-postlaw, into the postlaw period. However, the recurrent concussion rate showed a significant decline 2.6 years after the laws went into effect. Football exhibited different trends compared with other boys' sports and girls' sports. Observed trends of increased concussion rates are likely attributable to increased identification and reporting. Additional research is needed to evaluate intended long-term impact of traumatic brain injury laws.
Weber, Michelle L; Welch, Cailee E; Parsons, John T; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C
The purpose of this study was to evaluate school nurses' familiarity and perceptions regarding academic accommodations for student-athletes following sport-related concussion. School nurses (N = 1,246) accessed the survey School Nurses' Beliefs, Attitudes and Knowledge of Pediatric Athletes with Concussions (BAKPAC-SN). The BAKPAC-SN contained several questions pertaining to concussion management and academic accommodations. There were significant differences regarding personal experience as well as familiarity of academic accommodations (p academic accommodations (r = .210, p academic accommodations (p = .027) and 504 plans (p = .001) than school nurses employed at multiple schools. Health care professionals should collaborate to effectively manage a concussed patient and should consider academic accommodations to ensure whole-person health care. © The Author(s) 2014.
Green, D.J.; Spence, A.; Rowley, N.; Thijssen, D.H.J.; Naylor, L.H.
Whilst the existence of a specific phenotype characterized as 'athlete's heart' is generally acknowledged, the question of whether athletes exhibit characteristic vascular adaptations has not been specifically addressed. To do so in this symposium, studies which have assessed the size, wall
Chelladurai, P; Danylchuk, K E
Ninety intercollegiate athletic administrators from across Canada participated in the study which investigated their perceptions of the operative goals of intercollegiate athletics. The operative goals included in the study were 1) Entertainment, 2) National Sport Development, 3) Financial, 4) Transmission of Culture, 5) Career Opportunities, 6) Public Relations, 7) Athlete's Personal Growth, 8) Prestige, and 9) Achieved Excellence. The rankings of these nine objectives were analyzed by subgroups based on sex of the respondents, size of the university, and the conference membership. In addition, the relationships between respondents' ratings of these objectives, and their attitudes toward athletic scholarships, recruitment practices and eligibility were also examined. The results showed that the various subgroups of athletic administrators were relatively homogeneous in ranking Transmission of Culture, Athlete's Personal Growth, Public Relations, and Prestige as the most important set of operative goals. It was also found that the administrators from the Non-central region (Maritime and Western Provinces) were more in favor of athletic scholarships than the administrators from the Central region (Ontario and Quebec). Also, higher ratings of Public Relations, Prestige, Entertainment, and Financial Objectives were associated with stronger support for athletic scholarships, and unrestrained recruitment. It was noted that administrators' goal orientations, while congruent with those of students from selected universities, were contrary to the prescriptions and proscriptions of prominent educators.
Full Text Available Background: Cognitive processes, specifically spatial abilities, are responsible for integration of daily activities. Many factors contribute to the plasticity of the brain which, furthermore, alter the spatial ability. Physical activity, which can be further grouped into sport and exercise, is a modifiable factor that enhances the cognitive processes through a divergent mechanism. This study aimed to gain further understanding on whether sport differs from exercise in altering spatial ability in athletes and non-athletes. Methods: This observational study compared the spatial ability score of athletes of Indonesia National Sport Comitte (Komite Olahraga Nasional Indonesia, KONI in West Java (n= 21 and non-athletes (n= 21. Sampling were performed using stratified random technique and data were collected between August and October 2015 which included spatial scores and demographic of subjects. Results: The difference in spatial scores between athletes and non-athletes were not significant (p=0.432. Conclusions: This study suggests an insignificant difference in spatial ability in athletes performing sport and non-athletes performing exercise. Hence, the cognitive component skills in sport experience do not alter the spatial ability.
Covassin, Tracey; Moran, Ryan; Wilhelm, Kristyn
Multiple concussions have been associated with prolonged symptoms, recovery time, and risk for future concussions. However, very few studies have examined the effect of multiple concussions on neurocognitive performance and the recently revised symptom clusters using a large database. To examine concussed athletes with a history of 0, 1, 2, or ≥3 concussions on neurocognitive performance and the recently revised symptom clusters. Cohort study (prognosis); Level of evidence, 2. The independent variables were concussion group (0, 1, 2, and ≥3 concussions) and time (baseline, 3 days, and 8 days). The dependent variables were neurocognitive test scores as measured by the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) neurocognitive test battery (verbal and visual memory, processing speed, and reaction time) and 4 concussion symptom clusters (migraine-cognitive-fatigue, affective, somatic, and sleep). All concussed athletes (n = 596) were administered the ImPACT test at a mean 2.67 ± 1.98 and 7.95 ± 4.46 days after injury. A series of 4 (concussion group) × 3 (time) repeated-measures analyses of covariance (age = covariate) were performed on ImPACT composite scores and symptom clusters. Concussed athletes with ≥3 concussions were still impaired 8 days after a concussion compared with baseline scores on verbal memory (P Concussed athletes with a history of ≥3 concussions take longer to recover than athletes with 1 or no previous concussion. Future research should concentrate on validating the new symptom clusters on multiple concussed athletes, examining longer recovery times (ie, >8 days) among athletes with multiple concussions.
Ensign, Kristine A.; Yiamouyiannis, Athena; White, Kristi M.; Ridpath, B. David
Abstract Context: Researchers have investigated heterosexuals' attitudes toward homosexuals, focusing on factors such as sex, race, religion, education, and contact experiences. However, in the context of sport, this research is deficient. We found no published literature investigating athletic trainers (ATs') attitudes toward lesbian, gay, and bisexual student-athletes (LGB). Objective: To determine heterosexual ATs' attitudes toward LGB student-athletes in the National Collegiate Athletic Association. Design: Cross-sectional study Setting: E-mailed survey. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 964 ATs employed at member institutions. Main Outcome Measure(s): We measured attitudes using the Attitudes Toward Lesbian, Gay Men, and Bisexuals (ATLGB) Scale. To determine the extent to which sex, religion, and whether having an LGB friend or family member had an effect on ATs' attitudes, we performed analysis of variance. To establish the effect of age on ATs' attitudes, we calculated a Pearson correlation. We used an independent t test to identify differences between ATs who reported working with LGB student-athletes and ATs who did not. Results: With ATLGB score as the dependent factor, a main effect was noted for sex, religion, and having an LGB friend or family member (P attitudes toward LGB student-athletes, especially females, those who have an LGB friend or family member, and those who are aware of LGB student-athletes. Still, it is important to provide an open environment in the athletic training room for all student-athletes. PMID:21214353
Crouse, Stephen F; Meade, Thomas; Hansen, Brent E; Green, John S; Martin, Steven E
The prevalence of electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities in American collegiate football athletes is virtually unknown. The purpose of this study was to characterize the type and frequency of ECG abnormalities in a sample of football athletes entering National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I Football Bowl Subdivision university program. Over a 4-y period, resting and exercise 12-lead ECG recordings were analyzed by a cardiologist from 68 freshmen and 9 transfer football athletes (n=77; 54 African-Americans and 23 Caucasians, aged 18 +/- 1 y, height=1.89 +/- 0.06 m, weight= 104.4 +/- 19.8 kg) as part of their entry physical examination. A total of 79% of the athletes demonstrated at least 1 abnormal ECG finnding, and significantly more African-America athletes (85%) than Caucasian (65%) athletes. Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome was found in 1 African-American player. Frequencies of various ECG abnormal findings in all athletes were: left ventricular hypertrophy = 64.5%, ST-T wave = 6.5%, interventricular conduction delay = 2.6%, sinus bradycardia = 9.1%, sinus arrhythmia = 15.6%, first-degree atrioventricular (AV) block = 11.7%, left atrial enlargement = 48.1%, early repolarization = 33.8%, and right axis deviation = 20.8%. Average values for the PR (0.17 +/- 0.03 s), QRS (0.08 +/- 0.02 s), and QT intervals (0.38 +/- 0.05 s), P-wave duration (0.10 +/- 0.02 s), and QRS axis (79.1 +/- 18.2 degrees) were normal. The ECG responses to maximal treadmill exercise stress tests were evaluated as normal without ischemia or arrhythmias. Abnormal resting ECG findings are common in a sample of collegiate football athletes, exceeding the rate expected for their age, and are more frequent in African-American athletes as compared with Caucasian athletes. Copyright (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Beals, Katherine A; Manore, Melinda M
This study examined the prevalence of and relationship between the disorders of the female athlete triad in collegiate athletes participating in aesthetic, endurance, or team/anaerobic sports. Participants were 425 female collegiate athletes from 7 universities across the United States. Disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, and musculoskeletal injuries were assessed by a health/medical, dieting and menstrual history questionnaire, the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), and the Eating Disorder Inventory Body Dissatisfaction Subscale (EDI-BD). The percentage of athletes reporting a clinical diagnosis of anorexia and bulimia nervosa was 3.3% and 2.3%, respectively; mean ( SD) EAT and EDI-BD scores were 10.6 9.6 and 9.8 7.6, respectively. The percentage of athletes with scores indicating "at-risk" behavior for an eating disorder were 15.2% using the EAT-26 and 32.4% using the EDI-BD. A similar percentage of athletes in aesthetic, endurance, and team/anaerobic sports reported a clinical diagnosis of anorexia or bulimia. However, athletes in aesthetic sports scored higher on the EAT-26 (13.5 10.9) than athletes in endurance (10.0 9.3) or team/anaerobic sports (9.9 9.0, p athletes in aesthetic versus endurance or team/anaerobic sports scored above the EAT-26 cut-off score of 20 (p athletes not using oral contraceptives, and there were no group differences in the prevalence of self-reported menstrual irregularity. Muscle and bone injuries sustained during the collegiate career were reported by 65.9% and 34.3% of athletes, respectively, and more athletes in aesthetic versus endurance and team/anaerobic sports reported muscle (p =.005) and/or bone injuries (p Athletes "at risk" for eating disorders more frequently reported menstrual irregularity (p =.004) and sustained more bone injuries (p =.003) during their collegiate career. These data indicate that while the prevalence of clinical eating disorders is low in female collegiate athletes, many are "at risk" for an eating
Tsushima, William T; Oshiro, Ross; Zimbra, Daniel
Establishing normative data of the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) performance of high school athletes in Hawai'i. Pre-season ImPACT testing was performed on 751 participants in football, baseball, basketball, soccer, volleyball, softball, and track from 4 Oahu public high schools. The ImPACT composite scores included measures of Verbal Memory, Visual Memory Processing Speed, and Reaction Time. The descriptive statistical data collected were the group means, standard deviations, standard errors of measurement, distribution of scores and percentile ranks of (1) 262 boys ages 13 to 15; (2) 297 boys ages 16 to 18; and (3) 192 girls ages 13 to 18. The means and standard deviations of the 4 ImPACT composite scores for the 751 student-athletes in Hawai'i were similar to the ImPACT scores obtained from a master database of ImPACT test results. Although differences between the Hawai'i and mainland data were nonsignificant, there appeared to be a trend revealing somewhat lower scores in the Hawai'i sample of athletes. The similarity in ImPACT test performance of Hawai'i high school athletes as compared to the mainland normative data provides support for the applicability of this computerized neuropsychological battery in Hawai'i. However in view of a trend reflecting slightly lower ImPACT scores among Hawai'i participants, the use of the normative data produced by this study may be desirable in assessing Hawai'i high school athletes.
Clement, Damien; Granquist, Megan D; Arvinen-Barrow, Monna M
Despite the Psychosocial Strategies and Referral content area, athletic trainers (ATs) generally lack confidence in their ability to use this information. The current study's primary purpose was to determine (a) perceived psychological responses and coping behaviors athletes may present to ATs, (b) psychosocial strategies ATs currently use with their athletes, (c) psychosocial strategies ATs deem important to learn more about, and (d) ATs' current practices in referring athletes to counseling or sport psychology services. Mixed-methods study. Online survey containing both quantitative and qualitative items. A total of 215 ATs (86 male, 129 female), representing a response rate of 22.50%. The Athletic Training and Sport Psychology Questionnaire. Stress/anxiety (4.24 ± 0.82), anger (3.70 ± 0.96), and treatment adherence problems (3.62 ± 0.94) were rated as the primary psychological responses athletes may present upon injury. Adherence and having a positive attitude were identified as key determinants in defining athletes' successful coping with their injuries. The top 3 selected psychosocial strategies were keeping the athlete involved with the team (4.57 ± 0.73), using short-term goals (4.45 ± 0.67), and creating variety in rehabilitation exercises (4.32 ± 0.75). The top 3 rated psychosocial strategies ATs deem important to learn more about were understanding motivation (4.29 ± 0.89), using effective communication (4.24 ± 0.91), and setting realistic goals (4.22 ± 0.97). Of the sample, only 59 (27.44%) ATs reported referring an athlete for counseling services, and 37 (84.09%) of those who had access to a sport psychologist (n = 44) reported referring for sport psychology services. These results not only highlight ATs' current use of psychosocial strategies but also their desires to increase their current knowledge and understanding of these strategies while caring for injured athletes.
Gibbs, Daniel B; Lynch, T Sean; Nuber, Erika D; Nuber, Gordon W
American football is a collision sport played by athletes at high speeds. Despite the padding and conditioning in these athletes, the shoulder is a vulnerable joint, and injuries to the shoulder girdle are common at all levels of competitive football. Some of the most common injuries in these athletes include anterior and posterior glenohumeral instability, acromioclavicular pathology (including separation, osteolysis, and osteoarthritis), rotator cuff pathology (including contusions, partial thickness, and full thickness tears), and pectoralis major and minor tears. In this article, we will review the epidemiology and clinical and radiographic workup of these injuries. We also will evaluate the effectiveness of surgical and nonsurgical management specifically related to high school, collegiate, and professional football athletes.
Ariadne Maria dos Santos
Full Text Available The injuries in young athletes are becoming more frequent, due to the wade dissemination of sports and the excessive training aimed at high performance. The requirements in sports can lead to the development of pathologies and injuries that could be prevented if the young athlete's training was well oriented. We emphasize the importance of professional and competition calendar planning always seeking the recovery of the athlete. It’s also important to have knowledge of injuries, training load, the previous history of the athlete, and correction of improper movement technique.Objective: To identify the most common injuries in young athletes of different sports. Material and Methods: The study included 36 athletes, aged 12-17 years, of both sexes, the Athletics rules, futsal, swimming and volleyball. An interview that contained information about age, practice time and sport was initially applied. Then two questionnaires were applied, the first consisting of a pain distribution table by body region and the second by a pain scale and this interference in daily activities. Results:Obtained results as mean age 13.86 years. Among the participants, 66.7% reported practicing sports or other physical activities, 55.6% reported that they have suffered injury in some cases with recurrence and 50% who have had any treatment for pain.Conclusion: Based on the results we conclude the importance of knowledge about sports injury prevention strategies in young athletes as a way to ensure longevity in the sport.
Rearick, Matt; Creasy, John; Buriak, Jim
Each year many young athletes suffer injuries from overtraining. According to the existing literature, strategies do exist to help control this growing problem. This article explores the basic nature of training and overtraining, with a particular emphasis on endurance athletes. Several psychological factors are highlighted as the first clear…
Research about student athletes contends that participation enhances both learning and character development, including leadership, interpersonal skills, social self-esteem, discipline, personal health, motivation, dedication, and life lessons. Other research expresses concern about the cognitive outcomes of student athletes relative to…
Sandusky, Jane C.
A review of literature on the incidence and nature of injuries to young athletes is presented on the topics of: (1) physiological characteristics of preadolescents, adolescents, and young adults; (2) musculo-skeletal changes in the growing athlete; (3) epiphyseal injuries and their potential for resulting in temporary or permanent impairment; (4)…
Ziltener, J-L; Leal, S
Groin pain is a common problem in athletes who engage in sports involving accelerations, decelerations and sudden direction changes. It is still a frustrating pathology which has significant overlap and multiple problems coexist frequently. The pathogeny remains unclear, but the hypothesis that imbalances between abdominal muscles and adductors exist, has a certain success. Some anatomic and biomechanic factors may play a role in this pathology. A good clinical examination is an important part of the diagnosis and imaging may be helpful to eliminate other causes of groin pain that wouldn't be mechanic. The conservative treatment is long and difficult and must be focused on functional strengthening and core stabilisation.
Trentacosta, Natasha E; Vitale, Mark A; Ahmad, Christopher S
Orthopaedic injuries negatively affect the academic lives of children. The timing of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstructions affects academic performance in school-aged athletes. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods Records of patients academic difficulties than surgery during a holiday or summer break. Academic benefits of delaying surgery during the school year must be weighed against potentially worse outcomes encountered with prolonged surgical delay.
McFarland, E G; Giangarra, C
Low back and buttock pain in runners can be a source of frustration for the athlete and a diagnostic dilemma for the physician. The authors reported on 3 cases of sacral stress fractures in women athletes, all of which initially presented as low back and/or buttock pain. Sacral stress fractures have been increasingly recognized as a potential cause of these symptoms, especially in young athletes. Because plain radiograph findings are typically normal, the diagnosis is best made with bone scintigraphy. Computed tomography is indicated if there is concern about neoplasm and to evaluate healing of the fracture. If treated with rest, most of these fractures heal and the athlete can return to previous sports activity. The treating physician should be suspicious of this injury among running athletes reporting sacral and buttock pain that does not respond to treatment.
Hypertension is the most common cardiovascular disease in athletes. It is an important cause of long-term morbidity and mortality, even in a fit, athletic population. Management options to reduce these long-term risks exist that have minimal impact on athletic performance. Identification and management of underlying lifestyle factors and diseases that may lead to secondary hypertension is critical. These include substance abuse, medications, and underlying medical conditions. After evaluation and management of these issues, medications can be used to reduce blood pressure. In the athletic population, first-line medication treatment should include ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB), and calcium channel blockers (CCB). The response to treatment should be followed closely to ensure adequate blood pressure control. Athletic participation in sports with high dynamic load should be limited in individuals with stage 2 hypertension or stage 1 hypertension with evidence of end organ damage.
Schallmo, Michael S; Weiner, Joseph A; Hsu, Wellington K
Approximately 300,000 U.S. adolescents sustain concussions annually while participating in organized athletics. This study aimed to track sex and sport-specific trends among high school sports-related concussions over time, to identify whether a particular sport predisposes athletes to a higher risk, and to assess whether traumatic brain injury law enactments have been successful in improving recognition. Injury data for academic years 2005 to 2014 were collected from annual reports generated by High School RIO (Reporting Information Online). The relative proportions of total estimated concussions to total estimated injuries were compared using an injury proportion ratio. The concussion rate was defined as the number of concussions per 10,000 athlete exposures (1 athlete participating in 1 practice or competition), with rates compared using a rate ratio. To evaluate the impact of legislation on sports-related concussions in this population, trends in concussion rates and proportions were analyzed before enactment (academic years 2005-2009) and after enactment (academic years 2010-2014). Between 2005-2006 and 2014-2015, a significant increase (p concussions for all sports combined, the overall concussion rate (rate ratio, 2.30 [95% confidence interval, 2.04 to 2.59]), and the overall proportion of concussions (injury proportion ratio, 2.68 [95% confidence interval, 2.66 to 2.70]) was seen. Based on the injury proportion ratio, during the 2014-2015 academic year, concussions were more common in girls' soccer than in any other sport (p concussion prevention and recognition measures continue to be emphasized in high school contact sports. The data in our study suggest that significant increases in the overall rate and proportion of reported concussions during the past decade could have been affected by traumatic brain injury legislation. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show that girls' soccer players may have an even greater risk of sustaining a concussion
Bragg, Marie A; Yanamadala, Swati; Roberto, Christina A; Harris, Jennifer L; Brownell, Kelly D
This study quantified professional athletes' endorsement of food and beverages, evaluated the nutritional quality of endorsed products, and determined the number of television commercial exposures of athlete-endorsement commercials for children, adolescents, and adults. One hundred professional athletes were selected on the basis of Bloomberg Businessweek's 2010 Power 100 rankings, which ranks athletes according to their endorsement value and prominence in their sport. Endorsement information was gathered from the Power 100 list and the advertisement database AdScope. Endorsements were sorted into 11 endorsement categories (eg, food/beverages, sports apparel). The nutritional quality of the foods featured in athlete-endorsement advertisements was assessed by using a Nutrient Profiling Index, whereas beverages were evaluated on the basis of the percentage of calories from added sugar. Marketing data were collected from AdScope and Nielsen. Of 512 brands endorsed by 100 different athletes, sporting goods/apparel represented the largest category (28.3%), followed by food/beverages (23.8%) and consumer goods (10.9%). Professional athletes in this sample were associated with 44 different food or beverage brands during 2010. Seventy-nine percent of the 62 food products in athlete-endorsed advertisements were energy-dense and nutrient-poor, and 93.4% of the 46 advertised beverages had 100% of calories from added sugar. Peyton Manning (professional American football player) and LeBron James (professional basketball player) had the most endorsements for energy-dense, nutrient-poor products. Adolescents saw the most television commercials that featured athlete endorsements of food. Youth are exposed to professional athlete endorsements of food products that are energy-dense and nutrient-poor.
Beriau, M R; Cox, W B; Manning, J
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of wearing the Aircast(TM) Sports Stirrup, Aircast(TM) Training brace, Swede-O(TM) brace, and DonJoy(TM) Ankle Ligament Protector while running an agility course. Eighty-five high school athletes with no history of ankle injury and no experience in wearing any ankle support served as subjects. Each subject participated in four separate testing sessions. During sessions 1 and 4, subjects ran the agility course under the control (unbraced) conditions. Sessions 2 and 3 consisted of randomly wearing the ankle braces while running the agility course. A questionnaire concerning support, comfort, and restriction was completed by each subject after wearing each of the braces. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures revealed that a significant difference existed between the agility times. Tukey's post hoc test indicated that a significant difference existed between each ankle brace and the control 2 agility times as well as a control 1 and control 2 time difference. The control time difference was attributed to a learning effect. An ANOVA with repeated measures of only the four braces revealed that a significant difference existed between the agility times. Tukey's post hoc test showed the only difference was between the DonJoy Ankle Ligament Protector and the Aircast Training brace. We concluded: 1) there is limited practical performance effect upon agility while wearing an ankle brace; and 2) an athlete's perceived comfort, support, and performance restriction are contributing factors that may directly influence the effectiveness of ankle bracing.
Swenson, David M.; Collins, Christy L.; Best, Thomas M.; Flanigan, David C.; Fields, Sarah K.; Comstock, R. Dawn
Purpose US high school athletes sustain millions of injuries annually. Detailed patterns of knee injuries, among the most costly sports injuries, remain largely unknown. We hypothesize that patterns of knee injuries in US high school sports differ by sport and gender. Methods US High school sports-related injury data were collected for 20 sports using the National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance System, High School RIO™. Knee injury rates, rate ratios, and injury proportion ratios were calculated. Results From 2005/06–2010/11, 5,116 knee injuries occurred during 17,172,376 athlete exposures (AEs) for an overall rate of 2.98 knee injuries per 10,000 AEs. Knee injuries were more common in competition than practice (RR 3.53, 95% CI 3.34–3.73). Football had the highest knee injury rate (6.29 per 10,000 AEs) followed by girls’ soccer (4.53) and girls’ gymnastics (4.23). Girls had significantly higher knee injury rates than boys in gender-comparable sports (soccer, volleyball, basketball, baseball/softball, lacrosse, swimming and diving, and track and field) (RR 1.52, 95% CI 1.39–1.65). The most commonly involved structure was the MCL (reported in 36.1% of knee injuries), followed by the patella/patellar tendon (29.5%), ACL (25.4%), meniscus (23.0%), LCL (7.9%), and PCL (2.4%). Girls were significantly more likely to sustain ACL injuries in gender-comparable sports (RR 2.38, 95% CI 1.91–2.95). Overall, 21.2% of knee injuries were treated with surgery; girls were more often treated with surgery than boys in gender-comparable sports (IPR 1.30, 95% CI 1.11–1.53). Conclusions Knee injury patterns differ by sport and gender. Continuing efforts to develop preventive interventions could reduce the burden of these injuries. PMID:23059869
Post, Eric G; Bell, David R; Trigsted, Stephanie M; Pfaller, Adam Y; Hetzel, Scott J; Brooks, M Alison; McGuine, Timothy A
High school athletes are increasingly encouraged to participate in 1 sport year-round to increase their sport skills. However, no study has examined the association of competition volume, club sport participation, and sport specialization with sex and lower extremity injury (LEI) in a large sample of high school athletes. Increased competition volume, participating on a club team outside of school sports, and high levels of specialization will all be associated with a history of LEI. Girls will be more likely to engage in higher competition volume, participate on a club team, and be classified as highly specialized. Cross-sectional study. Level 3. High school athletes completed a questionnaire prior to the start of their competitive season regarding their sport participation and previous injury history. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to investigate associations of competition volume, club sport participation, and sport specialization with history of LEI, adjusting for sex. A cohort of 1544 high school athletes (780 girls; grades 9-12) from 29 high schools completed the questionnaire. Girls were more likely to participate at high competition volume (23.2% vs 11.0%, χ 2 = 84.7, P < 0.001), participate on a club team (61.2% vs 37.2%, χ 2 = 88.3, P < 0.001), and be highly specialized (16.4% vs 10.4%, χ 2 = 19.7, P < 0.001). Athletes with high competition volume, who participated in a club sport, or who were highly specialized had greater odds of reporting a previous LEI than those with low competition volume (odds ratio [OR], 2.08; 95% CI, 1.55-2.80; P < 0.001), no club sport participation (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.20-1.88; P < 0.001), or low specialization (OR, 2.58; 95% CI, 1.88-3.54; P < 0.001), even after adjusting for sex. Participating in high sport volume, on a club team, or being highly specialized was associated with history of LEI. Girls were more likely to participate at high volumes, be active on club teams, or be highly specialized
Schmidt, Heidi; Pedersen, Trine Lykke; Junge, Tina
athletes, and to study the association of GJH with pain, function, HRQoL, and musculoskeletal injuries. Methods A total of 132 elite-level adolescent athletes (36 adolescent boys, 96 adolescent girls; mean ± SD age, 14.0 ± 0.9 years), including ballet dancers (n = 22), TeamGym gymnasts (n = 57), and team......-reported questionnaires, and part of physical performance was assessed by 4 postural-sway tests and 2 single-legged hop-for-distance tests. Results Overall prevalence rates for GJH4, GJH5, and GJH6 were 27.3%, 15.9%, and 6.8%, respectively, with a higher prevalence of GJH4 in ballet dancers (68.2%) and TeamGym gymnasts...... significantly larger center-of-pressure path length across sway tests. Conclusion For ballet dancers and TeamGym gymnasts, the prevalence of GJH4 was higher than that of team handball players. For ballet dancers, the prevalence of GJH5 and GJH6 was higher than that of team handball players and the general...
Gilbert, Jenelle N.; Lyon, Hayden; Wahl, Mary-tyler
Sport participation can be a stressful experience for some high school athletes. Sustaining a sport injury can further increase athletes' stress levels. Coaches may feel uncomfortable interacting with injured athletes and can unconsciously or purposefully marginalize them. However, coaches have a responsibility toward all of their athletes,…
Schmied, C; Borjesson, M
A 'paradox of sport' is that in addition to the undisputed health benefits of physical activity, vigorous exertion may transiently increase the risk of acute cardiac events. In general, the risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) approximately doubles during physical activity and is 2- to 3-fold higher in athletes compared to nonathletes. The incidence of SCD in young athletes is in fact very low, at around 1-3 per 100,000, but attracts much public attention. Variations in incidence figures may be explained by the methodology used for data collection and more importantly by differences between subpopulations of athletes. The incidence of SCD in older (≥ 35 years) athletes is higher and may be expected to rise, as more and older individuals take part in organized sports. SCD is often the first clinical manifestation of a potentially fatal underlying cardiovascular disorder and usually occurs in previously asymptomatic athletes. In the young (cardiac abnormalities, whilst coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common cause in older athletes. Cardiac screening including family/personal history, physical examination and resting electrocardiogram (ECG) may identify individuals at risk and has the potential to decrease the risk of SCD in young athletes. Screening including the ECG has a high sensitivity for underlying disease in young athletes, but the specificity needs to be improved, whereas the sensitivity of screening without the use of ECG is very low. The screening modality recommended for young athletes is of limited value in older athletes, who should receive individualized screening with cardiac stress testing for patients with high risk of underlying CAD. As cardiovascular screening will never be able to identify all athletes at risk, adequate preparedness is vital in case of a potentially fatal event at the sporting arena/facility. Firstly, we will review the magnitude of the problem of SCD in athletes of different ages, as well as the aetiology. Secondly, we
Data were collected through participation motivation questionnaire (PMQ) from 132 female athletes participating in university sport championship. ... gender, athletes' sexual orientation, student athletes'residence and as well as the influence of friends/family, could affect participation of female athletes in university sport.
Stoutjesdyk, Dexa; Jevne, Ronna
Whether athletes in sports that emphasize leanness differ from athletes in other sports with regard to eating attitudes and disposition toward eating disorders was studied for 104 female and 87 male postsecondary level athletes. Results indicate that different groups of athletes may be at different risks of eating disorders. (SLD)
The new higher standards required of entering collegiate athletes will not immediately create change in the performance and attitudes of student athletes. Academic performance of student athletes can be enhanced through the development of a comprehensive program fusing the relationship between athletics and academics. (MD)
... EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex..., club, or intramural athletics offered by a recipient, and no recipient shall provide any such athletics... interscholastic, intercollegiate, club, or intramural athletics shall provide equal athletic opportunity for...
... EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex..., club, or intramural athletics offered by a recipient, and no recipient shall provide any such athletics... interscholastic, intercollegiate, club, or intramural athletics shall provide equal athletic opportunity for...
... EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex..., club, or intramural athletics offered by a recipient, and no recipient shall provide any such athletics... interscholastic, intercollegiate, club, or intramural athletics shall provide equal athletic opportunity for...
... SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the..., club, or intramural athletics offered by a recipient, and no recipient shall provide any such athletics... interscholastic, intercollegiate, club, or intramural athletics shall provide equal athletic opportunity for...
Jedlic, Brie; Hall, Nathan; Munroe-Chandler, Krista; Hall, Craig
To investigate whether coaches encourage their athletes to use imagery, two studies were undertaken. In the first, 317 athletes completed the Coaches' Encouragement of Athletes' Imagery Use Questionnaire. In the second, 215 coaches completed a slightly modified version of this questionnaire. It was found that coaches and athletes generally agreed…
Piasecki, Dana P; Spindler, Kurt P; Warren, Todd A; Andrish, Jack T; Parker, Richard D
Despite research on the increased risk of anterior cruciate ligament tears in female athletes, few studies have addressed sex differences in the incidence of associated intraarticular injuries. When patients are stratified by sport and competition level, no sex differences exist in either the mechanism of injury or pattern of intraarticular injuries observed at anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Prospective cohort study. Two hundred twenty-one athletes undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction met our inclusion criteria of anterior cruciate ligament tear as a singular event without reinjury or history of prior injury or surgery in either knee. Data were collected on competition level (high school, amateur), sport (basketball, soccer, skiing), mechanism of injury, articular cartilage injuries, and meniscal tears. Data were statistically analyzed by sex with the chi-square test and Student's t-test. High school athletes had no significant sex differences in mechanism of injury. Female soccer athletes had fewer medial meniscal tears than did male athletes, and female basketball players had fewer medial femoral condyle injuries. At the amateur level, female basketball players had more contact injuries, an earlier onset of swelling, and fewer lateral meniscal tears than did male players. At the high school level, male and female athletes shared a common mechanism of injury, and yet the female athletes had fewer intraarticular injuries in basketball and soccer. If such intraarticular injuries prove to be a significant risk factor for poor long-term outcome, women may enjoy a better prognosis after reconstruction.
Adams, William M; Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Casa, Douglas J; Huggins, Robert A; Burton, Laura
Prior researchers have examined the first-aid knowledge and decision making among high school coaches, but little is known about their perceived knowledge of exertional heat stroke (EHS) or their relationships with an athletic trainer (AT). To examine secondary school football coaches' perceived knowledge of EHS and their professional relationship with an AT. Qualitative study. Web-based management system. Thirty-eight secondary school head football coaches (37 men, 1 woman) participated in this study. Their average age was 47 ± 10 years old, and they had 12 ± 9 years' experience as a head football coach. Participants responded to a series of online questions that were focused on their perceived knowledge of EHS and professional relationships with ATs. Data credibility was established through multiple-analyst triangulation and peer review. We analyzed the data by borrowing from the principles of a general inductive approach. Two dominant themes emerged from the data: perceived self-confidence of the secondary school coach and the influence of the AT. The first theme highlighted the perceived confidence, due to basic emergency care training, of the coach regarding management of an emergency situation, despite a lack of knowledge. The second theme illustrated the secondary school coach's positive professional relationships with ATs regarding patient care and emergency procedures. Of the coaches who participated, 89% (34 out of 38) indicated positive interactions with their ATs. These secondary school coaches were unaware of the potential causes of EHS or the symptoms associated with EHS, and they had higher perceived levels of self-confidence in management abilities than indicated by their perceived knowledge level. The secondary school football coaches valued and understood the role of the AT regarding patient and emergency care.
Givan, Gordon V; Diehl, Jason J
Time allowing, euhydration can be achieved in the vast majority of individuals by drinking and eating normal beverages and meals. Important to the competitive athlete is prevention and treatment of dehydration and exercise-associated muscle cramps, as they are linked to a decline in athletic performance. Intravenous (IV) prehydration and rehydration has been proposed as an ergogenic aid to achieve euhydration more effectively and efficiently. PubMed database was searched in November 2011 for all English-language articles related to IV utilization in sport using the keywords intravenous, fluid requirements, rehydration, hydration, athlete, sport, exercise, volume expansion, and performance. Limited evidence exists for prehydration with IV fluids. Although anecdotal evidence does exist, at this time there are no high-level studies confirming that IV prehydration prevents dehydration or the onset of exercise-associated muscle cramps. Currently, there are no published studies describing IV fluid use during the course of an event, at intermission, or after the event as an ergogenic aid. The use of IV fluid may be beneficial for a subset of fluid-sensitive athletes; this should be reserved for high-level athletes with strong histories of symptoms in well-monitored settings. Volume expanders may also be beneficial for some athletes. IV fluids and plasma binders are not allowed in World Anti-Doping Agency-governed competitions. Routine IV therapy cannot be recommended as best practice for the majority of athletes.
Zakaria, Alan A; Kiningham, Robert B; Sen, Ananda
To determine if there is any benefit to static stretching after performing a dynamic warm-up in the prevention of injury in high school soccer athletes. Prospective cluster randomized nonblinded study. 12 high schools with varsity and junior varsity boys' soccer teams (24 soccer teams) across the state of Michigan. Four hundred ninety-nine student-athletes were enrolled, and 465 completed the study. One high school dropped out of the study in the first week, leaving a total of 22 teams. Dynamic stretching protocol vs dynamic + static (D+S) stretching protocol. Lower-extremity, core, or lower-back injuries per team. Twelve teams performed the dynamic stretching protocol and 10 teams performed the D+S stretching protocol. There were 17 injuries (1.42 ± 1.49 injuries/ team) among the teams that performed the dynamic stretching protocol and 20 injuries (2.0 ± 1.24 injuries/ team) among the teams that performed the D+S protocol. There was no statistically significant difference in injuries between the 2 groups (P = .33). There is no difference between dynamic stretching and D+S stretching in the prevention of lower-extremity, core, and back injuries in high school male soccer athletes. Static stretching does not provide any added benefit to dynamic stretching in the prevention of injury in this population before exercise.
The development of basketball and athletics during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries reflected a greater movement of education reform, civic development, and gender in the United States. In the twentieth century, Progressive Era reformers sought to remedy the ills of society such as urbanization, industrialization, and the lack of…
Armour, Kathleen; Duncombe, Rebecca
There would appear to be an enduring belief that successful sportsmen and women can act as powerful motivational role models for young people, especially disaffected, disadvantaged or disengaged youth. In the UK, for example, this belief has been expressed recently in the development of programmes, such as changingLIVES, the Respect Athlete Mentor…
Bockeria O.L.; Ispir’yan A.Yu.
Cases of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in young athletes during physical exercises are rare. According to the data of prospective population study performed in Veneto (Italy), incidence of SCD is 2.3 cases per year (2.6 among men and 1.1 among women) per 100,000 athletes aged 12 to 35 years for all reasons. Out of them 2.1 cases of SCD were caused by cardiovascular diseases. Coronary artery disease is the most frequent cause of SCD in athletes aged over 35 years. Also there are a number of other...
Giugliano, Danica N; Solomon, Jennifer L
With the growing number of female athletes, an increase is occurring in the number of sports-related injuries, which can cause physical, psychological, academic, and financial suffering. Female athletes are reported to be two to eight times more likely to sustain an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury than male athletes. Further research on risk factors and preventative strategies for the female ACL is needed, because the cause of the disparity in injury rates remains equivocal and controversial. Individualized treatment for the injured knee is necessary and can include either conservative treatment or reconstructive surgery.
Cohen, Brian; Kleinhenz, Dominic; Schiller, Jonathan; Tabaddor, Ramin
Athletic Pubalgia, more commonly known as sports hernia, is defined as chronic lower abdominal and groin pain without the presence of a true hernia. It is increasingly recognized in athletes as a source of groin pain and is often associated with other pathology. A comprehensive approach to the physical exam and a strong understanding of hip and pelvic anatomy are critical in making the appropriate diagnosis. Various management options are available. We review the basic anatomy, patholophysiology, diagnostic approach and treatment of athletic pubalgia as well as discuss associated conditions such as femoroacetabular impingement. [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2016-10.asp].
Poussel, M; Laure, P; Genest, J; Fronzaroli, E; Renaud, P; Favre, A; Chenuel, B
In French law (Code du Sport), the status of elite athlete is allowed for young athletes beginning at the age of 12 years. For these young athletes, the aim is to reach the highest level of performance in their sport without compromising academic performance. Training time is therefore often substantial and sleep patterns appear to play a key role in performance recovery. The aim of this study was to assess sleep patterns and their effects on academic performance in young elite athletes. Sleep patterns were assessed using questionnaires completed during a specific information-based intervention on sports medicine topics. The academic performance of young elite athletes was assessed by collecting their grades (transmitted by their teachers). Sleep patterns were assessed for 137 young elite athletes (64 females, 73 males; mean age, 15.7 years) and academic performance for 109 of them. Daily sleep duration during school periods (8h22 ± 38 min) were shorter compared to holidays and week-ends (10h02 ± 1h16, Pacademic performance in this specific athlete population. Sleep is the most important period for recovery from daily activity, but little information is available regarding the specific population of young elite athletes. The results reported herein suggest insufficiency (quantitatively and qualitatively) of sleep patterns in some of the young athletes, possibly leading to detrimental effects on athletic performance. Moreover, disturbed sleep patterns may also impact academic performance in young elite athletes. Teachers, athletic trainers, physicians, and any other professionals working with young elite athletes should pay particular attention to this specific population regarding the possible negative repercussions of poor sleep patterns on academic and athletic performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Rothberg, Ami Lynn
Student-athletes' and athletic administrators' perceptions of available and accessible social support in the athletic department are explored. Interviews were conducted with three athletic administrators whose job responsibilities are most focused on student-athlete welfare and 13 student-athletes from a NCAA Division I University from the Pacific…
The glory days of high school sports are no longer reserved for dream team athletes, as athletic directors are increasingly opening up sports to all students, regardless of ability, and seeing winning results on the field and off. This push is reflected in the most recent National Federation of State High School Associations (NFHS) survey, which…
Collins, Christy L; McKenzie, Lara B; Ferketich, Amy K; Andridge, Rebecca; Xiang, Huiyun; Comstock, R Dawn
Risk of dental injuries is present in a variety of sports. Mouthguards are effective yet underutilized. This study aimed to estimate the rate of dental injuries among high school athletes and investigate the utilization of mouthguards across multiple high school sports. Athlete exposure and dental injury data were collected during the 2008/2009 through 2013/2014 academic years from a large sample of high schools in the United States as part of the National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance Study. There were 222 dental injuries sustained during 24,787,258 athlete exposures for a rate of 0.90 per 100,000 athlete exposures. The rate of dental injuries in competition (1.8) was three times higher than the rate in practice (0.6) (RR: 3.1, 95% CI: 2.3-4.0). Rates of dental injuries varied by sport with the highest rates in girls' field hockey (3.9) and boys' basketball (2.6). Dental injuries most commonly occurred as a result of contact with another player (61.3%) and contact with a playing apparatus (31.5%). For the majority of dental injuries, the athlete was not wearing a mouthguard (72.5%). Among injuries where athletes were wearing mouthguards, the majority were self-fitted (95.9%). Although dental injuries were relatively uncommon, the majority occurred while the athlete was not wearing a mouthguard. As previous studies have shown that mouthguards are effective in preventing injuries, all high school athletes participating in a sport that places them at risk of sustaining a dental injury should wear a mouthguard consistently in both competition and practice. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available The primary purpose of ensuring in sport is to provide financial protection to policyholder individuals (athletes, coaches, referees and legal entities (sports organizations, federations, clubs of the negative result of sports injuries and loss of income that athletes or their clubs realize when it comes to clubs’ competition, which occur when the risk is realized or the insured event occurs. Injuries are common in sports, we could feel free to call it an integral part of doing a sports activity. Loss of earnings due to sports injuries is extremely high for any professional athlete. In order to be able to return to sports as soon as possible, athletes are forced to set aside large sums of money for rehabilitation, orthopedic supplies and equipment.
Rastislav Salaj; Denisa Čokášová; Beáta Pramuková
.... However, designing the most suitable sports diet is very difficult. It must be given to the type of training, its duration and intensity, the age and sex of the athlete and also for overall health...
Rasmussen, Christopher J.
Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today's endurance athletes. Several of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance but also to combat the immunosuppressive effects of intense endurance training. It is imperative for each athlete to research the legality of certain supplements for their specific sport or event. Once the legality has been established, it is often up to each individual athlete to decipher the ethics involved with ingesting nutritional supplements with the sole intent of improving performance.
Lancaster, Melissa A; McCrea, Michael A; Nelson, Lindsay D
Assessment of emotional functioning is important in sport-related concussion (SRC) management, although few standardized measures have been validated in this population, and appropriate normative data are lacking. We investigated the psychometric properties of the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18) in high school and collegiate athletes at risk of SRC and compiled normative data. Athletes (n = 2,031) completed the BSI-18 and other measures of concussion symptoms, cognition, and psychological functioning. A subset of healthy individuals was re-evaluated at approximately 7, 30, 45, and 165 days. Psychometric analyses of test-retest reliability, internal consistency reliability, and concurrent validity were performed. Given significant differences between sexes and education levels (high school or college student) on the BSI-18 Global Severity Index and all subscales, normative conversion tables were produced after stratifying by these variables. The BSI-18 showed good internal consistency, fair to poor test-retest reliability, and good convergent validity with other measures of emotional functioning. These data indicate that the BSI-18 may be a valuable measure of emotional state in concussed athletes and may provide unique information beyond post-concussive symptoms for research on the role of psychological factors in SRC recovery. The limited divergent validity of the BSI-18 depression and anxiety scales implies that they tap into general distress more so than specific mood or anxiety symptoms; therefore, BSI-18 scores should be not relied upon for differential diagnosis of mood and anxiety disorders. Normative data provided can be readily applied to clinical cases with high school and collegiate athletes.
Collins, Christy L.; McKenzie, Lara B.; Roberts, Kristin J.; Fields, Sarah K.; Comstock, R. Dawn
Although mouthguards are effective, inexpensive, easy to use, and readily available, this form of protective equipment has been underutilized. “Impulsive delay discounting” (an index of impulsive behavior) among high school athletes may help explain their decision making regarding use of protective equipment such as mouthguards. We investigated the relationship between high school baseball, softball, and basketball players’ mouthguard use, impulsive delay discounting, and the precaution adoption process model (a behavior change theory). A convenience sample of boys’ and girls’ basketball and baseball/softball players at 21 high schools in the Greater Columbus, Ohio, metro area completed a self-administered survey that captured their demographic information, knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding mouthguard use, impulsive delay discounting, and precaution adoption process model stage. We surveyed a total of 1636 students (55.9 % male, 43.8 % female, 0.3 % unknown). Only 12.3 % reported using a mouthguard either every time or sometimes during practice or competition. The primary reasons reported for not wearing mouthguards were they were not required to (65.3 %) and that the athletes could not breathe or talk while wearing one (61.5 %). These reasons were consistent across sex and sport. Most athletes reported that their coaches (87.3 %) and parents (64.5 %) had never talked to them about wearing a mouthguard. Lower precaution adoption process model stage was significantly associated with higher impulsivity (p athletes playing basketball and baseball/softball remains low despite the risk of dental injury in these sports. Effective, evidence-based, targeted, and tailored interventions to improve adolescent athletes’ use of mouthguards to prevent sports-related dental injuries should be based on the specific behavioral and social factors influencing each athlete’s decision making regarding use of mouthguards. PMID:26391156
Collins, Christy L; McKenzie, Lara B; Roberts, Kristin J; Fields, Sarah K; Comstock, R Dawn
Although mouthguards are effective, inexpensive, easy to use, and readily available, this form of protective equipment has been underutilized. "Impulsive delay discounting" (an index of impulsive behavior) among high school athletes may help explain their decision making regarding use of protective equipment such as mouthguards. We investigated the relationship between high school baseball, softball, and basketball players' mouthguard use, impulsive delay discounting, and the precaution adoption process model (a behavior change theory). A convenience sample of boys' and girls' basketball and baseball/softball players at 21 high schools in the Greater Columbus, Ohio, metro area completed a self-administered survey that captured their demographic information, knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding mouthguard use, impulsive delay discounting, and precaution adoption process model stage. We surveyed a total of 1636 students (55.9 % male, 43.8 % female, 0.3 % unknown). Only 12.3 % reported using a mouthguard either every time or sometimes during practice or competition. The primary reasons reported for not wearing mouthguards were they were not required to (65.3 %) and that the athletes could not breathe or talk while wearing one (61.5 %). These reasons were consistent across sex and sport. Most athletes reported that their coaches (87.3 %) and parents (64.5 %) had never talked to them about wearing a mouthguard. Lower precaution adoption process model stage was significantly associated with higher impulsivity (p behavioral and social factors influencing each athlete's decision making regarding use of mouthguards.
Furlanello, F; Bertoldi, A; Dallago, M; Galassi, A; Fernando, F; Biffi, A; Mazzone, P; Pappone, C; Chierchia, S
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a rare event in people younger than 25 years of age, but is probably more frequent in competitive athletes. We analyzed the presence of AF, paroxysmal or chronic, in a population of young elite athletes, including previous Olympic and World champions, who were studied for arrhythmias that endangered their athletic careers. From 1974 to June 1977, 1,772 athletes identified with arrhythmias (1,464 males and 308 females; mean age 21 years) underwent individualized work-ups. Among these, 146 (122 males and 24 females; mean age 24 years) were young elite athletes. They were studied from 1985 to 1997, with a mean follow-up of 62 months. Of the 146 young elite athletes, 13 (9%) had AF (paroxysmal in 11 and chronic in 2); all were male. The paroxysmal AF occurred during effort (n = 7), after effort (n = 1), or at rest (n = 3) and was reinduced by transesophageal pacing or endocavitary electrophysiologic testing under the same clinical circumstances. AF was the cause of symptoms in 13 (40%) of 22 young elite athletes with long-lasting palpitations. Five young elite athletes had a substrate for AF: Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW) in 3, arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) in 1, healed myocarditis in 1, and was considered idiopathic in 8. All elite athletes are alive with a mean follow-up of 62 months and 7 continue in their sports: 3 after radiofrequency catheter ablation (of WPW in 2 and AF with maze-type nonfluoroscopic approach in 1) and 4 after a period of de-training. AF, occurring in young elite athletes and affecting only males, is one of the most frequent causes of prolonged palpitations and is reproduced easily by transesophageal atrial pacing or electrophysiologic testing. AF may be a cause of disqualification from sports eligibility, but may disappear if the athletic activity is stopped for an adequate period of time, if trigger mechanisms are corrected (i.e., WPW), or if the substrate is modified.
O'Connor, Daniel P.; Knoblauch, Mark A.
Abstract Context: Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a relatively rare yet unfortunate risk of athletic participation. To reduce the incidence of SCD, electrocardiogram (ECG) use during athletic preparticipation examinations (PPEs) has been proposed to detect underlying cardiac abnormalities. Objective: To estimate the effectiveness of ECG use during athletic PPEs. Design: Epidemiologic modeling. Populations: Public high school athletes. Data Collection and Analysis: Estimates of ECG sensitivity (70%) and specificity (84%) were drawn from the literature, as was the estimate of overall prevalence of cardiac conditions relevant to SCD (0.3%). Participation rate by sex was determined from National Federation of State High School Associations data. Participation by ethnicity was assumed to be proportionate to the public high school attendance rates for grades 9 through 12 (18.4% African American). Population-specific ECG effectiveness (positive predictive value), estimated total costs, cost per year of life saved, and cost to identify 1 additional case were computed. Total annual PPE screening costs reflected a cardiologist's office visit, including echocardiogram for those athletes with a positive ECG screen. Results: The model predicted that 16% of all athletes would be expected to have a positive ECG, but only 1.3% of athletes with a positive ECG would have a cardiac abnormality capable of causing SCD, including hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, structural defects, and various conduction abnormalities. Total annual cost estimates for ECG screening and follow-up exceeded $126 million. Average cost per year of life saved across groups was $2693, and the cost to identify 1 additional case averaged $100 827. Compared with females, males had both lower cost per year of life saved and lower cost to identify 1 true case. Similarly, black males exhibited lower costs than white males. Across groups, false-positive ECG screening exams accounted for 98.8% of follow-up costs
Schmidt, Julianne D; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Mihalik, Jason P; Blackburn, J Troy; Siegmund, Gunter P; Marshall, Stephen W
To compare the odds of sustaining moderate and severe head impacts, rather than mild, between high school football players with high and low visual performance. Prospective quasi-experimental. Clinical Research Center/On-field. Thirty-seven high school varsity football players. Athletes completed the Nike SPARQ Sensory Station visual assessment before the season. Head impact biomechanics were captured at all practices and games using the Head Impact Telemetry System. Each player was classified as either a high or low performer using a median split for each of the following visual performance measures: visual clarity, contrast sensitivity, depth perception, near-far quickness, target capture, perception span, eye-hand coordination, go/no go, and reaction time. We computed the odds of sustaining moderate and severe head impacts against the reference odds of sustaining mild head impacts across groups of high and low performers for each of the visual performance measures. Players with better near-far quickness had increased odds of sustaining moderate [odds ratios (ORs), 1.27; 95% confidence intervals (CIs), 1.04-1.56] and severe head impacts (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.05-2.01) as measured by Head Impact Technology severity profile. High and low performers were at equal odds on all other measures. Better visual performance did not reduce the odds of sustaining higher magnitude head impacts. Visual performance may play less of a role than expected for protecting against higher magnitude head impacts among high school football players. Further research is needed to determine whether visual performance influences concussion risk. Based on our results, we do not recommend using visual training programs at the high school level for the purpose of reducing the odds of sustaining higher magnitude head impacts.
Smoot, M Kyle; Hosey, Robert G
Despite their general high level of health, athletes are not free from the threat of developing pulmonary infection. Prompt diagnosis and proper treatment are important given the effects of pulmonary infection upon athletic performance and time away from training. This article reviews common etiologies of community-acquired pneumonia and a more in-depth discussion of mycoplasma pneumonie and influenza. Current treatment guidelines, acute bronchitis, fungal pulmonary infection, and return to play principles also are discussed.
Clement, Damien; Granquist, Megan D.; Arvinen-Barrow, Monna M.
Context: Despite the Psychosocial Strategies and Referral content area, athletic trainers (ATs) generally lack confidence in their ability to use this information. Objective: The current study's primary purpose was to determine (a) perceived psychological responses and coping behaviors athletes may present to ATs, (b) psychosocial strategies ATs currently use with their athletes, (c) psychosocial strategies ATs deem important to learn more about, and (d) ATs' current practices in referring athletes to counseling or sport psychology services. Design: Mixed-methods study. Setting: Online survey containing both quantitative and qualitative items. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 215 ATs (86 male, 129 female), representing a response rate of 22.50%. Main Outcome Measure(s): The Athletic Training and Sport Psychology Questionnaire. Results: Stress/anxiety (4.24 ± 0.82), anger (3.70 ± 0.96), and treatment adherence problems (3.62 ± 0.94) were rated as the primary psychological responses athletes may present upon injury. Adherence and having a positive attitude were identified as key determinants in defining athletes' successful coping with their injuries. The top 3 selected psychosocial strategies were keeping the athlete involved with the team (4.57 ± 0.73), using short-term goals (4.45 ± 0.67), and creating variety in rehabilitation exercises (4.32 ± 0.75). The top 3 rated psychosocial strategies ATs deem important to learn more about were understanding motivation (4.29 ± 0.89), using effective communication (4.24 ± 0.91), and setting realistic goals (4.22 ± 0.97). Of the sample, only 59 (27.44%) ATs reported referring an athlete for counseling services, and 37 (84.09%) of those who had access to a sport psychologist (n = 44) reported referring for sport psychology services. Conclusions: These results not only highlight ATs' current use of psychosocial strategies but also their desires to increase their current knowledge and understanding
In athletes under the age of 35 years the incidence of sudden death is low, most causes to be due to ventricular arrhythmias, usually provoked by exertion, and nearly always occur in the presence of structural heart disease or abnormalities in the conduction system. The most common structural disease is hypertrophic cardiomyopathy followed by coronary artery anomalies, idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia, aortic stenosis, myocarditis, the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, and long QT syndrome. The evaluation of athletes with symptoms of cardiac arrhythmias, syncope, family history of sudden death require a complete cardiac workup. If they have documented hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia, idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, long QT syndrome, family history presentation with sudden death, and septal thickness greater than 20 mm competitive athletics are generally prohibited. In athletes with asymptomatic bradyarrhythmia, supraventricular tachycardias and atrial premature contractions without structural heart disease all competitive sports are allowed if heart rate in bradyarrhythmia appropriately increases with exercise. Athletes with premature ventricular contraction, nonsustained ventricular tachycardia and non structural heart disease are without athletic restriction as long as the arrhythmia does not worsen on exertion and cause dyspnea, presyncope or syncope.
Hsu, Chao-Jung; Meierbachtol, Adam; George, Steven Z; Chmielewski, Terese L
A sports injury has both physical and psychological consequences for the athlete. A common postinjury psychological response is elevated fear of reinjury. To provide an overview of the implications of fear of reinjury on the rehabilitation of athletes, including clinical methods to measure fear of reinjury; the impact of fear of reinjury on rehabilitation outcomes, including physical impairments, function, and return to sports rate; and potential interventions to address fear of reinjury during rehabilitation. PubMed was searched for articles published in the past 16 years (1990-2016) relating to fear of reinjury in athletes. The reference lists of the retrieved articles were searched for additionally relevant articles. Clinical review. Level 3. Fear of reinjury after a sports injury can negatively affect the recovery of physical impairments, reduce self-report function, and prevent a successful return to sport. Athletes with high fear of reinjury might benefit from a psychologically informed practice approach to improve rehabilitation outcomes. The application of psychologically informed practice would be to measure fear of reinjury in the injured athletes and provide interventions to reduce fear of reinjury to optimize rehabilitation outcomes. Fear of reinjury after a sports injury can lead to poor rehabilitation outcomes. Incorporating principles of psychologically informed practice into sports injury rehabilitation could improve rehabilitation outcomes for athletes with high fear of reinjury.
Arieli, Rakefet; Constantini, Naama
Athletes need to consume sufficient energy to meet their training demands, maintain their health, and if young, to ensure their growth and development. Athletes are often preoccupied by their body weight and shape, and in some sports might be subjected to pressure to lose weight by coaches, peers or themselves. Eating disorders and poor eating habits are prevalent among female athletes, especially in sport disciplines where low body weight is required to improve performance or for "aesthetic" appearance or in weight category sports. Low energy intake has deleterious effects on many systems, including the cardiovascular system, several hormonal pathways, musculoskeletal system, fluids and electrolytes, thermoregulation, growth and development. Various fitness components and overall performance are also negatively affected. All these, together with poor nutritional status that causes vitamin and mineral deficiencies, poor concentration and depression, put the athlete at an increased injury risk. Energy availability is now recognized as the primary factor initiating these health problems. Energy availability is defined as dietary energy intake minus exercise energy expenditure. If below 30 kcal/kg fat free mass per day, reproductive system functions, as well as other metabolic systems, might be suppressed. The case presented is of a young female Judoka, who complained of fatigue and weakness. Medical and nutritional assessment revealed that she suffered from low energy availability, which slowed her growth and development, and negatively affected her health and athletic performance. This case study emphasizes the importance of adequate energy availability in young female athletes in order to ensure their health.
Larson, Christopher M.
Context: Sports hernia/athletic pubalgia has received increasing attention as a source of disability and time lost from athletics. Studies are limited, however, lacking consistent objective criteria for making the diagnosis and assessing outcomes. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed database through January 2013 and hand searches of the reference lists of pertinent articles. Study Design: Review article. Level of Evidence: Level 5. Results: Nonsurgical outcomes have not been well reported. Various surgical approaches have return-to–athletic activity rates of >80% regardless of the approach. The variety of procedures and lack of outcomes measures in these studies make it difficult to compare one surgical approach to another. There is increasing evidence that there is an association between range of motion–limiting hip disorders (femoroacetabular impingement) and sports hernia/athletic pubalgia in a subset of athletes. This has added increased complexity to the decision-making process regarding treatment. Conclusion: An association between femoroacetabular impingement and athletic pubalgia has been recognized, with better outcomes reported when both are managed concurrently or in a staged manner. PMID:24587864
Jastifer, James; Kent, Richard; Crandall, Jeff; Sherwood, Chris; Lessley, David; McCullough, Kirk A; Coughlin, Michael J; Anderson, Robert B
Foot and ankle injuries are common in sports, particularly in cleated athletes. Traditionally, the athletic shoe has not been regarded as a piece of protective equipment but rather as a part of the uniform, with a primary focus on performance and subjective feedback measures of comfort. Changes in turf and shoe design have poorly understood implications on the health and safety of players. A literature search of the MEDLINE and PubMed databases was conducted. Keywords included athletic shoewear, cleated shoe, football shoes, and shoewear, and search parameters were between the years 2000 and 2016. Clinical review. Level 5. The athletic shoe is an important piece of protective sports equipment. There are several important structural considerations of shoe design, including biomechanical compliance, cleat and turf interaction, and shoe sizing/fit, that affect the way an athlete engages with the playing surface and carry important potential implications regarding player safety if not understood and addressed. Athletic footwear should be considered an integral piece of protective equipment rather than simply an extension of the uniform apparel. More research is needed to define optimal shoe sizing, the effect that design has on mechanical load, and how cleat properties, including pattern and structure, interact with the variety of playing surfaces.
Forman, E S; Dekker, A H; Javors, J R; Davison, D T
This project studied high-risk activities in adolescent male athletes (ages 13-19) compared with a control group of adolescent male and female nonathletes. All athletes surveyed participated in one or more interscholastic sports. The prevalence of drug use by athletes compared to nonathletes was determined. Of the 19 drugs observed in this study, all were shown to have a lower prevalence of use among athletes in their senior year of high school, compared to the comparison group. Among the more commonly abused substances by the athlete population, beer, wine and whiskey, cigarettes, and marijuana were shown to have a lower use rate, by 25.5, 39.9, 57.5, and 57.7%, respectively. The prevalence of drug use by adolescent male athletes compared to adolescent nonathletes was also studied. Of the 19 individual drugs surveyed, all demonstrated a lower prevalence of use among athletes in their senior year of high school compared to the national data. The second high-risk activity measured was sexual activity. Of the athletes, 45.5% stated that they had never had sexual intercourse, compared to 50.0% of the nonathletes. Of the sexually active athletes, 81.9% had their first intercourse at between 13 and 15 years of age, whereas only 67.8% of the nonathlete control group had done so. This difference diminished significantly at age 16 and above. The results of this study suggest that participation in athletics by male athletes may lead to a significant decrease in drug and alcohol use and abuse but, also may increase early sexual contact. These trends were seen throughout all 4 years of high school in the athletes studied.
Otter, Tina Ardi
Endurance athletes seek for the optimal balance in training stress and recovery so they can perform at their best and avoid injuries. The PhD thesis of Ruby Otter at the School of Sport Studies (Hanze University of Applied Sciences) and the Center of Human Movement Sciences (UMCG, University of
Ponamgi, Shiva P.; DeSimone, Christopher V.; Ackerman, Michael J.
Summary Athletes with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) represent a diverse group of individuals who may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) when engaging in vigorous physical activity. Therefore, they are excluded by the current guidelines from participating in most competitive sports except those classified as low intensity, such as bowling and golf. The lack of substantial data on the natural history of the cardiac diseases affecting these athletes, as well as the unknown efficacy of implanted ICDs in terminating life-threatening arrhythmias occurring during intense exercise, have resulted in the restrictive nature of these now decade old guidelines. Recently, there is emerging data, derived from a few retrospective studies and a large prospective registry that demonstrates the relative safety of high-risk athletes participating in competitive sports and challenges the prohibitive nature of these guidelines. Nevertheless, the safe participation of all athletes with an ICD in competitive sports continues to be contemplated. The increased number of inappropriate shocks, damage to the ICD/pacemaker system, and the questionable efficacy of the delivered shock in the setting of vigorous physical activity are some of the main challenges faced by these athletes who choose to continue participation in competitive sports. The fear of SCD and ICD shocks faced by these athletes is also associated with a negative psychological burden and affects their quality of life, as does restricting them from all competitive sports. Therefore, shared decision making is necessary between the clinician and athlete after carefully analyzing the risks and benefits associated with competitive sports participation. PMID:26100423
Schmidt, Heidi; Pedersen, Trine Lykke; Junge, Tina
Study Design Cross-sectional. Background Generalized joint hypermobility (GJH) may increase pain and likelihood of injuries and also decrease function and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in elite-level adolescent athletes. Objective To assess the prevalence of GJH in elite-level adolescent...... handball players (n = 53), participated in the study. Generalized joint hypermobility was classified by Beighton score as GJH4 (4/9 or greater), GJH5 (5/9 or greater), and GJH6 (6/9 or greater). Function of the lower extremity, musculoskeletal injuries, and HRQoL were assessed with self...... (24.6%) than in team handball players (13.2%). There was no significant difference in lower extremity function, injury prevalence and related factors (exacerbation, recurrence, and absence from training), HRQoL, or lengths of hop tests for those with and without GJH. However, the GJH group had...... significantly larger center-of-pressure path length across sway tests. Conclusion For ballet dancers and TeamGym gymnasts, the prevalence of GJH4 was higher than that of team handball players. For ballet dancers, the prevalence of GJH5 and GJH6 was higher than that of team handball players and the general...
Yesalis, C E; Bahrke, M S
The use of drugs to enhance physical performance and appearance has been observed for thousands of years. Today individuals, including adolescents, continue to employ a wide variety of drugs in the hope of improving their athletic performance and looking better. Unfortunately, beyond the assessment of anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use, very little is known regarding the use, safety and efficacy of other performance-enhancing drugs and nutritional supplements among adolescents. Most studies report that 3-12% of adolescent males admit to using an AAS at some time during their life. Among adolescent females, studies find that 1-2% report having used steroids. The current strategy for dealing with performance-enhancing drug use by adolescents is multi-faceted and primarily involves education and prevention strategies, interdiction and drug testing programmes. However, the demand for performance-enhancing drugs has been created by our societal fixation on winning and physical appearance. In order to alter the current use of performance-enhancing drugs by adolescents, we as a society must come to grips with our addiction to sport and the importance we place on winning and appearance. We must change our values.
Full Text Available Wolf Petersen,1 Ingo Rembitzki,2 Christian Liebau3 1Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, Martin Luther Hospital, Grunewald, Berlin; 2German Sport University Cologne, 3Asklepios Clinic, Bad Harzburg, Germany Abstract: Patellofemoral pain (PFP is a frequent cause of anterior knee pain in athletes, which affects patients with and without structural patellofemoral joint (PFJ damage. Most younger patients do not have any structural changes to the PFJ, such as an increased Q angle and a cartilage damage. This clinical entity is known as patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS. Older patients usually present with signs of patellofemoral osteoarthritis (PFOA. A key factor in PFPS development is dynamic valgus of the lower extremity, which leads to lateral patellar maltracking. Causes of dynamic valgus include weak hip muscles and rearfoot eversion with pes pronatus valgus. These factors can also be observed in patients with PFOA. The available evidence suggests that patients with PFP are best managed with a tailored, multimodal, nonoperative treatment program that includes short-term pain relief with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, passive correction of patellar maltracking with medially directed tape or braces, correction of the dynamic valgus with exercise programs that target the muscles of the lower extremity, hip, and trunk, and the use of foot orthoses in patients with additional foot abnormalities. Keywords: anterior knee pain, dynamic valgus, hip strength, rearfoot eversion, single leg squat, hip strength
Full Text Available Ingegerd Östman-SmithDivision of Paediatric Cardiology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg University, SwedenAbstract: Athletic activity is associated with an increased risk of sudden death for individuals with some congenital or acquired heart disorders. This review considers in particular the causes of death affecting athletes below 35 years of age. In this age group the largest proportion of deaths are caused by diseases with autosomal dominant inheritance such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, long QT-syndrome, and Marfan’s syndrome. A policy of early cascade-screening of all first-degree relatives of patients with these disorders will therefore detect a substantial number of individuals at risk. A strictly regulated system with preparticipation screening of all athletes following a protocol pioneered in Italy, including school-age children, can also detect cases caused by sporadic new mutations and has been shown to reduce excess mortality among athletes substantially. Recommendations for screening procedure are reviewed. It is concluded that ECG screening ought to be part of preparticipation screening, but using criteria that do not cause too many false positives among athletes. One such suggested protocol will show positive in approximately 5% of screened individuals, among whom many will be screened for these diseases. On this point further research is needed to define what kind of false-positive and false-negative rate these new criteria result in. A less formal system based on cascade-screening of relatives, education of coaches about suspicious symptoms, and preparticipation questionnaires used by athletic clubs, has been associated over time with a sizeable reduction in sudden cardiac deaths among Swedish athletes, and thus appears to be worth implementing even for junior athletes not recommended for formal preparticipation screening. It is strongly argued
Sabo, Don; Veliz, Phil
This first-of-its-kind report on gender and high school sports participation, "Progress Without Equity: The Provision of High School Athletic Opportunity in the United States, by Gender 1993-94 through 2005-06," flows from an analysis of high schools that is unprecedented in its national and historical scope. It uses merged data from the Civil…
Sep 3, 2016 ... different schools for study, randomly divided the students ... 2013-December 2015, 3600 students from different sports schools were selected for the test. ... Key words: Athlete, cardiac performance, correlation, training intensity.
Notwithstanding, risky behaviours that limit or impair athletic performance are widely prevalent among athletes; .... kind of sport, duration of training and frequency of training. b. Anthropometric measurements including height, weight, arm-span and skin-fold thickness (at four sites: ..... loss methods of high school wrestlers.
Objective: An effective analysis of correlation between training intensity of athletes and cardiac performance is done to develop scientific and reasonable exercise program and to promote health of athletes. Methods: During December 2013-December 2015, 3600 students from different sports schools were selected for the ...
This article seeks to analyze the historical origins of the connection between social studies and coaching, which is grounded in the masculine discourse of history, social studies, and athletics. Further, this article explains how history, social studies, and athletics at the secondary school level were constructed as masculine through the…
Wolohan, John T.
This article reviews what constitutes sexual harassment in sports by examining Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 and the effect it has had on charges of sexual harrassment in educational institutions. Athletic administrators are provided with strategies and recommendations to help schools and athletic departments develop sexual…
Hoffman, William B.
This study investigated the potential causes behind a drop in student athlete recruitment and graduation at a NCAA Division III school (hereafter referred to as "Collegiate U"). Collegiate U has historically enjoyed success on the football field as well as in the classroom, but recruiting and graduating successful student athletes has…
Singer, John N.
This study presents narrative case study vignettes of three elite African American male football athletes at a major historically White institution of higher education with a big-time athletics department. More specifically, I draw from critical race theory to garner insight into their secondary schooling background, what education means to them,…
Ellsworth, Abigail A; Zoland, Mark P; Tyler, Timothy F
Evaluation and treatment of groin pain in athletes is challenging. The anatomy is complex, and multiple pathologies often coexist. Different pathologies may cause similar symptoms, and many systems can refer pain to the groin. Many athletes with groin pain have tried prolonged rest and various treatment regimens, and received differing opinions as to the cause of their pain. The rehabilitation specialist is often given a non-specific referral of "groin pain" or "sports hernia." The cause of pain could be as simple as the effects of an adductor strain, or as complex as athletic pubalgia or inguinal disruption. The term "sports hernia" is starting to be replaced with more specific terms that better describe the injury. Inguinal disruption is used to describe the syndromes related to the injury of the inguinal canal soft tissue environs ultimately causing the pain syndrome. The term athletic pubalgia is used to describe the disruption and/or separation of the more medial common aponeurosis from the pubis, usually with some degree of adductor tendon pathology. Both non-operative and post-operative treatment options share the goal of returning the athlete back to pain free activity. There is little research available to reference for rehabilitation guidelines and creation of a plan of care. Although each surgeon has their own specific set of post-operative guidelines, some common concepts are consistent among most surgeons. Effective rehabilitation of the high level athlete to pain free return to play requires addressing the differences in the biomechanics of the dysfunction when comparing athletic pubalgia and inguinal disruption. Proper evaluation and diagnostic skills for identifying and specifying the difference between athletic pubalgia and inguinal disruption allows for an excellent and efficient rehabilitative plan of care. Progression through the rehabilitative stages whether non-operative or post-operative allows for a focused rehabilitative program. As more
D'Ascenzi, Flavio; Pisicchio, Cataldo; Caselli, Stefano; Di Paolo, Fernando M; Spataro, Antonio; Pelliccia, Antonio
The aim of this study was to assess the impact of sex and different sports on right ventricular (RV) remodeling and compare the derived upper limits with widely used revised Task Force (TF) reference values. Uncertainties exist regarding the extent and physiological determinants of RV remodeling in highly trained athletes. The issue is important, considering that in athletes RV size occasionally exceeds the cutoff limits proposed to diagnose arrhythmogenic RV cardiomyopathy. A total of 1,009 Olympic athletes (mean age 24 ± 6 years; n = 647 [64%] males) participating in skill, power, mixed, and endurance sport were evaluated by 2-dimensional echocardiography and Doppler/tissue Doppler imaging. The right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) in parasternal long-axis (PLAX) and short-axis views, fractional area change, s' velocity, and morphological features were assessed. Indexed RVOT PLAX was greater in females than in males (15.3 ± 2.2 mm/m2 vs. 14.4 ± 1.9 mm/m2; p view were significantly different among skill, power, mixed, and endurance sports: 14.3 ± 2.1 mm/m2 versus 14.7 ± 1.9 mm/m2 versus 14.0 ± 1.8 mm/m2 versus 15.7 ± 2.2 mm/m2, respectively (p view was 18 mm/m2 and 20 mm/m2, respectively. Fractional area change and s' velocity did not differ among the groups (p = 0.34 for both). RV enlargement compatible with major and minor TF diagnostic criteria for arrhythmogenic RV cardiomyopathy was observed in 41 (4%) and 319 (32%) athletes. A rounded apex was described in 823 (81%) athletes, prominent trabeculations in 378 (37%) athletes, and a prominent/hyperreflective moderator band in 5 (0.5%) athletes. RV remodeling occurs in Olympic athletes, with male sex and endurance practice playing the major impact. A significant subset (up to 32%) of athletes exceeds the normal TF limits; therefore, we recommend referring to the 95th percentiles here reported as referral values; alternatively, only major diagnostic TF criteria for arrhythmogenic RV cardiomyopathy
The relationship between balance ability and sport injury risk has been established in many cases, but the relationship between balance ability and athletic performance is less clear. This review compares the balance ability of athletes from different sports, determines if there is a difference in balance ability of athletes at different levels of competition within the same sport, determines the relationship of balance ability with performance measures and examines the influence of balance training on sport performance or motor skills. Based on the available data from cross-sectional studies, gymnasts tended to have the best balance ability, followed by soccer players, swimmers, active control subjects and then basketball players. Surprisingly, no studies were found that compared the balance ability of rifle shooters with other athletes. There were some sports, such as rifle shooting, soccer and golf, where elite athletes were found to have superior balance ability compared with their less proficient counterparts, but this was not found to be the case for alpine skiing, surfing and judo. Balance ability was shown to be significantly related to rifle shooting accuracy, archery shooting accuracy, ice hockey maximum skating speed and simulated luge start speed, but not for baseball pitching accuracy or snowboarding ranking points. Prospective studies have shown that the addition of a balance training component to the activities of recreationally active subjects or physical education students has resulted in improvements in vertical jump, agility, shuttle run and downhill slalom skiing. A proposed mechanism for the enhancement in motor skills from balance training is an increase in the rate of force development. There are limited data on the influence of balance training on motor skills of elite athletes. When the effectiveness of balance training was compared with resistance training, it was found that resistance training produced superior performance results for
Researchers have reported that athletic training students who earn teacher certification enhance their job marketability. The purpose of this study was to determine the number of athletic training students who pursue teacher certification. A survey was mailed to the directors of the 78 NATA undergraduate programs in 1992. Data from the returned surveys showed that 177 of the 703 expected graduates in 1992 and 148 of the 640 graduates in 1991 pursued teacher certification. The most common teacher certification subject area was Physical Education, followed by Health, and Science or Biology. These students should expect to take an additional 1.6 semesters (range 0 to 4) to complete teacher certification requirements. Program directors cited increased job opportunities as the main advantage, and increased time in school and financial burden as the main disadvantages of pursuing teacher certification. Although the potential for high school jobs seems enormous, there is little indication that high schools are increasingly hiring athletic trainers. Formal counseling and advising for athletic training students regarding teacher certification and job opportunities should occur in the first year of study. Additional research should assess the job market. Imagesp350-a PMID:16558362
Lockhart, Barbara D.
Context: As educators, athletic trainers should familiarize athletes with the concepts of self acceptance self-esteem and identity to assuage psychological trauma accompanying injury because the more a person identifies with being an athlete, the more difficult it is to deal with athletic injury. Objective: The objective of this article is to…
Stereotype discrimination affects female athletes' athletic experiences. Studies have been conducted of former collegiate female athletes' perceptions of the lesbian stereotype found that they were discriminated against because of their sport participation. These limit the recalling of thoughts and experience from the female athletes' playing…
Movahedi, Ahmadreza; Mojtahedi, Hossein; Farazyani, Fateh
The purpose of the present study was to determine whether there was a significant difference in measure of socialization between visually impaired student-athletes and non-athletes. We compared the social skills of Iranian visually impaired student-athletes (n = 51) and visually impaired student non-athletes (n = 56) with ages ranging from 13 to…
Gilmour, Heather B.
NCAA data indicates that Division III student-athletes are graduating at higher rates than their non-athlete peers. Graduation rate data alone do not provide a full understanding of student-athletes' academic success. The data thus far simply show empirically that student-athletes have a higher federal six-year graduation rate, but…
Bardenett, Sean M; Micca, Joseph J; DeNoyelles, John T; Miller, Susan D; Jenk, Drew T; Brooks, Gary S
Limited information exists regarding injury risk factors for high school athletes. The Functional Movement Screen (FMS™) has been used to identify functional movement impairments and asymmetries, making it a potential predictor of injury. To determine if the FMS™ is a valid predictor of injury in high school athletes and to identify a potential new FMS™ cutoff score for this population. Prospective Cohort. 167 high school athletes among several sports were scored using the FMS™ and were monitored for injury during a single season. Likelihood ratios were calculated to determine how much a subject's total FMS™ score influenced the post-test probability of becoming injured. Of the 167 participants, 39 sustained a musculoskeletal injury. Of all component scores, the in-line lunge scores were significantly higher for injured players. For shoulder mobility, scores were significantly lower for injured players. No statistically significant associations were found between total FMS™ scores and injury status. The FMS™ may be useful for recognizing deficiency in certain movements, however this data suggests that the FMS™ should not be used for overall prediction of injury in high school athletes throughout the course of a season. Normative data from a large sample size is now available in the high school athlete demographic. 3.
Yabe, Yutaka; Hagiwara, Yoshihiro; Sekiguchi, Takuya; Momma, Haruki; Tsuchiya, Masahiro; Kuroki, Kaoru; Kanazawa, Kenji; Koide, Masashi; Itaya, Nobuyuki; Itoi, Eiji; Nagatomi, Ryoichi
Low back pain is a significant problem for school-aged athletes. Although some risk factors relating to sports activities have been reported, the effect of lifestyles on low back pain in school-aged athletes is not clear. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the association between lifestyles, such as wake-up time, bedtime, sleeping time, and TV-viewing or video-game-playing time per day and low back pain of school-aged athletes. A cross-sectional study was conducted with school-aged athletes (aged 6-15 years, n = 6441) using a self-reported questionnaire and multivariate logistic regression models were used for analyses. Variables considered in the models were gender, age, body mass index, team levels, number of days in practice per week, number of hours in practice per day, and lifestyles. The frequency of low back pain was 5.0% (n = 322). Late bedtime, short sleeping time, and long video-game-playing time per day were significantly associated with low back pain. There was no significant association between low back pain and wake-up time or TV-viewing time per day. Unhealthy life-style choices, such as late bedtimes, short sleeping time, and longtime video-game playing, were associated with low back pain in school-aged athletes.
David, Shannon L; Larson, Mary
Health care practitionersface increasingexpectations to provide patient-centered care.Communication skills, specifically empathy, are critical in the provision of patient-centered care. Past work correlates empathy with improved patient satisfaction, compliance and treatment outcomes. In particular, a predictive relationship exists between clients' ratings of their clinician's empathy and treatment outcomes.There is a dearth of studies examining empathy using qualitative methodology and factors of empathy in athletic training. The purpose of this research was to gain an understanding of athletes' perceptions of empathy in the patient-clinician relationship. Qualitative interviews were completed using grounded theory techniques. A quiet office. A typical, purposeful sample of 15 college-aged Division I student-athletes (8 females; 7 males; 19.3±1.2yrs) from a variety of sports (football, wrestling, volleyball, baseball, etc.) participated. Researchers utilized an interview protocoldesigned to understand the factors of empathy related to athletic training. The interview protocol established a concept of empathy to help facilitate discussion of ideas. Data were transcribed, coded, and analyzed for themes and patterns using grounded theory techniques. Trustworthiness of the data was ensured using an external auditor, member checks, and methods triangulation. Five themes described empathy: advocacy, communication, approachability, access, and competence. Advocacy was described as the athletic trainer representing the patient. Communication was the ability to listen reflectively; approachability emerged as the comfort and personal connection the patient felt with the athletic trainer. Access and technical competence were bridges required for the development of empathy. Providing patient-centered care facilitated by developing good patient-clinician relationships is critical in enablingthe best treatment outcomes. ATs portray empathy through advocacy, communication, and
Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Eason, Christianne M
An organizational climate is largely based on an employee's perceptions of the working conditions in which he or she engages regularly. A multifaceted concept, the organizational climate is often formed by perceptions of employee welfare, rewards, and support. Achieving work-life balance is also a part of the climate. To learn collegiate athletic trainers' perceptions of organizational climate and specifically how it may pertain to their work-life balance. Phenomenologic study. Collegiate practice setting. Thirty athletic trainers working in the collegiate athletics setting took part in 1-on-1 phone interviews. The participants were 30.5 (interquartile range [IQR] = 7.75) years old and had been certified for 7 (IQR = 5) years and at their current position for 4 (IQR = 3) years. Participants completed a phone interview that followed a semistructured framework. All transcribed interviews were analyzed using a phenomenologic approach. Researcher triangulation, expert review, and data saturation were used to establish credibility. Athletic trainers working in the collegiate athletics setting who had positive perceptions of their work-life balance described their organizational climate as family friendly. Our participants' supervisors allowed for autonomy related to work scheduling, which provided opportunities for work-life balance. These athletic trainers believed that they worked in a climate that was collegial, which was helpful for work-life balance. In addition, the importance of placing family first was part of the climate. The perceptions of our participants revealed a climate of family friendliness, supervisor support, and collegiality among staff members, which facilitated the positive climate for work-life balance. The mindset embraced the importance of family and recognized that work did not always have to supersede personal priorities.
Full Text Available Law No. 5510 realized within the social security reform aims providing a structure which presents equal scope and quality of social security service other all citizens. According to Labor Law No 4857, unionization of sportsmen in Turkish legal environment is possible, sport clubs and sportsmen are continuing to live without so many rights and obligations but they didn’t. Aim of this study; to prove sportsmen of location of the labour law and to mark off. The purpose of the study is explained according to Law No. 4857 and Law No. 5510 Turkish athletes. Profesional athletes deemed to be insurance holders for the purposes of implementing short and long term insurance branches of No 5510 Law. But amateur athletes don't seem to be insurance holders for the purposes of implementing short and long term insurance branches of No 5510 Law. According to the law 5774 regarding to be called as an g overnment athlete, within the adults category of the sports that are accepted as olympic, paralympic and deaflympic; pension is paid to the amateur athletes who became first, second or third at Olymic games, World or European Champions as an individual or team sports and to the national team coaches and assistant coaches of the athletes’ who became Olympic or World Champion as a team.
Lyznicki, J M; Nielsen, N H; Schneider, J F
Each year, a number of children and adolescents die suddenly from cardiac problems that are associated with a small subgroup of disorders and high-risk behaviors. While sudden cardiac death in any child or adolescent is distressing, it can be particularly devastating when it occurs in a seemingly healthy young athlete. Although uncommon in competitive sports, sudden death is a catastrophe that physicians who care for athletes should attempt to prevent. To prevent the occurrence of sudden death or cardiovascular disease progression in young athletes, the American Academy of Family Physicians, American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Cardiology, American College of Sports Medicine, American Heart Association, American Medical Society for Sports Medicine, American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine and American Osteopathic Academy of Sports Medicine have developed or endorsed recommendations for cardiovascular screening of student athletes as part of a comprehensive sports preparticipation physical evaluation (PPE). Knowledge and understanding of these recommendations can help physicians make informed decisions about the eligibility of an athlete to participate in a particular sport and encourage development of a more uniform PPE screening process.
Stokstad, Magnus Thue; Berge, Hilde Moseby; Gjesdal, Knut
Young athletes are at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death compared to others. Cardiac screening has been proposed to prevent deaths. We wished to review the evidence for cardiac screening of young athletes. We have conducted a literature search in PubMed on sudden cardiac death in young athletes, using a combination of search terms related to screening, incidence, cost efficiency and recommendations, supplemented by secondary references and articles from our own archive. Published studies utilise a variety of definitions of athlete and sudden death, and some studies also include cardiac arrest with subsequent successful resuscitation. Retrospective studies, often based on media searches, remain the most common form. The cause of death is not invariably determined by an autopsy. Recommendations in favour of screening are based on studies of limited quality and on the personal, often regional, experiences of experts. The differences in study methods result in uncertain incidence figures. The estimates of cost efficiency are therefore questionable. To improve the quality of knowledge, standardised methods need to be devised, ideally also including a register of cardiac arrest in children and young people. To date, we have insufficient knowledge to recommend mandatory cardiac screening with ECG in Norway. Should this be introduced, it should be differentiated according to gender, type of sport and competition level. Cost efficiency could probably be improved with the aid of standardised questionnaires and a standardised interpretation of ECG among athletes.
Mancini, Lee A; Trojian, Thomas; Mancini, Angela C
With the diagnosis of celiac disease rising in the past decade and with increased public awareness, team physicians are faced with both managing and diagnosing athletes with celiac disease. Sports medicine physicians need to recognize that celiac disease can present with a number of different symptoms and, therefore, should consider celiac disease as part of their differential in evaluating athletes with prolonged unexplained illnesses. Sports medicine physicians must be familiar with the appropriate laboratory tests and diagnostic procedures used to establish the diagnosis of celiac disease. A multidisciplinary approach in helping the newly diagnosed athlete with celiac disease is important to the successful treatment of the disease. Athletes with celiac disease often have problems with iron absorption (leading to anemia) and/or vitamin D and calcium absorption (leading to osteoporosis and poor bone health). Even athletes with known and long-standing celiac disease need additional care and supervision in ensuring there is no disruption in their gluten-free diet, which can lead to a flare-up of symptoms or a decrease in performance.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the number of cases and the profiles of Polish athletes who had occasionally been using marijuana or hashish throughout the period of 1998-2004, with respect to: sex, age, and discipline of sport as well as the period of testing (in- and out-of-competition. Results of the study were compared with some data reported by other WADA accredited anti-doping laboratories. Totally, 13 631 urine samples taken from Polish athletes of both sexes, aged 10-67 years, performing 46 disciplines of sport were tested. Cannabinoids were detected in 267 samples. Among Polish athletes the relative number of positive THC (tetrahydrocannabinol samples was one of the highest in Europe. The group of young Polish athletes (aged 16-24 years was the most THC-positive. THC-positive cases were noted more frequently in male athletes tested during out of competitions. The so-called contact sports (rugby, ice hockey, skating, boxing, badminton, body building and acrobatic sports were those sports, where the higher risk of cannabis use was observed. The legal interpretation of some positive cannabinoids results would be difficult because of some accidental and unintentional use of the narcotics by sportsmen. It was concluded that national anti-doping organizations (NADO’s, which are competent to judge whether the anti-doping rules were violated, should take into account the possibility of non-intentional doping use of cannabinoids via passive smoking of marijuana.
... in swimming and team sports, like hockey and football, that require high-intensity, intermittent effort over short ... and athletic performance? The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates dietary supplements for exercise and athletic ...
... care / hair loss Injured skin Nail care Anti-aging skin care Kids’ zone Video ... are at an increased risk of skin infections, which can have serious consequences. To help prevent infections, athletes, coaches and athletic ...
Sasiene, Gwen Hagenbuch
Research pertaining to female athletes' problems with secondary amenorrhea is reviewed. Studies point to stress, weight loss, anorexia nervosa, obesity, arduous athletic training, and age of onset of training as factors which may contribute to this disorder. (PP)
EPA has created a presentation and companion checklist to help coaches and athletic administrators better understand the environmental health risks associated with youth sports and the steps they can follow to protect young athletes.
... care of your skin Wear protective clothing or gear designed to prevent skin abrasions or cuts. Cover ... Read more about preventing MRSA in athletic facilities… Top of Page Why MRSA is Spread among Athletes ...
... OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education... person, or otherwise be discriminated against in any interscholastic, intercollegiate, club, or... interscholastic, intercollegiate, club, or intramural athletics shall provide equal athletic opportunity for...
... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in... another person, or otherwise be discriminated against in any interscholastic, intercollegiate, club, or... interscholastic, intercollegiate, club, or intramural athletics shall provide equal athletic opportunity for...
McCutcheon, Malcolm L.
A discussion of nutrition's role in athletics is presented in this article. The effects of good day-to-day nutrition, the pregame meal, fluid intake, and dietary supplements on the athletes endurance and performance are discussed. (DF)
Eichner, Edward R.
Infectious mononucleosis strikes many young athletes. Considered here are its epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, natural course, complications, and management. The focus is on concerns of athletes with a perspective on personality, convalescence, and chronic fatigue. (Author/MT)
A "Chronicle" survey finds significant progress for female athletes at the college level and budget constraints looming for all sports programs. The article includes several data tables on sports participation by women, scholarships, and athletic budgets. (EV)
Beleckas, Casey; Calfee, Ryan
Distal radius fractures are one of the most common upper extremity fractures. Athletes with distal radius fractures are treated according to the same principles as non-athletes but present several unique considerations...
Athletes can achieve their full potential and develop good eating habits for the future through proper diet and weight control. The basics of nutrition are as important as the basic skills of the sports in which athletes participate. (CJ)
Kosaka, Masahiro; Nakase, Junsuke; Numata, Hitoaki; Oshima, Takeshi; Takata, Yasushi; Moriyama, Shigenori; Oda, Takumi; Shima, Yosuke; Kitaoka, Katsuhiko; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between psychological competitive ability and the incidence of noncontact ACL injuries among high school female athletes. A three-year prospective cohort study was conducted using 300 15-year-old high school female athletes with no previous injuries or symptoms in their lower limbs (106 handball players and 194 basketball players). At baseline, their psychological competitive abilities were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire-the Diagnostic Inventory of Psychological Competitive Ability (DIPCA.3). After the baseline examination was performed at high school entry, all players were prospectively followed for 36months to document any subsequent incidence of ACL injury, according to their coaches. An unpaired t-test with Welch's correction was performed to compare the differences in the psychological competitive abilities between the injured and uninjured players. Of the 300 players, 25 (8.3%) experienced a noncontact ACL injury during the three-year observation period. The injured players had significantly higher total DIPCA.3 scores for psychological competitive ability than the uninjured players (169.9±18.8 vs. 159.2±21.6, P=.036). Additionally, the injured players had significantly higher scores than the uninjured players in the following categories: aggressiveness, volition for self-realization, volition for winning, judgment, and cooperation. However, no significant differences were observed in patience, self-control, ability to relax, concentration, confidence, decision, and predictive ability. High psychological competitive ability was associated with the incidence of noncontact ACL injuries in high school female athletes. Level II (prospective cohort study). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Takeda, Takashi; Imoto, Yoko; Nagasawa, Hiroyo; Muroya, Miyuki; Shiina, Masami
To determine the prevalence and impact of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) in Japanese collegiate athletes, with a focus on their disruption of athletic performance. Cross-sectional study. A university in Osaka, the largest city in western Japan. 232 female collegiate athletes. Premenstrual symptoms and social activities. The prevalence of each premenstrual symptom was high. The prevalence of moderate to severe PMS and PMDD was 8.6% and 2.9%, respectively, the same as in general high school students. The athletic performance of 44.3% of athletes was found to suffer in a game or in practice. "Elite athletes" (OR 8.63, 95% CI: 1.22-120.0), "Difficulty concentrating" (OR 3.15, 95% CI: 1.05-10.6), and "Fatigue or lack of energy" (OR 5.92, 95% CI: 1.32-34.5) increased the risk of poor athletic performance. This study showed that premenstrual symptoms affect not only the daily activities but also the athletic performance of collegiate athletes. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Milewski, Matthew D; Skaggs, David L; Bishop, Gregory A; Pace, J Lee; Ibrahim, David A; Wren, Tishya A L; Barzdukas, Audrius
Much attention has been given to the relationship between various training factors and athletic injuries, but no study has examined the impact of sleep deprivation on injury rates in young athletes. Information about sleep practices was gathered as part of a study designed to correlate various training practices with the risk of injury in adolescent athletes. Informed consent for participation in an online survey of training practices and a review of injury records was obtained from 160 student athletes at a combined middle/high school (grades 7 to 12) and from their parents. Online surveys were completed by 112 adolescent athletes (70% completion rate), including 54 male and 58 female athletes with a mean age of 15 years (SD=1.5; range, 12 to 18 y). The students' responses were then correlated with data obtained from a retrospective review of injury records maintained by the school's athletic department. Multivariate analysis showed that hours of sleep per night and the grade in school were the best independent predictors of injury. Athletes who slept on average athletes who slept for ≥8 hours. For each additional grade in school, the athletes were 1.4 times more likely to have had an injury (95% confidence interval, 1.2-1.6; PSleep deprivation and increasing grade in school appear to be associated with injuries in an adolescent athletic population. Encouraging young athletes to get optimal amounts of sleep may help protect them against athletic injuries. Level III.
Foster, Sayvon J L; Huml, Matt R
This study examines the correlation between athletic identity and academic major selection among intercollegiate student-athletes. A thorough review of literature focusing on academic clustering, athletic identity, and academic development leads to the development of two hypotheses - 1) student-athletes with stronger athletic identity will have a declared major of decreased academic rigor; and 2) student-athletes with stronger athletic identity will be more likely to be undecided on their major. Data were collected through a survey administered to Division I, II, and III student-athletes recording academic major and their Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS). After analyzing the student responses, Hypothesis I is supported, while Hypothesis II is met with some limitation that leads to a lack of statistical significance. Overall, this study sheds light on a connection between academic choice and athletic identity.
FOSTER, SAYVON J.L.; HUML, MATT R.
This study examines the correlation between athletic identity and academic major selection among intercollegiate student-athletes. A thorough review of literature focusing on academic clustering, athletic identity, and academic development leads to the development of two hypotheses – 1) student-athletes with stronger athletic identity will have a declared major of decreased academic rigor; and 2) student-athletes with stronger athletic identity will be more likely to be undecided on their major. Data were collected through a survey administered to Division I, II, and III student-athletes recording academic major and their Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS). After analyzing the student responses, Hypothesis I is supported, while Hypothesis II is met with some limitation that leads to a lack of statistical significance. Overall, this study sheds light on a connection between academic choice and athletic identity. PMID:29170694
Veronica Montfort-Steiger; Williams, Craig A.
Good nutritional practices are important for exercise performance and health during all ages. Athletes and especially growing children engaged in heavy training have higher energy and nutrient requirements compared to their non-active counterparts. Scientific understanding of sports nutrition for the young athlete is lacking behind the growing number of young athletes engaged in sports. Most of the sports nutrition recommendations given to athletic children and adolescents are based on adult ...
Adams, William M; Scarneo, Samantha E; Casa, Douglas J
Sudden death and catastrophic injuries during sport can be attenuated with the implementation of evidence-based health and safety policies. However, the extent of the implementation of these policies within secondary school athletics is unknown. To provide an assessment of the implementation of health and safety policies pertaining to the leading causes of sudden death and catastrophic injuries in sport within secondary school athletics in the United States. Descriptive epidemiology study. A rubric for evidence-based practices for preventing the leading causes of death and catastrophic injuries in sport was created. The rubric comprised 5 equally weighted sections for sudden cardiac arrest, head injuries, exertional heat stroke, appropriate medical coverage, and emergency preparedness. State high school athletic association (SHSAA) policies, enacted legislation, and Department of Education policies were extensively reviewed for all 50 states and the District of Columbia. States meeting the specific criteria in the rubric, which required policies to be mandated for all SHSAA member schools, were awarded credit; the weighted scores were tabulated to calculate an aggregate score. States were then ranked from 1 (best) to 51 (worst) based on the aggregate score achieved. The median score on the rubric was 47.1% (range, 23.00%-78.75%). States ranked 1 through 10 (from 78.75% to 56.98%) were North Carolina, Kentucky, Massachusetts, New Jersey, South Dakota, Missouri, Washington, Hawaii, Wisconsin, and Georgia, respectively. States ranked 11 through 20 (from 56.03% to 50.55%) were Arkansas, New York, Mississippi, West Virginia, Oregon, Illinois, Tennessee, Arizona, Texas, and District of Columbia, respectively. States ranked 21 through 30 (from 49.40% to 44.00%) were Virginia, Pennsylvania, Florida, New Mexico, Alabama, Maine, Rhode Island, Indiana, Nevada, and Utah, respectively. States ranked 31 through 40 (from 43.93% to 39.80%) were Ohio, Delaware, Alaska, Vermont
Adams, William M.; Scarneo, Samantha E.; Casa, Douglas J.
Background: Sudden death and catastrophic injuries during sport can be attenuated with the implementation of evidence-based health and safety policies. However, the extent of the implementation of these policies within secondary school athletics is unknown. Purpose: To provide an assessment of the implementation of health and safety policies pertaining to the leading causes of sudden death and catastrophic injuries in sport within secondary school athletics in the United States. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: A rubric for evidence-based practices for preventing the leading causes of death and catastrophic injuries in sport was created. The rubric comprised 5 equally weighted sections for sudden cardiac arrest, head injuries, exertional heat stroke, appropriate medical coverage, and emergency preparedness. State high school athletic association (SHSAA) policies, enacted legislation, and Department of Education policies were extensively reviewed for all 50 states and the District of Columbia. States meeting the specific criteria in the rubric, which required policies to be mandated for all SHSAA member schools, were awarded credit; the weighted scores were tabulated to calculate an aggregate score. States were then ranked from 1 (best) to 51 (worst) based on the aggregate score achieved. Results: The median score on the rubric was 47.1% (range, 23.00%-78.75%). States ranked 1 through 10 (from 78.75% to 56.98%) were North Carolina, Kentucky, Massachusetts, New Jersey, South Dakota, Missouri, Washington, Hawaii, Wisconsin, and Georgia, respectively. States ranked 11 through 20 (from 56.03% to 50.55%) were Arkansas, New York, Mississippi, West Virginia, Oregon, Illinois, Tennessee, Arizona, Texas, and District of Columbia, respectively. States ranked 21 through 30 (from 49.40% to 44.00%) were Virginia, Pennsylvania, Florida, New Mexico, Alabama, Maine, Rhode Island, Indiana, Nevada, and Utah, respectively. States ranked 31 through 40 (from 43
Glazer, James L
Eating disorders may affect some athletes at rates much greater than the general population. Among male athletes, eating disorders are on the rise. Studies show that males participating in sports in which leanness confers a competitive advantage may be at greater risk of eating disorders. No studies have shown that it is possible to prevent eating disorders in at-risk populations. Once present, eating disorders can be challenging to treat. Psychotherapy and medications have been shown to be helpful. A team approach to the treatment of eating disorders should be used, including regular interaction with a dietician, a mental health professional, a team physician, and other professionals as needed. To maintain participation, athletes must partner with the health care team in their treatment, maintain a healthy weight, and be clear in the understanding that their health is a greater priority than their sport.
Eakin, C L; Faber, K J; Hawkins, R J; Hovis, W D
It has been proposed that the long head of the biceps functions as a humeral head depressor and stabilizer. In addition, in many overhead sports, the biceps helps to accelerate and decelerate the arm. With improper training or fatigue, inordinate stresses can be placed on the biceps as it attempts to compensate for other muscles. This can lead to attrition and failure, either within the tendon substance or at its origin. Bicipital problems in athletes usually occur in conjunction with other types of shoulder disorders, such as rotator cuff impingement and glenohumeral instability, making determination of the role and degree of biceps involvement difficult. Conditions affecting the biceps tendon in athletes can be generally classified as degeneration, instability, and disorders of the origin. Because of the close association of biceps lesions with other abnormalities, a thorough evaluation of the shoulder with a suspected biceps disorder is essential. Treatment of bicipital problems in athletes must often be accompanied by treatment of associated shoulder conditions.
Abbas, Kausar; Shenk, Trey E; Poole, Victoria N; Breedlove, Evan L; Leverenz, Larry J; Nauman, Eric A; Talavage, Thomas M; Robinson, Meghan E
Long-term neurological damage as a result of head trauma while playing sports is a major concern for football athletes today. Repetitive concussions have been linked to many neurological disorders. Recently, it has been reported that repetitive subconcussive events can be a significant source of accrued damage. Since football athletes can experience hundreds of subconcussive hits during a single season, it is of utmost importance to understand their effect on brain health in the short and long term. In this study, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) was used to study changes in the default mode network (DMN) after repetitive subconcussive mild traumatic brain injury. Twenty-two high school American football athletes, clinically asymptomatic, were scanned using the rs-fMRI for a single season. Baseline scans were acquired before the start of the season, and follow-up scans were obtained during and after the season to track the potential changes in the DMN as a result of experienced trauma. Ten noncollision-sport athletes were scanned over two sessions as controls. Overall, football athletes had significantly different functional connectivity measures than controls for most of the year. The presence of this deviation of football athletes from their healthy peers even before the start of the season suggests a neurological change that has accumulated over the years of playing the sport. Football athletes also demonstrate short-term changes relative to their own baseline at the start of the season. Football athletes exhibited hyperconnectivity in the DMN compared to controls for most of the sessions, which indicates that, despite the absence of symptoms typically associated with concussion, the repetitive trauma accrued produced long-term brain changes compared to their healthy peers.
Payne, Ellen K.; Walker, Stacy E.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.
Context: Little research is available on how athletic training educators develop their instructional styles over the course of their careers and what influences their teaching practices. Understanding the development of athletic training educators' teaching practices may help promote effective teaching in athletic training programs and help guide…
Eichner, Edward R.
Discusses chronic fatigue syndrome as it affects elite athletes, noting that overtraining may mimic it. In some cases, athletes who have it perform exceedingly well in the face of debilitating fatigue. Among athletes and nonathletes, the cause and the mind-body connection are areas of controversy and research. (Author/SM)
Lapchick, Richard E.
Notes subtle forms of racism in U.S. sport, suggesting that current interpretations of sport allow Whites to view athletes in ways that reinforce black stereotypes. A recent dangerous stereotype is that playing sports makes athletes violence-prone. Many college athletes come from high risk environments and need campus support in dealing with this…
Koh, E.S.; Lee, J.C. [Department of Radiology, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Healy, J.C. [Department of Radiology, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London (United Kingdom)], E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Overuse injuries are a common finding in elite athletes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the optimal method for the diagnosis of overuse injury in athletes of all levels. We present a review of common and important overuse injuries occurring in elite athletes. A systematic approach based on the functional anatomic units - tendons, bones and joints - may assist in diagnosis of these injuries.
Barlow, Kathy A.; Hickey, Ann
A study of 215 athletes at a small private liberal arts Division III college revealed that athletes (a) begin their college experience with SATs no different from non-athletes; (b) attain GPAs that do not significantly differ from those of nonathletes; (c) achieve GPAs that do not significantly differ between their "in-season" semester…
Presents an account of one university's experience in conducting an investigation into possible steroid use by student athletes and the development of a program to deal with the problem. Discusses why athletes use steroids and how steroids are taken. Concludes it is likely many steroid-related deaths of athletes go undetected. (Author/ABL)
Galicinao, Brianne M.
This exploratory study contributes to the research on athlete leadership and team effectiveness in college sports. Athletic departments and sports coaches could benefit from a study about athlete leadership and team effectiveness in order to assist their student-leaders with leadership development and explore additional means to help improve team…
Van Lone, Jeffrey S.; Siembor, Michael; Mistler, Brian J.; Mapstone, David J.
This article examines college student disengagement from sports, presents a multidimensional concept of athletic identity, and introduces a new measure intended to assist college counselors in their work with disengaged athletes. The Multidimensional Athletic Identity and Engagement Scale (MAIES) is introduced (Cronbach alpha 0.98, with subscale…
Shaw, Gerard F.
Explains that sport psychologists play a vital role in helping athletes overcome obstacles in order to achieve their goals and provide athletes with tools to reach peak performance and personal growth (i.e., psychological and behavioral interventions for enhancing athletic performance). Sport psychologists work within the complex pathways between…
McCormick, Alister; Meijen, Carla; Marcora, Samuele
This study aimed to identify psychological demands that are commonly experienced by endurance athletes so that these demands could inform the design of performance-enhancement psychological interventions for endurance athletes. Focus group interviews were conducted with 30 recreational endurance athletes of various sports (running, cycling, and triathlon), distances, and competitive levels to explore the psychological demands of training, competition preparation, and competition participation...
LaVetter, David; Kim, Hyun Duck
Over 45,000 U.S. community college athletes were transported to events during 2005-2006. Transporting college athletes has been an overlooked risk management issue facing administrators. Team travel accidents have caused death, injury, liability claims, property loss, and grief. National Junior College Athletic Association (NJCAA) member…
... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or... discriminated against in any interscholastic, intercollegiate, club, or intramural athletics offered by a..., club, or intramural athletics shall provide equal athletic opportunity for members of both sexes. In...
... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5... against in any interscholastic, intercollegiate, club, or intramural athletics offered by a recipient, and..., club, or intramural athletics shall provide equal athletic opportunity for members of both sexes. In...
... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 106.41 Athletics. (a) General... interscholastic, intercollegiate, club or intramural athletics offered by a recipient, and no recipient shall... which operates or sponsors interscholastic, intercollegiate, club or intramural athletics shall provide...
... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities... discriminated against in any interscholastic, intercollegiate, club, or intramural athletics offered by a..., club, or intramural athletics shall provide equal athletic opportunity for members of both sexes. In...
... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or... otherwise be discriminated against in any interscholastic, intercollegiate, club, or intramural athletics..., intercollegiate, club, or intramural athletics shall provide equal athletic opportunity for members of both sexes...
... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities... discriminated against in any interscholastic, intercollegiate, club, or intramural athletics offered by a..., club, or intramural athletics shall provide equal athletic opportunity for members of both sexes. In...
... RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or... otherwise be discriminated against in any interscholastic, intercollegiate, club, or intramural athletics..., intercollegiate, club, or intramural athletics shall provide equal athletic opportunity for members of both sexes...
Lineback, David R.
Discusses various aspects related to nutrition and athletics. Examines nutritional requirements, energy use, carbohydrate loading, and myths and fallacies regarding food and athletic performance. Indicates that scientific evidence does not validate the use of any special diet by an athlete. (JN)
Burak, Lydia J.
Chewing tobacco and taking snuff are common practices among college athletes. This article describes one college's smokeless tobacco education program for students athletes in the health, physical education, and recreation department. Research on the multiple-strategy intervention indicated decreases in student athletes' smokeless tobacco use and…
Bowman, Thomas G.; Pitney, William A.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Dodge, Thomas M.
Context: Professional master's (PM) athletic training programs (ATPs) are becoming more popular as the profession debates what the entry-level degree should be for athletic training. More information is needed related to the potential benefits of PM ATPs. Objective: Describe the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education (CAATE)…
McFadden, Cara W; Stenta, Donald A
Collegiate recreation and intercollegiate athletics have an impact on individual, group, and community development of students who are participants, employees, and athletes and learn leadership within these environments. This chapter explores and applies leadership frameworks in recreation and athletics. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.
Messina, D F; Farney, W C; DeLee, J C
Recent publications have reported differences in the incidence, rate, risk, and type of sports injury among men and women. We undertook a prospective study to determine the incidence of injury among high school basketball players and to examine the differences in injury type, incidence, rate, and risk between male and female athletes. During a single basketball season, an injury survey of girls' varsity teams at 100 class 4A and 5A high schools in Texas was conducted. These data were previously reported. We surveyed the same 100 high schools during a subsequent season to gather injury data from the boys' varsity teams. The athletic trainer collected data on each reportable injury and reported the data weekly to the University Interscholastic League. A reportable injury was defined as one that occurred during a practice or a game, resulted in missed practice or game time, required physician consultation, or involved the head or the face. The boys' and girls' data were compared and statistically analyzed. The rate of injury was 0.56 among the boys and 0.49 among the girls. The risk of injury per hour of exposure was not significantly different between the two groups. In both groups, the most common injuries were sprains, and the most commonly injured area was the ankle, followed by the knee. Female athletes had a significantly higher rate of knee injuries including a 3.79 times greater risk of anterior cruciate ligament injuries. For both sexes, the risk of injury during a game was significantly higher than during practice.
Barr, Susan I; Rideout, Candice A
With the growing interest in the potential health benefits of plant-based diets, it is relevant to consider whether vegetarian dietary practices could influence athletic performance. Accordingly, this review examines whether nutrients that may differ between vegetarian and omnivorous diets could affect physical performance. We also describe recent studies that attempt to assess the effects of a vegetarian diet on performance and comment on other nutritional aspects of vegetarianism of relevance to athletes. Although well-controlled long-term studies assessing the effects of vegetarian diets on athletes have not been conducted, the following observations can be made: 1) well-planned, appropriately supplemented vegetarian diets appear to effectively support athletic performance; 2) provided protein intakes are adequate to meet needs for total nitrogen and the essential amino acids, plant and animal protein sources appear to provide equivalent support to athletic training and performance; 3) vegetarians (particularly women) are at increased risk for non-anemic iron deficiency, which may limit endurance performance; and 4) as a group, vegetarians have lower mean muscle creatine concentrations than do omnivores, and this may affect supramaximal exercise performance. Because their initial muscle creatine concentrations are lower, vegetarians are likely to experience greater performance increments after creatine loading in activities that rely on the adenosine triphosphate/phosphocreatine system. 5) Coaches and trainers should be aware that some athletes may adopt a vegetarian diet as a strategy for weight control. Accordingly, the possibility of a disordered eating pattern should be investigated if a vegetarian diet is accompanied by unwarranted weight loss.
Full Text Available Sports nutrition is a constantly evolving field with many of research papers published annually. However, designing the most suitable sports diet is very difficult. It must be given to the type of training, its duration and intensity, the age and sex of the athlete and also for overall health. The aim of this article is to summarize knowledges about sports nutrition, especially intake of carbohydrates, proteins, fats and dietary supplements and their influence on the performance and recovery of the athlete.doi:10.5219/126
Soong, Maximillian; Chase, Samantha; George Kasparyan, N
To describe current evaluation and treatment of metacarpal fractures in athletes RECENT FINDINGS: Biomechanical and clinical studies involving lower-profile, locking, shorter length, and double-row or separate-dual plate configurations, as well as intramedullary screw fixation, have demonstrated the potential benefits of internal fixation with promising results. Treatment should be customized to the specific athlete and injury, and is often successful without surgery, or with percutaneous pin fixation. Internal fixation of metacarpal fractures has improved with new hardware and new techniques, and may expedite return to play, although further clinical studies are needed.
Mahoney, Michelle L.
Student-athletes' academic and athletic roles both require commitment, time, energy, and effort. Managing and balancing these multiple roles not only impacts student-athletes' use of time, but also their overall college experience. The purpose of this study was to explore how collegiate student-athletes perceive their academic and athletic roles.…
Outcome measures: Athletes completed a demographic, health and sport questionnaire; pathogenic body weight control questionnaire; menstrual history questionnaire; four 24-hour dietary recalls and one three-day diet and exercise record form. Body composition and bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed with dual ...
Aug 22, 2012 ... (EDI-DT), EDI Body Dissatisfaction (EDI-BD), and EDI Bulimia (EDI-B), have been shown to predict the development of eating disorders and have been used as selection criteria when investigating the prevalence of eating disorders in athletes.14 The cognitive dietary restraint subscale consists out of 21 ...
Special Olympics is the largest sports organization in the world serving athletes with intellectual disabilities. Because of their unique needs, Special Olympics has designed a multitude of programs specifically for athletes with intellectual disabilities, including the world's largest public health screening program for people with intellectual disabilities, known as the Special Olympics Healthy Athletes Program. This article describes the Healthy Athletes program and some of the results of the program within the context of impacting health care professional education with respect to athletes with intellectual disabilities.
Drezner, Jonathan A; Courson, Ron W; Roberts, William O; Mosesso, Vincent N; Link, Mark S; Maron, Barry J
To assist high school and college athletic programs prepare for and respond to a sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). This consensus statement summarizes our current understanding of SCA in young athletes, defines the necessary elements for emergency preparedness, and establishes uniform treatment protocols for the management of SCA. Sudden cardiac arrest is the leading cause of death in young athletes. The increasing presence of and timely access to automated external defibrillators (AEDs) at sporting events provides a means of early defibrillation and the potential for effective secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death. An Inter-Association Task Force was sponsored by the National Athletic Trainers' Association to develop consensus recommendations on emergency preparedness and management of SCA in athletes. Comprehensive emergency planning is needed for high school and college athletic programs to ensure an efficient and structured response to SCA. Essential elements of an emergency action plan include establishing an effective communication system, training of anticipated responders in cardiopulmonary resuscitation and AED use, access to an AED for early defibrillation, acquisition of necessary emergency equipment, coordination and integration of onsite responder and AED programs with the local emergency medical services system, and practice and review of the response plan. Prompt recognition of SCA, early activation of the emergency medical services system, the presence of a trained rescuer to initiate cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and access to early defibrillation are critical in the management of SCA. In any collapsed and unresponsive athlete, SCA should be suspected and an AED applied as soon as possible for rhythm analysis and defibrillation if indicated.
Gee, R L; Telew, N
To describe the case of a basketball and track athlete who presented with both anorexia nervosa and obsessive- compulsive disorder (OCD). OCD is a psychiatric condition known to appear with significant frequency among those with anorexia. Although treatable with drug and behavioral therapy, it must be specifically sought because some of its symptoms are similar to those of anorexia nervosa. Obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety disorder. Behavioral therapy involves exposure to the obsessive fears without allowing the patient to ritualize. This is best used in combination with drugs that selectively block the reuptake of serotonin in the brain. Anorexia nervosa is notoriously difficult to treat. In our patient, anorexic symptoms all but disappeared along with the OCD in a matter of weeks, once treatment of the OCD began. Lengthy treatment for anorexia alone had been unsuccessful. OCD occurs frequently in patients with anorexia, and successful treatment requires that both conditions be specifically identified and managed. Athletic trainers may be the first to recognize key signs and symptoms of this illness; by referring the individual for psychiatric evaluation, they can be instrumental in helping the patient to obtain appropriate treatment.
Flood, Andrew; Waddington, Gordon; Thompson, Kevin; Cathcart, Stuart
The potential relationship between physical activity and endogenous pain modulatory capacity remains unclear. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to compare the pain modulatory responses of athletes and non-athletes. Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) was assessed in 15 athletes and 15 non-athletes at rest. Participation was restricted to pain-free males between 18 and 40 years of age. To measure CPM capacity, a sequential CPM testing protocol was implemented, whereby a test stimulus (pressure pain threshold [PPT]) was presented before and immediately after a conditioning stimulus (4-min cold-pressor test). Pain intensity ratings were obtained at 15-s intervals throughout the cold-pressor task using a numerical rating scale. Athletes demonstrated higher baseline PPTs compared to non-athletes (P = .03). Athletes also gave lower mean (P athletes, showing enhanced CPM in athletes compared to non-athletes (P athletes helps clarify previous mixed findings. Potential implications for exercise performance and injury are discussed.
Full Text Available Good nutritional practices are important for exercise performance and health during all ages. Athletes and especially growing children engaged in heavy training have higher energy and nutrient requirements compared to their non-active counterparts. Scientific understanding of sports nutrition for the young athlete is lacking behind the growing number of young athletes engaged in sports. Most of the sports nutrition recommendations given to athletic children and adolescents are based on adult findings due to the deficiency in age specific information in young athletes. Therefore, this review reflects on child specific sports nutrition, particularly on carbohydrate intake and metabolism that distinguishes the child athlete from the adult athlete. Children are characterised to be in an insulin resistance stage during certain periods of maturation, have different glycolytic/metabolic responses during exercise, have a tendency for higher fat oxidation during exercise and show different heat dissipation mechanisms compared to adults. These features point out that young athletes may need different nutritional advice on carbohydrate for exercise to those from adult athletes. Sport drinks for example may need to be adapted to children specific needs. However, more research in this area is warranted to clarify sports nutrition needs of the young athlete to provide better and healthy nutritional guidance to young athletes
Pesavento, Wilma J.
This is a report on the relationship of North American Indian athletic games to ceremonies. Data for this investigation were researched from 48 "Annual Reports of the Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution" published from 1881 to 1933, and the 84 volumes of the "American Anthropologist" published from 1888 to 1974. Observational…
Gurney, Gerald S.; Johnson, Sally P.
Some recent institutional studies describing the academic preparation and subsequent performance of student-athletes are reviewed, and their implication for academic advising is discussed. "Dumb Jock" image, initial academic advisor contact, fifth-year grant programs, are among the issues described. (MLW)
Muniesa, Carlos A; Verde, Zoraida; Diaz-Ureña, Germán; Santiago, Catalina; Gutiérrez, Fernando; Díaz, Enrique; Gómez-Gallego, Félix; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Soares-Miranda, Luisa; Lucia, Alejandro
Growing evidence suggests that regular moderate-intensity physical activity is associated with an attenuation of leukocyte telomere length (LTL) shortening. However, more controversy exists regarding higher exercise loads such as those imposed by elite-sport participation. The authors investigated LTL differences between young elite athletes (n = 61, 54% men, age [mean ± SD] 27.2 ± 4.9 y) and healthy nonsmoker, physically inactive controls (n = 64, 52% men, 28.9 ± 6.3 y) using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Elite athletes had, on average, higher LTL than control subjects, 0.89 ± 0.26 vs 0.78 ± 0.31, P = .013 for the group effect, with no significant sex (P = .995) or age effect (P = .114). The results suggest that young elite athletes have longer telomeres than their inactive peers. Further research might assess the LTL of elite athletes of varying ages compared with both age-matched active and inactive individuals.
This article explores non-disabled young people's understandings of Paralympic athletes and the disability sports they play. The article examines how society has come to know disability by discussing medical and social model views of disability. The conceptual tools offered by Pierre Bourdieu are utilised as a means of understanding the nature and…
Davey, Colin P.
A summary of the use of hypnosis in sport (Morgan 1980) has suggested that the evidence in this area is equivocal, particularly in strength, endurance, and psychomotor tasks. However, some experiments have demonstrated the potential use of hypnosis. This paper presents examples of two elite Australian athletes who achieve success using hypnosis or…
... Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Athlete's foot: How to prevent Despite the name, athlete’s foot can happen to anyone. It is a common ... a swimming pool deck or locker room. Athlete’s foot can result in flaky skin, cracking, and itchiness ...
Jayanthi, Neeru; Pinkham, Courtney; Dugas, Lara; Patrick, Brittany; LaBella, Cynthia
Context: Sports specialization is intense training in 1 sport while excluding others. Sports specialization in early to middle childhood has become increasingly common. While most experts agree that some degree of sports specialization is necessary to achieve elite levels, there is some debate as to whether such intense practice time must begin during early childhood and to the exclusion of other sports to maximize potential for success. There is a concern that sports specialization before adolescence may be deleterious to a young athlete. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed and OVID were searched for English-language articles from 1990 to 2011 discussing sports specialization, expert athletes, or elite versus novice athletes, including original research articles, consensus opinions, and position statements. Results: For most sports, there is no evidence that intense training and specialization before puberty are necessary to achieve elite status. Risks of early sports specialization include higher rates of injury, increased psychological stress, and quitting sports at a young age. Sports specialization occurs along a continuum. Survey tools are being developed to identify where athletes fall along the spectrum of specialization. Conclusion: Some degree of sports specialization is necessary to develop elite-level skill development. However, for most sports, such intense training in a single sport to the exclusion of others should be delayed until late adolescence to optimize success while minimizing injury, psychological stress, and burnout. PMID:24427397
Giel, Katrin Elisabeth; Hermann-Werner, Anne; Mayer, Jochen; Diehl, Katharina; Schneider, Sven; Thiel, Ansgar; Zipfel, Stephan
We aimed to investigate eating disorder pathology in German elite adolescent athletes. Evidence suggests that eating disorder pathology is more common in adult elite sports, especially in female athletes and in sports emphasizing leanness. There is a scarcity of studies in elite adolescent athletes who are in a vulnerable developmental stage and are affected by general as well as sport-specific risk factors. Our data was derived from the German Young Olympic Athletes' Lifestyle and Health Management Study (GOAL) which conducted a survey in 1138 elite adolescent athletes. In this sample, we assessed body weight, weight control behavior, body acceptance and screened overall for core symptoms of eating disorders, depression and anxiety. We performed a tree analysis to identify high risk groups for eating disorder pathology. High risk groups comprised (a) athletes competing in weight dependent sports, and among athletes competing in disciplines other than weight dependent sports (b) athletes who are high on negative affectivity, (c) female athletes and (d) male athletes competing in endurance, technical or power sports. Athletes competing in weight dependent disciplines reported wide spread use of compensatory behaviors to influence body weight. Athletes reporting eating disorder pathology showed higher levels of depression and anxiety than athletes without eating disorder pathology. Increased psychosocial burden in athletes with eating disorder pathology suggests that eating disorder symptoms should not be accepted as an unproblematic and functional part of elite sports. The prevention and management of eating disorder pathology is especially important in weight dependent sports. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:553-562). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Abstract Objective: This article provides a framework for school athletic trainers to use in advising colleagues about the health and academic needs of student-athletes presenting with concussions. Background: Management of sport-related concussions has been an area of growing concern for school athletic programs. Recent work in this area has highlighted significant risks for student-athletes presenting with these mild traumatic brain injuries. Description: Topics covered include general teaching points for the athletic trainer to use with school colleagues. An integrated model for school management of sport concussion injuries is presented that includes involvement of the student's athletic trainer, school nurse, guidance counselor, teachers, social worker, psychologist, physicians, and parents. Clinical Advantages: Academic accommodations for specific postconcussion symptoms are proposed that may help the student-athlete strike an optimum balance between rest and continued academic progress during recovery. PMID:20831397
Park, Sunghee; Hong, Seungbun; Lee, Miyoung
The current study had three aims: (1) to validate a Korean version of the Student Athletes? Motivation toward Sports and Academics Questionnaire (SAMSAQ-Kr), (2) to examine South Korean university student-athletes? motivation towards athletic and academic achievement, and (3) to identify the relationship between athletic identity and their athletic and academic achievement. A total of 126 South Korean university student-athletes (41.4% males and 58.6% females; mean age 20.5, SD = 2.74) comple...
Addresses various aspects of the athletic coaching process in strength training, including: teaching and coaching exercises to novice and intermediate level athletes (typical high school and younger college aged athletes); technical analysis and modification of student technique; student motivation; goal setting; reinforcement; and the overall…
Albion, Majella J.; Fogarty, Gerard J.
A comparison is made between the career decision making of secondary school students who are also elite athletes and a sample of non-athlete students. The 226 athletes (111 females, 115 males) in the study were on sporting scholarships with the Australian Institute of Sport or state/territory institutions. Measures used included the "Career…
Full Text Available The College of The Bahamas Athletics Department encompasses intercollegiate athletics, health and wellness, and recreational intramural sports. COB’s Wellness Centre provides fitness equipment, health and wellness counseling, and group exercise classes for students, faculty and staff. The College’s soccer, basketball, and track and field teams compete internationally with schools in Florida and the Caribbean. The Athletics Department works consistently to increase international opportunities for COB student athletes to excel abroad.
Gabriela Murguía Cánovas; Ortiz, Mario I.
Recently, there has been increased attention to concussions that occur during sports activities, both at school level or amateur and professional level. Concussion is defined as a sudden and transient alteration of consciousness induced by traumatic biomechanical forces transmitted directly or indirectly to the brain. Such injuries most commonly occur in contact sports such as boxing, football, soccer, wrestling, hockey, among others. Concussion should be suspected in any athlete who suffers ...
Katić, Ratko; Retelj, Edvard; Milat, Sanja; Ivanisević, Snjezana; Gudelj, Ines
The aim of the study was to determine canonic relations between the set of basic motor variables and the set of athletic variables assessing the abilities of sprint, throw and long-distance run adjusted for children aged seven years. Study sample consisted of 635 first-graders from Split elementary schools, divided into groups of 325 male and 310 female subjects. The set of nine variables of the basic motor space and three variables of situation motoricity in athletics were applied at the beginning and at the end of the academic year. Association between the sets of variables was determined by canonic correlation analysis. In male subjects, association between the sets of variables revealed a predominant effect of explosive strength on the sprint and throw ability on initial measurement. On final measurement, association in the first pair of canonic dimensions was underlain by the favorable impact of all strength factors with a predominance of explosive strength, which was accompanied by the development of flexibility and coordination, influencing performance in sprint and throwing; the second canonic variable was bipolar, differentiating aerobic endurance ability determined by above-average flexibility, frequency of lower extremity movements and static strength, and throwing ability determined by above-average equilibrium, explosive strength, coordination and repetitive strength. In female subjects, on initial measurement association in the first pair of canonic dimensions was mostly determined by the effect of explosive strength, repetitive strength of the trunk and movement frequency on general ability in athletics defined by the abilities of sprint, throw and long-distance run. Association in the second pair of canonic dimensions was determined by the impact of explosive strength and flexibility on sprint performance on the one hand, and by the effect of movement frequency and repetitive strength of the trunk on long-distance run performance on the other hand
Furlanello, F; Bertoldi, A; Inama, G; Fernando, F
Some supraventricular tachyarrhythmias (SVT), particularly if paroxysmal and/or related to Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW), may in some cases endanger an athlete's professional career due to hemodynamic consequences during athletic activity, which in some instances may be life-threatening. One must also take into account that in Italy the law makes antiarrhythmic drug treatment (AAD) incompatible with sport eligibility. For these reasons, the utilization of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in athletes has different indications as opposed to the normal population, since the primary goal is "the eligibility of the athlete." In our study, we discuss the criteria for indication of RFA in athletes with SVT on the basis of the data obtained from our population of athletes, studied over a 20-year period, from 1974 to the 31st of December 1993. These athletes were evaluated for arrhythmic events, utilizing a standardized cardioarrhythmological protocol: 1,325 athletes (1,125 men, 200 women, mean age 20.7 years). One subgroup included 380 athletes with WPW (28.7%), 22 athletes with aborted sudden death (1.6%), 6 of whom had WPW, 13 athletes with sudden death (0.98%), and 2 of whom had WPW. Another subgroup was formed by 116 top level elite professional athletes (TLA) (mean age 22.9 years), of which 10 of 116 (8.6%) had WPW and 12 of 116 (10.3%) had paroxysmal SVT. The most important indications for RFA in athletes are represented by: WPW asymptomatic at risk, symptomatic during athletic activity, and/or requiring AAD treatment: paroxysmal junctional reentrant tachycardia: when this condition is disabling and related to exercise and therefore compromising an athlete's performance and sports career. Paroxysmal junctional reentrant tachycardia is easily reproduced via transesophageal atrial pacing (TAP) during exercise (bicycle ergometer), common in athletes but normally the recurrences are concentrated only during the period in which the athlete is engaged in sport. Rare