WorldWideScience

Sample records for school age randomised

  1. Efficacy of a powered wheelchair simulator for school aged children: A randomised controlled trial.

    OpenAIRE

    Linden, Mark A; Whyatt, Caroline; Craig, Cathy; Kerr, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy of a custom made wheelchair simulation in training children to use a powered wheelchair (PWC). Design: Randomised controlled trial employing the 4C/ID-model of learning. Twenty-eight typically developing children (13M, 15F; mean age 6 years, SD 6 months) were assessed on their operation of a PWC using a functional evaluation rating scale. Participants were randomly assigned to intervention (8x 30minute training sessions using a joystick operated wheelchair s...

  2. The impact of insecticide-treated school uniforms on dengue infections in school-aged children: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilder-Smith Annelies

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an urgent need to protect children against dengue since this age group is particularly sensitive to the disease. Since dengue vectors are active mainly during the day, a potential target for control should be schools where children spend a considerable amount of their day. School uniforms are the cultural norm in most developing countries, worn throughout the day. We hypothesise that insecticide-treated school uniforms will reduce the incidence of dengue infection in school-aged children. Our objective is to determine the impact of impregnated school uniforms on dengue incidence. Methods A randomised controlled trial will be conducted in eastern Thailand in a group of schools with approximately 2,000 students aged 7–18 years. Pre-fabricated school uniforms will be commercially treated to ensure consistent, high-quality insecticide impregnation with permethrin. A double-blind, randomised, crossover trial at the school level will cover two dengue transmission seasons. Discussion Practical issues and plans concerning intervention implementation, evaluation, analysing and interpreting the data, and possible policy implications arising from the trial are discussed. Trial registration clinicaltrial.gov. Registration number: NCT01563640

  3. The impact of insecticide-treated school uniforms on dengue infections in school-aged children: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Byass, Peter; Olanratmanee, Phanthip; Maskhao, Pongsri; Sringernyuang, Luechai; Logan, James G; Lindsay, Steve W; Banks, Sarah; Gubler, Duane; Louis, Valérie R; Tozan, Yesim; Kittayapong, Pattamaporn

    2012-11-15

    There is an urgent need to protect children against dengue since this age group is particularly sensitive to the disease. Since dengue vectors are active mainly during the day, a potential target for control should be schools where children spend a considerable amount of their day. School uniforms are the cultural norm in most developing countries, worn throughout the day. We hypothesise that insecticide-treated school uniforms will reduce the incidence of dengue infection in school-aged children. Our objective is to determine the impact of impregnated school uniforms on dengue incidence. A randomised controlled trial will be conducted in eastern Thailand in a group of schools with approximately 2,000 students aged 7-18 years. Pre-fabricated school uniforms will be commercially treated to ensure consistent, high-quality insecticide impregnation with permethrin. A double-blind, randomised, crossover trial at the school level will cover two dengue transmission seasons. Practical issues and plans concerning intervention implementation, evaluation, analysing and interpreting the data, and possible policy implications arising from the trial are discussed. clinicaltrial.gov. NCT01563640.

  4. The Importance of Specifying and Studying Causal Mechanisms in School-Based Randomised Controlled Trials: Lessons from Two Studies of Cross-Age Peer Tutoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Stephen P.; Edovald, Triin; Lloyd, Cheryl; Kiss, Zsolt

    2016-01-01

    Based on the experience of evaluating 2 cross-age peer-tutoring interventions, we argue that researchers need to pay greater attention to causal mechanisms within the context of school-based randomised controlled trials. Without studying mechanisms, researchers are less able to explain the underlying causal processes that give rise to results from…

  5. Effect of early intervention on functional outcome at school age: Follow-up and process evaluation of a randomised controlled trial in infants at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, Elisa G; Hielkema, Tjitske; Bos, Arend F; Dirks, Tineke; Hooijsma, Siebrigje J; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A; Toonen, Rivka F; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    The long-term effect of early intervention in infants at risk for developmental disorders is unclear. The VIP project (n=46, originally) evaluated by means of a randomised controlled trial the effect of the family centred early intervention programme COPCA (Coping with and Caring for infants with special needs) in comparison to that of traditional infant physiotherapy (TIP). To evaluate the effect of early intervention on functional outcome at school age. Parents of 40 children (median age 8.3years) participated in this follow-up study. Outcome was assessed with a standardised parental interview (Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scale) and questionnaires (Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire, Child Behaviour Checklist, Utrechtse Coping List, and questions on educational approach). Quantified video information on physiotherapeutic actions during infancy was available. Child functional outcome in the two randomised groups was similar. Process evaluation revealed that some physiotherapeutic actions were associated with child mobility and parental educational approach at follow-up: e.g., training and instructing were associated with worse mobility. Functional outcome at school age after early intervention with COPCA is similar to that after TIP. However, some specific physiotherapeutic actions, in particular the physiotherapist's approach, are associated with outcome. Early intervention is generally applied in infants at risk for developing disorders, with the aim of improving overall functional outcome. However, little is known on the long-term effect. The VIP project evaluated by means of a randomised controlled trial the effect of the family centred early intervention programme COPCA (Coping with and Caring for infants with special needs) in comparison to that of traditional infant physical therapy (TIP). Outcome at 18months corrected age was virtually similar. Process evaluation of the physiotherapy actions revealed that some characteristics of COPCA were

  6. Interventions to improve executive functioning and working memory in school-aged children with AD(HD: a randomised controlled trial and stepped-care approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Donk Marthe LA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deficits in executive functioning are of great significance in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. One of these executive functions, working memory, plays an important role in academic performance and is often seen as the core deficit of this disorder. There are indications that working memory problems and academic performance can be improved by school-oriented interventions but this has not yet been studied systematically. In this study we will determine the short- and long-term effects of a working memory - and an executive function training applied in a school situation for children with AD(HD, taking individual characteristics, the level of impairment and costs (stepped-care approach into account. Methods/design The study consists of two parts: the first part is a randomised controlled trial with school-aged children (8–12 yrs with AD(HD. Two groups (each n = 50 will be randomly assigned to a well studied computerized working memory training ‘Cogmed’, or to the ‘Paying attention in class’ intervention which is an experimental school-based executive function training. Children will be selected from regular -and special education primary schools in the region of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. The second part of the study will determine which specific characteristics are related to non-response of the ‘Paying attention in class’ intervention. School-aged children (8–12 yrs with AD(HD will follow the experimental school-based executive function training ‘Paying attention in class’ (n = 175. Academic performance and neurocognitive functioning (primary outcomes are assessed before, directly after and 6 months after training. Secondary outcome measures are: behaviour in class, behaviour problems and quality of life. Discussion So far, there is limited but promising evidence that working memory – and other executive function interventions can improve academic performance. Little is know about the

  7. Interventions to improve executive functioning and working memory in school-aged children with AD(H)D: a randomised controlled trial and stepped-care approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Donk, Marthe L A; Hiemstra-Beernink, Anne-Claire; Tjeenk-Kalff, Ariane C; van der Leij, Aryan V; Lindauer, Ramón J L

    2013-01-11

    Deficits in executive functioning are of great significance in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). One of these executive functions, working memory, plays an important role in academic performance and is often seen as the core deficit of this disorder. There are indications that working memory problems and academic performance can be improved by school-oriented interventions but this has not yet been studied systematically. In this study we will determine the short- and long-term effects of a working memory--and an executive function training applied in a school situation for children with AD(H)D, taking individual characteristics, the level of impairment and costs (stepped-care approach) into account. The study consists of two parts: the first part is a randomised controlled trial with school-aged children (8-12 yrs) with AD(H)D. Two groups (each n = 50) will be randomly assigned to a well studied computerized working memory training 'Cogmed', or to the 'Paying attention in class' intervention which is an experimental school-based executive function training. Children will be selected from regular -and special education primary schools in the region of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. The second part of the study will determine which specific characteristics are related to non-response of the 'Paying attention in class' intervention. School-aged children (8-12 yrs) with AD(H)D will follow the experimental school-based executive function training 'Paying attention in class' (n = 175). Academic performance and neurocognitive functioning (primary outcomes) are assessed before, directly after and 6 months after training. Secondary outcome measures are: behaviour in class, behaviour problems and quality of life. So far, there is limited but promising evidence that working memory - and other executive function interventions can improve academic performance. Little is know about the applicability and generalization effects of these interventions in a classroom

  8. Management of Asthma in School age Children On Therapy (MASCOT): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel study of efficacy and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenney, W; McKay, A J; Tudur Smith, C; Williamson, P R; James, M; Price, D

    2013-02-01

    Asthma affects one in eight children in the UK. National management guidelines have been available for many years but, unlike in adults, studies in children have been few, with their methodologies often based on inappropriate adult models. Sound medical evidence in support of the national guidelines for asthma management in children is lacking. The MASCOT study has been developed to address this need. To determine whether adding salmeterol or montelukast to low-dose inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) can reduce the number of exacerbations requiring treatment with oral corticosteroids in children with uncontrolled asthma. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with a 4-week run-in period on a fluticasone propionate inhaler (100 µg twice daily) with inhaler technique correction. Patients who met the post run-in period eligibility criteria were randomised in the ratio of 1 : 1 : 1 and were followed for 48 weeks. Secondary care hospitals based in England and Scotland with recruitment from primary and secondary care. Children aged 6-14 years with asthma requiring frequent short-acting beta-2 agonist relief, with symptoms of asthma resulting in nocturnal wakening and/or asthma that has interfered with usual activities. Three groups were compared: (1) inhaled fluticasone propionate 100 µg twice daily plus placebo tablet once daily; (2) inhaled fluticasone propionate 100 µg and salmeterol 50 µg twice daily (combination inhaler) plus placebo tablet once daily; and (3) inhaled fluticasone propionate 100 µg twice daily plus montelukast 5-mg tablet once daily. The primary outcome was the number of exacerbations requiring treatment with oral corticosteroids over 48 weeks. Secondary outcome measures included quality of life as measured by the Paediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire with Standardised Activities [PAQLQ(S)] and the Paediatric Asthma Caregiver's Quality of Life Questionnaire (PACQLQ); time from randomisation to first exacerbation requiring

  9. PLEASANT: Preventing and Lessening Exacerbations of Asthma in School-age children Associated with a New Term - a cluster randomised controlled trial and economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julious, Steven A; Horspool, Michelle J; Davis, Sarah; Bradburn, Mike; Norman, Paul; Shephard, Neil; Cooper, Cindy L; Smithson, W Henry; Boote, Jonathan; Elphick, Heather; Loban, Amanda; Franklin, Matthew; Kua, Wei Sun; May, Robin; Campbell, Jennifer; Williams, Rachael; Rex, Saleema; Bortolami, Oscar

    2016-12-01

    Asthma episodes and deaths are known to be seasonal. A number of reports have shown peaks in asthma episodes in school-aged children associated with the return to school following the summer vacation. A fall in prescription collection in the month of August has been observed, and was associated with an increase in the number of unscheduled contacts after the return to school in September. The primary objective of the study was to assess whether or not a NHS-delivered public health intervention reduces the September peak in unscheduled medical contacts. Cluster randomised trial, with the unit of randomisation being 142 NHS general practices, and trial-based economic evaluation. Primary care. A letter sent (n = 70 practices) in July from their general practitioner (GP) to parents/carers of school-aged children with asthma to remind them of the importance of taking their medication, and to ensure that they have sufficient medication prior to the start of the new school year in September. The control group received usual care. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of children aged 5-16 years who had an unscheduled medical contact in September 2013. Supporting end points included the proportion of children who collected prescriptions in August 2013 and unscheduled contacts through the following 12 months. Economic end points were quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained and costs from an NHS and Personal Social Services perspective. There is no evidence of effect in terms of unscheduled contacts in September. Among children aged 5-16 years, the odds ratio (OR) was 1.09 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.96 to 1.25] against the intervention. The intervention did increase the proportion of children collecting a prescription in August (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.24 to 1.64) as well as scheduled contacts in the same month (OR 1.13, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.52). For the wider time intervals (September-December 2013 and September-August 2014), there is weak evidence of the

  10. Positive effects on bone mineralisation and muscular fitness after 10 months of intense school-based physical training for children aged 8–10 years: the FIT FIRST randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Malte Nejst; Nielsen, Claus Malta; Helge, Eva Wulff

    2017-01-01

    classes), a circuit strength training group (CST) (n=83, four schools, four classes) or a control group (CON, n=116, two schools, five classes). Intervention SSG or CST was performed 3×40 min/week over 10 months. Whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans were used to determine areal bone......Objectives We investigated whether musculoskeletal fitness of school children aged 8–10 years was affected by frequent intense PE sessions. Design and participants 295 Danish school children aged 8–10 years were cluster randomised to a small-sided ball game group (SSG) (n=96, four schools, five...... vs CST: 12 mg/cm2, 95%CI 3 to 21, ptraining types resulted in higher change scores in postural balance (SSG vs CON: 2.4 fewer falls/min, 95% CI 0.3 to 4.5, CST vs CON: 3...

  11. Does n-3 LCPUFA supplementation during pregnancy increase the IQ of children at school age? Follow-up of a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Jacqueline F; Treyvaud, Karli; Yelland, Lisa N; Anderson, Peter J; Smithers, Lisa G; Gibson, Robert A; McPhee, Andrew J; Makrides, Maria

    2016-05-17

    Despite recommendations that pregnant women increase their docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake to support fetal brain development, a recent systematic review found a lack of high-quality data to support the long-term effects of DHA supplementation on children's neurodevelopment. We will assess child neurodevelopment at 7 years of age in follow-up of a multicentre double-blind randomised controlled trial of DHA supplementation in pregnancy. In 2010-2012, n=2399 Australian women with a singleton pregnancy DHA/day or a vegetable oil placebo until birth. N=726 children from Adelaide (all n=97 born preterm, random sample of n=630 born at term) were selected for neurodevelopmental follow-up and n=638 (preterm n=85) are still enrolled at 7 years of age. At the 7-year follow-up, a psychologist will assess the primary outcome, IQ, with the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, Second Edition. Specific measures of executive functioning (Fruit Stroop and the Rey Complex Figure), attention (Test of Everyday Attention for Children), memory and learning (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test), language (Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals, Fourth Edition) and basic educational skills (Wide Range Achievement Test, Fourth Edition) will also be administered. Caregivers will be asked to complete questionnaires measuring behaviour and executive functioning. Families, clinicians and research personnel are blinded to group assignment with the exception of families who requested unblinding prior to the follow-up. All analyses will be conducted according to the intention-to-treat principal. All procedures will be approved by the relevant institutional ethics committees prior to start of the study. The results of this study will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journal publications and academic presentations. ACTRN12605000569606 and ACTRN12614000770662. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go

  12. Randomised controlled trial adapting US school obesity prevention to England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipping, R R; Payne, C; Lawlor, D A

    2008-06-01

    To determine whether a school obesity prevention project developed in the United States can be adapted for use in England. A pilot cluster randomised controlled trial and interviews with teachers were carried out in 19 primary schools in South West England. Participants included 679 children in year 5 (age 9-10). Baseline and follow-up assessments were completed for 323 children (screen viewing) and 472 children (body mass index). Sixteen lessons on healthy eating, physical activity and reducing TV viewing were taught over 5 months by teachers. Main outcome measures were hours of screen activities, body mass index, mode of transport to school and teachers' views of the intervention. Children from intervention schools spent less time on screen-viewing activities after the intervention but these differences were imprecisely estimated: mean difference in minutes spent on screen viewing at the end of the intervention (intervention schools minus control schools) adjusted for baseline levels and clustering within schools was -11.6 (95% CI -42.7 to 19.4) for a week day and was -15.4 (95% CI -57.5 to 26.8) for a Saturday. There was no difference in mean body mass index or the odds of obesity. It is feasible to transfer this US school-based intervention to UK schools, and it may be effective in reducing the time children spend on screen-based activities. The study has provided information for a full-scale trial, which would require 50 schools ( approximately 1250 pupils) to detect effects on screen viewing and body mass index over 2 years of follow-up.

  13. Effect of early intervention on functional outcome at school age : Follow-up and process evaluation of a randomised controlled trial in infants at risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamer, Elisa G.; Hielkema, Tjitske; Bos, Arend F.; Dirks, Tineke; Hooijsma, Siebrigje; Reinders-Messelink, Heelen; Toonen, Rivka F.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    Background: The long-term effect of early intervention in infants at risk for developmental disorders is unclear. The VIP project (n = 46, originally) evaluated by means of a randomised controlled trial the effect of the family centred early intervention programme COPCA (Coping with and Caring for

  14. Effect of early intervention on functional outcome at school age: Follow-up and process evaluation of a randomised controlled trial in infants at risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamer, E.G.; Hielkema, T.; Bos, A.F; Dirks, T.; Hooijsma, S.J.; Reinders-Messelink, H.A.; Toonen, R.F.; Hadders-Algra, M.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The long-term effect of early intervention in infants at risk for developmental disorders is unclear. The VIP project (n=46, originally) evaluated by means of a randomised controlled trial the effect of the family centred early intervention programme COPCA (Coping with and Caring for

  15. Positive effects on bone mineralisation and muscular fitness after 10 months of intense school-based physical training for children aged 8-10 years: the FIT FIRST randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Malte Nejst; Nielsen, Claus Malta; Helge, Eva Wulff; Madsen, Mads; Manniche, Vibeke; Hansen, Lone; Hansen, Peter Riis; Bangsbo, Jens; Krustrup, Peter

    2018-02-01

    We investigated whether musculoskeletal fitness of school children aged 8-10 years was affected by frequent intense PE sessions. 295 Danish school children aged 8-10 years were cluster randomised to a small-sided ball game group (SSG) (n=96, four schools, five classes), a circuit strength training group (CST) (n=83, four schools, four classes) or a control group (CON, n=116, two schools, five classes). SSG or CST was performed 3×40 min/week over 10 months. Whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans were used to determine areal bone mineral density (aBMD), bone mineral content (BMC) and lean body mass (LBM). Flamingo balance, standing long jump and 20-m sprint tests were used to determine muscular fitness. Analysis of baseline-to-10 months change scores showed between-group differences in favour of the interventions in whole-body aBMD (SSG vs CON: 8 mg/cm 2 , 95% CI 3 to 13; CST vs CON: 7 mg/cm 2 , 95% CI 2 to 13, ptraining types resulted in higher change scores in postural balance (SSG vs CON: 2.4 fewer falls/min, 95% CI 0.3 to 4.5, CST vs CON: 3.6 fewer falls/min, 95% CI 1.3 to 5.9, p0.05). In conclusion, 3×40 min/week with SSG or CST over a full school year improves bone mineralisation and several aspects of muscular fitness of children aged 8-10 years, suggesting that well-organised intense physical education classes can contribute positively to develop musculoskeletal health in young children. NCT02000492, post results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Factors influencing hand washing behaviour in primary schools: process evaluation within a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Chittleborough, Catherine R.; Nicholson, Alexandra L.; Basker, Elaine; Bell, Sarah; Campbell, Rona

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores factors that may influence hand washing behaviour among pupils and staff in primary schools. A qualitative process evaluation within a cluster randomised controlled trial included pupil focus groups (n=16, ages 6 to 11, semi-structured interviews (n=16 teachers) and observations of hand washing facilities (n=57). Pupils and staff in intervention and control schools demonstrated a similar level of understanding of how, when and why they should wash their hands. Lack of time...

  17. Physical Activity and School Performance: Evidence from a Danish Randomised School-Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinto Romani, A.; Klausen, T. B.

    2017-01-01

    It has been claimed that physical activity has a positive effect on not only health but also on school performance. Using data from a randomised school-intervention study, this paper investigates whether different interventions promoting physical activity affect school performance in primary school children. The results indicate that on average,…

  18. Interventions to improve executive functioning and working memory in school-aged children with AD(H)D: a randomised controlled trial and stepped-care approach

    OpenAIRE

    van der Donk Marthe LA; Hiemstra-Beernink Anne-Claire; Tjeenk-Kalff Ariane C; van der Leij Aryan V; Lindauer Ramón JL

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Deficits in executive functioning are of great significance in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). One of these executive functions, working memory, plays an important role in academic performance and is often seen as the core deficit of this disorder. There are indications that working memory problems and academic performance can be improved by school-oriented interventions but this has not yet been studied systematically. In this study we will determine the ...

  19. School Starting Age and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landersø, Rasmus; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Simonsen, Marianne

    This paper investigates the effects of school starting age on crime while relying on variation in school starting age induced by administrative rules; we exploit that Danish children typically start first grade in the calendar year they turn seven, which gives rise to a discontinuity in children......’s school starting age. Analyses are carried out using register-based Danish data. We find that higher age at school start lowers the propensity to commit crime, but that this reduction is caused by incapacitation while human capital accumulation is unaffected. Importantly, we also find that the individuals...

  20. Age Segregation in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, David

    Evidence from ethnology, anthropology, and educational history and research indicates that age segregation is neither necessary nor natural. An examination of primate and simple human societies suggests that rigid assumptions about age segregation of the young is a recent departure from social patterns existing for millions of years. The…

  1. The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a mindfulness training programme in schools compared with normal school provision (MYRIAD): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyken, Willem; Nuthall, Elizabeth; Byford, Sarah; Crane, Catherine; Dalgleish, Tim; Ford, Tamsin; Greenberg, Mark T; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Viner, Russell M; Williams, J Mark G

    2017-04-26

    Mindfulness-based approaches for adults are effective at enhancing mental health, but few controlled trials have evaluated their effectiveness or cost-effectiveness for young people. The primary aim of this trial is to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a mindfulness training (MT) programme to enhance mental health, wellbeing and social-emotional behavioural functioning in adolescence. To address this aim, the design will be a superiority, cluster randomised controlled, parallel-group trial in which schools offering social and emotional provision in line with good practice (Formby et al., Personal, Social, Health and Economic (PSHE) Education: A mapping study of the prevalent models of delivery and their effectiveness, 2010; OFSTED, Not Yet Good Enough: Personal, Social, Health and Economic Education in schools, 2013) will be randomised to either continue this provision (control) or include MT in this provision (intervention). The study will recruit and randomise 76 schools (clusters) and 5700 school students aged 12 to 14 years, followed up for 2 years. The study will contribute to establishing if MT is an effective and cost-effective approach to promoting mental health in adolescence. International Standard Randomised Controlled Trials, identifier: ISRCTN86619085 . Registered on 3 June 2016.

  2. Randomised controlled trial comparing two school furniture configurations in the printing performance of young children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Stephen E; Rigby, Patricia J; Campbell, Kent A

    2010-08-01

    This randomised controlled trial compared the same-session effects of two different school furniture configurations on printing legibility. A total of 30 school-age children with ambulatory cerebral palsy participated in this study. Each child provided one near-point printing sample of up to 34 letters while positioned on Mandal-type specialty school furniture and on standard school furniture. An assessor who was unaware of the intervention assignment scored printing errors. No significant difference in legibility score mean values between the interventions was detected and the effect size was small. Compared with standard school furniture, the use of specialty school furniture did not lead to immediate gains in printing legibility and other printing performance areas for children with cerebral palsy. Further study of the influence of functional abilities, other contextual factors and the longer-term use of school furniture on handwriting performance is recommended.

  3. Effectiveness evaluation of a health promotion programme in primary schools: a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwig Grillich

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Programmes based on the World Health Organization’s Health Promoting Schools framework (HPS have been implemented in several countries but for evidence-based policy-making more research is required to determine the effectiveness of the HPS approach. Methods We conducted a cluster randomised controlled trial. The units of randomisation were primary school classes recruited in May 2010. Eligible participants were Year 3 primary school classes in Lower Austria that had not participated in a similar programme during the last two years. After baseline assessment in September 2010, 53 classes from 45 primary schools in Lower Austria were randomly assigned to an intervention (n = 26 classes, 432 children or waiting control arm (n = 27 classes, 493 children aged 8.7 years +/- 4 months. Over the course of 1.5 academic years, participating teachers received on-the-job training (20 h and two workshops (8 h to promote health related behaviour in students such as physical activity during the school day and to improve the quality of regular physical education classes. We assessed 15 outcomes grouped into five categories: Emotional and Social Experience in School, Physical Activity, Well-being, and Attention Performance measured by validated and standardised questionnaire and Motor Skills measured by validated and standardised motoric and coordination tests in the school gym. The primary outcome was Classroom Climate and part of the outcomecategory Emotional and Social Experience in School. The final assessment took place in April 2012. All assessors were blinded to the allocation of classes. Multilevel growth modelling was used to investigate programme effectiveness. Results We could not detect any statistically significant differences between groups for the outcomecategories Emotional and Social Experience in school (p = 0.22 to 0.78, Physical Activity, Well-being, and Attention Performance. Significant differences

  4. Effects of a free school breakfast programme on school attendance, achievement, psychosocial function, and nutrition: a stepped wedge cluster randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maddison Ralph

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Approximately 55,000 children in New Zealand do not eat breakfast on any given day. Regular breakfast skipping has been associated with poor diets, higher body mass index, and adverse effects on children's behaviour and academic performance. Research suggests that regular breakfast consumption can improve academic performance, nutrition and behaviour. This paper describes the protocol for a stepped wedge cluster randomised trial of a free school breakfast programme. The aim of the trial is to determine the effects of the breakfast intervention on school attendance, achievement, psychosocial function, dietary habits and food security. Methods/Design Sixteen primary schools in the North Island of New Zealand will be randomised in a sequential stepped wedge design to a free before-school breakfast programme consisting of non-sugar coated breakfast cereal, milk products, and/or toast and spreads. Four hundred children aged 5-13 years (approximately 25 per school will be recruited. Data collection will be undertaken once each school term over the 2010 school year (February to December. The primary trial outcome is school attendance, defined as the proportion of students achieving an attendance rate of 95% or higher. Secondary outcomes are academic achievement (literacy, numeracy, self-reported grades, sense of belonging at school, psychosocial function, dietary habits, and food security. A concurrent process evaluation seeks information on parents', schools' and providers' perspectives of the breakfast programme. Discussion This randomised controlled trial will provide robust evidence of the effects of a school breakfast programme on students' attendance, achievement and nutrition. Furthermore the study provides an excellent example of the feasibility and value of the stepped wedge trial design in evaluating pragmatic public health intervention programmes. Trial Registration Number Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry

  5. Effects of a free school breakfast programme on school attendance, achievement, psychosocial function, and nutrition: a stepped wedge cluster randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Turley, Maria; Gorton, Delvina; Jiang, Yannan; Michie, Jo; Maddison, Ralph; Hattie, John

    2010-11-29

    Approximately 55,000 children in New Zealand do not eat breakfast on any given day. Regular breakfast skipping has been associated with poor diets, higher body mass index, and adverse effects on children's behaviour and academic performance. Research suggests that regular breakfast consumption can improve academic performance, nutrition and behaviour. This paper describes the protocol for a stepped wedge cluster randomised trial of a free school breakfast programme. The aim of the trial is to determine the effects of the breakfast intervention on school attendance, achievement, psychosocial function, dietary habits and food security. Sixteen primary schools in the North Island of New Zealand will be randomised in a sequential stepped wedge design to a free before-school breakfast programme consisting of non-sugar coated breakfast cereal, milk products, and/or toast and spreads. Four hundred children aged 5-13 years (approximately 25 per school) will be recruited. Data collection will be undertaken once each school term over the 2010 school year (February to December). The primary trial outcome is school attendance, defined as the proportion of students achieving an attendance rate of 95% or higher. Secondary outcomes are academic achievement (literacy, numeracy, self-reported grades), sense of belonging at school, psychosocial function, dietary habits, and food security. A concurrent process evaluation seeks information on parents', schools' and providers' perspectives of the breakfast programme. This randomised controlled trial will provide robust evidence of the effects of a school breakfast programme on students' attendance, achievement and nutrition. Furthermore the study provides an excellent example of the feasibility and value of the stepped wedge trial design in evaluating pragmatic public health intervention programmes. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) - ACTRN12609000854235.

  6. School-Age NOTES. 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scofield, Richard T., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    These 12 newsletter issues offer support and information for providers of child care for school-age children. The featured articles for each month are: (1) "ASCAP [American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers] Retreats on Camp Song Use"; (2) "Walking the Talk: Modeling Conflict Resolution Behaviors"; (3) "10…

  7. Positive effects on bone mineralisation and muscular fitness after 10 months of intense school-based physical training for children aged 8–10 years: the FIT FIRST randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Malte Nejst; Nielsen, Claus Malta; Helge, Eva Wulff

    2018-01-01

    mineral density (aBMD), bone mineral content (BMC) and lean body mass (LBM). Flamingo balance, standing long jump and 20-m sprint tests were used to determine muscular fitness. Results Analysis of baseline-to-10 months change scores showed between-group differences in favour of the interventions in whole...... classes), a circuit strength training group (CST) (n=83, four schools, four classes) or a control group (CON, n=116, two schools, five classes). Intervention SSG or CST was performed 3×40 min/week over 10 months. Whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans were used to determine areal bone...... improves bone mineralisation and several aspects of muscular fitness of children aged 8–10 years, suggesting that well-organised intense physical education classes can contribute positively to develop musculoskeletal health in young children. Trial registration number NCT02000492, post results....

  8. Study protocol for the evaluation of an Infant Simulator based program delivered in schools: a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hart Michael B

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper presents the study protocol for a pragmatic randomised controlled trial to evaluate the impact of a school based program developed to prevent teenage pregnancy. The program includes students taking care of an Infant Simulator; despite growing popularity and an increasing global presence of such programs, there is no published evidence of their long-term impact. The aim of this trial is to evaluate the Virtual Infant Parenting (VIP program by investigating pre-conceptual health and risk behaviours, teen pregnancy and the resultant birth outcomes, early child health and maternal health. Methods and Design Fifty-seven schools (86% of 66 eligible secondary schools in Perth, Australia were recruited to the clustered (by school randomised trial, with even randomisation to the intervention and control arms. Between 2003 and 2006, the VIP program was administered to 1,267 participants in the intervention schools, while 1,567 participants in the non-intervention schools received standard curriculum. Participants were all female and aged between 13-15 years upon recruitment. Pre and post-intervention questionnaires measured short-term impact and participants are now being followed through their teenage years via data linkage to hospital medical records, abortion clinics and education records. Participants who have a live birth are interviewed by face-to-face interview. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and proportional hazards regression will test for differences in pregnancy, birth and abortion rates during the teenage years between the study arms. Discussion This protocol paper provides a detailed overview of the trial design as well as initial results in the form of participant flow. The authors describe the intervention and its delivery within the natural school setting and discuss the practical issues in the conduct of the trial, including recruitment. The trial is pragmatic and will directly inform those who provide

  9. Hand sanitiser provision for reducing illness absences in primary school children: a cluster randomised trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Priest

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The potential for transmission of infectious diseases offered by the school environment are likely to be an important contributor to the rates of infectious disease experienced by children. This study aimed to test whether the addition of hand sanitiser in primary school classrooms compared with usual hand hygiene would reduce illness absences in primary school children in New Zealand. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This parallel-group cluster randomised trial took place in 68 primary schools, where schools were allocated using restricted randomisation (1:1 ratio to the intervention or control group. All children (aged 5 to 11 y in attendance at participating schools received an in-class hand hygiene education session. Schools in the intervention group were provided with alcohol-based hand sanitiser dispensers in classrooms for the winter school terms (27 April to 25 September 2009. Control schools received only the hand hygiene education session. The primary outcome was the number of absence episodes due to any illness among 2,443 follow-up children whose caregivers were telephoned after each absence from school. Secondary outcomes measured among follow-up children were the number of absence episodes due to specific illness (respiratory or gastrointestinal, length of illness and illness absence episodes, and number of episodes where at least one other member of the household became ill subsequently (child or adult. We also examined whether provision of sanitiser was associated with experience of a skin reaction. The number of absences for any reason and the length of the absence episode were measured in all primary school children enrolled at the schools. Children, school administrative staff, and the school liaison research assistants were not blind to group allocation. Outcome assessors of follow-up children were blind to group allocation. Of the 1,301 and 1,142 follow-up children in the hand sanitiser and control groups, respectively, the

  10. Improving educational achievement and anaemia of school children: design of a cluster randomised trial of school-based malaria prevention and enhanced literacy instruction in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, Simon; Okello, George; Njagi, Kiambo; Dubeck, Margaret M; Halliday, Katherine E; Inyega, Hellen; Jukes, Matthew C H

    2010-10-07

    Improving the health of school-aged children can yield substantial benefits for cognitive development and educational achievement. However, there is limited experimental evidence on the benefits of school-based malaria prevention or how health interventions interact with other efforts to improve education quality. This study aims to evaluate the impact of school-based malaria prevention and enhanced literacy instruction on the health and educational achievement of school children in Kenya. A factorial, cluster randomised trial is being implemented in 101 government primary schools on the coast of Kenya. The interventions are (i) intermittent screening and treatment of malaria in schools by public health workers and (ii) training workshops and support for teachers to promote explicit and systematic literacy instruction. Schools are randomised to one of four groups: receiving either (i) the malaria intervention alone; (ii) the literacy intervention alone; (iii) both interventions combined; or (iv) control group where neither intervention is implemented. Children from classes 1 and 5 are randomly selected and followed up for 24 months. The primary outcomes are educational achievement and anaemia, the hypothesised mediating variables through which education is affected. Secondary outcomes include malaria parasitaemia, school attendance and school performance. A nested process evaluation, using semi-structured interviews, focus group discussion and a stakeholder analysis will investigate the community acceptability, feasibility and cost-effectiveness of the interventions. Across Africa, governments are committed to improve health and education of school-aged children, but seek clear policy and technical guidance as to the optimal approach to address malaria and improved literacy. This evaluation will be one of the first to simultaneously evaluate the impact of health and education interventions in the improvement of educational achievement. Reflection is made on the

  11. Improving educational achievement and anaemia of school children: design of a cluster randomised trial of school-based malaria prevention and enhanced literacy instruction in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Improving the health of school-aged children can yield substantial benefits for cognitive development and educational achievement. However, there is limited experimental evidence on the benefits of school-based malaria prevention or how health interventions interact with other efforts to improve education quality. This study aims to evaluate the impact of school-based malaria prevention and enhanced literacy instruction on the health and educational achievement of school children in Kenya. Design A factorial, cluster randomised trial is being implemented in 101 government primary schools on the coast of Kenya. The interventions are (i) intermittent screening and treatment of malaria in schools by public health workers and (ii) training workshops and support for teachers to promote explicit and systematic literacy instruction. Schools are randomised to one of four groups: receiving either (i) the malaria intervention alone; (ii) the literacy intervention alone; (iii) both interventions combined; or (iv) control group where neither intervention is implemented. Children from classes 1 and 5 are randomly selected and followed up for 24 months. The primary outcomes are educational achievement and anaemia, the hypothesised mediating variables through which education is affected. Secondary outcomes include malaria parasitaemia, school attendance and school performance. A nested process evaluation, using semi-structured interviews, focus group discussion and a stakeholder analysis will investigate the community acceptability, feasibility and cost-effectiveness of the interventions. Discussion Across Africa, governments are committed to improve health and education of school-aged children, but seek clear policy and technical guidance as to the optimal approach to address malaria and improved literacy. This evaluation will be one of the first to simultaneously evaluate the impact of health and education interventions in the improvement of educational achievement

  12. Improving educational achievement and anaemia of school children: design of a cluster randomised trial of school-based malaria prevention and enhanced literacy instruction in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halliday Katherine E

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improving the health of school-aged children can yield substantial benefits for cognitive development and educational achievement. However, there is limited experimental evidence on the benefits of school-based malaria prevention or how health interventions interact with other efforts to improve education quality. This study aims to evaluate the impact of school-based malaria prevention and enhanced literacy instruction on the health and educational achievement of school children in Kenya. Design A factorial, cluster randomised trial is being implemented in 101 government primary schools on the coast of Kenya. The interventions are (i intermittent screening and treatment of malaria in schools by public health workers and (ii training workshops and support for teachers to promote explicit and systematic literacy instruction. Schools are randomised to one of four groups: receiving either (i the malaria intervention alone; (ii the literacy intervention alone; (iii both interventions combined; or (iv control group where neither intervention is implemented. Children from classes 1 and 5 are randomly selected and followed up for 24 months. The primary outcomes are educational achievement and anaemia, the hypothesised mediating variables through which education is affected. Secondary outcomes include malaria parasitaemia, school attendance and school performance. A nested process evaluation, using semi-structured interviews, focus group discussion and a stakeholder analysis will investigate the community acceptability, feasibility and cost-effectiveness of the interventions. Discussion Across Africa, governments are committed to improve health and education of school-aged children, but seek clear policy and technical guidance as to the optimal approach to address malaria and improved literacy. This evaluation will be one of the first to simultaneously evaluate the impact of health and education interventions in the improvement of

  13. Factors influencing hand washing behaviour in primary schools: process evaluation within a randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittleborough, Catherine R.; Nicholson, Alexandra L.; Basker, Elaine; Bell, Sarah; Campbell, Rona

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores factors that may influence hand washing behaviour among pupils and staff in primary schools. A qualitative process evaluation within a cluster randomised controlled trial included pupil focus groups (n=16, ages 6 to 11, semi-structured interviews (n=16 teachers) and observations of hand washing facilities (n=57). Pupils and staff in intervention and control schools demonstrated a similar level of understanding of how, when and why they should wash their hands. Lack of time, poor adult modelling of regular hand washing and unattractive facilities were seen as important barriers to regular hand washing. Reminders and explanations for the importance of hand hygiene were thought to have a positive impact. Influencing individual choices about hand washing through education and information may be necessary, but not sufficient, for initiating and maintaining good hand washing practices. Structural factors, including having time to wash hands using accessible, clean facilities, and being encouraged through the existence of hand washing opportunities in the daily routine and hand washing being viewed as the social norm, will also influence hand washing behaviour. The effectiveness of educational interventions at improving hand hygiene in primary schools may be improved by changing priorities of staff and increasing accessibility to quality facilities. PMID:22623617

  14. Strengthening the School Community Connection. Schools in an Aging Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford. Div. of Curriculum and Professional Development.

    Schools can help young people be aware of the social, political, and economic consequences of an aging society. This report is part of a six-part series, "Schools in an Aging Society," designed to promote education for, with, and about older adults. The Advanced Generations' Education through the Schools (AGES) is a planning model in…

  15. Seizure Management for School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frueh, Eileen

    2008-01-01

    As many as 325,000 school-age children, ages 5-14, have epilepsy in the U.S. Thankfully, with medication, surgery, a special diet or vagus nerve stimulation, most go to school and fully participate in school activities. Children who continue to have seizures, however, may run into problems. Many of these problems can be overcome or prevented…

  16. School Starting Age and the Crime-Age Profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landersø, Rasmus; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Simonsen, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    This paper uses register-based data to investigate the effects of school starting age on crime. Through this, we provide insights into the determinants of crime-age profiles. We exploit that Danish children typically start first grade in the calendar year they turn seven, which gives rise...... to a discontinuity in school starting age for children born around New Year. Our analysis speaks against a simple invariant crime-age profile as is popular in criminology: we find that higher school starting age lowers the propensity to commit crime at young ages. We also find effects on the number of crimes...

  17. Health effects of freshwater bathing among primary school children; Design for a randomised exposure study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asperen IA van; Medema GJ; Havelaar AH; Borgdorff MW; CIE; MGB

    1997-01-01

    To study the health effects of bathing in freshwaters that meet current water quality standard, large epidemiological studies are needed. A design is presented of a study among primary school children, that aims to evaluate current water quality standard. The study concerns a randomised exposure

  18. Health behaviour and school environment among school-aged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In conclusion, therefore health promotion practitioners need to consider the impact of the school environment (particularly unrealistic scholastic expectations from teachers and parents) on health behaviours of school-aged children. Die hoofdoelwit van die studie ";Health Behaviour among School-aged Children"; ...

  19. EXAMINATION OF TELEVISION VIEWING HABITS OF SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz ARSLAN

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Television has powerful effects on children. Howewer TV gives positive messages to children it also can cause children to be inactive and prevent their creative play activities. In this study, it was aimed at to determine the television viewing habits of school age children between 6–12 years old. That Cross-sectional type study has been conducted on 100 students who were selected with stratified randomised sampling method according to sex, age and class among 492 students who were taken education from first step of the Ankara-Cigiltepe Primary Education School. Mean age of school age children who were involved in study was 9.1±1.5. It was detemined that 43% of children (n=43 were watching TV more than 3 hours a day, 54% of them were watching TV to relieve their boredom and 48% of them were watching TV because they like watching. When the spare time activities of children were examined it was determined that they were spending their time by playing and making sportive activities with the highest rate (n=95, 26.1%, and television viewing was in the third order (n=61, 17.3%. In this study, it was determined that most of the children were watching TV under the offered time, children whose mother were not working were watching TV for longer time, and TV watching time of the children were increasing with increasing age. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(6.000: 391-401

  20. Efficacy of infant simulator programmes to prevent teenage pregnancy: a school-based cluster randomised controlled trial in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Sally A; Johnson, Sarah E; Codde, James P; Hart, Michael B; Straton, Judith A; Mittinty, Murthy N; Silburn, Sven R

    2016-11-05

    Infant simulator-based programmes, which aim to prevent teenage pregnancy, are used in high-income as well as low-income and middle-income countries but, despite growing popularity, no published evidence exists of their long-term effect. The aim of this trial was to investigate the effect of such a programme, the Virtual Infant Parenting (VIP) programme, on pregnancy outcomes of birth and induced abortion in Australia. In this school-based pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial, eligible schools in Perth, Western Australia, were enrolled and randomised 1:1 to the intervention and control groups. Randomisation using a table of random numbers without blocking, stratification, or matching was done by a researcher who was masked to the identity of the schools. Between 2003 and 2006, the VIP programme was administered to girls aged 13-15 years in the intervention schools, while girls of the same age in the control schools received the standard health education curriculum. Participants were followed until they reached 20 years of age via data linkage to hospital medical and abortion clinic records. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of pregnancy during the teenage years. Binomial and Cox proportional hazards regression was used to test for differences in pregnancy rates between study groups. This study is registered as an international randomised controlled trial, number ISRCTN24952438. 57 (86%) of 66 eligible schools were enrolled into the trial and randomly assigned 1:1 to the intervention (28 schools) or the control group (29 schools). Then, between Feb 1, 2003, and May 31, 2006, 1267 girls in the intervention schools received the VIP programme while 1567 girls in the control schools received the standard health education curriculum. Compared with girls in the control group, a higher proportion of girls in the intervention group recorded at least one birth (97 [8%] of 1267 in the intervention group vs 67 [4%] of 1567 in the control group) or at least one

  1. Examining the safety of menstrual cups among rural primary school girls in western Kenya: observational studies nested in a randomised controlled feasibility study.

    OpenAIRE

    Juma, Jane; Nyothach, Elizabeth; Laserson, Kayla F; Oduor, Clifford; Arita, Lilian; Ouma, Caroline; Oruko, Kelvin; Omoto, Jackton; Mason, Linda; Alexander, Kelly; Fields, Barry; Onyango, Clayton; Phillips-Howard, Penelope

    2017-01-01

    Objective Examine the safety of menstrual cups against sanitary pads and usual practice in Kenyan schoolgirls. Design Observational studies nested in a cluster randomised controlled feasibility study. Setting 30 primary schools in a health and demographic surveillance system in rural western Kenya. Participants Menstruating primary schoolgirls aged 14?16 years participating in a menstrual feasibility study. Interventions Insertable menstrual cup, monthly sanitary pads or ?usual practice? (con...

  2. Beginning School Age and Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Carol; Wilson, Barry J.

    1985-01-01

    Studied effects of beginning school age and gender on later school achievement and retention in grade (N=117). No significant differences among the three age groups were found at kindergarten, second, or fourth grade. Differences in achievement between boys and girls were noted. (BH)

  3. Adolescents’ use of purpose built shade in secondary schools: cluster randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Vanessa; Wakefield, Melanie A; Jamsen, Kris M; White, Victoria; Livingston, Patricia M; English, Dallas R; Simpson, Julie A

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine whether students use or avoid newly shaded areas created by shade sails installed at schools. Design Cluster randomised controlled trial with secondary schools as the unit of randomisation. Setting 51 secondary schools with limited available shade, in Australia, assessed over two spring and summer terms. Participants Students outside at lunch times. Intervention Purpose built shade sails were installed in winter 2005 at full sun study sites to increase available shade for students in the school grounds. Main outcome measure Mean number of students using the primary study sites during weekly observations at lunch time. Results Over the study period the mean change in students using the primary study site from pre-test to post-test was 2.63 (95% confidence interval 0.87 to 4.39) students in intervention schools and −0.03 (−1.16 to 1.09) students in control schools. The difference in mean change between groups was 2.67 (0.65 to 4.68) students (P=0.011). Conclusions Students used rather than avoided newly shaded areas provided by purpose built shade sails at secondary schools in this trial, suggesting a practical means of reducing adolescents’ exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Trial registration Exempt. PMID:19223344

  4. Effectiveness of a multicomponent intervention to enhance implementation of a healthy canteen policy in Australian primary schools: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Nicole; Yoong, Sze Lin; Sutherland, Rachel; Reilly, Kathryn; Delaney, Tessa; Janssen, Lisa; Robertson, Katie; Reynolds, Renee; Chai, Li Kheng; Lecathelinais, Christophe; Wiggers, John; Wolfenden, Luke

    2016-10-07

    The implementation of school nutrition policies, which govern the provision of food in schools, is recommended as a public health strategy to support the development of healthy dietary behaviours in school-aged children. Despite this, research internationally and in Australia indicates that few schools implement such policies. This study aims to examine whether a theoretically designed, multi-strategy intervention was effective in increasing the implementation of a healthy canteen policy in Australian primary schools. A parallel group randomised controlled trial was conducted with all government and Catholic primary schools within one region in New South Wales, Australia who had an operational canteen that provided food to primary school aged children (5-12 years) and were not currently receiving an intervention to change their canteen practices. Schools randomised to the intervention arm received a 9-month multicomponent intervention including ongoing support, provision of resources, performance monitoring and feedback, executive support and recognition. The primary outcomes were the proportion of the schools with a canteen menu that: i) did not include 'red' or 'banned' items according to the healthy canteen policy; and ii) had more than 50 % 'green' items. The primary outcome was assessed via menu audit at baseline and follow up by dietitians blinded to group allocation. Fifty-three eligible schools were randomised to either the intervention or control group (28 intervention; 25 control). Analyses with 51 schools who returned school menus found that intervention schools were significantly more likely relative to control schools to have a menu without 'red' or 'banned' items (RR = 5.78 (1.45-23.05); p = 0.002) and have at least 50 % of menu items classified as green (RR = 2.03 (1.01-4.08); p = 0.03). This study found that a multi-component intervention was effective in improving primary schools' compliance with a healthy canteen policy. Given

  5. School-age children development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the child goes through the elementary school years, grammar and pronunciation become normal. Children use more complex ... Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map ...

  6. Aged Residential Care Health Utilisation Study (ARCHUS: a randomised controlled trial to reduce acute hospitalisations from residential aged care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foster Susan J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For residents of long term care, hospitalisations can cause distress and disruption, and often result in further medical complications. Multi-disciplinary team interventions have been shown to improve the health of Residential Aged Care (RAC residents, decreasing the need for acute hospitalisation, yet there are few randomised controlled trials of these complex interventions. This paper describes a randomised controlled trial of a structured multi-disciplinary team and gerontology nurse specialist (GNS intervention aiming to reduce residents’ avoidable hospitalisations. Methods/Design This Aged Residential Care Healthcare Utilisation Study (ARCHUS is a cluster- randomised controlled trial (n = 1700 residents of a complex multi-disciplinary team intervention in long-term care facilities. Eligible facilities certified for residential care were selected from those identified as at moderate or higher risk of resident potentially avoidable hospitalisations by statistical modelling. The facilities were all located in the Auckland region, New Zealand and were stratified by District Health Board (DHB. Intervention The intervention provided a structured GNS intervention including a baseline facility needs assessment, quality indicator benchmarking, a staff education programme and care coordination. Alongside this, three multi-disciplinary team (MDT meetings were held involving a geriatrician, facility GP, pharmacist, GNS and senior nursing staff. Outcomes Hospitalisations are recorded from routinely-collected acute admissions during the 9-month intervention period followed by a 5-month follow-up period. ICD diagnosis codes are used in a pre-specified definition of potentially reducible admissions. Discussion This randomised-controlled trial will evaluate a complex intervention to increase early identification and intervention to improve the health of residents of long term care. The results of this trial are expected in early

  7. School-based suicide prevention programmes: the SEYLE cluster-randomised, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Danuta; Hoven, Christina W; Wasserman, Camilla; Wall, Melanie; Eisenberg, Ruth; Hadlaczky, Gergö; Kelleher, Ian; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Guillemin, Francis; Haring, Christian; Iosue, Miriam; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Keeley, Helen; Musa, George J; Nemes, Bogdan; Postuvan, Vita; Saiz, Pilar; Reiter-Theil, Stella; Varnik, Airi; Varnik, Peeter; Carli, Vladimir

    2015-04-18

    Suicidal behaviours in adolescents are a major public health problem and evidence-based prevention programmes are greatly needed. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of school-based preventive interventions of suicidal behaviours. The Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE) study is a multicentre, cluster-randomised controlled trial. The SEYLE sample consisted of 11,110 adolescent pupils, median age 15 years (IQR 14-15), recruited from 168 schools in ten European Union countries. We randomly assigned the schools to one of three interventions or a control group. The interventions were: (1) Question, Persuade, and Refer (QPR), a gatekeeper training module targeting teachers and other school personnel, (2) the Youth Aware of Mental Health Programme (YAM) targeting pupils, and (3) screening by professionals (ProfScreen) with referral of at-risk pupils. Each school was randomly assigned by random number generator to participate in one intervention (or control) group only and was unaware of the interventions undertaken in the other three trial groups. The primary outcome measure was the number of suicide attempt(s) made by 3 month and 12 month follow-up. Analysis included all pupils with data available at each timepoint, excluding those who had ever attempted suicide or who had shown severe suicidal ideation during the 2 weeks before baseline. This study is registered with the German Clinical Trials Registry, number DRKS00000214. Between Nov 1, 2009, and Dec 14, 2010, 168 schools (11,110 pupils) were randomly assigned to interventions (40 schools [2692 pupils] to QPR, 45 [2721] YAM, 43 [2764] ProfScreen, and 40 [2933] control). No significant differences between intervention groups and the control group were recorded at the 3 month follow-up. At the 12 month follow-up, YAM was associated with a significant reduction of incident suicide attempts (odds ratios [OR] 0·45, 95% CI 0·24-0·85; p=0·014) and severe suicidal ideation (0·50, 0·27-0·92; p=0·025

  8. Effect of School-Based Home-Collaborative Lifestyle Education on Reducing Subjective Psychosomatic Symptoms in Adolescents: A Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junko Watanabe

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to assess the effectiveness of a school-based home-collaborative lifestyle education program for adolescents (PADOK in reducing poor subjective psychosomatic symptoms (SPS. The study was designed as a two-armed parallel cluster randomised controlled trial and the study population comprised adolescent students (aged 12-14 years, n = 1,565 who were recruited from 19 middle schools in Japan. The PADOK intervention or usual school programme was provided in schools to all eligible participants. The primary outcome was the SPS score at 6 months, while secondary outcomes included lifestyle factors, BMI, and dietary intakes. Analyses were undertaken on an intention to treat (ITT basis accounting for the clustered design. Nineteen schools were randomised to the PADOK group (10 schools and control group (9 schools. The numbers of students used for analysis were 1,509 for ITT and 1,420 (94.1% for PPS. At 6 months, the crude mean change from baseline of the SPS scores by ITT analysis showed a significantly greater reduction in the PADOK group compared to that in the control group (-0.95, 95% CI -1.70 to -0.20, P = 0.016, while those for baseline-adjusted and multivariate-adjusted values showed similar directionality but were not significant (P = 0.063 and P = 0.130. The results indicated that the PADOK program may improve poor SPS scores among adolescents.

  9. Effect of School-Based Home-Collaborative Lifestyle Education on Reducing Subjective Psychosomatic Symptoms in Adolescents: A Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Junko; Watanabe, Mariko; Yamaoka, Kazue; Adachi, Misa; Nemoto, Asuka; Tango, Toshiro

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to assess the effectiveness of a school-based home-collaborative lifestyle education program for adolescents (PADOK) in reducing poor subjective psychosomatic symptoms (SPS). The study was designed as a two-armed parallel cluster randomised controlled trial and the study population comprised adolescent students (aged 12-14 years, n = 1,565) who were recruited from 19 middle schools in Japan. The PADOK intervention or usual school programme was provided in schools to all eligible participants. The primary outcome was the SPS score at 6 months, while secondary outcomes included lifestyle factors, BMI, and dietary intakes. Analyses were undertaken on an intention to treat (ITT) basis accounting for the clustered design. Nineteen schools were randomised to the PADOK group (10 schools) and control group (9 schools). The numbers of students used for analysis were 1,509 for ITT and 1,420 (94.1%) for PPS. At 6 months, the crude mean change from baseline of the SPS scores by ITT analysis showed a significantly greater reduction in the PADOK group compared to that in the control group (-0.95, 95% CI -1.70 to -0.20, P = 0.016), while those for baseline-adjusted and multivariate-adjusted values showed similar directionality but were not significant (P = 0.063 and P = 0.130). The results indicated that the PADOK program may improve poor SPS scores among adolescents.

  10. Effects of a free school breakfast programme on children's attendance, academic achievement and short-term hunger: results from a stepped-wedge, cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhurchu, Cliona Ni; Gorton, Delvina; Turley, Maria; Jiang, Yannan; Michie, Jo; Maddison, Ralph; Hattie, John

    2013-03-01

    Free school breakfast programmes (SBPs) exist in a number of high-income countries, but their effects on educational outcomes have rarely been evaluated in randomised controlled trials. A 1-year stepped-wedge, cluster randomised controlled trial was undertaken in 14 New Zealand schools in low socioeconomic resource areas. Participants were 424 children, mean age 9±2 years, 53% female. The intervention was a free daily SBP. The primary outcome was children's school attendance. Secondary outcomes were academic achievement, self-reported grades, sense of belonging at school, behaviour, short-term hunger, breakfast habits and food security. There was no statistically significant effect of the breakfast programme on children's school attendance. The odds of children achieving an attendance rate hunger during the intervention phase compared with the control phase, demonstrated by an increase of 8.6 units on the Freddy satiety scale (95% CI 3.4 to 13.7, p=0.001). There were no effects of the intervention on any other outcome. A free SBP did not have a significant effect on children's school attendance or academic achievement but had significant positive effects on children's short-term satiety ratings. More frequent programme attendance may be required to influence school attendance and academic achievement. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR)-ACTRN12609000854235.

  11. Mitigating Diseases Transmitted by Aedes Mosquitoes: A Cluster-Randomised Trial of Permethrin-Impregnated School Uniforms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattamaporn Kittayapong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Viral diseases transmitted via Aedes mosquitoes are on the rise, such as Zika, dengue, and chikungunya. Novel tools to mitigate Aedes mosquitoes-transmitted diseases are urgently needed. We tested whether commercially insecticide-impregnated school uniforms can reduce dengue incidence in school children.We designed a cluster-randomised controlled trial in Thailand. The primary endpoint was laboratory-confirmed dengue infections. Secondary endpoints were school absenteeism; and impregnated uniforms' 1-hour knock-down and 24 hour mosquito mortality as measured by standardised WHOPES bioassay cone tests at baseline and after repeated washing. Furthermore, entomological assessments inside classrooms and in outside areas of schools were conducted.We enrolled 1,811 pupils aged 6-17 from 5 intervention and 5 control schools. Paired serum samples were obtained from 1,655 pupils. In the control schools, 24/641 (3.7% and in the intervention schools 33/1,014 (3.3% students had evidence of new dengue infections during one school term (5 months. There was no significant difference in proportions of students having incident dengue infections between the intervention and control schools, with adjustment for clustering by school. WHOPES cone tests showed a 100% knock down and mortality of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes exposed to impregnated clothing at baseline and up to 4 washes, but this efficacy rapidly declined to below 20% after 20 washes, corresponding to a weekly reduction in knock-down and mosquito mortality by 4.7% and 4.4% respectively. Results of the entomological assessments showed that the mean number of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes caught inside the classrooms of the intervention schools was significantly reduced in the month following the introduction of the impregnated uniforms, compared to those collected in classrooms of the control schools (p = 0.04.Entomological assessments showed that the intervention had some impact on the number of Aedes

  12. Mitigating Diseases Transmitted by Aedes Mosquitoes: A Cluster-Randomised Trial of Permethrin-Impregnated School Uniforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittayapong, Pattamaporn; Olanratmanee, Phanthip; Maskhao, Pongsri; Byass, Peter; Logan, James; Tozan, Yesim; Louis, Valérie; Gubler, Duane J; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2017-01-01

    Viral diseases transmitted via Aedes mosquitoes are on the rise, such as Zika, dengue, and chikungunya. Novel tools to mitigate Aedes mosquitoes-transmitted diseases are urgently needed. We tested whether commercially insecticide-impregnated school uniforms can reduce dengue incidence in school children. We designed a cluster-randomised controlled trial in Thailand. The primary endpoint was laboratory-confirmed dengue infections. Secondary endpoints were school absenteeism; and impregnated uniforms' 1-hour knock-down and 24 hour mosquito mortality as measured by standardised WHOPES bioassay cone tests at baseline and after repeated washing. Furthermore, entomological assessments inside classrooms and in outside areas of schools were conducted. We enrolled 1,811 pupils aged 6-17 from 5 intervention and 5 control schools. Paired serum samples were obtained from 1,655 pupils. In the control schools, 24/641 (3.7%) and in the intervention schools 33/1,014 (3.3%) students had evidence of new dengue infections during one school term (5 months). There was no significant difference in proportions of students having incident dengue infections between the intervention and control schools, with adjustment for clustering by school. WHOPES cone tests showed a 100% knock down and mortality of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes exposed to impregnated clothing at baseline and up to 4 washes, but this efficacy rapidly declined to below 20% after 20 washes, corresponding to a weekly reduction in knock-down and mosquito mortality by 4.7% and 4.4% respectively. Results of the entomological assessments showed that the mean number of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes caught inside the classrooms of the intervention schools was significantly reduced in the month following the introduction of the impregnated uniforms, compared to those collected in classrooms of the control schools (p = 0.04). Entomological assessments showed that the intervention had some impact on the number of Aedes mosquitoes inside

  13. Hand sanitisers for reducing illness absences in primary school children in New Zealand: a cluster randomised controlled trial study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poore Marion R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New Zealand has relatively high rates of morbidity and mortality from infectious disease compared with other OECD countries, with infectious disease being more prevalent in children compared with others in the population. Consequences of infectious disease in children may have significant economic and social impact beyond the direct effects of the disease on the health of the child; including absence from school, transmission of infectious disease to other pupils, staff, and family members, and time off work for parents/guardians. Reduction of the transmission of infectious disease between children at schools could be an effective way of reducing the community incidence of infectious disease. Alcohol based no-rinse hand sanitisers provide an alternative hand cleaning technology, for which there is some evidence that they may be effective in achieving this. However, very few studies have investigated the effectiveness of hand sanitisers, and importantly, the potential wider economic implications of this intervention have not been established. Aims The primary objective of this trial is to establish if the provision of hand sanitisers in primary schools in the South Island of New Zealand, in addition to an education session on hand hygiene, reduces the incidence rate of absence episodes due to illness in children. In addition, the trial will establish the cost-effectiveness and conduct a cost-benefit analysis of the intervention in this setting. Methods/Design A cluster randomised controlled trial will be undertaken to establish the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of hand sanitisers. Sixty-eight primary schools will be recruited from three regions in the South Island of New Zealand. The schools will be randomised, within region, to receive hand sanitisers and an education session on hand hygiene, or an education session on hand hygiene alone. Fifty pupils from each school in years 1 to 6 (generally aged from 5 to 11 years

  14. A cluster-randomised controlled trial of a school-based fruit and vegetable intervention: Project Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Charlotte E L; Ransley, Joan K; Christian, Meaghan S; Greenwood, Darren C; Thomas, James D; Cade, Janet E

    2013-06-01

    The present study aimed to determine whether a multi-component school-based intervention can maintain children's fruit and vegetable intake post eligibility for free school fruit and vegetables. A random sample of fifty-four English primary schools was randomised to receive the 10-month intervention Project Tomato, a multi-component theory-based intervention, or the control. Each group consisted of twenty-seven schools. Children's intake of fruit and vegetables is below recommendations. The English School Fruit and Vegetable Scheme has a short-term impact on intake while children are eligible for the scheme. Dietary measurements were collected from 658 Year 2 pupils aged 7-8 years at baseline and at follow-up 20 months later. Following an intention to treat analysis, the intervention as delivered compared with the control had no impact on the intake of fruit and vegetables (2 g/d, 95 % CI -23, 26 g/d) or on the number of portions of fruit (0.0 portions, 95 % CI - 0.3, 0.3) or vegetables (0.0 portions, 95 % CI - 0.2, 0.3) consumed daily by children. Intake of fruit and vegetables at school and home dropped by ≈ 100 g/d and 50 g/d, respectively, between baseline and follow-up in both the intervention and control groups. Implementation of the intervention was low, with associated lack of impact on fruit and vegetable consumption in children. Alternatives to the delivery of an intervention by teachers and parents are needed to improve the dietary intake of primary-school children.

  15. Serving Hispanic School-Aged Children in after School Programming: Implications for School Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Joy Pastan

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. school-age population has been experiencing dramatic demographic changes over the past two decades. Hispanic students constitute the fastest growing student group today, and this growth is expected to continue such that there will be more Hispanic school-aged children than non-Hispanic school-aged children in 2050. Unfortunately, Hispanic…

  16. A school-based intervention to promote physical activity among adolescent girls: rationale, design, and baseline data from the Girls in Sport group randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okely, Anthony D; Cotton, Wayne G; Lubans, David R; Morgan, Philip J; Puglisi, Lauren; Miller, Judy; Wright, Jan; Batterham, Marijka J; Peralta, Louisa R; Perry, Janine

    2011-08-19

    Physical activity levels decline markedly among girls during adolescence. School-based interventions that are multi-component in nature, simultaneously targeting curricular, school environment and policy, and community links, are a promising approach for promoting physical activity. This report describes the rationale, design and baseline data from the Girls in Sport group randomised trial, which aims to prevent the decline in moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) among adolescent girls. A community-based participatory research approach and action learning framework are used with measurements at baseline and 18-month follow-up. Within each intervention school, a committee develops an action plan aimed at meeting the primary objective (preventing the decline in accelerometer-derived MVPA). Academic partners and the State Department of Education and Training act as critical friends. Control schools continue with their usual school programming. 24 schools were matched then randomized into intervention (n = 12) and control (n = 12) groups. A total of 1518 girls (771 intervention and 747 control) completed baseline assessments (86% response rate). Useable accelerometer data (≥ 10 hrs/day on at least 3 days) were obtained from 79% of this sample (n = 1199). Randomisation resulted in no differences between intervention and control groups on any of the outcomes. The mean age (SE) of the sample was 13.6 (± 0.02) years and they spent less than 5% of their waking hours in MVPA (4.85 ± 0.06). Girls in Sport will test the effectiveness of schools working towards the same goal, but developing individual, targeted interventions that bring about changes in curriculum, school environment and policy, and community links. By using community-based participatory research and an action learning framework in a secondary school setting, it aims to add to the body of literature on effective school-based interventions through promoting and sustaining increased physical

  17. Back school or brain school for patients undergoing surgery for lumbar radiculopathy? Protocol for a randomised, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickmans, Kelly; Moens, Maarten; Putman, Koen; Buyl, Ronald; Goudman, Lisa; Huysmans, Eva; Diener, Ina; Logghe, Tine; Louw, Adriaan; Nijs, Jo

    2016-07-01

    Despite scientific progress with regard to pain neuroscience, perioperative education tends to stick to the biomedical model. This may involve, for example, explaining the surgical procedure or 'back school' (education that focuses on biomechanics of the lumbar spine and ergonomics). Current perioperative education strategies that are based on the biomedical model are not only ineffective, they can even increase anxiety and fear in patients undergoing spinal surgery. Therefore, perioperative pain neuroscience education is proposed as a dramatic shift in educating patients prior to and following surgery for lumbar radiculopathy. Rather than focusing on the surgical procedure, ergonomics or lumbar biomechanics, perioperative pain neuroscience education teaches people about the underlying mechanisms of pain, including the pain they will feel following surgery. The primary objective of the study is to examine whether perioperative pain neuroscience education ('brain school') is more effective than classic back school in reducing pain and improving pain inhibition in patients undergoing surgery for spinal radiculopathy. A secondary objective is to examine whether perioperative pain neuroscience education is more effective than classic back school in: reducing postoperative healthcare expenditure, improving functioning in daily life, increasing return to work, and improving surgical experience (ie, being better prepared for surgery, reducing incongruence between the expected and actual experience) in patients undergoing surgery for spinal radiculopathy. A multi-centre, two-arm (1:1) randomised, controlled trial with 2-year follow-up. People undergoing surgery for lumbar radiculopathy (n=86) in two Flemish hospitals (one tertiary care, university-based hospital and one regional, secondary care hospital) will be recruited for the study. All participants will receive usual preoperative and postoperative care related to the surgery for lumbar radiculopathy. The experimental

  18. The CLIMATE schools combined study: a cluster randomised controlled trial of a universal Internet-based prevention program for youth substance misuse, depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teesson, Maree; Newton, Nicola C; Slade, Tim; Chapman, Cath; Allsop, Steve; Hides, Leanne; McBride, Nyanda; Mewton, Louise; Tonks, Zoe; Birrell, Louise; Brownhill, Louise; Andrews, Gavin

    2014-02-05

    Anxiety, depressive and substance use disorders account for three quarters of the disability attributed to mental disorders and frequently co-occur. While programs for the prevention and reduction of symptoms associated with (i) substance use and (ii) mental health disorders exist, research is yet to determine if a combined approach is more effective. This paper describes the study protocol of a cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of the CLIMATE Schools Combined intervention, a universal approach to preventing substance use and mental health problems among adolescents. Participants will consist of approximately 8400 students aged 13 to 14-years-old from 84 secondary schools in New South Wales, Western Australia and Queensland, Australia. The schools will be cluster randomised to one of four groups; (i) CLIMATE Schools Combined intervention; (ii) CLIMATE Schools - Substance Use; (iii) CLIMATE Schools - Mental Health, or (iv) Control (Health and Physical Education as usual). The primary outcomes of the trial will be the uptake and harmful use of alcohol and other drugs, mental health symptomatology and anxiety, depression and substance use knowledge. Secondary outcomes include substance use related harms, self-efficacy to resist peer pressure, general disability, and truancy. The link between personality and substance use will also be examined. Compared to students who receive the universal CLIMATE Schools - Substance Use, or CLIMATE Schools - Mental Health or the Control condition (who received usual Health and Physical Education), we expect students who receive the CLIMATE Schools Combined intervention to show greater delays to the initiation of substance use, reductions in substance use and mental health symptoms, and increased substance use and mental health knowledge. This trial is registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials registry, ACTRN12613000723785.

  19. Can improving working memory prevent academic difficulties? a school based randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Peter

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low academic achievement is common and is associated with adverse outcomes such as grade repetition, behavioural disorders and unemployment. The ability to accurately identify these children and intervene before they experience academic failure would be a major advance over the current 'wait to fail' model. Recent research suggests that a possible modifiable factor for low academic achievement is working memory, the ability to temporarily store and manipulate information in a 'mental workspace'. Children with working memory difficulties are at high risk of academic failure. It has recently been demonstrated that working memory can be improved with adaptive training tasks that encourage improvements in working memory capacity. Our trial will determine whether the intervention is efficacious as a selective prevention strategy for young children at risk of academic difficulties and is cost-effective. Methods/Design This randomised controlled trial aims to recruit 440 children with low working memory after a school-based screening of 2880 children in Grade one. We will approach caregivers of all children from 48 participating primary schools in metropolitan Melbourne for consent. Children with low working memory will be randomised to usual care or the intervention. The intervention will consist of 25 computerised working memory training sessions, which take approximately 35 minutes each to complete. Follow-up of children will be conducted at 6, 12 and 24 months post-randomisation through child face-to-face assessment, parent and teacher surveys and data from government authorities. The primary outcome is academic achievement at 12 and 24 months, and other outcomes include child behaviour, attention, health-related quality of life, working memory, and health and educational service utilisation. Discussion A successful start to formal learning in school sets the stage for future academic, psychological and economic well-being. If

  20. Impact of contact on adolescents' mental health literacy and stigma: the SchoolSpace cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Katharine; Patterson, Paul; Torgerson, Carole; Turner, Erin; Jenkinson, David; Birchwood, Max

    2016-02-19

    To investigate whether intergroup contact in addition to education is more effective than education alone in reducing stigma of mental illness in adolescents. A pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial compared education alone with education plus contact. Blocking was used to randomly stratify classes within schools to condition. Random allocation was concealed, generated by a computer algorithm, and undertaken after pretest. Data was collected at pretest and 2-week follow-up. Analyses use an intention-to-treat basis. Secondary schools in Birmingham, UK. The parents and guardians of all students in year 8 (age 12-13 years) were approached to take part. A 1-day educational programme in each school led by mental health professional staff. Students in the 'contact' condition received an interactive session with a young person with lived experience of mental illness. The primary outcome was students' attitudinal stigma of mental illness. Secondary outcomes included knowledge-based stigma, mental health literacy, emotional well-being and resilience, and help-seeking attitudes. Participants were recruited between 1 May 2011 and 30 April 2012. 769 participants completed the pretest and were randomised to condition. 657 (85%) provided follow-up data. At 2-week follow-up, attitudinal stigma improved in both conditions with no significant effect of condition (95% CI -0.40 to 0.22, p=0.5, d=0.01). Significant improvements were found in the education-alone condition compared with the contact and education condition for the secondary outcomes of knowledge-based stigma, mental health literacy, emotional well-being and resilience, and help-seeking attitudes. Contact was found to reduce the impact of the intervention for a number of outcomes. Caution is advised before employing intergroup contact with younger student age groups. The education intervention appeared to be successful in reducing stigma, promoting mental health knowledge, and increasing mental health literacy, as

  1. Impact of contact on adolescents’ mental health literacy and stigma: the SchoolSpace cluster randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Katharine; Patterson, Paul; Torgerson, Carole; Turner, Erin; Jenkinson, David; Birchwood, Max

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether intergroup contact in addition to education is more effective than education alone in reducing stigma of mental illness in adolescents. Design A pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial compared education alone with education plus contact. Blocking was used to randomly stratify classes within schools to condition. Random allocation was concealed, generated by a computer algorithm, and undertaken after pretest. Data was collected at pretest and 2-week follow-up. Analyses use an intention-to-treat basis. Setting Secondary schools in Birmingham, UK. Participants The parents and guardians of all students in year 8 (age 12–13 years) were approached to take part. Interventions A 1-day educational programme in each school led by mental health professional staff. Students in the ‘contact’ condition received an interactive session with a young person with lived experience of mental illness. Outcomes The primary outcome was students’ attitudinal stigma of mental illness. Secondary outcomes included knowledge-based stigma, mental health literacy, emotional well-being and resilience, and help-seeking attitudes. Results Participants were recruited between 1 May 2011 and 30 April 2012. 769 participants completed the pretest and were randomised to condition. 657 (85%) provided follow-up data. At 2-week follow-up, attitudinal stigma improved in both conditions with no significant effect of condition (95% CI −0.40 to 0.22, p=0.5, d=0.01). Significant improvements were found in the education-alone condition compared with the contact and education condition for the secondary outcomes of knowledge-based stigma, mental health literacy, emotional well-being and resilience, and help-seeking attitudes. Conclusions Contact was found to reduce the impact of the intervention for a number of outcomes. Caution is advised before employing intergroup contact with younger student age groups. The education intervention appeared to be successful in

  2. Neonatal BCG-vaccination and atopic dermatitis before 13 months of age. A randomised clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøstesen, Lisbeth Marianne; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Pihl, Gitte Thybo

    2018-01-01

    Studies have suggested that Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination may reduce the risk of allergic diseases, including atopic dermatitis. The Danish Calmette Study was conducted 2012-2015. Within 7 days of birth new-borns were randomised 1:1 to BCG or no BCG. Exclusion criteria were gestational...... age BCG group and 495/1,952 (25.4%) children...... in the control group (RR=0.90 (95% confidence intervals 0.80 to 1.00)). The effect of neonatal BCG vaccination differed significantly between children with atopic predisposition (RR 0.84 (0.74 to 0.95)) and children without atopic predisposition (RR 1.09 (0.88 to 1.37)) (test of no interaction, p=0.04). Among...

  3. Randomised trial of early neonatal hydrocortisone demonstrates potential undesired effects on neurodevelopment at preschool age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltoniemi, Outi M; Lano, Aulikki; Yliherva, Anneli; Kari, M Anneli; Hallman, Mikko

    2016-02-01

    We evaluated the neurodevelopment and growth of five- to seven-year-old children who had participated in a randomised trial of early low-dose hydrocortisone treatment to prevent bronchopulmonary dysplasia. The 51 infants in the original study had birthweights of 501-1250 g and gestational ages of 23-30 weeks, required mechanical ventilation during the first 24 hours and received hydrocortisone or a placebo for 10 days. The majority (80%) of the 90% who survived to five- to seven years of age participated in this follow-up study and their growth, neuromotor, cognitive and speech development were evaluated. Some neurodevelopment impairment was observed in 61% of the hydrocortisone group and 39% of the placebo group, ranging from minor neurological dysfunction to severe neurological conditions (p = 0.182). The mean full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) was 87.8 (15.3) in the hydrocortisone group and 95.7 (15.0) in the placebo group (p = 0.135), and the mean performance IQ was 88.3 (14.5) and 99.1 (14.0) (p = 0.034), respectively. A fifth (22%) of the hydrocortisone group required physiotherapy, but none of the placebo group did (p = 0.034). The age-standardised growth was comparable between both groups. Early hydrocortisone treatment may have undesired effects on neurodevelopment at preschool age, and further safety studies are required. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Effects of a free school breakfast programme on children's attendance, academic achievement and short-term hunger: results from a stepped-wedge, cluster randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorton, Delvina; Turley, Maria; Jiang, Yannan; Michie, Jo; Maddison, Ralph; Hattie, John

    2013-01-01

    Background Free school breakfast programmes (SBPs) exist in a number of high-income countries, but their effects on educational outcomes have rarely been evaluated in randomised controlled trials. Methods A 1-year stepped-wedge, cluster randomised controlled trial was undertaken in 14 New Zealand schools in low socioeconomic resource areas. Participants were 424 children, mean age 9±2 years, 53% female. The intervention was a free daily SBP. The primary outcome was children's school attendance. Secondary outcomes were academic achievement, self-reported grades, sense of belonging at school, behaviour, short-term hunger, breakfast habits and food security. Results There was no statistically significant effect of the breakfast programme on children's school attendance. The odds of children achieving an attendance rate <95% was 0.76 (95% CI 0.56 to 1.02) during the intervention phase and 0.93 (95% CI 0.67 to 1.31) during the control phase, giving an OR of 0.81 (95% CI 0.59 to 1.11), p=0.19. There was a significant decrease in children's self-reported short-term hunger during the intervention phase compared with the control phase, demonstrated by an increase of 8.6 units on the Freddy satiety scale (95% CI 3.4 to 13.7, p=0.001). There were no effects of the intervention on any other outcome. Conclusions A free SBP did not have a significant effect on children's school attendance or academic achievement but had significant positive effects on children's short-term satiety ratings. More frequent programme attendance may be required to influence school attendance and academic achievement. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR)—ACTRN12609000854235. PMID:23043203

  5. The Active for Life Year 5 (AFLY5 school based cluster randomised controlled trial: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell Rona

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low levels of physical activity, high levels of sedentary behaviour and low levels of fruit and vegetable consumption are common in children and are associated with adverse health outcomes. The aim of this paper is to describe the protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT designed to evaluate a school-based intervention that aims to increase levels of physical activity, decrease sedentary behaviour and increase consumption of fruit and vegetables in school children. Methods/design The Active for Life Year 5 (AFLY5 study is a school-based, cluster RCT that targets school children in Year 5 (age 9-10 years. All state junior/primary schools in the area covered by Bristol City and North Somerset Council are invited to participate; special schools are excluded. Eligible schools are randomised to one of two arms: intervention arm (receive the intervention 2011-2012 and control arm (receive the intervention after the final follow-up assessment, 2013-2014. The primary outcomes of the trial are levels of accelerometer assessed physical activity and sedentary behaviour and questionnaire assessed fruit and vegetable consumption. A number of secondary outcomes will also be measured, including body mass index, waist circumference and overweight/obesity. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline (prior to intervention when the children are in Year 4, at the end of intervention 'immediate follow-up' and '12 months long-term' follow-up. We will use random effects linear and logistic regression models to compare outcomes by randomised arm. The economic evaluation from a societal perspective will take the form of a cost consequence analysis. Data from focus groups and interviews with pupils, parents and teachers will be used to increase understanding of how the intervention has any effect and is integrated into normal school activity. Discussion The results of the trial will provide information about the public health effectiveness

  6. Impact of intermittent screening and treatment for malaria among school children in Kenya: a cluster randomised trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E Halliday

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving the health of school-aged children can yield substantial benefits for cognitive development and educational achievement. However, there is limited experimental evidence of the benefits of alternative school-based malaria interventions or how the impacts of interventions vary according to intensity of malaria transmission. We investigated the effect of intermittent screening and treatment (IST for malaria on the health and education of school children in an area of low to moderate malaria transmission.A cluster randomised trial was implemented with 5,233 children in 101 government primary schools on the south coast of Kenya in 2010-2012. The intervention was delivered to children randomly selected from classes 1 and 5 who were followed up for 24 months. Once a school term, children were screened by public health workers using malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs, and children (with or without malaria symptoms found to be RDT-positive were treated with a six dose regimen of artemether-lumefantrine (AL. Given the nature of the intervention, the trial was not blinded. The primary outcomes were anaemia and sustained attention. Secondary outcomes were malaria parasitaemia and educational achievement. Data were analysed on an intention-to-treat basis. During the intervention period, an average of 88.3% children in intervention schools were screened at each round, of whom 17.5% were RDT-positive. 80.3% of children in the control and 80.2% in the intervention group were followed-up at 24 months. No impact of the malaria IST intervention was observed for prevalence of anaemia at either 12 or 24 months (adjusted risk ratio [Adj.RR]: 1.03, 95% CI 0.93-1.13, p = 0.621 and Adj.RR: 1.00, 95% CI 0.90-1.11, p = 0.953 respectively, or on prevalence of P. falciparum infection or scores of classroom attention. No effect of IST was observed on educational achievement in the older class, but an apparent negative effect was seen on spelling scores in

  7. Initiating change locally in bullying and aggression through the school environment (INCLUSIVE): a pilot randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonell, Chris; Fletcher, Adam; Fitzgerald-Yau, Natasha; Hale, Daniel; Allen, Elizabeth; Elbourne, Diana; Jones, Rebecca; Bond, Lyndal; Wiggins, Meg; Miners, Alec; Legood, Rosa; Scott, Stephen; Christie, Deborah; Viner, Russell

    2015-07-01

    Youth bullying and other aggressive behaviours are a major public health concern owing to their impact on adolescent physical and mental health and well-being. Whole-school restorative approaches have been identified as a promising method of addressing aggressive behaviour but there have been no randomised trials undertaken to examine their effects. To examine the feasibility and acceptability of implementing and trialling the INCLUSIVE (initiating change locally in bullying and aggression through the school environment) intervention in English secondary schools. Cluster randomised controlled pilot trial in eight schools (1 : 1 computer-generated random allocation post baseline by a statistician blind to the identity of clusters) and process evaluation. Secondary schools in England (purposively sampled to ensure diversity). Year 8 students (aged 12-13 years), teachers, other school staff and intervention providers. Whole-school restorative approach to address bullying and aggression, involving the following standard processes: school action group formation and external facilitation to review needs assessment data, identify priorities, and plan and monitor school-level actions; staff training in restorative practices; and a new social and emotional skills curriculum. Standard practice. (1) The primary outcome of interest was the feasibility and acceptability of delivering and trialling the intervention according to prespecified criteria; (2) process data were analysed to explore participants' experiences of implementing and trialling the intervention and how these varied according to school context; and (3) indicative primary outcomes (aggressive behaviour measures), secondary outcomes, intermediate outcomes and economic evaluation methods were piloted. Students (n = 1144 baseline; n = 1114 follow-up) and teachers (n = 387 baseline; n = 336 follow-up) were surveyed at the start and end of the 2011-12 academic year (baseline September 2011; follow

  8. [Alcoholism in school-age children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinsky, M

    1975-11-06

    Curiosity motivated consumption of illegal drugs by young people decreased during the last 5 years. At the same time the problem of school-children abusing alcohol increased. This has to be seen against the background of more general epidemiological data of alcohol consumption in the Federal Republic of Germany: --between 1961 and 1974 the expenditure for alcoholic beverages more than doubled; --according to serious estimations there are between 700,000 and 1 million of alcoholics in this country (from these about 8-10% being minors); --the average age of inmates of clinics for alcoholics dropped considerably during the last decade. Main findings of a follow-up survey conducted (size of sample: about 10,000 school-children in Hamburg, age 13-20, representative of a total of 110,000) are: --more than 25% of the above mentioned 110,000 school-children showed a rather excessive drinking behaviour (i.e. having been drunk 1-5 or more than 5 times during a period of 2 months prior to the interviews); --positive correlations were found to exist between excessive drinking habits and certain psycho-social variables (i.e. broken home, suicide-attempts, excessive consumption of alcohol by the parents, etc.); --the subgroup of those school-children who were users of illegal drugs: about 60% of them belong also to the category of "excessive alcohol user". Reasons for the general increase of alcohol consumption in Western Germany are for instance: --a change of drinking habits (more frequently, drinking at home and alone); --a shift of preferances (from relatively low percentage-beverages like beer and wine to so-called hard liquors); --an increase of alcohol consumption among those societal groups--the young and women--who formerly were almost abstinent. Some reasons and causes for the increase of alcohol consumption among school-children are: --being exposed to negative model-behaviour of adults and especially of parents; --peer-group pressure; --the discovery of school

  9. Initiating change locally in bullying and aggression through the school environment (INCLUSIVE): study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonell, Chris; Allen, Elizabeth; Christie, Deborah; Elbourne, Diana; Fletcher, Adam; Grieve, Richard; LeGood, Rosa; Mathiot, Anne; Scott, Stephen; Wiggins, Meg; Viner, Russell M

    2014-09-30

    Systematic reviews suggest that interventions that address school organisation are effective in reducing victimisation and bullying. We successfully piloted a school environment intervention modified from international studies to incorporate 'restorative justice' approaches. This trial aims to establish the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the INCLUSIVE intervention in reducing aggression and bullying in English secondary schools. cluster randomised trial. 40 state-supported secondary schools. OUTCOMES assessed among the cohort of students in year 8 (n = approximately 6,000) in intervention year 1. INCLUSIVE is a school-led intervention which combines changes to the school environment with the promotion of social and emotional skills and restorative practices through: the formation of a school action group involving students and staff supported by an external facilitator to review local data on needs, determine priorities, and develop and implement an action plan for revising relevant school policies/rules and other actions to improve relationships at school and reduce aggression; staff training in restorative practices; and a new social and emotional skills curriculum. The intervention will be delivered by schools supported in the first two years by educational facilitators independent of the research team, with a third locally facilitated intervention year.Comparator: normal practice. primary: 2 primary outcomes at student level assessed at baseline and at 36 months:1. Aggressive behaviours in school: Edinburgh Study of Youth Transitions and Crime school misbehaviour subscale (ESYTC)2. Bullying and victimisation: Gatehouse Bullying Scale (GBS)Secondary outcomes assessed at baseline, 24 and 36 months will include measures relating to the economic evaluation, psychosocial outcomes in students and staff and school-level truancy and exclusion rates. 20 schools per arm will provide 90% power to identify an effect size of 0.25 SD with a 5% significance level.Randomisation

  10. Initiating change locally in bullying and aggression through the school environment (INCLUSIVE) trial: update to cluster randomised controlled trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonell, Chris; Mathiot, Anne; Allen, Elizabeth; Bevilacqua, Leonardo; Christie, Deborah; Elbourne, Diana; Fletcher, Adam; Grieve, Richard; Legood, Rosa; Scott, Stephen; Warren, Emily; Wiggins, Meg; Viner, Russell M

    2017-05-25

    Systematic reviews suggest that multi-component interventions are effective in reducing bullying victimisation and perpetration. We are undertaking a phase III randomised trial of the INCLUSIVE multi-component intervention. This trial aims to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the INCLUSIVE intervention in reducing aggression and bullying victimisation in English secondary schools. This paper updates the original trial protocol published in 2014 (Trials 15:381, 2014) and presents the changes in the process evaluation protocol and the secondary outcome data collection. The methods are summarised as follows. cluster randomised trial. 40 state secondary schools. Outcomes assessed among the cohort of students at the end of year 7 (n = 6667) at baseline. INCLUSIVE is a multi-component school intervention including a social and emotional learning curriculum, changes to school environment (an action group comprising staff and students reviews local data on needs to review rules and policies and determine other local actions) and staff training in restorative practice. The intervention will be delivered by schools supported in the first two years by educational facilitators independent of the research team, with a third intervention year involving no external facilitation but all other elements. Comparator: normal practice. Primary: Two primary outcomes at student level assessed at baseline and at 36 months: 1. Aggressive behaviours in school: Edinburgh Study of Youth Transitions and Crime school misbehaviour subscale (ESYTC) 2. Bullying and victimisation: Gatehouse Bullying Scale (GBS) Secondary outcomes assessed at baseline, 24 and 36 months will include measures relating to the economic evaluation, psychosocial outcomes in students and staff and school-level truancy and exclusion rates. 20 schools per arm will provide 90% power to identify an effect size of 0.25 SD with a 5% significance level. Randomisation: eligible consenting schools were

  11. A physiotherapy-directed occupational health programme for Austrian school teachers: a cluster randomised pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figl-Hertlein, A; Horsak, B; Dean, E; Schöny, W; Stamm, T

    2014-03-01

    Although physiotherapists have long advocated workplace health, school teachers have not traditionally been a focus of study by these professionals. However, classroom teaching contributes to a range of occupational health issues related to general health as well as ergonomics that can be prevented or addressed by physiotherapists. To undertake a pilot study to explore the potential effects of a physiotherapy-directed occupational health programme individualised for school teachers, develop study methodology and gather preliminary data to establish a 'proof of concept' to inform future studies. Cluster randomised pilot study using a convenience sample. Eight Austrian regional secondary schools. Schools and their teachers were recruited and allocated to an intervention group (IG, n=26 teachers) or a control group (CG, n=43 teachers). Teachers were eligible to participate if they reported no health issues that compromised their classroom responsibilities. The IG participated in an individualised physiotherapy-directed occupational health programme (six 30-minute sessions) related to ergonomics and stress management conducted over a 5-month semester. The CG had a pseudo-intervention of one oral education session. Primary outcomes included scores from the physical and mental components and health transition item of the Short-Form-36 Health Survey questionnaire (SF-36), and emotional well-being and resistance to stress items from the work-related behaviour and experience patterns questionnaire. Data were collected before and after one semester. The primary outcome measure, the SF-36 physical component score, showed a reduction in the CG and no change in the IG, meaning that the CG deteriorated over the study semester while the IG did not show any change. A physiotherapy-directed occupational health programme may prevent deterioration of physical health of school teachers in one semester (proof of concept). This pilot study provided valuable information to inform the

  12. A cluster randomised trial of a school-based resilience intervention to decrease tobacco, alcohol and illicit drug use in secondary school students: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodder Rebecca K

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whilst schools provide a potentially appropriate setting for preventing substance use among young people, systematic review evidence suggests that past interventions in this setting have demonstrated limited effectiveness in preventing tobacco, alcohol and other drug use. Interventions that adopt a mental wellbeing approach to prevent substance use offer considerable promise and resilience theory provides one method to impact on adolescent mental well-being. The aim of the proposed study is to examine the efficacy of a resilience intervention in decreasing the tobacco, alcohol and illicit drug use of adolescents. Methods A cluster randomised controlled trial with schools as the unit of randomisation will be undertaken. Thirty two schools in disadvantaged areas will be allocated to either an intervention or a control group. A comprehensive resilience intervention will be implemented, inclusive of explicit program adoption strategies. Baseline surveys will be conducted with students in Grade 7 in both groups and again three years later when the student cohort is in Grade 10. The primary outcome measures will include self-reported tobacco, alcohol, marijuana and other illicit drug use. Comparisons will be made post-test between Grade 10 students in intervention and control schools to determine intervention effectiveness across all measures. Discussion To the authors’ knowledge this is the first randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a comprehensive school-based resilience intervention, inclusive of explicit adoption strategies, in decreasing tobacco, alcohol and illicit drug use of adolescents attending disadvantaged secondary schools. Trial registration ACTRN12611000606987

  13. A cluster randomised trial of a school-based resilience intervention to decrease tobacco, alcohol and illicit drug use in secondary school students: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodder, Rebecca K; Freund, Megan; Bowman, Jenny; Wolfenden, Luke; Campbell, Elizabeth; Wye, Paula; Hazell, Trevor; Gillham, Karen; Wiggers, John

    2012-11-21

    Whilst schools provide a potentially appropriate setting for preventing substance use among young people, systematic review evidence suggests that past interventions in this setting have demonstrated limited effectiveness in preventing tobacco, alcohol and other drug use. Interventions that adopt a mental wellbeing approach to prevent substance use offer considerable promise and resilience theory provides one method to impact on adolescent mental well-being. The aim of the proposed study is to examine the efficacy of a resilience intervention in decreasing the tobacco, alcohol and illicit drug use of adolescents. A cluster randomised controlled trial with schools as the unit of randomisation will be undertaken. Thirty two schools in disadvantaged areas will be allocated to either an intervention or a control group. A comprehensive resilience intervention will be implemented, inclusive of explicit program adoption strategies. Baseline surveys will be conducted with students in Grade 7 in both groups and again three years later when the student cohort is in Grade 10. The primary outcome measures will include self-reported tobacco, alcohol, marijuana and other illicit drug use. Comparisons will be made post-test between Grade 10 students in intervention and control schools to determine intervention effectiveness across all measures. To the authors' knowledge this is the first randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a comprehensive school-based resilience intervention, inclusive of explicit adoption strategies, in decreasing tobacco, alcohol and illicit drug use of adolescents attending disadvantaged secondary schools. ACTRN12611000606987.

  14. Assent of school-age bilingual children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holaday, Bonnie; Gonzales, Orlando; Mills, Debra

    2007-06-01

    This article discusses the issue of assent of school-age bilingual children to participate in a research study. The article reviews cognitive, cultural, and linguistic factors influencing verbal and nonverbal concept formation in bilingual children. At the applied level, the focus of the article is on methodological considerations in using this information to obtain assent from a child who is bilingual and speaks English as a second language. Recommendations for the assessment of the child's language dominance, language proficiency, and the development of the assent form are provided. Language diversity and its potential effects on the assent process need to be formally acknowledged and appropriately addressed.

  15. Feasibility of an incentive scheme to promote active travel to school: a pilot cluster randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginja, Samuel; Arnott, Bronia; Araujo-Soares, Vera; Namdeo, Anil; McColl, Elaine

    2017-01-01

    In Great Britain, 19% of trips to primary school within 1 mile, and 62% within 1-2 miles, are by car. Active travel to school (ATS) offers a potential source of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). This study tested the feasibility of an intervention to promote ATS in 9-10 year olds and associated trial procedures. A parallel cluster randomised pilot trial was conducted over 9 weeks in two schools from a low-income area in northeast England. Measures included daily parental ATS reports (optionally by SMS) and child ATS reports, as well as accelerometry (ActiGraph GT3X+). At baseline, all children were asked to wear the accelerometer for the same week; in the post-randomisation phase, small subsamples were monitored each week. In the 2 weeks when a child wore the accelerometer, parents also reported the start and finish times of the journey to school. The intervention consisted of a lottery-based incentive scheme; every ATS day reported by the parent, whether by paper or SMS, corresponded to one ticket entered into a weekly £5 voucher draw. Before each draw session, the researcher prepared the tickets and placed them into an opaque bag, from which one was randomly picked by the teacher at the draw session. Four schools replied positively (3.3%, N = 123) and 29 participants were recruited in the two schools selected (33.0%, N = 88). Participant retention was 93.1%. Most materials were returned on time: accelerometers (81.9%), parental reports (82.1%) and child reports (97.9%). Draw sessions lasted on average 15.9 min (IQR 10-20) and overall session attendance was 94.5%. Parent-child report agreement regarding ATS was moderate (k = 0.53, CI 95% 0.45; 0.60). Differences in minutes of accelerometer-assessed MVPA between parent-reported ATS and non-ATS trips were assessed during two timeframes: during the journey to school based on the times reported by the parent (U = 390.5, p trips were also significant for each of the timeframes considered

  16. Cluster randomised controlled trial of the e-couch Anxiety and Worry program in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calear, Alison L; Batterham, Philip J; Poyser, Carmel T; Mackinnon, Andrew J; Griffiths, Kathleen M; Christensen, Helen

    2016-05-15

    Anxiety is a common mental health problem in youth. The current study aimed to test the effectiveness of an online self-directed anxiety prevention program in a school-based sample and to compare two methods of implementing an anxiety program in schools. A three-arm cluster stratified randomised controlled trial was conducted with 30 Australian schools. Each school was randomly assigned to receive: (1) externally-supported intervention, (2) teacher-supported intervention, or (3) wait-list control. All consenting students (N=1767) were invited to complete pre-intervention, post-intervention, 6- and 12-month follow-up questionnaires measuring generalised anxiety, social anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, depressive symptoms and mental wellbeing. Intervention participants completed the e-couch Anxiety and Worry program over 6 weeks. At post-intervention, 6- and 12-month follow-up no significant differences were observed between the intervention and control conditions for generalised anxiety (Cohen's d=-0.14 to 0.15), social anxiety (d=0.04-0.23), anxiety sensitivity (d=-0.07 to 0.07), depressive symptoms (d=-0.05 to 0.04) or mental wellbeing (d=-0.06 to -0.30). The current study only included self-report measures that may have been influenced by situational factors or biases. The e-couch Anxiety and Worry program did not have a significant positive effect on participant mental health or wellbeing. The addition of a mental health education officer to support classroom teachers in the delivery of the program also had no effect on intervention outcomes. Future prevention research should look to develop briefer and more interactive interventions that are more engaging for youth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. [Food allergy from school age to adulthood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballmer-Weber, B

    2012-04-01

    In young children food allergy is mainly acquired over the gastrointestinal tract and directed to egg and milk. Patients at school age or adult patients, however, often acquire a food allergy over a primary sensitisation to inhalant allergens, in Switzerland primarily over birch pollen. This type of food allergy is directed to plant foods. Apple and hazelnut are the most prevalent allergenic foods in this age group. A birch pollen related food allergy is often accompanied by mild allergic symptoms such as the oral contact urticaria. The relevant allergens are labile to heat and are often tolerated in heat processed form. Severe up to anaphylactic symptoms, however, have been reported in birch pollen related soy allergy. Physical exercise, intake of alcohol, NSAIDs, betablocking agents or eventually antacids may aggravate the severity of a food allergic reaction.

  18. Design of the OPUS School Meal Study: A randomised controlled trial assessing the impact of serving school meals based on the New Nordic Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Petersen, Rikke A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Danish children consume too much sugar and not enough whole grain, fish, fruit, and vegetables. The Nordic region is rich in such foods with a strong health-promoting potential. We lack randomised controlled trials that investigate the developmental and health impact of serving school...... meals based on Nordic foods. Aim: This paper describes the rationale, design, study population, and potential implications of the Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet (OPUS) School Meal Study. Methods: In a cluster-randomised cross-over design.......3%. Conclusions: A high inclusion rate and low drop out rate was achieved. This study will be the first to determine whether school meals based on the NND improve children’s diet, health, growth, cognitive performance, and early disease risk markers....

  19. Impact of contact on adolescents’ mental health literacy and stigma : the SchoolSpace cluster randomised controlled trial.

    OpenAIRE

    Chisholm, K; P Patterson; Torgerson, C; Turner, E.; Jenkinson, D.; Birchwood, M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether intergroup contact in addition to education is more effective than education alone in reducing stigma of mental illness in adolescents. Design A pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial compared education alone with education plus contact. Blocking was used to randomly stratify classes within schools to condition. Random allocation was concealed, generated by a computer algorithm, and undertaken after pretest. Data was collected at pretest and 2-week...

  20. Evaluation of alternative school feeding models on nutrition, education, agriculture and other social outcomes in Ghana: rationale, randomised design and baseline data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelli, Aulo; Masset, Edoardo; Folson, Gloria; Kusi, Anthoni; Arhinful, Daniel K; Asante, Felix; Ayi, Irene; Bosompem, Kwabena M; Watkins, Kristie; Abdul-Rahman, Lutuf; Agble, Rosanna; Ananse-Baden, Getrude; Mumuni, Daniel; Aurino, Elisabetta; Fernandes, Meena; Drake, Lesley

    2016-01-20

    'Home-grown' school feeding programmes are complex interventions with the potential to link the increased demand for school feeding goods and services to community-based stakeholders, including smallholder farmers and women's groups. There is limited rigorous evidence, however, that this is the case in practice. This evaluation will examine explicitly, and from a holistic perspective, the simultaneous impact of a national school meals programme on micronutrient status, alongside outcomes in nutrition, education and agriculture domains. The 3-year study involves a cluster-randomised control trial designed around the scale-up of the national school feeding programme, including 116 primary schools in 58 districts in Ghana. The randomly assigned interventions are: 1) a school feeding programme group, including schools and communities where the standard government programme is implemented; 2) 'home-grown' school feeding, including schools and communities where the standard programme is implemented alongside an innovative pilot project aimed at enhancing nutrition and agriculture; and 3) a control group, including schools and households from communities where the intervention will be delayed by at least 3 years, preferably without informing schools and households. Primary outcomes include child health and nutritional status, school participation and learning, and smallholder farmer income. Intermediate outcomes along the agriculture and nutrition pathways will also be measured. The evaluation will follow a mixed-method approach, including child-, household-, school- and community-level surveys as well as focus group discussions with project stakeholders. The baseline survey was completed in August 2013 and the endline survey is planned for November 2015. The tests of balance show significant differences in the means of a number of outcome and control variables across the intervention groups. Important differences across groups include marketed surplus, livestock income

  1. The Incredible Years Therapeutic Dinosaur Programme to build social and emotional competence in Welsh primary schools: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bywater, Tracey; Hutchings, Judy; Whitaker, Christopher; Evans, Ceri; Parry, Laura

    2011-02-11

    School interventions such as the Incredible Years Classroom Dinosaur Programme targets pupil behaviour across whole classrooms, yet for some children a more intense approach is needed. The Incredible Years Therapeutic Dinosaur Programme is effective for clinically referred children by enhancing social, problem-solving skills, and peer relationship-building skills when delivered in a clinical setting in small groups. The aim of this trial is to evaluate the effectiveness of the Therapeutic Programme, delivered with small groups of children at high-risk of developing conduct disorder, delivered in schools already implementing the Classroom Programme. This is a pragmatic, parallel, randomised controlled trial.Two hundred and forty children (aged 4-8 years) rated by their teacher as above the 'borderline cut-off' for concern on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, and their parents, will be recruited. Randomisation is by individual within blocks (schools); 1:1 ratio, intervention to waiting list control. Twenty schools will participate in two phases. Two teachers per school will deliver the programme to six intervention children for 2-hours/week for 18 weeks between baseline and first follow-up. The control children will receive the intervention after first follow up. Phase 1 comprises three data collection points - baseline and two follow-ups eight months apart. Phase 2 includes baseline and first follow-up.The Therapeutic Programme includes elements on; Learning school rules; understanding, identifying, and articulating feelings; problem solving; anger management; how to be friendly; how to do your best in school. Primary outcomes are; change in child social, emotional and behavioural difficulties. Secondary outcomes are; teacher and parent mental wellbeing, child academic attainment, child and teacher school attendance. Intervention delivery will be assessed for fidelity. Intention to treat analyses will be conducted. ANCOVA, effect sizes, mediator and

  2. A school-based intervention to promote physical activity among adolescent girls: Rationale, design, and baseline data from the Girls in Sport group randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puglisi Lauren

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity levels decline markedly among girls during adolescence. School-based interventions that are multi-component in nature, simultaneously targeting curricular, school environment and policy, and community links, are a promising approach for promoting physical activity. This report describes the rationale, design and baseline data from the Girls in Sport group randomised trial, which aims to prevent the decline in moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA among adolescent girls. Methods/Design A community-based participatory research approach and action learning framework are used with measurements at baseline and 18-month follow-up. Within each intervention school, a committee develops an action plan aimed at meeting the primary objective (preventing the decline in accelerometer-derived MVPA. Academic partners and the State Department of Education and Training act as critical friends. Control schools continue with their usual school programming. 24 schools were matched then randomized into intervention (n = 12 and control (n = 12 groups. A total of 1518 girls (771 intervention and 747 control completed baseline assessments (86% response rate. Useable accelerometer data (≥10 hrs/day on at least 3 days were obtained from 79% of this sample (n = 1199. Randomisation resulted in no differences between intervention and control groups on any of the outcomes. The mean age (SE of the sample was 13.6 (± 0.02 years and they spent less than 5% of their waking hours in MVPA (4.85 ± 0.06. Discussion Girls in Sport will test the effectiveness of schools working towards the same goal, but developing individual, targeted interventions that bring about changes in curriculum, school environment and policy, and community links. By using community-based participatory research and an action learning framework in a secondary school setting, it aims to add to the body of literature on effective school

  3. The incredible years therapeutic dinosaur programme to build social and emotional competence in welsh primary schools: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Ceri

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background School interventions such as the Incredible Years Classroom Dinosaur Programme targets pupil behaviour across whole classrooms, yet for some children a more intense approach is needed. The Incredible Years Therapeutic Dinosaur Programme is effective for clinically referred children by enhancing social, problem-solving skills, and peer relationship-building skills when delivered in a clinical setting in small groups. The aim of this trial is to evaluate the effectiveness of the Therapeutic Programme, delivered with small groups of children at high-risk of developing conduct disorder, delivered in schools already implementing the Classroom Programme. Methods/Design This is a pragmatic, parallel, randomised controlled trial. Two hundred and forty children (aged 4-8 years rated by their teacher as above the 'borderline cut-off' for concern on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, and their parents, will be recruited. Randomisation is by individual within blocks (schools; 1:1 ratio, intervention to waiting list control. Twenty schools will participate in two phases. Two teachers per school will deliver the programme to six intervention children for 2-hours/week for 18 weeks between baseline and first follow-up. The control children will receive the intervention after first follow up. Phase 1 comprises three data collection points - baseline and two follow-ups eight months apart. Phase 2 includes baseline and first follow-up. The Therapeutic Programme includes elements on; Learning school rules; understanding, identifying, and articulating feelings; problem solving; anger management; how to be friendly; how to do your best in school. Primary outcomes are; change in child social, emotional and behavioural difficulties. Secondary outcomes are; teacher and parent mental wellbeing, child academic attainment, child and teacher school attendance. Intervention delivery will be assessed for fidelity. Intention to treat analyses

  4. Project Energize: whole-region primary school nutrition and physical activity programme; evaluation of body size and fitness 5 years after the randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Elaine; McLennan, Stephanie; Obolonkin, Victor; Vandal, Alain C; Hamlin, Michael; Simmons, David; Graham, David

    2014-01-28

    Project Energize, a region-wide whole-school nutrition and physical activity programme, commenced as a randomised controlled trial (RCT) in the period 2004-6 in 124 schools in Waikato, New Zealand. In 2007, sixty-two control schools were engaged in the programme, and by 2011, all but two of the 235 schools in the region were engaged. Energizers (trained nutrition and physical activity specialists) work with eight to twelve schools each to achieve the goals of the programme, which are based on healthier eating and enhanced physical activity. In 2011, indices of obesity and physical fitness of 2474 younger (7·58 (sd 0·57) years) and 2330 older (10·30 (sd 0·51) years) children attending 193 of the 235 primary schools were compared with historical measurements. After adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, socio-economic status (SES) and school cluster effects, the combined prevalence of obesity and overweight among younger and older children in 2011 was lower by 31 and 15 %, respectively, than that among 'unEnergized' children in the 2004 to 2006 RCT. Similarly, BMI was lower by 3·0 % (95 % CI - 5·8, - 1·3) and 2·4 % (95 % CI - 4·3, - 0·5). Physical fitness (time taken to complete a 550 m run) was significantly higher in the Energized children (13·7 and 11·3 %, respectively) than in a group of similarly aged children from another region. These effects were observed for boys and girls, both indigenous Māori and non-Māori children, and across SES. The long-term regional commitment to the Energize programme in schools may potentially lead to a secular reduction in the prevalence of overweight and obesity and gains in physical fitness, which may reduce the risk of developing obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  5. A randomised controlled feasibility trial for an educational school-based mental health intervention: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Katharine Elizabeth; Patterson, Paul; Torgerson, Carole; Turner, Erin; Birchwood, Max

    2012-03-22

    With the burden of mental illness estimated to be costing the English economy alone around £22.5 billion a year 1, coupled with growing evidence that many mental disorders have their origins in adolescence, there is increasing pressure for schools to address the emotional well-being of their students, alongside the stigma and discrimination of mental illness. A number of prior educational interventions have been developed and evaluated for this purpose, but inconsistency of findings, reporting standards, and methodologies have led the majority of reviewers to conclude that the evidence for the efficacy of these programmes remains inconclusive. A cluster randomised controlled trial design has been employed to enable a feasibility study of 'SchoolSpace', an intervention in 7 UK secondary schools addressing stigma of mental illness, mental health literacy, and promotion of mental health. A central aspect of the intervention involves students in the experimental condition interacting with a young person with lived experience of mental illness, a stigma reducing technique designed to facilitate students' engagement in the project. The primary outcome is the level of stigma related to mental illness. Secondary outcomes include mental health literacy, resilience to mental illness, and emotional well-being. Outcomes will be measured pre and post intervention, as well as at 6 month follow-up. The proposed intervention presents the potential for increased engagement due to its combination of education and contact with a young person with lived experience of mental illness. Contact as a technique to reduce discrimination has been evaluated previously in research with adults, but has been employed in only a minority of research trials investigating the impact on youth. Prior to this study, the effect of contact on mental health literacy, resilience, and emotional well-being has not been evaluated to the authors' knowledge. If efficacious the intervention could provide a

  6. Magnitude of thinness, underweight and stunting among school age ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To assess the nutrition status among school age children in a rural community. Design: A cross sectional anthropometric survey. Setting: Mpwawa rural district, Central Tanzania. Methods: 639 children from ten randomly selected primary schools and 195 out-of-school children living close to the selected schools ...

  7. Age and Schooling Effects on Early Literacy and Phoneme Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Anna; Carroll, Julia

    2011-01-01

    Previous research on age and schooling effects is largely restricted to studies of children who begin formal schooling at 6 years of age, and the measures of phoneme awareness used have typically lacked sensitivity for beginning readers. Our study addresses these issues by testing 4 to 6 year-olds (first 2 years of formal schooling in the United…

  8. School Communication in the Age of Google

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porterfield, Kitty; Carnes, Meg

    2012-01-01

    The debate about social media in schools--about should we or should we not--is already over. Social media is here to stay. The only relevant question now is how long it will take school leaders to adopt new ways and adapt the new technologies to support teaching, learning, and communication among the adults in schools. For schools to pretend that…

  9. Classroom-based cognitive behaviour therapy (FRIENDS): a cluster randomised controlled trial to Prevent Anxiety in Children through Education in Schools (PACES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallard, Paul; Skryabina, Elena; Taylor, Gordon; Phillips, Rhiannon; Daniels, Harry; Anderson, Rob; Simpson, Neil

    2014-08-01

    Anxiety in children is common, impairs everyday functioning, and increases the risk of severe mental health disorders in adulthood. We investigated the effect of a classroom-based cognitive behaviour therapy prevention programme (FRIENDS) on anxiety symptoms in children. Preventing Anxiety in Children though Education in Schools (PACES) is a three-group parallel cluster randomised controlled trial. Interventions were given between September, 2011, and July, 2012, with schools as the unit of allocation and individual participants as the unit of analysis. We enrolled state-funded junior schools in southwest England. We sent information to all eligible schools (state-funded junior schools in southwest England) inviting them to enrol in the study. School year groups were assigned by computer-generated randomisation (1:1:1) to receive either school-led FRIENDS (led by teacher or school staff member), health-led FRIENDS (led by two trained health facilitators), or usual school provision. Children were not masked to treatment allocation. The allocated programme was given to all students (aged 9-10 years) in the school year (ie, universal delivery) as part of the school curriculum as nine, 60 min weekly sessions. Outcomes were collected by self-completed questionnaire administered by researchers masked to allocation. Primary outcome was symptoms of anxiety and low mood at 12 months assessed by the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS 30). Analyses were intention to treat and accounted for the clustered nature of the design. The study is registered, number ISRCTN23563048. 45 schools were enrolled: 14 (n=497 children) were randomly assigned to school-led FRIENDS, 14 (n=509) to health-led FRIENDS, and 12 (n=442) to usual school provision. 1257 (92%) children completed 12 month assessments (449 in health-led FRIENDS, 436 in school-led FRIENDS, and 372 in usual school provision). We recorded a difference at 12 months in adjusted mean child-reported RCADS scores for

  10. Oral AGE restriction ameliorates insulin resistance in obese individuals with the metabolic syndrome: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlassara, Helen; Cai, Weijing; Tripp, Elizabeth; Pyzik, Renata; Yee, Kalle; Goldberg, Laurie; Tansman, Laurie; Chen, Xue; Mani, Venkatesh; Fayad, Zahi A; Nadkarni, Girish N; Striker, Gary E; He, John C; Uribarri, Jaime

    2016-10-01

    We previously reported that obese individuals with the metabolic syndrome (at risk), compared with obese individuals without the metabolic syndrome (healthy obese), have elevated serum AGEs that strongly correlate with insulin resistance, oxidative stress and inflammation. We hypothesised that a diet low in AGEs (L-AGE) would improve components of the metabolic syndrome in obese individuals, confirming high AGEs as a new risk factor for the metabolic syndrome. A randomised 1 year trial was conducted in obese individuals with the metabolic syndrome in two parallel groups: L-AGE diet vs a regular diet, habitually high in AGEs (Reg-AGE). Participants were allocated to each group by randomisation using random permuted blocks. At baseline and at the end of the trial, we obtained anthropometric variables, blood and urine samples, and performed OGTTs and MRI measurements of visceral and subcutaneous abdominal tissue and carotid artery. Only investigators involved in laboratory determinations were blinded to dietary assignment. Effects on insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were the primary outcome. Sixty-one individuals were randomised to a Reg-AGE diet and 77 to an L-AGE diet; the data of 49 and 51, respectively, were analysed at the study end in 2014. The L-AGE diet markedly improved insulin resistance; modestly decreased body weight; lowered AGEs, oxidative stress and inflammation; and enhanced the protective factors sirtuin 1, AGE receptor 1 and glyoxalase I. The Reg-AGE diet raised AGEs and markers of insulin resistance, oxidative stress and inflammation. There were no effects on MRI-assessed measurements. No side effects from the intervention were identified. HOMA-IR came down from 3.1 ± 1.8 to 1.9 ± 1.3 (p insulin resistance in obese people with the metabolic syndrome, and may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes, without necessitating a major reduction in adiposity. Elevated serum AGEs may be used to diagnose and treat 'at-risk' obesity. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT

  11. Trial baseline characteristics of a cluster randomised controlled trial of a school-located obesity prevention programme; the Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Lloyd

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have developed a healthy lifestyles programme (HeLP for primary school aged children (9–10 years, currently being evaluated in a definitive cluster randomised controlled trial. This paper descriptively presents the baseline characteristics of trial children (BMI, waist circumference, % body fat, diet and physical activity by gender, cluster level socio-economic status, school size and time of recruitment into the trial. Methods Schools were recruited from across the South West of England and allocated 1:1 to either intervention (HeLP or control (usual practice stratified by the proportion of children eligible for free school meals (FSM, 1 Year 5 class. The primary outcome is change in body mass index standard deviation score (BMI sds at 24 months post-randomisation. Secondary outcomes are BMI sds at 18 months, waist circumference and percentage body fat sds at 18 and 24 months, proportion of children classified as underweight, overweight and obese at 18 and 24 months, physical activity (for a sub-sample and food intake at 18 months. Results At baseline 11.4% and 13.6% of children were categorised as overweight or obese respectively. A higher percentage of girls than boys (25.3% vs 24.8% and children from schools in FSM category 2 (28.2% vs 23.2% were overweight or obese. Children were consuming a mean (range of 4.15 (0–13 energy dense snacks (EDS and 3.23 (0–9 healthy snacks (HS per day with children from schools in FSM category 2 consuming more EDS and negative food markers and less HS and positive food markers. Children spent an average 53.6 min per day (11.9 to 124.8 in MVPA and thirteen hours (779.3 min per day (11 h to 15 h doing less than ‘light’ intensity activity. Less than 5% of children achieved the Departments of Health’s recommendation of 60 min of MVPA every day. Conclusion We have excellent completeness of baseline data for all measures and have achieved compliance to accelerometry not

  12. Birth Order and Maladaptive Behavior in School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Karla D.

    Drawing on Alfred Adler's theories on the effect of birth order on maladaptive behavior in children, this study focused on the relationship between birth order and the referral to counseling of school-aged children with maladaptive disorder. School-aged children (N=217) with academic or behavioral problems, ages 5 to 18, were referred to the staff…

  13. Effects of a free school breakfast programme on school attendance, achievement, psychosocial function, and nutrition: a stepped wedge cluster randomised trial

    OpenAIRE

    Maddison Ralph; Michie Jo; Jiang Yannan; Gorton Delvina; Turley Maria; Ni Mhurchu Cliona; Hattie John

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Approximately 55,000 children in New Zealand do not eat breakfast on any given day. Regular breakfast skipping has been associated with poor diets, higher body mass index, and adverse effects on children's behaviour and academic performance. Research suggests that regular breakfast consumption can improve academic performance, nutrition and behaviour. This paper describes the protocol for a stepped wedge cluster randomised trial of a free school breakfast programme. The ai...

  14. Child Centred Approach to Climate Change and Health Adaptation through Schools in Bangladesh: A Cluster Randomised Intervention Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Md Iqbal; Rahman, Md Bayzidur; Smith, Wayne; Lusha, Mirza Afreen Fatima; Milton, Abul Hasnat

    2015-01-01

    Bangladesh is one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change. People are getting educated at different levels on how to deal with potential impacts. One such educational mode was the preparation of a school manual, for high school students on climate change and health protection endorsed by the National Curriculum and Textbook Board, which is based on a 2008 World Health Organization manual. The objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of the manual in increasing the knowledge level of the school children about climate change and health adaptation. This cluster randomized intervention trial involved 60 schools throughout Bangladesh, with 3293 secondary school students participating. School upazilas (sub-districts) were randomised into intervention and control groups, and two schools from each upazila were randomly selected. All year seven students from both groups of schools sat for a pre-test of 30 short questions of binary response. A total of 1515 students from 30 intervention schools received the intervention through classroom training based on the school manual and 1778 students of the 30 control schools did not get the manual but a leaflet on climate change and health issues. Six months later, a post-intervention test of the same questionnaire used in the pre-test was performed at both intervention and control schools. The pre and post test scores were analysed along with the demographic data by using random effects model. None of the various school level and student level variables were significantly different between the control and intervention group. However, the intervention group had a 17.42% (95% CI: 14.45 to 20.38, P = school-based intervention for climate change and health adaptation is effective for increasing the knowledge level of school children on this topic.

  15. HOARSENESS AMONG SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Šifrer

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. The prevalence of dysphonia in schoolchildren has been reported to be from 7.1% to 23.3% and in adolescents from 0 to 80%. In Slovenia, the study on prevalence of dysphonia in schoolchildren has not been performed yet.Methods. The voice samples of 100 4th-graders and 102 8thgraders of elementary school were recorded. A lay judge and a professional assessed independently degree of hoarseness in the voice samples. One to three months after the recording, the dysphonic children were invited to an otorhinolaryngologic examination in order to find out the cause of dysphonia. All children and their parents answered the questionnaires on illnesses and vocal habits that might cause hoarseness. The prevalence of these unfavourable factors was compared between the group of children with long lasting hoarseness and the children without it.Results. At voice samples’ recording there were 34.2% dysphonic children. One to three months later, there were still 14.9% children with hoarse voice. The most frequent causes for acute dysphonia were acute respiratory infection and exacerbation of chronic laryngitis. The most frequent causes for persistent dysphonia were allergic catarrhal laryngitis, muscle tension dysphonia with or without vocal nodules and mutational voice disorder. The fast speaking rate appeared to be characteristic for children with long lasting dysphonia.Conclusions. Dysphonia in school-age children is the result of diseases of upper respiratory tract and/or functional voice disorders. Both causes of dysphonia could be successfully treated if they are detected early and the children are advised to see an otorhinolaryngologist. Adolescence is an ideal period for treatment of functional voice disorders. It is also the period when the children must decide for their future profession.

  16. The long-term effects of a peer-led sex education programme (RIPPLE): a cluster randomised trial in schools in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Judith; Strange, Vicki; Allen, Elizabeth; Copas, Andrew; Johnson, Anne; Bonell, Chris; Babiker, Abdel; Oakley, Ann

    2008-11-25

    Peer-led sex education is widely believed to be an effective approach to reducing unsafe sex among young people, but reliable evidence from long-term studies is lacking. To assess the effectiveness of one form of school-based peer-led sex education in reducing unintended teenage pregnancy, we did a cluster (school) randomised trial with 7 y of follow-up. Twenty-seven representative schools in England, with over 9,000 pupils aged 13-14 y at baseline, took part in the trial. Schools were randomised to either peer-led sex education (intervention) or to continue their usual teacher-led sex education (control). Peer educators, aged 16-17 y, were trained to deliver three 1-h classroom sessions of sex education to 13- to 14-y-old pupils from the same schools. The sessions used participatory learning methods designed to improve the younger pupils' skills in sexual communication and condom use and their knowledge about pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), contraception, and local sexual health services. Main outcome measures were abortion and live births by age 20 y, determined by anonymised linkage of girls to routine (statutory) data. Assessment of these outcomes was blind to sex education allocation. The proportion of girls who had one or more abortions before age 20 y was the same in each arm (intervention, 5.0% [95% confidence interval (CI) 4.0%-6.3%]; control, 5.0% [95% CI 4.0%-6.4%]). The odds ratio (OR) adjusted for randomisation strata was 1.07 (95% CI 0.80-1.42, p = 0.64, intervention versus control). The proportion of girls with one or more live births by 20.5 y was 7.5% (95% CI 5.9%-9.6%) in the intervention arm and 10.6% (95% CI 6.8%-16.1%) in the control arm, adjusted OR 0.77 (0.51-1.15). Fewer girls in the peer-led arm self-reported a pregnancy by age 18 y (7.2% intervention versus 11.2% control, adjusted OR 0.62 [95% CI 0.42-0.91], weighted for non-response; response rate 61% intervention, 45% control). There were no significant differences for

  17. The long-term effects of a peer-led sex education programme (RIPPLE: a cluster randomised trial in schools in England.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Stephenson

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Peer-led sex education is widely believed to be an effective approach to reducing unsafe sex among young people, but reliable evidence from long-term studies is lacking. To assess the effectiveness of one form of school-based peer-led sex education in reducing unintended teenage pregnancy, we did a cluster (school randomised trial with 7 y of follow-up.Twenty-seven representative schools in England, with over 9,000 pupils aged 13-14 y at baseline, took part in the trial. Schools were randomised to either peer-led sex education (intervention or to continue their usual teacher-led sex education (control. Peer educators, aged 16-17 y, were trained to deliver three 1-h classroom sessions of sex education to 13- to 14-y-old pupils from the same schools. The sessions used participatory learning methods designed to improve the younger pupils' skills in sexual communication and condom use and their knowledge about pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections (STIs, contraception, and local sexual health services. Main outcome measures were abortion and live births by age 20 y, determined by anonymised linkage of girls to routine (statutory data. Assessment of these outcomes was blind to sex education allocation. The proportion of girls who had one or more abortions before age 20 y was the same in each arm (intervention, 5.0% [95% confidence interval (CI 4.0%-6.3%]; control, 5.0% [95% CI 4.0%-6.4%]. The odds ratio (OR adjusted for randomisation strata was 1.07 (95% CI 0.80-1.42, p = 0.64, intervention versus control. The proportion of girls with one or more live births by 20.5 y was 7.5% (95% CI 5.9%-9.6% in the intervention arm and 10.6% (95% CI 6.8%-16.1% in the control arm, adjusted OR 0.77 (0.51-1.15. Fewer girls in the peer-led arm self-reported a pregnancy by age 18 y (7.2% intervention versus 11.2% control, adjusted OR 0.62 [95% CI 0.42-0.91], weighted for non-response; response rate 61% intervention, 45% control. There were no significant

  18. Menstrual cups and sanitary pads to reduce school attrition, and sexually transmitted and reproductive tract infections: a cluster randomised controlled feasibility study in rural Western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phillips-Howard, Penelope A.; Nyothach, Elizabeth; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Omoto, Jackton; Wang, Duolao; Zeh, Clement; Onyango, Clayton; Mason, Linda; Alexander, Kelly T.; Odhiambo, Frank O.; Eleveld, Alie; Mohammed, Aisha; van Eijk, Anna M.; Edwards, Rhiannon Tudor; Vulule, John; Faragher, Brian; Laserson, Kayla F.

    2016-01-01

    Conduct a feasibility study on the effect of menstrual hygiene on schoolgirls' school and health (reproductive/sexual) outcomes. 3-arm single-site open cluster randomised controlled pilot study. 30 primary schools in rural western Kenya, within a Health and Demographic Surveillance System. Primary

  19. Effects of a multi-level intervention on the pattern of physical activity among in-school adolescents in Oyo state Nigeria: a cluster randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojisola Morenike Oluwasanu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity contributes to the global burden of non-communicable diseases. The pattern of physical activity in adulthood are often established during adolescence and sedentary behaviours in the early years could influence the development of diseases later in life. Studies on physical activity in Nigeria have focused largely on individual behaviours and the effects of school-based interventions have not been well investigated. The aim of the proposed study is to identify factors influencing; and evaluate the effects of a multi-level intervention on the physical activity behaviours of in-school adolescents in Oyo state, Nigeria. Methods The study will adopt a cluster randomised controlled trial design and schools will serve as the unit of randomisation. The sample size is 1000 in-school adolescents aged 10–19 years. The study will be guided by the socio-ecological model and theory of reasoned action and baseline data will be obtained through a mixed methods approach comprising a cross sectional survey to document the self-reported physical activity levels coupled with objectively measured physical activity levels using pedometers for a subset of the sample. Other measurements including weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, fitness level using the 20-m shuttle run test (20-mSRT and blood pressure will be obtained. The schools’ built environment and policy support for physical activity will be assessed using structured questionnaires coupled with key informant interviews and focus group discussions with the school authorities. Baseline findings will guide the design and implementation of a 12-week multi-level intervention. The primary outcome measures are self–reported and 7-day objectively measured physical activity. Other secondary outcome measures are body-mass-index for age, waist-to-hip ratio, cardioresiratory fitness and blood pressure. The association between behavioural factors and physical activity

  20. Protocol for the ‘Virtual Traveller’ cluster-randomised controlled trial: a behaviour change intervention to increase physical activity in primary-school Maths and English lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, E; Dunsmuir, S; Duke-Williams, O; Stamatakis, E; Shelton, N

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Physical activity (PA) has been shown to be an important factor for health and educational outcomes in children. However, a large proportion of children's school day is spent in sedentary lesson-time. There is emerging evidence about the effectiveness of physically active lessons: integrating physical movements and educational content in the classroom. ‘Virtual Traveller’ is a novel 6-week intervention of 10-min sessions performed 3 days per week, using classroom interactive whiteboards to integrate movement into primary-school Maths and English teaching. The primary aim of this project is to evaluate the effect of the Virtual Traveller intervention on children's PA, on-task behaviour and student engagement. Methods and analysis This study will be a cluster-randomised controlled trial with a waiting-list control group. Ten year 4 (aged 8–9 years) classes across 10 primary schools will be randomised by class to either the 6-week Virtual Traveller intervention or the waiting-list control group. Data will be collected 5 times: at baseline, at weeks 2 and 4 of the intervention, and 1 week and 3 months postintervention. At baseline, anthropometric measures, 4-day objective PA monitoring (including 2 weekend days; Actigraph accelerometer), PA and on-task behaviour observations and student engagement questionnaires will be performed. All but anthropometric measures will be repeated at all other data collection points. Changes in overall PA levels and levels during different time-periods (eg, lesson-time) will be examined. Changes in on-task behaviour and student engagement between intervention groups will also be examined. Multilevel regression modelling will be used to analyse the data. Process evaluation will be carried out during the intervention period. Ethics and dissemination The results of this study will be disseminated through peer-review publications and conference presentations. Ethical approval was obtained through the University

  1. Buckle up safely: a cluster randomised trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a pre-school based program to increase appropriate use of child restraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunter Kate

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Road traffic crashes for car occupants are a leading cause of death and serious injury in children from high and middle income countries globally. Correct use of appropriate child restraints can significantly reduce death and serious injury but there is a need for well powered trials to examine effectiveness of programs to increase optimal child restraint practices. The aim of this trial is to examine the effectiveness of a comprehensive intervention to increase the use of appropriate child restraints, and decrease incorrect use of child restraints in pre-school aged children traveling in cars. Methods and Design A cluster randomised controlled trial will be conducted, involving 28 pre-school or childcare centres in low income areas of Sydney, Australia, over one calendar year. The intervention is an educational program involving an in-service for centre staff, distribution of educational materials to parents, a parent workshop demonstrating restraint use, subsidised restraints for parents in need, and vouchers for a free restraint checking service. Blinded assessors will observe restraint use at all centres at the end of the calendar year. Data will be analysed on an intention-to-treat basis; the primary analysis will compare the proportion of each of the two outcome measures (use of appropriate restraints, and incorrect use of restraints at each centre between intervention and control groups. Detailed process evaluation will be conducted, including examination of implementation and utilisation of various elements of the program by both centres and families. Discussion This assessor blinded cluster randomised trial is powered to provide credible evidence about the efficacy of an education and distribution program in a pre-school setting to increase appropriate use, and decrease incorrect use of child restraints. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12609000612213.

  2. A randomised controlled feasibility trial for an educational school-based mental health intervention: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chisholm Katharine

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the burden of mental illness estimated to be costing the English economy alone around £22.5 billion a year 1, coupled with growing evidence that many mental disorders have their origins in adolescence, there is increasing pressure for schools to address the emotional well-being of their students, alongside the stigma and discrimination of mental illness. A number of prior educational interventions have been developed and evaluated for this purpose, but inconsistency of findings, reporting standards, and methodologies have led the majority of reviewers to conclude that the evidence for the efficacy of these programmes remains inconclusive. Methods/Design A cluster randomised controlled trial design has been employed to enable a feasibility study of 'SchoolSpace', an intervention in 7 UK secondary schools addressing stigma of mental illness, mental health literacy, and promotion of mental health. A central aspect of the intervention involves students in the experimental condition interacting with a young person with lived experience of mental illness, a stigma reducing technique designed to facilitate students' engagement in the project. The primary outcome is the level of stigma related to mental illness. Secondary outcomes include mental health literacy, resilience to mental illness, and emotional well-being. Outcomes will be measured pre and post intervention, as well as at 6 month follow-up. Discussion The proposed intervention presents the potential for increased engagement due to its combination of education and contact with a young person with lived experience of mental illness. Contact as a technique to reduce discrimination has been evaluated previously in research with adults, but has been employed in only a minority of research trials investigating the impact on youth. Prior to this study, the effect of contact on mental health literacy, resilience, and emotional well-being has not been evaluated to the authors

  3. A randomised controlled feasibility trial for an educational school-based mental health intervention: study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background With the burden of mental illness estimated to be costing the English economy alone around £22.5 billion a year [1], coupled with growing evidence that many mental disorders have their origins in adolescence, there is increasing pressure for schools to address the emotional well-being of their students, alongside the stigma and discrimination of mental illness. A number of prior educational interventions have been developed and evaluated for this purpose, but inconsistency of findings, reporting standards, and methodologies have led the majority of reviewers to conclude that the evidence for the efficacy of these programmes remains inconclusive. Methods/Design A cluster randomised controlled trial design has been employed to enable a feasibility study of 'SchoolSpace', an intervention in 7 UK secondary schools addressing stigma of mental illness, mental health literacy, and promotion of mental health. A central aspect of the intervention involves students in the experimental condition interacting with a young person with lived experience of mental illness, a stigma reducing technique designed to facilitate students' engagement in the project. The primary outcome is the level of stigma related to mental illness. Secondary outcomes include mental health literacy, resilience to mental illness, and emotional well-being. Outcomes will be measured pre and post intervention, as well as at 6 month follow-up. Discussion The proposed intervention presents the potential for increased engagement due to its combination of education and contact with a young person with lived experience of mental illness. Contact as a technique to reduce discrimination has been evaluated previously in research with adults, but has been employed in only a minority of research trials investigating the impact on youth. Prior to this study, the effect of contact on mental health literacy, resilience, and emotional well-being has not been evaluated to the authors' knowledge. If efficacious

  4. Randomised trial of impact of school mental-health programme in rural Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, A; Mubbashar, M H; Gater, R; Goldberg, D

    1998-09-26

    A school mental-health programme has been developed as a component of the community mental-health programme in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. It has the objective of improving the understanding of disorders of mental health in the rural community. We aimed to assess the impact of a school mental-health programme on the awareness of schoolchildren, their parents, friends who were not attending school, and neighbours. We chose two secondary schools for boys and two for girls that were similar in terms of size, staff-pupil ratio, and drop-out rates. 100 children aged 12-16 years (25 girls and 25 boys in each of the study and control groups), 100 parents (one for each child), 100 friends who did not attend school (one for each child), and 100 neighbours (one for each child) were given a 19-item questionnaire before and after the study group had had a 4-month programme of mental-health education. The maximum score for the questionnaire was 16 points. Before the school mental-health programme the awareness of mental-health issues was poor (mean score 5.7-7.6) in the four groups of participants. In the study group there was a significant improvement in the mean scores after the school programme in the schoolchildren (mean improvement 7.6 [95% CI 6.7-8.5], pschool programme succeeded in improving awareness of mental health in schoolchildren and the community. The schoolchildren were receptive to the programme, and shared their new understanding with family, friends, and neighbours. Mental-health planners who wish to improve community awareness of mental health, particularly in areas with low literacy rates, should consider setting up school mental-health programmes.

  5. Preventing alcohol harm: early results from a cluster randomised, controlled trial in Victoria, Australia of comprehensive harm minimisation school drug education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midford, Richard; Mitchell, Johanna; Lester, Leanne; Cahill, Helen; Foxcroft, David; Ramsden, Robyn; Venning, Lynne; Pose, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    In Australia, the burden of alcohol-attributable harm falls most heavily on young people. Prevention is important, and schools have long been seen as appropriate settings for pre-emptive interventions with this high risk group. This paper evaluates the effectiveness, in relation to alcohol harm prevention, of the Drug Education in Victorian Schools (DEVS) programme, nine months after implementation. This intervention dealt with both licit and illicit drugs, employed a harm minimisation approach that incorporated interactive, skill based, teaching methods and capitalised on parental influence through home activities. A cluster randomised, controlled trial of the first ten lessons of the DEVS drug education programme was conducted with year eight students, aged 13-14 years. Twenty-one secondary schools in Victoria, Australia were randomly allocated to receive the DEVS programme (14 schools, n=1163) or the drug education usually provided by their schools (7 schools, n=589). Self-reported changes were measured in relation to: knowledge and attitudes, communication with parents, drug education lessons remembered, proportion of drinkers, alcohol consumption (quantity multiplied by frequency), proportion of student drinkers engaging in risky consumption, and the number of harms experienced as a result of alcohol consumption. In comparison to the controls, there was a significantly greater increase in the intervention students' knowledge about drugs, including alcohol (p≤0.001); there was a significant change in their level of communication with parents about alcohol (p=0.037); they recalled receiving significantly more alcohol education (pharms associated with their drinking (p≤0.001). There were no significant differences between the two study groups in relation to changes in attitudes towards alcohol or in the proportion of drinkers or risky drinkers. There was, however, a notable trend of less consumption by risky drinkers in the intervention group. A comprehensive

  6. Treating and Preventing Influenza in Aged Care Facilities: A Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booy, Robert; Lindley, Richard I.; Dwyer, Dominic E.; Yin, Jiehui K.; Heron, Leon G.; Moffatt, Cameron R. M.; Chiu, Clayton K.; Rosewell, Alexander E.; Dean, Anna S.; Dobbins, Timothy; Philp, David J.; Gao, Zhanhai; MacIntyre, C. Raina

    2012-01-01

    Background Influenza is an important cause of morbidity and mortality for frail older people. Whilst the antiviral drug oseltamivir (a neuraminidase inhibitor) is approved for treatment and prophylaxis of influenza during outbreaks, there have been no trials comparing treatment only (T) versus treatment and prophylaxis (T&P) in Aged Care Facilities (ACFs). Our objective was to compare a policy of T versus T&P for influenza outbreaks in ACFs. Methods and Findings We performed a cluster randomised controlled trial in 16 ACFs, that followed a policy of either “T”—oseltamivir treatment (75 mg twice a day for 5 days)—or “T&P”—treatment and prophylaxis (75 mg once a day for 10 days) for influenza outbreaks over three years, in addition to enhanced surveillance. The primary outcome measure was the attack rate of influenza. Secondary outcomes measures were deaths, hospitalisation, pneumonia and adverse events. Laboratory testing was performed to identify the viral cause of influenza-like illness (ILI) outbreaks. The study period 30 June 2006 to 23 December 2008 included three southern hemisphere winters. During that time, influenza was confirmed as the cause of nine of the 23 ILI outbreaks that occurred amongst the 16 ACFs. The policy of T&P resulted in a significant reduction in the influenza attack rate amongst residents: 93/255 (36%) in residents in T facilities versus 91/397 (23%) in T&P facilities (p = 0.002). We observed a non-significant reduction in staff: 46/216 (21%) in T facilities versus 47/350 (13%) in T&P facilities (p = 0.5). There was a significant reduction in mean duration of outbreaks (T = 24 days, T&P = 11 days, p = 0.04). Deaths, hospitalisations and pneumonia were non-significantly reduced in the T&P allocated facilities. Drug adverse events were common but tolerated. Conclusion Our trial lacked power but these results provide some support for a policy of “treatment and prophylaxis” with oseltamivir in controlling

  7. False-positive results in the randomised controlled trial of mammographic screening from age 40 (‘Age’ trial)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Louise E; Moss, Sue; Cuckle, Howard; Bobrow, Lynda; Evans, Andrew; Kutt, Elisabeth; Record, Carol; Thomas, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Background False-positive recall is a recognised disadvantage of mammographic breast screening and the rate of such recalls may be higher in younger women, potentially limiting the value of screening below age 50. Methods Attendance and screening outcome data for 53 884 women in the intervention arm of the UK Age trial were analysed to report observed false-positive recall rates during 13 years of trial fieldwork. The Age trial was a randomised controlled trial of the effect of mammographic screening from age 40 on breast cancer mortality, conducted in 23 NHS Screening centres between 1991 and 2004. Women randomised to the intervention arm were offered annual invitation to mammography from age 40/41 to age 48. Results Overall, 7893 women (14.6% of women the intervention arm and 18.1% of women attending at least one routine screen) experienced one or more false-positive screen during the trial. The rates of false-positive mammography at first and subsequent routine screens were 4.9% and 3.2%, respectively. The cumulative false-positive rate over seven screens was 20.5%. Eighty-nine percent of women who had a false-positive recall at their previous screen attended their next invitation to routine screening. Conclusions Rates of false-positive recall in the Age trial were comparable with the national screening programme, however, the positive predictive value of referral was lower. Experiencing a false-positive screen did not appear to lessen the likelihood of re-attendance in the trial. Impact The question of greatly increased false-positive rates in this age group and of their compromising re-attendance is refuted by the findings of this study. PMID:20837718

  8. Age at school entry and intergenerational educational mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp C. Bauer; Riphahn, Regina T.

    2009-01-01

    We use Swiss data to test whether intergenerational educational mobility is affected by the age at which children first enter (primary) school. Early age at school entry significantly affects mobility and reduces the relative advantage of children of better educated parents.

  9. Career counselling with secondary school-aged youth: Directions for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Career counselling with secondary school-aged youth: Directions for theory, research, and practice. ... Abstract. In the midst of an information age and a global economy, people around the world continue to face significant inequities at school and in the workforce. Career counselling thus finds itself in a paradigm shift that ...

  10. Dietary Habits and Nutritional Status of Rural School Age Children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stunting was significantly (p<0.05) higher among 10-14year old children (56.1%) than 5-9 year olds (34.6%). Conclusion: There is urgent need for nutrition intervention targeted at rural school age children inEbonyi State. Keywords: School age children, dietary habits, hemoglobin levels, stunting, overweight, underweight, ...

  11. A primary school active break programme (ACTI-BREAK): study protocol for a pilot cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Amanda; Timperio, Anna; Brown, Helen; Hesketh, Kylie D

    2017-09-19

    Levels of overall physical activity have been shown to decline across childhood. Schools are considered ideal settings to promote physical activity as children spend a large amount of their waking hours at school. Time-efficient physical activity strategies that demonstrate a positive impact on academic-related outcomes are needed to enable physical activity to be prioritised in the school day. The ACTI-BREAK programme requires classroom teachers to integrate active breaks; 5-min bursts of moderate-intensity physical activity into their classroom routine. Active breaks have been shown to be effective in improving academic-related outcomes, a potentially appealing aspect for teachers and schools. The primary aim of this study is to assess the feasibility and potential efficacy of the ACTI-BREAK programme on children's academic achievement. Secondary aims are to explore the impact of ACTI-BREAK on children's on-task behaviour and objectively measured physical activity levels. ACTI-BREAK is a 6-week, classroom-based, physical activity intervention. This pilot trial of the programme will be evaluated using a cluster randomised controlled design. Government primary schools in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia will be invited to participate in the programme in 2017. Randomisation will occur at the school level, with the aim to recruit six schools (three intervention and three control). The ACTI-BREAK programme is theoretically grounded, and was developed with input and guidance from current primary school teachers. Teachers from the intervention schools will receive a 45-min training session and be asked to incorporate ACTI-BREAKS into their classroom routine three times per day for 6 weeks. Intervention support will be provided via assisted delivery. The primary outcomes will be children's academic achievement in mathematics and reading. Children's on-task behaviour and school-day physical activity will be assessed as secondary outcomes. Process evaluation will also be

  12. School Security Moves into the Digital Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Katie

    2002-01-01

    Discusses school security procedures following not only the September 11 terrorist attacks but also earlier school shootings. Highlights include zero tolerance policies; campus surveillance systems; digital systems that work on PCs; remote monitoring; and protecting central administration buildings and staff. (LRW)

  13. School Mobility and School-Age Children's Social Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupere, Veronique; Archambault, Isabelle; Leventhal, Tama; Dion, Eric; Anderson, Sara

    2015-01-01

    This study explored how nonpromotional school changes, a potentially major event for children, were associated with 3 forms of social maladjustment: isolation/withdrawal, affiliation with maladjusted peers, and aggression toward peers. Given that school mobility frequently co-occurs with family transitions, the moderating role of these transitions…

  14. A clustered randomised trial examining the effect of social marketing and community mobilisation on the age of uptake and levels of alcohol consumption by Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Bosco; Toumbourou, John Winston; Osborn, Amber; Smith, Rachel; Hall, Jessica Kate; Kremer, Peter; Kelly, Adrian B; Williams, Joanne; Leslie, Eva

    2013-01-24

    Throughout the world, alcohol consumption is common among adolescents. Adolescent alcohol use and misuse have prognostic significance for several adverse long-term outcomes, including alcohol problems, alcohol dependence, school disengagement and illicit drug use. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether randomisation to a community mobilisation and social marketing intervention reduces the proportion of adolescents who initiate alcohol use before the Australian legal age of 18, and the frequency and amount of underage adolescent alcohol consumption. The study comprises 14 communities matched with 14 non-contiguous communities on socioeconomic status (SES), location and size. One of each pair was randomly allocated to the intervention. Baseline levels of adolescent alcohol use were estimated through school surveys initiated in 2006 (N=8500). Community mobilisation and social marketing interventions were initiated in 2011 to reduce underage alcohol supply and demand. The setting is communities in three Australian states (Victoria, Queensland and Western Australia). Students (N=2576) will complete school surveys in year 8 in 2013 (average age 12). (1) lifetime initiation and (2) monthly frequency of alcohol use. Reports of social marketing and family and community alcohol supply sources will also be assessed. Point estimates with 95% CIs will be compared for student alcohol use in intervention and control communities. Changes from 2006 to 2013 will be examined; multilevel modelling will assess whether random assignment of communities to the intervention reduced 2013 alcohol use, after accounting for community level differences. Analyses will also assess whether exposure to social marketing activities increased the intervention target of reducing alcohol supply by parents and community members. ACTRN12612000384853.

  15. Handwashing Practices among Various School Age Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pete, Joanette M.

    1987-01-01

    Given the importance of handwashing to help control infectious organisms, this study investigated the frequency of handwashing after bathroom use of 200 elementary, middle, high school, and university students. Results and their implications are discussed. (MT)

  16. Effectiveness of the Mindfulness in Schools Programme: non-randomised controlled feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyken, Willem; Weare, Katherine; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Vicary, Rachael; Motton, Nicola; Burnett, Richard; Cullen, Chris; Hennelly, Sarah; Huppert, Felicia

    2013-08-01

    Mindfulness-based approaches for adults are effective at enhancing mental health, but few controlled trials have evaluated their effectiveness among young people. To assess the acceptability and efficacy of a schools-based universal mindfulness intervention to enhance mental health and well-being. A total of 522 young people aged 12-16 in 12 secondary schools either participated in the Mindfulness in Schools Programme (intervention) or took part in the usual school curriculum (control). Rates of acceptability were high. Relative to the controls, and after adjusting for baseline imbalances, children who participated in the intervention reported fewer depressive symptoms post-treatment (P = 0.004) and at follow-up (P = 0.005) and lower stress (P = 0.05) and greater well-being (P = 0.05) at follow-up. The degree to which students in the intervention group practised the mindfulness skills was associated with better well-being (P<0.001) and less stress (P = 0.03) at 3-month follow-up. The findings provide promising evidence of the programme's acceptability and efficacy.

  17. Do shoes reduce hookworm infection in school-aged children on Pemba Island, Zanzibar? A pragmatic trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Chris; Ame, Shaali; Albonico, Marco; Bickle, Quentin

    2014-05-01

    A non-blinded, cluster randomised controlled trial to test whether footwear reduces prevalence and intensity of hookworm infection in school-aged children on Pemba Island, Zanzibar. Six schools were randomised to receive shoes and standard care (deworming with albendazole and health education) and six control schools to receive standard care only. Children provided a stool sample to assess prevalence and intensity of infection with soil transmitted helminthiases (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm). Shoes were then distributed to pupils in the intervention schools; deworming took place as part of the government's mass drug administration programme and a further round of stool samples were collected six months later. Nine hundred and fifteen children were traced at follow-up (1056 at baseline). As many children wore shoes in the control arm as the intervention arm. There was no difference in hookworm prevalence (23.4% for intervention schools, 21.3% for control schools, p=0.48), and no difference in mean hookworm infection in eggs/gram of stool (18, 1-36 in intervention schools, 18, 7-29 in control schools, p=0.23). Shoe-wearing increased across all schools, from 47.4 to 82.4%. If a child wore shoes at the end of the study, the relative risk of hookworm infection was 0.7 (CI 0.53-0.91). Due to contamination, the trial could not conclude that shoes were protective against hookworm infection but the intervention led to behavioural change, and observational data suggest that shoes are protective against hookworm. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01869127.

  18. PLAYING ORIGAMI ENHANCE THE CREATIVITY OF SCHOOL AGED CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuni Sufyanti Arief

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Critical period for creativity development happened at school aged. Playing Origami is a stimulation that can be done to develop child’s creativity optimally. The aimed of this study was to analyze the effect of playing origami toward creativity development at school age in 4th grade elementary school Krian, Sidoarjo. Method: This study was used a pre experimental and purposive sampling design. The populations were children who age in the sixth until seventh age in 4th grade elementary school Krian, Sidoarjo. There were 41 respondents for this research who met the inclusion criteria. The independent variable was the playing origami while the dependent variable was creativity development of school age. Data were collected by using questionnaire and Figural Creativity test to know the creativity level before and after intervention, and then analyzed by using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test with significance level of a£0.05. Result: The result showed that there was an effect of play origami toward the creativity development of school age with significant level (p=0.000. Discussion: It can be concluded that playing origami can develop the creativity of school aged children. Every child should be facilitated by provide a chance, supportt and activity that can improve their creativity development that can be useful for them and other people. Further study was recommended to analyze the effect of playing origami on decreasing stress hospitalization.

  19. ‘Let’s Move It’ – a school-based multilevel intervention to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviour among older adolescents in vocational secondary schools: a study protocol for a cluster-randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelli Hankonen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity (PA has been shown to decline during adolescence, and those with lower education have lower levels of activity already at this age, calling for targeted efforts for them. No previous study has demonstrated lasting effects of school-based PA interventions among older adolescents. Furthermore, these interventions have rarely targeted sedentary behaviour (SB despite its relevance to health. The Let’s Move It trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness and the cost-effectiveness of a school-based, multi-level intervention, on PA and SB, among vocational school students. We hypothesise that the intervention is effective in increasing moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA, particularly among those with low or moderate baseline levels, and decreasing SB among all students. Methods The design is a cluster-randomised parallel group trial with an internal pilot study. The trial is conducted in six vocational schools in the Helsinki Metropolitan area, Finland. The intervention is carried out in 30 intervention classes, and 27 control classes retain the standard curriculum. The randomisation occurs at school-level to avoid contamination and to aid delivery. Three of the six schools, randomly allocated, receive the ‘Let’s Move It’ intervention which consists of 1 group sessions and poster campaign targeting students’ autonomous PA motivation and self-regulation skills, 2 sitting reduction in classrooms via alterations in choice architecture and teacher behaviour, and 3 enhancement of PA opportunities in school, home and community environments. At baseline, student participants are blind to group allocation. The trial is carried out in six batches in 2015–2017, with main measurements at pre-intervention baseline, and 2-month and 14-month follow-ups. Primary outcomes are for PA, MVPA measured by accelerometry and self-report, and for SB, sedentary time and breaks in sedentary time (accelerometry

  20. Reading and Coherent Motion Perception in School Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassaliete, Evita; Lacis, Ivars; Fomins, Sergejs; Krumina, Gunta

    2015-01-01

    This study includes an evaluation, according to age, of the reading and global motion perception developmental trajectories of 2027 school age children in typical stages of development. Reading is assessed using the reading rate score test, for which all of the student participants, regardless of age, received the same passage of text of a medium…

  1. Child Centred Approach to Climate Change and Health Adaptation through Schools in Bangladesh: A Cluster Randomised Intervention Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Iqbal Kabir

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change. People are getting educated at different levels on how to deal with potential impacts. One such educational mode was the preparation of a school manual, for high school students on climate change and health protection endorsed by the National Curriculum and Textbook Board, which is based on a 2008 World Health Organization manual. The objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of the manual in increasing the knowledge level of the school children about climate change and health adaptation.This cluster randomized intervention trial involved 60 schools throughout Bangladesh, with 3293 secondary school students participating. School upazilas (sub-districts were randomised into intervention and control groups, and two schools from each upazila were randomly selected. All year seven students from both groups of schools sat for a pre-test of 30 short questions of binary response. A total of 1515 students from 30 intervention schools received the intervention through classroom training based on the school manual and 1778 students of the 30 control schools did not get the manual but a leaflet on climate change and health issues. Six months later, a post-intervention test of the same questionnaire used in the pre-test was performed at both intervention and control schools. The pre and post test scores were analysed along with the demographic data by using random effects model.None of the various school level and student level variables were significantly different between the control and intervention group. However, the intervention group had a 17.42% (95% CI: 14.45 to 20.38, P = <0.001 higher score in the post-test after adjusting for pre-test score and other covariates in a multi-level linear regression model.These results suggest that school-based intervention for climate change and health adaptation is effective for increasing the knowledge level of school children on

  2. Sleep, school performance, and a school-based intervention among school-aged children: a sleep series study in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Shenghui; Arguelles, Lester; Jiang, Fan; Chen, Wenjuan; Jin, Xingming; Yan, Chonghuai; Tian, Ying; Hong, Xiumei; Qian, Ceng; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Xiaobin; Shen, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    .... The present series of studies aimed to shed light on sleep patterns, on the longitudinal association of sleep with school performance, and on practical intervention strategy for Chinese school-aged children...

  3. The Effect of Age-Correction on IQ Scores among School-Aged Children Born Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Rachel M.; George, Wing Man; Cole, Carolyn; Marshall, Peter; Ellison, Vanessa; Fabel, Helen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of age-correction on IQ scores among preterm school-aged children. Data from the Flinders Medical Centre Neonatal Unit Follow-up Program for 81 children aged five years and assessed with the WPPSI-III, and 177 children aged eight years and assessed with the WISC-IV, were analysed. Corrected IQ scores were…

  4. intestinal helminthiasis among malnourished school age children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with hooigworms, Trichuris'trichirua and Ascaris lumbricoides infections are improved after treatment with albendazole J. Nutrition 1994, 124: 1199-1206. Nokes C. Grantham- McGregor, S.M. Sawyer A.W.. Cooper ES, Bundy, D.A.P. Parastic helminth infection and cognitive function in school children proceeding of the Royal ...

  5. Do healthy school meals affect illness, allergies and school attendance in 8- to 11-year-old children? A cluster-randomised controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, R P; Lauritzen, L; Ritz, C; Dyssegaard, C B; Astrup, A; Michaelsen, K F; Damsgaard, C T

    2015-05-01

    A nutritionally adequate diet in childhood is important for health and resistance of allergies and infections. This study explored the effects of school meals rich in fish, vegetables and fibre on school attendance, asthma, allergies and illness in 797 Danish 8- to 11-year-old children. No comparable studies conducted in high-income settings have been identified. The OPUS School Meal Study was a cluster-randomised cross-over trial. Children from third and fourth grades at nine Danish schools received school meals or usual packed lunch (control) for two 3-month periods. Occurrence and duration of illnesses, asthma and allergies during the last 14 days were recorded by parental questionnaires at baseline and after each 3-month period. Self-reported well-being was assessed by visual analogue scales. The school meals did not affect school attendance, parent-reported occurrence or duration of asthma and allergies or self-reported well-being. The most common symptoms of illness were stomach pain (24%), headache (28%) and cold (24%). A slightly higher number of children experienced headaches in the school meal (27%) compared with the control period (22%) (P=0.02). However, subgroup analyses showed that this effect was only seen in children eating school meals in the classroom (P=0.007), and not in common dining areas (P=0.2). No effect was found on other symptoms of illness. Provision of nutritionally balanced school meals did not affect school attendance, asthma, allergies, illness or well-being in 8- to 11-year-old children. The slight increase in occurrence of headaches seems to be related to the physical eating environment.

  6. Differences among Age, Gender and School Factors in Ghanaian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study therefore determined whether differences in age, gender and school factors influenced Ghanaian senior secondary school students' aspirations for entrepreneurial careers. The descriptive research design was adopted for this study. A total of 2,000 students were selected from Forms 3 and 4 for the study.

  7. Aging Education in Elementary School Textbooks in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chin-Shan

    2011-01-01

    With the advent of an aging society, the older population is gradually increasing and people are living longer than ever before. However, older people are often portrayed in school textbooks as insignificant, unhealthy, sad, passive, and dependent. That is, ageism emerges in school textbooks in subtle ways. Under this circumstance, children may…

  8. School Age Populations Research Needs - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drawing conclusions about the validity of available dietary assessment instruments in school age children is hampered by the differences in instruments, research design, reference methods, and populations in the validation literature.

  9. Chronic Respiratory Diseases of School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, John P.

    1976-01-01

    The author examines the problems of chronic respiratory disease in school-age children from a medical viewpoint, including recognition and diagnosis, commonly encountered diseases, their effect on participation in physical exercise, emotional factors, medication, and emergency care. (MB)

  10. Health behaviour and school environment among school-aged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results indicated that learners who had positive perceptions regarding their school environments were significantly more likely to engage in health promoting behaviours. The healthy food score was associated with supportive teachers but not with supportive peers and supportive parents and socioeconomic status.

  11. Working with Homeless School-Aged Children: Barriers to School Social Work Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groton, Danielle; Teasley, Martell L.; Canfield, James P.

    2013-01-01

    With the needs and challenges of adolescent homelessness on the rise, the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act (MVA) was crafted as a public policy initiative aimed at facilitating access to schools for this population. While school social workers are the designated personnel for practice with homeless school-aged children, we know little about…

  12. An Examination of Compulsory School Attendance Ages and High School Dropout and Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Rebecca N.; Reschly, Amy L.

    2011-01-01

    An increasingly popular, but underresearched, initiative aimed at reducing high school dropout is raising the compulsory school attendance age. This study used a national data set from academic years 2001-02 to 2005-06 to examine the grade level at which students drop out, rates of dropout over time, and high school completion by state, region of…

  13. What helps children to move more at school recess and lunchtime? Mid-intervention results from Transform-Us! cluster-randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yildirim, M.; Arundell, L.; Cerin, E.; Carson, V.; Brown, H.E.; Crawford, D.C.; Hesketh, K.D.; Ridgers, N.D.; te Velde, S.J.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; Salmon, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: To investigate the interpersonal and physical environment mediators of the Transform-Us! mid-intervention effects on physical activity (PA) during recess and lunchtime. Methods: Transform-Us! is a clustered randomised school-based intervention with four groups: sedentary behaviour

  14. Cluster randomised trial of a school-community child health promotion and obesity prevention intervention: findings from the evaluation of fun ‘n healthy in Moreland!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Waters

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multi-level, longer-term obesity prevention interventions that focus on inequalities are scarce. Fun ‘n healthy in Moreland! aimed to improve child adiposity, school policies and environments, parent engagement, health behaviours and child wellbeing. Methods All children from primary schools in an inner urban, culturally diverse and economically disadvantaged area in Victoria, Australia were eligible for participation. The intervention, fun ‘n healthy in Moreland!, used a Health Promoting Schools Framework and provided schools with evidence, school research data and part time support from a Community Development Worker to develop health promoting strategies. Comparison schools continued as normal. Participants were not blinded to intervention status. The primary outcome was change in adiposity. Repeated cross-sectional design with nested longitudinal subsample. Results Students from twenty-four primary schools (clusters were randomised (aged 5–12 years at baseline. 1426 students from 12 intervention schools and 1539 students from 10 comparison schools consented to follow up measurements. Despite increased prevalence of healthy weight across all schools, after 3.5 years of intervention there was no statistically significant difference between trial arms in BMI z score post-intervention (Mean (sd: Intervention 0.68(1.16; Comparison: 0.72(1.12; Adjusted mean difference (AMD: -0.05, CI: -0.19 to 0.08, p = 0.44. Children from intervention schools consumed more daily fruit serves (AMD: 0.19, CI:0.00 to 0.37, p = 0.10, were more likely to have water (AOR: 1.71, CI:1.05 to 2.78, p = 0.03 and vegetables (AOR: 1.23, CI: 0.99 to 1.55, p = 0.07, and less likely to have fruit juice/cordial (AOR: 0.58, CI:0.36 to 0.93, p = 0.02 in school lunch compared to children in comparison schools. More intervention schools (8/11 had healthy eating and physical activity policies compared with comparison schools (2/9. Principals and

  15. Cluster randomised trial of a school-community child health promotion and obesity prevention intervention: findings from the evaluation of fun 'n healthy in Moreland!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Elizabeth; Gibbs, Lisa; Tadic, Maryanne; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Magarey, Anthea; Okely, Anthony D; de Silva, Andrea; Armit, Christine; Green, Julie; O'Connor, Thea; Johnson, Britt; Swinburn, Boyd; Carpenter, Lauren; Moore, Graham; Littlecott, Hannah; Gold, Lisa

    2017-08-03

    Multi-level, longer-term obesity prevention interventions that focus on inequalities are scarce. Fun 'n healthy in Moreland! aimed to improve child adiposity, school policies and environments, parent engagement, health behaviours and child wellbeing. All children from primary schools in an inner urban, culturally diverse and economically disadvantaged area in Victoria, Australia were eligible for participation. The intervention, fun 'n healthy in Moreland!, used a Health Promoting Schools Framework and provided schools with evidence, school research data and part time support from a Community Development Worker to develop health promoting strategies. Comparison schools continued as normal. Participants were not blinded to intervention status. The primary outcome was change in adiposity. Repeated cross-sectional design with nested longitudinal subsample. Students from twenty-four primary schools (clusters) were randomised (aged 5-12 years at baseline). 1426 students from 12 intervention schools and 1539 students from 10 comparison schools consented to follow up measurements. Despite increased prevalence of healthy weight across all schools, after 3.5 years of intervention there was no statistically significant difference between trial arms in BMI z score post-intervention (Mean (sd): Intervention 0.68(1.16); Comparison: 0.72(1.12); Adjusted mean difference (AMD): -0.05, CI: -0.19 to 0.08, p = 0.44). Children from intervention schools consumed more daily fruit serves (AMD: 0.19, CI:0.00 to 0.37, p = 0.10), were more likely to have water (AOR: 1.71, CI:1.05 to 2.78, p = 0.03) and vegetables (AOR: 1.23, CI: 0.99 to 1.55, p = 0.07), and less likely to have fruit juice/cordial (AOR: 0.58, CI:0.36 to 0.93, p = 0.02) in school lunch compared to children in comparison schools. More intervention schools (8/11) had healthy eating and physical activity policies compared with comparison schools (2/9). Principals and schools highly valued the approach as a catalyst

  16. Neonatal BCG-vaccination and atopic dermatitis before 13 months of age. A randomised clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøstesen, Lisbeth Marianne; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Pihl, Gitte Thybo

    2017-01-01

    Studies have suggested that Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination may reduce the risk of allergic diseases, including atopic dermatitis. The Danish Calmette Study was conducted 2012-2015. Within 7 days of birth new-borns were randomised 1:1 to BCG or no BCG. Exclusion criteria were gestational...... in the control group (RR=0.90 (95% confidence intervals 0.80 to 1.00)). The effect of neonatal BCG vaccination differed significantly between children with atopic predisposition (RR 0.84 (0.74 to 0.95)) and children without atopic predisposition (RR 1.09 (0.88 to 1.37)) (test of no interaction, p=0.04). Among...

  17. The effectiveness of an aged care specific leadership and management program on workforce, work environment, and care quality outcomes: design of a cluster randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Jeon, Yun-Hee; Simpson, Judy M; Chenoweth, Lynn; Cunich, Michelle; Kendig, Hal

    2013-01-01

    Background A plethora of observational evidence exists concerning the impact of management and leadership on workforce, work environment, and care quality. Yet, no randomised controlled trial has been conducted to test the effectiveness of leadership and management interventions in aged care. An innovative aged care clinical leadership program (Clinical Leadership in Aged Care − CLiAC) was developed to improve managers’ leadership capacities to support the delivery of quality care in Australi...

  18. A smoking prevention photoageing intervention for secondary schools in Brazil delivered by medical students: protocol for a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Bianca Lisa; Brieske, Christian M; Cosgarea, Ioana; Omlor, Albert J; Fries, Fabian N; de Faria, Christian Olber Moreira; Lino, Henrique Augusto; Oliveira, Ana Carla Cruz; Lisboa, Oscar Campos; Klode, Joachim; Schadendorf, Dirk; Bernardes-Souza, Breno; Brinker, Titus J

    2017-12-10

    Most smokers start smoking during their early adolescence, often with the idea that smoking is glamorous; the dramatic health consequences are too far in the future to fathom. We recently designed and tested an intervention that takes advantage of the broad availability of mobile phones as well as adolescents' interest in their appearance. A free photoageing mobile app (Smokerface) was implemented by medical students in secondary schools via a novel method called mirroring. The pupils' altered three-dimensional selfies on tablets were 'mirrored' via a projector in front of their whole grade. This is the first randomised trial to measure the effectiveness of the mirroring approach on smoking behaviour in secondary schools. The mirroring intervention, which lasts 45 min, is implemented by Brazilian medical students in at least 35 secondary school classes with 21 participants each (at least 35 classes with 21 participants for control) in February 2018 in the city of Itauna, Brazil. External block randomisation via computer is performed on the class level with a 1:1 allocation. In addition to sociodemographic data, smoking behaviour is measured via a paper-pencil questionnaire before, 3 and 6 months postintervention plus a random carbon monoxide breathing test at baseline and end line. The primary outcome is cigarette smoking in the past week at 6 months follow-up. Smoking behaviour (smoking onset, quitting) and effects on the different genders are studied as secondary outcomes. Analysis is by intention to treat. Ethical approval is obtained from the ethics committee of the University of Itauna in Brazil. Results will be disseminated at conferences, in peer-reviewed journals, throughout the Education Against Tobacco network social media channels and on our websites. NCT03178227. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. The Middle School Concept Meets the Age of Assessments: How One Middle School Has Adapted to the New Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed, Allen H.; Watts, Cherry

    2011-01-01

    The Middle School Concept brings together good teaching practices with the unique needs of pre-adolescent students. Since the passing of the NCLB, more and more attention has been generated on the results of high stakes testing. The question of what happens to the middle school concept when it confronts the demands of this new age of testing is…

  20. Reduced medication use and improved pulmonary function with supplements containing vegetable and fruit concentrate, fish oil and probiotics in asthmatic school children: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shu-Chen; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Chuang, Shao-Yuan; Huang, Shih-Yi; Pan, Wen-Harn

    2013-07-14

    Dietary pattern changes may be one of the key factors associated with increasing asthma prevalence. Observational studies have found negative associations between fruit, vegetable and fish consumption and risk of asthma. Experimental studies have also shown that probiotics can modulate the immune system. However, each dietary component exhibits a modest effect. The objective of the present study was to investigate the joint effect of multiple beneficial dietary components on asthma. We designed a 16-week school-based double-blind placebo-controlled randomised trial. The supplement group received fruit plus vegetable concentrate, fish oil and probiotics (FVFP supplement), while the control group received placebos. A total of 192 asthmatic children aged 10-12 years were recruited from elementary schools in metropolitan Taipei. Pulmonary function, medication usage, Paediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAQLQ) score and the Childhood Asthma Control Test score were evaluated at baseline, and at weeks 8 and 16. Compared with the placebo group, the supplement group showed significant improvement in pulmonary function parameters (91 v. 178 ml for forced vital capacity (FVC), 40 v. 107 ml for forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and 1·6 v. 4·8 % for FEV1:FVC ratio; all P values vegetable, fish and probiotic foods.

  1. Protocol for a randomised controlled trial of a school based cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT intervention to prevent depression in high risk adolescents (PROMISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayal Kapil

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression in adolescents is a significant problem that impairs everyday functioning and increases the risk of severe mental health disorders in adulthood. Relatively few adolescents with depression are identified and referred for treatment indicating the need to investigate alternative preventive approaches. Study Design A pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of a school based prevention programme on symptoms of depression in "high risk" adolescents (aged 12-16. The unit of allocation is year groups (n = 28 which are assigned to one of three conditions: an active intervention based upon cognitive behaviour therapy, attention control or treatment as usual. Assessments will be undertaken at screening, baseline, 6 months and 12 months. The primary outcome measure is change on the Short Mood and Feeling Questionnaire at 12 months. Secondary outcome measures will assess changes in negative thoughts, self esteem, anxiety, school connectedness, peer attachment, alcohol and substance misuse, bullying and self harm. Discussion As of August 2010, all 28 year groups (n = 5023 had been recruited and the assigned interventions delivered. Final 12 month assessments are scheduled to be completed by March 2011. Trial Registration ISRCTN19083628

  2. Supporting teachers and children in schools: the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the Incredible Years teacher classroom management programme in primary school children: a cluster randomised controlled trial, with parallel economic and process evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Tamsin; Edwards, Vanessa; Sharkey, Siobhan; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Byford, Sarah; Norwich, Brahm; Logan, Stuart

    2012-08-30

    Childhood antisocial behaviour has high immediate and long-term costs for society and the individual, particularly in relation to mental health and behaviours that jeopardise health. Managing challenging behaviour is a commonly reported source of stress and burn out among teachers, ultimately resulting in a substantial number leaving the profession. Interventions to improve parenting do not transfer easily to classroom-based problems and the most vulnerable parents may not be easily able to access them. Honing teachers' skills in proactive behaviour management and the promotion of socio-emotional regulation, therefore, has the potential to improve both child and teacher mental health and well-being and the advantage that it might potentially benefit all the children subsequently taught by any teacher that accesses the training. Cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT) of the Incredible Years teacher classroom management (TCM) course with combined economic and process evaluations.One teacher of children aged 4-9 years, from 80 schools in the South West Peninsula will be randomised to attend the TCM (intervention arm) or to "teach as normal" (control arm). The primary outcome measure will be the total difficulties score from the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) completed by the current class teachers prior to randomisation, and at 9, 18 and 30 months follow-up, supplemented by parent SDQs. Secondary measures include academic attainment (teacher report supplemented by direct measurement in a sub-sample), children's enjoyment of school, and teacher reports of their professional self-efficacy, and levels of burn out and stress, supplemented by structured observations of teachers classroom management skills in a subsample. Cost data for the economic evaluation will be based on parental reports of services accessed. Cost-effectiveness, using the SDQ as the measure of effect, will be examined over the period of the RCT and over the longer term using decision

  3. Supporting teachers and children in schools: the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the incredible years teacher classroom management programme in primary school children: a cluster randomised controlled trial, with parallel economic and process evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ford Tamsin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood antisocial behaviour has high immediate and long-term costs for society and the individual, particularly in relation to mental health and behaviours that jeopardise health. Managing challenging behaviour is a commonly reported source of stress and burn out among teachers, ultimately resulting in a substantial number leaving the profession. Interventions to improve parenting do not transfer easily to classroom-based problems and the most vulnerable parents may not be easily able to access them. Honing teachers’ skills in proactive behaviour management and the promotion of socio-emotional regulation, therefore, has the potential to improve both child and teacher mental health and well-being and the advantage that it might potentially benefit all the children subsequently taught by any teacher that accesses the training. Methods/Design Cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT of the Incredible Years teacher classroom management (TCM course with combined economic and process evaluations. One teacher of children aged 4–9 years, from 80 schools in the South West Peninsula will be randomised to attend the TCM (intervention arm or to “teach as normal” (control arm. The primary outcome measure will be the total difficulties score from the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ completed by the current class teachers prior to randomisation, and at 9, 18 and 30 months follow-up, supplemented by parent SDQs. Secondary measures include academic attainment (teacher report supplemented by direct measurement in a sub-sample, children’s enjoyment of school, and teacher reports of their professional self-efficacy, and levels of burn out and stress, supplemented by structured observations of teachers classroom management skills in a subsample. Cost data for the economic evaluation will be based on parental reports of services accessed. Cost-effectiveness, using the SDQ as the measure of effect, will be examined

  4. Menstrual cups and sanitary pads to reduce school attrition, and sexually transmitted and reproductive tract infections: a cluster randomised controlled feasibility study in rural Western Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips-Howard, Penelope; Nyothach, Elizabeth; terKuile, Feiko; Omoto, Jackton; Wang, Duolao; Zeh, Clement; Onyango, Clayton; Mason, Linda; Alexander, Kelly T; Odhiambo, Frank; Eleveld, Alie; Mohammed, Aisha; vanEijk, Anna; Tudor Edwards, Rhiannon; Vulule, John

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Conduct a feasibility study on the effect of menstrual hygiene on schoolgirls' school and health (reproductive/sexual) outcomes. Design 3-arm single-site open cluster randomised controlled pilot study. Setting 30 primary schools in rural western Kenya, within a Health and Demographic Surveillance System. Participants Primary schoolgirls 14?16?years, experienced 3 menses, no precluding disability, and resident in the study area. Interventions 1 insertable menstrual cup, or monthly s...

  5. Age at menarche, schooling, and sexual debut in northern Malawi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith R Glynn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Age at sexual debut is a key behavioural indicator used in HIV behavioural surveillance. Early age at menarche may precipitate early sex through perceived readiness for sex, or through school drop-out, but this is rarely studied. We investigated trends and circumstances of sexual debut in relation to schooling and age at menarche. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cross-sectional sexual behaviour survey was conducted on all individuals age 15-59 within a demographic surveillance site in Karonga District, Malawi. Time trends were assessed using birth cohorts. Survival analysis was used to estimate the median age at menarche, sexual debut and first marriage. The 25(th centile was used to define "early" sex, and analyses of risk factors for early sex were restricted to those who had reached that age, and were done using logistic regression. Of the 8232 women and 7338 men resident in the area, 88% and 78%, respectively, were seen, and, 94% and 92% of these were interviewed. The median reported age at first sex was 17.5 for women and 18.8 for men. For women, ages at menarche, sexual debut and first marriage did not differ by birth cohort. For men, age at sexual debut and first marriage decreased slightly in later birth cohorts. For both men and women increased schooling was associated with later sexual debut and a longer delay between sexual debut and first marriage, but the associations were stronger for women. Earlier age at menarche was strongly associated with earlier sexual debut and marriage and lower schooling levels. In women early sexual debut (<16 years was less likely in those with menarche at age 14-15 (odds ratio (OR 0.31, 95%CI 0.26-0.36, and ≥16 (OR 0.04, 95%CI 0.02-0.05 compared to those with menarche at <14. The proportion of women who completed primary school was 46% in those with menarche at <14, 60% in those with menarche at 14-15 and 70% in those with menarche at ≥16. The association between age at menarche and schooling

  6. Supporting the moral development of pre-school aged[sic] children at nursery schools

    OpenAIRE

    Batistová, Eva

    2011-01-01

    The aim of my dissertation was to describe the responsibilities of teachers in institutional pre-school education and how they bolster the moral development of pre-school age children, which takes place in the context of the children's mental progress and the formation of moral values gained from their families. The thesis is divided into two parts. The theoretical part describes the moral progress of pre-school age children, educational and institutional strategies to develop the moral consc...

  7. The Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP), a novel school-based intervention to prevent obesity in school children: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Over the last three decades there has been a substantial increase in the proportion of children who are overweight or obese. The Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP) is a novel school-based intervention, using highly interactive and creative delivery methods to prevent obesity in children. Methods/Design We describe a cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of HeLP. The intervention has been developed using intervention mapping (involving extensive stakeholder involvement) and has been guided by the Information, Motivation, Behavioural Skills model. HeLP includes creating a receptive environment, drama activities, goal setting and reinforcement activities and runs over three school terms. Piloting showed that 9 to 10 year olds were the most receptive and participative. This study aims to recruit 1,300 children from 32 schools (over half of which will have ≥19% of pupils eligible for free school meals) from the southwest of England. Participating schools will be randomised to intervention or control groups with baseline measures taken prior to randomisation. The primary outcome is change in body mass index standard deviation score (BMI SDS) at 24 months post baseline. Secondary outcomes include, waist circumference and percent body fat SDS and proportion of children classified as overweight or obese at 18 and 24 months and objectively measured physical activity and food intake at 18 months. Between-group comparisons will be made using random effects regression analysis taking into account the hierarchical nature of the study design. An economic evaluation will estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness of HeLP, compared to control, from the perspective of the National Health Service (NHS)/third party payer. An in-depth process evaluation will provide insight into how HeLP works, and whether there is any differential uptake or engagement with the programme. Discussion The results of the trial will provide

  8. Implementation of 'Goals of Patient Care' medical treatment orders in residential aged care facilities: protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ruth S; Hayes, Barbara J; Hutchinson, Anastasia; Yates, Paul; Lim, Wen Kwang

    2017-03-10

    Systematic reviews demonstrate that advance care planning (ACP) has many positive effects for residents of aged care facilities, including decreased hospitalisation. The proposed Residential Aged Care Facility (RACF) 'Goals of Patient Care' (GOPC) form incorporates a resident's prior advance care plan into medical treatment orders. Where none exists, it captures residents' preferences. This documentation helps guide healthcare decisions made at times of acute clinical deterioration. This is a mixed methods study. An unblinded cluster randomised controlled trial is proposed in three pairs of RACFs. In the intervention arm, GOPC forms will be completed by a doctor incorporating advance care plans or wishes. In the control arm, residents will have usual care which may include an advance care plan. The primary hypothesis is that the GOPC form is superior to standard ACP alone and will lead to decreased hospitalisation due to clearer documentation of residents' medical treatment plans. The primary outcome will be an analysis of the effect of the GOPC medical treatment orders on emergency department attendances and hospital admissions at 6 months. Secondary outcome measurements will include change in hospitalisation rates at 3 and 12 months, length of stay and external mortality rates among others. Qualitative interviews, 12 months post GOPC implementation, will be used for process evaluation of the GOPC and to evaluate staff perceptions of the form's usefulness for improving communication and medical decision-making at a time of deterioration. The results will be disseminated in peer review journals and research conferences. This robust randomised controlled trial will provide high-quality data about the influence of medical treatment orders that incorporate ACP or preferences adding to the current gap in knowledge and evidence in this area. ACTRN12615000298516, Results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already

  9. Age-specific patterns of unsatisfactory results for conventional Pap smears and liquid-based cytology: data from two randomised clinical trials.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castle, P.E.; Bulten, J.; Confortini, M.; Klinkhamer, P.; Pellegrini, A.; Siebers, A.G.; Ronco, G.; Arbyn, M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the rate of unsatisfactory cervical cell samples in liquid-based cytology (LBC) versus conventional cytology (CC) by age. DESIGN: Randomised clinical trials. SETTING: Population-based cervical cancer screening in the Netherlands and Italy. POPULATION: Asymptomatic women

  10. Active transport among Czech school-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Pavelka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Active transport is a very important factor for increasing the level of physical activity in children, which is significant for both their health and positive physical behaviour in adult age. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to establish the proportion of Czech children aged 11 to 15 who select active transport to and from school and, at the same time, describe socio-economic and socio-demographic factors influencing active transport to and from school among children. METHODS: To establish the socio-demographic factors affecting active transport, data of a national representative sample of 11 to 15 year-old elementary school children in the Czech Republic (n = 4,425. Research data collection was performed within an international research study called Health Behaviour in School Aged Children in June 2010. Statistical processing of the results was made using a logistic regression analysis in the statistical programme IBM SPSS v 20. RESULTS: Active transport to and from school is opted for in the Czech Republic by approximately 2/3 of children aged 11 to 15. Differences between genders are not statistically significant; most children opting for active transport are aged 11 (69%. An important factor increasing the probability of active transport as much as 16 times is whether a child's place of residence is in the same municipality as the school. Other factors influencing this choice include BMI, time spent using a computer or a privateroom in a family. A significant factor determining active transport by children is safety; safe road crossing, opportunity to leave a bicycle safely at school, no fear of being assaulted on the way or provision of school lockers where children can leave their items. CONCLUSIONS: Active transport plays an important role in increasing the overall level of physical activity in children. Promotion of active transport should focus on children who spend more time using a computer; attention should also be

  11. The Good Schools Toolkit to prevent violence against children in Ugandan primary schools: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devries, Karen M; Allen, Elizabeth; Child, Jennifer C; Walakira, Eddy; Parkes, Jenny; Elbourne, Diana; Watts, Charlotte; Naker, Dipak

    2013-07-24

    We aim to evaluate the effectiveness of the Good School Toolkit, developed by Raising Voices, in preventing violence against children attending school and in improving child mental health and educational outcomes. We are conducting a two-arm cluster randomised controlled trial with parallel assignment in Luwero District, Uganda. We will also conduct a qualitative study, a process evaluation and an economic evaluation. A total of 42 schools, representative of Luwero District, Uganda, were allocated to receive the Toolkit plus implementation support, or were allocated to a wait-list control condition. Our main analysis will involve a cross-sectional comparison of the prevalence of past-week violence from school staff as reported by children in intervention and control primary schools at follow-up.At least 60 children per school and all school staff members will be interviewed at follow-up. Data collection involves a combination of mobile phone-based, interviewer-completed questionnaires and paper-and-pen educational tests. Survey instruments include the ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tools to assess experiences of violence; the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire to measure symptoms of common childhood mental disorders; and word recognition, reading comprehension, spelling, arithmetic and sustained attention tests adapted from an intervention trial in Kenya. To our knowledge, this is the first study to rigorously investigate the effects of any intervention to prevent violence from school staff to children in primary school in a low-income setting. We hope the results will be informative across the African region and in other settings. clinicaltrials.gov NCT01678846.

  12. The effects of Nordic school meals on concentration and school performance in 8- to 11-year-old children in the OPUS School Meal Study: a cluster-randomised, controlled, cross-over trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Louise B.; Dyssegaard, Camilla B.; Damsgaard, Camilla T.

    2015-01-01

    It is widely assumed that nutrition can improve school performance in children; however, evidence remains limited and inconclusive. In the present study, we investigated whether serving healthy school meals influenced concentration and school performance of 8- to 11-year-old Danish children...... than reading speed. There was no effect on overall math performance or outcomes from the LRS. In conclusion, school meals did not affect CP, but improved reading performance, which is a complex cognitive activity that involves inference, and increased errors related to impulsivity and inattention....... The OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet) School Meal Study was a cluster-randomised, controlled, cross-over trial comparing a healthy school meal programme with the usual packed lunch from home (control) each for 3 months (NCT 01457794...

  13. Aging Education in the Public Schools: A Global Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulin, Richard O.

    1982-01-01

    Traces the emergence of aging education in the public schools. Suggests that as students learn to see the world as a global village, they also can learn about aging and that older people exist both as a national resource and a national problem. Curriculum materials and programs, while scarce, are becoming increasingly available. (Author/JAC)

  14. Head Injuries in School-Age Children Who Play Golf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter-Rice, Karin; Krebs, Madelyn; Eads, Julia K.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children. We conducted a prospective study, which examined injury characteristics and outcomes of school-age children of 5.0-15.0 years (N = 10) who were admitted to hospital for a TBI. This study evaluated the role of age, gender, the Glasgow Coma Scale, mechanisms and…

  15. Determinants Of Under Nutrition Among School Age Children In A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting: Kawangware peri-urban slum, Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects: Three hundred and eighty four school children aged 6 - 12 years. Results: A total of 4.5% were wasted, 14.9% underweight and 30.2% stunted. The children who were over nine years of age were more underweight ...

  16. VOCABULARY PROBLEMS OF THE LIGHTLY MENTALLY RETARDED SCHOOL AGED CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna KOSTIC

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The main research objectives are the problems in the vocabulary of school aged, lightly mentally retarded children. Results of the research indicate which are the most important factors that have impact of the vocabulary and language competence of these persons. The research variables are: sex, IQ, chronological age and school age. Comics-like stories were used as an examination instrument in this research. Their interpretation is helpful in determining the vocabulary level of every single examine. At the end of the research some suggestions are presented, whose goal is to enrich children's vocabulary.

  17. Bristol girls dance project (BGDP): protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial of an after-school dance programme to increase physical activity among 11-12 year old girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, Russell; Edwards, Mark J; Sebire, Simon J; Cooper, Ashley R; Powell, Jane E; Bird, Emma L; Simon, Joanne; Blair, Peter S

    2013-10-24

    Many children do not meet current UK physical activity (PA) guidelines. Girls are less active than boys throughout childhood, and the age-related decline in PA, particularly from early adolescence, is steeper for girls than for boys. Dance is the favourite form of PA among UK secondary school aged girls. Delivering dance sessions after school could make a significant contribution to girls' PA. Therefore, after-school dance sessions may be an appropriate and cost-effective activity through which adolescent girls' PA levels can be increased. Two-arm cluster randomised control trial and economic evaluation conducted in 18 secondary schools across the greater Bristol area. All Year 7 girls in participating schools will receive a 'taster' dance session and subsequently be invited to participate in the project. There is space for up to 33 girls to participate in each school. Schools will be randomly assigned in equal numbers to intervention or control arms after baseline data has been collected. The nine intervention schools will receive a 20 week after-school dance-based intervention, consisting of 40 × 75 minute sessions, delivered by external dance instructors. Control schools will not receive the dance intervention. All measures will be assessed at baseline (time 0), at the end of the intervention period (time 1) and six months after the intervention has ended (time 2). Our primary interest is to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the intervention to affect the objectively-assessed (accelerometer) mean weekday minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) accumulated by Year 7 girls one year after the baseline measurement (time 2). This paper describes the protocol for the Bristol Girls Dance Project cluster randomized controlled trial and economic evaluation, which is attempting to increase MVPA among Year 7 girls in UK secondary schools. ISRCTN52882523.

  18. DISABILITY OF 'STUDENT IN SCHOOL AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PERROTTA Francesco

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Schools should play a significant role in spreading the message understanding and acceptance of disability rights, helping to dispel fears, myths and prejudices, supporting the efforts of the whole community.Should develop and disseminate educational resources to support students to develop an awareness individual's disability or that of others, helping them to consider in a positive diversity. It is necessary to achieve the goal of 'education for all in compliance the principles of full participation and equality. Education has a roleinstrumental in building from future for all, both for the individual, both for the person as members of society and the world of work. The education system must therefore be the central place that will ensure personal development and social inclusion, that allows children and young people to be as independent as possible. Theeducation system is the first step toward a society of 'integration. [the Declaration of Madrid, Non-discrimination as affirmative action equal social integration, Madrid, 2002

  19. Protocol for the 'Virtual Traveller' cluster-randomised controlled trial: a behaviour change intervention to increase physical activity in primary-school Maths and English lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, E; Dunsmuir, S; Duke-Williams, O; Stamatakis, E; Shelton, N

    2016-06-27

    Physical activity (PA) has been shown to be an important factor for health and educational outcomes in children. However, a large proportion of children's school day is spent in sedentary lesson-time. There is emerging evidence about the effectiveness of physically active lessons: integrating physical movements and educational content in the classroom. 'Virtual Traveller' is a novel 6-week intervention of 10-min sessions performed 3 days per week, using classroom interactive whiteboards to integrate movement into primary-school Maths and English teaching. The primary aim of this project is to evaluate the effect of the Virtual Traveller intervention on children's PA, on-task behaviour and student engagement. This study will be a cluster-randomised controlled trial with a waiting-list control group. Ten year 4 (aged 8-9 years) classes across 10 primary schools will be randomised by class to either the 6-week Virtual Traveller intervention or the waiting-list control group. Data will be collected 5 times: at baseline, at weeks 2 and 4 of the intervention, and 1 week and 3 months postintervention. At baseline, anthropometric measures, 4-day objective PA monitoring (including 2 weekend days; Actigraph accelerometer), PA and on-task behaviour observations and student engagement questionnaires will be performed. All but anthropometric measures will be repeated at all other data collection points. Changes in overall PA levels and levels during different time-periods (eg, lesson-time) will be examined. Changes in on-task behaviour and student engagement between intervention groups will also be examined. Multilevel regression modelling will be used to analyse the data. Process evaluation will be carried out during the intervention period. The results of this study will be disseminated through peer-review publications and conference presentations. Ethical approval was obtained through the University College London Research Ethics Committee (reference number: 3500

  20. Screening for pre-school and school-age hearing problems: European Consensus Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarżyński, Henryk; Piotrowska, Anna

    2012-01-01

    To formulate consensus statement and policies on structured hearing screening programs in pre-school and school-age children in Europe. This consensus will be brought before the European Union's Member States as a working and effective program with recommendations for adoption. A distinguished panel of experts discussed hearing screening of pre-school and school-age children during the 10th Congress of European Federation of Audiology Societies (EFAS), held in Warsaw, Poland, on June 22, 2011. The panel included experts in audiology, otolaryngology, communication disorders, speech language pathology, education and biomedical engineering. Consensus was reached on thirteen points. Key elements of the consensus, as described herein, are: (1) defining the role of pre-school and school screening programs in the identification and treatment of hearing problems; (2) identifying the target population; (3) recognizing the need for a quality control system in screening programs. The European Consensus Statement on Hearing Screening of Pre-school and School-age Children will encourage the appropriate authorities of the various countries involved to initiate hearing screening programs of pre-school and school-age children. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Clustered randomised controlled trial of two education interventions designed to increase physical activity and well-being of secondary school students: the MOVE Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymms, Peter B; Curtis, Sarah E; Routen, Ash C; Thomson, Katie H; Bolden, David S; Bock, Susan; Dunn, Christine E; Cooper, Ashley R; Elliott, Julian G; Moore, Helen J; Summerbell, Carolyn D; Tiffin, Paul A; Kasim, Adetayo S

    2016-01-06

    To assess the effectiveness of 2 interventions in improving the physical activity and well-being of secondary school children. A clustered randomised controlled trial; classes, 1 per school, were assigned to 1 of 3 intervention arms or a control group based on a 2×2 factorial design. The interventions were peer-mentoring and participative learning. Year 7 children (aged 11-12) in the peer-mentoring intervention were paired with year 9 children for 6 weekly mentoring meetings. Year 7 children in the participative learning arm took part in 6 weekly geography lessons using personalised physical activity and Global Positioning System (GPS) data. Year 7 children in the combined intervention received both interventions, with the year 9 children only participating in the mentoring sessions. 1494 year 7 students from 60 schools in the North of England took part in the trial. Of these, 43 students opted out of taking part in the evaluation measurements, 2 moved teaching group and 58 changed school. Valid accelerometry outcome data were collected for 892 students from 53 schools; and well-being outcome data were available for 927 students from 52 schools. The primary outcomes were mean minutes of accelerometer-measured moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity per day, and well-being as evaluated by the KIDSCREEN-27 questionnaire. These data were collected 6 weeks after the intervention; a 12-month follow-up is planned. No significant effects (main or interaction) were observed for the outcomes. However, small positive differences were found for both outcomes for the participative learning intervention. These findings suggest that the 2 school-based interventions did not modify levels of physical activity or well-being within the period monitored. Change in physical activity may require more comprehensive individual behavioural intervention, and/or more system-based efforts to address wider environmental influences such as family, peers, physical environment

  2. Upper secondary school students' compliance with two Internet-based self-help programmes: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonson, Carl; Thorsén, Frida; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2017-08-03

    Psychiatric symptoms and stress are on the increase among Swedish adolescents. We aimed to study the potential effect and feasibility of two Internet-based self-help programmes, one mindfulness based (iMBI) and the other music based in a randomised controlled trial that targeted adolescents. A total of 283 upper secondary school students in two Swedish schools were randomised to either a waiting list or one of the two programmes, on their own incentive, on schooltime. General psychiatric health (Symptoms Checklist 90), sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), and perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale) were assessed before and after the interventions. In total, 202 participants answered the questionnaires. Less than 20 logged into each intervention and only 1 performed a full intervention (iMBI). No significant differences in any of the scales were found between those who logged in and those who did not. The potential effect of Internet-based self-help programmes was not possible to examine due to low compliance rates. Adolescents seem to have a very low compliance with Internet-based self-help programmes if left to their own incentive. There were no associations between the psychiatric and stress-related symptoms at baseline and compliance in any of the intervention groups, and no evidence for differences in compliance in relation to the type of programme. Additional studies are needed to examine how compliance rates can be increased in Internet-based self-help mindfulness programmes in adolescents, as the potentially positive effects of mindfulness are partly related to compliance rates.

  3. Randomised controlled trial of prevention of falls in people aged > or =75 with severe visual impairment: the VIP trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A John; Robertson, M Clare; La Grow, Steven J; Kerse, Ngaire M; Sanderson, Gordon F; Jacobs, Robert J; Sharp, Dianne M; Hale, Leigh A

    2005-10-08

    To assess the efficacy and cost effectiveness of a home safety programme and a home exercise programme to reduce falls and injuries in older people with low vision. Randomised controlled trial. Dunedin and Auckland, New Zealand. 391 women and men aged > or =75 with visual acuity of 6/24 or worse who were living in the community; 92% (361 of 391) completed one year of follow-up. Participants received a home safety assessment and modification programme delivered by an occupational therapist (n = 100), an exercise programme prescribed at home by a physiotherapist plus vitamin D supplementation (n = 97), both interventions (n = 98), or social visits (n = 96). Numbers of falls and injuries resulting from falls, costs of implementing the home safety programme. Fewer falls occurred in the group randomised to the home safety programme but not in the exercise programme (incidence rate ratios 0.59 (95% confidence interval 0.42 to 0.83) and 1.15 (0.82 to 1.61), respectively). However, within the exercise programme, stricter adherence was associated with fewer falls (P = 0.001). A conservative analysis showed neither intervention was effective in reducing injuries from falls. Delivering the home safety programme cost NZ650 dollars (234 pounds sterling, 344 euros, US432 dollars) (at 2004 prices) per fall prevented. The home safety programme reduced falls and was more cost effective than an exercise programme in this group of elderly people with poor vision. The Otago exercise programme with vitamin D supplementation was not effective in reducing falls or injuries in this group, possibly due to low levels of adherence. Trial registration number ISRCTN15342873.

  4. School connectedness in the health behavior in school-aged children study: the role of student, school, and school neighborhood characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Douglas R; Iachan, Ronaldo; Overpeck, Mary; Ross, James G; Gross, Lori A

    2006-09-01

    School connectedness includes liking school and positive relations with teachers and peers. School connectedness is associated with a variety of positive health outcomes. The goal of this study was to identify characteristics of students, schools, and school neighborhoods that are related to school connectedness. In the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) Study, school connectedness was reported by 13,207 students (grades 6-10) in 340 schools. HBSC measured a variety of student characteristics. Characteristics of schools were culled from data maintained by Quality Education Data, and school neighborhood characteristics were derived from the 2000 decennial census. Associations between connectedness and student, school, and school neighborhood characteristics were estimated using hierarchical linear models. Characteristics of students, schools, and school neighborhoods were associated with school connectedness. Connectedness was greater among younger students, females, students with better academic performance and greater extracurricular involvement, students with greater self-rated physical attractiveness, students with more friends, students from 2-parent families, and students whose parents were more involved with school. Connectedness was greater in smaller schools, more racially homogeneous schools, and schools with more students from relatively wealthy households. School connectedness was higher in neighborhoods with a greater percentage of non-US citizens. As the percent of renters in the neighborhood increased beyond 20%, school connectedness tended to decrease. The findings point to possible strategies for fostering school connectedness.

  5. Schooling, marriage, and age at first birth in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Peter; Handy, Christopher; Sahn, David E

    2015-01-01

    The low school attainment, early marriage, and low age at first birth of females are major policy concerns in less developed countries. This study jointly estimated the determinants of educational attainment, marriage age, and age at first birth among females aged 12-25 in Madagascar, explicitly accounting for the endogeneities that arose from modelling these related outcomes simultaneously. An additional year of schooling results in a delay to marriage of 1.5 years and marrying 1 year later delays age at first birth by 0.5 years. Parents' education and wealth also have important effects on schooling, marriage, and age at first birth, with a woman's first birth being delayed by 0.75 years if her mother had 4 additional years of schooling. Overall, our results provide rigorous evidence for the critical role of education-both individual women's own and that of their parents-in delaying the marriage and fertility of young women.

  6. Non-specific effects of standard measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age on childhood mortality: randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Martins, Cecilia; Garly, M.L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine in a randomised trial whether a 25% difference in mortality exists between 4.5 months and 3 years of age for children given two standard doses of Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccines at 4.5 and 9 months of age compared with those given one dose of measles vaccine at 9 months......-tetanus-pertussis vaccine at least four weeks before enrolment. A large proportion of the children (80%) had previously taken part in randomised trials of neonatal vitamin A supplementation. Intervention Children were randomised to receive Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age (group A), no vaccine...... at 4.5 months and Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine at 9 months of age (group B), or no vaccine at 4.5 months and Schwarz measles vaccine at 9 months of age (group C). Main outcome measure Mortality rate ratio between 4.5 and 36 months of age for group A compared with groups B and C. Secondary outcomes...

  7. Non-specific effects of standard measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age on childhood mortality: randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Martins, Cecilia; Garly, M.L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine in a randomised trial whether a 25% difference in mortality exists between 4.5 months and 3 years of age for children given two standard doses of Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccines at 4.5 and 9 months of age compared with those given one dose of measles vaccine at 9 months......-tetanus-pertussis vaccine at least four weeks before enrolment. A large proportion of the children (80%) had previously taken part in randomised trials of neonatal vitamin A supplementation. Intervention Children were randomised to receive Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age (group A), no vaccine...... months of age the mortality rate ratio of children who received two doses of Edmonston-Zagreb vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age compared with those who received a single dose of Edmonston-Zagreb vaccine or Schwarz vaccine at 9 months of age was 0.78 (95% confidence interval 0.59 to 1...

  8. Preparation of early school age children in fire sport

    OpenAIRE

    Jermanová, Zuzana

    2011-01-01

    My thesis paper is focused on preparation of early school age children in fire sport. This sport is known as adult sport and only marginally. In theoretical part I want to bring near ideas of this sport. I deal with history of fire departments and children in these departments, next I am focused on fire game "Plamen"(Flame) and also trainer personality. Research is focused on searching and evaluation of informations about preparation early school age children in fire sport in Benešov district.

  9. Environmental effects on school age child psychomotricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappellini, A C; Mancini, S; Zuffellato, S; Bini, F; Polcaro, P; Conti, A A; Molino Lova, R; Macchi, C

    2008-06-01

    This study had the following aims: to verify whether children living in different environmental areas present a different development degree of the functional prerequisites of psychomotricity; to test whether a targeted psychomotricity education program could favourably modify the potential differences which may be observed; to investigate the relationship, if any, between the anthropometric differences and the functional prerequisites of psychomotricity. One hundred and sixty-five Italian children, 83 males and 82 females, 6-7 years old were enrolled in this study. Based on the provenance area, the children were subdivided into two groups: the urban one (N=85) and the rural one (N=80). Both groups underwent an initial psychomotor assessment including standardised psychomotor tests aimed at evidencing the general dynamic coordination ability and the static and dynamic balance capacity of every child. The findings of this research point out that children living in an urban setting selectively showed a lower degree of balance development, if compared to children living in rural areas; a targeted psychomotor education program favourably modified the differences in the balance development between the two examined groups, up to their disappearance. In the urban group the body mass index had a trend towards a negative relationship with balance development. Children grown up in an urban environment showed a delay in balance development, if compared to children of the same age grown up in rural areas. This study also clearly proves that such a delay may be regained by means of a targeted psychomotor education program.

  10. ACTUAL ASPECTS OF SCHOOL MEALS, AGE APPROPRIATE PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the current state of school meals, determination of ways of optimization for food, biological values and balanced school meals relevant age-related physiological needs. The greatest contribution to the optimization of school meals can make enriched products of mass consumption, first of necessity, the need and favorite products to children. In this regard, the fol-lowing tasks were defined: analysis of normative documents on creation of school meals , the relevant age-related physiological needs for nutrients and energy for protein, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber and organic acids; definition of the balance of the products of the school menu categories for children aged 7-11 years, 11 - 17; study of the composition of food school menu; comparison of total deviation calorie Breakfast, lunch and development of measures on optimization of the system of school nutrition. In the structure of nutrition of children and adolescents major role bread, drinks, confectionery products as are the sources of energy and nutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, macro - and microelements, organic acids, including polyunsaturated fatty CI slot, Therefore one of the ways of solving of optimization problems of preschool and school meals are of great TRANS-perspective bakery and confectionery products, drinks of high food and biological value and coordination and composition, as on the basic structural elements and micronutrients obtained innovative technology complex processing of raw sources with maximum preservation of their original nutritional value. TA-thus, the performed literature analysis found that rational nutrition of schoolchildren aimed at prevention of alimentary (cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, allergic diseases that meet energy, plastic and other needs of the body, provides the necessary level of metabolism.

  11. Healthy ageing at work- Efficacy of group interventions on the mental health of nurses aged 45 and older: Results of a randomised, controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imad Maatouk

    Full Text Available This multicentre, randomised controlled trial (RCT aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a small-group intervention promoting successful ageing at work in older nurses (aged ≥45.A sample of 115 nurses aged ≥45 from 4 trial sites in Germany were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (IG, that received a small-group intervention of seven weekly sessions of 120 min with a booster session after six weeks or to a wait-list control condition (WLC. Outcomes were measured via validated self-report questionnaires at baseline (T1 and at post-treatment (T2. Primary outcomes were mental health-related well-being and mental health-related quality of life (QOL. The secondary outcomes included mental health-related and work-related measures.The intention to treat (ITT analysis showed significant positive effects of the intervention on mental health. A significant small effect (d = 0.3 in favour of the IG was found for psychological health-related quality of life. Positive small effects (d = 0.24 to d = 0.31 were also found for work related mental strain.Our small-group intervention based on a theory of successful ageing for nurses aged ≥45 was found to be effective with regard to improvements of psychological health related quality of life and other mental health-related outcomes. Thus, our study shows that the ageing workforce can be reached through specifically designed preventive interventions. The components of our intervention could be easily adapted to the belongings of other professions. Our results suggest that these components should be evaluated in various settings outside the healthcare sector.

  12. Relative Age Effect (RAE) in male school-aged rugby union players ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, a growing body of research shows that children are actually grouped biasedly, according to birthdate, not taking into account the physical and ... of Relative Age Effect (RAE) in school-aged male rugby union players in Gauteng, South Africa, so as to determine if there is an over-representation of relatively older ...

  13. Study protocol: a cluster randomised controlled trial of a school based fruit and vegetable intervention – Project Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conner Mark T

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The School Fruit and Vegetable Scheme (SFVS is an important public health intervention. The aim of this scheme is to provide a free piece of fruit and/or vegetable every day for children in Reception to Year 2. When children are no longer eligible for the scheme (from Year 3 their overall fruit and vegetable consumption decreases back to baseline levels. This proposed study aims to design a flexible multi-component intervention for schools to support the maintenance of fruit and vegetable consumption for Year 3 children who are no longer eligible for the scheme. Method This study is a cluster randomised controlled trial of Year 2 classes from 54 primary schools across England. The schools will be randomly allocated into two groups to receive either an active intervention called Project Tomato, to support maintenance of fruit intake in Year 3 children, or a less active intervention (control group, consisting of a 5 A DAY booklet. Children's diets will be analysed using the Child And Diet Evaluation Tool (CADET, and height and weight measurements collected, at baseline (Year 2 and 18 month follow-up (Year 4. The primary outcome will be the ability of the intervention (Project Tomato to maintain consumption of fruit and vegetable portions compared to the control group. Discussion A positive result will identify how fruit and vegetable consumption can be maintained in young children, and will be useful for policies supporting the SFVS. A negative result would be used to inform the research agenda and contribute to redefining future strategies for increasing children's fruit and vegetable consumption. Trial registration Medical Research Council Registry code G0501297

  14. Body Composition and Cardiovascular Health in School-aged children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klakk, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    -school to 6th grade) on health related outcomes in children. The objectives are: 1.To describe the Svendborg Project and the CHAMPS study-DK (paper I). 2.To evaluate the effect of four extra PE lessons per week in primary schools on body composition and weight status in children aged 8 to 13 (paper II). 3.To...... continued as usual (two PE lessons per week). A total of 1507 children (intervention n=773, control n=734) attending pre-school to the 4th grade in 2008 were invited to participate in the CHAMPS study-DK and 1218 (81%) children and their parents accepted. Height, weight, waist circumference, DXA scans...... and youth and plays an important role in the prevention of overweight and obesity and related morbidities. Schools are recognized as potentially effective settings for public health initiatives, as they access a large population of children and youth across a variety of ethnic and socioeconomic groups...

  15. Factors Influencing Obesity on School-Aged Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soepardi Soedibyo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available School-aged children of 6-12 year old in big cities have less physical activities and relax life style. Fast food and soft drink consumed contain high calorie and protein of protein and carbohydrate sources. Obesity has impact on children’s growth and development especially on psychosocial aspect. The factors that play a role in supporting the obesity occurrence in children include socio-economic condition, behavior and life style and diet. A cross sectional descriptive –analytic study was conducted on elementary school students in Jakarta, to identify factors that play roles on obesity of school-aged children. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:43-54Keywords: childhood obesity, weight shape index, body mass index

  16. Sonographic biometry of spleen among school age children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    among children population they studied. Thus the normal limits and percentile curves of the spleen among school age children were defined according to body weight in a Turkish population10. These differences with present study may be due to variations in race or different ethnic origins. There is no consensus on which.

  17. The age at menarche amongst secondary school girls in Sokoto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Several studies suggest that menarche tends to appear earlier in life as sanitary, nutritional and economic conditions of a society improve. Aim / Objective: To determine the age at menarche amongst secondary school girls in Sokoto metropolis and the influence of socio-economic status on this parameter.

  18. Nematode Parasitemia in School aged Children in Sapele, Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... nematode parasitemia in the sampled population may be due to the periodic flooding experienced in the study area. Regular antihelminths administration to school aged pupils and improved environmental sanitation are recommended control measures. Keywords: Sex-related parasitemia, specific nematode parasitemia, ...

  19. Asymptomatic intestinal protozoa in school age children in Pategi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Infectious Diseases ... The prevalence of intestinal asymptomatic protozoan infection was assessed (November, 2012 through May, 2013) among school age children in Pategi, Pategi Local Government ... The distribution of the parasites was E. histolytica/dispar (75.1), E. coli (18.8) and G. lamblia (6.1%).

  20. Self-Control in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Gendler, Tamar Szabó; Gross, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Conflicts between immediately rewarding activities and more enduringly valued goals abound in the lives of school-age children. Such conflicts call upon children to exercise self-control, a competence that depends in part on the mastery of metacognitive, prospective strategies. The "process model of self-control" organizes these…

  1. Teaching in the Age of Accountability: Restrained by School Culture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasebø, Turid Skarre; Midtsundstad, Jorunn H.; Willbergh, Ilmi

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we explore how "teaching communication" in the classroom is connected to school culture. In the age of accountability, the outcome focus force to the forefront, a "blame game" which either blames students' achievements on the teachers and teacher education, or the students and their socio-economic background. We…

  2. School-Aged Victims of Sexual Abuse: Implications for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wishon, Phillip M.

    Each year in the United States, thousands of school-aged children become involved in sexual activities arranged by adults for purposes of pleasure and profit. Nationwide, annual profits from the child pornography industry and from female and male child prostitution are in the tens of millions of dollars. Heretofore, the majority of…

  3. Anti-typhoid agglutinins in School aged African children | Ibadin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine baseline antibody responses to H and O antigens of Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi (A, B and C) in school aged Nigerian children. Design: Cross-sectional study involving 175 children. Using both rapid slide and tube agglutination techniques in dilutions of sera (1:20 to 1:320), ...

  4. Executive Dysfunction in School-Age Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambek, Rikke; Tannock, Rosemary; Dalsgaard, Soeren; Trillingsgaard, Anegen; Damm, Dorte; Thomsen, Per Hove

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The study examined executive function deficits (EFD) in school-age children (7 to 14 years) with ADHD. Method: A clinical sample of children diagnosed with ADHD (n = 49) was compared to a population sample (n = 196) on eight executive function (EF) measures. Then, the prevalence of EFD in clinical and non-clinical children was examined…

  5. Antityphoid agglutinins in African School aged children with malaria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antityphoid agglutinins in African School aged children with malaria .... Typhoid sep- ticaemia is readily fulminant unless early diagnosis is made and adequate therapy offered.2 The conventional method of culturing the offending Salmonella organism, in a bid ... of the disease, recourse is often made to other methods.

  6. School-based lifestyle education involving parents for reducing subjective psychosomatic symptoms in Japanese adolescents: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Junko; Watanabe, Mariko; Yamaoka, Kazue; Adachi, Misa; Nemoto, Asuka; Tango, Toshiro

    2018-02-16

    Severe subjective psychosomatic symptoms (SPS) in adolescents are a major public health concern, and lifestyle modification interventions for reducing SPS are important topics. Recently, we developed a school-based lifestyle education involving parents for reducing SPS of adolescents (SPRAT), an improved version of the programme from our previous study Programme for adolescent of lifestyle education in Kumamoto (PADOK). This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of SPRAT in reducing SPS among adolescents. This is a 6-month, cluster randomised clinical trial with two intervention arms (SPRAT vs usual school education). The study population will be composed of middle school students (aged 12-14 years) with their parents/guardians in Japan. SPRAT is expected to be a more powerful programme than PADOK as it reinforces the role of parent participation. The primary endpoint will be the change from baseline SPS scores to those obtained after 6 months. Between-group differences will be analysed following the intention-to-treat principle. Crude and multivariate adjusted effects will be examined using a general linear mixed-effects model for continuous variables and a logistic regression model for dichotomous variables. The sample size required was determined based on the information needed to detect a difference in the primary outcome with a significance level of 5% and power of 80% under the assumptions of 40 students per cluster (assuming the same sample size for each cluster), an effect size of 0.3 and an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.02. In total, participation by 28 schools (14 schools in each arm) (students: n=1120) will be needed. This study was approved by the Medical Ethical Committee of Minami Kyushu University in 2017 (number 137). The findings will be disseminated widely through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. UMIN000026715; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the

  7. Effect of mammographic screening from age 40 years on breast cancer mortality in the UK Age trial at 17 years' follow-up: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Sue M; Wale, Christopher; Smith, Robert; Evans, Andrew; Cuckle, Howard; Duffy, Stephen W

    2015-09-01

    Age-specific effects of mammographic screening, and the timing of such effects, are a matter of debate. The results of the UK Age trial, which compared the effect of invitation to annual mammographic screening from age 40 years with commencement of screening at age 50 years on breast cancer mortality, have been reported at 10 years of follow-up and showed no significant difference in mortality between the trial groups. Here, we report the results of the UK Age trial after 17 years of follow-up. Women aged 39-41 from 23 UK NHS Breast Screening Programme units years were randomly assigned by individual randomisation (1:2) to either an intervention group offered annual screening by mammography up to and including the calendar year of their 48th birthday or to a control group receiving usual medical care (invited for screening at age 50 years and every 3 years thereafter). Both groups were stratified by general practice. We compared breast cancer incidence and mortality by time since randomisation. Analyses included all women randomly assigned who could be traced with the National Health Service Central Register and who had not died or emigrated before entry. The primary outcome measures were mortality from breast cancer (defined as deaths with breast cancer coded as the underlying cause of death) and breast cancer incidence, including in-situ, invasive, and total incidence. Because there is an interest in the timing of the mortality effect, we analysed the results in different follow-up periods. This trial is registered, number ISRCTN24647151. Between Oct 14, 1990, and Sept 25, 1997, 160 921 participants were randomly assigned; 53 883 women in the intervention group and 106 953 assigned to usual medical care were included in this analysis. After a median follow-up of 17 years (IQR 16·8-18·8), the rate ratio (RR) for breast cancer mortality was 0·88 (95% CI 0·74-1·04) from tumours diagnosed during the intervention phase. A significant reduction in breast cancer

  8. Anisometropia prevalence in a highly astigmatic school-aged population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Velma; Harvey, Erin M; Miller, Joseph M; Clifford-Donaldson, Candice E

    2008-07-01

    To describe prevalence of anisometropia, defined in terms of both sphere and cylinder, examined cross-sectionally, in school-aged members of a Native American tribe with a high prevalence of astigmatism. Cycloplegic autorefraction measurements, confirmed by retinoscopy and, when possible, by subjective refraction were obtained from 1041 Tohono O'odham children, 4 to 13 years of age. Astigmatism > or =1.00 diopter (D) was present in one or both eyes of 462 children (44.4%). Anisometropia > or =1.00 D spherical equivalent (SE) was found in 70 children (6.7%), and anisometropia > or =1.00 D cylinder was found in 156 children (15.0%). Prevalence of anisometropia did not vary significantly with age or gender. Overall prevalence of significant anisometropia was 18.1% for a difference between eyes > or =1.00 D SE or cylinder. Vector analysis of between-eye differences showed a prevalence of significant anisometropia of 25.3% for one type of vector notation (difference between eyes > or =1.00 D for M and/or > or =0.50 D for J0 or J45), and 16.2% for a second type of vector notation (between-eye vector dioptric difference > or =1.41). Prevalence of SE anisometropia is similar to that reported for other school-aged populations. However, prevalence of astigmatic anisometropia is higher than that reported for other school-aged populations.

  9. High Prevalence of Vitamin A Deficiency in School Age Children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    5s, but also to children of school age group. Programmes at reducing vitamin A deficiency in this country should therefore incorporate children in this age group. Keywords: Vitamin A deficiency, School aged children, Prevalence ...

  10. Knowledge before School-Age, Is Power during School-Age: A Study of Urban Preschool and the Learning Disabled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tylia

    2013-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine if urban preschool decreased the likelihood of future identification of learning disabled (LD). According to the Child Development Institute (2010) and the Learning Disabilities Association of America (2010), four to ten percent of the school-aged students in this country are learning disabled.…

  11. DIETARY HABITS OF SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN IN TBILISI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebonia, N; Trapaidze, D; Kvanchakhadze, R; Zhizhilashvili, S; Kasradze, N

    2015-11-01

    Study Goal was to determine dietary habits in school-aged children. Sampling of children was conducted in two stages. In the first stage, five schools in Nadzaladevi district of city Tbilisi were randomly selected. On the second stage the study groups from the appropriate school-aged students (10-14 years old children) were also randomly selected. All student participants filled out standardized and adopted questionnaires suggested by the American Academy of family physicians. Data were analyzed by using EpiInfo 7th version. Statistical analyses looked at correlations between criteria of unhealthy diet (such as morning without breakfast, frequent consumption of non-alcoholic beverages and fast food products) and overweight/obesity. A Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated by using CDC tool. 175 children with ages of 10-14 years (47% boys) were included and interviewed. Half of the children noted that they love or like fast food products. 10% - visits fast food places 2-3 times a week together with a family. 11% - visits fast food places 5 times a week and even more. 34% - do not start morning with breakfast; 15% - eat only twice a day; 26% - add salt to their dishes; 58% - drink non-alcoholic beverages every day or many times during a week; 24% - are overweight; 29% suffer from obesity; 25% noted that fast food places are located near schools. Very weak correlation was found between unhealthy diet (morning without breakfast, frequent consumption of non-alcoholic beverages and fast food products) and overweight/obesity. According to study results, dietary habits of school-age children in Tbilisi is unhealthy; to improve nutritional habits is essential: (1) promote consumer (students, parents and teachers) awareness on a healthy diet, (2) educate children, adolescents and adults about nutrition and healthy dietary practices, (3) encourage to raise awareness about the salt consumption in recommended doses in children.

  12. Protective efficacy of standard Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccination in infants aged 4.5 months: interim analysis of a randomised clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, C.L.; Garly, May-Lill; Bale, C.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine the protective efficacy of measles vaccination in infants in a low income country before 9 months of age. Design Randomised clinical trial. Participants 1333 infants aged 4.5 months: 441 in treatment group and 892 in control group. Setting Urban area in Guinea-Bissau. Interve......Objective To examine the protective efficacy of measles vaccination in infants in a low income country before 9 months of age. Design Randomised clinical trial. Participants 1333 infants aged 4.5 months: 441 in treatment group and 892 in control group. Setting Urban area in Guinea......-Bissau. Intervention Measles vaccination using standard titre Edmonston-Zagreb vaccine at 4.5 months of age. Main outcome measures Vaccine efficacy against measles infection, admission to hospital for measles, and measles mortality before standard vaccination at 9 months of age. Results 28% of the children tested at 4.......5 months of age had protective levels of maternal antibodies against measles at enrolment. After early vaccination against measles 92% had measles antibodies at 9 months of age. A measles outbreak offered a unique situation for testing the efficacy of early measles vaccination. During the outbreak, 96...

  13. A school based cluster randomised health education intervention trial for improving knowledge and attitudes related to Taenia solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in Mbulu district, northern Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvester A Mwidunda

    Full Text Available Taenia solium causes significant economic and public health impacts in endemic countries. This study determined effectiveness of a health education intervention at improving school children's knowledge and attitudes related to T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in Tanzania. A cluster randomised controlled health education intervention trial was conducted in 60 schools (30 primary, 30 secondary in Mbulu district. Baseline data were collected using a structured questionnaire in the 60 schools and group discussions in three other schools. The 60 schools stratified by baseline knowledge were randomised to receive the intervention or serve as control. The health education consisted of an address by a trained teacher, a video show and a leaflet given to each pupil. Two post-intervention re-assessments (immediately and 6 months post-intervention were conducted in all schools and the third (12 months post-intervention was conducted in 28 secondary schools. Data were analysed using Bayesian hierarchical log-binomial models for individual knowledge and attitude questions and Bayesian hierarchical linear regression models for scores. The overall score (percentage of correct answers improved by about 10% in all schools after 6 months, but was slightly lower among secondary schools. Monitoring alone was associated with improvement in scores by about 6%. The intervention was linked to improvements in knowledge regarding taeniasis, porcine cysticercosis, human cysticercosis, epilepsy, the attitude of condemning infected meat but it reduced the attitude of contacting a veterinarian if a pig was found to be infected with cysticercosis. Monitoring alone was linked to an improvement in how best to raise pigs. This study demonstrates the potential value of school children as targets for health messages to control T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in endemic areas. Studies are needed to assess effectiveness of message transmission from children to parents and

  14. A randomised controlled feasibility trial for an educational school-based mental health intervention: study protocol

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chisholm, Katharine Elizabeth; Patterson, Paul; Torgerson, Carole; Turner, Erin; Birchwood, Max

    2012-01-01

    ... £22.5 billion a year 1, coupled with growing evidence that many mental disorders have their origins in adolescence, there is increasing pressure for schools to address the emotional well-being of their...

  15. Creativity and physical fitness in primary school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre Román, Pedro Ángel; Pinillos, Felipe García; Pantoja Vallejo, Antonio; Berrios Aguayo, Beatriz

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between creativity and physical fitness in elementary school children. Data were collected from 308 primary school students in southern Spain, ranging in age from 8 to 12 years (mean, 9.72 ± 1.25 years). They completed a fitness test battery, and the Prueba de Imaginación Creativa para Niños (PIC-N; Creative Imagination Test for Children) to analyze creativity. Significant differences were found between the sexes. Boys had better physical fitness but there were no sex differences in creativity. On clusters analysis, the highly creative groups had better physical fitness. Creativity was correlated with physical fitness. Aerobic capacity was a predictor of creativity. There is an association between creativity and physical fitness in primary school children that may have important implications for academic achievement. © 2017 Japan Pediatric Society.

  16. Assessment of anaemia and iron status of school age children (aged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -12 years in some rural communities in Nigeria as well as identify factors associated with anemia in the children. A total of 249 school children, 120 males and 129 females aged between 7-12 years were used in the study. Haemomoglobin ...

  17. Alterations in neural connectivity in preterm children at school age

    OpenAIRE

    Gozzo, Yeisid; Vohr, Betty; Lacadie, Cheryl; Hampson, Michelle; Katz, Karol H.; Maller-Kesselman, Jill; Schneider, Karen C.; Peterson, Bradley S.; Rajeevan, Nallakkandi; Makuch, Robert W.; Constable, R. Todd; Ment, Laura R.

    2009-01-01

    Converging data suggest recovery from injury in the preterm brain. We used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to test the hypothesis that cerebral connectivity involving Wernicke’s area and other important cortical language regions would differ between preterm (PT) and term (T) control school age children during performance of an auditory language task. Fifty-four PT children (600 – 1250 g birth weight) and 24 T controls were evaluated using an fMRI passive language task and neurode...

  18. Nutritional anaemia and malaria in preschool and school age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anumudu, C; Afolami, M; Igwe, C; Nwagwu, M; Keshinro, O

    2008-03-01

    The most common cause of anemia is a deficiency of iron; but it may also be caused by deficiencies of folates, vitamin B12 and protein. Some anemias are not caused by nutritional factors, but by congenital factors and parasitic diseases such as malaria. This study attempted to estimate the prevalence of anemia among pre-school and school- aged children in two rural areas of Odogbolu Local government area, and to determine whether its cause was nutritional or could be attributed to malaria. A total of 177 children between the ages of 2 and 11 years were included in the study. Children were examined for malaria parasites by microscopy. The World Health Organization (WHO) age-adjusted cut-off for hemoglobin and hematocrit were used to classify anemia. An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for serum ferritin was compared with standard methods of determining iron deficiency. Under-nutrition (stunting, wasting and underweight) was classified according to the National Centre for Health Statistics standards. Values below-2SD were defined as mild-moderate under-nutrition, and those below-3SD as severe malnutrition. Most of the children were anemic, 87.1%, having PCV values below the 32% cut-off and 95% with hemoglobin levels lower than the 11 g/dl, although parasite prevalence and density were low. Malnutrition was patent; 36% of the children were stunted, 18.3% wasted and 44.2% underweight. Serum ferritin was more sensitive than PCV in detecting anemic children. Although anemia was higher in boys and preschoolers compared to girls and school aged children, the difference was significant only in preschoolers (P? = ?.004). Anaemia was also significantly higher in Irawo village school than in Iloti (P? = ?.0001) The anemia detected in this population may be due more to under-nutrition than to malaria.

  19. The effects of Nordic school meals on concentration and school performance in 8- to 11-year-old children in the OPUS School Meal Study: a cluster-randomised, controlled, cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Louise B; Dyssegaard, Camilla B; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Petersen, Rikke A; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Hjorth, Mads F; Andersen, Rikke; Tetens, Inge; Ritz, Christian; Astrup, Arne; Lauritzen, Lotte; Michaelsen, Kim F; Egelund, Niels

    2015-04-28

    It is widely assumed that nutrition can improve school performance in children; however, evidence remains limited and inconclusive. In the present study, we investigated whether serving healthy school meals influenced concentration and school performance of 8- to 11-year-old Danish children. The OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet) School Meal Study was a cluster-randomised, controlled, cross-over trial comparing a healthy school meal programme with the usual packed lunch from home (control) each for 3 months (NCT 01457794). The d2 test of attention, the Learning Rating Scale (LRS) and standard tests on reading and mathematics proficiency were administered at baseline and at the end of each study period. Intervention effects were evaluated using hierarchical mixed models. The school meal intervention did not influence concentration performance (CP; primary outcome, n 693) or processing speed; however, the decrease in error percentage was 0·18 points smaller (Pschool year. The percentage of correct sentences also improved (Pperformance or outcomes from the LRS. In conclusion, school meals did not affect CP, but improved reading performance, which is a complex cognitive activity that involves inference, and increased errors related to impulsivity and inattention. These findings are worth examining in future trials.

  20. The development of associate learning in school age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Brian T; Pietrzak, Robert H; Snyder, Peter J; Thomas, Elizabeth; Mayes, Linda C; Maruff, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Associate learning is fundamental to the acquisition of knowledge and plays a critical role in the everyday functioning of the developing child, though the developmental course is still unclear. This study investigated the development of visual associate learning in 125 school age children using the Continuous Paired Associate Learning task. As hypothesized, younger children made more errors than older children across all memory loads and evidenced decreased learning efficiency as memory load increased. Results suggest that age-related differences in performance largely reflect continued development of executive function in the context of relatively developed memory processes.

  1. Child Sexual Behaviors in School Context: Age and Gender Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miragoli, Sarah; Camisasca, Elena; Di Blasio, Paola

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to explore the child sexual behaviors that Italian teachers have observed in the school context. A representative sample of 227 children, from 5 to 10 years old, was rated by their teachers through the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory. Frequencies of sexual behaviors among children aged 5 to 6, 7 to 8, and 9 to 10 are presented. Younger children showed a broader range of sexual behaviors that decrease with the growing age, such as males in comparison to females. Moreover, findings showed that child sexual behavior is not only related to age and gender but also to family characteristics. These results suggested that child sexual behaviors reported by teachers through the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory may provide useful information about the development of children's sexuality. The knowledge of age appropriate sexual behaviors can help teachers discern normal sexual behaviors from problematic sexual behaviors.

  2. DYSPRAXIA AS A PSYCHOMOTOR DISORDER OF SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Nowak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the study was to define the epidemiology of dyspraxia among children from 6 to10 years’ age, attending grades I-III of primary schools in Wrocław, Poland. Material: the study was conducted among pupils of primary schools in Wrocław, Poland. The studied groups included 48 girls and 52 boys. The study employed Polish version of Questionnaire for the screening assessment of dyspraxia’s occurrence among children from 5 to 15 years’ age (DCDQ-PL, as well as the Coordination Test for Children (KTK. Results. After assessing the occurrence of dyspraxia among studied children, it was found out that this disorder is present in the studied group. The prevalence of dyspraxia depends on studied children’s gender; however, it is not related to their age. The results of tests, conducted with the DCDQ-PL and the KTK are consistent and confirm the observed inter-dependencies. Conclusions. Dyspraxia is a widespread psychomotor disorder, which can be diagnosed among children in the early school years. A diagnosis of a child’s development with respect to this disorder should constitute a constant element of work for teachers and educationists dealing with children at this stage of education.

  3. Age Trajectories of Poverty During Childhood and High School Graduation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dohoon Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines distinct trajectories of childhood exposure to poverty and provides estimates of their effect on high school graduation. The analysis incorporates three key insights from the life course and human capital formation literatures: (1 the temporal dimensions of exposure to poverty, that is, timing, duration, stability, and sequencing, are confounded with one another; (2 age-varying exposure to poverty not only affects, but also is affected by, other factors that vary with age; and (3 the effect of poverty trajectories is heterogeneous across racial and ethnic groups. Results from the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth show that any extended exposures to poverty substantially lower children’s odds of graduating from high school. Persistent, early, and middle-to-late childhood exposures to poverty reduce the odds of high school graduation by 77 percent, 55 percent, and 58 percent, respectively, compared to no childhood exposure to poverty. The findings thus suggest that the impact of poverty trajectories is insensitive to observed age-varying confounders. These impacts are more pronounced for white children than for black and Hispanic children.

  4. Randomised controlled trial of school-based humanistic counselling for emotional distress in young people: Feasibility study and preliminary indications of efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Aims The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial comparing six weeks of humanistic school-based counselling versus waiting list in the reduction of emotional distress in young people, and to obtain initial indications of efficacy. Methods Following a screening procedure, young people (13 - 15 years old) who experienced emotional distress were randomised to either humanistic counselling or waiting list in this multi-site study. Outcomes were assessed using a range of self-report mental health measures, with the emotional symptoms subscale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) acting as the primary outcome indicator. Results Recruitment procedures were successful, with 32 young people consenting to participate in the trial and 27 completing endpoint measures. Trial procedures were acceptable to all involved in the research. No significant differences were found between the counselling and waiting list groups in reductions in levels of emotional symptoms (Hedges' g = 0.03), but clients allocated to counselling showed significantly greater improvement in prosocial behaviour (g = 0.89) with an average effect size (g) across the nine outcome measures of 0.25. Participants with higher levels of depressive symptoms showed significantly greater change. Conclusion This study suggested that a randomised controlled trial of counselling in schools is acceptable and feasible, although initial indications of efficacy are mixed. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN68290510. PMID:20412578

  5. Poor toddler-age sleep schedules predict school-age behavioral disorders in a longitudinal survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Katsuhiro; Yorifuji, Takashi; Yamakawa, Michiyo; Oka, Makio; Inoue, Sachiko; Yoshinaga, Harumi; Doi, Hiroyuki

    2015-06-01

    Behavioral problems are often associated with poor sleep habits in children. We investigated whether undesirable toddler-age sleep schedules may be related to school-age behavioral problems. We analyzed the data of a nationwide longitudinal survey with available results from 2001 to 2011. The participants were 41,890 children. The predictors were waking time and bedtime at 2years of age, and the outcomes were assessed by determining the presence or absence of three attention problems and four aggressiveness problems at 8years of age. In logistic regression models with adjustments for confounding factors, we estimated odds ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between toddler sleep schedules and behavior during primary-school age years. The outcomes of attention problems and aggressiveness problems were observed in 1.7% and 1.2% of children, respectively, at 8years of age. The OR of an irregular or late morning waking time at 2years of age with the outcome of aggressiveness problems was 1.52 (95% CI, 1.04-2.22) in comparison to an early waking time. The OR of an irregular or late bedtime with attention problems was 1.62 (95% CI, 1.12-2.36), and the OR of an irregular or late bedtime with aggressiveness problems was 1.81 (95% CI, 1.19-2.77) in comparison to an early bedtime. Poor toddler-age sleep schedules were found to predict behavioral problems during primary-school age years. Thus, good and regular sleep habits appear to be important for young children's healthy development. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect and cost of an after-school dance programme on the physical activity of 11-12 year old girls: The Bristol Girls Dance Project, a school-based cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, Russell; Edwards, Mark J; Sebire, Simon J; Tomkinson, Keeley; Bird, Emma L; Banfield, Kathryn; May, Thomas; Kesten, Joanna M; Cooper, Ashley R; Powell, Jane E; Blair, Peter S

    2015-10-06

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness and cost of an after-school dance intervention at increasing the physical activity levels of Year 7 girls (age 11-12). A cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted in 18 secondary schools. Participants were Year 7 girls attending a study school. The Bristol Girls Dance Project (BGDP) intervention consisted of up to forty, 75-minute dance sessions delivered in the period immediately after school by experienced dance instructors over 20-weeks. The pre-specified primary outcome was accelerometer assessed mean minutes of weekday moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) at time 2 (52 weeks are T0 baseline assessments). Secondary outcomes included accelerometer assessed mean minutes of weekday MVPA at time 1 (while the intervention was still running) and psychosocial outcomes. Intervention costs were assessed. 571 girls participated. Valid accelerometer data were collected from 549 girls at baseline with 508 girls providing valid accelerometer data at baseline and time 2. There were no differences between the intervention and control group for accelerometer assessed physical activity at either time 1 or time 2. Only one third of the girls in the intervention arm met the pre-set adherence criteria of attending two thirds of the dance sessions that were available to them. Instrumental variable regression analyses using complier average causal effects provided no evidence of a difference between girls who attended the sessions and the control group. The average cost of the intervention was £73 per girl, which was reduced to £63 when dance instructor travel expenses were excluded. This trial showed no evidence that an after-school dance programme can increase the physical activity of Year 7 girls. The trial highlighted the difficulty encountered in maintaining attendance in physical activity programmes delivered in secondary schools. There is a need to find new ways to help adolescent girls to be

  7. Effectiveness of a pragmatic school-based universal resilience intervention in reducing tobacco, alcohol and illicit substance use in a population of adolescents: cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodder, Rebecca Kate; Freund, Megan; Bowman, Jenny; Wolfenden, Luke; Campbell, Elizabeth; Dray, Julia; Lecathelinais, Christophe; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Attia, John; Wiggers, John

    2017-08-18

    Initiation of tobacco, alcohol and illicit substance use typically occurs during adolescence, with the school setting recommended to reduce adolescent substance use. Strengthening individual (eg, problem solving) and environmental (eg, caring relationships at school) resilience protective factors of adolescents has been suggested as a strategy for reducing substance use by adolescents; however, few studies have examined this potential. A study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of a pragmatic school-based universal 'resilience' intervention in reducing the prevalence of tobacco, alcohol and illicit substance use, and increasing the individual and environmental protective factors of students. A cluster-randomised controlled trial. Thirty-two Australian secondary schools (20 intervention; 12 control). Cohort of grade 7 students followed-up in grade 10 (2014; aged 15-16 years). A pragmatic intervention involving school staff selection and implementation of available programmes and resources targeting individual and environmental 'resilience' protective factors for all grade 7-10 students was implemented in schools (2012-2014). School staff were provided implementation support. An online survey collected baseline and follow-up data for primary outcomes: tobacco (ever, recent) and alcohol (ever, recent, 'risk') use, and secondary outcomes: marijuana and other illicit substance use, and individual (six-factor subscales, aggregate) and environmental (three-factor subscales, aggregate) protective factor scores. Generalised and linear mixed models examined follow-up differences between groups. Follow-up data from 2105 students (intervention=1261; control=844; 69% of baseline cohort) were analysed. No significant differences were found between intervention and control students for any primary (ever tobacco: OR 1.25, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.68, p=0.14; recent tobacco: OR 1.39, 95% CI 0.84 to 2.31, p=0.19; recent ever alcohol: OR 1.11, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.48, p=0

  8. Predicting ADHD in school age when using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in preschool age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rimvall, Martin K; Elberling, Hanne; Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka

    2014-01-01

    Indicated prevention of ADHD may reduce impairment and need of treatment in youth. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is a brief questionnaire assessing child mental health, reported to be a valid screening instrument for concurrent ADHD. This study aimed to examine the validity...... of using the SDQ in preschool age to predict ADHD in school age in a longitudinal design. The study population included 2,315 children from the Copenhagen child cohort 2000 with no prior history of clinically diagnosed ADHD, who were assessed at age 5-7 years by the SDQ completed by parents and preschool...

  9. Arterial hypertension and pulse pressure in school-age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. M. Nechytailo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Childhood arterial hypertension (AH has become a global problem not only for pediatrics, but also for public health in general. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of arterial hypertension among school-age children and diagnostic value of pulse pressure. Materials and Methods. In total 848 children in 10–17 years of age (mean age – 13.9 ± 0.06 years, 45.4 % boys and 54.6 % girls from urban and rural areas of Chernivtsi region were examined in schools during screening for elevated blood pressure (BP. School-based ambulatory seated BP was measured by oscillometric automated recording devices with the age selection of cuffs. Elevated systolic (SAP or diastolic (DAP pressure was diagnosed in those children with indicators above the 95th percentile of age norms in accordance with the national normative values. In cases of elevated BP the measurements were verificated by aneroid device. Results. It has been established that the frequency of high blood pressure in the examined school students was 25.2 %, including 17.7 % of arterial hypertension (BP above 95 percentile and 7.5 % – pre-hypertension (90–95 percentile. The prevalence of hypertension varied with age subgroups and the highest level was in 16 years of age – 29.9 % with high blood pressure (21.9 % above 95 percentile and 8.0 % between the 90th and 95th percentiles. Increased SAP was combined with an increased DAP in 47.3 % of cases and in the study had a positive correlation with overweight (r = 0.27, p < 0.05 and negative with physical performance (r = -0.21, p < 0.05. The pulse pressure had significant correlations with SAP, AH and overweight and it could be used as additional diagnostic index of AH. Conclusions. The prevalence of elevated BP in our study is higher than in European countries and exceeds 20 % of the child population. The elevated BP in our children has positive correlation with overweight and the negative with physical performance. The

  10. Sleep architecture in school-aged children with primary snoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yin; Au, Chun-Ting; Lam, Hugh S; Chan, Ching-Ching K; Ho, Crover; Wing, Yun-Kwok; Li, Albert M

    2014-03-01

    We aimed to examine if sleep architecture was altered in school-aged children with primary snoring (PS). Children ages 6 to 13 years from 13 primary schools were randomly recruited. A validated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) screening questionnaire was completed by their parents. Children at high risk for OSA and a randomly chosen low-risk group were invited to undergo overnight polysomnography (PSG) and clinical examination. Participants were classified into healthy controls, PS, mild OSA, and moderate to severe OSA (MS OSA) groups for comparison. A total of 619 participants underwent PSG (mean age, 10.0 ± 1.8 years; 396 (64.0%) boys; 524 (84.7%) prepubertal). For the cohort as a whole, there were no significant differences in measures of sleep architecture between PS and nonsnoring healthy controls. In the multiple regression model, percentage of nonrapid eye movement (NREM) stage 1 (N1) sleep had a significantly positive association, whereas percentage of slow-wave sleep (SWS) had a significantly negative association with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) severity after controlling for age, gender, body mass index (BMI) z score, and pubertal status. In prepubertal children with PS, no significant disruption of sleep architecture was found. However, pubertal adolescent PS participants had significantly higher adjusted percentage of N1 sleep and wake after sleep onset (WASO) compared to healthy controls. PS did not exert significant adverse influences on normal sleep architecture in prepubertal school-aged children. Nevertheless, pubertal adolescents with PS had increased N1 sleep and WASO. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Suicide in Elementary School-Aged Children and Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheftall, Arielle H; Asti, Lindsey; Horowitz, Lisa M; Felts, Adrienne; Fontanella, Cynthia A; Campo, John V; Bridge, Jeffrey A

    2016-10-01

    Suicide in elementary school-aged children is not well studied, despite a recent increase in the suicide rate among US black children. The objectives of this study were to describe characteristics and precipitating circumstances of suicide in elementary school-aged children relative to early adolescent decedents and identify potential within-group racial differences. We analyzed National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) surveillance data capturing suicide deaths from 2003 to 2012 for 17 US states. Participants included all suicide decedents aged 5 to 14 years (N = 693). Age group comparisons (5-11 years and 12-14 years) were conducted by using the χ 2 test or Fisher's exact test, as appropriate. Compared with early adolescents who died by suicide, children who died by suicide were more commonly male, black, died by hanging/strangulation/suffocation, and died at home. Children who died by suicide more often experienced relationship problems with family members/friends (60.3% vs 46.0%; P = .02) and less often experienced boyfriend/girlfriend problems (0% vs 16.0%; P suicide note (7.7% vs 30.2%; P suicide decedents with known mental health problems (n = 210), childhood decedents more often experienced attention-deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (59.3% vs 29.0%; P = .002) and less often experienced depression/dysthymia (33.3% vs 65.6%; P = .001) compared with early adolescent decedents. These findings raise questions about impulsive responding to psychosocial adversity in younger suicide decedents, and they suggest a need for both common and developmentally-specific suicide prevention strategies during the elementary school-aged and early adolescent years. Further research should investigate factors associated with the recent increase in suicide rates among black children. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. Longitudinal Predictors of School-Age Academic Achievement: Unique Contributions of Toddler-Age Aggression, Oppositionality, Inattention, and Hyperactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Lauretta M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Wilson, Melvin

    2012-01-01

    This project examined the unique predictive validity of parent ratings of toddler-age aggression, oppositionality, inattention, and hyperactivity-impulsivity to academic achievement at school-age in a sample of 566 high-risk children and families. The study also investigated potential indirect effects of the Family Check-Up on school-age academic…

  13. Randomised controlled feasibility study of a school-based multi-level intervention to increase physical activity and decrease sedentary behaviour among vocational school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankonen, Nelli; Heino, Matti T J; Hynynen, Sini-Tuuli; Laine, Hanna; Araújo-Soares, Vera; Sniehotta, Falko F; Vasankari, Tommi; Sund, Reijo; Haukkala, Ari

    2017-03-21

    No school-based physical activity (PA) interventions among older adolescents have demonstrated long-term effectiveness, and few of them so far have addressed sedentary behaviour (SB). Based on behavioural theories and evidence, we designed a multi-level intervention to increase PA and decrease SB among vocational school students. This study investigates feasibility and acceptability of two main intervention components and research procedures. We also examine uptake of behaviour change techniques (BCTs) by the participants. Design was an outcome assessor blinded, cluster-randomised controlled trial. Four classes of students (matched pairs) were randomised into one intervention and one control arm. The intervention consisted of (1) a 6-h group-based intervention for students, (2) two 2-h training workshops to reduce their students' sitting in class for teachers, and (3) provision of light PA equipment in classrooms. At baseline (T1), mid-intervention (T2) at 3 weeks, post-intervention (T3) and 6 months after baseline (T4) we measured hypothesised psychosocial mediators and self-reported PA and sitting. Objective assessment of PA and SB (7-day accelerometry) was conducted at T1, T3 and T4. Body composition (bioimpedance) was measured at T1 and T4. Students and teachers in the intervention arm filled in acceptability questionnaires at T3. Recruitment rate was 64% (students) and 88.9% (teachers), and at T3, all post-intervention measurements were completed by 33 students (retention 76.7%) and 15 teachers (retention 93.8%). Acceptability ratings of sessions were high (students M = 6.29, scale 1-7), and data collection procedures were feasible. Intervention arm students reported increased use of BCTs, but uptake of some key BCTs was suboptimal. BCT use correlated highly with objective measures of PA. Based on both self-report and student evaluation, teachers in the intervention arm increased the use of sitting reduction strategies at post-intervention and T4 follow

  14. A follow-up of a randomised study of metformin and insulin in gestational diabetes mellitus: growth and development of the children at the age of 18 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijäs, H; Vääräsmäki, M; Saarela, T; Keravuo, R; Raudaskoski, T

    2015-06-01

    To compare the growth and development of children born to mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) requiring pharmacological treatment, and randomised to treatment with metformin or insulin. Follow-up of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing metformin and insulin treatment of GDM. Data were gathered during routine visits to child welfare clinics at the ages of 6, 12, and 18 months, including weight and height measurements, and assessment of motor, social, and linguistic development. The children of mothers with GDM randomised to metformin (n = 47) or insulin (n = 50) treatment during pregnancy. Data were collected from the structured questionnaire filled in at the child welfare clinics. The growth and development of the children until the age of 18 months. Children exposed to metformin were significantly heavier (10.47 versus 9.85 kg, 95% CI 0.04-1.20) at the age of 12 months and taller and heavier (83.9 vs 82.2 cm, 95% CI 0.23-3.03, 12.05 vs 11.32 kg, 95% CI 0.04-1.43) at the age of 18 months. The mean ponderal index (PI) did not differ significantly. The motor, social, or linguistic development evaluated at the age of 18 months did not differ between the groups. Children prenatally exposed to metformin were heavier at the 12 months measurements and taller and heavier at the 18 months measurements than those exposed to insulin, but their body composition defined by PI did not differ. Over the short term, metformin does not seem to be harmful with regards to early motor, linguistic, or social development. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  15. Money and age in schools: Bullying and power imbalances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaux, Enrique; Castellanos, Melisa

    2015-05-01

    School bullying continues to be a serious problem around the world. Thus, it seems crucial to clearly identify the risk factors associated with being a victim or a bully. The current study focused in particular on the role that age and socio-economic differences between classmates could play on bullying. Logistic and multilevel analyses were conducted using data from 53,316 5th and 9th grade students from a representative sample of public and private Colombian schools. Higher age and better family socio-economic conditions than classmates were risk factors associated with being a bully, while younger age and poorer socio-economic conditions than classmates were associated with being a victim of bullying. Coming from authoritarian families or violent neighborhoods, and supporting beliefs legitimizing aggression, were also associated with bullying and victimization. Empathy was negatively associated with being a bully, and in some cases positively associated with being a victim. The results highlight the need to take into account possible sources of power imbalances, such as age and socio-economic differences among classmates, when seeking to prevent bullying. In particular, interventions focused on peer group dynamics might contribute to avoid power imbalances or to prevent power imbalances from becoming power abuse. Aggr. Behav. 41:280-293, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Changes in ADHD symptom endorsement: preschool to school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curchack-Lichtin, Jocelyn T; Chacko, Anil; Halperin, Jeffrey M

    2014-08-01

    To investigate endorsement patterns among the 18 DSM-IV symptoms of ADHD in a longitudinal sample of children with and without ADHD (n = 144), as assessed at ages 4-5, 5-6, and 6-7 years. Symptom endorsements and diagnoses were determined at all time-points via K-SADS-PL interview administered to parents and supplemented by teacher questionnaires and clinician observations. Changes in endorsement patterns over time for each of the 18 DSM-IV symptoms were ascertained. Several symptoms, particularly those of inattention, were infrequently endorsed and of apparently limited diagnostic utility at ages 4-5; hyperactive/impulsive symptoms were more frequently endorsed among young children with ADHD than were inattentive symptoms. However, by ages 6-7, inattention items were somewhat superior at discriminating ADHD from Non-ADHD children. Several DSM-IV and now DSM-V symptoms provide limited diagnostic differentiation prior to school-age, particularly those most commonly observed in the context of formal schooling. Consideration should be made in future iterations of the DSM that account for such developmental and contextual differences.

  17. Nursing intervention by telephone interviews of patients aged over 65 years after total hip replacement improves health status: a randomised clinical trial Nursing intervention by telephone interviews of patients aged over 65 years after total hip replacement improves health status: a randomised

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hørdam, Britta

    2010-01-01

    Nursing intervention by telephone interviews of patients aged over 65 years after total hip replacement improves health status: a randomised clinical trial Objective: We hypothesised that all areas of health status after total hip replacement could be improved in patients aged over 65 years...... postoperatively was carried out. Sample: 180 patients aged 65 years and over were randomised 4 weeks preoperatively to either control or intervention groups. Measurements: both groups received conventional surgical treatment, but the intervention group was interviewed by telephone 2 and 10 weeks after surgery....... Patients were given counselling within eight main dimensions with reference to their postoperative situation. Results: All patients experienced improvement in health status. The intervention significantly reduced the time patients needed to reach their habitual levels in three of eight areas...

  18. A Randomised Controlled Trial Comparing the Impact of Yoga and Physical Education on the Emotional and Behavioural Functioning of Middle School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haden, Sara C; Daly, Leslie; Hagins, Marshall

    2014-09-01

    Yoga programs geared for school children have become more widespread, but research regarding its impact on children is lacking. Several studies have reported positive outcomes, though there is a need for more randomised controlled trials. To determine the effects of yoga on children's emotional and behavioural functioning when compared with physical education (PE) classes. Thirty middle school children were randomised to participate in either a school-based Ashtanga-informed yoga or PE class three times a week for 12 weeks. Emotional (i.e. affect, self-perceptions) and behavioural (i.e. internalising and externalising problems, aggression) functioning were measured pre and post-intervention. There were no significant changes between groups in self-reported positive affect, global self-worth, aggression indices or parent reports of their children's externalising and internalising problems. However, negative affect increased for those children participating in yoga when compared to the PE program. In general, findings suggest that yoga and PE classes do not differentially impact on middle school children's emotional and behavioural functioning. However, children reported experiencing increased negative emotions after receiving yoga while children in the PE group reported a decrease in these feelings. Implications of these results and potential directions for future research on children's yoga are discussed.

  19. Sleep, School Performance, and a School-Based Intervention among School-Aged Children: A Sleep Series Study in China

    OpenAIRE

    Shenghui Li; Lester Arguelles; Fan Jiang; Wenjuan Chen; Xingming Jin; Chonghuai Yan; Ying Tian; Xiumei Hong; Ceng Qian; Jun Zhang; Xiaobin Wang; Xiaoming Shen

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sufficient sleep during childhood is essential to ensure a transition into a healthy adulthood. However, chronic sleep loss continues to increase worldwide. In this context, it is imperative to make sleep a high-priority and take action to promote sleep health among children. The present series of studies aimed to shed light on sleep patterns, on the longitudinal association of sleep with school performance, and on practical intervention strategy for Chinese school-aged children. ...

  20. The role of play in pre-school and younger school age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopas-Vukašinović Emina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the importance of play for children’s development and learning in institutionalized preschool education, as well as the opportunities it provides concerning the organization of teaching activities with younger school age children. The paper is based on the theoretical framework emphasizing educational character of children’s play, as a specific form of learning. Notwithstanding occasional attempts within pedagogic theory to deny educational values of children’s play and to emphasize instruction as the only form of systematic learning, contemporary pedagogic views consider play an important part of school education. Learning through play at younger school age helps overcome the discontinuity between preschool and school education. Curriculum subject matter can be covered through carefully selected and prepared play activities within the existing system, providing the support, encouragement and guidance by the adults involved, including their proper knowledge of children’ age-related and psycho-physical characteristics. Play facilitates gradual change over from preschool to school developmental stage, free, spontaneous and creative expression and the development of children’s potential.

  1. Reducing stress in school-age girls through mindful yoga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Laura Santangelo

    2012-01-01

    School-age children report much stress in their daily lives, which may lead to psychological and physical problems. Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction is a program of awareness-based practices effective with adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of mindfulness training through yoga with school-age girls to reduce perceived stress, enhance coping abilities, self-esteem, and self-regulation, and explore the relationship between the dose of the intervention and outcomes. Fourth- and fifth-grade girls were recruited from two public schools and randomly assigned to intervention and wait-list control groups. The intervention group met 1 hour a week for 8 weeks and completed 10 minutes of daily homework. Self-esteem and self-regulation increased in both groups. The intervention group was more likely to report greater appraisal of stress (p stress. Consistent with reports of mindfulness training, greater awareness of the feelings associated with stress may enhance coping abilities. However, it is possible that the increasing awareness of stressors in itself increased stress, possibly as part of the process of developing mindfulness or related to cognitive, emotional, or social development. Mindfulness in children may differ from mindfulness in adults and warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2012 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevalence of Parasomnia in School aged Children in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Naserbakht

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available "nObjectives: Parasomnias can create sleep disruption; in this article we assessed parasomnias in school-aged children in Tehran. "nMethods: In spring 2005, a total of 6000 sleep questionnaires were distributed to school-aged children in 5 districts of Tehran (Iran. A modified Pediatrics sleep questionnaire with 34 questions was used. "nResults: Parasomnias varied from 0.5% to 5.7% among the subjects as follows: 2.7% sleep talking, 0.5% sleepwalking, 5.7% bruxism, 2.3% enuresis, and nightmare 4%. A group of children showed parasomnias occasionally- this was 13.1% for sleep talking, 1.4% for sleepwalking, 10.6% for bruxism, 3.1% for enuresis and 18.4% for nightmares. "nConclusion: A high proportion of children starting school suffer from sleep problems. In many cases this is a temporary, developmentally related phenomenon, but in 6% of the children the disorder is more serious and may be connected with various stress factors and further behavioral disturbances.

  3. Attitudes and practices of school-aged girls towards menstruation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrah, Samiha Suhail; Kamel, Andaleeb Abu

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to (i) investigate attitude and menstruation-related practices in Jordanian school-aged girls; (ii) identify the influence of premenstrual preparation on girls' attitude and menstruation-related practices. A descriptive cross-sectional design was used. Data was collected from a convenience sample of 490 school-age girls (12-18 years) from different districts in Jordan. Self-report instruments [Menstrual Attitude Questionnaire (MAQ), and Menstrual Practices Questionnaires (MPQ)] were used to assess the study variables. Descriptive statistics, correlation and chi-square tests were used to analyze the data. It was found that menstrual attitude and practices were positively correlated. Poor attitude toward menstruation and low menstrual practices were significantly associated with inadequate premenstrual preparation. There is a need to prepare girls for menstruation before menarche. The role of the schools and teachers should be reinforced through formal and well planned reproductive health educators for girls and their mothers. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. HEAD CIRCUMFERENCE REFERENCES FOR SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN IN WESTERN ROMANIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirita-Emandi, Adela; Doros, Gabriela; Simina, Iulia Jurca; Gafencu, Mihai; Puiu, Maria

    2015-01-01

    To provide head circumference references for school-aged children in western Romania, and compare them with references from other European countries. A total of 2742 children, aged 6-19 years, from Timis county, were examined by medical students, between February 2010-June 2011. Head circumference references were constructed by Cole's LMS method with LMSChartMaker software. The Romanian 3rd, 50th and 97th percentiles for head circumference were compared with recent references from Belgium and Germany. Generally, boys show significantly larger head circumference compared to girls at any age. The head circumference increments between 6 and 19 years are Romania to those from Germany and Belgium, we found lower median head circumference in Romanian boys and girls, that could be explained by a taller stature of boys and girls in Germany and Belgium compared to Romania.

  5. Early intervention for depression and anxiety in 16-18-year-olds: Protocol for a feasibility cluster randomised controlled trial of open-access psychological workshops in schools (DISCOVER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelson, Daniel; Sclare, Irene; Stahl, Daniel; Morant, Nicola; Bonin, Eva-Maria; Brown, June S L

    2016-05-01

    Adolescence is a vulnerable period for the development of mental health problems. The DISCOVER intervention aims to provide accessible, acceptable and cost-effective psychological support for stressed adolescents in inner-city secondary schools. The intervention uses age-appropriate cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) methods and materials, delivered in an interactive 1-day workshop with additional telephone support. An open-access entry route allows students to self-refer. This protocol describes a feasibility cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing DISCOVER with a waitlist control condition. The study will run across 10 clusters (secondary schools) in the inner London Boroughs of Southwark and Lambeth. Participants are students aged over 16years who are seeking help with anxiety and/or depressive symptoms. Key feasibility parameters relate to the proportion of students willing to participate in the research following publicity events; the proportion of students who complete the intervention; and response rates for outcome measures. Outcome variance estimates and intra-cluster correlations will be obtained for future power calculations. Qualitative methods will be used to explore the acceptability of the intervention and research procedures for students and school staff. The feasibility of an economic evaluation will also be examined. The results will (i) determine the appropriateness of proceeding to a definitive full-scale trial; and (ii) inform the development of an optimised version of the DISCOVER intervention that can be tested within feasible parameters. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Sleep, school performance, and a school-based intervention among school-aged children: a sleep series study in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenghui Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sufficient sleep during childhood is essential to ensure a transition into a healthy adulthood. However, chronic sleep loss continues to increase worldwide. In this context, it is imperative to make sleep a high-priority and take action to promote sleep health among children. The present series of studies aimed to shed light on sleep patterns, on the longitudinal association of sleep with school performance, and on practical intervention strategy for Chinese school-aged children. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A serial sleep researches, including a national cross-sectional survey, a prospective cohort study, and a school-based sleep intervention, were conducted in China from November 2005 through December 2009. The national cross-sectional survey was conducted in 8 cities and a random sample of 20,778 children aged 9.0±1.61 years participated in the survey. The five-year prospective cohort study included 612 children aged 6.8±0.31 years. The comparative cross-sectional study (baseline: n = 525, aged 10.80±0.41; post-intervention follow-up: n = 553, aged 10.81±0.33 was undertaken in 6 primary schools in Shanghai. A battery of parent and teacher reported questionnaires were used to collect information on children's sleep behaviors, school performance, and sociodemographic characteristics. The mean sleep duration was 9.35±0.77 hours. The prevalence of daytime sleepiness was 64.4% (sometimes: 37.50%; frequently: 26.94%. Daytime sleepiness was significantly associated with impaired attention, learning motivation, and particularly, academic achievement. By contrast, short sleep duration only related to impaired academic achievement. After delaying school start time 30 minutes and 60 minutes, respectively, sleep duration correspondingly increased by 15.6 minutes and 22.8 minutes, respectively. Moreover, intervention significantly improved the sleep duration and daytime sleepiness. CONCLUSIONS: Insufficient sleep and daytime sleepiness

  7. Sleep, school performance, and a school-based intervention among school-aged children: a sleep series study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shenghui; Arguelles, Lester; Jiang, Fan; Chen, Wenjuan; Jin, Xingming; Yan, Chonghuai; Tian, Ying; Hong, Xiumei; Qian, Ceng; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Xiaobin; Shen, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    Sufficient sleep during childhood is essential to ensure a transition into a healthy adulthood. However, chronic sleep loss continues to increase worldwide. In this context, it is imperative to make sleep a high-priority and take action to promote sleep health among children. The present series of studies aimed to shed light on sleep patterns, on the longitudinal association of sleep with school performance, and on practical intervention strategy for Chinese school-aged children. A serial sleep researches, including a national cross-sectional survey, a prospective cohort study, and a school-based sleep intervention, were conducted in China from November 2005 through December 2009. The national cross-sectional survey was conducted in 8 cities and a random sample of 20,778 children aged 9.0±1.61 years participated in the survey. The five-year prospective cohort study included 612 children aged 6.8±0.31 years. The comparative cross-sectional study (baseline: n = 525, aged 10.80±0.41; post-intervention follow-up: n = 553, aged 10.81±0.33) was undertaken in 6 primary schools in Shanghai. A battery of parent and teacher reported questionnaires were used to collect information on children's sleep behaviors, school performance, and sociodemographic characteristics. The mean sleep duration was 9.35±0.77 hours. The prevalence of daytime sleepiness was 64.4% (sometimes: 37.50%; frequently: 26.94%). Daytime sleepiness was significantly associated with impaired attention, learning motivation, and particularly, academic achievement. By contrast, short sleep duration only related to impaired academic achievement. After delaying school start time 30 minutes and 60 minutes, respectively, sleep duration correspondingly increased by 15.6 minutes and 22.8 minutes, respectively. Moreover, intervention significantly improved the sleep duration and daytime sleepiness. Insufficient sleep and daytime sleepiness commonly existed and positively associated with the impairment of

  8. School Nurses Can Address Existing Gaps in School-Age Sleep Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willgerodt, Mayumi A.; Kieckhefer, Gail M.

    2013-01-01

    Sleep has been linked to a host of physical, behavioral, and emotional outcomes, and research has documented that youth across the globe are experiencing inadequate sleep. Despite this knowledge, however, very little research has been conducted on school-age children; much of the extant research has focused on infants, toddlers, preschoolers,…

  9. Improving Clinical Practice: A School-Age and School-Based Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallach, Geraldine P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, the author presents a conceptual framework for intervention at school-age levels reflecting upon a number of aspects raised by Kamhi (2014) in the lead article of this forum. The focus is on the persistence of traditional practices, components of language intervention, and prioritizing goals for students with language…

  10. Effects of Age, Gender, School Class on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Skills of Nigerian Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyeaso, Adedamola Olutoyin; Onyeaso, Chukwudi Ochi

    2016-01-01

    Background: The need for training of schoolchildren on cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) as potential bystander CPR providers is growing globally but Nigeria is still behind and lacks basic necessary data. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of age, gender and school class on CPR skills of Nigerian secondary school…

  11. Does school time matter? On the impact of compulsory education age on school dropout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cabus, S.J.; de Witte, K.

    2010-01-01

    A straightforward way to prevent students from leaving education without a higher secondary diploma consists of increasing the compulsory education age. By staying longer in school, the idea is that more students eventually obtain a higher secondary diploma. This paper examines by a

  12. School Nurse Interventions in Managing Functional Urinary Incontinence in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Charisse L.

    2010-01-01

    Uncomplicated urinary incontinence (UI) in school-age children is a prevalent yet underrecognized problem that has remained in the shadow of other concerns commonly perceived as more prominent or urgent. There is good evidence that functional UI in children can be treated and managed effectively. When there is no structural or neurologic…

  13. Examining the safety of menstrual cups among rural primary school girls in western Kenya: observational studies nested in a randomised controlled feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juma, Jane; Nyothach, Elizabeth; Laserson, Kayla F; Oduor, Clifford; Arita, Lilian; Ouma, Caroline; Oruko, Kelvin; Omoto, Jackton; Mason, Linda; Alexander, Kelly T; Fields, Barry; Onyango, Clayton; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A

    2017-05-04

    Examine the safety of menstrual cups against sanitary pads and usual practice in Kenyan schoolgirls. Observational studies nested in a cluster randomised controlled feasibility study. 30 primary schools in a health and demographic surveillance system in rural western Kenya. Menstruating primary schoolgirls aged 14-16 years participating in a menstrual feasibility study. Insertable menstrual cup, monthly sanitary pads or 'usual practice' (controls). Staphylococcus aureus vaginal colonization, Escherichia coli growth on sampled used cups, toxic shock syndrome or other adverse health outcomes. Among 604 eligible girls tested, no adverse event or TSS was detected over a median 10.9 months follow-up. S. aureus prevalence was 10.8%, with no significant difference over intervention time or between groups. Of 65  S.aureus positives at first test, 49 girls were retested and 10 (20.4%) remained positive. Of these, two (20%) sample isolates tested positive for toxic shock syndrome toxin-1; both girls were provided pads and were clinically healthy. Seven per cent of cups required replacements for loss, damage, dropping in a latrine or a poor fit. Of 30 used cups processed for E. coli growth, 13 (37.1%, 95% CI 21.1% to 53.1%) had growth. E. coli growth was greatest in newer compared with established users (53%vs22.2%, p=0.12). Among this feasibility sample, no evidence emerged to indicate menstrual cups are hazardous or cause health harms among rural Kenyan schoolgirls, but large-scale trials and post-marketing surveillance should continue to evaluate cup safety. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Examining the safety of menstrual cups among rural primary school girls in western Kenya: observational studies nested in a randomised controlled feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juma, Jane; Nyothach, Elizabeth; Laserson, Kayla F; Oduor, Clifford; Arita, Lilian; Ouma, Caroline; Oruko, Kelvin; Omoto, Jackton; Mason, Linda; Alexander, Kelly T; Fields, Barry; Onyango, Clayton; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A

    2017-01-01

    Objective Examine the safety of menstrual cups against sanitary pads and usual practice in Kenyan schoolgirls. Design Observational studies nested in a cluster randomised controlled feasibility study. Setting 30 primary schools in a health and demographic surveillance system in rural western Kenya. Participants Menstruating primary schoolgirls aged 14–16 years participating in a menstrual feasibility study. Interventions Insertable menstrual cup, monthly sanitary pads or ‘usual practice’ (controls). Outcome measures Staphylococcus aureus vaginal colonization, Escherichia coli growth on sampled used cups, toxic shock syndrome or other adverse health outcomes. Results Among 604 eligible girls tested, no adverse event or TSS was detected over a median 10.9 months follow-up. S. aureusprevalence was 10.8%, with no significant difference over intervention time or between groups. Of 65 S.aureus positives at first test, 49 girls were retested and 10 (20.4%) remained positive. Of these, two (20%) sample isolates tested positive for toxic shock syndrome toxin-1; both girls were provided pads and were clinically healthy. Seven per cent of cups required replacements for loss, damage, dropping in a latrine or a poor fit. Of 30 used cups processed for E. coli growth, 13 (37.1%, 95% CI 21.1% to 53.1%) had growth. E. coli growth was greatest in newer compared with established users (53%vs22.2%, p=0.12). Conclusions Among this feasibility sample, no evidence emerged to indicate menstrual cups are hazardous or cause health harms among rural Kenyan schoolgirls, but large-scale trials and post-marketing surveillance should continue to evaluate cup safety. PMID:28473520

  15. The strength and vulnerability of school-age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svenn-Erik Mamelund

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children between the ages of 5 and 14 appear to have a lower risk of dying than both younger and older individuals. Objective: We looked for possible factors influencing the mortality rates of school-age children in Norway during the German occupation from 1940 to 1945, i.e., at a time of poverty and moderate food shortage - and before the general use of vaccines. Methods: We used Norwegian mortality data by age and sex, during the period of 1930-1954, from the Human Mortality Database and obtained the main causes of death, as well as age-specific data from different regions of Norway, from Statistics Norway. Results: Boys and girls aged 5-14 years had lower mortality rates than any other age group below 40, even during the German occupation. However, 5-14-year-old boys as well as 5-9-year-old girls had significantly increased mortality during 1941-1945 as compared to the previous decade. Mortality as a result of diphtheria, pertussis, scarlet fever, and measles increased more than five-fold, surpassing mortality as a result of accidents, whereas mortality from these infections only doubled in adults up to 39 years. During that same period, the body weight of schoolchildren aged 8-13 years dropped slightly. Conclusions: Proper nourishment, being of the utmost importance for a functioning immune system, is key to understanding the potential vulnerability of children at any age. Our study shows how vulnerable even the most resistant children can be. Contribution: The vulnerability of children 5-14 years old may not have been properly taken into account, as was also shown in the recent upward UN revision of 5-14 age mortality in low- and middle-income countries.

  16. A randomised controlled trial of an intervention to increase the implementation of a healthy canteen policy in Australian primary schools: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfenden, Luke; Nathan, Nicole; Williams, Christopher M; Delaney, Tessa; Reilly, Kathryn L; Freund, Megan; Gillham, Karen; Sutherland, Rachel; Bell, Andrew C; Campbell, Libby; Yoong, Serene; Wyse, Rebecca; Janssen, Lisa M; Preece, Sarah; Asmar, Melanie; Wiggers, John

    2014-10-11

    The implementation of healthy school canteen policies has been recommended as a strategy to help prevent unhealthy eating and excessive weight gain. Internationally, research suggests that schools often fail to implement practices consistent with healthy school canteen policies. Without a population wide implementation, the potential benefits of these policies will not be realised. The aim of this trial is to assess the effectiveness of an implementation intervention in increasing school canteen practices consistent with a healthy canteen policy of the New South Wales (NSW), Australia, government known as the 'Fresh Tastes @ School NSW Healthy School Canteen Strategy'. The parallel randomised trial will be conducted in 70 primary schools located in the Hunter region of New South Wales, Australia. Schools will be eligible to participate if they are not currently meeting key components of the healthy canteen policy. Schools will be randomly allocated after baseline data collection in a 1:1 ratio to either an intervention or control group using a computerised random number function in Microsoft Excel. Thirty-five schools will be selected to receive a multi-component intervention including implementation support from research staff, staff training, resources, recognition and incentives, consensus and leadership strategies, follow-up support and implementation feedback. The 35 schools allocated to the control group will not receive any intervention support as part of the research trial. The primary outcome measures will be i) the proportion of schools with a canteen menu that does not contain foods or beverages restricted from regular sale ('red' and 'banned' items) and ii) the proportion of schools where healthy canteen items ('green' items) represent the majority (>50%) of products listed on the menu. Outcome data will be collected via a comprehensive menu audit, conducted by dietitians blind to group allocation. Intervention effectiveness will be assessed using

  17. (De)professionalizations of Danish Teachers Encountering the Problematized Immigrant of School Age, 1970-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padovan-Özdemir, Marta

    of immigrants of school age. The paper argues that (de)professionalizations of Danish teachers encountering the immigrant of school age emerge with the identifications and descriptions of the immigrant of school age as an educational problem. The theoretical establishment of the problematization of a population...

  18. Dynamic drawing characteristics of preschool and younger school age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Andrijana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to determine developmental characteristics of dynamic drawings of preschool and younger school age children. The sample consists of 90 typical developed children, aged between 6 and 9. The sample includes 47 (52.2% girls and 43 (47.8% boys from preschool institutions and elementary schools in Pirot and Belgrade. Action representation in dynamic drawings was evaluated using three types of drawings: a man who runs, a man shooting a ball and a man lifting a ball from the floor. We determined that a very small number of the respondents reaches the highest level of graphical representation of figures in motion, and that girl’s achievements are better than boy’s achievements. However, this result is on the border of statistical significance (p=0.052. Also, there is a statistically significant trend of progress to higher levels of action representation (p=0.000 with the increase in chronological age of the respondents.

  19. Alterations in neural connectivity in preterm children at school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozzo, Yeisid; Vohr, Betty; Lacadie, Cheryl; Hampson, Michelle; Katz, Karol H; Maller-Kesselman, Jill; Schneider, Karen C; Peterson, Bradley S; Rajeevan, Nallakkandi; Makuch, Robert W; Constable, R Todd; Ment, Laura R

    2009-11-01

    Converging data suggest recovery from injury in the preterm brain. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test the hypothesis that cerebral connectivity involving Wernicke's area and other important cortical language regions would differ between preterm (PT) and term (T) control school age children during performance of an auditory language task. Fifty-four PT children (600-1250 g birth weight) and 24 T controls were evaluated using an fMRI passive language task and neurodevelopmental assessments including: the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - III (WISC-III), the Peabody Individual Achievement Test - Revised (PIAT-R) and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test - Revised (PPVT-R) at 8 years of age. Neural activity was assessed for language processing and the data were evaluated for connectivity and correlations to cognitive outcomes. We found that PT subjects scored significantly lower on all components of the WISC-III (planguage function at school age differently than T controls; these alterations may represent a delay in maturation of neural networks or the engagement of alternate circuits for language processing.

  20. Effects of school meals based on the New Nordic Diet on intake of signature foods: a randomised controlled trial. The OPUS School Meal Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Andersen, Elisabeth Wreford

    2015-01-01

    of the present study was to investigate the effects of serving NND school meals compared with the usual packed lunches on the dietary intake of NND signature foods. For two 3-month periods, 834 Danish children aged 8-11 years received NND school meals or their usual packed lunches brought from home (control......, there was a decrease in the number of children with zero intakes when their habitual packed lunches were replaced by NND school meals. In conclusion, this study showed that the children increased their intake of NND signature foods, and, furthermore, there was a decrease in the number of children with zero intakes...... of NND signature foods when their habitual packed lunches were replaced by school meals following the NND principles....

  1. Cognitive impairment in school-aged children with early trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bücker, Joana; Kapczinski, Flavio; Post, Robert; Ceresér, Keila M; Szobot, Claudia; Yatham, Lakshmi N; Kapczinski, Natalia S; Kauer-Sant'Anna, Márcia

    2012-08-01

    Exposure to traumatic events during childhood is often associated with the development of psychiatric disorders, cognitive impairment, and poor functioning in adulthood. However, few studies have examined cognitive function, including executive function, memory, and attention, in school-aged children with early trauma compared with age- and sex-matched controls. We recruited 30 medication-naive children between 5 and 12 years of age with a history of early severe trauma from a foster care home, along with 30 age- and sex-matched controls. Psychiatric diagnoses were based on Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia Epidemiologic Version (K-SADS-E) for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria and were confirmed with a clinical interview. The neuropsychologic battery was tailored to assess broad cognitive domains such as learning/working memory, executive function, attention, verbal/premorbid intellectual functioning, and impulsivity. There was a higher prevalence of subsyndromal symptoms in children with a history of childhood trauma, although they rarely met all of the diagnostic criteria for a disorder. Moreover, lower estimated intellectual functioning scores were associated with subsyndromal symptoms in children with a history of trauma, and they performed more poorly on the Digits Span Test of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III Edition, suggesting attention impairment. There is a high prevalence of subsyndromal symptoms in school-aged children with trauma and an attention impairment, which may contribute to a cumulative deficit early in cognitive development. These findings further support the need for early interventions that can prevent cognitive impairment when childhood trauma occurs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of executive functioning in school-age Tunisian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellaj, Tarek; Salhi, Imen; Le Gall, Didier; Roy, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Research regarding executive functioning (EF) in children rarely focuses on populations in African or Middle-Eastern Arabic-speaking countries. The current study used a cross-sectional design to examine the developmental trajectories of school-age Tunisian children in three domains of executive control (inhibition of prepotent responses, cognitive flexibility, and working memory) as well as their mutual interactions and the effects of gender and parents' education level. Inhibitory processes, cognitive flexibility, and working memory were assessed using the Stroop test, a version of the Hayling test adapted for children, simple and alternating tasks of verbal fluency, and verbal and visuospatial span tasks (forward and backward spans). The study population included 120 7- to 12-year-old Tunisian children (60 girls, 60 boys) who were grouped and matched for age, gender, and parents' education level. The results revealed an overall effect of age on executive performance, whereas gender and parents' education level showed non-significant effects. In addition, executive indices were significantly associated with fluid intelligence level. Partial correlation analyses (controlled for age) found significant links between indices that assessed the same executive process, except for inhibitory processes; the temporal indices for inhibitory processes showed relative independence. The correlations between indices that assessed distinct executive processes were weaker (but significant). Overall, the results suggest that executive components in school-age Tunisian children operate according to relatively homogeneous developmental trajectories, marked by peaks of maturity that differ according to the assessed index. A transcultural approach to EF is discussed in terms of the unity and diversity of its components.

  3. Longitudinal Predictors of School-age Academic Achievement: Unique Contributions of Toddler-age Aggression, Oppositionality, Inattention, and Hyperactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Lauretta M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Wilson, Melvin

    2012-01-01

    This project examined the unique predictive validity of parent ratings of toddler-age aggression, oppositionality, inattention, and hyperactivity-impulsivity to academic achievement at school-age in a sample of 566 high-risk children and families. The study also investigated potential indirect effects of the Family Check-Up on school-age academic achievement through changes in child behavior problems. The results demonstrated that toddler-age aggression was most consistently associated with school-age academic achievement, albeit modestly. Moreover, findings showed that the intervention predicted greater decreases in aggression from ages 2-3 to 4-5 compared to controls. The results suggest that in high-risk toddler-aged children, aggression may be a more consistent predictor of school-age academic achievement than other externalizing dimensions, which has implications for early identification and efforts to promote children's adaptation. PMID:22527610

  4. Internet-based vestibular rehabilitation for adults aged 50 years and over: a protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraghty, Adam W A; Kirby, Sarah; Essery, Rosie; Little, Paul; Bronstein, Adolfo; Turner, David; Stuart, Beth; Andersson, Gerhard; Carlbring, Per; Yardley, Lucy

    2014-07-22

    Dizziness is highly prevalent in older adults and can lead to falls, fear of falling, loss of confidence, anxiety and depression. Vestibular rehabilitation (VR) exercises are effective in reducing dizziness due to vestibular dysfunction, but access to trained therapists is limited. Providing dizzy patients with booklets teaching them how to carry out VR exercises has been shown to be a cost-effective way of managing dizziness in primary care. Internet-based intervention delivery has many advantages over paper-based methods, including the provision of video instructions, automated tailoring and symptom-related feedback. This trial will examine whether an internet-based VR intervention is (1) effective in reducing dizziness and (2) a cost-effective primary care treatment option. This will be a single blind, randomised controlled trial carried out in UK primary care. A stand-alone internet-based VR intervention will be compared with routine care in 262 dizzy patients aged 50 years and over. Measures will be taken at baseline, 3 and 6 months. Our primary outcome measure will be the effectiveness of the intervention in reducing dizziness symptoms compared with routine care at 6 months. Cost-effectiveness will be examined along with the effect of the intervention on dizziness-related disability and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Psychological process variables including expectancy, self-efficacy and acceptance will be explored in relation to adherence and symptom reduction. This trial has undergone ethical scrutiny and been approved by an NHS Research Ethics Committee, Southampton A REC Reference: 13/SC/0119. The findings of this trial will be disseminated to the scientific community through presentations at national and international conferences, and by publishing in peer review journals. Findings will be disseminated to the public through targeted press releases. This trial will provide valuable information on the role of internet interventions in facilitating

  5. Effectiveness of the back school and mckenzie techniques in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain: a protocol of a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Alessandra N; Gondo, Francine Lb; Costa, Renata A; Cyrillo, Fábio N; Silva, Tatiane M; Costa, Luciola C M; Costa, Leonardo O P

    2011-08-05

    Chronic low back pain is a highly prevalent condition, which is associated with high direct and indirect costs to the society. Although this condition is highly prevalent, it is still extremely difficult to treat. Two potentially useful treatments for patients with chronic low back pain are called the McKenzie and Back School treatment programs. These programs have good biological plausibility, are widely available and have a modest cost. Although these treatments are already available for patients, the evidence that supports their use is largely based on low quality methodological studies. Therefore, a high-quality randomised controlled trial is required to compare, for the first time, the effectiveness of these treatments in patients with chronic low back pain. One hundred and forty-eight patients will be randomly allocated to a four-week treatment program based upon the McKenzie or Back School principles. Clinical outcomes (pain intensity, disability, quality of life, and trunk flexion range of motion) will be obtained at follow-up appointments at 1, 3 and 6 months after randomisation. The data will be collected by an assessor who will be blinded to the group allocation. This will be the first study aimed to compare the McKenzie and Back School approaches in patients with chronic low back pain. The results of this trial may help in the decision-making process of allied health providers for the treatment of chronic low back pain and reduce the health-related costs of this condition. ACTRN12610000435088.

  6. School-based sleep education program improves sleep and academic performance of school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Reut; Somerville, Gail; Bergmame, Lana; Fontil, Laura; Paquin, Soukaina

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based sleep education program aimed at improving the sleep and academic performance of school-age children. Using a community-based participatory research approach, we created a school-based sleep education program, "Sleep for Success"™ (SFS), composed of four distinct modules that addressed the children, their family and community, the school staff, and decision makers within the school setting. Implementation was carried out in three elementary schools. Seventy-one students participated in the evaluation of the program. The effectiveness of the SFS program was evaluated using non-randomized controlled before-and-after study groups (intervention and control) assessed over two time points (pre- and post-program implementation). Before (baseline) and after implementation, sleep and academic performance were measured using actigraphy and report card marks, respectively. In the intervention group, true sleep was extended by 18.2 min per night, sleep efficiency improved by 2.3%, and sleep latency was shortened by 2.3 min, and report card grades in mathematics and English improved significantly. No changes were noted in the control group. Participation in the sleep education program was associated with significant improvements in children's sleep and academic performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Six-monthly vitamin A from 1 to 6 years of age DEVTA: cluster ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Six-monthly vitamin A from 1 to 6 years of age DEVTA: cluster-randomised trial in 1 million children in Northern India · Pre-school rural Northern India · DEVTA: cluster-randomised trial in 8000+ villages (ie, AWCs) in 72 clusters (ie, blocks) · DEVTA vitamin A schedule, 05/1999 - 04/2004 · DEVTA: biomedical monitoring.

  8. Elementary school age children's comprehension of specific idiomatic expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinton, B; Fujiki, M; Mackey, T A

    1985-08-01

    This study explored the ability of elementary school age children to comprehend six idiomatic expressions. Eighty linguistically normal children, 20 from each of four different grade levels (kindergarten, second grade, fourth grade, and sixth grade) participated as subjects. All of the children completed a task designed to probe comprehension of specific idioms. A short story was presented, after which the subjects were required to identify events in the story, which were described using idiomatic phrases. When examined as a group, comprehension of the idioms studied improved with increasing age. However, when examined individually, performance was found to be highly variable from idiom to idiom. These results are discussed with regard to clinical implications in the assessment and management of language-disordered children.

  9. Executive Dysfunction in School-Age Children With ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambek, Rikke; Tannock, Rosemary; Dalsgaard, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The study examined executive function deficits (EFD) in school-age children (7 to 14 years) with ADHD. Method: A clinical sample of children diagnosed with ADHD (n = 49) was compared to a population sample (n = 196) on eight executive function (EF) measures. Then, the prevalence of EFD...... in clinical and non-clinical children was examined at the individual level according to three methods previously applied to define EFD, and a fourth method was included to control for the effect of age on performance. Results: Children with ADHD were significantly more impaired on measures of EF than children...... without ADHD at the group level. However, only about 50% of children with ADHD were found to have EFD at the individual level, and results appeared relatively robust across methods applied to define EFD. Conclusion: As a group, children with ADHD displayed more problems on neuropsychological measures...

  10. [Effects of a dance therapy programme on quality of life, sleep and blood pressure in middle-aged women: A randomised controlled trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Guzmán, María; Valenza-Peña, Carmen M; Serrano-Guzmán, Carmen; Aguilar-Ferrándiz, Encarnación; Valenza-Demet, Gerald; Villaverde-Gutiérrez, Carmen

    2016-10-21

    Evidence suggests that dance therapy may have positive effects in areas such as cardiovascular parameters and sleep. The aim of the present study is to explore whether a dance therapy programme improves sleep and blood pressure in a population of middle-aged pre-hypertensive and hypertensive women. A randomised controlled trial was conducted, in which participants were assigned to one of 2 groups: standard care (with usual activities and medication) or dance therapy (in which the participants followed a dance therapy programme, in addition to their medication). The intervention was an 8-week, 3-times-per-week, progressive and specific group dance-training programme. The dance steps were specifically designed to improve balance by shifting the body and relocating the centre of gravity. The main measures obtained were blood pressure, sleep quality and quality of life, measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the European Quality of Life Questionnaire. Sixty-seven pre-hypertensive and hypertensive middle-aged women were randomised to either an intervention group (n=35) or a control group (n=32) after baseline testing. The intervention group reported a significant improvement in blood pressure values (Pquality (Pquality of life (Pquality of life in pre-hypertensive and hypertensive middle-aged women, and constitutes an interesting basis for larger-scale research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. To remove or to replace traditional electronic games? A crossover randomised controlled trial on the impact of removing or replacing home access to electronic games on physical activity and sedentary behaviour in children aged 10-12 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straker, Leon M; Abbott, Rebecca A; Smith, Anne J

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the impact of (1) the removal of home access to traditional electronic games or (2) their replacement with active input electronic games, on daily physical activity and sedentary behaviour in children aged 10-12 years. Crossover randomised controlled trial, over 6 months. Family homes in metropolitan Perth, Australia from 2007 to 2010. 10-year-old to 12-year-old children were recruited through school and community media. From 210 children who were eligible, 74 met inclusion criteria, 8 withdrew and 10 had insufficient primary outcome measures, leaving 56 children (29 female) for analysis. A counterbalanced randomised order of three conditions sustained for 8 weeks each: no home access to electronic games, home access to traditional electronic games and home access to active input electronic games. Primary outcome was accelerometer assessed moderate/vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Secondary outcomes included sedentary time and diary assessed physical activity and sedentary behaviours. Daily MVPA across the whole week was not significantly different between conditions. However, compared with home access to traditional electronic games, removal of all electronic games resulted in a significant increase in MVPA (mean 3.8 min/day, 95% CI 1.5 to 6.1) and a decrease in sedentary time (4.7 min/day, 0.0 to 9.5) in the after-school period. Similarly, replacing traditional games with active input games resulted in a significant increase in MVPA (3.2 min/day, 0.9 to 5.5) and a decrease in sedentary time (6.2 min/day, 1.4 to 11.4) in the after-school period. Diary reports supported an increase in physical activity and a decrease in screen-based sedentary behaviours with both interventions. Removal of sedentary electronic games from the child's home and replacing these with active electronic games both resulted in small, objectively measured improvements in after-school activity and sedentary time. Parents can be advised that replacing sedentary electronic games

  12. Can social dancing prevent falls in older adults? a protocol of the Dance, Aging, Cognition, Economics (DAnCE) fall prevention randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merom, Dafna; Cumming, Robert; Mathieu, Erin; Anstey, Kaarin J; Rissel, Chris; Simpson, Judy M; Morton, Rachael L; Cerin, Ester; Sherrington, Catherine; Lord, Stephen R

    2013-05-15

    Falls are one of the most common health problems among older people and pose a major economic burden on health care systems. Exercise is an accepted stand-alone fall prevention strategy particularly if it is balance training or regular participation in Tai chi. Dance shares the 'holistic' approach of practices such as Tai chi. It is a complex sensorimotor rhythmic activity integrating multiple physical, cognitive and social elements. Small-scale randomised controlled trials have indicated that diverse dance styles can improve measures of balance and mobility in older people, but none of these studies has examined the effect of dance on falls or cognition. This study aims to determine whether participation in social dancing: i) reduces the number of falls; and ii) improves cognitive functions associated with fall risk in older people. A single-blind, cluster randomised controlled trial of 12 months duration will be conducted. Approximately 450 participants will be recruited from 24 self-care retirement villages that house at least 60 residents each in Sydney, Australia. Village residents without cognitive impairment and obtain medical clearance will be eligible. After comprehensive baseline measurements including physiological and cognitive tests and self-completed questionnaires, villages will be randomised to intervention sites (ballroom or folk dance) or to a wait-listed control using a computer randomisation method that minimises imbalances between villages based on two baseline fall risk measures. Main outcome measures are falls, prospectively measured, and the Trail Making cognitive function test. Cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses will be performed. This study offers a novel approach to balance training for older people. As a community-based approach to fall prevention, dance offers older people an opportunity for greater social engagement, thereby making a major contribution to healthy ageing. Providing diversity in exercise programs targeting

  13. Impact of a Brief Group Intervention to Enhance Parenting and the Home Learning Environment for Children Aged 6-36 Months: a Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackworth, N J; Berthelsen, D; Matthews, J; Westrupp, E M; Cann, W; Ukoumunne, O C; Bennetts, S K; Phan, T; Scicluna, A; Trajanovska, M; Yu, M; Nicholson, J M

    2017-04-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a group parenting intervention designed to strengthen the home learning environment of children from disadvantaged families. Two cluster randomised controlled superiority trials were conducted in parallel and delivered within existing services: a 6-week parenting group (51 locations randomised; 986 parents) for parents of infants (aged 6-12 months), and a 10-week facilitated playgroup (58 locations randomised; 1200 parents) for parents of toddlers (aged 12-36 months). Each trial had three conditions: intervention (smalltalk group-only); enhanced intervention with home coaching (smalltalk plus); and 'standard'/usual practice controls. Parent-report and observational measures were collected at baseline, 12 and 32 weeks follow-up. Primary outcomes were parent verbal responsivity and home learning activities at 32 weeks. In the infant trial, there were no differences by trial arm for the primary outcomes at 32 weeks. In the toddler trial at 32-weeks, participants in the smalltalk group-only trial showed improvement compared to the standard program for parent verbal responsivity (effect size (ES) = 0.16; 95% CI 0.01, 0.36) and home learning activities (ES = 0.17; 95% CI 0.01, 0.38) but smalltalk plus did not. For the secondary outcomes in the infant trial, several initial differences favouring smalltalk plus were evident at 12 weeks, but not maintained to 32 weeks. For the toddler trial, differences in secondary outcomes favouring smalltalk plus were evident at 12 weeks and maintained to 32 weeks. These trials provide some evidence of the benefits of a parenting intervention focused on the home learning environment for parents of toddlers but not infants. 8 September 2011; ACTRN12611000965909 .

  14. The relationship of placement experience to school absenteeism and changing schools in young, school-aged children in foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorc, Catherine S; O'Reilly, Amanda Lr; Matone, Meredith; Long, Jin; Watts, Caroline L; Rubin, David

    2013-05-01

    Chronic school absenteeism and frequent school changes, particularly among younger children, may be antecedents for the high rates of school failure and subsequent dropout among youth in foster care. However, the relationship of foster care experience to absenteeism and school change has not been well studied. This study examined the association of placement experience with absenteeism and changing schools among 209 urban children in foster care enrolled in public elementary schools. A cohort of children aged 5 to 8 years who entered non-relative or kinship foster care from 2006-2008 were followed longitudinally for 2 years from entry into foster care. Children residing in foster care were categorized at the end of the study as early stable, late stable, or unstable, if they achieved a permanent placement prior to 45 days, between 45 days and 9 months, or failed to do so within 9 months, respectively. Children who reunified home were classified as a fourth category. Poisson regression, controlling for baseline factors, was used to compare days absent and number of schools attended across categories of placement experience. Among the 209 children, 51% were male, 79% were African American, and 55% were initially placed with kin. One third of children reunified home; among children who did not reunify, one half was early stable, and a third was unstable. Adjusted rates of school absenteeism increased in stepwise fashion as children's placements became more unstable; children with unstable placements were 37% more likely to be absent than those with early placement stability (p=0.029). Children who reunified during the study demonstrated the highest rates of absenteeism; however, there was no significant difference in absenteeism before or after reunification. Number of schools attended increased as stability worsened, with the standardized rate of schools attended reaching 3.6 schools (95% CI 3.1-4.1) over a two year period among children in unstable placements. The

  15. Impact Of Vitamin - A Supplementation On Diarrhoea among Children 12 - 71 Months Of Age In Baroda Cantonment A Double Blind Randomised Cntrolled Trail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotecha Prakash V

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: Does vitamin- A supplementation in children under five of age reduce diarrhoea incidence and its duration? Objectives: To study whether vitamin â€" A supplementation among children of 12-71 months of age reduces the risk and rate of diarrhoea and qualify if it does. Study design: Randomised double â€" blind controlled trail. Settings: Military Hospitals, Baroda Participants: Children of 12- 71 months of age of military staff members of Baroda cantonment Results and conclusions: The study suggested a reduction of risk and rate of diarrhoea in vitamin A supplemented group as compared to the placeup by about 23% and 22% respectively. However, it failed to show any reduction in the duration of an episode.

  16. Change with age in regression construction of fat percentage for BMI in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Katsunori; Mishima, Takaaki; Watanabe, Eiji; Seki, Kazuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    In this study, curvilinear regression was applied to the relationship between BMI and body fat percentage, and an analysis was done to see whether there are characteristic changes in that curvilinear regression from elementary to middle school. Then, by simultaneously investigating the changes with age in BMI and body fat percentage, the essential differences in BMI and body fat percentage were demonstrated. The subjects were 789 boys and girls (469 boys, 320 girls) aged 7.5 to 14.5 years from all parts of Japan who participated in regular sports activities. Body weight, total body water (TBW), soft lean mass (SLM), body fat percentage, and fat mass were measured with a body composition analyzer (Tanita BC-521 Inner Scan), using segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis & multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. Height was measured with a digital height measurer. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated as body weight (km) divided by the square of height (m). The results for the validity of regression polynomials of body fat percentage against BMI showed that, for both boys and girls, first-order polynomials were valid in all school years. With regard to changes with age in BMI and body fat percentage, the results showed a temporary drop at 9 years in the aging distance curve in boys, followed by an increasing trend. Peaks were seen in the velocity curve at 9.7 and 11.9 years, but the MPV was presumed to be at 11.9 years. Among girls, a decreasing trend was seen in the aging distance curve, which was opposite to the changes in the aging distance curve for body fat percentage.

  17. Correlations among adiposity measures in school-aged children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Given that it is not feasible to use dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) or other reference methods to measure adiposity in all pediatric clinical and research settings, it is important to identify reasonable alternatives. Therefore, we sought to determine the extent to which other adiposity measures were correlated with DXA fat mass in school-aged children. Methods In 1110 children aged 6.5-10.9 years in the pre-birth cohort Project Viva, we calculated Spearman correlation coefficients between DXA (n=875) and other adiposity measures including body mass index (BMI), skinfold thickness, circumferences, and bioimpedance. We also computed correlations between lean body mass measures. Results 50.0% of the children were female and 36.5% were non-white. Mean (SD) BMI was 17.2 (3.1) and total fat mass by DXA was 7.5 (3.9) kg. DXA total fat mass was highly correlated with BMI (rs=0.83), bioimpedance total fat (rs=0.87), and sum of skinfolds (rs=0.90), and DXA trunk fat was highly correlated with waist circumference (rs=0.79). Correlations of BMI with other adiposity indices were high, e.g., with waist circumference (rs=0.86) and sum of subscapular plus triceps skinfolds (rs=0.79). DXA fat-free mass and bioimpedance fat-free mass were highly correlated (rs=0.94). Conclusions In school-aged children, BMI, sum of skinfolds, and other adiposity measures were strongly correlated with DXA fat mass. Although these measurement methods have limitations, BMI and skinfolds are adequate surrogate measures of relative adiposity in children when DXA is not practical. PMID:23799991

  18. What do targeting positive views on ageing add to a physical activity intervention in older adults? Results from a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Julia K; Warner, Lisa M; Ziegelmann, Jochen P; Wurm, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity is a key factor for healthy ageing, yet many older people lead a sedentary lifestyle. Traditional physical activity interventions do not consider the specific needs and views of older adults. As views on ageing are known to be related to health behaviours, the current study evaluates the effectiveness of prompting positive views on ageing within a physical activity intervention. Randomised controlled trial with three groups aged 65+: Intervention for physical activity with 'views-on-ageing'-component (n = 101; IGVoA), and without 'views-on-ageing'-component (n = 30; IG), and active control intervention for volunteering (n = 103; CG). Attitudes towards older adults and physical activity were assessed five weeks before intervention, two weeks, six weeks and 8.5 months after the intervention. Compared to the IG and CG, positive attitudes towards older adults increased in the IGVoA after the intervention. For IGVoA, the indirect intervention effect on change in activity via change in attitudes towards older adults was reliable. A 'views-on-ageing'-component within a physical activity intervention affects change in physical activity via change in views on ageing. Views on ageing are a promising intervention technique to be incorporated into future physical activity interventions for older adults.

  19. Meropenem vs standard of care for treatment of late onset sepsis in children of less than 90 days of age: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Cabre Vincent

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Late onset neonatal sepsis (LOS with the mortality of 17 to 27% is still a serious disease. Meropenem is an antibiotic with wide antibacterial coverage. The advantage of it over standard of care could be its wider antibacterial coverage and thus the use of mono-instead of combination therapy. Methods NeoMero-1, an open label, randomised, comparator controlled, superiority trial aims to compare the efficacy of meropenem with a predefined standard of care (ampicillin + gentamicin or cefotaxime + gentamicin in the treatment of LOS in neonates and infants aged less than 90 days admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit. A total of 550 subjects will be recruited following a 1:1 randomisation scheme. The trial includes patients with culture confirmed (at least one positive culture from normally sterile site except coagulase negative staphylococci in addition to one clinical or laboratory criterion or clinical sepsis (at least two laboratory and two clinical criteria suggestive of LOS in subjects with postmenstrual age The study will start recruitment in September 2011; the total duration is of 24 months. Trial registration EudraCT 2011-001515-31

  20. A randomised controlled trial evaluating IGF1 titration in contrast to current GH dosing strategies in children born small for gestational age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rikke Beck; Thankamony, Ajay; O'Connell, Susan M

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Short children born small for gestational age (SGA) are treated with a GH dose based on body size, but treatment may lead to high levels of IGF1. The objective was to evaluate IGF1 titration of GH dose in contrast to current dosing strategies. METHODS: In the North European Small......-for-Gestational-Age Study (NESGAS), 92 short pre-pubertal children born SGA were randomised after 1 year of high-dose GH treatment (67 μg/kg per day) to three different regimens: high dose (67 μg/kg per day), low dose (35 μg/kg per day) or IGF1 titration. RESULTS: The average dose during the second year of the randomised...... trial did not differ between the IGF1 titration group (38 μg/kg per day, s.d. 0.019) and the low-dose group (35 μg/kg per day, s.d. 0.002; P=0.46), but there was a wide variation in the IGF1 titration group (range 10-80 μg/kg per day). The IGF1 titration group had significantly lower height gain (0...

  1. The Essential School Board Book: Better Governance in the Age of Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walser, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Amid today's heightened attention on student achievement, school boards find their responsibilities intensified and transformed. In this age of accountability, all school boards need to consider how best to maintain a focus on student achievement and promote it through district and school policies. "The Essential School Board Book" answers this…

  2. DIFFERENCES IN INTELLECTUAL FUNCTIONING BETWEEN GIRLS AT YOUNGER SCHOOL AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Popović

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Proper selection of means of physical exercising included in development gymnastics result in children’s correct growth and development, improvement of general motor status of organism, as well as positive effect on cognitive abilities (at younger age and conative characteristics, which was confirmed by a number of earlier research works. The sample of girls consisted of 305 girls aged 7-11 that were not engaged in organized physical activities, as well as 300 girls engaged in the program of development gymnastics. According to decimal years, the girls were divided into four age groups within range of one calendar year. The test Raven’s Progressive Matrices in Color was applied for assessment of intellectual functioning with an aim to determine intellectual abilities of the two groups of girls. Results of chisquare test indicated statistically significant differences between the two groups of subjects in age groups of 8-9 and 9-10 applying a more relaxed criterion of statistical conclusion (p=0.05. Analyzing the distribution of female subjects within three intellectual groups (below-average, average, and above-average, a lower number of girls included in the program of development gymnastics was observed in the category of below-average intellectual abilities, especially in the two oldest groups. In addition, in most age groups, a higher number of girls with average and above-average intellectual abilities were observed among those engaged in the program of development gymnastics. According to the results of this research, authors concluded that successful practice of development gymnastics requires at least average intellectual abilities of younger school girls.

  3. Effects of institutional rearing and foster care on psychopathology at age 12 years in Romania: follow-up of an open, randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Kathryn L; Gleason, Mary Margaret; Drury, Stacy S; Miron, Devi; Nelson, Charles A; Fox, Nathan A; Zeanah, Charles H

    2015-07-01

    Early social deprivation can negatively affect domains of functioning. We examined psychopathology at age 12 years in a cohort of Romanian children who had been abandoned at birth and placed into institutional care, then assigned either to be placed in foster care or to care as usual. We used follow-up data from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP), a randomised controlled trial of abandoned children in all six institutions for young children in Bucharest, Romania. In the initial trial, 136 children, enrolled between ages 6-31 months, were randomly assigned to either care as usual or placement in foster care. In this study we followed up these children at age 12 years to assess psychiatric symptoms using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (4th edition; DISC-IV). We also recruited Romanian children who had never been placed in an institution from paediatric clinics and schools in Bucharest as a comparator group who had never been placed in an institution. The primary outcome measure was symptom counts assessed through DISC-IV scores for three domains of psychopathology: internalising symptoms, externalising symptoms, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We compared mean DISC-IV scores between trial participants and comparators who had never been placed in an institution, and those assigned to care as usual or foster care. Analyses were done by modified intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00747396. We followed up 110 children from the BEIP trial between Jan 27, 2011, and April 11, 2014, and 49 children as comparators who had never been placed in an institution. The 110 children who had ever been placed in an institution had higher symptom counts for internalising disorders (mean 0·93 [SD 1·68] vs 0·45 [0·84], difference 0·48 [95% CI 0·14-0·82]; p=0·0127), externalising disorders (2·31 [2·86] vs 0·65 [1·33], difference 1·66 [1·06-2·25]; pcare as usual, the 55 children in

  4. The Boost study: design of a school- and community-based randomised trial to promote fruit and vegetable consumption among teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krølner Rikke

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the Boost study was to produce a persistent increase in fruit and vegetable consumption among 13-year-olds. This paper describes the development, implementation and evaluation of a school-and community-based, multi-component intervention guided by theory, evidence, and best practice. Methods/design We used the Intervention Mapping protocol to guide the development of the intervention. Programme activities combined environmental and educational strategies and focused on increasing access to fruit and vegetables in three settings: School: Daily provision of free fruit and vegetables; a pleasant eating environment; classroom curricular activities; individually computer tailored messages; one-day-workshop for teachers. Families: school meeting; guided child-parent activities; newsletters. Local community: guided visits in grocery stores and local area as part of classroom curriculum; information sheets to sports-and youth clubs. The Boost study employed a cluster-randomised controlled study design and applied simple two-stage cluster sampling: A random sample of 10 municipalities followed by a random sample of 4 schools within each municipality (N = 40 schools. Schools were randomised into a total of 20 intervention-and 20 control schools. We included all year 7 pupils except those from school classes with special needs. Timeline: Baseline survey: August 2010. Delivery of intervention: September 2010-May 2011. First follow-up survey: May/June 2011. Second follow-up survey: May/June 2012. Primary outcome measures: Daily mean intake of fruit and vegetables and habitual fruit and vegetable intake measured by validated 24-hour recall-and food frequency questionnaires. Secondary outcome measures: determinants of fruit and vegetable intake, positive side-effects and unintended adverse effects. Implementation was monitored by thorough process evaluation. Discussion The baseline data file included 2,156 adolescents (95%. There

  5. Sleep, School Performance, and a School-Based Intervention among School-Aged Children: A Sleep Series Study in China: e67928

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shenghui Li; Lester Arguelles; Fan Jiang; Wenjuan Chen; Xingming Jin; Chonghuai Yan; Ying Tian; Xiumei Hong; Ceng Qian; Jun Zhang; Xiaobin Wang; Xiaoming Shen

    2013-01-01

    .... The present series of studies aimed to shed light on sleep patterns, on the longitudinal association of sleep with school performance, and on practical intervention strategy for Chinese school-aged children...

  6. The development of a randomised controlled trial testing the effects of an online intervention among school students at risk of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jo; Hetrick, Sarah; Cox, Georgina; Bendall, Sarah; Yung, Alison; Yuen, Hok Pan; Templer, Kate; Pirkis, Jane

    2014-05-27

    Suicide-related behaviour among young people is of significant concern, yet little is known regarding the effectiveness of interventions designed to reduce risk among this population. Of those interventions that have been tested, cognitive-behavioural therapy appears to show some promise among young people with suicidal ideation. Internet-based interventions are becoming increasingly popular and have shown some effect in preventing and treating depression and anxiety in young people. However, to date there are no randomised controlled trials examining the impact of Internet-based Cognitive Behavioural Therapy among suicidal youth. This is a randomised controlled trial testing the effects of Internet-based cognitive-behavioural therapy among suicidal high school students who have sought help from the school wellbeing team. The intervention comprises 8 modules of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy delivered online. The study has a staggered, two-year recruitment phase and participants are assessed at baseline, post intervention and 12 weeks later. If effective the program has the ability to be readily adapted and delivered to a range of populations in a range of settings, at relatively little cost. It can also be adapted for mobile applications. ACTRN12613000864729. Date registered: 05/08/2013.

  7. Prevalence of Nocturnal Enuresis in School Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoodzadeh, Hashem; Amestejani, Morteza; Karamyar, Mohammad; Nikibakhsh, Ahmad-Ali

    2013-01-01

    Objective Nocturnal enuresis is a common psychosocial concern for both parents and children. In the present study we have determined the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in Urmia, Iran children and associated personal and familial factors with this problem. Methods A cross sectional epidemiological study for detection of nocturnal enuresis prevalence rate and evaluation of associated familial and personal factors in elementary school children (7-11 years old) from Urmia were investigated. The subjects were selected by cluster sampling method. Chi square test and logistic regression were used in univariate and multivariate respectively. Findings Of the 1600 questionnaires distributed, 918 (57%) were completed and included in the final analysis. The rest, which were not filled by parents and also those out of our study age range were excluded. Gender of the subjects was almost equally distributed (48.6% males and 51.4% females). Prevalence of nocturnal enuresis was 18.7% (n = 172) and prevalence of day time incontinence was 5.5% (n=51). There was no significant gender difference between these two groups. Enuretics had crowded families, positive family history, low educational level of parents, jobless father, working mother, single parent, poor school performance, positive history of urinary tract infection (UTI). Conclusion Our results with enuresis prevalence and associated factors were comparable to other epidemiological studies from various countries. We found that Iranian families do not pay sufficient attention to their enuretic children. PMID:23550208

  8. Internet use and psychosocial health of school aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Işik, Betül; Ayaz Alkaya, Sultan

    2017-09-01

    This study was carried out to determine the internet use and psychosocial health of school aged children. Children in grades 4-7 and their parents were invited to participate. The study group consisted of 737 children. Data were collected using a descriptive form and Pediatric Symptom Checklist-17. Majority of children used internet, one of each five children had psychosocial problem risk. Risk of psychosocial problem was higher in males, children who have 'not working father', use internet 5 years and over, use internet for 3h and over per day. These results suggest that families should be informed about associations between internet use and psychosocial problems that measures should be taken for providing controlled internet use for children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. CAFÉ: a multicomponent audit and feedback intervention to improve implementation of healthy food policy in primary school canteens: protocol of a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Christopher M; Nathan, Nicole; Delaney, Tessa; Yoong, Sze Lin; Wiggers, John; Preece, Sarah; Lubans, Nicole; Sutherland, Rachel; Pinfold, Jessica; Smith, Kay; Small, Tameka; Reilly, Kathryn L; Butler, Peter; Wyse, Rebecca J; Wolfenden, Luke

    2015-06-24

    A number of jurisdictions internationally have policies requiring schools to implement healthy canteens. However, many schools have not implemented such policies. One reason for this is that current support interventions cannot feasibly be delivered to large numbers of schools. A promising solution to support population-wide implementation of healthy canteen practices is audit and feedback. The effectiveness of this strategy has, however, not previously been assessed in school canteens. This study aims to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an audit and feedback intervention, delivered by telephone and email, in increasing the number of school canteens that have menus complying with a government healthy-canteen policy. Seventy-two schools, across the Hunter New England Local Health District in New South Wales Australia, will be randomised to receive the multicomponent audit and feedback implementation intervention or usual support. The intervention will consist of between two and four canteen menu audits over 12 months. Each menu audit will be followed by two modes of feedback: a written feedback report and a verbal feedback/support via telephone. Primary outcomes, assessed by dieticians blind to group status and as recommended by the Fresh Tastes @ School policy, are: (1) the proportion of schools with a canteen menu containing foods or beverages restricted for sale, and; (2) the proportion of schools that have a menu which contains more than 50% of foods classified as healthy canteen items. Secondary outcomes are: the proportion of menu items in each category ('red', 'amber' and 'green'), canteen profitability and cost-effectiveness. Ethical approval has been obtained by from the Hunter New England Human Research Ethics Committee and the University of Newcastle Human Research Ethics Committee. The findings will be disseminated in usual forums, including peer-reviewed publication and conference presentations. ACTRN12613000543785. Published by the

  10. Infant brain responses associated with reading-related skills before school and at school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppänen, P H T; Hämäläinen, J A; Guttorm, T K; Eklund, K M; Salminen, H; Tanskanen, A; Torppa, M; Puolakanaho, A; Richardson, U; Pennala, R; Lyytinen, H

    2012-01-01

    In Jyväskylä Longitudinal Study of Dyslexia, we have investigated neurocognitive processes related to phonology and other risk factors of later reading problems. Here we review studies in which we have investigated whether dyslexic children with familial risk background would show atypical auditory/speech processing at birth, at six months and later before school and at school age as measured by brain event-related potentials (ERPs), and how infant ERPs are related to later pre-reading cognitive skills and literacy outcome. One half of the children came from families with at least one dyslexic parent (the at-risk group), while the other half belonged to the control group without any familial background of dyslexia. Early ERPs were correlated to kindergarten age phonological processing and letter-naming skills as well as phoneme duration perception, reading and writing skills at school age. The correlations were, in general, more consistent among at-risk children. Those at-risk children who became poor readers also differed from typical readers in the infant ERP measures at the group level. ERPs measured before school and at the 3rd grade also differed between dyslexic and typical readers. Further, speech perception at behavioural level differed between dyslexic and typical readers, but not in all dyslexic readers. These findings suggest persisting developmental differences in the organization of the neural networks sub-serving auditory and speech perception, with cascading effects on later reading related skills, in children with familial background for dyslexia. However, atypical auditory/speech processing is not likely a sufficient reason by itself for dyslexia but rather one endophenotype or risk factor. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  11. Assessing the potential impact of a front-of-pack nutritional rating system on food availability in school canteens: A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Kathryn; Nathan, Nicole; Wu, Jason H Y; Delaney, Tessa; Wyse, Rebecca; Cobcroft, Megan; Wiggers, John; Sutherland, Rachel; Buffett, Kym; Yoong, Sze Lin; Wolfenden, Luke

    2018-02-01

    Front-of-pack graphical nutritional rating of products is becoming an important strategy in many countries to improve healthy food purchases by consumers. Evidence of the effectiveness of such on facilitating healthy food choices by school food service providers has not been reported. The primary aim of the study was to assess the impact of providing front-of-pack nutritional rating information on school canteen managers' likely food selections. Secondary outcomes were canteen manager awareness, attitudes and reported barriers to using the front-of-pack information. A randomised controlled trial involving primary school canteen managers was conducted in a single region in New South Wales, Australia. Eligible participants were randomised to an intervention or control group and asked in a telephone interview which of 12 common food products sold in school canteens they would sell. Both groups received product name and brand information. The intervention group also received information regarding the nutritional rating of products. Canteen managers in the intervention group were significantly more likely than those in the control group to indicate they would sell three of the six 'healthier' products (p = 0.036, 0.005, 0.009). There was no difference between groups in the likelihood of making available for sale any of the six 'less healthy' products. The majority of canteen managers who had heard of a product nutritional rating system agreed that it was helpful in identifying 'healthier' foods (88%, n = 31). The inclusion of product nutritional rating information has the potential to improve the availability of some 'healthier' items on canteen menus and contribute to improving child dietary intake. Further research is required to determine whether the use of product nutritional rating information actually makes a difference to canteen manager choices. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Use of health tourism as a basis for improving physical condition of primary school age children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Halyna Butenko; Nataliia Goncharova; Volodymyr Saienko; Hanna Tolchieva

    2017-01-01

      The article is devoted to explanation and elaboration of recreation and health-improving technology embracing health tourism means for the cohort of primary school age children after the school hours...

  13. The weight of pupils schoolbags in early school age and its influence on body posture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anna Brzęk; Tarja Dworrak; Markus Strauss; Fabian Sanchis-Gomar; Ibtissam Sabbah; Birgit Dworrak; Roman Leischik

    2017-01-01

    ...) which occur when children are at school age. The reduction in the level of physical activity, increased body weight, overloaded school bags, asymmetry of the backpack straps, the method of putting on and taking off the backpacks and increased...

  14. A cluster-randomised controlled trial to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a childhood obesity prevention programme delivered through schools, targeting 6-7 year old children: the WAVES study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adab, Peymane; Pallan, Miranda J; Lancashire, Emma R; Hemming, Karla; Frew, Emma; Griffin, Tania; Barrett, Timothy; Bhopal, Raj; Cade, Janet E; Daley, Amanda; Deeks, Jonathan; Duda, Joan; Ekelund, Ulf; Gill, Paramjit; McGee, Eleanor; Parry, Jayne; Passmore, Sandra; Cheng, Kar Keung

    2015-05-13

    There is some evidence that school-based interventions are effective in preventing childhood obesity. However, longer term outcomes, equity of effects and cost-effectiveness of interventions have not been assessed. The aim of this trial is to assess the clinical and cost-effectiveness of a multi-component intervention programme targeting the school and family environment through primary schools, in preventing obesity in 6-7 year old children, compared to usual practice. This cluster randomised controlled trial is set in 54 primary schools within the West Midlands, UK, including a multi-ethnic, socioeconomically diverse population of children aged 6-7 years. The 12-month intervention consists of healthy diet and physical activity promotion. These include: activities to increase time spent doing physical activity within the school day, participation in the 'Villa Vitality' programme (a programme that is delivered by an iconic sporting institution (Aston Villa Football Club), which provides interactive learning opportunities for physical activity and healthy eating), healthy cooking skills workshops in school time for parents and children, and provision of information to families signposting local leisure opportunities. The primary (clinical) outcome is the difference in body mass index (BMI) z-scores between arms at 3 and 18 months post-intervention completion. Cost per Quality Adjusted Life Year (QALY) will also be assessed. The sample size estimate (1000 children split across 50 schools at follow-up) is based on 90% power to detect differences in BMI z-score of 0.25 (estimated ICC ≤ 0.04), assuming a correlation between baseline and follow-up BMI z-score of 0.9. Treatment effects will be examined using mixed model ANCOVA. Primary analysis will adjust for baseline BMI z-score, and secondary analysis will adjust for pre-specified baseline school and child level covariates. The West Midlands ActiVe lifestyle and healthy Eating in School children (WAVES) study is the

  15. Language growth in Dutch school-age children with specific language impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwitserlood, Rob

    2014-01-01

    In this dissertation, the results of a longitudinal study of two age-groups of Dutch-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI) and an intervention study examining a metalinguistic approach for older school-age children with SLI are reported. Grammatical development of school-age

  16. Shame Solutions: How Shame Impacts School-Aged Children and What Teachers Can Do to Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Though many psychologists and researchers argue over the age at which humans first experience shame, all agree that by age two children have the capacity to be shamed (Lansky and Morrison 1997). School-aged children have invariably been exposed to shame at home and receive an extra dose of it in our current school system. This essay investigates…

  17. Intrinsic and Extrinsic School Motivation as a Function of Age: The Mediating Role of Autonomy Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillet, Nicolas; Vallerand, Robert J.; Lafreniere, Marc-Andre K.

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of the present research was to investigate school intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and amotivation as a function of age in a sample of 1,600 elementary and high school students aged 9-17 years. First, results revealed a systematic decrease in intrinsic motivation and self-determined extrinsic motivation from age 9 to 12 years,…

  18. Hot flushes among aging women: A 4-year follow-up study to a randomised controlled exercise trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansikkamäki, Kirsi; Nygård, Clas-Håkan; Raitanen, Jani; Kukkonen-Harjula, Katriina; Tomás, Eija; Rutanen, Reetta; Luoto, Riitta

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this follow-up study was to explore the long-term effects of a 6-month trial of exercise training on hot flushes. The follow-up was 4 years after the exercise intervention ended. A cohort study after a randomised controlled trial. Ninety-five of the 159 randomised women (60%) participated in anthropometric measurements and performed a 2-km walk test. Participants completed a questionnaire and kept a one-week diary on physical activity, menopause symptoms and sleep quality. The frequency of 24-h hot flushes was multiplied by severity and the total sum for one week was defined as the Hot Flush Score (HFScore). Multilevel mixed regression models were analysed to compare the exercise and control groups. Hot Flush Score (HFScore) as assessed with the one-week symptom diary. The women in the exercise group had a higher probability of improved HFScore, i.e. a decrease in HFScore points, adjusted for hormone therapy (OR 0.95; 95% CI 0.90-1.00) than women in the control group at the 4-year follow-up. After additional adjustment for sleep quality, the result approached statistical significance at HFScore≥13 with women in the exercise group. Women who had the least amount of hot flushes, HFScorewomen in the control group. Women in the exercise group had positive effects on their HFScore 4 years after a 6-month exercise intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. PREVENTION OF TUBERCULOSIS AT SCHOOL AGE-AWARENESS OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Tsankova

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: carrying out of secondary school students’ health awareness about tuberculosis’ characteristics and its prophylaxis.Materials and methods: An anonymous inquiry examination of 190 students at the age of 15-18, 69 (36% of who - boys and 121 (64% girls in IX, X, XI classes, from 3 secondary schools in Varna. The inquiry consists of 32 questions, classified in 4 sections. SPSS ver. 19.0 software package was used for statistical data processing.Results: Studies show that the interviewed students are aware of the basic characteristics of tuberculosis. The research displays significant differences between girls and boys` answers. Boys are better grounded in the causes, the processes of transmission and the basic prophylactic measures for prevention of tuberculosis whereas girls are very knowledgeable about the main symptoms of the disease.

  20. Role of fatty acids and micronutrients in healthy ageing: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials set in the context of European dietary surveys of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruxton, C H S; Derbyshire, E; Toribio-Mateas, M

    2016-06-01

    Ageing is a multifaceted and inevitable process involving a decline in health and well-being that could be ameliorated by dietary modification. We review and discuss the evidence for nutritional interventions that may support healthy ageing. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were used to identify randomised controlled trials investigating the role(s) of fatty acids and micronutrients in relation to markers of healthy ageing. European dietary surveys suggest that diets in elderly people are generally high in saturated fat, whereas intakes of vitamin D, magnesium, potassium, zinc and copper are below recommended levels. Thirty-four studies meeting the criteria were found, with 12 of these investigating the role of fatty acids and 22 considering intakes of micronutrients in relation to healthy ageing. Overall, these studies suggested that certain nutrients were consistent with healthy ageing; for example, omega-3 fatty acids were helpful for cognitive health, whereas combinations of calcium, vitamin D and K were linked with better bone health. Vitamin, mineral and fatty acid intakes are in need of improvement to help elderly populations achieve optimal diet quality and support healthy ageing. This could involve the judicious use of supplements alongside dietary advice. Additional research is needed to determine optimal nutrient doses, combinations and forms in relation to desired health outcomes. © 2015 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  1. Relative age effect on success in tennis competition in the older age-school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Agricola

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The theory of relative age effect assumes that children and adolescents - athletes born at the beginning of the calendar year in sports competitions are more successful than those who were born in the later months of the same year. This percentage is based on advantage of fitness, morphological and psychological assumptions of the older athletes. AIM: The research objective of the present study was to verify the assumption of competitive success of older players in the elite boys and girls tennis groups in the older school age. METHODOLOGY: The data from groups of 13 year old boys and girls (13 years and 0 months to 13 years and 11 months were included into the analysis. These players were registered in the first one hundred ranking of International Tennis Federation (ITF according to the total number of ranking points in each year during the period 2007-2011 (500 boys, 500 girls. An ANOVA was used for analysis with a total ranking score as an indicator of competitive success with the age factor (12 levels = 12 months of birth (α = .05. The same analysis was used in sub-groups of boys, respectively girls, registered in ITF separately for each year of the period 2007-2011. Dates of birth of children were obtained from official sources of ITF. In the event of the significance factor of age we performed a simple regression analysis depending on the number of ITF points on the month of birth (p < .05. Analyses were processed in SPSS 21 software (IBM, USA. RESULTS: The analysis showed no significance of age, respective of the month of birth on the total number of points in a boys group (n = 500 (p = .624 and girls group (n = 500 (p = .152 from ITF ranking during five-year period. No significance was found in the boys' groups (n = 100, respective girls' groups (n = 100 registered in ITF ranking in each year of the five-year period. The exception was found only in a boys group in 2007 (p = .021, and significant regression relationship

  2. Supporting adolescent girls to stay in school, reduce child marriage and reduce entry into sex work as HIV risk prevention in north Karnataka, India: protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Tara S; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Isac, Shajy; Davey, Calum; Javalkar, Prakash; Nair, Sapna; Thalinja, Raghavendra; Sudhakar, Gautam; Collumbien, Martine; Blanchard, James F; Watts, Charlotte; Moses, Stephen; Heise, Lori

    2015-03-25

    Low caste adolescent girls living in rural northern Karnataka are at increased risk of school drop-out, child marriage, and entry into sex-work, which enhances their vulnerability to HIV, early pregnancy and adverse maternal and child health outcomes. This protocol describes the evaluation of Samata, a comprehensive, multi-level intervention designed to address these structural drivers of HIV risk and vulnerability. The Samata study is a cluster randomised controlled trial that will be conducted in eighty village clusters (40 intervention; 40 control) in Bijapur and Bagalkot districts in northern Karnataka. The intervention seeks to reach low caste girls and their families; adolescent boys; village communities; high school teachers and school governing committees; and local government officials. All low caste (scheduled caste/tribe) adolescent girls attending 7th standard (final year of primary school) will be recruited into the study in two consecutive waves, one year apart. Girls (n = 2100), their families (n = 2100) and school teachers (n = 650) will be interviewed at baseline and at endline. The study is designed to assess the impact of the intervention on four primary outcomes: the proportion of low caste girls who (i) enter into secondary school; (ii) complete secondary school; (iii) marry before age 15; and (iv) engage in sex before age 15. Observers assessing the outcomes will be blinded to group assignment. The primary outcome will be an adjusted, cluster-level intention to treat analysis, comparing outcomes in intervention and control villages at follow-up. We will also conduct survival analyses for the following secondary outcomes: marriage, sexual debut, pregnancy and entry into sex work. Complementary monitoring and evaluation, qualitative and economic research will be used to explore and describe intervention implementation, the pathways through which change occurs, and the cost-effectiveness of the intervention. This is an innovative

  3. PREvention STudy On preventing or reducing disability from musculoskeletal complaints in music school students (PRESTO): protocol of a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baadjou, Vera A E; Verbunt, Jeanine A M C F; Eijsden-Besseling, Marjon D F van; Samama-Polak, Ans L W; Bie, Rob A D E; Smeets, Rob J E M

    2014-12-01

    Up to 87% of professional musicians develop work-related complaints of the musculoskeletal system during their careers. Music school students are at specific risk for developing musculoskeletal complaints and disabilities. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a biopsychosocial prevention program to prevent or reduce disabilities from playing-related musculoskeletal disorders. Secondary objectives are evaluation of cost-effectiveness and feasibility. Healthy, first or second year students (n=150) will be asked to participate in a multicentre, single-blinded, parallel-group randomised controlled trial. Students randomised to the intervention group (n=75) will participate in a biopsychosocial prevention program that addresses playing-related health problems and provides postural training according to the Mensendieck or Cesar methods of postural exercise therapy, while incorporating aspects from behavioural change theories. A control group (n=75) will participate in a program that stimulates a healthy physical activity level using a pedometer, which conforms to international recommendations. No long-term effects are expected from this control intervention. Total follow-up duration is two years. The primary outcome measure is disability (Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire). The secondary outcome measures are pain, quality of life and changes in health behaviour. Multilevel mixed-effect logistic or linear regression analyses will be performed to analyse the effects of the program on the aforementioned outcome measurements. Furthermore, cost-effectiveness, cost-utility and feasibility will be analysed. It is believed that this is the first comprehensive randomised controlled trial on the effect and rationale of a biopsychosocial prevention program for music students. Copyright © 2014 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effectiveness of the back school and mckenzie techniques in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain: a protocol of a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Alessandra N

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic low back pain is a highly prevalent condition, which is associated with high direct and indirect costs to the society. Although this condition is highly prevalent, it is still extremely difficult to treat. Two potentially useful treatments for patients with chronic low back pain are called the McKenzie and Back School treatment programs. These programs have good biological plausibility, are widely available and have a modest cost. Although these treatments are already available for patients, the evidence that supports their use is largely based on low quality methodological studies. Therefore, a high-quality randomised controlled trial is required to compare, for the first time, the effectiveness of these treatments in patients with chronic low back pain. Methods/design One hundred and forty-eight patients will be randomly allocated to a four-week treatment program based upon the McKenzie or Back School principles. Clinical outcomes (pain intensity, disability, quality of life, and trunk flexion range of motion will be obtained at follow-up appointments at 1, 3 and 6 months after randomisation. The data will be collected by an assessor who will be blinded to the group allocation. Discussion This will be the first study aimed to compare the McKenzie and Back School approaches in patients with chronic low back pain. The results of this trial may help in the decision-making process of allied health providers for the treatment of chronic low back pain and reduce the health-related costs of this condition. Trial Registration ACTRN12610000435088

  5. Helminthiasis among School Age Children in Osogbo Municipality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The infections were school dependent, public schools have significantly higher prevalence (p<0.05) than the private school studied. After a single dose of Levamisole treatment, (21%) of the subjects with intestinal helminthes voided and submitted A. lumbricoides adult worms. This study shows low standard of sanitation ...

  6. Improved cognitive performance in preadolescent Danish children after the school-based physical activity programme "FIFA 11 for Health" for Europe - A cluster-randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Rune Rasmussen; Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Ørntoft, Christina

    2018-01-01

    programme "FIFA 11 for Health" for Europe could improve cognitive performance in preadolescent Danish children. METHODS: The pilot study used an 11-week cluster-randomised intervention study design. School classes were randomly assigned to either a control group (CG) (n = 93 children, age = 11.8, s = 0.......2 years), which performed the obligatory daily school-based physical activity (5 × 45 minutes per week); or an intervention group (IG) (n = 838 children, age = 11.9, s = 0.4 years), which substituted 2 × 45 minutes per week of the daily school physical activity with the "FIFA 11 for Health" for Europe......, p = .012) and working memory (79, sx- = 35 ms, p = .020). CONCLUSION: This pilot study provides evidence that the school-based physical activity programme "FIFA 11 for Health" for Europe can improve cognitive performance in preadolescent Danish schoolchildren. Future studies should attempt...

  7. Comparison of the caries-protective effect of fluoride varnish with treatment as usual in nursery school attendees receiving preventive oral health support through the Childsmile oral health improvement programme - the Protecting Teeth@3 Study: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, William; Turner, Stephen; Anopa, Yulia; McIntosh, Emma; Wu, Olivia; Conway, David I; Macpherson, Lorna M D; McMahon, Alex D

    2015-12-18

    The Scottish Government set out its policy on addressing the poor oral health of Scottish children in 2005. This led to the establishment of Childsmile, a national programme designed to improve the oral health of children in Scotland. One element of the programme promotes daily tooth brushing in all nurseries in Scotland (Childsmile Core). A second targeted component (Childsmile Nursery) offers twice-yearly application of fluoride varnish to children attending nurseries in deprived areas. Studies suggest that fluoride varnish application can reduce caries in both adult and child populations. This trial aims to explore the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of additional preventive value fluoride varnish application compared to Childsmile Core. The Protecting Teeth@3 Study is an ongoing 2 year parallel group randomised treatment as usual controlled trial. Three-year-old children attending the ante pre-school year are randomised (1:1) to the intervention arm (fluoride varnish & treatment as usual) or the control arm (treatment as usual). Children in the intervention arm will have Duraphat® fluoride varnish painted on the primary tooth surfaces and will continue to receive treatment as usual: the core Childsmile Nursery intervention. Children in the treatment as usual arm will receive the same series of contacts, without the application of varnish and will also continue with the Childsmile Core intervention. Interventions are undertaken by Childsmile trained extended duty dental nurses at six-monthly intervals. Participants receive a baseline dental inspection in nursery and an endpoint inspection in Primary 1 at the age of 5 years old. We will use primary and secondary outcome measures to compare the effectiveness of Duraphat® fluoride varnish plus treatment as usual with treatment as usual only in preventing any further dental decay. We will also undertake a full economic evaluation of the trial. This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov. Number: NCT

  8. Effect of intervention aimed at increasing physical activity, reducing sedentary behaviour, and increasing fruit and vegetable consumption in children: active for Life Year 5 (AFLY5) school based cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipping, Ruth R; Howe, Laura D; Jago, Russell; Campbell, Rona; Wells, Sian; Chittleborough, Catherine R; Mytton, Julie; Noble, Sian M; Peters, Tim J; Lawlor, Debbie A

    2014-05-27

    To investigate the effectiveness of a school based intervention to increase physical activity, reduce sedentary behaviour, and increase fruit and vegetable consumption in children. Cluster randomised controlled trial. 60 primary schools in the south west of England. Primary school children who were in school year 4 (age 8-9 years) at recruitment and baseline assessment, in year 5 during the intervention, and at the end of year 5 (age 9-10) at follow-up assessment. The Active for Life Year 5 (AFLY5) intervention consisted of teacher training, provision of lesson and child-parent interactive homework plans, all materials required for lessons and homework, and written materials for school newsletters and parents. The intervention was delivered when children were in school year 5 (age 9-10 years). Schools allocated to control received standard teaching. The pre-specified primary outcomes were accelerometer assessed minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity per day, accelerometer assessed minutes of sedentary behaviour per day, and reported daily consumption of servings of fruit and vegetables. 60 schools with more than 2221 children were recruited; valid data were available for fruit and vegetable consumption for 2121 children, for accelerometer assessed physical activity and sedentary behaviour for 1252 children, and for secondary outcomes for between 1825 and 2212 children for the main analyses. None of the three primary outcomes differed between children in schools allocated to the AFLY5 intervention and those allocated to the control group. The difference in means comparing the intervention group with the control group was -1.35 (95% confidence interval -5.29 to 2.59) minutes per day for moderate to vigorous physical activity, -0.11 (-9.71 to 9.49) minutes per day for sedentary behaviour, and 0.08 (-0.12 to 0.28) servings per day for fruit and vegetable consumption. The intervention was effective for three out of nine of the secondary outcomes after

  9. Multitasking During Degraded Speech Recognition in School-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieco-Calub, Tina M; Ward, Kristina M; Brehm, Laurel

    2017-01-01

    Multitasking requires individuals to allocate their cognitive resources across different tasks. The purpose of the current study was to assess school-age children's multitasking abilities during degraded speech recognition. Children (8 to 12 years old) completed a dual-task paradigm including a sentence recognition (primary) task containing speech that was either unprocessed or noise-band vocoded with 8, 6, or 4 spectral channels and a visual monitoring (secondary) task. Children's accuracy and reaction time on the visual monitoring task was quantified during the dual-task paradigm in each condition of the primary task and compared with single-task performance. Children experienced dual-task costs in the 6- and 4-channel conditions of the primary speech recognition task with decreased accuracy on the visual monitoring task relative to baseline performance. In all conditions, children's dual-task performance on the visual monitoring task was strongly predicted by their single-task (baseline) performance on the task. Results suggest that children's proficiency with the secondary task contributes to the magnitude of dual-task costs while multitasking during degraded speech recognition.

  10. Time2bHealthy - An online childhood obesity prevention program for preschool-aged children: A randomised controlled trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammersley, Megan L; Jones, Rachel A; Okely, Anthony D

    2017-10-01

    The use of parent-focused internet-based programs for the prevention and treatment of childhood obesity has shown promise but there is an acknowledged gap in parent-focused interventions which target the early childhood stage. The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy of Time2bHealthy - an online healthy lifestyle program for parents of preschool-aged children. The program will be evaluated using a two-arm, parallel, randomised controlled design. The 11-week program is underpinned by Social Cognitive Theory and consists of interactive modules on healthy eating, physical activity, screen-time and sleep. The intervention also involves elements of social media, where participants share discuss ideas and experiences and they can interact and obtain information with experts. Time2bHealthy is being compared to a comparison condition. Outcomes include change in BMI (primary outcome), dietary intake, physical activity, sleep, child feeding, parental role-modelling and parent self-efficacy. Process evaluation data, such as adherence and engagement with the online forums, will also be collected. Time2bHealthy is the first randomised controlled trial to our knowledge to assess the efficacy of an online parent-focussed healthy lifestyle program for preschool-aged children in changing body mass index. Early childhood is a crucial time for establishing healthy lifestyle behaviours and parents play an important role. This study therefore fills an important gap in the literature. If found to be efficacious, Time2bHealthy has potential for broad-reach access and translation into primary health care services. The study is registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (12616000119493). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Relationship between anthropometric indicators and cognitive performance in Southeast Asian school-aged children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sandjaja; Poh, Bee Koon; Rojroonwasinkul, Nipa; Le Nyugen, Bao Khanh; Budiman, Basuki; Ng, Lai Oon; Soonthorndhada, Kusol; Xuyen, Hoang Thi; Deurenberg, Paul; Parikh, Panam

    2013-01-01

    .... Malnutrition is reflected in children's weight, height and BMI curves. The present cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the association between anthropometric indices and cognitive performance in 6746 school-aged children (aged 6-12 years...

  12. Attention and Memory in School-Age Children Surviving the Terrorist Attack in Beslan, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrimin, Sara; Moscardino, Ughetta; Capello, Fabia; Axia, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of terrorism on children's cognitive functioning and school learning. The primary purpose of this study was to report on cognitive functioning among school-age children 20 months after a terrorist attack against their school. Participants included 203 directly and indirectly exposed children from Beslan and 100…

  13. Building a method for researching attribution of meaning by children aged 5 to 6 in school.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tertoolen, A.; van Oers, B.; Geldens, J.; Popeijus, H.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the first phase of a research project in which we looked for the voices of young children, aged 5 to 6, in school. What do children experience in school? What do they see as the meaning of school? What is their motivation? Children have the right to be listened to. The

  14. The effectiveness of an aged care specific leadership and management program on workforce, work environment, and care quality outcomes: design of a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Yun-Hee; Simpson, Judy M; Chenoweth, Lynn; Cunich, Michelle; Kendig, Hal

    2013-10-25

    A plethora of observational evidence exists concerning the impact of management and leadership on workforce, work environment, and care quality. Yet, no randomised controlled trial has been conducted to test the effectiveness of leadership and management interventions in aged care. An innovative aged care clinical leadership program (Clinical Leadership in Aged Care--CLiAC) was developed to improve managers' leadership capacities to support the delivery of quality care in Australia. This paper describes the study design of the cluster randomised controlled trial testing the effectiveness of the program. Twenty-four residential and community aged care sites were recruited as managers at each site agreed in writing to participate in the study and ensure that leaders allocated to the control arm would not be offered the intervention program. Sites undergoing major managerial or structural changes were excluded. The 24 sites were randomly allocated to receive the CLiAC program (intervention) or usual care (control), stratified by type (residential vs. community, six each for each arm). Treatment allocation was masked to assessors and staff of all participating sites. The objective is to establish the effectiveness of the CLiAC program in improving work environment, workforce retention, as well as care safety and quality, when compared to usual care. The primary outcomes are measures of work environment, care quality and safety, and staff turnover rates. Secondary outcomes include manager leadership capacity, staff absenteeism, intention to leave, stress levels, and job satisfaction. Differences between intervention and control groups will be analysed by researchers blinded to treatment allocation using linear regression of individual results adjusted for stratification and clustering by site (primary analysis), and additionally for baseline values and potential confounders (secondary analysis). Outcomes measured at the site level will be compared by cluster

  15. The effectiveness of an aged care specific leadership and management program on workforce, work environment, and care quality outcomes: design of a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background A plethora of observational evidence exists concerning the impact of management and leadership on workforce, work environment, and care quality. Yet, no randomised controlled trial has been conducted to test the effectiveness of leadership and management interventions in aged care. An innovative aged care clinical leadership program (Clinical Leadership in Aged Care − CLiAC) was developed to improve managers’ leadership capacities to support the delivery of quality care in Australia. This paper describes the study design of the cluster randomised controlled trial testing the effectiveness of the program. Methods Twenty-four residential and community aged care sites were recruited as managers at each site agreed in writing to participate in the study and ensure that leaders allocated to the control arm would not be offered the intervention program. Sites undergoing major managerial or structural changes were excluded. The 24 sites were randomly allocated to receive the CLiAC program (intervention) or usual care (control), stratified by type (residential vs. community, six each for each arm). Treatment allocation was masked to assessors and staff of all participating sites. The objective is to establish the effectiveness of the CLiAC program in improving work environment, workforce retention, as well as care safety and quality, when compared to usual care. The primary outcomes are measures of work environment, care quality and safety, and staff turnover rates. Secondary outcomes include manager leadership capacity, staff absenteeism, intention to leave, stress levels, and job satisfaction. Differences between intervention and control groups will be analysed by researchers blinded to treatment allocation using linear regression of individual results adjusted for stratification and clustering by site (primary analysis), and additionally for baseline values and potential confounders (secondary analysis). Outcomes measured at the site level will be

  16. The age of school shootings: a sociological interpretation on masculinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celis, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades there has been a growing interest in the study of the horrendous massacres perpetrated by students at school premises. These massacres, known as school shootings, haven been predominantly analyzed by employing psychological approaches. Despite the fact that empirical research clearly reveals that school shooters tend not to present life-long histories of mental illness, these approaches usually put a strong emphasis on the perpetrator’s individual pathologies, ignoring the influence that social values such as masculinity exert on perpetrators’ actions. Consequently, perpetrators are viewed as lone wolf shooters and school shootings as isolated cases. Based on data derived from scholarly works published mainly in peer-review journals and the sociological theory of P. Berger and T. Luckmann, the aim of this essay is to offer a sociological interpretation on school shootings by explaining why school shooters commit violent actions against teachers and classmates as a form of retrieving their masculinity. In this regard, the essay finds that male rather than female students commit school shootings. At the same time, the majority of perpetrators have had parents who were gun collectors. It is no coincide that shooters mostly use family guns to commit the massacres. Additionally, shooters see school as a social entity that has diminished their masculinity, and the way to reaffirm their masculinity is to attack randomly students and teachers in full view of the rest of school members during school hours.

  17. A Randomised Controlled Experimental Study on the Influence of Patient Age on Medical Decisions in Respect to the Diagnosis and Treatment of Depression in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Linden

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Elderly patients are often treated differently than younger patients, even when suffering from the same disorder. Objective. The study examines the influence of “patient age” on the perception of symptoms and conclusions of physicians in respect to diagnosis and treatment. Methods. In a randomised controlled experimental study on medical decision-making, 121 general practitioners were given two case vignettes which contained all the criteria for major depression according to ICD-10, but differed in respect to the age of the patient (39 or 81. Reaction time, diagnostic conclusions and therapeutic recommendations were assessed by computer. Results. Depression and anxiety were significantly seen as more probable in the young cases and dementia and physical illness in the old. In young age, psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy and referral to a specialist or inpatient treatment were significantly more recommended than in old age, for whom supportive counselling was significantly more recommended. The time needed for a decision was significantly longer in the older patients. Conclusion. Ageing stereotypes can also form medical illness concepts and have a significant influence on diagnostic and therapeutic decisions.

  18. A school-aged child with delayed reading skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, M T; Zentall, S; Shaywitz, S E; Shaywitz, B A

    1999-10-01

    During a health supervision visit, the father of a 7.5-year-old African American second-grader asked about his son's progress in reading. He was concerned when, at a recent teacher-parent conference to review Darren's progress, the teacher remarked that Darren was not keeping up with reading skills compared with others in his class. She said that he had difficulty sounding out some words correctly. In addition, he could not recall words he had read the day before. The teacher commented that Darren was a gregarious, friendly child with better-than-average verbal communication skills. His achievement at math was age-appropriate; spelling, however, was difficult for Darren, with many deleted letters and reversals of written letters. A focused history did not reveal any risk factors for a learning problem in the prenatal or perinatal periods. Early motor, language, and social milestones were achieved on time. Darren had not experienced any head injury, loss of consciousness, or chronic medical illness. He had several friends, and his father denied any behavioral problems at home or at school. His teacher completed a DSM-IV-specific behavioral survey for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It did not show any evidence of ADHD. Darren's father completed 1 year of college and is currently the manager of a neighborhood convenience store. His mother had a high school education; she recalled that she found it difficult to complete assignments that required reading or writing. She is employed as a waitress. Darren does not have any siblings. The pediatrician performed a complete physical examination, the results of which were normal, including visual acuity, audiometry, and a neurological examination. It was noted that Darren seemed to pause several times in response to questions or commands. On two occasions, during finger-nose testing and a request to assess tandem gait, directions required repetition. Overall, he was pleasant and seemed to enjoy the visit. His

  19. Active Travel to School: Findings from the Survey of US Health Behavior in School-Aged Children, 2009-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Ivey, Stephanie S.; Levy, Marian C.; Royne, Marla B.; Klesges, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Whereas children's active travel to school (ATS) has confirmed benefits, only a few large national surveys of ATS exist. Methods: Using data from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) 2009-2010 US survey, we conducted a logistic regression model to estimate the odds ratios of ATS and a linear regression model to estimate…

  20. Impact of a school-based intervention on nutritional education and physical activity in primary public schools in Chile (KIND programme study protocol: cluster randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Bustos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chile has suffered a fast increase in childhood obesity in the last 10 years. As a result, several school programmes have been implemented, however the effectiveness of these needs to be evaluated to identify and prioritize strategies to curve this trend. Methods Cluster randomized controlled trial. Twelve primary public schools chosen at random over three regions of the country will take part in this study. The sample size consisted of a total of 1,655 children. For each region one school will be selected for each of the three nutritional intervention modes and one school will be selected as the control group. The intervention modes consist of the following: Healthy Kiosk and nutritional education (KSEAN; Optimized physical activity (AFSO; Healthy Kiosk and nutritional education (KSEAN + optimized physical activity (AFSO; Control group. The effectiveness of each intervention will be evaluated by determining the nutritional condition of each child by measuring percentage of body fat, BMI and the z-score of the BMI. This study will also identify the eating behaviours, nutritional knowledge and fitness of each child, along with the effective time of moderate activity during physical education classes. Discussion A protocol to evaluate the effectiveness of a school based intervention to control and/or reduce the rates of childhood obesity for children between 6 and 10 years of age was developed. The protocol was developed in line with the Declaration of Helsinski, the Nüremberg Code and the University of Chile Guidelines for ethical committees, and was approved by the INTA, Universidad de Chile ethical committee on Wednesday 12 March 2014. There is consensus among researchers and health and education personnel that schools are a favourable environment for actions to prevent and/or control childhood obesity. However a lack of evidence on the effectiveness of interventions to date has led some to question the wisdom of

  1. Impact of a school-based intervention on nutritional education and physical activity in primary public schools in Chile (KIND) programme study protocol: cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos, Nelly; Olivares, Sonia; Leyton, Bárbara; Cano, Marcelo; Albala, Cecilia

    2016-12-03

    Chile has suffered a fast increase in childhood obesity in the last 10 years. As a result, several school programmes have been implemented, however the effectiveness of these needs to be evaluated to identify and prioritize strategies to curve this trend. Cluster randomized controlled trial. Twelve primary public schools chosen at random over three regions of the country will take part in this study. The sample size consisted of a total of 1,655 children. For each region one school will be selected for each of the three nutritional intervention modes and one school will be selected as the control group. The intervention modes consist of the following: Healthy Kiosk and nutritional education (KSEAN); Optimized physical activity (AFSO); Healthy Kiosk and nutritional education (KSEAN) + optimized physical activity (AFSO); Control group. The effectiveness of each intervention will be evaluated by determining the nutritional condition of each child by measuring percentage of body fat, BMI and the z-score of the BMI. This study will also identify the eating behaviours, nutritional knowledge and fitness of each child, along with the effective time of moderate activity during physical education classes. A protocol to evaluate the effectiveness of a school based intervention to control and/or reduce the rates of childhood obesity for children between 6 and 10 years of age was developed. The protocol was developed in line with the Declaration of Helsinski, the Nüremberg Code and the University of Chile Guidelines for ethical committees, and was approved by the INTA, Universidad de Chile ethical committee on Wednesday 12 March 2014. There is consensus among researchers and health and education personnel that schools are a favourable environment for actions to prevent and/or control childhood obesity. However a lack of evidence on the effectiveness of interventions to date has led some to question the wisdom of allocating resources to programmes. This is the first study

  2. A healthy school start - parental support to promote healthy dietary habits and physical activity in children: design and evaluation of a cluster-randomised intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Gisela; Sundblom, Elinor; Norman, Asa; Elinder, Liselotte Schäfer

    2011-03-25

    Childhood obesity is multi-factorial and determined to a large extent by dietary habits, physical activity and sedentary behaviours. Previous research has shown that school-based programmes are effective but that their effectiveness can be improved by including a parental component. At present, there is a lack of effective parental support programmes for improvement of diet and physical activity and prevention of obesity in children. This paper describes the rationale and design of a parental support programme to promote healthy dietary habits and physical activity in six-year-old children starting school. The study is performed in close collaboration with the school health care and is designed as a cluster-randomised controlled trial with a mixed methods approach. In total, 14 pre-school classes are included from a municipality in Stockholm county where there is large variation in socio-economic status between the families. The school classes are randomised to intervention (n = 7) and control (n = 7) groups including a total of 242 children. The intervention is based on social cognitive theory and consists of three main components: 1) a health information brochure; 2) two motivational interviewing sessions with the parents; and 3) teacher-led classroom activities with the children. The primary outcomes are physical activity in the children measured objectively by accelerometry, children's dietary and physical activity habits measured with a parent-proxy questionnaire and parents' self-efficacy measured by a questionnaire. Secondary outcomes are height, weight and waist circumference in the children. The duration of the intervention is six months and includes baseline, post intervention and six months follow-up measurements. Linear and logistic regression models will be used to analyse differences between intervention and control groups in the outcome variables. Mediator and moderator analysis will be performed. Participants will be interviewed. The results from

  3. A healthy school start - Parental support to promote healthy dietary habits and physical activity in children: Design and evaluation of a cluster-randomised intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elinder Liselotte

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is multi-factorial and determined to a large extent by dietary habits, physical activity and sedentary behaviours. Previous research has shown that school-based programmes are effective but that their effectiveness can be improved by including a parental component. At present, there is a lack of effective parental support programmes for improvement of diet and physical activity and prevention of obesity in children. Methods/Design This paper describes the rationale and design of a parental support programme to promote healthy dietary habits and physical activity in six-year-old children starting school. The study is performed in close collaboration with the school health care and is designed as a cluster-randomised controlled trial with a mixed methods approach. In total, 14 pre-school classes are included from a municipality in Stockholm county where there is large variation in socio-economic status between the families. The school classes are randomised to intervention (n = 7 and control (n = 7 groups including a total of 242 children. The intervention is based on social cognitive theory and consists of three main components: 1 a health information brochure; 2 two motivational interviewing sessions with the parents; and 3 teacher-led classroom activities with the children. The primary outcomes are physical activity in the children measured objectively by accelerometry, children's dietary and physical activity habits measured with a parent-proxy questionnaire and parents' self-efficacy measured by a questionnaire. Secondary outcomes are height, weight and waist circumference in the children. The duration of the intervention is six months and includes baseline, post intervention and six months follow-up measurements. Linear and logistic regression models will be used to analyse differences between intervention and control groups in the outcome variables. Mediator and moderator analysis will be performed

  4. The age of school shootings: a sociological interpretation on masculinity

    OpenAIRE

    Celis, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Over the past two decades there has been a growing interest in the study of the horrendous massacres perpetrated by students at school premises. These massacres, known as school shootings, haven been predominantly analyzed by employing psychological approaches. Despite the fact that empirical research clearly reveals that school shooters tend not to present life-long histories of mental illness, these approaches usually put a strong emphasis on the perpetrator’s individual pathologies, ignori...

  5. Brain Volumes at Term-Equivalent Age in Preterm Infants : Imaging Biomarkers for Neurodevelopmental Outcome through Early School Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keunen, Kristin; Išgum, Ivana; van Kooij, Britt J M; Anbeek, Petronella; van Haastert, Ingrid C; Koopman-Esseboom, Corine; van Stam, Petronella C; Nievelstein, Rutger A J; Viergever, Max A; de Vries, Linda S; Groenendaal, Floris; Benders, Manon J N L

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between brain volumes at term and neurodevelopmental outcome through early school age in preterm infants. STUDY DESIGN: One hundred twelve preterm infants (born mean gestational age 28.6 ± 1.7 weeks) were studied prospectively with magnetic resonance imaging

  6. Did HealthKick, a randomised controlled trial primary school nutrition intervention improve dietary quality of children in low-income settings in South Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyn, Nelia P; de Villiers, Anniza; Gwebushe, Nomonde; Draper, Catherine E; Hill, Jillian; de Waal, Marina; Dalais, Lucinda; Abrahams, Zulfa; Lombard, Carl; Lambert, Estelle V

    2015-09-23

    Numerous studies in schools in the Western Cape Province, South Africa have shown that children have an unhealthy diet with poor diversity and which is high in sugar and fat. HealthKick (HK) was a three-year randomised controlled trial aimed at promoting healthy eating habits. Sixteen schools were selected from two low-income school districts and randomly allocated to intervention (n = 8) or control school (n = 8) status. The HK intervention comprised numerous activities to improve the school nutrition environment such as making healthier food choices available and providing nutrition education support. Dietary intake was measured by using a 24-h recall in 2009 in 500 grade 4 learners at intervention schools and 498 at control schools, and repeated in 2010 and 2011. A dietary diversity score (DDS) was calculated from nine food groups and frequency of snack food consumption was determined. A school level analysis was performed. The mean baseline (2009) DDS was low in both arms 4.55 (SD = 1.29) and 4.54 (1.22) in the intervention and control arms respectively, and 49 % of learners in HK intervention schools had a DDS ≤4 (=low diversity). A small increase in DDS was observed in both arms by 2011: mean score 4.91 (1.17) and 4.83 (1.29) in the intervention and control arms respectively. The estimated DSS intervention effect over the two years was not significant [0 .04 (95 % CI: -0.37 to 0.46)]. Food groups least consumed were eggs, fruit and vegetables. The most commonly eaten snacking items in 2009 were table sugar in beverages and/or cereals (80.5 %); followed by potato crisps (53.1 %); non-carbonated beverages (42.9 %); sweets (26.7 %) and sugar-sweetened carbonated beverages (16 %). Unhealthy snack consumption in terms of frequency of snack items consumed did not improve significantly in intervention or control schools. The results of the HK intervention were disappointing in terms of improvement in DDS and a decrease in unhealthy snacking. We

  7. Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Health-Related Quality of Life in School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiangli; Chang, Mei; Solmon, Melinda A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the association between physical activity (PA), physical fitness, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among school-aged children. Methods: Participants were 201 children (91 boys, 110 girls; M[subscript age] = 9.82) enrolled in one school in the southern US. Students' PA (self-reported PA, pedometer-based PA)…

  8. Developmental Trajectories From Birth to School Age in Healthy Term-Born Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roze, E.; Meijer, Lisethe; Van Braeckel, K.N.J.A.; Ruiter, S.A.J.; Bruggink, J.L.M.; Bos, A.F.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the stability of the scores obtained on tests of motor development from birth until school age in healthy, term singletons and to determine if early motor scores are associated with more complex cognitive functions at school age, such as attention and memory. PATIENTS AND

  9. A Survey of Hookworm Infection among Pupils of School Age in Jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Hookworm infection among children of school age in Jos-North Local Government Area of Plateau State. A total of. 2,800 stool samples from pupils aged 3 – 15 years and above, attending seven (7) primary schools were collected and bio-assayed for ...

  10. Sleep and Television and Computer Habits of Swedish School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmy, Pernilla; Nyberg, Per; Jakobsson, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate sleep, television and computer habits and enjoyment and feelings of tiredness in school of school-age children and adolescents in Sweden. An instrument found to be valid and reliable here was distributed to 3,011 children aged 6, 7, 10, 14, and 16 years. Those sleeping less than the median length of time…

  11. Education of Social Skills among Senior High School Age Students in Physical Education Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akelaitis, Arturas V.; Malinauskas, Romualdas K.

    2016-01-01

    Research aim was to reveal peculiarities of the education of social skills among senior high school age students in physical education classes. We hypothesized that after the end of the educational experiment the senior high school age students will have more developed social skills in physical education classes. Participants in the study were 51…

  12. Functional outcome at school age of preterm-born children treated with high-dose dexamethasone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hitzert, Marrit M.; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. A.; de Bok, Marijn; Maathuis, Carel G. B.; Roze, Elise; Bos, Arend F.

    Background: Postnatal dexamethasone (DXM) treatment is associated with adverse motor outcome. It is largely unknown as to what extent functional outcome at school age is affected. Aims: Our first aim was to determine motor, cognitive, and behavioural outcome at school age of preterm-born children

  13. Tall Poppies: Bullying Behaviors Faced by Australian High-Performance School-Age Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Maureen; Calder, Angela; Allen, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about Australian high-performance school-age athletes' experiences as victims of the tall poppy syndrome. Tall poppies are successful individuals bullied by those who are less successful in order to "normalize them." Nineteen current or previous national or international high-performance school-age athletes were…

  14. Age of Menarche among basic level school girls in Madina, Accra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current study was designed to determine the age at which menarche occurs among school girls in Madina, Accra. A survey was conducted among 529 girls selected using multi-stage sampling from basic schools in Madina, Accra. Respondents completed a questionnaire that recorded age-at-first menstruation by recall, ...

  15. Protocol for a feasibility cluster randomised controlled trial of a peer-led school-based intervention to increase the physical activity of adolescent girls (PLAN-A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebire, Simon J; Edwards, Mark J; Campbell, Rona; Jago, Russell; Kipping, Ruth; Banfield, Kathryn; Tomkinson, Keeley; Garfield, Kirsty; Lyons, Ronan A; Simon, Joanne; Blair, Peter S; Hollingworth, William

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity levels are low amongst adolescent girls, and this population faces specific barriers to being active. Peer influences on health behaviours are important in adolescence and peer-led interventions might hold promise to change behaviour. This paper describes the protocol for a feasibility cluster randomised controlled trial of Peer-Led physical Activity iNtervention for Adolescent girls (PLAN-A), a peer-led intervention aimed at increasing adolescent girls' physical activity levels. A two-arm cluster randomised feasibility trial will be conducted in six secondary schools (intervention n  = 4; control n  = 2) with year 8 (12-13 years old) girls. The intervention will operate at a year group level and consist of year 8 girls nominating influential peers within their year group to become peer-supporters. Approximately 15 % of the cohort will receive 3 days of training about physical activity and interpersonal communication skills. Peer-supporters will then informally diffuse messages about physical activity amongst their friends for 10 weeks. Data will be collected at baseline (time 0 (T0)), immediately after the intervention (time 1 (T1)) and 12 months after baseline measures (time 2 (T2)). In this feasibility trial, the primary interest is in the recruitment of schools and participants (both year 8 girls and peer-supporters), delivery and receipt of the intervention, data provision rates and identifying the cost categories for future economic analysis. Physical activity will be assessed using 7-day accelerometry, with the likely primary outcome in a fully-powered trial being daily minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Participants will also complete psychosocial questionnaires at each time point: assessing motivation, self-esteem and peer physical activity norms. Data analysis will be largely descriptive and focus on recruitment, attendance and data provision rates. The findings will inform the sample size required for a

  16. The efficacy of a brief intervention in reducing hazardous drinking in working age men in Russia: the HIM (Health for Izhevsk men individually randomised parallel group exploratory trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Elizabeth

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Russia has particularly low life expectancy for an industrialised country, with mortality at working ages having fluctuated dramatically over the past few decades, particularly among men. Alcohol has been identified as the most likely cause of these temporal variations. One approach to reducing the alcohol problem in Russia is 'brief interventions' which seek to change views of the personal acceptability of excessive drinking and to encourage self-directed behaviour change. Very few studies to evaluate the efficacy of brief interventions in Russia have been conducted. Motivational Interviewing (MI is a person-centred counselling style which can be adapted to brief interventions in which help is offered in thinking through behaviour in the context of values and goals, to decide whether change is needed, and if so, how it may best be achieved. Methods This paper reports on an individually randomised two-armed parallel group exploratory trial. The primary hypothesis is that a brief adaptation of MI will be effective in reducing self-reported hazardous and harmful drinking at 3 months. Participants were drawn from the Izhevsk Family Study II, with eligibility determined based on proxy reports of hazardous and harmful drinking in the past year. All participants underwent a health check, with MI subsequently delivered to those in the intervention arm. Signed consent was obtained from those in the intervention arm only at this point. Both groups were then invited for 3 and 12 month follow ups. The control group did not receive any additional intervention. Results 441 men were randomised. Of these 61 did not have a health check leaving 190 in each trial arm. Follow up at 3 months was high (97% of those having a health check, and very similar in the two trial arms (183 in the intervention and 187 in the control. No significant differences were detected between the randomised groups in either the primary or the secondary outcomes at

  17. Assessing attachment in school-aged children: Do the School-Age Assessment of Attachment and Family Drawings work together as complementary tools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr-Hopkins, Rebecca; De Burca, Calem; Aldridge, Felicity A

    2017-07-01

    Our goal was to identify an assessment package that could improve treatment planning for troubled children and their families. To assess the validity of our tools, we tested the relations among the School-Age Assessment of Attachment, the Family Drawing and children's risk status. We used the Dynamic-Maturational Model of Attachment and Adaptation to interpret the assessments in the hope of identifying a gradient of risk, and explore whether a new coding method improved the validity of Family Drawings and their utility as a tool to complement the School-Age Assessment of Attachment. The participants were 89 children, aged between 5 and 12 years; 32 children were involved with mental health services or child protection. Each child completed a School-Age Assessment of Attachment and a Family Drawing. Both assessments differentiated between clinical and normative referrals with moderate effect sizes when dichotomizing risk versus non-risk attachment. When the analysis incorporated a gradient of six attachment classifications, the effect sizes decreased, but specificity of risk increased. The School-Age Assessment of Attachment had greater validity for discriminating risk, and type of risk, than the Family Drawings. With a School-Age Assessment of Attachment and family history, the Family Drawing can provide information about distress that some children do not provide verbally. Integration of the two assessment tools alongside information about parental and family functioning appears to be the key to formulating children's problems.

  18. High School Psychology: A Coming of Age Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Kenneth D.; Hammer, Elizabeth Yost; Blair-Broeker, Charles T.; Ernst, Randal M.

    2013-01-01

    Although institutional recognition of high school psychology is fairly recent, psychology and psychological subject matters have a history dating to at least the 1830s. By the middle of the twentieth century, high school psychology courses existed in nearly all U.S. states, and enrollments grew throughout the second half of the century. However,…

  19. A randomised clinical study to evaluate the effect of brushing duration on fluoride levels in dental biofilm fluid and saliva in children aged 4-5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, Evelyn E; Martinez-Mier, Esperanza A; Zero, Domenick T; Kelly, Sue A; Fleming, Nancy; North, Mairead; Bosma, Mary Lynn

    2013-12-01

    To compare the effect of 40 seconds versus 2 minutes brushing on saliva and dental biofilm fluid fluoride in children ages 4-5 years over 1 hour. This was a single-blind, cross-over, randomised, two-period clinical study in healthy children. Three days before the start of each treatment subjects received a thorough brushing and then refrained from all oral hygiene procedures. At treatment visits, after collecting baseline biofilm and saliva samples, staff brushed the occlusal surfaces of the subject's posterior teeth with a pea-sized amount (0.25 g) of NaF/silica toothpaste for the randomised time. Samples were taken at 5 minutes, 15 minutes, 30 minutes and 60 minutes after brushing and analysed for fluoride using a microanalytical methodology. There was a minimum 4-day washout period between treatments. Log changes from baseline biofilm fluid and saliva fluoride were statistically significant (P biofilm fluid and salivary fluoride after brushing for 2 minutes compared with brushing for 40 seconds over the 1-hour test period. There was a statistically significantly higher concentration of fluoride in the log change from baseline saliva levels after 5, 15, 30 and 60 minutes for the 2-minute brushing time compared with 40 seconds brushing time. There was no statistically significant difference in concentration of log change from baseline fluoride levels in biofilm fluid at each individual time-point (5, 15, 30 and 60 minutes) for the 2-minute brushing time compared with the 40-second brushing time, but significant differences were observed for 15, 30 and 60 minutes in favour of 2-minute brushing time when log biofilm fluid value was analysed. The findings provide further evidence for the benefits of increased duration of brushing with respect to fluoride delivery. © 2013 FDI World Dental Federation.

  20. Improved cognitive performance in preadolescent Danish children after the school-based physical activity programme "FIFA 11 for Health" for Europe - A cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Rune Rasmussen; Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Ørntoft, Christina; Madsen, Mads; Larsen, Malte Nejst; Dvorak, Jiri; Ritz, Christian; Krustrup, Peter

    2018-02-01

    Recent studies have shown promising effects of physical activity on cognitive function, but there is a need to investigate this link in real-life settings such as schools. Hence, the objective of the present pilot study was to investigate whether the school-based physical activity programme "FIFA 11 for Health" for Europe could improve cognitive performance in preadolescent Danish children. The pilot study used an 11-week cluster-randomised intervention study design. School classes were randomly assigned to either a control group (CG) (n = 93 children, age = 11.8, s = 0.2 years), which performed the obligatory daily school-based physical activity (5 × 45 minutes per week); or an intervention group (IG) (n = 838 children, age = 11.9, s = 0.4 years), which substituted 2 × 45 minutes per week of the daily school physical activity with the "FIFA 11 for Health" for Europe programme. The programme combines small-sided football games, drills and health education. Cognitive performance was evaluated at baseline and follow-up. The IG improved their cognitive performance compared to the CG for psychomotor function (56, s x -  = 22 ms, p FIFA 11 for Health" for Europe can improve cognitive performance in preadolescent Danish schoolchildren. Future studies should attempt to disentangle the effects of "FIFA 11 for Health" for Europe on cognitive performance by investigating the characteristics of the programme's physical activity.

  1. Preventing anxiety and depression in adolescents: A randomised controlled trial of two school based Internet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Wong

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the current study were to 1 establish the efficacy of two Internet-based prevention programmes to reduce anxiety and depressive symptoms in adolescents; and 2 investigate the distribution of psychological symptoms in a large sample of Australian adolescents prior to the implementation of the intervention. A cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted with 976 Year 9–10 students from twelve Australian secondary schools in 2009. Four schools were randomly allocated to the Anxiety Internet-based prevention programme (n = 372, five schools to the Depression Internet-based prevention programme (n = 380 and three to their usual health classes (n = 224. The Thiswayup Schools for Anxiety and Depression prevention courses were presented over the Internet and consist of 6–7 evidence-based, curriculum consistent lessons to improve the ability to manage anxiety and depressive symptoms. Participants were assessed at baseline and post-intervention. Data analysis was constrained by both study attrition and data corruption. Thus post-intervention data were only available for 265/976 students. Compared to the control group, students in the depression intervention group showed a significant improvement in anxiety and depressive symptoms at the end of the course, whilst students in the anxiety intervention demonstrated a reduction in symptoms of anxiety. No significant differences were found in psychological distress. The Thiswayup Schools Depression and Anxiety interventions appear to reduce anxiety and depressive symptoms in adolescents using a curriculum based, blended online and offline cognitive behavioural therapy programme that was implemented by classroom teachers. Given the study limitations, particularly the loss of post-intervention data, these findings can only be considered preliminary and need to be replicated in future research.

  2. The Active for Life Year 5 (AFLY5) school-based cluster randomised controlled trial: effect on potential mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor, Debbie A; Howe, Laura D; Anderson, Emma L; Kipping, Ruth R; Campbell, Rona; Wells, Sian; Chittleborough, Catherine R; Peters, Tim J; Jago, Russell

    2016-01-22

    Active for life year 5 (AFLY5) is a school-based intervention, based on social cognitive theory, which aims to promote healthy levels of physical activity and healthy eating by improving a child's self-efficacy to make healthy choices, their knowledge of how to make such choices and prompting parents to support their children to make healthy choices. Previously published results showed no effect on the three primary outcomes and beneficial effects on three of nine secondary outcomes (time spent screen-viewing at weekends, consumption of snacks and of high energy drinks). This paper aims to determine the effect of the intervention on potential mediators. We conducted a cluster RCT of a school-based intervention, with allocation concealed by use of a remote system. The study was undertaken in the South West of England between 2011 and 2013. Participants were school children who were age 8-9 years at baseline assessment and 9-10 years during the intervention. Potential mediators were assessed at the end of the intervention. The intervention consisted of teacher training, provision of all materials required for lessons and homeworks and written materials for school newsletters and parents. The ten potential mediators were child-reported self-efficacy for physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption, perceived parental logistic support and modelling for their child's physical activity, parental efforts to limit their child's sedentary behaviour and modelling of healthy fruit and vegetable consumption, together with a knowledge assessment. We successfully recruited 60 schools with over 2,221 children; valid data for the 10 mediators were available for 87 % to 96 % of participants. Three of the ten potential mediators were greater in the intervention, compared with the control group: fruit and vegetable self-efficacy 2.2 units (95 % CI: 0.7 to 3.8), assessed on a scale 26 to 130; child-reported maternal limitation of sedentary behaviour 0.5 (0.1 to 0.8), scale 4

  3. Effectiveness of school-based program to preventing mental disorders in school age children: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyede Zahra Ghaemi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mental health disorders are prevalent in children in all societies. The onset of most mental disorders is in youth (12–24 years of age, but most of the time they are first detected later in life. Poor mental health is strongly related to other health and development concerns so it is common to show high grade of stress, substance use, violence, and depression. The effectiveness of some interventions has been strongly established, although more researches are needed to improve the range of affordable and feasible interventions. The shortage of educational and fiscal policies and the fairly low attention to this subject is the main challenge addressing mental-health needs. Therefore, universal or early intervention programs are needed to develop protective factors by increasing competence or skills, to reduce existing negative behaviors. Moreover child discipline problems can be reduced by school multicomponent intervention strategies and as a result promotion in student’s achievement becomes evident.

  4. A pilot cluster randomised controlled trial of a support and training intervention to improve the mental health of secondary school teachers and students - the WISE (Wellbeing in Secondary Education) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidger, Judi; Stone, Tracey; Tilling, Kate; Brockman, Rowan; Campbell, Rona; Ford, Tamsin; Hollingworth, William; King, Michael; Araya, Ricardo; Gunnell, David

    2016-10-06

    Secondary school teachers are at heightened risk of psychological distress, which can lead to poor work performance, poor quality teacher-student relationships and mental illness. A pilot cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT) - the WISE study - evaluated the feasibility of a full-scale RCT of an intervention to support school staff's own mental health, and train them in supporting student mental health. Six schools were randomised to an intervention or control group. In the intervention schools i) 8-9 staff received Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training and became staff peer supporters, and ii) youth MHFA training was offered to the wider staff body. Control schools continued with usual practice. We used thematic qualitative data analysis and regression modelling to ascertain the feasibility, acceptability and potential usefulness of the intervention. Thirteen training observations, 14 staff focus groups and 6 staff interviews were completed, and 438 staff (43.5 %) and 1,862 (56.3 %) students (years 8 and 9) completed questionnaires at baseline and one year later. MHFA training was considered relevant for schools, and trainees gained in knowledge, confidence in helping others, and awareness regarding their own mental health. Suggestions for reducing the length of the training and focusing on helping strategies were made. A peer support service was established in all intervention schools and was perceived to be helpful in supporting individuals in difficulty - for example through listening, and signposting to other services - and raising the profile of mental health at a whole school level. Barriers to use included lack of knowledge about the service, concerns about confidentiality and a preference for accessing support from pre-existing networks. The WISE intervention is feasible and acceptable to schools. Results support the development of a full-scale cluster RCT, if steps are taken to improve response rates and implement the suggested improvements to the

  5. Coercive Family Process and Early-Onset Conduct Problems From Age 2 to School Entry

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Justin D.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Wilson, Melvin N.; Winter, Charlotte C.; Patterson, Gerald R.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence and persistence of conduct problems during early childhood is a robust predictor of behavior problems in school and future maladaptation. In this study we examined the reciprocal influences between observed coercive interactions between children and caregivers, oppositional and aggressive behavior, and growth in parent report of early childhood (ages 2–5) and school-age conduct problems (age 7.5 and 8.5). Participants were drawn from the Early Steps multisite randomized preventi...

  6. Dyslipidemia in Overweight and Obese School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Pamela

    2015-09-01

    Dyslipidemia often affects overweight and obese adolescents and can be present along with hypertension, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and polycystic ovarian syndrome. This article is the third of six discussing the comorbidities of childhood obesity and will focus on the individual parts of the lipid profile and the impact of dyslipidemia on the heart and other body systems. Since few pharmacologic therapies are approved to treat dyslipidemia in children and adolescents younger than 18, treatment consists of lifestyle changes that can be supported and modeled by the school nurse. The school nurse can also be an advocate for a healthy lifestyle in the school district and community. More success in the treatment of dyslipidemia will be realized with less attention to changing the individual and more attention to changing the wider populations, including schools and the community. © 2015 The Author(s).

  7. A randomised controlled trial investigating motor skill training as a function of attentional focus in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Eling D; Swanenburg, Jaap; Betschon, Elsbeth; Murer, Kurt

    2009-05-08

    Motor learning research has had little impact on clinical applications and rarely extended to research about how older adults learn motor skills. There is consistent evidence that motor skill performance and learning can be enhanced by giving learners instructions that direct their attention. The aim of this study was to test whether elderly individuals that receive an external focus instruction during training of dynamic balance skills would learn in a different manner compared to individuals that received an internal focus instruction. This randomised trial included 26 older persons (81 +/- 6 years) that were training functional balance twice a week for the duration of 5 weeks. Learning outcomes were recorded after every training session. Weight shifting score and dynamic balance parameters (Biodex Balance System), components of the Extended Timed-Get-Up-and-Go test, five chair rises, and falls efficacy (FES-I) was assessed at baseline and post-intervention. Participation for training sessions was 94%. No differences between groups were found following 5 weeks of training for weight shifting score, dynamic balance index and dynamic balance time (p Slow down, stop, turnaround, and sit down, p = 0.011 and the Fes-I (p = 0.014) showed improvements for the total group, indicating that function improved compared to baseline. A 5-week balance training improved weight shifting scores and dynamic balance parameters as well as functional abilities. The observed improvements were independent from the type of attentional focus instructions. The findings provide support for the proposition of different motor learning principles in older adults compared to younger adults.

  8. A randomised controlled trial investigating motor skill training as a function of attentional focus in old age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swanenburg Jaap

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Motor learning research has had little impact on clinical applications and rarely extended to research about how older adults learn motor skills. There is consistent evidence that motor skill performance and learning can be enhanced by giving learners instructions that direct their attention. The aim of this study was to test whether elderly individuals that receive an external focus instruction during training of dynamic balance skills would learn in a different manner compared to individuals that received an internal focus instruction. Methods This randomised trial included 26 older persons (81 ± 6 years that were training functional balance twice a week for the duration of 5 weeks. Learning outcomes were recorded after every training session. Weight shifting score and dynamic balance parameters (Biodex Balance System, components of the Extended Timed-Get-Up-and-Go test, five chair rises, and falls efficacy (FES-I was assessed at baseline and post-intervention. Results Participation for training sessions was 94%. No differences between groups were found following 5 weeks of training for weight shifting score, dynamic balance index and dynamic balance time (p p = 0.16, p Sit-to-stand, p = .036; Gait initiation, p = .039; Slow down, stop, turnaround, and sit down, p = 0.011 and the Fes-I (p = 0.014 showed improvements for the total group, indicating that function improved compared to baseline. Conclusion A 5-week balance training improved weight shifting scores and dynamic balance parameters as well as functional abilities. The observed improvements were independent from the type of attentional focus instructions. The findings provide support for the proposition of different motor learning principles in older adults compared to younger adults. Trial Registration ISRCTN44627088

  9. Information and Choice of A-Level Subjects: A Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial with Linked Administrative Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Peter; Davies, Neil M.; Qiu, Tian

    2017-01-01

    We estimated the effects of an intervention which provided information about graduate wages to 5593 students in England, using a blinded cluster randomised controlled trial in 50 schools (registration: AEARCTR-0000468). Our primary outcome was students' choice of A-level subjects at age 16. We also recorded the students' expectations of future…

  10. Effectiveness of Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention in Children under Ten Years of Age in Senegal: A Stepped-Wedge Cluster-Randomised Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cissé, Badara; Ba, El Hadj; Sokhna, Cheikh; NDiaye, Jean Louis; Gomis, Jules F; Dial, Yankhoba; Pitt, Catherine; NDiaye, Mouhamed; Cairns, Matthew; Faye, Ernest; NDiaye, Magatte; Lo, Aminata; Tine, Roger; Faye, Sylvain; Faye, Babacar; Sy, Ousmane; Konate, Lansana; Kouevijdin, Ekoue; Flach, Clare; Faye, Ousmane; Trape, Jean-Francois; Sutherland, Colin; Fall, Fatou Ba; Thior, Pape M; Faye, Oumar K; Greenwood, Brian; Gaye, Oumar; Milligan, Paul

    2016-11-01

    Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention (SMC) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) plus amodiaquine (AQ), given each month during the transmission season, is recommended for children living in areas of the Sahel where malaria transmission is highly seasonal. The recommendation for SMC is currently limited to children under five years of age, but, in many areas of seasonal transmission, the burden in older children may justify extending this age limit. This study was done to determine the effectiveness of SMC in Senegalese children up to ten years of age. SMC was introduced into three districts over three years in central Senegal using a stepped-wedge cluster-randomised design. A census of the population was undertaken and a surveillance system was established to record all deaths and to record all cases of malaria seen at health facilities. A pharmacovigilance system was put in place to detect adverse drug reactions. Fifty-four health posts were randomised. Nine started implementation of SMC in 2008, 18 in 2009, and a further 18 in 2010, with 9 remaining as controls. In the first year of implementation, SMC was delivered to children aged 3-59 months; the age range was then extended for the latter two years of the study to include children up to 10 years of age. Cluster sample surveys at the end of each transmission season were done to measure coverage of SMC and the prevalence of parasitaemia and anaemia, to monitor molecular markers of drug resistance, and to measure insecticide-treated net (ITN) use. Entomological monitoring and assessment of costs of delivery in each health post and of community attitudes to SMC were also undertaken. About 780,000 treatments were administered over three years. Coverage exceeded 80% each month. Mortality, the primary endpoint, was similar in SMC and control areas (4.6 and 4.5 per 1000 respectively in children under 5 years and 1.3 and 1.2 per 1000 in children 5-9 years of age; the overall mortality rate ratio [SMC: no SMC] was 0.90, 95

  11. Management of hypotension in preterm infants (The HIP Trial): a randomised controlled trial of hypotension management in extremely low gestational age newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, E M; Barrington, K J; Marlow, N; O'Donnell, C P; Miletin, J; Naulaers, G; Cheung, P-Y; Corcoran, D; Pons, G; Stranak, Z; Van Laere, D

    2014-01-01

    Extremely preterm babies (delivered at hypotension and treated with inotropic and pressor drugs in the immediate postnatal period. Dopamine is the most commonly used first-line drug. Babies who are treated for hypotension more frequently sustain brain injury, have long-term disability or die compared to those who are not. Despite the widespread use of drugs to treat hypotension in such infants, evidence for efficacy is lacking, and the effect of these agents on long-term outcomes is unknown. In extremely preterm babies, restricting the use of dopamine when mean blood pressure (BP) values fall below a nominal threshold and using clinical criteria to determine escalation of support ('restricted' approach) will result in improved neonatal and longer-term developmental outcomes. RESEARCH PLAN: In an international multi-centre randomised trial, 830 infants born at <28 weeks of gestation, and within 72 h of birth, will be allocated to 1 of 2 alternative treatment options (dopamine vs. restricted approach) to determine the better strategy for the management of BP, using a conventional threshold to commence treatment. The first co-primary outcome of survival without brain injury will be determined at 36 weeks' postmenstrual age and the second co-primary outcome (survival without neurodevelopmental disability) will be assessed at 2 years of age, corrected for prematurity. It is essential that appropriately designed trials be performed to define the most appropriate management strategies for managing low BP in extremely preterm babies.

  12. An internet-supported school physical activity intervention in low socioeconomic status communities: results from the Activity and Motivation in Physical Education (AMPED) cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Chris; Lester, Aidan; Owen, Katherine B; White, Rhiannon L; Peralta, Louisa; Kirwan, Morwenna; Diallo, Thierno M O; Maeder, Anthony J; Bennie, Andrew; MacMillan, Freya; Kolt, Gregory S; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Gore, Jennifer M; Cerin, Ester; Cliff, Dylan P; Lubans, David R

    2017-10-09

    Quality physical education (PE) is the cornerstone of comprehensive school physical activity (PA) promotion programmes. We tested the efficacy of a teacher professional learning intervention, delivered partially via the internet, designed to maximise opportunities for students to be active during PE lessons and enhance adolescents' motivation towards PE and PA. A two-arm cluster randomised controlled trial with teachers and Grade 8 students from secondary schools in low socioeconomic areas of Western Sydney, Australia. The Activity and Motivation in Physical Education (AMPED) intervention for secondary school PE teachers included workshops, online learning, implementation tasks and mentoring sessions. The primary outcome was the proportion of PE lesson time that students spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), measured by accelerometers at baseline, postintervention (7-8 months after baseline) and maintenance (14-15 months). Secondary outcomes included observed PE teachers' behaviour during lessons, students' leisure-time PA and students' motivation. Students (n=1421) from 14 schools completed baseline assessments and were included in linear mixed model analyses. The intervention had positive effects on students' MVPA during lessons. At postintervention, the adjusted mean difference in the proportion of lesson time spent in MVPA was 5.58% (peffect was 2.64% (peffects on teachers' behaviour, but did not impact students' motivation. AMPED produced modest improvements in MVPA and compares favourably with previous interventions delivered exclusively face-to-face. Online teacher training could help facilitate widespread dissemination of professional learning interventions. ACTRN12614000184673. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. A school-based health promotion programme to increase help-seeking for substance use and mental health problems: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubman, Dan I; Berridge, Bonita J; Blee, Fiona; Jorm, Anthony F; Wilson, Coralie J; Allen, Nicholas B; McKay-Brown, Lisa; Proimos, Jenny; Cheetham, Ali; Wolfe, Rory

    2016-08-08

    Adolescence is a high-risk time for the development of mental health and substance use problems. However, fewer than one in four 16-24 year-olds with a current disorder access health services, with those experiencing a substance use disorder being the least likely to seek professional help. Research indicates that young people are keeping their problems to themselves or alternatively, turning to peers or trusted adults in their lives for help. These help-seeking preferences highlight the need to build the mental health literacy of adolescents, to ensure that they know when and how to assist themselves and their peers to access support. The MAKINGtheLINK intervention aims to introduce these skills to adolescents within a classroom environment. This is a cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT) with schools as clusters and individual students as participants from 22 secondary schools in Victoria, Australia. Schools will be randomly assigned to either the MAKINGtheLINK intervention group or the waitlist control group. All students will complete a self-report questionnaire at baseline, immediately post intervention and 6 and 12 months post baseline. The primary outcome to be assessed is increased help-seeking behaviour (from both formal and informal sources) for alcohol and mental health issues, measured at 12 months post baseline. The findings from this research will provide evidence on the effectiveness of the MAKINGtheLINK intervention for teaching school students how to overcome prominent barriers associated with seeking help, as well as how to effectively support their peers. If deemed effective, the MAKINGtheLINK programme will be the first evidence-informed resource that is able to address critical gaps in the knowledge and behaviour of adolescents in relation to help-seeking. It could, therefore, be a valuable resource that could be readily implemented by classroom teachers. Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR): ACTRN12613000235707

  14. Introduction to the Special Issue on Normal Neuropsychological Development in the School-Age Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkman, M

    2001-01-01

    In neuropsychological research on normal development relatively little interest has been devoted to age-related changes in school age. This is surprising in light of the significance of the changes that take place in this period of life, the availability of normative data, and the ongoing research on neural development. The studies included in this issue take a closer look at normative data from school-age children of various ages in performances of attention, language, sensorimotor functions, perceptual functions, memory and learning, and functional asymmetries. A finding evident in many of the studies is that age effects seem to be more accentuated below 9 to 10 years than after that age. It is hoped that this special issue will draw attention to the scarcity of data in this realm and to the possibilities of utilizing existing databases for study on normal development in school age.

  15. Some peculiarities of Italian language instruction at primary school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorović Danijela

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Instruction of Italian language at primary school level has not been studied more comprehensively in our expert and scientific literature so far, since Italian has been studied as a compulsory foreign language in Serbian schools since the school year 2001/2002. This paper discusses some peculiarities of learning and teaching a foreign language, with emphasis on the socio-cultural aspect and functional usage of the language as the primary task of instruction. The paper presents the results of one part of a larger empirical research that studies the attitude of primary school students towards learning Italian as a foreign language. The goal of the research refers to identifying the competences that students acquire by learning this language and the possibility of applying the linguistic knowledge and skills in real-life situations of students' interaction with the members of other culture, as well as identifying learning difficulties. The sample comprised 185 fifth grade students and 110 seventh grade students from three primary schools where the Italian language has been studied the longest. Research findings indicate that there is an initial positive attitude towards learning Italian and the sensitivity for extralinguistic and cultural elements of instruction of foreign language. Students pointed out to the need for a more active participation in instruction and selection of teaching contents, for more modern approaches to learning, and for a larger degree of applicability of linguistic knowledge and skills in real-life situations.

  16. PRALIMAP: study protocol for a high school-based, factorial cluster randomised interventional trial of three overweight and obesity prevention strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrinier Nelly

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the increase in overweight and obesity prevalence in adolescents in the last decade, effective prevention strategies for these conditions in adolescents are urgently needed. The PRALIMAP (Promotion de l'ALImentation et de l'Activité Physique trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness for these conditions of 3 health promotion strategies -- educational, screening and environmental -- applied singly or in combination in high schools over a 2-year intervention period. Methods PRALIMAP is a stratified 2 × 2 × 2 factorial cluster randomised controlled trial including 24 state high schools in Lorraine, northeastern France, in 2 waves: 8 schools in 2006 (wave 1 and 16 in 2007 (wave 2. Students entering the selected high schools in the 4 academic years from 2006 to 2009 are eligible for data collection. Interventional strategies are organized over 2 academic years. The follow-up consists of 3 visits: at the entry of grade 10 (T0, grade 11 (T1 and grade 12 (T2. At T0, 5,458 (85.7% adolescents participated. The educational strategy consists of nutritional lessons, working groups and a final party. The screening strategy consists in detecting overweight/obesity and eating disorders in adolescents and proposing, if necessary, an adapted care management program of 7 group educational sessions. The environmental strategy consists in improving dietary and physical activity offerings in high schools and facilities, especially catering. The main outcomes are body size evolution over time, nutritional behaviour and knowledge, health and quality of life. An evaluation process documents how each intervention strategy is implemented in the schools and estimates the dose of the intervention, allowing for a per protocol analysis after the main intention-to-treat analysis. Discussion PRALIMAP aims at improving the prevention and management of overweight and obesity in adolescents by translating current evidence into public health practice

  17. Menstrual cups and sanitary pads to reduce school attrition, and sexually transmitted and reproductive tract infections: a cluster randomised controlled feasibility study in rural Western Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips-Howard, Penelope A; Nyothach, Elizabeth; ter Kuile, Feiko O; Omoto, Jackton; Wang, Duolao; Zeh, Clement; Onyango, Clayton; Mason, Linda; Alexander, Kelly T; Odhiambo, Frank O; Eleveld, Alie; Mohammed, Aisha; van Eijk, Anna M; Edwards, Rhiannon Tudor; Vulule, John; Faragher, Brian; Laserson, Kayla F

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Conduct a feasibility study on the effect of menstrual hygiene on schoolgirls' school and health (reproductive/sexual) outcomes. Design 3-arm single-site open cluster randomised controlled pilot study. Setting 30 primary schools in rural western Kenya, within a Health and Demographic Surveillance System. Participants Primary schoolgirls 14–16 years, experienced 3 menses, no precluding disability, and resident in the study area. Interventions 1 insertable menstrual cup, or monthly sanitary pads, against ‘usual practice’ control. All participants received puberty education preintervention, and hand wash soap during intervention. Schools received hand wash soap. Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary: school attrition (drop-out, absence); secondary: sexually transmitted infection (STI) (Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoea), reproductive tract infection (RTI) (bacterial vaginosis, Candida albicans); safety: toxic shock syndrome, vaginal Staphylococcus aureus. Results Of 751 girls enrolled 644 were followed-up for a median of 10.9 months. Cups or pads did not reduce school dropout risk (control=8.0%, cups=11.2%, pads=10.2%). Self-reported absence was rarely reported and not assessable. Prevalence of STIs in the end-of-study survey among controls was 7.7% versus 4.2% in the cups arm (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) 0.48, 0.24 to 0.96, p=0.039), 4.5% with pads (aPR=0.62; 0.37 to 1.03, p=0.063), and 4.3% with cups and pads pooled (aPR=0.54, 0.34 to 0.87, p=0.012). RTI prevalence was 21.5%, 28.5% and 26.9% among cup, pad and control arms, 71% of which were bacterial vaginosis, with a prevalence of 14.6%, 19.8% and 20.5%, per arm, respectively. Bacterial vaginosis was less prevalent in the cups (12.9%) compared with pads (20.3%, aPR=0.65, 0.44 to 0.97, p=0.034) and control (19.2%, aPR=0.67, 0.43 to 1.04, p=0.075) arm girls enrolled for 9 months or longer. No adverse events were identified. Conclusions Provision of

  18. A randomised controlled trial evaluating IGF1 titration in contrast to current GH dosing strategies in children born small for gestational age: the North European Small-for-Gestational-Age Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Rikke Beck; Thankamony, Ajay; O'Connell, Susan M; Kirk, Jeremy; Donaldson, Malcolm; Ivarsson, Sten-A; Söder, Olle; Roche, Edna; Hoey, Hilary; Dunger, David B; Juul, Anders

    2014-10-01

    Short children born small for gestational age (SGA) are treated with a GH dose based on body size, but treatment may lead to high levels of IGF1. The objective was to evaluate IGF1 titration of GH dose in contrast to current dosing strategies. In the North European Small-for-Gestational-Age Study (NESGAS), 92 short pre-pubertal children born SGA were randomised after 1 year of high-dose GH treatment (67 μg/kg per day) to three different regimens: high dose (67 μg/kg per day), low dose (35 μg/kg per day) or IGF1 titration. The average dose during the second year of the randomised trial did not differ between the IGF1 titration group (38 μg/kg per day, s.d. 0.019) and the low-dose group (35 μg/kg per day, s.d. 0.002; P=0.46), but there was a wide variation in the IGF1 titration group (range 10-80 μg/kg per day). The IGF1 titration group had significantly lower height gain (0.17 SDS, s.d. 0.18) during the second year of the randomised trial compared with the high-dose group (0.46 SDS, s.d. 0.25), but not significantly lower than the low-dose group (0.23 SDS, s.d. 0.15; P=0.17). The IGF1 titration group had lower IGF1 levels after 2 years of the trial (mean 1.16, s.d. 1.24) compared with both the low-dose (mean 1.76, s.d. 1.48) and the high-dose (mean 2.97, s.d. 1.63) groups. IGF1 titration of GH dose in SGA children proved less effective than current dosing strategies. IGF1 titration resulted in physiological IGF1 levels with a wide range of GH dose and a poorer growth response, which indicates the role of IGF1 resistance and highlights the heterogeneity of short SGA children. © 2014 European Society of Endocrinology.

  19. Efficacy of the small step program in a randomised controlled trial for infants below age 12 months with clinical signs of CP; a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliasson, Ann-Christin; Holmström, Linda; Aarne, Päivikki; Nakeva von Mentzer, Cecilia; Weiland, Ann-Louise; Sjöstrand, Lena; Forssberg, Hans; Tedroff, Kristina; Löwing, Kristina

    2016-11-03

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) have life-long motor disorders, and they are typically subjected to extensive treatment throughout their childhood. Despite this, there is a lack of evidence supporting the effectiveness of early interventions aiming at improving motor function, activity, and participation in daily life. The study will evaluate the effectiveness of the newly developed Small Step Program, which is introduced to children at risk of developing CP during their first year of life. The intervention is based upon theories of early learning-induced brain plasticity and comprises important components of evidence-based intervention approaches used with older children with CP. A two-group randomised control trial will be conducted. Invited infants at risk of developing CP due to a neonatal event affecting the brain will be randomised to either the Small Step Program or to usual care. They will be recruited from Astrid Lindgren Children's Hospital at regular check-up and included at age 3-8 months. The Small Step Program was designed to provide individualized, goal directed, and intensive intervention focusing on hand use, mobility, and communication in the child's own home environment and carried out by their parents who have been trained and coached by therapists. The primary endpoint will be approximately 35 weeks after the start of the intervention, and the secondary endpoint will be at 2 years of age. The primary outcome measure will be the Peabody Developmental Motor Scale (second edition). Secondary assessments will measure and describe the children's general and specific development and brain pathology. In addition, the parents' perspective of the program will be evaluated. General linear models will be used to compare outcomes between groups. This paper presents the background and rationale for developing the Small-Step Program and the design and protocol of a randomized controlled trial. The aim of the Small Step Program is to influence development

  20. CAFÉ: a multicomponent audit and feedback intervention to improve implementation of healthy food policy in primary school canteens: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoong, Sze Lin; Nathan, Nicole; Wolfenden, Luke; Wiggers, John; Reilly, Kathryn; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Wyse, Rebecca; Sutherland, Rachel; Delaney, Tessa; Butler, Peter; Janssen, Lisa; Preece, Sarah; Williams, Christopher M

    2016-12-05

    The implementation of nutrition policies in schools has been recommended as a strategy to improve child dietary intake. Internationally, research suggests that the majority of schools do not implement these policies. In New South Wales (NSW), Australia, the NSW Healthy School Canteen Policy requires that school canteens prohibit the sale of 'red' foods (i.e. foods that are typically nutrient poor and high in energy, such as confectionary and deep-fried foods) and 'banned'drinks (i.e. soft drinks); and that the majority of items on the menu are 'green' (i.e. foods that are good sources of nutrients, such fruits, vegetables and lean meats). This study examined the impact of a multicomponent audit and feedback intervention on schools' implementation of the NSW Healthy School Canteen Policy. A secondary aim was to assess the impact of the intervention on menu composition. This study was a parallel group randomised controlled trial with 72 rural and remote primary schools (36 interventions, 36 controls) located in one region within NSW, Australia. Intervention schools received an initial face to face contact and up to four cycles of audit and feedback (consisting of a menu audit, written feedback report and telephone feedback) over a 12-month period. The primary trial outcomes were the proportion of schools with a canteen menu that had: i) no 'red' foods or 'banned' drinks; and ii) >50% 'green' items, as assessed via standardised menu audits undertaken by trained dietitians. For each primary outcome, between-group differences were assessed using Fisher's exact test under an intention to treat approach. There was insufficient evidence to conclude the intervention had a positive impact on the proportion of intervention schools with no 'red' or 'banned' items on their menu (RR = 2.8; 95% CI: 0.9 to 8.9; p = 0.0895), or on the proportion of intervention schools with more than 50% 'green' items (RR = 1.5; 95% CI: 0.7 to 3.2; p = 0.2568). These findings

  1. Age at Menarche Among In-School Adolescents in Sawla Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... low menarche age was comparable with reports from developed countries. Inactive adolescents were more likely to see menarche earlier than average age. Healthy eating habits, regular exercise and nutrition education need to be promoted among school children. Keywords: adolescent, cross sectional, menarche age, ...

  2. Growth performance and iron status of rural Beninese school-age ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are major public health problems in developing countries. Most affected groups are children, adolescents, women of reproductive age and pregnant women. School-age children also represent an important vulnerable age category because they are still in the middle of their growth

  3. Child development at 5 years of age predicted mathematics ability and schooling outcomes in Malawian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Mihir; Teivaanmaki, Tiina; Maleta, Kenneth; Duan, Xiaolian; Ashorn, Per; Cheung, Yin Bun

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the association between child development at 5 years of age and mathematics ability and schooling outcomes at 12 years of age in Malawian children. A prospective cohort study looking at 609 rural Malawian children. Outcome measures were percentage of correctly answered mathematics questions, highest school grade completed and number of times repeating school grades at 12 years of age. A child development summary score obtained at 5 years of age was the main exposure variable. Regression analyses were used to estimate the association and adjust for confounders. Sensitivity analysis was performed by handling losses to follow-up with multiple imputation (MI) method. The summary score was positively associated with percentage of correctly answered mathematics questions (p = 0.057; p = 0.031 MI) and with highest school grade completed (p = 0.096; p = 0.070 MI), and negatively associated with number of times repeating school grades (p = 0.834; p = 0.339 MI). Fine motor score at 5 years was independently associated with the mathematic score (p = 0.032; p = 0.011 MI). The association between child development and mathematics ability did not depend on school attendance. Child development at 5 years of age showed signs of positive association with mathematics ability and possibly with highest school grade completed at 12 years of age. © 2012 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2012 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  4. School age experiences of university students for transition towards higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Imran Yousuf

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to examine the school age experiences of university students, specifically the roles their school teachers, parents, and they themselves played in their preparation for higher education. One thousand students from twenty universities were randomly selected. Data collected through developed questionnaire was tabulated, analysed and discussed. Chi Square was applied to determine whether the observed frequencies were significantly different from the expected frequencies. Main conclusions of study were that the students negated the role of school teachers, student self, peers and school environment with the preparation skills needed for university level work, while only parents’ role was found significant in preparing students for higher education. Keywords: School Age, Role of teachers, Role of Parents, Role of Peers, Role of School Environment, Transition to Higher Education.

  5. The Influence of Family and Same Age Children on Socialization of Child in Preschool and Younger School Age

    OpenAIRE

    Topinková, Petra

    2015-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with socialization of preschool and younger school children with regard to influence of family and children of the same age. The goal of this thesis is to describe how family and kids of the same age influence children's socialization. And if the theorical part fits with socialization of children in today modern families. In theoretical part I describe some important ranges conected with socialization of children, then what is family, types of family and functions o...

  6. Do stronger school smoking policies make a difference? Analysis of the health behaviour in school-aged children survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallingberg, B; Fletcher, A; Murphy, S; Morgan, K; Littlecott, H J; Roberts, C; Moore, G F

    2016-12-01

    Associations of the strength of school smoking policies with cigarette, e-cigarette and cannabis use in Wales were examined. Nationally representative cross-sectional survey of pupils aged 11-16 years (N=7376) in Wales. Senior management team members from 67 schools completed questionnaires about school smoking policies, substance use education and tobacco cessation initiatives. Multi-level, logistic regression analyses investigated self-reported cigarette, e-cigarette and cannabis use, for all students and those aged 15-16 years. Prevalence of current smoking, e-cigarette use and cannabis use in the past month were 5.3%, 11.5% and 2.9%, respectively. Of schools that provided details about smoking policies (66/67), 39.4% were strong (written policy applied to everyone in all locations), 43.9% were moderate (written policy not applied to everyone in all locations) and 16.7% had no written policy. There was no evidence of an association of school smoking policies with pupils' tobacco or e-cigarette use. However, students from schools with a moderate policy [OR = 0.47; 95% (confidence interval) CI: 0.26-0.84] were less likely to have used cannabis in the past month compared to schools with no written policy. This trend was stronger for students aged 15-16 years (moderate policy: OR = 0.42; 95% CI: 0.22-0.80; strong policy: OR = 0.45; 95% CI: 0.23-0.87). School smoking policies may exert less influence on young people's smoking behaviours than they did during times of higher adolescent smoking prevalence. Longitudinal studies are needed to examine the potential influence of school smoking policies on cannabis use and mechanisms explaining this association. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  7. Conceptions about sexuality and sex education of boys and girls at school-age

    OpenAIRE

    Anastácio, Zélia; Marinho, Susana

    2012-01-01

    According to Portuguese Law, Sex Education (SE) in schools is compulsory from elementary to secondary school levels. However, many SE projects do not consider the needs of their target audience, or their gender differences, which limits the programme effectiveness. In this work we sought to identify conceptions and needs concerned with human sexuality and SE of school-aged boys and girls (10 to 18 years old). Thus, we developed a questionnaire for the second and the third cycle of basic educa...

  8. A Pilot Investigation of Speech Sound Disorder Intervention Delivered by Telehealth to School-Age Children

    OpenAIRE

    Sue Grogan-Johnson; Gabel, Rodney M.; Jacquelyn Taylor; Rowan, Lynne E.; Robin Alvares; Jason Schenker

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a school-based telehealth service delivery model and reports outcomes made by school-age students with speech sound disorders in a rural Ohio school district. Speech therapy using computer-based speech sound intervention materials was provided either by live interactive videoconferencing (telehealth), or conventional side-by-side intervention.  Progress was measured using pre- and post-intervention scores on the Goldman Fristoe Test of Articulation-2 (Goldman &...

  9. Mentally-Retarded Children of a Pre-School Age and the Development of Movement Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Morávková, Šárka

    2006-01-01

    The diploma work covers the issues of children with mental retardation in pre-school age aimed to the development of the movement abilities. It focuses on the relationships between the pre-school child with mental retardation and possibilities of developing its motor skills in context of an organized pre-school education. Theoretical part of the Diploma work indicates the development specifics of the indi- vidual due to mental retardation, describes mainly the movement development of the chil...

  10. Influence of pre-school swimming on level of swimming abilities of early schol age children

    OpenAIRE

    Velová, Lenka

    2011-01-01

    My thesis paper is focused on children swimming from their birth to early school age. The pivotal part of the paper is the comparison of swimming abilities between primary school children who have passed pre-school swimming training and those who have had no training at all. Theoretical framework of the paper is then focused on general swimming theory, characteristics of children's evolutionary stages within the context of swimming and definition of basic swimming skills.

  11. Does Raising the State Compulsory School Attendance Age Achieve the Intended Outcomes? REL 2014-005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Philip E.; Duncan, Teresa G.

    2013-01-01

    Maryland recently raised its compulsory school attendance age from 16 to 18 in two stages: from 16 to 17 at the beginning of the 2014-15 school year and from 17 to 18 at the beginning of the 2016-17 school year (Maryland Senate Bill 362, 2012). The Maryland State Department of Education, a member of Regional Educational Laboratory Mid-Atlantic's…

  12. Emergent Bilingualism and Working Memory Development in School Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Laura Birke; Macizo, Pedro; Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Saldaña, David; Carreiras, Manuel; Fuentes, Luis J.; Bajo, M. Teresa

    2016-01-01

    The present research explores working memory (WM) development in monolingual as well as emergent bilingual children immersed in an L2 at school. Evidence from recent years suggests that bilingualism may boost domain-general executive control, but impair nonexecutive linguistic processing. Both are relevant for verbal WM, but different paradigms…

  13. Hookworm infections among the school-aged children in Okuta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human hookworm infection, as an important soil transmitted helminth, affects both young and adult in most resource-poor communities in sub-tropical part of the developing world. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence, intensity and associated risk factors of hookworm infection in two secondary schools of ...

  14. Epidemiology of streptococcus group A in school aged children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In Pemba (Zanzibar) all the risk factors which favour Group A Streptococci spreading, infections and late sequelae are present, though GAS epidemiology is unknown. Objective: To determine the prevalence of GAS pharyngeal carriers among school-agedchildren. Design: Community-based cross sectional ...

  15. Dimensionality of Reading Skills with Elementary-School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonigan, Christopher J.; Burgess, Stephen R.

    2017-01-01

    Confirmatory factor analyses of data from 1,501 kindergarten to 5th-grade children who completed 3 measures of decoding, 3 measures of reading comprehension, and 3 measures of listening comprehension as part of a larger study were used to identify the dimensionality of reading skills across elementary school. A 1-factor (reading) model was the…

  16. Generations at School: Building an Age-Friendly Learning Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovely, Suzette; Buffum, Austin G.; Barth, Roland S.

    2007-01-01

    Today's workforce comprises distinct generational cohorts-Veterans, Baby Boomers, Gen-Xers, and Millennials. "Generations at School" provides educators with the knowledge and tools to create and sustain true collaboration, teamwork, and consensus. Suzette Lovely and Austin G. Buffum introduce the traits and tipping points of these diverse age…

  17. Epilepsy in School-Aged Children: More than Just Seizures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Colin; Ballantine, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Epilepsy is the most common neurological disorder in childhood and can have a significant impact on a child's schooling. Children with epilepsy may have special educational needs due to having learning disability, specific learning difficulties, specific cognitive deficits or having symptoms associated with ASD, ADHD, depression or anxiety. These…

  18. Behavior Correlates of Rorschach Response in School Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Frances G.

    Teachers in a private special education school for students with learning and/or adjustment difficulties completed Bristol Social Adjustment Guides (BSAGs), an observation scale for identifying maladaptive classroom behaviors, for 157 students (7-21 years old). Rorschachs were administered to the same group of students. Data from each test were…

  19. Domain-Specific Impulsivity in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukayama, Eli; Duckworth, Angela Lee; Kim, Betty

    2013-01-01

    Impulsivity is a salient individual difference in children with well-established predictive validity for life outcomes. The current investigation proposes that impulsive behaviors vary systematically by domain. In a series of studies with ethnically and socioeconomically diverse samples of middle school students, we find that schoolwork-related…

  20. Overweight and obesity and associated factors among school-aged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increasing physical activity participation should be the focus of strategies aimed at preventing and treating overweight and obesity in male youth. Keywords: Overweight, obesity, global school-based health survey, dietary behaviour, substance use, physical activity, sedentary behaviour, psychosocial factors, Thailand.

  1. Generations at School: Building an Age-Friendly Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovely, Suzette

    2010-01-01

    In schools around the country, Gen Xers, Millennials, Baby Boomers, and even a Veteran or two are working side by side. While anyone holding a job in this shaky economy is grateful, gratitude does not make generational clashes less difficult. Adding to the mix, many Baby Boomers initially poised for a mass exodus by 2010 are holding on for dear…

  2. Preschool predictors of school-age academic achievement in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lauren E; Burke, Jeffrey D; Troyb, Eva; Knoch, Kelley; Herlihy, Lauren E; Fein, Deborah A

    2017-02-01

    Characterization of academic functioning in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), particularly predictors of achievement, may have important implications for intervention. The current study aimed to characterize achievement profiles, confirm associations between academic ability and concurrent intellectual and social skills, and explore preschool predictors of school-age academic achievement in a sample of children with ASD. Children with ASD (n = 26) were evaluated at the approximate ages of two, four, and ten. Multiple regression was used to predict school-age academic achievement in reading and mathematics from both concurrent (i.e. school-age) and preschool variables. Children with ASD demonstrated a weakness in reading comprehension relative to word reading. There was a smaller difference between mathematics skills; math reasoning was lower than numerical operations, but this did not quite reach trend level significance. Concurrent IQ and social skills were associated with school-age academic achievement across domains. Preschool verbal abilities significantly predicted school-age reading comprehension, above and beyond concurrent IQ, and early motor functioning predicted later math skills. Specific developmental features of early ASD predict specific aspects of school-age achievement. Early intervention targeting language and motor skills may improve later achievement in this population.

  3. Neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years of age after general anaesthesia and awake-regional anaesthesia in infancy (GAS): an international multicentre, randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Andrew J; Disma, Nicola; de Graaff, Jurgen C; Withington, Davinia E; Dorris, Liam; Bell, Graham; Stargatt, Robyn; Bellinger, David C; Schuster, Tibor; Arnup, Sarah J; Hardy, Pollyanna; Hunt, Rodney W; Takagi, Michael J; Giribaldi, Gaia; Hartmann, Penelope L; Salvo, Ida; Morton, Neil S; von Ungern Sternberg, Britta S; Locatelli, Bruno Guido; Wilton, Niall; Lynn, Anne; Thomas, Joss J; Polaner, David; Bagshaw, Oliver; Szmuk, Peter; Absalom, Anthony R; Frawley, Geoff; Berde, Charles; Ormond, Gillian D; Marmor, Jacki; McCann, Mary Ellen

    2016-01-16

    Preclinical data suggest that general anaesthetics affect brain development. There is mixed evidence from cohort studies that young children exposed to anaesthesia can have an increased risk of poor neurodevelopmental outcome. We aimed to establish whether general anaesthesia in infancy has any effect on neurodevelopmental outcome. Here we report the secondary outcome of neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years of age in the General Anaesthesia compared to Spinal anaesthesia (GAS) trial. In this international assessor-masked randomised controlled equivalence trial, we recruited infants younger than 60 weeks postmenstrual age, born at greater than 26 weeks' gestation, and who had inguinal herniorrhaphy, from 28 hospitals in Australia, Italy, the USA, the UK, Canada, the Netherlands, and New Zealand. Infants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either awake-regional anaesthesia or sevoflurane-based general anaesthesia. Web-based randomisation was done in blocks of two or four and stratified by site and gestational age at birth. Infants were excluded if they had existing risk factors for neurological injury. The primary outcome of the trial will be the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence Third Edition (WPPSI-III) Full Scale Intelligence Quotient score at age 5 years. The secondary outcome, reported here, is the composite cognitive score of the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development III, assessed at 2 years. The analysis was as per protocol adjusted for gestational age at birth. A difference in means of five points (1/3 SD) was predefined as the clinical equivalence margin. This trial is registered with ANZCTR, number ACTRN12606000441516 and ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00756600. Between Feb 9, 2007, and Jan 31, 2013, 363 infants were randomly assigned to receive awake-regional anaesthesia and 359 to general anaesthesia. Outcome data were available for 238 children in the awake-regional group and 294 in the general anaesthesia group. In the

  4. Gene therapy with recombinant adeno-associated vectors for neovascular age-related macular degeneration: 1 year follow-up of a phase 1 randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakoczy, Elizabeth P; Lai, Chooi-May; Magno, Aaron L; Wikstrom, Matthew E; French, Martyn A; Pierce, Cora M; Schwartz, Steven D; Blumenkranz, Mark S; Chalberg, Thomas W; Degli-Esposti, Mariapia A; Constable, Ian J

    2015-12-12

    Neovascular, or wet, age-related macular degeneration causes central vision loss and represents a major health problem in elderly people, and is currently treated with frequent intraocular injections of anti-VEGF protein. Gene therapy might enable long-term anti-VEGF therapy from a single treatment. We tested the safety of rAAV.sFLT-1 in treatment of wet age-related macular degeneration with a single subretinal injection. In this single-centre, phase 1, randomised controlled trial, we enrolled patients with wet age-related macular degeneration at the Lions Eye Institute and the Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital (Nedlands, WA, Australia). Eligible patients had to be aged 65 years or older, have age-related macular degeneration secondary to active subfoveal choroidal neovascularisation, with best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 3/60-6/24 and 6/60 or better in the other eye. Patients were randomly assigned (3:1) to receive either 1 × 10(10) vector genomes (vg; low-dose rAAV.sFLT-1 group) or 1 × 10(11) vg (high-dose rAAV.sFLT-1 group), or no gene-therapy treatment (control group). Randomisation was done by sequential group assignment. All patients and investigators were unmasked. Staff doing the assessments were masked to the study group at study visits. All patients received ranibizumab at baseline and week 4, and rescue treatment during follow-up based on prespecified criteria including BCVA measured on the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (EDTRS) scale, optical coherence tomography, and fluorescein angiography. The primary endpoint was ocular and systemic safety. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01494805. From Dec 16, 2011, to April 5, 2012, we enrolled nine patients of whom eight were randomly assigned to receive either intervention (three patients in the low-dose rAAV.sFLT-1 group and three patients in the high-dose rAAV.sFLT-1 group) or no treatment (two patients in the control group). Subretinal injection of r

  5. Age and gender differences in aggression of Slovene elementary and secondary school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Kozina

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The study examined age and gender differences in aggression using three representative samples for Slovenia: 4th grade elementary school students; 8th grade elementary school students; 4th grade secondary school students in Matura programs. The results were based on the LA aggression scale that measures general aggression and four specific types of aggression: physical aggression (TA, verbal aggression (BA, internal aggression (NA and aggression towards authority (AA. Based on the results of two-way ANOVA we found important effects of age, gender and their interaction. The gender differences were significant in the groups of elementary school students but not in secondary school students. Male elementary school students, 4th and 8th grade, were more aggressive compared to female elementary school students. 8th grade elementary school students were more physically, verbally, internally aggressive and more aggressive towards authority when compared to 4th grade elementary school students. Secondary school students were significantly less physically and verbally aggressive, and on the other hand more internally aggressive when compared to both groups of elementary school students. Secondary school students reported higher level of aggression towards authority than 4th grade elementary students, and lower level then 8th grade elementary students. The results were congruent with the findings of the research literature indicating higher aggression of males when compared to females and different developmental paths for different types of aggression in question. The study introduced important findings regarding age and gender differences in representative school samples in Slovenia and proposed future research mostly in direction of including measures of indirect aggression that is linked to female gender and older students.

  6. Knowledge and Morality of School-Age Children and Adolescents Regarding Environmental Issues and Moral Dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestena, Carla Luciane Blum; Piske, Fernanda Hellen Ribeiro

    2017-01-01

    A research gap exists with regard to the analysis of school children and adolescents' awareness on environmental issues. Current investigation analyzes data of 240 children and adolescents, aged between 8 and 14 years, within different school contexts in the mid-southern region of Brazil, on their knowledge level and moral judgment on solid…

  7. Anxiety in Elementary School-Aged Students: A Growing Need for Interventions by Classroom Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Carla-Dyann

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety symptoms expressed by elementary school-aged students was a problem in an elementary school south of Atlanta, Georgia. These behaviors were negatively impacting the performance and behaviors of fourth and fifth grade students in and out of the educational environment. The purpose of this study was to determine if teaching anxiety reduction…

  8. Age, Gender and Job Satisfaction among Elementary School Head Teachers in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazi, Safdar Rehman; Maringe, Felix

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore general job satisfaction of elementary school head teachers in Pakistan with respect to their age and gender. One hundred and eighty head teachers were sampled from government elementary schools of Toba Tek Singh, Punjab, Pakistan, to collect the relevant data using a modified version of the Minnesota…

  9. Anemia and associated factors among school-age children in Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anemia is a problem affecting a large group of school children in sub-Saharan Africa, contributing to morbidity in this region. In Cape Verde the magnitude of anemia in school-age children is unknown. The study aimed to assess the prevalence of anemia and associated factors among children in Cape Verde. The data are ...

  10. Comparing the Quality of Life of School-Age Children with and without Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Silvana M. R.; Keith, Kenneth D.

    2002-01-01

    Quality of life of 76 school-age children with disabilities receiving education services in public schools was compared to that of 64 typical students enrolled in grades K-12. Scores of students with disabilities were lower on all scales of the Quality of Student Life Questionnaire, particularly on satisfaction, well-being, and social belonging.…

  11. Access to Information Technologies among School-Age Children: Implications for a Democratic Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Michael E.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses access to information technology among school-age children based on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) and suggests implications of the results for a democratic society. Highlights include computer literacy; access to computers outside of school, specifically in the home; and racial/ethnic differences. (Contains 10…

  12. Physical Fitness, Academic Achievement, and Socioeconomic Status in School-Aged Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Dawn P.; Peterson, Thomas; Blair, Cheryl; Schutten, Mary C.; Peddie, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study examined the association between physical fitness and academic achievement and determined the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on the association between fitness and academic achievement in school-aged youth. Methods: Overall, 1,701 third-, sixth-, and ninth-grade students from 5 school districts participated in the…

  13. Health-related quality of life in school-age children with speech-language-impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flapper, B.C.; Van Den Heuvel, M.

    Speech-language-impairment (SLI) as well as behavioral-dysfunction and school-type might influence health-related-quality-of-life. Patients and methods: Cross-sectional study in 124 children aged 5-8 years with SLI, in 4 special education (SE) and 7 mainstream ambulatory care (AC) schools, and 35

  14. Malaria in school-age children in Africa: an increasingly important challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nankabirwa, Joaniter; Brooker, Simon J; Clarke, Sian E; Fernando, Deepika; Gitonga, Caroline W; Schellenberg, David; Greenwood, Brian

    2014-11-01

    School-age children have attracted relatively little attention as a group in need of special measures to protect them against malaria. However, increasing success in lowering the level of malaria transmission in many previously highly endemic areas will result in children acquiring immunity to malaria later in life than has been the case in the past. Thus, it can be anticipated that in the coming years there will be an increase in the incidence of both uncomplicated and severe malaria in school-age children in many previously highly endemic areas. In this review, which focuses primarily on Africa, recent data on the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and on the incidence of clinical malaria in African school-age children are presented and evidence that malaria adversely effects school performance is reviewed. Long-lasting insecticide treated bednets (LLIN) are an effective method of malaria control but several studies have shown that school-age children use LLINs less frequently than other population groups. Antimalarial drugs are being used in different ways to control malaria in school-age children including screening and treatment and intermittent preventive treatment. Some studies of chemoprevention in school-age children have shown reductions in anaemia and improved school performance but this has not been the case in all trials and more research is needed to identify the situations in which chemoprevention is likely to be most effective and, in these situations, which type of intervention should be used. In the longer term, malaria vaccines may have an important role in protecting this important section of the community from malaria. Regardless of the control approach selected, it is important this is incorporated into the overall programme of measures being undertaken to enhance the health of African school-age children. © 2014 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. What is the effect of health coaching on physical activity participation in people aged 60 years and over? A systematic review of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Juliana S; Sherrington, Catherine; Amorim, Anita B; Dario, Amabile B; Tiedemann, Anne

    2017-10-01

    Physical inactivity is common in older age, yet increased activity benefits older people in terms of preventing chronic disease and maximising independence. Health coaching is a behaviour change intervention that has been shown to increase physical activity in clinical populations. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the effect of health coaching on physical activity, mobility, quality of life and mood in older people. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, PsycINFO, PEDro, SPORTDiscus, LILACS and CINAHL databases were used to identify randomised controlled trials which evaluated the effect of health coaching on physical activity (primary outcome) among people aged 60+. Secondary outcomes were mobility, quality of life and mood. We calculated standardised mean differences (SMDs, Hedges' g) with 95% CIs from random effects meta-analyses. 27 eligible trials were included. Health coaching had a small, statistically significant effect on physical activity (27 studies; SMD = 0.27; 95% CI 0.18 to 0.37; pcoaching on mobility (eight studies; SMD = 0.10; 95% CI -0.03 to 0.23; p=0.13), quality of life (eight studies; SMD = 0.07; 95% CI -0.06 to 0.20; pcoaching significantly increased physical activity in people aged 60+. There was no evidence of an effect of health coaching on quality of life, mobility and mood, so different approaches may be required to impact on these outcomes. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Micronutrient status and global DNA methylation in school-age children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perng, Wei; Rozek, Laura S; Mora-Plazas, Mercedes; Duchin, Ofra; Marin, Constanza; Forero, Yibby; Baylin, Ana; Villamor, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    .... Micronutrients including methyl-donors and retinoids are involved in DNA methylation pathways. We investigated associations of micronutrient status and LINE-1 methylation in a cross-sectional study of school-age children from Bogotá, Colombia...

  17. Sex differences in the intellectual functioning of early school-aged children in rural China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chao Li; Ni Zhu; Lingxia Zeng; Shaonong Dang; Jing Zhou; Yijun Kang; Yang Yang; Hong Yan

    2016-01-01

    .... The difference in intelligence between boys and girls is less clear in rural China. The purpose of this paper was to assess sex differences in the intellectual function of early school-aged children in rural China...

  18. IDENTITY FORMATION AMONG PRIMARY SCHOOL-AGED CHILDREN IN DYSFUNCTIONAL FAMILIES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    V. G. Bulygina; A. A. Parakhoni

    2015-01-01

    Primary school age is a stage of significant personal changes of a child, including the identity formation as a result of a major restructuring of the system of relations of the child within the family. Background...

  19. Bullying in School-aged Children in Iceland: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmy, Pernilla; Vilhjálmsson, Rúnar; Kristjánsdóttir, Guðrún

    2017-06-02

    We describe the frequency and variations in bullying among a representative national sample of school-age children and examine whether sociodemographic characteristics are associated with bullying. This study is based on a cross-sectional school-based survey-the Icelandic contribution to the international research network Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC). The study population included all students in Iceland in grades 6, 8 and 10 (mean ages: 11, 13 and 15years, respectively) (participation rate: 84%; n=11,018). The students completed an anonymous standardized questionnaire administered in the classroom. The self-reported frequency of being victimized by bullying at least 2-3 times every month was 5.5%. A younger age, speaking a foreign language at home, not living with one's parents, and living in a rural area, were all associated with higher frequencies of being bullied. Despite efforts to reduce bullying in school, experiences of being victimized through bullying are still too common among Icelandic school-age children. Stakeholders and school health administrators should consider sociodemographic antecedents when planning interventions to reduce bullying at school. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A randomised controlled trial of nonlinear frequency compression versus conventional processing in hearing aids: speech and language of children at 3 years of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Teresa YC; Day, Julia; Zhang, Vicky; Dillon, Harvey; Van Buynder, Patricia; Seeto, Mark; Hou, Sanna; Marnane, Vivienne; Thomson, Jessica; Street, Laura; Wong, Angela; Burns, Lauren; Flynn, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of nonlinear frequency compression (NLFC) on children’s development of speech and language at 3 years of age. Design A randomised controlled trial was conducted as part of the population-based Longitudinal study on Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment (LOCHI). Participants were randomly assigned to fitting with NLFC (Phonak Naida V SP or UP) or with conventional processing in hearing aids, prescribed by using either the NAL or the DSL formula. Standardized tests of speech production, receptive and expressive language were administered, and parent ratings were collected. All assessments were double-blinded. study sample Participants were 44 of the 450 children in the LOCHI cohort. Results Compared to children using conventional processing, receptive and expressive language was higher but receptive vocabulary and consonant articulation scores were lower for children who use NLFC. There was increased substitution of affricates by fricatives for children using NLFC, compared to children using conventional amplification. After allowing for the effect of multiple demographic variables, the difference in global language scores between groups was not significant (effect: 0.8 [confidence interval: −6.7, 8.3]). Conclusions There is insufficient evidence to support a difference in language ability between children using NLFC and those using conventional amplification. PMID:24350695

  1. Influence of broadcasting on Aggressive Behaviour of Younger School-Aged Children

    OpenAIRE

    RAJNOVÁ, Zuzana

    2011-01-01

    The thesis is aimed at influence of broadcasting on the level of aggressive behaviour of younger school-aged children. The basic concepts are explained in general terms; the basic way aggressive behaviour and mass media can be divided is given; psyche of a younger school-aged child is explained; television violence, its forms and both negative and positive effects and health consequences of excessive television-watching are described and prevention of adverse ffects of TV programmes on childr...

  2. Surgical Abdomen in School Age Children: A Prospective Review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Surgical abdomen traverses all age groups. We sought to define the aetiology, patients' characteristics, and outcome of management amongst children Methods: Two years prospective review of patients aged 5-15 years managed for surgical abdomen at the Wesley Guilds Hospital Ilesa and Mishmael Medical ...

  3. Care of the school-aged child in 90/90 traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, M S

    1996-01-01

    Children in the school-aged period are those most likely to sustain a fractured femur. One method of treatment for this age group is immobilization of the fracture in 90/90 traction. Specific needs of these children are discussed, and related nursing problems are identified. The physiologic and psychosocial aspects of nursing care are also addressed. Emphasis is placed on the developmental tasks inherent in this age group. Mastery of illness and hospitalization are central issues for the school-aged child and can be facilitated through the efforts of nursing and hospital staff. A therapeutic play program is also a beneficial adjunct to treatment and nursing care.

  4. Nutrition quality analysis in school-age children

    OpenAIRE

    Ковтюк, Наталия Ивановна

    2015-01-01

    School nutrition as a component of quality of life is analyzed. A total of 180 children 10–17 years old are examined. Health indicators studied in conjunction with physiological components of quality of life. The one-sided nutrition principles with predominance of cereals and confectionery products with low consumption of dairy and meat products are determined. The deficit of the fundamental components of nutrition creates a risk factor for health problems and makes preconditions for the deve...

  5. THE MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SCHOOLGIRLS AT EARLY SCHOOL AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevenka Zrnzević

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of research was to establish eventual differences in some morphological characteristics between schoolgirls from the first, second and third grade of elementary school. Morphological characteristics were estimated according to three variables (body height, body weight and body mass index. Research on the morphological characteristics was conducted on a sample of 254 examinated schoolgirls (78 first grade schoolgirls, 79 second grade schoolgirls and 97 third grade schoolgirls wich were attending regular classes and where the teaching process was observed and performed by the school teacher. This research utilised transversal model of research. The obtained results were statistically processed by means of descriptive statistics and graphically displayed. In further data processing the following procedures were applied: multivariant analysis of variance (with univariant analysis of the variance, discriminative analysis, testing the homogenous quality of groups and determination of the distance between groups. The results of the research showed that, viewing from the aspect of morphological characteristics, there are differences between schoolgirls from the first, second and third grade of elementary school and they are statistically significant.

  6. Identifying risk factors for predicting caries in school-aged children using dental health information collected at preschool age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, P; Fraser-Lee, N J; Shimono, T

    2001-01-01

    The study was done to identify toddlers who have an increased risk of developing dental decay at school age. Six variables-Cariostat score, mother's ethnicity, evidence of baby bottle tooth decay, mother;s dental health status, toddler's age at first tooth, and frequency of brushing - showed a significant association with decay status at school age with odds ratios ranging from 1.89 to 2.63. The Cariostat score and the frequency of brushing remained significant in a logistic regression. No interaction terms were significant. The Cariostat caries activity test would be a useful screening tool for identifying toddlers most likely to develop decay or could be used periodically as the deciduous molars erupt and become colonized with oral bacteria. The findings confirm that good oral hygiene practices can have an impact on future dental health, and caregivers should be encouraged to brush young children's teeth regularly.

  7. Age- and schooling-related effects on executive functions in young children: a natural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrage, Marie S; Ponitz, Claire Cameron; McCready, Elizabeth A; Shah, Priti; Sims, Brian C; Jewkes, Abigail M; Morrison, Frederick J

    2008-11-01

    We employed a cutoff design in order to examine age- and schooling-related effects on executive functions. Specifically, we looked at development of working memory and response inhibition over the period of 1 school year in prekindergarten and kindergarten students born within 4 months of each other. All children improved on executive function and word-decoding tasks from the beginning to the end of the year. Additionally, we found prekindergarten- and kindergarten-schooling effects for the working memory and word-decoding tasks (p schooling effect for the response inhibition task (p < .10).

  8. Child Centred Approach to Climate Change and Health Adaptation through Schools in Bangladesh: A Cluster Randomised Intervention Trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kabir, Md Iqbal; Rahman, Md Bayzidur; Smith, Wayne; Lusha, Mirza Afreen Fatima; Milton, Abul Hasnat

    2015-01-01

    ..., which is based on a 2008 World Health Organization manual. The objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of the manual in increasing the knowledge level of the school children about climate change and health adaptation...

  9. Child Centred Approach to Climate Change and Health Adaptation through Schools in Bangladesh: A Cluster Randomised Intervention Trial: e0134993

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Md Iqbal Kabir; Bayzidur Rahman; Wayne Smith; Mirza Afreen Fatima Lusha; Abul Hasnat Milton

    2015-01-01

    ..., which is based on a 2008 World Health Organization manual. The objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of the manual in increasing the knowledge level of the school children about climate change and health adaptation...

  10. [A prospective cohort study on injuries among school-age children with and without behavior problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ying-chun; Ni, Jin-fa; Tao, Fang-biao; Wu, Xi-ke

    2003-08-01

    To study the annual incidence of injuries and the relationship between behavior problems and injuries among school-age children. A prospective cohort study on injuries for 1-year follow-up period was conducted among 2 005 school-age children selected by cluster sampling from three primary schools in Maanshan city. They subjects were divided into two groups with or without exposure according to behavior problems rated by the Rutter Child Behavior Questionnaire at the beginning of the study. Nonparametric test was performed to analyze the differences in injuries between the two groups of children, and the influential factors for injuries were analyzed with multi-classification ordinal response variable logistic regression model. The overall incidence rate for injuries in school-age children was 42.51%, while among children with and without behavior problems were 64.87% and 38.85%, respectively. There were significant differences between the two groups (u = -6.054, P = 0.000). However, the incidence rates of injuries in school-age children with antisocial (A) behavior, neurotic (N) behavior and mixed (M) behavior were 66.99%, 67.41% and 61.40%, respectively. No significant differences were found among them (u(A,N) = -0.052, P = 0.958; u(A,M) = -0.400, P = 0.689; u(N,M) = -0.364, P = 0.716). Multivariate analysis indicated that injuries in school-age children were associated with children behavior problems, maternal age at childbirth, bad conditions during mother pregnancy, education background of mother, prevention measures for safety at home and the child accompanied to travel between school and home by adults. Behavior problems of children seemed to be the major risk factors for injuries. Children with behavior problems represented a significant risk group for injuries among school-age children. When planning intervention strategies on injuries, behavior problems should be emphasized to ensure optimal effectiveness of intervention.

  11. The impact of active stakeholder involvement on recruitment, retention and engagement of schools, children and their families in the cluster randomised controlled trial of the Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP): a school-based intervention to prevent obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, J; McHugh, C; Minton, J; Eke, H; Wyatt, K

    2017-08-14

    Recruitment and retention of participants is crucial for statistical power and internal and external validity and participant engagement is essential for behaviour change. However, many school-based interventions focus on programme content rather than the building of supportive relationships with all participants and tend to employ specific standalone strategies, such as incentives, to improve retention. We believe that actively involving stakeholders in both intervention and trial design improves recruitment and retention and increases the chances of creating an effective intervention. The Healthy Lifestyles Programme, HeLP (an obesity prevention programme for children 9-10 years old) was developed using intervention mapping and involved extensive stakeholder involvement in both the design of the trial and the intervention to ensure that: (i) delivery methods were suitably engaging, (ii) deliverers had the necessary skills and qualities to build relationships and (iii) the intervention dovetailed with the National Curriculum. HeLP was a year-long intervention consisting of 4 multi-component phases using a range of delivery methods. We recruited 1324 children from 32 schools from the South West of England to a cluster-randomised controlled trial to determine the effectiveness of HeLP in preventing obesity. The primary outcome was change in body mass index standard deviation score (BMI SDS) at 24 months post randomisation. Secondary outcomes included additional anthropometric and behavioural (physical activity and diet) measures at 18 and 24 months. Anthropometric and behavioural measures were taken in 99%, 96% and 94% of children at baseline, 18 and 24 months, respectively, with no differential follow up between the control and intervention groups at each time point. All children participated in the programme and 92% of children and 77% of parents across the socio-economic spectrum were considered to have actively engaged with HeLP. We attribute our excellent

  12. Mammographic screening: evidence from randomised controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. de Koning (Harry)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: All randomised breast cancer screening trials have shown a reduction in breast cancer mortality in the 'invited for mammography' screening arm compared with the 'control arm' for women aged 50 years and older at randomisation (overall 25%). However,

  13. Elementary School Age Children's Comprehension of Specific Idiomatic Expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinton, Bonnie; And Others

    1985-01-01

    When examined as a group (80 linguistically normal children in grades K-6), comprehension of the idioms studied improved with increasing age. However, when examined individually, performance was found to be highly variable from idiom to idiom. (Author/CL)

  14. A qualitative process evaluation of a randomised controlled trial of a parenting intervention in community (school) settings for children at risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, John A; Valentine, Althea Z; Sellman, Edward; Bransby-Adams, Kate; Daley, David; Sayal, Kapil

    2015-11-17

    Interventions for parents of children experiencing emotional and/or behavioural difficulties can help to improve their children's health, educational and social outcomes. However, the desirability and acceptability of screening and offering such interventions for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-type problems are currently unclear. This article is a qualitative process evaluation of a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial (Trial registration: ISRCTN87634685; reported elsewhere) to assess the feasibility and acceptability of a school-based parenting intervention programme for parents and teachers of children with high levels of ADHD symptoms. Parents (n = 22) and teaching staff (n = 29) took part in semi-structured group or individual interviews, either by telephone or face-to-face, following the main trial. Interviews were digitally-recorded, transcribed verbatim and subjected to thematic analysis. The parenting intervention was acceptable to parents and teachers, and they were enthusiastic about the need for parenting groups in the school environment and stressed the importance of parent-school collaboration. Parents generally stated a preference for universal recruitment approaches to such programmes whilst teachers described the need to target specific parents. Most parents who took part in the parenting intervention described it favourably and many saw benefits, at least in the short-term. Parents differed in their preferred group size, with some desiring one-to-one sessions and others favouring a larger group. Non-attending parents reported barriers to attendance such as fear of attending in a group, previous use of the programme, work and other commitments. Suggestions to improve the programme included: clearer communication; offering booster sessions; and greater collaboration with teachers. It is feasible to deliver parenting intervention programmes within or near schools. The intervention was acceptable to the majority of

  15. Implications of advancing paternal age: does it affect offspring school performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C Svensson

    Full Text Available Average paternal age is increasing in many high income countries, but the implications of this demographic shift for child health and welfare are poorly understood. There is equivocal evidence that children of older fathers are at increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders and reduced IQ. We therefore report here on the relationship between paternal age and a composite indicator of scholastic achievement during adolescence, i.e. compulsory school leaving grades, among recent birth cohorts in Stockholm County where delayed paternity is notably common. We performed a record-linkage study comprising all individuals in Stockholm County who finished 9 years of compulsory school from 2000 through 2007 (n = 155,875. Data on school leaving grades and parental characteristics were retrieved from administrative and health service registers and analyzed using multiple linear regression. Advancing paternal age at birth was not associated with a decrease in school leaving grades in adolescent offspring. After adjustment for year of graduation, maternal age and parental education, country of birth and parental mental health service use, offspring of fathers aged 50 years or older had on average 0.3 (95% CI -3.8, 4.4 points higher grades than those of fathers aged 30-34 years. In conclusion, advancing paternal age is not associated with poorer school performance in adolescence. Adverse effects of delayed paternity on offspring cognitive function, if any, may be counterbalanced by other potential advantages for children born to older fathers.

  16. Implications of advancing paternal age: does it affect offspring school performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Anna C; Abel, Kathryn; Dalman, Christina; Magnusson, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    Average paternal age is increasing in many high income countries, but the implications of this demographic shift for child health and welfare are poorly understood. There is equivocal evidence that children of older fathers are at increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders and reduced IQ. We therefore report here on the relationship between paternal age and a composite indicator of scholastic achievement during adolescence, i.e. compulsory school leaving grades, among recent birth cohorts in Stockholm County where delayed paternity is notably common. We performed a record-linkage study comprising all individuals in Stockholm County who finished 9 years of compulsory school from 2000 through 2007 (n = 155,875). Data on school leaving grades and parental characteristics were retrieved from administrative and health service registers and analyzed using multiple linear regression. Advancing paternal age at birth was not associated with a decrease in school leaving grades in adolescent offspring. After adjustment for year of graduation, maternal age and parental education, country of birth and parental mental health service use, offspring of fathers aged 50 years or older had on average 0.3 (95% CI -3.8, 4.4) points higher grades than those of fathers aged 30-34 years. In conclusion, advancing paternal age is not associated with poorer school performance in adolescence. Adverse effects of delayed paternity on offspring cognitive function, if any, may be counterbalanced by other potential advantages for children born to older fathers.

  17. Anxiety of elementary and secondary school students in Slovenia: gender and age analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana kozina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety is defined as a multidimensional response with emotional, cognitive, behavioral, and physiological domain with the anticipation of threat. Anxiety negatively interferes with the adaptive functioning of students in elementary and secondary schools and needs to be investigated in detail. The present article examines age and gender differences in representative samples of elementary (4th and 8th grade students and secondary school students (students of 4th grade in Matura programs. The LAOM anxiety scale that measures anxiety with its components (emotional and cognitive in students in schools was used. Based on the results of two-way ANOVA important age, gender and the interaction effect is evident in analyzed data. 8th grade female students are more anxious compared to 8th grade male students. The gender differences in 4th grade elementary sample and secondary school sample were not significant. 8th grade students are more anxious compared to 4th grade students, secondary school students are least anxious compared to both elementary school samples. The results are congruent with the findings of the research literature indicating higher anxiety of females when compared to males and higher anxiety of older students when compared to younger students. The paper offers important findings regarding age and gender differences in representative school samples in Slovenia and proposes future research in direction of including different age groups and different measures of anxiety in the analyses.

  18. Improving balance and mobility in people over 50 years of age with vision impairments: can the Alexander Technique help? A study protocol for the VISIBILITY randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Michael; Sherrington, Catherine; Borkowski, Ewa; Keay, Lisa

    2014-02-01

    Falls are an increasingly important and costly public health problem. Vision is key to postural stability as we age and this puts adults with visual impairments at greater risk of falls. Physical interventions improve balance in the general population and in older adults with visual impairments in residential care. They also prevent falls in the general community but to date have not been shown effective in community-dwelling adults with visual impairments. To investigate, with a randomised controlled trial, whether the Alexander Technique (AT) can improve balance and mobility in the community-dwelling population with visual impairments and thus reduce the risk of falls. The AT is a form of physical re-education that has recently received attention for its possible value in rehabilitation. One hundred and twenty people with visual impairments over 50 years of age will be recruited from Guide Dogs New South Wales/Australian Capital Territory (NSW/ACT). Participants will be independently mobile and cognitively able to take part in the programme. After baseline assessment participants will be randomly assigned to two groups. The control group will receive usual care from Guide Dogs NSW/ACT, and the intervention group will receive 12 weekly home-based lessons in the AT in addition to usual care. The primary outcome measures will be physical measures from the short physical performance battery at 3 months. Secondary outcome measures will be balance, mobility, social participation and emotional well-being at 3 and 12 months. The protocol is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12610000634077).

  19. Factor structure of functional state of primary school age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidenko O.V.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The examination of primary school children to determine the ranking of significant factors that determine the structure of their functional state depending on the level of physical health. It is shown that the main factor in the structure of the functional state of younger schoolchildren in low-and lower-middle level of physical fitness is selected morpho-functional status, which characterizes the functions of the body at rest. For children with average or above average level of physical fitness is a leading factor in physical fitness of schoolchildren.

  20. Nutrition quality analysis in school-age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталия Ивановна Ковтюк

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available School nutrition as a component of quality of life is analyzed. A total of 180 children 10–17 years old are examined. Health indicators studied in conjunction with physiological components of quality of life. The one-sided nutrition principles with predominance of cereals and confectionery products with low consumption of dairy and meat products are determined. The deficit of the fundamental components of nutrition creates a risk factor for health problems and makes preconditions for the development of somatic pathology

  1. The nutritional status of school-aged children: why should we care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Cora; Neufingerl, Nicole; van Geel, Laura; van den Briel, Tina; Osendarp, Saskia

    2010-09-01

    The nutritional status of school-aged children impacts their health, cognition, and subsequently their educational achievement. The school is an opportune setting to provide health and nutrition services to disadvantaged children. Yet, school-aged children are not commonly included in health and nutrition surveys. An up-to-date overview of their nutritional status across the world is not available. To provide a summary of the recent data on the nutritional status of school-aged children in developing countries and countries in transition and identify issues of public health concern. A review of literature published from 2002 to 2009 on the nutritional status of children aged 6 to 12 years from Latin America, Africa, Asia, and the Eastern Mediterranean region was performed. Eligible studies determined the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies or child under- and overnutrition using biochemical markers and internationally accepted growth references. A total of 369 studies from 76 different countries were included. The available data indicate that the nutritional status of school-aged children in the reviewed regions is considerably inadequate. Underweight and thinness were most prominent in populations from South-East Asia and Africa, whereas in Latin America the prevalence of underweight or thinness was generally below 10%. More than half of the studies on anemia reported moderate (> 20%) or severe (> 40%) prevalence of anemia. Prevalences of 20% to 30% were commonly reported for deficiencies of iron, iodine, zinc, and vitamin A. The prevalence of overweight was highest in Latin American countries (20% to 35%). In Africa, Asia, and the Eastern Mediterranean, the prevalence of overweight was generally below 15%. The available data indicate that malnutrition is a public health issue in school-aged children in developing countries and countries in transition. However, the available data, especially data on micronutrient status, are limited. These findings emphasize

  2. Association between intersection characteristics and perceived crash risk among school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gain; Park, Yuna; Kim, Jeongseob; Cho, Gi-Hyoug

    2016-12-01

    This research examined how environmental attributes near intersections influence the perceived crash risk among school-aged children, which provides information on the potential risks of pedestrian crashes that can guide the development of proactive countermeasures. In a sample of 799 children aged 10-12 years old in Korea, the environmental attributes of intersections perceived as having a high risk of producing crashes near elementary schools were investigated using standard negative binomial and zero-inflated negative binomial models.The results showed that a higher number of student crossings, a wider road width, the presence of crosswalks, student-friendly facilities at the intersection, and four-way intersections were significant and positively associated with perceived crash risk among school-aged children. The findings related to building characteristics indicated that a higher number of entrances at an intersection increased the perceived crash risk while higher visibility at the intersection reduced the perception of risk. Associations with traffic-calming measures were weak,suggesting that the measures used in the study areas were not effective in reducing the perceived crash risk. The results of a police-reported crash model showed that school-aged children have a relatively accurate perception of crash risk and that the perceived crash risk of school-aged children may provide valuable information on the intersection characteristics in need of attention near school sites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Gestational Age and Kindergarten School Readiness in a National Sample of Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Prachi E; Kaciroti, Niko; Richards, Blair; Lumeng, Julie C

    2016-11-01

    To examine the association of gestational age with school readiness in kindergarten reading and math skills. We hypothesized that compared with infants born at 39-41 weeks, infants born at lower gestational ages would have poorer school readiness. The study sample comprised 5250 children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort, assessed with specialized reading and math assessments at kindergarten. Poor school readiness was characterized by reading and math theta scores ≥1.5 SD below the sample mean. The aOR and 95% CI of poor school readiness were estimated using multivariate logistic regression, examining gestational age continuously and categorically (very preterm [VPT], moderate/late preterm [M/LPT], early term [ET], and term). Pairwise comparisons were performed to test for differences by gestational age category. There was an association between gestational age and poor school readiness for reading and math, with the suggestion of a threshold effect in children born at ≥32 weeks gestation. In adjusted models, in VPT infants, the aORs of poor school readiness in reading and math were 2.58 (95% CI, 1.29-5.15) and 3.38 (95% CI, 1.66-6.91), respectively. For infants born M/LPT and ET, the odds of poor school readiness in reading did not differ from those of children born full-term, however. Compared with term infants, the highest odds of poor school readiness in reading and math were seen in VPT infants, with lower odds of poor school readiness in children born at ≥32 weeks gestation. Ongoing developmental surveillance before kindergarten is indicated for VPT infants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Charter Schools as Postmodern Paradox: Rethinking Social Stratification in an Age of Deregulated School Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Amy Stuart; Lopez, Alejandra; Scott, Janelle; Holme, Jennifer Jellison

    1999-01-01

    This study of the rise of charter schools focuses on understanding how modern identities and postmodern ideologies converge and whom charter school reform benefits. It identifies the potential for greater inequality when people in different social locations define localized social movements. (SK)

  5. Frequent Visitors: Somatization in School-Age Children and Implications for School Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Robin Adair; Bergren, Martha Dewey; Matthews, Alicia

    2010-01-01

    There is a gap in the nursing literature regarding children who frequently visit school nurses' offices with recurrent unexplained physical symptoms. A review of the scientific health literature was undertaken to examine the clinical presentation, associated variables, and implications for school nurses regarding children who are frequent school…

  6. Predictors of Language Gains among School-Age Children with Language Impairment in the Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Laura M.; Jiang, Hui; Logan, Jessica A.; Schmitt, Mary Beth

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to identify child-level characteristics that predict gains in language skills for children with language impairment who were receiving therapy within the public schools. The therapy provided represented business-as-usual speech/language treatment provided by speech-language pathologists in the public schools. Method: The…

  7. A primary-school-based study to reduce prevalence of childhood obesity in Catalunya (Spain)--EDAL-Educació en alimentació: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giralt, Montse; Albaladejo, Rosa; Tarro, Lucia; Moriña, David; Arija, Victoria; Solà, Rosa

    2011-02-27

    The EdAL (Educació en Alimentació) study is a long-term, nutrition educational, primary-school-based program designed to prevent obesity by promoting a healthy lifestyle that includes dietary recommendations and physical activity.The aims are: 1) to evaluate the effects of a 3-year school-based life-style improvement program on the prevalence of obesity in an area of north-west Mediterranean 2) To design a health-promotion program to be implemented by health-promoter agents (university students) in primary schools. 1) The intervention study is a randomised, controlled, school-based program performed by university-student health-promoter agents. Initial pupil enrolment was in 2006 and continued for 3 years. We considered two clusters (designated as cluster A and cluster B) as the units for randomisation. The first cluster involved 24 schools from Reus and the second involved 14 schools from surrounding towns Cambrils, Salou and Vilaseca combined in order to obtain comparable groups. There are very good communications between schools in each town, and to avoid cross influence of the programs resulting from inter-school dialogue, the towns themselves were the unit for randomisation. Data collected included name, gender, date and place of birth at the start of the program and, subsequently, weight, height, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference every year for 3 years. Questionnaires on eating and physical activity habits are filled-in by the parents at the start and end of the study and, providing that informed consent is given, the data are analysed on the intention-to-treat basis.The interventions are based on 8 nutritional and physical activity objectives. They are implemented by university students as part of the university curriculum in training health-promoter agents. These 8 objectives are developed in 4 educational activities/year for 3 years (a total of 12 activities; 1 h/activity) performed by the health-promoter agents in primary schools. Control

  8. A primary-school-based study to reduce prevalence of childhood obesity in Catalunya (Spain - EDAL-Educació en alimentació: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moriña David

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The EdAL (Educació en Alimentació study is a long-term, nutrition educational, primary-school-based program designed to prevent obesity by promoting a healthy lifestyle that includes dietary recommendations and physical activity. The aims are: 1 to evaluate the effects of a 3-year school-based life-style improvement program on the prevalence of obesity in an area of north-west Mediterranean 2 To design a health-promotion program to be implemented by health-promoter agents (university students in primary schools. Methods/Design 1 The intervention study is a randomised, controlled, school-based program performed by university-student health-promoter agents. Initial pupil enrolment was in 2006 and continued for 3 years. We considered two clusters (designated as cluster A and cluster B as the units for randomisation. The first cluster involved 24 schools from Reus and the second involved 14 schools from surrounding towns Cambrils, Salou and Vilaseca combined in order to obtain comparable groups. There are very good communications between schools in each town, and to avoid cross influence of the programs resulting from inter-school dialogue, the towns themselves were the unit for randomisation. Data collected included name, gender, date and place of birth at the start of the program and, subsequently, weight, height, body mass index (BMI and waist circumference every year for 3 years. Questionnaires on eating and physical activity habits are filled-in by the parents at the start and end of the study and, providing that informed consent is given, the data are analysed on the intention-to-treat basis. The interventions are based on 8 nutritional and physical activity objectives. They are implemented by university students as part of the university curriculum in training health-promoter agents. These 8 objectives are developed in 4 educational activities/year for 3 years (a total of 12 activities; 1 h/activity performed by the

  9. Can infant self-locomotion and spatial exploration predict spatial memory at school age?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudgenoeg-Paz, Ora|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341157627; Leseman, Paul P M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070760810; Volman, M.J.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/163777349

    2014-01-01

    According to an embodied view of development sensorimotor activity plays a central role in cognitive development. Following this idea, we studied whether the age of achieving self-locomotion milestones and spatial exploration during the first years of life predict spatial memory at (pre)school age.

  10. Communication Profile of Primary School-Aged Children with Foetal Growth Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, Lea Aulikki; Olsén, Päivi; Mäkikallio, Kaarin; Korkalainen, Noora; Heikkinen, Hanna; Heikkinen, Minna; Yliherva, Anneli

    2017-01-01

    Foetal growth restriction is associated with problems in neurocognitive development. In the present study, prospectively collected cohorts of foetal growth restricted (FGR) and appropriate for gestational age grown (AGA) children were examined at early school-age by using the Children's Communication Checklist-2 (CCC-2) to test the hypothesis that…

  11. Age-related differences in inhibitory control in the early school years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Jacqui A; Beauchamp, Miriam H; Crigan, Judith A; Anderson, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    The transition to school is associated with a greater requirement to inhibit irrelevant or inappropriate thought and behavior in order to concentrate on effective learning and to interact successfully with peers. Current knowledge of inhibitory control development in the early school years is limited due to a lack of normative data from age-appropriate, sensitive measures. In this study, three pictorial versions of the Stroop task were administered to investigate inhibitory control development in early school-aged children. Age-related trajectories of inhibition and effects of gender were examined in 80 children (42 boys) aged 5 to 8 years. All children were assessed with the Cognitive Assessment System Expressive Attention subtest (Big-Small Stroop), Fruit Stroop, and Boy-Girl Stroop. The Big-Small Stroop revealed substantial age-related improvement in inhibition from 5 to 7 years with a levelling of performance at 8 years of age, while the Fruit Stroop and Boy-Girl Stroop demonstrated clear but nonsignificant age trends. In particular, older children committed fewer errors and corrected their errors more frequently than younger children. Performance on all Stroop tasks correlated significantly, providing evidence that they tap similar cognitive abilities. Some gender differences were found. This study indicates that inhibitory skills develop rapidly in the early school years and suggests that error awareness may be a useful indicator of the development of cognitive inhibition for this age group.

  12. Predicting who will have asthma at school age among preschool children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savenije, Olga E. M.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Postma, Dirkje S.

    It is difficult to distinguish at preschool age whether a wheezing child will or will not have asthma at school age. A prediction rule for asthma in preschool children might help to determine a prognosis and to study improvements in treatment and prevention. This review discusses (1) the development

  13. The effect of age on physical fitness of deaf elementary school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris; Houwen, Suzanne

    The aim of this study was to measure physical fitness of deaf Dutch elementary school children compared with hearing children and to investigate the influence of age on physical fitness. Deaf children were physically less fit than hearing children. Overall, physical fitness increased with age in

  14. The Early Motor Repertoire of Children Born Preterm Is Associated With Intelligence at School Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggink, Janneke L. M.; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N.; Bos, Arend F.

    OBJECTIVE: The goal was to determine whether the quality of general movements (GMs) for preterm children had predictive value for cognitive development at school age. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, 60 preterm infants (gestational age, median: 30.0 weeks [range: 25-33 weeks]; birth

  15. Speech Disruptions in the Sentence Formulation of School-Age Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finneran, Denise A.; Leonard, Laurence B.; Miller, Carol A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Many school-age children with specific language impairment produce sentences that appear to conform to the adult grammar. It may be premature to conclude from this, however, that their language formulation ability is age appropriate. Aims: To determine whether a more subtle measure of language use, speech disruptions during sentence…

  16. Mood Symptoms and Emotional Responsiveness to Threat in School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, Jessica L.; Sbarra, David A.; Crowley, Michael J.; Mayes, Linda C.

    2011-01-01

    Clinical accounts of depression underscore its relation to negative emotional experiences; yet few empirical studies examine emotional experiences in adults with depression, with even less work on depression and emotion in children. Using a nonclinical sample of school-aged children (n = 89) ages 8 to 12, this study evaluated whether greater mood…

  17. School-Age Children of Fathers with Substance Use Disorder: Are They a High Risk Population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Rahav, Giora; Teichman, Meir

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the association between parental substance use and the increased risk among school-age children to developing psychosocial problems. Data were collected from 148 children aged 8-11 from urban areas in Israel. The following variables were assessed by four self-report questionnaires administered to the children: …

  18. Age of Sexual Debut and Physical Dating Violence Victimization: Sex Differences among US High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihongbe, Timothy O.; Cha, Susan; Masho, Saba W.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Research has shown that early age of sexual debut is associated with physical dating violence (PDV), but sex-specific associations are sparse. We estimated the prevalence of PDV victimization in high school students who have initiated sexual intercourse and examined sex-specific association between age of sexual debut and PDV…

  19. DIFFERENCES IN MOTOR ABILITIES OF BOYS AND GIRLS OF YOUNGER SCHOOL AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Orlić

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The battery of 7 motor tests was applied on the sample of 519 boys and 457 girls, 7-10 years of age, from the region of Vojvodina. The results obtained by application of univariant and multivariant analysis of variance indicate that there are certain differences in motor abilities between boys and girls in all younger school ages.

  20. Classroom Age Composition and Rates of Change in School Readiness for Children Enrolled in Head Start

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Elizabeth R.; Greenfield, Daryl B.; Bulotsky-Shearer, Rebecca J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite policy and theoretical support for mixed-age classrooms in early childhood, research examining associations between age-mixing and children's outcomes is inconclusive and warrants further investigation, particularly in preschools serving children who are at risk for poor adjustment to formal schooling. One recent study conducted in…

  1. Working Memory in Early-School-Age Children with Asperger's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jifang; Gao, Dingguo; Chen, Yinghe; Zou, Xiaobing; Wang, Ya

    2010-01-01

    Using a battery of working memory span tasks and n-back tasks, this study aimed to explore working memory functions in early-school-age children with Asperger's syndrome (AS). Twelve children with AS and 29 healthy children matched on age and IQ were recruited. Results showed: (a) children with AS performed better in digit and word recall tasks,…

  2. The Evaluation of a Personal Narrative Language Intervention for School-Age Children with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finestack, Lizbeth; O'Brien, Katy H.; Hyppa-Martin, Jolene; Lyrek, Kristen A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of an intervention focused on improving personal narrative skills of school-age children with Down syndrome (DS) using an approach involving visual supports. Four females with DS, ages 10 through 15 years, participated in this multiple baseline across participants single-subject…

  3. Relative Age in School and Suicide among Young Individuals in Japan: A Regression Discontinuity Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Matsubayashi

    Full Text Available Evidence collected in many parts of the world suggests that, compared to older students, students who are relatively younger at school entry tend to have worse academic performance and lower levels of income. This study examined how relative age in a grade affects suicide rates of adolescents and young adults between 15 and 25 years of age using data from Japan.We examined individual death records in the Vital Statistics of Japan from 1989 to 2010. In contrast to other countries, late entry to primary school is not allowed in Japan. We took advantage of the school entry cutoff date to implement a regression discontinuity (RD design, assuming that the timing of births around the school entry cutoff date was randomly determined and therefore that individuals who were born just before and after the cutoff date have similar baseline characteristics.We found that those who were born right before the school cutoff day and thus youngest in their cohort have higher mortality rates by suicide, compared to their peers who were born right after the cutoff date and thus older. We also found that those with relative age disadvantage tend to follow a different career path than those with relative age advantage, which may explain their higher suicide mortality rates.Relative age effects have broader consequences than was previously supposed. This study suggests that policy intervention that alleviates the relative age effect can be important.

  4. Relative Age in School and Suicide among Young Individuals in Japan: A Regression Discontinuity Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubayashi, Tetsuya; Ueda, Michiko

    2015-01-01

    Evidence collected in many parts of the world suggests that, compared to older students, students who are relatively younger at school entry tend to have worse academic performance and lower levels of income. This study examined how relative age in a grade affects suicide rates of adolescents and young adults between 15 and 25 years of age using data from Japan. We examined individual death records in the Vital Statistics of Japan from 1989 to 2010. In contrast to other countries, late entry to primary school is not allowed in Japan. We took advantage of the school entry cutoff date to implement a regression discontinuity (RD) design, assuming that the timing of births around the school entry cutoff date was randomly determined and therefore that individuals who were born just before and after the cutoff date have similar baseline characteristics. We found that those who were born right before the school cutoff day and thus youngest in their cohort have higher mortality rates by suicide, compared to their peers who were born right after the cutoff date and thus older. We also found that those with relative age disadvantage tend to follow a different career path than those with relative age advantage, which may explain their higher suicide mortality rates. Relative age effects have broader consequences than was previously supposed. This study suggests that policy intervention that alleviates the relative age effect can be important.

  5. Autism Spectrum Social Stories In Schools Trial (ASSSIST): study protocol for a feasibility randomised controlled trial analysing clinical and cost-effectiveness of Social Stories in mainstream schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Barry; Marshall, David; Collingridge Moore, Danielle; Ainsworth, Hannah; Hackney, Lisa; Adamson, Joy; Ali, Shehzad; Allgar, Victoria; Cook, Liz; Dyson, Lisa; Littlewood, Elizabeth; Hargate, Rebecca; McLaren, Anne; McMillan, Dean; Trépel, Dominic; Whitehead, Jo; Williams, Chris

    2014-07-09

    Current evidence suggests that Social Stories can be effective in tackling problem behaviours exhibited by children with autism spectrum disorder. Exploring the meaning of behaviour from a child's perspective allows stories to provide social information that is tailored to their needs. Case reports in children with autism have suggested that these stories can lead to a number of benefits including improvements in social interactions and choice making in educational settings. The feasibility of clinical and cost-effectiveness of a Social Stories toolkit will be assessed using a randomised control framework. Participants (n=50) will be randomised to either the Social Stories intervention or a comparator group where they will be read standard stories for an equivalent amount of time. Statistics will be calculated for recruitment rates, follow-up rates and attrition. Economic analysis will determine appropriate measures of generic health and resource use categories for cost-effectiveness analysis. Qualitative analysis will ascertain information on perceptions about the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. National Health Service Ethics Approval (NHS; ref 11/YH/0340) for the trial protocol has been obtained along with NHS Research and Development permission from Leeds and York Partnership NHS Foundation Trust. All adverse events will be closely monitored, documented and reported to the study Data Monitoring Ethics Committee. At least one article in a peer reviewed journal will be published and research findings presented at relevant conferences. ISRCTN96286707. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Taking Working Memory Training from the Laboratory into Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Joni; Gathercole, Susan Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Working memory skills have been shown to be enhanced by adaptive training in several randomised controlled trials. Here, two field trials were conducted in which teachers administered working memory training to their own pupils in school. Twenty-two children aged 8-9?years participated in Trial 1. In Trial 2, 50 children aged 9-11?years with the…

  7. The Prevalent Bacterial Isolates Of Dental Caries In School Age ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The organisms appear to be more prevalent in children of 6-10 years considering the initiator S. mutans being 73.1% while ages 1-5 years were least affected with 5.8%. prevalence. Pefloxacin, Chloramphenicol, Ceftriaxone and Ciprofloxacin are most effective against the caries-inducing organisms with an average ...

  8. Menarcheal age and nutritional status among school girls' in Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Menarche is a significant indicator of maturity and puberty in adolescent girls. There has been a decline in menarcheal ago over the years with many factors including nutrition having an influence on it. The aim of this study is to determine the age at menarche and its relationship with anthropometric ...

  9. The Prevalent Bacterial Isolates Of Dental Caries In School Age ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted at the dental clinic of Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Complex, Ile-Ife. A total of 100 carious samples were collected from children of varying age and sexes. The bacteria isolated were S. mutans: 45.6%, Lactobacillus spp: 41.2% and S. aureus: 13.2%. Out of the 100 samples, 88(5) ...

  10. Uniquely Human Self-Control Begins at School Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Esther; Misch, Antonia; Hernandez-Lloreda, Victoria; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Human beings have remarkable skills of self-control, but the evolutionary origins of these skills are unknown. Here we compare children at 3 and 6 years of age with one of humans' two nearest relatives, chimpanzees, on a battery of reactivity and self-control tasks. Three-year-old children and chimpanzees were very similar in their abilities to…

  11. Learning and Schooling in the Age of Mobilism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Cathleen A.; Soloway, Elliot

    2011-01-01

    Speeding past the Steve Jobs Post-PC Era into the Age of Mobilism, the authors foresee how, by 2015, each and every student in America's K-12 classrooms will be using their own mobile computing device, with those devices engendering the most disruptive transformation in education in 150 years. Classrooms will move from today's "I Teach"…

  12. Sentence Comprehension in Postinstitutionalized School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmarais, Chantal; Roeber, Barbara J.; Smith, Mary E.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors investigated sentence comprehension and spatial working memory abilities in a sample of internationally adopted, postinstitutionalized (PI) children. The authors compared the performance of these PI children with that of an age-matched group of children living with their birth families. They hypothesized that PI…

  13. The Western Canon: The Books and School of the Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Harold

    This book argues against the politicization of literature and presents a guide to the great works and essential writers of the ages, the "Western Canon." The book studies 26 writers and seeks to isolate the qualities that made these authors canonical, that is, authoritative in Western culture. Noting that although originally the…

  14. Handwriting, visuomotor integration, and neurological condition at school age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoorn, Jessika F.; Maathuis, Carel G. B.; Peters, Lieke H. J.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2010-01-01

    Aim The study investigated the relationships between handwriting, visuomotor integration, and neurological condition. We paid particular attention to the presence of minor neurological dysfunction (MND). Method Participants were 200 children (131 males, 69 females; age range 8-13y) of whom 118

  15. Neurocognitive functioning in school-aged cystinosis patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besouw, M.T.; Hulstijn-Dirkmaat, G.M.; Rijken, R.E.A. van der; Cornelissen, E.A.M.; Dael, C.M. van; Walle, J. van der; Lilien, M.R.; Levtchenko, E.N.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Cystinosis is an autosomal recessive disorder leading to intralysosomal cystine accumulation in various tissues. It causes renal Fanconi syndrome and end stage renal failure around the age of 10 years if not treated with cysteamine. Children with cystinosis seem to have a normal

  16. Neurocognitive functioning in school-aged cystinosis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besouw, M. T. P.; Hulstijn-Dirkmaat, G. M.; van der Rijken, R. E. A.; van Dael, C. M.; Vande Walle, J.; Lilien, M. R.; Levtchenko, E. N.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Cystinosis is an autosomal recessive disorder leading to intralysosomal cystine accumulation in various tissues. It causes renal Fanconi syndrome and end stage renal failure around the age of 10 years if not treated with cysteamine. Children with cystinosis seem to have a normal

  17. Daily Stressors in School-Age Children: A Multilevel Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Milagros; Alarcón, Rafael; Blanca, María J.; Fernández-Baena, F. Javier; Rosel, Jesús F.; Trianes, María Victoria

    2013-01-01

    This study uses hierarchical or multilevel modeling to identify variables that contribute to daily stressors in a population of schoolchildren. Four hierarchical levels with several predictive variables were considered: student (age, sex, social adaptation of the student, number of life events and chronic stressors experienced, and educational…

  18. Age at menarche among school girls in Sokoto, Northern Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/Objectives:Menarche, the first menstrual period, is influenced by many factors including socio-economic status and rural or urban dwelling. The aims of the study were to compare the age at menarche between rural and urban girls and evaluate the anthropometric indices at menarche. Materials and Methods: A ...

  19. Cartoons Influence towards Violence and Aggression in School Age Children in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Odukomaiya, Elizabeth Ibukunoluwa

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to explore how violence and aggression in cartoon affects school age children in Nigeria. The reason for embarking on this research is to know whether and to what extent cartoon on television makes school age children (both male and female) violent and aggressive. Children are exposed to cartoon at their tender age (4-12). Though it serves as a means of entertainment to them, children learn faster than adults, and their re-enactment of media messages is unri...

  20. Growth and Body Composition of School-Aged Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde

    Growth and body composition in childhood are influenced by many factors. Some of these are modifiable e.g. dietary intake, while others may be less easy to influence. The hormonal regulation of growth and body composition during childhood is complex and the interrelationship between the numerous...... growth or remodeling. Seasonal variations in growth and changes in body composition, if present, are of interest when trying to understand the regulation of growth. They may also be important to be aware of when assessing growth and body composition during shorter periods of time. The overall aim...... of this thesis was to identify factors influencing or associated with growth and body composition of 8-11 year old children. Four specific research questions were specified: 1.) Does a school meal intervention based on the New Nordic Diet (NND) influence height, body mass index (BMI) z-score, waist circumference...

  1. Social Adversity and Regional Differences in Prescribing of ADHD Medication for School-Age Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildemoes, Helle Wallach; Skovgaard, Anne Mette; Thielen, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To explore whether regional variations in the initiation of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication among school-age children are explained by differences in sociodemographic composition and/or ADHD prescribing practice, especially in children who face social advers...... regional differences prevail in prescribing practices for children facing social adversity, indicating that local cultures shape the interpretation and handling of children with ADHD-like behaviors.......Objectives: To explore whether regional variations in the initiation of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication among school-age children are explained by differences in sociodemographic composition and/or ADHD prescribing practice, especially in children who face social...... adversity (low parental education and single parenthood). Methods: A cohort of Danish school-age children (ages 5–17) without previous psychiatric conditions (N = 813,416) was followed during 2010–2011 for incident ADHD prescribing in the individual-level Danish registers. Register information was retrieved...

  2. Plate waste and intake of school lunch based on the New Nordic Diet and on packed lunches: A randomised controlled trial in 8- to 11-year-old Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Anne Vibeke; Lassen, Anne Dahl; Andersen, Elisabeth Wreford

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare total food intake, total and relative edible plate waste and self-reported food likings between school lunch based on the new Nordic diet (NND) and packed lunch from home. In two 3-month periods in a cluster-randomised controlled unblinded cross......-over study 3rd- and 4th-grade children (n 187) from two municipal schools received lunch meals based on NND principles and their usual packed lunch (control). Food intake and plate waste (n 1558) were calculated after weighing lunch plates before and after the meal for five consecutive days and self...... with the packed lunch period. Self-reported likings were negatively associated with percentage plate waste (P school meal programmes. New strategies with focus on reduction of plate waste, children's likings and nutritious school meals...

  3. Indoor air quality investigation according to age of the school buildings in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Jongryeul; Yang, Wonho; Kim, Jihwan; Son, Busoon; Park, Jinchul

    2009-01-01

    Since the majority of schools are housed in buildings dating from the 1960s and 1970s, a comprehensive construction and renovation program of school buildings has been carried out to improve the educational conditions in Korea. However, classrooms and computer rooms, with pressed wood desks, chairs and furnishings, as well as construction materials, might have negative effects on the indoor air quality. Furthermore, most schools have naturally ventilated classrooms. The purpose of this study was to characterize the concentrations of different indoor air pollutants within Korean schools and to compare their indoor levels within schools according to the age of school buildings. Indoor and outdoor air samples of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO(2)), particulate matter (PM(10)), total microbial count (TBC), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) and formaldehyde (HCHO) were obtained during summer, autumn and winter from three sites; a classroom, a laboratory and a computer classroom at 55 different schools. The selection of the schools was based on the number of years since the schools had been constructed. The problems causing indoor air pollution at the schools were chemicals emitted by building materials or furnishings, and insufficient ventilation rates. The I/O ratio for HCHO was 6.32 during the autumn, and the indoor HCHO concentrations (mean = 0.16 ppm) in schools constructed within 1 year were significantly higher than the Korean Indoor Air Standard, indicating that schools have indoor sources of HCHO. Therefore, increasing the ventilation rate by means of a mechanical system and the use of low-emission furnishings can play key roles in improving the indoor air quality within schools.

  4. Does childhood schooling affect old age memory or mental status? Using state schooling laws as natural experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glymour, M M; Kawachi, I; Jencks, C S; Berkman, L F

    2008-06-01

    The association between schooling and old age cognitive outcomes such as memory disorders is well documented but, because of the threat of reverse causation, controversy persists over whether education affects old age cognition. Changes in state compulsory schooling laws (CSL) are treated as natural experiments (instruments) for estimating the effect of education on memory and mental status among the elderly. Changes in CSL predict changes in average years of schooling completed by children who are affected by the new laws. These educational differences are presumably independent of innate individual characteristics such as IQ. CSL-induced changes in education were used to obtain instrumental variable (IV) estimates of education's effect on memory (n = 10,694) and mental status (n = 9751) for white, non-Hispanic US-born Health and Retirement Survey participants born between 1900 and 1947 who did not attend college. After adjustment for sex, birth year, state of birth and state characteristics, IV estimates of education's effect on memory were large and statistically significant. IV estimates for mental status had very wide confidence intervals, so it was not possible to draw meaningful conclusions about the effect of education on this outcome. Increases in mandatory schooling lead to improvements in performance on memory tests many decades after school completion. These analyses condition on individual states, so differences in memory outcomes associated with CSL changes cannot be attributed to differences between states. Although unmeasured state characteristics that changed contemporaneously with CSL might account for these results, unobserved genetic variation is unlikely to do so.

  5. Cortisol Function Among Early School-aged Homeless Children

    OpenAIRE

    Cutuli, J. J.; Wiik, Kristen L.; Herbers, Janette E.; Gunnar, Megan R.; Masten, Ann S.

    2010-01-01

    Homelessness represents a context of extreme poverty and risk for child development. This study compared the relative influence of two classes of risk in the context of homelessness. Levels of socioeconomic resource-related risk and negative lifetime events were examined with respect to morning cortisol levels and cortisol response to a set of cognitive tasks. Participants were 66 children between the ages of 4 and 7 years staying in an emergency shelter for families. Adversities largely refl...

  6. The Effects of Self-Management Education for School-Age Children on Asthma Morbidity: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Emily; Grimes, Deanna E.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of asthma self-management education for school-age children on number of school days missed, emergency department visits and hospital admissions were evaluated through a systematic review of the published research. A total of 9 studies on asthma education programs that were conducted in schools by school nurses and health educators and…

  7. The Second Digital Divide and Its Effect on African-American (K-12) School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Christopher A.

    2010-01-01

    The qualitative phenomenological study explored the perceptions of educators and parents of African-American (K-12) school-age children on how the children were using technology. The study was conducted in the Memphis City Public School System (MCS) and was limited to three schools in a school district. Common themes emerged from the analysis of…

  8. Effectiveness of Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention in Children under Ten Years of Age in Senegal: A Stepped-Wedge Cluster-Randomised Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badara Cissé

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention (SMC with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP plus amodiaquine (AQ, given each month during the transmission season, is recommended for children living in areas of the Sahel where malaria transmission is highly seasonal. The recommendation for SMC is currently limited to children under five years of age, but, in many areas of seasonal transmission, the burden in older children may justify extending this age limit. This study was done to determine the effectiveness of SMC in Senegalese children up to ten years of age.SMC was introduced into three districts over three years in central Senegal using a stepped-wedge cluster-randomised design. A census of the population was undertaken and a surveillance system was established to record all deaths and to record all cases of malaria seen at health facilities. A pharmacovigilance system was put in place to detect adverse drug reactions. Fifty-four health posts were randomised. Nine started implementation of SMC in 2008, 18 in 2009, and a further 18 in 2010, with 9 remaining as controls. In the first year of implementation, SMC was delivered to children aged 3-59 months; the age range was then extended for the latter two years of the study to include children up to 10 years of age. Cluster sample surveys at the end of each transmission season were done to measure coverage of SMC and the prevalence of parasitaemia and anaemia, to monitor molecular markers of drug resistance, and to measure insecticide-treated net (ITN use. Entomological monitoring and assessment of costs of delivery in each health post and of community attitudes to SMC were also undertaken. About 780,000 treatments were administered over three years. Coverage exceeded 80% each month. Mortality, the primary endpoint, was similar in SMC and control areas (4.6 and 4.5 per 1000 respectively in children under 5 years and 1.3 and 1.2 per 1000 in children 5-9 years of age; the overall mortality rate ratio [SMC: no SMC

  9. Geography in an Urban Age: Trials of High School Geography Project Materials in New Zealand Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, John; Slater, Frances

    1974-01-01

    The High School Geography Project was used and evaluated by 15-year old students in New Zealand. The program, highly innovative in approaches in teaching Geography, is found to be highly adapted to Australian needs in Geography instruction. (JR)

  10. The Gift of Time? School Starting Age and Mental Health. CEPA Working Paper No. 15-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dee, Thomas; Sievertsen, Hans Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In many developed countries, children now begin their formal schooling at an older age. However, a growing body of empirical studies provides little evidence that such schooling delays improve educational and economic outcomes. This study presents new evidence on whether school starting age influences student outcomes by relying on linked Danish…

  11. The Predictive Utility of Early Childhood Disruptive Behaviors for School-Age Social Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Lauretta M; Shaw, Daniel S; Dishion, Thomas J; Wilson, Melvin N

    2015-08-01

    Research suggests that school-age children with disruptive behavior (DB) problems frequently demonstrate impaired social skills and experience rejection from peers, which plays a crucial role in the pathway to more serious antisocial behavior. A critical question is which DB problems in early childhood are prognostic of impaired social functioning in school-age children. This study examines the hypothesis that aggression in early childhood will be the more consistent predictor of compromised social functioning than inattentive, hyperactive-impulsive, or oppositional behavior. Participants included an ethnically diverse sample of 725 high-risk children from 3 geographically distinct areas followed from ages 2 to 8.5. Four latent growth models of DB from child ages 2 to 5, and potential interactions between dimensions, were used to predict latent parent and teacher ratings of school-age social dysfunction. Analyses were conducted in a multi-group format to examine potential differences between intervention and control group participants. Results showed that age 2 aggression was the DB problem most consistently associated with both parent- and teacher-rated social dysfunction for both groups. Early starting aggressive behavior may be particularly important for the early identification of children at risk for school-age social difficulties.

  12. Dietary and physical activity/inactivity factors associated with obesity in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Rodriguez, Marcela; Melendez, Guillermo; Nieto, Claudia; Aranda, Marisol; Pfeffer, Frania

    2012-07-01

    Diet and physical activity (PA) are essential components of nutritional status. Adequate nutrition and an active lifestyle are key factors during childhood, because food habits track into adulthood. Children spend more time in school than in any other environment away from home. Studying the diet factors and patterns of PA that affect obesity risk in children during school hours and the complete school day can help identify opportunities to lower this risk. We directly measured the time children spent performing moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) at school, compared the amount and intensity of PA during school hours with after-school hours, and tried to determine if diet behaviors and PA or inactivity were associated with excess weight and body fat. This cross-sectional study included 143 normal-weight (NLW) and 48 obese children aged 8-10 y. Diet data were obtained from two 24-h recalls. Body composition was measured by bioimpedance. Screen time and sports participation data were self-reported. NLW children drank/ate more dairy servings than the obese children, who consumed more fruit-flavored water than the NLW group. Consumption of soft drinks, sugar-added juices, and fresh juices was low in both groups. Children were less active during school hours than after school. MVPA was lower during school hours in the obese group than in the NLW group. Schools, parents, and authorities should be more involved in promoting strategies to improve the dietary habits and PA levels of school-aged children, because this group is not achieving the recommended level of daily MVPA.

  13. Dietary and Physical Activity/Inactivity Factors Associated with Obesity in School-Aged Children123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Rodriguez, Marcela; Melendez, Guillermo; Nieto, Claudia; Aranda, Marisol; Pfeffer, Frania

    2012-01-01

    Diet and physical activity (PA) are essential components of nutritional status. Adequate nutrition and an active lifestyle are key factors during childhood, because food habits track into adulthood. Children spend more time in school than in any other environment away from home. Studying the diet factors and patterns of PA that affect obesity risk in children during school hours and the complete school day can help identify opportunities to lower this risk. We directly measured the time children spent performing moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) at school, compared the amount and intensity of PA during school hours with after-school hours, and tried to determine if diet behaviors and PA or inactivity were associated with excess weight and body fat. This cross-sectional study included 143 normal-weight (NLW) and 48 obese children aged 8–10 y. Diet data were obtained from two 24-h recalls. Body composition was measured by bioimpedance. Screen time and sports participation data were self-reported. NLW children drank/ate more dairy servings than the obese children, who consumed more fruit-flavored water than the NLW group. Consumption of soft drinks, sugar-added juices, and fresh juices was low in both groups. Children were less active during school hours than after school. MVPA was lower during school hours in the obese group than in the NLW group. Schools, parents, and authorities should be more involved in promoting strategies to improve the dietary habits and PA levels of school-aged children, because this group is not achieving the recommended level of daily MVPA. PMID:22798003

  14. Diet and anthropometry at 2 years of age following an oral health promotion programme for Australian Aboriginal children and their carers: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithers, Lisa G; Lynch, John; Hedges, Joanne; Jamieson, Lisa M

    2017-12-01

    There are marked disparities between indigenous and non-indigenous children's diets and oral health. Both diet and oral health are linked to longer-term health problems. We aimed to investigate whether a culturally appropriate multi-faceted oral health promotion intervention reduced Aboriginal children's intake of sugars from discretionary foods at 2 years of age. We conducted a single-blind, parallel-arm randomised controlled trial involving women who were pregnant or had given birth to an Aboriginal child in the previous 6 weeks. The treatment group received anticipatory guidance, Motivational Interviewing, health and dental care for mothers during pregnancy and children at 6, 12 and 18 months. The control group received usual care. The key dietary outcome was the percent energy intake from sugars in discretionary foods (%EI), collected from up to three 24-h dietary recalls by trained research officers who were blind to intervention group. Secondary outcomes included intake of macronutrients, food groups, anthropometric z scores (weight, height, BMI and mid-upper arm circumference) and blood pressure. We enrolled 224 children to the treatment group and 230 to the control group. Intention-to-treat analyses showed that the %EI of sugars in discretionary foods was 1·6 % lower in the treatment group compared with control (95 % CI -3·4, 0·2). This culturally appropriate intervention at four time-points from pregnancy to 18 months resulted in small changes to 2-year-old Aboriginal children's diets, which was insufficient to warrant broader implementation of the intervention. Further consultation with Aboriginal communities is necessary for understanding how to improve the diet and diet-related health outcomes of young Aboriginal children.

  15. Effects of prenatal n-3 fatty acid supplementation on offspring resolvins at birth and 12 years of age: a double-blind, randomised controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Valene H L; Mas, Emilie; Prescott, Susan L; Beilin, Lawrence J; Burrows, Sally; Barden, Anne E; Huang, Rae-Chi; Mori, Trevor A

    2017-12-01

    Resolution of inflammation is an active process involving specialised pro-resolving mediators (SPM) generated from the n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA. n-3 Fatty acid supplementation during pregnancy may provide an intervention strategy to modify these novel SPM. This study aimed to assess the effect of n-3 fatty acid supplementation in pregnancy on offspring SPM at birth and 12 years of age (12 years). In all, ninety-eight atopic pregnant women were randomised to 3·7 g daily n-3 fatty acids or a control (olive oil), from 20 weeks gestation until delivery. Blood was collected from the offspring at birth and at 12 years. Plasma SPM consisting of 18-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (18-HEPE), E-series resolvins, 17-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (17-HDHA), D-series resolvins, 14-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (14-HDHA), 10 S,17S-dihydroxydocosahexaenoic acid, maresins and protectin 1, were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem MS. We identified the resolvins RvE1, RvE2, RvE3, RvD1, 17R-RvD1 and RvD2 for the first time in human cord blood. n-3 Fatty acids increased cord blood 18-HEPE (Pbirth was significantly increased in the n-3 fatty acid group relative to the controls (P=0·001), but other SPM were not different between the groups. n-3 Fatty acid supplementation during pregnancy was associated with an increase in SPM precursors in the offspring at birth but the effects were not sustained at 12 years. The presence of these SPM, particularly at birth, may have functions relevant in the newborn that remain to be established, which may be useful for future investigations.

  16. Neurodevelopmental outcomes at 7 years’ corrected age in preterm infants who were fed high-dose docosahexaenoic acid to term equivalent: a follow-up of a randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Robert A; Anderson, Peter J; McPhee, Andrew J; Sullivan, Thomas R; Gould, Jacqueline F; Ryan, Philip; Doyle, Lex W; Davis, Peter G; McMichael, Judy E; French, Noel P; Colditz, Paul B; Simmer, Karen; Morris, Scott A; Makrides, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine if improvements in cognitive outcome detected at 18 months’ corrected age (CA) in infants born DHA) compared with standard-DHA diet were sustained in early childhood. Design Follow-up of a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Randomisation was stratified for sex, birth weight (DHA (≈1% total fatty acids) enteral feeds compared with standard-DHA (≈0.3% total fatty acids) from age 2–4 days until term CA. Primary outcome Full Scale IQ of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) at 7 years CA. Prespecified subgroup analyses based on the randomisation strata (sex, birth weight) were conducted. Results 604 (92% of the 657 originally randomised) consented to participate (291 high-DHA, 313 standard-DHA). To address missing data in the 604 consenting participants (22 for primary outcome), multiple imputation was performed. The Full Scale IQ was not significantly different between groups (high-DHA 98.3, SD 14.0, standard-DHA 98.5, SD 14.9; mean difference adjusted for sex, birthweight strata and hospital −0.3, 95% CI −2.9 to 2.2; p=0.79). There were no significant differences in any secondary outcomes. In prespecified subgroup analyses, there was a significant sex by treatment interaction on measures of parent-reported executive function and behaviour. Scores were within the normal range but girls receiving the high-DHA diet scored significantly higher (poorer outcome) compared with girls receiving the standard-DHA diet. Conclusions Supplementing the diets of preterm infants with a DHA dose of approximately 1% total fatty acids from days 2–4 until term CA showed no evidence of benefit at 7 years’ CA. Trial registration number Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12606000327583. PMID:25787990

  17. Ageing in general practice (AGP trial: a cluster randomised trial to examine the effectiveness of peer education on GP diagnostic assessment and management of dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pond Constance D

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dementia is increasing in prevalence as the population ages. An earlier rather than later diagnosis allows persons with dementia and their families to plan ahead and access appropriate management. However, most diagnoses are made by general practitioners (GPs later in the course of the disease and are associated with management that is poorly adherent to recommended guidelines. This trial examines the effectiveness of a peer led dementia educational intervention for GPs. Methods The study is a cluster randomised trial, conducted across three states and five sites. All GPs will complete an audit of their consenting patients aged 75 years or more at three time points - baseline, 12 and 24 months. GPs allocated to the intervention group will receive two educational sessions from a peer GP or nurse, and will administer the GPCOG to consenting patients at baseline and 12 months. The first education session will provide information about dementia and the second will provide individualised feedback on audit results. GPs in the waitlist group will receive the RACGP Guidelines by post following the 12 month audit Outcomes: Primary outcomes are carer and consumer quality of life and depression. Secondary outcomes include: rates of GP identification of dementia compared to a more detailed gold standard assessment conducted in the patient's home; GP identification of differential diagnoses including reversible causes of cognitive impairment; and GP referral to specialists, Alzheimers' Australia and support services. A "case finding" and a "screening" group will be compared and the psychometrics of the GPCOG will be examined. Sample size: Approximately 2,000 subjects aged 75 years and over will be recruited through approximately 160 GPs, to yield approximately 200 subjects with dementia (reducing to 168 by 24 months. Discussion The trial outlined in this paper has been peer reviewed and supported by the Australian National Health and

  18. [Sleep habits and sleep disturbance in school-age children of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sheng-hui; Shen, Xiao-ming; Jin, Xing-ming; Yan, Chong-huai; Wu, Sheng-hu; Jiang, Fan; Yu, Xiao-dan; Qiu, Yu-lan

    2008-03-01

    To survey the sleep habits (bedtime, wake time), sleep duration, and sleep problems in school-age children of China. From November to December, 2005, a total of 19,299 school-age children from 55 elementary schools of 9 cities entered the study by a cross-sectional survey. A parent-administered questionnaire and the Chinese version of the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire were applied to investigate children's sociodemographic characteristics and sleep behaviors, respectively. The mean sleep duration was 9 hours and 10 minutes (9:10, SD:48 min) during the weekdays and 9:48 (SD: 63 min) during the weekends. In about 71.4% and 41.8% school-aged children the sleep duration per day did not reach the lowest criterion of 10 hours recommended by the Ministry of Education of China during weekdays and weekends, respectively. Sleep problems were common with prevalence ranging from 14.5% for sleep-disordered breathing to 75.3% for daytime sleepiness. Parasomnia (chi(2) = 13.76, P sleep-disordered breathing (chi(2) = 119.83, P sleep anxiety was more prevalent in girls than in boys (chi(2) = 19.42, P sleep problems were significantly associated with age. Inadequate sleep duration and sleep problems prevail among school-age children, which indicates that children's sleep health may be a major public health concern in China.

  19. Hearing deficits at school age; the predictive value of otitis media in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielhuis, G A; Gerritsen, A A; Gorissen, W H; Dekker, L J; Rovers, M M; van der Wilt, G J; Ingels, K

    1998-08-01

    To evaluate the long-term predictive value of persistent/recurrent otitis media with effusion (OME) in infants in relation with hearing levels at (early) school age. A case-cohort study among a population-based sample of school-age children screened for hearing deficits. Schoolchildren (second grade, 5-6 years of age) in the city of Utrecht, the Netherlands, who failed the hearing screening test and a sample of children invited for this screening. History of otitis media (serosa and acute) was assessed using three sources of information: a self-completion questionnaire mailed to the parents; medical records of otolaryngology visits; data from the (Ewing) hearing screening test at 9 months of age. Children who failed the primary Ewing test and children with recurrent and or persistent OME in the first 2 years of life showed an increased risk of failing school audiometry compared to children without such an OME history (OR=1.6 and 2.3, respectively). In a logistic model, the results of the primary Ewing test and the frequency of acute otitis media, proved to be moderately predictive for the screening test result at school age. OME in infants is a prognostic factor for hearing performance in the early school years.

  20. Symbolization in the Structure of Abilities in Children of Preschool and School Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veraksa A.N.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This research explores the role of symbolization in educational activity in children of late preschool and early school age. The aim of the research was to compare the efficiency of using sign and symbolic means (i.e. schemes and models in the learning of some new content in preschool and early school age. The study involved 46 children of late preschool age from one of the Moscow kindergartens, 20 girls and 26 boys (M = 78 months; and 25 first grade students of one of the Moscow schools, 16 girls and 9 boys (M = 101 months. The study consisted of the following stages: carrying out tests of mental abilities and dividing the subjects into two subgroups within each age group (that is, two subgroups of preschool children and two subgroups of school children with equal levels of development of the explored abilities; conducting developmental lessons aimed at making the children familiar with phenomena characterizing phase transitions in states of aggregation of matter — with the help of symbolic means (in the experimental group or sign means (in the control group; carrying out a posttest, that is, measuring the level of development of the concepts of aggregate states in all subgroups. The outcomes of the research indicated that symbolization may actually be an effective means of constructing learning content both in preschool and in early school age.

  1. Association Between Age of Beginning Primary School and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökçe, Sebla; Yazgan, Yanki; Ayaz, Ayşe Burcu; Kayan, Esengül; Yusufoğlu, Canan; Carkaxhiu Bulut, Gresa; Aslan Genç, Herdem; Dedeoğlu, Ceyda; Demirhan, Seçil; Sancak, Arzu; Saridoğan, Gökçe Elif

    2017-01-01

    In April 2012, the Turkish national education system was modified, and the compulsory school age of entry (first grade) was redefined as a minimum of 60 months and a maximum of 66 months (replacing the former minimum criterion of 72 months). In this study, we hypothesized that students starting school before 72 months (the previous age standard for the first grade) may experience (1) a greater number of symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and (2) lower functioning in social, behavioral, and academic domains. We performed a cross-sectional community-based study in the first and second grades of all primary schools (4356 students) located in the Kadıköy county of Istanbul, Turkey. Teachers completed Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham version IV and Conners' Teacher's report forms for symptoms of ADHD, the Perceived Competence Scale for functioning, and a sociodemographic questionnaire. Among first graders, the group that began primary school before the age of 72 months had a higher ADHD prevalence than both of the groups that began primary school between the ages of 72 to 77 months and 78 to 83 months (p age for the first and second grade students. The probability of displaying ADHD symptoms (and caseness) is greater among the "earlier" beginners, whereas the "conventional" classmates exhibited better academic, social, and behavioral functioning.

  2. Association between migration and physical activity of school-age children left behind in rural Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palos-Lucio, Gabriela; Flores, Mario; Rivera-Pasquel, Marta; Salgado-de-Snyder, V Nelly; Monterrubio, Eric; Henao, Santiago; Macias, Nayeli

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore in rural communities of Mexico, the association between physical activity (PA) in school-age children and exposure to migration. We measured PA through a questionnaire validated in school-age children and used in Mexican National Surveys. Migration status was measured as the number of years a family member had been in the US, and the amount of remittances that family member had sent to their household in Mexico. We used multivariable linear regression to measure the association between physical activity and migration. School-age children who had a migrant family member spent less time on PA per day, especially recreation activities, compared to school-age children without the migrating influence. Also, children who belonged to a family that received remittances and their migrant relative lived ≥ 5 years in US were less likely to engage in PA. Exposure to migration may predict reduction in PA in school-age children left behind in Mexican rural communities from the State of Morelos. These findings call for PA-tailored interventions that consider household migration characteristics.

  3. Back-to-school upper respiratory infection in preschool and primary school-age children in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry Markovich, Michal; Glatman-Freedman, Aharona; Bromberg, Michal; Augarten, Arie; Sefty, Hanna; Kaufman, Zalman; Sherbany, Hilda; Regev, Liora; Chodick, Gabriel; Mendelson, Ella; Shohat, Tamy; Mandelboim, Michal

    2015-05-01

    Increased upper respiratory infection (URI) among children at the beginning of school year is well known to parents and pediatricians. However, this phenomenon is not well documented or characterized. Computerized datasets from a large health maintenance organization in Israel were used to calculate the weekly rates of URI among children 3-14 years old for the years 2007-2012. In addition, nasopharyngeal swabs were collected in 2010-2012 from children with URI symptoms and controls during school opening time. Swabs were tested by real-time polymerase chain reaction for the presence of respiratory viruses. Time-series analysis demonstrated a peak of URI in September each year. The peaks reached their height 2 weeks after school opening and returned to baseline within 4-7 weeks. The main 3 viruses detected both in URI patients and in healthy controls during the first weeks of school opening were rhinovirus, adenovirus and enterovirus. The detection rate of any respiratory virus, and of rhinovirus in particular, was significantly higher among cases than among controls (54% vs. 16%, P age and sex cases had 5.8 times more viral detection when compared with controls. Upper respiratory symptoms were significantly more prevalent among the virus-positive cases when compared with negative ones. Back-to-school illness consisting of URI has a distinct epidemiological pattern demonstrating a rapid rise peaking within 2 weeks of school opening and is associated predominantly with rhinovirus.

  4. Prevalence and characteristics of school age bullying victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Danilo Rolim de; Cruz, Ana Catarina Nova; Quevedo, Luciana de Ávila

    2011-01-01

    To describe the prevalence of bullying victims, the characteristics of those victims and their associated symptoms in the domains of emotion, behavior, hyperactivity and peer relationships. This was a cross-sectional study nested in a cohort that assesses disorders of reading, writing and arithmetic in 1,075 students enrolled in the first to eighth grades of two public schools in a lower-middle-class neighborhood of the city of Pelotas, RS, Brazil. The KIDSCAPE questionnaire was used to evaluate the prevalence of bullying and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire was used to assess victims' behavioral characteristics. The prevalence of bullying was 17.6%. The most prevalent type of intimidation was verbal, followed by physical, emotional, racial and sexual. After adjustment for confounding factors, bullying was still associated with male sex (PR 1.49 95%CI 1.14-1.96), hyperactivity (PR 1.89 95%CI 1.25-2.87) and peer relationship problems (PR 1.85 95%CI 1.24-2.76). Among the victims of bullying, 47.1% had also initiated bullying. This study has identified the behavioral characteristics of bullying victims which may prove useful for local policies designed to protect the targets of bullying.

  5. Fitness Trends and Disparities Among School-Aged Children in Georgia, 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yang; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F; Welk, Gregory J

    Although FitnessGram fitness data on aerobic capacity and body mass index (BMI) have been collected in public schools in Georgia since the 2011-2012 school year, the data have not been analyzed. The primary objective of our study was to use these data to assess changes in fitness among school-aged children in Georgia between 2011 and 2014. A secondary objective was to determine if student fitness differed by school size and socioeconomic characteristics. FitnessGram classifies fitness into the Healthy Fitness Zone (HFZ) or not within the HFZ for aerobic capacity and BMI. We used data for 3 successive school years (ie, 2011-2012 to 2013-2014) obtained from FitnessGram testing of students in >1600 schools. We calculated the percentage of students who achieved the HFZ for aerobic capacity and BMI. We used growth curve models to estimate the annual changes in these proportions, and we determined the effect of school size and socioeconomic status on these changes. Both elementary school boys (β = 1.31%, standard error [SE] = 0.23%, P fitness profiles. Surveillance results such as these may help inform the process of designing state and local school-based fitness promotion and public health programs and tracking the results of those programs.

  6. Very preterm children free of disability or delay at age 2: predictors of schooling at age 8: a population-based longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charkaluk, M L; Truffert, P; Marchand-Martin, L; Mur, S; Kaminski, M; Ancel, P Y; Pierrat, V

    2011-04-01

    To study the predictive value of a developmental assessment at 2 years corrected age (CA) for schooling at age 8 in children born very preterm and free of disability or delay; to identify other factors associated with schooling in this population. 244 children born before 33 weeks in 1997, part of the population-based EPIPAGE cohort study, free of disability or delay, had their developmental quotient (DQ) evaluated with the Brunet-Lezine scale at 2 years CA. The mental processing composite (MPC) score was evaluated at age 5 with the K-ABC battery. Data on schooling were obtained at age 8 by postal questionnaire. Schooling was considered appropriate if the child was attending age-appropriate grade level in a regular classroom environment without support at school. Schooling was appropriate for 172 (70%) children. The predictive value of a DQ≥100 for appropriate schooling was 0.80 [0.75;0.85]. In children with a DQ at age 2<100, schooling varied significantly according to their MPC score at age 5 whereas it didn't in children with a DQ≥100. In multivariate analysis, the rate of appropriate schooling was significantly related to global DQ at age 2 (p<0.01), gestational age≥29 weeks (p<0.05), head circumference at age 2 (p<0.05) and mother's educational level (p<0.05). A DQ≥100 cannot be solely used for the prediction of appropriate schooling at age 8. Mother's educational level, gestational age and head circumference at age 2 could be taken account. These factors could be used to individualise follow-up. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Decrease of Bullying Behavior in Children Age School Based on Cognitive Behaviour Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Indah Iswanti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The violence that occurs in education is known as bullying. Violence can occur in mild degrees such as cheating on exams, to fights or beatings that result in death. Bullying in children often leads to school phobias (ask for school change, reduced learning concentration, decreased learning achievement, and likes to carry certain items. Interventions that can be done include Problem Solving Therapy (PST, Behavior Modification (behavior modification, and Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT. The purpose of this study was to produce CBT modules in school-aged children that were useful for reducing bullying behavior, using a pre-post test with control group design. The subject of this research is 52 elementary school age children in Tembalang District Semarang selected by purposive sampling technique. Data were collected using bullying behavior checklist, CBT module and workbook, then analyzed using T-Test. The results showed a decrease in bullying behavior in the intervention group after CBT Individual therapy was given.

  8. Menstrual cups and sanitary pads to reduce school attrition, and sexually transmitted and reproductive tract infections: a cluster randomised controlled feasibility study in rural Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips-Howard, Penelope A; Nyothach, Elizabeth; Ter Kuile, Feiko O; Omoto, Jackton; Wang, Duolao; Zeh, Clement; Onyango, Clayton; Mason, Linda; Alexander, Kelly T; Odhiambo, Frank O; Eleveld, Alie; Mohammed, Aisha; van Eijk, Anna M; Edwards, Rhiannon Tudor; Vulule, John; Faragher, Brian; Laserson, Kayla F

    2016-11-23

    Conduct a feasibility study on the effect of menstrual hygiene on schoolgirls' school and health (reproductive/sexual) outcomes. 3-arm single-site open cluster randomised controlled pilot study. 30 primary schools in rural western Kenya, within a Health and Demographic Surveillance System. Primary schoolgirls 14-16 years, experienced 3 menses, no precluding disability, and resident in the study area. 1 insertable menstrual cup, or monthly sanitary pads, against 'usual practice' control. All participants received puberty education preintervention, and hand wash soap during intervention. Schools received hand wash soap. Primary: school attrition (drop-out, absence); secondary: sexually transmitted infection (STI) (Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoea), reproductive tract infection (RTI) (bacterial vaginosis, Candida albicans); safety: toxic shock syndrome, vaginal Staphylococcus aureus. Of 751 girls enrolled 644 were followed-up for a median of 10.9 months. Cups or pads did not reduce school dropout risk (control=8.0%, cups=11.2%, pads=10.2%). Self-reported absence was rarely reported and not assessable. Prevalence of STIs in the end-of-study survey among controls was 7.7% versus 4.2% in the cups arm (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) 0.48, 0.24 to 0.96, p=0.039), 4.5% with pads (aPR=0.62; 0.37 to 1.03, p=0.063), and 4.3% with cups and pads pooled (aPR=0.54, 0.34 to 0.87, p=0.012). RTI prevalence was 21.5%, 28.5% and 26.9% among cup, pad and control arms, 71% of which were bacterial vaginosis, with a prevalence of 14.6%, 19.8% and 20.5%, per arm, respectively. Bacterial vaginosis was less prevalent in the cups (12.9%) compared with pads (20.3%, aPR=0.65, 0.44 to 0.97, p=0.034) and control (19.2%, aPR=0.67, 0.43 to 1.04, p=0.075) arm girls enrolled for 9 months or longer. No adverse events were identified. Provision of menstrual cups and sanitary pads for ∼1 school-year was associated with a lower STI risk, and cups with a lower

  9. Assessment of health behaviour of school-age youth

    OpenAIRE

    Siminska, Joanna; Pietkun, Katarzyna; Porzych, Piotr; Głowacka, Iwona; Nowacka, Krystyna; Banaszkiewicz, Małgorzata; Hagner, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    I n t r o d u c t i o n. Adolescence is a very important period for young people as it is the time when the patterns of health behaviour stabilize and in such form may be adopted for the rest of one’s life. This age group is also most prone to behaviour posing a risk to health and lacking behaviour good for health. The period of education is the most suitable to make teenagers aware of how much depends on themselves. Adolescence is often the time of rebellion and independent decision making w...

  10. Influence Of Implantation Age On School-Age Language Performance In Pediatric Cochlear Implant Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobey, Emily A.; Thal, Donna; Niparko, John K.; Eisenberg, Laurie S.; Quittner, Alexandra L.; Wang, Nae-Yuh

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study examined specific spoken language abilities of 160 children with severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss followed prospectively 4, 5, or 6 years after cochlear implantation. Study sample Ninety-eight children received implants before 2.5 years, and 62 children received implants between 2.5 and 5 years of age. Design Language was assessed using four subtests of the Comprehensive Assessment of Spoken Language (CASL). Standard scores were evaluated by contrasting age of implantation and follow-up test time. Results Children implanted under 2.5 years of age achieved higher standard scores than children with older ages of implantation for expressive vocabulary, expressive syntax, and pragmatic judgments. However, in both groups, some children performed more than two standard deviations below the standardization group mean, while some scored at or well above the mean. Conclusions Younger ages of implantation are associated with higher levels of performance, while later ages of implantation are associated with higher probabilities of continued language delays, particularly within subdomains of grammar and pragmatics. Longitudinal data from this cohort study demonstrate that after 6 years of implant experience, there is large variability in language outcomes associated with modifiers of rates of language learning that differ as children with implants age. PMID:23448124

  11. A pilot cluster randomised controlled trial of a support and training intervention to improve the mental health of secondary school teachers and students – the WISE (Wellbeing in Secondary Education study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judi Kidger

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Secondary school teachers are at heightened risk of psychological distress, which can lead to poor work performance, poor quality teacher-student relationships and mental illness. A pilot cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT – the WISE study – evaluated the feasibility of a full-scale RCT of an intervention to support school staff’s own mental health, and train them in supporting student mental health. Methods Six schools were randomised to an intervention or control group. In the intervention schools i 8–9 staff received Mental Health First Aid (MHFA training and became staff peer supporters, and ii youth MHFA training was offered to the wider staff body. Control schools continued with usual practice. We used thematic qualitative data analysis and regression modelling to ascertain the feasibility, acceptability and potential usefulness of the intervention. Results Thirteen training observations, 14 staff focus groups and 6 staff interviews were completed, and 438 staff (43.5 % and 1,862 (56.3 % students (years 8 and 9 completed questionnaires at baseline and one year later. MHFA training was considered relevant for schools, and trainees gained in knowledge, confidence in helping others, and awareness regarding their own mental health. Suggestions for reducing the length of the training and focusing on helping strategies were made. A peer support service was established in all intervention schools and was perceived to be helpful in supporting individuals in difficulty – for example through listening, and signposting to other services - and raising the profile of mental health at a whole school level. Barriers to use included lack of knowledge about the service, concerns about confidentiality and a preference for accessing support from pre-existing networks. Conclusions The WISE intervention is feasible and acceptable to schools. Results support the development of a full-scale cluster RCT, if steps are taken to

  12. Vital signs: sodium intake among U.S. school-aged children - 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogswell, Mary E; Yuan, Keming; Gunn, Janelle P; Gillespie, Cathleen; Sliwa, Sarah; Galuska, Deborah A; Barrett, Jan; Hirschman, Jay; Moshfegh, Alanna J; Rhodes, Donna; Ahuja, Jaspreet; Pehrsson, Pamela; Merritt, Robert; Bowman, Barbara A

    2014-09-12

    A national health objective is to reduce average U.S. sodium intake to 2,300 mg daily to help prevent high blood pressure, a major cause of heart disease and stroke. Identifying common contributors to sodium intake among children can help reduction efforts. Average sodium intake, sodium consumed per calorie, and proportions of sodium from food categories, place obtained, and eating occasion were estimated among 2,266 school-aged (6–18 years) participants in What We Eat in America, the dietary intake component of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009–2010. U.S. school-aged children consumed an estimated 3,279 mg of sodium daily with the highest total intake (3,672 mg/d) and intake per 1,000 kcal (1,681 mg) among high school–aged children. Forty-three percent of sodium came from 10 food categories: pizza, bread and rolls, cold cuts/cured meats, savory snacks, sandwiches, cheese, chicken patties/nuggets/tenders, pasta mixed dishes, Mexican mixed dishes, and soups. Sixty-five percent of sodium intake came from store foods, 13% from fast food/pizza restaurants, 5% from other restaurants, and 9% from school cafeteria foods. Among children aged 14–18 years, 16% of total sodium intake came from fast food/pizza restaurants versus 11% among those aged 6–10 years or 11–13 years (pschool meal on the day assessed, 26% of sodium intake came from school cafeteria foods. Thirty-nine percent of sodium was consumed at dinner, followed by lunch (29%), snacks (16%), and breakfast (15%). Sodium intake among school-aged children is much higher than recommended. Multiple food categories, venues, meals, and snacks contribute to sodium intake among school-aged children supporting the importance of populationwide strategies to reduce sodium intake. New national nutrition standards are projected to reduce the sodium content of school meals by approximately 25%–50% by 2022. Based on this analysis, if there is no replacement from other sources, sodium intake

  13. Latent Factors in Attention Emerge from 9 Years of Age among Elementary School Children

    OpenAIRE

    Ting Tao; Ligang Wang; Chunlei Fan; Wenbin Gao; Jiannong Shi

    2017-01-01

    We explored the development of attention among elementary school children. Three hundred and sixty-five primary school children aged 7–12 years completed seven attention tests (alertness, focused attention, divided attention, attentional switching, sustained attention, spatial attention, and supervisory attention). A factor analysis indicated that there was no stable construct of attention among 7- to 8-year-old children. However, from 9 years on, children’s attention could be separated into ...

  14. THEORETICAL BASSES OF SPEECH ACTIVITY OF MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN OF PRIMARY SCHOOL AGE

    OpenAIRE

    Oksana Boryak

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with the problem of forming and correction of speech activity of mentally retarded children of primary school age. The author is presented an integrated system of correction of speech development on the basis of the results of the study of speech development level of mentally retarded children of primary school within the modern educational space. The present system has a block structure with comprises: 1. Theoretical and methodological foundations of the technology of formi...

  15. Opinion of children of junior school age on health, exercise and sport

    OpenAIRE

    NOHEJLOVÁ, Markéta

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this graduation theses is finding out the children{\\crq}s conception of health, nutrition, exercise and sport. The object of research is children{\\crq}s relation to exercise and nutrition. This theses is also describing influence of family, school, television and surroundings for formation of this relation. It also describes cooperation with pupils. 115 children of the third classes of primary schools were researched. These children were in the age of 8 {--} 9 years. The used metho...

  16. PATHS in Croatia: A school-based randomised-controlled trial of a social and emotional learning curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Miranda; Mihić, Josipa; Bašić, Josipa; Nix, Robert L

    2017-04-01

    This study represents the first rigorous evaluation of a social-emotional learning curriculum, PATHS (Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies; Kusché & Greenberg, 1994), in elementary schools in Croatia. This study randomly assigned 29 schools to receive the universal preventive intervention or continue with usual practices. Within those schools, this study included 57 classrooms and 568 children. Teachers rated nine child behaviours in the middle of first grade (pre-intervention) and near the end of second grade (post-intervention). Hierarchical linear models, nesting children within classrooms, revealed few changes in behaviour across the sample as a whole or among higher risk children. However, there were changes on eight of the nine behaviours for lower risk children. The findings are considered in the context of the classroom culture and teachers' preparation and readiness to implement a social-emotional learning curriculum in Croatia. This study highlights the need to supplement universal preventive interventions with selective preventive interventions that can provide more intensive and targeted skill practice for higher risk children. This study also highlights the nuanced effects of a universal preventive intervention in helping different children in different ways. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  17. [Breastfeeding and obesity in school-age children from families of high socioeconomic status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanferla de Siqueira, Renata; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2007-02-01

    To examine the association between breastfeeding and obesity in school-age children from Brazilian families of high socioeconomic status. A cross-sectional study was conducted including 555 students aged six to 14 years from a private school in the city of Sao Paulo. Obesity - the outcome variable - was defined as body mass index at or above the 85th centile plus sub scapular and triceps skin folds at or above the 90th centile using the sex and age specific standards of the US National Center for Health Statistics. Exposure was the frequency and duration of breastfeeding. Potential confounders, controlled for using multiple logistic regression, included child sex, age, birthweight, and dietary and physical activity patterns, and maternal age, body mass index, schooling, and practice of sports or physical exercise. Prevalence of obesity in the studied population was 26%. After confounder adjustment, the risk of obesity in children that had never been breastfed was twice that of other children (OR=2.06; 95% CI: 1.02; 4.16). There was no dose-response effect of duration of breastfeeding on prevalence of child obesity. Children who were never breastfed showed greater prevalence of obesity at school age. The absence of a dose-response effect in the relationship between duration of breastfeeding and prevalence of obesity and the still controversial findings regarding this association reported by other authors indicate a need for further studies on the subject, in particular studies with longitudinal design.

  18. Predicting who will have asthma at school age among preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savenije, Olga E M; Kerkhof, Marjan; Koppelman, Gerard H; Postma, Dirkje S

    2012-08-01

    It is difficult to distinguish at preschool age whether a wheezing child will or will not have asthma at school age. A prediction rule for asthma in preschool children might help to determine a prognosis and to study improvements in treatment and prevention. This review discusses (1) the development and use of clinical prediction rules, (2) the European Respiratory Society Task Force classification of wheeze at preschool age, (3) published prediction rules developed to identify preschool children who will have asthma at school age, and (4) recommendations to improve asthma prediction. Prediction rules are currently created more frequently, yet their clinical use remains low. The classification of episodic wheeze and multiple-trigger wheeze in preschool children shows conflicting results as to whether episodic wheeze and multiple-trigger wheeze differ in clinical features and has limited value in predicting asthma at school age. Clearly, more studies are needed to confirm this. Currently available prediction rules aiming to identify preschool children having asthma at school age are of modest clinical value. Prediction can be improved by more precise definitions and measures and, ultimately, by more knowledge of pathophysiologic mechanisms. In the future, biomarkers and genomic risk profiles to develop personalized medicine might further improve asthma prediction, treatment, and prevention. Copyright © 2012. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  19. Appropriate school starting age: A focus on the cognitive and social development of a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahwish Ali Baber

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The early years are the most important in the emotional, social, physical and cognitive development of a child.. A child’s early experiences have an immense impact on the development of his/ her physical, emotional and cognitive skills. Therefore, it is very important to understand the kind of environment children need in the early years for their healthy development and also to understand when it is appropriate to begin their schooling in order to optimize their social, cognitive and emotional well-being. It is observed that the number of formal pre-schools have increased drastically in the past few years. Children between the ages of one to five are attending these pre-schools. This paper attempts to look into the various researches conducted to find out how early childhood experiences affect children; how their emotional and cognitive development occurs; and most importantly, whether or not starting school at an age earlier than seven years, benefits their academic achievement in the long run. The findings of the various researches indicate that children in the early years need to spend time in free play rather than in structured and scheduled school environments. This will also help them in their future academic success. Thus, starting school earlier than seven years of age is not beneficial socially or academically in the long run.

  20. Depressive symptomatology in high school students: the role of age, gender and academic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaratou, Helen; Dikeos, Dimitris G; Anagnostopoulos, Dimitris C; Soldatos, Constantin R

    2010-06-01

    To clarify the prevalence of depressive symptomatology in high school students in Athens and to evaluate risk factors for depressive symptomatology the CES-D scale was administered to 713 students (age 15-18). Demographic, school performance and extracurricular activities data were collected. A high prevalence (26.2%) of depressive symptomatology (CES-D cut-off score >28) was found. Regression analysis showed depressive symptomatology to be associated to gender (girls had higher scores than boys), school record (students with a better record had lower scores) and the interaction of gender and grade (males were found to have higher depressive symptomatology scores as they grew older).

  1. Correlation analysis of indicators of physical and technical preparedness karate school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Sklyar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: identification of basic indicators of physical qualities at karate school age. Material : in the experiment involved 30 students, ages 16-18 years, with experience training Shotokan Karate 10 years. Results : the density of the relationship of indicators of physical and technical preparedness of the students of the senior classes of secondary school, with long experience of employment Shotokan Karate. Results identified training standards regulated program of physical culture for secondary schools (grades 10-11 and technical characteristics often performed percussion techniques in competitive fights in Shotokan Karate using techniques and specialized shock chronodynamometry ergometer. Correlation analysis revealed that the greatest influence on the formation of shock art of karate techniques at this age is the level of development of high-speed capacity, endurance, strength, complex muscle groups and mobility in the hip joint. Conclusions : the landmark data indicators positively affects the formation of karate techniques.

  2. Perception of Speech Sounds in School-Aged Children with Speech Sound Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Jonathan L; Irwin, Julia R; Turcios, Jacqueline

    2015-11-01

    Children with speech sound disorders may perceive speech differently than children with typical speech development. The nature of these speech differences is reviewed with an emphasis on assessing phoneme-specific perception for speech sounds that are produced in error. Category goodness judgment, or the ability to judge accurate and inaccurate tokens of speech sounds, plays an important role in phonological development. The software Speech Assessment and Interactive Learning System, which has been effectively used to assess preschoolers' ability to perform goodness judgments, is explored for school-aged children with residual speech errors (RSEs). However, data suggest that this particular task may not be sensitive to perceptual differences in school-aged children. The need for the development of clinical tools for assessment of speech perception in school-aged children with RSE is highlighted, and clinical suggestions are provided. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  3. Trends in Tobacco Smoking among Czech School-aged Children from 1994 to 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salonna, Ferdinand; Kážmér, Ladislav; Csémy, Ladislav

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the article is to examine trends in tobacco consumption among the Czech school-age population. METHODS: For the analysis, data from the Czech Health Behaviour in School-aged Children project, conducted between 1994 and 2014 were used. Trends in tobacco smoking were determined...... separately for boys and girls, applying the binary logistic regression with survey period as an independent variable for the smoking status. RESULTS: The analysis showed that there have been significant changes in adolescent tobacco smoking for the recent 20 years. While the share of current school......-aged smokers was continuously increasing since the mid-1990s, the trend reached its peak in the mid-2000s. CONCLUSION: In recent years, the prevalence of adolescent smokers has significantly declined in the Czech Republic. Despite this recent decline, adolescent smoking remains a major challenge...

  4. Students Age at which EFL is Introduced in Schools and Educational Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuzaimah Dahlan Diem

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To see the relationship between the age at which EFL is introduced in some Indonesian public schools and student outcomes a survey involving 229 students both from elementary and junior high schools in Palembang is conducted. These students are given the test comprising vocabulary, reading comprehension, and grammar. It is hypothesized that those who start learning English earlier have better achievement. Factors such as school and home environments are also considered in the analysis. Stepwise regression analysis is applied to identify which variable contributes to students outcomes. The results show that there is no correlation between age alone and the students EFL achievement. However, significant influence is found when teacher education level and teacher ELT experience are added to the prediction model predicting EFL achievement from age.

  5. BikeSafe: evaluating a bicycle safety program for middle school aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooshmand, Jonathan; Hotz, Gillian; Neilson, Valerie; Chandler, Lauren

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to measure the effectiveness of a bicycle safety education curriculum for middle school age children in order to reduce the number of injuries and fatalities of bicyclists hit by cars in Miami-Dade County. The University of Miami BikeSafe(®) program includes a four day off-bike middle school curriculum that follows a train-the-trainer model, where a small number of staff trains a larger group of grades 6th-8th physical education teachers from various schools to teach the bike safety curriculum to their students. Subjects in this study included 193 students from 18 classes (3 per school) at 6 selected middle schools. Measures included a knowledge assessment of the curriculum that was administered to students pre- and post-curriculum implementation. Data were collected and analyzed with school and class period examined as predictors of post-score. A significant difference (p.05), suggesting that a standard intervention was applied. The BikeSafe educational curriculum was found to improve the bike safety knowledge of middle school aged children. Future efforts will focus on sustaining and expanding this program throughout Miami-Dade County and other high risk communities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cortisol function among early school-aged homeless children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutuli, J J; Wiik, Kristen L; Herbers, Janette E; Gunnar, Megan R; Masten, Ann S

    2010-07-01

    Homelessness represents a context of extreme poverty and risk for child development. This study compared the relative influence of two classes of risk in the context of homelessness. Levels of socioeconomic resource-related risk and negative lifetime events were examined with respect to morning cortisol levels and cortisol response to a set of cognitive tasks. Participants were 66 children between the ages of 4 and 7 years staying in an emergency shelter for families. Adversities largely reflecting family level negative life events predicted higher levels of morning cortisol and differences in initial level and change over the course of the session of cognitive tasks. In contrast, a socioeconomic cumulative risk score was not associated with morning or session-related diffe