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Sample records for school age children

  1. School-age children development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such a reading disability Stressors, such as bullying Mental health issues, such as anxiety or depression If you suspect any of these in your child, talk to your child's teacher or health care provider. LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Early school-age children should be able to use simple, ...

  2. Families with School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Kathleen; Schneider, Barbara; Butler, Donnell

    2011-01-01

    Most working parents face a common dilemma--how to care for their children when they are not in school but the parents are at work. In this article Kathleen Christensen, Barbara Schneider, and Donnell Butler describe the predictable and unpredictable scheduling demands school-age children place on working couples and single working parents. The…

  3. HOARSENESS AMONG SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN

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    Robert Šifrer

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. The prevalence of dysphonia in schoolchildren has been reported to be from 7.1% to 23.3% and in adolescents from 0 to 80%. In Slovenia, the study on prevalence of dysphonia in schoolchildren has not been performed yet.Methods. The voice samples of 100 4th-graders and 102 8thgraders of elementary school were recorded. A lay judge and a professional assessed independently degree of hoarseness in the voice samples. One to three months after the recording, the dysphonic children were invited to an otorhinolaryngologic examination in order to find out the cause of dysphonia. All children and their parents answered the questionnaires on illnesses and vocal habits that might cause hoarseness. The prevalence of these unfavourable factors was compared between the group of children with long lasting hoarseness and the children without it.Results. At voice samples’ recording there were 34.2% dysphonic children. One to three months later, there were still 14.9% children with hoarse voice. The most frequent causes for acute dysphonia were acute respiratory infection and exacerbation of chronic laryngitis. The most frequent causes for persistent dysphonia were allergic catarrhal laryngitis, muscle tension dysphonia with or without vocal nodules and mutational voice disorder. The fast speaking rate appeared to be characteristic for children with long lasting dysphonia.Conclusions. Dysphonia in school-age children is the result of diseases of upper respiratory tract and/or functional voice disorders. Both causes of dysphonia could be successfully treated if they are detected early and the children are advised to see an otorhinolaryngologist. Adolescence is an ideal period for treatment of functional voice disorders. It is also the period when the children must decide for their future profession.

  4. Families with school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Kathleen; Schneider, Barbara; Butler, Donnell

    2011-01-01

    Most working parents face a common dilemma--how to care for their children when they are not in school but the parents are at work. In this article Kathleen Christensen, Barbara Schneider, and Donnell Butler describe the predictable and unpredictable scheduling demands school-age children place on working couples and single working parents. The authors assess the potential capacity of schools to help meet the needs of working families through changes in school schedules and after-school programs and conclude that the flexibility parents need to balance family-work responsibilities probably cannot be found in the school setting. They argue that workplaces are better able than schools to offer the flexibility that working parents need to attend to basic needs of their children, as well as to engage in activities that enhance their children's academic performance and emotional and social well-being. Two types of flexible work practices seem especially well suited to parents who work: flextime arrangements that allow parents to coordinate their work schedules with their children's school schedules, and policies that allow workers to take short periods of time off--a few hours or a day or two-to attend a parent-teacher conference, for example, or care for a child who has suddenly fallen ill. Many companies that have instituted such policies have benefited through employees' greater job satisfaction and employee retention. Yet despite these measured benefits to employers, workplaces often fall short of being family friendly. Many employers do not offer such policies or offer them only to employees at certain levels or in certain types of jobs. Flexible work practices are almost nonexistent for low-income workers, who are least able to afford alternative child care and may need flexibility the most. Moreover the authors find that even employees in firms with flexible practices such as telecommuting may be reluctant to take advantage of them, because the workplace culture

  5. Birth Order and Maladaptive Behavior in School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Karla D.

    Drawing on Alfred Adler's theories on the effect of birth order on maladaptive behavior in children, this study focused on the relationship between birth order and the referral to counseling of school-aged children with maladaptive disorder. School-aged children (N=217) with academic or behavioral problems, ages 5 to 18, were referred to the staff…

  6. Determinants Of Under Nutrition Among School Age Children In A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Malnutrition is a major public health concern affecting a significant number of school age children influencing their health, growth and development, and school academic performance. Objective: To establish the determinants of under nutrition among school age children between 6-12 years in a low-income ...

  7. FLAT FEET OF DHE CHILDREN IN PRE-SCHOOL AGE

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    Admira Koničanin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Subjekt : Of this research are flat feet of the children of both sexes in pre-school age children Aim : Of the research is confirm wheter is exists or flat feel of the children of both sexes in pre-school age.

  8. Schools, Schooling, and Children's Support of Their Aging Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauner-Otto, Sarah R

    2009-10-01

    Intergenerational transfers play an important role in individuals' lives across the life course. In this paper I pull together theories on intergenerational transfers and social change to inform our understanding of how changes in the educational context influence children's support of their parents. By examining multiple aspects of a couple's educational context, including husbands' and wives' education and exposure to schools, this paper provides new information on the mechanisms through which changes in social context influence children's support of their parents. Using data from a rural Nepalese area I use multilevel logistic regression to estimate the relationship between schooling, exposure to schools, and the likelihood of couples giving to their parents. I find that both schooling and exposure to schools itself have separate, opposite effects on support of aging parents. Higher levels of schooling for husbands was associated with a higher likelihood of having given support to husbands' parents. On the other hand, increased exposure to schools for husbands and wives was associated with a lower likelihood of having given to wives' parents. Findings constitute evidence that multiple motivations for intergenerational support exist simultaneously and are related to social context through different mechanisms.

  9. Intervention Strategies for School Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Entremont, Denise Morel

    Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is a relatively new diagnostic label. As more physicians become familiar with the diagnosis of this syndrome, schools will begin to see children with the label FAS and Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE). Children with FAS often do not pick up skills from their environment as easily as some of their peers. They often need to…

  10. Accommodative Amplitude in School-Age Children

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    Ikaunieks Gatis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In children, intensive near-work affects the accommodation system of the eye. Younger children, due to anatomical parameters, read at smaller distance than older children and we can expect that the accommodation system of younger can be affected more than that of older children. We wanted to test this hypothesis. Some authors showed that the norms of amplitude of accommodation (AA developed by Hofstetter (1950 not always could be applied for children. We also wanted to verify these results. A total of 106 (age 7-15 children participated in the study. Distance visual acuity was measured for all children and only data of children with good visual acuity 1.0 or more (dec. units were analysed (73 children. Accommodative amplitude was measured before and after lessons using subjective push-up technique (with RAF Near Point Ruler. The results showed that the amplitude of accommodation reduced significantly (p < 0.05 during the day and decrease of AA was similar in different age groups (about ~0.70 D. Additional measurements are needed to verify that the observed changes in AA were associated with fatigue effect. The results showed lower accommodation values compared to average values calculated according to the Hofstetter equation (p < 0.05.

  11. Active transport among Czech school-aged children

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    Jan Pavelka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Active transport is a very important factor for increasing the level of physical activity in children, which is significant for both their health and positive physical behaviour in adult age. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to establish the proportion of Czech children aged 11 to 15 who select active transport to and from school and, at the same time, describe socio-economic and socio-demographic factors influencing active transport to and from school among children. METHODS: To establish the socio-demographic factors affecting active transport, data of a national representative sample of 11 to 15 year-old elementary school children in the Czech Republic (n = 4,425. Research data collection was performed within an international research study called Health Behaviour in School Aged Children in June 2010. Statistical processing of the results was made using a logistic regression analysis in the statistical programme IBM SPSS v 20. RESULTS: Active transport to and from school is opted for in the Czech Republic by approximately 2/3 of children aged 11 to 15. Differences between genders are not statistically significant; most children opting for active transport are aged 11 (69%. An important factor increasing the probability of active transport as much as 16 times is whether a child's place of residence is in the same municipality as the school. Other factors influencing this choice include BMI, time spent using a computer or a privateroom in a family. A significant factor determining active transport by children is safety; safe road crossing, opportunity to leave a bicycle safely at school, no fear of being assaulted on the way or provision of school lockers where children can leave their items. CONCLUSIONS: Active transport plays an important role in increasing the overall level of physical activity in children. Promotion of active transport should focus on children who spend more time using a computer; attention should also be

  12. Peer Dynamics among Marquesan School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Mary

    This research describes an observation study of 100 children, ages 9-13 years, on the island of 'Ua Pou, Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia. The children were in a French government boarding school in the main valley of the island. Complex, sophisticated group processes among the Marquesan children were observed. The role structures of the group…

  13. Head Injuries in School-Age Children Who Play Golf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter-Rice, Karin; Krebs, Madelyn; Eads, Julia K.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children. We conducted a prospective study, which examined injury characteristics and outcomes of school-age children of 5.0-15.0 years (N = 10) who were admitted to hospital for a TBI. This study evaluated the role of age, gender, the Glasgow Coma Scale, mechanisms and…

  14. Humor and Competence in School-aged Children.

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    Masten, Ann S.

    1986-01-01

    Measures humor appreciation (including mirth, subjective ratings, and response sets), comprehension, and production in children between the ages of 10 and 14. Relates humor to several areas of competence manifested at school. (HOD)

  15. The Effect of Age-Correction on IQ Scores among School-Aged Children Born Preterm

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    Roberts, Rachel M.; George, Wing Man; Cole, Carolyn; Marshall, Peter; Ellison, Vanessa; Fabel, Helen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of age-correction on IQ scores among preterm school-aged children. Data from the Flinders Medical Centre Neonatal Unit Follow-up Program for 81 children aged five years and assessed with the WPPSI-III, and 177 children aged eight years and assessed with the WISC-IV, were analysed. Corrected IQ scores were…

  16. Salt intake and eating habits of school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Yuko; Iwayama, Keiko; Suzuki, Hirotoshi; Sakata, Satoko; Hayashi, Shinichiro; Iwashima, Yoshio; Takata, Akira; Kawano, Yuhei

    2016-11-01

    Salt restriction is important for the prevention and treatment of hypertension; however, salt consumption is still high in Japan. Improvements in dietary habits, including salt reduction in childhood, may contribute to the prevention of hypertension. The aim of the present study was to investigate the salt intake of school-aged children and the relationship between their diet diary and actual salt intake. The subjects comprised 580 schoolchildren (471 elementary school pupils and 109 junior high school pupils) who wanted to evaluate their salt intake in Kuji, a northeast coastal area in Japan. We estimated salt intake using spot urine samples and a formula. Lifestyle was assessed using a questionnaire. We also evaluated the salt intake and the lifestyles of 440 parents. The estimated salt intakes of elementary school pupils, junior high school pupils and their parents were 7.1±1.5, 7.6±1.5 and 8.0±1.7 g per day, respectively. The proportion of lower-grade children who achieved the recommended salt intake was low. In the multivariate analysis, the estimated salt intake of school-aged children correlated with their age, estimated salt intake of their parents and the menu priorities of the household. The estimated salt intake of the parents was associated with female gender, obesity, age and the habitual consumption of bread and noodles. In conclusion, the estimated salt intake of school-aged children positively correlated with the estimated salt intake of their parents, and the proportion of lower-grade children who achieved the recommended salt intake was low. Guidance on salt restriction for children and their parents may reduce the salt intake of school-aged children.

  17. Functional outcome at school age of children born with gastroschisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lap, Chiara C M M; Bolhuis, Sandra W; Van Braeckel, Koenraad J. A.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Manten, Gwendolyn T. R.; Bos, Arend F.; Hulscher, Jan

    Objective: We aimed to determine motor, cognitive and behavioural outcomes of school aged children born with gastroschisis compared to matched controls. Study design: We compared outcomes of 16 children born with gastroschisis treated at the University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands,

  18. Rational-Emotive Assessment of School-Aged Children.

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    DiGiuseppe, Raymond

    1990-01-01

    Focuses on assessment of emotions and irrational beliefs in Rational-Emotive Therapy with school-aged children. Argues that, for children to understand and agree to process of disputing irrational beliefs, practitioner first assesses individual child's emotional vocabulary, his/her understanding of relationship between disturbed emotion and…

  19. VOCABULARY PROBLEMS OF THE LIGHTLY MENTALLY RETARDED SCHOOL AGED CHILDREN

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    Vesna KOSTIC

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The main research objectives are the problems in the vocabulary of school aged, lightly mentally retarded children. Results of the research indicate which are the most important factors that have impact of the vocabulary and language competence of these persons. The research variables are: sex, IQ, chronological age and school age. Comics-like stories were used as an examination instrument in this research. Their interpretation is helpful in determining the vocabulary level of every single examine. At the end of the research some suggestions are presented, whose goal is to enrich children's vocabulary.

  20. Comorbidity in school-aged children with autism disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余明

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the occurrence of comorbidity in school-aged children with autism disorder.Methods Sixty-two outpatients in Peking University Institute of Mental Health,aged 6 to 16 years old,meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental

  1. PLAYING ORIGAMI ENHANCE THE CREATIVITY OF SCHOOL AGED CHILDREN

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    Yuni Sufyanti Arief

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Critical period for creativity development happened at school aged. Playing Origami is a stimulation that can be done to develop child’s creativity optimally. The aimed of this study was to analyze the effect of playing origami toward creativity development at school age in 4th grade elementary school Krian, Sidoarjo. Method: This study was used a pre experimental and purposive sampling design. The populations were children who age in the sixth until seventh age in 4th grade elementary school Krian, Sidoarjo. There were 41 respondents for this research who met the inclusion criteria. The independent variable was the playing origami while the dependent variable was creativity development of school age. Data were collected by using questionnaire and Figural Creativity test to know the creativity level before and after intervention, and then analyzed by using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test with significance level of a£0.05. Result: The result showed that there was an effect of play origami toward the creativity development of school age with significant level (p=0.000. Discussion: It can be concluded that playing origami can develop the creativity of school aged children. Every child should be facilitated by provide a chance, supportt and activity that can improve their creativity development that can be useful for them and other people. Further study was recommended to analyze the effect of playing origami on decreasing stress hospitalization.

  2. School-age children's fears, anxiety, and human figure drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, M K; Ryan-Wenger, N A

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the fears of school-age children and determine the relationship between fear and anxiety. A descriptive, correlational, secondary analysis study was conducted using a convenience sample of 90 children between the ages of 8 and 12 years. Each child was instructed to complete the Revised Children's Anxiety Scale and then answer questions from a structured interview. On completion, each child was instructed to draw a human figure drawing. Frequency charts and correlational statistics were used to analyze the data. Findings indicated that the most significant fears of the boys were in the categories of animals, safety, school, and supernatural phenomena, whereas girls were more fearful of natural phenomena. High correlations existed between anxiety scores and the number of fears and emotional indicators on human figure drawings. Because human figure drawings are reliable tools for assessing anxiety and fears in children, practitioners should incorporate these drawings as part of their routine assessments of fearful children.

  3. Executive Dysfunction in School-Age Children With ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambek, Rikke; Tannock, Rosemary; Dalsgaard, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The study examined executive function deficits (EFD) in school-age children (7 to 14 years) with ADHD. Method: A clinical sample of children diagnosed with ADHD (n = 49) was compared to a population sample (n = 196) on eight executive function (EF) measures. Then, the prevalence of EFD...... in clinical and non-clinical children was examined at the individual level according to three methods previously applied to define EFD, and a fourth method was included to control for the effect of age on performance. Results: Children with ADHD were significantly more impaired on measures of EF than children...... without ADHD at the group level. However, only about 50% of children with ADHD were found to have EFD at the individual level, and results appeared relatively robust across methods applied to define EFD. Conclusion: As a group, children with ADHD displayed more problems on neuropsychological measures...

  4. Environmental Concern in School-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkus, Amy J.; Musser, Lynn M.

    This study examined the relationship between children's environmental concern and grade, sex, environmental attitudes and behaviors, perceived competencies, and manifest anxiety. A total of 138 children in grades 1, 3, and 5 were interviewed and completed scales that measured childhood concerns, attitudes toward the environment, self perception,…

  5. The Development of Associate Learning in School Age Children

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    Harel, Brian T.; Pietrzak, Robert H.; Snyder, Peter J.; Thomas, Elizabeth; Mayes, Linda C.; Maruff, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Associate learning is fundamental to the acquisition of knowledge and plays a critical role in the everyday functioning of the developing child, though the developmental course is still unclear. This study investigated the development of visual associate learning in 125 school age children using the Continuous Paired Associate Learning task. As hypothesized, younger children made more errors than older children across all memory loads and evidenced decreased learning efficiency as memory load increased. Results suggest that age-related differences in performance largely reflect continued development of executive function in the context of relatively developed memory processes. PMID:25014755

  6. The development of associate learning in school age children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian T Harel

    Full Text Available Associate learning is fundamental to the acquisition of knowledge and plays a critical role in the everyday functioning of the developing child, though the developmental course is still unclear. This study investigated the development of visual associate learning in 125 school age children using the Continuous Paired Associate Learning task. As hypothesized, younger children made more errors than older children across all memory loads and evidenced decreased learning efficiency as memory load increased. Results suggest that age-related differences in performance largely reflect continued development of executive function in the context of relatively developed memory processes.

  7. Internet use and psychosocial health of school aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Işik, Betül; Ayaz Alkaya, Sultan

    2017-09-01

    This study was carried out to determine the internet use and psychosocial health of school aged children. Children in grades 4-7 and their parents were invited to participate. The study group consisted of 737 children. Data were collected using a descriptive form and Pediatric Symptom Checklist-17. Majority of children used internet, one of each five children had psychosocial problem risk. Risk of psychosocial problem was higher in males, children who have 'not working father', use internet 5 years and over, use internet for 3h and over per day. These results suggest that families should be informed about associations between internet use and psychosocial problems that measures should be taken for providing controlled internet use for children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Executive Function in Very Preterm Children at Early School Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.S.H. Aarnoudse-Moens (Cornelieke); D.P. Smidts (Diana); J. Oosterlaan (Jaap); H.J. Duivenvoorden (Hugo); N. Weisglas-Kuperus (Nynke)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWe examined whether very preterm (≤30 weeks gestation) children at early school age have impairments in executive function (EF) independent of IQ and processing speed, and whether demographic and neonatal risk factors were associated with EF impairments. A consecutive sample of 50

  9. DYSPRAXIA AS A PSYCHOMOTOR DISORDER OF SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN

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    Agata Nowak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the study was to define the epidemiology of dyspraxia among children from 6 to10 years’ age, attending grades I-III of primary schools in Wrocław, Poland. Material: the study was conducted among pupils of primary schools in Wrocław, Poland. The studied groups included 48 girls and 52 boys. The study employed Polish version of Questionnaire for the screening assessment of dyspraxia’s occurrence among children from 5 to 15 years’ age (DCDQ-PL, as well as the Coordination Test for Children (KTK. Results. After assessing the occurrence of dyspraxia among studied children, it was found out that this disorder is present in the studied group. The prevalence of dyspraxia depends on studied children’s gender; however, it is not related to their age. The results of tests, conducted with the DCDQ-PL and the KTK are consistent and confirm the observed inter-dependencies. Conclusions. Dyspraxia is a widespread psychomotor disorder, which can be diagnosed among children in the early school years. A diagnosis of a child’s development with respect to this disorder should constitute a constant element of work for teachers and educationists dealing with children at this stage of education.

  10. Suicide in Elementary School-Aged Children and Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheftall, Arielle H; Asti, Lindsey; Horowitz, Lisa M; Felts, Adrienne; Fontanella, Cynthia A; Campo, John V; Bridge, Jeffrey A

    2016-10-01

    Suicide in elementary school-aged children is not well studied, despite a recent increase in the suicide rate among US black children. The objectives of this study were to describe characteristics and precipitating circumstances of suicide in elementary school-aged children relative to early adolescent decedents and identify potential within-group racial differences. We analyzed National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) surveillance data capturing suicide deaths from 2003 to 2012 for 17 US states. Participants included all suicide decedents aged 5 to 14 years (N = 693). Age group comparisons (5-11 years and 12-14 years) were conducted by using the χ 2 test or Fisher's exact test, as appropriate. Compared with early adolescents who died by suicide, children who died by suicide were more commonly male, black, died by hanging/strangulation/suffocation, and died at home. Children who died by suicide more often experienced relationship problems with family members/friends (60.3% vs 46.0%; P = .02) and less often experienced boyfriend/girlfriend problems (0% vs 16.0%; P suicide note (7.7% vs 30.2%; P suicide decedents with known mental health problems (n = 210), childhood decedents more often experienced attention-deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (59.3% vs 29.0%; P = .002) and less often experienced depression/dysthymia (33.3% vs 65.6%; P = .001) compared with early adolescent decedents. These findings raise questions about impulsive responding to psychosocial adversity in younger suicide decedents, and they suggest a need for both common and developmentally-specific suicide prevention strategies during the elementary school-aged and early adolescent years. Further research should investigate factors associated with the recent increase in suicide rates among black children. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. Prevalence of Parasomnia in School aged Children in Tehran

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    Morteza Naserbakht

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available "nObjectives: Parasomnias can create sleep disruption; in this article we assessed parasomnias in school-aged children in Tehran. "nMethods: In spring 2005, a total of 6000 sleep questionnaires were distributed to school-aged children in 5 districts of Tehran (Iran. A modified Pediatrics sleep questionnaire with 34 questions was used. "nResults: Parasomnias varied from 0.5% to 5.7% among the subjects as follows: 2.7% sleep talking, 0.5% sleepwalking, 5.7% bruxism, 2.3% enuresis, and nightmare 4%. A group of children showed parasomnias occasionally- this was 13.1% for sleep talking, 1.4% for sleepwalking, 10.6% for bruxism, 3.1% for enuresis and 18.4% for nightmares. "nConclusion: A high proportion of children starting school suffer from sleep problems. In many cases this is a temporary, developmentally related phenomenon, but in 6% of the children the disorder is more serious and may be connected with various stress factors and further behavioral disturbances.

  12. Sleep architecture in school-aged children with primary snoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yin; Au, Chun-Ting; Lam, Hugh S; Chan, Ching-Ching K; Ho, Crover; Wing, Yun-Kwok; Li, Albert M

    2014-03-01

    We aimed to examine if sleep architecture was altered in school-aged children with primary snoring (PS). Children ages 6 to 13 years from 13 primary schools were randomly recruited. A validated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) screening questionnaire was completed by their parents. Children at high risk for OSA and a randomly chosen low-risk group were invited to undergo overnight polysomnography (PSG) and clinical examination. Participants were classified into healthy controls, PS, mild OSA, and moderate to severe OSA (MS OSA) groups for comparison. A total of 619 participants underwent PSG (mean age, 10.0 ± 1.8 years; 396 (64.0%) boys; 524 (84.7%) prepubertal). For the cohort as a whole, there were no significant differences in measures of sleep architecture between PS and nonsnoring healthy controls. In the multiple regression model, percentage of nonrapid eye movement (NREM) stage 1 (N1) sleep had a significantly positive association, whereas percentage of slow-wave sleep (SWS) had a significantly negative association with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) severity after controlling for age, gender, body mass index (BMI) z score, and pubertal status. In prepubertal children with PS, no significant disruption of sleep architecture was found. However, pubertal adolescent PS participants had significantly higher adjusted percentage of N1 sleep and wake after sleep onset (WASO) compared to healthy controls. PS did not exert significant adverse influences on normal sleep architecture in prepubertal school-aged children. Nevertheless, pubertal adolescents with PS had increased N1 sleep and WASO. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. HEAD CIRCUMFERENCE REFERENCES FOR SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN IN WESTERN ROMANIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirita-Emandi, Adela; Doros, Gabriela; Simina, Iulia Jurca; Gafencu, Mihai; Puiu, Maria

    2015-01-01

    To provide head circumference references for school-aged children in western Romania, and compare them with references from other European countries. A total of 2742 children, aged 6-19 years, from Timis county, were examined by medical students, between February 2010-June 2011. Head circumference references were constructed by Cole's LMS method with LMSChartMaker software. The Romanian 3rd, 50th and 97th percentiles for head circumference were compared with recent references from Belgium and Germany. Generally, boys show significantly larger head circumference compared to girls at any age. The head circumference increments between 6 and 19 years are Romania to those from Germany and Belgium, we found lower median head circumference in Romanian boys and girls, that could be explained by a taller stature of boys and girls in Germany and Belgium compared to Romania.

  14. Assessment of anaemia and iron status of school age children (aged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -12 years in some rural communities in Nigeria as well as identify factors associated with anemia in the children. A total of 249 school children, 120 males and 129 females aged between 7-12 years were used in the study. Haemomoglobin ...

  15. Modern diagnostic method of microelementosis of school age children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasulov, S.K.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Human and animal pathology stipulated by deficiency of vitally important (or 'essential') microelements or their excess, has got its combined name microelementosis [1]. In connection with high biological activity of microelements in organism in different physiologic and pathologic status the quantitative determination of several metals in biomedium of organism is of great importance in the study of microelement metabolism. However, objective and representative data on estimation of school children's provision with microelements are practically absent. The objective of the study was to investigate contents of microelements connected with deficiency of biometals participating in hemopoiesis (Cu, Zn, Co, Mn) in biomedium of the organism of school children in Zarafshan region of the Republic of Uzbekistan. We have applied the method of neutron-activation analysis for determination of microelements (Fe, Zn, Cu, Co, Mn) in hair, whole blood, blood serum, urine, saliva, food-stuff samples and in more than 20 elements of other biomedia, as per designed method in Nuclear Physics Institute, Republic of Uzbekistan [4]. The study was carried out on 245 practically healthy children aged 7-17, 131 boys and 33 girls living in four different areas of Samarkand region. According to the designed method the determination of Mn, Cu was done as follows: samples together with standards were packed in polyethylene container and underwent irradiation in vertical channel of the reactor by neutron flow 5x10 13 neutron cm -2 sec - 1 , (for 15 seconds). The measurement of direct activity was conducted in 2 hours for determining of Cu and Mn. For determining of iron, cobalt, zinc the irradiation test measurement was done within 15 hours one month after irradiation by the corresponding radionuclides. In all measurement of element contents different standards were applied: Intralaboratory data was received by fixing a certain number of elements on ashless filter paper and comparison

  16. Flatfoot in school-age children: prevalence and associated factors.

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    Sadeghi-Demneh, Ebrahim; Jafarian, Fahimehsadat; Melvin, Jonathan M A; Azadinia, Fatemeh; Shamsi, Fatemeh; Jafarpishe, Mohamad

    2015-06-01

    Flatfoot has been shown to cause abnormal stresses on the foot and lower extremity. The altered mechanical stresses on these structures can aggravate the foot deformity. Screening of the flatfoot and its associated factors helps detect underlying risks influencing the stresses on the foot. The purpose of this study was to analyze the structure of the medial foot arch and investigate its associated factors in students, aged 7 to 14 years. Multistage cluster sampling was used and each cluster included 2 other random sampling levels. A total of 667 Iranian school children were recruited and their feet were bilaterally evaluated using a static footprint while standing in a fully weightbearing position. The footprint, an observational measurement, and a questionnaire were used for the foot assessment. The prevalence of flatfoot was 17.1% in the population studied. There was no gender difference but the prevalence of flatfoot did decrease with age. The significant differences were observed in the prevalence of flatfoot between normal-weight, overweight, and obese groups (P plantar arch in school-age children is influenced by age and weight. Age and weight were the primary predictive factors of flatfoot. Prognostic, Level IV: Case series. © 2015 The Author(s).

  17. Characteristics of lumbar spondylolysis in elementary school age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Toshinori; Goda, Yuichiro; Tezuka, Fumitake; Takata, Yoichiro; Higashino, Kosaku; Sato, Masahiro; Mase, Yasuyoshi; Nagamachi, Akihiro; Sairyo, Koichi

    2016-02-01

    Lumbar spondylolysis, a stress fracture of the pars interarticularis in the lumbar spine, is often precipitated by trauma, but there may be a congenital predisposition to this condition. There have been few studies on spondylolysis in young children, despite their suitability for studies on congenital defects. The aim of this study was to identify the clinical features of lumbar spondylolysis in elementary school age children in order to elucidate its pathogenesis. Thirty lumbar spondylolysis patients (23 boys, 7 girls, including a pair of twins; mean age 9.5 years, age range 5-12 years) were studied. Patient data on history of athletic activity, symptoms at first consultation, and radiological findings such as spinal level, stage of the stress fracture, and skeletal age were collected. Among the 30 patients, 27 (21 boys, 6 girls) had L5 spondylolysis (90.0 %). Only 2 patients had no history of athletic activity at the first consultation. All patients, except for 2 whose diagnosis was incidental, complained of low back pain. In the 27 patients with L5 spondylolysis, 17 (63.0 %) had terminal-stage fracture and 25 (92.6 %) had spina bifida occulta (SBO) involving the S1 lamina. Sixteen of the 27 (59.3 %) had SBO involving the affected lamina (L5) and S1 lamina. In contrast, the 3 patients with L3 or L4 spondylolysis had no evidence of SBO. With respect to skeletal age, 23 of the 27 L5 spondylolysis patients (85.2 %) were in the cartilaginous stage while the remaining 4 patients were in the apophyseal stage. Lumbar spondylolysis in elementary school age children was commonly a terminal-stage bone defect at L5, which was not necessarily related to history of athletic activity and was sometimes asymptomatic. It was often associated with SBO, indicating a possible congenital predisposition. These findings may provide further insight into the pathogenesis of lumbar spondylolysis.

  18. Multitasking During Degraded Speech Recognition in School-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieco-Calub, Tina M; Ward, Kristina M; Brehm, Laurel

    2017-01-01

    Multitasking requires individuals to allocate their cognitive resources across different tasks. The purpose of the current study was to assess school-age children's multitasking abilities during degraded speech recognition. Children (8 to 12 years old) completed a dual-task paradigm including a sentence recognition (primary) task containing speech that was either unprocessed or noise-band vocoded with 8, 6, or 4 spectral channels and a visual monitoring (secondary) task. Children's accuracy and reaction time on the visual monitoring task was quantified during the dual-task paradigm in each condition of the primary task and compared with single-task performance. Children experienced dual-task costs in the 6- and 4-channel conditions of the primary speech recognition task with decreased accuracy on the visual monitoring task relative to baseline performance. In all conditions, children's dual-task performance on the visual monitoring task was strongly predicted by their single-task (baseline) performance on the task. Results suggest that children's proficiency with the secondary task contributes to the magnitude of dual-task costs while multitasking during degraded speech recognition.

  19. CHANGES IN COPING STRATEGY IN THE SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Alieva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study: to investigate the changes in preferable coping-strategies during treatment of the school-age children in a TB sanatorium. 77 patients (children and adolescents were enrolled into the study, they all had rehabilitation due to respiratory tuberculosis. All patients were divided into two groups: 8-12 years old (17 boys and 13 girls and 13-17 years old (24 boys and 23 girls. Coping strategies in the school-age children were investigated twice: at admission and discharge from the sanatorium, using a questionnaire adapted by N.A. Sirota and V.N. Yaltonsky and modified by R. M. Granovskaya and I.M. Nikolskaya. Analysis of the structure of the responses identified a group of patients who were oriented in the direction from the problem. This group presented a lower number of scores of the problem solution scale and a higher number of scores in the scales of avoidance, denial, fantasy formation. The other group of patients, focused in the direction towards the problem, characterized by a higher number of scores of the scales of problem solution and communication and a lower number of scores for the scales of denial and fantasy formation. Statistically significant changes were observed in the scale assessing communication (p = 0.03; there was a statistically significant reduction in the scores reflecting avoidance and denial (p < 0.001. There were no significant changes in the other scores. 

  20. Determinants of Personality Traits of School-Age Children : Evidence from Japanese Students at Age 12

    OpenAIRE

    Hojo, Masakazu

    2017-01-01

    It has been widely recognized among economists that non-cognitive ability, such as self-control, self-esteem, and personality traits, has a great power in predicting social and economic success. Using survey data from students at age 12 and their parents living in Japan, this paper explores the determinants of personality traits of school-age children. Personality traits are measured by students’ answers for questions concerning daily and school life, and we constructed five measures of perso...

  1. Lung function and functional capacity in school age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana S da Silva Dias de Andrade

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Six-minute walk test (TC6’ and peak expiratory flow (PEF can be influenced by variables like gender, age and body mass index (BMI. In the school context, these tests can identify losses caused by sedentary habits and/or manifestation of overweight/obesity. Nevertheless, although widely studied in the adult context, they have not been properly clarified in the child public. Objective: To assess the PEF and TC6’ between students in the public and private network and to correlate them with factors like age, gender and BMI. Methods: 39 male and female children between eight and ten years of age were selected for the study. The TC6’ was held at a sports court. The child was instructed to walk at maximum speed for six minutes and the PEF test took place in accordance to the recommendations by Pereira et al (1. Results: No significant correlation was found between the BMI and the PEF and TC6’ scores. No significant correlation was found between sex and PEF, with measures within normal parameters for the entire sample. The EPF measures did not influence the distance walked in the TC6’. A significant correlation was found between sex and distance walked in the TC6’ only among male children attending public schools. Conclusion: Both sex and BMI did not influence the PEF measures which, in turn, does not seem to have influenced the distance the sample walked in the TC6’. Also concerning the TC6’, only the children from public school reached the normal scores proposed in the literature.

  2. School Nurse Interventions in Managing Functional Urinary Incontinence in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Charisse L.

    2010-01-01

    Uncomplicated urinary incontinence (UI) in school-age children is a prevalent yet underrecognized problem that has remained in the shadow of other concerns commonly perceived as more prominent or urgent. There is good evidence that functional UI in children can be treated and managed effectively. When there is no structural or neurologic…

  3. Dynamic drawing characteristics of preschool and younger school age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Andrijana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to determine developmental characteristics of dynamic drawings of preschool and younger school age children. The sample consists of 90 typical developed children, aged between 6 and 9. The sample includes 47 (52.2% girls and 43 (47.8% boys from preschool institutions and elementary schools in Pirot and Belgrade. Action representation in dynamic drawings was evaluated using three types of drawings: a man who runs, a man shooting a ball and a man lifting a ball from the floor. We determined that a very small number of the respondents reaches the highest level of graphical representation of figures in motion, and that girl’s achievements are better than boy’s achievements. However, this result is on the border of statistical significance (p=0.052. Also, there is a statistically significant trend of progress to higher levels of action representation (p=0.000 with the increase in chronological age of the respondents.

  4. Pressing Tasks in the Care of Children of Preschool and School Age

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tseytlin, I

    1960-01-01

    ...). It concerns pressing tasks of public health with regard to the care of children of pre-school and school age in order to strengthen the bond between school and life which also promotes the further...

  5. Relationship between breakfast and obesity among school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocandio, A M; Ansotegui, L; Arroyo, M

    2000-08-01

    Breakfast models among children are an issue of public health concern given the association between breakfast and school performance and its potential relationship with obesity. Food intake, energy, and nutrients in the breakfast of 32 school aged children (11-years olds) and its relationship with body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) were examined. The analysis was made by means of anthropometric measurements and a record of weekly food intake using the accurate weighed amount method. The percentage of studied children with overweight/obesity reached 46.9 (weight for height > 90 percentile). The proportional calorie intake in breakfast was lower than that recommended (16.6%). The association observed between caloric percentage of breakfast regarding daily energy and BMI was not significant. Nevertheless, significant correlations were found between fruit group (Pearson r = 0.6286) and protein foods (Pearson r = -0.7653) with BMI. The amount of total lipids (34.4%) and saturated lipids (19.4% in breakfast exceed the recommendations. Further studies are necessary to confirm these data and serve as basis for the design of nutritional education programs.

  6. A longitudinal investigation of children internationally adopted at school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helder, Emily J; Mulder, Elizabeth; Gunnoe, Marjorie Linder

    2016-01-01

    Most existing research on children adopted internationally has focused on those adopted as infants and toddlers. The current study longitudinally tracked several outcomes, including cognitive, behavioral, emotional, attachment, and family functioning, in 25 children who had been internationally adopted at school age (M = 7.7 years old at adoption, SD = 3.4, range = 4–15 years). We examined the incidence of clinically significant impairments, significant change in outcomes over the three study points, and variables that predicted outcomes over time. Clinically significant impairments in sustained attention, full-scale intelligence, reading, language, executive functioning, externalizing problems, and parenting stress were common, with language and executive functioning impairments present at higher levels in the current study compared with past research focusing on children adopted as infants and toddlers. Over the three study points, significant improvements across most cognitive areas and attachment functioning were observed, though significant worsening in executive functioning and internalizing problems was present. Adoptive family-specific variables, such as greater maternal education, smaller family size, a parenting approach that encouraged age-expected behaviors, home schooling, and being the sole adopted child in the family were associated with greater improvement across several cognitive outcomes. In contrast, decreased parenting stress was predicted by having multiple adopted children and smaller family sizes were associated with greater difficulties with executive functioning. Child-specific variables were also linked to outcomes, with girls displaying worse attachment and poorer cognitive performance and with less time in orphanage care resulting in greater adoption success. Implications for future research and clinical applications are discussed.

  7. Obesity related factors in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Parvaneh Reza; Ghanbari, Atefeh; Rad, Afagh Hasanzadeh

    2013-05-01

    Overweight and obesity is becoming an increasingly prevalent problem in both developed and developing world, and is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21(st) century. Although various studies demonstrated pediatric obesity-related factors, but, due to its ongoing hazardous effects, researchers aimed to assess obesity-related factors in school-aged children in Rasht, Iran. This was a case-control study which was performed in eight primary schools of Rasht. A cluster sampling method was used to select 320 students including 80 in case (BMI ≥85(th) percentile for age and gender) and 240 in control group (BMI = 5(th)-85(th) percentile for age and gender). Data were collected by a scale, a tape meter, and a form which consisted of obesity-related factors, and were analyzed by Chi-square, Mann-Whitney, and stepwise multivariate regression tests in SPSS 19. Findings showed that the mean and standard deviation of birth weight (g) in case and control groups were 3671 ± 5.64 and 190 ± 5.46, respectively (P = 0.000). 82.5% of case and 92.9% of control group had exclusive breastfeeding for 4-6 months (P = 0.024). Also, multivariate regression analysis indicated that birth weight, age, exclusive breastfeeding, and frequency of meals have significant effects on body mass index (BMI). It seems that more accurate interventions for primordial prevention are essential to reduce childhood obesity risk factors, including promotion of pre-pregnancy and prenatal care to have neonates who are appropriate for gestational age and also improving exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months of life. In addition, identifying children at risk for adolescent obesity provides physicians and midwives with an opportunity for earlier intervention with the goal of limiting the progression of abnormal weight gain.

  8. Building a Method for Researching Attribution of Meaning by Children Aged 5 to 6 in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tertoolen, Anja; van Oers, Bert; Geldens, Jeannette; Popeijus, Herman

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the first phase of a research project in which we looked for the voices of young children, aged 5 to 6, in school. What do children experience in school? What do they see as the meaning of school? What is their motivation? Children have the right to be listened to. The question is which settings, under which circumstances,…

  9. Building a method for researching attribution of meaning by children aged 5 to 6 in school.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tertoolen, A.; van Oers, B.; Geldens, J.; Popeijus, H.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the first phase of a research project in which we looked for the voices of young children, aged 5 to 6, in school. What do children experience in school? What do they see as the meaning of school? What is their motivation? Children have the right to be listened to. The

  10. Attention and Memory in School-Age Children Surviving the Terrorist Attack in Beslan, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrimin, Sara; Moscardino, Ughetta; Capello, Fabia; Axia, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of terrorism on children's cognitive functioning and school learning. The primary purpose of this study was to report on cognitive functioning among school-age children 20 months after a terrorist attack against their school. Participants included 203 directly and indirectly exposed children from Beslan and 100…

  11. Body Composition and Cardiovascular Health in School-aged children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klakk, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    . Methods This study is based on prospective data from 10 public schools, six intervention and four control schools matched according to the uptake area of the schools and socio-economic position of the parents. Intervention schools provided four additional PE lessons per week, where as control schools...... continued as usual (two PE lessons per week). A total of 1507 children (intervention n=773, control n=734) attending pre-school to the 4th grade in 2008 were invited to participate in the CHAMPS study-DK and 1218 (81%) children and their parents accepted. Height, weight, waist circumference, DXA scans......, Cardio respiratory fitness (CRF), blood pressure, pubertal stage and fasting blood samples were obtained at baseline (2008) and follow-up (2010). Information on parental education level, household income and birth weight were collected from questionnaires during the first school year. Results...

  12. The effect of age on physical fitness of deaf elementary school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris; Houwen, Suzanne

    The aim of this study was to measure physical fitness of deaf Dutch elementary school children compared with hearing children and to investigate the influence of age on physical fitness. Deaf children were physically less fit than hearing children. Overall, physical fitness increased with age in

  13. Behavior Problems in School-Aged Physically Abused and Neglected Children in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paul, Joaquin; Arruabarrena, M. Ignacia

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated behavior problems in 66 school-aged physically abused, neglected, and control group children in the Basque Country, Spain. Abused and neglected children had higher subscale scores for social problems, delinquent behavior, and attention problems and showed lower school adjustment. Neglected children appeared more aggressive,…

  14. Anemia and associated factors among school-age children in Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anemia is a problem affecting a large group of school children in sub-Saharan Africa, contributing to morbidity in this region. In Cape Verde the magnitude of anemia in school-age children is unknown. The study aimed to assess the prevalence of anemia and associated factors among children in Cape Verde. The data are ...

  15. Childhood Fears, Neurobehavioral Functioning and Behavior Problems in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Jonathan; Sadeh, Avi

    2010-01-01

    The objective is to examine underlying associations between childhood fears, behavior problems and neurobehavioral functioning (NBF) in school-age children. Healthy, regular school children (N = 135), from second, fourth and sixth grade classes were assessed. Data regarding children's fears and behavioral problems were obtained with the Revised…

  16. Physical activity level of school children of age 10-13 years

    OpenAIRE

    Ronghe, Dr. Rashmi N; Gotmare, Dr. Neha A; Kawishwar, Dr. Shraddha

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To assess physical activity level of school children of age 10-13 years.Objectives: To assess and grade physical activity level in children of age 10-13 years using Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children (PAQ-C) classified into: Light Physical activity; Moderate Physical activity; Moderate to vigorous Physical activity and High Physical activity.Methodology: This is Questionnaire based survey study which was conducted on 100 school going children of 10-13 years who were present on ...

  17. Unmet Needs of Families of School-Aged Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Hilary K.; Ouellette-Kuntz, Helene; Hunter, Duncan; Kelley, Elizabeth; Cobigo, Virginie

    2012-01-01

    Background: To aid decision making regarding the allocation of limited resources, information is needed on the perceived unmet needs of parents of school-aged children with an autism spectrum disorder. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted of 101 Canadian families of school-aged children with an autism spectrum disorder.…

  18. Prevalence of underweight and overweight among school-aged children and it's association with children's sociodemographic and lifestyle in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahrul Syahrul

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: The prevalence of underweight and overweight among school-aged children in Makassar, Indonesia is high. These conditions are associated with the sociodemographic characteristics of children and parents, as well as the lifestyle of children. Parental characteristics and children's lifestyle should be considered when planning prevention and intervention programs for underweight or overweight children.

  19. ATTITUDES OF HEALTHY CHILDREN PARENTS TOWARDS HANDICAPPED CHILDREN AT THE PRE-SCHOOL AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruzica KERAMICIEVA

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1970-ties, in the USA and Western and Eastern Europe, the model of segregated education has been abandoned, and nowadays the handicapped children attend regular schools all together with other healthy pupils. This , so called Integrative Pedagogy, proceeds from the mental hygiene aspects according to which the restrictive environment in special schools has not been a favorable one for the development of those children.The integrational process of these children in preschool institutions and schools has rather been difficult due to a number of reasons. As one of them, already mentioned and found in literature , has been the negative attitude of non-handicapped children parents towards those handicapped in their development.The problem of this research is to check and test the attitude of healthy children parents towards handicapped children at preschool age. This research shall also tend to analyze the origin of the such attitudes i. e. , whether they have been a result of an insufficient information and ignorance of the obstacles during development, or been produced by imitation of the environment, or due to an empathy, or even because of the fear that “ such a thing better never enter their home”, etc.We sincerely believe that, revealing the above parents’ attitudes and their origin, would certainly bring finding ways of their successful socialization and making the integrational process of handicapped children with their normal mates in preschool institutions easier.

  20. School-based sleep education program improves sleep and academic performance of school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Reut; Somerville, Gail; Bergmame, Lana; Fontil, Laura; Paquin, Soukaina

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based sleep education program aimed at improving the sleep and academic performance of school-age children. Using a community-based participatory research approach, we created a school-based sleep education program, "Sleep for Success"™ (SFS), composed of four distinct modules that addressed the children, their family and community, the school staff, and decision makers within the school setting. Implementation was carried out in three elementary schools. Seventy-one students participated in the evaluation of the program. The effectiveness of the SFS program was evaluated using non-randomized controlled before-and-after study groups (intervention and control) assessed over two time points (pre- and post-program implementation). Before (baseline) and after implementation, sleep and academic performance were measured using actigraphy and report card marks, respectively. In the intervention group, true sleep was extended by 18.2 min per night, sleep efficiency improved by 2.3%, and sleep latency was shortened by 2.3 min, and report card grades in mathematics and English improved significantly. No changes were noted in the control group. Participation in the sleep education program was associated with significant improvements in children's sleep and academic performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Epilepsy in School-Aged Children: More than Just Seizures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Colin; Ballantine, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Epilepsy is the most common neurological disorder in childhood and can have a significant impact on a child's schooling. Children with epilepsy may have special educational needs due to having learning disability, specific learning difficulties, specific cognitive deficits or having symptoms associated with ASD, ADHD, depression or anxiety. These…

  2. Emergent Bilingualism and Working Memory Development in School Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Laura Birke; Macizo, Pedro; Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Saldaña, David; Carreiras, Manuel; Fuentes, Luis J.; Bajo, M. Teresa

    2016-01-01

    The present research explores working memory (WM) development in monolingual as well as emergent bilingual children immersed in an L2 at school. Evidence from recent years suggests that bilingualism may boost domain-general executive control, but impair nonexecutive linguistic processing. Both are relevant for verbal WM, but different paradigms…

  3. Growth and Body Composition of School-Aged Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde

    growth or remodeling. Seasonal variations in growth and changes in body composition, if present, are of interest when trying to understand the regulation of growth. They may also be important to be aware of when assessing growth and body composition during shorter periods of time. The overall aim...... of this thesis was to identify factors influencing or associated with growth and body composition of 8-11 year old children. Four specific research questions were specified: 1.) Does a school meal intervention based on the New Nordic Diet (NND) influence height, body mass index (BMI) z-score, waist circumference...... school meals based on a NND for three months and for another three months they ate packed lunch brought from home (control). At baseline, between the two dietary periods, and after the last dietary period children went through a number of investigations. In paper I we showed that ad libitum school meals...

  4. Predictors of Language Gains Among School-Age Children With Language Impairment in the Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Laura M; Jiang, Hui; Logan, Jessica A; Schmitt, Mary Beth

    2017-06-10

    This study aimed to identify child-level characteristics that predict gains in language skills for children with language impairment who were receiving therapy within the public schools. The therapy provided represented business-as-usual speech/language treatment provided by speech-language pathologists in the public schools. The sample included 272 kindergartners and first-graders with language impairment who participated in a larger study titled "Speech-Therapy Experiences in the Public Schools." Multilevel regression analyses were applied to examine the extent to which select child-level characteristics, including age, nonverbal cognition, memory, phonological awareness, vocabulary, behavior problems, and self-regulation, predicted children's language gains over an academic year. Pratt indices were computed to establish the relative importance of the predictors of interest. Phonological awareness and vocabulary skill related to greater gains in language skills, and together they accounted for nearly 70% of the explained variance, or 10% of total variance at child level. Externalizing behavior, nonverbal cognition, and age were also potentially important predictors of language gains. This study significantly advances our understanding of the characteristics of children that may contribute to their language gains while receiving therapy in the public schools. Researchers can explore how these characteristics may serve to moderate treatment outcomes, whereas clinicians can assess how these characteristics may factor into understanding treatment responses.

  5. Sleep, school performance, and a school-based intervention among school-aged children: a sleep series study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shenghui; Arguelles, Lester; Jiang, Fan; Chen, Wenjuan; Jin, Xingming; Yan, Chonghuai; Tian, Ying; Hong, Xiumei; Qian, Ceng; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Xiaobin; Shen, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    Sufficient sleep during childhood is essential to ensure a transition into a healthy adulthood. However, chronic sleep loss continues to increase worldwide. In this context, it is imperative to make sleep a high-priority and take action to promote sleep health among children. The present series of studies aimed to shed light on sleep patterns, on the longitudinal association of sleep with school performance, and on practical intervention strategy for Chinese school-aged children. A serial sleep researches, including a national cross-sectional survey, a prospective cohort study, and a school-based sleep intervention, were conducted in China from November 2005 through December 2009. The national cross-sectional survey was conducted in 8 cities and a random sample of 20,778 children aged 9.0±1.61 years participated in the survey. The five-year prospective cohort study included 612 children aged 6.8±0.31 years. The comparative cross-sectional study (baseline: n = 525, aged 10.80±0.41; post-intervention follow-up: n = 553, aged 10.81±0.33) was undertaken in 6 primary schools in Shanghai. A battery of parent and teacher reported questionnaires were used to collect information on children's sleep behaviors, school performance, and sociodemographic characteristics. The mean sleep duration was 9.35±0.77 hours. The prevalence of daytime sleepiness was 64.4% (sometimes: 37.50%; frequently: 26.94%). Daytime sleepiness was significantly associated with impaired attention, learning motivation, and particularly, academic achievement. By contrast, short sleep duration only related to impaired academic achievement. After delaying school start time 30 minutes and 60 minutes, respectively, sleep duration correspondingly increased by 15.6 minutes and 22.8 minutes, respectively. Moreover, intervention significantly improved the sleep duration and daytime sleepiness. Insufficient sleep and daytime sleepiness commonly existed and positively associated with the impairment of

  6. Sleep, school performance, and a school-based intervention among school-aged children: a sleep series study in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenghui Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sufficient sleep during childhood is essential to ensure a transition into a healthy adulthood. However, chronic sleep loss continues to increase worldwide. In this context, it is imperative to make sleep a high-priority and take action to promote sleep health among children. The present series of studies aimed to shed light on sleep patterns, on the longitudinal association of sleep with school performance, and on practical intervention strategy for Chinese school-aged children. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A serial sleep researches, including a national cross-sectional survey, a prospective cohort study, and a school-based sleep intervention, were conducted in China from November 2005 through December 2009. The national cross-sectional survey was conducted in 8 cities and a random sample of 20,778 children aged 9.0±1.61 years participated in the survey. The five-year prospective cohort study included 612 children aged 6.8±0.31 years. The comparative cross-sectional study (baseline: n = 525, aged 10.80±0.41; post-intervention follow-up: n = 553, aged 10.81±0.33 was undertaken in 6 primary schools in Shanghai. A battery of parent and teacher reported questionnaires were used to collect information on children's sleep behaviors, school performance, and sociodemographic characteristics. The mean sleep duration was 9.35±0.77 hours. The prevalence of daytime sleepiness was 64.4% (sometimes: 37.50%; frequently: 26.94%. Daytime sleepiness was significantly associated with impaired attention, learning motivation, and particularly, academic achievement. By contrast, short sleep duration only related to impaired academic achievement. After delaying school start time 30 minutes and 60 minutes, respectively, sleep duration correspondingly increased by 15.6 minutes and 22.8 minutes, respectively. Moreover, intervention significantly improved the sleep duration and daytime sleepiness. CONCLUSIONS: Insufficient sleep and daytime sleepiness

  7. Friendships and social interactions of school-aged children with migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannatta, K; Getzoff, E A; Gilman, D K; Noll, R B; Gerhardt, C A; Powers, S W; Hershey, A D

    2008-07-01

    We set out to evaluate the friendships and social behaviour of school-aged children with migraine. Concern exists regarding the impact of paediatric migraine on daily activities and quality of life. We hypothesized that children with migraine would have fewer friends and be identified as more socially sensitive and isolated than comparison peers. Sixty-nine children with migraine participated in a school-based study of social functioning. A comparison sample without migraine included classmates matched for gender, race and age. Children with migraine had fewer friends at school; however, this effect was limited to those in elementary school. Behavioural difficulties were not found. Middle-school students with migraine were identified by peers as displaying higher levels of leadership and popularity than comparison peers. Concern may be warranted about the social functioning of pre-adolescent children with migraine; however, older children with migraine may function as well as or better than their peers.

  8. Factor structure of functional state of primary school age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidenko O.V.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The examination of primary school children to determine the ranking of significant factors that determine the structure of their functional state depending on the level of physical health. It is shown that the main factor in the structure of the functional state of younger schoolchildren in low-and lower-middle level of physical fitness is selected morpho-functional status, which characterizes the functions of the body at rest. For children with average or above average level of physical fitness is a leading factor in physical fitness of schoolchildren.

  9. Minimally Verbal School-Aged Children with Autism: Communication, Academic Engagement and Classroom Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Kathryne Kelley

    2013-01-01

    Minimally verbal school aged children with autism (MVSACwA) receive the bulk of their behavioral and academic support in schools yet we know little about the environments to which they are exposed. This population of children has often been excluded from studies and thus, underrepresented in current data on autism. As increasing numbers of…

  10. Knowledge and Morality of School-Age Children and Adolescents Regarding Environmental Issues and Moral Dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestena, Carla Luciane Blum; Piske, Fernanda Hellen Ribeiro

    2017-01-01

    A research gap exists with regard to the analysis of school children and adolescents' awareness on environmental issues. Current investigation analyzes data of 240 children and adolescents, aged between 8 and 14 years, within different school contexts in the mid-southern region of Brazil, on their knowledge level and moral judgment on solid…

  11. Nutrition quality analysis in school-age children

    OpenAIRE

    Ковтюк, Наталия Ивановна

    2015-01-01

    School nutrition as a component of quality of life is analyzed. A total of 180 children 10–17 years old are examined. Health indicators studied in conjunction with physiological components of quality of life. The one-sided nutrition principles with predominance of cereals and confectionery products with low consumption of dairy and meat products are determined. The deficit of the fundamental components of nutrition creates a risk factor for health problems and makes preconditions for the deve...

  12. The role of play in pre-school and younger school age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopas-Vukašinović Emina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the importance of play for children’s development and learning in institutionalized preschool education, as well as the opportunities it provides concerning the organization of teaching activities with younger school age children. The paper is based on the theoretical framework emphasizing educational character of children’s play, as a specific form of learning. Notwithstanding occasional attempts within pedagogic theory to deny educational values of children’s play and to emphasize instruction as the only form of systematic learning, contemporary pedagogic views consider play an important part of school education. Learning through play at younger school age helps overcome the discontinuity between preschool and school education. Curriculum subject matter can be covered through carefully selected and prepared play activities within the existing system, providing the support, encouragement and guidance by the adults involved, including their proper knowledge of children’ age-related and psycho-physical characteristics. Play facilitates gradual change over from preschool to school developmental stage, free, spontaneous and creative expression and the development of children’s potential.

  13. The effect of leukemia and its treatment on self-esteem of school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullis, R L; Mullis, A K; Kerchoff, N F

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the self-esteem of school-age children with leukemia in a clinic setting and to compare it to the self-esteem of healthy children. Thirteen chronically ill children, 6 to 11 years old, who were patients at a midwestern clinic and children's hospital, and 50 school-age children without chronic illness participated in the study. Children were administered the Kinetic Family Drawing-Revised (Spinetta, McLaren, Fox, & Sparta, 1981) to measure their self-image in relation to their family. Children's self-esteem was measured by the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) (Coopersmith, 1981). The results indicated that children with leukemia did not differ in self-esteem from healthy children except on one subscale of the SEI. However, children with and without leukemia did differ on components of the self-image measure, a dimension of self-esteem. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  14. Active Travel to School: Findings from the Survey of US Health Behavior in School-Aged Children, 2009-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Ivey, Stephanie S.; Levy, Marian C.; Royne, Marla B.; Klesges, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Whereas children's active travel to school (ATS) has confirmed benefits, only a few large national surveys of ATS exist. Methods: Using data from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) 2009-2010 US survey, we conducted a logistic regression model to estimate the odds ratios of ATS and a linear regression model to estimate…

  15. Sleep, School Performance, and a School-Based Intervention among School-Aged Children: A Sleep Series Study in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shenghui; Arguelles, Lester; Jiang, Fan; Chen, Wenjuan; Jin, Xingming; Yan, Chonghuai; Tian, Ying; Hong, Xiumei; Qian, Ceng; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Xiaobin; Shen, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    Background Sufficient sleep during childhood is essential to ensure a transition into a healthy adulthood. However, chronic sleep loss continues to increase worldwide. In this context, it is imperative to make sleep a high-priority and take action to promote sleep health among children. The present series of studies aimed to shed light on sleep patterns, on the longitudinal association of sleep with school performance, and on practical intervention strategy for Chinese school-aged children. Methods and Findings A serial sleep researches, including a national cross-sectional survey, a prospective cohort study, and a school-based sleep intervention, were conducted in China from November 2005 through December 2009. The national cross-sectional survey was conducted in 8 cities and a random sample of 20,778 children aged 9.0±1.61 years participated in the survey. The five-year prospective cohort study included 612 children aged 6.8±0.31 years. The comparative cross-sectional study (baseline: n = 525, aged 10.80±0.41; post-intervention follow-up: n = 553, aged 10.81±0.33) was undertaken in 6 primary schools in Shanghai. A battery of parent and teacher reported questionnaires were used to collect information on children’s sleep behaviors, school performance, and sociodemographic characteristics. The mean sleep duration was 9.35±0.77 hours. The prevalence of daytime sleepiness was 64.4% (sometimes: 37.50%; frequently: 26.94%). Daytime sleepiness was significantly associated with impaired attention, learning motivation, and particularly, academic achievement. By contrast, short sleep duration only related to impaired academic achievement. After delaying school start time 30 minutes and 60 minutes, respectively, sleep duration correspondingly increased by 15.6 minutes and 22.8 minutes, respectively. Moreover, intervention significantly improved the sleep duration and daytime sleepiness. Conclusions Insufficient sleep and daytime sleepiness commonly existed and

  16. Gender Differences in Food Preferences of School-Aged Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine-Bish, Natalie L.; Scheule, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Background: Schools have the opportunity, through the National School Lunch Program and Local School Wellness Policies, to have a significant impact on healthy eating behaviors. An understanding of children's and adolescents' food preferences in relation to gender and age will facilitate the successful creation of both healthy and financially…

  17. How Can Gender Affect Psychopathology in Lebanese School-Age Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamis, Vivian

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which gender differences in coping, school and family environments could account for variation in psychopathology among school-age children. Participants were 665 middle school students. Results showed no gender differences for PTSD. Females scored higher on emotional problems and prosocial behavior whereas…

  18. School Age Outcomes of Children Diagnosed Early and Later with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Megan Louise Erin; Vinen, Zoe; Barbaro, Josephine; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2018-01-01

    Early diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder is considered best practice, increasing access to early intervention. Yet, many children are diagnosed after 3-years. The current study investigated the school age outcomes of children who received an early and later diagnosis of ASD. The cognitive and behavioural outcomes of children diagnosed early (n…

  19. Racial Residential Segregation of School-Age Children and Adults: The Role of Schooling as a Segregating Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Owens

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Neighborhoods are critical contexts for children’s well-being, but differences in neighborhood inequality among children and adults are understudied. I document racial segregation between neighborhoods among school-age children and adults in 2000 and 2010 and find that though the racial composition of children’s and adults’ neighborhoods is similar, exposure to own-age neighbors varies. Compared with adults’ exposure to other adults, children are exposed to fewer white and more minority, particularly Hispanic, children. This is due in part to compositional differences, but children are also more unevenly sorted across neighborhoods by race than adults. One explanation for higher segregation among children is that parents consider school options when making residential choices. Consistent with this hypothesis, I find that school district boundaries account for a larger proportion of neighborhood segregation among children than among adults. Future research on spatial inequality must consider the multiple contexts differentially contributing to inequality among children and adults.

  20. Middle-School-Age Outcomes in Children with Very Low Birthweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, H. Gerry; Klein, Nancy; Minich, Nori M.; Hack, Maureen

    2000-01-01

    Compared outcomes of middle-school-age children born at very low (less than 750-g) or low birthweights (750 to 1,499-g) and full-term. Found that the very-low-weight group fared less well at school age than the low weight and term groups on cognitive functioning, achievement, behavior, and academic performance. Those without neurosensory disorders…

  1. School-Age Children Talk about Chess: Does Knowledge Drive Syntactic Complexity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippold, Marilyn A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined language productivity and syntactic complexity in school-age children in relation to their knowledge of the topic of discussion--the game of chess. Method: Children (N = 32; mean age = 10;11 [years;months]) who played chess volunteered to be interviewed by an adult examiner who had little or no experience playing…

  2. Communication Profile of Primary School-Aged Children with Foetal Growth Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, Lea Aulikki; Olsén, Päivi; Mäkikallio, Kaarin; Korkalainen, Noora; Heikkinen, Hanna; Heikkinen, Minna; Yliherva, Anneli

    2017-01-01

    Foetal growth restriction is associated with problems in neurocognitive development. In the present study, prospectively collected cohorts of foetal growth restricted (FGR) and appropriate for gestational age grown (AGA) children were examined at early school-age by using the Children's Communication Checklist-2 (CCC-2) to test the hypothesis that…

  3. Properties of the Narrative Scoring Scheme Using Narrative Retells in Young School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, John; Miller, Jon F.; Nockerts, Ann; Dunaway, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical utility of the narrative scoring scheme (NSS) as an index of narrative macrostructure for young school-age children. Method: Oral retells of a wordless picture book were elicited from 129 typically developing children, ages 5-7. A series of correlations and hierarchical regression equations were completed using…

  4. Mood Symptoms and Emotional Responsiveness to Threat in School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, Jessica L.; Sbarra, David A.; Crowley, Michael J.; Mayes, Linda C.

    2011-01-01

    Clinical accounts of depression underscore its relation to negative emotional experiences; yet few empirical studies examine emotional experiences in adults with depression, with even less work on depression and emotion in children. Using a nonclinical sample of school-aged children (n = 89) ages 8 to 12, this study evaluated whether greater mood…

  5. Intensity of ADHD Symptoms and Subjective Feelings of Competence in School Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanc, Tomasz; Brzezinska, Anna Izabela

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to assess how different levels of intensity of ADHD symptoms influence the development of the subjective feeling of competence in school age children. The sample was comprised of 62 children age 11 to 13. For the purpose of estimation of the subjective feeling of competence, The Feeling of Competence Questionnaire…

  6. Latent Factors in Attention Emerge from 9 Years of Age among Elementary School Children

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Ting; Wang, Ligang; Fan, Chunlei; Gao, Wenbin; Shi, Jiannong

    2017-01-01

    We explored the development of attention among elementary school children. Three hundred and sixty-five primary school children aged 7–12 years completed seven attention tests (alertness, focused attention, divided attention, attentional switching, sustained attention, spatial attention, and supervisory attention). A factor analysis indicated that there was no stable construct of attention among 7- to 8-year-old children. However, from 9 years on, children’s attention could be separated into ...

  7. Sensory processing difficulties in school-age children born very preterm : An exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bröring, Tinka; Königs, Marsh; Oostrom, Kim J.; Lafeber, Harrie N.; Brugman, Anniek; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    Background Very preterm birth has a detrimental impact on the developing brain, including widespread white matter brain abnormalities that threaten efficient sensory processing. Yet, sensory processing difficulties in very preterm children are scarcely studied, especially at school age. Aims To

  8. The Recreational Activities of Hearing-impaired Children of a Young School Age

    OpenAIRE

    Šrámková, Markéta

    2007-01-01

    In my diploma work I would like to focus on theme of spending free time in school for hearing impaired children (age 6-12) . The work has two parts. In the first one - theoretical- literary - I will describe types of spending free time of deaf and hard of hearing children different enviroments : family, school, out of school. In the second one -practical research - I will focus on the profile of school for hearing impaired children. I would like to touch the problem of activities (during the ...

  9. Patterns of Parental Rearing Styles and Child Behaviour Problems among Portuguese School-Aged Children

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Ana I. F.; Canavarro, Cristina; Cardoso, Margarida F.; Mendonça, Denisa

    2008-01-01

    The majority of studies investigating the effects of parental behaviour on the child’s adjustment have a dimensional approach. We identified the existence of various patterns in parental rearing styles and analysed the relationship between different parenting patterns and behavioural problems in a group of school-aged children. A longitudinal, multi-informant study was conducted. The sample consisted of 519 school-aged children from the Portuguese general population. Parental rearing styles w...

  10. Media Use in School-Aged Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This policy statement focuses on children and adolescents 5 through 18 years of age. Research suggests both benefits and risks of media use for the health of children and teenagers. Benefits include exposure to new ideas and knowledge acquisition, increased opportunities for social contact and support, and new opportunities to access health-promotion messages and information. Risks include negative health effects on weight and sleep; exposure to inaccurate, inappropriate, or unsafe content and contacts; and compromised privacy and confidentiality. Parents face challenges in monitoring their children's and their own media use and in serving as positive role models. In this new era, evidence regarding healthy media use does not support a one-size-fits-all approach. Parents and pediatricians can work together to develop a Family Media Use Plan (www.healthychildren.org/MediaUsePlan) that considers their children's developmental stages to individualize an appropriate balance for media time and consistent rules about media use, to mentor their children, to set boundaries for accessing content and displaying personal information, and to implement open family communication about media. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. Stressors of School-age Children With Allergic Diseases: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iio, Misa; Hamaguchi, Mana; Nagata, Mayumi; Yoshida, Koichi

    2018-05-08

    Most studies of stress in children with chronic diseases have been geared toward parents and caregivers have not considered allergic diseases together. This study aimed to identify the stressors associated with allergic diseases in Japanese school-age children. Stressors associated with allergic diseases of 11 school-age children (seven boys and four girls; age range: 9-12 years) were investigated using semi-structured interviews. In the qualitative thematic analysis of stressors about allergic diseases, two themes: allergic disease-specific stressors and common stressors in chronic diseases, and 12 categories were identified. A thematic map was applied to four domains of stressor: physiological factors, psychological factors, social factors, and environmental factors. The results showed that school-age children with allergic diseases have a variety of stressors. Future studies should aim to develop an allergic disease-specific stress management program with school-age children. In children with allergic diseases, not only is stress management in daily life important, but also stress management for disease-specific matters to control the symptoms and maintain mental health. Stress management should be supported for school-age children with allergic diseases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Communication attitudes of Japanese school-age children who stutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Norimune; Healey, E Charles; Nagasawa, Taiko; Vanryckeghem, Martine

    2012-01-01

    Past research with the Communication Attitude Test (CAT) has shown it to be a valid and reliable instrument for assessing speech-associated attitude of children who stutter (CWS). However, in Japan, the CAT has not been used extensively to examine the communication attitude of CWS. The purpose of this study was to determine if a Japanese version of the CAT could differentiate between the communication attitude of Japanese elementary school CWS and children who do not stutter (CWNS). A Japanese translation of the 1991 version of the Communication Attitude Test-Revised (CAT-R) was used in this study. Eighty Japanese CWS and 80 gender- and grade level-matched CWNS participated in the study. The results showed that CWS had a significantly more negative communication attitude than CWNS. Both CWS and CWNS in 1st grade showed significantly more positive communication attitudes than children in 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, and 6th grades. Furthermore, a link between stuttering severity and CWS' communication attitude was found. Additional research is needed to confirm the results of the current study, which indicate that the communication attitude of Japanese CWS becomes more negative as they get older. The reader will be able to: (1) Describe the process that was used to develop a Japanese version of the Communication Attitude Test (CAT-J). (2) Discuss attitude differences between Japanese children who stutter and those who do not and how grade level impacts a negative attitude toward communication. (3) Explain the link between stuttering severity and attitudes of Japanese children who stutter. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The nutritional status of school-aged children: why should we care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Cora; Neufingerl, Nicole; van Geel, Laura; van den Briel, Tina; Osendarp, Saskia

    2010-09-01

    The nutritional status of school-aged children impacts their health, cognition, and subsequently their educational achievement. The school is an opportune setting to provide health and nutrition services to disadvantaged children. Yet, school-aged children are not commonly included in health and nutrition surveys. An up-to-date overview of their nutritional status across the world is not available. To provide a summary of the recent data on the nutritional status of school-aged children in developing countries and countries in transition and identify issues of public health concern. A review of literature published from 2002 to 2009 on the nutritional status of children aged 6 to 12 years from Latin America, Africa, Asia, and the Eastern Mediterranean region was performed. Eligible studies determined the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies or child under- and overnutrition using biochemical markers and internationally accepted growth references. A total of 369 studies from 76 different countries were included. The available data indicate that the nutritional status of school-aged children in the reviewed regions is considerably inadequate. Underweight and thinness were most prominent in populations from South-East Asia and Africa, whereas in Latin America the prevalence of underweight or thinness was generally below 10%. More than half of the studies on anemia reported moderate (> 20%) or severe (> 40%) prevalence of anemia. Prevalences of 20% to 30% were commonly reported for deficiencies of iron, iodine, zinc, and vitamin A. The prevalence of overweight was highest in Latin American countries (20% to 35%). In Africa, Asia, and the Eastern Mediterranean, the prevalence of overweight was generally below 15%. The available data indicate that malnutrition is a public health issue in school-aged children in developing countries and countries in transition. However, the available data, especially data on micronutrient status, are limited. These findings emphasize

  14. Prevalence and pattern of executive dysfunction in school age children with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Jacqueline H; Berl, Madison M; Armour, Anna C; Wang, Jichuan; Cheng, Yao I; Donofrio, Mary T

    2017-03-01

    Executive function, a set of cognitive skills important to social and academic outcomes, is a specific area of cognitive weakness in children with congenital heart disease (CHD). We evaluated the prevalence and profile of executive dysfunction in a heterogeneous sample of school aged children with CHD, examined whether children with executive dysfunction are receiving school services and support, and identified risk factors for executive dysfunction at school age. Ninety-one school aged patients completed questionnaires, including the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and a medical history questionnaire. An age- and gender- matched control sample was drawn from a normative database. Children with CHD had a higher rate of parent reported executive dysfunction (OR = 4.37, P  .05). Gender, premature birth (≤37 weeks), and CHD with aortic obstruction were predictive of executive dysfunction, especially for behavior regulation skills. School aged children with CHD have an increased prevalence of executive dysfunction, especially problems with working memory and flexibility, and are underserved by the school system. The increased risk for executive dysfunction in those with CHD and prematurity or CHD with aortic obstruction suggests an etiology of delayed brain development in the fetal and neonatal periods, while male gender may increase susceptibility to brain injury. This study highlights the need for regular neurodevelopmental follow up in children with CHD, and a need to better understand mechanisms that contribute to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Domain-Specific Impulsivity in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukayama, Eli; Duckworth, Angela Lee; Kim, Betty

    2013-01-01

    Impulsivity is a salient individual difference in children with well-established predictive validity for life outcomes. The current investigation proposes that impulsive behaviors vary systematically by domain. In a series of studies with ethnically and socioeconomically diverse samples of middle school students, we find that schoolwork-related and interpersonal-related impulsivity, as observed by teachers, parents, and the students themselves, are distinct, moderately correlated behavioral tendencies. Each demonstrates differentiated relationships with dimensions of childhood temperament, Big Five personality factors, and outcomes, such as sociometric popularity, report card grades, and classroom conduct. Implications for theoretical conceptions of impulsivity as well as for practical applications (e.g., domain-specific interventions) are discussed. PMID:24118714

  16. Factors associated with bed and room sharing in Chinese school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S; Jin, X; Yan, C; Wu, S; Jiang, F; Shen, X

    2009-03-01

    Co-sleeping (bed or room sharing) has potential implications for children's development. Previous studies showed that co-sleeping was more prevalent in non-Western countries than in Western countries, which demonstrated that co-sleeping was marked with ethnic and socio-cultural background characteristics. The purpose of this study was to survey the prevalence of bed and room sharing and to examine related factors among school-aged children in an Asian country - China. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted in 10 districts of Shanghai, China from November to December 2005. A total of 4108 elementary school children, 49.2% boys and 50.8% girls with a mean age of 8.79 years, participated. Parent-administered questionnaires were used to collect information about children's sleeping arrangements and socio-demographic characteristics. The prevalence of routine bed sharing, room sharing and sleeping alone in Chinese school-aged children was 21.0%, 19.1% and 47.7%, respectively. Bed and room sharing didn't show significant gender difference but gradually decreased with increasing age. Multivariate logistic regression identified those factors associated with bed and room sharing: younger age, large family, children without their own bedroom and parents' approval of a co-sleeping arrangement. Co-sleeping arrangement was a common practice in Chinese school-aged children. Associated factors were characterized by intrinsic socio-cultural values and socio-economic status in China.

  17. Dietary and Physical Activity/Inactivity Factors Associated with Obesity in School-Aged Children123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Rodriguez, Marcela; Melendez, Guillermo; Nieto, Claudia; Aranda, Marisol; Pfeffer, Frania

    2012-01-01

    Diet and physical activity (PA) are essential components of nutritional status. Adequate nutrition and an active lifestyle are key factors during childhood, because food habits track into adulthood. Children spend more time in school than in any other environment away from home. Studying the diet factors and patterns of PA that affect obesity risk in children during school hours and the complete school day can help identify opportunities to lower this risk. We directly measured the time children spent performing moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) at school, compared the amount and intensity of PA during school hours with after-school hours, and tried to determine if diet behaviors and PA or inactivity were associated with excess weight and body fat. This cross-sectional study included 143 normal-weight (NLW) and 48 obese children aged 8–10 y. Diet data were obtained from two 24-h recalls. Body composition was measured by bioimpedance. Screen time and sports participation data were self-reported. NLW children drank/ate more dairy servings than the obese children, who consumed more fruit-flavored water than the NLW group. Consumption of soft drinks, sugar-added juices, and fresh juices was low in both groups. Children were less active during school hours than after school. MVPA was lower during school hours in the obese group than in the NLW group. Schools, parents, and authorities should be more involved in promoting strategies to improve the dietary habits and PA levels of school-aged children, because this group is not achieving the recommended level of daily MVPA. PMID:22798003

  18. Self-reported depression and anxiety symptoms in school-aged Singaporean children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magiati, Iliana; Ponniah, Kathryn; Ooi, Yoon Phaik; Chan, Yiong Huak; Fung, Daniel; Woo, Bernardine

    2015-03-01

    Few studies have examined anxiety and depression experiences of primary (middle) school-aged children from ethnically diverse backgrounds, and most have relied on parents or others as informants. The present study aimed to investigate self-reported anxiety and depression symptoms in Singaporean primary school-aged children. Age, gender, and ethnic differences and interactions were explored as well as similarities and differences between Singaporean children and US norms. A large representative community sample of 1655 8- to 12-year-old Singaporean children (Chinese, Malay, and Indian) completed the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) and the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) as part of a larger epidemiological study of mental health in Singaporean children. Rates of clinically elevated symptoms of anxiety and depression were 9.3% and 16.9% on the MASC and the CDI, respectively. Separation and social anxieties were most common. Evidence of a gender difference in levels of emotional symptoms was most evident in Indian children, with girls reporting more symptoms than boys. The relationship between age and internalizing problems was weak. A substantial minority of primary school-aged Singaporean children reported elevated anxious and depressive symptoms. Better understanding of the factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of these problems can help the development of culture-specific interventions and facilitate the planning of community-tailored services and initiatives. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Prospective thinking and decision making in primary school age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Elisabetta; Di Dio, Cinzia; Castelli, Ilaria; Massaro, Davide; Marchetti, Antonella

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we seek to widen our understanding of the developmental processes underlying bargaining behaviour in children addressing the concept of prospective thinking. We argue that the emergence of the capacity to think prospectively about future outcomes or behaviours in response to current actions is a required precedent to strategic decision making. To test this idea, we compared 6, 8 and 10 years old children's performance on three tasks: the ultimatum game assessing fairness/inequality aversion, the marshmallow task, an intertemporal choice task evaluating the ability to delay gratification, and the dictator game assessing altruism. The children's socio-demographic and cognitive variables were also evaluated. We hypothesized that development of strategic thinking in the ultimatum game is related to an increased ability to delay gratification - given that both tasks require looking at prospective benefits - and, crucially, not to altruism, which benefits from immediate selfless reward. Our results confirmed our hypothesis suggesting that increased strategic planning with age would also stem from the development of competencies like prospective thinking.

  20. Prevalence and Pattern of Executive Dysfunction in School Age Children with Congenital Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Jacqueline H.; Berl, Madison M.; Armour, Anna C.; Wang, Jichuan; Cheng, Yao I.; Donofrio, Mary T.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Executive Function, a set of cognitive skills important to social and academic outcomes, is a specific area of cognitive weakness in children with congenital heart disease (CHD). We evaluated the prevalence and profile of executive dysfunction in a heterogeneous sample of school aged children with CHD, examined whether children with executive dysfunction are receiving school services and support, and identified risk factors for executive dysfunction at school age. Design 91 school aged patients completed questionnaires, including the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and a medical history questionnaire. An age and gender matched control sample was drawn from a normativedatabase. Results CHD patients had a higher rate of parent reported executive dysfunction (OR=4.37, p0.05). Gender, premature birth (≤37 weeks), and CHD with aortic obstruction were predictive of executive dysfunction, especially for behavior regulation skills. Conclusions School aged children with CHD have an increased prevalence of executive dysfunction, especially problems with working memory and flexibility, and are underserved by the school system. The increased risk for executive dysfunction in those with CHD and prematurity or CHD with aortic obstruction suggests an etiology of delayed brain development in the fetal and neonatal periods, while male gender may increase susceptibility to brain injury. This study highlights the need for regular neurodevelopmental follow up in children with CHD, and a need to better understand mechanisms that contribute to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. PMID:27863079

  1. Health-related quality of life in school-age children with speech-language-impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flapper, B.C.; Van Den Heuvel, M.

    Speech-language-impairment (SLI) as well as behavioral-dysfunction and school-type might influence health-related-quality-of-life. Patients and methods: Cross-sectional study in 124 children aged 5-8 years with SLI, in 4 special education (SE) and 7 mainstream ambulatory care (AC) schools, and 35

  2. evaluation of nutritional status among school-aged children in rural

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    This study examines anthropometric indices of school-age children in five .... was measured to the nearest 0.1 cm using standard medical techniques with a tape ..... Bundy DA, Drake LJ and C Burbano School food, politics and child health.

  3. Predicting Treatment Dropout in Parent Training Interventions for Families of School-Aged Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Brian W.; Gerdes, Alyson C.; Haack, Lauren M.; Lawton, Katie E.

    2013-01-01

    Premature treatment dropout is a problem for many families seeking mental health services for their children. Research is currently limited in identifying factors that increase the likelihood of dropout in families of school-aged children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Thus, the goal of the current study was to examine…

  4. Reducing Listening-Related Stress in School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rance, Gary; Chisari, Donella; Saunders, Kerryn; Rault, Jean-Loup

    2017-01-01

    High levels of stress and anxiety are common in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Within this study of school-aged children (20 male, 6 female) we hypothesised that functional hearing deficits (also pervasive in ASD) could be ameliorated by auditory interventions and that, as a consequence, stress levels would be reduced. The use of…

  5. Developing Physiologic Stress Profiles for School-Age Children Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Aishah Y.; Ambrose, Nicoline G.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Physiologic reactivity profiles were generated for 9 school-age children with a history of stuttering. Utilizing salivary sampling, stress biomarkers cortisol and alpha-amylase were measured in response to normal daily stressors. Children with a history of stuttering were characterized as high or low autonomic reactors when compared to…

  6. Development of daily activities in school-age children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, D.W.; Ketelaar, M.; Gorter, J.W.; van Schie, P.E.M.; Dallmeijer, A.J.; Jongmans, M.J.; Lindeman, E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the course of capabilities in self-care, mobility, and social function in school-age children with cerebral palsy (CP) and to investigate associations with CP-, child-, and family-characteristics. A clinic-based sample of children with CP (n= 116; 76 males,

  7. Comparison of Measures of Morphosyntactic Complexity in French-Speaking School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimeau, Catherine; Plourde, Vickie; Ouellet, Andrée-Anne; Dionne, Ginette

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the validity and reliability of different measures of morphosyntactic complexity, including the Morphosyntactic Complexity Scale (MSCS), a novel adaptation of the Developmental Sentence Scoring, in French-speaking school-aged children. Seventy-three Quebec children from kindergarten to Grade 3 completed a definition task and a…

  8. Joint-Attention and the Social Phenotype of School-Aged Children with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Peter; Novotny, Stephanie; Swain-Lerro, Lindsey; McIntyre, Nancy; Zajic, Matt; Oswald, Tasha

    2017-01-01

    The validity of joint attention assessment in school-aged children with ASD is unclear (Lord, Jones, "Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry" 53(5):490-509, 2012). This study examined the feasibility and validity of a parent-report measure of joint attention related behaviors in verbal children and adolescents with ASD. Fifty-two…

  9. Effect of Hearing Loss on Peer Victimization in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner-Czyz, Andrea D.; Loy, Betty; Pourchot, Hannah; White, Trissan; Cokely, Elika

    2018-01-01

    Nearly one third of school-age children report being bullied, primarily enduring teasing or rumors. Children with hearing loss (HL) are at increased risk of victimization due to being "different" from the general population. This project assesses effects of auditory status on bullying by comparing incidence and type of bullying in 87…

  10. Developmental Trajectories of Structural and Pragmatic Language Skills in School-Aged Children with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Heuvel, E.; Manders, E.; Swillen, A.; Zink, I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to compare developmental courses of structural and pragmatic language skills in school-aged children with Williams syndrome (WS) and children with idiopathic intellectual disability (IID). Comparison of these language trajectories could highlight syndrome-specific developmental features. Method: Twelve monolingual…

  11. Psychiatric Disorders among Children with Cerebral Palsy at School Starting Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorgaas, H. M.; Hysing, M.; Elgen, I.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present population study was to estimate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in children with cerebral palsy (CP), as well as the impact of comorbid conditions. A cohort of children with CP born 2001-2003, and living in the Western Health Region of Norway were evaluated at school starting age. Parents were interviewed with the…

  12. Prevalence of parent-reported immediate hypersensitivity food allergy in Chilean school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyos-Bachiloglu, R; Ivanovic-Zuvic, D; Álvarez, J; Linn, K; Thöne, N; de los Ángeles Paul, M; Borzutzky, A

    2014-01-01

    Food allergies (FAs) affect 2-4% of school-aged children in developed countries and strongly impact their quality of life. The prevalence of FA in Chile remains unknown. Cross-sectional survey study of 488 parents of school-aged children from Santiago who were asked to complete a FA screening questionnaire. Parents who reported symptoms suggestive of FA were contacted to answer a second in-depth questionnaire to determine immediate hypersensitivity FA prevalence and clinical characteristics of school-aged Chilean children. A total of 455 parents answered the screening questionnaire: 13% reported recurrent symptoms to a particular food and 6% reported FA. Forty-three screening questionnaires (9%) were found to be suggestive of FA. Parents of 40 children answered the second questionnaire; 25 were considered by authors to have FA. FA rate was 5.5% (95% CI: 3.6-7.9). Foods reported to frequently cause FA included walnut, peanut, egg, chocolate, avocado, and banana. Children with FA had more asthma (20% vs. 7%, Phistory compatible with anaphylaxis. Of 13 children who sought medical attention, 70% were diagnosed with FA; none were advised to acquire an epinephrine autoinjector. Up to 5.5% of school-aged Chilean children may suffer from FA, most frequently to walnut and peanut. It is critical to raise awareness in Chile regarding FA and recognition of anaphylaxis, and promote epinephrine autoinjectors in affected children. Copyright © 2013 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Executive and intellectual functioning in school-aged children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuusisto, Marika A; Nieminen, Pirkko E; Helminen, Mika T; Kleemola, Leenamaija

    2017-03-01

    Earlier research and clinical practice show that specific language impairment (SLI) is often associated with nonverbal cognitive deficits and weakened skills in executive functions (EFs). Executive deficits may have a remarkable influence on a child's everyday activities in the home and school environments. However, research information is still limited on EFs in school-aged children with SLI, mostly conducted among English- and Dutch-speaking children. To study whether there are differences in EFs between Finnish-speaking children with SLI and typically developing (TD) peers at school age. EFs are compared between the groups with and without controlling for nonverbal intelligence. Parents and teachers of children with SLI (n = 22) and age- and gender-matched TD peers (n = 22) completed The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functions (BRIEF). The mean age of the children was 8,2 years. BRIEF ratings of parents and teachers were compared between the children with SLI and with TD peers by paired analysis using conditional logistic regression models with and without controlling for nonverbal IQ. Intellectual functioning was assessed with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Children with SLI had weaker scores in all parent and teacher BRIEF scales compared with TD peers. Statistically significant differences between the groups were found in BRIEF scales Shift, Emotional Control, Initiate, Working Memory, Plan/Organize and Monitor. Differences between the groups were statistically significant also in intellectual functioning. On BRIEF scales some group differences remained statistically significant after controlling for nonverbal IQ. This study provides additional evidence that also Finnish-speaking school-aged children with SLI are at risk of having deficits in EFs in daily life. EFs have been proposed to have an impact on developmental outcomes later in life. In clinical practice it is important to pay attention to EFs in school-aged children with SLI

  14. Correlation analysis of electronic products with myopia in preschool and school aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Li Sun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To explore the influence of electronic products on myopia in preschool and school aged children, and the development regularities of myopia, to formulate reasonable guidelines for using eyes healthily, and lay a solid foundation for the prevention and control work. METHODS: This retrospective analysis enrolled 900 3~12 years old children from outpatients department, and all of them were established individualized archives, recording: uncorrected visual acuity, optometry, slit lamp, ophthalmoscopy, strabismus inspection results; recording eye usage condition on TVs, computers, mobile phones, iPad, homework, extra-curricular books. Statistical analyze the refractive status of each age group, the use of electronic products of different age groups and their correlation with refractive status. RESULTS: The number of preschool children with normal uncorrected visual acuity was more than that of early school-age children, and the difference was statistically significant(PP>0.05; the number of children aged 7~12(early school aged childrenwith myopia was more than that of children aged 3~6(preschool childrenand the difference was statistically significant(PCONCLUSION: For preschool children, it is necessary to conduct early screening, health guidance, the establishment of personalized medical records and one-to-one personalized guidance; it is also needed to avoid the arduous learning task with the stacking usage of eyes, to fight for myopia and to control the development of myopia. Therefore, to reduce the use of electronic products has become a topic worthy of further study.

  15. [Comparison of polysomnographic characteristics in preschool and school aged children with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuanfeng; Lei, Fei; Du, Lina; Tang, Xiangdong; Yang, Linghui

    2016-03-01

    To compare the characteristics of polysomnography in preschool and school aged children with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). The clinical data were collected from October 2009 to October 2013 among children monitored in Sleep Medical Center of West China Hospital. Among them, 189 preschool aged (aged 3-5 years) and 211 school aged (aged 6-13 years) children with sleep breathing disorder, and 33 children complained with sleep talking as controls were enrolled and underwent polysomnography. According to apnea hyponea index (AHI), they were classified as primary snoring (AHIstage and N2 stage among groups (P>0.05). In preschool aged children, the percentage of N1 stage in the moderate/severe group was more than other three groups (moderate/severe group vs control group, primary snoring group, mild group: 24.7%±13.7% vs 17.0%±8.7%, 21.7%±12.4%, 20.9%±11.6%, all Pstage in the moderate/severe group was more than the control group (moderate/severe group vs control group: 18.0%±10.4% vs 12.0%±4.8%, Pstage in the moderate/severe group and the mild group were less than the control group (moderate/severe group, mild group vs control group: 28.3%±9.6%, 28.8%±8.8% vs 33.9%±13.0%, both Ppreschool and school aged children group, the arouse index in the moderate/severe group was higher than other three groups, the mean oxygen saturation and the lowest oxygen saturation in the moderate/severe group were lower than those of the other three groups, the differences were statistically significant (all Ppreschool children (r=-0.02, P>0.05). However, there was significance in school aged children (r=0.26, Ppreschool and school aged (r=0.42, 0.55, both Ppreschool children than in school aged children. The severity is mainly related to enlarged tonsils and adenoids. School aged children with OSAHS may be more susceptible to sleep structure disorder and the severity is mainly related to BMI.

  16. Relative age effect on success in tennis competition in the older age-school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Agricola

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The theory of relative age effect assumes that children and adolescents - athletes born at the beginning of the calendar year in sports competitions are more successful than those who were born in the later months of the same year. This percentage is based on advantage of fitness, morphological and psychological assumptions of the older athletes. AIM: The research objective of the present study was to verify the assumption of competitive success of older players in the elite boys and girls tennis groups in the older school age. METHODOLOGY: The data from groups of 13 year old boys and girls (13 years and 0 months to 13 years and 11 months were included into the analysis. These players were registered in the first one hundred ranking of International Tennis Federation (ITF according to the total number of ranking points in each year during the period 2007-2011 (500 boys, 500 girls. An ANOVA was used for analysis with a total ranking score as an indicator of competitive success with the age factor (12 levels = 12 months of birth (α = .05. The same analysis was used in sub-groups of boys, respectively girls, registered in ITF separately for each year of the period 2007-2011. Dates of birth of children were obtained from official sources of ITF. In the event of the significance factor of age we performed a simple regression analysis depending on the number of ITF points on the month of birth (p < .05. Analyses were processed in SPSS 21 software (IBM, USA. RESULTS: The analysis showed no significance of age, respective of the month of birth on the total number of points in a boys group (n = 500 (p = .624 and girls group (n = 500 (p = .152 from ITF ranking during five-year period. No significance was found in the boys' groups (n = 100, respective girls' groups (n = 100 registered in ITF ranking in each year of the five-year period. The exception was found only in a boys group in 2007 (p = .021, and significant regression relationship

  17. Impact of sleep on executive functioning in school-age children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbensen, A J; Hoffman, E K

    2018-06-01

    Sleep problems have an impact on executive functioning in the general population. While children with Down syndrome (DS) are at high risk for sleep problems, the impact of these sleep problems on executive functioning in school-age children with DS is less well documented. Our study examined the relationship between parent-reported and actigraphy-measured sleep duration and sleep quality with parent and teacher reports and neuropsychology assessments of executive functioning among school-age children with DS. Thirty school-age children with DS wore an actigraph watch for a week at home at night. Their parent completed ratings of the child's sleep during that same week. Children completed a neuropsychology assessment of their inhibitory control, ability to shift and working memory. Their parents and teachers completed rating scales to assess these same constructs of executive functioning. Parent reports of restless sleep behaviours on the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ), but not actigraph-measured sleep period or efficiency, were predictive of parent reports of concerns with inhibitory control, shifting and working memory, and of teacher reports of inhibitory control. No measure of sleep was predictive of executive functioning as measured by the neuropsychology assessment. The study findings corroborate the preliminary literature that parent-reported sleep problems are related to executive functioning in school-age children with DS, particularly in the area of inhibitory control across home and school. These findings have implications for understanding contributing factors to academic performance and school behaviour in school-age children with DS. © 2018 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. [Overweight in primary school-age children. Prevalence and risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, M B; Bausback-Schomakers, S; Hanschmann, K M; Gerhards, B; Kuhn, K; Krackhardt, B

    2015-10-01

    Various studies show that pre-school age is a sensitive period for the development of overweight and obesity. During a longitudinal study between 2010 and 2013, the municipal health authority (city of Frankfurt) in cooperation with the university children's hospital investigated the development of weight in children aged 5 to 8. The weight and height of a collective of 5720 children were measured (2010/11). In addition, nutritional and exercise habits, as well as media consumption was documented for 4758 children through a questionnaire during the school enrolment procedure. The weight and height of 3481 children were measured again in the second grade (2012/13). Over a period of 24 months, the percentage of overweight (not obese) children increased from 7.5 to 9.4 % and that of obese children from 4.5 to 5.0 %. 164 of 2818 children with a normal initial weight (5.8 %) changed to percentile class overweight or obese. 79 of 260 children who were initially overweight, not obese (30 %), changed to the group of normal weight, but only 4 out of 156 obese children (3 %). Increased TV consumption (> 1 h per day), availability of their own television, lack of physical activity, and consumption of high-calorie drinks were risk factors for the development of overweight during the primary school age. 72 % of parents of overweight children and 22 % of obese children falsely classified their children as normal weight. Targeted education about the risk of obesity in the primary school age and offers for early intervention should be established in the healthcare services concerned.

  19. Selected executive functions in children with ADHD in early school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Rita Borkowska

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed at finding out whether at the early school age the effectiveness of executive functions distinguishes children with ADHD from those of the control group. Besides, the aim was to check to what extent the use of diagnostic methods evaluating executive functions in children at the early school age is justified. The analysis comprised cognitive flexibility, sustained attention, interference control and planning ability. Those methods of neuropsychological evaluation were used which are mostly applied to characterize executive functions: Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, interference task based on the Stroop Interference Test, and tests of verbal fluency and Tower of London. The examined group consisted of 50 children aged 7-10: 25 children with hyperactivity of combined type and 25 children of the control group. Each group consisted of 23 boys and 2 girls. The average age in the criterial group was 8 years and 10 months (SD=10 months, whereas in the control group – 8 years and 6 months (SD=11 months. According to the obtained results, children with ADHD at early school age do not exhibit a wide spectrum of executive functions deficits, which is probably associated with immaturity of executive processes in all children of that age. The findings comprised only difficulties in inhibition of response, monitoring of activity, and ability of executive attention to intentional guidance of the mental effort depending on the task’s requirements. In investigations of children with ADHD at early school age the use of neuropsychological tests and trials designed for evaluation of executive functions is justified only in limited degree. They do not significantly distinguish between children with ADHD and children without this disorder, therefore the results may be mainly of descriptive, and not explanatory, value.

  20. The Effects of Early Language on Age at Diagnosis and Functioning at School Age in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Anthony; Matthews, Nicole L.; Smith, Christopher J.

    2017-01-01

    Research suggests that toddlers with no language delay (NLD) should have better outcomes than those with language delay (LD). However, the predictive utility of language milestones relative to co-varying factors such as age at diagnosis, IQ, and ASD symptomatology is unclear. This study compared school-aged children with ASD and NLD (n = 59) to a…

  1. Energy and nutrient intake in preschool and school age Mexican children: National Nutrition Survey 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barquera Simón

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate energy and nutrient intake and adequacy in preschool and school age Mexican children, using the National Nutrition Survey 1999 (NNS-1999. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty four-h dietary recalls from pre-school (n=1 309 and school (n=2 611 children obtained from a representative sub-sample of the NNS-1999 were analyzed. Intakes and adequacies were estimated and compared across four regions, socio-economic strata, and between urban and rural areas, and indigenous vs. non-indigenous children. RESULTS: Median energy intake in pre-school children was 949 kcal and in school children 1 377 kcal, with adequacies 150% in both age groups. The North and Mexico City regions had the highest fat intake and the lowest fiber intake. Children in the South region, indigenous children, and those in the lowest socio-economic stratum had higher fiber and carbohydrate intakes and the lowest fat intake. These children also showed the highest risks of inadequacies for vitamin A, vitamin C, folate, iron, zinc and calcium. CONCLUSIONS: Mexico is experiencing a nutrition transition with internal inequalities across regions and socio-economic strata. Food policy must account for these differences in order to optimize resources directed at social programs.

  2. The experience of parents implementing authoritarian parenting for their school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benga Olla, Marice; Catharina Daulima, Novy Helena; Eka Putri, Yossie Susanti

    2018-02-01

    To explore families' experiences who use an authoritarian parenting style in caring for school-age children. This was a qualitative study employing a phenomenological approach. The sampling method was to interview parents of school-age children living in the Central Maluku district in Indonesia. The findings of this study generated the following themes: (1) parents strictly controlled their children to achieve the parental values and expectations, (2) children failed to meet the parental values and expectations, and (3) problems experienced by the children were the results of the parenting style. This study suggested nursing professionals provide adequate information for parents with respect to parenting styles that may facilitate the optimal growth and development of the children. Future studies pertinent to cultural factors associated with authoritarian parenting were also suggested to better understand the cultural context of this parenting style. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. The production of direct object clitics in pre-school- and primary school-aged children with specific language impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guasti, Maria Teresa; Palma, Silvia; Genovese, Elisabetta; Stagi, Paolo; Saladini, Gabriella; Arosio, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    Third-person direct object (DO) clitic pronoun production is examined through an elicited production method in pre-school- and primary school-aged groups of Italian children with specific language impairment (SLI) to establish whether there is an improvement from age 5 years to age 7 years and whether there are qualitative differences in the two groups' responses. It was found that 5- and 7-year-old Italian children with SLI produce fewer third-person DO clitics than same-age peers. The kind of responses they provide changes: at 5 years, children with SLI tend to omit clitics, while at 7 years, they use a full noun. Production of third-person DO clitics is a persistent challenge for children with SLI and is confirmed to be a good clinical marker both at 5 and 7 years of age.

  4. Mentally-Retarded Children of a Pre-School Age and the Development of Movement Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Morávková, Šárka

    2006-01-01

    The diploma work covers the issues of children with mental retardation in pre-school age aimed to the development of the movement abilities. It focuses on the relationships between the pre-school child with mental retardation and possibilities of developing its motor skills in context of an organized pre-school education. Theoretical part of the Diploma work indicates the development specifics of the indi- vidual due to mental retardation, describes mainly the movement development of the chil...

  5. Factors affecting nocturnal enuresis amongst school-aged children: brief report

    OpenAIRE

    Ashrafalsadat Hakim; Farshid Kompani; Mohammad Bahadoram

    2015-01-01

    Enuresis is the inability to control urination during sleep. It is one of the most common childhood urologic disorders. Nocturnal enuresis refers to the occurrence of involuntary voiding at night after 5 years. Persistent nocturia can decrease self-esteem, increase anxiety and other emotional problems in children. The aim of this study is to evaluate the factors affecting nocturia amongst school-aged children. Methods: This cross- sectional study was conducted on 200 children over a period...

  6. [An epidemiological survey of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in school-age children in Shenzhen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ke-Ying; Gao, Mei-Hao; Yang, Chun-He; Zhang, Jia-Nan; Chen, Yan-Zhao; Song, Jin-Zhi; Zhuang, Yan-Yun; Zhang, Xiao-Yuan; Zhang, Wei; Wen, Fei-Qiu

    2012-09-01

    To investigate the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and behavior problems among school-age children in Shenzhen City of Guangdong. A total of 10553 students in Grades 1-6 from different primary schools in Shenzhen City were assessed by Conners Parent Symptom Questionnaire (PSQ) and Conners Teacher Rating Scale (TRS). Children showing abnormalities according to PSQ or TRS were further assessed according to the diagnostic standard for ADHD as laid out in the diagnostic and statistical manual for mental disorders- 4th edition (DSM-Ⅳ). A total of 8193 PSQ and TRS assessments were completed. The children were aged from 7 to 13 years. The total prevalence rate was 7.60% by PSQ and 5.59 % by TRS. Four hundred and forty-two children were diagnosed having ADHD by DSM-Ⅳ, with a prevalence rate of 5.39%. There were significant differences in the prevalence rate of ADHD among children aged 7 to 13 years (χ2=21.613, PADHD in boys was significantly higher than in girls (6.65% vs 3.12%; PADHD. The prevalence of learning disorders was higher in girls than in boys. Conclusions The prevalence rate of ADHD in children from primary schools in Shenzhen City is 5.39%, and it is higher in children aged 7 to 9 years. Boys have a higher prevalence rates of ADHD than girls. Impulsion and hyperactivity, learning and conduct disorders are common problems in children with ADHD.

  7. Visual search in school-aged children with unilateral brain lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netelenbos, J.B.; de Rooij, L.

    2004-01-01

    In this preliminary study, visual search for targets within and beyond the initial field of view was investigated in seven school-aged children (five females, two males; mean age at testing 8 years 10 months, SD 1 year 3 months; range 6 to 10 years) with various acquired, postnatal, focal brain

  8. The Evaluation of a Personal Narrative Language Intervention for School-Age Children with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finestack, Lizbeth; O'Brien, Katy H.; Hyppa-Martin, Jolene; Lyrek, Kristen A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of an intervention focused on improving personal narrative skills of school-age children with Down syndrome (DS) using an approach involving visual supports. Four females with DS, ages 10 through 15 years, participated in this multiple baseline across participants single-subject…

  9. Development of Daily Activities in School-Age Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Dirk-Wouter; Ketelaar, Marjolijn; Gorter, Jan Willem; van Schie, Petra; Dallmeijer, Annet; Jongmans, Marian; Lindeman, Eline

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the course of capabilities in self-care, mobility, and social function in school-age children with cerebral palsy (CP) and to investigate associations with CP-, child-, and family-characteristics. A clinic-based sample of children with CP (n = 116; 76 males, 40 females; mean age 6 y 3 mo, SD 12 mo) was…

  10. Decrease of Bullying Behavior in Children Age School Based on Cognitive Behaviour Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Indah Iswanti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The violence that occurs in education is known as bullying. Violence can occur in mild degrees such as cheating on exams, to fights or beatings that result in death. Bullying in children often leads to school phobias (ask for school change, reduced learning concentration, decreased learning achievement, and likes to carry certain items. Interventions that can be done include Problem Solving Therapy (PST, Behavior Modification (behavior modification, and Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT. The purpose of this study was to produce CBT modules in school-aged children that were useful for reducing bullying behavior, using a pre-post test with control group design. The subject of this research is 52 elementary school age children in Tembalang District Semarang selected by purposive sampling technique. Data were collected using bullying behavior checklist, CBT module and workbook, then analyzed using T-Test. The results showed a decrease in bullying behavior in the intervention group after CBT Individual therapy was given.

  11. Amblyopia and refractive errors among school-aged children with low socioeconomic status in southeastern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caca, Ihsan; Cingu, Abdullah Kursat; Sahin, Alparslan; Ari, Seyhmus; Dursun, Mehmet Emin; Dag, Umut; Balsak, Selahattin; Alakus, Fuat; Yavuz, Abdullah; Palanci, Yilmaz

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of refractive errors and other eye diseases, incidence and types of amblyopia in school-aged children, and their relation to gender, age, parental education, and socioeconomic factors. A total of 21,062 children 6 to 14 years old were screened. The examination included visual acuity measurements and ocular motility evaluation. Autorefraction under cycloplegia and examination of the external eye, anterior segment, media, and fundus were performed. There were 11,118 females and 9,944 males. The average age was 10.56 ± 3.59 years. When all of the children were evaluated, 3.2% had myopia and 5.9% had hyperopia. Astigmatism 0.50 D or greater was present in 14.3% of children. Myopia was associated with older age, female gender, and higher parental education. Hyperopia was inversely proportional with older age. Spectacles were needed in 4,476 (22.7%) children with refractive errors, and 10.6% of children were unaware of their spectacle needs. Amblyopia was detected in 2.6% of all children. The most common causes of amblyopia were anisometropia (1.2%) and strabismus (0.9%). Visual impairment is a common disorder in school-aged children. Eye health screening programs are beneficial in early detection and proper treatment of refractive errors. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Socioeconomic and Behavioral Characteristics Associated With Metabolic Syndrome Among Overweight/Obese School-age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Ok Kyung

    Obesity in children comprises a significant public health concern in Korea. As with increased prevalence of overweight and obesity among children, risk factors for metabolic syndrome (MetS) have also increased in this population. The purpose was to examine behavioral and socioeconomic factors that were associated with biomarkers of MetS among overweight/obese school-age children. A cross-sectional study was conducted, and a convenience sample of 75 overweight/obese school-age children participated. Socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics, anthropometric measurements, and physiologic examinations were studied. The data were analyzed using an analysis of covariance and logistic regression. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 27.8% of our population. Severe stress was significantly associated with elevated systolic blood pressure (P family characteristics, children's perception of family income (wealthy and very wealthy) and mother's education level (high school or less) were associated with diagnoses of MetS in children (P < .05). The results indicated that certain socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics were associated with risk factors of MetS, and therefore, interventions to modify these risk factors are needed to promote the healthy development of overweight/obese school-age children.

  13. Helminthiasis among School Age Children in Osogbo Municipality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The infections were school dependent, public schools have significantly higher prevalence (p<0.05) than the private school studied. After a single dose of Levamisole treatment, (21%) of the subjects with intestinal helminthes voided and submitted A. lumbricoides adult worms. This study shows low standard of sanitation ...

  14. Functional performance of school children diagnosed with developmental delay up to two years of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornelas, Lílian de Fátima; Magalhães, Lívia de Castro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To compare the functional performance of students diagnosed with developmental delay (DD) up to two years of age with peers exhibiting typical development. Methods: Cross-sectional study with functional performance assessment of children diagnosed with DD up to two years of age compared to those with typical development at seven to eight years of age. Each group consisted of 45 children, selected by non-random sampling, evaluated for motor skills, quality of home environment, school participation and performance. ANOVA and the Binomial test for two proportions were used to assess differences between groups. Results: The group with DD had lower motor skills when compared to the typical group. While 66.7% of children in the typical group showed adequate school participation, receiving aid in cognitive and behavioral tasks similar to that offered to other children at the same level, only 22.2% of children with DD showed the same performance. Although 53.3% of the children with DD achieved an academic performance expected for the school level, there were limitations in some activities. Only two indicators of family environment, diversity and activities with parents at home, showed statistically significant difference between the groups, with advantage being shown for the typical group. Conclusions: Children with DD have persistent difficulties at school age, with motor deficit, restrictions in school activity performance and low participation in the school context, as well as significantly lower functional performance when compared to children without DD. A systematic monitoring of this population is recommended to identify needs and minimize future problems. PMID:26553573

  15. Functional performance of school children diagnosed with developmental delay up to two years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian de Fátima Dornelas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To compare the functional performance of students diagnosed with developmental delay (DD up to two years of age with peers exhibiting typical development. Methods: Cross-sectional study with functional performance assessment of children diagnosed with DD up to two years of age compared to those with typical development at seven to eight years of age. Each group consisted of 45 children, selected by non-random sampling, evaluated for motor skills, quality of home environment, school participation and performance. ANOVA and the Binomial test for two proportions were used to assess differences between groups. Results: The group with DD had lower motor skills when compared to the typical group. While 66.7% of children in the typical group showed adequate school participation, receiving aid in cognitive and behavioral tasks similar to that offered to other children at the same level, only 22.2% of children with DD showed the same performance. Although 53.3% of the children with DD achieved an academic performance expected for the school level, there were limitations in some activities. Only two indicators of family environment, diversity and activities with parents at home, showed statistically significant difference between the groups, with advantage being shown for the typical group. Conclusions: Children with DD have persistent difficulties at school age, with motor deficit, restrictions in school activity performance and low participation in the school context, as well as significantly lower functional performance when compared to children without DD. A systematic monitoring of this population is recommended to identify needs and minimize future problems.

  16. [Functional performance of school children diagnosed with developmental delay up to two years of age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornelas, Lílian de Fátima; Magalhães, Lívia de Castro

    2016-01-01

    To compare the functional performance of students diagnosed with developmental delay (DD) up to two years of age with peers exhibiting typical development. Cross-sectional study with functional performance assessment of children diagnosed with DD up to two years of age compared to those with typical development at seven to eight years of age. Each group consisted of 45 children, selected by non-random sampling, evaluated for motor skills, quality of home environment, school participation and performance. ANOVA and the Binomial test for two proportions were used to assess differences between groups. The group with DD had lower motor skills when compared to the typical group. While 66.7% of children in the typical group showed adequate school participation, receiving aid in cognitive and behavioral tasks similar to that offered to other children at the same level, only 22.2% of children with DD showed the same performance. Although 53.3% of the children with DD achieved an academic performance expected for the school level, there were limitations in some activities. Only two indicators of family environment, diversity and activities with parents at home, showed statistically significant difference between the groups, with advantage being shown for the typical group. Children with DD have persistent difficulties at school age, with motor deficit, restrictions in school activity performance and low participation in the school context, as well as significantly lower functional performance when compared to children without DD. A systematic monitoring of this population is recommended to identify needs and minimize future problems. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. [Television publicity and food preferences of school age children of the metropolitan region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, S; Albala, C; García, F; Jofré, I

    1999-07-01

    There is an alarming increase in the prevalence of child obesity in Chile. Lack of exercise and bad feeding habits strongly strongly contribute to the problem. To investigate the influence of television publicity on school age children food preferences. A semi structured interview was applied to a representative sample of 786 school age children aged 6 to 11 years old, living in Metropolitan Santiago. Time watching television during week days and the attitude towards food and beverage commercials was analyzed and related to food preferences. Ninety nine percent of school age children watch television during week days and 20% watches more the three hours daily. Snack commercials such as those about potato chips, chocolates, cookies and ice cream, are preferred by 35% of children. Soda commercials are preferred by 33% and yoghurt commercials by 12%. Eighty five percent of children had money to buy food. Of these, 66% bought snacks, 15% bought sodas and 7% yoghurt. The same tendency was observed in school collations. The high percentage of children, watching television and the influence of commercials in their food preferences, requires an urgent educational strategy to promote healthy feeding habits.

  18. Predictors of Language Gains among School-Age Children with Language Impairment in the Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Laura M.; Jiang, Hui; Logan, Jessica A.; Schmitt, Mary Beth

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to identify child-level characteristics that predict gains in language skills for children with language impairment who were receiving therapy within the public schools. The therapy provided represented business-as-usual speech/language treatment provided by speech-language pathologists in the public schools. Method: The…

  19. Prospective thinking and decision making in primary school age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Lombardi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we seek to widen our understanding of the developmental processes underlying bargaining behaviour in children addressing the concept of prospective thinking. We argue that the emergence of the capacity to think prospectively about future outcomes or behaviours in response to current actions is a required precedent to strategic decision making. To test this idea, we compared 6, 8 and 10 years old children’s performance on three tasks: the ultimatum game assessing fairness/inequality aversion, the marshmallow task, an intertemporal choice task evaluating the ability to delay gratification, and the dictator game assessing altruism. The children’s socio-demographic and cognitive variables were also evaluated. We hypothesized that development of strategic thinking in the ultimatum game is related to an increased ability to delay gratification − given that both tasks require looking at prospective benefits − and, crucially, not to altruism, which benefits from immediate selfless reward. Our results confirmed our hypothesis suggesting that increased strategic planning with age would also stem from the development of competencies like prospective thinking. Keywords: Psychology, Education

  20. Clinical Characteristics and Low Vision Rehabilitation Methods for Partially Sighted School-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özen Tunay, Zuhal; Çalışkan, Deniz; İdil, Aysun; Öztuna, Derya

    2016-04-01

    To determine the clinical features and the distribution of diagnosis in partially sighted school-age children, to report the chosen low vision rehabilitation methods and to emphasize the importance of low vision rehabilitation. The study included 150 partially sighted children between the ages of 6 and 18 years. The distribution of diagnosis, accompanying ocular findings, visual acuity of the children both for near and distance with and without low vision devices, and the methods of low vision rehabilitation (for distance and for near) were determined. The demographic characteristics of the children and the parental consanguinity were recorded. The mean age of children was 10.6 years and the median age was 10 years; 88 (58.7%) of them were male and 62 (41.3%) of them were female. According to distribution of diagnoses among the children, the most frequent diagnosis was hereditary fundus dystrophies (36%) followed by cortical visual impairment (18%). The most frequently used rehabilitation methods were: telescopic lenses (91.3%) for distance vision; magnifiers (38.7%) and telemicroscopic systems (26.0%) for near vision. A significant improvement in visual acuity both for distance and near vision were determined with low vision aids. A significant improvement in visual acuity can be achieved both for distance and near vision with low vision rehabilitation in partially sighted school-age children. It is important for ophthalmologists and pediatricians to guide parents and children to low vision rehabilitation.

  1. Social Adversity and Regional Differences in Prescribing of ADHD Medication for School-Age Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildemoes, Helle Wallach; Skovgaard, Anne Mette; Thielen, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To explore whether regional variations in the initiation of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication among school-age children are explained by differences in sociodemographic composition and/or ADHD prescribing practice, especially in children who face social...... adversity (low parental education and single parenthood). Methods: A cohort of Danish school-age children (ages 5–17) without previous psychiatric conditions (N = 813,416) was followed during 2010–2011 for incident ADHD prescribing in the individual-level Danish registers. Register information was retrieved...... for both children and their parents. Regional differences were decomposed into contributions from differences in sociodemographic composition and in prescribing practices. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) of ADHD prescribing were calculated using demographically standardized...

  2. Assessing attachment in school-aged children: Do the School-Age Assessment of Attachment and Family Drawings work together as complementary tools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr-Hopkins, Rebecca; De Burca, Calem; Aldridge, Felicity A

    2017-07-01

    Our goal was to identify an assessment package that could improve treatment planning for troubled children and their families. To assess the validity of our tools, we tested the relations among the School-Age Assessment of Attachment, the Family Drawing and children's risk status. We used the Dynamic-Maturational Model of Attachment and Adaptation to interpret the assessments in the hope of identifying a gradient of risk, and explore whether a new coding method improved the validity of Family Drawings and their utility as a tool to complement the School-Age Assessment of Attachment. The participants were 89 children, aged between 5 and 12 years; 32 children were involved with mental health services or child protection. Each child completed a School-Age Assessment of Attachment and a Family Drawing. Both assessments differentiated between clinical and normative referrals with moderate effect sizes when dichotomizing risk versus non-risk attachment. When the analysis incorporated a gradient of six attachment classifications, the effect sizes decreased, but specificity of risk increased. The School-Age Assessment of Attachment had greater validity for discriminating risk, and type of risk, than the Family Drawings. With a School-Age Assessment of Attachment and family history, the Family Drawing can provide information about distress that some children do not provide verbally. Integration of the two assessment tools alongside information about parental and family functioning appears to be the key to formulating children's problems.

  3. The Analysis of Nutritional Predictors of Anemia Combined with Obesity in Primary School-Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekulic Marija R.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The consumption and amounts of a variety of food products used in a diet affect the incidence of anemia and different levels of nutritional status among school-age children. The prevalence of food intake comprised of fats, carbohydrates and sodium (salt is a significant contributing factor to the incidence of excessive weight. Apart from nutrition, a leisure-time physical activity and the time spent in front of the TV or computer may contribute to an increase in anemia and obesity rates. The objective of this paper was to examine nutritional status, dietary habits and anemia among school-age children in the central Serbia region (the city of Kragujevac. It was established that 47.3% of the surveyed children fell into the normal weight group, 24.5% of the children are considered to be at risk of being overweight, 21.4 % of the children are considered as obese, whereas 6.8% of the children fell into the under-weight group. The incidence of anemia was noted in 10.8% of the cases, whereas anemia in obese children was observed in 21.6% of the cases (n=114; during the school year of 2014-2015. The obtained results show a statistically significant correlation between an increase in the consumption of fast food and anemia in children, whereas the amount of time children spend in front of the TV is also associated with the higher percentage of anemia and obesity.

  4. Postoperative pain management experiences among school-aged children: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sng, Qian Wen; Taylor, Beverley; Liam, Joanne Lw; Klainin-Yobas, Piyanee; Wang, Wenru; He, Hong-Gu

    2013-04-01

    To explore postoperative pain management experiences among school-aged children. Ineffective postoperative pain management among children has been commonly reported. School-aged children are able to evaluate how their pain is managed and what their preferred strategies are. Most studies in pain management have adopted quantitative methods and have overlooked children's pain management experiences. This is a qualitative study using face-to-face interviews. Data were collected from 15 school-aged children admitted to a tertiary hospital in Singapore by in-depth interviews conducted between November 2010 and January 2011. Data were analysed by thematic analysis. Five themes were identified: children's self-directed actions to relieve their postoperative pain (e.g. using cognitive-behavioural methods of distraction and imagery, physical method of positioning, sleeping and drinking, seeking other people's help by informing parents and crying and using pain medications); children's perceptions of actions parents take for their postoperative pain relief (assessing pain, administering pain medications, using various cognitive-behavioural, physical methods and emotional support strategies, assisting in activities and alerting health professionals); children's perception of actions nurses take for their postoperative pain relief (administering medication, using cognitive-behavioural methods, emotional support strategies and helping with activities of daily living) and suggestions for parents (using distraction and presence) and nurses (administering medications, distraction and positioning) for their postoperative pain relief improvement. This study contributed to the existing knowledge about children's postoperative pain management based on their own experiences. Children, their parents and nurses used various strategies, including pain medication and non-pharmacological methods, especially distraction, for children's postoperative pain relief. This study provides evidence

  5. Association between parents' attitudes and behaviors toward children's visual care and myopia risk in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuang; Yang, Lihua; Lu, Benlin; Wang, Hexin; Xu, Ting; Du, Dandan; Wu, Shiqing; Li, Xiuxiu; Lu, Meixia

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this survey was to determine the association of parents' attitudes and behaviors toward children's visual care with myopia risk in school-aged children.A total of 894 parents of school-aged children were investigated in primary and middle schools in the central and noncentral urban area in Wuhan through stratified cluster random sampling on July, 2015. We analyzed the association by the generalized linear mixed model.The results indicated that children with parents' high expectations of 1.5 or higher on their vision exhibited a decreased risk of myopia compared with 1.0 and 0.5 or lower (OR = 0.49, 95%CI = 0.36-0.67). Children whose parents only paid attention to their vision in junior and senior school and in primary school had an increased myopia risk than that in preschool (OR = 2.12, 95%CI = 1.01-4.45, and OR = 3.11, 95%CI = 1.28-7.58, respectively). Children whose parents ensured for their sufficient sleep had a decreased myopia risk (OR = 0.45, 95%CI = 0.24-0.85). Compared with children whose parents who never adjusted electronic devices' parameters, the odds ratio of sometimes was 0.49 (95%CI = 0.31-0.79), often 0.53 (95%CI = 0.33-0.85), and always 0.44 (95%CI = 0.26-0.75), respectively.Parents' attitudes and behaviors toward children's visual care are significantly associated with the myopia risk in school-aged children. Consequently, efforts should be made to educate parents on how they protect children's vision and reduce their risk of myopia. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Vital signs: sodium intake among U.S. school-aged children - 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogswell, Mary E; Yuan, Keming; Gunn, Janelle P; Gillespie, Cathleen; Sliwa, Sarah; Galuska, Deborah A; Barrett, Jan; Hirschman, Jay; Moshfegh, Alanna J; Rhodes, Donna; Ahuja, Jaspreet; Pehrsson, Pamela; Merritt, Robert; Bowman, Barbara A

    2014-09-12

    A national health objective is to reduce average U.S. sodium intake to 2,300 mg daily to help prevent high blood pressure, a major cause of heart disease and stroke. Identifying common contributors to sodium intake among children can help reduction efforts. Average sodium intake, sodium consumed per calorie, and proportions of sodium from food categories, place obtained, and eating occasion were estimated among 2,266 school-aged (6–18 years) participants in What We Eat in America, the dietary intake component of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009–2010. U.S. school-aged children consumed an estimated 3,279 mg of sodium daily with the highest total intake (3,672 mg/d) and intake per 1,000 kcal (1,681 mg) among high school–aged children. Forty-three percent of sodium came from 10 food categories: pizza, bread and rolls, cold cuts/cured meats, savory snacks, sandwiches, cheese, chicken patties/nuggets/tenders, pasta mixed dishes, Mexican mixed dishes, and soups. Sixty-five percent of sodium intake came from store foods, 13% from fast food/pizza restaurants, 5% from other restaurants, and 9% from school cafeteria foods. Among children aged 14–18 years, 16% of total sodium intake came from fast food/pizza restaurants versus 11% among those aged 6–10 years or 11–13 years (plunch (29%), snacks (16%), and breakfast (15%). Sodium intake among school-aged children is much higher than recommended. Multiple food categories, venues, meals, and snacks contribute to sodium intake among school-aged children supporting the importance of populationwide strategies to reduce sodium intake. New national nutrition standards are projected to reduce the sodium content of school meals by approximately 25%–50% by 2022. Based on this analysis, if there is no replacement from other sources, sodium intake among U.S. school-aged children will be reduced by an average of about 75–150 mg per day and about 220–440 mg on days children consume school meals.

  7. Health maintenance in school-aged children: Part I. History, physical examination, screening, and immunizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Margaret; Locke, Amy B; Skye, Eric P

    2011-03-15

    The goals of the well-child examination in school-aged children (kindergarten through early adolescence) are promoting health, detecting disease, and counseling to prevent injury and future health problems. A complete history should address any concerns from the patient and family and screen for lifestyle habits, including diet, physical activity, daily screen time (e.g., television, computer, video games), hours of sleep per night, dental care, and safety habits. School performance can be used for developmental surveillance. A full physical examination should be performed; however, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends against routine scoliosis screening and testicular examination. Children should be screened for obesity, which is defined as a body mass index at or above the 95th percentile for age and sex, and resources for comprehensive, intensive behavioral interventions should be provided to children with obesity. Although the evidence is mixed regarding screening for hypertension before 18 years of age, many experts recommend checking blood pressure annually beginning at three years of age. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends vision and hearing screening annually or every two years in school-aged children. There is insufficient evidence to recommend screening for dyslipidemia in children of any age, or screening for depression before 12 years of age. All children should receive at least 400 IU of vitamin D daily, with higher doses indicated in children with vitamin D deficiency. Children who live in areas with inadequate fluoride in the water (less than 0.6 ppm) should receive a daily fluoride supplement. Age-appropriate immunizations should be given, as well as any missed immunizations.

  8. INCIDENCE OF STUTTERING IN SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN WITH DOWN SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevzeta SALIHOVIĆ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to examine the incidence (frequency and stuttering severity in the school-age children with Down syndrome. The sample was consisted of 37 school-age children with Down syndrome, both male and female. The study was conducted in the following institutions: Institute of Special Education and Rehabilitation for Children with Intellectual Disabilities "Mjedenica"; Centre for Education, Training and Employment of Mentally Retarded Children, Children with Autism and Cerebral palsy "Vladimir Nazor" in Sarajevo; Primary School of Special Education „Zenica“; Primary school "Kovačići" Sarajevo; "Association of United Civic Actions – DUGA" in Sarajevo; and The Association "Be my friend" in Ilijaš. All of the subjects were individually examined. The results showed that 13,51 % of the children with Down syndrome stuttered, and the total result of stuttering severity indicates a moderate stuttering. These results show that children with Down syndrome should be enrolled intensively in speech therapy in order to help them overcome their stuttering, to facilitate their everyday communication and to teach them how to cope with stuttering.

  9. Comparison of Nutritional Status Among, Flood Affected and Unaffected School Aged Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohsin, S.N.; Aasim, M.; Ghous, R.; Fatima, M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Natural disasters like floods affect large human populations by not only displacing them temporarily but also poses nutritional issues to women and children. Objectives: To determine the long term effects of floods, on the nutritional status of school going children in Pakistan. Study design, settings and duration: A cross sectional study which was conducted in public schools of district Nowshera which is a large district of province Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan from February 2012 to March 2014. Subjects and Methods: A total of 353 children aged 6-14 years were enrolled. There were 190 children from flood affected areas and 163 controls from unaffected areas. Using height, weight, age and gender, malnutrition indicators like acute malnutrition, chronic malnutrition and underweight were calculated to evaluate effect of flood on these children after 20 months of the calamity. Weight for age (WAZ) was used to measure underweight, height for age (HAZ) to measure stunted growth, and weight for height (WHZ) to measure wasting or acute malnutrition. The malnutrition indicators which were positively associated with floods were further evaluated for associated factors. Results The frequency of acute malnutrition or wasting (WHZ) among flood affected children was 23.7 percent as compared to 16.5 percent among unaffected children while the frequency of underweight (WAZ) in flood affected areas was 42.1 percent as against 36.8 percent in unaffected areas (both were not significant). The frequency of chronic malnutrition or stunting (AZ) was 35.8 percent in affected and 27.6 percent in unaffected children (p< 0.041) and was the only positively associated indicator with exposure to floods. Factors associated with chronic malnutrition were age of the child, maternal education, history of fever, administration of de-worming medication and diarrhea. Conclusion: Floods had a long term effect on nutritional status of school aged children as shown by chronic malnutrition

  10. Limited access to special education services for school-aged children with developmental delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twardzik, Erica; Smit, Ellen; Hatfield, Bridget; Odden, Michelle C; Dixon-Ibarra, Alicia; MacDonald, Megan

    2018-01-01

    Current policy in Oregon limits eligibility of children diagnosed with developmental delay for school-based services. Due to eligibility definitions, children with developmental delay may face additional barriers transitioning from early intervention/early childhood special education into school-based special education services. Examine the relationship between enrollment in school-based special education programs given a change in primary disability diagnosis. Logistic regression models were fit for children who enrolled in early intervention/early childhood special education services with a primary disability diagnosis of developmental delay and changed primary disability diagnosis before third grade (n=5076). Odds of enrollment in future special education were greater in children with a change in primary disability diagnosis after the age of five in comparison to children that had a change in primary disability diagnosis before the age of five, while adjusting for demographic characteristics (adjusted odds ratio: 2.37, 95% CI 1.92, 2.92). Results suggest that children who are diagnosed with a developmental delay and exit early childhood special education due to maximum age of eligibility are more likely to enroll in special education compared to children without a gap in service access. Gaps in service access during early development are associated with the need for supportive services later on in life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Care and supportive measures in school-aged children with prenatal substance exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandtorv, Lisbeth B; Haugland, Siren; Elgen, Irene

    2017-12-01

    Prenatal exposure to substances, including alcohol, opiates, and a number of illicit drugs, may have a negative impact on fetal development. Studies have shown that substance exposure can influence a child's neurodevelopment and the need for care and supportive measures. In this study, we aimed to investigate the care status and the level of supportive measures in school-aged children prenatally exposed to alcohol and other substances. This study included children aged between 6 and 14 years who were referred to Haukeland University Hospital in Norway with developmental impairment and a history of prenatal substance exposure. Participants were classified according to their main prenatal exposure to either alcohol or other substances. Information on care status and supportive measures was obtained from medical records and participants' caregivers. We also compared the use of supportive measures for children placed into foster care before and after 1 year of age. A total of 111 (87% of 128 referrals) eligible children participated in the study. Of these 111 children, 96 (86%) were in foster care, of whom 29 (30%) were placed into foster care during their first year of life and 83 out of 90 (92%) had supportive measures, including reinforced foster care and school or social support. A high proportion of the sample lived in foster care and received supportive measures. Findings may reflect an increased need of care and support in school-aged children with prenatal substance exposure, highlighting the importance of awareness among caregivers and public agencies.

  12. Psychological disturbance in atopic eczema: the extent of the problem in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absolon, C M; Cottrell, D; Eldridge, S M; Glover, M T

    1997-08-01

    Although psychological factors are widely considered to be important in atopic eczema, there have been few controlled studies to assess the extent of disturbance in affected children and the problems experienced by their parents. This study was designed to find out the degree of psychological difficulty experienced by children with atopic eczema, whether their mothers show higher levels of mental distress than a comparison group, and whether the families of children with atopic eczema have less social support than the comparison group. We investigated 30 school-aged children with atopic eczema for psychological problems using the Rutter parent scale and compared them with 30 children with relatively minor skin lesions such as viral warts. Mental distress in mothers was assessed using the General Health Questionnaire. The Family Support Scale was used to get a measure of the social support experienced by the families. We found twice the rate of psychological disturbance in children in the eczema group compared with the control group. This difference was statistically significant for children with moderately severe eczema and severe eczema, but not for children with very mild eczema. Levels of mental distress were no greater in mothers of children with eczema than in parents of the control group and there was no difference in the degree of social support experienced by their families. These findings indicate that school-aged children with moderate and severe atopic eczema are at high risk of developing psychological difficulties, which may have implications for their academic and social development.

  13. Working memory in school-age children with and without a persistent speech sound disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Kelly; Hogan, Tiffany P; Bernthal, John E

    2017-03-17

    The aim of this study was to explore the role of working memory processes as a possible cognitive underpinning of persistent speech sound disorders (SSD). Forty school-aged children were enrolled; 20 children with persistent SSD (P-SSD) and 20 typically developing children. Children participated in three working memory tasks - one to target each of the components in Baddeley's working memory model: phonological loop, visual spatial sketchpad and central executive. Children with P-SSD performed poorly only on the phonological loop tasks compared to their typically developing age-matched peers. However, mediation analyses revealed that the relation between working memory and a P-SSD was reliant upon nonverbal intelligence. These results suggest that co-morbid low-average nonverbal intelligence are linked to poor working memory in children with P-SSD. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.

  14. Life habits of school-aged children with specific language impairment as perceived by their parents and by school professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau, Claire; McMahon-Morin, Paméla; Morin, Claudia; Jutras, Benoît; Trudeau, Natacha; Le Dorze, Guylaine

    2015-01-01

    Describe social participation of a group of children with specific language impairment. 26 parents of children with specific language impairment (SLI) aged from 5 to 13 years and 11 school professionals participated in the study. Data collection was performed with the adapted version for children aged from 5 to 13 years old of the Assessment of Life Habits (Fougeyrollas et al., 2001). The questionnaire encompasses 196 life habits, grouped in 12 dimensions: nutrition, fitness, personal care, communication, housing, mobility, responsibilities, interpersonal relationships, community life, education, work and recreation (Fougeyrollas, 2010). According to their parents and school professionals, children in this study carried out without difficulty life habits related to housing and mobility. However, they experienced difficulty with life habits related to interpersonal relationships, recreation and responsibilities, in addition to communication and education. Children with SLI are perceived by their parents and school professionals as having reduced social participation in many aspects of their daily life. Social participation should be considered as a major outcome when offering services in school to these children. This study proposes specific ways to help children with SLI. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Lifestyle intervention as a treatment for obesity in school-age-children in Celaya, Guanajuato: An experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolas Padilla-Raygoza; Rosalina Diaz-Guerrero; Ma. Laura Ruiz-Paloalto

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Obesity is a risk factor in chronic diseases, and its frequency among children in Mexico is increasing. Objective: To determine the effect of lifestyle intervention as a treatment for obesity in school-age-children from Celaya, Mexico.Methodology: For this experimental study, four schools were randomly selected. Children and parents participated voluntarily and signed consent forms. Two schools were chosen as the experimental group and the other two formed the control group. Age...

  16. Bangladeshi school-age children's experiences and perceptions on child maltreatment: A qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiqul Haque, M; Janson, S; Moniruzzaman, S; Rahman, A K M F; Mashreky, S R; Eriksson, U-B

    2017-11-01

    Child maltreatment (CM) is a public health problem and is recognized as a huge barrier for child development. Most of the research and definitions on CM are from the perspective of high-income western countries. Because no major studies have been conducted on CM in Bangladesh, the aim of the current study was to explore the experiences of and perceptions on CM in school-age children in rural and urban Bangladesh in order to understand maltreatment in a local context and from a child perspective. Semistructured individual interviews with 24 children (13 boys and 11 girls), between the ages of 9 and 13 years of which 11 were schoolgoing and 13 non-schoolgoing, were conducted during July 2013 and analysed according to qualitative content analysis. CM was a common and painful experience with serious physical and emotional consequences but highly accepted by the society. Vulnerable groups were especially young children, girls, and poor children. The children's voices were not heard due to their low status and low position in their families, schools, and working places. The main theme that emerged in the analysis was children's subordination, which permeated the five categories: (a) perception of children's situation in society, (b) understanding children's development and needs, (c) CM associated to school achievement, (d) negative impact of CM, and (e) emotional responses. Different kinds of abuse are obviously common in Bangladesh, and the schools do not follow the law from 2011 prohibiting corporal punishment at school. The society has to take further steps to live up to the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, which was ratified already in 1990, to protect the Bangladeshi children from CM. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Health Effects of Digital Textbooks on School-Age Children: A Grounded Theory Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Seomun, GA; Lee, JA; Kim, EY; Im, MY; Kim, M; Park, SA; Lee, Y

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study used the grounded theory approach to analyze digital textbook-related health experiences of school-age children. In-depth interviews were held with 40 elementary school students who had used digital textbooks for at least a year. Data analysis revealed a total of 56 concepts, 20 subcategories, and 11 categories related to digital textbook health issues, the central phenomena being "health-related experiences." Students' health-related experiences were classified into "p...

  18. Obesity increases metabolic syndrome risk factors in school-aged children from an urban school in Mexico city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perichart-Perera, Otilia; Balas-Nakash, Margie; Schiffman-Selechnik, Esther; Barbato-Dosal, Annarella; Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe

    2007-01-01

    To characterize the nutritional status of school-aged children from an urban public school in Mexico City, Mexico, and to assess the influence of obesity on health status in a subgroup of these children. Cross-sectional descriptive study. A nutrition screening was done for all children, including anthropometric (ie, weight, height, and waist circumference) and blood pressure assessment. In the subgroup of children, complementary dietary and biochemical assessment (ie, glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, insulin, albumin, hemoglobin, and hematocrit levels) was done. Children from an urban school in Mexico City (N=561) aged 6 to 13 years. The representative subgroup (n=88) was selected based on age (9 to 12 years) and weight status (ie, normal, overweight, or obese). Descriptive statistics, correlations, mean differences tests (analysis of variance, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U), and chi(2) tests (categorical variables) were done with SPSS version 13 (2005, SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL). In the whole school, overweight and obesity prevalence were 27.1% and 21.4%, respectively. High systolic blood pressure was seen in 8.4% of children and 6.2% of children had prehypertension. Higher hypertension risk was seen in children with body mass index > or =95th percentile and waist circumference > or =90th percentile (88 cm). Significantly higher waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, insulin resistance indexes, and triglyceride levels were found among the obese when compared with normal-weight children. Childhood obesity prevalence is high in Mexico and it is having an influence on children's health. It is urgent to design, implement, and evaluate specific childhood obesity prevention programs.

  19. Psychosocial coping resources in elementary school-age children of divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, L

    1994-10-01

    The psychosocial coping resources of elementary school-age children living in the sole custody of a divorced single parent were compared with those of their peers living with nondivorced parents. Children of divorced parents were found to have lower levels of self-efficacy, self-esteem, and social support, and less effectual coping styles. Contact with the noncustodial parent was found to have a positive influence on their attitudes toward divorce.

  20. Preliminary data suggesting the efficacy of attention training for school-aged children with ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Peugh, James L.; Nakonezny, Paul A.; Hughes, Carroll W.

    2013-01-01

    A pilot randomized clinical trial was conducted to examine the initial efficacy of Pay Attention!, an intervention training sustained, selective, alternating, and divided attention, in children diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). After a diagnostic and baseline evaluation, school-aged children with ADHD were randomized to receive 16 bi-weekly sessions of Pay Attention! (n = 54) or to a waitlist control group (n = 51). Participants completed an outcome evaluation ap...

  1. Quality of Life, Motor Ability, and Weight Status among School-aged Children of Tehran

    OpenAIRE

    Khodaverdi, F; Bahram, A; Jafarabadi, M Asghari

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between health Related quality of life (HRQOL), motor ability and weight status in children. Methods: Two hundred forty children ages 9–11 yr who were selected via multi stage cluster sampling design from primary schools in the Shahre Qods at Tehran, Iran in 2007. HRQOL was assessed by the pediatric quality of life inventory (PedsQL). Motor abilities were determined by a Basic Motor Ability Test (BMAT). Body mass index was calculate...

  2. School Age Outcomes of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Who Received Community-Based Early Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinen, Zoe; Clark, Megan; Paynter, Jessica; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2018-05-01

    This study followed children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) from early intervention into their early schooling years, when they were aged between 6 and 9 years, on autism symptom severity and cognitive functioning. The children, matched at pre-intervention, were compared on type of community provided service: 31 were in receipt of community-based group Early Start Denver Model and 28 had received other community provisions for ASD. Irrespective of groups, cognitive functioning was found to have significantly improved by school age compared to pre-intervention. Autism symptom severity increased during the same developmental period, seemingly driven by an increase in restricted and repetitive behaviours over time. In contrast, both groups displayed improved social affect by school age.

  3. Impact of sociodemographic factors on cognitive function in school-aged HIV-infected Nigerian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyede, Gbemisola O; Lesi, Foluso Ea; Ezeaka, Veronica C; Umeh, Charles S

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we sought to evaluate the influence of sociodemographic factors, ie, age, sex, socioeconomic status, maternal education, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status, on cognitive performance in school-aged HIV-infected Nigerian children. Sixty-nine HIV-positive children aged 6-15 years were matched with 69 HIV-negative control children for age and sex. The children were subdivided for the purpose of analysis into two cognitive developmental stages using Piaget's staging, ie, the concrete operational stage (6-11 years) and the formal operational stage (12-15 years). All participants underwent cognitive assessment using Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (RPM). Sociodemographic data for the study participants, ie, age, sex, socioeconomic status, and level of maternal education, were obtained using a study proforma. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine associations of HIV status and sociodemographic characteristics with RPM cognitive scores. The overall mean RPM score for the HIV-positive children was 18.2 ± 9.8 (range 8.0-47.0) which was significantly lower than the score of 27.2 ± 13.8 (range 8.0-52.0) for the HIV-negative children (P < 0.001). On RPM grading, 56.5% of the HIV-positive children had cognitive performance at below average to intellectually defective range. Below average RPM scores were found to be significantly associated with younger age (6-11 years), positive HIV status, lower socioeconomic status, and low level of maternal education. Younger age, poor socioeconomic status, and low level of maternal education were factors apart from HIV infection that were significantly associated with low cognitive function in school-aged HIV-infected Nigerian children.

  4. [Effects of strontium in drinking water on the growth of school-age children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Y; Cao, S; Xu, F; Li, J

    1999-09-30

    An epidemiological study on the effect of strontium in drinking water on body shape development, bone age, prevalence of caries and dental fluorosis was carried out. The results show: there is a certain promotion on the development of bone age of school-age children, especially of girls, and there is no obvious impact on body shape developing when the concentration of strontium in drinking water is only 10 mg/L. The correlation between strontium in drinking water and the prevalence of caries in children could not get a conclusive evidence in this paper. A further epidemiological investigation is necessary if the role of strontium against caries should be proved.

  5. Development of morphosyntactic accuracy and grammatical complexity in Dutch school-age children with SLI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwitserlood, R.L.M.; Weerdenburg, M.W.C. van; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Wijnen, F.N.K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the development of morphosyntactic accuracy and grammatical complexity in Dutch school-age children with specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Morphosyntactic accuracy, the use of dummy auxiliaries, and complex syntax were assessed using a

  6. Development of morphosyntactic accuracy and grammatical complexity in dutch school-age children with SLI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwitserlood, Rob; van Weerdenburg, Marjolijn; Verhoeven, Ludo; Wijnen, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the development of morphosyntactic accuracy and grammatical complexity in Dutch school-age children with specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Morphosyntactic accuracy, the use of dummy auxiliaries, and complex syntax were assessed using a

  7. Work Experiences and Family Functioning among Employed Fathers with Children of School Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, Ulla; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Investigated how 657 fathers' job satisfaction and job stress were related to four domains: individual, parent-child, marital, and child. Results showed that the job affected all four domains. Job stress and job satisfaction were directly related to family functioning. Discusses implications for families with school-age children. (RJM)

  8. Functional Impairments at School Age of Children With Necrotizing Enterocolitis or Spontaneous Intestinal Perforation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roze, Elise; Ta, B.D.; van der Ree, Meike H.; Tanis, Jozien C.; van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Hulscher, Jan B. F.; Bos, Arend F.

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to determine motor, cognitive, and behavioral outcome at school age of children who had either necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) or spontaneous intestinal perforation (SIP). This case-control study included infants with NEC Bell's stage IIA onward, infants with SIP, and matched controls

  9. The Impact of Nutrition, Sedentary Behaviour and Lifestyle on School-Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantea-Stoian Anca

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. Diet and lifestyle in school-age children have a particularly large impact on health, as well as various consequences in future. The objective of this papers it to assess the relationship between lifestyle and daily diet and the effects of an unhealthy diet. Material and Methods. An observational cohort study was conducted in Bucharest, in three schools and one high school on 100 children, between 2011 and 2013. The criterion for inclusion was the appropriate age (school-age. The protocol consisted in clinical examination, body mass index (BMI calculation, questions about diet, physical activity and time spent watching television (TV. Results. Most children do not respect a schedule of meals and snacks (78%. Unhealthy diet (fast food, carbonated beverages, chocolate registered higher preferences. Mean TV time was 2.32 hours/day (SD=1.92 and a strong evidence on relationship between age and number of hours allocated to TV was discovered (p< .01. Four percent of children were found to be under the 5th percentile (underweight, 18% between 85th and 95th percentile (overweight and 14% above 95th percentile (obesity. Conclusions. A sedentary life in this case was mainly determined by the time spent daily in front of the television rather than lack of exercise.

  10. Ambiguous Loss and Posttraumatic Stress in School-Age Children of Prisoners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocknek, Erika London; Sanderson, Jessica; Britner, Preston A., IV

    2009-01-01

    We describe a sample of school-age children of incarcerated parents enrolled in a federally funded mentoring program. A mixed methods approach was applied to discern key themes related to caregiver incarceration. Results demonstrated a high prevalence of posttraumatic stress as well as high rates of internalizing and externalizing behaviors.…

  11. Obesity-Related Hormones in Low-Income Preschool-Age Children: Implications for School Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alison L.; Lumeng, Carey N.; Delproposto, Jennifer; Florek, Brian; Wendorf, Kristin; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2013-01-01

    Mechanisms underlying socioeconomic disparities in school readiness and health outcomes, particularly obesity, among preschool-aged children are complex and poorly understood. Obesity can induce changes in proteins in the circulation that contribute to the negative impact of obesity on health; such changes may relate to cognitive and emotion…

  12. High Prevalence of Vitamin A Deficiency in School Age Children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and fifty two children aged 6 to 12 years were randomly selected from10 out of 33 public primary schools in a Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria, to assess their plasma Vitamin A levels. Bessey's spectrophotometric method of ultraviolet destruction of vitamin A was used for determination of their ...

  13. Cognitive Motor Coordination Training Improves Mental Rotation Performance in Primary School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, Stefanie; Böttcher, Caroline; Jansen, Petra

    2017-01-01

    The long-term physical activity in specific sport activities can change the quality of mental rotation performance. This study investigates the influence of "Life Kinetik"--a motion program with tasks of cognition and motor coordination--on mental rotation performance of 44 primary school-aged children. While the experimental group…

  14. A Phonologically Based Intervention for School-Age Children with Language Impairment: Implications for Reading Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Michaela J.; Park, Jungjun; Saxon, Terrill F.; Colson, Karen A.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted utilizing a quasi-experimental pre- and postgroup design to examine the effects of a phonologically based intervention aimed to improve phonological awareness (PA) and reading abilities in school-age children with language impairment (LI) in Grades 1 through 3. The intervention included instruction in PA and sound-symbol…

  15. Overt and Relational Aggression in Russian Nursery-School-Age Children: Parenting Style and Marital Linkages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Craig H.; Nelson, David A.; Robinson, Clyde C.; Olsen, Susanne Frost; McNeilly-Choque, Mary Kay

    1998-01-01

    Maternal and paternal parenting styles and marital interactions linked to childhood aggressive behavior in Western psychological literature were measured in 207 ethnic Russian families of nursery-school-age children. Results corroborated and extended findings from Western samples. Greater marital conflict (for boys only), greater maternal…

  16. Developmental precursors of young school-age children's hostile attribution bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Daniel Ewon; Lane, Jonathan D; Grabell, Adam S; Olson, Sheryl L

    2013-12-01

    This prospective longitudinal study provides evidence of preschool-age precursors of hostile attribution bias in young school-age children, a topic that has received little empirical attention. We examined multiple risk domains, including laboratory and observational assessments of children's social-cognition, general cognitive functioning, effortful control, and peer aggression. Preschoolers (N = 231) with a more advanced theory-of-mind, better emotion understanding, and higher IQ made fewer hostile attributions of intent in the early school years. Further exploration of these significant predictors revealed that only certain components of these capacities (i.e., nonstereotypical emotion understanding, false-belief explanation, and verbal IQ) were robust predictors of a hostile attribution bias in young school-age children and were especially strong predictors among children with more advanced effortful control. These relations were prospective in nature-the effects of preschool variables persisted after accounting for similar variables at school age. We conclude by discussing the implications of our findings for future research and prevention. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Functional impairments at school age of preterm born children with late-onset sepsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ree, Meike; Tanis, Jozien C.; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Bos, Arend F.; Roze, Elise

    2011-01-01

    Background: Late-onset sepsis is a relatively common complication particularly of preterm birth that affects approximately a quarter of very low birth weight infants. Aim: We aimed to determine the motor, cognitive, and behavioural outcome at school age of preterm children with late-onset sepsis

  18. Progression of stunting and its predictors among school-aged children in western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friedman, J. F.; Phillips-Howard, P. A.; Mirel, L. B.; Terlouw, D. J.; Okello, N.; Vulule, J. M.; Hawley, W. A.; Nahlen, B. L.; ter Kuile, F.

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to assess whether a cohort of school-aged children experiences progression of stunting over a 2-y-period of observation and (2) to identify baseline nutritional and body composition risk factors for the progression of stunting. As part of a large-scale,

  19. Relationship between anthropometric indicators and cognitive performance in Southeast Asian school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandjaja; Poh, Bee Koon; Rojroonwasinkul, Nipa; Le Nyugen, Bao Khanh; Budiman, Basuki; Ng, Lai Oon; Soonthorndhada, Kusol; Xuyen, Hoang Thi; Deurenberg, Paul; Parikh, Panam

    2013-09-01

    Nutrition is an important factor in mental development and, as a consequence, in cognitive performance. Malnutrition is reflected in children's weight, height and BMI curves. The present cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the association between anthropometric indices and cognitive performance in 6746 school-aged children (aged 6-12 years) of four Southeast Asian countries: Indonesia; Malaysia; Thailand; Vietnam. Cognitive performance (non-verbal intelligence quotient (IQ)) was measured using Raven's Progressive Matrices test or Test of Non-Verbal Intelligence, third edition (TONI-3). Height-for-age z-scores (HAZ), weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ) and BMI-for-age z-scores (BAZ) were used as anthropometric nutritional status indices. Data were weighted using age, sex and urban/rural weight factors to resemble the total primary school-aged population per country. Overall, 21% of the children in the four countries were underweight and 19% were stunted. Children with low WAZ were 3·5 times more likely to have a non-verbal IQ < 89 (OR 3·53 and 95% CI 3·52, 3·54). The chance of having a non-verbal IQ < 89 was also doubled with low BAZ and HAZ. In contrast, except for severe obesity, the relationship between high BAZ and IQ was less clear and differed per country. The odds of having non-verbal IQ levels < 89 also increased with severe obesity. In conclusion, undernourishment and non-verbal IQ are significantly associated in 6-12-year-old children. Effective strategies to improve nutrition in preschoolers and school-aged children can have a pronounced effect on cognition and, in the longer term, help in positively contributing to individual and national development.

  20. Health maintenance in school-aged children: Part II. Counseling recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Margaret; Locke, Amy B; Skye, Eric P

    2011-03-15

    School-aged children (kindergarten through early adolescence) are establishing patterns of behavior that may last a lifetime; therefore, it is important to counsel these patients about healthy lifestyle practices during well-child examinations. Children and families should be advised to eat a diet high in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, low-fat or nonfat dairy products, beans, fish, and lean meats, while limiting sugar, fast food, and highly processed foods. Children should engage in at least 60 minutes per day of moderate to vigorous physical activity, and screen time (e.g., television, computer, video games) should be limited to no more than one to two hours of quality programming daily. Most school-aged children require 11 hours of sleep per night. Decreased sleep is associated with behavioral issues, decreased concentration at school, and obesity. Children should brush their teeth twice per day with a toothpaste containing fluoride. Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death in this age group in the United States, and families should be counseled on traffic, water, sports, and firearm safety. Because high-risk behaviors may start in early adolescence, many experts recommend screening for tobacco, alcohol, and drug use beginning at 11 years of age. Sexually active adolescents should be counseled on protecting against sexually transmitted infections, and should be screened for these infections if indicated.

  1. Catch-up growth does not associate with cognitive development in Indian school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolovic, N; Selvam, S; Srinivasan, K; Thankachan, P; Kurpad, A V; Thomas, T

    2014-01-01

    Stunting is significantly associated with lifetime morbidity and poorer cognitive outcomes in children. Although several studies have examined the relationship between stunting, catch-up growth and cognitive performance in young populations, this relationship has not yet been explored in school-aged children. In this study, we used data from three different nutritional intervention studies conducted over a 4-year period on school-age children in Bangalore, India to assess these relationships. A battery of cognitive tests was conducted before each intervention to determine whether stunting status at baseline was related to cognitive performance across four separate domains, and repeated after a 6-month period to assess whether changes to stunting status is related to cognitive advancement. Results of independent t-tests showed that while stunted children had significantly poorer performance on short-term memory, retrieval ability and visuospatial ability tests (P=0.023, 0.026 and 0.028, respectively), there was no significant difference in the change in cognitive scores following nutritional interventions over a 6-month period between those who remained stunted and those who were no longer stunted (P>0.10). Evidently, stunting remains associated with cognitive ability in school-age children; however, the reversal of these effects in this age group may be quite difficult.

  2. Assessment of Abdominal Pain in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Polly Gerber

    2003-01-01

    Pediatric abdominal pain can be a difficult condition to accurately assess for the nurse to determine whether the child's need is for teaching, treating, or transferring. This article describes the process as well as practical tips to be used by the nurse in the school setting. Distinguishing characteristics and findings, including key physical…

  3. Are language and social communication intact in children with congenital visual impairment at school age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadić, Valerie; Pring, Linda; Dale, Naomi

    2010-06-01

    Development of children with congenital visual impairment (VI) has been associated with vulnerable socio-communicative outcomes often bearing striking similarities to those of sighted children with autism.(1) To date, very little is known about language and social communication in children with VI of normal intelligence. We examined the presentation of language and social communication of 15 children with VI and normal-range verbal intelligence, age 6-12 years, using a standardised language assessment and parental reports of everyday social and communicative behaviours. Their profiles were compared to those of typically developing sighted children of similar age and verbal ability. Compared to their sighted peers, and relative to their own good and potentially superior structural language skills, children with VI showed significantly poorer use of language for social purposes. Pragmatic language weaknesses were a part of a broader socio-communicative profile of difficulties, present in a substantial proportion of these children and consistent with the pattern found in sighted children with autism. There are ongoing socio-communicative and pragmatic language difficulties in children with congenital VI at school age, despite their good intellectual abilities and advanced linguistic skills. Further research is required to unpack the underlying causes and factors maintaining this vulnerability in such children.

  4. Occupational Therapy for School-Aged Children in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Asha; Jatar, Anuradha; Bijlani, Jyothika

    2015-01-01

    Occupational therapists exploring international opportunities should understand how the profession is practiced globally. This paper describes the framework under which occupational therapy services can be accessed by families of children with disabilities in urban India. Background information about the country, its health care, and occupational…

  5. Communication Attitudes of Japanese School-Age Children Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Norimune; Healey, E. Charles; Nagasawa, Taiko; Vanryckeghem, Martine

    2012-01-01

    Past research with the Communication Attitude Test (CAT) has shown it to be a valid and reliable instrument for assessing speech-associated attitude of children who stutter (CWS). However, in Japan, the CAT has not been used extensively to examine the communication attitude of CWS. The purpose of this study was to determine if a Japanese version…

  6. Epidemiology of streptococcus group A in school aged children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    According to the epidemiology of group A streptococci and to the environmental and underlying factors which predispose to late group A streptococci sequelae, we suggest to consider antibiotic treatment for children presenting with sore throat with fever and swollen cervical lymphonodes without cough or coryza.

  7. IDENTITY FORMATION AMONG PRIMARY SCHOOL-AGED CHILDREN IN DYSFUNCTIONAL FAMILIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Bulygina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary school age is a stage of significant personal changes of a child, including the identity formation as a result of a major restructuring of the system of relations of the child within the family. Background: The aim is to study the influence of a dysfunctional family system on the identity formation of primary school-aged children. Methods: There were examined seven-year-old children, secondary school pupils from families with signs of dysfunctionality (n =42. To assess interfamilial relations there were used proprietary methodologies and standardized tests diagnosing a role structure of the family, emotional sphere of children, peculiarities of the child identification with family members, signs of the family dysfunctionality. Results: It is revealed that the process of identity formation in primary school-aged children in dysfunctional families is characterized by expressed difficulties in identifying himself with family members. In 33% of cases the low hierarchical position and the typical female role characteristics are ascribed to father. To the contrary, the male social role position in 47% of cases is attributed to mother. The ambivalence of the child’s self-relation and his relation to family members is revealed. Therewith, 38% of girls’ profiles coincide either with the set of characteristics of fathers, or equally with sets of characteristics of both parents. The negative emotional state is diagnosed in 62% of children. Conclusion: It is established that in dysfunctional families the interfamilial relations and role structure have specific features, negatively influencing on the child development and the formation of his personality.Key words: children, primary school age, dysfunctional family, identity formation.

  8. Different Clinical Features and Lower Scores in Clinical Scoring Systems for Appendicitis in Preschool Children: Comparison with School Age Onset

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Chun Woo; Kang, Joon Won; Kim, Jae Young

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To clarify the clinical features of appendicitis in preschool children and to explore clinical appendicitis scoring systems in this age group. Methods We retrospectively collected data on 142 children, aged 10 years or younger, with confirmed diagnosis of appendicitis based on surgical and pathologic findings. Enrolled subjects were divided into two groups: Group 1 (preschool children aged ≤5 years, n=41) and Group 2 (school children aged >5 to ≤10 years, n=101). Data analyzed include...

  9. Impact of sociodemographic factors on cognitive function in school-aged HIV-infected Nigerian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyede GO

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Gbemisola O Boyede,1,2 Foluso EA Lesi,2 Veronica C Ezeaka,2 Charles S Umeh3 1Division of Developmental Paediatrics, School of Child and Adolescent Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children’s Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; 2Department of Paediatrics, 3Clinical Psychology Unit, Department of Psychiatry, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria Background: In this study, we sought to evaluate the influence of sociodemographic factors, ie, age, sex, socioeconomic status, maternal education, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV status, on cognitive performance in school-aged HIV-infected Nigerian children. Methods: Sixty-nine HIV-positive children aged 6–15 years were matched with 69 HIV-negative control children for age and sex. The children were subdivided for the purpose of analysis into two cognitive developmental stages using Piaget’s staging, ie, the concrete operational stage (6–11 years and the formal operational stage (12–15 years. All participants underwent cognitive assessment using Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices (RPM. Sociodemographic data for the study participants, ie, age, sex, socioeconomic status, and level of maternal education, were obtained using a study proforma. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine associations of HIV status and sociodemographic characteristics with RPM cognitive scores. Results: The overall mean RPM score for the HIV-positive children was 18.2 ± 9.8 (range 8.0–47.0 which was significantly lower than the score of 27.2 ± 13.8 (range 8.0–52.0 for the HIV-negative children (P < 0.001. On RPM grading, 56.5% of the HIV-positive children had cognitive performance at below average to intellectually defective range. Below average RPM scores were found to be significantly associated with younger age (6–11 years, positive HIV status, lower socioeconomic status, and low level of maternal education. Conclusion: Younger age, poor socioeconomic

  10. Intensive Behavioral Intervention for School-Aged Children with Autism: Una Breccia nel Muro (UBM)--A Comprehensive Behavioral Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fava, Leonardo; Vicari, Stefano; Valeri, Giovanni; D'Elia, Lidia; Arima, Serena; Strauss, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    Although, reviews and outcome research supports empirical evidence for Early Intensive Behavior Intervention in pre-scholars, intensive behavioral service provision for school-aged children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are less subject to research studies. In order to provide effective behavioral interventions for school-aged children it…

  11. Urinary Iodine Concentrations Indicate Iodine Deficiency in Pregnant Thai Women but Iodine Sufficiency in Their School-Aged Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gowachirapant, S.; Winichagoon, P.; Wyss, L.; Tong, B.; Baumgartner, J.; Boonstra, A.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    The median urinary iodine concentration (UI) in school-aged children is recommended for assessment of iodine nutrition in populations. If the median UI is adequate in school-aged children, it is usually assumed iodine intakes are also adequate in the remaining population, including pregnant women.

  12. An Insight into the Challenges Faced by Academic Women with Pre-School Age Children in Academic Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günçavdi, Gizem; Göktürk, Söheyda; Bozoglu, Oguzhan

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the challenges academic women, especially those who were mothers of pre-school age children, went through. The main guiding question of this study was "How do academic mothers with pre-school age children survive in the academia from pregnancy through all the various stages of parenting and motherhood?". This…

  13. Individual and maternal determinants of self-reported dental health among Turkish school children aged 10-12 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cinar, A B; Kosku, N; Sandalli, N

    2008-01-01

    To assess the influence of maternal and individual characteristics on self-reported dental health of Turkish school children aged 10-12 years with different socio-economic backgrounds.......To assess the influence of maternal and individual characteristics on self-reported dental health of Turkish school children aged 10-12 years with different socio-economic backgrounds....

  14. [Food preferences and nutritional status in school-age children living in Mexico City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-García, Rocío; Reyes-Morales, Hortensia; González-Unzaga, Marco Aurelio

    Childhood is a basic period for the development of habits and their continuation during the course of life. The objective of this study was to identify food preferences and their variations according to the nutritional status in school-age children living in Mexico City. A cross-sectional study was carried out including 1465 school-age children attending eight public elementary schools in Mexico City. Children were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding their preferences to 70 selected different foods. Anthropometric measurements were also carried out. Parents of the children provided sociodemographic information. For each food, the preference was evaluated using a Likert scale. Frequencies were calculated for the total sample and for different nutritional status levels. Median age of children was 9 years old. Forty-eight percent of the children were overweight or obese. The most preferred foods were fruits, pizzas, flavored milk, and French fries. The least preferred foods were vegetables, whole-grain cereals, fish, meat, and panela cheese. Plain water (72%) and sugar-sweetened beverages (71%) had a high level of preference. There was no preference variation according to nutritional status. Food preference patterns of school-age children are a risk for unhealthy food consumption as well as for the increase in obesity prevalence in this population. Interventions focused on the promotion of a healthy food environment are necessary, aimed at improving food preferences from early childhood. Copyright © 2014 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  15. Prospective thinking and decision making in primary school age children

    OpenAIRE

    Lombardi, Elisabetta; Di Dio, Cinzia; Castelli, Ilaria; Massaro, Davide; Marchetti, Antonella

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we seek to widen our understanding of the developmental processes underlying bargaining behaviour in children addressing the concept of prospective thinking. We argue that the emergence of the capacity to think prospectively about future outcomes or behaviours in response to current actions is a required precedent to strategic decision making. To test this idea, we compared 6, 8 and 10 years old children’s performance on three tasks: the ultimatum game assessing fairness/inequa...

  16. [Food promotion and food preferences in Chilean school age children from different socioeconomic levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Sonia; Lera, Lydia; Mardones, María Angélica; Araneda, Jacqueline; Bustos, Nelly; Olivares, María Antonieta; Colque, María Ester

    2011-06-01

    To determine the attitude towards marketing of food and beverages a sample of 1,048 school children ages 8 to 13 from three cities of Chile (north, center and south of the country) were interviewed. The instrument applied was a validated questionnaire used in previous studies. A descriptive analysis of the variables was performed and differences were determined by region, socioeconomic level (SEL) and gender using Chi2 test. Differences per SEL were higher in Santiago. A greater proportion of school children of medium-low SEL watched more than 2 hours of TV during weekdays and weekends (p food and beverage commercials was greater in medium-low SEL in Santiago (66%) (p foods at supermarkets, on the streets, shopping centers and on the Internet. The preferred commercials were those for beverages, chocolates, ice-creams and cereals. Most common foods taken from home to school were cookies, fruits and yogurt. Most of the children had money available to buy food and the products more frequently preferred were cookies, sweets, French fries, beverages with sugar, chocolates, ice-creams and hot-dogs. marketing of food and beverages is recognized and remembered by school age children, influencing what they buy and consume regularly at school.

  17. Overweight and obesity in school children aged 5 to 11 years participating in food assistance programs in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas-Nasu, Lucía; Hernández-Prado, Bernardo; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Monterrubio, Eric A; Morales-Ruan, María del Carmen; Moreno-Macías, Lidia B

    2009-01-01

    To determine the association between overweight and obesity among Mexican school-aged children and participation in the Liconsa milk and the School Breakfast food assistance programs. Data from 15 003 school-aged children included in the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT 2006) were analyzed. Information on body mass index (BMI) and participation in food assistance programs was obtained. Descriptive analyses were conducted and logistic regression models were adjusted. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 17.3% and 9%, respectively. No significant association between overweight and obesity and participation in Liconsa was found. Among school-aged children in the middle socioeconomic status quintile, those enrolled in the School Breakfast program were more likely to be overweight than those not enrolled (OR= 1.6, 95% CI 1.1, 2.3). We found no association between the Liconsa and the School Breakfast programs and overweight or obesity in school-aged children.

  18. [Determining factors of overweight and obesity in children at school age in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mispireta, Monica L

    2012-01-01

    Obesity in children at school age is an increasing problem in Peru. It concentrates in urban areas, mainly in Lima where one out of three children is overweight. An initial study in 80 schools in Lima showed that the lack of physical activity would have a greater impact on overweight and obesity in school children than the amount of food intake. More detailed studies are required. In spite of the limited information available regarding its determining factors, it is necessary to implement culturally-sensitive measures to fight this problem as part of the current nutritional policies, and prevent the problem from spreading, making sure the sustainability of the health system is not affected.

  19. Handwriting performance of preterm children at school age: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Souza de Medeiros Rocha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: At school age, handwriting is on of the most important tasks among the fine motor activities. Good handwriting performance contributes to the child´s school performance. As prematurity impacts on motor development, it may influence handwriting. Objective: To review the specific literature and investigate whether there are differences in handwriting performance at school age between children born preterm and full term. Method: A search was performed in the Capes electronic database, in English and Portuguese, comprising the time period between January 2000 and June 2012. Articles were selected according to the inclusion criteria; the sample, objectives, instruments utilized and outcomes were analyzed. Results: Six articles were included in the study. Data analysis indicates that children born prematurely present poorer handwriting performance and a handicap in the underlying handwriting mechanisms when compared with full term infants. Conclusion: Preterm children without obvious neurological impairment are at increased risk for problems in handwriting development at school age. The small number of recent studies on this topic indicates a need for further research, as well as the development of standardized resources for the motor and handwriting assessment of Brazilian children.

  20. High burden of Schistosoma mansoni infection in school-aged children in Marolambo District, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Stephen A; Penney, James M St John; Russell, Hannah J; Howe, Anthony P; Linder, Cortland; Rakotomampianina, Andriamahitsisambatra L D; Nandimbiniaina, Anjara M; Squire, S Bertel; Stothard, J Russell; Bustinduy, Amaya L; Rahetilahy, Alain M

    2017-06-24

    A school-based survey was undertaken to assess prevalence and infection intensity of schistosomiasis in school-aged children in the Marolambo District of Madagascar. School-aged children from six purposively selected schools were tested for Schistosoma haematobium by urine filtration and Schistosoma mansoni using circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) and Kato-Katz stool analysis. The investigators did not address soil-transmitted helminths (STH) in this study. Of 399 school-aged children screened, 93.7% were infected with S. mansoni based on CCA analysis. Kato-Katz analysis of stool revealed S. mansoni infection in 73.6% (215/ 292). Heavy infections (> 400 eggs per gram) were common (32.1%; 69/ 215), with a mean of 482 eggs per gram of stool. Moderate infection intensities were detected in 31.2% (67/ 215) and light infection intensities in 36.7% (79/ 215) of infected participants. No infection with S. haematobium was detected by urine filtration. Intestinal schistosomiasis appears a considerable public health issue in this remote area of Madagascar where there is a pressing need for mass drug administration.

  1. Suitability of asthma education materials for school-age children: Implications for health literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Yu-Fen; Gau, Bih-Shya

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the suitability of asthma education materials for school-age children with asthma and elucidate how these children used their health-literacy abilities to identify whether the materials can be accepted, comprehended and applied. Effective asthma self-management education is influenced by the suitability of materials and an individual's health literacy. A mixed-method research design was developed using quantitative and qualitative surveys. The suitability of the materials was assessed on the basis of the Chinese version of the Suitability Assessment of Materials by five experts. In addition, five school-age children (age: 8-12 years) were recruited and interviewed. In total, 25 pieces of asthma education material for children were collected. On the basis of their type, the materials were categorised as nine brochures, 11 leaflets and five videos. Of the 25 materials, 17 were rated as superior materials, whereas eight were rated as adequate materials. The suitability scores of the video-based materials were significantly higher than those of the brochures and leaflets (p = .006). One print material was considered to have a reading level suitable for fifth-grade or younger children, whereas the remaining materials were considered suitable for sixth-grade or older children. The following six health-literacy domains were identified: recognising asthma through body knowledge, posing reflective questions, identifying self-care difficulties, receiving adult guidance, learning with enjoyment and addressing learning requirements. The video-based materials had integrated content and were appealing to children. Cartoon animations, interactive computer games, and skill demonstrations may enhance learning stimulation and motivation and increase learning effects in children. The present results may help healthcare providers to understand children's capacities to manage their disease, effectively address children's requirements and function as a key resource for

  2. [Intelligence level and structure in school age children with fetal growth restriction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian; Ma, Hong-Wei; Tian, Xiao-Bo; Liu, Fang

    2009-10-01

    To study the intelligence level and structure in school age children with fetal growth restriction (FGR). The intelligence levels were tested by the Wechsler Children Scales of Intelligence (C-WISC) in 54 children with FGR and in 84 normal children. The full intelligence quotient (FIQ), verbal IQ (VIQ) and performance IQ (PIQ) in the FGR group were 105.9+/-10.3, 112.4+/-11.2 and 97.1+/-10.6 respectively, and they all were in a normal range. But the PIQ was significantly lower than that in the control group (104.8+/-10.5; pintelligence level of children with FGR is normal, but there are imbalances in the intelligence structure and dysfunctions in performance ability related to right cerebral hemisphere. Performance trainings should be done from the infancy in children with FGR.

  3. Emotion understanding, pictorial representations of friendship and reciprocity in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laghi, Fiorenzo; Baiocco, Roberto; Di Norcia, Anna; Cannoni, Eleonora; Baumgartner, Emma; Bombi, Anna Silvia

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between emotional understanding, friendship representation and reciprocity in school-aged children. Two hundred and fifty-one Caucasian 6-year-old children (111 males and 140 females) took part in the study. The Test of Emotion Comprehension (TEC) and the Pictorial Assessment of Interpersonal Relationships (PAIR) were used. Children having a reciprocal friendship and children having a unilateral friendship with a child named as their "best friend" were compared on the emotional understanding task and on their pictorial representations of friendship. Multilevel analyses indicated that friendship status effects were not influenced by classroom-level differences. Results showed that children with reciprocal friendships drew themselves as more similar to and more cohesive with their best friends, and they showed better understanding of emotions, than children having a unilateral friendship. Finally, the implications of these findings for theoretical and empirical research development on friendship are discussed.

  4. What is "appropriate" for school-aged children with autism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Tim; Conroy, Terrye

    2006-10-01

    Compliance with the IDEA and S.C. Board of Education procedures is only the first step toward providing a student with autism with an IEP that is reasonably calculated to enable that student to receive educational benefits--a FAPE. At the heart of the IEP process is instruction specially designed to meet the unique needs, talents, and experiences of each child. While disagreements over the appropriateness of the IEP, including the methodologies used to provide such instruction, may arise, it is through the successful collaboration of parents, health care providers, and school professionals that a child with autism will develop into an adult with a life of community and meaning.

  5. Measuring listening-related effort and fatigue in school-aged children using pupillometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarrigle, Ronan; Dawes, Piers; Stewart, Andrew J; Kuchinsky, Stefanie E; Munro, Kevin J

    2017-09-01

    Stress and fatigue from effortful listening may compromise well-being, learning, and academic achievement in school-aged children. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) typical of those in school classrooms on listening effort (behavioral and pupillometric) and listening-related fatigue (self-report and pupillometric) in a group of school-aged children. A sample of 41 normal-hearing children aged 8-11years performed a narrative speech-picture verification task in a condition with recommended levels of background noise ("ideal": +15dB SNR) and a condition with typical classroom background noise levels ("typical": -2dB SNR). Participants showed increased task-evoked pupil dilation in the typical listening condition compared with the ideal listening condition, consistent with an increase in listening effort. No differences were found between listening conditions in terms of performance accuracy and response time on the behavioral task. Similarly, no differences were found between listening conditions in self-report and pupillometric markers of listening-related fatigue. This is the first study to (a) examine listening-related fatigue in children using pupillometry and (b) demonstrate physiological evidence consistent with increased listening effort while listening to spoken narratives despite ceiling-level task performance accuracy. Understanding the physiological mechanisms that underpin listening-related effort and fatigue could inform intervention strategies and ultimately mitigate listening difficulties in children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Sleep duration among school-age children in Hungary and Romania].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sólyom, Réka; Lendvai, Zsófia; Pásti, Krisztina; Szeifert, Lilla; Szabó, J Attila

    2013-10-06

    Children's sleep duration is decreasing in the last decade. Despite of the well known negative consequences, there are no data on children's sleep duration in Hungary and Romania. The aim of the authors was to assess sleep duration of school-age children in Hungary and Romania. A self-edited questionnaire was used for the study. 2446 children were enrolled. All elementary and secondary schools in a Hungarian city, and one elementary and secondary school in a Romanian city took part in the study. Mean sleep duration was 8.3 ± 1.2 hours on weekdays. There was a significant difference between the two countries (Hungary vs. Romania, 8.5 ± 1.2 hours vs. 7.8 ± 0.9 hours, p = 0.001). Age correlated with sleep duration on weekdays (r= -0.605, p = 0.001), but not during weekend. This is the first study on children's sleep duration in Hungary and Romania. The difference between countries may be due to the difference in mean age or cultural and/or geographical differences.

  7. Influence of spatial perception abilities on reading in school-age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Saj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatial perception abilities enable individuals to explore a visual field, to detect spatial position and to infer relationships between visual stimuli. Written words and text are conceptualized spatially along a horizontal mental line, but little is known about the way children develop these representations. The exact relationship between visuo-spatial perception and academic achievement has never been directly assessed. Therefore, our aim was to study the developmental trajectory of space perception abilities by assessing perceptual, attentional and memory components, the relationship between these abilities and reading achievement in school-age children. Forty-nine children aged between 6.5 and 11 years old were divided into four age groups and were assessed with visual bisection, visual search and visual memory location tasks. The results showed that the groups of older children, from the age of nine, improved significantly on the bisection and visual search tasks with respect to all visual fields, while the groups of younger children showed more errors in the left visual field (LVF. Performances on these tasks were correlated with reading level and age. Older children with a low reading score showed a LVF bias, similar to the youngest children. These results demonstrate how abnormal space perception might distort space representation and in turn affect reading and learning processes.

  8. Consumption of junk foods by school-aged children in rural Himachal Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aakriti; Kapil, Umesh; Singh, Gajendra

    2018-01-01

    There has been an increase in the consumption of junk food (JF) among school-aged children (SAC) possibly leading to obesity and diet-related diseases among them. We do not have evidence on consumption of JF in rural areas; hence, we conducted a study to assess the consumption of JF by SAC in rural, Himachal Pradesh. A total of 425 children in the age group of 12-18 years studying in 30 government schools (clusters) were included. The clusters were selected using population proportionate to size sampling methodology. We found high prevalence (36%) of consumption of JF among SAC during the last 24 h. Efforts should be taken to reduce the consumption of JF by promotion of healthy dietary habits and educating children about the ill effects of JF.

  9. Quality of Life, Motor Ability, and Weight Status among School-aged Children of Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaverdi, F; Bahram, A; Jafarabadi, M Asghari

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between health Related quality of life (HRQOL), motor ability and weight status in children. Two hundred forty children ages 9-11 yr who were selected via multi stage cluster sampling design from primary schools in the Shahre Qods at Tehran, Iran in 2007. HRQOL was assessed by the pediatric quality of life inventory (PedsQL). Motor abilities were determined by a Basic Motor Ability Test (BMAT). Body mass index was calculated to determine weight status. Psychosocial, physical, and total health related qualities of life (all PBMAT variables and weight status. Regardless of motor ability levels, reducing body weight among children is a potential avenue for promoting improved HRQOL. Over weight boys reported significantly worse school performance than over weight girls, suggesting the importance in considering such dimensions in programs aimed at further understanding obesity in children.

  10. METHODS AND TECHNIQUES OF TEACHING CHILDREN OF PRE-SCHOOL AGE THE SPORTS DANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VARNACOVA ELEONORA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article exposes some conclusions about the influence of the sports dance on the multilateral development of a preschool child`s personality. The author presents methods and techniques used in the didactic activity of teaching-learning the sports dance in groups of children of under school age. At the same time, she outlines the methods of organizing systematically her classes and the fact that the teacher is free to choose the time when to deliver theoretical courses or have practical classes taking in consideration the children`s individual abilities.

  11. Hypnobehavioral approaches for school-age children with dysphagia and food aversion: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbert, T P; Kajander, R L; Kohen, D P; Reaney, J B

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe hypnobehavioral treatment of five school-age children with maladaptive eating behaviors, including functional dysphagia, food aversion, globus hystericus, and conditioned fear of eating (phagophobia). The unique treatment approach described emphasizes the successful use of self-management techniques, particularly hypnosis, by all five children. Common etiological factors, treatment strategies, and proposed mechanisms of change are discussed. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first such case series in the mainstream pediatric literature describing the use of a hypnobehavioral approach for children with these maladaptive eating problems.

  12. Non-Resident Fathers' Relationships with Their Secondary School Age Children: Determinants and Children's Mental Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini

    2006-01-01

    Data from 520 British secondary school age children were used to explore determinants of and mental health outcomes (measured with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) from their non-resident fathers' relationships (child-reported father's involvement and frequency of contact) with them. Frequency of contact was negatively related to time…

  13. Age-related changes in error processing in young children: A school-based investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie K. Grammer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Growth in executive functioning (EF skills play a role children's academic success, and the transition to elementary school is an important time for the development of these abilities. Despite this, evidence concerning the development of the ERP components linked to EF, including the error-related negativity (ERN and the error positivity (Pe, over this period is inconclusive. Data were recorded in a school setting from 3- to 7-year-old children (N = 96, mean age = 5 years 11 months as they performed a Go/No-Go task. Results revealed the presence of the ERN and Pe on error relative to correct trials at all age levels. Older children showed increased response inhibition as evidenced by faster, more accurate responses. Although developmental changes in the ERN were not identified, the Pe increased with age. In addition, girls made fewer mistakes and showed elevated Pe amplitudes relative to boys. Based on a representative school-based sample, findings indicate that the ERN is present in children as young as 3, and that development can be seen in the Pe between ages 3 and 7. Results varied as a function of gender, providing insight into the range of factors associated with developmental changes in the complex relations between behavioral and electrophysiological measures of error processing.

  14. Maternal employment and Mexican school-age children overweight in 2012: the importance of households features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Alejandro Martínez

    2018-01-01

    International evidence regarding the relationship between maternal employment and school-age children overweight and obesity shows divergent results. In Mexico, this relationship has not been confirmed by national data sets analysis. Consequently, the objective of this article was to evaluate the role of the mothers' participation in labor force related to excess body weight in Mexican school-age children (aged 5-11 years). A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 17,418 individuals from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012, applying binomial logistic regression models. After controlling for individual, maternal and contextual features, the mothers' participation in labor force was associated with children body composition. However, when the household features (living arrangements, household ethnicity, size, food security and socioeconomic status) were incorporated, maternal employment was no longer statically significant. Household features are crucial factors for understanding the overweight and obesity prevalence levels in Mexican school-age children, despite the mother having a paid job. Copyright: © 2018 Permanyer.

  15. Daily Stressors in School-Age Children: A Multilevel Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Milagros; Alarcón, Rafael; Blanca, María J.; Fernández-Baena, F. Javier; Rosel, Jesús F.; Trianes, María Victoria

    2013-01-01

    This study uses hierarchical or multilevel modeling to identify variables that contribute to daily stressors in a population of schoolchildren. Four hierarchical levels with several predictive variables were considered: student (age, sex, social adaptation of the student, number of life events and chronic stressors experienced, and educational…

  16. Intestinal helminthiasis among malnourished school age children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The haematocrit value and worm density in subjects were determined to rate level of infectivity in the individual. The study shows that there are three common intestinal worms in the area Ascaris lumbricoides has the highest prevalence rate of 40.7% followed by Tribchuris trichiura (4.8%) and hookworm (4.4%). Age and sex ...

  17. Role of Family Resources and Paternal History of Substance Use Problems in Psychosocial Adjustment among School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Rahav, Giora; Teichman, Meir

    2009-01-01

    The present study examines the role of family resources (parenting style and family cohesion) and paternal history of substance abuse on the psychosocial adjustment of their school-aged children. Data were collected from 148 children aged 8-11 (72 of fathers with history of substance use disorder, 76 children of fathers with no substance use…

  18. Comparative Study of Multimodal and Pharmacological Therapy in Treating School Aged Children with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Bogdana MILEA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, one of the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric disorders among school aged children, continues to create disputes between specialists, upon the best treatment to be used. The herby study aims to bring forward some differences that may exist between the efficacy of the multimodal treatment compared to the drug treatment of ADHD. The novelty component of this study, unfolded February 2010-July 2012, is that the children, their parents and also their teachers were included in the multimodality treatment. The children included in this research (n=63, aged 6-14 and ADHD diagnosed, were randomly assigned in two groups. In the medication (Med group (n=32 the children only received the specific pharmacological treatment (Atomoxetine or Methylphenidate, and for the multimodality (MM group (n=31 the therapy included psychosocial interventions besides the drug therapy. All children were evaluated, both pre and post intervention, with the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment – ASEBA, for the 6-18 aged category. We have compared the influence of therapy on the core symptoms, on the adaptive functionality and academic performance and on the competences and social functioning of the children in the two groups. The multimodal intervention proved to be more effective (p<0.05 than medication alone, firstly in ameliorating the child’s social behavior in both family and school environment, than in what concerns the main ADHD symptoms. The children’s academic performance was little impacted by either of the two therapies.

  19. Developmental trajectories for attention and working memory in healthy Japanese school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egami, Chiyomi; Yamashita, Yushiro; Tada, Yasuhiro; Anai, Chiduru; Mukasa, Akiko; Yuge, Kotaro; Nagamitsu, Shinichiro; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the developmental trajectories of attention, short-term memory, and working memory in school-aged children using a 10 min test battery of cognitive function. Participants comprised 144 typically developing children (TDC) aged 7-12 years and 24 healthy adults, divided according to age into seven groups (12 males and 12 females for each age group). Participants were assessed using CogHealth, which is a computer-based measure composed of five tasks. We measured attention, short-term memory, and working memory (WM) with visual stimulation. Each task was analyzed for age-related differences in reaction time and accuracy rate. Attention tasks were faster in stages from the age of 7-10 years. Accuracy rate of short-term memory gradually increased from 12 years of age and suddenly increased and continued to increase at 22 years of age. Accuracy rate of working memory increased until 12 years of age. Correlations were found between the ages and reaction time, and between ages and accuracy rate of the tasks. These results indicate that there were rapid improvements in attention, short-term memory, and WM performance between 7 and 10 years of age followed by gradual improvement until 12 years of age. Increase in short-term memory continued until 22 years of age. In our experience CogHealth was an easy and useful measure for the evaluation of cognitive function in school-age children. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The relation between maternal work hours and cognitive outcomes of young school-aged children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Künn-Nelen, A.C.; de Grip, A.; Fouarge, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is the first that analyzes the relation between maternal work hours and the cognitive outcomes of young school-going children. When children attend school, the potential time working mothers miss out with their children, is smaller than when children do not yet attend school. At the same

  1. Sedentary lifestyle and passive leisure in Czech school-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Hamřík

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sedentary behaviour and an insufficient level of physical activity in children are the key factors leading to physically inactive behaviour in adulthood associated with the growing prevalence of mass non-communicable diseases in the population of the Czech Republic. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyze sedentary lifestyle, focusing on passive leisure (time spent watching television and using computer in school-aged children in the Czech Republic. METHODS: To determine the time spent watching television and using computer, data of a randomly selected set of 11 to 15 year old elementary school children in the Czech Republic (n = 4425 was used. Research data collection was conducted within an international research project Health Behaviour in School Aged Children in June 2010. For statistical processing of results and identification of differences between various age groups of girls and boys, logistic regression analysis in SPSS Statistics 20 programme was used. RESULTS: More than 55% of girls and 60% of boys spend over 2 hours a day in a working week in front of the TV, DVD, video; most of the time was recorded for 13 year old respondents. While playing games on the PC or Playstation occupies more than 2 hours per day for more than a half of boys, for girls more typical is "chatting", "surfing the Internet" or "e-mailing". With age, the proportion of children who spend 2 or more hours a day using computer increases. CONCLUSIONS: The problem of an increasing level of sedentary behaviour in children in their leisure should be addressed together with interventions aimed at increasing the levels of physical activity in children in the national, regional and local policies to encourage physical activity and health in the Czech Republic.

  2. Prenatal Micronutrient Supplementation Is Not Associated with Intellectual Development of Young School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Zeng, Lingxia; Wang, Duolao; Yang, Wenfang; Dang, Shaonong; Zhou, Jing; Yan, Hong

    2015-08-01

    Micronutrient supplementation is often prescribed during pregnancy. The effects of prenatal iron and multimicronutrient supplementation on intellectual development in young school-aged children are less than clear. The aim of this study was to examine the long-term effects of prenatal iron plus folic acid or multiple micronutrient (including iron and folic acid) supplementation vs. folic acid supplementation on the intellectual development of young school-aged children in rural China. Young school-aged children (aged 7-10 y, n = 1744) of women who had participated in a trial of prenatal supplementation with various combinations of micronutrients and remained residents in 2 rural counties in China were followed. We measured their intellectual development by Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Fourth Edition (WISC-IV). The WISC-IV generated the Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ), Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI), Working Memory Index (WMI), Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI), and Processing Speed Index (PSI). Multilevel analyses were used to assess the effect of prenatal micronutrient supplementation on the intellectual development of children. The mean differences in FSIQ, VCI, WMI, PRI, and PSI, respectively, were not significant between prenatal folic acid supplementation and either iron plus folic acid [-0.34 (P = 0.65), -0.06 (P = 0.95), -0.22 (P = 0.76), -0.01 (P = 0.99), and -1.26 (P = 0.11)] or multimicronutrient [-0.39 (P = 0.60), -0.64 (P = 0.48), 0.11 (P = 0.87), -0.43 (P = 0.59), and -0.34; (P = 0.65)] supplementation after adjusting for confounders. There is no evidence to suggest a different effect on intellectual development between prenatal iron plus folic acid, multimicronutrient supplementation, and prenatal folic acid supplementation in children aged 7-10 y. This trial was registered at www.isrctn.com as ISRCTN08850194. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Sexual behavior, depressive feelings, and suicidality among Estonian school children aged 13 to 15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidmets, L; Samm, A; Sisask, M; Kõlves, K; Aasvee, K; Värnik, A

    2010-01-01

    The present paper is based on a WHO Collaborative Cross-National Study "Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC)." It aimed at describing and analyzing how the sexual behaviors of 13- to 15-year-old Estonian school children were associated with self-reported depressive feelings and suicidality. Distinctive behavioral traits in relation to age of first sexual intercourse were also investigated. Self-reported questionnaires from school children (n = 3,055) were analyzed. In total, 15.2% of school children reported being nonvirgin. Among 13-year-olds, 2.9% of girls and 6.8% of boys were nonvirgins. Approximately 25% of the 15-year-old girls and boys were nonvirgins. The likelihood of depressive feelings and suicidal ideation increased significantly in both genders with loss of virginity. Boys who had lost their virginity at 13 years or younger were 4.2 times more likely to have suicidal thoughts; comparable girls were 7.8 times more likely to have suicidal thoughts. Compared to virgins, youths who had lost their virginity reported poor self-assessed health and more risk behaviors in themselves and their peers. Experiences of sexual intercourse increased the odds ratios for depressive feelings and suicidality. The earlier sexual intercourse was initiated, the greater were the odds of lower mental well-being. Risk behaviors emerged as a complex phenomenon requiring complex prevention.

  4. Gender atypical behavior in Chinese school-aged children: its prevalence and relation to sex, age, and only child status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lu; Winter, Sam

    2011-07-01

    This study had three purposes: (a) to compare the prevalence of boys' and girls' gender-atypical behaviors (GABs) in a sample of Chinese school-aged children, (b) to examine the developmental pattern of GABs in Chinese boys and girls over the age range in question (6-12 years), and (c) to test the effects of being an only child on children's GAB expression. Parents of 486 boys and 417 girls completed a Child Play Behavior and Activity Questionnaire (CPBAQ) in regard to their own children, and a demographic information sheet. The frequency distribution for each gender-related behavior was calculated. The associations between sex, age, and only-child status, and CPBAQ scale scores were examined. Although most GABs (by their very nature) were exhibited infrequently in Chinese children, it was found that girls displayed GABs more frequently than boys did. The prevalence of GABs rose for girls as they grew older, but fell slightly for boys. The expressions of GABs in only children did not differ from that in children with siblings. Possible effects of Chinese culture (including the current only-child policy) on children's GABs are discussed.

  5. Iodine Status and Iodised Salt Consumption in Portuguese School-Aged Children: The Iogeneration Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Leite, João; Keating, Elisa; Pestana, Diogo; Cruz Fernandes, Virgínia; Maia, Maria Luz; Norberto, Sónia; Pinto, Edgar; Moreira-Rosário, André; Sintra, Diana; Moreira, Bárbara; Costa, Ana; Silva, Sofia; Costa, Vera; Martins, Inês; Castro Mendes, Francisca; Queirós, Pedro; Peixoto, Bruno; Carlos Caldas, José; Guerra, António; Fontoura, Manuel; Leal, Sandra; Moreira, Roxana; Palmares Carvalho, Irene; Matias Lima, Rui; Martins, Catia; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Almeida, Agostinho; Azevedo, Luís; Calhau, Conceição

    2017-05-05

    The World Health Organization promotes salt iodisation to control iodine deficiency. In Portugal, the use of iodised salt in school canteens has been mandatory since 2013. The present study aimed to evaluate iodine status in school-aged children (6-12 years) and to monitor the use of iodised salt in school canteens. A total of 2018 participants were randomly selected to participate in a cross-sectional survey in northern Portugal. Children's urine and salt samples from households and school canteens were collected. A lifestyle questionnaire was completed by parents to assess children's eating frequency of iodine food sources. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The median UIC was 129 µg/L which indicates the adequacy of iodine status and 32% of the children had UIC < 100 µg/L. No school canteen implemented the iodised salt policy and only 2% of the households were using iodised salt. Lower consumption of milk, but not fish, was associated with a higher risk of iodine deficiency. Estimation of sodium intake from spot urine samples could be an opportunity for adequate monitoring of population means. Implementation of iodine deficiency control policies should include a monitoring program aligned with the commitment of reducing the population salt intake.

  6. Determinants of Anemia and Hemoglobin Concentration in Haitian School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannotti, Lora L.; Delnatus, Jacques R.; Odom, Audrey R.; Eaton, Jacob C.; Griggs, Jennifer J.; Brown, Sarah; Wolff, Patricia B.

    2015-01-01

    Anemia diminishes oxygen transport in the body, resulting in potentially irreversible growth and developmental consequences for children. Limited evidence for determinants of anemia exists for school-aged children. We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial in Haiti from 2012 to 2013 to test the efficacy of a fortified school snack. Children (N = 1,047) aged 3–13 years were followed longitudinally at three time points for hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations, anthropometry, and bioelectrical impedance measures. Dietary intakes, infectious disease morbidities, and socioeconomic and demographic factors were collected at baseline and endline. Longitudinal regression modeling with generalized least squares and logit models with random effects identified anemia risk factors beyond the intervention effect. At baseline, 70.6% of children were anemic and 2.6% were severely anemic. Stunting increased the odds of developing anemia (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.48, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05–2.08) and severe anemia (adjusted OR: 2.47, 95% CI: 1.30–4.71). Parent-reported vitamin A supplementation and deworming were positively associated with Hb concentrations, whereas fever and poultry ownership showed a negative relationship with Hb concentration and increased odds of severe anemia, respectively. Further research should explore the full spectrum of anemia etiologies in school children, including genetic causes. PMID:26350448

  7. Effects of maternal education on diet, anemia, and iron deficiency in Korean school-aged children

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    Choi Hyeon-Jeong

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated the relationship among socioeconomic status factors, the risk of anemia, and iron deficiency among school-aged children in Korea. Methods The sample consisted of fourth-grade students aged 10 y recruited from nine elementary schools in Korean urban areas in 2008 (n = 717. Anthropometric and blood biochemistry data were obtained for this cross-sectional observational study. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin levels lower than 11.5 g/dl. Iron deficiency was defined as serum iron levels lower than 40 ug/dl. We also obtained data on parental education from questionnaires and on children's diets from 3-day food diaries. Parental education was categorized as low or high, with the latter representing an educational level beyond high school. Results Children with more educated mothers were less likely to develop anemia (P = 0.0324 and iron deficiency (P = 0.0577 than were those with less educated mothers. This group consumed more protein (P = 0.0004 and iron (P = 0.0012 from animal sources than did the children of less educated mothers, as reflected by their greater consumption of meat, poultry, and derivatives (P Conclusions As a contributor to socioeconomic status, maternal education is important in reducing the risk of anemia and iron deficiency and in increasing children's consumption of animal food sources.

  8. Factors associated with medication adherence in school-aged children with asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy H.Y. Chan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Adherence to preventive asthma treatment is poor, particularly in children, yet the factors associated with adherence in this age group are not well understood. Adherence was monitored electronically over 6 months in school-aged children who attended a regional emergency department in New Zealand for an asthma exacerbation and were prescribed twice-daily inhaled corticosteroids. Participants completed questionnaires including assessment of family demographics, asthma responsibility and learning style. Multivariable analysis of factors associated with adherence was conducted. 101 children (mean (range age 8.9 (6–15 years, 51% male participated. Median (interquartile range preventer adherence was 30% (17–48% of prescribed. Four explanatory factors were identified: female sex (+12% adherence, Asian ethnicity (+19% adherence, living in a smaller household (−3.0% adherence per person in the household, and younger age at diagnosis (+2.7% for every younger year of diagnosis (all p<0.02. In school-aged children attending the emergency department for asthma, males and non-Asian ethnic groups were at high risk for poor inhaled corticosteroid adherence and may benefit most from intervention. Four factors explained a small proportion of adherence behaviour indicating the difficulty in identifying adherence barriers. Further research is recommended in other similar populations.

  9. The Age Peculiarities of 10 to 12 Year-Old School-children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Badmayeva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the problem of children’s development transformation from the standpoints of different authors. The changes in the age borders and childhood structure along with their causes are demonstrated. The childhood crisis is described, its place in the child’s development process identified. The author emphasizes the visible discord between the worlds of adults and children: being less involved in upbringing process nowadays, adults appear to be less exact in their attitude to children; their demands lack clearness and specificity. Both teachers and adults demonstrate helplessness and aloofness, which reflects in children’s consciousness and their attitude to adults, and results in the lost sense of responsibility, infantilism, egoism and moral emptiness of growing generation. The author carried out the comparative analysis of age peculiarities of middle class schoolchildren from comprehensive school. Three development stages were singled out for 10 to 12 year-olds: local caprices, rights understanding, and affirmative functional stage. The personality formation trends concerning the modern day school children are outlined, the external and internal factors determining this formation enumerated. The following influencing phenomena are mentioned, in particular: the essential socio-economic changes, fast spreading of mass-media and computer technologies, low level of parental motivation, replacement of the value-normative system (social anomie etc. The necessity of creating socio-pedagogic conditions relating to the age peculiarities of modern school children is substantiated. 

  10. The Age Peculiarities of 10 to 12 Year-Old School-children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Badmayeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the problem of children’s development transformation from the standpoints of different authors. The changes in the age borders and childhood structure along with their causes are demonstrated. The childhood crisis is described, its place in the child’s development process identified. The author emphasizes the visible discord between the worlds of adults and children: being less involved in upbringing process nowadays, adults appear to be less exact in their attitude to children; their demands lack clearness and specificity. Both teachers and adults demonstrate helplessness and aloofness, which reflects in children’s consciousness and their attitude to adults, and results in the lost sense of responsibility, infantilism, egoism and moral emptiness of growing generation. The author carried out the comparative analysis of age peculiarities of middle class schoolchildren from comprehensive school. Three development stages were singled out for 10 to 12 year-olds: local caprices, rights understanding, and affirmative functional stage. The personality formation trends concerning the modern day school children are outlined, the external and internal factors determining this formation enumerated. The following influencing phenomena are mentioned, in particular: the essential socio-economic changes, fast spreading of mass-media and computer technologies, low level of parental motivation, replacement of the value-normative system (social anomie etc. The necessity of creating socio-pedagogic conditions relating to the age peculiarities of modern school children is substantiated. 

  11. Joint-Attention and the Social Phenotype of School-Aged Children with ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Peter; Novotny, Stephanie; Swain-Lerro, Lindsey; McIntyre, Nancy; Zajic, Matt; Oswald, Tasha

    2017-05-01

    The validity of joint attention assessment in school-aged children with ASD is unclear (Lord, Jones, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 53(5):490-509, 2012). This study examined the feasibility and validity of a parent-report measure of joint attention related behaviors in verbal children and adolescents with ASD. Fifty-two children with ASD and 34 controls were assessed with the Childhood Joint Attention Rating Scale (C-JARS). The C-JARS exhibited internally consistency, α = 0.88, and one factor explained 49% of the scale variance. Factor scores correctly identified between 88 and 94% of the children with ASD and 62-82% of controls. These scores were correlated with the ADOS-2, but not other parent-report symptom measures. The C-JARS appears to assess a unique dimension of the social-phenotype of children with ASD.

  12. Neuropsychological Impairment in School-Aged Children Born to Mothers With Gestational Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolaños, Lourdes; Matute, Esmeralda; Ramírez-Dueñas, María de Lourdes; Zarabozo, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether school-aged children born to mothers with gestational diabetes show delays in their neuropsychological development. Several key neuropsychological characteristics of 32 children aged 7 to 9 years born to mothers with gestational diabetes were examined by comparing their performance on cognitive tasks to that of 28 children aged 8 to 10 years whose mothers had glucose levels within normal limits during pregnancy. The gestational diabetes group showed low performance on graphic, spatial, and bimanual skills and a higher presence of soft neurologic signs. Lower scores for general intellectual level and the working memory index were also evident. Our results suggest that gestational diabetes is associated with mild cognitive impairment. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Neurobehavioral outcomes of school-age children born preterm: a preliminary study in the Arabic community

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    Mohammed M.J. Alqahtani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preterm survivors from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU are considered as high risk group for some neurobehavioral impairments such as cognitive disabilities, developmental delays, social/emotional limitations, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, and academic difficulties. Objective: The current study aimed to investigate the neurobehavioral outcome of premature infants in Saudi Arabia at the school age.Methods: At the school age, preterm children (range 23-29 weeks or ≤ 1.52 kg born from April, 2006 through September, 2008, and who were admitted following birth to a NICU, were evaluated with several neurobehavioral tools. Results: This study includes 53 preterm children, who were followed up at the chronological age that ranged from 6.4-8.0 years. The results of the neurobehavioral assessments showed in general normal social adaptive levels and cognitive abilities, with mean total score of about 91.0 and 90.0, respectively. The prevalence of ADHD among preterm children was high, with result of 34.0% for the inattentive type and 11.3% for the hyperactive/impulsive type. None of the preterm children repeats a grade, but 22.6% utilize a form of special educational supports. Some of the preterm children showed poor school performance in reading skills, writing skills and mathematics skills, with percentages of 26.4%, 28.3% and 15.1%, respectively.Conclusions: The present results emphasize that preterm children are a group of high-risk children who need regular follow-up to track the developmental conditions and to provide the early developmental intervention for optimal outcome.

  14. Growth performance and iron status of rural Beninese school-age children in post-and pre-harvest season

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitchikpe, C.E.S.; Ram, D.; Ead, A.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Kok, F.J.

    2012-01-01

    Malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are major public health problems in developing countries. Most affected groups are children, adolescents, women of reproductive age and pregnant women. School-age children also represent an important vulnerable age category because they are still in the

  15. [Study on feeding behavior in school children aged 11-13 years from Barcelona].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells Cuixart, M; Capdevila Prim, C; Girbau Solà, T; Rodríguez Caba, C

    2006-01-01

    To know the family environment, living habits and social characteristics in 11-13 years-old school children. A descriptive transversal study performed in 65 schools of Barcelona during the second three-month, involving 2354 school children aged 11-13 interviewed by 73 pharmacists. The questionnaire has thirty-nine questions referring to family structure, eating and drinking habits, preferences, life style parameters such as physical activity and television viewing. The survey revealed a family unit of two children and their parents was the most common. Only a 12% of the children surveyed lived with their grandparents. Furthermore, the findings revealed a low family presence during the three main meals on the working days, which increased on weekends, 26% on breakfast, 44% on lunch and 11% on dinner. A 24% had breakfast alone and the 46% ate what they wanted. About the afternoon snack, the 25% alone and the 55% what they wanted. A 60% never or practically never participated in decision making, when buying food. A 70% reported they did other activities while eating. Concretely, a 40, 39 and 59% of the children reported they had breakfast, lunch and dinner while watching television. The consumption frequency of trinkets, soft drinks and television viewing were lower for the children from private compared to public schools. This study show that food choice at shopping was mainly done by the parents, however, children had an important role in making decisions of what food they eat and the activities they do while eating. Therefore, pharmacists could have a potential role to intervene in the nutritional education to parents and children.

  16. Association between family structure, maternal education level, and maternal employment with sedentary lifestyle in primary school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Nava, Francisco; Treviño-Garcia-Manzo, Norberto; Vázquez-Rodríguez, Carlos F; Vázquez-Rodríguez, Eliza M

    2013-01-01

    To determine the association between family structure, maternal education level, and maternal employment with sedentary lifestyle in primary school-age children. Data were obtained from 897 children aged 6 to 12 years. A questionnaire was used to collect information. Body mass index (BMI) was determined using the age- and gender-specific Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definition. Children were categorized as: normal weight (5(th) percentile≤BMImaternal educational level and having a working mother, appears to be associated with sedentary lifestyle in overweight primary school-age children. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Word Definitional Skills in School age Persian Speaking Children: A Developmental Study on Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talieh Zarifian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Word definitional skills (WDSs were classified according to the quality of both semantic content and syntactic form. The aim of the present study was to investigate the syntactic development in WDSs in typically developing school- age children. Methods: In this cross-sectional and descriptive-analytical study,  150 of typically developing school-age children participated by the  multistage sampling method in the second to sixth grade from primary schools in 1, 7 and 17 municipal  districts of Tehran. The definition skill was assessed with word definition task. The reliability was assessed by two independent values and the validity was determined by the content. The results were  analyzed by the SPSS (22th version  statistical software and with the method of independent- samples T test, univariate analysis of variance and Tukey test. Results: The form analysis revealed that all children use phrase/clause  or simple sentence, transitional form and Aristotelian form frequently, but by increasing the age, definitions were developed from simple syntactic structure into Aristotelian form, in fact mean score of the form in word definition was significantly increased by age (P<0.001. Discussion: Owing to the findings of this study, the development of word definitional skills in terms of form was developed from phrase/clause or simple sentence and transitional form responses into Aristotelian form. Also WDSs are closely related to academic success and the development of literacy.

  18. Theory of mind and specific language impairment in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanoudis, George

    2016-01-01

    Research on the relationship between aspects of language development and Theory of Mind (ToM) in children with language impairments suggests that children with language impairment show a delay in ToM development. This study aimed to examine the relationships of the syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic skills with ToM in school-age children. Twenty children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) aged 9-12 years and two control groups, one matched for chronological age (CA) and one for language ability (LA) (aged 8-10 years) were compared on a set of language tasks tapping syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic skills and on an advanced test of ToM. Results showed that children with SLI performed poorly on the ToM task compared to the CA matches. Also, analysis showed that language skills and ToM are related and that syntactic and pragmatic abilities contributed significantly to the prediction of ToM performance in the SLI group. It is concluded that the syntax/pragmatic aspects of the language impact on ToM understanding in children with SLI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Fitness Trends and Disparities Among School-Aged Children in Georgia, 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yang; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F; Welk, Gregory J

    Although FitnessGram fitness data on aerobic capacity and body mass index (BMI) have been collected in public schools in Georgia since the 2011-2012 school year, the data have not been analyzed. The primary objective of our study was to use these data to assess changes in fitness among school-aged children in Georgia between 2011 and 2014. A secondary objective was to determine if student fitness differed by school size and socioeconomic characteristics. FitnessGram classifies fitness into the Healthy Fitness Zone (HFZ) or not within the HFZ for aerobic capacity and BMI. We used data for 3 successive school years (ie, 2011-2012 to 2013-2014) obtained from FitnessGram testing of students in >1600 schools. We calculated the percentage of students who achieved the HFZ for aerobic capacity and BMI. We used growth curve models to estimate the annual changes in these proportions, and we determined the effect of school size and socioeconomic status on these changes. Both elementary school boys (β = 1.31%, standard error [SE] = 0.23%, P fitness profiles. Surveillance results such as these may help inform the process of designing state and local school-based fitness promotion and public health programs and tracking the results of those programs.

  20. Lifestyle, quality of life, nutritional status and headache in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Kamila; Rockett, Fernanda C; Billo, Maira; Oliveira, Gabriela T; Klein, Luciana S; Parizotti, Cristiane S; Perla, Alexandre S; Perry, Ingrid D S

    2013-01-01

    Headache has been described as a factor with significant negative impact on the quality of life of school-aged children with a high risk of developing in chronic and persistent form in adulthood. Among other headache associated triggers or aggravating factors, lifestyle and obesity has been investigated, but results are still conflicting. To evaluate the prevalence of headache in school-aged children and its relationship to anthropometric characteristics, lifestyle, and quality of life. A cross-sectional study was conducted in six schools located in two cities in southern Brazil, involving 750 students aged 7 to 14 years. Information was collected on sociodemographic characteristics, clinical variables (presence of headache and menarche), anthropometric data, lifestyle, and quality of life. A total of 185 (24.7%) students reported having headache crises in the last 3 months. Among students aged 10 to 14 years, presence of headache was associated with female sex, affecting 32.2% of girls vs. 23.3% of boys (p = 0.042, chi-square test). Anthropometric parameters (data on overweight/obesity) were consistent with national prevalence rates, and there was no association between Body Mass Index (BMI) and headache. Regarding lifestyle, 2.0% of students reported smoking and 1.6% consuming alcohol occasionally, and neither was associated with headache. Quality of life, especially aspects of social life, appeared to be affected by the presence of headache. This study found a high prevalence of headache in school-aged children, which was associated with female students aged 10-14 years and quality of life. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  1. School-Aged Children Who Are Educated at Home by Their Parents: Is There a Role for Educational Psychologists?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Tiny C. M. J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on home education with reference to issues that may concern educational psychologists. It notes the fast growing number of families (at present, 1% of the UK school population) who have chosen to educate their school-aged children at home. The great majority of home-educated children are reported to be well…

  2. Psychosocial correlates of physical activity in school children aged 8-10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabra, Ana C; Seabra, André F; Mendonça, Denisa M; Brustad, Robert; Maia, José A; Fonseca, António M; Malina, Robert M

    2013-10-01

    Understanding correlates of physical activity (PA) among children in different populations may contribute to fostering active lifestyles. This study considered gender differences in relationships between biologic (body mass index, BMI), demographic (socioeconomic sport status, SES) and psychosocial correlates of PA and level of PA in Portuguese primary school children. 683 children, aged 8-10 years, from 20 different elementary schools in northern Portugal were surveyed. Weight status was classified using International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) criteria for the BMI. Family SES was estimated from school records. PA level and psychosocial correlates (attraction to PA, perceived physical competence and parental socialization) were obtained with interview and standardized questionnaires, respectively. Sex-specific hierarchical multiple regression analyses (SPSS 18.0) were conducted and included two blocks of predictor variables (biologic and demographic, and psychosocial). Level of PA was significantly higher in boys than girls. Enjoyment of participation in vigorous PA was positively associated with level of PA. Perceived acceptance by peers in games and sports and parental encouragement were positively and significantly related to PA in girls. Perceived physical competence was positively and significantly related to PA in boys. Weight status and SES were not associated with PA. Boys and girls differed in perceived attractiveness of PA and perceived physical competence, both of which influenced level of PA. Differences in perceptions may be important aspects of motivation for PA in school children.

  3. Corporal punishment and children's externalizing problems: a cross-sectional study of Tanzanian primary school aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Tobias; Hermenau, Katharin; Isele, Dorothea; Elbert, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    The adverse effect of harsh corporal punishment on mental health and psychosocial functioning in children has been repeatedly suggested by studies in industrialized countries. Nevertheless, corporal punishment has remained common practice not only in many homes, but is also regularly practiced in schools, particularly in low-income countries, as a measure to maintain discipline. Proponents of corporal punishment have argued that the differences in culture and industrial development might also be reflected in a positive relationship between the use of corporal punishment and improving behavioral problems in low-income nations. In the present study we assessed the occurrence of corporal punishment at home and in school in Tanzanian primary school students. We also examined the association between corporal punishment and externalizing problems. The 409 children (52% boys) from grade 2 to 7 had a mean age of 10.49 (SD=1.89) years. Nearly all children had experienced corporal punishment at some point during their lifetime both in family and school contexts. Half of the respondents reported having experienced corporal punishment within the last year from a family member. A multiple sequential regression analysis revealed that corporal punishment by parents or by caregivers was positively related to children's externalizing problems. The present study provides evidence that Tanzanian children of primary school age are frequently exposed to extreme levels of corporal punishment, with detrimental consequences for externalizing behavior. Our findings emphasize the need to inform parents, teachers and governmental organizations, especially in low-income countries, about the adverse consequences of using corporal punishment be it at home or at school. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cognitive functioning over 2 years after intracerebral hemorrhage in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Lexa K; Compas, Bruce E; Gindville, Melissa C; Reeslund, Kristen L; Jordan, Lori C

    2017-11-01

    Previous research investigating outcomes after pediatric intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has generally been limited to global and sensorimotor outcomes. This study examined cognitive outcomes after spontaneous ICH in school-aged children with serial assessments over 2 years after stroke. Seven children (age range 6-16y, median 13; six males, one female; 57% white, 43% black) presenting with spontaneous ICH (six arteriovenous malformations) were assessed at 3 months, 12 months, and 24 months after stroke. The Pediatric Stroke Outcome Measure (PSOM) quantified neurological outcome and Wechsler Intelligence Scales measured cognitive outcomes: verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning, working memory, and processing speed. PSOM scales showed improved neurological function over the first 12 months, with mild to no sensorimotor deficits and moderate overall deficits at 1- and 2-year follow-ups (median 2-year sensorimotor PSOM=0.5, total PSOM=1.5). Changes in cognitive function indicated a different trajectory; verbal comprehension and perceptual reasoning improved over 24 months; low performance was sustained in processing speed and working memory. Age-normed centile scores decreased between 1- and 2-year follow-ups for working memory, suggesting emerging deficits compared with peers. Early and serial cognitive testing in children with ICH is needed to assess cognitive functioning and support children in school as they age and cognitive deficits become more apparent and important for function. In children with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), motor function improved between 3 months and 24 months. Improvements in cognitive function were variable between 3 months and 24 months. Working memory centiles declined, suggesting emerging deficits compared with peers. Processing speed improved but remained significantly below the 50th centile. Cognitive impact of ICH may increase with age in children. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.

  5. Dietary patterns are associated with overweight and obesity in Mexican school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; Mundo-Rosas, Verónica; García-Guerra, Armando; Shamah-Levy, Teresa

    2011-09-01

    In Mexico, about one third of school-age population is overweight or obese and the diet is one of the main determinants. The purpose of this study was to identify the dietary patterns of Mexican school-age children and to determine their association with the risk of overweight/obesity. This study included 8252 school-age children who participated in the 2006 National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT-2006). Dietary data were collected using a 7-day Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Foods were classified into 25 groups and dietary patterns were defined by cluster analysis. Body Mass Index and prevalence of overweight/obesity were calculated. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between dietary patterns and overweight/obesity. Five dietary patterns were identified: Rural dietary pattern (high intake of tortilla and legumes), sweet cereal and corn dishes pattern (high intake of sugary cereals, tortilla, and maize products); diverse pattern (intake of several food groups); western pattern (high intake of sweetened beverages, fried snacks, industrial snack cakes, and sugary cereals), and whole milk and sweet pattern (high intake of whole milk and sweets). We found that children with sweet cereal and corn dishes and western dietary patterns showed an association with overweight and obesity (prevalence ratio 1.29 and 1.35, respectively, using as reference the rural dietary pattern). Patterns characterized by high intakes of sugary cereals, sweetened beverages, industrial snack, cakes, whole milk, and sweets were associated with a higher risk of overweight/obesity among in Mexican school-age children.

  6. Therapeutic techniques and their use for children with disabilities at school age

    OpenAIRE

    KOLÁŘOVÁ, Marie

    2013-01-01

    The topic of this bachelor thesis are therapheutical techniques and the way they are used in helping school-age children with disabilities. The theoretical part of this thesis defines the terms "therapy", "therapist" and ?comprehensive rehabilitation system?. Comprehensive rehabilitation system comprises not only occupational, social and pedagogical resources, but primarily also therapeutic resources that include (but are not limited to) therapies (e.g. ergotherapy, animal-assisted therapy, m...

  7. Dental traumatology children of younger school age and the importance of oral hygiene after these situations

    OpenAIRE

    KRÁLOVÁ, Stanislava

    2013-01-01

    Set of teeth in children younger school age going through big changes, and any unwanted interference with healthy dentition in has an impact on the further development of the teeth. When the accident shall be decided by an early and correct diagnosis of injured tissue, suitably elected procedures, periodic inspection of the injured area and thorough dental hygiene, which affects the process of therapy. In the theoretical part describes the development of the dentition and the differences betw...

  8. Perceived class climate and school-aged children's life satisfaction: The role of the learning environment in classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathmann, Katharina; Herke, Max G; Hurrelmann, Klaus; Richter, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the impact of class-level class climate on school-aged children's life satisfaction. Data was derived from the German National Educational Panel Study (NEPS) using sixth grade school-aged children (n = 4,764, 483 classes). Class climate includes indicators of teachers' care and monitoring, demands, interaction, autonomy, as well as school-aged children's attitudes towards schoolwork at the class- and individual-level. Results showed that individual perceived class climate in terms of teachers' care and monitoring and autonomy was positively related to life satisfaction, whereas school-related demands were related to lower life satisfaction. Besides teachers' care and monitoring at class-level, indicators of class climate were not associated with school-aged children's life satisfaction, while the individual perceived class climate is more important for life satisfaction.

  9. Perceived class climate and school-aged children's life satisfaction: The role of the learning environment in classrooms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Rathmann

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the impact of class-level class climate on school-aged children's life satisfaction. Data was derived from the German National Educational Panel Study (NEPS using sixth grade school-aged children (n = 4,764, 483 classes. Class climate includes indicators of teachers' care and monitoring, demands, interaction, autonomy, as well as school-aged children's attitudes towards schoolwork at the class- and individual-level. Results showed that individual perceived class climate in terms of teachers' care and monitoring and autonomy was positively related to life satisfaction, whereas school-related demands were related to lower life satisfaction. Besides teachers' care and monitoring at class-level, indicators of class climate were not associated with school-aged children's life satisfaction, while the individual perceived class climate is more important for life satisfaction.

  10. A comparison of nutrition knowledge, attitudes and dairy consumption of school children according to age and gender

    OpenAIRE

    Irena Colić Barić

    2001-01-01

    Besides traditional nutrients, milk and dairy products contain some health promoting components. The aim of this study was to detect the frequency and preferences among dairy products in school children according to age and gender. The subjects were 234 healthy children at age 10-11 years and 14-15 years from two primary schools in Zagreb. Number of participants was well balanced according to age and gender. Dietary data were collected using specially designed food frequency questionnaire (FF...

  11. Examining the psychological and social impact of relative age in primary school children: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, A; Allen, K; Ukoumunne, O C; Hayes, R; Ford, T

    2017-11-01

    A number of studies demonstrate that children who are younger within their school year have poorer academic attainment and are more likely to have special educational needs. Few, however, have considered the impact relative age may have on child mental health, behaviour and happiness in school. This paper utilized data from the Supporting Teachers and Children in Schools study (2075 pupils aged 5 to 9 years from 80 primary schools) to explore the relationship among relative age, behaviour and happiness in school. Behavioural and emotional development was assessed by using the teacher-reported and parent-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Pupil Behaviour Questionnaire. Children's happiness within school was assessed by using the How I Feel About My School Questionnaire. Relatively younger children had higher Total Difficulties scores on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire than their peers. There was a mean increase per 30-day decrease in relative age of 0.09 (95% CI: 0.03 to 0.16; p = 0.007) in teacher-reported and 0.08 (0.001 to 0.16; p = 0.05) in parent-reported scores. There was little evidence of a relationship between relative age and children's behaviour and happiness in school. For children with complex difficulties, being relatively young for their school year may be an additional stressor that may undermine mental health. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The Preschool-Aged and School-Aged Children Present Different Odds of Mortality than Adults in Southern Taiwan: A Cross-Sectional Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shu-Hui; Huang, Chun-Ying; Hsu, Shiun-Yuan; Yang, Li-Hui; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2018-04-25

    Background : This study aimed to profile the epidemiology of injury among preschool-aged and school-aged children in comparison to those in adults. Methods : According to the Trauma Registry System of a level I trauma center, the medical data were retrieved from 938 preschool-aged children (aged less than seven years), 670 school-aged children (aged 7⁻12 years), and 16,800 adults (aged 20⁻64 years) between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2016. Two-sided Pearson’s, chi-squared, and Fisher’s exact tests were used to compare categorical data. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the Games-Howell post-hoc test was used to assess the differences in continuous variables among different groups of patients. The mortality outcomes of different subgroups were assessed by a multivariable regression model under the adjustment of sex, injury mechanisms, and injury severity. Results : InFsupppjury mechanisms in preschool-aged and school-aged children were remarkably different from that in adults; in preschool-aged children, burns were the most common cause of injury requiring hospitalization (37.4%), followed by falls (35.1%) and being struck by/against objects (11.6%). In school-aged children, injuries were most commonly sustained from falls (47.8%), followed by bicycle accidents (14%) and being struck by/against objects (12.5%). Compared to adults, there was no significant difference of the adjusted mortality of the preschool-aged children (AOR = 0.9; 95% CI 0.38⁻2.12; p = 0.792) but there were lower adjusted odds of mortality of the school-aged children (AOR = 0.4; 95% CI 0.10⁻0.85; p = 0.039). The school-aged children had lower odds of mortality than adults (OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.06⁻0.74; p = 0.012), but such lower odds of risk of mortality were not found in preschool-aged children (OR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.29⁻1.81; p = 0.646). Conclusions : This study suggests that specific types of injuries from different injury mechanisms are predominant among preschool-aged

  13. Conversational Repair in School-Aged Children with High-Functioning Autism

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    Pei-Mei Lu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to investigate the conversational repair skills of Mandarin Chinese-speaking children with high-functioning autism (HFA as compared with those of typically developing children (TD. Ten school-aged children (age 9 to 12 with HFA were recruited and matched against ten TD children in the control group based on age, gender, and verbal intelligence level. During three different conversation situations (free talk, story picture description, play, an examiner engineered 9 episodes of communicative breakdowns. Each consisted of a stacked series of three prompts for responding to requests for clarification (RQCLs (i.e.‘What?’, ‘I don’t understand’, ‘I still don’t know’. Verbal responses to each RQCL were then coded for further analyses. The results showed that (1 In response to the stacked series RQCLs, children with HFA were similar to the control group children in evidencing repetition, revision, and addition types of repair. Furthermore, children with HFA showed fewer cue type of repair and more inappropriate type of repair than TD group. (2For both groups, the pattern of responding over the series of RQCLs was similar in varying the repetition and revision types of repair strategies. However, the pattern in the addition, cue, and inappropriate types of repair strategies were different. Children with HFA were significantly more likely to respond to an RQCL with an inappropriate response than the language and age-matched controls. It is suggested that teachers and parents could facilitate the conversational repair skills of children with high-functioning autism by offering them opportunities to manage different types of communicative breakdowns.

  14. Correlation between iron deficiency anemia and intestinal parasitic infection in school-age children in Medan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlan, D. M.; Ananda, F. R.; Sari, M. I.; Arrasyid, N. K.; Sari, D. I.

    2018-03-01

    Anemia is an abnormal hemoglobin concentration in blood that impacts almost 40% school-age children in developing countries. Intestinal parasitic infection, along with malnutrition are contributed to influence absorption, transportation, and metabolism of iron which is the most common etiology of anemia in school-age children. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a correlation between iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and parasitic intestinal infection generally and protozoa infection particularly among school-age children in Medan. This was a cross-sectional study conducted from May until October 2016 in primaryschool in Medan and Hamparan Perak, Deli Serdang. Consecutive sampling was used with total 132 samples obtained. Univariate analysis and Bivariate analysis were performed.This study showed the prevalence of IDA was 7.6%, and proportion of parasitic intestinal infection was 26.5% with 19.8% protozoa infection. The correlation between IDA and intestinal parasitic infection was not significant in Chi-Square Test (p-value: 0.089), neither was between IDA and protozoa infection (p-value: 0.287). There was a correlation between MCV, MCH, and anemia with p-valueanemia, parasitic infection, and protozoa infection (p-value>0.05).

  15. Reducing Listening-Related Stress in School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rance, Gary; Chisari, Donella; Saunders, Kerryn; Rault, Jean-Loup

    2017-07-01

    High levels of stress and anxiety are common in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Within this study of school-aged children (20 male, 6 female) we hypothesised that functional hearing deficits (also pervasive in ASD) could be ameliorated by auditory interventions and that, as a consequence, stress levels would be reduced. The use of Ear-Level Remote Microphone devices and Classroom Amplification systems resulted in significantly improved listening, communication and social interaction and a reduction in physiologic stress levels (salivary cortisol) in both one-on-one and group listening situations.

  16. Quality of Life, Motor Ability, and Weight Status Among School-aged Children of Tehran

    OpenAIRE

    M Asghari Jafarabadi; A Bahram; F Khodaverdi

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between health Related quality of life (HRQOL), motor ability and weight status in children.Methods:Two hundred forty children ages 9-11 yr who were selected via multi stage cluster sampling design from primary schools in the Shahre Qods at Tehran,Iran in 2007. HRQOL was assessed by the pediatric quality of life inventory (PedsQL).Motor abilities were determined by a Basic Motor Ability Test (BMAT).Body mass index was calculated to ...

  17. Evaluation of the thyroid blood flow with Doppler ultrasonography in healthy school-aged children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yazici, Burhan; Simsek, Enver; Erdogmus, Besir; Bahcebasi, Talat; Aktas, Alev; Buyukkaya, Ramazan; Uzun, Hakan; Safak, Alp Alper

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine the relationship between thyroid blood flow and anthropometric measurements, pubertal stage, and thyroid and gonadotropic hormones. Materials and methods: We examined 123 healthy school-aged children prospectively (69 boys (56.1%) and 54 girls (43.9%), 7-17 years old). Their sex, age, body weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and pubertal stage were determined. Serum thyrotropin, free thyroxine, luteinizing hormone, and follicle stimulating hormone were measured in both genders, along with testosterone in boys and estradiol in girls. The peak systolic velocity (PSV), resistance index (RI), and pulsatility index (PI) of the superior thyroid artery were determined. The correlations between the Doppler parameters and these factors were investigated. Results: There were no differences in age, weight, height, BMI, thyroid volume, PSV, RI, or PI between boys and girls (P > 0.05). The PSV and PI showed strong correlations with age, height, weight, puberty stage, thyroid volume, and BMI. The RI showed a strong inverse correlation with age, height, weight, puberty stage, and thyroid volume and a weak inverse correlation with the BMI. Conclusion: Determination of the thyroid arterial flow in normal healthy children is important during a Doppler ultrasound (US) examination. Doppler US parameters and their percentiles should be described in healthy children from different age groups, and these percentiles will aid in interpreting Doppler US in children

  18. Evaluation of the thyroid blood flow with Doppler ultrasonography in healthy school-aged children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazici, Burhan [Department of Radiology, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce 81620 (Turkey)], E-mail: dryazici@yahoo.com; Simsek, Enver [Department of Pediatrics, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce (Turkey); Erdogmus, Besir [Department of Radiology, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce 81620 (Turkey); Bahcebasi, Talat [Department of Public Health, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce (Turkey); Aktas, Alev [Department of Pediatrics, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce (Turkey); Buyukkaya, Ramazan [Department of Radiology, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce 81620 (Turkey); Uzun, Hakan [Department of Pediatrics, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce (Turkey); Safak, Alp Alper [Department of Radiology, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce 81620 (Turkey)

    2007-08-15

    Objective: To determine the relationship between thyroid blood flow and anthropometric measurements, pubertal stage, and thyroid and gonadotropic hormones. Materials and methods: We examined 123 healthy school-aged children prospectively (69 boys (56.1%) and 54 girls (43.9%), 7-17 years old). Their sex, age, body weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and pubertal stage were determined. Serum thyrotropin, free thyroxine, luteinizing hormone, and follicle stimulating hormone were measured in both genders, along with testosterone in boys and estradiol in girls. The peak systolic velocity (PSV), resistance index (RI), and pulsatility index (PI) of the superior thyroid artery were determined. The correlations between the Doppler parameters and these factors were investigated. Results: There were no differences in age, weight, height, BMI, thyroid volume, PSV, RI, or PI between boys and girls (P > 0.05). The PSV and PI showed strong correlations with age, height, weight, puberty stage, thyroid volume, and BMI. The RI showed a strong inverse correlation with age, height, weight, puberty stage, and thyroid volume and a weak inverse correlation with the BMI. Conclusion: Determination of the thyroid arterial flow in normal healthy children is important during a Doppler ultrasound (US) examination. Doppler US parameters and their percentiles should be described in healthy children from different age groups, and these percentiles will aid in interpreting Doppler US in children.

  19. A Pilot Investigation of Speech Sound Disorder Intervention Delivered by Telehealth to School-Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Grogan-Johnson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a school-based telehealth service delivery model and reports outcomes made by school-age students with speech sound disorders in a rural Ohio school district. Speech therapy using computer-based speech sound intervention materials was provided either by live interactive videoconferencing (telehealth, or conventional side-by-side intervention.  Progress was measured using pre- and post-intervention scores on the Goldman Fristoe Test of Articulation-2 (Goldman & Fristoe, 2002. Students in both service delivery models made significant improvements in speech sound production, with students in the telehealth condition demonstrating greater mastery of their Individual Education Plan (IEP goals. Live interactive videoconferencing thus appears to be a viable method for delivering intervention for speech sound disorders to children in a rural, public school setting. Keywords:  Telehealth, telerehabilitation, videoconferencing, speech sound disorder, speech therapy, speech-language pathology; E-Helper

  20. Prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization in school children aged 8-12 years in Chennai

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    Savitha Deepthi Yannam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the prevalence and severity of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH. Materials and Methods: A sample of 2,864 students aged 8-12 years were selected from government and private schools in Chennai. MIH was diagnosed clinically based on the diagnostic criteria established by the European Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (EAPD 2003. Results: A total of 277 children (9.7% had MIH. There was statistically significant difference in prevalence related to age but there was no statistical difference in prevalence with respect to gender. Conclusion: Prevalence of MIH was 9.7% in the child population residing in Chennai. Males and females were equally affected. The rate of occurrence and severity of MIH are more in the right mandibular first molar. The severity of MIH is more in molars compared to incisors (P < 0.001 and is more in government schools compared to private schools (P = 0.002.

  1. Maternal coping with the prospect of liver transplant among their school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiratsuka, Katsuhiro; Nakamura, Nobue; Sato, Naho

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of the current study was to describe the following: maternal coping with the prospect of becoming the living-donor liver transplant for their child; the daily lives of school-age children surviving biliary atresia with their native liver; and to explore the relationship between these individuals. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 6 school-age children surviving biliary atresia with their native liver and their mothers. The interviews were conducted from June to August 2014, and a qualitative content analysis was used. Results showed that mothers realized a possible need for transplantation in the future, which contributes to emotional and practical uncertainties. The mothers coexisted with this uncertainty and preferred to use a buffering strategy. In contrast, the children did not consider their illness and future and did not adhere to a therapeutic regimen. It is suggested that living with uncertainty about the health and survival of their children is advantageous for mothers. However, problems related to the psychosocial aspect and child's adherence may occur in the future. In addition, problem-solving coping strategies for mothers and the independence of chronically ill children with liver disease should be promoted. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. Exposure to violence among urban school-aged children: is it only on television?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purugganan, O H; Stein, R E; Silver, E J; Benenson, B S

    2000-10-01

    To measure exposure to different types of violence among school-aged children in a primary care setting. Child interviews using an instrument measuring 4 types of exposure (direct victimization, witnessing, hearing reports, media). Violent acts measured include being beaten up, chased/threatened, robbed/mugged, stabbed/shot, killed. Pediatric primary care clinic of large urban hospital. Convenience sample of 175 children 9-12 years old and their mothers. A total of 53% of the children were boys, 55% were Hispanic, and 40% received public assistance. All children had been exposed to media violence. A total of 97% (170/175) had been exposed to more direct forms of violence; 77% had witnessed violence involving strangers; 49% had witnessed violence involving familiar persons; 49% had been direct victims; and 31% had witnessed someone being shot, stabbed, or killed. Exposure to violence was significantly associated with being male. Most school-aged children who visited a pediatric primary care clinic of a large urban hospital had directly experienced violence as witnesses and/or victims.

  3. School-aged children can benefit from audiovisual semantic congruency during memory encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, Jenni; Tiippana, Kaisa

    2016-05-01

    Although we live in a multisensory world, children's memory has been usually studied concentrating on only one sensory modality at a time. In this study, we investigated how audiovisual encoding affects recognition memory. Children (n = 114) from three age groups (8, 10 and 12 years) memorized auditory or visual stimuli presented with a semantically congruent, incongruent or non-semantic stimulus in the other modality during encoding. Subsequent recognition memory performance was better for auditory or visual stimuli initially presented together with a semantically congruent stimulus in the other modality than for stimuli accompanied by a non-semantic stimulus in the other modality. This congruency effect was observed for pictures presented with sounds, for sounds presented with pictures, for spoken words presented with pictures and for written words presented with spoken words. The present results show that semantically congruent multisensory experiences during encoding can improve memory performance in school-aged children.

  4. Parenting and feeding behaviors associated with school-aged African American and White children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polfuss, Michele Lynn; Frenn, Marilyn

    2012-08-01

    Pediatric obesity is multifactorial and difficult to treat. Parenting and feeding behaviors have been shown to influence a child's weight status. Most prior studies have focused on preschool-aged White children. Additional complicating factors include parents' inability to accurately identify their child's abnormal weight status. Parenting and feeding behaviors used by 176 African American and White parents of school-age children were examined. Assessment included (a) identifying what behaviors were reported when parent expressed concern with child's weight and (b) the relationship of these behaviors on child's body mass index percentile (BMI%), considering ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and parent's body mass index (BMI). Findings included African American parents and parents concerned about their child's weight exhibited increased controlling/authoritarian parenting and feeding behaviors. Parents were able to accurately identify their child's weight status. Parenting and feeding behaviors played a significant role in the children's BMI% even when controlling for ethnicity, SES, and parent's BMI.

  5. Moral emotions associated with prosocial and antisocial behavior in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz Barón, María J; Etxebarria Bilbao, Itziar; Apodaca Urquijo, Pedro; Conejero López, Susana; Pascual Jimeno, Aitziber

    2018-02-01

    The present study aims to explore the main effects and interactive effects of empathy, guilt, shame, pride (authentic and hubristic), and moral pride, on prosocial and antisocial behavior in children. The sample group comprised 351 children aged between 10 and 14 selected from four schools in the Basque Country (Spain). Hierarchical multiple regression models were used in the statistical analyses. Prosocial behavior was found to be predicted by the additive interaction between empathy and moral pride, by guilt and, to a lesser extent and negatively, by shame. In relation to antisocial behavior, children with a strong disposition to guilt scored lower for antisocial behavior, regardless of their empathy levels. Nevertheless, the combination of low empathy and low guilt levels was associated with highest antisocial behavior scores. As regards shame, this emotion was moderately associated with antisocial behavior. By exploring interactions the present study provided a more nuanced view of the emotional factors associated with children´s prosocial and antisocial behavior.

  6. Investigating the Relationship between Anxiety of School-age Children Undergoing Surgery and Parental State-trait Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Heshmati Nabavi; Malihe Shoja; Monir Ramezani; Azadeh Saki; Marjan Joodi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Surgery is a stressful experience for children, and preoperative anxiety in children could be affected by the level of parental anxiety. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between anxiety in school-age children before surgery and parental state-trait anxiety. Method: This descriptive study was performed on 81 children within the age group of 6-12 years admitted for elective surgical operation and 128 parents in Doctor Sheikh Hospital, Mashhad, Iran, 2016....

  7. Systematic review of self-concept measures for primary school aged children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Sau Kuan; Johnston, Leanne M

    2013-10-01

    This study involved a systematic review aimed to identify self-concept measures that provided published psychometrics for primary school aged children (8-12 years) with cerebral palsy (CP). Six electronic databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES and Web of Science) were searched to identify assessments that (1) measured self-concept; (2) in children aged 8-12 years; (3) with CP; (4) with psychometrics available. The Consensus-based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) checklist was used to evaluate psychometric properties and the CanChild Outcome Measure Rating Form was used to evaluate clinical utility. Search yielded 271 papers, of which five met inclusion criteria. These papers reported five measures of self-concept with psychometric properties for the target population: the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Index, Self-Description Questionnaire-I, Self-Perception Profile for Children (original) and two separate modifications of the Self-Perception Profile for Children. Currently, no self-concept measures published in English had sufficient psychometric data for children with CP. The Self-Description Questionnaire-I and the Self-Perception Profile for Children were promising options. Further research is required (a) to determine self-concept construct components important for children with CP and (b) to examine the relative strength, validity, reliability and clinical utility of self-concept measures for the target population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Low back pain in school-age children: risk factors, clinical features and diagnostic managment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boćkowski, L; Sobaniec, W; Kułak, W; Smigielska-Kuzia, J; Sendrowski, K; Roszkowska, M

    2007-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is common in adult population, and it is becoming a serious health concern in adolescents. On surveys, about every fifth child in the school-age reports LBP. The study objective was to analysis the natural history, risk factors, clinical symptoms, causes and diagnostic management in school-age children hospitalized with LBP. The study group consisted of 36 patients at the age between 10 and 18 years, 22 girls and 14 boys suffering from LBP hospitalized in our Department of Pediatric Neurology and Rehabilitation in years 2000-2004. The mean age of clinical onset of LBP in our group was 14.7 years, earlier in girls, later in boys. We find the family history of LBP in 50% children. Most frequent factors associated with LBP were: spina bifida (16.7%) and incorrect posture (13.9%). Half of patients pointed the factor initialising LBP: rapid, incoordinated move (39%) or heavy load rise (11%). 58% of patients present the symptoms of ischialgia. Diagnostic imaging showed disc protrusion in 11 children (31%) 6 in computed tomography, 4 in magnetic resonance imaging and 1 in X-Ray examination only. Other causes of LBP included: spondylolysis in 2 patients, Scheuermann disease in one case and juvenile reumatoid arthritis in one case. Some school-age children suffering on low back pain, particulary with sciatic neuralgia symptoms seek medical care in hospital. Althought the main causes are mechanical, associated with lack of physical activity or strenous exercise, serious diagnostic managment is strongly recommended.

  9. [Effect of poor dietary behaviors on the overweight and obesity of school-aged children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yong; Yun, Chen; Zhao, Ai; Wang, Peiyu; Zhang, Yumei; Mu, Zhishen

    2014-09-01

    To explore the rate of overweight and obesity, and the association between unhealthy dietary behaviors and overweight and obesity among Chinese school-aged children from 9 areas. By multiple stage stratified cluster sampling, 814 children aged 7 - 12 years old were chosen, provided with questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. According to the definition from Working Group on Obesity in China, children,were divided into different group, univariate logistic regression and multivariate logistic regression were used to analyze the associations between unhealthy dietary behaviors and overweight and obesity. The rates of overweight and obesity of school-aged children were 22. 88% and 9. 90%, respectively. The rates were higher in urban areas, and second-tier cities were similar with first-tier city. Influence factor analysis revealed skipping breakfast behavior was the influence factor (OR =1. 65, Pchildren’s overweight and obesity has been an increasingly serious health problem, which were correlated with genetic factor, environmental factor, and dietary behaviors and so on, poor dietary behavior might be influence factor for overweight and obesity, so it is necessary to provide earlier intervention strategies for parents to promote children’s good dietary habits.

  10. Long-term outcomes of epilepsy surgery in school-aged children with partial epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shuli; Wang, Shuai; Zhang, Junchen; Ding, Chengyun; Zhang, Zhiwen; Fu, Xiangping; Hu, Xiaohong; Meng, Xiaoluo; Jiang, Hong; Zhang, Shaohui

    2012-10-01

    The pediatric epileptic spectrum and seizure control in surgical patients have been defined in developed countries. However, corresponding data on school-aged children from developing countries are insufficient. We summarized epileptic surgical data from four centers in China, to compare surgical outcomes of school-aged children with intractable partial epilepsy from China and those from developed countries, and introduce surgical candidate criteria. Data from 206 children (aged 6-14 years) undergoing surgical resection for epilepsy between September 2001 and January 2007 were selected. Postoperative freedom from seizures was achieved in 173 cases (84.0%) at 1 year, 149 (72.3%) at 3 years, and 139 (67.5%) at 5 years. Patients with focal magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities and a short history of seizure were most likely to become seizure-free postoperatively. Those with preoperative low intelligence quotients who became seizure-free postoperatively achieved improvements in full memory quotients, intelligence quotients, and overall quality of life at 2 years. Significant differences were evident in mean changes of full intelligence quotient, full memory quotient, and overall quality of life between patients with preoperative low intelligence quotients who received corpus callosotomies and those with a normal preoperative intelligence quotient, and between seizure-free children and those with continual seizures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Nutritional status and morbidity pattern in school age children in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Bhandari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available School Health has been regarded as a high priority intervention in developing countries. However it has not been prioritized in Nepal for many years. The objectives of the study are to find out the nutritional status and morbidity pattern in school age children. To arouse importance of personal hygiene and healthful surrounding through information, education and communication (IEC. This cross-sectional study was administered in two schools located in Bolde phedeche and Mahure of Kavrepalanchowk. From the selected schools, a total number of 160 students studying from Grade 1 to V were enumerated in the study using census survey method. Among 160 students, the most important three problems were pediculosis 42(26.2 %, dental caries 29(18.1%, and waxy ear 27(17.1 %. Thus the school health education should put more emphasis on oral care, nutrition, personal hygiene and others. Applying classification of Indian Academy of Pediatrics: based on weight for age, 36(55.3% boys and 34(35.8% girls fall under 1st degree malnutrition and 15(23.07% boys and 44(46.3% girls fall under IInd degree malnutrition, 7(7.2 % girls fall under IIIrd degree malnutrition.The health and nutritional standards of school children in this study were found to be unsatisfactory. Among different morbidity pediculosis is found more in girls. The present study put more emphasis on the need for initiation of school health program in the school with more on improving personal hygiene, prevention of disease like parasitic infection/infestation and improvement of their nutritional status. Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal,2012,Vol-8,No-2, 12-16 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v8i2.6832

  12. Active Travel to and From School Among School-Age Children During 1997-2011 and Associated Factors in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Hong, Xue; Gurney, James G; Wang, Youfa

    2017-09-01

    Active travel to school (ATS) is positively associated with various health indicators. The rapid social, economic, and environmental changes in China provide a unique setting to study changes and predictors of ATS over time. Using logistic regression modeling, we analyzed data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey during 1997 to 2011 (N = 9487, ages 6 to 17 years) to estimate the change over time in ATS and to identify associated factors. The prevalence of reported ATS among children dropped from 95.8% in 1997 to 69.3% in 2011. ATS was common in children living closer to school, in middle school, from low-income households, with low parental education status, and those without a private vehicle. Children who were living in a metropolitan area and who had more than 40 minutes of total PA per day were less likely to report ATS. The decrease of ATS had been concurrent with the increase of the children living at a longer distance from school and the increase of household owning private vehicles which were associated with the rapid urbanization and economic growth in China. Factors associated with the decreased ATS in China are similar to other countries but the underlying reasons may be different.

  13. Suicide Trends Among Elementary School-Aged Children in the United States From 1993 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Jeffrey A; Asti, Lindsey; Horowitz, Lisa M; Greenhouse, Joel B; Fontanella, Cynthia A; Sheftall, Arielle H; Kelleher, Kelly J; Campo, John V

    2015-07-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of death among school-aged children younger than 12 years but little is known about the epidemiology of suicide in this age group. To describe trends in suicide among US children younger than 12 years by sociodemographic group and method of death. Period trend analysis of national mortality data on suicide in children aged 5 to 11 years in the United States from January 1, 1993, to December 31, 2012. Data were analyzed per 5-year periods, between 1993 to 1997 and 2008 to 2012. Number of suicide deaths and crude suicide rates. Period trends in rates of suicide were estimated using negative binomial regression incidence rate ratios (IRRs). The overall suicide rate among children aged 5 to 11 years remained stable between 1993 to 1997 and 2008 to 2012 (from 1.18 to 1.09 per 1 million; IRR = 0.96; 95% CI, 0.90-1.03). However, the suicide rate increased significantly in black children (from 1.36 to 2.54 per 1 million; IRR = 1.27; 95% CI, 1.11-1.45) and decreased in white children (from 1.14 to 0.77 per 1 million; IRR = 0.86; 95% CI, 0.79-0.94). The overall firearm suicide rate (IRR = 0.69; 95% CI, 0.57-0.85) and firearm suicide rate among white boys (IRR = 0.72; 95% CI, 0.59-0.88) decreased significantly during the study. The rate of suicide by hanging/suffocation increased significantly in black boys (IRR = 1.35; 95% CI, 1.14-1.61), although the overall change in suicide rates by hanging/suffocation or other suicide methods did not change during the study. The stable overall suicide rate in school-aged children in the United States during 20 years of study obscured a significant increase in suicide incidence in black children and a significant decrease in suicide incidence among white children. Findings highlight a potential racial disparity that warrants attention. Further studies are needed to monitor these emerging trends and identify risk, protective, and precipitating factors relevant to suicide prevention efforts

  14. Infection by Intestinal Parasites, Stunting and Anemia in School-Aged Children from Southern Angola.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinamene Oliveira

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasites are responsible for morbidity in children worldwide, especially in low income countries. In the present study we determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and explore its association with anemia and stunting in school-aged children.A cross-sectional study was conducted from September to October 2010 enrolling 328 children attending the primary school in Lubango, the second largest city after the capital Luanda. Stool samples were collected for parasite detection through microscopy and molecular identification of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar. Stunting was assessed using the z-scores of height for age and hemoglobin concentration was determined using a portable hemoglobin analyzing system.The global prevalence of pathogenic intestinal parasites was 44.2%, the most common being Ascaris lumbricoides (22.0%, Giardia lamblia (20.1% and Hymenolepis nana (8.8%. Molecular detection revealed that 13.1% of the children carried E. dispar and 0.3% were infected with E. histolytica. The prevalence of stunting (mild to severe was 41.5%. Stunting was more frequent in older children (p = 0.006, OR = 1.886, while anemia was more frequent in younger children (p = 0.005, OR = 2.210. The prevalence of anemia was 21.6%, and we found a significant association with infection by H. nana (p = 0.031, OR = 2.449.This is one of the few published studies reporting intestinal parasites infection, nutritional status and anemia in children from Angola. Furthermore, the present work highlights the importance of regular intestinal parasites screening in children.

  15. Infection by Intestinal Parasites, Stunting and Anemia in School-Aged Children from Southern Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Dinamene; Ferreira, Filipa Santana; Atouguia, Jorge; Fortes, Filomeno; Guerra, António; Centeno-Lima, Sónia

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal parasites are responsible for morbidity in children worldwide, especially in low income countries. In the present study we determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and explore its association with anemia and stunting in school-aged children. A cross-sectional study was conducted from September to October 2010 enrolling 328 children attending the primary school in Lubango, the second largest city after the capital Luanda. Stool samples were collected for parasite detection through microscopy and molecular identification of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar. Stunting was assessed using the z-scores of height for age and hemoglobin concentration was determined using a portable hemoglobin analyzing system. The global prevalence of pathogenic intestinal parasites was 44.2%, the most common being Ascaris lumbricoides (22.0%), Giardia lamblia (20.1%) and Hymenolepis nana (8.8%). Molecular detection revealed that 13.1% of the children carried E. dispar and 0.3% were infected with E. histolytica. The prevalence of stunting (mild to severe) was 41.5%. Stunting was more frequent in older children (p = 0.006, OR = 1.886), while anemia was more frequent in younger children (p = 0.005, OR = 2.210). The prevalence of anemia was 21.6%, and we found a significant association with infection by H. nana (p = 0.031, OR = 2.449). This is one of the few published studies reporting intestinal parasites infection, nutritional status and anemia in children from Angola. Furthermore, the present work highlights the importance of regular intestinal parasites screening in children.

  16. Effects of a self-esteem intervention program on school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgas-Pelish, Peggy

    2006-01-01

    Self-esteem is essential for school-aged children's optimum health. High self-esteem is linked to increased school performance, improved health, and productive behavior. This study reports on the effects of a four-lesson self-esteem enhancement program for six groups of 5th and 6th grade children (N=98). The interactive lessons dealt with an overview of self-esteem, media influences, hiding emotions, and changes in self-esteem. Using a pre-test/ post-test design, Coopersmith's Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) was used to measure self-esteem. The self-esteem subscales dealing with general and social areas were found to significantly increase over time (pself-esteem score. Mean scores showed that children who had friends had more significant changes than those who did not have friends. Children with lower socioeconomic status had lower scores at both the pre and post testing with significance in the general and social subscales. No significance was found related to racial group, family make-up, or the number of household chores or activities. This study supports the effectiveness of a self-esteem enhancement program for girls, those children with friends, and those in lower socioeconomic status. Future research is needed to understand what contributes to the self-esteem of children who report that they do not have friends.

  17. Narrative performance of gifted African American school-aged children from low-income backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Monique T

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated classroom differences in the narrative performance of school-age African American English (AAE)-speaking children in gifted and general education classrooms. Forty-three children, Grades 2-5, each generated fictional narratives in response to the book Frog, Where Are You? (Mayer, 1969). Differences in performance on traditional narrative measures (total number of communication units [C-units], number of different words, and mean length of utterance in words) and on AAE production (dialect density measure) between children in gifted and general education classrooms were examined. There were no classroom-based differences in total number of C-units, number of different words, and mean length of utterance in words. Children in gifted education classrooms produced narratives with lower dialect density than did children in general educated classrooms. Direct logistic regression assessed whether narrative dialect density measure scores offered additional information about giftedness beyond scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Fourth Edition (Dunn & Dunn, 2007), a standard measure of language ability. Results indicated that a model with only Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Fourth Edition scores best discriminated children in the 2 classrooms. African American children across gifted and general education classrooms produce fictional narratives of similar length, lexical diversity, and syntax complexity. However, African American children in gifted education classrooms may produce lower rates of AAE and perform better on standard measures of vocabulary than those in general education classrooms.

  18. Narrative Performance of Gifted African American School-Aged Children From Low-Income Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated classroom differences in the narrative performance of school-age African American English (AAE)-speaking children in gifted and general education classrooms. Method Forty-three children, Grades 2–5, each generated fictional narratives in response to the book Frog, Where Are You? (Mayer, 1969). Differences in performance on traditional narrative measures (total number of communication units [C-units], number of different words, and mean length of utterance in words) and on AAE production (dialect density measure) between children in gifted and general education classrooms were examined. Results There were no classroom-based differences in total number of C-units, number of different words, and mean length of utterance in words. Children in gifted education classrooms produced narratives with lower dialect density than did children in general educated classrooms. Direct logistic regression assessed whether narrative dialect density measure scores offered additional information about giftedness beyond scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test–Fourth Edition (Dunn & Dunn, 2007), a standard measure of language ability. Results indicated that a model with only Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test–Fourth Edition scores best discriminated children in the 2 classrooms. Conclusion African American children across gifted and general education classrooms produce fictional narratives of similar length, lexical diversity, and syntax complexity. However, African American children in gifted education classrooms may produce lower rates of AAE and perform better on standard measures of vocabulary than those in general education classrooms. PMID:25409770

  19. Mothers' Parenting Behaviors in Families of School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Observational and Questionnaire Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonen, Hannah; van Esch, Lotte; Lambrechts, Greet; Maljaars, Jarymke; Zink, Inge; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Noens, Ilse

    2015-01-01

    Although parents of children with ASD face specific challenges in parenting, only a few studies have empirically investigated parenting behaviors among these parents. The current study examined differences in parenting behaviors between mothers of school-aged children with ASD (n = 30) and mothers of typically developing children (n = 39), using…

  20. Children with asthma by school age display aberrant immune responses to pathogenic airway bacteria as infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Pedersen, Susanne Brix; Thysen, Anna Hammerich

    2014-01-01

    childhood asthma. We hypothesized that children with asthma have an abnormal immune response to pathogenic bacteria in infancy. ObjectiveWe aimed to assess the bacterial immune response in asymptomatic infants and the association with later development of asthma by age 7 years. MethodsThe Copenhagen...... was assessed based on the pattern of cytokines produced and T-cell activation. ResultsThe immune response to pathogenic bacteria was different in infants with asthma by 7 years of age (P = .0007). In particular, prospective asthmatic subjects had aberrant production of IL-5 (P = .008), IL-13 (P = .057), IL-17...... (P = .001), and IL-10 (P = .028), whereas there were no differences in T-cell activation or peripheral T-cell composition. ConclusionsChildren with asthma by school age exhibited an aberrant immune response to pathogenic bacteria in infancy. We propose that an abnormal immune response to pathogenic...

  1. CT identification of abdominal injuries in abused pre-school-age children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmes, Melissa A.; Hernanz-Schulman, Marta; Kan, J.H.; Greeley, Christopher S.; Piercey, Lisa M.; Yu, Chang

    2011-01-01

    Although the abdominopelvic CT findings of abdominal trauma in children have been described, little has been written about the subset of children who are victims of abuse. Our purpose is to describe abdominopelvic injuries in abused pre-school-age children as identified on CT. An IRB-approved retrospective review of our institutional child abuse registry was performed. Searching a 14-year period, we identified 84 children ≤ 5 years of age with medically diagnosed abuse who underwent CT. We reviewed imaging studies, operative reports, autopsy findings and patient outcomes. Consensus review of the CT examinations was performed by CAQ-certified pediatric radiologists, and findings were categorized as normal or by injury types (solid organ versus bowel). The injuries were analyzed in light of existing literature on pediatric accidental and non-accidental injuries. Of the 84 children, 35 (41.7%) had abdominal injuries. Abdominal injuries included liver (15), bowel (13), mesentery (4), spleen (6), kidneys (7), pancreas (4) and adrenal glands (3). Of these children, 26% (9/35) required surgical intervention for bowel, mesenteric and pancreatic injuries. Another 9/35 children died, not as a result of abdominal injuries but as a direct result of inflicted intracranial injuries. Our data indicate that abdominal injuries in abused children present in a pattern similar to that of children with accidental abdominal trauma, underscoring the need for vigilance and correlative historical and clinical data to identify victims of abuse. Mortality in abused children with intra-abdominal injury was frequently related to concomitant head injury. (orig.)

  2. CT identification of abdominal injuries in abused pre-school-age children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilmes, Melissa A.; Hernanz-Schulman, Marta; Kan, J.H. [Vanderbilt Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Nashville, TN (United States); Greeley, Christopher S. [University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Department of Pediatrics, Houston, TX (United States); Piercey, Lisa M. [Vanderbilt Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Nashville, TN (United States); Yu, Chang [Vanderbilt University, Department of Biostatistics, Nashville, TN (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Although the abdominopelvic CT findings of abdominal trauma in children have been described, little has been written about the subset of children who are victims of abuse. Our purpose is to describe abdominopelvic injuries in abused pre-school-age children as identified on CT. An IRB-approved retrospective review of our institutional child abuse registry was performed. Searching a 14-year period, we identified 84 children {<=} 5 years of age with medically diagnosed abuse who underwent CT. We reviewed imaging studies, operative reports, autopsy findings and patient outcomes. Consensus review of the CT examinations was performed by CAQ-certified pediatric radiologists, and findings were categorized as normal or by injury types (solid organ versus bowel). The injuries were analyzed in light of existing literature on pediatric accidental and non-accidental injuries. Of the 84 children, 35 (41.7%) had abdominal injuries. Abdominal injuries included liver (15), bowel (13), mesentery (4), spleen (6), kidneys (7), pancreas (4) and adrenal glands (3). Of these children, 26% (9/35) required surgical intervention for bowel, mesenteric and pancreatic injuries. Another 9/35 children died, not as a result of abdominal injuries but as a direct result of inflicted intracranial injuries. Our data indicate that abdominal injuries in abused children present in a pattern similar to that of children with accidental abdominal trauma, underscoring the need for vigilance and correlative historical and clinical data to identify victims of abuse. Mortality in abused children with intra-abdominal injury was frequently related to concomitant head injury. (orig.)

  3. Development in the neurophysiology of emotion processing and memory in school-age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline S. Leventon

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the adult literature, emotional arousal is regarded as a source of the enhancing effect of emotion on subsequent memory. Here, we used behavioral, electrophysiological, and psychophysiological methods to examine the role of emotional arousal on subsequent memory in school-age children. Five- to 8-year-olds, divided into younger and older groups, viewed emotional scenes as EEG, heart rate, and respiration was recorded, and participated in a memory task 24 hours later where EEG and behavioral responses were recorded; participants provided subjective ratings of the scenes after the memory task. All measures indicated emotion responses in both groups, and in ERP measures the effects were stronger for older children. Emotion responses were more consistent across measures for negative than positive stimuli. Behavioral memory performance was strong but did not differ by emotion condition. Emotion influenced the ERP index of recognition memory in the older group only (enhanced recognition of negative scenes. The findings an increasing interaction of emotion and memory during the school years. Further, the findings impress the value of combining multiple methods to assess emotion and memory in development. Development in the neurophysiology of emotion processing and memory in school-age children.

  4. Development in the neurophysiology of emotion processing and memory in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventon, Jacqueline S; Stevens, Jennifer S; Bauer, Patricia J

    2014-10-01

    In the adult literature, emotional arousal is regarded as a source of the enhancing effect of emotion on subsequent memory. Here, we used behavioral, electrophysiological, and psychophysiological methods to examine the role of emotional arousal on subsequent memory in school-age children. Five- to 8-year-olds, divided into younger and older groups, viewed emotional scenes as EEG, heart rate, and respiration was recorded, and participated in a memory task 24 hours later where EEG and behavioral responses were recorded; participants provided subjective ratings of the scenes after the memory task. All measures indicated emotion responses in both groups, and in ERP measures the effects were stronger for older children. Emotion responses were more consistent across measures for negative than positive stimuli. Behavioral memory performance was strong but did not differ by emotion condition. Emotion influenced the ERP index of recognition memory in the older group only (enhanced recognition of negative scenes). The findings an increasing interaction of emotion and memory during the school years. Further, the findings impress the value of combining multiple methods to assess emotion and memory in development. Development in the neurophysiology of emotion processing and memory in school-age children. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of social functioning and communication in school-aged (5-9 years) children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schie, P.E.M.; Siebes, R.C.; Dallmeijer, A.J.; Schuengel, C.; Smits, D.W.; Gorter, J.W.; Becher, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine determinants of the course and level of social functioning and communication in school-aged children with cerebral palsy (CP) over a 2-year period. A clinic-based sample of 5 and 7 years old children with CP ( n=108; 72 males; mean age 6. y 3. mo, SD 12. mo;

  6. School-Aged Children with Mild Bilateral and Unilateral Hearing Loss: Parents' Reflections on Services, Experiences, and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandpierre, Viviane; Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth M.; Na, Eunjung; Mendonca, Oreen

    2018-01-01

    Following the establishment of newborn hearing screening programs, age of identification and length of time before receiving interventions has been reduced for children, including those with milder degrees of hearing loss who were previously not identified until school age. This population of early-identified children requires new support programs…

  7. Health and Self-Regulation among School-Age Children Experiencing Family Homelessness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Barnes

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Children in homeless families have high levels of adversity and are at risk for behavior problems and chronic health conditions, however little is known about the relationship between cognitive-emotional self-regulation and health among school-aged homeless children. Children (n = 86; mean age 10.5 living in shelters were assessed for health, family stress/adversity, emotional-behavioral regulation, nonverbal intellectual abilities, and executive function. Vision problems were the most prevalent health condition, followed by chronic respiratory conditions. Cumulative risk, child executive function, and self-regulation problems in children were uniquely related to child physical health. Homeless children experience problems with cognitive, emotional, and behavioral regulation as well as physical health, occurring in a context of high psychosocial risk. Several aspects of children’s self-regulation predict physical health in 9- to 11-year-old homeless children. Health promotion efforts in homeless families should address individual differences in children’s self-regulation as a resilience factor.

  8. Rhythm and Melody Tasks for School-Aged Children With and Without Musical Training: Age-Equivalent Scores and Reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kierla Ireland

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Measuring musical abilities in childhood can be challenging. When music training and maturation occur simultaneously, it is difficult to separate the effects of specific experience from age-based changes in cognitive and motor abilities. The goal of this study was to develop age-equivalent scores for two measures of musical ability that could be reliably used with school-aged children (7–13 with and without musical training. The children's Rhythm Synchronization Task (c-RST and the children's Melody Discrimination Task (c-MDT were adapted from adult tasks developed and used in our laboratories. The c-RST is a motor task in which children listen and then try to synchronize their taps with the notes of a woodblock rhythm while it plays twice in a row. The c-MDT is a perceptual task in which the child listens to two melodies and decides if the second was the same or different. We administered these tasks to 213 children in music camps (musicians, n = 130 and science camps (non-musicians, n = 83. We also measured children's paced tapping, non-paced tapping, and phonemic discrimination as baseline motor and auditory abilities We estimated internal-consistency reliability for both tasks, and compared children's performance to results from studies with adults. As expected, musically trained children outperformed those without music lessons, scores decreased as difficulty increased, and older children performed the best. Using non-musicians as a reference group, we generated a set of age-based z-scores, and used them to predict task performance with additional years of training. Years of lessons significantly predicted performance on both tasks, over and above the effect of age. We also assessed the relation between musician's scores on music tasks, baseline tasks, auditory working memory, and non-verbal reasoning. Unexpectedly, musician children outperformed non-musicians in two of three baseline tasks. The c-RST and c-MDT fill an important need for

  9. Rhythm and Melody Tasks for School-Aged Children With and Without Musical Training: Age-Equivalent Scores and Reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Kierla; Parker, Averil; Foster, Nicholas; Penhune, Virginia

    2018-01-01

    Measuring musical abilities in childhood can be challenging. When music training and maturation occur simultaneously, it is difficult to separate the effects of specific experience from age-based changes in cognitive and motor abilities. The goal of this study was to develop age-equivalent scores for two measures of musical ability that could be reliably used with school-aged children (7-13) with and without musical training. The children's Rhythm Synchronization Task (c-RST) and the children's Melody Discrimination Task (c-MDT) were adapted from adult tasks developed and used in our laboratories. The c-RST is a motor task in which children listen and then try to synchronize their taps with the notes of a woodblock rhythm while it plays twice in a row. The c-MDT is a perceptual task in which the child listens to two melodies and decides if the second was the same or different. We administered these tasks to 213 children in music camps (musicians, n = 130) and science camps (non-musicians, n = 83). We also measured children's paced tapping, non-paced tapping, and phonemic discrimination as baseline motor and auditory abilities We estimated internal-consistency reliability for both tasks, and compared children's performance to results from studies with adults. As expected, musically trained children outperformed those without music lessons, scores decreased as difficulty increased, and older children performed the best. Using non-musicians as a reference group, we generated a set of age-based z-scores, and used them to predict task performance with additional years of training. Years of lessons significantly predicted performance on both tasks, over and above the effect of age. We also assessed the relation between musician's scores on music tasks, baseline tasks, auditory working memory, and non-verbal reasoning. Unexpectedly, musician children outperformed non-musicians in two of three baseline tasks. The c-RST and c-MDT fill an important need for researchers

  10. Impact of Inuit customary adoption on behavioral problems in school-age Inuit children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaluwe, Béatrice; Jacobson, Sandra W; Poirier, Marie-Andrée; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Jacobson, Joseph L; Muckle, Gina

    2015-05-01

    A large proportion of Inuit children in Arctic Quebec are adopted in accordance with traditional Inuit customs. In contrast to adoptions in Southern Canada and the United States, the child is adopted at birth and by a close family member; he or she knows who his or her biological parents are, and will typically have contact with them. Studies of other populations have reported an increased incidence of behavior problems in adopted compared with nonadopted children. This study examined the actual extent of the increase in the number of behavior problems seen in Inuit children adopted in accordance with traditional customs. In a prospective longitudinal study conducted in the Canadian Arctic (n = 46 adopted and 231 nonadopted children), prenatal and familial variables were documented at birth and at school age (M = 11.3 years). Behavior problems were assessed on the Teacher Report Form of the Child Behavior Checklist. Adopted children lived in more economically disadvantaged families, but their caregivers were less prone to depression, domestic violence, or alcohol abuse compared with those of the nonadopted children. The adoption status was not related to the teacher's report of attention problems, externalizing or internalizing behaviors, after controlling for confounders. Despite less favorable socioeconomic circumstances, a higher extent of behavioral problems was not seen at school age in Inuit children adopted at birth by a family member. Psychosocial stressors associated with adoption are more likely to be responsible for an association with higher levels of childhood behavior problems rather than adoption per se. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Association between family structure, maternal education level, and maternal employment with sedentary lifestyle in primary school-age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Vázquez-Nava

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: : Living in a non-intact family, more than low maternal educational level and having a working mother, appears to be associated with sedentary lifestyle in overweight primary school-age children.

  12. Feasibility of microcoria optometry in screening for ametropia in school-age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Su

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To discuss the feasibility of microcoria optometry in screening for children ametropia. METHODS: Totally 217 school-age children were selected, included 94 first-grade students(6~8 years oldand 123 fourth-grade students(9~12 years old. Refractive diopter was measured with automatic refractor RM-8000 to evaluate the accuracy of micocoria optometry in screening ametropia. RESULTS: After cycloplegia, both the mean sphere diopter and cylinder diopter in grade one students changed significantly(PPP>0.05in grade four students. Different refractive type: before and after mydriasis spherical myopia, spherical equivalent difference was 0.263±0.618 and 0.216±0.653D, with statistical significance(PP=0.000. The lenticular difference between the two groups were not statistically different(P>0.05. Choosing small pupil computer optometry for ≤-1.00D, ≥-0.50D child myopia or hyperopia could get more accurate value of diagnostic cutoffs, Youden index was 0.672 and 0.580.CONCLUSION: Microcoria optometry can be as a effective method of screening of children with ametropia, but if for optometry, school-age children must accept mydriasis.

  13. Management strategies of mothers of school-age children with autism: implications for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Annette V; Safe, Anneleise P

    2014-08-01

    Mothering children with autism results in mothers spending more time on daily tasks as well as managing the disorder. The need for mothers to self-manage often increases when the child is school aged. Mothers develop strategies, and occupational therapists and other health professional rely on or expect mothers to be involved in meeting the extra needs of their children with autism and other family members. Little is known about the strategies adopted by the mothers. The aim of this study was to explore the strategies mothers used to manage their roles and emotions, and their child's behaviours. In-depth individual interviews were conducted with seven mothers and data were analysed in this qualitative study using phenomenological analysis. Findings revealed that the mothers had adopted strategies to manage their roles, their emotions and their child's behaviour. However, the strategies were often shaped by the expectations of others or circumstances beyond their control and at times added further to their stress. Mothers of children with autism developed strategies to self-manage their lives and their child's disorder. However, even when these strategies were effective, they sometimes placed further stress on the mothers. The mothers provided insights to how they coped but need help to consider the support they require and therapists need to consider the pressures of expecting mothers to self-manage their child's disorder, their own lives and their family. Family-centred practice emphasising collaboration with mothers needs to be maintained with school-aged children. © 2014 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  14. The Association between Sleep and Injury among School-Aged Children in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forugh Rafii

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A good night’s sleep plays a key role in diseases resistance, injury prevention, and mood stability. The objective of this study was to examine relationship between sleep problems and accidental injury occurrences in school-aged children. Method. A retrospective study was conducted for comparing two groups of children. Children who have experienced injuries for at least two times during an academic year are the participants in the injury group (IG and those who have not experienced any kind of injuries are placed in the noninjury group (NIG. Data was collected through parent-reported sleep patterns and problems using Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ. Findings. The findings showed that global sleep problems were more in the IG than in the NIG. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the daytime sleepiness and sleep duration are the two major reasons for accidental injury. In addition, significant difference was seen between the sleep patterns of the two groups. Sleep duration was also shorter in the IG, and this group had a greater percentage (63% versus 41.1% of “short sleepers” (<9 h. Conclusion. There is a significant relationship between injury occurrence and sleep problems and sleep duration in Iranian school-aged children.

  15. Influence of physical activity on the posture of school age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laštro Dijana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Proper posture is an indicator of good health, proper growth and development, which is why it is important to start learning about posture from the earliest age using various forms of physical activity. To establish the impact of physical activity on aspects of posture components of children of school age. The study included 120 subjects aged 10-16 years who were grouped into three groups, which was stratified equal number of boys and girls. The first group consisted of 40 children who are actively practice sports. The second group consisted of 40 children who are not actively practice sport a third group of 40 children with deformity of the spine. For research purposes, we used: test for assessing the degree of physical activity and test for the assessment of body posture. By applying multiple regression analysis, we found that there is an influence of different predictors on the dependent variables in all three categorically defined pattern. The strongest positive correlation was found in the first sample categorically defined between predictors warming up exercises in the training and position keeping the legs, and the amount of connections is β = 0.43. The strongest negative correlations were established also at first categorically defined pattern between predictors time spent at the computer and position keeping the legs, and the amount of connections is β = -0.35. It was found that there is a difference in the level of physical activity between the three categorically defined sample (F = 95.687, p = 0.01, and also the difference in posture between the three categorically defined sample (F = 10.93, p = 0.01. The results show the necessity of promotion of various forms of physical activity of children school age in order of their proper growth and development.

  16. A Survey of Some Behavioral Disorders Due to Parental Corporal Punishment in School Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fatemeh Qasemi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Qasemi F1, Valizadeh F1, Toulabi T2, Saki M3 1. Instructor, Department of Children, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences 2. Instructor, Department of Internal Surgery, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences 3. Instructor, Department of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences Abstract Background: Family has an important role on childrens personality and preparing them for future. Corporal punishment involves the application of some forms of physical pain in response to undesirable behavior for the purpose of correction or control of the childs behavior. Corporal punishment constitutes a human-rights violation and has physical and mental health consequences for children. Materials and methods: This survey was conducted to detect and compare some behavioral disorders due to parental corporal punishment in school age children. This case-control trial deals with 240, primary school children aged 7-12 years old. These subjects were selected through cluster randomized sampling in Korramabad and divided into two (case and control groups. Instruments for measuring data consisted of three components: 1 a questionnaire on demographic information, 2 a questionnaire on corporal punishment and, 3 a rating scale about behavioral disorder such as verbal and behavioral aggression, withdrawal, and cooperation in school. Data were analyzed by SPSS ver11. Results: Results indicated that in 92.6% of cases the corporal punishment method was slapping. Significant differences were found between the two groups in terms of mothers educational level (p=0.001, mothers job (p=0.004, mothers child-birth number (p=0.024, verbal aggression (p=0.001, behavioral aggression (p=0.001, withdrawal (p=0.05, and cooperation (p=0.001. Conclusion: Results indicated that housekeeper mothers and mothers with low educational level use more corporal punishment and behavioral

  17. Processing of prosodic changes in natural speech stimuli in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, R; Lepistö, T; Makkonen, T; Kujala, T

    2012-12-01

    Speech prosody conveys information about important aspects of communication: the meaning of the sentence and the emotional state or intention of the speaker. The present study addressed processing of emotional prosodic changes in natural speech stimuli in school-age children (mean age 10 years) by recording the electroencephalogram, facial electromyography, and behavioral responses. The stimulus was a semantically neutral Finnish word uttered with four different emotional connotations: neutral, commanding, sad, and scornful. In the behavioral sound-discrimination task the reaction times were fastest for the commanding stimulus and longest for the scornful stimulus, and faster for the neutral than for the sad stimulus. EEG and EMG responses were measured during non-attentive oddball paradigm. Prosodic changes elicited a negative-going, fronto-centrally distributed neural response peaking at about 500 ms from the onset of the stimulus, followed by a fronto-central positive deflection, peaking at about 740 ms. For the commanding stimulus also a rapid negative deflection peaking at about 290 ms from stimulus onset was elicited. No reliable stimulus type specific rapid facial reactions were found. The results show that prosodic changes in natural speech stimuli activate pre-attentive neural change-detection mechanisms in school-age children. However, the results do not support the suggestion of automaticity of emotion specific facial muscle responses to non-attended emotional speech stimuli in children. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Swimming level classification of young school age children and their success in a long distance swimming test

    OpenAIRE

    Nováková, Martina

    2010-01-01

    Title: Swimming level classification of young school age children and their success in a long distance swimming test Work objectives: The outcome of our work is comparison and evaluation of the initial and final swimming lenght in a test of long distance swimming. This test is taken during one swimming course. Methodology: Data which were obtained by testing a certain group of people and were statistically processed, showed the swimming level and performance of the young school age children. ...

  19. Cyberbullying and Primary-School Aged Children: The Psychological Literature and the Challenge for Sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley-Anne Ey

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cyberbullying is an international issue for schools, young people and their families. Whilst many research domains have explored this phenomenon, and bullying more generally, the majority of reported studies appear in the psychological and educational literatures, where bullying, and more recently, cyberbullying has been examined primarily at the individual level: amongst adolescents and young people, with a focus on the definition, its prevalence, behaviours, and impact. There also is growing evidence that younger children are increasingly accessing technology and engaging with social media, yet there is limited research dedicated to this younger age group. The purpose of this paper is to report on a systematic literature review from the psychological and educational research domains related to this younger age group, to inform future research across the disciplines. Younger children require different methods of engagement. This review highlights the methodological challenges associated with this age group present in the psychological literature, and argues for a greater use of sociological, child-centred approaches to data collection. This review examined studies published in English, between 2009 and 2014, and conducted with children aged 5–12 years, about their experiences with cyberbullying. Searches were conducted on seven key databases using keywords associated with cyberbullying and age of children. A Google Scholar search also examined published and unpublished reports. A total of 966 articles and reports were retrieved. A random peer review process was employed to establish inter-rater reliability and veracity of the review. Findings revealed 38 studies reported specifically on children aged 5–12 years. The dominant focus of these articles was on prevalence of cyberbullying, established through survey methodology. Few studies noted impacts, understanding and behaviours or engaged children’s independent voice. This review

  20. Can coverage of schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminthiasis control programmes targeting school-aged children be improved? New approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, K; Olsen, A; Sheshe, A; Ntakamulenga, R; Ndawi, B; Magnussen, P

    2009-11-01

    Control programmes generally use a school-based strategy of mass drug administration to reduce morbidity of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) in school-aged populations. The success of school-based programmes depends on treatment coverage. The community-directed treatment (ComDT) approach has been implemented in the control of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis in Africa and improves treatment coverage. This study compared the treatment coverage between the ComDT approach and the school-based treatment approach, where non-enrolled school-aged children were invited for treatment, in the control of schistosomiasis and STH among enrolled and non-enrolled school-aged children. Coverage during the first treatment round among enrolled children was similar for the two approaches (ComDT: 80.3% versus school: 82.1%, P=0.072). However, for the non-enrolled children the ComDT approach achieved a significantly higher coverage than the school-based approach (80.0 versus 59.2%, P<0.001). Similar treatment coverage levels were attained at the second treatment round. Again, equal levels of treatment coverage were found between the two approaches for the enrolled school-aged children, while the ComDT approach achieved a significantly higher coverage in the non-enrolled children. The results of this study showed that the ComDT approach can obtain significantly higher treatment coverage among the non-enrolled school-aged children compared to the school-based treatment approach for the control of schistosomiasis and STH.

  1. More active pre-school children have better motor competence at school starting age: an observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Lisa M; Salmon, Jo; Hesketh, Kylie D

    2016-10-10

    Almost half of young children do not achieve minimum recommendations of 60 daily minutes in physical activity. Physical activity is potentially an important determinant of the development of motor competence in children. This study is one of very few longitudinal studies in this area and the first to investigate early childhood physical activity as a predictor of subsequent motor skill competence. Children were assessed as part of the Melbourne InFANT Program longitudinal cohort study at 19 months, 3.5 years and 5 years. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (accelerometry) was assessed at each time point. At age 5, children were also assessed in actual (Test of Gross Motor Development-2) and perceived motor competence (Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence). General linear models were performed with all 12 skills (six object control and six locomotor skills), both actual and perceived, at age 5 as the respective outcome variables. Predictor variables alternated between MVPA at 19 months, 3.5 years and 5 years. Based on standardized TGMD-2 scores most children were average or below in their skill level at age 5. MVPA at 19 months was not a predictor of actual or perceived skill at age 5. MVPA at 3.5 years was associated with actual locomotor skill (B = 0.073, p = 0.033) and perceived total skill at 5 years of age (B = 0.059, p = 0.044). MVPA was not a predictor of actual or perceived object control skill at any age. Parents and preschool staff should be informed that more time in MVPA as a preschool child contributes to locomotor skill and to perceptions of skill ability in a child of school starting age. Understanding this relationship will assist in intervention development.

  2. More active pre-school children have better motor competence at school starting age: an observational cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Barnett

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Almost half of young children do not achieve minimum recommendations of 60 daily minutes in physical activity. Physical activity is potentially an important determinant of the development of motor competence in children. This study is one of very few longitudinal studies in this area and the first to investigate early childhood physical activity as a predictor of subsequent motor skill competence. Methods Children were assessed as part of the Melbourne InFANT Program longitudinal cohort study at 19 months, 3.5 years and 5 years. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA (accelerometry was assessed at each time point. At age 5, children were also assessed in actual (Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and perceived motor competence (Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence. General linear models were performed with all 12 skills (six object control and six locomotor skills, both actual and perceived, at age 5 as the respective outcome variables. Predictor variables alternated between MVPA at 19 months, 3.5 years and 5 years. Results Based on standardized TGMD-2 scores most children were average or below in their skill level at age 5. MVPA at 19 months was not a predictor of actual or perceived skill at age 5. MVPA at 3.5 years was associated with actual locomotor skill (B = 0.073, p = 0.033 and perceived total skill at 5 years of age (B = 0.059, p = 0.044. MVPA was not a predictor of actual or perceived object control skill at any age. Conclusion Parents and preschool staff should be informed that more time in MVPA as a preschool child contributes to locomotor skill and to perceptions of skill ability in a child of school starting age. Understanding this relationship will assist in intervention development.

  3. Phonological processes in the speech of school-age children with hearing loss: Comparisons with children with normal hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asad, Areej Nimer; Purdy, Suzanne C; Ballard, Elaine; Fairgray, Liz; Bowen, Caroline

    2018-04-27

    In this descriptive study, phonological processes were examined in the speech of children aged 5;0-7;6 (years; months) with mild to profound hearing loss using hearing aids (HAs) and cochlear implants (CIs), in comparison to their peers. A second aim was to compare phonological processes of HA and CI users. Children with hearing loss (CWHL, N = 25) were compared to children with normal hearing (CWNH, N = 30) with similar age, gender, linguistic, and socioeconomic backgrounds. Speech samples obtained from a list of 88 words, derived from three standardized speech tests, were analyzed using the CASALA (Computer Aided Speech and Language Analysis) program to evaluate participants' phonological systems, based on lax (a process appeared at least twice in the speech of at least two children) and strict (a process appeared at least five times in the speech of at least two children) counting criteria. Developmental phonological processes were eliminated in the speech of younger and older CWNH while eleven developmental phonological processes persisted in the speech of both age groups of CWHL. CWHL showed a similar trend of age of elimination to CWNH, but at a slower rate. Children with HAs and CIs produced similar phonological processes. Final consonant deletion, weak syllable deletion, backing, and glottal replacement were present in the speech of HA users, affecting their overall speech intelligibility. Developmental and non-developmental phonological processes persist in the speech of children with mild to profound hearing loss compared to their peers with typical hearing. The findings indicate that it is important for clinicians to consider phonological assessment in pre-school CWHL and the use of evidence-based speech therapy in order to reduce non-developmental and non-age-appropriate developmental processes, thereby enhancing their speech intelligibility. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effective Group Work for Elementary School-Age Children Whose Parents Are Divorcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLucia-Waack, Janice; Gerrity, Deborah

    2001-01-01

    Parental divorce is the issue of most concern for elementary school children. This article describes interventions for children-of-divorce groups for elementary school children. Suggests guidelines related to goal setting; securing agency and parental consent; leadership planning; recruitment, screening, and selection of members; group member…

  5. Cognition, behavior and social competence of preterm low birth weight children at school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Gick Fan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the cognitive and behavioral development of preterm and low birth weight newborns living in a disadvantageous socioeconomic environment at school age. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included children aged 6-7 from a historical birth cohort of preterm (gestational age <37 weeks and low birth weight (<2,500 g infants. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children III (WISC-III was administered by a psychologist while the parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist. The results were compared to the test's reference. The perinatal information and follow-up data were collected from the hospital files. The demographic data were collected from the parents. The current performance was compared with the results from the Denver II and Bayley II tests, which were administered during the first years of life. RESULTS: The total intelligence quotient varied from 70 to 140 (mean 98.7±15.8. The borderline intelligence quotient was observed in 9.3% of the children. The Child Behavior Checklist indicated a predominance of social competence problems (27.8%, CI 19.2 to 37.9 compared with behavioral problems (15.5%, CI 8.9 to 24.2. Both the Child Behavior Checklist domains, such as schooling, social and attention problems, and the cognitive scores were significantly associated with maternal education and family income. The results of the Denver and Bayley tests were associated with the cognitive performance (p<0.001 and the Child Behavior Checklist social profile, including aggressive and externalizing behavior (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that even low-risk preterm newborns are at risk for developing disturbances in early school age, such as mild cognitive deficits and behavioral disorders. This risk might increase under unfavorable socioeconomic conditions.

  6. Academic and Behavioral Outcomes in School-Age South African Children Following Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

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    Aimee K. Dollman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children who have sustained severe traumatic brain injuries (TBIs demonstrate a range of post-injury neurocognitive and behavioral sequelae, which may have adverse effects on their academic and behavioral outcomes and interfere with school re-entry, educational progress, and quality of life. These post-TBI sequelae are exacerbated within the context of a resource-poor country like South Africa (SA where the education system is in a somewhat precarious state especially for those from disadvantaged backgrounds.Objectives: To describe behavioral and academic outcomes of a group of school-aged SA children following severe TBI.Methods: The sample included 27 school-age children who were admitted to the Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital (RXH, SA, between 2006 and 2011 for closed severe TBI and who received intracranial monitoring. We collected behavioral data using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF and academic information sourced from the BRIEF, CBCL, medical folders, and caregivers. Analyses include descriptive statistics and bivariate correlation matrices.Results: The descriptive results show that (1 more than half of the participants experienced clinically-significant behavioral problems across the CBCL scales, (2 the working memory BRIEF subscale appeared to be the most problematic subdomain, (3 two thirds of the sample were receiving some form of, or were in the process of being placed in, special needs education, (4 there was a three-fold increase in the use of special education services from pre- to post-injury, and (5 more than half (n = 16 of the sample repeated at least one grade after returning to school post-injury. Correlation analyses results suggest that children with increased externalizing behavioral problems and executive dysfunction are more likely to repeat a grade post-injury; and that children with executive dysfunction post-TBI are more likely

  7. Profile of intestinal parasitosis among school-aged children in Kiliba (eastern DR Congo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyambikwa Bisangamo, C; Jabari Mutwa, P; Mulongo Mbarambara, P

    2017-06-01

    This study of feces sought to determine the prevalence of human intestinal parasites in the Kiliba area of the eastern DR Congo. Feces of 602 school children aged from 9 to 20 years were collected from April to June 2014 and examined. Direct analyses were supplemented with the Kato and Ritchie methods. The global prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in school-aged children in the Kiliba area was 91.4 % [95 % CI: 87.6-94.3%]. The frequency of helminthiasis was high at 73.8 % (95 % CI: 68.4-78.6%) and that of protozoa reached 32.9 % (95 % CI: 27.7-38.6%). Girls were infected more often than boys. The group aged 17-20 years had the highest infection rate (97.7 %), but no statistically significant difference was observed among the age groups studied. The most frequent parasite species were: Schistosoma mansoni (30.6 %), Strongyloides stercolaris (21.3 %), Entamoeba histolytica (17.6 %), Trichomonas intestinalis (14.6 %), Ankylostoma duodenale (13.6 %), Ascaris lumbricoides (12.6 %), Trichuris trichiura (9.0 %), Taenia saginata (6.6 %), and Giardia intestinalis (5.0 %). This investigation demonstrated the extreme frequency of these fecal infections. Preventive measures, including water distribution, sanitary installations, and hygiene education, should be implemented.

  8. Interlimb coordination during forward and backward walking in primary school-aged children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Meyns

    Full Text Available Previous studies comparing forward (FW and backward (BW walking suggested that the leg kinematics in BW were essentially those of FW in reverse. This led to the proposition that in adults the neural control of FW and BW originates from the same basic neural circuitry. One aspect that has not received much attention is to what extent development plays a role in the maturation of neural control of gait in different directions. BW has been examined either in adults or infants younger than one year. Therefore, we questioned which changes occur in the intermediate phases (i.e. in primary school-aged children. Furthermore, previous research focused on the lower limbs, thereby raising the question whether upper limb kinematics are also simply reversed from FW to BW. Therefore, in the current study the emphasis was put both on upper and lower limb movements, and the coordination between the limbs. Total body 3D gait analysis was performed in primary school-aged children (N = 24, aged five to twelve years at a preferred walking speed to record angular displacements of upper arm, lower arm, upper leg, lower leg, and foot with respect to the vertical (i.e. elevation angle. Kinematics and interlimb coordination were compared between FW and BW. Additionally, elevation angle traces of BW were reversed in time (revBW and correlated to FW traces. Results showed that upper and lower limb kinematics of FW correlated highly to revBW kinematics in children, which appears to be consistent with the proposal that control of FW and BW may be similar. In addition, age was found to mildly alter lower limb kinematic patterns. In contrast, interlimb coordination was similar across all children, but was different compared to adults, measured for comparison. It is concluded that development plays a role in the fine-tuning of neural control of FW and BW.

  9. Vocal fold nodules in school age children: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder as a potential risk factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alatri, Lucia; Petrelli, Livia; Calò, Lea; Picciotti, Pasqualina Maria; Marchese, Maria Raffaella; Bussu, Francesco

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the presence of symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity in a population of school age children affected by vocal fold nodules. Parents and teachers of 18 children with vocal fold nodules (10 males, eight females; aged between 6 and 12 years) and 20 matched controls without dysphonia and/or vocal fold diseases (11 males, nine females; aged between 6 and 12 years) completed Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) rating scale for parents (SDAG [Scala per i Disturbi di Attenzione/Iperattività per Genitori]) and teachers (SDAI [Scala per i Disturbi di Attenzione/Iperattività per Insegnanti) rating scales containing in two subscales items that specifically evaluate the symptoms of ADHD according to the DSM-IV. All children were subjected to videolaryngoscopy. The group with vocal fold nodules scored significantly higher than the controls; the difference between the two groups was statistically significant for both the subscales of both questionnaires (SDAG and SDAI) (P ADHD was formulated. ADHD is a possible risk factor for the development of vocal fold nodules in childhood. SDAG and SDAI rating scales may supplement the diagnostic assessment of children with vocal fold nodules. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Preference and Popularity of Individual Sport Activities among Older School - Age and Teenage Children in Kolín

    OpenAIRE

    Keltner, Michal

    2015-01-01

    This diploma thesis deals with the topic called "Preferences and Popularity of Individual Sports Branches by Children of Older School and Junior Age in Kolín". In the theoretic part I focused on definition of the main terms which occur in the name of the thesis as preferences, popularity, sports branch, children of older school age and children of junior age. Discovered data were processed on the basis of quantitative method via questionnaire survey and the evaluation was carried out via spre...

  11. The association between food insecurity and academic achievement in Canadian school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faught, Erin L; Williams, Patty L; Willows, Noreen D; Asbridge, Mark; Veugelers, Paul J

    2017-10-01

    Education is a crucial social determinant of health. Food insecurity can be detrimental to children's academic achievement, potentially perpetuating a cycle of poverty and food insecurity. We aimed to assess the relationship between food insecurity and academic achievement in Canadian school-aged children. Cross-sectional study of children and parents. Parents completed the short-form Household Food Security Survey Module and questions about income and education level (socio-economic status). Children completed FFQ. Data were prospectively linked to children's performance on standardized exams written one year later. Mixed-effect logistic regression was employed to assess the relationship between food insecurity and likelihood of meeting academic expectations adjusting for socio-economic status, diet quality and potential confounders. Nova Scotia, Canada in 2011-2012. Students (n 4105) in grade 5 (10-11 years; 2167 girls) and their parents. Low food security was reported by 9·8 % of households; very low food security by 7·1 % of households. Students from low-income households and reporting poor diet quality were less likely to do well in school. Children who lived in households reporting very low food security had 0·65 times the odds (OR=0·65; 95 % CI 0·44, 0·96) of meeting expectations for reading and 0·62 times the odds (OR=0·62; 95 % CI 0·45, 0·86) of meeting expectations for mathematics. Very low household insecurity is associated with poor academic achievement among children in Nova Scotia.

  12. Low-level lead exposure and autistic behaviors in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2016-03-01

    The association between lead exposure and autism spectrum disorder is inconclusive. We hypothesized an association between higher blood lead concentrations and more autistic behaviors, including impaired social interactions and communication, stereotypical behaviors, and restricted interests, among school-age children. Data from 2473 Korean children aged 7-8years who had no prior history of developmental disorders were analyzed. Two follow-up surveys were conducted biennially until the children reached 11-12years of age. Blood lead concentrations were measured at every survey, and autistic behaviors were evaluated at 11-12years of age using the Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ) and Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). The associations of blood lead concentration with ASSQ and SRS scores were analyzed using negative binomial, logistic, and linear regression models. Blood lead concentrations at 7-8years of age (geometric mean: 1.64μg/dL), but not at 9-10 and 11-12years of age, were associated with more autistic behaviors at 11-12years of age, according to the ASSQ (β=0.151; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.061, 0.242) and SRS (β=2.489; 95% CI: 1.378, 3.600). SRS subscale analysis also revealed associations between blood lead concentrations and social awareness, cognition, communication, motivation, and mannerisms. Even low blood lead concentrations at 7-8years of age are associated with more autistic behaviors at 11-12years of age, underscoring the need for continued efforts to reduce lead exposure. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Accelerometer-Determined Physical Activity among Elementary School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chien-Yu; Tsai, Chia-Liang; Hsieh, Kai-Wen; Chu, Chia-Hua; Li, Ya-Lin; Huang, Shih-Tse

    2011-01-01

    To examine age-related physical activity (PA) patterns between- and within-day in elementary school-aged children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). PA was recorded every 5-s by uniaxial accelerometry in 35 children (grades 1-2, n = 13; grades 3-4, n = 13; grades 5-6, n = 9) for up to five weekdays and two weekend days. Younger children were…

  14. Nutritional Status and Intestinal Parasite in School Age Children: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berhanu Elfu Feleke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The objectives of this study were to determine the burden of underweight and intestinal parasitic infection in the urban and rural elementary school children. Methods. A comparative cross-sectional study design was conducted. Binary logistic regression was used to identify the determinants of malnutrition or intestinal parasites. Two independent samples’ t-test was used to identify the effect of malnutrition on school performance or hemoglobin level. Results. A total of 2372 students were included. Quarters (24.8% of school children were underweight. Underweight was associated with sex [adjusted odds ratio (AOR 0.61; 95% CI = 0.47–0.78], age [AOR = 0.21; 95% CI = 0.16–0.28], intestinal parasitic infection [AOR 2.67; 95% CI = 2–3.55], and family size [AOR 23; 95% CI = 17.67–30.02]. The prevalence of intestinal parasite among school children was 61.7% [95% CI = 60%–64%]. Shoe wearing practice [AOR 0.71; 95% CI = 0.58–0.87], personal hygiene [AOR 0.8; 95% CI = 0.65–0.99], availability of latrine [AOR 0.34; 95% CI = 0.27–0.44], age [AOR 0.58; 95% CI = 0.48–0.7], habit of eating raw vegetables [AOR 3.71; 95% CI = 3.01–4.46], and family size [AOR 1.96; 95% CI = 1.57–2.45] were the predictors of intestinal parasitic infection.

  15. Enhancing Asthma Self-Management in Rural School-Aged Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Sharon D; Brown, Adama; Brown, Sharon A; Rew, D Lynn

    2016-06-01

    To test the effects of 2 modes of delivering an asthma educational intervention on health outcomes and asthma self-management in school-aged children who live in rural areas. Longitudinal design with data collected 4 times over 12 months. The target sample was composed of children in grades 2-5 who had a provider diagnosis of asthma. Elementary schools were stratified into high or low socioeconomic status based on student enrollment in the free or reduced-cost lunch program. Schools were then randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment arms: in-school asthma class, asthma day camp, or the attention-control group. Sample retention was good (87.7%) and equally distributed by study arm. Improvements in emergency department visits and office visits were related to attending either the asthma class or asthma day camp. Asthma severity significantly decreased in both asthma treatment groups. Other factors such as hospitalizations, parent asthma management, and child asthma management improved for all groups. Both asthma class and asthma day camp yielded significant reductions in asthma severity. There were reductions in the emergency department and office visits for the 2 asthma arms, and hospitalizations declined significantly for all groups. Asthma self-management also improved in all groups, while it was somewhat higher in the asthma arms. This may be due to the attention being drawn to asthma management by study participation and the action of completing questionnaires about asthma management, asthma symptoms, and health outcomes. © 2015 National Rural Health Association.

  16. Predictors of Poor School Readiness in Children Without Developmental Delay at Age 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudovitz, Rebecca N.; Coker, Tumaini R.; Barnert, Elizabeth S.; Biely, Christopher; Li, Ning; Szilagyi, Peter G.; Larson, Kandyce; Halfon, Neal; Zimmerman, Frederick J.; Chung, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Current recommendations emphasize developmental screening and surveillance to identify developmental delays (DDs) for referral to early intervention (EI) services. Many young children without DDs, however, are at high risk for poor developmental and behavioral outcomes by school entry but are ineligible for EI. We developed models for 2-year-olds without DD that predict, at kindergarten entry, poor academic performance and high problem behaviors. METHODS: Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), were used for this study. The analytic sample excluded children likely eligible for EI because of DDs or very low birth weight. Dependent variables included low academic scores and high problem behaviors at the kindergarten wave. Regression models were developed by using candidate predictors feasibly obtainable during typical 2-year well-child visits. Models were cross-validated internally on randomly selected subsamples. RESULTS: Approximately 24% of all 2-year-old children were ineligible for EI at 2 years of age but still had poor academic or behavioral outcomes at school entry. Prediction models each contain 9 variables, almost entirely parental, social, or economic. Four variables were associated with both academic and behavioral risk: parental education below bachelor’s degree, little/no shared reading at home, food insecurity, and fair/poor parental health. Areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curve were 0.76 for academic risk and 0.71 for behavioral risk. Adding the mental scale score from the Bayley Short Form–Research Edition did not improve areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for either model. CONCLUSIONS: Among children ineligible for EI services, a small set of clinically available variables at age 2 years predicted academic and behavioral outcomes at school entry. PMID:27432845

  17. Toxic stress and protective factors in multi-ethnic school age children: A research protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Eileen M; Sadler, Lois S; Mayes, Linda C

    2018-04-01

    Exposure to stressful environments in early childhood can cause a toxic stress response and lead to poor health outcomes, including obesity, cardiac disease, diabetes, and mental illness. In animals and maltreated children, the presence of a nurturing caregiver can buffer against the physiological disruptions associated with a toxic stress response; however, the specific caregiver and parenting characteristics that best promote a protective relationship in humans remain largely unexplored, particularly in families living in high-risk environments. In this study, framed in an ecobiodevelopmental (EBD) model, a cross-sectional design is being used to study 54 multi-ethnic, urban maternal-child dyads with children at early school age (4-9 years). Mothers' past experiences, mental health, and caregiving patterns and children's hair cortisol, C-reactive protein, pro-inflammatory cytokines, blood pressure, BMI, behavior, and school performance are being analyzed to identify maternal characteristics that may protect against children's toxic stress response in families at high risk for exposure to stressors such as poverty, trauma, or exposure to violence. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Functional handwriting performance in school-age children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval-White, Cherie J; Jirikowic, Tracy; Rios, Dianne; Deitz, Jean; Olson, Heather Carmichael

    2013-01-01

    Handwriting is a critical skill for school success. Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) often present with fine motor and visual-motor impairments that can affect handwriting performance, yet handwriting skills have not been systematically investigated in this clinical group. This study aimed to comprehensively describe handwriting skills in 20 school-age children with FASD. Children were tested with the Process Assessment of the Learner, 2nd Edition (PAL-II), and the Visuomotor Precision subtest of NEPSY, a developmental neuropsychological assessment. Participants performed below average on PAL-II measures of handwriting legibility and speed and on NEPSY visual-motor precision tasks. In contrast, PAL-II measures of sensorimotor skills were broadly within the average range. Results provide evidence of functional handwriting challenges for children with FASD and suggest diminished visual-motor skills and increased difficulty as task complexity increases. Future research is needed to further describe the prevalence and nature of handwriting challenges in this population. Copyright © 2013 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  19. A 13-hour laboratory school study of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in school-aged children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Childress Ann C

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX is indicated for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in children 6 to 12 years of age and in adults. In a previous laboratory school study, LDX demonstrated efficacy 2 hours postdose with duration of efficacy through 12 hours. The current study further characterizes the time course of effect of LDX. Methods Children aged 6 to 12 years with ADHD were enrolled in a laboratory school study. The multicenter study consisted of open-label, dose-optimization of LDX (30, 50, 70 mg/d, 4 weeks followed by a randomized, placebo-controlled, 2-way crossover phase (1 week each. Efficacy measures included the SKAMP (deportment [primary] and attention [secondary] and PERMP (attempted/correct scales (secondary measured at predose and at 1.5, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 12, and 13 hours postdose. Safety measures included treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs, physical examination, vital signs, and ECGs. Results A total of 117 subjects were randomized and 111 completed the study. Compared with placebo, LDX demonstrated significantly greater efficacy at each postdose time point (1.5 hours to 13.0 hours, as measured by SKAMP deportment and attention scales and PERMP (P Conclusion In school-aged children (6 to 12 years with ADHD, efficacy of LDX was maintained from the first time point (1.5 hours up to the last time point assessed (13.0 hours. LDX was generally well tolerated, resulting in typical stimulant AEs. Trial registration Official Title: A Phase IIIb, Randomized, Double-Blind, Multi-Center, Placebo-Controlled, Dose-Optimization, Cross-Over, Analog Classroom Study to Assess the Time of Onset of Vyvanse (Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate in Pediatric Subjects Aged 6–12 With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00500149 http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00500149

  20. Impact of Education on School-aged Children's Knowledge of and Participation in "The Choking Game".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Kendall; Raingruber, Bonnie; Butler, Eric; Wilson, Machelle

    2016-06-01

    To better understand school-aged children's awareness of and attitudes about the Choking Game (TCG). To determine if education can increase awareness of the risk of injury when playing TCG and to determine if education can decrease interest in TCG participation. Anonymous pre- and post-education surveys. Two middle/high schools; one in Utah and one in California. 291 participants (163 in Utah, 128 in California) aged 9-18, 68% under age 15, 32% 15 and older; 65% white, 35% non-white; 52% female, 48% male. 76% of participants knew about TCG, of those 62% heard about it at school. 32% knew someone who had played, and twelve (4%) had played, usually with others. Most frequently cited as reasons for participation were curiosity, peer pressure, and competition. School was the most common location for playing. In California education significantly increased risk awareness, and significant positive attitude changes were observed regarding interest in playing TCG. Utah participants also exhibited attitude changes in the desired direction (less interest in playing TCG, would warn friends, and realized it was not safe to stop breathing), although results were not statistically significant, possibly due to previous education and four recent and highly publicized TCG deaths in the community. Results indicate that interactive, standardized, and skills-based education can increase student awareness of TCG risks and decrease interest in participation. Students reported that the schools were often where they first heard about TCG and where TCG was commonly played. Educators and associated health care professionals should therefore be encouraged to provide preventative education as part of school curricula.

  1. Predictors for Asthma Formation in School-Age Children in Ternopil Region

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    E.I. Burbela

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Algorithm of screening diagnostics for bronchial asthma (BA to identify asthma susceptibility forces doctors of a first contact to a differentiated approach to the compilation of forecasting, individual treatment and rehabilitation programs. The aim of the study was to investigate the risk of asthma in school-age children. Materials and methods. 121 children with asthma treated at Ternopil region children hospital during 2012–2016 were studied. The control group consisted of 226 adolescents, of which 76.55 % (n  =  173 apparently healthy children at the time of examination were secondary school urban students and 2.45 % (n  =  53 — rural students. The average age of patients investigated was 12.98 ± 2.80 years old and 12.36 ± 2.80 years old in the control group. The study was conducted with regard to the basic principles of the Helsinki Declaration on Biomedical Research and provisions GCH ICH, compliance with ethical principles and guidelines involving people as subjects set out in Belmont Report. Results and discussion. Based on a simple ranking value %AR factors playinbg a major role in causing asthma were considered as a level above 50 %. These predictors were: maintenance of diathesis manifestations after the first year of life, оbstructive bronchitis, passive smoking, burdened heredity for atopy, atopic dermatitis, high personal anxiety, high and medium situational anxiety, general school anxiety, social stress, frustration at needs to succeed, fear expression and fear of knowledge test, fear not to match to the expectations of others, low resistance to physiological stress, the presence of autonomic dysfunction, high (70 cu Robinson index. Seven contributing factors in the formation of BA level above 25 % were determined: atopic manifestations on the skin up to a year, the presence of phlegmatic temperament, and eutonia and vagotony according to the Kerdem index, Robinson index above average (71–75 cu. Conclusions

  2. Risk factors and possibilities of preventing gastroesophageal reflux disease in school-age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.Yu. Belousova

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. The article presents the main problems of early diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD in school-age children, which leads to late detection and initiation of treatment. The purpose of the study was to identify the main risk factors that may predispose the development of this disease, as well as triggers that provoke GERD in school-age children. Knowledge of risk factors can help prevent the formation of GERD in children, and, with timely diagnosis of therapy, reduce the severity of the disease and improve quality of life. Materials and methods. Open comparative study included 98 school-age children (31 girls, 67 boys aged 6 to 18 years (mean age 14.2 years. Diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease was conducted in accordance with the Order of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine dated January 29, 2013, No. 59 “On Approval of Unified Clinical Protocols for Medical Care of Children with Digestive Disorders”. During the comprehensive examination, the identification of possible risk factors was made, for which a detailed history collection was performed: the nature of the child’s nutrition and the regularity of the meal were evaluated, as well as the mode of the day, the presence and intensity of physical activity, the presence of chronic stress (psycho-traumatic situations, sleep duration, bad habits, false eating habits. Past medical history also revealed the duration of breastfeeding and the time of supplementary food introduction. Physical examination was also aimed at the detection of so-called symptoms of anxiety — “red flags” that may indicate the presence of complications or organic pathology. Results. In both age groups, boys were dominant; besides, there were significantly more children aged 13–17 years in the group with GERD. Early administration of supplements was revealed in both groups, as well as early artificial/mixed feeding. More than 85 % of children had signs of autonomic dysregulation and

  3. Relationship between attention deficit hyperactive disorder symptoms and perceived parenting practices of school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Hee; Yoo, Il Young

    2013-04-01

    To examine the relationship between the perception on parenting practices and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in school-age children. Psychosocial attention deficit hyperactivity disorder intervention approaches emphasise environmental risk factors at the individual, family and community level. Parenting variables are strongly related to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom severity. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey. The participants were 747 children and their parents in two elementary schools. The instruments used were Korean Conners Abbreviated Parent Questionnaire and Korean version Maternal Behavior Research Instrument (measuring four dimensions of parenting practices: affection, autonomy, rejection, control). Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were performed. The rejective parenting practice was statistically significant in logistic regression controlling gender and age of children, family structure, maternal education level and socio-economic status. The rejection parenting is associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in children (OR=1.356). These results suggest the importance of specific parenting educational programmes for parents to prevent and decrease attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms. It would be more effective rather than focusing only on the child's attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms, developing educational programmes for parents to prevent rejection parenting practice and improve parenting skills in the family system. When developing a treatment programme for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, healthcare providers should consider not only the child's attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms, but also the parenting practices. Comprehensive interventions designed to prevent rejection and improve parenting skills may be helpful in mitigating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms. © 2012 Blackwell

  4. Pedagogical and didactical rationale of phonemic stimulation process in pre-school age children

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    López, Yudenia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the main results of a regional research problem dealing with education in pre-school age. It examines the effectiveness of the didactic conception of the process of phonemic stimulation in children from 3 to 5 years old. The pedagogical and didactic rationale of the process, viewed from the evolutionary, ontogeny, systemic perspective is explained. Likewise, possible scaffolding is illustrated. The suggested procedures focus the provision of support on a systematic and purposely practice which involve first the discrimination of non-verbal sounds and the discrimi-nation of verbal sound later, aiming to the creation of a phonological consciousness.

  5. Validation and clinical utility of a bowel habit questionnaire in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Ellen R; Jagodzinski, Tanya D; Moyer, Stacey C L; Wald, Arnold; Eickhoff, Jens C; Edmonson, M Bruce

    2011-11-01

    The aim of the study was to validate a brief Bowel Habit Questionnaire (BHQ) with prospectively obtained data from a 14-day diary and to determine whether the BHQ predicts the development of medically significant constipation (MSC) during the following year. The BHQ was distributed to parents of children ages 5 to 8 years during health supervision visits. Both the BHQ and subsequent diary were scored to indicate constipation if at least 2 of the following were reported: infrequent bowel movements, stool accidents, straining, avoidance, discomfort with defecation, or passing large stools >25% of the time. One year later, the BHQ was repeated to assess for MSC, defined as medical encounters about constipation or use of enemas, suppositories, laxatives, or stool softeners. MSC was reported for 57 (13.7%) of 416 children on the first BHQ. Paired BHQ and diary data were obtained for 269 children; 54 (20.1%) had diary scores indicating constipation. BHQ had a sensitivity of 59.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 46.7%-71.4%) and a specificity of 82.6% (95% CI 77.0%-87.1%). One year later, 11 children (5.2%) had developed new-onset MSC; 7 (63.6%) of these children had initial BHQ scores of at least 2. Positive and negative predictive values for MSC were 19.4% (95% CI 9.8%-35.0%) and 97.7% (94.2%-99.1%), respectively. Parents often do not recognize constipation in young school-age children and most constipated children remain untreated. A brief screening questionnaire in this population proved to be valid but only moderately sensitive; efforts to improve sensitivity are needed before recommending it for routine use.

  6. Hypnosis for treatment of insomnia in school-age children: a retrospective chart review

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    Slothower Molly P

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purposes of this study are to document psychosocial stressors and medical conditions associated with development of insomnia in school-age children and to report use of hypnosis for this condition. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed for 84 children and adolescents with insomnia, excluding those with central or obstructive sleep apnea. All patients were offered and accepted instruction in self-hypnosis for treatment of insomnia, and for other symptoms if it was felt that these were amenable to therapy with hypnosis. Seventy-five patients returned for follow-up after the first hypnosis session. Their mean age was 12 years (range, 7–17. When insomnia did not resolve after the first instruction session, patients were offered the opportunity to use hypnosis to gain insight into the cause. Results Younger children were more likely to report that the insomnia was related to fears. Two or fewer hypnosis sessions were provided to 68% of the patients. Of the 70 patients reporting a delay in sleep onset of more than 30 minutes, 90% reported a reduction in sleep onset time following hypnosis. Of the 21 patients reporting nighttime awakenings more than once a week, 52% reported resolution of the awakenings and 38% reported improvement. Somatic complaints amenable to hypnosis were reported by 41%, including chest pain, dyspnea, functional abdominal pain, habit cough, headaches, and vocal cord dysfunction. Among these patients, 87% reported improvement or resolution of the somatic complaints following hypnosis. Conclusion Use of hypnosis appears to facilitate efficient therapy for insomnia in school-age children.

  7. Prevalence and risk factors of obesity among school-aged children in Xi'an, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xiaoqing; Yin, Chunyan; Chang, Ming; Xiao, Yanfeng

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and the risk factors associated with obesity among school-aged children in Xi'an city. The body mass index of 6,740 children aged 7-18 years was compared with the Working Group on Obesity in China cut-off value to estimate the prevalence of obesity. A case-control study of obese and non-obese children was carried out to study risk factors for obesity. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect information on possible risk factors causing obesity. Univariate analysis was performed first to compare the distribution of risk factors between cases and controls. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to assess independent risk factors of obesity. The results showed that the overall prevalence of obesity among school-aged children was 4.11% (4.63% for males and 3.57% for females). A total of 516 subjects (258 pairs of cases and controls) were included in the final analysis. High maternal education and a longer sleeping time were shown to be protective factors against obesity (odds ratio [OR] 0.148, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.074-0.296 and OR 0.472, 95% CI 0.342-0.652, respectively). Whereas family history of diabetes (OR 5.498, 95% CI 2.606-11.600), parental overweight (OR 3.720, 95% CI 2.068-6.689), and watching television, playing video games, and using computers (OR 1.564, 95% CI 1.133-2.159) were associated with a higher obesity risk. The prevalence of childhood obesity in Xi'an has become a concern, and sleeping time, sedentary behavior, and family factors have pronounced effects on the prevalence of obesity.

  8. Geographical location and age affects the incidence of parasitic infestations in school children

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    Rayan Paran

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental factors affect the dissemination and distribution of intestinal parasites in human communities. To comprehend the prevalence of parasitic infestation and to examine whether geographical location and age also influence the prevalence of infection, fecal samples from 195 school children (rural = 95; male = 39; female = 56 (urban = 100; male = 60; female = 40 of five age groups ranging from 5 to 11 years in two different socio-economic zones (rural and urban were screened for specific intestinal parasites using standard histological techniques. Percentage incidences of parasitic species found in fecal wet mounts and concentrates in rural children were Entamoeba coli (25.3%, Giardia lamblia (17.9%, Blastocystis hominis (14.7%, Entamoeba histolytica (4.2%, Iodamoeba butschlii (1.1%, Hymenolepis nana (1.1% and Ascaris lumbricoides (1.1%. Whereas the percentage incidences among urban children were E. coli (26%, A. lumbricoides (21%, B. hominis (18%, G. lamblia (14%, T. trichiura (8%, I. butschlii (4% and A. duodenale (1%. Such findings may be related to dietary differences, living conditions and the greater use of natural anti-helminthic medicinal plants in rural communities. These results are important for both epidemiological data collection and for correlating dietary differences to intestinal parasitic diseases. Aims: We chose to investigate whether geographical location and age affect the prevalence and distribution of intestinal parasites among school children from two separate regions (rural and urban in areas surrounding, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Settings and Design: A study of the prevalence of parasitic infestations was undertaken among primary school children, in rural and urban communities around Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Materials and Methods: Faecal sample collection, direct microscopic techniques, macroscopic examination and concentration techniques for identifying the parasites. Statistical analysis used: Percentage

  9. Gestational age and birth weight in relation to school performance of 10-year-old children: a follow-up study of children born after 32 completed weeks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Ida; Obel, Carsten; Hedegaard, Morten

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children born extremely premature (weight (weight. Much less is known about children of higher gestational ages and birth weights. We studied gestational age...... after 32 completed weeks and birth weight in relation to the child's school performance at the age of 10 years. METHODS: We performed a follow-up study of 5319 children born between January 1990 and June 1992. We got the information on birth weight and gestational age from birth registration forms; when...... the children were between 9 and 11 years of age, we gathered information about their school performance (reading, spelling, and arithmetic) from questionnaires completed by the parents and the children's primary school teachers. RESULTS: The association between birth weight and reading, as well as spelling...

  10. Perceived class climate and school-aged children's life satisfaction: The role of the learning environment in classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herke, Max G.; Hurrelmann, Klaus; Richter, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the impact of class-level class climate on school-aged children’s life satisfaction. Data was derived from the German National Educational Panel Study (NEPS) using sixth grade school-aged children (n = 4,764, 483 classes). Class climate includes indicators of teachers' care and monitoring, demands, interaction, autonomy, as well as school-aged children's attitudes towards schoolwork at the class- and individual-level. Results showed that individual perceived class climate in terms of teachers' care and monitoring and autonomy was positively related to life satisfaction, whereas school-related demands were related to lower life satisfaction. Besides teachers' care and monitoring at class-level, indicators of class climate were not associated with school-aged children’s life satisfaction, while the individual perceived class climate is more important for life satisfaction. PMID:29420540

  11. BMI, total and abdominal fat distribution, and cardiovascular risk factors in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gishti, Olta; Gaillard, Romy; Durmus, Busra; Abrahamse, Marieke; van der Beek, Eline M; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; de Jonge, Layla L; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2015-05-01

    More specific total body and abdominal fat mass measures might be stronger associated with cardiovascular risk factors in childhood, than BMI. We examined the independent associations of total and abdominal fat measures with cardiovascular risk factors in school age children. We performed a population-based cohort study among 6,523 children. At the age of 6 y, we measured childhood BMI, and general and abdominal fat mass, using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and ultrasound and cardiovascular risk factors. Conditional on BMI, higher fat mass percentage and abdominal fat mass were associated with higher blood pressure, total- and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, insulin and c-peptide levels, but with lower left ventricular mass and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (P values children. Higher childhood adiposity measures were associated with increased odds of cardiovascular risk factors clustering, with the strongest effect for fat mass percentage (odds ratios: 3.01 (95% confidence interval: 2.67, 3.9). Our results suggest that general and abdominal fat measures are associated with cardiovascular risk factors in childhood, independent from BMI. These measures may provide additional information for identification of children with an adverse cardiovascular profile.

  12. Effect of prenatal and postnatal malnutrition on intellectual functioning in early school-aged children in rural western China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chao; Zhu, Ni; Zeng, Lingxia; Dang, Shaonong; Zhou, Jing; Yan, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of prenatal and postnatal malnutrition on the intellectual functioning of early school-aged children. We followed the offspring of women who had participated in a trial of prenatal supplementation with different combinations of micronutrients and who remained resident in the study field. We measured their intellectual functioning using the Wechsler intelligence scale for children (WISC-IV). Height-for-age, weight-for-age, and body mass...

  13. Height, weight and BMI percentiles and nutritional status relative to the international growth references among Pakistani school-aged children

    OpenAIRE

    Mushtaq, Muhammad Umair; Gull, Sibgha; Mushtaq, Komal; Abdullah, Hussain Muhammad; Khurshid, Usman; Shahid, Ubeera; Shad, Mushtaq Ahmad; Akram, Javed

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Child growth is internationally recognized as an important indicator of nutritional status and health in populations. This study was aimed to compare age- and gender-specific height, weight and BMI percentiles and nutritional status relative to the international growth references among Pakistani school-aged children. Methods A population-based study was conducted with a multistage cluster sample of 1860 children aged five to twelve years in Lahore, Pakistan. Smoothed heigh...

  14. DYNAMICS OF THE COMPELEX FORMS OF VISUAL PERCEPTION IN CHILDREN OF PRE-SCHOOL AGE (A NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS)

    OpenAIRE

    VASILEVA Neli

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Experimental data in preschool aged children proves the determining role of the auditory and visual processes for future reading skills, therefore the investigation of complex forms of visual perception in this age period is diagnostically important. Objectives: Basic aim of the research is assessment of the sensitive period for the non-verbal perceptive operations in pre-school aged children, and determination of subgroup with low results for non-verbal perception. Method...

  15. Reflective functioning, physiological reactivity, and overcontrol in mothers: Links with school-aged children's reflective functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, Jessica L; Hong, Kajung; Rasmussen, Hannah F; Smiley, Patricia A

    2017-09-01

    Theorists argue that parental reflective functioning (PRF) is activated in response to emotions, potentially supporting parenting sensitivity even when arousal is high. That is, when parents become emotionally reactive when interacting with their children, those who can use PRF to understand their children's mental states should be able to parent sensitively, which, in turn, should promote children's ability to understand their own mental states. We test this theory by examining whether, in the face of physiological reactivity, mothers' PRF inhibits one form of parenting insensitivity, overcontrol (OC), and whether this process in turn predicts children's RF. A diverse sample of school-age children (N = 106, Mage = 10.27 years) completed a standardized failure paradigm while their mothers were asked to passively observe. Following the stressor, mothers and children independently completed interviews regarding the task, which were later coded for RF with respect to children's mental states. Mothers provided saliva samples before and after the stressor, and after the interview, which were later assayed for cortisol reactivity; maternal behavior during the stressor task was coded for OC. Among mothers with low levels of RF, greater increases in cortisol were associated with more displays of OC, whereas among mothers with high PRF, greater cortisol reactivity was associated with fewer OC behaviors. For low PRF mothers, higher reactivity and OC predicted lower children's PRF for their own experiences. The findings provide initial evidence for a protective function of PRF, and may point toward the importance of promoting PRF in intervention programs to reduce parental OC. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Children With Disability Are More at Risk of Violence Victimization: Evidence From a Study of School-Aged Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ko Ling; Emery, Clifton R; Ip, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    Although research tends to focus on whether children with disability are more at risk of violence victimization, conclusive evidence on the association, especially in non-Western settings, is lacking. Using a large and representative sample of school-aged children in Hong Kong (N = 5,841, aged 9-18 years), this study aims to fill the research gap by providing reliable estimates of the prevalence of disability and the direct and indirect experiences of violence among children with disability. The study also compares the prevalence of child maltreatment, parental intimate partner violence (IPV), and in-law conflict to explore the factors related to the association between disability and violence victimization. The prevalence of disability among children was about 6%. Children with disability were more likely to report victimization than those without disability: 32% to 60% of the former had experienced child maltreatment, and 12% to 46% of them had witnessed IPV between parents or in-law conflict. The results of a logistic regression showed that disability increased the risk of lifetime physical maltreatment by 1.6 times. Furthermore, low levels of parental education and paternal unemployment were risk factors for lifetime child maltreatment. The risk of child maltreatment could have an almost sixfold increase when the child had also witnessed other types of family violence. Possible explanations and implications of the findings are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Tone perception in Mandarin-speaking school age children with otitis media with effusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Cai

    Full Text Available The present study explored tone perception ability in school age Mandarin-speaking children with otitis media with effusion (OME in noisy listening environments. The study investigated the interaction effects of noise, tone type, age, and hearing status on monaural tone perception, and assessed the application of a hierarchical clustering algorithm for profiling hearing impairment in children with OME.Forty-one children with normal hearing and normal middle ear status and 84 children with OME with or without hearing loss participated in this study. The children with OME were further divided into two subgroups based on their severity and pattern of hearing loss using a hierarchical clustering algorithm. Monaural tone recognition was measured using a picture-identification test format incorporating six sets of monosyllabic words conveying four lexical tones under speech spectrum noise, with the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR conditions ranging from -9 to -21 dB.Linear correlation indicated tone recognition thresholds of children with OME were significantly correlated with age and pure tone hearing thresholds at every frequency tested. Children with hearing thresholds less affected by OME performed similarly to their peers with normal hearing. Tone recognition thresholds of children with auditory status more affected by OME were significantly inferior to those of children with normal hearing or with minor hearing loss. Younger children demonstrated poorer tone recognition performance than older children with OME. A mixed design repeated-measure ANCOVA showed significant main effects of listening condition, hearing status, and tone type on tone recognition. Contrast comparisons revealed that tone recognition scores were significantly better under -12 dB SNR than under -15 dB SNR conditions and tone recognition scores were significantly worse under -18 dB SNR than those obtained under -15 dB SNR conditions. Tone 1 was the easiest tone to identify and

  18. Tone perception in Mandarin-speaking school age children with otitis media with effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ting; McPherson, Bradley; Li, Caiwei; Yang, Feng

    2017-01-01

    The present study explored tone perception ability in school age Mandarin-speaking children with otitis media with effusion (OME) in noisy listening environments. The study investigated the interaction effects of noise, tone type, age, and hearing status on monaural tone perception, and assessed the application of a hierarchical clustering algorithm for profiling hearing impairment in children with OME. Forty-one children with normal hearing and normal middle ear status and 84 children with OME with or without hearing loss participated in this study. The children with OME were further divided into two subgroups based on their severity and pattern of hearing loss using a hierarchical clustering algorithm. Monaural tone recognition was measured using a picture-identification test format incorporating six sets of monosyllabic words conveying four lexical tones under speech spectrum noise, with the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conditions ranging from -9 to -21 dB. Linear correlation indicated tone recognition thresholds of children with OME were significantly correlated with age and pure tone hearing thresholds at every frequency tested. Children with hearing thresholds less affected by OME performed similarly to their peers with normal hearing. Tone recognition thresholds of children with auditory status more affected by OME were significantly inferior to those of children with normal hearing or with minor hearing loss. Younger children demonstrated poorer tone recognition performance than older children with OME. A mixed design repeated-measure ANCOVA showed significant main effects of listening condition, hearing status, and tone type on tone recognition. Contrast comparisons revealed that tone recognition scores were significantly better under -12 dB SNR than under -15 dB SNR conditions and tone recognition scores were significantly worse under -18 dB SNR than those obtained under -15 dB SNR conditions. Tone 1 was the easiest tone to identify and Tone 3 was the most

  19. Bisphenol A exposure and asthma development in school-age children: a longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Nam Kim

    Full Text Available Although the effect of bisphenol A on various health outcomes has been extensively examined, few studies have investigated its effect on asthma.We hypothesized that exposure to bisphenol A in school-age children was associated with wheezing and asthma.Participants included 127 children aged 7-8 years without a previous asthma diagnosis in an elementary school in Seoul, Korea. Three surveys were conducted, each 2 years apart. Bisphenol A concentration was measured at the baseline survey, and PC20, which is defined as the methacholine concentration that induces a decrease in FEV1 of 20% from baseline, was measured at every survey. Associations between bisphenol A concentration at 7-8 years of age and wheezing, asthma, and PC20 at ages up to 11-12 years were examined using generalized estimating equations, a marginal Cox regression model, and a linear mixed model.The log-transformed creatinine-adjusted urinary bisphenol A concentration at 7-8 years was positively associated with wheezing (odds ratio, 2.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-5.31; P = .02 and asthma (hazard ratio, 2.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.51-3.00; P<.001 at ages up to 11-12 years. Bisphenol A was also negatively associated with PC20 (ß = -2.33; P = .02. When stratified by sex, the association between bisphenol A and asthma remained significant only in girls (hazard ratio, 2.45; 95% confidence interval, 2.18-2.76; P<.001.Increased urinary bisphenol A concentrations at 7-8 years old were positively associated with wheezing and asthma and negatively associated with PC20 at ages up to 11-12 years.

  20. [A study of relation between hopelessness and causal attribution in school-aged children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, S

    1989-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the relation between hopelessness and causal attribution in Japanese school-aged children. In Study 1, the Japanese edition of hopelessness scale for children developed by Kazdin, French, Unis, Esveldt-Dawsan, and Sherick (1983) was constructed. Seventeen original items were translated into Japanese and they were administrated to 405 fifth- and sixth-graders. All of the items could be included to the Japanese edition of hopelessness scale. The reliability and validity was examined. In Study 2, the relation between hopelessness and causal attribution in children were investigated. The causal attribution questionnaire developed by Higuchi, Kambare, and Otsuka (1983) and the hopelessness scale developed by Study 1 were administered to 188 sixth-graders. Children with high scores in hopelessness scale significantly attributed negative events to much more effort factor than children with low scores. It supports neither the reformulated learned helplessness model nor the causal attribution theory of achievement motivation. It was explained mainly from points of self-serving attribution, cultural difference, and social desirability. Some questions were discussed for developing studies on depression and causal attribution in Japan.

  1. The internal structure of foster-parent completed SDQ for school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Stine; Bøe, Tormod; Breivik, Kyrre

    2017-01-01

    Mental health problems are common in foster-children, and tools to measure the mental health of these children are needed. One candidate instrument is the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), a measure of child psychological adjustment that is increasingly being employed by Child Protection services. The aim of the current study was to examine the structural validity of the foster parent completed SDQ in a sample of 237 school aged foster children. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated an excellent fit of the foster parent completed SDQ data to a five-factor model (CFI = 0.96, RMSEA = 0.05, 90% CI [0.04, 0.06]), thus confirming the structural validity of the five-factor model for the parent-version of the SDQ in Norwegian foster children. Measurement invariance analyses indicated that boys had lower thresholds for fighting with or bullying other children than girls. Girls were on their side more likely to be rated as less popular than boys with a similar level of peer problems.

  2. Bullying of preterm children and emotional problems at school age: cross-culturally invariant effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolke, Dieter; Baumann, Nicole; Strauss, Victoria; Johnson, Samantha; Marlow, Neil

    2015-06-01

    To investigate whether adolescents who were born extremely preterm (weight (bullied, and whether this contributes to higher emotional problem scores. We used 2 whole population samples: the German Bavarian Longitudinal Study (BLS) (287 very preterm/very low birth weight and 293 term comparison children) and the UK EPICure Study (183 extremely preterm and 102 term comparison children). Peer bullying was assessed by parent report in both cohorts at school years 2 and 6/7. The primary outcome was emotional problems in year 6/7. The effects of prematurity and bullying on emotional problems were investigated with regression analysis and controlled for sex, socioeconomic status, disability, and preexisting emotional problems. Preterm-born children were more often bullied in both cohorts than term comparisons (BLS: relative risk, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.07-1.50; EPICure: relative risk, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.19-2.41). Both preterm birth and being bullied predicted emotional problems, but after controlling for confounders, only being bullied at both ages remained a significant predictor of emotional problem scores in both cohorts (BLS: B, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.28-1.27; P bullied at just a single time point also predicted emotional problems. Preterm-born children are more vulnerable to being bullied by peers. Those children who experience bullying over years are more likely to develop emotional problems. Health professionals should routinely ask about peer relationships. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevalence of urinary incontinence and lower urinary tract symptoms in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akil, Ipek Ozunan; Ozmen, Dilek; Cetinkaya, Aynur Cakmakci

    2014-07-08

    To investigate the prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and urinary incontinence (UI) in elementary school aged children in Manisa. Dysfunctional Voiding and Incontinence Scoring System (DVIS) which was developed in Turkey is used. A total of 416 children, 216 (51.9%) male and 200 (48.1%) female were recruited in this study. Mean age of children was 10.35 ± 2.44 years (median10 years). Daytime UI frequency was 6.7% (28 child), nocturnal incontinence 16.6% (69 child) and combined daytime and nocturnal incontinence 4.1% (17 child). There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of nocturnal and or daytime UI between male and female gender. Mean DVIS score was 2.65 ± 3.95 and gender did not affect total DVIS points. The mean ages of achieving daytime bowel and bladder control were all significantly correlated with DVIS points. DVIS points were positively correlated with the history of UI of the family. Total points were increased when the father was unemployed. UI negatively influences health related quality of life of the family and child, so it is important that awareness of the UI and symptoms of lower urinary tract dysfunction.

  4. Design and evaluation of a campaign to promote the consumption of vegetables and fruits in Mexican school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, Marcos; Ríos-Pérez, Fernanda; López-Rodríguez, Guadalupe; Guzmán-Saldaña, Rebeca; Fernández-Cortés, Trinidad Lorena; Camacho-Bernal, Gloria; Robles-Acevedo, Manuel

    2016-09-20

    In Mexican school-age children the consumption of vegetables and fruits (V&F) is less than 25% of the amount recommended by the World Health Organization. Evaluate the effectiveness of a promotion campaign about the consumption of V&F in urban school children from Hidalgo, Mexico. A non controlled community trial in 226 school-age children from private and public schools was conducted, we designed and distributed printed material for promoting the consumption of V&F among the school population, access to V&F was provided through planning and sales at school stores, and consumption was supervised by the teachers. At the end of the intervention vegetable consumption increased by 50 g and plain water in 100 mL (T-test, p < 0.05); the proportion of school-age children who identified the health benefits of the consumption of V&F increased significantly (68% initial, 87% final) and greater support from parents (61% initial, 92 final%) was achieved. A promotion campaign and improved access to vegetables, fruits and water in the school environment which is supported by parents and teachers can encourage healthier eating at school.

  5. Health effects of digital textbooks on school-age children: a grounded theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seomun, Gyeongae; Lee, Jung-Ah; Kim, Eun-Young; Im, Meeyoung; Kim, Miran; Park, Sun-A; Lee, Youngjin

    2013-10-01

    This qualitative study used the grounded theory approach to analyze digital textbook-related health experiences of school-age children. In-depth interviews were held with 40 elementary school students who had used digital textbooks for at least a year. Data analysis revealed a total of 56 concepts, 20 subcategories, and 11 categories related to digital textbook health issues, the central phenomena being "health-related experiences." Students' health-related experiences were classified into "physical" and "psychological" symptoms. Adverse health effects related to digital textbook usage were addressed via both "student-led" and "instructor-led" coping strategies. Students' coping strategies were often inefficient, but instructor-led strategies seemed to prevent health problems. When health issues were well managed, students tended to accept digital textbooks as educational tools. Our findings suggest that students can form healthy computer habits if digital textbook usage is directed in a positive manner.

  6. Feasibility of Using Actigraphy and Motivational-Based Interviewing to Improve Sleep among School-Age Children and Their Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willgerodt, Mayumi A.; Kieckhefer, Gail M.; Ward, Teresa M.; Lentz, Martha J.

    2014-01-01

    Inadequate sleep occurs in 25% of our nation's children; poor sleep is associated with physical, cognitive, and social consequences. Developing good sleep hygiene in middle childhood is important, because habits typically extend to adolescence and adulthood; yet, there has been little research on sleep interventions for school-age children. The…

  7. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder symptoms in school-age children born very preterm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bröring, Tinka; Oostrom, Kim J.; van Dijk-Lokkart, Elisabeth M.; Lafeber, Harrie N.; Brugman, Anniek; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2018-01-01

    Very preterm (VP) children face a broad range of neurodevelopmental sequelae, including behavioral problems. To investigate prevalence, pervasiveness and co-occurrence of symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in school-age children born very

  8. Estimated Prevalence of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in a Sample of Panamanian School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Emelyn Y.; Velarde, Silvia; Britton, Gabrielle B.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the prevalence of ADHD in a school sample of children ages 6-11 years in the city of Panama. The assessment battery included the Conners' Parent and Teacher Rating Scales, the Structured Developmental History of the Behavioral Assessment System for Children (BASC-2), and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children…

  9. Story Discourse and Use of Mental State Language between Mothers and School-Aged Children with and without Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadic, Valerija; Pring, Linda; Dale, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lack of sight compromises insight into other people's mental states. Little is known about the role of maternal language in assisting the development of mental state language in children with visual impairment (VI). Aims: To investigate mental state language strategies of mothers of school-aged children with VI and to compare…

  10. Hoarseness in School-Aged Children and Effectiveness of Voice Therapy in International Classification of Functioning Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akın Şenkal, Özgül; Özer, Cem

    2015-09-01

    The hoarseness in school-aged children disrupts the educational process because it affects the social progress, communication skills, and self-esteem of children. Besides otorhinolaryngological examination, the first treatment option is voice therapy when hoarseness occurs. The aim of the study was to determine the factors increasing the hoarseness in school-aged children by parental interview and to know preferable voice therapy on school-aged children within the frame of International Classification of Functioning (ICF). Retrospective analysis of data gathered from patient files. A total of 75 children (56 boys and 19 girls) were examined retrospectively. The age range of school-aged children is 7-14 years and average is 10.86 ± 2.51. A detailed history was taken from parents of children involved in this study. Information about vocal habits of children was gathered within the frame of ICF and then the voice therapies of children were started by scheduling appointments by an experienced speech-language pathologist. The differences between before and after voice therapy according to applied voice therapy methods, statistically significant differences were determined between maximum phonation time values and s/z rate. The relationship between voice therapy sessions and s/z rate with middle degree significance was found with physiological voice therapy sessions. According to ICF labels, most of voice complaints are matching with "body functions" and "activity and limitations." The appropriate voice therapy methods for hoarseness in school-aged children must be chosen and applied by speech-language therapists. The detailed history, which is received from family during the examination, within the frame of ICF affects the processes of choosing the voice therapy method and application of them positively. Child's family is very important for a successful management. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Exposure to violence and psychosocial adjustment among urban school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purugganan, Oscar H; Stein, Ruth E K; Silver, Ellen Johnson; Benenson, Blanch S

    2003-12-01

    This study determines the relationship between psychosocial adjustment in school-aged children and one aspect of exposure to violence, the proximity of exposure, in terms of (1) "physical" proximity and (2) "emotional" proximity to the victims of violence. A convenience sample of 175 children aged 9 to 12 years from a primary care clinic of a large urban hospital were interviewed about their exposure to violence using the Children's Report of Exposure to Violence. Psychosocial adjustment was measured through maternal reports using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Personal Adjustment and Role Skills Scale (PARS III). Children were categorized into three groups according to their closest proximity to exposure to violence ("victim" > "witness" > exposure through other people's "report") and two groups according to emotional proximity (victim was a "familiar person" or "stranger"). All children (23/175) who scored above the CBCL clinical cutoff (T score > 63) were witnesses or victims of violence. The CBCL total T scores (higher score = more maladjustment) showed that the "victims" group (mean 52.4) scored significantly higher than the "witness" group (mean 50.0) and "report" group (mean 47.4). The PARS III total scores (lower scores = more maladjustment) showed that the "victims" group (mean 87.5) scored significantly lower than the "witness" group (mean 93.1) and "report" group (mean 98.2). The relationship of the child to the victim was not associated with significantly different CBCL and PARS III scores. Children exposed to more proximal forms of violence as victims or witnesses exhibited more psychosocial maladjustment.

  12. Behavioral characteristics and cognitive development among school age children born to women with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güveli, Betül T; Gürses, Candan; Ataklı, Dilek; Akça Kalem, Şükriye; Dirican, Ahmet; Bebek, Nerses; Baykan, Betül; Gökyiğit, Aysen

    2015-04-01

    Greater risks of congenital malformation as well as cognitive and behavioral development in later childhood occur as a result of in utero exposure to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). We examined the effects of AEDs on behavioral characteristics and cognitive development among school age children born to women with epilepsy. Children aged 6-15 years and born to women with epilepsy were enrolled in the study. Information was collected on the women's demographics and the details of their usage/non-usage of AEDs during pregnancy. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for the Children-Revised (WICS-R) test was administered to the children. The Alexander IQ test and the Conner Parent Rating Scale (CPRS) were administered to the mothers. Comparisons were made between children who had been exposed and not exposed to AEDs in utero and if exposed, according to exposure to AED monotherapy or polytherapy. The mother's education level and IQ score and data from the same parent's siblings were evaluated with respect to consanguinity. Forty-one children born to 28 women with epilepsy were enrolled. Seven mothers had multiple pregnancies. Twenty-three pregnancies (56%) were exposed to monotherapy and five (12·1%) to polytherapy. The remaining 13 (31·7%) were not exposed to AEDs. Maternal education level was a significant major factor in child IQ development (P sibling assessment indicated a negative effect of valproate on IQ. It is important that the AED dosage be reduced to a minimum to maintain seizure control for healthy cognitive and behavioral development of a child.

  13. Physical exercises and massage influence on the organism of school age children with violations of carriage in a frontal plane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruzhylo Galina Grigor'evna

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Scientific researches results on the subject of efficiency evaluation of the physical exercises and massage influence on the carriage of school age (7 - 14years children are adduced. School age children total number of 20 (10 girls and 10 boys with backbone scoliotic curvatures of I - II degree took part in the experiment. There were applied: physical exercises (forming of carriage, unloading of spine, trunk muscles endurance development, exercises in an equilibrium, classic and segmentary massage. It is well-proven that a neat rehabilitation complex rendered effective influence on a carriage probed experimental group by comparison to the children of control group.

  14. [The influence of healthy lifestyle habits on weight status in school aged children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Mauro, Ismael; Megias, Ana; García de Angulo, Belén; Bodega, Patricia; Rodríguez, Paula; Grande, Graciela; Micó, Víctor; Romero, Elena; García, Nuria; Fajardo, Diana; Garicano, Elena

    2015-05-01

    Overweight and obesity has high prevalence in children and adolescents in Spain. To determine the degree of influence of four modifiable factors (dietary habits, physical activity, sedentary and sleep) jointly on the weight status of a group of school children and adolescents in Madrid. 189 schoolchildren aged 6 to 16 years, who underwent an anthropometric study. To exercise the IPAQ questionnaire was used, establishing a minimum of one hour of exercise a day, as a recommendation, and two hours per day in case of sedentary, which took into account the hours of computer, consoles and TV. Sleep quality was assessed by collecting sleeping hours weekdays and weekend nap. Stating that school children should sleep 10 hours a day. The KIDMED Index was used for the diet quality, the score can be accessed from 0-12 and classified into 3 categories, it was regrouped for statistical measure. The first two results (0-7) as "Bad adherence" and ≥ 8 value as "Good adherence". 27.6% of students had excess weight. No significant differences were reported analyzing the four factors studied versus weight status among those who keep recommendations and excess weight, either individually or multifactor analysis was observed. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  15. Reading comprehension of ambiguous sentences by school-age children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Meghan M; Ellis Weismer, Susan

    2017-12-01

    Weak central coherence (processing details over gist), poor oral language abilities, poor suppression, semantic interference, and poor comprehension monitoring have all been implicated to affect reading comprehension in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study viewed the contributions of different supporting skills as a collective set of skills necessary for context integration-a multi-component view-to examine individual differences in reading comprehension in school-age children (8-14 years) with ASD (n = 23) and typically developing control peers (n = 23). Participants completed a written ambiguous sentence comprehension task in which participants had to integrate context to determine the correct homonym meaning via picture selection. Both comprehension products (i.e., offline representations after reading) and processes (i.e., online processing during reading) were evaluated. Results indicated that children with ASD, similar to their TD peers, integrated the context to access the correct homonym meanings while reading. However, after reading the sentences, when participants were asked to select the meanings, both groups experienced semantic interference between the two meanings. This semantic interference hindered the children with ASD's sentence representation to a greater degree than their peers. Individual differences in age/development, word recognition, vocabulary breadth (i.e., number of words in the lexicon), and vocabulary depth (i.e., knowledge of the homonym meanings) contributed to sentence comprehension in both children with ASD and their peers. Together, this evidence supports a multi-component view, and that helping children with ASD develop vocabulary depth may have cascading effects on their reading comprehension. Autism Res 2017, 10: 2002-2022. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Like their peers, children with ASD were able to integrate context, or link words while reading

  16. An overview of indoor air quality and its impact on respiratory health among Malaysian school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Chua Poh; Jalaludin, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    The indoor environment is a major source of human exposure to pollutants. Some pollutants can have concentrations that are several times higher indoors than outdoors. Prolonged exposure may lead to adverse biologic effects, even at low concentrations. Several studies done in Malaysia had underlined the role of indoor air pollution in affecting respiratory health, especially for school-aged children. A critical review was conducted on the quantitative literature linking indoor air pollution with respiratory illnesses among school-aged children. This paper reviews evidence of the association between indoor air quality (IAQ) and its implications on respiratory health among Malaysian school-aged children. This review summarizes six relevant studies conducted in Malaysia for the past 10 years. Previous epidemiologic studies relevant to indoor air pollutants and their implications on school-aged children's respiratory health were obtained from electronic database and included as a reference in this review. The existing reviewed data emphasize the impact of IAQ parameters, namely, indoor temperature, ventilation rates, indoor concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matters (PM), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and airborne microbes, on children's respiratory health. The study found that most of the Malaysian school-aged children are exposed to the inadequate environment during their times spent either in their houses or in their classrooms, which is not in compliance with the established standards. Children living in households or studying in schools in urban areas are more likely to suffer from respiratory illnesses compared with children living in homes or studying in schools in rural areas.

  17. Screening for Asperger Syndrome in School-Age Children: Issues and Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Colin; Campbell, Audrey; Keran, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Many children with Asperger syndrome are not identified prior to school entry, and difficulties associated with the condition may only become evident when a child enters school. Failure to identify children with the syndrome may lead to increased risk for psychopathology, and lack of understanding of the reasons for social and communicative…

  18. Neurobehavioral Deficits and Increased Blood Pressure in School-Age Children Prenatally Exposed to Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harari, Raul; Julvez, Jordi; Murata, Katsuyuki; Barr, Dana; Bellinger, David C.; Debes, Frodi; Grandjean, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Background The long-term neurotoxicity risks caused by prenatal exposures to pesticides are unclear, but a previous pilot study of Ecuadorian school children suggested that blood pressure and visuospatial processing may be vulnerable. Objectives In northern Ecuador, where floriculture is intensive and relies on female employment, we carried out an intensive cross-sectional study to assess children’s neurobehavioral functions at 6–8 years of age. Methods We examined all 87 children attending two grades in the local public school with an expanded battery of neurobehavioral tests. Information on pesticide exposure during the index pregnancy was obtained from maternal interview. The children’s current pesticide exposure was assessed from the urinary excretion of organophosphate metabolites and erythrocyte acetylcholine esterase activity. Results Of 84 eligible participants, 35 were exposed to pesticides during pregnancy via maternal occupational exposure, and 23 had indirect exposure from paternal work. Twenty-two children had detectable current exposure irrespective of their prenatal exposure status. Only children with prenatal exposure from maternal greenhouse work showed consistent deficits after covariate adjustment, which included stunting and socioeconomic variables. Exposure-related deficits were the strongest for motor speed (Finger Tapping Task), motor coordination (Santa Ana Form Board), visuospatial performance (Stanford-Binet Copying Test), and visual memory (Stanford-Binet Copying Recall Test). These associations corresponded to a developmental delay of 1.5–2 years. Prenatal pesticide exposure was also significantly associated with an average increase of 3.6 mmHg in systolic blood pressure and a slight decrease in body mass index of 1.1 kg/m2. Inclusion of the pilot data strengthened these results. Conclusions These findings support the notion that prenatal exposure to pesticides—at levels not producing adverse health outcomes in the mother

  19. Evaluation performance of diagnostic methods of intestinal parasitosis in school age children in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimer, Mulat; Hailu, Tadesse; Mulu, Wondemagegn; Abera, Bayeh

    2015-12-26

    Although the sensitivity of Wet mount technique is questionable, it is the major diagnostic technique for routine diagnosis of intestinal parasitosis in Ethiopia. Therefore, the aim of this study was the evaluation performance of diagnostic methods of intestinal parasitosis in school age children in Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was conducted from May to June 2013. Single stool sample was processed for direct, Formol ether concentration (FEC) and Kato Katz methods. The sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) of diagnostic tests were calculated in terms of the "Gold" standard method (the combined result of the three methods altogether). A total of 422 school age children were participated in this study. The prevalence of intestinal parasites was high (74.6%) with Kato Katz technique. The sensitivity of Wet mount, FEC and Kato Katz tests against the Gold standard test was 48.9, 63.1 and 93.7%, respectively. Kato Katz technique revealed a better NPV 80.4 (80.1-80.6) as compared to the Wet mount (33.7%) and FEC techniques (41.3%). In this study, the Kato Katz technique outperformed the other two methods but the true values for sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic values are not known. Moreover, it is labor intensive and not easily accessible. Hence, it is preferable to use FEC technique to complement the Wet mount test.

  20. Utterance-final position and pitch marking aid word learning in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, Piera; Laaha, Sabine; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2017-08-01

    We investigated the effects of word order and prosody on word learning in school-age children. Third graders viewed photographs belonging to one of three semantic categories while hearing four-word nonsense utterances containing a target word. In the control condition, all words had the same pitch and, across trials, the position of the target word was varied systematically within each utterance. The only cue to word-meaning mapping was the co-occurrence of target words and referents. This cue was present in all conditions. In the Utterance-final condition, the target word always occurred in utterance-final position, and at the same fundamental frequency as all the other words of the utterance. In the Pitch peak condition, the position of the target word was varied systematically within each utterance across trials, and produced with pitch contrasts typical of infant-directed speech (IDS). In the Pitch peak + Utterance-final condition, the target word always occurred in utterance-final position, and was marked with a pitch contrast typical of IDS. Word learning occurred in all conditions except the control condition. Moreover, learning performance was significantly higher than that observed with simple co-occurrence ( control condition) only for the Pitch peak + Utterance-final condition. We conclude that, for school-age children, the combination of words' utterance-final alignment and pitch enhancement boosts word learning.

  1. The Relationship between Social and Motor Cognition in Primary School Age-Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Lorcan; Hill, Elisabeth; Hamilton, Antonia F. de C.

    2016-01-01

    There is increased interest in the relationship between motor skills and social skills in child development, with evidence that the mechanisms underlying these behaviors may be linked. We took a cognitive approach to this problem, and examined the relationship between four specific cognitive domains: theory of mind, motor skill, action understanding, and imitation. Neuroimaging and adult research suggest that action understanding and imitation are closely linked, but are somewhat independent of theory of mind and low-level motor control. Here, we test if a similar pattern is shown in child development. A sample of 101 primary school aged children with a wide ability range completed tests of IQ (Raven’s matrices), theory of mind, motor skill, action understanding, and imitation. Parents reported on their children’s social, motor and attention performance as well as developmental concerns. The results showed that action understanding and imitation correlate, with the latter having a weak link to motor control. Theory of mind was independent of the other tasks. These results imply that independent cognitive processes for social interaction (theory of mind) and for motor control can be identified in primary school age children, and challenge approaches that link all these domains together. PMID:26941685

  2. Determination of permanent premolars eruption ages among public school children in Lahore, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokhio, A.L.; Soomro, S.H.; Khuhawar, S.R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine mean eruption age, range and sequence of permanent maxillary and mandibular premolars in public schools of Lahore, Pakistan so as to provide a reference for planning orthodontic treatment and in pediatric dentistry. Methodology: This is a cross sectional study consisting of multistage random sampling and included 4000 children, with ages in between 9-14 years of different public schools in Lahore. Participants were examined and tooth numbering was noted by two-digit system of FDI (Federation Dentaire Internationale). Emergence was divided into three stages depending on eruption level. SPSS version 18 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Out of 4000 children, 1960 were boys and 2031 were girls. In both genders maxillary premolars erupted before mandibular counterparts. All premolars erupted earlier in females than the males. The sequence of emergence for both genders was P1, P2 in upper as well as in lower arch. Conclusion: Eruption of premolar in females was earlier than males but delayed in both genders while compared with Western standard. (author)

  3. Television viewing and alcohol advertising with alcohol expectancies among school-aged children in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Ying; Chiu, Yu-Chan; Ting, Te-Tien; Liao, Hsin-Yao; Chen, Wei J; Chen, Chuan-Yu

    2016-05-01

    This study is aimed to examine the strength of association between television watching and potential exposure to alcohol advertising with multidimensional alcohol expectancies in school-aged children. A total of 779 4th (age 10) and 768 6th (age 12) grade students were recruited from 17 public elementary schools in northern Taiwan in 2006, with two waves of follow-up at 6 months apart. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect information concerning individual characteristics, parental attributes, past-week screen time, drinking behaviors, and alcohol expectancies. Data of aired alcohol advertisements at baseline were obtained from the Nielsen Media Research Advertising Information Services; parenting styles were ascertained from the 1st follow-up. Alcohol Expectancies Questionnaire-Children version was used to measure alcohol expectancies (AEs) at baseline and the 2nd follow-up. Nearly 27% of students reported watching television for more than two hours per day and 58% watching television after 9 p.m. Dimension-related heterogeneity exists in the relationship between TV viewing and alcohol advertising with AEs. With statistical adjustment for covariates, spending more than two hours watching TV per day was associated with increased levels of positive AEs "Promoting Relaxation or Tension Reduction [PRTR]" (β=1.52, 95% CI=0.92, 2.12; padvertising was associated with decline in negative AEs "Deteriorated Cognitive and Behavioral Function" (e.g., >8.0 ads: β=-1.06, 95% CI=-1.66, -0.47, padvertising exposure is linked with lowered negative expectancies in late childhood. School-based anti-underage drinking programs may consider integrating the media literacy curriculum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. THE MODEL OF MOTOR ACTIVITY OPTIMIZATION OF YOUNGER SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN LIVING IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE NORTHERN CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanna Ildarovna Busheva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Extreme conditions of the North, computerization, Internet and a gadget dependence, high physical and intellectual loads of children activities living in the north negatively affect younger generation health state. It is difficult to overestimate a role of motor activity in expansion of functionality of the developing organism as the lack of locomotion can lead to pathological shifts in an organism. Based on the study of the concept of a ‘motor activity’ and features North of the city the article suggests a model of motor activity optimization of younger school age children living in the conditions of the northern city. It consisted of 6 units related to goal-setting, diagnostic-analytical, concept, process-activity, reflexive-evaluative and effective. The research was conducted on the basis of Surgut city schools and the Surgut region of Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Region-Yugra. During the research we revealed the most priority organization forms of motor activity of younger school age children living in conditions of the northern city. The model of motor activity optimization of younger school age children allows to create necessary optimum volume and to control of motor activity of children of younger school age. Purpose. The purpose of our research was to create model of motor activity optimization of younger school age children living in the conditions of the northern city. Methodology. Analysis and synthesis of the materials as well as the method of simulation are used as the main instruments. Results. A model of motor activity optimization of younger school age children has been elaborated in the course of study and its characteristics have been specified. Practical implications. The results can be of use for teachers at professional educational institutions.

  5. The Empowerment Of Role Of The Family In Developing Character Of Environmental Awareness In Elementary School-Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadek Aria Prima Dewi PF

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to see the empowerment process of role of the family through Waste Bank media to develop character of environmental awareness in elementary school-age children. The qualitative descriptive research methodology is used. The result of this research shows that the empowerment of role of the family in developing character of environmental awareness in elementary school-age children in State Elementary School 1 Padangsambian is determined by the role of waste bank media through intervention of school to students' parents. The initial stage of intervention activity is performed with parenting activity in school with the theme of environmental awareness. Furthermore, all forms of activities or moral actions of environmental awareness are guided by Waste Bank community. The family becomes active in the environmental awareness activity and the control process is implemented together by school and Waste Bank community.

  6. Relationship between personal, maternal, and familial factors with mental health problems in school-aged children in Aceh province, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputra, Fauzan; Yunibhand, Jintana; Sukratul, Sunisa

    2017-02-01

    Recently, mental health problems (MHP) in school-aged children have become a global phenomenon. Yet, the number of children affected remains unclear in Indonesia, and the effects of mental health problems are of concern. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of MHP in school-aged children and its relationship to personal, maternal, and familial factors in Aceh province, Indonesia. Participants were 143 school-aged children with MHP and their mothers. They completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, Social Competence Questionnaire, Brief Family Relationship Scale, Parental Stress Scale, Parent's Report Questionnaire, and Indonesian Version of the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Mainly, children were rated to have emotional symptoms by their mothers (37.8%). Factors such as academic competence, family relationships, and maternal parenting stress are related to MHP. Given the high prevalence of school-aged children that have emotional symptoms, child psychiatric mental health nurses should give special attention to assist them during their school years. Moreover, nurses should aim to improve family relationships and reduce maternal parenting stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Risk Factors in Preschool Children for Predicting Asthma During the Preschool Age and the Early School Age: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yixia; Chen, Zhimin; Liu, Enmei; Xiang, Li; Zhao, Deyu; Hong, Jianguo

    2017-11-18

    The aim of this study was to identify risk factors of asthma among children asthma during the preschool age and early school age (≤ 10 years of age). MEDLINE, Cochrane, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases were searched until June 30, 2017. Prospective or retrospective cohort and case-control studies were included. Studies had to have evaluated risk factors or a predictive model for developing asthma in children ≤ 6 years of age or persistent asthma in early school age. A total of 17 studies were included in the analysis. Factors associated with developing asthma in children ≤ 10 years of age (both pre-school and early school age) included male gender (pooled OR = 1.70, P asthma (pooled OR = 2.20, P asthma in early school age (pooled OR = 1.51, P = 0.030 and pooled OR = 2.59, P asthma predictive models (e.g., API, PIAMA, PAPS) had relatively low sensitivity (range, 21% to 71.4%) but high specificity (range, 69% to 98%). The study found that male gender, exposure to smoke, atopic dermatitis, family history of asthma, history of wheezing, and serum IgE level ≥ 60 kU/l or having specific IgE were significantly associated with developing asthma by either preschool or early school age. Asthma predictive models can be developed by those risk factors.

  8. Perinatal dioxin exposure and psychosocial and behavioral development in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Yumi; Oka, Akira; Tada, Hiroshi; Itabashi, Kazuo; Matsui, Eiko; Nakamura, Yosikazu

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the association between psychosocial and behavioral problems in children at school age and dioxin level in breast milk or estimated dioxin exposure (EDE) through breastfeeding in the general Japanese population. Dioxin level of breast milk at 1month of age and breastfeeding ratio through the first year of life were used to calculate the EDE of infants born in 1998-2005 in Japan. The Japanese Social Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) for the assessment of children's behavior was sent by mail to mothers whose breast milk underwent the dioxin survey, at the time when their infants were aged 6-13 years. The study subjects were 175 pairs of mothers and their first infants (79 boys, 96 girls). The mean total dioxin levels of breast milk were 18.3 and 19.8 (pgTEQ/g fat) and EDEs were 16.4 and 19.6 (ngTEQ/kg/year) in boys and girls, respectively. In linear multiple regression analyses after adjusting for age at SDQ, maternal age, birth weight and maternal smoking habit, dioxin level in breast milk was not significantly related to the total difficulties score (TDS) of SDQ in boys, B=2.29 (95% CI -7.60-12.18), or in girls, B=-1.04 (95% CI -9.24-7.15). EDE correlated to the TDS in neither boys, B=-0.99 (95% CI -4.14-2.15), nor girls, B=1.08 (95% CI -2.69-4.85). No evidence was found of a correlation between perinatal dioxin exposure and behavioral and psychosocial problems of children measured by SDQ. These results support the benefits of recommending breastfeeding. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. On certain aspects of the semantic development of younger primary school-age children

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    Stevanović Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to understand the meaning of words and sentences is an important determinant of the language development, which also indicates the development of the ability to learn. Bearing this in mind, the research was aimed at studying the level of semantic development of younger primary school-age children. Semantic development was studied from the aspect of understanding the meaning of words and their use in the following lexical relations: homonyms, antonyms, synonyms and metonyms. The research was conducted in three Belgrade primary schools during the school year 2013/2014. The sample was convenient and included 431 second- and third-grade pupils. The Semantic test (by S. Vladisavljevic was used in the study. Research results showed that none of the pupils had provided the correct answer to all administered tasks. The best scores were achieved on the part of the test referring to antonyms, while the pupils were least successful on the tasks referring to metonyms. Additionally, third-grade pupils were more successful than younger participants, while there were no differences according to gender. The results indicated that it was necessary to devote more attention to different lexical and semantic exercises at preschool and early school age, considering the link between semantic development, the acquisition of reading and writing skills and the (unsuccessful mastering of the school curriculum in the majority of subjects. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179034: Od podsticanja inicijative, saradnje, stvaralaštva u obrazovanju do novih uloga i identiteta u društvu i br. 47008: Unapređivanje kvaliteta i dostupnosti obrazovanja u procesima modernizacije Srbije

  10. A Comparison of Blood Pressure, Body Mass Index, and Acanthosis Nigricans in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Debra E.; Wang, Xiaohui; Tijerina, Sandra L.; Reyna, Maria Elena; Farooqi, Mohammad I.; Shelton, Margarette L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective quantitative study was to examine the relationships among acanthosis nigricans (AN), body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), school grade, and gender in children attending elementary school located in South West Texas. Data were collected by attending school district nurses. Researchers reviewed 7,026…

  11. A randomized controlled trial on a multicomponent intervention for overweight school-aged children - Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder-Lauridsen, Nina Majlund; Birk, Nina Marie; Ried-Larsen, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    intervention on body mass index (BMI) in a group of overweight children. Our hypothesis was an observed reduction in BMI and secondarily in body fat content, insulin insensitivity, and other components of the metabolic syndrome in the intervention group. METHODS: School children from Copenhagen were randomly...... allocated to an intervention group (n = 19) or a control group (n = 19). Anthropometric assessment, whole body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan, two hours oral glucose tolerance test, steps measured by pedometer, and fitness tests were measured at baseline and at 20 weeks. RESULTS: Thirty......-seven children (30 girls) participated at baseline, aged 8.7 ± 0.9 years with a BMI of 21.8 ± 3.7 kg/m2 (mean ± SD), and 36 children completed the study. The intervention group decreased their BMI (the intervention effect is the difference in change between the groups adjusted for the respective baseline values...

  12. [ANTHROPOMETRIC INDICATORS AND CARDIOMETABOLIC EVENTS AMONG SCHOOL-AGED CHILDREN FROM SONORA, MEXICO].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta Peña, Sandra Lidia; Reséndiz González, Eunice; Rubí Vargas, María; Terrazas Medina, Efraín Alonso; Cupul Uicab, Lea Aurora

    2015-10-01

    obesity in childhood is predictive of obesity in adulthood and it is associated with adverse health effect apparent since childhood; however, the joint assessment of obesity and adverse events among children in clinical settings is unusual. to assess the association of overweight and obesity, abdominal obesity, and excess body fat with systolic [SBP] and diastolic [DBP] blood pressure, lipid profile and glucose levels; and to identify the best anthropometric indicator of such events. we conducted a cross-sectional study in a sample of 412 schoolchildren. The presence of overweight and obesity, abdominal obesity and excess body fat was determined among all participants; levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, high and low density lipoproteins, and glucose were measured in a subsample (n = 133). The associations of interest were assessed using adjusted linear and logistic regression models. 33% of the children were overweight or obese. Overall, overweight, obesity, abdominal obesity, and excess body fat were associated with elevated SBP and DBP and with a lipid profile and glucose levels that could indicate health risks among these children. Overweight and obesity were the best predictors of such events. among these school-aged children, we observed that obesity was associated with high odds of having adverse health outcomes such as high blood pressure, lipids and glucose. Such adverse events can be predicted by the presence of obesity measured by BMI, which is a noninvasive, inexpensive and easy to implement measure. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  13. [Dyslipidemias in school-age chilean children: prevalence and associated factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barja Yáñez, Salesa; Arnaiz Gómez, Pilar; Villarroel Del Pino, Luis; Domínguez de Landa, Angélica; Castillo Valenzuela, Oscar; Farías Jofré, Marcelo; Mardones Santander, Francisco

    2015-05-01

    Dyslipidemias are a key cardiovascular risk factor, and are increased since early childhood. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence, characteristics of dyslipidemias and associated factors in a population of Chilean children. Cross-sectional study done in school-age children from Santiago, Chile (2009-2011). Parents answered questions about family medical history and children answered questions about physical activity. Anthropometry was performed and in a blood sample (12 hours fast) lipid profile, glycemia and insulinemia were measured. We recruited 2900 euglycemic children, 11.4 ± 0.97 years old, 52% girls. According to BMI, 22.5% were overweight and 15,3% had obesity. Considering recommended cut-off points for lipids, 69.3% were in acceptable range, 19.2% at risk and 11.5% at high cardiovascular risk. In total, 32% of the population had any clinical form of dyslipidemia: Isolated hypertriglyceridemia (9.4%), low HDL-C (7.6%), isolated hypercholesterolemia (4.9%), atherogenic dyslipidemia (6.24%) and mixed dyslipidemia (3.9%). Except for isolated hypercholesterolemia, dyslipidemias were more frequent in girls (globally 36.2% vs. 27.4%, pdyslipidemia, and the principal determinant was weight excess. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  14. Factors associated with overweight and obesity in Mexican school-age children: results from the National Nutrition Survey 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández Bernardo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to measure the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Mexican school-age children (5-11 years in the National Nutrition Survey 1999 (NNS-1999. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Overweight and obesity (defined as an excess of adipose tissue in the body were evaluated through the Body Mass Index (BMI in 10,901 children, using the standard proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. Sociodemographic variables were obtained using a questionnaire administered to the children's mothers. RESULTS: The national prevalence of overweight and obesity was reported to be 19.5%. The highest prevalence figures were found in Mexico City (26.6% and the North region (25.6%. When adjusting by region, rural or urban area, sex, maternal schooling, socioeconomic status, indigenous ethnicity and age, the highest prevalences of overweight and obesity were found among girls. The risks of overweight and obesity were positively associated with maternal schooling, children's age and socioeconomic status. CONCLUSIONS: Overweight and obesity are prevalent health problems in Mexican school-age children, particularly among girls, and positively associated with socioeconomic status, age, and maternal schooling. This is a major public health problem requiring preventive interventions to avoid future health consequences.

  15. Psycho-pedagogіcal characteristic of adaptive mobile games for deaf children of primary school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Іvahnenko A.A.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Conducted psycho-pedagogical and medico-biological basis of usage specially adapted mobile games in the psychophysical development of deaf children of primary school age. Determine the importance of mobile gaming as a means of physical education for this children's category. As a result of research found wellness, educational, educate and correctional importance of mobile games adapted deaf schoolchildren. Adaptive mobile games are effective media for psychophysical development of deaf children that brings to improvement of cognitions.

  16. Tone, rhythm, and timbre perception in school-age children using cochlear implants and hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes-Brown, Hamish; Marozeau, Jeremy P; Storey, Christine M; Blamey, Peter J

    2013-10-01

    Children with hearing impairments, especially those using hearing devices such as the cochlear implant (CI) or hearing aid (HA), are sometimes not encouraged to attend music classes, as they or their parents and teachers may be unsure whether the child can perform basic musical tasks. The objective of the current study was to provide a baseline for the performance of children using CIs and HAs on standardized tests of rhythm and pitch perception as well as an instrument timbre identification task. An additional aim was to determine the effect of structured music training on these measures during the course of a school year. The Intermediate Measures of Music Audiation (IMMA) Tonal and Rhythmic subtests were administered four times, with 6 wk between tests. All children in the study were also enrolled in "Music Club" teaching sessions. Measures were compared between groups and across the four testing sessions. Twenty children from a single school in Melbourne, Australia, were recruited. Eleven (four girls) had impaired hearing, including six with a unilateral CI or CI and HA together (two girls) and five with bilateral HAs (two girls). Nine were normally hearing, selected to match the age and gender of the hearing-impaired children. Ages ranged from 9-13 yr. All children participated in a weekly Music Club--a 45 min session of musical activities based around vocal play and the integration of aural, visual, and kinesthetic modes of learning. Audiological data were collected from clinical files. IMMA scores were converted to percentile ranks using published norms. Between-group differences were tested using repeated-measures analysis of variance, and between-session differences were tested using a linear mixed model. Linear regression was used to model the effect of hearing loss on the test scores. In the first session, normally hearing children had a mean percentile rank of ∼50 in both the Tonal and Rhythmic subtests of the IMMA. Children using CIs showed trends

  17. Dietary Calcium Intake in Sample of School Age Children in City of Rabat, Morocco

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    Amina Bouziani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium is an important mineral playing a vital role to maintain bone health. Calcium intake is considered as one of the most important determinants to assess the calcium status and to evaluate the calcium deficiency in the human body. Our study aims at estimating calcium intake in a sample of children and adolescent to be used in the global strategy to reduce calcium deficiency disorders in Morocco. Thus, 131 children and adolescents were recruited from public schools at Rabat and its regions in the framework of a descriptive cross-sectional study. For each participant, anthropometric parameters were measured. Calcium status was assessed by 24 h dietary recall. Food frequency questionnaire was used to evaluate children’s nutritional habits and to assess the consumption of calcium-rich food. Overall, the mean calcium intake was 522.0 ± 297.0 mg/day, and 85.5% of subjects highlighted calcium deficiency, with no significant difference between boys and girls. Calcium intake was significantly different according to age groups, and high consumption of calcium was found in subjects aged from 14 to 18 years (776.86 ±290.07 mg/day, giving evidence of the low calcium status of the studied population. Daily food intake and food frequency analysis showed that bread, vegetables, and fruits are the most consumed food and the main source of daily calcium intake. Consumption of dairy products, considered as the best source of calcium, is lower and represents only 14% of total calcium intake. Our study clearly showed that calcium status is very lower in Moroccan children and adolescents and a large proportion of this population have inadequate calcium intake. Hence, there’s an urgent need of specific strategies, including children sensitisation and nutritional education, to increase calcium intake and therefore reduce calcium deficiency disorders impacting the whole body during childhood and in adult age.

  18. School Starting Age and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landersø, Rasmus; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Simonsen, Marianne

    This paper investigates the effects of school starting age on crime while relying on variation in school starting age induced by administrative rules; we exploit that Danish children typically start first grade in the calendar year they turn seven, which gives rise to a discontinuity in children......’s school starting age. Analyses are carried out using register-based Danish data. We find that higher age at school start lowers the propensity to commit crime, but that this reduction is caused by incapacitation while human capital accumulation is unaffected. Importantly, we also find that the individuals...

  19. Early nutrition transition in Haiti: linking food purchasing and availability to overweight status in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morshed, Alexandra B; Becker, Haley V; Delnatus, Jacques Raymond; Wolff, Patricia B; Iannotti, Lora L

    2016-12-01

    The primary aim was to examine the association of socio-economic factors and diet with overweight (including obesity) among school-aged children in Haiti. The secondary aim was to describe food availability and the physical activity built environment in participating schools. This cross-sectional study examined baseline data from the intervention Mamba study assessing the effectiveness of a fortified peanut butter paste in school-aged children. Logistic regression modelling was used to test hypothesized factors in association with overweight status. Six primary schools in Cap-Haitien, the second largest city in Haiti. Children (n 968) aged 3-13 years, in good health and enrolled in a participating school for the 2012/13 school year. Child age (adjusted OR (AOR); 95 % CI=0·25; 0·12, 0·56), child age squared (1·08; 1·03, 1·13), always purchasing food at school (3·52; 1·12, 11·08), mother's BMI (1·10; 1·04, 1·16) and household ownership of a bicycle (0·28; 0·11, 0·71) were significantly associated with overweight (likelihood ratio=36, Poverweight children in the binary analysis (P=0·033) and improved the fit of the model. Schools had limited time and space for physical activity and foods sold by vendors were predominantly high in sugar or fat. To our knowledge the present study is the first to examine the covariates of childhood overweight or describe school food availability and physical activity built environments in Haiti. Further research is necessary to identify intervention targets and feasible, cost-effective approaches for prevention of obesity in Haiti children.

  20. Helminth infections and micronutrients in school-age children: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gier, Brechje; Campos Ponce, Maiza; van de Bor, Margot; Doak, Colleen M; Polman, Katja

    2014-06-01

    Helminth infections and micronutrient deficiencies are highly prevalent in developing countries. Neither condition typically causes overt disease, but they do lead to indirect morbidity such as impaired physical and cognitive development. We aimed to systematically review current evidence on the relation of helminth infections with micronutrient status in school-age children worldwide. We included both observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We applied a random-effects meta-analysis to estimate 1) cross-sectional associations between helminths and micronutrient status, 2) effects of anthelminthic treatment on micronutrient status, and 3) effects of micronutrient supplementation on helminth infection and reinfection. Meta-analyses of observational studies showed an association between helminth infections and serum retinol [standardized mean difference (SMD): -0.30; 95% CI: -0.48, -0.13] but not serum ferritin (SMD: 0.00; 95% CI: -0.7, 0.7). Conversely, meta-analyses of anthelminthic treatment RCTs showed a positive effect on ferritin (SMD: 0.16; 95% CI: 0.09, 0.22) but not retinol (SMD: 0.04; 95% CI: -0.06, 0.14). The number of studies on micronutrients other than ferritin and retinol was not sufficient for pooling. Meta-analyses of micronutrient-supplementation RCTs showed only a modest protective effect for multimicronutrient interventions on helminth infection and reinfection rates (OR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.61, 0.97). In this review, we show evidence of distinct associations between helminth infections and micronutrients in school-age children. More studies are needed on micronutrients other than iron and vitamin A and on possible helminth species-specific effects. A thorough comprehension of the interplay between helminth infections and micronutrients will help guide integrated and sustainable intervention strategies in affected children worldwide. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Social Information Processing in Elementary-School Aged Children with ADHD: Medication Effects and Comparisons with Typical Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Sara; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Frankland, Bradley W.; Andrade, Brendan F.; Jacques, Sophie; Corkum, Penny V.

    2009-01-01

    Examined social information processing (SIP) in medicated and unmedicated children with ADHD and in controls. Participants were 75 children (56 boys, 19 girls) aged 6-12 years, including 41 children with ADHD and 34 controls. Children were randomized into medication conditions such that 20 children with ADHD participated after receiving placebo…

  2. Questions and Answers about School-Age Children in Self-Care: A Sloan Work and Family Research Network Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan Work and Family Research Network, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Sloan Work and Family Research Network has prepared Fact Sheets that provide statistical answers to some important questions about work-family and work-life issues. This Fact Sheet includes statistics about Children in Self-Care, and answers the following questions about school-age children in self-care: (1) How many school-age children are in…

  3. Height for age z score and cognitive function are associated with Academic performance among school children aged 8-11 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haile, Demewoz; Nigatu, Dabere; Gashaw, Ketema; Demelash, Habtamu

    2016-01-01

    Academic achievement of school age children can be affected by several factors such as nutritional status, demographics, and socioeconomic factors. Though evidence about the magnitude of malnutrition is well established in Ethiopia, there is a paucity of evidence about the association of nutritional status with academic performance among the nation's school age children. Hence, this study aimed to determine how nutritional status and cognitive function are associated with academic performance of school children in Goba town, South East Ethiopia. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted among 131 school age students from primary schools in Goba town enrolled during the 2013/2014 academic year. The nutritional status of students was assessed by anthropometric measurement, while the cognitive assessment was measured by the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (KABC-II) and Ravens colored progressive matrices (Raven's CPM) tests. The academic performance of the school children was measured by collecting the preceding semester academic result from the school record. Descriptive statistics, bivariate and multivariable linear regression were used in the statistical analysis. This study found a statistically significant positive association between all cognitive test scores and average academic performance except for number recall (p = 0.12) and hand movements (p = 0.08). The correlation between all cognitive test scores and mathematics score was found positive and statistically significant (p academic subjects among school age children (ß = 0.53; 95 % CI: 0.11-0.95). A single unit change of age resulted 3.23 unit change in average score of all academic subjects among school age children (ß = 3.23; 95 % CI: 1.20-5.27). Nutritional status (height for age Z score) and wealth could be modifiable factors to improve academic performance of school age children. Moreover, interventions to improve nutrition for mothers and children may be

  4. Relationships between Sleep Behaviors and Unintentional Injury in Southern Chinese School-Aged Children: A Population-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafei Tan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships between sleep behaviors and injury occurrence among Chinese school-aged children. Data were collected with self-administered questionnaires of a cross-sectional survey which covered the school-aged children from southeastern Chinese urban and rural areas in April 2010. Information was collected on unintentional injury in the past year, sleep duration, napping and daytime fatigue, sleeping pill use, and social-demographic variables. Multivariable logistic regression analyses, controlling for confounding factors, were conducted to assess sleep-related variables that were associated with injuries. Students who slept for less than 8 h had a 30% increased risk of injury (OR: 1.30; 95%CI: 1.01–1.69 compared with those who slept for 8–9 h. Lack of napping, snoring and use of sleeping pills were significantly associated with injury. Among different genders, the slight difference in sleep behaviors predicted the occurrence of injury. Rural children displayed more sleep behaviors associated with injury than urban children. The sleep behaviors of primary school students were more negatively correlated with injury occurrence than junior/senior high school children. Consideration should be given to the prevention of problematic sleep behaviors as a potential risk factor in order to decrease injury rates and promote the health of school-aged children.

  5. Relationships between Sleep Behaviors and Unintentional Injury in Southern Chinese School-Aged Children: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yafei; Ma, Di; Chen, Ying; Cheng, Fuyuan; Liu, Xiangxiang; Li, Liping

    2015-10-16

    The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships between sleep behaviors and injury occurrence among Chinese school-aged children. Data were collected with self-administered questionnaires of a cross-sectional survey which covered the school-aged children from southeastern Chinese urban and rural areas in April 2010. Information was collected on unintentional injury in the past year, sleep duration, napping and daytime fatigue, sleeping pill use, and social-demographic variables. Multivariable logistic regression analyses, controlling for confounding factors, were conducted to assess sleep-related variables that were associated with injuries. Students who slept for less than 8 h had a 30% increased risk of injury (OR: 1.30; 95%CI: 1.01-1.69) compared with those who slept for 8-9 h. Lack of napping, snoring and use of sleeping pills were significantly associated with injury. Among different genders, the slight difference in sleep behaviors predicted the occurrence of injury. Rural children displayed more sleep behaviors associated with injury than urban children. The sleep behaviors of primary school students were more negatively correlated with injury occurrence than junior/senior high school children. Consideration should be given to the prevention of problematic sleep behaviors as a potential risk factor in order to decrease injury rates and promote the health of school-aged children.

  6. Recognition of Facial Expressions of Mixed Emotions in School-Age Children Exposed to Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrimin, Sara; Moscardino, Ughetta; Capello, Fabia; Altoe, Gianmarco; Axia, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study aims at investigating the effects of terrorism on children's ability to recognize emotions. A sample of 101 exposed and 102 nonexposed children (mean age = 11 years), balanced for age and gender, were assessed 20 months after a terrorist attack in Beslan, Russia. Two trials controlled for children's ability to match a facial…

  7. [Orthodontic treatment need in school-age children in the Leningrad region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnenko, N M; Bagnenko, A S; Grebnev, G A; Madai, D Y

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiology of dentoalveolar anomalies is undoubtedly important, but in terms of the organization of orthodontic care, greater interest are data on the needs in this type of treatment. In a situation of limited manpower and resources for the provision of orthodontic care information about needs in orthodontic treatment allows you to define a group of patients with the primary need for orthodontic treatment, and to identify priorities to optimize the organization of orthodontic care in the region. Such data can be obtained by using the Dental Aesthetics Index (DAI) and Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN). The aim of the study was to analyze the epidemiology of various forms of dentoalveolar anomalies school-age children of Kirishi district of Leningrad region, as well as their needs in orthodontic treatment in accordance with objective evaluation indices. The study involved 734 pupils of Kirishi lyceum №1 of Leningrad region. Analysis of the prevalence of dentoalveolar anomalies, as well as needs in the orthodontic treatment was conducted in three age groups: I mixed dentition period (6-9 years), II mixed dentition period (10-13 years), and permanent dentition (14-17). To determine the needs in the orthodontic treatment were used two most common international index (DAI and IOTN). In Kirishi district of Leningrad region dentoalveolar anomalies were found in 88.8% of children of school age, which is in accordance with the indices and IOTN DAI needs in orthodontic treatment is 38.8% and 54.5%, respectively. In order to reduce unnecessarily high load volume medical institutions orthodontic profile, optimize utilization of financial resources, as well as reducing social tension it is recommended to introduce the practice of doctors-orthodontists methodology for determining the needs in orthodontic treatment by objective indices.

  8. [Use of social marketing to increase water consumption among school-age children in Mexico City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriedo, Ángela; Bonvecchio, Anabelle; López, Nancy; Morales, Maricruz; Mena, Carmen; Théodore, Florence L; Irizarry, Laura

    2013-01-01

    To increase water consumption in school children in Mexico City through a social marketing intervention. Cluster quasi-experimental design. Intervention of three months in schools, including water provision and designed based on social marketing. Reported changes in attitude, knowledge and behavior were compared pre and post intervention. Children of the intervention group (n=116) increased in 38% (171 ml) water consumption during school time, control group (n=167) decreased its consumption in 21% (140 ml) (pwater consumption among children, strategy that might contribute to mitigate childhood obesity.

  9. Seasonality affects dietary diversity of school-age children in northern Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul-Razak Abizari

    Full Text Available Dietary diversity score (DDS is relatively easy to measure and is shown to be a very useful indicator of the probability of adequate micronutrient intake. Dietary diversity, however, is usually assessed during a single period and little is known about the effect of seasonality on it. This study investigates whether dietary diversity is influenced by seasonality.Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted in two different seasons-dry season (October 2010 and rainy season (May 2011 among the same school-age children (SAC in two rural schools in northern Ghana. The study population consisted of 228 school-age children. A qualitative 24-hour dietary recall was conducted in both seasons. Based on 13 food groups, a score of 1 was given if a child consumed a food item belonging to a particular food group, else 0. Individual scores were aggregated into DDS for each child. Differences in mean DDS between seasons were compared using linear mixed model analysis.The dietary pattern of the SAC was commonly plant foods with poor consumption of animal source foods. The mean DDS was significantly higher (P < 0.001 in the rainy season (6.95 ± 0.55 compared to the dry season (6.44 ± 0.55 after adjusting for potential confounders such as age, sex, occupation (household head and mother and education of household head. The difference in mean DDS between dry and rainy seasons was mainly due to the difference in the consumption of Vitamin A-rich fruits and vegetables between the seasons. While vitamin A-rich fruits (64.0% vs. 0.9%; P < 0.0001 and vitamin A rich dark green leafy vegetables (52.6% vs. 23.3%, P < .0001 were consumed more during the rainy season than the dry season, more children consumed vitamin A-rich deep yellow, orange and red vegetables during the dry season than during the rainy season (73.7% vs. 36.4%, P <0.001.Seasonality has an effect on DDS and may affect the quality of dietary intake of SAC; in such a context, it would be useful to measure DDS

  10. Parental perspectives regarding primary-care weight-management strategies for school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turer, Christy Boling; Mehta, Megha; Durante, Richard; Wazni, Fatima; Flores, Glenn

    2016-04-01

    To identify parental perspectives regarding weight-management strategies for school-age children, focus groups were conducted of parents of overweight and obese (body mass index ≥ 85th percentile) 6-12-year-old children recruited from primary-care clinics. Questions focused on the role of the primary-care provider, effective components of weight-management strategies and feasibility of specific dietary strategies. Focus groups were recorded, transcribed and analysed using margin coding and grounded theory. Six focus groups were held. The mean age (in years) for parents was 32, and for children, eight; 44% of participants were Latino, 33%, African-American and 23%, white. Parents' recommendations on the primary-care provider's role in weight management included monitoring weight, providing guidance regarding health risks and lifestyle changes, consistent follow-up and using discretion during weight discussions. Weight-management components identified as key included emphasising healthy lifestyles and enjoyment, small changes to routines and parental role modelling. Parents prefer guidance regarding healthy dietary practices rather than specific weight-loss diets, but identified principles that could enhance the acceptability of these diets. For dietary guidance to be feasible, parents recommended easy-to-follow instructions and emphasising servings over counting calories. Effective weight-management strategies identified by parents include primary-care provider engagement in weight management, simple instructions regarding healthy lifestyle changes, parental involvement and deemphasising specific weight-loss diets. These findings may prove useful in developing primary-care weight-management strategies for children that maximise parental acceptance. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Contralateral Noise Stimulation Delays P300 Latency in School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubiali, Thalita; Sanfins, Milaine Dominici; Borges, Leticia Reis; Colella-Santos, Maria Francisca

    2016-01-01

    The auditory cortex modulates auditory afferents through the olivocochlear system, which innervates the outer hair cells and the afferent neurons under the inner hair cells in the cochlea. Most of the studies that investigated the efferent activity in humans focused on evaluating the suppression of the otoacoustic emissions by stimulating the contralateral ear with noise, which assesses the activation of the medial olivocochlear bundle. The neurophysiology and the mechanisms involving efferent activity on higher regions of the auditory pathway, however, are still unknown. Also, the lack of studies investigating the effects of noise on human auditory cortex, especially in peadiatric population, points to the need for recording the late auditory potentials in noise conditions. Assessing the auditory efferents in schoolaged children is highly important due to some of its attributed functions such as selective attention and signal detection in noise, which are important abilities related to the development of language and academic skills. For this reason, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of noise on P300 responses of children with normal hearing. P300 was recorded in 27 children aged from 8 to 14 years with normal hearing in two conditions: with and whitout contralateral white noise stimulation. P300 latencies were significantly longer at the presence of contralateral noise. No significant changes were observed for the amplitude values. Contralateral white noise stimulation delayed P300 latency in a group of school-aged children with normal hearing. These results suggest a possible influence of the medial olivocochlear activation on P300 responses under noise condition.

  12. Contralateral Noise Stimulation Delays P300 Latency in School-Aged Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalita Ubiali

    Full Text Available The auditory cortex modulates auditory afferents through the olivocochlear system, which innervates the outer hair cells and the afferent neurons under the inner hair cells in the cochlea. Most of the studies that investigated the efferent activity in humans focused on evaluating the suppression of the otoacoustic emissions by stimulating the contralateral ear with noise, which assesses the activation of the medial olivocochlear bundle. The neurophysiology and the mechanisms involving efferent activity on higher regions of the auditory pathway, however, are still unknown. Also, the lack of studies investigating the effects of noise on human auditory cortex, especially in peadiatric population, points to the need for recording the late auditory potentials in noise conditions. Assessing the auditory efferents in schoolaged children is highly important due to some of its attributed functions such as selective attention and signal detection in noise, which are important abilities related to the development of language and academic skills. For this reason, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of noise on P300 responses of children with normal hearing.P300 was recorded in 27 children aged from 8 to 14 years with normal hearing in two conditions: with and whitout contralateral white noise stimulation.P300 latencies were significantly longer at the presence of contralateral noise. No significant changes were observed for the amplitude values.Contralateral white noise stimulation delayed P300 latency in a group of school-aged children with normal hearing. These results suggest a possible influence of the medial olivocochlear activation on P300 responses under noise condition.

  13. Neonatal pain-related stress, functional cortical activity and visual-perceptual abilities in school-age children born at extremely low gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doesburg, Sam M; Chau, Cecil M; Cheung, Teresa P L; Moiseev, Alexander; Ribary, Urs; Herdman, Anthony T; Miller, Steven P; Cepeda, Ivan L; Synnes, Anne; Grunau, Ruth E

    2013-10-01

    Children born very prematurely (pain-related stress during neonatal intensive care has been proposed to contribute to altered neurocognitive development in these children. Due to critical periods in the development of thalamocortical systems, the immature brain of infants born at extremely low gestational age (ELGA; pain. In a cohort of school-age children followed since birth we assessed relations between functional brain activity measured using magnetoencephalogragy (MEG), visual-perceptual abilities and cumulative neonatal pain. We demonstrated alterations in the spectral structure of spontaneous cortical oscillatory activity in ELGA children at school-age. Cumulative neonatal pain-related stress was associated with changes in background cortical rhythmicity in these children, and these alterations in spontaneous brain oscillations were negatively correlated with visual-perceptual abilities at school-age, and were not driven by potentially confounding neonatal variables. These findings provide the first evidence linking neonatal pain-related stress, the development of functional brain activity, and school-age cognitive outcome in these vulnerable children. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The bond between school-age children and their dogs, and the socioemotional effects of this bond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Schencke

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerous international studies have proved that owning a pet can enhance the quality of life of school-age children; however, there have been no such studies in Chile. The objective of the present study is to analyzes the bond between school-age children and their dogs, and the socioemotional effects of such bond, in particular as it relates to self-identity and the perception of social support. Some differences appear in the results of international studies, in the sense that no significant difference can be observed in terms of self-identity or perceived social support between children who own a dog and children who don’t. However, it is significant that children who perceive themselves as unpopular have a stronger bond with their pets than those who perceive themselves as popular.

  15. Frequency of occurrence of knock-kneed and bow-legged knees for children and young people in school age

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Siminska; Weronika Bukowska; Dorota Ratuszek–Sadowska; Krystyna Nowacka; Wojciech Hagner

    2017-01-01

    Lower limb faults are one of the most common defects in school-age children and are now a problem in our society. Currently there is a trend towards low physical activity among children. Most young people prefer to spend time sitting down without taking physical activity or limiting it to the minimum. This results in lowering muscle tone, weight gain - manifesting as being overweight or obese. School children often complain of spinal pain as well as lower back pain. We have many disadvantages...

  16. Elevated manganese exposure and school-aged children's behavior: a gender-stratified analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes-Filho, José A; de Carvalho-Vivas, Chrissie F; Viana, Gustavo F S; Ferreira, Junia R D; Nunes, Lorena S; Mergler, Donna; Abreu, Neander

    2014-12-01

    High levels of waterborne manganese have been associated with problematic behavior in school-aged children, however to date this has not been reported for children exposed to airborne manganese. The objective of the present study was to examine behavioral traits among children with exposure to airborne manganese from a ferro-manganese alloy plant, located in the metropolitan region of Salvador, Brazil. The study included 34 boys and 36 girls, aged 7-12 years, living in two communities within a 3-km radius from the plant. For each child, hair manganese levels (MnH) and blood lead (PbB) levels were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The Children's Behavior Check List (CBCL) (Portuguese version validated in Brazil) was administered to parents or caregivers, providing scale scores of internalizing (withdrawn, somatic complaints, and anxious/depressed scales), externalizing (disruptive and aggressive) behaviors and a separate scale for attention problems. Median and range for MnH and PbB were 11.48 μg/g (range: 0.52-55.74); 1.1 μg/dL (range: 0.5-6.1), respectively. Spearman correlation analyses showed that several behavioral indices were significantly correlated with MnH levels for girls, but not for boys: total externalizing behavior (rho=0.484 vs rho=0.041) and attention problem scores (rho=0.542 vs rho=0.003) coefficients were significantly at pMnH stratified by sex, adjusting for age and maternal IQ. Total externalizing behaviors and attention problem scores were significantly associated with girls' MnH levels but not with boys'. Adjusting for maternal IQ, the β-coefficients for LogMnH associations with total externalizing and attention problems are 8.85 (95%CI 2.44-15.24) and 4.03 (95%CI 1.50-6.56) for girls. For boys, after adjusting for age, the β-coefficients are 0.08 (95%CI 11.51-11.66) and -0.05 (95%CI 4.34-4.25), respectively. The findings of this study suggest a positive association between elevated Mn exposure and externalizing

  17. Children with asthma by school age display aberrant immune responses to pathogenic airway bacteria as infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Brix, Susanne; Thysen, Anna Hammerich; Birch, Sune; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt; Bisgaard, Hans

    2014-04-01

    Asthma is a highly prevalent chronic lung disease that commonly originates in early childhood. Colonization of neonatal airways with the pathogenic bacterial strains Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae is associated with increased risk of later childhood asthma. We hypothesized that children with asthma have an abnormal immune response to pathogenic bacteria in infancy. We aimed to assess the bacterial immune response in asymptomatic infants and the association with later development of asthma by age 7 years. The Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood birth cohort was followed prospectively, and asthma was diagnosed at age 7 years. The immune response to H influenzae, M catarrhalis, and S pneumoniae was analyzed in 292 infants using PBMCs isolated and stored since the age of 6 months. The immune response was assessed based on the pattern of cytokines produced and T-cell activation. The immune response to pathogenic bacteria was different in infants with asthma by 7 years of age (P = .0007). In particular, prospective asthmatic subjects had aberrant production of IL-5 (P = .008), IL-13 (P = .057), IL-17 (P = .001), and IL-10 (P = .028), whereas there were no differences in T-cell activation or peripheral T-cell composition. Children with asthma by school age exhibited an aberrant immune response to pathogenic bacteria in infancy. We propose that an abnormal immune response to pathogenic bacteria colonizing the airways in early life might lead to chronic airway inflammation and childhood asthma. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Minimally verbal school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder: the neglected end of the spectrum.

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    Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Kasari, Connie

    2013-12-01

    It is currently estimated that about 30% of children with autism spectrum disorder remain minimally verbal, even after receiving years of interventions and a range of educational opportunities. Very little is known about the individuals at this end of the autism spectrum, in part because this is a highly variable population with no single set of defining characteristics or patterns of skills or deficits, and in part because it is extremely challenging to provide reliable or valid assessments of their developmental functioning. In this paper, we summarize current knowledge based on research including minimally verbal children. We review promising new novel methods for assessing the verbal and nonverbal abilities of minimally verbal school-aged children, including eye-tracking and brain-imaging methods that do not require overt responses. We then review what is known about interventions that may be effective in improving language and communication skills, including discussion of both nonaugmentative and augmentative methods. In the final section of the paper, we discuss the gaps in the literature and needs for future research. © 2013 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Food advertising targeted at school-age children: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folta, Sara C; Goldberg, Jeanne P; Economos, Christina; Bell, Rick; Meltzer, Rachel

    2006-01-01

    To determine whether the contents of food and beverage advertisements are associated with physical activity and athletic ability more often than those for toys and games, and to describe persuasive techniques used in advertising food and beverages to children. A content analysis of advertisements during 31 hours of school-age children's television programming. Chi-square tests were used to examine differences in depictions of physical activity. Types of persuasive techniques were tabulated and, within each advertisement, categorized as implicit or explicit. Food and beverage ads depicted children engaged in physical activity and associated the advertised product with athletic ability significantly more than toy and game ads. Food was most often associated with fun and good times (75%), pleasant taste (54.1%), being hip or cool (43.2%), and feelings of happiness (43.2%). These findings raise concern that greater levels of physical activity and athletic ability in food advertising, in which the product is frequently associated with fun, may promote overconsumption, especially of calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods. Further research would elucidate whether this concern is warranted. On the other hand, since food advertisements are presumably effective, health educators can use these techniques to formulate messages for nutritious foods. This concept should be tested with well-designed interventions.

  20. Flatfoot and obesity in school-age children: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi-Demneh, E; Azadinia, F; Jafarian, F; Shamsi, F; Melvin, J M A; Jafarpishe, M; Rezaeian, Z

    2016-02-01

    Childhood obesity exerts abnormally high stresses on developing foot structures which can lead to structural deformity of the foot. Screening for foot problems in children with overweight helps detect interior risks restricting normal lifestyle in these individuals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of excess weight on the structure and function of the developing foot in students aged 7-14 years. A total of 667 participants were recruited for this cross-sectional study via a multi-level cluster sampling method (randomization was used within each cluster). All subjects (340 boys and 327 girls) attended primary and secondary schools in Isfahan City, Iran. The children's feet were evaluated using clinical assessments and footprint-based measures whilst fully weight bearing. Significant differences were observed in the frequency of flatfoot between normal weight, overweight and obese groups (P Children with higher weight also had a more pronated heel, less dorsiflexion range and higher reported pain within physical activity. This study indicated that childhood obesity is associated with structural foot and ankle deformities and activity-related foot pain. © 2015 World Obesity.

  1. Influence of prenatal and postnatal growth on intellectual functioning in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongcharoen, Tippawan; Ramakrishnan, Usha; DiGirolamo, Ann M; Winichagoon, Pattanee; Flores, Rafael; Singkhornard, Jintana; Martorell, Reynaldo

    2012-05-01

    To assess the relative influence of size at birth, infant growth, and late postnatal growth on intellectual functioning at 9 years of age. A follow-up, cross-sectional study. Three districts in Khon Kaen province, northeast Thailand. A total of 560 children, or 92% of former participants of a trial of iron and/or zinc supplementation during infancy. Prenatal (size at birth), early infancy (birth to 4 months), late infancy (4 months to 1 year), and late postnatal (1 to 9 years) growth. Multiple-stage least squares analyses were used to generate uncorrelated residuals of postnatal growth. Intellectual functioning was measured at 9 years using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and the Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (Pearson). Analyses included adjustment for maternal, household, and school characteristics. Significant relationships were found between growth and IQ (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children, third edition, Thai version), but only up to 1 year of age; overall, growth was not related to the Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices. The strongest and most consistent relationships were with length (birth, early infancy, and late infancy); for weight, only early infancy gain was consistently related to IQ. Head circumference at birth was not collected routinely; head circumference at 4 months (but not head circumference growth thereafter) was related to IQ. Late postnatal growth was not associated with any outcome. Physical growth in early infancy (and, to a lesser extent, physical growth in late infancy and at birth) is associated with IQ at 9 years of age. Early infancy may be a critical window for human development.

  2. [The influence of the nutrient supplement for children on the nutrition and health status and intelligence of children of schooling age in the countryside of children of schooling age during 2 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liyun; Yu, Wentao; Jia, Fengmei; Liu, Aidong; Vi, Guoqin; Song, Yi; Gong, Chenrui; Hua, Liming; Zhang, Jiguo; Zhai, Fengying

    2009-11-01

    To analyze the effect of complex nutrients on growth and development, intelligence and nutrition state of 6-12 years old children in two continuous years. According to the rural school's similar condition, such as social economical statement, education condition and proportion of students entering schools, 6 rural schools were respectively selected in Xishui County of Hubei Province as the experimental group and control group. In the former, middle and later periods (2004, 2005, 2006 ), growth and development, nutrition state and intelligence were analyzed and compared. The increase of height and weight in experimental group were higher than those of the control group. In 2 years, height in experimental group increased 12.9 cm, while the control group increased 11.5 cm. Weights increased in experimental group were 6.6 kg, while the control group increased 5.2 kg. Girl's bone density in experimental group increased from 0.236 g/cm in 2004 to 0.280 g/cm in 2006. The hemoglobin contents of 4 age group's children in experimental group increased significantly (P intelligence in experiment group. The complex nutrients supplement could improve the rural school children's growth and development, bone and intelligence.

  3. Filicide-suicide ideation among Taiwanese parents with school-aged children: prevalence and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hsi-Sheng; Chen, Ji-Kang

    2014-03-01

    This study explored the prevalence of filicide-suicide ideation among Taiwanese parents with school-aged children. Multiple risk factors associated with filicide-suicide ideation were assessed, and the potential effect of traditional family values was evaluated. A random sample of 1,564 parents was recruited from 21 elementary schools in a rural area of Taiwan. Potential risk factors, including demographics, family finance, psychological maladjustment, family interaction, and cultural beliefs, were further examined using a hierarchical logistic regression. Overall, 14.6% of the respondents reported having filicide-suicide ideation during the past year. The hierarchical logistic regression analysis showed that demographic factors including age, gender, and ethnicity had no significant effect. Family finances, depression, and conflict with the respondent's spouse were positively associated with filicide-suicide ideation. Finally, the parents' beliefs in traditional family values had a positive effect on filicide-suicide ideation. In other words, filicide-suicide thoughts were more common among those who upheld a strong parental responsibility for care giving and family solidarity. This study revealed a substantial prevalence of filicide-suicide ideation among local parents and identified a number of risk factors associated with those thoughts, namely family financial status, parental depression, and conflict with one's spouse. More importantly, the results highlighted the effect of traditional family values in the process. The potential intention of filicide-suicide as mercy killing and its cultural relevance were discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Reliability and validity of the Korean version of Pediatric Voice Handicap Index: in school age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Shin; Kwon, Tack-Kyun; Choi, Seong Hee; Lee, Won Yong; Hong, Young Hye; Jeong, Nyun Gi; Sung, Myung-Whun; Kim, Kwang Hyun

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the Pediatric Voice Handicap Index (pVHI) for cross-cultural adaptation of the Korean version with school age children. The questionnaire was translated into Korean and was completed by 101 Korean parents who have children with or without disordered voice. The Korean version-pVHI scores were obtained with 60 parents of normal children and 41 parents who have children with voice problems. Content validity was verified by five experienced speech-language pathologists with clinical specialization in voice disorders. Internal consistency was calculated through Cronbach's α coefficient and test-retest reliability of the Korean version-pVHI score was determined using Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients. Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare GRBAS with the Korean version-pVHI scores between normal and dysphonia group. The relationship between the parent-reported the Korean version-pVHI total scores and perceptual ratings of voice quality from experts was investigated using Spearman correlation coefficients. The results showed that the Korean version-pVHI provided a high internal consistency (α=0.92) and test-retest reliability of its subscales: total (T) 0.97, functional (F) 0.90, physical (P) 0.95, emotional (E) 0.92. The Korean version-pVHI mean scores in normal group were 1.28 (T), 0.62 (F), 0.35 (P) and 0.32 (E), respectively whereas those of the Korean version-pVHI in children group with dysphonia were 23.13 (T), 8.90 (F), 9.54 (P) and 4.93 (E). Significant differences in the Korean version-pVHI (T, F, P, E) and perceptual evaluation (grade, rough, breathy) between normal and dysphonia group were revealed (PKorean version-pVHI parameters (T) and perceptual measures (G) was exhibited in children with dysphonia. The subjective Korean version-pVHI can be applicable and useful supplementary tool for evaluating parents' perception of their children's voice dysfunction, identifying

  5. Assessment of anger expression using art therapy with younger school-age children with emotional and behavioral problems

    OpenAIRE

    Duobienė, Greta

    2017-01-01

    Greta D. Assessment of anger expression using art therapy with younger school-age children with emotional and behavioral problems, Master’s thesis / lecturer Dr. V. Grigaliūnienė, consultant Dr. A. Brazauskaitė; Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Faculty of Nursing, , Kaunas Faculty of Vilnius Academy of Arts, Kaunas, 2017:107psl. The aim of this Master‘s thesis was to evaluate the changes in anger expression and control by using art therapy with younger school-age children that ha...

  6. Interactive vs passive screen time and nighttime sleep duration among school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yland, Jennifer; Guan, Stanford; Emanuele, Erin; Hale, Lauren

    2015-09-01

    Insufficient sleep among school-aged children is a growing concern, as numerous studies have shown that chronic short sleep duration increases the risk of poor academic performance and specific adverse health outcomes. We examined the association between weekday nighttime sleep duration and 3 types of screen exposure: television, computer use, and video gaming. We used age 9 data from an ethnically diverse national birth cohort study, the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, to assess the association between screen time and sleep duration among 9-year-olds, using screen time data reported by both the child (n = 3269) and by the child's primary caregiver (n= 2770). Within the child-reported models, children who watched more than 2 hours of television per day had shorter sleep duration by approximately 11 minutes per night compared to those who watched less than 2 hours of television (β = -0.18; P computer use were associated with reduced sleep duration. For both child- and parent-reported screen time measures, we did not find statistically significant differences in effect size across various types of screen time. Screen time from televisions and computers is associated with reduced sleep duration among 9-year-olds, using 2 sources of estimates of screen time exposure (child and parent reports). No specific type or use of screen time resulted in significantly shorter sleep duration than another, suggesting that caution should be advised against excessive use of all screens.

  7. Association of Meat Intake with Overweight and Obesity among School-aged Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Mi Shin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background : This study aimed to investigate the association of overweight and obesity with red and white meat intake among children and adolescents using secondary survey data (n=16,261 from in-school Student Health Examination conducted in 2006 and 2007. Methods : Descriptive statistics was conducted to investigate the frequency of meat intake per week. The body mass index (BMI grades for obesity in boys and girls were classified using the standards from the 2007 Korean National Growth Charts. The association of meat intake with overweight and obesity was analyzed using Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression. Results : The proportion of subjects with no intake/week vs. daily meat intake/week was 5.9% and 5.5%, respectively. No intake of meat was more frequent in those who were female and in middle school, whereas daily meat intake was more frequent in those who were male and in high school. The proportions of overweight and obesity in the no meat intake/week group and daily meat intake/week group were 12.3% and 11.1% vs. 8.1% and 9.9%, respectively. After adjusting for confounding variables, including age; consumption of instant noodles, soft drinks and fast foods, dairy products, and fruits and vegetables; and skipping breakfast, the odds ratios of overweight and obesity in the no meat intake/week group were 1.41 times higher (95% confidence interval, 1.04–1.85 than those in the daily meat intake/week group. Conclusion : It is important to consider correcting the perception about meat intake and obesity and avoid restricting meat intake to prevent overweight and obesity among children and adolescents.

  8. Hunger and overweight in Canadian school-aged children: A propensity score matching analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentenac, Mariane; Gariepy, Geneviève; McKinnon, Britt; Elgar, Frank J

    2016-12-27

    The last decade saw a higher prevalence of overweight reported among food-insecure families in Canada, but no robust evidence exists on the covariate-adjusted association in children. In this study, we examined the association between hunger and overweight in Canadian students, using a propensity score matching analysis to reduce confounding. This research used data from the 2009/2010 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study on a representative national sample of students in Grades 6 through 10. Students self-reported their height and weight and how often they have gone to school or to bed hungry due to a lack of food at home. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was conducted on the total sample (N = 17,694) and on the sample matched on propensity scores (n = 7,788). The overall prevalence of overweight among students was 20.2% with a significant difference between students who reported hunger (24.0%; 95% CI: 22.1-26.0) and students who did not (19.0%; 95% CI: 17.9-20.2). Analysis on the matched sample revealed a significant association between hunger and overweight in children (adjusted odds ratio: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.12-1.50). A substantial number of Canadian students have reported being hungry because of a lack of food at home. These students are at increased risk of overweight, regardless of their social class. Child hunger and household food insecurity exist in Canada and constitute a call for policy action at a national level.

  9. Parent-reported Mental Health Problems and Mental Health Services Use in South Australian School-aged Children

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    Jing Wu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background:Monitoring and reporting childhood mental health problems and mental health services utilization over time provide important information to identify mental health related issues and to guide early intervention. This paper aims to describe the recent prevalence of parent-reported mental health problems among South Australian (SA children; to identify mental health problems associated characteristics; and to describe mental health services utilization and its related characteristics among this population. Methods:Parent-reported mental health problems were assessed against the first item of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire. School-aged children were randomly sampled monthly and data were collected using a surveillance system between 2005 and 2015. Associations between mental health problems and various factors were analysed using univariable analysis and multivariable logistic regression modelling. Results:Prevalence of parent-reported mental health problems among children was 9.1% and 9.3% for children aged 5 to 11 years and children aged 12 to 15 years, respectively. No change in prevalence was observed during the past decade. Mental health problems were associated with male sex, long-term illness or pain, negative school experiences, not living with biological parents, and living in a rental dwelling. Less than half (48.7% of the children with mental health problems received professional help. An increasing trend was found in mental health services utilisation among children aged 5 to 15 years. Utilization of mental health services was associated with male sex, older age, long-term illness or pain, and feeling unhappy at school. Conclusion:This study reports the prevalence of parent-reported mental and mental health services utilisation among SA school-aged children. Identified characteristics associated with mental health problems and mental health services utilisation provide useful information for the planning of

  10. The development of patterns of stable, transient, and school-age onset aggressive behavior in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, L; Prior, M

    1995-03-01

    To examine the development of patterns of aggressive behavior in children from the age of 2 to 8 years. Children with early histories of aggressive behavior were selected from a community sample of 2,400 infants participating in a longitudinal study. The sample was divided into four groups: children with stable aggressive behavior, those with transient aggression, those with aggression only after age 5 years (late onset), and a comparison group of nonaggressive children. Children with stable aggressive behavior were characterized by a difficult temperament, hostile sibling interactions, maternal perception of the child as difficult, and harsher child-rearing practices. Children whose early aggression decreased over time and those who became aggressive only after entering school could not be reliably classified with the selected family variables. Teacher ratings of temperament factors of task orientation and reactivity and ability ratings correctly classified 74% of children whose aggression began at school-age. Children with persistent aggressive behavior differed from those who improved, predominantly in terms of symptom severity. Problems with aggression can be identified early in development, and a significant proportion of aggressive children are at risk for continuing social and scholastic difficulties. Knowledge of associated factors may play an important role in prevention.

  11. Brain network characterization of high-risk preterm-born school-age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elda Fischi-Gomez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Higher risk for long-term cognitive and behavioral impairments is one of the hallmarks of extreme prematurity (EP and pregnancy-associated fetal adverse conditions such as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR. While neurodevelopmental delay and abnormal brain function occur in the absence of overt brain lesions, these conditions have been recently associated with changes in microstructural brain development. Recent imaging studies indicate changes in brain connectivity, in particular involving the white matter fibers belonging to the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic loop. Furthermore, EP and IUGR have been related to altered brain network architecture in childhood, with reduced network global capacity, global efficiency and average nodal strength. In this study, we used a connectome analysis to characterize the structural brain networks of these children, with a special focus on their topological organization. On one hand, we confirm the reduced averaged network node degree and strength due to EP and IUGR. On the other, the decomposition of the brain networks in an optimal set of clusters remained substantially different among groups, talking in favor of a different network community structure. However, and despite the different community structure, the brain networks of these high-risk school-age children maintained the typical small-world, rich-club and modularity characteristics in all cases. Thus, our results suggest that brain reorganizes after EP and IUGR, prioritizing a tight modular structure, to maintain the small-world, rich-club and modularity characteristics. By themselves, both extreme prematurity and IUGR bear a similar risk for neurocognitive and behavioral impairment, and the here defined modular network alterations confirm similar structural changes both by IUGR and EP at school age compared to control. Interestingly, the combination of both conditions (IUGR + EP does not result in a worse outcome. In such cases, the alteration

  12. Dietary habits and lifestyle in school-aged children from Bucharest, Romania

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    Anca Pantea Stoian

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study evaluated the difference between boys and girls in terms of nutritional status, lifestyle, and dietary habits during school life. Materials and Methods. A descriptive and observational study was conducted in 2016, in which 251 children, aged 7-17, from 3 elementary schools and a high school inBucharest,Romania, were evaluated. A questionnaire was used to assess food behavior, eating, and lifestyle habits. Results. Boys had a significantly higher waist circumference (71.18±9 than girls (67.46±9.91 (p=0.004. Thus 27% of boys were overweight or obese compared with only 22% of the girls. Differences were also seen between the two groups in terms of main meals and snacks and following a rhythm of meals: a statistically significant percentage of girls (36.3% skip breakfast, while most boys (63.8% take a food package to school. A total of 23.8% of the boys and 24% of the girls state that they eat while sitting in front of the computer or TV. Conclusions. We found that boys are more overweight or obese than girls. Obesity in the pediatric population of Romania could be explained by the country’s emergence from communism 25 years ago, pattern typical of all Eastern European countries and which currently involve an overexposure of people to fast food, fizzy drinks and sweets, as well as to a high consumption of salt and food additives. Unbalanced and highly caloric food had been preferable to healthy food in the last period. Leisure time is rather spent in front of the TV, tablet, detrimental to rational physical exercise, recreational sports or hiking. The family environment is very important and all our actions should be focused on continuous education about the risks of unhealthy food and a sedentary lifestyle.

  13. Iris colour in relation to myopia among Chinese school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chen-Wei; Qiu, Qin-Xiao; Qian, Deng-Juan; Hu, Dan-Ning; Li, Jun; Saw, Seang-Mei; Zhong, Hua

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the association of iris colour and myopia may provide further insights into the role of the wavelength of lights in the pathophysiology of myopia. We aim to assess the association of iris colour and myopia in a school-based sample of Chinese students. Two thousand three hundred and forty-six Year 7 students from 10 middle schools (93.5% response rate) aged 13-14 years in Mojiang, a small county located in Southwestern China, participated in the study. We obtained standardised slit lamp photographs and developed a grading system assessing iris colour (higher grade denoting a darker iris). Refractive error was measured after cycloplegia using an autorefractor by optometrists or trained technicians. An IOLMaster (www.zeiss.com) was used to measure ocular biometric parameters including axial length (AL). Of all the study participants, 693 (29.5%) were affected by myopia with the prevalence estimates being higher in girls (36.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 34.0, 39.6) than in boys (22.8%; 95% CI: 20.4, 25.1) (p iris colour tended to have a higher prevalence of myopia, a more myopic refraction and a longer AL. Dose-response relationships were observed in all regression models (p for trend iris colour was associated with more myopic refractive errors and longer ALs among Chinese school-aged children and this association was independent of other known myopia-related risk factors. © 2017 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2017 The College of Optometrists.

  14. Handwriting in 2015: A Main Occupation for Primary School-Aged Children in the Classroom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMaster, Emily; Roberts, Tara

    2016-01-01

    Historically, handwriting is a skill acquired by children in the classroom. The relevance of this skill today is currently debated due to advances in technology. A nonexperimental time-series design investigated how much time Australian primary school children spend on handwriting in the classroom. A second aim investigated how much time was spent…

  15. A Collaborative Protocol for Encopresis Management in School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, Carol A.

    1995-01-01

    Encopresis affects a small percentage of children, but most parents are unaware of the condition and react punitively. The lengthy, complex management program usually includes physiological and behavioral approaches. The collaborative management protocol focuses on medical clinicians, families, children, school nurses, and teachers, and can help…

  16. Forest Schools and Environmental Attitudes: A Case Study of Children Aged 8-11 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turtle, Christina; Convery, Ian; Convery, Katie

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence that children in the UK are suffering from a lack of engagement with nature and the outdoor environment. This paper investigates the attitudes of children towards the natural environment and focuses on Forest School programmes as a mechanism to promote a "pro-environmental" attitude. The study identified that…

  17. Impact of divorce on the quality of life in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eymann, Alfredo; Busaniche, Julio; Llera, Julián; De Cunto, Carmen; Wahren, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    To assess psychosocial quality of life in school-age children of divorced parents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at the pediatric outpatient clinic of a community hospital. Children 5 to 12 years old from married families and divorced families were included. Child quality of life was assessed through maternal reports using a Child Health Questionnaire-Parent Form 50. A multiple linear regression model was constructed including clinically relevant variables significant on univariate analysis (beta coefficient and 95%CI). Three hundred and thirty families were invited to participate and 313 completed the questionnaire. Univariate analysis showed that quality of life was significantly associated with parental separation, child sex, time spent with the father, standard of living, and maternal education. In a multiple linear regression model, quality of life scores decreased in boys -4.5 (-6.8 to -2.3) and increased for time spent with the father 0.09 (0.01 to 0.2). In divorced families, multiple linear regression showed that quality of life scores increased when parents had separated by mutual agreement 6.1 (2.7 to 9.4), when the mother had university level education 5.9 (1.7 to 10.1) and for each year elapsed since separation 0.6 (0.2 to 1.1), whereas scores decreased in boys -5.4 (-9.5 to -1.3) and for each one-year increment of maternal age -0.4 (-0.7 to -0.05). Children's psychosocial quality of life was affected by divorce. The Child Health Questionnaire can be useful to detect a decline in the psychosocial quality of life.

  18. Effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on special education in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Todd P; Liu, Jing; Das, Abhik; Lester, Barry; Lagasse, Linda; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta S; Bauer, Charles R; Higgins, Rosemary

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on special education at age 7 with adjustment for covariates. As part of the prospective, longitudinal, multisite study of children with prenatal cocaine exposure (Maternal Lifestyle Study), school records were reviewed for 943 children at 7 years to determine involvement in special education outcomes: (1) individualized education plan; (2) special education conditions; (3) support services; (4) special education classes; and (5) speech and language services. Logistic regression was used to examine the effect of prenatal cocaine exposure on these outcomes with environmental, maternal, and infant medical variables as covariates, as well as with and without low child IQ. Complete data for each analysis model were available for 737 to 916 children. When controlling for covariates including low child IQ, prenatal cocaine exposure had a significant effect on individualized education plan. When low child IQ was not included in the model, prenatal cocaine exposure had a significant effect on support services. Male gender, low birth weight, white race, and low child IQ also predicted individualized education plan. Low birth weight and low child IQ were significant in all models. White race was also significant in speech and language services. Other covariate effects were model specific. When included in the models, low child IQ accounted for more of the variance and changed the significance of other covariates. Prenatal cocaine exposure increased the likelihood of receiving an individualized education plan and support services, with adjustment for covariates. Low birth weight and low child IQ increased the likelihood of all outcomes. The finding that white children were more likely to get an individualized education plan and speech and language services could indicate a greater advantage in getting educational resources for this population.

  19. Severity of pediatric pain in relation to school-related functioning and teacher support: an epidemiological study among school-aged children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervoort, Tine; Logan, Deirdre E; Goubert, Liesbet; De Clercq, Bart; Hublet, Anne

    2014-06-01

    The current cross-sectional study examined child and adolescent pain severity in relation to various domains of school functioning and, in line with self-determination theory, the potentially protective role of perceived teacher support of child/adolescent autonomy and competence. Data from a large representative sample of Flemish school children and adolescents (N=10650; 50.8% boys; age range 10-21years; mean age=14.33) was collected as part of the World Health Organization (WHO) collaborative Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) survey. Child/adolescent pain severity was graded based on a pediatric pain classification system adapted from that of Von Korff et al. The current study thus provided insight regarding the prevalence of pain among Flemish children/adolescents and, extending the limitations of existing literature, examined the specific role of pain severity across various domains of school functioning. Findings indicated that a sizeable proportion of children reported moderate to severe pain problems (ie, about 14% of children and adolescents were classified in the highest pain grades: ie, grade III or IV). Furthermore, higher pain grades were associated with poorer outcomes across all indices of school functioning (ie, school absenteeism, school-related pressure and satisfaction, and bullying experiences), with the exception of academic performance. However, the association between pain grade and school absenteeism was less pronounced when children perceived their teachers to be highly supportive of competence and autonomy. Furthermore, teacher support of competence appeared to buffer against the harmful effects of severe pain upon instances of bullying experiences at school. Future research directions and implications for school-based interventions are discussed. Copyright © 2014 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. COMPETENCIA MATEMÁTICA EN NIÑOS EN EDAD PREESCOLAR - MATH COMPETENCY IN PRE-SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MYRIAM ESTHER ORTIZ PADILLA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study identifies the characteristics of Mathematical competency in pre-school age children in the Magdalena region. The population was represented by 101 children, to whom the Basic Mathematics Competency Test, Item 3, in its Spanish version, was administered. Quantitative methodology was used, from an empirical and analytical approach and a cross-sectional design was implemented. The results indicate that 31% of children evaluated obtaineda Mathematics Competency Global Index average, with 57% for descriptors: below averageand 22% above average. The private institutions placed a higher percentage of students aboveaverage. The sex and age variable does not provide significant differences.

  1. [Gene-gene interaction on central obesity in school-aged children in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, L W; Zhang, M X; Wu, L J; Gao, L W; Mi, J

    2017-07-10

    Objective: To investigate possible effect of 6 obesity-associated SNPs in contribution to central obesity and examine whether there is an interaction in the 6 SNPs in the cause of central obesity in school-aged children in China. Methods: A total of 3 502 school-aged children who were included in Beijing Child and Adolescent Metabolic Syndrome (BCAMS) Study were selected, and based on the age and sex specific waist circumference (WC) standards in the BCAMS study, 1 196 central obese cases and 2 306 controls were identified. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood white cells using the salt fractionation method. A total of 6 single nucleotide polymorphisms ( FTO rs9939609, MC4R rs17782313, BDNF rs6265, PCSK1 rs6235, SH2B1 rs4788102, and CSK rs1378942) were genotyped by TaqMan allelic discrimination assays with the GeneAmp 7900 sequence detection system (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA). Logistic regression model was used to investigate the association between 6 SNPs and central obesity. Gene-gene interactions among 6 polymorphic loci were analyzed by using the Generalized Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction (GMDR) method, and then logistic regression model was constructed to confirm the best combination of loci identified in the GMDR. Results: After adjusting gender, age, Tanner stage, physical activity and family history of obesity, the FTO rs9939609-A, MC4R rs17782313-C and BDNF rs6265-G alleles were associated with central obesity under additive genetic model ( OR =1.24, 95 %CI : 1.06-1.45, P =0.008; OR =1.26, 95 %CI : 1.11-1.43, P =2.98×10(-4); OR =1.18, 95 % CI : 1.06-1.32, P =0.003). GMDR analysis showed a significant gene-gene interaction between MC4R rs17782313 and BDNF rs6265 ( P =0.001). The best two-locus combination showed the cross-validation consistency of 10/10 and testing accuracy of 0.539. This interaction showed the maximum consistency and minimum prediction error among all gene-gene interaction models evaluated. Moreover, the

  2. Early Family System Types Predict Children's Emotional Attention Biases at School Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblom, Jallu; Peltola, Mikko J.; Vänskä, Mervi; Hietanen, Jari K.; Laakso, Anu; Tiitinen, Aila; Tulppala, Maija; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2017-01-01

    The family environment shapes children's social information processing and emotion regulation. Yet, the long-term effects of early family systems have rarely been studied. This study investigated how family system types predict children's attentional biases toward facial expressions at the age of 10 years. The participants were 79 children from…

  3. Reliability and Validity of the TGMD-2 in Primary-School-Age Children With Visual Impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, Suzanne; Hartman, Esther; Jonker, Laura; Visscher, Chris

    This study examines the psychometric properties of the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2) in children with visual impairments (VI). Seventy-five children aged between 6 and 12 years with VI completed the TGMD-2 and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (Movement ABC). The internal

  4. The Home Literacy Environment of School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Rebecca; Norbury, Courtenay Frazier

    2018-01-01

    For typically developing (TD) children, the home literacy environment (HLE) impacts reading competence, yet few studies have explored the HLE of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We collected information about the HLE of children aged 7-13 with ASD and their TD peers via a parental questionnaire and examined whether there were any…

  5. Reliability and Validity of the TGMD-2 in Primary-School-Age Children with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houwen, Suzanne; Hartman, Esther; Jonker, Laura; Visscher, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the psychometric properties of the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2) in children with visual impairments (VI). Seventy-five children aged between 6 and 12 years with VI completed the TGMD-2 and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (Movement ABC). The internal consistency of the TGMD-2 was found to be high…

  6. Developmental Trajectories From Birth to School Age in Healthy Term-Born Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roze, E.; Meijer, Lisethe; Van Braeckel, K.N.J.A.; Ruiter, S.A.J.; Bruggink, J.L.M.; Bos, A.F.

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the stability of the scores obtained on tests of motor development from birth until school age in healthy, term singletons and to determine if early motor scores are associated with more complex cognitive functions at school age, such as attention and memory. PATIENTS AND

  7. Formative research to develop a community-based intervention for chronic disease prevention in Guatemalan school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letona, Paola; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Caballero, Benjamin; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2014-01-31

    Noncommunicable diseases (NCD) are the most common causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, even in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Recent trends in health promotion emphasize community-based interventions as an important strategy for improving health outcomes. The aim of this study was to conduct formative research regarding the perceptions of NCD risk factors, their influencing factors, and community resources available to aid the development and implementation of a community-based intervention with school-age children. Focus group discussions (n = 18), home visits (n = 30), and individual semi-structured interviews (n = 26) were conducted in three urban communities in Guatemala with school-age children (10-12 years of age), teachers, parents, and local community members (i.e., school principals, school food kiosk vendors, religious leaders, authority representatives). All focus groups and interviews were transcribed verbatim for thematic analysis. Children, parents, and teachers have general knowledge about modifiable risk factors. Adults worried more about tobacco use, as compared to unhealthy diet and physical inactivity in children. Participants identified features at the intrapersonal (e.g., negative emotional state), interpersonal (e.g., peers as role models), and organizational and community levels (e.g., high levels of crime) that influence these risk factors in children. School committees, religious leaders, and government programs and activities were among the positive community resources identified. These findings should help researchers in Guatemala and similar LMIC to develop community-based interventions for NCD prevention in school-age children that are effective, feasible, and culturally acceptable.

  8. [Ecological executive function characteristics and effects of executive function on social adaptive function in school-aged children with epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X J; Wang, L L; Zhou, N

    2016-02-23

    To explore the characteristics of ecological executive function in school-aged children with idiopathic or probably symptomatic epilepsy and examine the effects of executive function on social adaptive function. A total of 51 school-aged children with idiopathic or probably symptomatic epilepsy aged 5-12 years at our hospital and 37 normal ones of the same gender, age and educational level were included. The differences in ecological executive function and social adaptive function were compared between the two groups with the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and Child Adaptive Behavior Scale, the Pearson's correlation test and multiple stepwise linear regression were used to explore the impact of executive function on social adaptive function. The scores of school-aged children with idiopathic or probably symptomatic epilepsy in global executive composite (GEC), behavioral regulation index (BRI) and metacognition index (MI) of BRIEF ((62±12), (58±13) and (63±12), respectively) were significantly higher than those of the control group ((47±7), (44±6) and (48±8), respectively))(Pchildren with idiopathic or probably symptomatic epilepsy in adaptive behavior quotient (ADQ), independence, cognition, self-control ((86±22), (32±17), (49±14), (41±16), respectively) were significantly lower than those of the control group ((120±12), (59±14), (59±7) and (68±10), respectively))(Pchildren with idiopathic or probably symptomatic epilepsy. School-aged children with idiopathic or probably symptomatic epilepsy may have significantly ecological executive function impairment and social adaptive function reduction. The aspects of BRI, inhibition and working memory in ecological executive function are significantly related with social adaptive function in school-aged children with epilepsy.

  9. Is Weak Oral Language Associated with Poor Spelling in School-Age Children with Specific Language Impairment, Dyslexia, or Both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Jillian H.; Hogan, Tiffany P.; Catts, Hugh W.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that word reading accuracy, not oral language, is associated with spelling performance in school-age children. We compared fourth grade spelling accuracy in children with specific language impairment (SLI), dyslexia, or both (SLI/dyslexia) to their typically developing grade-matched peers. Results of the study revealed that children with SLI performed similarly to their typically developing peers on a single word spelling task. Alternatively, those with dyslexia and SLI/dyslexia evidenced poor spelling accuracy. Errors made by both those with dyslexia and SLI/dyslexia were characterized by numerous phonologic, orthographic, and semantic errors. Cumulative results support the hypothesis that word reading accuracy, not oral language, is associated with spelling performance in typically developing school-age children and their peers with SLI and dyslexia. Findings are provided as further support for the notion that SLI and dyslexia are distinct, yet co-morbid, developmental disorders. PMID:22876769

  10. Evaluation of Adaptive Noise Management Technologies for School-Age Children with Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Jace; Duke, Mila; Schafer, Erin; Jones, Christine; Rakita, Lori

    2017-05-01

    with adaptive noise management exceeded the decrement obtained when the signal arrived from behind. Most participants reported better subjective SIRs when using adaptive noise management technologies, particularly when the signal of interest arrived from in front of the listener. In addition, most participants reported a preference for the technology with an automatically switching, adaptive directional microphone and adaptive noise reduction in real-world listening situations when compared to conventional, omnidirectional microphone use with minimal noise reduction processing. Use of the adaptive noise management technologies evaluated in this study improves school-age children's speech recognition in noise for signals arriving from the front. Although a small decrement in speech recognition in noise was observed for signals arriving from behind the listener, most participants reported a preference for use of noise management technology both when the signal arrived from in front and from behind the child. The results of this study suggest that adaptive noise management technologies should be considered for use with school-age children when listening in academic and social situations. American Academy of Audiology

  11. Effect of the educational environment on children's health at preschool and school age in the Arkhangelsk region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.V. Buzinov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The descriptive epidemiological study on the prevalence of “school” pathology in the child population and the influence of the conditions of educational environment in kindergartens and schools in the Arkhangelsk Region was performed. It was found that the main health problems detected during preventive medical examinations of the children and adolescents of school age are the violation of posture, scoliosis and impaired visual acuity. The highest frequency of posture disorders found in children in the transition to subject teaching, the intensity of scoliosis and impaired visual acuity are the most pronounced in the age group of 15 years. The association between measuring light levels, not meeting hygienic standards and the frequency of scoliosis in children before entering school is revealed (rs=0,472; p=0,048; between measurements of furniture, not meeting sanitary requirements in school computer classes and the violation of visual acuity in children of 10–11 years (rs=0,529; p=0,024; and between measurements of furniture, not meeting sanitary requirements in kindergartens and the violation of posture in children one year before admission and just before entering school (rs=0,601; p=0,008 and rs=0,90; p=0,037, respectively.

  12. Low anemia prevalence in school-aged children in Bangalore, South India: possible effect of school health initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muthayya, S.; Thankachan, P.; Zimmermann, M.B.; Andersson, M.; Eilander, A.; Misquith, D.; Hurrell, R.F.; Kurpad, A.V.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Anemia is a serious public health problem in Indian school children. Since 2003, simple health intervention programs such as antihelminthic treatment and vitamin A supplementation have been implemented in primary schools in the Bangalore region, Karnataka, India. This study examines the

  13. The Role of Ethnicity in School-Based Obesity Intervention for School-Aged Children: A Pilot Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karczewski, Sabrina A.; Carter, Jocelyn S.; DeCator, Draycen D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rates of obesity have risen disproportionately for ethnic minority youth in the United States. School-based programs may be the most comprehensive and cost-effective way to implement primary prevention in children. In this study we evaluated the effect of a school-based obesity prevention on the outcome of body mass index percentile…

  14. Wheezing, Sleeping, and Worrying: The Hidden Risks of Asthma and Obesity in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiese, Barbara H.; Everhart, Robin S.; Wildenger, Leah

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the co-occurrence of asthma and obesity in a sample of 193 children (mean age = 7.76 years). Specifically, this study was interested in delineating the associated comorbidities of internalizing symptoms and sleep disruptions among younger (younger than 7 years) and older elementary age children with asthma who were…

  15. Neurological outcome in school-age children after in utero exposure to coumarins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesseling, J; Van Driel, D; Smrkovsky, M; Van der Veer, E; Geven-Boere, LM; Sauer, PJJ; Touwen, BCL

    The effect of prenatal exposure to coumarins (acenocoumarol, phenprocoumon) on neurological outcome was assessed in a cohort of 306 children aged 7-15 years. Findings were compared with those in a non-exposed cohort of 267 children, matched for sex, age, and demographic region. We used a

  16. Soil-transmitted helminth infections and nutritional status in school-age children from rural communities in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Ana Lourdes; Gabrie, Jose Antonio; Usuanlele, Mary-Theresa; Rueda, Maria Mercedes; Canales, Maritza; Gyorkos, Theresa W

    2013-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are endemic in Honduras and efforts are underway to decrease their transmission. However, current evidence is lacking in regards to their prevalence, intensity and their impact on children's health. To evaluate the prevalence and intensity of STH infections and their association with nutritional status in a sample of Honduran children. A cross-sectional study was done among school-age children residing in rural communities in Honduras, in 2011. Demographic data was obtained, hemoglobin and protein concentrations were determined in blood samples and STH infections investigated in single-stool samples by Kato-Katz. Anthropometric measurements were taken to calculate height-for-age (HAZ), BMI-for-age (BAZ) and weight-for-age (WAZ) to determine stunting, thinness and underweight, respectively. Among 320 children studied (48% girls, aged 7-14 years, mean 9.76 ± 1.4) an overall STH prevalence of 72.5% was found. Children >10 years of age were generally more infected than 7-10 year-olds (p = 0.015). Prevalence was 30%, 67% and 16% for Ascaris, Trichuris and hookworms, respectively. Moderate-to-heavy infections as well as polyparasitism were common among the infected children (36% and 44%, respectively). Polyparasitism was four times more likely to occur in children attending schools with absent or annual deworming schedules than in pupils attending schools deworming twice a year (pHonduras and despite current efforts were highly prevalent in the studied community. The role of multiparasite STH infections in undermining children's nutritional status warrants more research.

  17. It Is Time to Rethink Central Auditory Processing Disorder Protocols for School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBonis, David A

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the literature that pertains to ongoing concerns regarding the central auditory processing construct among school-aged children and to assess whether the degree of uncertainty surrounding central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) warrants a change in current protocols. Methodology on this topic included a review of relevant and recent literature through electronic search tools (e.g., ComDisDome, PsycINFO, Medline, and Cochrane databases); published texts; as well as published articles from the Journal of the American Academy of Audiology; the American Journal of Audiology; the Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research; and Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools. This review revealed strong support for the following: (a) Current testing of CAPD is highly influenced by nonauditory factors, including memory, attention, language, and executive function; (b) the lack of agreement regarding the performance criteria for diagnosis is concerning; (c) the contribution of auditory processing abilities to language, reading, and academic and listening abilities, as assessed by current measures, is not significant; and (d) the effectiveness of auditory interventions for improving communication abilities has not been established. Routine use of CAPD test protocols cannot be supported, and strong consideration should be given to redirecting focus on assessing overall listening abilities. Also, intervention needs to be contextualized and functional. A suggested protocol is provided for consideration. All of these issues warrant ongoing research.

  18. The effectiveness of assertiveness training for school-aged children on bullying and assertiveness level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avşar, Fatma; Ayaz Alkaya, Sultan

    The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an assertive training for school-aged children on peer bullying and assertiveness. A quasi-experimental design using pre- and post-testing was conducted. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire, an assertiveness scale, and the peer victimization scale. The training program was comprised of eight sessions which were implemented to intervention group. Descriptive characteristics were not statistically different between the groups (p>0.05). The peer victimization victim dimension results show that post-test mean scores of the students in the intervention group were lower than the pre-test mean scores (p0.05). A comparison of the mean pre-test/post-test scores of peer-victimization bully dimension of the students' intervention and control groups revealed that the mean post-test scores of the students in the each group decreased (p>0.05). An assertiveness training program increased the assertiveness level and reduced the state of being victims, but did not affect the state of being bullies. The results of this study can help children acquire assertive behaviors instead of negative behaviors such as aggression and shyness, and help them to build effective social communication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Preliminary data suggesting the efficacy of attention training for school-aged children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeffery N; Peugh, James L; Nakonezny, Paul A; Hughes, Carroll W

    2013-04-01

    A pilot randomized clinical trial was conducted to examine the initial efficacy of Pay Attention!, an intervention training sustained, selective, alternating, and divided attention, in children diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). After a diagnostic and baseline evaluation, school-aged children with ADHD were randomized to receive 16 bi-weekly sessions of Pay Attention! (n=54) or to a waitlist control group (n=51). Participants completed an outcome evaluation approximately 12 weeks after their baseline evaluation. Results showed significant treatment effects for parent and clinician ratings of ADHD symptoms, child self-report of ability to focus, and parent ratings of executive functioning. Child performance on neuropsychological tests showed significant treatment-related improvement on strategic planning efficiency, but no treatment effects were observed on other neuropsychological outcomes. Treatment effects were also not observed for teacher ratings of ADHD. These data add to a growing body of literature supporting effects of cognitive training on attention and behavior, however, additional research is warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Health implications of chronic hepatosplenomegaly in Kenyan school-aged children chronically exposed to malarial infections and Schistosoma mansoni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Shona; Vennervald, Birgitte J; Kadzo, Hilda

    2010-01-01

    Hepatosplenomegaly among school-aged children in sub-Saharan Africa is highly prevalent. Two of the more common aetiological agents of hepatosplenomegaly, namely chronic exposure to malaria and Schistosoma mansoni infection, can result in similar clinical presentation, with the liver and spleen...... being chronically enlarged and of a firm consistency. Where co-endemic, the two parasites are thought to synergistically exacerbate hepatosplenomegaly. Here, two potential health consequences, i.e. dilation of the portal vein (indicative of increased portal pressure) and stunting of growth, were...... with hepatosplenomegaly. Children who presented with hepatosplenomegaly had the lowest height-for-age Z-scores. This study shows that hepatosplenomegaly associated with chronic exposure to malaria and schistosomiasis is not a benign symptom amongst school-aged children but has potential long-term health consequences....

  1. Exploration of the Influence of Factors Identified in the Literature on School-aged Children's Emotional Responses to Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Verónica García

    Approximately 6.3 million US children suffer from asthma. The purpose of this study was to explore factors on school-aged children's emotional responses to asthma, N=85, ages 6-12. Correlations included Asthma related child emotional functioning QOL and (a) asthma severity, r=-0.30, pchild internalizing behaviors, r=-0.26, pchild externalizing behaviors r=-0.43, pasthma severity, r=-0.39, pchild internalizing behaviors, r=-0.22, pchild externalizing behaviors, r=-0.25; pasthma severity and child externalizing problems accounted for 26% of the variance in asthma related child emotional functioning QOL, F (4, 79)=7.051, pasthma severity, β=-0.31, pchild externalizing problem behaviors, β=-0.43, pasthma research should consider problem behaviors of school-aged children when addressing asthma related emotional functioning QOL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Prevalence of Anxiety and its related Factors among School-age Children in South West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Banaeipour

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Anxiety is one of the most common childhood disorders, so it is necessary to explore extend and its related factors in the students. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of anxiety and the related factors of anxiety among the children aged 9-12 years. Materials and Methods At a descriptive-analytic study 623 children aged 9-12 year- old who were studying in the fourth to sixth grade of elementary school in Dezful city, were selected through multistage random sampling.  The data were collected using demographic profile questionnaire and School Anxiety Scale (SAS using SPSS-16. Results Of total 623 students, 36.3% were girls. 232 (37.2% students had mild anxiety, 304 students (48.8% had moderate anxiety and 87 students (14% had severe anxiety. There was a significant relationship between the mean score of children anxiety and the number of children in family (P0.0.5. Conclusion This study showed that the prevalence of anxiety was higher in boyes, children who were single children, children who had a family history of hereditary disease, and children who experienced corporal punishment at home. It is recommended arranging programs including training, counseling, and psychotherapy ones for these children and their families.

  3. Musical aptitude and second language pronunciation skills in school-aged children: neural and behavioral evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovanov, Riia; Huotilainen, Minna; Välimäki, Vesa; Esquef, Paulo A A; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2008-02-15

    The main focus of this study was to examine the relationship between musical aptitude and second language pronunciation skills. We investigated whether children with superior performance in foreign language production represent musical sound features more readily in the preattentive level of neural processing compared with children with less-advanced production skills. Sound processing accuracy was examined in elementary school children by means of event-related potential (ERP) recordings and behavioral measures. Children with good linguistic skills had better musical skills as measured by the Seashore musicality test than children with less accurate linguistic skills. The ERP data accompany the results of the behavioral tests: children with good linguistic skills showed more pronounced sound-change evoked activation with the music stimuli than children with less accurate linguistic skills. Taken together, the results imply that musical and linguistic skills could partly be based on shared neural mechanisms.

  4. Locating Common Ground: An Exploration of Adult Educator Practices that Support Parent Involvement for School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Catherine Dunn

    2013-01-01

    This article explores linkages between adult educator practices and the parent involvement needs of adult students with school-age children. A comparative case study examined the knowledge, experiential, self-efficacy, and social capital dimensions of adult educator practices that inform parent involvement efforts. One English as a Second Language…

  5. Seasonal variation in food pattern but not in energy and nutrient intakes of rural Beninese school-aged children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitchikpe, C.E.S.; Dossa, R.A.M.; Ategbo, E.A.D.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Kok, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Inadequate energy and nutrient intakes are a major nutritional problem in developing countries. A recent study in Beninese school-aged children in different seasons revealed a high prevalence of stunting and poor iron status that might be related to the food pattern. Objective: To

  6. Quality of life of victims, bullies, and bully/victims among school-aged children in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Velderman, M.; Dorst, A.G. van; Wiefferink, C.H.; Detmar, S.B.; Paulussen, T.G.W.M.

    2008-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine the Quality of Life (QoL) of victims, bullies and bully/victims among Dutch school-aged children. Study 1 studied associations of QoL dimensions with self-reported victimisation in the Dutch sample from the KIDSCREEN Project (N = 1,669). Study 2 examined QoL of

  7. The Picture Exchange Communication System: Effects on Manding and Speech Development for School-Aged Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tincani, Matt; Crozier, Shannon; Alazett, Shannon

    2006-01-01

    We examined the effects of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS; Frost & Bondy, 2002) on the manding (requesting) and speech development of school-aged children with autism. In study 1, two participants, Damian and Bob, were taught PECS within a delayed multiple baseline design. Both participants demonstrated increased levels of manding…

  8. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder symptoms in school-age children born very preterm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bröring, Tinka; Oostrom, Kim J.; van Dijk-Lokkart, Elisabeth M.; Lafeber, Harrie N.; Brugman, Anniek; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    Background: Very preterm (VP) children face a broad range of neurodevelopmental sequelae, including behavioral problems. Aim: To investigate prevalence, pervasiveness and co-occurrence of symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in school-age

  9. Parental Smoking During Pregnancy and Total and Abdominal Fat Distribution in School-age Children: the Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durmus, B.; Heppe, D.H.M.; Taal, H.R.; Manniesing, R.; Raat, H.; Hofman, A.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Gaillard, R.; Jaddoe, V.W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective:Fetal smoke exposure may influence growth and body composition later in life. We examined the associations of maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy with total and abdominal fat distribution in school-age children.Methods:We performed a population-based prospective cohort study

  10. Parental smoking during pregnancy and total and abdominal fat distribution in school-age children: The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Durmus (Busra); D.H.M. Heppe (Denise); H.R. Taal (Rob); R. Manniesing (Rashindra); H. Raat (Hein); A. Hofman (Albert); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); R. Gaillard (Romy); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Fetal smoke exposure may influence growth and body composition later in life. We examined the associations of maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy with total and abdominal fat distribution in school-age children. Methods: We performed a population-based prospective

  11. Psychological Tests Which Might be More Culturally Fair for Elementary School Age Children in Appalachia. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, William R.

    This report lists various factors of psychological testing which might be more relevant and appropriate for elementary school age children in such areas as Appalachia. The areas covered are group individual testing, individual intelligence testing, achievement testing, special clinical testing, social maturity, and personality evaluation…

  12. Relations between Perceived Competence, Importance Ratings, and Self-Worth among African American School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Leslie K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate how domain-specific importance ratings affect relations between perceived competence and self-worth among African American school-age children. Importance ratings have been found to affect the strength of the relationship between perceived competence and self-worth and have implications for…

  13. Description of Clean and Healthy Behavior of Food Borne Disease Among by School Children Age in Babat Jerawat I Elementary School, District Pakal Surabaya

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    Hidayat Heny Sholikhah

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Incidence of food borne disease, such as diarrhea, typhoid and hookworm infection in school childrenwere still sufficient susceptible. Lack of clean and healthy behavior became primary cause, so that the agent can easilyenter to the body through the food consumed. The purpose of this study was to descript the clean and healthy behaviors by school children age at Babat Jerawat I Elementary School, District Pakal Surabaya. Methods: This study was a crosssectional study. The sample of this study were 112 of fifth grade students at Babat Jerawat I Elementary school, District Pakal Surabaya, selected by purposive sampling of 121 students who met the inclusion criteria. Data of clean and healthy behavior were collected by observation and interviews focused on a group of school children using questionnaires, checklists and interview guides. Data analysis was done by using descriptive analysis. Results: The results showed that the clean and healthy behaviors about food borne disease, the majority of school children in Elementary school Babat Jerawat I District Pakal Surabaya included in good criteria (51.8% and small portion of these included less category (48.2%. Conclusion:Clean and Healthy Behavior of food borne disease in school children age had good criteria, but still need attention formany factors that influence it, such as the availability of facilities, affordability snacks outside of school and examples ofunhealthy behaviors in family environment. Recommendation: Improve the cooperation between the school and localhealth officials to tighten rules on the management of snack vending around schools, and do continuous education both within the school and the child’s school community.

  14. [Effect of air pollution on respiratory health in school-aged children in the main urban area of Chongqing, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ming-Yue; Tang, Xu; Huang, Wei; Dai, Hua; Liu, Xing-Can; Xia, Yin-Yin; Meng, Pan; Zhang, Rui-Yuan; Guo, Yu-Ming; Cheng, Shu-Qun

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the effect of air pollution on respiratory health in school-aged children in the main urban area of Chongqing, China. The main urban area of Chongqing was divided into polluted area and clean area according to the air pollution data shown on the Environmental Protection Agency Website of Chongqing between 2010 and 2015. A cluster sampling method was used to select 695 third- or fourth-grade children from 2 primary schools in the clean or polluted area as study subjects, with 313 children from the clean area and 382 children from the polluted area. Pulmonary function was examined for all children and a standard American epidemiological questionnaire (ATS-DLD-78-C) was used to investigate the prevalence of respiratory diseases and symptoms. Compared with the clean area, the polluted area had significantly higher concentrations of inhalable particles (PM 10 ), fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ), and nitric oxide (NO X ) (Ppolluted area had significantly higher risks of cough (OR=1.644), cough during cold (OR=1.596), expectoration during cold (OR=2.196), persistent expectoration (OR=1.802), and wheezing (OR=2.415). The boys and girls in the clean area had significantly higher forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in one second than those in the polluted area (PAir pollution in the main urban area of Chongqing is associated with the increased prevalence of respiratory symptoms in school-aged children and has certain effect on children's pulmonary function.

  15. The impact of insecticide-treated school uniforms on dengue infections in school-aged children: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial in Thailand

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    Wilder-Smith Annelies

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an urgent need to protect children against dengue since this age group is particularly sensitive to the disease. Since dengue vectors are active mainly during the day, a potential target for control should be schools where children spend a considerable amount of their day. School uniforms are the cultural norm in most developing countries, worn throughout the day. We hypothesise that insecticide-treated school uniforms will reduce the incidence of dengue infection in school-aged children. Our objective is to determine the impact of impregnated school uniforms on dengue incidence. Methods A randomised controlled trial will be conducted in eastern Thailand in a group of schools with approximately 2,000 students aged 7–18 years. Pre-fabricated school uniforms will be commercially treated to ensure consistent, high-quality insecticide impregnation with permethrin. A double-blind, randomised, crossover trial at the school level will cover two dengue transmission seasons. Discussion Practical issues and plans concerning intervention implementation, evaluation, analysing and interpreting the data, and possible policy implications arising from the trial are discussed. Trial registration clinicaltrial.gov. Registration number: NCT01563640

  16. The impact of insecticide-treated school uniforms on dengue infections in school-aged children: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Byass, Peter; Olanratmanee, Phanthip; Maskhao, Pongsri; Sringernyuang, Luechai; Logan, James G; Lindsay, Steve W; Banks, Sarah; Gubler, Duane; Louis, Valérie R; Tozan, Yesim; Kittayapong, Pattamaporn

    2012-11-15

    There is an urgent need to protect children against dengue since this age group is particularly sensitive to the disease. Since dengue vectors are active mainly during the day, a potential target for control should be schools where children spend a considerable amount of their day. School uniforms are the cultural norm in most developing countries, worn throughout the day. We hypothesise that insecticide-treated school uniforms will reduce the incidence of dengue infection in school-aged children. Our objective is to determine the impact of impregnated school uniforms on dengue incidence. A randomised controlled trial will be conducted in eastern Thailand in a group of schools with approximately 2,000 students aged 7-18 years. Pre-fabricated school uniforms will be commercially treated to ensure consistent, high-quality insecticide impregnation with permethrin. A double-blind, randomised, crossover trial at the school level will cover two dengue transmission seasons. Practical issues and plans concerning intervention implementation, evaluation, analysing and interpreting the data, and possible policy implications arising from the trial are discussed. clinicaltrial.gov. NCT01563640.

  17. Impact of Coordinated-Bilateral Physical Activities on Attention and Concentration in School-Aged Children

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    Heidi Buchele Harris

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study examined the effects of 4-week, daily 6-minute coordinated-bilateral physical activity (CBPA breaks in classroom on attention and concentration in school-aged children. Methods. Participants (n=116 in fifth grade from two elementary schools were assigned to three groups: two intervention groups (n= 60 and one control group (n = 56. All three groups were pre- and post-tested with the d2 Test of Attention (d2 test. One intervention group (n = 31 took part in six minutes of daily classroom-based coordinated-bilateral physical activity (CBPA break for four weeks. Another intervention group (n = 29, the Fitbit Only (Fitbit-O, wore Fitbits per day during a school, five days per week for four weeks without CBPA breaks. A 2 × 3 ANOVA was conducted, followed by the post hoc comparisons. Results. The CBPA showed significant increases in processing speed (F1 = 6.876, p = .010, focused attention (F1 = 10.688, p = .002, concentration performance (F1 = 26.46, p = .000, and attention span (F1 = 14.090, p = .000 over the control, but not in accuracy (Error %. The CBPA showed significant improvement in concentration performance (F1 = 24.162, p = .000 and attention span (F1 = 6.891, p = .011, compared to the Fitbit-O. No significant changes in all five attention parameters were found between the Fitbit-O and the control. Conclusion. It was concluded that daily brief coordinated-bilateral activities can improve attention and concentration in fifth-grade students over the course of four weeks.

  18. Does the school performance variable used in the International Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) Study reflect students' school grades?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder-Puig, Rosemarie; Griebler, Robert; Samdal, Oddrun; King, Matthew A; Freeman, John; Duer, Wolfgang

    2012-09-01

    Given the pressure that educators and policy makers are under to achieve academic standards for students, understanding the relationship of academic success to various aspects of health is important. The international Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) questionnaire, being used in 41 countries with different school and grading systems, has contained an item assessing perceived school performance (PSP) since 1986. Whereas the test-retest reliability of this item has been reported previously, we determined its convergent and discriminant validity. This cross-sectional study used anonymous self-report data from Austrian (N = 266), Norwegian (N = 240), and Canadian (N = 9,717) samples. Students were between 10 and 17 years old. PSP responses were compared to the self-reported average school grades in 6 subjects (Austria) or 8 subjects (Norway), respectively, or to a general, 5-category-based appraisal of most recent school grades (Canada). Correlations between PSP and self-reported average school grade scores were between 0.51 and 0.65, representing large effect sizes. Differences between the median school grades in the 4 categories of the PSP item were statistically significant in all 3 samples. The PSP item showed predominantly small associations with some randomly selected HBSC items or scales designed to measure different concepts. The PSP item seems to be a valid and useful question that can distinguish groups of respondents that get good grades at school from those that do not. The meaning of PSP may be context-specific and may have different connotations across student populations from different countries with different school systems. © 2012, American School Health Association.

  19. The Prevalence of goiter and urinary iodine exertion in school-aged children in Lorestan province

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    mozhgan Padyab

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iodine deficiency and its related disorder such as goiter are endemic in Lorestan province. Following initiation of iodine deficiency control program in 1989, production, distribution and consumption of iodinated salt were begun. This survey was conducted in the framework of national monitoring survey in 2001 to find out the prevalence of goiter and urinary iodine level in order to evaluate the iodine status of school- aged children in Lorestan. Materials and Methods: 1200 schoolchildren, aged 7-10 years, were selected randomly from all regions of Lorestan. The grade of goiter in 600 boys and 600 girls, was determined according to WHO classification. Urinary iodine content was estimated using the digestion method in one tenth of the schoolchildren. Findings: Total goiter rate was 7.8% 7.8% in girls and 7.7% in boys. Median urinary iodine was 17 μg/dl. Urinary iodine was above 10 μg/dl in 85.7% and less than 5 μg/dl in 1.7%. No one had urinary iodine below 2 μg/dl. Conclusion: It is concluded that the rate of goiter in Lorestan has decreased significantly since 1996 and urinary iodine levels in schoolchildren are indicative of adequate iodine intake. Therefore Lorestan province can be considered as an 'iodine deficiency free' zone.

  20. Preschool and Primary School Influences on the Development of Children's Early Numeracy Skills between the Ages of 3 and 7 Years in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Yvonne; Grosse, Christiane; Rossbach, Hans-Gunther; Ebert, Susanne; Weinert, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have investigated how preschool and primary school interact to influence children's cognitive development. The present investigation explores German children's numeracy skills between age 3 (1st year of preschool) and age 7 (1st year of primary school). We first identified the influence of preschool experience on development while…

  1. Story discourse and use of mental state language between mothers and school-aged children with and without visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadić, Valerija; Pring, Linda; Dale, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Lack of sight compromises insight into other people's mental states. Little is known about the role of maternal language in assisting the development of mental state language in children with visual impairment (VI). To investigate mental state language strategies of mothers of school-aged children with VI and to compare these with mothers of comparable children with typically developing vision. To investigate whether the characteristics of mother-child discourse were associated with the child's socio-communicative competence. Mother-child discourse with twelve 6-12-year-old children with VI was coded during a shared book-reading narrative and compared with 14 typically sighted children matched in age and verbal ability. Mothers of children with VI elaborated more and made significantly more references to story characters' mental states and descriptive elaborations than mothers of sighted children. Mental state elaborations of mothers in the VI group related positively with the level produced by their children, with the association remaining after mothers' overall verbosity and children's developmental levels were controlled for. Frequency of maternal elaborations, including their mental state language, was related to socio-communicative competence of children with VI. The findings offer insights into the potential contribution of maternal verbal scaffolding to mentalistic language and social-communicative competences of children with VI. © 2013 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  2. Sonographic biometry of liver size among Igbo school age children of South east, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eze, Charles Ugwoke; Agwu, Kenneth Kalu; Ezeasor, Daniel Nwagbo; Aronu, Ann Ebele

    2013-01-01

    Background: The endemic diseases in the locality which are associated with changes in liver size necessitate sonographic biometry of this organ. Objectives: To establish by ultrasonography the normal limits and variations of the liver size according to age, sex, height, weight, body surface area and body mass index among school age children. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, hospital based study done at university of Nigeria medical center, Nsukka between January 2011 and June 2011. Participants included 947 apparently healthy subjects comprising 496 boys and 451 girls aged 6–17 years. The intra- and inter rater reliability of sonographic measurement of the liver size was determined. The sonographic examination was performed on Shenzhen DP-1100 machine with 3.5 MHz convex transducer. The longitudinal dimension of the liver was obtained in the midclavicular plane with the subject in deep inspiration. The weight and height of the subjects were obtained with the participants wearing light weight street clothes without shoes. Results: Measurement of liver length was reliable within and between sonographers. The mean of the liver length was 116.3 ± 10.6 mm. Dimension of the liver was not statistically different in boys and girls (p > 0.05). Height correlated best with the liver dimension followed by age, body surface area, weight, body mass index, and sex. The percentile curves, normal limits and prediction model of the liver dimension were defined according to height of the subjects. Conclusion: Determination of pathologic changes in the size of the liver necessitates knowing the normal ranges of dimension for the liver especially with respect to height in this population

  3. Contribution of free play towards physical activity guidelines for New Zealand primary school children aged 7-9 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGall, S E; McGuigan, M R; Nottle, C

    2011-02-01

    the objectives of this study were to investigate children's physical activity patterns to gain comparisons between home and school and to determine whether the current physical activity guidelines of 60 min of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) daily were being met. participants were recruited from two New Zealand primary schools (60 children, mean age (SD) 8.3 (0.7) years). Physical activity was measured for seven consecutive days using Actigraph accelerometers. Total activity and average counts were determined for school playtime, after school and weekends. Differences between average counts for these intervals were compared using the t statistic. Time and percentage of time spent were categorised into the activity thresholds: sedentary (5200). Total activity for each day was also determined. no child met the recommended 60 min of MVPA daily during the investigation. Compared to school playtime, activity counts were lower by 36% (CI 25% to 45.5%, p<0.001, effect size (ES)=-1.29) after school, 50.1% (CI 37% to 60.5%, p<0.001, ES=-2.01) on Saturday and 57.4% (CI 46.3% to 66.3%, p<0.001, ES=-2.47) on Sunday. Mean results showed children spent 91-96% of their time engaged in light or sedentary activities. Even during school playtime, where the children were most active, only 8 of 80 min were spent engaged in MVPA. this study found activity levels were considerably lower than the recommended guidelines, and children were more active during school playtime compared to after school and weekends.

  4. A comparison of nutrition knowledge, attitudes and dairy consumption of school children according to age and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Colić Barić

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Besides traditional nutrients, milk and dairy products contain some health promoting components. The aim of this study was to detect the frequency and preferences among dairy products in school children according to age and gender. The subjects were 234 healthy children at age 10-11 years and 14-15 years from two primary schools in Zagreb. Number of participants was well balanced according to age and gender. Dietary data were collected using specially designed food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. By additional questionnaire some anthropometric parameters as well as food preferences, attitudes and nutrition knowledge on milk and dairy products were collected. According to the results the intake of milk is significantly different (p< 0.05 to gender but not to age. 91 % children consume milk, 2.3 cups/day in average. Soft drinks, fruit juices, beverages and similar drinks are consumed more often than milk. Pudding and ice cream had the highest frequency among dairy products consumed. Milk and dairy frequency intake according to age and gender are still not significantly different. Children mostly consume fresh milk (68.7%. Girls at age 14-15 years consume light milk ( ≤1.6 % fat more than younger children and boys at the same age. 86 % of children is well informed about nutritional facts linked to milk and dairy products and they are mostly educate by parents. Among anthropometric parameters a statistically significant difference (p<0.05 was observed in height with regard to gender, only among older children, and for both height and, weight and body mass indeks (BMI with regard to age.

  5. Emotional prosody perception and its association with pragmatic language in school-aged children with high-function autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-En; Tsao, Feng-Ming

    2015-02-01

    Emotional prosody perception is essential for social communication, but it is still an open issue whether children with high-function autism (HFA) exhibit any prosodic perception deficits or experience selective impairments in recognizing the prosody of positive emotions. Moreover, the associations between prosody perception, pragmatic language, and social adaptation in children with HFA have not been fully explored. This study investigated whether emotional prosody perception for words and sentences in children with HFA (n=25, 6-11 years of age) differed from age-matched, typically developing children (TD, n=25) when presented with an emotional prosody identification task. The Children's Communication Checklist and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale were used to assess pragmatic and social adaption abilities. Results show that children with HFA performed poorer than TD children in identifying happy prosody in both emotionally neutral and relevant utterances. In contrast, children with HFA did not exhibit any deficits in identifying sad and angry prosody. Results of correlation analyses revealed a positive association between happy prosody identification and pragmatic function. The findings indicate that school-aged children with HFA experience difficulties in recognizing happy prosody, and that this limitation in prosody perception is associated with their pragmatic and social adaption performances. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevalence of proteinuria in school children (aged 12-14 years in Kashmir valley, India, using dipstick method

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    Hilal Ahmad Malla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Screening for kidney diseases by urinalysis in school children is being conducted in many parts of the world with inexpensive tools such as urinary dipsticks. We conducted this study to know the prevalence of asymptomatic proteinuria in school children (age group 12-14 years in Kashmir valley as no previous study is available. After applying exclusion criteria, 2068 children were screened for proteinuria by dipstick method. Another test was performed in the children with abnormal findings in the first sample with dipstick of the same brand, after a period of one-month. These children were also assessed by timed urine collection (i.e., 24 h urinary protein. In the first dipstick test, the prevalence of proteinuria in the studied population was 6.2% which persisted in 2.17% after second dipstick examination. No child in the studied group was found to have glycosuria. In our study, no statistically significant association was found between proteinuria and gender, body mass index, or hypertension. In our study, the prevalence of persistent proteinuria in school children (age group 12-14 years in Kashmir valley was almost similar to the studies conducted in different parts of the world.

  7. Factors Associated with Overweight and Obesity among Kuwaiti Elementary Male School Children Aged 6–10 Years

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    Abdulwahab Naser Al-Isa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Childhood obesity is becoming a global epidemic which may result in increased morbidity and mortality during young adulthood. Objectives. To identify factors associated with overweight and that of obesity among Kuwaiti elementary male school children aged 6–10 years. Methods. Weights and heights of 662 students at a randomly selected school were collected to obtain body mass index (BMI. Results. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among the students were 20.2% and 16.8%, respectively. There were a variety of factors associated with overweight and obesity; however, having one or more obese brother, an unemployed father, or a high (>11 number of persons living at home was significantly associated with higher risk of overweight and obesity. Increased age and school level as well as having a chronic disease were associated with the risk of overweight. Conclusion. Health education programs for families should be implemented to help control overweight and obesity in Kuwaiti children.

  8. Elevated prevalence of malnutrition and malaria among school-aged children and adolescents in war-ravaged South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charchuk, Rhianna; Houston, Stan; Hawkes, Michael T

    2015-01-01

    Emerging as a sovereign state from decades of civil war, the Republic of South Sudan now faces poverty, a lack of health care infrastructure, a high burden of infectious diseases and a widespread food insecurity. School-aged children and youth, in particular, represent a high-risk demographic for malnutrition and infectious diseases. We screened 109 school-aged children and youth for nutritional status and malaria antigenaemia in Akuak Rak, South Sudan, and found a large proportion of underweight (77/109 = 73%) and prevalent malaria (44/109 = 40%). There was no significant association between malnutrition and malaria. This study represents one of the few published reports on child and youth nutritional status and malaria prevalence in South Sudan since its independence. The implementation of nutrition and malaria screening combined with evidence-based interventions in schools could help target this high burden vulnerable group.

  9. Theory of Mind Indexes the Broader Autism Phenotype in Siblings of Children with Autism at School Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Tawny; Gillespie-Lynch, Kristen; Hutman, Ted

    2016-01-01

    Subclinical variants of the social-communicative challenges and rigidity that define autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are known as the broader autism phenotype (BAP). The BAP has been conceptualized categorically (as specific to a subset of relatives of individuals with ASD) and dimensionally (as continuously distributed within the general population). The current study examined the compatibility of these two approaches by assessing associations among autism symptoms and social-communicative skills in young school-age children with ASD, children who have a sibling with ASD, and children without a sibling with ASD. Autism symptoms were associated with reduced Theory of Mind (ToM), adaptive skills, cognitive empathy, and language skills across the full sample. Reduced ToM was a core aspect of the BAP in the current sample regardless of whether the BAP was defined categorically (in terms of siblings of children with ASD who exhibited atypical developmental) or dimensionally (in terms of associations with autism symptoms across the entire sample). Early language skills predicted school-age ToM. Findings support the compatibility of categorical and dimensional approaches to the BAP, highlight reduced ToM as a core aspect of the school-age BAP, and suggest that narrative-based approaches to promoting ToM may be beneficial for siblings of children with ASD.

  10. Theory of Mind Indexes the Broader Autism Phenotype in Siblings of Children with Autism at School Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawny Tsang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subclinical variants of the social-communicative challenges and rigidity that define autism spectrum disorder (ASD are known as the broader autism phenotype (BAP. The BAP has been conceptualized categorically (as specific to a subset of relatives of individuals with ASD and dimensionally (as continuously distributed within the general population. The current study examined the compatibility of these two approaches by assessing associations among autism symptoms and social-communicative skills in young school-age children with ASD, children who have a sibling with ASD, and children without a sibling with ASD. Autism symptoms were associated with reduced Theory of Mind (ToM, adaptive skills, cognitive empathy, and language skills across the full sample. Reduced ToM was a core aspect of the BAP in the current sample regardless of whether the BAP was defined categorically (in terms of siblings of children with ASD who exhibited atypical developmental or dimensionally (in terms of associations with autism symptoms across the entire sample. Early language skills predicted school-age ToM. Findings support the compatibility of categorical and dimensional approaches to the BAP, highlight reduced ToM as a core aspect of the school-age BAP, and suggest that narrative-based approaches to promoting ToM may be beneficial for siblings of children with ASD.

  11. Phonological complexity in school-aged children who stutter and exhibit a language disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolk, Lesley; LaSalle, Lisa R

    2015-03-01

    The Index of Phonological Complexity and the Word Complexity Measure are two measures of the phonological complexity of a word. Other phonological measures such as phonological neighborhood density have been used to compare stuttered versus fluent words. It appears that in preschoolers who stutter, the length and complexity of the utterance is more influential than the phonetic features of the stuttered word. The present hypothesis was that in school-age children who stutter, stuttered words would be more phonologically complex than fluent words, when the length and complexity of the utterance containing them is comparable. School-age speakers who stutter were hypothesized to differ from those with a concomitant language disorder. Sixteen speakers, six females and ten males (M age=12;3; Range=7;7 to 19;5) available from an online database, were divided into eight who had a concomitant language disorder (S+LD) and eight age- and sex-matched speakers who did not (S-Only). When all stuttered content words were identified, S+LD speakers produced more repetitions, and S-Only speakers produced more inaudible sound prolongations. When stuttered content words were matched to fluent content words and when talker groups were combined, stuttered words were significantly (p≤0.01) higher in both the Index of Phonological Complexity and the Word Complexity Measure and lower in density ("sparser") than fluent words. Results corroborate those of previous researchers. Future research directions are suggested, such as cross-sectional designs to evaluate developmental patterns of phonological complexity and stuttering plus language disordered connections. The reader will be able to: (a) Define and describe phonological complexity; (b) Define phonological neighborhood density and summarize the literature on the topic; (c) Describe the Index of Phonological Complexity (IPC) for a given word; (d) Describe the Word Complexity Measure (WCM) for a given word; (e) Summarize two findings

  12. Effect of preterm birth on motor development, behavior, and school performance of school-age children: a systematic review

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    Rafaela S. Moreira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to examine and synthesize the available knowledge in the literature about the effects of preterm birth on the development of school-age children. SOURCES: This was a systematic review of studies published in the past ten years indexed in MEDLINE/Pubmed, MEDLINE/BVS; LILACS/BVS; IBECS/BVS; Cochrane/BVS, CINAHL, Web of Science, Scopus, and PsycNET in three languages (Portuguese, Spanish, and English. Observational and experimental studies that assessed motor development and/or behavior and/or academic performance and whose target-population consisted of preterm children aged 8 to 10 years were included. Article quality was assessed by the Strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology (STROBE and Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro scales; articles that did not achieve a score of 80% or more were excluded. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS: the electronic search identified 3,153 articles, of which 33 were included based on the eligibility criteria. Only four studies found no effect of prematurity on the outcomes (two articles on behavior, one on motor performance and one on academic performance. Among the outcomes of interest, behavior was the most searched (20 articles, 61%, followed by academic performance (16 articles, 48% and motor impairment (11 articles, 33%. CONCLUSION: premature infants are more susceptible to motor development, behavior and academic performance impairment when compared to term infants. These types of impairments, whose effects are manifested in the long term, can be prevented through early parental guidance, monitoring by specialized professionals, and interventions.

  13. Comparative Study of Features of Social Intelligence and Speech Behavior of Children of Primary School Age with Impaired Mental Function

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    Shcherban D.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the concept of social intelligence and its characteristics in children of primary school age with impaired mental functions. The concept and main features, including speech, are discussed, delays of mental development, the importance of detained development for social intelligence and speech behavior are also considered. Also, the concept of speech behavior is analyzed, the author defines the phenomenon, describes its specific features, which are distinguish its structure, and consist of six components: verbal, emotional, motivational, ethical (moral, prognostic, semantic (cognitive. Particular attention is paid to the position of social intelligence in the structure of speech behavior of children of primary school age with a impaired mental functions. Indicators of social intelligence were analyzed from the point of view of speech behavior of children with different rates of mental development and compared with its components at a qualitative level. The study used both author's and well-known techniques.

  14. School absenteeism among school-aged children with medically attended acute viral respiratory illness during three influenza seasons, 2012-2013 through 2014-2015.

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    McLean, Huong Q; Peterson, Siri H; King, Jennifer P; Meece, Jennifer K; Belongia, Edward A

    2017-05-01

    Acute respiratory illnesses (ARIs) are common in school-aged children, but few studies have assessed school absenteeism due to specific respiratory viruses. To evaluate school absenteeism among children with medically attended ARI due to common viruses. We analyzed follow-up surveys from children seeking care for acute respiratory illness who were enrolled in the influenza vaccine effectiveness study at Marshfield Clinic during the 2012-2013 through 2014-2015 influenza seasons. Archived influenza-negative respiratory swabs were retested using multiplex RT-PCR to detect 16 respiratory virus targets. Negative binomial and logistic regression models were used to examine the association between school absence and type of respiratory viruses; endpoints included mean days absent from school and prolonged (>2 days) absence. We examined the association between influenza vaccination and school absence among children with RT-PCR-confirmed influenza. Among 1027 children, 2295 days of school were missed due to medically attended ARIs; influenza accounted for 39% of illness episodes and 47% of days missed. Mean days absent were highest for influenza (0.96-1.19) and lowest for coronavirus (0.62). Children with B/Yamagata infection were more likely to report prolonged absence than children with A/H1N1 or A/H3N2 infection [OR (95% CI): 2.1 (1.0, 4.5) and 1.7 (1.0, 2.9), respectively]. Among children with influenza, vaccination status was not associated with prolonged absence. School absenteeism due to medically attended ARIs varies by viral infection. Influenza B infections accounted for the greatest burden of absenteeism. © 2016 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. DYNAMICS OF THE COMPELEX FORMS OF VISUAL PERCEPTION IN CHILDREN OF PRE-SCHOOL AGE (A NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

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    Neli VASILEVA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Experimental data in preschool aged children proves the determining role of the auditory and visual processes for future reading skills, therefore the investigation of complex forms of visual perception in this age period is diagnostically important. Objectives: Basic aim of the research is assessment of the sensitive period for the non-verbal perceptive operations in pre-school aged children, and determination of subgroup with low results for non-verbal perception. Methods: The dynamics of the visual per-ception (visual gnosis in typically develop¬ing children were tested with an adapted version of the Poppelreuter-Ghent Test for figure-ground segregation. The total number of overlapping objects is 33, grouped accor¬ding to the level of difficulty. The children are given a group of objects separately in a following sequence and they should segregate and name the objects. Results: A number of 365 typically developing children without diagnosis of visual disorders and without corrected visus took part in the research. All children, aged 4, 5, and 6 from three different settlements attend state nursery schools and have Bulgarian as a mother tongue. A three-factor dispersion analysis was held to define the statistical significance of the independent factors age, gender and settlement. The research’s data define the 5 year olds as sensitive about the dynamics of the complex forms of visual perception, compared to the four year old children (pchildren (pchildren from the big town compared to the capital (pchildren at the age of six demonstrate a low rating

  16. Age Effects on Upper Limb Kinematics Assessed by the REAplan Robot in Healthy School-Aged Children.

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    Gilliaux, Maxime; Dierckx, Floriane; Vanden Berghe, Lola; Lejeune, Thierry M; Sapin, Julien; Dehez, Bruno; Stoquart, Gaëtan; Detrembleur, Christine

    2015-05-01

    The use of kinematics is recommended to quantitatively evaluate upper limb movements. The aims of this study were to determine the age effects on upper limb kinematics and establish norms in healthy children. Ninety-three healthy children, aged 3-12 years, participated in this study. Twenty-eight kinematic indices were computed from four tasks. Each task was performed with the REAplan, a distal effector robotic device that allows upper limb displacements in the horizontal plane. Twenty-four of the 28 indices showed an improvement during childhood. Indeed, older children showed better upper limb movements. This study was the first to use a robotic device to show the age effects on upper limb kinematics and establish norms in healthy children.

  17. Effects of gestational age on brain volume and cognitive functions in generally healthy very preterm born children during school-age: A voxel-based morphometry study.

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    Sakari Lemola

    Full Text Available To determine whether the relationship of gestational age (GA with brain volumes and cognitive functions is linear or whether it follows a threshold model in preterm and term born children during school-age.We studied 106 children (M = 10 years 1 month, SD = 16 months; 40 females enrolled in primary school: 57 were healthy very preterm children (10 children born 24-27 completed weeks' gestation (extremely preterm, 14 children born 28-29 completed weeks' gestation, 19 children born 30-31 completed weeks' gestation (very preterm, and 14 born 32 completed weeks' gestation (moderately preterm all born appropriate for GA (AGA and 49 term-born children. Neuroimaging involved voxel-based morphometry with the statistical parametric mapping software. Cognitive functions were assessed with the WISC-IV. General Linear Models and multiple regressions were conducted controlling age, sex, and maternal education.Compared to groups of children born 30 completed weeks' gestation and later, children born <28 completed weeks' gestation had less gray matter volume (GMV and white matter volume (WMV and poorer cognitive functions including decreased full scale IQ, and processing speed. Differences in GMV partially mediated the relationship between GA and full scale IQ in preterm born children.In preterm children who are born AGA and without major complications GA is associated with brain volume and cognitive functions. In particular, decreased brain volume becomes evident in the extremely preterm group (born <28 completed weeks' gestation. In preterm children born 30 completed weeks' gestation and later the relationship of GA with brain volume and cognitive functions may be less strong as previously thought.

  18. Low Dietary Diversity and Intake of Animal Source Foods among School Aged Children in Libo Kemkem and Fogera Districts, Ethiopia.

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    Zaida Herrador

    Full Text Available A low dietary diversity score (DDS and low consumption of food from animal sources (ASF are among the factors related to malnutrition in school-aged children living in Libo Kemkem and Fogera (Ethiopia.This study aimed to identify associated determinants for low dietary diversity and lack of consumption of ASF.In 2009, a cross-sectional survey was carried out in May, at the end of the lean season. Socio-demographic characteristics and diet habits were collected from 886 school-aged children. Additionally, 516 children from rural sites were followed up in the post-harvest season, in December of the same year. Bivariate and multivariable statistical methods were employed to assess low DDS and ASF intake and their association with different factors.Up to 80% and 60% of school-aged children living in rural and urban sites, respectively, ate ≤ 3 food groups the day before the survey. The percentage of children consuming ASF was significantly higher in urban settings (64% vs 18%. In the rural areas, if the head of the household was male (OR: 1.91; 95%CI: 1.00-3.65 and older than 40 years (OR: 1.56; 95%CI: 1.02-2.38 the child had a lower DDS in the lean season, while differences by socioeconomic indexes were observed in the post-harvest season. Males took more ASF than females in rural settings (OR: 1.73; 95%CI: 1.14-2.62 and differences by socioeconomic indexes were observed in both settings in the lean season, though not in post-harvest survey.The findings of this study revealed that the diet among school-aged children in Libo Kemkem and Fogera districts lacked diversity, and that the intake of foods from animal sources was low, especially among rural girls. To effectively tackle malnutrition, dietary diversification strategies oriented to the local needs are recommended.

  19. Prevalence of nocturnal enuresis and related risk factors in school-age children in Egypt: an epidemiological study.

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    Hamed, Ahmed; Yousf, Fouad; Hussein, Mohamed M

    2017-03-01

    To determine the prevalence of mono-symptomatic nocturnal enuresis (MNE) and its risk factors among school-age children in our community. A cross-sectional study included school-age children from two governorates in south of Egypt. A questionnaire was presented to randomly selected students. It consisted of 3 domains: Domain 1 included questions about MNE, domain 2 was about risk factors for MNE, and domain 3 was about management of MNE. The study included 4652 students (9 ± 2 years) from 12 primary schools (51 % males and 49 % females). Of 4652 students, 834 (18 %) had NE, with no significant difference between rural and urban areas (17.5 vs. 18.4 %, p = 0.4). Younger age categories showed higher prevalence of MNE than in older children. MNE caused moderate-to-severe bother for 44.5 and 87.8 % of students and parents, respectively. Urinary tract infection, pinworm infestation, constipation, and caffeine over-consumption significantly associated with MNE. Family history of MNE was positive in 84.7 %. Daytime incontinence coexisted in 16 % of cases. Children with ≥4 siblings and birth order ≥3 had more prevalent MNE. Deep sleepers and exposure to problems/violence correlated positively with occurrence of MNE. Father's level of education and work status, mother education, number of children per room, and socioeconomic status significantly associated with occurrence of MNE. There was no significant correlation between gender and prevalence of MNE. No treatment was used in 53.2 % of cases. In the Egyptian community, pinworm infestation, UTI, constipation, and overconsumption of caffeine-containing beverages are potential reversible risk factors for MNE in school-age children.

  20. Concepts of Health and Sickness of Preschool and School Aged Children.

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    Banks, Ellen

    An investigation was made of children's factual knowledge of health-related concepts and the cognitive implications of their answers to questionnaire items such as "What makes a person sick?", "What is medicine?", and "Do you know what a germ is?" Participants were 80 healthy children between approximately 3 and 15 years of age. An additional 61…

  1. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) in school-aged children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jessica; Marshall, Chloë R

    2011-01-01

    for non-verbal responses. Despite the small group sizes, this study provides preliminary evidence that PCIT can achieve its treatment goals with 8-10-year-olds who have expressive language impairments. This has potentially important implications for how mainstream speech and language services provide intervention to school-aged children. In contrast to direct one-to-one therapy, PCIT offers a single block of therapy where the parents' communication and interaction skills are developed to provide the child with an appropriate language-rich environment, which in turn could be more cost-effective for the service provider. © 2010 Royal College of Speech & Language Therapists.

  2. Oral-diadochokinetic rates for Hebrew-speaking school-age children: real words vs. non-words repetition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icht, Michal; Ben-David, Boaz M

    2015-02-01

    Oral-diadochokinesis (DDK) tasks are a common tool for evaluating speech disorders. Usually, these tasks involve repetitions of non-words. It has been suggested that repeating real words can be more suitable for preschool children. But, the impact of using real words with elementary school children has not been studied yet. This study evaluated oral-DDK rates for Hebrew-speaking elementary school children using non-words and real words. The participants were 60 children, 9-11 years old, with normal speech and language development, who were asked to repeat "pataka" (non-word) and "bodeket" (Hebrew real word). Data replicate the advantage generally found for real word repetition with preschoolers. Children produced real words faster than non-words for all age groups, and repetition rates were higher for the older children. The findings suggest that adding real words to the standard oral-DDK task with elementary school children may provide a more comprehensive picture of oro-motor function.

  3. Assessing Auditory Processing Abilities in Typically Developing School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Erin E; Smart, Jennifer L; Boiano, Julie A; Bragg, Lisa E; Colon, Tiffany N; Hanson, Elizabeth M; Emanuel, Diana C; Kelly, Andrea S

    2016-02-01

    Large discrepancies exist in the literature regarding definition, diagnostic criteria, and appropriate assessment for auditory processing disorder (APD). Therefore, a battery of tests with normative data is needed. The purpose of this study is to collect normative data on a variety of tests for APD on children aged 7-12 yr, and to examine effects of outside factors on test performance. Children aged 7-12 yr with normal hearing, speech and language abilities, cognition, and attention were recruited for participation in this normative data collection. One hundred and forty-seven children were recruited using flyers and word of mouth. Of the participants recruited, 137 children qualified for the study. Participants attended schools located in areas that varied in terms of socioeconomic status, and resided in six different states. Audiological testing included a hearing screening (15 dB HL from 250 to 8000 Hz), word recognition testing, tympanometry, ipsilateral and contralateral reflexes, and transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions. The language, nonverbal IQ, phonological processing, and attention skills of each participant were screened using the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-4 Screener, Test of Nonverbal Intelligence, Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing, and Integrated Visual and Auditory-Continuous Performance Test, respectively. The behavioral APD battery included the following tests: Dichotic Digits Test, Frequency Pattern Test, Duration Pattern Test, Random Gap Detection Test, Compressed and Reverberated Words Test, Auditory Figure Ground (signal-to-noise ratio of +8 and +0), and Listening in Spatialized Noise-Sentences Test. Mean scores and standard deviations of each test were calculated, and analysis of variance tests were used to determine effects of factors such as gender, handedness, and birth history on each test. Normative data tables for the test battery were created for the following age groups: 7- and 8-yr-olds (n = 49), 9

  4. [Prevention groups for school-age children of mentally ill parents ("Auryn Groups")].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierks, H

    2001-09-01

    Children of psychiatrically ill parents have a high risk themselves to develop a psychiatric illness in adulthood. Prevention aims at strengthening the resilience of these children and reducing psychosocial risk factors. This article found and describes a theoretical concept of prevention groups for children in schoolage (7-16 years) whose parents are psychiatrically ill. First practical experiences are depicted. The Hamburgian model of prevention works with closed and temporary limited groups of children as well as with the parents. It is based on supporting the children's existing coping strategies and the children are encouraged to exchange their individual experiences of the relationships within their families. One conclusion was, that the main thematic emphasis varied considerably depending on the age of the children.

  5. The paediatric flat foot and general anthropometry in 140 Australian school children aged 7 - 10 years

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    Evans Angela M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have found a positive relationship between increased body weight and flat foot posture in children. Methods From a study population of 140 children aged seven to 10 years, a sample of 31 children with flat feet was identified by screening with the FPI-6. Basic anthropometric measures were compared between subjects with and without flat feet as designated. Results The results of this study, in contrast to many others, question the association of flat feet and heavy children. A significant relationship between foot posture and weight (FPI (L r = -0.186 (p Conclusions This study presents results which conflict with those of many previous investigations addressing the relationship between children's weight and foot posture. In contrast to previous studies, the implication of these results is that heavy children have less flat feet. Further investigation is warranted using a standardized approach to assessment and a larger sample of children to test this apparent contradiction.

  6. Validity of self-reported lunch recalls in Swedish school children aged 6-8 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsberger, Monica; Pena, Pablo; Lissner, Lauren; Grafström, Lisen; Vanaelst, Barbara; Börnhorst, Claudia; Pala, Valeria; Eiben, Gabriele

    2013-09-18

    Previous studies have suggested that young children are inaccurate reporters of dietary intake. The purpose of this study was to validate a single recall of the previous day's school lunch reported by 6-8 year old Swedish children and to assess teacher-recorded intake of the same meal in a standardized food journal. An additional research question was whether parents could report their child's intake of the previous day's lunch. Subjects constituted a convenience sample from the large, multi-country study Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS (IDEFICS). Validations of both children's recalls and teachers' records were made by comparing results with the duplicate plate reference method. Twenty-five children (12 boys/13 girls) aged 6-8 years participated in the validation study at one school in western Sweden. Children were accurate self-reporters of their dietary intake at lunch, with no significant difference between reported and weighed intake (Mean difference (SD): 7(50) kcals, p=0.49). Teachers significantly over-reported intake (Mean difference (SD): 65(79) kcals, p=0.01). For both methods, child-reported and teacher-recorded, correlations with weighed intake were strong (Pearson's correlations r=0.92, pteacher-records and weighed intakes. Foods were recalled by children with a food-match rate of 90%. In all cases parents themselves were unable to report on quantities consumed and only four of 25 children had parents with knowledge regarding food items consumed. Children 6-8 years of age accurately recalled their school lunch intake for one occasion while teachers recorded with less accuracy. Our findings suggest that children as young as six years of age may be better able to report on their dietary intake than previously suggested, at least for one main meal at school. Teacher-recorded intake provides a satisfactory estimate but with greater systematic deviation from the weighed intake

  7. The Associations between the Milk Mothers Drink and the Milk Consumed by Their School-Aged Children. Nutrition, Health and Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rachel K.; Panely, Celeste V.; Wang, Min Qi

    2001-01-01

    A national survey identified predictors of school-age children's and adolescents' amount and type of milk intake. Findings indicated that geographic region, child's gender, and amount of milk mothers consumed predicted the children's milk consumption. Predictors of child milk type included the children's age, gender, race, geographic region,…

  8. Growth and development in school-age children from Rostov region, Russia: Comparison between urban and rural settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voynov, V B; Kulba, S N; Arapova, Yu Yu

    2017-12-01

    The purposes of the current study were: (1) to describe growth and physical development and establish norms for schoolchildren from Rostov region in Russia; (2) to compare major characteristics of development between urban and rural children by sex and age. Nearly 200,000 children (198,712) aged between 7 and 17 years from 232 urban and rural schools of Rostov region (Southern Federal District of Russia) participated in the study. School age is a period of intensive growth and physiological and psychological development. Irregularities of personal development are caused by a multitude of factors, such as sex differences, heredity, socio-economic status of a family, standard of living, particular environmental conditions, and lifestyle. It has been established that children from the Southern Federal District of Russia had body mass index values higher than age-appropriate norms for all Russians (Total Russian, Rudnev et al., 2014) and World Health Organization charts. Children from urban settings were taller and heavier than children from rural settings. Sex is one of the most influential factors which play key role in determining specific characteristics of growth and personal development. According to our results, boys and girls both had similar age-related changes in weight and height, but their respective dynamics differed. Girls' height and weight values accelerated at the age 10 to 12 years and plateaued after the age fourteen, whereas in boys height and weight steadily increased with age, showing slight acceleration at the age 12 to 13 years, and reached a plateau by the age of seventeen. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Stressors of caregivers of school-age children with epilepsy and use of community resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saburi, Gladys

    2011-06-01

    Childhood epilepsy causes multiple stressors, difficulty in adjustment, and disruptions in family relations. This study sought to identify stressors of caregivers of school-age children and to assess whether use of community resources alleviates or contributes to caregiver stress. Stressors refer to concern about the child, communication with healthcare providers, changes in family relationships, interaction with school, and support within the community. A caregiver refers to the person who had looked after the child for the past 6-12 months. Support groups, religious or worship groups, counseling services, and traditional and spiritual faith healers were the community resources that were addressed. Face-to-face interviews were conducted on a convenience sample of 46 caregivers. A three-part structured interview schedule was used to describe demographic data, stressors of caregivers, and use of community resources. The top 6 stressors were the inability to get antiepileptic drugs, the deep pain or sadness caused by the child's seizures, caregiving (which was predominantly by mothers), limited help from the extended family, inadequate information on side effects of drugs, and inadequate information on seizures. The most commonly used community resource was religious or worship groups, with epilepsy support groups being least used. To alleviate caregiver stress, it is important that healthcare providers routinely assess the effect of seizures on caregivers and refer those requiring counseling, advocate for more male and extended family involvement in caregiving and provide adequate information on side effects of drugs and on seizures as standard practice. Nurses in developed countries should incorporate religious activities among complementary and alternative medicine interventions to reduce caregiver stress. Spiritual faith healers should be encouraged to refer clients with epilepsy for drug therapy and counseling.

  10. Relationships between narrative language samples and norm-referenced test scores in language assessments of school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danahy Ebert, Kerry; Scott, Cheryl M

    2014-10-01

    Both narrative language samples and norm-referenced language tests can be important components of language assessment for school-age children. The present study explored the relationship between these 2 tools within a group of children referred for language assessment. The study is a retrospective analysis of clinical records from 73 school-age children. Participants had completed an oral narrative language sample and at least one norm-referenced language test. Correlations between microstructural language sample measures and norm-referenced test scores were compared for younger (6- to 8-year-old) and older (9- to 12-year-old) children. Contingency tables were constructed to compare the 2 types of tools, at 2 different cutpoints, in terms of which children were identified as having a language disorder. Correlations between narrative language sample measures and norm-referenced tests were stronger for the younger group than the older group. Within the younger group, the level of language assessed by each measure contributed to associations among measures. Contingency analyses revealed moderate overlap in the children identified by each tool, with agreement affected by the cutpoint used. Narrative language samples may complement norm-referenced tests well, but age combined with narrative task can be expected to influence the nature of the relationship.

  11. Processing of complex distracting sounds in school-aged children and adults: Evidence from EEG and MEG data

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    Philipp eRuhnau

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available When a perceiver performs a task, rarely occurring sounds often have a distracting effect on task performance. The neural mismatch responses in event-related potentials to such distracting stimuli depend on age. Adults commonly show a negative response, whereas in children a positive as well as a negative mismatch response has been reported. Using electro- and magnetoencephalography (EEG/MEG, here we investigated the developmental changes of distraction processing in school-aged children (9–10 years and adults. Participants took part in an auditory-visual distraction paradigm comprising a visuo-spatial primary task and task-irrelevant environmental sounds distracting from this task. Behaviorally, distractors delayed reaction times in the primary task in both age groups, and this delay was of similar magnitude in both groups. The neurophysiological data revealed an early as well as a late mismatch response elicited by distracting stimuli in both age groups. Together with previous research, this indicates tha