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Sample records for schoenoplectus fluviatilis rice

  1. Characterisation of ALS genes in the polyploid species Schoenoplectus mucronatus and implications for resistance management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarabel, Laura; Locascio, Antonella; Furini, Antonella; Sattin, Maurizio; Varotto, Serena

    2010-03-01

    The polyploid weed Schoenoplectus mucronatus (L.) Palla has evolved target-site resistance to ALS-inhibiting herbicides in Italian rice crops. Molecular and genetic characterisation of the resistance mechanism is relevant to the evolution and management of herbicide resistance. The authors aimed (a) to study the organisation of the target-site loci in two field-selected S. mucronatus populations with different cross-resistance patterns, (b) to identify the mutations endowing resistance to ALS inhibitors and determine the role of these mutations by using transgenesis and (c) to analyse the implications for the management of the S. mucronatus populations. Two complete ALS genes (ALS1 and ALS2) having an intron and a third partial intronless ALS gene (ALS3) were identified. The presence of multiple ALS genes was confirmed by Southern blot analyses, and ALS loci were characterised by examining cytosine methylation. In S. mucronatus leaves, the transcripts of ALS1, ALS2 and ALS3 were detected. Two mutations endowing resistance (Pro(197) to His and Trp(574) to Leu) were found in both resistant populations, but at different frequencies. Tobacco plants transformed with the two resistant alleles indicated that the Pro(197)-to-His substitution conferred resistance to SU and TP herbicides, while the allele with the Trp(574)-to-Leu substitution conferred cross-resistance to SU, TP, IMI and PTB herbicides. Schoenoplectus mucronatus has multiple ALS genes characterised by methylated sites that can influence the expression profile. The two mutated alleles proved to be responsible for ALS resistance. At population level, the resistance pattern depends on the frequency of various resistant genotypes, and this influences the efficacy of various ALS-inhibiting herbicides.

  2. First record of the freshwater puffer Tetraodon fluviatilis fluviatilis from the coastal waters of Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Padate, V.P.; Rivonker, C.U.; Anil, A.C.; Sawant, S.S.; Venkat, K.

    Present study describes a new record of the freshwater green spotted puffer Tetraodon fluviatilis fluviatilis based on detailed examination of four specimens collected from the bay-estuarine regions of Goa. Differences between the present specimens...

  3. Characterization of sulfonylurea-resistant Schoenoplectus juncoides having a target-site Asp(376)Glu mutation in the acetolactate synthase.

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    Sada, Yoshinao; Ikeda, Hajime; Yamato, Seiji; Kizawa, Satoru

    2013-09-01

    Schoenoplectus juncoides, a noxious weed for paddy rice, is known to become resistant to sulfonylurea (SU) herbicides by a target-site mutation in either of the two acetolactate synthase (ALS) genes (ALS1 and ALS2). SU-resistant S. juncoides plants having an Asp376Glu mutation in ALS2 were found from a paddy rice field in Japan, but their resistance profile has not been quantitatively investigated. In this study, dose-response of the SU-resistant accession was compared with that of a SU-susceptible accession at in vivo whole-plant level as well as at in vitro enzymatic level. In whole-plant tests, resistance factors (RFs) based on 50% growth reduction (GR50) for imazosulfuron (ISF), bensulfuron-methyl (BSM), metsulfuron-methyl (MSM), bispyribac-sodium (BPS), and imazaquin (IMQ) were 176, 40, 14, 5.2 and 1.5, respectively. Thus, the accession having an Asp376Glu mutation in ALS2 was highly resistant to the three SU herbicides and moderately resistant to BPS, but was not substantially resistant to IMQ. This is slightly different from the earlier results reported from other weeds with an Asp376Glu mutation, in which the mutation confers resistance to broadly all the chemical classes of ALS-inhibiting herbicides. In enzymatic tests, ALS2 of S. juncoides was expressed in E. coli; the resultant ALS2 was subjected to an in vitro assay. RFs of the mutated ALS2 based on 50% enzymatic inhibition (I50) for ISF, BSM, MSM, BPS, and IMQ were 3699, 2438, 322, 80, and 4.8, respectively. The RFs of ALS2 were highly correlated with those of the whole-plant; this suggests that the Asp376Glu mutation in ALS2 is a molecular basis for the whole-plant resistance. The presence of two ALS genes in S. juncoides can at least partially explain why the whole-plant RFs were less than those of the expressed ALS2 enzymes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Analgesic and Antipyretic Activities of Methanol Extract and Its Fraction from the Root of Schoenoplectus grossus

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    Nirmal Kumar Subedi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to evaluate analgesic and antipyretic activities of the methanol extract and its different fractions from root of Schoenoplectus grossus using acetic acid induced writhing and radiant heat tail flick method of pain models in mice and yeast induced pyrexia in rats at the doses of 400 and 200 mg/kg. In acetic acid writhing test, the methanol extract, petroleum ether, and carbon tetrachloride fractions produced significant (P<0.001 and P<0.05 inhibition of writhing responses in dose dependent manner. The methanol extract at 400 and 200 mg/kg being more protective with 54% and 45.45% of inhibition compared to diclofenac sodium of 56% followed by petroleum ether fractions of 49.69% and 39.39% at the same doses. The extracts did not produce any significant antinociceptive activity in tail flick test except standard morphine. When studied on yeast induced pyrexia, methanol and petroleum ether fractions significantly lowered the rectal temperature time dependently in a manner similar to standard drug paracetamol and distinctly more significant (P<0.001 after second hour. These findings suggest that the root extracts of S. grossus possess significant peripherally acting analgesic potential and antipyretic property. The phytochemical screening showed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, and tannins.

  5. Heterotrophic N2-fixation contributes to nitrogen economy of a common wetland sedge, Schoenoplectus californicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejmánková, Eliška; Sirová, Dagmara; Castle, Stephanie T; Bárta, Jiří; Carpenter, Heather

    2018-01-01

    A survey of the ecological variability within 52 populations of Schoenoplectus californicus (C.A. Mey.) Soják across its distributional range revealed that it is commonly found in nitrogen (N) limited areas, but rarely in phosphorus limited soils. We explored the hypothesis that S. californicus supplements its nitrogen demand by bacterial N2-fixation processes associated with its roots and rhizomes. We estimated N2-fixation of diazotrophs associated with plant rhizomes and roots from several locations throughout the species' range and conducted an experiment growing plants in zero, low, and high N additions. Nitrogenase activity in rhizomes and roots was measured using the acetylene reduction assay. The presence of diazotrophs was verified by the detection of the nifH gene. Nitrogenase activity was restricted to rhizomes and roots and it was two orders of magnitude higher in the latter plant organs (81 and 2032 nmol C2H4 g DW-1 d-1, respectively). Correspondingly, 40x more nifH gene copies were found on roots compared to rhizomes. The proportion of the nifH gene copies in total bacterial DNA was positively correlated with the nitrogenase activity. In the experiment, the contribution of fixed N to the plant N content ranged from 13.8% to 32.5% among clones from different locations. These are relatively high values for a non-cultivated plant and justify future research on the link between N-fixing bacteria and S. californicus production.

  6. Occurrence of Schoenoplectus mucronatus at the U.S. Department of Energy Fernald Preserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homer, John; Decker, Ashlee; Bien, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    Bog bulrush (Schoenoplectus mucronatus) is a perennial wetland species native to Africa, Asia, and Europe. Its documented occurrence in the United States includes California, Hawaii, Iowa, Kentucky, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Washington, and Tennessee. This species spreads through seed, rhizomes, and stolons, and has shown resistance to certain herbicides. Online plant databases do not show the distribution of the species reaching into Ohio or Indiana; however, local experts have indicated that specimens are in both states. Various reports indicate that S. mucronatus is locally abundant but not yet widespread regionally. In recent years, S. mucronatus has become increasingly abundant at the Fernald Preserve, a U.S. Department of Energy site in northwest Hamilton County, Ohio. The 425- hectare (1,050-acre) site has undergone extensive remediation and subsequent ecological restoration, and various wetlands have been constructed across the site. S. mucronatus was first observed at the Fernald Preserve in 2008, in one constructed basin. During monitoring in 2009, S. mucronatus was seen in 8 of 23 basins surveyed. This increase has raised concern that the species may become a regional problem. This poster aims to alert botanists and ecological restoration personnel of the species’ regional occurrence, and prompt discussion of its potential impacts and how it can be controlled.

  7. First record of Pontian monkey goby, Neogobius fluviatilis (Pallas, 1814), in the Dutch Rhine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Kessel, N.; Dorenbosch, M.; Spikmans, F.

    2009-01-01

    The Pontian monkey goby, Neogobius fluviatilis, was recorded for the first time in the Netherlands in March 2009. Seven specimens were caught in the lower parts of the River Rhine, at close distance of the German border. Based on the species invasive history, N. fluviatilis could become invasive.

  8. Behavioural strategy of large perch Perca fluviatilis varies between a mesotrophic and a hypereutrophic lake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lene; Berg, Søren; Baktoft, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Behaviour of large perch Perca fluviatilis was studied in two lakes differing in environmental state i.e. mesotrophic v. hypereutrophic. A total of 20 adult perch P. fluviatilis (29–42 cm total length) in each lake were tagged with radio-transmitters, tracked and located eight times a day during...... six 24 h tracking periods over a year, enabling detection of differences in diel activity patterns and habitat use during summer and winter under two different environmental regimes. During summer, P. fluviatilis in the mesotrophic lake showed a distinct crepuscular activity pattern and a change from...... factor of large P. fluviatilis did not differ between the two lakes. Thus, it is suggested that P. fluviatilis in the hypereutrophic turbid lake adopted an alternative behaviour for successful foraging, being uniformly active throughout the diel cycle...

  9. Factors influencing the development of Plasmodium gallinaceum in Aedes fluviatilis

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    Mariana V. Tasón de Camargo

    1983-03-01

    Full Text Available Aedes fluviatilis is susceptible to infection by Plasmodium gallinaceum and is a convenient insect host for the malaria parasite in countries where Aedees aegypti cannot be maintained in laboratories. In South America, for instance, the rearing of A. aegypti the main vector of urban yellow fever, is not advaisable because of the potential health hazard it represents. Our results of the comparative studies carried out between the sporogonic cycle produced with two lines of P. gallinaceum parasites into A. fuviatilis were as follows. As proved for A. aegypti, mosquito infection rates were variable when A. fluviatilis blood-fed on chicks infected with and old syringe-passaged strain of P. gallinaceum. Oocysts developed in 41% of those mosquitos and the mean peak of oocyst production was 56 per stomach. Salivary gland infections developed in about 6% of the mosquitos. The course of sporogony was unrelated to the size of the inoculum administered to chicks or to the route by which the birds were infected. The development of infected salivary glands was unrelated to oocyst production. Sporogony of P. gallinaceum was more uniform when mosquitos blood-fed on chicks infected with a sporozoite-passaged strain. Oocysts developed in about 50% of those mosquitoes and the mean peak of oocyst production was 138 per stomach, with some individuals having as many as 600-800 oocysts. Infected salivary glands developed in a mean of 27% of the mosquitos but, in some batches, was a high as 50%. Patterns of salivary gland parasitism were similar to those of oocyst production. The course of sporogony of P. gallinaceum in A. fluviatilis is analized in relation to degree of parasitemia and gametocytemia in the vertebrate host.Aedes fluviatilis é susceptível à infecção por Plasmodium gallinaceum, sendo considerado um modelo experimental útil para esta infecção em regiões nas quais Aedes aegypti não deve ser criado em laboratório, por razões de segurança. Na

  10. Review on the Traditional Uses and Potential of Totora (Schoenoplectus Californicus) as Construction Material

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    Hidalgo-Cordero, Juan Fernando; García-Navarro, Justo

    2017-10-01

    The recent advances in the wood construction field have demonstrated the feasibility and advantages of using wood-based materials in tall buildings structures and other constructive uses, which could lead to a net reduction in CO2eq emissions of the construction sector by replacing high-energy consuming materials like concrete or steel, with wood and biomass-based materials. Among these biomass-based materials are the Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFP)which are plantsthat canprovide important contributionsto the construction sector and help to reduce the net CO2eq emissions of the building industry. One of these plants is the totora (Schoenoplectus Californicus) that has been long used by several communities for making handicrafts and as construction material. Recent studies on this plant have analyzed its properties and its feasibility to be used for producing materials of interest to the contemporary building industry. The totora is a bulrush that grows in lakes and marshes in America from California to Chile and some of the Pacific islands. It grows from the sea level to 4500maasl, it can grow in fresh water and estuaries, and it is resistant to water level changes and drought. This bulrush has been used by many cultures as medicine, food, forage, material for building houses, boats and different handicrafts. The most important examples of the use of totora in the world are the floating islands of the Uros in Lake Titicaca. The Uros people have developed traditional techniques for building their homes, boats, and even the artificial islands where they live on with methods based almost exclusively on the totora. This way of living and production system has been maintained for more than 500 years. This review is about the main constructive techniques that have been used for traditional construction in totora and some of therecent researches that have been made on this subject. Experiments in architecture and industrial design objects made with totora have shown its

  11. Seasonal changes of metal accumulation and distribution in common club rush (Schoenoplectus lacustris) and common reed (Phragmites australis).

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    Duman, Fatih; Cicek, Mehmet; Sezen, Goksal

    2007-08-01

    In this study, two aquatic macrophytes Phragmites australis and Schoenoplectus lacustris and corresponding sediment samples were collected every three months from Lake Sapanca (Turkey) and analysed for their heavy-metal contents (Pb, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Zn and Cd). Accumulation factor ratios of plant parts were calculated for all metals, and the two species were compared in terms of accumulation properties. The highest concentrations were measured in the root systems while relatively low concentrations were found in the rhizome and above-ground parts of the plants. The accumulation ratios of root for P. australis were usually higher than the ratios for S. lacustris. While the accumulation ratios of root were higher in winter than in the other seasons for P. australis, for S. lacustris the highest accumulation ratios were found in the autumn. Both plant species were found to be root accumulators of Pb, Cu, Mn, Ni, Zn and Cd.

  12. Novo registro altitudinal de Trichodactylus fluviatilis (Latreille, 1828 (Decapoda, Trichodactylidae no Brasil = New altitudinal record of Trichodactylus fluviatilis (Latreille, 1828 (Decapoda, Trichodactylidae in Brazil

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    Samuel Campos Gomides

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Trichodactylus fluviatilis (Latreille, 1828 (Decapoda, Trichodactylidae é uma espécie de caranguejo que habita rios e riachos montanhosos em altitudes até aproximadamente 500 m. Sua distribuição ocorre na América do Sul, desde as bacias costeiras da faixa leste do Brasil até a bacia do alto Paraná e na Argentina. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi registrar a ocorrência de T. fluviatilis em uma Unidade de Conservação de Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, e fornecer um novo registro altitudinal dessa espécie noBrasil. As amostras foram obtidas de outubro de 2004 a julho de 2005. Foram coletados três indivíduos vivos, dois machos e uma fêmea da espécie. Também foram analisados 16 regurgitos estomacais do cágado Hydromedusa maximiliani, dos quais, em seis foram encontrados partes corporais deste crustáceo. Muitas espécies de caranguejos do Brasil dafamília Trichodactylidae vivem em regiões acima de 500m do nível do mar. No presente estudo, T. fluviatilis foi coletado a 770 m de altitude, ampliando assim a faixa de distribuição altitudinal dessa espécie no Brasil. Até o presente estudo não existiam relatos de T. fluviatilis no município de Juiz de Fora, portanto este estudo também se constitui em um novo registro desse tricodatilídeo em Minas Gerais. Trichodactylus fluviatilis (Latreille, 1828 (Decapoda, Trichodactylidae is a crab species that lives in mountainous rivers and streams at altitudes up to 500m. Its distribution ranges from South America from the Basins of eastern coast of Brazil to basins of the Upper Paraná River and Argentina. The main objective of this study was to register a new occurrence of T. fluviatilis at a Conservation Unit in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais and provide a new altitudinal record for this species in Brazil. The samples were taken between October 2004 and July 2005. We collected three live T. fluviatilis individuals – two males and one female. We also analyzed the stomach contents of 16

  13. Research Regarding Somatic Measurements at River Lobster Males (Astacus Fluviatilis

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    Marian Bura

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The body measurements was made on 20 males of river lobsters (Astacus fluviatilis or Astacus astacus. The lobsters on witch the study was made had an average total length of body of 12.72 cm ±0.19 cm (formed from: 6.07±0.10cm the length of cefalothorax, 4.73 ±0.10 cm the length of abdomen and 1.91 ±0.07 cm length of telson, and a body weight of 55.70±3.07 g. the males present a length of feelers of 8.53±0.34 cm, a antennas of 2.20±0.05 cm, and the stem of the eyes of 0.51±0.02 cm. The body of male present a average width of 3.35±0.07 cm at level of cefalothorax, and 2.40±0.05 cm at abdomen level. Average deepness of cefalothorax was 2.85±0.07cm, and abdomen deepness of 1.34±0.03cm. The 5 pairs of periopode had an average length of 10.91±0.42 cm, 6.06±0.22 cm, 7.21±0.21 cm, 6.57±0.16 cm and 5.85±0.15cm. The average length of pleopods was at first pear of 2.00±0.06 cm, at second pair of 2.11±0.05 cm, at third of 1.85±0.05 cm, at fourth of 1.73±0.04 cm and at fifth pair of 1.55±0.04 cm.

  14. Behavioural and morphological differences between lake and river populations of Salaria fluviatilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neat, F.C.; Lengkeek, W.; Westerbeek, P.; Laarhoven, B.; Videler, J.J

    Three populations (one from a river and two from lakes) of Salaria fluviatilis, the only exclusively freshwater representative of the Blenniidae, showed significant differences in reproductive behaviour and morphology. Breeding males and females were significantly larger at maturity in the river

  15. Concentrations of heavy metals in Sotalia fluviatilis (Cetacea: Delphinidae) off the coast of Ceara, northeast Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro-Neto, C.; Itavo, R.V.; Souza de Moraes, Luiz Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    As a top predator, Sotalia fluviatilis may be at risk from pollutants from outfalls. - Lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg) concentrations on liver and kidney of Sotalia fluviatilis (Cetacea: Delphinidae) stranded in the coast of Ceara, Brazil, were studied from 1996 to 1999. Pb levels were usually lower than the detection limit (0.1 μg/g). Concentrations of Cd were significantly higher in kidney than liver, averaging 0.8 μg/g. Mercury accumulation took place mainly in liver with an average concentration of 4.6 μg/g. Both metals were significantly higher in larger mature individuals, but differences between sexes were not significant. The detection of Cd, Hg and Pb in tissue samples of S. fluviatilis off the coast of Ceara indicated that heavy metals are locally available in the water, and bioaccumulation may be occurring through the food web. Contamination levels were not considered critical, but could be related to Ceara's growing industrial development. The associated risks of pollution outfalls may pose a threat to marine organisms in a near future, especially for top predators such as S. fluviatilis

  16. Wolbachia and dengue virus infection in the mosquito Aedes fluviatilis (Diptera: Culicidae.

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    Jéssica Barreto Lopes Silva

    Full Text Available Dengue represents a serious threat to human health, with billions of people living at risk of the disease. Wolbachia pipientis is a bacterial endosymbiont common to many insect species. Wolbachia transinfections in mosquito disease vectors have great value for disease control given the bacterium's ability to spread into wild mosquito populations, and to interfere with infections of pathogens, such as dengue virus. Aedes fluviatilis is a mosquito with a widespread distribution in Latin America, but its status as a dengue vector has not been clarified. Ae. fluviatilis is also naturally infected by the wFlu Wolbachia strain, which has been demonstrated to enhance infection with the avian malarial parasite Plasmodium gallinaceum. We performed experimental infections of Ae. fluviatilis with DENV-2 and DENV-3 isolates from Brazil via injection or oral feeding to provide insight into its competence for the virus. We also examined the effect of the native Wolbachia infection on the virus using a mosquito line where the wFlu infection had been cleared by antibiotic treatment. Through RT-qPCR, we observed that Ae. fluviatilis could become infected with both viruses via either method of infection, although at a lower rate than Aedes aegypti, the primary dengue vector. We then detected DENV-2 and DENV-3 in the saliva of injected mosquitoes, and observed that injection of DENV-3-infected saliva produced subsequent infections in naïve Ae. aegypti. However, across our data we observed no difference in prevalence of infection and viral load between Wolbachia-infected and -uninfected mosquitoes, suggesting that there is no effect of wFlu on dengue virus. Our results highlight that Ae. fluviatilis could potentially serve as a dengue vector under the right circumstances, although further testing is required to determine if this occurs in the field.

  17. NET ABOVEGROUND PRIMARY PRODUCTION AND BIOMASS DYNAMICS OF SCHOENOPLECTUS CALIFORNICUS (CYPERACEAE MARSHES GROWING UNDER DIFFERENT HYDROLOGICAL CONDITIONS

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    Paula Pratolongo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron diferentes atributos funcionales de 2 pajonales de Schoenoplectus californicus (C. A. Mey Sójak que son muy similares en su estructura y especie dominante, pero aparecen en los extremos opuestos a lo largo de un gradiente de influencia fluvial-mareal en el Bajo Delta del río Paraná. Los resultados mostraron una productividad primaria neta aérea (PPNA significativamente más alta en el pajonal afectado directamente por la marea (1999.41 ± 211.97 g m-2 año-1. En el sitio aguas arriba, menos proclive a la inundación por mareas, S. californicus tuvo una menor PPNA (1299.17 ± 179.48 g m-2 año-1 y el sistema mostró una mayor capacidad para retener la biomasa producida dentro del pajonal, con cantidades significativamente mayores de biomasa muerta en pie (1316.00 ± 336.01 vs. 112.40 ± 55.05 g m-2 y mayores contenidos de materia orgánica en el suelo (16.20 ± 0.12 % vs. 0.70 ± 0.08 %. Los resultados obtenidos en este trabajo sugieren que los flujos superficiales de alta energía pueden cambiar el funcionamiento de estos pajonales, de un sistema estable acumulador de materia orgánica a un pajonal de rápido crecimiento, con altas tasas de acumulación de sedimentos minerales.

  18. Molecular characterization of Anopheles fluviatilis species complex in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

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    Naddaf, S R; Oshaghi, M A; Vatandoost, H; Assmar, M

    2003-05-01

    A species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was used to identify the species composition of the Anopheles fluviatilis complex in the Islamic Republic of Iran. All the amplified DNA samples from specimens collected from different areas yielded a fragment of 450 bp size, a PCR product corresponding to that of the species denoted as Y. The sequence data from 21 ITS2 [second internal transcribed spacer] regions were compared with those publicly available in the GenBank database and confirmed that the specimens were 100% identical to species Y of India. Species Y is presumably the same as species T that has no role in transmission of malaria in India, whereas An. fluviatilis is known as a secondary vector of malaria in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

  19. Shape plasticity in response to water velocity in the freshwater blenny Salaria fluviatilis.

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    Laporte, M; Claude, J; Berrebi, P; Perret, P; Magnan, P

    2016-03-01

    A non-random association between an environmental factor and a given trait could be explained by directional selection (genetic determinism) and by phenotypic plasticity (environmental determinism). A previous study showed a significant relationship between morphology and water velocity in Salaria fluviatilis that conformed to functional expectations. The objective of this study was to test whether this relationship could be explained by phenotypic plasticity. Salaria fluviatilis from a Corsican stream were placed in four experimental channels with different water velocities (0, 10, 20 and 30 cm s(-1)) to test whether there was a morphological response associated with this environmental factor. After 28 days, fish shape changed in response to water velocity without any significant growth. Fish in higher water velocities exhibited a more slender body shape and longer anal and caudal fins. These results indicate a high degree of morphological plasticity in riverine populations of S. fluviatilis and suggest that the previous relationship between morphology and water velocity observed in the field may largely be due to an environmental determinism. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  20. Differential tolerance to cyanobacterial exposure between geographically distinct populations of Perca fluviatilis.

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    Persson, Karl-Johan; Bergström, Kristofer; Mazur-Marzec, Hannah; Legrand, Catherine

    2013-12-15

    Toxic cyanobacterial blooms are an important problem worldwide. Cyanobacteria may negatively impact young-of-the-year (YOY) fish directly (toxin production, turbidity, decrease in water quality) or indirectly (trophic toxin transfer, changes in prey species composition). Here we test whether there are any differences in cyanobacterial tolerance between four geographically distinct populations of European perch (Perca fluviatilis). We show that P. fluviatilis may develop tolerance against cyanobacteria demonstrated by the ability of individuals from a marine site (exposed to annual cyanobacterial blooms) to increase their detoxification more than individuals from an oligotrophic site (rarely exposed to cyanobacteria). Our results also revealed significant interaction effects between genotypes within a population and response to cyanobacterial exposure in terms of absolute growth and detoxification activity. This genotype by treatment interaction may result in local adaptations to cyanobacterial exposure in P. fluviatilis. Hence, the sensitivity against cyanobacterial exposure may differ between within species populations increasing the importance of local management of fish populations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Molecular variation and distribution of Anopheles fluviatilis (Diptera: Culicidae) complex in Iran.

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    Naddaf, Saied Reza; Razavi, Mohammad Reza; Bahramali, Golnaz

    2010-09-01

    Anopheles fluviatilis James (Diptera: Culicidae) is one of the known malaria vectors in south and southeastern Iran. Earlier ITS2 sequences analysis of specimens from Iran demonstrated only a single genotype that was identical to species Y in India, which is also the same as species T. We identified 2 haplotypes in the An. fluviatilis populations of Iran based on differences in nucleotide sequences of D3 domain of the 28S locus of ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Comparison of sequence data from 44 Iranian specimens with those publicly available in the Genbank database showed that all of the 28S-D3 sequences from Kazeroun and Khesht regions in Fars Province were identical to the database entry representing species U in India. In other regions, all the individuals showed heterozygosity at the single nucleotide position, which identifies species U and T. It is argued that the 2 species may co-occur in some regions and hybridize; however, the heterozygosity in the 28S-D3 locus was not reflected in ITS2 sequences and this locus for all individuals was identical to species T. This study shows that in a newly diverged species, like members of An. fluviatilis complex, a single molecular marker may not be sufficiently discriminatory to identify all the taxa over a vast geographical area. In addition, other molecular markers may provide more reliable information for species discrimination.

  2. Isolation and Characterization of Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers from the Malaria Vector Anopheles fluviatilis Species T (Diptera: Culicidae).

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    Lather, Manila; Sharma, Divya; Dang, Amita S; Adak, Tridibes; Singh, Om P

    2015-05-01

    Anopheles fluviatilis James is an important malaria vector in India, Pakistan, Nepal, and Iran. It has now been recognized as a complex of at least four sibling species-S, T, U, and V, among which species T is the most widely distributed species throughout India. The taxonomic status of these species is confusing owing to controversies prevailing in the literature. In addition, chromosomal inversion genotypes, which were considered species-diagnostic for An. fluviatilis species T, are unreliable due to the existence of polymorphism in some populations. To study the genetic diversity at population level, we isolated and characterized 20 microsatellite markers from microsatellite-enriched genomic DNA library of An. fluviatilis T, of which 18 were polymorphic while two were monomorphic. The number of alleles per locus among polymorphic markers ranged from 4 to 19, and values for observed and expected heterozygosities varied from 0.352 to 0.857 and from 0.575 to 0.933, respectively. Thirteen markers had cross-cryptic species transferability to species S and U of the Fluviatilis Complex. This study provides a promising genetic tool for the population genetic analyses of An. fluviatilis. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. The Freshwater Sponge Ephydatia fluviatilis Harbours Diverse Pseudomonas Species (Gammaproteobacteria, Pseudomonadales) with Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobial Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller-Costa, Tina; Jousset, Alexandre; van Overbeek, Leo; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Costa, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria are believed to play an important role in the fitness and biochemistry of sponges (Porifera). Pseudomonas species (Gammaproteobacteria, Pseudomonadales) are capable of colonizing a broad range of eukaryotic hosts, but knowledge of their diversity and function in freshwater invertebrates is rudimentary. We assessed the diversity, structure and antimicrobial activities of Pseudomonas spp. in the freshwater sponge Ephydatia fluviatilis. Polymerase Chain Reaction – Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) fingerprints of the global regulator gene gacA revealed distinct structures between sponge-associated and free-living Pseudomonas communities, unveiling previously unsuspected diversity of these assemblages in freshwater. Community structures varied across E. fluviatilis specimens, yet specific gacA phylotypes could be detected by PCR-DGGE in almost all sponge individuals sampled over two consecutive years. By means of whole-genome fingerprinting, 39 distinct genotypes were found within 90 fluorescent Pseudomonas isolates retrieved from E. fluviatilis. High frequency of in vitro antibacterial (49%), antiprotozoan (35%) and anti-oomycetal (32%) activities was found among these isolates, contrasting less-pronounced basidiomycetal (17%) and ascomycetal (8%) antagonism. Culture extracts of highly predation-resistant isolates rapidly caused complete immobility or lysis of cells of the protozoan Colpoda steinii. Isolates tentatively identified as P. jessenii, P. protegens and P. oryzihabitans showed conspicuous inhibitory traits and correspondence with dominant sponge-associated phylotypes registered by cultivation-independent analysis. Our findings suggest that E. fluviatilis hosts both transient and persistent Pseudomonas symbionts displaying antimicrobial activities of potential ecological and biotechnological value. PMID:24533086

  4. Plasma osmolality and oxygen consumption of perch Perca fluviatilis in response to different salinities and temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Emil Aputsiaq Flindt; Svendsen, Morten Bo Søndergaard; Steffensen, John Fleng

    2017-01-01

    with salinity at 10 and 20° C. Maximum metabolic rate (MMR) and aerobic scope was lowest at salinity of 15 at 5° C, yet at 20° C, they were lowest at a salinity of 0. A cost of osmoregulation (SMR at a salinity of 0 and 15 compared with SMR at a salinity of 10) could only be detected at a salinity of 15 at 20...... of osmoregulation (28%) at a salinity of 15 at 20° C indicates that the cost of osmoregulation in P. fluviatilis increases with temperature under hyperosmotic conditions and a power analysis showed that the cost of osmoregulation could be lower than 12·5% under other environmental conditions. The effect of salinity......The present study determined the blood plasma osmolality and oxygen consumption of the perch Perca fluviatilis at different salinities (0, 10 and 15) and temperatures (5, 10 and 20° C). Blood plasma osmolality increased with salinity at all temperatures. Standard metabolic rate (SMR) increased...

  5. Domestication drive the changes of immune and digestive system of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaowen; Wang, Jun; Qian, Long; Gaughan, Sarah; Xiang, Wei; Ai, Tao; Fan, Zhenming; Wang, Chenghui

    2017-01-01

    Domestication has altered a variety of traits within the Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis), including phenotypic, physiological and behavioral traits of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis). Little is known, however, about the genetic changes between domesticated and wild Eurasian perch. In this study, we assembled a high-quality de novo reference transcriptome and identified differentially expressed genes between wild and domesticated Eurasian perch. A total of 113,709 transcripts were assembled, and 58,380 transcripts were annotated. Transcriptomic comparison revealed 630 differentially expressed genes between domesticated and wild Eurasian perch. Within domesticated Eurasian perch there were 412 genes that were up-regulated including MHCI, MHCII, chia, ighm within immune system development. There were 218 genes including try1, ctrl, ctrb, cela3b, cpa1 and cpb1, which were down-regulated that were associated with digestive processes. Our results indicated domestication drives the changes of immune and digestive system of Eurasian perch. Our study not only provide valuable genetic resources for further studies in Eurasian perch, but also provide novel insights into the genetic basis of physiological changes in Eurasian perch during domestication process.

  6. Effects of cutting disturbance in Schoenoplectus californicus (C.A. Mey. Soják on the benthic macroinvertebrates - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i1.6383 Effects of cutting disturbance in Schoenoplectus californicus (C.A. Mey. Soják on the benthic macroinvertebrates - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i1.6383

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Luiza Würdig

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Lagoons are considered protected areas because these systems play a key ecological role. However, the extraction of macrophyte Schoenoplectus californicus is held for manufacture of handcrafts, being an alternative income for riverbank communities. This study evaluated the impact of S. californicus experimental cutting on benthic macroinvertebrates trough a field experiment. Macroinvertebrates were sampled at 1, 12, 26 and 60 days after the macrophyte cutting in demarked plots (1 m², as well at control plots. The families number was not statistically different (ANOVA, p > 0.05, but the total density of invertebrates, and the density of Ceratopogonidae were significant (ANOVA, p S. californicus, in this area, as the intensity of the cut held, did not affect considerably the aquatic macroinvertebrates. The results suggest that the small-scale extractivism in these regions carries little effect because the fauna of adjacent areas probably can quickly colonize the disturbed areas.Lagoons are considered protected areas because these systems play a key ecological role. However, the extraction of macrophyte Schoenoplectus californicus is held for manufacture of handcrafts, being an alternative income for riverbank communities. This study evaluated the impact of S. californicus experimental cutting on benthic macroinvertebrates trough a field experiment. Macroinvertebrates were sampled at 1, 12, 26 and 60 days after the macrophyte cutting in demarked plots (1 m², as well at control plots. The families number was not statistically different (ANOVA, p > 0.05, but the total density of invertebrates, and the density of Ceratopogonidae were significant (ANOVA, p S. californicus, in this area, as the intensity of the cut held, did not affect considerably the aquatic macroinvertebrates. The results suggest that the small-scale extractivism in these regions carries little effect because the fauna of adjacent areas probably can quickly colonize the disturbed

  7. Rice microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    An understanding of plant structure is desirable to obtain a clear idea of the overall impact of a crop. A mature rice plant consists of leafy components (left in the field post-harvest) and paddy rice (collected). The rice plant is supported by a hollow stem (culm) with leaf sheaths attached to nod...

  8. Sightings of Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & D' Orbigny, 1844 and Sotalia fluviatilis (Gervais, 1853 (Cetacea in South-eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula M. Di Beneditto

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & D' Orbigny, 1844 and Sotalia fluviatilis (Gervais, 1853 have typically coastal habits and are sympatric in South-eastern Brazil. The purpose of this work was to record sightings and describe aspects concerning the behaviour of both species in this region, between 1993 and 1998. The sightings were accomplished by cruises and from a fixed point. Information provided by fishermen were also considered. In general, P. blainvillei was observed in all seasons of the year, up to five nautical miles away from the coast, up to 15 m deep and the groups comprised up to five specimens. The most part of the groups of S. fluviatilis, were observed in autumm and winter times and comprised up to 10 specimens. In about half of the sightings, the presence of calves and/or juveniles was noted. The cooperative (group fishing was the foranging behaviour most frequently noted for S. fluviatilis.Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & D’Orgigny, 1844 e Sotalia fluviatilis (Gervais, 1853 possuem hábitos tipicamente costeiros e são simpátricas no Sudeste do Brasil. O objetivo deste trabalho foi registrar avistagens e descrever aspectos relacionados ao comportamento de ambas as espécies na região, entre 1993 e 1998. As avistagens foram realizadas através de cruzeiros e ponto fixo. Informações fornecidas por pescadores também foram consideradas. Em geral, P. blainvillei foi observada em todas as estações do ano, a até cinco milhas náuticas de distância da linha da costa e 15 m de profundidade e, os grupos eram formados por até cinco espécimens. A maior parte dos grupos de S. fluviatilis foi observada no período de outono e inverno e, era formada por até 10 espécimens. Em metade das avistagens, a presença de filhotes e/ou juvenis foi verificada. A pesca cooperativa (em grupo foi o comportamento alimentar observado com maior freqüência para S. fluviatilis.

  9. Analysis of whistles produced by the Tucuxi Dolphin Sotalia fluviatilis from Sepetiba Bay, Brazil

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    Erber Claudia

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available From July 2001 to June 2002, we recorded a total of 2h55min of Tucuxi Dolphin Sotalia fluviatilis vocalizations from Sepetiba Bay, Brazil (22º35'S-44º03'W. A total of 3350 whistles were analyzed quantitative and qualitatively and were divided into 124 types, by visual inspection of sonograms. The following parameters were measured: Initial Frequency, Final Frequency, Minimum Frequency, Maximum Frequency, Duration, Number of Inflections, Frequency at the Inflection Points, Frequency at 1/2, 1/4, and 3/4 of whistle duration, Presence of Frequency Modulation and Harmonics. Ascending type whistles (N=2719 were most common, representing 82% of the total. Dolphin behavior and average group size observed during recording influenced the whistle's quantitative and qualitative parameters. The results demonstrate the great diversity of whistles emitted and indicate a functional role of these vocalizations during the observed behaviors.

  10. Marine spawning sites of perch Perca fluviatilis revealed by oviduct-inserted acoustic transmitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovrind, Mikkel; Christensen, Emil A.F.; Carl, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    In the 1970s, a flood-protection system dramatically changed a large part of the coastal environment of Køge Bugt, a bay in the western Baltic Sea, from open coast to a brackish lagoon habitat. An anadromous stock of European perch Perca fluviatilis seems to have benefitted from this change...... a strong proof of concept of oviduct-inserted acoustic transmitters in brackish and marine fish spawning studies. The transmitter expulsions were validated using an egg map, which was based on visual observations of perch egg-strands, and 11 of the 12 expulsed transmitters (92%) were located in areas...... with eggs. Many fish spawned in the brackish water with salinities up to 9.6 PSU. These salinities are higher than those previously observed for European perch spawning in the wild, and call for further investigations of salinity tolerance in perch eggs...

  11. Influence of larval and pupal products on the oviposition behavior of Aedes Fluviatilis (Lutz (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Rotraut A. G. B. Consoli

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available Several larval and pupal products of Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz were tested for their influence on the oviposition behaviour of females of the same species. Significant (alfa = 0,05 atractiveness was shown by: larval water, previously containing 5 to 15 larvae/1,5 ml; larval water, preserved up to 38 days; evaporate and reconstructed larval water extracts up to 2 years after production and water filtered through fresh or dried ground larvae. hexanic larval water extracts and water filtered through fresh or dired ground pupae did not influence oviposition.Estudou-se a influência sobre o comportamento de oviposição das fêmeas de Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz de produtos derivados das formas imaturas da mesma espécie. As fêmeas foram atraídas significativamente (x=0,05 por ocasião da ovoposição por: água destilada que contivera 5 ou 15 larvas/1,5 ml, a mesma água (5 larvas/1,5 mlapós sua preservação por 38 dias; extratos evaporados e reconstituídos de água que conteve larvas, por até dois anos a sua produção, e filtrados de macerados frescos e secos de larvas. Extratos hexânicos de água que conteve larvas e filtrados de macerados descos e secos de pupas não atraíram a ovoposição das fêmeas.

  12. Temperature effects on aerobic scope and cardiac performance of European perch (Perca fluviatilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Denise Lyager; Overgaard, Johannes; Wang, Tobias; Gesser, Hans; Malte, Hans

    2017-08-01

    Several recent studies have highlighted how impaired cardiac performance at high temperatures and in hypoxia may compromise the capacity for oxygen transport. Thus, at high temperatures impaired cardiac capacity is proposed to reduce oxygen transport to a degree that lowers aerobic scope and compromises thermal tolerance (the oxygen- and capacity-limited thermal tolerance (OCLTT) hypothesis). To investigate this hypothesis, we measured aerobic and cardiac performance of a eurythermal freshwater teleost, the European perch (Perca fluviatilis). Rates of oxygen consumption were measured during rest and activity at temperatures between 5°C and 27°C, and we evaluated cardiac function by in vivo measurements of heart rate and in vitro studies to determine contractility of myocardial strips. Aerobic scope increased progressively from 5°C to 21°C, after which it levelled off. Heart rate showed a similar response. We found little difference between resting and active heart rate at high temperature suggesting that increased cardiac scope during activity is primarily related to changes in stroke volume. To examine the effects of temperature on cardiac capacity, we measured isometric force development in electrically paced myocardial preparations during different combinations of temperature, pacing frequency, oxygenation and adrenergic stimulation. The force-frequency product increased markedly upon adrenergic stimulation at 21 and 27°C (with higher effects at 21°C) and the cardiac preparations were highly sensitive to hypoxia. These findings suggest that at (critically) high temperatures, cardiac output may diminish due to a decreased effect of adrenergic stimulation and that this effect may be further exacerbated if the heart becomes hypoxic. Hence cardiac limitations may contribute to the inability to increase aerobic scope at high temperatures in the European perch (Perca fluviatilis). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. First record of Pontian Monkey Goby, Neogobius fluviatilis (Pallas, 1814 in the Evros River (Greece; Is it an alien species?

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    S. ZOGARIS

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The Pontian Monkey Goby,Neogobius fluviatilis (Pallas, 1814, was recorded for the first time in Greece in August 2011. Eight specimens were collected in the Greek-Turkish section of the Evros River, 65 kilometers upstream of its river-mouth. Although the species has been recently discovered in the Tundza, a tributary of the Evros in Bulgaria, it has never before been found in the Evros’ main stem.  Although the lower Evros has been poorly researched by ichthyologists, it is unlikely that a conspicuous medium-sized fish would go unnoticed in this river; and, it is therefore suggested to be a probable alien. However, since the Evros basin has had geological connections to the Marmara Sea and Black Sea in the past and it is immediately adjacent to native populations of N. fluviatilis, the species status is categorized as questionable until genetic and morphological studies are completed.

  14. Bionomics of Anopheles fluviatilis and Anopheles culicifacies (Diptera: Culicidae) in Relation to Malaria Transmission in East-Central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, S S; Gunasekaran, K; Krishnamoorthy, N; Vanamail, P; Mathivanan, A; Manonmani, A; Jambulingam, P

    2017-07-01

    The southern districts of Odisha State in east-central India have been highly endemic for falciparum malaria for many decades. However, there is no adequate information on the abundance of the vector species or their bionomics in relation to space and time in these districts. Therefore, a study was carried out on the entomological aspects of malaria transmission to generate such information. Collections of mosquitoes were made once during each of the three seasons in 128 villages selected from eight districts. Villages within the foot-hill ecotype had a significantly greater abundance of Anopheles fluviatilis James s. l., whereas the abundance of Anopheles culicifacies Giles s. l. was significantly greater in the plain ecotype. The abundance of An. fluviatilis was maximum during the cold season, whereas An. culicifacies abundance was highest during summer and rainy seasons. The maximum likelihood estimation of the malaria infection rate in An. fluviatilis was 1.78%, 6.05%, and 2.6% in Ganjam, Kalahandi, and Rayagada districts, respectively. The infection rate of An. culicifacies was 1.39% only in Kandhamal district; infected females were not detected elsewhere. Concurrently, the annual malaria parasite incidence (MPI) was significantly higher in hill-top (17.6) and foot-hill (14.4) villages compared to plain villages (4.1). The districts with more villages in hill-top and foot-hill ecotypes also had a greater abundance of An. fluviatilis, the major malaria vector, and exhibited a higher incidence of malaria than villages within the plain ecotype, where An. culicifacies was the most abundant vector. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  15. The modulation of the symbiont/host interaction between Wolbachia pipientis and Aedes fluviatilis embryos by glycogen metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana da Rocha Fernandes

    Full Text Available Wolbachia pipientis, a maternally transmitted bacterium that colonizes arthropods, may affect the general aspects of insect physiology, particularly reproduction. Wolbachia is a natural endosymbiont of Aedes fluviatilis, whose effects in embryogenesis and reproduction have not been addressed so far. In this context, we investigated the correlation between glucose metabolism and morphological alterations during A. fluviatilis embryo development in Wolbachia-positive (W+ and Wolbachia-negative (W- mosquito strains. While both strains do not display significant morphological and larval hatching differences, larger differences were observed in hexokinase activity and glycogen contents during early and mid-stages of embryogenesis, respectively. To investigate if glycogen would be required for parasite-host interaction, we reduced Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (GSK-3 levels in adult females and their eggs by RNAi. GSK-3 knock-down leads to embryonic lethality, lower levels of glycogen and total protein and Wolbachia reduction. Therefore, our results suggest that the relationship between A. fluviatilis and Wolbachia may be modulated by glycogen metabolism.

  16. Effects of cutting disturbance in Schoenoplectus californicus (C.A. Mey. Soják on the benthic macroinvertebrates = Efeito do distúrbio de corte em Schoenoplectus californicus (C.A. Mey. Soják sobre a fauna de macroinvertebrados bentônicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Cesar Lima Silveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lagoons are considered protected areas because these systems play a key ecological role. However, the extraction of macrophyte Schoenoplectus californicus is held for manufacture of handcrafts, being an alternative income for riverbank communities. This studyevaluated the impact of S. californicus experimental cutting on benthic macroinvertebrates trough a field experiment. Macroinvertebrates were sampled at 1, 12, 26 and 60 days after themacrophyte cutting in demarked plots (1 m², as well at control plots. The families number was not statistically different (ANOVA, p > 0.05, but the total density of invertebrates, and the density of Ceratopogonidae were significant (ANOVA, p No Brasil, as margens de lagoas são consideradas áreas protegidas por desempenharem importante papel ecológico. No entanto, a extração da macrófita Schoenoplectus californicus é realizada para a fabricação de artesanato, sendo alternativa de renda para as comunidades ribeirrinhas. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o impacto do corte de S. californicus sobre os macroinvertebrados bentônicos por meio de um experimento de campo. Os macroinvertebrados foram amostrados um dia, 12, 26 e 60 dias após o corte em macrófitas em parcelas demarcadas (1 m², bem como nas parcelas-controle. As famílias de macroinvertebrados mais abundantes não apresentaram diferenças significativas (ANOVA, p < 0,05, mas a densidade total de invertebrados e a densidade de Ceratopogonidae foram significativas (ANOVA, p < 0,05 para a interação entre a data de amostragem e tratamento. A Análise de Componentes Principais identificou que a profundidade no local do experimento foi a variável que influenciou a variabilidade entre as amostras coletadas no experimento. Concluiu-seque o corte de S. californicus, nessa área, como a intensidade do corte realizado, não afeta drasticamente a composição de macroinvertebrados aquáticos. Os resultados sugerem que o extrativismo em pequenas

  17. Confirmation of Two Sibling Species among Anopheles fluviatilis Mosquitoes in South and Southeastern Iran by Analysis of Cytochrome Oxidase I Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddaf, Saied Reza; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Vatandoost, Hassan

    2012-12-01

    Anopheles fluviatilis, one of the major malaria vectors in Iran, is assumed to be a complex of sibling species. The aim of this study was to evaluate Cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene alongside 28S-D3 as a diagnostic tool for identification of An. fluviatilis sibling species in Iran. DNA sample belonging to 24 An. fluviatilis mosquitoes from different geographical areas in south and southeastern Iran were used for amplification of COI gene followed by sequencing. The 474-475 bp COI sequences obtained in this study were aligned with 59 similar sequences of An. fluviatilis and a sequence of Anopheles minimus, as out group, from GenBank database. The distances between group and individual sequences were calculated and phylogenetic tree for obtained sequences was generated by using Kimura two parameter (K2P) model of neighbor-joining method. Phylogenetic analysis using COI gene grouped members of Fars Province (central Iran) in two distinct clades separate from other Iranian members representing Hormozgan, Kerman, and Sistan va Baluchestan Provinces. The mean distance between Iranian and Indian individuals was 1.66%, whereas the value between Fars Province individuals and the group comprising individuals from other areas of Iran was 2.06%. Presence of 2.06% mean distance between individuals from Fars Province and those from other areas of Iran is indicative of at least two sibling species in An. fluviatilis mosquitoes of Iran. This finding confirms earlier results based on RAPD-PCR and 28S-D3 analysis.

  18. Features of reproduction in laboratory-reared Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz, 1904 (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotraut A. G. B. Cônsoli

    1983-03-01

    Full Text Available Observations were made on 100 female Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz maintained individually from the first blood meal onwards and allowed one blood meal during each oviposition cycle, 5% dextrose solution been supplied throughout life. The average length of live was 49.9 ± 17.8 days; the logarithm of the mortality rate increased proportionately to physiological age. The insects took an average of 7.3 ± 3.2 blood meals and produced a mean of 7.9 ± 3.7 clutches of eggs. There was a progressive decrease, proportional to advancing physiological age, in the mean numbers of eggs laid in successive oviposition cycles, in the intervals between blood feeding oviposition, and in the numbers of larvae that hatched. Delayed oviposition, transient sterility and a total loss of fertility were also recorded.De 100 fêmeas de Aedese fluviatilis (Lutz, 1904 individualmente observadas foram obtidos 45.475 ovos em um total de 790 posturas. As médias de desovas produzidas e de repastos sangüíneos ingeridos por fêmea, foram respectivamente 7,9 ± 3,7 e 7,3 ± 3,2 e a longevidade média foi de 49,9 ± 17,8 dias. Em análise de regressão linear, foi observado um progressivo decréscimo das médias de ovos por postura, larvas eclodidas e número de dias entre repasto sangüíneo e postura, proporcional ao aumento da idade fisiológica. Foram ainda observadas ocorrências de ingestão de sangue durante o desenvolvimento dos ovos, recusa de alimentação sangüínea entre desovas sucessivas, retenção espontânea de ovos por períodos apreciáveis, esterilidade transitória e esgotamento de fecundidade.

  19. Diphyllobothrium latum in Italy: plerocercoids larvae distribution in perch (Perca fluviatilis fillets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MariaLetizia Fioravanti

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Following the diffusion of new eating habits (consumption of uncooked, undercooked, marinated or cold-smoked fish, some cases of parasitic zoonosis from freshwater fish are recently reappeared in Italy. One of these is tapeworm Diphyllobothrium latum, whose final host could be human. This study aimed to individuate the position of plerocercoid larvae inside perch fillets (Perca fluviatilis caught in 4 different sites on Como lake in 2011. The fish analyzed were 390. The larvae totally isolated from 112 positive fishes were 164: 85 found in the right fillets and 79 in left ones. According to dorso-ventral disposition in fish, 144 larvae were individuated in dorsal muscles and 20 in ventral ones. Data collected confirm that plerocercoid larvae prefer the upper mass of perch muscle. Dietary education and sanitary care on fish supply are necessary to prevent the diffusion of tapeworm zoonosis in high-risk zones. European legislation establishes freezing to sanitize fish to be eaten raw, marinated or cold-smoked.

  20. Water transparency drives intra-population divergence in Eurasian Perch (Perca fluviatilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Pia; Hirsch, Philipp E; Svanbäck, Richard; Eklöv, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Trait combinations that lead to a higher efficiency in resource utilization are important drivers of divergent natural selection and adaptive radiation. However, variation in environmental features might constrain foraging in complex ways and therefore impede the exploitation of critical resources. We tested the effect of water transparency on intra-population divergence in morphology of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) across seven lakes in central Sweden. Morphological divergence between near-shore littoral and open-water pelagic perch substantially increased with increasing water transparency. Reliance on littoral resources increased strongly with increasing water transparency in littoral populations, whereas littoral reliance was not affected by water transparency in pelagic populations. Despite the similar reliance on pelagic resources in pelagic populations along the water transparency gradient, the utilization of particular pelagic prey items differed with variation in water transparency in pelagic populations. Pelagic perch utilized cladocerans in lakes with high water transparency and copepods in lakes with low water transparency. We suggest that under impaired visual conditions low utilization of littoral resources by littoral perch and utilization of evasive copepods by pelagic perch may lead to changes in morphology. Our findings indicate that visual conditions can affect population divergence in predator populations through their effects on resource utilization.

  1. Impact of the cestode Triaenophorus nodulosus on the exotic Lepomis gibbosus and the autochthonous Perca fluviatilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, G; Vanacker, M; Fox, M G; Beisel, J-N

    2015-05-01

    The effects of plerocercoids of the cestode Triaenophorus nodulosus infecting the livers of native Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis and non-native pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus was investigated in 17 sites along the Moselle watershed. With a single exception, infected individuals were not observed in the main channel whether or not northern pike Esox lucius, a final host, was present. In ponds where the pike was present, the prevalence of T. nodulosus averaged 86% in Eurasian perch and 15% in pumpkinseed. The parasite was not present at all in ponds when pike were absent. Parasite load, hepatosomatic index (HSI), gonadosomatic index (GSI) and body condition index (CI) were compared between hosts in one site where parasite prevalence and fish abundance was highest. HSI in infected perch was significantly higher than in uninfected perch, whereas no differences in HSI were detected between infected and uninfected pumpkinseed. While perch were more frequently infected and had a greater average parasite load than pumpkinseed, there were no significant differences in either indicator between the two species. Furthermore, no significant differences in GSI or CI were observed between infected and uninfected fish in either species, by either gender or maturity stage. We hypothesize that pumpkinseed is more resistant to the parasite or less likely to feed upon infected copepods than perch.

  2. Influence of some plant extracts on the ovi-position behavior of Aedes fluviatilis and Culex quinquifasciatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhakim A. El Maghrbi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic/acetone extracts of nine species of plants (Allium tuberosum, Apium leptophylum, Carica papaya, Cymbopogon citratus, Euphorbia cotinofolia, Melia azedarach, Ocimum canum, Ricinus communis and Tagetes erecta were tested in respect to their influence on the ovi-position behavior of the mosquito, Aedes fluviatilis and Culex quinquifasciatus in concentrations of 100, 10 and 1 mg/L. Three days after mosquito females had fed on blood of anesthetized mice and pigeon respectively, experimental and control dishes were placed into cages for 24 h then number of eggs laid in each dish was counted. Alcoholic/acetone extracts of C. papaya, C. citratus and T. erecta at 100 mg/L; E. cotinofolia and O. canum at 100 and 10 mg/L were proved to be repulsive for ovi-position of Ae. fluviatilis. On the other hand, acetone extracts of A. tuberosum and M. azederach at 100 and 10 mg/L; A. leptophyllum, O. canum, E. cotinofolia and R. communis at 100 mg/L produced same effect on ovi-position behavior of Ae. fluviatilis. Alcoholic extracts E. cotinofolia, R. communis (100 mg/L and M. azedarach (100 and 10 mg/L were attractive to Cx. quinquifasciatus. Five acetone extracts (A. tuberosum, A. leptophylum, C. papaya, C. Citrates and M. azedarach were repulsive for ovi-position at 100 mg/L. Acetone extract of A. tuberosum and M. azedarach at 10 and 1 mg/L and C. citratus at 10 mg/L maintained the same properties. Our results concluded that each plant extract has the potential to control ovi-position behavior of mosquito. The differences in obtained responses necessitate the adoption of deeper research to isolate the active principle of such plants for potential use in mosquito control program.

  3. Molecular sexing of tucuxi dolphins (Sotalia guianensis and Sotalia fluviatilis using samples from biopsy darting and decomposed carcasses

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    Haydée A. Cunha

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We tested the zinc-finger sex chromosome-linked genes Zfx/Zfy and the sex-determining region Y (Sry genes for gender determination of biopsy samples from marine and riverine tucuxi dolphins (Sotalia guianensis and S. fluviatilis. We also evaluated the performance of these genes with decomposed carcasses, for which sexing cannot rely on the direct examination of the reproductive tract. Both systems proved reliable for sexing 46 fresh and decomposed samples, making them especially useful when biopsy darting is coupled with photo-identification studies.

  4. The effect of turbidity and prey fish density on consumption rates of piscivorous Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lene; Berg, Søren; Baktoft, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    piscivorous Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis L. This was done in outdoor mesocosm (16 m2) experiments with clear water and two levels of turbidity (25 and 105 NTU) and two prey fish densities [3.1 and 12.5 roach Rutilus rutilus (L.) individuals m–2]. Perch consumption rates were affected by visibility less...... than expected, while they were highly affected by increased prey fish density. Perch responded to high prey density in all visibility conditions, indicating that prey density is more crucial for consumption than visibility in turbid lakes...

  5. Adaptive major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and neutral genetic variation in two native Baltic Sea fishes (perch Perca fluviatilis and zander Sander lucioperca) with comparisons to an introduced and disease susceptible population in Australia (P. fluviatilis): assessing the risk of disease epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulks, L K; Östman, Ö

    2016-04-01

    This study assessed the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and neutral genetic variation and structure in two percid species, perch Perca fluviatilis and zander Sander lucioperca, in a unique brackish ecosystem, the Baltic Sea. In addition, to assess the importance of MHC diversity to disease susceptibility in these populations, comparisons were made to an introduced, disease susceptible, P. fluviatilis population in Australia. Eighty-three MHC class II B exon 2 variants were amplified: 71 variants from 92 P. fluviatilis samples, and 12 variants from 82 S. lucioperca samples. Microsatellite and MHC data revealed strong spatial genetic structure in S. lucioperca, but not P. fluviatilis, across the Baltic Sea. Both microsatellite and MHC data showed higher levels of genetic diversity in P. fluviatilis from the Baltic Sea compared to Australia, which may have facilitated the spread of an endemic virus, EHNV in the Australian population. The relatively high levels of genetic variation in the Baltic Sea populations, together with spatial genetic structure, however, suggest that there currently seems to be little risk of disease epidemics in this system. To ensure this remains the case in the face of ongoing environmental changes, fisheries and habitat disturbance, the conservation of local-scale genetic variation is recommended. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  6. Study of Phenotypic Correlations between Morphologic Characters and Body Parameters at River Male Lobsters (Astacus Fluviatilis

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    Marian Bura

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The body measurements was made on 20 males of river lobster (Astacus fluviatilis or Astacus astacus. The lobsters on witch the study was made had an average total length of body of 12.72 cm ±0.19 cm (formed from: 6.07±0.10cm the length of cefalothorax, 4.73 ±0.10 cm the length of abdomen and 1.91 ±0.07 cm length of telson, and a body weight of 55.70±3.07 g. the males present a length of antennas of 8.53±0.34 cm, a feelers of 2.20±0.05 cm, and the stems of the eyes of 0.51±0.02 cm. The body of males present a average width of 3.35±0.07 cm at level of cefalothorax, and 2.40±0.05 cm at abdomen level. Average deepness of cefalothorax was 2.85±0.07cm, and abdomen deepness of 1.34±0.03cm. The 5 pairs of periopodes had an average length of 10.91±0.42 cm, 6.06±0.22 cm, 7.21±0.21 cm, 6.57±0.16 cm and 5.85±0.15cm. The average length of pleopods was at first pears of 2.00±0.06 cm, at second pair of 2.11±0.05 cm, at third of 1.85±0.05 cm, at fourth of 1.73±0.04 cm and at fifth pair of 1.55±0.04 cm.

  7. First isolation of a rhabdovirus from perch Perca fluviatilis in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahli, Thomas; Bellec, Laure; von Siebenthal, Beat; Cabon, Joëlle; Schmidt-Posthaus, Heike; Morin, Thierry

    2015-10-16

    Perca fluviatilis is a fish species of increasing interest to the Swiss fish farming industry. In recent years, recirculation systems have been specifically set up to increase production. In one of these farms, abnormal spiral swimming associated with elevated mortalities occurred in repeated batches of imported perch shortly after stocking on several occasions. No bacterial or parasitic etiology was detected, but a virus grown in bluegill fry (BF-2) cells was identified as perch rhabdovirus. Subsequent investigations of other samples suggested a viral tropism for the central nervous system (CNS). Phylogenetic analysis of the partial N and entire G gene sequences positioned this isolate in genogroup C of the species Perch rhabdovirus, with high nucleotide and amino acid (aa) sequence identities with the DK5533 strain isolated in Denmark in 1989. Comparative studies using other closely related isolates allowed the distinction of 2 serological patterns among perch rhabdoviruses and the identification of a proline substitution by a serine in position 147 of the glycoprotein potentially involved in antigenic differentiation. Even if perch imported onto the farm tested negative by virus isolation prior to transport, they may have been the origin of this outbreak since CNS tissue was not included in the samples that were analyzed. Another possibility might be a sub-clinical infection with a viral load in resident fish too low to be detected. This study reports the first isolation of a perch rhabdovirus in Switzerland, and emphasizes the necessity of optimizing diagnostic tools that facilitate better control of the risks associated with fish translocation.

  8. Confirmation of Two Sibling Species among Anopheles Fluviatilis Mosquitoes in South and Southeastern Iran by Analysis of Cytochrome Oxidase I Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saied Reza Naddaf

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anopheles fluviatilis, one of the major malaria vectors in Iran, is assumed to be a complex of sibling species. The aim of this study was to evaluate Cytochrome oxidase I (COI gene alongside 28S-D3 as a diagnostic tool for identification of An. fluviatilis sibling species in Iran.Methods: DNA sample belonging to 24 An. fluviatilis mosquitoes from different geographical areas in south and southeastern Iran were used for amplification of COI gene followed by sequencing. The 474–475 bp COI sequences obtained in this study were aligned with 59 similar sequences of An. fluviatilis and a sequence of Anopheles minimus, as out group, from GenBank database. The distances between group and individual sequences were calculated and phy­logenetic tree for obtained sequences was generated by using Kimura two parameter (K2P model of neighbor-join­ing method.Results: Phylogenetic analysis using COI gene grouped members of Fars Province (central Iran in two distinct clades separate from other Iranian members representing Hormozgan, Kerman, and Sistan va Baluchestan Provinces. The mean distance between Iranian and Indian individuals was 1.66%, whereas the value between Fars Province individ­uals and the group comprising individuals from other areas of Iran was 2.06%.Conclusion: Presence of 2.06% mean distance between individuals from Fars Province and those from other areas of Iran is indicative of at least two sibling species in An. fluviatilis mosquitoes of Iran. This finding confirms earlier results based on RAPD-PCR and 28S-D3 analysis.

  9. (PGMS) rice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-04-18

    Apr 18, 2011 ... tics, led us to predict that pollen cell abortion in this type of rice when ... averages of natural day-light-lengths and temperatures were used. A natural long ... blocks were allowed to grow under natural growth conditions (which.

  10. Experimental infection with epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum and European perch (Perca fluviatilis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borzym Ewa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the determination of the susceptibility of Polish farmed redfin perch (Perca fluviatilis L. and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum to experimental infection with haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV. A bath challenge model was tested at two temperature ranges: 13-15°C and 20-22°C. After 7 d, the first clinical signs and mortality were observed in fish kept at these temperatures. Significantly more mortality cases were reported in the redfin perch population, reaching a maximum of 24% compared with 12% in the rainbow trout group at 20-22°C. EHNV was reisolated from redfin perch and rainbow trout tissue in cell culture and the infection was confirmed by a molecular method and histopathology during the duration of the experiment. This study revealed that fish from Polish farms can be susceptible to EHNV even at lower temperatures.

  11. The Effects of Zebra Mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) on the Foraging Success of Eurasian Perch (Perca fluviatilis) and Ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieterich, Axel; Mörtl, Martin; Eckmann, Reiner

    2004-07-01

    Complex habitat structures can influence the foraging success of fish. Competition for food between fish species can therefore depend on the competitors' abilities to cope with structural complexity. In laboratory experiments, we comparatively assessed effects of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha Pall.) on the foraging success of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) and ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus (L.)). In single-species and mixed-species experiments, the fish were fed caddisfly larvae (Tinodes waeneri (L.)) over complex (mussel-covered stones) and less-complex (bare stones) substrates. With intraspecific competition, food consumption by perch and ruffe decreased significantly when the complex substrate was used. With interspecific competition, food consumption by perch and ruffe did not change with substrate complexity, but perch clearly out-competed ruffe on both substrates. Zebra mussel beds provide a refuge for macrozoobenthos against predation by ruffe and probably also by perch. (

  12. Genetic characterization and relatedness of wild and farmed Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis: Possible implications for aquaculture practices

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    Sana Ben Khadher

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture of the Eurasian perch, Perca fluviatilis, in recirculating systems has emerged over the past decades to become a significant way of diversification for inland areas in Europe. The development of such a production relies partly on the improvement of growth performance (i.e., reducing production costs, which requires suitable genetic management of broodstocks and the development of selective breeding programs. In this context, the present study was undertaken assessing for the first time the genetic diversity of farmed stocks of perch. Twelve microsatellite loci were used to investigate the genetic diversity of nine farmed stocks (547 individuals from two perch farms located in France and their supposedly wild founder population from Lake Geneva (394 individuals. First, the wild population displayed the lowest genetic diversity and differed genetically from all farmed populations except one, XB2. Second, genetic diversity did not decrease between farmed breeders and their potential offspring. However, in the three groups of broodstock-offspring the number of alleles decreased by 10%, 21%, and 15%, respectively. In addition, effective population size decreased in all offspring groups. A family structuring was also observed among broodstocks and their offspring, with an unequal family contribution being suspected. In the absence of parental information, these results attest to the utility of genetic tools to evaluate genetic diversity and the necessity of a monitoring program to maintain genetic variability among farmed perch. Genetic variability among farmed stocks appears to be sufficient for perch production to be sustainable and selective breeding programs to be developed. Keywords: Perca fluviatilis, Genetic diversity, Domestication, Microsatellites

  13. Relative growth, sexual dimorphism and morphometric maturity of Trichodactylus fluviatilis (Decapoda: Brachyura: Trichodactylidae from Santa Terezinha, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Rozário da Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater crabs are important elements in the aquatic biota of brooks, rivers, lakes and ponds, from both ecological and the socio-economic aspects. Trichodactylidae comprises 51 endemic species from the Neotropical region. Among all the species of this family, Trichodactylus fluviatilis Latreille, 1828 has the widest geographic distribution throughout Brazil. Despite that, there are few published contributions on the biology of this species. The present study investigated the following aspects of T. fluviatilis: relative growth, mean size at onset of morphometric maturity, sexual dimorphism, laterality and heterochely. Specimens were collected monthly from September 2010 through August 2011, from the Velha Eugênia Brook, municipality of Santa Teresinha, State of Bahia. Carapace width (CW, carapace length (CL, major cheliped length (MaCL and minor cheliped length (MiCL, major cheliped height (MaCH and minor cheliped height (MiCH, and width of the fifth abdominal segment (5AB were measured to evaluate the presence of sexual dimorphism; the major difference between the sexes was in the CW vs. 5AB ratio. Heterochely was observed in males and females,with the right cheliped larger than the left in 89% of males and 81% of females. Crab size at the onset of morphometric maturity (= puberty molt was estimated based on the ratio between CL, cheliped dimensions, 5AB and CW (independent variable. Females were larger than males when they reached morphometric maturity in all studied relations. We recommend the use of chelipeds and abdominal width relationships to estimate the size at the morphometric maturity in males and females, respectively.

  14. Environmental management through sluice gated bed-dam: a revived strategy for the control of Anopheles fluviatilis breeding in streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, S.S.; Gunasekaran, K.; Jambulingam, P.

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Integrated vector management (IVM) emphasizes sustainable eco-friendly methods and minimal use of chemicals. In this context, the present study highlights the environmental control of breeding of Anopheles fluviatilis, the primary malaria vector, through water management in a natural stream in Koraput district, Odisha, India. Methods: The District Rural Development Agency (DRDA), Koraput, constructed two bed-dams across streams, one in Barigaon and the other in Pipalapodar village. The bed-dam in the former village was fitted with two sluice gates whereas the bed dam constructed in the latter village was without the sluice gate. The sluice gates were opened once in a week on a fixed day to flush out the water from the dam. Anopheles immatures were sampled systematically in the streams using a dipper for density measurement and species composition. Results: There was a reduction of 84.9 per cent in the proportion of positive dips for Anopheles larvae/pupae and a reduction of 98.4 per cent in immature density (number/dip) of An. fluviatilis in the experimental downstream compared to the control following opening of the sluice gates. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findins showed that opening of sluice gates of the bed-dam regularly once in a week resulted in the control of vector breeding in the downstream due to the flushing effect of the water released with a high flow from the bed-dam that stagnated water in the upstream. The outcome of the study encourages upscaling this measure to other areas, wherever feasible. PMID:25297364

  15. 62 years of population dynamics of European perch (Perca fluviatilis) in a mesotrophic lake tracked using angler diaries: The role of commercial fishing, predation and temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Christian; Jansen, Teunis; Arlinghaus, Robert

    2017-01-01

    (abundance, mean size and record size) of European perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) in relation to the impact of three commercial fishers with different fishing strategies, pike (Esox lucius L.) predation and temperature. We found that anglers’ harvest rates of perch varied by a factor of 10 over time......, but it also underlines the need for supplementary data on biotic and abiotic factors to reach the full potential of angler diary data...

  16. Prevalence and incrimination of Anopheles fluviatilis species S (Diptera: Culicidae in a malaria endemic forest area of Chhattisgarh state, central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanda Nutan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chhattisgarh state in central India is highly endemic for malaria and contributes about 13% of annually reported malaria cases in the country with predominance of P. falciparum. Entomological investigations were carried out in a tribal forested area of district Bastar located in the southern part of Chhattisgarh state to record the prevalence of sibling species of Anopheles fluviatilis and An. culicifacies complexes. The vector species complexes were investigated at sibling species level for their biology in terms of resting and feeding behavior and malaria transmission potential. Methods Indoor resting vector mosquitoes collected during 2010–2011 were identified to sibling species by cytotaxonomy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay. The blood meal source analysis and incrimination studies were done at sibling species level by counter current immunoelectrophoresis and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA respectively. Results Analysis of sibling species composition revealed predominance of An. fluviatilis species S in the study area, which was found to be highly anthropophagic and rested in human dwellings whereas the sympatric species T was primarily zoophagic. Incrimination studies showed high sporozoite rate in species S, thereby confirming its vectorial efficiency. An. culicifacies was encountered in low numbers and comprised species B and C in almost equal proportion. Both these species were found to be exclusively zoophagic. Conclusion The observations made strongly suggest that species S of Fluviatilis Complex is the principal vector of malaria in certain forest areas of district Bastar, Chhattisgarh state and should be the target species for vector control operation. Vector control strategies based on biological characteristics of Fluviatilis S will lead to substantial decline in malaria incidence in such areas.

  17. THE CHANGES IN THE POPULATION OF THEODOXUS FLUVIATILIS IN THE RIVER TYWA WESTERN POMERANIA (POMORZE ZACHODNIE IN THE BACKGROUND OF THE ABIOTIC HABITAT

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    Tadeusz Zamkowski

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the research on the concentration and biomass of the gastropod Theodoxus fluviatilis found in the river Tywa (Western Pomerania. It has been stated that the strongest influence on the size of the concentration of those species had the following elements of habitat: the kind of the bed, amount of food, depth of water, degree of its transformation. However, the interrelation between the concentration of species and their biomass has not been noticed.

  18. Colonization of leaf litter of two aquatic macrophytes, Mayaca fluviatilis Aublet and Salvinia auriculata Aublet by aquatic macroinvertebrates in a tropical reservoir

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    Marcia Cristina de Paula

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Decomposition and colonization of S. auriculata and M. fluviatilis by macroinvertebrates were analyzed during 40 days to determine whether differences existed on colonization by aquatic macroinvertebrates of two macrophytes with distinct habits (submerged versus fluctuant. Leaf litter of S. auriculata and M. fluviatilis were incubated in 24 litter bags (12 of each species, in a small reservoir surrounded by a cerrado fragment with low level of anthropic impact. After 10, 20, 30 and 40 days, the litter bags were removed and aquatic macroinvertebrates community was analyzed. Two hundred twenty macroinvertebrates were associated with S. auriculata and 261 were associated with M. fluviatilis, identified in 24 taxa. Both macrophyte species were colonized mainly by macroinvertebrate predators. Ablabesmyia with predator and collector food mechanisms was present in all sampling. The data showed an expressive increase of abundance during the process of decomposition and a decrease at the end of the experiment, in both macrophytes. Cluster analysis permitted inference that the colonization of the leaf liter by macroinvertebrates was determinated by incubation time of leaf litter not by the habit of macrophytes (submerged or fluctuant.

  19. Novo registro altitudinal de Trichodactylus fluviatilis (Latreille, 1828 (Decapoda, Trichodactylidae no Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i3.785 New altitudinal record of Trichodactylus fluviatilis (Latreille, 1828 (Decapoda, Trichodactylidae in Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i3.785

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadete Maria Sousa

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Trichodactylus fluviatilis (Latreille, 1828 (Decapoda, Trichodactylidae é uma espécie de caranguejo que habita rios e riachos montanhosos em altitudes até aproximadamente 500 m. Sua distribuição ocorre na América do Sul, desde as bacias costeiras da faixa leste do Brasil até a bacia do alto Paraná e na Argentina. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi registrar a ocorrência de T. fluviatilis em uma Unidade de Conservação de Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, e fornecer um novo registro altitudinal dessa espécie no Brasil. As amostras foram obtidas de outubro de 2004 a julho de 2005. Foram coletados três indivíduos vivos, dois machos e uma fêmea da espécie. Também foram analisados 16 regurgitos estomacais do cágado Hydromedusa maximiliani, dos quais, em seis foram encontrados partes corporais deste crustáceo. Muitas espécies de caranguejos do Brasil da família Trichodactylidae vivem em regiões acima de 500m do nível do mar. No presente estudo, T. fluviatilis foi coletado a 770 m de altitude, ampliando assim a faixa de distribuição altitudinal dessa espécie no Brasil. Até o presente estudo não existiam relatos de T. fluviatilis no município de Juiz de Fora, portanto este estudo também se constitui em um novo registro desse tricodatilídeo em Minas Gerais.Trichodactylus fluviatilis (Latreille, 1828 (Decapoda, Trichodactylidae is a crab species that lives in mountainous rivers and streams at altitudes up to 500m. Its distribution ranges from South America from the Basins of eastern coast of Brazil to basins of the Upper Paraná River and Argentina. The main objective of this study was to register a new occurrence of T. fluviatilis at a Conservation Unit in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais and provide a new altitudinal record for this species in Brazil. The samples were taken between October 2004 and July 2005. We collected three live T. fluviatilis individuals – two males and one female. We also analyzed the stomach contents of 16

  20. First evidence for postzygotic reproductive isolation between two populations of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis L. within Lake Constance

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    Gerlach Gabriele

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evolution of reproductive traits, such as hybrid incompatibility (postzygotic isolation and species recognition (prezygotic isolation, have shown their key role in speciation. Theoretical modeling has recently predicted that close linkage between genes controlling pre- and postzygotic reproductive isolation could accelerate the conditions for speciation. Postzygotic isolation could develop during the sympatric speciation process contributing to the divergence of populations. Using hybrid fitness as a measure of postzygotic reproductive isolation, we empirically studied population divergence in perch (Perca fluviatilis L. from two genetically divergent populations within a lake. Results During spawning time of perch we artificially created parental offspring and F1 hybrids of the two populations and studied fertilization rate and hatching success under laboratory conditions. The combined fitness measure (product of fertilization rate and hatching success of F1 hybrids was significantly reduced compared to offspring from within population crosses. Conclusion Our results suggest intrinsic genetic incompatibility between the two populations and indicate that population divergence between two populations of perch inhabiting the same lake may indeed be promoted by postzygotic isolation.

  1. Influencia de la estación y de las especies Phragmites australis y Schoenoplectus californicus en la eliminación de materia orgánica y nutrientes contenidos en aguas servidas durante la operación de puesta en marcha de humedales construidos de flujo horizontal subsuperficial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Rojas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Las plantas de tratamiento de aguas servidas basadas en humedales construidos de flujo horizontal subsuperficial (HSS, logran su etapa de madurez después de dos años de operación. La eficiencia de operación de los sistemas depende de la estacionalidad, tipo de plantas y periodo de madurez del sistema. El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar la influencia de la estación y de las especies Phragmites australis y Schoenoplectus californicus, en la eficiencia de depuración en materia orgánica y nutrientes de unidades de HSS, durante la etapa operativa de puesta en marcha. Con esta finalidad, se implementaron cuatro unidades de HSS bajo condiciones climáticas mediterráneas australes. Dos unidades fueron plantadas con Phragmites australis y las otras dos, con Schoenoplectus californicus. En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de la etapa de puesta en marcha, que cubre los primeros 193 días de operación. Se evaluó la influencia de la especie de planta y la estación (invierno y primavera, en la eficiencia de depuración de materia orgánica (Demanda Biológica de Oxígeno, DBO5, y Demanda Química de Oxígeno, DQO y nutrientes (nitrógeno (N-NH4+, N-NO3- y NT y fósforo (P-PO4-3 y PT. Las unidades de HSS plantadas con Phragmites australis mostraron mejor adaptación temprana que las unidades de HSS plantadas con Schoenoplectus californicus. Sin embargo, las eficiencias de eliminación fueron similares en todas las unidades. Estacionalmente, se pudo evidenciar una diferencia de eliminación para DQO (invierno: 18 a 30%, primavera: 45 a 55% y NT (invierno: 25 a 65%, primavera: 25 a 35%.

  2. wFlu: characterization and evaluation of a native Wolbachia from the mosquito Aedes fluviatilis as a potential vector control agent.

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    Luke Anthony Baton

    Full Text Available There is currently considerable interest and practical progress in using the endosymbiotic bacteria Wolbachia as a vector control agent for human vector-borne diseases. Such vector control strategies may require the introduction of multiple, different Wolbachia strains into target vector populations, necessitating the identification and characterization of appropriate endosymbiont variants. Here, we report preliminary characterization of wFlu, a native Wolbachia from the neotropical mosquito Aedes fluviatilis, and evaluate its potential as a vector control agent by confirming its ability to cause cytoplasmic incompatibility, and measuring its effect on three parameters determining host fitness (survival, fecundity and fertility, as well as vector competence (susceptibility for pathogen infection. Using an aposymbiotic strain of Ae. fluviatilis cured of its native Wolbachia by antibiotic treatment, we show that in its natural host wFlu causes incomplete, but high levels of, unidirectional cytoplasmic incompatibility, has high rates of maternal transmission, and no detectable fitness costs, indicating a high capacity to rapidly spread through host populations. However, wFlu does not inhibit, and even enhances, oocyst infection with the avian malaria parasite Plasmodium gallinaceum. The stage- and sex-specific density of wFlu was relatively low, and with limited tissue distribution, consistent with the lack of virulence and pathogen interference/symbiont-mediated protection observed. Unexpectedly, the density of wFlu was also shown to be specifically-reduced in the ovaries after bloodfeeding Ae. fluviatilis. Overall, our observations indicate that the Wolbachia strain wFlu has the potential to be used as a vector control agent, and suggests that appreciable mutualistic coevolution has occurred between this endosymbiont and its natural host. Future work will be needed to determine whether wFlu has virulent host effects and/or exhibits pathogen

  3. Rice peasants and rice research in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkers, P.A.N.M.

    1983-01-01

    Rice has been grown as a food crop in Latin America from early colonial times. In Colombia rice became a prominent subsistence crop especially on the north coast where it has been grown since the 17th century, sometimes also as a commercial crop. During the last twenty years there has been a sharp

  4. Challenge studies of European stocks of redfin perch, Perca fluviatilis L., and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), with epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariel, Ellen; Jensen, Ann Britt Bang

    2009-01-01

    indicate that EHNV does not pose a high risk for wild perch and trout populations in Europe by natural exposure. Mortality appears to be primarily a function of environmental factors, with temperature playing an important role, and not just the presence of the virus in the fish.......A challenge model for comparison of the virulence of epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV) to European stock of redfin perch, Perca fluviatilis L., and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), was tested. The model investigated intraperitoneal (IP), bath and cohabitation routes at 10...

  5. [Experimental-morphological study of morphogenetic potencies of homogeneous aggregates of different types of cells from the freshwater sponge Ephydatia fluviatilis (L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, N S

    1977-01-01

    The morphogenetic potencies of somatic cells of the fresh-water sponge Ephydatia fluviatilis in the developing aggregates depend on their initial specialization and the number of cells in the aggregate. The aggregates of nucleolar amoebocytes consisting of 500 or more cells have the highest morphogenetic potencies. All main cell types can arise in the developing homogeneous aggregates of nucleolar amoebocytes. The fine structure of nucleolar amoebocytes at different stages of development of the homogeneous aggregates was studied by means of electron microscopy. The structural rearrangements are described which accompany the process of redifferentiation of the nucleolar amoebocytes in other cell types.

  6. Floristic diversity of the soil weed seed bank in a rice-growing area of Brazil: in situ and ex situ evaluation

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    Mário Luiz Ribeiro Mesquita

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the ex situ and in situ floristic diversity of the soil weed seed bank of a rice field in northeastern Brazil. In a rice field in the county of Bacabal, located in the state of Maranhão, thirty 25-m² plots were laid out. From 15 plots, soil samples (6/plot; n = 90 were taken with a soil probe (25 × 16 × 3 cm and placed in aluminum trays in the greenhouse. From the remaining 15 plots, weed samples (6/plot; n = 90 were taken with the same soil probe. The number of seeds was estimated by germination. We evaluated the numbers of species and individuals, as well as the density, frequency, abundance and importance value (IV for each species. Diversity was computed by the Shannon index (H'. We recorded 13,892 individuals (among 20 families, 40 genera and 60 species, of which 11,530 (among 50 species germinated ex situ and 2,362 (among 34 species germinated in situ. The family Cyperaceae had the highest number of species (16, followed by Poaceae (10. The dominant species, in situ and ex situ, were Schoenoplectus juncoides (IV=47.4% and Ludwigia octovalvis (IV=34.8%, respectively. Floristic diversity was higher ex situ (H'=2.66. The information obtained here could help determine the infestation potential of these species, which could lead to improved management strategies.

  7. On the Mechanism(s of Membrane Permeability Transition in Liver Mitochondria of Lamprey, Lampetra fluviatilis L.: Insights from Cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Belyaeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously we have shown that opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore in its low conductance state is the case in hepatocytes of the Baltic lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis L. during reversible metabolic depression taking place in the period of its prespawning migration when the exogenous feeding is switched off. The depression is observed in the last year of the lamprey life cycle and is conditioned by reversible mitochondrial dysfunction (mitochondrial uncoupling in winter and coupling in spring. To further elucidate the mechanism(s of induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore in the lamprey liver, we used Cd2+ and Ca2+ plus Pi as the pore inducers. We found that Ca2+ plus Pi induced the high-amplitude swelling of the isolated “winter” mitochondria both in isotonic sucrose and ammonium nitrate medium while both low and high Cd2+ did not produce the mitochondrial swelling in these media. Low Cd2+ enhanced the inhibition of basal respiration rate of the “winter” mitochondria energized by NAD-dependent substrates whereas the same concentrations of the heavy metal evoked its partial stimulation on FAD-dependent substrates. The above changes produced by Cd2+ or Ca2+ plus Pi in the “winter” mitochondria were only weakly (if so sensitive to cyclosporine A (a potent pharmacological desensitizer of the nonselective pore added alone and they were not sensitive to dithiothreitol (a dithiol reducing agent. Under monitoring of the transmembrane potential of the “spring” lamprey liver mitochondria, we revealed that Cd2+ produced its decrease on both types of the respiratory substrates used that was strongly hampered by cyclosporine A, and the membrane potential was partially restored by dithiothreitol. The effects of different membrane permeability modulators on the lamprey liver mitochondria function and the seasonal changes in their action are discussed.

  8. Spatially explicit genetic structure in the freshwater sponge Ephydatia fluviatilis (Linnaeus, 1759 within the framework of the monopolisation hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Lucentini

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available An apparent paradox is known for crustaceans, rotifers and bryozoans living in inland small water bodies: a potential for wide distribution due to the presence of resting stages is coupled with marked genetic differences between nearby water bodies, with enclave distributions masking clear phylogeographic patterns. According to the monopolisation hypothesis, this is due to the accumulation of resting stages, monopolising each water body. Freshwater sponges could represent a useful system to assess the generality of the mo- nopolisation hypothesis: these organisms i live in the same habitats as crustaceans, rotifers and bryozoans, ii produce resting stages that can accumulate, and iii have indeed a wide distribution. Currently, no studies on spatially explicit genetic differentiation on fresh- water sponges are available. The aim of the present study is to provide additional empirical evidence in support of the generality of the scenario for small aquatic animals with resting stages by analysing genetic diversity at different spatial scales for an additional model system, the freshwater sponge ephydatia fluviatilis (Linnaeus, 1759. We expected that system genetic variability would follow enclave distributions, no clear phylogeographical patterns would be present, and nearby unconnected water bodies would show markedly different populations for this new model too. We analysed the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer regions 5.8S-ITS2-28S, the D3 domain of 28S subunit, the mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase I (COI and ten specific microsatellite markers of nine Italian and one Hungarian populations. Mitochondrial and nuclear sequences showed no or very low genetic polymorphism, whereas high levels of differentiation among populations and a significant polymorphism were observed using microsatellites. Microsatellite loci also showed a high proportion of private alleles for each population and an overall correlation between geographic and genetic

  9. Impact of two telemetry transmitter implantation incision suturing methods on the physiological state and condition of perch (Perca fluviatilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rożyński Maciej

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the impact on European perch, Perca fluviatilis L. (mean body weight – 78.33 g of the intraperitoneal implantation of telemetry transmitters using different suturing methods. In the first experiment silk sutures were used (experiment I – group ST, while in the second tissue adhesive was used (experiment II – group GT. Following the procedure, the fish were kept for 42 days in a recirculating system. Differences in growth and condition parameters were only noted in the first week of the experiment. Specimens from group GT had lower values for DGR (daily growth rate and SGR (specific growth rate, but a higher value for FCR (feed conversion ratio values. For the hematological parameters, lower values of MCV (mean corpuscular volume and PLT (blood platelets were noted in group GT, while for the biochemical parameters, lowered ALP (alkaline phosphatase activity and Mg (magnesium concentrations were noted in group ST. In group ST, 33.3% of the specimens loss their tags, while in group GT 77.8% did so. Differences in incision healing were only noted in the second week, when specimens in group ST were observed to have fully closed incisions, while in group GT 50% of the incisions were open. Despite the high percentage of implantation incision healing in both groups, because of the high values of tag loss rate, neither method can be recommended for perch. It might be more effective to use tag with external antennae in this species. The method use for closing implantation incisions also must be improved to eliminate tag shedding.

  10. Caracteres merísticos e biologia do cascudo, Hypostomus fluviatilis (Schubart, 1964 (Osteichthyes, Loricariidae do rio Mogi-Guaçu, São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitoshi Nomura

    1988-07-01

    Full Text Available Hypostomus fluviatilis (Schubart, 1964 é um cascudo (Loricariidae achado no rio Mogi-Guaçu, Estado de São Paulo. É espécie que pode interessar alguns criadores de peixes, por sua excelente carne. Um total de 47 exemplares (26 machos e 21 fêmeas foi analisado, capturado de março a setembro de 1975, em Emas, rio Mogi-Guaçu. Alguns caracteres merísticos e outros aspectos biológicos são fornecidos.Hypostomus fluviatilis (Schubart, 1964 is an armoured catfish (Loricariidae found in the Mogi-Guaçu river, State of São Paulo, Brazil. It is a species which may interest some fish culturists, due to is excellent meat. A total of 47 specimens (26 males and 21 females, caught from March to September 1975, at Emas Fali, Mogi-Guaçu river, was analyzed. Some meristic characters, together with biological aspects, are presented.

  11. Biochemical and ultrastructural changes in the liver of European perch (Perca fluviatilis L. in response to cyanobacterial bloom in the Gruža reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perendija Branka R.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the biochemical and ultrastructural changes in the liver of the freshwater fish, European perch (Perca fluviatilis, in response to Aphanizomenon flos-aquae bloom in the Gruža Reservoir, Serbia. The activities of total manganese- and copper zinc-containing superoxide dismutase (Tot SOD, Mn-SOD, Cu/Zn-SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, glutathione reductase (GR and biotransformation phase II enzyme glutathione-S-transferase (GST, as well as concentrations of total glutathione (GSH and sulfhydryl (-SH groups were examined before and during the bloom period. Mn-SOD activity was significantly higher, while the activities of Cu/Zn-SOD, CAT and GSH-Px and the concentration of the -SH groups were significantly lower during the bloom. The ultrastructure of the liver revealed necrotic and apoptotic damage to the hepatocytes during the bloom period. Our work represents the first study to report the influences of an Aphanizomenon flos-aquae bloom in the Gruža Reservoir on antioxidant biomarkers and on histopathological alterations in the liver of the freshwater fish European perch (Perca fluviatilis.

  12. Rice (Oryza) hemoglobins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice (Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a sin...

  13. COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF MORPHOMETRIC PARAMETERS OF MONKEY GOBY (NEOGOBIUS FLUVIATILIS PALLAS OF FRESH AND SALINE WATER RESERVOIRS IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onoprienko V.

    2014-04-01

    physiological processes. The result of this effect is the difference in weight, size and body parts. To clarify, as our model species was taken Cottus Sandpiper (Neogobius fluviatilis Pallas. The reason for this was the fact that this species, along with other Ponto- Caspian solonovato - freshwater gobies, the International Union for Conservation of Nature classified as species biology are poorly understood and require further research. This fact that deepened interest of ichthyologists in this group of fish, in this regard appeared in the literature as material for the bulls and in Sandpiper. Based on the above, the purpose of this paper is a comparative morphometric parameters characteristic of individuals of this species of fresh and salt water bodies of Ukraine. All this affects the absolute morphometric parameters, which decrease in the direction from sea to the river. However, it should be noted that in rivers with rich feeding grounds sheer size of some individuals close to the size and species of sea Kakhovskoe reservoir. This situation is observed in the Sandpiper Grouse River. Here are some specimens reach a length (TL 118-148 mm and a weight of 15-36 g, Kakhovskoe Reservoir: 106-150 mm 11-38 g, in the Sea of Azov: 115-174 mm 17-58 g. For relative parameters Sandpiper with these reservoirs are more similar, however, for some of them, there are differences. Among the latter is most clearly distinguished the ratio SL / N. This indicator podovzhenist (prohonystist body. As pointed out by VP Mitrofanov (1977, this indicator shows the hydrodynamic qualities of fish: the larger the index, the more active lifestyle is individual. When compared with individuals with a little water and a large stream, in the latter case, individuals are more elongated. This is confirmed by our material: the ratio SL / L for the smallest species of sea of Azov (4.96, slightly more for Kakhovsky reservoir (5.52 and even more for rivers Grouse, Trubizh, Desna, Ros (respectively 5, 86, 6.22 , 6

  14. COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF MORPHOMETRIC PARAMETERS OF MONKEY GOBY (NEOGOBIUS FLUVIATILIS PALLAS OF FRESH AND SALINE WATER RESERVOIRS IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Onoprienko

    2014-04-01

    physiological processes. The result of this effect is the difference in weight, size and body parts. To clarify, as our model species was taken Cottus Sandpiper (Neogobius fluviatilis Pallas. The reason for this was the fact that this species, along with other Ponto- Caspian solonovato - freshwater gobies, the International Union for Conservation of Nature classified as species biology are poorly understood and require further research. This fact that deepened interest of ichthyologists in this group of fish, in this regard appeared in the literature as material for the bulls and in Sandpiper. Based on the above, the purpose of this paper is a comparative morphometric parameters characteristic of individuals of this species of fresh and salt water bodies of Ukraine. All this affects the absolute morphometric parameters, which decrease in the direction from sea to the river. However, it should be noted that in rivers with rich feeding grounds sheer size of some individuals close to the size and species of sea Kakhovskoe reservoir. This situation is observed in the Sandpiper Grouse River. Here are some specimens reach a length (TL 118-148 mm and a weight of 15-36 g, Kakhovskoe Reservoir: 106-150 mm 11-38 g, in the Sea of ​​Azov: 115-174 mm 17-58 g. For relative parameters Sandpiper with these reservoirs are more similar, however, for some of them, there are differences. Among the latter is most clearly distinguished the ratio SL / N. This indicator podovzhenist (prohonystist body. As pointed out by VP Mitrofanov (1977, this indicator shows the hydrodynamic qualities of fish: the larger the index, the more active lifestyle is individual. When compared with individuals with a little water and a large stream, in the latter case, individuals are more elongated. This is confirmed by our material: the ratio SL / L for the smallest species of sea of ​​Azov (4.96, slightly more for Kakhovsky reservoir (5.52 and even more for rivers Grouse, Trubizh, Desna, Ros (respectively 5, 86

  15. Aspectos histológicos do trato digestivo de Sotalia fluviatilis (Cetacea, Delphinidae: esôfago e estômago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Tarso da C. Chaves

    1988-07-01

    Full Text Available Os esôfagos e estômagos de seis botos tucuxi, Sotalia fluviatilis (Cetacea: Delphinidae foram examinados anatômica e microscopicamente e comparados com os de botos marinhos do mesmo gênero. O esôfago é um simples tubo distensível e macroscopicamente uniforme até sua junção com o estômago. Este boto tem um estômago tricompartimentado: uma parte anterior ou muscular; uma principal, glandular; e uma pilórica. As características anatomo-funcionais de cada compartimento são descritas. Não se achou esfíncter entre o esôfago e o estômago. Em comparação com os delfinídeos marinhos, não há adaptações, por parte de Sotalia, à invasão relativamente recente do ambiente de água doce.The oesophagus and stomachs of six tucuxi dolphins, Sotalia fluviatilis (Cetacea: Delphinidae were examined anatomically and microscopically and compared with marine dolphins of the same genus. The oesophagus is a simple distendable tube and is macroscopically uniform to its junctureh with te stomach. This dolphin has a three-compartmented stomach: an anterior or muscular compartment; a principal one, which is glandular; and the pyloric part. The anatomical and functional characteristics of each compartment is described. No sphincter was found between the oesophagus and the stomach. In comparison with marine delphinids there are no adaptations specific to the relatively recent invasion of the fresh-water environment by Sotalia.

  16. Estimation of vectorial capacity of Anopheles minimus Theobald & An. fluviatilis James (Diptera: Culicidae) in a malaria endemic area of Odisha State, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekaran, K; Sahu, S S; Jambulingam, P

    2014-11-01

    Anopheles minimus and An. fluviatilis were incriminated as the major malaria vectors in Keonjhar district of Odisha State recently. This study was carried out to elucidate the potential role of these two vector species in transmission of malaria during different seasons, and vectorial capacity of these species was also estimated. Three hilly and forested villages of Keonjhar district were randomly selected. Vectorial capacity (C) was calculated using the Macdonald's formula as modified by Garret-Jones. The human landing density of the vector species was obtained from all night human landing collections (bait protected by bed-net). Man feeding habit was estimated by multiplying the human blood index with feeding frequency, which was obtained on daily basis from the duration of gonotrophic cycle. The probability of survival through the extrinsic incubation cycle was calculated from the probability of survival through one day and duration of sporogonic cycle. The estimated vectorial capacity of An. minimus varied between 0.014 and 1.09 for Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) and between 0.1 and 1.46 for P. vivax (Pv). The C of An. minimus for both Pf and Pv was higher during rainy season than the other two seasons. The estimated C of An. fluviatilis varied between 0.04 and 1.28 for Pf and between 0.20 and 1.54 for Pv. Based on the estimated values of vectorial capacity of the two vector species, the area could be stratified and such stratification would reflect the difference in the intensity of transmission between different strata and accordingly the appropriate control strategy could be adopted for each stratum.

  17. Estimation of vectorial capacity of Anopheles minimus Theobald & An. fluviatilis James (Diptera: Culicidae in a malaria endemic area of Odisha State, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Gunasekaran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Anopheles minimus and An. fluviatilis were incriminated as the major malaria vectors in Keonjhar district of Odisha State recently. This study was carried out to elucidate the potential role of these two vector species in transmission of malaria during different seasons, and vectorial capacity of these species was also estimated. Methods: Three hilly and forested villages of Keonjhar district were randomly selected. Vectorial capacity (C was calculated using the Macdonald′s formula as modified by Garret-Jones. The human landing density of the vector species was obtained from all night human landing collections (bait protected by bed-net. Man feeding habit was estimated by multiplying the human blood index with feeding frequency, which was obtained on daily basis from the duration of gonotrophic cycle. The probability of survival through the extrinsic incubation cycle was calculated from the probability of survival through one day and duration of sporogonic cycle. Results: The estimated vectorial capacity of An. minimus varied between 0.014 and 1.09 for Plasmodium falciparum (Pf and between 0.1 and 1.46 for P. vivax (Pv. The C of An. minimus for both Pf and Pv was higher during rainy season than the other two seasons. The estimated C of An. fluviatilis varied between 0.04 and 1.28 for Pf and between 0.20 and 1.54 for Pv. Interpretation & conclusions: Based on the estimated values of vectorial capacity of the two vector species, the area could be stratified and such stratification would reflect the difference in the intensity of transmission between different strata and accordingly the appropriate control strategy could be adopted for each stratum.

  18. First record of Paralemanea torulosa (Roth Sheath & A.R. Sherwood and new findings of Lemanea fluviatilis (Linnaeus C. Ag. and Hildenbrandia rivularis (Liebmann J. Agardh (Rhodophyta in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojević Ana

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the first record of the freshwater red alga Paralemanea torulosa and new findings of the species Lemanea fluviatilis and Hildenbrandia rivularis in Serbia. The existence of all three species was recorded in the upper reaches of clean fast-flowing rivers and brooks belonging to the basin of the Danube River. Lemanea fluviatilis was found in the Dojkinačka River in Eastern Serbia, while Paralemanea torulosa was recorded in the Drina River and Hildenbrandia rivularis in the Cvetića Brook and Bioštanska Banja Brook in Western Serbia. These reports are important for conservation of the biodiversity of Serbia, since it is well known that freshwater red algae are endangered and rare species (taxa in many countries. In Serbia they are under strict protection of the law.

  19. Distribution of sibling species of Anopheles culicifacies s.l. and Anopheles fluviatilis s.l. and their vectorial capacity in eight different malaria endemic districts of Orissa, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asima Tripathy

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken in eight endemic districts of Orissa, India, to find the members of the species complexes of Anopheles culicifacies and Anopheles fluviatilis and their distribution patterns. The study area included six forested districts (Keonjhar, Angul, Dhenkanal, Ganjam, Nayagarh and Khurda and two non-forested coastal districts (Puri and Jagatsingpur studied over a period of two years (June 2007-May 2009. An. culicifacies A, B, C and D and An. fluviatilis S and T sibling species were reported. The prevalence of An. culicifacies A ranged from 4.2-8.41%, B from 54.96-76.92%, C from 23.08-33.62% and D from 1.85-5.94% (D was reported for the first time in Orissa, except for occurrences in the Khurda and Nayagarh districts. The anthropophilic indices (AI were 3.2-4.8%, 0.5-1.7%, 0.7-1.37% and 0.91-1.35% for A, B, C and D, respectively, whereas the sporozoite rates (SR were 0.49-0.54%, 0%, 0.28-0.37% and 0.41-0.46% for A, B, C and D, respectively. An. fluviatilis showed a similarly varied distribution pattern in which S was predominant (84.3% overall; its AI and SR values ranged from 60.7-90.4% and 1.2-2.32%, respectively. The study observed that the co-existence of potential vector sibling species of An. culicifacies (A, C and D and An. fluviatilis S (> 50% was responsible for the high endemicity of malaria in forested districts such as Dhenkanal, Keonjhar, Angul, Ganjam, Nayagarh and Khurda (> 5% slide positivity rate. Thus, the epidemiological scenario for malaria is dependent on the distribution of the vector sibling species and their vectorial capacity.

  20. Distribution of sibling species of Anopheles culicifacies s.l. and Anopheles fluviatilis s.l. and their vectorial capacity in eight different malaria endemic districts of Orissa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Asima; Samanta, Luna; Das, Sachidananda; Parida, Sarat Kumar; Marai, Nitisheel; Hazra, Rupenansu Kumar; Kar, Santanu Kumar; Mahapatra, Namita

    2010-12-01

    The study was undertaken in eight endemic districts of Orissa, India, to find the members of the species complexes of Anopheles culicifacies and Anopheles fluviatilis and their distribution patterns. The study area included six forested districts (Keonjhar, Angul, Dhenkanal, Ganjam, Nayagarh and Khurda) and two non-forested coastal districts (Puri and Jagatsingpur) studied over a period of two years (June 2007-May 2009). An. culicifacies A, B, C and D and An. fluviatilis S and T sibling species were reported. The prevalence of An. culicifacies A ranged from 4.2-8.41%, B from 54.96-76.92%, C from 23.08-33.62% and D from 1.85-5.94% (D was reported for the first time in Orissa, except for occurrences in the Khurda and Nayagarh districts). The anthropophilic indices (AI) were 3.2-4.8%, 0.5-1.7%, 0.7-1.37% and 0.91-1.35% for A, B, C and D, respectively, whereas the sporozoite rates (SR) were 0.49-0.54%, 0%, 0.28-0.37% and 0.41-0.46% for A, B, C and D, respectively. An. fluviatilis showed a similarly varied distribution pattern in which S was predominant (84.3% overall); its AI and SR values ranged from 60.7-90.4% and 1.2-2.32%, respectively. The study observed that the co-existence of potential vector sibling species of An. culicifacies (A, C and D) and An. fluviatilis S (> 50%) was responsible for the high endemicity of malaria in forested districts such as Dhenkanal, Keonjhar, Angul, Ganjam, Nayagarh and Khurda (> 5% slide positivity rate). Thus, the epidemiological scenario for malaria is dependent on the distribution of the vector sibling species and their vectorial capacity.

  1. Perca fluviatilis L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    Le renouvellement de l'eau dans les quatre bacs d'élevage a été assuré de façon continue, en circuit fermé, à l'aide d'une pompe de refoulement qui draine l'eau décantée et biologiquement filtrée à travers un réseau de tuyaux flexibles en amont duquel se trouve une lampe de désinfection uv. Le bac de décantation.

  2. Transfer of gaseous iodine from atmosphere to rough rice, brown rice and polished rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumiya, Misako; Uchida, Shigeo; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Ohmomo, Yoichiro; Yamaguchi, Shuho; Obata, Hitoshi.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments were carried out in order to obtain information required for establishing transfer coefficients of gaseous iodine (I 2 ) to rough rice, brown rice and polished rice. The gaseous iodine deposited on young rice plants before the heading period was scarcely found in the rough rice harvested at the full ripe stage. The biological half life of iodine in hull, however, was much slower than that in leaves of 14 days. The translocation of iodine from leaves and stalks to rough rice was not clearly recognized. Therefore, it was deduced that iodine found in brown rice mainly should originate from that deposited on the hull. The distribution ratios of iodine between rough rice and brown rice, and between brown rice and polished rice were 100:4 and 100:30 on 100 grains basis, respectively. If average normalized deposition velocity (V d(m) ) or derived deposition velocity (V s ) are given, the transfer coefficients of gaseous iodine to rough rice (TF r ), brown rice (TF b ) and polished rice (TF p ) could be calculated. (author)

  3. Prevalence of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus (RYMV) on Rice Plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Incidence of Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) on rice plants (ofada) grown in two local government areas (LGAs) of Ogun State had been evaluated during a two year field survey. Six month old rice plants were observed for symptom expression and leaf samples collected for serological indexing. Of the 60 leaf ...

  4. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice...

  5. Extraction of rice bran oil from local rice husk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, J.; Zaman, W.; Salman, M.; Jabeen, N.

    2006-01-01

    Rice Bran Oil is widely used in pharmaceutical, food and chemical industries due to its unique properties and high medicinal value. In the present work, extraction of rice bran oil from different samples of rice husk collected from local rice shellers by solvent extraction method has been studied. Experiments were conducted using a soxhelt apparatus, to extract rice bran oil using hexane, petroleum ether, ethanol and methanol as the solvents and the yields obtained under different conditions were compared. Batch extraction tests showed that the rate of extraction decreases with time and the solution approaches saturation at an exponential rate. (author)

  6. Gasification of rice husks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzetti, P. (ENEA, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Fonti Alternative e Risparmio Energetico)

    The paper outlines the thermochemical processes and equipment involved in the gasification of rice husks. An assessment is made of the feasibility (availability, technology requirements, economics of production and marketing) of this renewable energy source. Results, reported here in tabular form, of experimental trials at an Italian pilot plant (producing, with the use of 165 kg/h of rice husks, 350,000 kcal/h of gas with a conversion yield of 70%) indicated good feasibility. More research is required to improve the combustion qualities of the final product.

  7. Effects of the filamentous cyanobacterium Nodularia on fitness and feeding behavior of young-of-the-year (YOY) Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Karl-Johan; Stenroth, Patrik; Legrand, Catherine

    2011-06-01

    This study reveals that both cyanobacterial toxicity and turbidity have the potential to reduce the growth and energy storage of young-of-the-year (YOY) perch and thereby influence survival rates. During the 1990's a reduction in recruitment of YOY perch (Perca fluviatilis) occurred along the Swedish East coast. Concurrently, large blooms of filamentous cyanobacteria have increased in the Baltic Proper and in coastal waters. This study examined whether extended exposure to toxic and non-toxic filamentous cyanobacterium Nodularia affect YOY perch growth and feeding behavior under simulated bloom conditions (30 days at 50 μg Chl a L(-1)). Specific growth rate (SGR), the somatic condition index (SCI) and the lipid content of YOY perch (10-12 weeks old) were significantly lower in perch exposed to Nodularia compared to fed controls (no Nodularia). YOY perch exposed to non-toxic Nodularia displayed a higher attack rate than perch living in Nodularia free controls in 2 out of 3 trials. Reductions in growth and energy storage, mediated by cyanobacteria, increase the risk of starvation and predation and could locally influence recruitment of YOY perch. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Integrated assessment of wastewater treatment plant effluent estrogenicity in the Upper Murray River, Australia, using the native Murray rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajda, Alan M.; Kumar, Anupama; Woods, Marianne; Williams, Mike; Doan, Hai; Tolsher, Peter; Kookana, Rai S.; Barber, Larry B.

    2016-01-01

    The contamination of major continental river systems by endocrine-active chemicals (EACs) derived from the discharge of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents can affect human and ecosystem health. As part of a long-term effort to develop a native fish model organism for assessment of endocrine disruption in Australia's largest watershed, the Murray-Darling River Basin, the present study evaluated endocrine disruption in adult males of the native Australian Murray rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis) exposed to effluent from an activated sludge WWTP and water from the Murray River during a 28-d, continuous-flow, on-site experiment. Analysis of the WWTP effluent and river water detected estrone and 17β-estradiol at concentrations up to approximately 25 ng L−1. Anti-estrogenicity of effluent samples was detected in vitro using yeast-based bioassays (yeast estrogen screen) throughout the experiment, but estrogenicity was limited to the first week of the experiment. Histological evaluation of the testes indicated significant suppression of spermatogenesis by WWTP effluent after 28 d of exposure. Plasma vitellogenin concentrations and expression of vitellogenin messenger RNA in liver were not significantly affected by exposure to WWTP effluent. The combination of low contaminant concentrations in the WWTP effluent, limited endocrine disrupting effects in the Murray rainbowfish, and high in-stream dilution factors (>99%) suggest minimal endocrine disruption impacts on native Australian fish in the Murray River downstream from the WWTP outfall. 

  9. Rice as commodity and anti-commodity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, P.

    2016-01-01

    On the Upper West Africa coast rice belongs to two species — African rice (Oryza glaberrima Steud.) and Asian rice (Oryza sativa L.). African rice was domesticated in the region, perhaps three millennia ago, from a presumed wild ancestor, O. barthii. Asian rice was introduced via trans-Saharan

  10. Diseases of wild rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases are much more pronounced in cultivated wild rice than in natural stands, most likely due to the narrower genetic base of the populations, plant stress due to high planting density and floodwater removal prior to harvest, and high relative humidity in the plant canopy. Yield losses occur as ...

  11. Promising rice mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakim, L.; Azam, M.A.; Miah, A.J.; Mansur, M.A.; Akanda, H.R.

    1988-01-01

    Two induced mutants namely, Mut NS 1 (tall) and Mut NS 5 (semi-dwarf) derived from rice variety Nizersail were evaluated for various agronomic characters at four locations in Bangladesh. Both the mutants matured about three weeks earlier and yielded significantly higher than the parent variety Nizersail. (author). 3 tabs., 9 refs

  12. Investigating differences in light stable isotopes between Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukusamude, C.; Kongsri, S.

    2017-10-01

    We report the differences in light stable isotopes between two kinds of Thai rice (Thai jasmine and Sungyod rice). Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice were cultivated in the northeast and the south of Thailand. Light isotopes including 13C, 15N and 18O of Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice samples were carried out using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). Thai jasmine rice (Khao Dawk Mali 105) was cultivated from Thung Kula Rong Hai area, whereas Sungyod rice was cultivated from Phathalung province. Hypothesis testing of difference of each isotope between Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice was also studied. The study was the feasibility test whether the light stable isotopes can be the variables to identify Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice. The result shows that there was difference in the isotope patterns of Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice. Our results may provide the useful information in term of stable isotope profiles of Thai rice.

  13. Radiation disinfestation of Basmati rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, V.S.; Gholap, A.S.; Adhikari, H.R.; Nair, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    Effect of low dose γ-radiation on prepackaged Basmati rice was studied in order to achieve disinfestation of rice. Basmati rice procured from local market was repacked in 1 kg pouches made from high density polyethylene (HDP) and biaxially oriented polypropylene: low density polyethylene (BOPP/LDP) laminate and irradiated at doses from 0.25-1.0 kGy. Within one month of storage at room temperature, unirradiated (control) Basmati rice developed heavy infestation. No infestation was observed in any of the irradiated samples even at 0.25 kGy and the rice could be stored for 6 months in a clean state. Irradiation (at 0.25 kGy) did not alter the moisture content of the rice. Likewise, no significant change was noted due to irradiation in the functional properties of rice such as swelling index and water absorption and in total volatile components responsible for flavour of Basmati rice. In organoleptic evaluation, no significant difference was found between the acceptability of irradiated (0.25 kGy) and control rice. These results are significant in view of the high export potential of Basmati rice and the transit losses at present due to infestation. (author). 24 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig

  14. Study of Rice Marketing System in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Feizabadi, Yaser

    2011-01-01

    Rice comes second after wheat in Iran`s food consumption economy. Rising population and recent growth in GDP has made Iran one of the greatest rice importer countries all over the world. That is why rice marketing has always been a controversial issue in Iran`s agricultural economics. To study rice marketing system in Iran, this paper aims to calculate rice marketing margin, market efficiency and marketing cost coefficient in seaside Mazandaran province( where 70 percent of domestic rice prod...

  15. Nicaragua - Rice and Banana Farmers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This report is an impact evaluation of two components of the Rural Business Development Program (RBD) in Nicaragua, specifically the components benefitting rice and...

  16. Sorghum and rice: Mali

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Agriculture is the mainstay of the Malian economy and yet cereal imports absorb 6.5% of GDP. Food self-sufficiency is therefore a national priority. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division is supporting a programme to improve local varieties of sorghum and rice by using nuclear techniques to develop new cultivars that will produce higher yields under Mali's semi-arid climatic conditions. (IAEA)

  17. Diversity of some endophytic fungi associated with rice black bug Paraeucosmetus pallicornis on rice plant

    OpenAIRE

    Nur, Amin; La Daha; Nurariaty, Agus; Ade, Rosmana; Muh., Fadlan

    2015-01-01

    A new rice insect pest was sighted in some rice producing areas of South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. This pest is rice black bugs Paraeucosmetus pallicornis. The research aimed to isolation of fungi associated with rice black bugs Paraeucosmetus pallicornis, so as to know the cause of a bitter taste to the rice. The isolation of the fungi consist of three kinds of treatment, namely rice black bugs without sterilization, with sterilization and rice black bugs cut and sterilized. The resul...

  18. Gonad development and plasma steroid profiles by HRGC/HRMS during one reproductive cycle in reference and leachate-exposed female perch (Perca fluviatilis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noaksson, Erik; Gustavsson, Bodil; Linderoth, Maria; Zebuehr, Yngve; Broman, Dag; Balk, Lennart

    2004-01-01

    Endocrine processes were studied in reference female perch (Perca fluviatilis) from Lake Djursjoen and in leachate-exposed females from Lake Molnbyggen during one reproductive cycle. A high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) technique enabled the analysis of circulating sex steroids [progesterone (P), 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17α-OHP), androstenedione (A), testosterone (T), estrone (E1), and 17β-estradiol (E2)], the maturation-inducing hormone (MIH) 17α,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17α,20β-P), and glucocorticoids [11-deoxycortisol (11-DC) and cortisol]. Body and organ measurements, ratio of sexually mature (SM) females, and frequencies of body lesions, were also recorded. High frequencies of body lesions and a low ratio of SM females were generally found in Molnbyggen. These females also had lower gonadosomatic index (GSI) and liver-somatic index (LSI) in the early stages of vitellogenesis, indicating either a delayed onset of oogenesis or an impaired vitellogenesis. Non-reproducing females from both lakes showed a similar LSI cycle as SM females. Increasing T and A levels in SM females from Djursjoen coincided with the GSI peak at the time of spawning. These two androgens were on several occasions lower in SM females from Molnbyggen, possibly the result of a disrupted 17,20-lyase activity of the P450 17α enzyme because only minor effects were observed on circulating P and 17α-OHP levels. E2 and E1 levels increased during vitellogenesis in females from both lakes, with E1 levels more closely resembling the peaks of A and GSI. Peak levels of 17α,20β-P at the time of spawning confirmed its function as the MIH in perch, while the simultaneous peak of 11-DC suggests that it also may be involved in final maturation of the oocytes

  19. Perch, Perca fluviatilis show a directional preference for, but do not increase attacks toward, prey in response to water-borne cortisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay J. Henderson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In freshwater environments, chemosensory cues play an important role in predator-prey interactions. Prey use a variety of chemosensory cues to detect and avoid predators. However, whether predators use the chemical cues released by disturbed or stressed prey has received less attention. Here we tested the hypothesis that the disturbance cue cortisol, in conjunction with visual cues of prey, elevates predatory behavior. We presented predators (perch, Perca fluviatilis with three chemosensory choice tests and recorded their location, orientation, and aggressive behavior. We compared the responses of predators when provided with (i visual cues of prey only (two adjacent tanks containing sticklebacks; (ii visual and natural chemical cues of prey vs. visual cues only; and (iii visual cues of prey with cortisol vs. visual cues only. Perch spent a significantly higher proportion of time in proximity to prey, and orientated toward prey more, when presented with a cortisol stimulus plus visual cues, relative to presentations of visual and natural chemical cues of prey, or visual cues of prey only. There was a trend that perch directed a higher proportion of predatory behaviors (number of lunges toward sticklebacks when presented with a cortisol stimulus plus visual cues, relative to the other chemosensory conditions. But they did not show a significant increase in total predatory behavior in response to cortisol. Therefore, it is not clear whether water-borne cortisol, in conjunction with visual cues of prey, affects predatory behavior. Our results provide evidence that cortisol could be a source of public information about prey state and/or disturbance, but further work is required to confirm this.

  20. Assessing the potential for trace organic contaminants commonly found in Australian rivers to induce vitellogenin in the native rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis) and the introduced mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Philip D. [Australian Rivers Institute, Griffith School of Environment, Griffith University, Southport, Queensland, 4222 (Australia); Coleman, Heather M. [School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science, Ulster University, Coleraine, BT52 1SA, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Colville, Anne; Lim, Richard [School of Life Sciences, University of Technology Sydney, PO Box 123, Broadway, New South Wales, 2007 (Australia); Matthews, Benjamin [Australian Rivers Institute, Griffith School of Environment, Griffith University, Southport, Queensland, 4222 (Australia); McDonald, James A. [School of Civil & Environmental Engineering, University of New South Wales, New South Wales, 2052 (Australia); Miranda, Ana [School of Applied Sciences, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, PO Box 71, Bundoora, Victoria, 3083 (Australia); Neale, Peta A. [Australian Rivers Institute, Griffith School of Environment, Griffith University, Southport, Queensland, 4222 (Australia); Nugegoda, Dayanthi [School of Applied Sciences, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, PO Box 71, Bundoora, Victoria, 3083 (Australia); Tremblay, Louis A. [Cawthron Institute, 98 Halifax St. East, Nelson 7042 (New Zealand); School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, PO Box 92019, Auckland, 1142 (New Zealand); Leusch, Frederic D.L., E-mail: f.leusch@griffith.edu.au [Australian Rivers Institute, Griffith School of Environment, Griffith University, Southport, Queensland, 4222 (Australia)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Mosquitofish and rainbowfish exposed in the lab to trace organic compounds. • Vitellogenin protein and mRNA monitored as biomarker of estrogenicity. • Minimal response in both species to environmentally relevant concentrations. • Native rainbowfish was slightly more sensitive than the invasive mosquitofish. • Results suggest that risk of estrogenic disruption in Australian rivers is low. - Abstract: In Australia, trace organic contaminants (TrOCs) and endocrine active compounds (EACs) have been detected in rivers impacted by sewage effluent, urban stormwater, agricultural and industrial inputs. It is unclear whether these chemicals are at concentrations that can elicit endocrine disruption in Australian fish species. In this study, native rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis) and introduced invasive (but prevalent) mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) were exposed to the individual compounds atrazine, estrone, bisphenol A, propylparaben and pyrimethanil, and mixtures of compounds including hormones and personal care products, industrial compounds, and pesticides at environmentally relevant concentrations. Vitellogenin (Vtg) protein and liver Vtg mRNA induction were used to assess the estrogenic potential of these compounds. Vtg expression was significantly affected in both species exposed to estrone at concentrations that leave little margin for safety (p < 0.001). Propylparaben caused a small but statistically significant 3× increase in Vtg protein levels (p = 0.035) in rainbowfish but at a concentration 40× higher than that measured in the environment, therefore propylparaben poses a low risk of inducing endocrine disruption in fish. Mixtures of pesticides and a mixture of hormones, pharmaceuticals, industrial compounds and pesticides induced a small but statistically significant increase in plasma Vtg in rainbowfish, but did not affect mosquitofish Vtg protein or mRNA expression. These results suggest that estrogenic activity represents a

  1. Variation and accumulation patterns of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in European perch (Perca fluviatilis) across a gradient of pristine Swedish lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åkerblom, Staffan; Negm, Nesrin; Wu, Pianpian; Bishop, Kevin; Ahrens, Lutz

    2017-12-01

    This study assessed variations in the concentrations of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in European perch (Perca fluviatilis) in Swedish lakes and the extent to which fish size, age and indicators of fish trophic ecology (δ 15 N and δ 13 C) correlate with the sum of individual PFAS concentrations (ΣPFAS). Fish muscle tissue samples (n=80) were taken from six lakes across Sweden and analysed using solid-liquid extraction followed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). PFAS levels in the lakes were affected by atmospheric deposition in relatively pristine areas with no direct point source of PFAS in the catchment. PFTeDA, PFUnDA, PFTriDA, PFDoDA, PFDA, PFOS and 6:2 FTSA were detected with a frequency between 68% and 99% and were included in the statistical evaluation. ΣPFAS differed between lakes (ANOVA: F=50.6, pPFAS, with a maximum ΣPFAS of 3.4ng g -1 wet weight (ww) (mean±SD: 0.99±0.63ng g -1 ww), while the lowest levels were found in lake Björntjärn (0.31±0.08ng g -1 ww) in northern Sweden (63°54'N, 18°51'E). PFOS was most abundant in perch from south-western Sweden, while other long-chain perfluorocarbons (>10 carbon atoms) were relatively more abundant in lakes in northern Sweden. Pearson correlation coefficients indicated that concentrations of PFAS in perch did not show any relation to fish size or age and were negatively correlated with trophic position of the fish (δ 15 N). It was also found that ΣPFAS were negatively correlated with both latitude and altitude. The PFAS data in this study represent national background concentrations in freshwater fish across Swedish lakes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A new species of Temnocephala Blanchard (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalida ectosymbiont on Trichodactylus fluviatilis Latreille (Crustacea, Decapoda, Trichodactylidae from southern Brazil Nova espécie de Temnocephala Blanchard ectosimbionte sobre Trichodactylus fluviatilis Latreille (Crustacea, Decapoda, Trichodactylidae da região Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. R. Amato

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Temnocephala trapeziformis sp. nov., ectosymbiont on Trichodactylus fluviatilis Latreille, 1828 is described from the State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Sixty-eight crabs were examined, of which 61 (89.7 % were positive for this species of the genus Temnocephala Blanchard, 1849. Eggs, as well as adult and young specimens, were found on the pleural areas of the carapace, in the orbital cavities, and, usually, on the fourth pair of pereiopods. The temnocephalans were always devoid of body pigmentation, although they kept the red eye pigment, undiluted in specimens fixed by hot (90ºC phosphate buffered 10% formalin. The most distinctive characters of the new species are: 1 the shape and size of the cirrus and the characteristics of its introvert section; 2 the trapezoidal shape of the dorsolateral post-tentacular 'excretory' epidermal syncytial plates, with the nephridiopore in the lower inner corner of the plate; and 3 the number, size, and distribution of the rhabdite producing glands, as observed in very young specimens.Temnocephala trapeziformis sp. nov., ectosimbionte sobre Trichodactylus fluviatilis Latreille, 1828 é descrita para o Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, região sul do Brasil. Sessenta e oito caranguejos foram examinados, sendo que 61 (89,7 % estavam positivos para esta espécie do gênero Temnocephala Blanchard, 1849. Posturas estavam localizadas, sobre as pleuras da carapaça, nas cavidades orbitais e no quarto par de pereiópodos, locais onde também foram encontrados espécimes jovens e adultos. Os temnocefalídeos sempre se apresentaram sem pigmento corporal, embora o pigmento vermelho dos olhos tenha sido preservado nos espécimes fixados em formalina 10% fosfato tamponada (90ºC. Os caracteres mais distintos da nova espécie são: 1 a forma e o tamanho do cirro e as características do 'introvert', 2 as placas sinciciais 'excretoras' trapeziformes, com o nefridióporo sempre deslocado para o canto inferior interno de

  3. Broken rice kernels and the kinetics of rice hydration and texture during cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Mohammed; Meullenet, Jean-Francois

    2013-05-01

    During rice milling and processing, broken kernels are inevitably present, although to date it has been unclear as to how the presence of broken kernels affects rice hydration and cooked rice texture. Therefore, this work intended to study the effect of broken kernels in a rice sample on rice hydration and texture during cooking. Two medium-grain and two long-grain rice cultivars were harvested, dried and milled, and the broken kernels were separated from unbroken kernels. Broken rice kernels were subsequently combined with unbroken rice kernels forming treatments of 0, 40, 150, 350 or 1000 g kg(-1) broken kernels ratio. Rice samples were then cooked and the moisture content of the cooked rice, the moisture uptake rate, and rice hardness and stickiness were measured. As the amount of broken rice kernels increased, rice sample texture became increasingly softer (P hardness was negatively correlated to the percentage of broken kernels in rice samples. Differences in the proportions of broken rice in a milled rice sample play a major role in determining the texture properties of cooked rice. Variations in the moisture migration kinetics between broken and unbroken kernels caused faster hydration of the cores of broken rice kernels, with greater starch leach-out during cooking affecting the texture of the cooked rice. The texture of cooked rice can be controlled, to some extent, by varying the proportion of broken kernels in milled rice. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. The Haitian Rice Tariff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Lundahl

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Se ha argumentado que los problemas agríco-las de Haití derivan de la tarifa del arroz de a mediados de los años noventa. Antes, supues-tamente, Haití fue autosuficiente, abastecida por su producción doméstica. Después de la reducción, el mercado haitiano se inundó en importaciones de arroz barato de los EEUU, lo cual despojó a los campesinos de sus fincas, convirtiendolos en migrantes internos, hacia los empleos de bajo pago de las ciudades. El artículo rechaza ese argumento y demuestra que es falso. La malnutrición fue un fenómeno extendido en Haití mucho antes de la reducción de la tarifa del arroz, la cual tampoco tuvo un gran impacto en la importación y la producción doméstica del arroz. Lo que sí impulsó el aumento de las importaciones fue el crecimiento de la población. También el artículo argumenta que un aumento de la tarifa del arroz no solucionará el problema de la alimentación que sufre Haití. English: It has been argued that Haiti’s agricultural problems derive from the reduction of the rice tariff in the mid-1990s. Before that Haiti was allegedly able to meet its food needs by domestic production. After the reduction the Haitian market was swamped by imports of cheap American rice which drove the farmers off their lands and forced them to migrate to low-wage industrial jobs in the cities. The article demonstrates that the argument is false. Malnutrition was widespread in Haiti long before the rice tariff reduction, and the latter did not have much of an impact on rice imports and domestic production. Instead, the main driving force behind imports appears to be population growth. It is also shown that an increase of the rice tariff will not solve Haiti’s food problem.

  5. Nutritional test of rice in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horii, Masaji; Yoshikawa, Seiji

    1980-01-01

    Behaviors on N derived from rice were followed up by means of 15 N-labeled rice. In the first test, the single unpolished rice diet and the diet of rice and bean lecithin (4.5%) produced urinary excretion of 10 - 12% of 15 N, and that of rice and mannan from devil's tongue (3%), 16 - 20%. The single unpolished rice diet showed slightly more urinary excretion of 15 N, and the other 2 diets showed a similar proportion of 15 N in 3 days. The results indicated that the diet containing mannan from devil's tongue resulted in a poor N absorption by rice, a large quantity of N being excreted over a long period of time. This suggested differences and time lags in the excretion of rice N into the stool and urine depending on the diet constitution. With the unpolished rice diet, a small quantity of rice protein was not absorbed, but was excreted. In the 2nd test with 15 N-polished rice, the urinary excretion rate was 11.44% for a single rice diet, 11.16% for a mixed diet of rice and bean (1:1 in protein), 10.99% for rice and egg yolk, 9.66% for rice, bean and egg yolk and 8.10% for rice and bean lecithin. This decrease in urinary excretion indicated a corresponding increase in absorption of rice protein. (Chiba, N.)

  6. 21 CFR 137.350 - Enriched rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched rice. 137.350 Section 137.350 Food and... Related Products § 137.350 Enriched rice. (a) The foods for which definitions and standards of identity are prescribed by this section are forms of milled rice (except rice coated with talc and glucose and...

  7. Asian wild rice is a hybrid swarm with extensive gene flow and feralization from domesticated rice

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hongru; Garrett Vieira, Filipe Jorge; Crawford, Jacob E.; Chu, Chengcai; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    The domestication history of rice remains controversial, with multiple studies reaching different conclusions regarding its origin(s). These studies have generally assumed that populations of living wild rice, O. rufipogon, are descendants of the ancestral population that gave rise to domesticated rice, but relatively little attention has been paid to the origins and history of wild rice itself. Here, we investigate the genetic ancestry of wild rice by analyzing a diverse panel of rice genome...

  8. Does anti-androgen, flutamide cancel out the in vivo effects of the androgen, dihydrotestosterone on sexual development in juvenile Murray rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Harpreet; Kumar, Anupama

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate if the effects of the androgen, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on the sexual development in juvenile Murray rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis) are canceled out by the anti-androgen, flutamide. Fish (60 days post hatch) were exposed to 250ng/L of DHT, 25μg/L of flutamide (Flu-low), 250μg/L of flutamide (Flu-high), DHT+Flu low and DHT+Flu high. After 35 days of exposure, lengths and weights of the fish were measured and the condition factor (CF) calculated; vitellogenin (VTG) concentrations were measured in tail tissue; sex steroid hormones (17β-estradiol [E2] and 11-keto testosterone [11-KT]) were measured in the head tissue and abdominal regions were used in histological investigation of the gonads. Treatment with DHT reduced the body-length of both male and female fish, an effect which was canceled out by low and high concentrations of flutamide. However, flutamide (low or high) could not nullify the DHT-induced reduction in the CF in either sex. The E2 levels were reduced only in female fish after exposure to DHT but returned to normal after treatment with Flu-high. DHT increased the levels of 11-KT and decreased the E2/11-KT ratio in both sexes. Flu-high, but not Flu-low, could nullify these effects. Both DHT and flutamide (low or high) induced VTG production and this effect persisted when both chemicals were co-administered. Treatment with DHT did not affect gonadal cell development in the testes. However, the female fish treated with DHT contained ovaries in early-vitellogenic stage in comparison to the pre-vitellogenic ovaries in control fish. Co-treatment with flutamide (low or high) resulted in oocyte atresia. The results from the present study suggest that treatment with Flu-high could cancel out DHT-induced effects only on the hormonal profile and body-length in both male and female fish. Juvenile fish co-treated with DHT and flutamide (low or high) had high VTG levels and low CF. In addition, the ovaries

  9. Zinc fertilization of flooded rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    Local scientists studied Zn fertilization of flooded rice soils in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Egypt, the Philippines, Thailand and Turkey. Diagnosis of Zn deficiency was carried out for submerged rice soils. Soil maps were prepared, designating areas as low, medium and high in Zn, based on Zn extraction with DTPA and HCl solutions and on rice leaf analysis. The effectiveness of various Zn fertilizer sources and methods of application in field and greenhouse experiments was measured, using 65 Zn. The percent Zn derived from fertilizer was shown to be a much more sensitive measure of efficiency than yield or total uptake

  10. Rice vaikib salavanglaist / Tõnis Erilaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erilaid, Tõnis, 1943-

    2005-01-01

    Euroopasse visiidile sõitev USA välisminister Condoleezza Rice külastab Saksamaad, Rumeeniat, Ukrainat ja Belgiat. Süüdistusi CIA lennukite maandumiste ja salavanglate kohta ei olevat tal kavas kommenteerida

  11. Red Yeast Rice: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rice are used in food products in Chinese cuisine, including Peking duck. Others have been sold as ... Medicine . 2010;170(19):1722–1727. Halbert SC, French B, Gordon RY, et al. Tolerability of red ...

  12. indica rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-18

    Jul 18, 2011 ... fresh weight, regeneration, proline level and total protein content in salt sensitive indica rice cv. IR 64. For callus ... INTRODUCTION. Salinity is one of the ... Proline is reported to reduce the enzyme denaturation caused due.

  13. Mutant heterosis in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    In the variety TKM6 a high yielding semidwarf mutant has been induced. This TKM6 mutant was used in test crosses with a number of other varieties and mutants to examine the extent of heterosis of dwarfs in rice and to select superior crosses. An excerpt of the published data is given. It appears from the backcross of the mutant with its original variety, that an increase in number of productive tillers occurs in the hybrid, leading to a striking grain yield increase, while the semi-dwarf culm length (the main mutant character) reverts to the normal phenotype. In the cross with IR8 on the other hand, there is only a minimal increase in tiller number but a substantial increase in TGW leading to more than 30% yield increase over the better parent

  14. Realistic Simulation of Rice Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-long DING

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The existing research results of virtual modeling of rice plant, however, is far from perfect compared to that of other crops due to its complex structure and growth process. Techniques to visually simulate the architecture of rice plant and its growth process are presented based on the analysis of the morphological characteristics at different stages. Firstly, the simulations of geometrical shape, the bending status and the structural distortion of rice leaves are conducted. Then, by using an improved model for bending deformation, the curved patterns of panicle axis and various types of panicle branches are generated, and the spatial shape of rice panicle is therefore created. Parametric L-system is employed to generate its topological structures, and finite-state automaton is adopted to describe the development of geometrical structures. Finally, the computer visualization of three-dimensional morphologies of rice plant at both organ and individual levels is achieved. The experimental results showed that the proposed methods of modeling the three-dimensional shapes of organs and simulating the growth of rice plant are feasible and effective, and the generated three-dimensional images are realistic.

  15. Increasing rice plant growth by Trichoderma sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doni, Febri; Isahak, Anizan; Zain, Che Radziah Che Mohd; Sulaiman, Norela; Fathurahman, F.; Zain, Wan Nur Syazana Wan Mohd.; Kadhimi, Ahsan A.; Alhasnawi, Arshad Naji; Anhar, Azwir; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan

    2016-11-01

    Trichoderma sp. is a plant growth promoting fungi in many crops. Initial observation on the ability to enhance rice germination and vigor have been reported. In this study, the effectiveness of a local isolate Trichoderma asprellum SL2 to enhance rice seedling growth was assessed experimentally under greenhouse condition using a completely randomized design. Results showed that inoculation of rice plants with Trichoderma asprellum SL2 significantly increase rice plants height, root length, wet weight, leaf number and biomass compared to untreated rice plants (control). The result of this study can serve as a reference for further work on the application of beneficial microorganisms to enhance rice production.

  16. Storage stability of flour-blasted brown rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown rice was blasted with rice flour rather than sand in a sand blaster to make microscopic nicks and cuts so that water can easily penetrate into the brown rice endosperm and cook the rice in a shorter time. The flour-blasted American Basmati brown rice, long grain brown rice, and parboiled long...

  17. Processing Conditions, Rice Properties, Health and Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobutaka Nakamura

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Rice is the staple food for nearly two-thirds of the world’s population. Food components and environmental load of rice depends on the rice form that is resulted by different processing conditions. Brown rice (BR, germinated brown rice (GBR and partially-milled rice (PMR contains more health beneficial food components compared to the well milled rice (WMR. Although the arsenic concentration in cooked rice depends on the cooking methods, parboiled rice (PBR seems to be relatively prone to arsenic contamination compared to that of untreated rice, if contaminated water is used for parboiling and cooking. A change in consumption patterns from PBR to untreated rice (non-parboiled, and WMR to PMR or BR may conserve about 43–54 million tons of rice and reduce the risk from arsenic contamination in the arsenic prone area. This study also reveals that a change in rice consumption patterns not only supply more food components but also reduces environmental loads. A switch in production and consumption patterns would improve food security where food grains are scarce, and provide more health beneficial food components, may prevent some diseases and ease the burden on the Earth. However, motivation and awareness of the environment and health, and even a nominal incentive may require for a method switching which may help in building a sustainable society.

  18. Elemental composition of Malawian rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Edward J M; Louise Ander, E; Broadley, Martin R; Young, Scott D; Chilimba, Allan D C; Hamilton, Elliott M; Watts, Michael J

    2017-08-01

    Widespread potential dietary deficiencies of calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), iodine (I), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) have been identified in Malawi. Several deficiencies are likely to be compounded by high phytic acid (PA) consumption. Rice (Oryza sativa) is commonly consumed in some Malawian populations, and its mineral micronutrient content is important for food security. The considerable irrigation requirements and flooded conditions of paddy soils can also introduce or mobilise potentially toxic elements including arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). The aim of this study was to determine the mineral composition of rice sampled from farmers' fields and markets in Malawi. Rice was sampled from 18 extension planning areas across Malawi with 21 white (i.e. polished) and 33 brown samples collected. Elemental composition was determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Arsenic speciation was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-ICP-MS. Concentration of PA was determined using a PA-total phosphorus assay. Median total concentrations (mg kg -1 , dry weight) of elements important for human nutrition in brown and white rice, respectively, were: Ca = 66.5 and 37.8; Cu = 3.65 and 2.49; Fe = 22.1 and 7.2; I = 0.006 and rice samples, respectively, median PA concentrations were 5438 and 1906 mg kg -1 , and median PA:Zn molar ratios were 29 and 13. Concentrations of potentially toxic elements (mg kg -1 , dry weight) in brown and white rice samples, respectively, were: As = 0.030 and 0.006; Cd  ≤ 0.002 and 0.006; Pb = 0.008 and 0.008. Approximately 95 % of As was found to be inorganic As, where this could be quantified. Malawian rice, like the more widely consumed staple grain maize, contains inadequate Ca, I, Se or Zn to meet dietary requirements. Biofortification strategies could significantly increase Se and Zn concentrations and require further investigation. Concentrations of Fe in rice grain varied

  19. 75 FR 56911 - Request for Public Comment on the United States Standards for Rough Rice, Brown Rice for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... for Rough Rice, Brown Rice for Processing, and Milled Rice AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and... reviewing the United States Standards and grading procedures for Rough Rice, Brown Rice for Processing, and Milled Rice under the Agriculture Marketing Act of 1946 (AMA). Since the standards were last revised...

  20. Effects of White Rice, Brown Rice and Germinated Brown Rice on Antioxidant Status of Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Imam, Mustapha Umar; Musa, Siti Nor Asma; Azmi, Nur Hanisah; Ismail, Maznah

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications, and can be increased by diet like white rice (WR). Though brown rice (BR) and germinated brown rice (GBR) have high antioxidant potentials as a result of their bioactive compounds, reports of their effects on oxidative stress-related conditions such as type 2 diabetes are lacking. We hypothesized therefore that if BR and GBR were to improve antioxidant status, they would be better for rice consuming populations inst...

  1. Diversity of global rice markets and the science required for consumer-targeted rice breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the ever-increasing global demand for high quality rice in both local production regions and with Western consumers, we have a strong desire to understand better the importance of different quality traits that make up the rice grain and obtain a full picture of rice quality demographics. Rice ...

  2. Rice varieties in relation to rice bread quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hye Min; Cho, Jun Hyeon; Kang, Hang Won; Koh, Bong Kyung

    2012-05-01

    It is difficult to predict rice bread quality only from the amylose content (AC) or dough characteristics of new lines produced by rice breeding programmes. This study investigated the AC relative to bread baking quality of rice varieties developed in Korea, and identified specific characteristics that contribute to rice bread quality. Manmibyeo, Jinsumi, Seolgaeng and Hanareumbyeo were classified as low AC, YR24088 Acp9, Suweon517, Chenmaai and Goamibyeo as intermediate AC and Milyang261 as high AC. Suweon517, Milyang261 and Manmibyeo had a high water absorption index (WAI), while Goamibyeo, YR24088 Acp9, Jinsumi, Seolgaeng, Hanareumbyeo and Chenmaai had a low WAI. The gelatinisation enthalpy of flour varied from 9.2 J g(-1) in Milyang261 to 14.8 J g(-1) in YR24088 Acp9. After 7 days of storage the rate of flour retrogradation and crumb firmness were weakly correlated, with the exception of Jinsumi. Bread volumes of Jinsumi, Chenmaai, YR24088 Acp9 and Goamibyeo were comparable to that of wheat flour, but the rest were unsuited to bread making because of their low volume and hard crumb texture. Based on volume, texture and crumb firmness ratio, Chenmaai and Goamibyeo were the most appropriate varieties for making bread. An intermediate AC and low WAI were the primary indicators of rice bread flour quality. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. A Non-destructive and Continuous Measurement of Gelatinization of Rice in Rice Cooking Process

    OpenAIRE

    Hagura, Yoshio; Suzuki, Kanichi

    2002-01-01

    A non-destructive and continuous method to measure gelatinization of rice samples in a rice-water system during rice cooking process was examined. An aluminum pot and a lid of a rice cooker were used as two electrode plates, and changes in dielectric properties (capacitance : C, and dielectric dissipation factor : tan δ) of the samples in the rice cooking process were measured by a capacitance meter. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to measure gelatinization enthalpy and to de...

  4. Effect of Rice bran on the Quality of Rice Flour Breads (Gluten-free)

    OpenAIRE

    仲上, 晴世; 矢部, えん; Haruyo, Nakagami; En, Yabe

    2016-01-01

    Over recent years progress has been made in the development of substitute foods for allergy patients. One such is rice flour bread. However, typically rice flour bread uses polysaccharide thickener in substitution for the gluten in wheat. Most polysaccharide thickeners are of dietary fiber origin, and the nutritive value is poor. Therefore, in this study, I made rice flour bread adding rice bran in place of polysaccharide thickener. Various nutrients are included in rice bran, including vitam...

  5. FLUORIDE LEVELS IN COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE RICE IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    2013-05-05

    May 5, 2013 ... Rice is one of the commonly consumed cereals for more than half of the ... also used as flour, for making rice wine, as ingredient for beer and liquor, ... Fluoride is a necessary element to human health, and a moderate amount of fluoride intake ... For Ethiopian red rice (ERR) Fogera was selected to collect.

  6. Impact of bio-processing on rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA NICOLAU

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The usual way of preparing rice is boiling, thermal process that gives it a lower digestibility as compared to instantiation, extrusion or expandation. Having in view this fact, the possibility to biotechnologically improve the boiled rice digestibility was investigated in a laboratory study. In this respect, boiled rice wassolid state fermented using a strain of Saccharomycopsis fibuligera, an amylase producing yeast originating from ragi. Fermented rice was then analyzed from the point of view of its content in easily assimilable sugars, protein, amino-acids, phosphorus and vitamins from B group. Biochemical analyses revealed that the fermented rice has a ten times higher content of reducing sugars than boiled rice, due to starch hydrolysis, while chromatographic studies proved that the fermented rice contains glucose, maltose, maltotriose and maltotetrose that are easily assimilable carbohydrates.Fermented rice has a protein content that is two times higher than that of boiled rice because it contains the yeast biomass, and is enriched in vitamins from B group (B1, B2, and B6 that are synthesized by the yeast. Inorganic phosphorus present in rice doubles its concentration in fermented rice, which means thatphosphorus bioavailability is increased.The sensorial profile of boiled rice is also improved by fermentation.This study proves the possibility to have a processing method which is relatively cheap, practical and of which the resulting product has good nutritive qualities and does not pose safety problems due to pure culture utilization as starter.

  7. PICTORIAL INTERLUDES Flake-shaped rice bodies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    removing the rice bodies and the bursa.3. In summary: rice bodies can occur without underlying systemic disorder, have different shapes and sizes, and have specific signal characteristics on. MRI that allow discrimination from synovial chondromatosis. 1. Cheung HS, Ryan LM, Kozin F, McCarty DJ. Synovial origins of rice ...

  8. New market opportunities for rice grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeding efforts for rice have been focusing on increasing yield and improving quality (milling yield and grain quality), while maintaining cooked rice sensory properties to meet consumer preferences. These breeding targets will no doubt continue as the main foci for the rice industry. However, the ...

  9. Arsenic in rice: A cause for concern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hojsak, Iva; Braegger, Christian; Bronsky, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic intake is likely to affect long-term health. High concentrations are found in some rice-based foods and drinks widely used in infants and young children. In order to reduce exposure we recommend avoidance of rice drinks for infants and young children. For all rice products, stri...

  10. Consumer preference mapping for rice product concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwannaporn, P.; Linnemann, A.R.; Chaveesuk, R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - Rice consumption per capita in many Asian countries is decreasing constantly, but American and European citizens are eating more rice nowadays. A preference study among consumers was carried out with the aim of determining new rice product characteristics in order to support export of Thai

  11. Asian wild rice is a hybrid swarm with extensive gene flow and feralization from domesticated rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongru; Vieira, Filipe G; Crawford, Jacob E; Chu, Chengcai; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2017-06-01

    The domestication history of rice remains controversial, with multiple studies reaching different conclusions regarding its origin(s). These studies have generally assumed that populations of living wild rice, O. rufipogon , are descendants of the ancestral population that gave rise to domesticated rice, but relatively little attention has been paid to the origins and history of wild rice itself. Here, we investigate the genetic ancestry of wild rice by analyzing a diverse panel of rice genomes consisting of 203 domesticated and 435 wild rice accessions. We show that most modern wild rice is heavily admixed with domesticated rice through both pollen- and seed-mediated gene flow. In fact, much presumed wild rice may simply represent different stages of feralized domesticated rice. In line with this hypothesis, many presumed wild rice varieties show remnants of the effects of selective sweeps in previously identified domestication genes, as well as evidence of recent selection in flowering genes possibly associated with the feralization process. Furthermore, there is a distinct geographical pattern of gene flow from aus , indica , and japonica varieties into colocated wild rice. We also show that admixture from aus and indica is more recent than gene flow from japonica , possibly consistent with an earlier spread of japonica varieties. We argue that wild rice populations should be considered a hybrid swarm, connected to domesticated rice by continuous and extensive gene flow. © 2017 Wang et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  12. Effects of Extraction Methods on Phytochemicals of Rice Bran Oils Produced from Colored Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingyai, Sukanya; Srikaeo, Khongsak; Kettawan, Aikkarach; Singanusong, Riantong; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Kimura, Fumiko; Ito, Junya

    2018-02-01

    Rice bran oil (RBO) especially from colored rice is rich in phytochemicals and has become popular in food, cosmetic, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications owing to its offering health benefits. This study determined the contents of phytochemicals including oryzanols, phytosterols, tocopherols (Toc) and tocotrienols (T3) in RBOs extracted using different methods namely cold-press extraction (CPE), solvent extraction (SE) and supercritical CO 2 extraction (SC-CO 2 ). Two colored rice, Red Jasmine rice (RJM, red rice) and Hom-nin rice (HN, black rice), were studied in comparison with the popular Thai fragrant rice Khao Dawk Mali 105 (KDML 105, white rice). RBOs were found to be the rich source of oryzanols, phytosterols, Toc and T3. Rice varieties had a greater effect on the phytochemicals concentrations than extraction methods. HN rice showed the significantly highest concentration of all phytochemicals, followed by RJM and KDML 105 rice, indicating that colored rice contained high concentration of phytochemicals in the oil than non-colored rice. The RBO samples extracted by the CPE method had a greater concentration of the phytochemicals than those extracted by the SC-CO 2 and SE methods, respectively. In terms of phytochemical contents, HN rice extracted using CPE method was found to be the best.

  13. Isotope studies on rice fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The aim of the report is to provide practical information on the efficient utilization of nitrogen fertilizers in rice production. Results obtained from field investigations during the years 1970 to 1974 in ten countries (Bangladesh, Burma, Indonesia, Republic of Korea, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, India, Philippines), using 15 N-labelled nitrogen fertilizers (ammonium sulfate, urea) are given. The experiments, which were conducted both during the dry and wet seasons, included comparison of varieties, effect of placement, source and time of nitrogen fertilizer application on the yield and quality of rice. The data from the project is presented in table form. In most of the experiments, the addition of nitrogen increased the rice grain yield. The role of soil nitrogen vs. fertilizer nitrogen is compared, and it is concluded that the physiological growth stage at which fertilizer-derived nitrogen is absorbed is of great importance

  14. Iron biofortification of Myanmar rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Sann Aung

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Iron (Fe deficiency causes elevates human mortality rates, especially in developing countries. In Myanmar, the prevalence of Fe-deficient anemia in children and pregnant women are 75% and 71%, respectively. Myanmar people have one of the highest per capita rice consumption rates globally. Consequently, production of Fe-biofortified rice would likely contribute to solving the Fe-deficiency problem in this human population. To produce Fe-biofortified Myanmar rice by transgenic methods, we first analyzed callus induction and regeneration efficiencies in 15 varieties that are presently popular because of their high yields and/or qualities. Callus formation and regeneration efficiency in each variety was strongly influenced by types of culture media containing a range of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid concentrations. The Paw San Yin variety, which has a high Fe content in polished seeds, performed well in callus induction and regeneration trials. Thus, we transformed this variety using a gene expression cassette that enhanced Fe transport within rice plants through overexpression of the nicotianamine synthase gene HvNAS1, Fe flow to the endosperm through the Fe(II-nicotianamine transporter gene OsYSL2, and Fe accumulation in endosperm by the Fe storage protein gene SoyferH2. A line with a transgene insertion was successfully obtained. Enhanced expressions of the introduced genes OsYSL2, HvNAS1, and SoyferH2 occurred in immature T2 seeds. The transformants accumulated 3.4-fold higher Fe concentrations, and also 1.3-fold higher zinc concentrations in T2 polished seeds compared to levels in non-transgenic rice. This Fe-biofortified rice has the potential to reduce Fe-deficiency anemia in millions of Myanmar people without changing food habits and without introducing additional costs.

  15. Dolce Vita in the Rice Paddy - Characterization of weedy rice groups in Northern Italy and investigation of their evolutionary origins

    OpenAIRE

    Grimm, Annabelle

    2014-01-01

    The thesis deals with the topic of the invasive rice form called weedy rice or red rice. Studies focused on the geographical area of Italy. Different populations of weedy rice in Italy were genetically characterized. The evolutionary origins of different weedy rice groups were investigated using molecular, morphological and physiological methods. Invasion of wild rice as well as de-domestication of cultivars could be identified as evolutionary sources of weedy rice in Northern Italy.

  16. Objective evaluation of whiteness of cooked rice and rice cakes using a portable spectrophotometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Hajime; Asanome, Noriyuki; Suzuki, Keitaro; Sano, Tomoyoshi; Saito, Hiroshi; Abe, Yohei; Chuba, Masaru; Nishio, Takeshi

    2014-03-01

    The whiteness of cooked rice and rice cakes was evaluated using a portable spectrophotometer with a whiteness index (WI). Also, by using boiled rice for measurement of Mido values by Mido Meter, it was possible to infer the whiteness of cooked rice without rice cooking. In the analysis of varietal differences of cooked rice, 'Tsuyahime', 'Koshihikari' and 'Koshinokaori' showed high whiteness, while 'Satonoyuki' had inferior whiteness. The whiteness of rice cakes made from 'Koyukimochi' and 'Dewanomochi' was higher than the whiteness of those made from 'Himenomochi' and 'Koganemochi'. While there was a significant correlation (r = 0.84) between WI values and whiteness scores of cooked rice by the sensory test, no correlation was detected between the whiteness scores and Mido values, indicating that the values obtained by a spectrophotometer differ from those obtained by a Mido Meter. Thus, a spectrophotometer may be a novel device for measurement of rice eating quality.

  17. RiceAtlas, a spatial database of global rice calendars and production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborte, Alice G; Gutierrez, Mary Anne; Balanza, Jane Girly; Saito, Kazuki; Zwart, Sander J; Boschetti, Mirco; Murty, M V R; Villano, Lorena; Aunario, Jorrel Khalil; Reinke, Russell; Koo, Jawoo; Hijmans, Robert J; Nelson, Andrew

    2017-05-30

    Knowing where, when, and how much rice is planted and harvested is crucial information for understanding the effects of policy, trade, and global and technological change on food security. We developed RiceAtlas, a spatial database on the seasonal distribution of the world's rice production. It consists of data on rice planting and harvesting dates by growing season and estimates of monthly production for all rice-producing countries. Sources used for planting and harvesting dates include global and regional databases, national publications, online reports, and expert knowledge. Monthly production data were estimated based on annual or seasonal production statistics, and planting and harvesting dates. RiceAtlas has 2,725 spatial units. Compared with available global crop calendars, RiceAtlas is nearly ten times more spatially detailed and has nearly seven times more spatial units, with at least two seasons of calendar data, making RiceAtlas the most comprehensive and detailed spatial database on rice calendar and production.

  18. Labelling of rice seedlings and rice plants with 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achmad Nasroh, K.

    1989-01-01

    Labelling of rice seedlings and rice plants with 32 P. Labelled rice seedlings can be used to tag insect pests that feed on. Radioactivity counting of 32 P in the endosperm and in the shoot of rice seeds that soaked for 72 hours in KH 2 32 PO 4 solution of 1 μCi/ml were 29,300 and 9,500 cpm respectively. When these labelled seedlings were grown in unlabelled medium the radioactivity in the shoot increased. It was due to the 32 P that was translocated to the shoot from the endosperm. The 32 P translocation reached maximum about one week after the seedling were grown in the unlabelled medium. Labelled seedlings could also be produced by growing 5, 10 and 15 days old seedlings hydroponically in Kimura B solution containing 32 P. Ten days after growing, the radioactivity concentration of the seedlings stem reached about 115,000; 85,000 and 170,000 cpm/mg dry weight for the 5, 10 and 15 days old seedlings respectively. For the implementation of this method, 20 ml labelled Kimura B was needed for labelling of one seedling. The seedlings should be prepared in tap water. During the growth the 32 P in the labelled seedlings was distributed throughout the plant, so that new leaves and tillers became also radioactive. (author). 5 refs

  19. Sustainable rice production in Malaysia beyond 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashriyah Mat; Ho Nai Kin; Ismail Sahid; Ahyaudin Ali; Lum Keng Yeang; Mashhor Mansor

    2002-01-01

    This book is a compendium of works carried out by various institutions on subjects related to sustainable rice production. The institutions comprise Department of Agriculture, Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute, Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research, Muda Agricultural Development Authority, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Universiti Sains Malaysia, International Islamic University of Malaysia and the Agrochemical Company Mosanto. Integrated Biodiversity Management parallel with the Integrated Weed / Pest / Disease Management, rice-fish farming networking, agrochemical residue monitoring in rice and marine ecosystems, and application of biotechnology in rice productivity are taken as the future direction towards achieving sustainable rice production beyond 2000. Challenges from social and technical agroecosystem constraints, agricultural input management and maintenance of agroecosystem biodiversity are highlighted. It is imperative that the challenges are surmounted to attain the target that would be reflected by tangible rice output of 10 t/ha, and at the same time maintaining the well-being of rice-farmers. (Author)

  20. Transgene Flow from Glufosinate-Resistant Rice to Improved and Weedy Rice in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-liang LU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of transgenic rice with novel traits in China can increase rice productivity, but transgene flow to improved or weedy rice has become a major concern. We aimed to evaluate the potential maximum frequencies of transgene flow from glufosinate-resistant rice to improved rice cultivars and weedy rice. Treatments were arranged in randomized complete blocks with three replicates. Experiments were conducted between 2009 and 2010 at the Center for Environmental Safety Supervision and Inspection for Genetically Modified Plants, China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou, China. Glufosinate-resistant japonica rice 99-1 was the pollen donor. The pollen recipients were two inbred japonica rice (Chunjiang 016 and Xiushui 09, two inbred indica rice (Zhongzu 14 and Zhongzao 22, two indica hybrid rice (Zhongzheyou 1 and Guodao 1, and one weedy indica rice (Taizhou weedy rice. The offspring of recipients were planted in the field and sprayed with a commercial dose of glufosinate. Leaf tissues of survivors were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction to detect the presence of the transgene. The frequency of gene flow ranged from 0 to 0.488%. In 2009, the order of gene flow frequency was as follows: weedy rice > Chunjiang 016 > Xiushui 09 and Zhongzu 14 > Guodao 1, Zhongzheyou 1 and Zhongzao 22. Gene flow frequencies were generally higher in 2009 than in 2010, but did not differ significantly among rice materials. Gene flow frequency was the highest in weedy rice followed by the inbred japonica rice. The risk of gene flow differed significantly between years and year-to-year variance could mask risk differences among pollen recipients. Gene flow was generally lesser in taller pollen recipients than in shorter ones, but plant height only accounted for about 30% of variation in gene flow. When flowering synchrony was maximized, as in this study, low frequencies of gene flow occurred from herbicide-resistant japonica rice to other cultivars and

  1. Evaluation of tall rice mutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakim, L.; Azam, M.A.; Miah, A.J.; Mansur, M.A.; Akanda, H.R.

    1989-01-01

    One tall mutant (Mut NS1) of rice variety Nizersail was put to multilocation on-farm trial. It showed improvement over the parent in respect of by earlier maturity and higher grain yield at all locations and thus it appears as an improved mutant of Nizersail. (author). 6 refs

  2. Induced Mutations in Thai Rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klakhaeng, Kanchana

    2014-01-01

    Rice is the primary source of food for more than half of the world's population. It benefits greatly from technological inputs in the area of breeding such as induced mutation. Induced mutation can produce mutants with significant improvement in plant type, maturity, yields and protein ratio when compared to the parent. These improved traits enable the mutants to fit into farming systems with either shorter or longer growing seasons. Three induced mutant rice varieties, including RD6, RD10 and RD15, are well accepted by farmers and consumers in Thailand. RD6 and RD15 were aromatic, photosensitive varieties which were derived from KDML105 by acute irradiation of 20 and 15 kilorad gamma ray, respectively. After induced mutation, pedigree selection was applied. RD6 showed drought tolerance and also good grain quality including softness and good aroma with a higher average yield than the famous glutinous variety, San-Pah-Tong. Additionally, it was resistant to blast and brown spot diseases with an average yield of 4.19 tons/ha. RD15 showed drought tolerance and resistance to brown spot disease with the highest yield of 3.5 tons/ha. These two mutant varieties are currently the most famous aromatic rice varieties in Thailand. On the other hand, RD10 is a glutinous, photoperiod insensitive rice variety which was derived from RD1 by irradiation of 1 kilorad fast neutrons. RD10 showed good grain quality such as softness and stickiness with the yield of 4.25 tons/ha. As an on-going project, recommended rice varieties were irradiated with electron beam for anaerobic germination ability, submergence tolerance, stagnant-flood tolerance and also internode elongation.

  3. [Effects of fish on field resource utilization and rice growth in rice-fish coculture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Hu, Liang Liang; Ren, Wei Zheng; Guo, Liang; Wu, Min Fang; Tang, Jian Jun; Chen, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Rice field can provide habitat for fish and other aquatic animals. Rice-fish coculture can increase rice yield and simultaneously reduce the use of chemicals through reducing rice pest occurrence and nutrient complementary use. However, how fish uses food sources (e.g. phytoplankton, weeds, duckweed, macro-algal and snail) from rice field, and whether the nutrients releasing from those food sources due to fish transforming can improve rice growth are still unknown. Here, we conducted two field experiments to address these questions. One was to investigate the pattern of fish activity in the field using the method of video recording. The other was to examine the utilization of field resources by fish using stable isotope technology. Rice growth and rice yield were also exa-mined. Results showed that fish tended to be more active and significantly expanded the activity range in the rice-fish coculture compared to fish monoculture (fish not living together with rice plants). The contributions of 3 potential aquatic organisms (duckweed, phytoplankton and snail) to fish dietary were 22.7%, 34.8% and 30.0% respectively under rice-fish coculture without feed. Under the treatment with feed, however, the contributions of these 3 aquatic organisms to the fish die-tary were 8.9%, 5.9% and 1.6% respectively. The feed contribution was 71.0%. Rice-fish coculture significantly increased the nitrogen concentration in rice leaves, prolonged tillering stage by 10-12 days and increased rice spike rate and yield. The results suggested that raising fish in paddy field may transform the nutrients contained in field resources to bioavailable for rice plants through fish feeding activity, which can improve rice growth and rice yield.

  4. [Nitrogen cycling in rice-duck mutual ecosystem during double cropping rice growth season].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Chen, Yuan-Quan; Sui, Peng; Gao, Wang-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Raising duck in paddy rice field is an evolution of Chinese traditional agriculture. In May-October 2010, a field experiment was conducted in a double cropping rice region of Hunan Province, South-central China to study the nitrogen (N) cycling in rice-duck mutual ecosystem during early rice and late rice growth periods, taking a conventional paddy rice field as the control. Input-output analysis method was adopted. The N output in the early rice-duck mutual ecosystem was 239.5 kg x hm(-2), in which, 12.77 kg x hm(-2) were from ducks, and the N output in the late rice-duck mutual ecosystem was 338.7 kg x hm(-2), in which, 23.35 kg x hm(-2) were from ducks. At the present N input level, there existed soil N deficit during the growth seasons of both early rice and late rice. The N input from duck sub-system was mainly from the feed N, and the cycling rate of the duck feces N recycled within the system was 2.5% during early rice growth season and 3.5% during late rice growth season. After late rice harvested, the soil N sequestration was 178.6 kg x hm(-2).

  5. A comparative study of competitiveness between different genotypes of weedy rice (Oryza sativa) and cultivated rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lei; Dai, Weimin; Song, Xiaoling; Lu, Baorong; Qiang, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Competition from weedy rice can cause serious yield losses to cultivated rice. However, key traits that facilitate competitiveness are still not well understood. To explore the mechanisms behind the strong growth and competitive ability, replacement series experiments were established with six genotypes of weedy rice from different regions and one cultivated rice cultivar. (1) Weedy rice from southern China had the greatest impact on growth and yield of cultivated rice throughout the entire growing season. Weedy rice from the northeast was very competitive during the early vegetative stage while the competitive effects of eastern weedy rice were more detrimental at later crop-growth stages. (2) As the proportion of weedy rice increased, plant height, tillers, above-ground biomass, and yield of cultivated rice significantly declined; the crop always being at disadvantage regardless of proportion. (3) Weedy biotypes with greater diversity as estimated by their Shannon indexes were more detrimental to the growth and yield of cultivated rice. Geographic origin (latitude) of weedy rice biotype, its mixture proportion under competition with the crop and its genetic diversity are determinant factors of the outcome of competition and the associated decline in the rice crop yield. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Rice production in relation to soil quality under different rice-based cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran Ba, Linh; Sleutel, Steven; Nguyen Van, Qui; Thi, Guong Vo; Le Van, Khoa; Cornelis, Wim

    2016-04-01

    Soil quality of shallow paddy soils may be improved by introducing upland crops and thus a more diverse crop cultivation pattern. Yet, the causal relationship between crop performance and enhanced soil traits in rice-upland crop rotations remains elusive. The objectives of this study were to (i) find correlations among soil properties under different rice-upland crop systems and link selected soil properties to rice growth and yield, (ii) present appropriate values of soil parameters for sustainable rice productivity in heavy clay soil, (iii) evaluate the effect of rotating rice with upland crops on rice yield and economic benefit in a long-term experiment. A rice-upland crop rotational field experiment in the Vietnamese Mekong delta was conducted for 10 years using a randomized complete block design with four treatments and four replications. Treatments were: (i) rice-rice-rice (control - conventional system as farmers' practice), (ii) rice-maize-rice, (iii) rice-mung bean-rice, and (iv) rice-mung bean-maize. Soil and plant sampling were performed after harvest of the rice crop at the end of the final winter-spring cropping season (i.e. year 10). Results show differences in rice growth and yield, and economic benefit as an effect of the crop rotation system. These differences were linked with changes in bulk density, soil porosity, soil aggregate stability index, soil penetration resistance, soil macro-porosity, soil organic carbon, acid hydrolysable soil C and soil nutrient elements, especially at soil depth of 20-30 cm. This is evidenced by the strong correlation (P < 0.01) between rice plant parameters, rice yield and soil properties such as bulk density, porosity, penetration resistance, soil organic carbon and Chydrolysable. It turned out that good rice root growth and rice yield corresponded to bulk density values lower than 1.3 Mg m-3, soil porosity higher than 50%, penetration resistance below 1.0 MPa, and soil organic carbon above 25 g kg-1. The optimal

  7. Aerobic rice mechanization: techniques for crop establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusairy, K. M.; Ayob, H.; Chan, C. S.; Fauzi, M. I. Mohamed; Mohamad Fakhrul, Z. O.; Shahril Shah, G. S. M.; Azlan, O.; Rasad, M. A.; Hashim, A. M.; Arshad, Z.; E, E. Ibrahim; Saifulizan, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Rice being the staple food crops, hundreds of land races in it makes the diversity of rice crops. Aerobic rice production was introduced which requires much less water input to safeguard and sustain the rice production and conserve water due to decreasing water resources, climatic changes and competition from urban and industrial users. Mechanization system plays an important role for the success of aerobic rice cultivation. All farming activities for aerobic rice production are run on aerobic soil conditions. Row seeder mechanization system is developed to replace conventional seeding technique on the aerobic rice field. It is targeted for small and the large scale aerobic rice farmers. The aero - seeder machine is used for the small scale aerobic rice field, while the accord - seeder is used for the large scale aerobic rice field. The use of this mechanization machine can eliminate the tedious and inaccurate seeding operations reduce labour costs and increases work rate. The machine is easy to operate and it can increase crop establishment rate. It reduce missing hill, increasing planting and crop with high yield can be produce. This machine is designed for low costs maintenance and it is easy to dismantle and assemble during maintenance and it is safe to be used.

  8. Rice agroecosystem and the maintenance of biodiversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahyaudin Ali

    2002-01-01

    Rice fields are a special type of wetland. They are shallow, constantly disturbed and experience extremes in temperature and dissolved oxygen content. They receive nutrients in the form of fertilizers during rice cultivation. Rice fields; support a variety of flora and fauna that have adapted and adjusted themselves to the extreme conditions. Since rice fields also support populations of wild fish, rice?fish integration should be done in order to optimize land use and provide supplementary income to farmers. Rice?fish farming encourages farmers to judiciously apply pesticides and herbicides in their fields thus helping to control excessive and unwarranted use of these chemicals. Rice fields also support many migratory and nonmigratory bird species and provides habitat for small mammals. Thus the rice agroecosystem helps to maintain aquatic biodiversity. The Muda rice agroecosystem consists of a troika of interconnected ecosystems. The troika consisting of reservoirs, the connecting network of canals and the rice fields; should be investigated further. This data is needed for informed decision-making concerning development and management of the system so that productivity and biodiversity can be maintained and sustained. (Author)

  9. Assessment of Rice Associated Bacterial Ability to Enhance Rice Seed Germination and Rice Growth Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gholamalizadeh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The application of beneficial bacteria has recently been used for sustainable agriculture. In current research, 71 bacterial isolates were obtained from rice plant and the rhizosphere soil of different paddy fields in Guilan province, Iran. After primitive investigation, 40 bacteria with typical predominant characteristics were selected. By PCR-RFLP of their 16S r-DNA gene, 8 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs totally consisted of 33 isolates were obtained. From all of them, 8 isolates were selected for rice seed germination experiment, then, effective isolates were used for pot experiment to evaluate their ability for promoting rice growth. All of them were able to increase rice growth and yield, but in different potential. These tested isolates were identified as Alcaligenes faecalis (DEp8, O1R4, Pantoea ananatis (AEn1, Bacillus vietnamensis (MR5, Bacillus idriensis (MR2 and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia by partial sequencing of their 16S r-DNA gene. Among them, AEn1 and MR5 produced indole-3- acetic acid (IAA in larger amounts than the other isolates and the isolates AEn1 and O1R4 were able to solubilize phosphate in higher amounts. According to the results obtained, it can be concluded that AEn1, O1R4 and MR5 can be considered as bacterial inoculants to use as alternatives for chemical fertilizers.

  10. Tier I Rice Model - Version 1.0 - Guidance for Estimating Pesticide Concentrations in Rice Paddies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes a Tier I Rice Model (Version 1.0) for estimating surface water exposure from the use of pesticides in rice paddies. The concentration calculated can be used for aquatic ecological risk and drinking water exposure assessments.

  11. significance of rice sheath photosynthesis: yield determination by c ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    1State Key Laboratory of Hybrid Rice, Hunan Hybrid Rice Research Center, Changsha 410125, P.R. China. 2School of ... for contribution rates of sheath photosynthesis to economical yield. ..... related processes during ripening in rice plants.

  12. Perceived factors limiting rice production in Pategi Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    perceived limiting factors in rice production include lack of rice processing ... This production increase has not been enough to meet the consumption demand of ... of Kwara State, Nigeria seeks to determine some of the factors limiting rice ...

  13. potential for biological control of rice yellow mottle virus vectors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Insect pests and disease infestations are the primary constraints in rice (Oryza sativa) production .... Asia. Of all the rice diseases, the one caused by the rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV), first reported ..... yellow mottle virus in Central Africa.

  14. Effect of Interplanting with Zero Tillage and Straw Manure on Rice Growth and Rice Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-ping LIU

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The interplanting with zero-tillage of rice, i.e. direct sowing rice 10–20 days before wheat harvesting, and remaining about 30-cm high stubble after cutting wheat or rice with no tillage, is a new cultivation technology in wheat-rice rotation system. To study the effects of interplanting with zero tillage and straw manure on rice growth and quality, an experiment was conducted in a wheat-rotation rotation system. Four treatments, i.e. ZIS (Zero-tillage, straw manure and rice interplanting, ZI (Zero-tillage, no straw manure and rice interplanting, PTS (Plowing tillage, straw manure and rice transplanting, and PT (Plowing tillage, no straw manure and rice transplanting, were used. ZIS reduced plant height, leaf area per plant and the biomass of rice plants, but the biomass accumulation of rice at the late stage was quicker than that under conventional transplanting cultivation. In the first year (2002, there was no significant difference in rice yield among the four treatments. However, rice yield decreased in interplanting with zero-tillage in the second year (2003. Compared with the transplanting treatments, the number of filled grains per panicle decreased but 1000-grain weight increased in interplanting with zero-tillage, which were the main factors resulting in higher yield. Interplanting with zero-tillage improved the milling and appearance qualities of rice. The rates of milled and head rice increased while chalky rice rate and chalkiness decreased in interplanting with zero-tillage. Zero-tillage and interplanting also affected rice nutritional and cooking qualities. In 2002, ZIS showed raised protein content, decreased amylose content, softer gel consistency, resulting in improved rice quality. In 2003, zero-tillage and interplanting decreased protein content and showed similar amylose content as compared with transplanting treatments. Moreover, protein content in PTS was obviously increased in comparison with the other three treatments

  15. Assessing the impacts of climate change on rice yields in the main rice areas of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Fengmei [College of Earth Sciences, The Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19A, Yuquan Road, Beijing, 100049 (China); Xu, Yinglong; Lin, Erda [Agricultural Environment and Sustainable Development Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, 100081 (China); Yokozawa, Masayuki [National Institute for Agro-environmental Sciences, Tsukuba 305-8604 (Japan); Zhang, Jiahua [Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing, 100081 (China)

    2007-02-15

    This paper assesses the impact of climate change on irrigated rice yield using B2 climate change scenario from the Regional Climate Model (RCM) and CERES-rice model during 2071--2090. Eight typical rice stations ranging in latitude, longitude, and elevation that are located in the main rice ecological zones of China are selected for impact assessment. First, Crop Estimation through Resource and Environment Synthesis (CERES)-rice model is validated using farm experiment data in selected stations. The simulated results represent satisfactorily the trend of flowering duration and yields. The deviation of simulation within {+-} 10% of observed flowering duration and {+-} 15% of observed yield. Second, the errors of the outputs of RCM due to the difference of topography between station point and grid point is corrected. The corrected output of the RCM used for simulating rice flowering duration and yield is more reliable than the not corrected. Without CO2 direct effect on crop, the results from the assessment explore that B2 climate change scenario would have a negative impact on rice yield at most rice stations and have little impacts at Fuzhou and Kunming. To find the change of inter-annual rice yield, a preliminary assessment is made based on comparative cumulative probability at low and high yield and the coefficient variable of yield between the B2 scenario and baseline. Without the CO2 direct effect on rice yield, the result indicates that frequency for low yield would increase and it reverses for high yield, and the variance for rice yield would increase. It is concluded that high frequency at low yield and high variances of rice yield could pose a threat to rice yield at most selected stations in the main rice areas of China. With the CO2 direct effect on rice yield, rice yield increase in all selected stations.

  16. Assessing the impacts of climate change on rice yields in the main rice areas of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Fengmei; Xu, Yinglong; Lin, Erda; Yokozawa, Masayuki; Zhang, Jiahua

    2007-01-01

    This paper assesses the impact of climate change on irrigated rice yield using B2 climate change scenario from the Regional Climate Model (RCM) and CERES-rice model during 2071--2090. Eight typical rice stations ranging in latitude, longitude, and elevation that are located in the main rice ecological zones of China are selected for impact assessment. First, Crop Estimation through Resource and Environment Synthesis (CERES)-rice model is validated using farm experiment data in selected stations. The simulated results represent satisfactorily the trend of flowering duration and yields. The deviation of simulation within ± 10% of observed flowering duration and ± 15% of observed yield. Second, the errors of the outputs of RCM due to the difference of topography between station point and grid point is corrected. The corrected output of the RCM used for simulating rice flowering duration and yield is more reliable than the not corrected. Without CO2 direct effect on crop, the results from the assessment explore that B2 climate change scenario would have a negative impact on rice yield at most rice stations and have little impacts at Fuzhou and Kunming. To find the change of inter-annual rice yield, a preliminary assessment is made based on comparative cumulative probability at low and high yield and the coefficient variable of yield between the B2 scenario and baseline. Without the CO2 direct effect on rice yield, the result indicates that frequency for low yield would increase and it reverses for high yield, and the variance for rice yield would increase. It is concluded that high frequency at low yield and high variances of rice yield could pose a threat to rice yield at most selected stations in the main rice areas of China. With the CO2 direct effect on rice yield, rice yield increase in all selected stations

  17. Rice Seedling Substrate Produced by Coal Gangue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAO Yu-fei

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Peats are the mostly used material in making rice seedling substrate. However, mining peats could cause environmental problems. In order to reduce or replace peats in rice seedling substrate industry, this paper studied suitable way to configure rice seedling. The coal gangue was used to experiment cultivating rice. Four rice seeding experiments were carried out based on physical and chemical properties of materials attributes. The results showed:(1 Coal gangue was feasible for rice seedling; (2 The maximum adding amount of coal gangue was 80%(volume ratio though the coal gangue need to be activated; (3 In the case of no activated treatment only 38%(volume ratio of coal gangue could be added to the substrate.

  18. Improvement of rice starch by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Zhiying; Wu Dianxing; Shen Shengquan; Han Juanying; Xia Yingwu

    2003-01-01

    Three types of rice cultivars, Indica, Japonica and hybrid rice, with similar intermediate apparent amylose content (AAC) as well as early Indica rice cultivars with different amounts of AAC were selected for studying the effects of gamma irradiation on starch viscosity, physico-chemical properties and starch granule structure. Four major parameters of RVA profile, peak viscosity (PKV), hot paste viscosity (HPV), cool paste viscosity (CPV), setback viscosity (SBV) and consistence viscosity (CSV) were considerably decreased with increasing dose levels. Gamma irradiation reduced the amylose contents in the cultivars with low AAC, intermediate AAC, and glutinous rice, but had no effects on the high AAC cultivar. No visible changes in alkali spreading value (ASV) were detected after irradiation, but the peak time (PKT) were reduced with the dose level. Gel consistency (GC) were significantly increased in the tested cultivars, especially in the high AAC Indica rice, suggesting that it is promising to use gamma irradiation to improve eating and cooking quality of rice

  19. RiceAtlas, a spatial database of global rice calendars and production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laborte, Alice G.; Gutierrez, Mary Anne; Balanza, Jane Girly; Saito, Kazuki; Zwart, Sander; Boschetti, Mirco; Murty, M. V.R.; Villano, Lorena; Aunario, Jorrel Khalil; Reinke, Russell; Koo, Jawoo; Hijmans, Robert J.; Nelson, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Knowing where, when, and how much rice is planted and harvested is crucial information for understanding the effects of policy, trade, and global and technological change on food security. We developed RiceAtlas, a spatial database on the seasonal distribution of the world's rice production. It

  20. DETERMINATION OF SPATIAL INTEGRATION AND SUBSTITUTION OF FOREIGN RICE FOR LOCAL RICE IN GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Kofi ADOM

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study tested for spatial integration in the rice market and the substitution of imported rice for local rice in Ghana. It is established that the markets for domestic imported rice are well-integrated, but not complete. The imperfect spatial integration of domestic foreign rice markets implies that the market provides opportunities for arbitrage. Price leadership roles are found to be determined by the kind of sub-inter-regional-trade network defined. However, in all, the Accra market emerged as a dominant market leader in the domestic foreign rice market. There is evidence of significant regional substitution of foreign rice for local rice in the long run, but the result is mixed in the short run. The result that local rice is not a perfect substitute for imported rice implies that price disincentive measures such as increasing the import tariffs on foreign rice will only produce a mild effect on increasing the producer price faced by local rice farmers, but aggravate the burden on households’ budget.

  1. Soil to rice transfer factors for 210Pb: a study on rice grown in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karunakara, N.; Rao, Chetan; Ujwal, P.; Yashodhara, I.; Sudeep Kumara; Somashekarappa, H.M.; Bhaskara Shenoy, K.; Ravi, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    India is the second largest producer of rice (Oryza sativa L.) in the world and rice is the essential component of the diet for the majority of the population of India. However, detailed studies aimed at evaluation of radionuclide transfer factors (F v ) for rice grown in India are almost non-existent. This paper presents soil to rice transfer factors for 210 Pb for rice grown in natural field conditions on the West Coast of India. A rice field was developed very close to the Kaiga nuclear power plant for the field studies. For a comparative study of radionuclide transfer factors, rice samples were also collected from the rice fields of nearby villages. The soil to un-hulled rice grain 210 Pb varied in the range <1.2 x10 -2 to 8.1 x 10 -1 with a mean of 1.4 x 10 -1 . The mean values of un-hulled grain to white rice processing retention factors (F r ) was 0.03 for 210 Pb. Using the processing retention factors the soil to white rice transfer factor was estimated and found to have the mean value of 4.2 x 10 -3 . The study has shown that the transfer of 210 Pb was retained in the root and its transfer to above ground organs of rice plant is significantly lower. (author)

  2. An Economic Risk Analysis of Weed Suppressive Rice Cultivars in Rice Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeds are a major constraint to rice production. In the United States, most rice cultivars are not inherently weed-suppressive and require substantial herbicide inputs to achieve agronomic and economic viability. Intensive herbicide application in rice also has many potential drawbacks, resulting in...

  3. Salinity alters the protein composition of rice endosperm and the physicochemical properties of rice flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Graeme; Zhao, Jian; Blanchard, Christopher

    2011-09-01

    Salinity is one of the major threats to production of rice and other agricultural crops worldwide. Although numerous studies have shown that salinity can severely reduce rice yield, little is known about its impact on the chemical composition, processing and sensory characteristics of rice. The objective of the current study was to investigate the effect of salinity on the pasting and textural properties of rice flour as well as on the protein content and composition of rice endosperm. Rice grown under saline conditions had significantly lower yields but substantially higher protein content. The increase in protein content was mainly attributed to increases in the amount of glutelin, with lesser contributions from albumin. Salinity also altered the relative proportions of the individual peptides within the glutelin fraction. Flours obtained from rice grown under saline conditions showed significantly higher pasting temperatures, but lower peak and breakdown viscosities. Rice gels prepared from the flour showed significantly higher hardness and adhesiveness values, compared to the freshwater controls. Salinity can significantly affect the pasting and textural characteristics of rice flour. Although some of the effects could be attributed to changes in protein content of the rice flour, especially the increased glutelin level, the impact of salinity on the physicochemical properties of rice is rather complex and may involve the interrelated effects of other rice components such as starch and lipids. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Medicinal and nutritional importance of rice bran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, R.; Salim, M.; Rauf, R.; Baloach, M.K.

    2005-01-01

    Rice-bran is produced from the outer layer of brown rice and is stabilized through steam-heating. The rice-bran and its products are safe for human and animal consumption. The microbiological safety and rigorous quality-control practices merits its use as nutritional and dietary supplement for overall health-maintenance and as a part of a healthy diet and life-style, as it contributes to the reduction of certain diseases and health-related conditions. Stabilized rice-barn contain 15% of high nutritional- value protein, 20% of high-quality fat with Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids, and nutritional dietary fiber. In addition to several phytonutrients, rice-bran contains vitamins and minerals, while over 100 potent antioxidants have been identified to date. Several scientific papers have reported the analysis and bioavailibility of rice-bran nutrients. Various chemical studies demonstrated the biological effects of the nutrients found in rice-bran. So far, more than 250 scientific publications are available on rice-bran, establishing the striking medicinal properties of rice-bran products. The oil-fraction of rice-bran has concentrated all tire fat-soluble phytonutrient in it, making itself an excellent health-promoting edible oil, as well as message oil The fiber-fraction of rice-bran has a profound effect on the gastrointestinal health, and improves bowel function. Rice-bran fiber along with phytonutrients was found to reduce cholesterol and lipid levels and maintain cardiovascular function. It has beneficial effect on tire kidney and urinary tract health and is helpful in weight-management and fiber replacement diets. (author)

  5. Rice breeding with induced mutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1968-06-01

    The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture decided in 1964 to organize a co-ordinated research programme on the use of induced mutations in rice breeding. The programme was organized within the framework of activities of the International Rice Commission. This is a report of the Third Co-ordination Meeting of the participants, which was held in Taipei, 5-9 June 1967. As the projects, which together make up the co-ordinated programme, are at different stages of progress, the report contains a variety of papers including completed studies, field and progress reports, and highlights of the discussions with some additional recommendations prepared by the participants. Refs, figs and tabs.

  6. Bioethanol production from rice straw residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsayed B. Belal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A rice straw -cellulose utilizing mold was isolated from rotted rice straw residues. The efficient rice straw degrading microorganism was identified as Trichoderma reesei. The results showed that different carbon sources in liquid culture such as rice straw, carboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper, sugar cane bagasse, cotton stalk and banana stalk induced T. reesei cellulase production whereas glucose or Potato Dextrose repressed the synthesis of cellulase. T. reesei cellulase was produced by the solid state culture on rice straw medium. The optimal pH and temperature for T. reesei cellulase production were 6 and 25 ºC, respectively. Rice straw exhibited different susceptibilities towards cellulase to their conversion to reducing sugars. The present study showed also that, the general trend of rice straw bioconversion with cellulase was more than the general trend by T. reesei. This enzyme effectively led to enzymatic conversion of acid, alkali and ultrasonic pretreated cellulose from rice straw into glucose, followed by fermentation into ethanol. The combined method of acid pretreatment with ultrasound and subsequent enzyme treatment resulted the highest conversion of lignocellulose in rice straw to sugar and consequently, highest ethanol concentration after 7 days fermentation with S. cerevisae yeast. The ethanol yield in this study was about 10 and 11 g.L-1.

  7. Response Of Lowland Rice To Soil Compaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idawati; Haryanto

    2000-01-01

    Soil compaction, as a new tillage practice for paddy soil, is to substitute pudding in order to reduce land preparation cost. To study response of lowland rice to soil compaction, a pot experiment has been conducted which took place in the greenhouse of P3TIR-BATAN. Soil for experiment was taken from pusakanegara. Two factors (degree of soil compaction and rice variety) were combined. Degree of compaction was split into 3 levels (DI = normal; D215% more compact than normal; 30 % more compact than normal), and rice variety into 2 levels (IR64 and Atomita IV). KH 2 32 PO 4 solution was injected into the soil surrounding rice clump to test the root activity at blooming stage of rice plant. Data resulted from this experiment is presented together with additional data from some other experiments of fertilization in the research s erie to study soil compaction. Some information's from experiment results are as following. Both rice varieties tested gave the same response to soil compaction. Root activity, according to data of 32 P absorbed by plant, was not harmed by soil compaction at the degree tested in the experiment. This prediction is supported by the growth by rice observed at generative growth stage, in pot experiment as well as in field experiment, which showed that soil compaction tested did not decrease rice yield but in opposite in tended to increase the yield. In practising soil compaction in land preparation, fertilizers should be applied by deep placement to have higher increasing is rice yield

  8. Enzymatic hydrolsis of pretreated rice straw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlasenko, E.Y.; Shoemaker, S.P. [California Inst. of Food and Agricultural Research, Davis, CA (United States); Ding, H. [California Univ., Davis (Canada). Dept. of Food Science and Technology; Labavitch, J.M. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Pomology

    1997-02-01

    California rice straw is being evaluated as a feedstock for production of power and fuel. This paper examines the initial steps in the process: pretreatment of rice straw and enzymatic hydrolysis of the polysaccharides in the pretreated material to soluble sugars. Rice straw was subjected to three distinct pretreatment procedures: acid-catalyzed steam explosion (Swan Biomass Company), acid hydrolysis (U.S. DOE National Renewable Energy Laboratory), and ammonia fiber explosion or AFEX (Texas A and M University). Standard conditions for each pretreatment were used, but none was optimized for rice straw specifically. Six commercial cellulases, products of Genencor International (USA), Novo (Denmark), Iogen (Canada) and Fermtech (Russia) were used for hydrolysis. The Swan- and the acid-pretreatments effectively removed hemicellulose from rice straw, providing high yields of fermentable sugars. The AFEX-pretreatment was distinctly different from other pretreatments in that it did not significantly solubilize hemicellulose. All three pretreatment procedures substantially increased enzymatic digestibility of rice straw. Three commercial Trichoderma-reesei-derived enzyme preparations: Cellulase 100L (Iogen), Spezyme CP (Genencor), and Al (Fermtech), were more active on pretreated rice straw compared than others tested. Conditions for hydrolysis of rice straw using Cellulase 100L were evaluated. The supplementation of this enzyme preparation with cellobiase (Novozyme 188) significantly improved the parameters of hydrolysis for the Swan- and the acid-pretreated materials, but did not affect the hydrolysis of the AFEX-pretreated rice straw. (Author)

  9. Compressive Load Resistance Characteristics of Rice Grain

    OpenAIRE

    Sumpun Chaitep; Chaiy R. Metha Pathawee; Pipatpong Watanawanyoo

    2008-01-01

    Investigation was made to observe the compressive load property of rice gain both rough rice and brown grain. Six rice varieties (indica and japonica) were examined with the moisture content at 10-12%. A compressive load with reference to a principal axis normal to the thickness of the grain were conducted at selected inclined angles of 0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60° and 70°. The result showed the compressive load resistance of rice grain based on its characteristic of yield s...

  10. Elemental composition of Malawian rice.

    OpenAIRE

    Joy, EJM; Louise Ander, E; Broadley, MR; Young, SD; Chilimba, AD; Hamilton, EM; Watts, MJ

    2016-01-01

    Widespread potential dietary deficiencies of calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), iodine (I), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) have been identified in Malawi. Several deficiencies are likely to be compounded by high phytic acid (PA) consumption. Rice (Oryza sativa) is commonly consumed in some Malawian populations, and its mineral micronutrient content is important for food security. The considerable irrigation requirements and flooded conditions of paddy soils can also introduce or mobilise potentially toxic...

  11. Gamma irradiation of rice grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, M.K.; Ghosh, S.K.; Chatterjee, S.R.

    1991-01-01

    Rice grains of the variety, Pusa-33, at 12.0% moisture, were irradiated with doses of 0-150 kGy. The crystallinity of starch, soluble amylose and yellowness of treated grains increased with increment in the dose of radiation but water absorption and volume expansion on cooling decreased. irradiation at doses of 3-5 kGy increased imperceptibly the hardening of rice cooled after cooking, but had no effect on edibility. The off-aroma in irradiated grains was perceptible at doses higher than 5 kGy. The changes in colour and aroma persisted also on cooking. Upto a dose of 5 kGy, the sensory scores of rice, both cooked and uncooked, were at or above acceptable limit of score (5,5). The doses of 3 and 5 kGy were highly effective in reducing fungal population in irradiated grains, but in view of the changes in colour and cooking qualities, 3 kGy is the preferred dose-limit of irradiation. (author). 17 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig

  12. Proteomics of Rice Seed Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongli eHe

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Seed is a condensed form of plant. Under suitable environmental conditions, it can resume the metabolic activity from physiological quiescent status, and mobilize the reserves, biosynthesize new proteins, regenerate organelles and cell membrane, eventually protrude the radicle and enter into seedling establishment. So far, how these activities are regulated in a coordinated and sequential manner is largely unknown. With the availability of more and more genome sequence information and the development of mass spectrometry (MS technology, proteomics has been widely applied in analyzing the mechanisms of different biological processes, and proved to be very powerful. Regulation of rice seed germination is critical for rice cultivation. In recent years, a lot of proteomic studies have been conducted in exploring the gene expression regulation, reserves mobilization and metabolisms reactivation, which brings us new insights on the mechanisms of metabolism regulation during this process. Nevertheless, it also invokes a lot of questions. In this mini-review, we summarized the progress in the proteomic studies of rice seed germination. The current challenges and future perspectives were also discussed, which might be helpful for the following studies.

  13. Clustering of 18 Local Black Rice Base on Total Anthocyanin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristamtini Kristamtini

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Black rice has a high anthocyanin content in the pericarp layer, which provides a dark purple color. Anthocyanin serve as an antioxidant that control cholesterol level in the blood, prevent anemia, potentially improve the body's resistance to disease, improve damage to liver cells (hepatitis and chirrosis, prevent impaired kidney function, prevent cancer/tumors, slows down antiaging, and prevent atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Exploration results at AIAT Yogyakarta, Indonesia from 2011 to 2014 obtained 18 cultivar of local black rice Indonesia. The names of the rice are related to the color (black, red or purple formed by anthocyanin deposits in the pericarp layer, seed coat or aleuron. The objective of the study was to classify several types of local black rice from explorations based on the total anthocyanin content. The study was conducted by clustering analyzing the total anthocyanin content of 18 local black rice cultivars in Indonesia. Cluster analysis of total anthocyanin content were done using SAS ver. 9.2. Clustering dendogram shows that there were 4 groups of black rice cultivars based on the total anthocyanin content. Group I consists of Melik black rice, Patalan black rice, Yunianto black rice, Muharjo black rice, Ngatijo black rice, short life of Tugiyo black rice, Andel hitam 1, Jlitheng, and Sragen black rice. Group II consists of Pari ireng, Magelang black hairy rice, Banjarnegara-Wonosobo black rice, and Banjarnegara black rice. Group III consists of NTT black rice, Magelang non hairy black rice, Sembada hitam, and longevity Tugiyo black rice. Group IV consist only one type of black rice namely Cempo ireng. The grouping result indicate the existence of duplicate names among the black rice namely Patalan with Yunianto black rice, and short life Tugiyo with Andel hitam 1 black rice.

  14. Leaf development of cultivated rice and weedy red rice under elevated temperature scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Streck,Nereu A.; Uhlmann,Lilian O.; Gabriel,Luana F.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to simulate leaf development of cultivated rice genotypes and weedy red rice biotypes in climate change scenarios at Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. A leaf appearance (LAR) model adapted for rice was used to simulate the accumulated leaf number, represented by the Haun Stage, from crop emergence to flag leaf appearance (EM-FL). Three cultivated rice genotypes and two weedy red rice biotypes in six emergence dates were used. The LAR model was run for each emergence dat...

  15. Micronutrient-fortified rice can increase hookworm infection risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Gier, Brechje; Campos Ponce, Maiza; Perignon, Marlene

    2016-01-01

    or inflammation after iron supplementation. OBJECTIVE: To study effects of micronutrient-fortified rice on hookworm infection in Cambodian schoolchildren. METHODS: A double-blinded, cluster-randomized trial was conducted in 16 Cambodian primary schools partaking in the World Food Program school meal program....... Three types of multi-micronutrient fortified rice were tested against placebo rice within the school meal program: UltraRice_original, UltraRice_improved and NutriRice. Four schools were randomly assigned to each study group (placebo n = 492, UltraRice_original n = 479, UltraRice_improved n = 500, NutriRice.......6%, but differed considerably among schools (range 0%- 48.1%).Micronutrient-fortified rice significantly increased risk of new hookworm infection. This effect was modified by baseline hookworm prevalence at the school; hookworm infection risk was increased by all three types of fortified rice in schools where...

  16. Nutrient management for rice production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.R.; Chandra, D.; Nanda, P.; Singh, S.S.; Singh, S.R.; Ghorai, A.K.

    2002-06-01

    The nutrient removed by the crops far exceeds the amounts replenished through fertilizer, causing a much greater strain on the native soil reserves. The situation is further aggravated in countries like India, where sub-optimal fertilizer used by the farmers is a common phenomenon rather than an exception. The total consumption of nutrients of all crops in India, even though reached 15 million tons in 1997, remains much below the estimated nutrient removal of 25 million tons (Swarup and Goneshamurthy, 1998). The gap between nutrient removal supplied through fertilizer has widened further in 2000 to 34 million tons of plant nutrients from the soil against an estimated fertilizer availability of 18 million tons (Singh and Dwivedi, 1996). Nitrogen is the nutrient which limits the most the rice production worldwide. In Asia, where more than 90 percent of the world's rice is produced, about 60 percent of the N fertilizer consumed is used on rice (Stangel and De Dutta, 1985). Conjunctive use of organic material along with fertilizer has been proved an efficient source of nitrogen. Organic residue recycling is becoming an increasingly important aspect of environmentally sound sustainable agriculture. Returning residues like green manure to the soil is necessary for maintaining soil organic matter, which is important for favourable soil structure, soil water retention and soil microbial flora and fauna activities. Use of organic manures in conjunction or as an alternative to chemical fertilizer is receiving attention. Green manure, addition to some extent, helps not only in enhancing the yield but also in improving the physical and chemical nature of soils. The excessive application of chemical fertilizers made it imperative that a part of inorganic fertilizer may be substituted with the recycling of organic wastes. Organic manure has been recorded to enhance the efficiency and reduce the requirement of chemical fertilizers. Partial nitrogen substitution through organic

  17. Benthic macroinvertebrates in Italian rice fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Lupi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Rice fields can be considered man-managed temporary wetlands. Five rice fields handled with different management strategies, their adjacent channels, and a spring were analysed by their benthic macroinvertebrate community to i evaluate the role of rice agroe- cosystem in biodiversity conservation; ii find indicator species which can be used to compare the ecological status of natural wetlands with rice agroecosystems; and iii find the influence of environmental variables on biodiversity. Different methods of data analysis with increasing degree of complexity – from diversity index up to sophisticated multivariate analysis – were used. The investigation provided a picture of benthic macroinvertebrates inhabiting rice agroecosystems where 173 taxa were identified, 89 of which detected in rice paddies. Among them, 4 phyla (Mollusca, Annelida, Nematomorpha, and Arthropoda, 8 classes (Bivalvia, Gastropoda, Oligochaeta, Hirudinea, Gordioida, Insecta, Branchiopoda, and Malacostraca, 24 orders, 68 families, 127 genera and 159 species have been found. Ten threatened and 3 invasive species were detected in the habitats examined. The information obtained by the different methods of data analysis allowed a more comprehensive view on the value of the components of rice agroecosystems. Data analyses highlighted significant differences between habitats (feeding channel and rice field, with higher diversity observed in channels, and emphasised the role of the water chemical-physical parameters. The period of water permanence in rice fields resulted to be only one of the factors influencing the community of benthic macroinvertebrates. The presence of rare/endangered species allowed characterising some stations, but it was less informative about management strategies in rice paddies because most of these species were absent in rice fields.

  18. Arsenic accumulation in rice: Consequences of rice genotypes and management practices to reduce human health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Shofiqul; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Islam, M R; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-11-01

    Rice is an essential staple food and feeds over half of the world's population. Consumption of rice has increased from limited intake in Western countries some 50years ago to major dietary intake now. Rice consumption represents a major route for inorganic arsenic (As) exposure in many countries, especially for people with a large proportion of rice in their daily diet as much as 60%. Rice plants are more efficient in assimilating As into its grains than other cereal crops and the accumulation may also adversely affect the quality of rice and their nutrition. Rice is generally grown as a lowland crop in flooded soils under reducing conditions. Under these conditions the bioavailability of As is greatly enhanced leading to excessive As bioaccumulation compared to that under oxidizing upland conditions. Inorganic As species are carcinogenic to humans and even at low levels in the diet pose a considerable risk to humans. There is a substantial genetic variation among the rice genotypes in grain-As accumulation as well as speciation. Identifying the extent of genetic variation in grain-As concentration and speciation of As compounds are crucial to determining the rice varieties which accumulate low inorganic As. Varietal selection, irrigation water management, use of fertilizer and soil amendments, cooking practices etc. play a vital role in reducing As exposure from rice grains. In the meantime assessing the bioavailability of As from rice is crucial to understanding human health exposure and reducing the risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. An overview of the sustainability of rice agroecosystem through rice-fish integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahyaudin Ali

    2002-01-01

    Rice-fish integration in the rice agroecosystem has been introduced and is expanding in Malaysia. This type of farm integration has resulted in land optimization, thus enabling farmers to grow both fish and rice in one farming system. Introducing fish into the ricefield has also increased seasonal income as well as reduced pesticide use. Although basic ecological knowledge on rice-fish integration has allowed rice-fish integration to be introduced, further research is required to allow for fine tuning of the methodologies used. Thus research on the ecology, management, production methods and the characterization of rice-fish farming system of Malaysia is needed. Further characterization and description is needed on the ecology of the rice-fish farming system of Malaysia in terms of production, food webs, nutrient flow and system diversity. To increase the sustainability efficiency and productivity of the system, implementation of management techniques formulated through research is required. (Author)

  20. Residues and accumulation of molinate in rice crops and aquatic weeds in the MUDA rice agroecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashriyah Mat; Sabri Junoh; Nuriati Nurdin; Ramli Ishak

    2002-01-01

    Plant and soil residue levels and its accumulation in rice crops and rice aquatic weed plants were studied. Molinate residue levels in rice, weeds and soil were not significantly different between the recycled and the non-recycled area, even though they were higher in the non-recycled area. In the rice plant, the residue level at 10 DAT (days after treatment) was significantly higher than 30 DAT in the recycled area. In rice aquatic weed plants, the residue level was significantly higher at 10 DAT as compared to 30 DAT in the non-recycled area. Molinate residue levels in soil at 10 DAT and 30 DAT were similar. Molinate accumulated (ratio of molinate concentration in plant over soil) more in the rice crop as compared to rice aquatic weeds at 10 DAT, in both the recycled and the non-recycled areas. (Author)

  1. Australian wild rice reveals pre-domestication origin of polymorphism deserts in rice genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopala Krishnan S

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rice is a major source of human food with a predominantly Asian production base. Domestication involved selection of traits that are desirable for agriculture and to human consumers. Wild relatives of crop plants are a source of useful variation which is of immense value for crop improvement. Australian wild rices have been isolated from the impacts of domestication in Asia and represents a source of novel diversity for global rice improvement. Oryza rufipogon is a perennial wild progenitor of cultivated rice. Oryza meridionalis is a related annual species in Australia. RESULTS: We have examined the sequence of the genomes of AA genome wild rices from Australia that are close relatives of cultivated rice through whole genome re-sequencing. Assembly of the resequencing data to the O. sativa ssp. japonica cv. Nipponbare shows that Australian wild rices possess 2.5 times more single nucleotide polymorphisms than in the Asian wild rice and cultivated O. sativa ssp. indica. Analysis of the genome of domesticated rice reveals regions of low diversity that show very little variation (polymorphism deserts. Both the perennial and annual wild rice from Australia show a high degree of conservation of sequence with that found in cultivated rice in the same 4.58 Mbp region on chromosome 5, which suggests that some of the 'polymorphism deserts' in this and other parts of the rice genome may have originated prior to domestication due to natural selection. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of genes in the 'polymorphism deserts' indicates that this selection may have been due to biotic or abiotic stress in the environment of early rice relatives. Despite having closely related sequences in these genome regions, the Australian wild populations represent an invaluable source of diversity supporting rice food security.

  2. Australian wild rice reveals pre-domestication origin of polymorphism deserts in rice genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan S, Gopala; Waters, Daniel L E; Henry, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    Rice is a major source of human food with a predominantly Asian production base. Domestication involved selection of traits that are desirable for agriculture and to human consumers. Wild relatives of crop plants are a source of useful variation which is of immense value for crop improvement. Australian wild rices have been isolated from the impacts of domestication in Asia and represents a source of novel diversity for global rice improvement. Oryza rufipogon is a perennial wild progenitor of cultivated rice. Oryza meridionalis is a related annual species in Australia. We have examined the sequence of the genomes of AA genome wild rices from Australia that are close relatives of cultivated rice through whole genome re-sequencing. Assembly of the resequencing data to the O. sativa ssp. japonica cv. Nipponbare shows that Australian wild rices possess 2.5 times more single nucleotide polymorphisms than in the Asian wild rice and cultivated O. sativa ssp. indica. Analysis of the genome of domesticated rice reveals regions of low diversity that show very little variation (polymorphism deserts). Both the perennial and annual wild rice from Australia show a high degree of conservation of sequence with that found in cultivated rice in the same 4.58 Mbp region on chromosome 5, which suggests that some of the 'polymorphism deserts' in this and other parts of the rice genome may have originated prior to domestication due to natural selection. Analysis of genes in the 'polymorphism deserts' indicates that this selection may have been due to biotic or abiotic stress in the environment of early rice relatives. Despite having closely related sequences in these genome regions, the Australian wild populations represent an invaluable source of diversity supporting rice food security.

  3. Novel gene expression tools for rice biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biotechnology is an effective and important method of improving both quality and agronomic traits in rice. We are developing novel molecular tools for genetic engineering, with a focus on developing novel transgene expression control elements (i.e. promoters) for rice. A suite of monocot grass promo...

  4. Recent advances on bioactivities of black rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Aécio L de S; Pachikian, Barbara; Larondelle, Yvan; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle

    2017-11-01

    Black rice has been consumed for centuries in Asian countries such as China, Korea or Japan. Nowadays, extracts and derivatives are considered as beneficial functional foods because of their high content in several bioactive molecules such as anthocyanins, other phenolics and terpenoids. The purpose of this review is to summarize and discuss recent developments on black rice bioactivities. Some sterols and triterpenoids with potential anticancer properties already tested in vitro and in vivo have been isolated and identified from bran extracts of black rice. Protection against osteoporosis has been suggested for the first time for black rice extracts. Because of its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, black rice also protects liver and kidney from injuries. One clinical study reported the interest of black rice in case of alcohol withdrawal. Several advances have been recently achieved on the understanding of the potential biological effects of black rice and its derivatives. They further confirm that black rice should be considered as a promising source of health-promoting functional foods targeting a large set of noninfectious diseases. However, more clinical studies are needed to support the findings highlighted in this review.

  5. Functional genomics strategies with transposons in rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greco, R.

    2003-01-01

    Rice is a major staple food crop and a recognizedmonocotylenedousmodel plant from which gene function discovery is projected to contribute to improvements in a variety of cereals like wheat and maize. The recent release of rough drafts of the rice genome sequence for public

  6. Grain Unloading Of Arsenic Species In Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is the staple food for over half the world's population yet may represent a significant dietary source of inorganic arsenic (As), a nonthreshold, class 1 human carcinogen. Rice grain As is dominated by the inorganic species, and the organic species dim...

  7. 33 CFR 117.324 - Rice Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rice Creek. 117.324 Section 117.324 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.324 Rice Creek. The CSX Railroad Swingbridge, mile...

  8. Soil quality assessment in rice production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues de Lima, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    In the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, rice production is one of the most important regional activities. Farmers are concerned that the land use practices for rice production in the Camaquã region may not be sustainable because of detrimental effects on soil quality. The study presented in this

  9. Land Titles and Rice Production in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Broeck, Katleen; Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn

    analysis of plot level rice yields that land titles are indeed important. Only exclusively held titles have the expected positive effects, and the positive effect on yields is found in male headed households. Furthermore, a household level rice yield function reveals that exclusive user rights...

  10. Adoption of Recommended Rice Production Practices among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    rice production practices by women farmers in Nasarawa State. A total of 203 women rice farmers were selected for the study using multi- ... RRPPs were unavailability of credit facilities, poor marketing system and ... economy which provides employment opportunity for about 70-80 percent of the total ..... shown in Table 1.

  11. Tillering and panicle branching genes in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wei-hong; Shang, Fei; Lin, Qun-ting; Lou, Chen; Zhang, Jing

    2014-03-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most important staple food crops in the world, and rice tillering and panicle branching are important traits determining grain yield. Since the gene MONOCULM 1 (MOC 1) was first characterized as a key regulator in controlling rice tillering and branching, great progress has been achieved in identifying important genes associated with grain yield, elucidating the genetic basis of yield-related traits. Some of these important genes were shown to be applicable for molecular breeding of high-yielding rice. This review focuses on recent advances, with emphasis on rice tillering and panicle branching genes, and their regulatory networks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A spectral analysis of rice grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIlvaine, M.S.; Cua, F.T.; Navarro, E.F.

    1976-06-01

    With the advent of extensive nuclear testing and the development and use of highly potent pesticides and fertilizers, the hazardous threats of radioactive contamination due to fallout and to the absorption of pesticide residues have been given due consideration. Among the many forms of life exposed to these threats are food crops and among these is rice. Several rice grain samples - Japanese rice samples ''A'' and ''B'' submitted by the National Grains Authority (NGA) for analysis, random samples of rice being sold to the public at local markets, and ''black rice'' which were picked from along the shores of a Mindoro town were subjected to spectral analysis. Results revealed the presence of trace elements normally found in plants, such as; K-42, I-124, Cl-38, Na-24, Br-82, and Mn-56. No mercury was detected in the sample specimen analyzed

  13. Rice epigenomics and epigenetics: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangsong; Zhou, Dao-Xiu

    2013-05-01

    During recent years rice genome-wide epigenomic information such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, which are important for genome activity has been accumulated. The function of a number of rice epigenetic regulators has been studied, many of which are found to be involved in a diverse range of developmental and stress-responsive pathways. Analysis of epigenetic variations among different rice varieties indicates that epigenetic modification may lead to inheritable phenotypic variation. Characterizing phenotypic consequences of rice epigenomic variations and the underlining chromatin mechanism and identifying epialleles related to important agronomic traits may provide novel strategies to enhance agronomically favorable traits and grain productivity in rice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Fluoride levels in commercially available rice in Ethiopia | Tegegne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alkaline fusion was used for sample preparation of six varieties for both the raw rice and rice cooked with tap water and fluoridated water. Fluoride levels ranged from 0.1-5.5 mg/kg in raw rice sample. Rice which was cooked with different fluoride levels of water showed increment depending on the method of cooking.

  15. Signatures of adaptation in the weedy rice genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weedy rice is a common problem of by product of domestication that has evolved multiple times from cultivated and wild rice relatives. Here we use whole genome sequences to examine the origin and adaptation of the two major US weedy red rice strains, with a comparison to Chinese weedy red rice. We f...

  16. The economic power of the Golden Rice opposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesseler, J.H.H.; Zilberman, D.

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin A enriched rice (Golden Rice) is a cost-efficient solution that can substantially reduce health costs. Despite Golden Rice being available since early 2000, this rice has not been introduced in any country. Governments must perceive additional costs that overcompensate the benefits of the

  17. Significance of rice sheath photosynthesis: Yield determination by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using high-yielding hybrid rice Liangyopeijiu (LYP9), its male parent 9311 and hybrid rice Shanyou 63 (SY63) as the experimental materials, the photosynthesis of rice sheath was studied by 14C radio-autography. The results showed that rice sheath could trap sunlight and produce photosynthates, and these ...

  18. Genomic diversity among Basmati rice ( Oryza sativa L) mutants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mutation breeding can be considered successful in obtaining new cultivars and broadening the genetic base of rice crop. In order to obtain new varieties of rice with improved agronomic and grain characteristics, gamma radiation (60Co) has been used to generate novel mutants of the Basmati rice. In this study rice cultivars ...

  19. 7 CFR 868.301 - Definition of milled rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of milled rice. 868.301 Section 868.301... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Terms Defined § 868.301 Definition of milled rice. Whole or broken kernels of rice (Oryza sativa L.) from which the hulls and at...

  20. 7 CFR 868.201 - Definition of rough rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of rough rice. 868.201 Section 868.201... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Rough Rice Terms Defined § 868.201 Definition of rough rice. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) which consists of 50 percent or more of paddy kernels (see...

  1. 21 CFR 573.160 - Ammoniated rice hulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ammoniated rice hulls. 573.160 Section 573.160... Additive Listing § 573.160 Ammoniated rice hulls. The food additive ammoniated rice hulls may be safely... obtained by the treatment of ground rice hulls with monocalcium phosphate and anhydrous ammonia at a...

  2. Rice field for the treatment of pond aquaculture effluents | Wang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We conducted an experiment to evaluate the efficiency of rice fields in treating pond aquaculture effluent and its responses to different fertilizer treatments. Four treatments was considered in the experiment: no rice planted as the control (CT); rice planted and no fertilizer input (RE); rice planted and a rate of approximately ...

  3. Questioning triple rice intensification on the Vietnamese mekong delta floodplains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, Dung Duc; Halsema, van Gerardo; Hellegers, Petra J.G.J.; Ludwig, Fulco; Wyatt, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Large areas of the Vietnamese Mekong Delta floodplains (VMDF) are protected by high dikes to facilitate three rice crops per year. While this has increased rice production, there is evidence that triple rice systems have negative long-term effects, both environmental and economic. Double rice

  4. Does African catfish ( Clarias gariepinus ) affect rice in integrated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted for 98 days in the Lake Victoria Basin to investigate the interactions of fish and rice growth performance in rice paddies. The experiment was laid out in a split-plot design, with rice cultivar as the main plot and method of rice-fish culture as the sub-plot. Treatments consisted of two levels of ...

  5. RPAN: rice pan-genome browser for ∼3000 rice genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chen; Hu, Zhiqiang; Zheng, Tianqing; Lu, Kuangchen; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Wensheng; Shi, Jianxin; Wang, Chunchao; Lu, Jinyuan; Zhang, Dabing; Li, Zhikang; Wei, Chaochun

    2017-01-25

    A pan-genome is the union of the gene sets of all the individuals of a clade or a species and it provides a new dimension of genome complexity with the presence/absence variations (PAVs) of genes among these genomes. With the progress of sequencing technologies, pan-genome study is becoming affordable for eukaryotes with large-sized genomes. The Asian cultivated rice, Oryza sativa L., is one of the major food sources for the world and a model organism in plant biology. Recently, the 3000 Rice Genome Project (3K RGP) sequenced more than 3000 rice genomes with a mean sequencing depth of 14.3×, which provided a tremendous resource for rice research. In this paper, we present a genome browser, Rice Pan-genome Browser (RPAN), as a tool to search and visualize the rice pan-genome derived from 3K RGP. RPAN contains a database of the basic information of 3010 rice accessions, including genomic sequences, gene annotations, PAV information and gene expression data of the rice pan-genome. At least 12 000 novel genes absent in the reference genome were included. RPAN also provides multiple search and visualization functions. RPAN can be a rich resource for rice biology and rice breeding. It is available at http://cgm.sjtu.edu.cn/3kricedb/ or http://www.rmbreeding.cn/pan3k. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Rice Bran Oils Produced from Colored Rice Using Different Extraction Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingyai, Sukanya; Kettawan, Aikkarach; Srikaeo, Khongsak; Singanusong, Riantong

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of rice bran oil (RBO) produced from the bran of three rice varities; Khao Dawk Mali 105 (white rice), Red Jasmine rice (red rice) and Hom-nin rice (black rice) using three extraction methods including cold-press extraction (CPE), solvent extraction (SE) and supercritical CO 2 extraction (SC-CO 2 ). Yields, color, acid value (AV), free fatty acid (FFA), peroxide value (PV), iodine value (IV), total phenolic compound (TPC), γ-oryzanol, α-tocopherol and fatty acid profile were analyzed. It was found that the yields obtained from SE, SC-CO 2 and CPE extractions were 17.35-20.19%, 14.76-18.16% and 3.22-6.22%, respectively. The RBO from the bran of red and black rice samples exhibited high antioxidant activities. They also contained higher amount of γ-oryzanol and α-tocopherol than those of white rice sample. In terms of extraction methods, SC-CO 2 provided better qualities of RBO as evidenced by their physicochemical and antioxidant properties. This study found that RBO produced from the bran of black rice samples using SC-CO 2 extraction method showed the best physicochemical and antioxidant properties.

  7. Isotopic tracer aided studies of fenvalerate residues in stored rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varca, L.M.; Sanchez, T.E.; Magallona, E.D.

    1990-01-01

    Following application of 14 C-fenvalerate to milled rice and paddy rice at a concentration of 0.33 mg/kg, only insignificant losses were measured after 9 months. Distribution patterns in surface, methanol extractable and bound residues were studied. Paddy rice contained less extractable residues than milled rice, with the major part being found in the husk. Bound residues in both milled and paddy rice decreased also with length of storage; as much as 30% was found as bound residues after nine months. Cooking reduced the insecticide residues in milled rice by 33-40% and residues in paddy rice by 58%. (author). 8 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs

  8. Engineered Dwarf Male-Sterile Rice: A Promising Genetic Tool for Facilitating Recurrent Selection in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Afsana; Wang, Chunlian; Wang, Jian; Wang, Fujun; Liu, Piqing; Gao, Ying; Tang, Yongchao; Zhao, Kaijun

    2017-01-01

    Rice is a crop feeding half of the world's population. With the continuous raise of yield potential via genetic improvement, rice breeding has entered an era where multiple genes conferring complex traits must be efficiently manipulated to increase rice yield further. Recurrent selection is a sound strategy for manipulating multiple genes and it has been successfully performed in allogamous crops. However, the difficulties in emasculation and hand pollination had obstructed efficient use of recurrent selection in autogamous rice. Here, we report development of the dwarf male-sterile rice that can facilitate recurrent selection in rice breeding. We adopted RNAi technology to synergistically regulate rice plant height and male fertility to create the dwarf male-sterile rice. The RNAi construct pTCK-EGGE, targeting the OsGA20ox2 and OsEAT1 genes, was constructed and used to transform rice via Agrobacterium -mediated transformation. The transgenic T0 plants showing largely reduced plant height and complete male-sterile phenotypes were designated as the dwarf male-sterile plants. Progenies of the dwarf male-sterile plants were obtained by pollinating them with pollens from the wild-type. In the T1 and T2 populations, half of the plants were still dwarf male-sterile; the other half displayed normal plant height and male fertility which were designated as tall and male-fertile plants. The tall and male-fertile plants are transgene-free and can be self-pollinated to generate new varieties. Since emasculation and hand pollination for dwarf male-sterile rice plants is no longer needed, the dwarf male-sterile rice can be used to perform recurrent selection in rice. A dwarf male-sterile rice-based recurrent selection model has been proposed.

  9. Consumer Preferences and Buying Criteria in Rice: A Study to Identify Market Strategy for Thailand Jasmine Rice Export

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwannaporn, P.; Linnemann, A.R.

    2008-01-01

    Rice consumption per capita in many Asian countries decreased, but it is consumed more in non-rice-eating countries. This study aimed to investigate consumer preferences and attitudes toward Jasmine rice among consumers in target rice export countries to identify opportunities and strategic

  10. Mutant-inducing effect of γ-ray irradiation for hybrid rice F1 derived from cross of black glutinous rice x wild rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Dezhi; Tang Yilan

    1998-01-01

    The hybrid rice F 1 plant derived from the back crossing of glutinous rice x wild rice was irradiated with γ-ray. The result of investigation to the induced mutant showed that through the selection and backcross, a black glutinous rice strain with the short stem, cold tolerance and high yield was developed. The analysis of the ability of heredity variance showed that the selection was effective for the husk colour, black glutinous and black Indica rice, but ineffective for the white Indica rice and seed setting

  11. Evaluation of Heavy Metals Contamination from Environment to Food Matrix by TXRF: The Case of Rice and Rice Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabjola Bilo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the chemical analysis of contaminated soils of India and the rice grown in the same area. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy is a well-established technique for elemental chemical analysis of environmental samples, and it can be a useful tool to assess food safety. Metals uptake in rice crop grown in soils from different areas was studied. In this work soil, rice husk and rice samples were analyzed after complete solubilization of samples by microwave acid digestion. Heavy metals concentration detected in rice samples decreases in the following order: Mn > Zn > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cr. The metal content in rice husk was higher than in rice. This study suggests, for the first time, a possible role of heavy metals filter played by rice husk. The knowledge of metals sequestration capability of rice husk may promote some new management practices for rice cultivation to preserve it from pollution.

  12. Concentrations of 17 elements in the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha), in different tissues of perch (Perca fluviatilis), and in perch intestinal parasites (Acanthocephalus lucii) from the subalpine lake Mondsee, Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sures, B.; Steiner, W.; Rydlo, M.; Taraschewski, H.

    1999-11-01

    Concentrations of the elements Al, Ag, Ba, ca, Cd, Co, Cr, cu, Fe, Ga, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, Tl, and Zn were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in the acanthocephalan Acanthocephalus lucii (Mueller); in its host, Perca fluviatilis (L.), and in the soft tissue of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas). All animals were collected from the same sampling site in a subalpine lake, Mondsee, in Austria. Most of the elements were found at significantly higher concentrations in the acanthocephalan than in different tissues (muscle, liver, and intestinal wall) of its perch host. Only Co was concentrated in the liver of perch to a level that was significantly higher than that found in the parasite. Most of the analyzed elements were also present at significantly higher concentrations in A. lucii than in D. polymorpha. Barium and Cr were the only elements recorded at higher concentrations in the mussel compared with the acanthocephalan. Thus, when comparing the accumulation of elements, the acanthocephalans appear to be even more suitable than the zebra mussels in terms of their use in the detection of metal contamination within aquatic biotopes. Spearman correlation analysis revealed that the concentrations of several elements within the parasites decreased with increasing infrapopulation. Furthermore, the levels of some elements in the perch liver were negatively correlated with the weight of A. lucii in the intestine. Thus, it emerged that not only is there competition for elements between acanthocephalans inside the gut but there is also competition for these elements between the host and the parasites. The elevated element concentrations demonstrated here in the parasitic worm A. lucii provide support for further investigations of these common helminthes and of their accumulation properties.

  13. [Quality of pastas supplemented with rice bran].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangronis, E; Rebolledo, M A

    1997-06-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the potential of using rice bran as an ingredient in pastas spaghetti type. Two of the pastas were made with semolina from durum as raw material, supplemented with 10 and 20% rice bran. The other two were made with granular flour and the same percentage of rice bran. Proximate composition of raw material was analyzed. Pastas were elaborated in a local industry. Composition, proximal, color, texture, and sensorial quality of pastas were determined. Protein content (13.9-15.0%), ash (1.47-3.09%) and dietary fiber (6.71-8.45%) of pastas increased according to the percentage of rice bran added. The hardest pastas were those elaborated with semolina from durum wheat and with a 10% of substitution. Also, they were the most yellow. The sensory panel found differences in quality among the pastas evaluated. Pastas with 10% rice bran had the best quality. The results demonstrated that is possible to elaborate pastas with 20% as maximum of rice bran resulting products with high protein, ash and dietetic fiber content, but some undesirable characteristics were given by the rice bran as white spots, wrinkles and color changes.

  14. Using rice straw to manufacture ceramic bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbunov German Ivanovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the co-authors offer their advanced and efficient methodologies for the recycling of the rice straw, as well as the novel approaches to the ceramic brick quality improvement through the application of the rice straw as the combustible additive and through the formation of amorphous silica in the course of the rice straw combustion. The co-authors provide characteristics of the raw materials, production techniques used to manufacture ceramic bricks, and their basic properties in the article. The co-authors describe the simulated process of formation of amorphous silica. The process in question has two independent steps (or options: 1 rice straw combustion and ash formation outside the oven (in the oxidizing medium, and further application of ash as the additive in the process of burning clay mixtures; 2 adding pre-treated rice straw as the combustible additive into the clay mixture, and its further burning in compliance with the pre-set temperature mode. The findings have proven that the most rational pre-requisite of the rice straw application in the manufacturing of ceramic bricks consists in feeding milled straw into the clay mixture to be followed by molding, drying and burning. Brick samples are highly porous, and they also demonstrate sufficient compressive strength. The co-authors have also identified optimal values of rice straw and ash content in the mixtures under research.

  15. A rice husk gasifier for paddy drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirani, A.A.; Kalwar, S.A.; Ahmad, M.

    2013-01-01

    Due to energy crisis and constant increase in the price of fossil fuels, the world's trend changes to renewable sources of energy like solar, wind and biomass gasification. Substantial biomass potential is available in Pakistan in the form of agriculture or forest residue (rice straw, rice husk, cotton stalks, corn cobs, wood chips, wood saw, etc.). These can be best utilised for the production of producer gas or synthetic gas that can be used for drying of agricultural crops. The drying process is an important activity of post harvest processing for long-term storage. Rice husk is nowadays commonly used for biomass gasification and its heat content value is about 15MJ/kg. It constitutes about 30 percent of rice production. A rice husk gasifier was developed and evaluated on paddy drying at Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), Tsukuba International Center (TBIC), Japan. Rice husk gasifier has following major components; husk feeding system, ash chamber, burner, centrifugal fan, drying chamber, gasifier reactor, air duct and an electric motor of 0.37kW. The average drying plenum air temperature was recorded as 45 degree C during the drying process. The paddy 'IR 28' from initial moisture content of 24% was dried up to 14% moisture content for about 3.33h consuming 3kg/h of rice husk. The efficiency was found to be 58%. The rice husk gasifier can also be used for drying the fruits and vegetables, provided that heat exchanger should be attached with it. The overall performance of rice husk gasifier was satisfactory and will be beneficial for small scale farmers, food processors and millers as well. (author)

  16. Analysis of rice purchase decision on rice consumer in Bandung city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusno, K.; Imannurdin, A.; Syamsiyah, N.; Djuwendah, E.

    2018-03-01

    This study was conducted at three kinds of purchase location which were traditional market, rice kiosk, and supermarket in Bandung City, with survey data of 108 respondents which were selected by systematic random sampling. The aim of this study is to (1) identify consumer characteristics, (2) identify which atribute is considered by consumer in buying rice, and (3) analyze the relationship between purchase decision and income class. Data were analyzed by descriptive analysis and Chi Square test. The results showed most consumers in the traditional market were middle-educated and lower middle-income, at the rice kiosk, the consumer were generally middle-educated and middle-income, and in the supermarkets, the majority were high-educated and upper middle-income consumers. “Kepulenan” be the first priority of most consumers, but for the lower-middle class, the main priority was price. Thus, in case of scarcity and rice price increase, the government should immediately arrange market operations which targeting to lower-middle class consumers. There was a significant relationship between (1) the quality of rice consumed, (2) the frequency of rice purchase per month, and (3) attitudes toward rice price increase; each with the income class. Although the price of rice increase, consumers of middle and upper-middle were remain loyal to the quality of rice they consumed. This indicates rice market in Bandung city is an ideal market for premium rice so that traders and producers are expected to maintain the quality of rice, such as keep using superior seeds and applying good cultivation based on Good Agricultural Practice (GAP) rules.

  17. Laboratory Screening for Resistance in Rice to Rice Stem Borer Chilo Suppressalis Walker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singgih Sutrisno

    2004-01-01

    Rice stem borer Chilo suppressalis Walker is one of the major insect pests in rice in Indonesia. The use of insect pest resistant variety of rice is one of the effective techniques against pests. Breeding of resistance to insect pests rice crops often faced difficulties in obtaining a lot of insect amounts due to the unavailability of enough number insects pests in the field so that a laboratory bioassay is needed. In this experiments five rice varieties were used: a Pelita I/1, Atomita I, Cisadane, Cisanggarung, and IR 36. Rice seedling 7 days of age were put in 1 liter plastic vials for rice resistance test against the attack of insect pest C. suppressalis. The parameters observed were larval and pupal viability, pupal weight, and eggs production. The larval and pupal viability which were reared on of Pelita I/1 and Atomita I rice seedlings were 68.5 % - 55.5 % and 57.3 % - 46.7 % respectively. The respective lowest percentages were found in IR 36 which was about 41.3 % - 29.8 % .The experiment results on the parameters of pupal weight and egg production showed similar results to that on the parameters of larval and pupal viability. Rice variety of IR 36 showed more resistance to the other varieties, while Pelita I/1 and Atomita I showed the most susceptible to the attack of insect pest C. suppressalis. (author)

  18. Understanding the evolution of rice technology in China - from traditional agriculture to GM rice today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaobai

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an historical survey of the evolution of rice technology in China, from the traditional farming system to genetically modified rice today. Using sociotechnological analytical framework, it analyses rice technology as a socio-technical ensemble - a complex interaction of material and social elements, and discusses the specificity of technology development and its socio-technical outcomes. It points to two imperatives in rice variety development: wholesale transporting agricultural technology and social mechanism to developing countries are likely lead to negative consequences; indigenous innovation including deploying GM technology for seed varietal development and capturing/cultivating local knowledge will provide better solutions.

  19. PhosphoRice: a meta-predictor of rice-specific phosphorylation sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Que Shufu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a result of the growing body of protein phosphorylation sites data, the number of phosphoprotein databases is constantly increasing, and dozens of tools are available for predicting protein phosphorylation sites to achieve fast automatic results. However, none of the existing tools has been developed to predict protein phosphorylation sites in rice. Results In this paper, the phosphorylation site predictors, NetPhos 2.0, NetPhosK, Kinasephos, Scansite, Disphos and Predphosphos, were integrated to construct meta-predictors of rice-specific phosphorylation sites using several methods, including unweighted voting, unreduced weighted voting, reduced unweighted voting and weighted voting strategies. PhosphoRice, the meta-predictor produced by using weighted voting strategy with parameters selected by restricted grid search and conditional random search, performed the best at predicting phosphorylation sites in rice. Its Matthew's Correlation Coefficient (MCC and Accuracy (ACC reached to 0.474 and 73.8%, respectively. Compared to the best individual element predictor (Disphos_default, PhosphoRice archieved a significant increase in MCC of 0.071 (P Conclusions PhosphoRice is a powerful tool for predicting unidentified phosphorylation sites in rice. Compared to the existing methods, we found that our tool showed greater robustness in ACC and MCC. PhosphoRice is available to the public at http://bioinformatics.fafu.edu.cn/PhosphoRice.

  20. International tourist preference of Lodok Rice Field natural elements, the cultural rice field from Manggarai - Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    March Syahadat, Ray; Trie Putra, Priambudi; Nuraini; Nailufar, Balqis; Fatmala Makhmud, Desy

    2017-10-01

    Lodok Rice Field or usually known as spiderweb rice field is a system of land division. It cultural rice field only found on Manggarai, Province of East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. The landscape of Lodok Rice Field was aesthetic and it has big potential for tourism development. The aim of this study was to know the perception of natural elements of Lodok Rice Field landscape that could influence international tourist to visited Lodok Rice Field. If we know the elements that could influenced the international tourist, we could used the landscape image for tourism media promotion. The methods of this study used scenic beauty estimation (SBE) by 85 respondents from 34 countries and Kruskal Wallis H test. The countries grouped by five continents (Asia, America, Europe, Africa, and Oceania). The result showed that the Asian respondents liked the elements of sky, mountain, and the rice field. Then, the other respondent from another continent liked the elements of sunshine, mountain, and the rice field. Although the Asian had different perception about landscape elements of rice field’s good view, it’s not differ significantly by Kruskal Wallis H test.

  1. Creation of transgenic rice plants producing small interfering RNA of Rice tungro spherical virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Dung Tien; Chu, Ha Duc; Sasaya, Takahide

    2015-01-01

    Rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV), also known as Rice waika virus, does not cause visible symptoms in infected rice plants. However, the virus plays a critical role in spreading Rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV), which is the major cause of severe symptoms of rice tungro disease. Recent studies showed that RNA interference (RNAi) can be used to develop virus-resistance transgenic rice plants. In this report, we presented simple procedures and protocols needed for the creation of transgenic rice plants capable of producing small interfering RNA specific against RTSV sequences. Notably, our study showed that 60 out of 64 individual hygromycin-resistant lines (putative transgenic lines) obtained through transformation carried transgenes designed for producing hairpin double-stranded RNA. Northern blot analyses revealed the presence of small interfering RNA of 21- to 24-mer in 46 out of 56 confirmed transgenic lines. Taken together, our study indicated that transgenic rice plants carrying an inverted repeat of 500-bp fragments encoding various proteins of RTSV can produce small interfering RNA from the hairpin RNA transcribed from that transgene. In light of recent studies with other viruses, it is possible that some of these transgenic rice lines might be resistant to RTSV.

  2. Lead in rice: analysis of baseline lead levels in market and field collected rice grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Gareth J; Williams, Paul N; Adomako, Eureka E; Price, Adam H; Zhu, Yongguan; Zhao, Fang-Jie; McGrath, Steve; Deacon, Claire M; Villada, Antia; Sommella, Alessia; Lu, Ying; Ming, Lei; De Silva, P Mangala C S; Brammer, Hugh; Dasgupta, Tapash; Islam, M Rafiqul; Meharg, Andrew A

    2014-07-01

    In a large scale survey of rice grains from markets (13 countries) and fields (6 countries), a total of 1578 rice grain samples were analysed for lead. From the market collected samples, only 0.6% of the samples exceeded the Chinese and EU limit of 0.2 μg g(-1) lead in rice (when excluding samples collected from known contaminated/mine impacted regions). When evaluating the rice grain samples against the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) provisional total tolerable intake (PTTI) values for children and pregnant women, it was found that only people consuming large quantities of rice were at risk of exceeding the PTTI from rice alone. Furthermore, 6 field experiments were conducted to evaluate the proportion of the variation in lead concentration in rice grains due to genetics. A total of 4 of the 6 field experiments had significant differences between genotypes, but when the genotypes common across all six field sites were assessed, only 4% of the variation was explained by genotype, with 9.5% and 11% of the variation explained by the environment and genotype by environment interaction respectively. Further work is needed to identify the sources of lead contamination in rice, with detailed information obtained on the locations and environments where the rice is sampled, so that specific risk assessments can be performed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of Volatile Flavor Compounds in Chinese Rice Wine Fermented from Enzymatic Extruded Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Enbo; Long, Jie; Wu, Zhengzong; Li, Hongyan; Wang, Fang; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Jiao, Aiquan

    2015-07-01

    Enzymatic extrusion, instead of traditional steam cooking, to treat rice is an efficient and alternative pretreatment for Chinese rice wine fermentation. In order to determine the formation of volatiles in enzymatic extrusion-processed rice wine (EE), and to confirm its characteristic flavor compounds, headspace solid-phase micro-extraction followed by GC-MS was used. A total of 66 volatile compounds were identified in EE. During fermentation, most volatiles generated from enzymatic extruded rice had the similar trends with those from steam-cooked rice, but the differences in the concentration of volatiles indicated a changed balance of flavors release caused by enzymatic extrusion. Besides, the concentrations and sorts of volatiles in EEs fermented from different rice particle sizes, were not dramatically different. By principal component analysis, EE could be distinctly separated from other traditional Chinese rice wines according to its characteristic volatiles, namely, 2-heptanol, 1-octen-3-ol, ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate, methylpentyl 2-propenoate, γ-hexalactone, and 4-vinylguaiacol. Enzymatic extrusion liquefaction has been a popular thermal treatment for cereals, and gradually being applied in fermentation and liquor-making industry all over the world. The characterization of volatile flavor compounds in Chinese rice wine processed by enzymatic extrusion liquefaction pretreatment, might be made use not only for a better understanding of this new-type rice wine, but for the further utilization of enzymatic extrusion in other wine or alcohol production as well. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. An update on the use of co-products from the milling of rice in value added food products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because of the huge quantity of rice produced annually, milled-rice co-products; such as, rice bran, rice oil, rice wax, rice flour, and rice hull are plentiful and readily available. These co-products could be valuable sources of food ingredients, but they have been vastly under-utilized. Rice bra...

  5. Mapping paddy rice planting area in rice-wetland coexistent areas through analysis of Landsat 8 OLI and MODIS images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuting; Xiao, Xiangming; Qin, Yuanwei; Dong, Jinwei; Zhang, Geli; Kou, Weili; Jin, Cui; Wang, Jie; Li, Xiangping

    2016-04-01

    Accurate and up-to-date information on the spatial distribution of paddy rice fields is necessary for the studies of trace gas emissions, water source management, and food security. The phenology-based paddy rice mapping algorithm, which identifies the unique flooding stage of paddy rice, has been widely used. However, identification and mapping of paddy rice in rice-wetland coexistent areas is still a challenging task. In this study, we found that the flooding/transplanting periods of paddy rice and natural wetlands were different. The natural wetlands flood earlier and have a shorter duration than paddy rice in the Panjin Plain, a temperate region in China. We used this asynchronous flooding stage to extract the paddy rice planting area from the rice-wetland coexistent area. MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) data was used to derive the temperature-defined plant growing season. Landsat 8 OLI imagery was used to detect the flooding signal and then paddy rice was extracted using the difference in flooding stages between paddy rice and natural wetlands. The resultant paddy rice map was evaluated with in-situ ground-truth data and Google Earth images. The estimated overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient were 95% and 0.90, respectively. The spatial pattern of OLI-derived paddy rice map agrees well with the paddy rice layer from the National Land Cover Dataset from 2010 (NLCD-2010). The differences between Rice Landsat and Rice NLCD are in the range of ±20% for most 1-km grid cell. The results of this study demonstrate the potential of the phenology-based paddy rice mapping algorithm, via integrating MODIS and Landsat 8 OLI images, to map paddy rice fields in complex landscapes of paddy rice and natural wetland in the temperate region.

  6. Rice saabus Euroopat taltsutama / Tõnu Prei

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Prei, Tõnu, 1950-

    2005-01-01

    USA välisminister Condolezza Rice alustas ringreisi Euroopas, eesmärgiks anda vastulöök USA-d tabanud kriitikale sõjavangide kohtlemise ja teistes riikides oma luuretalituse salavanglate pidamise pärast

  7. USING RICE BRAN IN LAYING HEN DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H ERSIN SAMLI

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice bran is an energy and protein rich ingredient used in poultry feeding. To balance energy and protein requirements. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of rice bran on performance and egg quality during peak production of a commercial White laying strain of 22 week of age. Dietary treatments were consisted by inclusion of rice bran at 0, 5, 10 and 15% levels. Each treatment had 6 reps in which 12 birds were randomly assigned in wired fl oor battery cages equipped with nipple drinkers and through feeders. Layers accessed to feed and water freely. Lighting regimen was adjusted to 16h light/8h dark. The experiment lasted for 10 weeks. Overall results of the present experiment indicated that rice bran could be included up to 10% without any adverse affect on laying performance, egg quality and digestive organs.

  8. Genetic Diversity of Wild Rice Species in Yunnan Province of China

    OpenAIRE

    Zai-quan CHENG; Fu-you YING; Ding-qing LI; Teng-qiong YU; Jian FU; Hui-jun YAN; Qiao-fang ZHONG; Dun-yu ZHANG; Wei-jiao LI; Xing-qi HUANG

    2012-01-01

    Yunnan Province of China is one of the important centers for origin and evolution of cultivated rice worldwide. Wild rice is the ancestor of the cultivated rice. Many elite traits of wild rice have widened the genetic basis in cultivated rice. However, many populations of wild rice species have disappeared in the past few years. Therefore, the current status of wild rice resources should be updated and the genetic diversity of wild rice species should be examined for further germplasm preserv...

  9. Characterization of paralogous protein families in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Wei

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High gene numbers in plant genomes reflect polyploidy and major gene duplication events. Oryza sativa, cultivated rice, is a diploid monocotyledonous species with a ~390 Mb genome that has undergone segmental duplication of a substantial portion of its genome. This, coupled with other genetic events such as tandem duplications, has resulted in a substantial number of its genes, and resulting proteins, occurring in paralogous families. Results Using a computational pipeline that utilizes Pfam and novel protein domains, we characterized paralogous families in rice and compared these with paralogous families in the model dicotyledonous diploid species, Arabidopsis thaliana. Arabidopsis, which has undergone genome duplication as well, has a substantially smaller genome (~120 Mb and gene complement compared to rice. Overall, 53% and 68% of the non-transposable element-related rice and Arabidopsis proteins could be classified into paralogous protein families, respectively. Singleton and paralogous family genes differed substantially in their likelihood of encoding a protein of known or putative function; 26% and 66% of singleton genes compared to 73% and 96% of the paralogous family genes encode a known or putative protein in rice and Arabidopsis, respectively. Furthermore, a major skew in the distribution of specific gene function was observed; a total of 17 Gene Ontology categories in both rice and Arabidopsis were statistically significant in their differential distribution between paralogous family and singleton proteins. In contrast to mammalian organisms, we found that duplicated genes in rice and Arabidopsis tend to have more alternative splice forms. Using data from Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing, we show that a significant portion of the duplicated genes in rice show divergent expression although a correlation between sequence divergence and correlation of expression could be seen in very young genes. Conclusion

  10. The Potency of White Rice (Oryza sativa), Black Rice (Oryza sativa L. indica), and Red Rice (Oryza nivara) as Antioxidant and Tyrosinase Inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batubara, I.; Maharni, M.; Sadiah, S.

    2017-04-01

    Rice is known to have many beneficial biological activities and is often used as “bedak dingin”, a face powder. The content of vitamins, minerals, fiber, and several types of antioxidants, such as ferulic acid, phytic acid, tocopherol, and oryzanols [1-2] are predicted to be potential as a tyrosinase inhibitor. The purpose of this study is to determine the potency of extracts from there types of rice, namely white, red, and black rice as an antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitor. The rice was extracted with three different solvents, n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. The results showed that the highest antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method was found in the methanol extract of black rice (IC50 290 μg/mL). Meanwhile, ethyl acetate extract of white rice has the highest antioxidant activity withphosphomolybdic acid method (41 mmol α-tocopherol equivalents/g sample). Thus, methanol extract of black rice and ethyl acetate extract of white rice are potential as an antioxidant. For tyrosinase inhibitor, n-hexane extract of red rice (IC50 3156 μg/mL) was the most active extract. The active component for radical scavenging is polar compound and for antioxidant by phosphomolybdate method is less polar compounds in black rice methanol extract based on TLC bioautogram. In conclusion, the black rice is the most potent in antioxidant while red rice is for tyrosinase inhibition.

  11. [Effects of rice cleaning and cooking process on the residues of flutolanil, fenobucarb, silafluofen and buprofezin in rice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Motoaki; Sakaguchi, Masayuki; Kobata, Masakazu; Sakaguchi, Yoko; Tanizawa, Haruna; Miura, Yuri; Sasano, Ryoichi; Nakanishi, Yutaka

    2003-02-01

    We studied the effect of cleaning and cooking on the residues of flutolanil, fenobucarb, silafluofen and buprofezin in rice. The rice had been sprayed in a paddy field in Wakayama city, with 3 kinds of pesticide application protocols: spraying once at the usual concentration of pesticides, repeated spraying (3 times) with the usual concentration of pesticides and spraying once with 3 times the usual concentration of pesticides. The residue levels of pesticide decreased during the rice cleaning process. Silafluofen, which has a higher log Pow value, remained in the hull of the rice. Fenobucarb, which has a lower log Pow value, penetrated inside the rice. The residue concentration of pesticide in polished rice was higher than that in pre-washed rice processed ready for cooking. During the cooking procedure, the reduction of pesticides in polished rice was higher than that in brown rice.

  12. Biophysical and Mechanical properties of rice varieties: attributes to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It requires about 25N for the rice grain (IITA306) to fail at 0.7mm at horizontal and 150N to crack the rice grain in vertical position at 21.0mm, it takes 60N for the rice grain (MAS) to fail at 1.4mm and 150N to crack the rice grain at 22.5mm as well as 58N for the rice grain (R18) to fail at 1.2mm and 125N to crack the rice grain ...

  13. Effect of gamma irradiation on rice and its food products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, W.-C.

    2005-01-01

    Two milled indica rice varieties were exposed to gamma radiation with doses ranging from 0 to 1.0 kGy. The effects of gamma irradiation on rice flour pasting properties and the qualities of its food product, rice curd, were compared to the effects of storage. A dose of 1 kGy can decrease the flour paste viscosity and tenderize the texture of the rice curd to similar levels as those obtained after 12 months of storage. It was thus shown that gamma irradiation could shorten the indica rice aging time and improve the processing stability and quality of rice products

  14. Effect of gamma irradiation on rice and its food products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, W.-C. [Department of Hotel and Restaurant Management, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, 60 Erh-Jen Road, Sec. 1, Pao-An, Jen-Te Hsiang, Tainan 717, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: sungwilliam2001@yahoo.com.tw

    2005-07-01

    Two milled indica rice varieties were exposed to gamma radiation with doses ranging from 0 to 1.0 kGy. The effects of gamma irradiation on rice flour pasting properties and the qualities of its food product, rice curd, were compared to the effects of storage. A dose of 1 kGy can decrease the flour paste viscosity and tenderize the texture of the rice curd to similar levels as those obtained after 12 months of storage. It was thus shown that gamma irradiation could shorten the indica rice aging time and improve the processing stability and quality of rice products.

  15. An update on the use of rice in value-added food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because of the huge quantity of rice produced annually, milled-rice co-products; such as, rice flour, rice bran, rice wax, and rice hull are plentiful and readily available. These co-products could be valuable sources of food ingredients, but they have been vastly under-utilized. This is a report ...

  16. Rice is the seed of the monocot plants Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BIOTECH

    2013-10-16

    Oct 16, 2013 ... of culture. The regenerated plantlets were transferred to pots for acclimatization. About 80% of plants were survived in the greenhouse condition. Key words: Somatic embryogenesis, immature zygotic embryos, Indica rice, plant regeneration. INTRODUCTION. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most ...

  17. Genomic dissection of small RNAs in wild rice (Oryza rufipogon): lessons for rice domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Bai, Xuefei; Yan, Chenghai; Gui, Yiejie; Wei, Xinghua; Zhu, Qian-Hao; Guo, Longbiao; Fan, Longjiang

    2012-11-01

    The lack of a MIRNA set and genome sequence of wild rice (Oryza rufipogon) has prevented us from determining the role of MIRNA genes in rice domestication. In this study, a genome, three small RNA populations and a degradome of O. rufipogon were sequenced by Illumina platform and the expression levels of microRNAs (miRNAs) were investigated by miRNA chips. A de novo O. rufipogon genome was assembled using c. 55× coverage of raw sequencing data and a total of 387 MIRNAs were identified in the O. rufipogon genome based on c. 5.2 million unique small RNA reads from three different tissues of O. rufipogon. Of these, O. rufipogon MIRNAs, 259 were not found in the cultivated rice, suggesting a loss of these MIRNAs in the cultivated rice. We also found that 48 MIRNAs were novel in the cultivated rice, suggesting that they were potential targets of domestication selection. Some miRNAs showed significant expression differences between wild and cultivated rice, suggesting that expression of miRNA could also be a target of domestication, as demonstrated for the miR164 family. Our results illustrated that MIRNA genes, like protein-coding genes, might have been significantly shaped during rice domestication and could be one of the driving forces that contributed to rice domestication. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. Ethanol production from rice on radioactively contaminated field toward sustainable rice farming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Shinya; Izumi, Bintaro; Oki, Kazuo

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive species such as 137 Cs were discharged from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant which was severely damaged by the enormous earthquake and tsunami. Cropland has been radioactively contaminated by 137 Cs etc. and it seems impossible to plant rice due to the non-suitability for food. According to the reports, 137 Cs transferred into the rice from soil is less than 1% on the average. Therefore, it is expected that the concentration of 137 Cs in bioethanol will be well below the tentative restriction value even if bioethanol could be produced from the rice. It is proposed that the rice field should be filled with water to avoid the flow of runoff contaminated by radioactive cesium compounds because they are insoluble in aqueous phase and that bioethanol should be produced from the rice in order to maintain the multifunction of rice field and to continue the agriculture. If rice farming is halted and neglected, agricultural function of rice field as well as local community will be permanently destroyed. (author)

  19. Development and characterization of emulsions containing purple rice bran and brown rice oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aims of this study were to characterize purple rice bran oil (PRBO) as extracted from the bran, and to produce and characterize a nano-emulsion containing purple rice bran oil. An emulsion was prepared using PRBO (10%), sodium caseinate (5%) and water (85%). The mixture was sonicated followed ...

  20. Do rice water weevils and rice stem borers compete when sharing a host plant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Sheng-Wei; He, Yan; Ji, Xiang-Hua; Jiang, Ming-Xing; Cheng, Jia-An

    2008-07-01

    The rice water weevil (RWW) Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an invasive insect pest of rice Oryza sativa L. in China. Little is known about the interactions of this weevil with indigenous herbivores. In the present study, adult feeding and population density of the weevil, injury level of striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and pink stem borer Sesamia inferens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to rice, as well as growth status of their host plants were surveyed in a rice field located in Southeastern Zhejiang, China, in 2004 with the objective to discover interspecific interactions on the rice. At tillering stage, both adult feeding of the weevil and injury of the stem borers tended to occur on larger tillers (bearing 5 leaves) compared with small tillers (bearing 2~4 leaves), but the insects showed no evident competition with each other. At booting stage, the stem borers caused more withering/dead hearts and the weevil reached a higher density on the plants which had more productive tillers and larger root system; the number of weevils per tiller correlated negatively with the percentage of withering/dead hearts of plants in a hill. These observations indicate that interspecific interactions exist between the rice water weevil and the rice stem borers with negative relations occurring at booting or earlier developmental stages of rice.

  1. Do rice water weevils and rice stem borers compete when sharing a host plant?*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Sheng-wei; He, Yan; Ji, Xiang-hua; Jiang, Ming-xing; Cheng, Jia-an

    2008-01-01

    The rice water weevil (RWW) Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an invasive insect pest of rice Oryza sativa L. in China. Little is known about the interactions of this weevil with indigenous herbivores. In the present study, adult feeding and population density of the weevil, injury level of striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and pink stem borer Sesamia inferens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to rice, as well as growth status of their host plants were surveyed in a rice field located in Southeastern Zhejiang, China, in 2004 with the objective to discover interspecific interactions on the rice. At tillering stage, both adult feeding of the weevil and injury of the stem borers tended to occur on larger tillers (bearing 5 leaves) compared with small tillers (bearing 2~4 leaves), but the insects showed no evident competition with each other. At booting stage, the stem borers caused more withering/dead hearts and the weevil reached a higher density on the plants which had more productive tillers and larger root system; the number of weevils per tiller correlated negatively with the percentage of withering/dead hearts of plants in a hill. These observations indicate that interspecific interactions exist between the rice water weevil and the rice stem borers with negative relations occurring at booting or earlier developmental stages of rice. PMID:18600788

  2. Simultaneous rough rice drying and rice bran stabilization using infrared radiation heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to develop a new rice drying method by using IR heating followed by tempering. Freshly harvested medium grain rice (M206) samples with different initial moisture contents (IMCs) were used in this study. The samples were dried for one- and two-passes by using a catalyt...

  3. Rice-eating quality among consumers in different rice grain preference countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwannaporn, P.; Linnemann, A.R.

    2008-01-01

    More rice is eaten nowadays in traditionally nonrice-eating countries. This study investigated consumer eating quality preferences among consumers in target rice export countries to identify opportunities and strategic implications. A quantitative study with 1,128 consumers of target nationalities

  4. Electricity generation from rice husk in Indian rice mills: potential and financial viability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapur, T.; Kandpal, T.C.; Garg, H.P.

    1998-01-01

    Rice husk generated as a by-product of rice processing is an important energy resource. The availability of this resource in India has been assessed and the technologies for exploitation of its energy potential in the rice processing industry discussed. Nomographs have been developed for estimation of the husk required to meet the energy of parboiling, drying and milling operations. The unit cost of electricity using rice husk gasifier-based power generation systems has been calculated and its financial feasibility assessed in comparison with utility-supplied and diesel-generated electricity. With the cost and efficiency data assumed here, the unit cost of electricity produced by rice husk gasifier-dual fuel engine-generator system varies between Rs 2/kWh and Rs 7/kWh. (35 Rs approximates to SUS 1.). (author)

  5. Electricity generation from rice husk in Indian rice mills: potential and financial viability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapur, T.; Kandpal, T.C.; Garg, H.P. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Centre for Energy Studies, New Delhi (India)

    1998-12-31

    Rice husk generated as a by-product of rice processing is an important energy resource. The availability of this resource in India has been assessed and the technologies for exploitation of its energy potential in the rice processing industry discussed. Nomographs have been developed for estimation of the husk required to meet the energy of parboiling, drying and milling operations. The unit cost of electricity using rice husk gasifier-based power generation systems has been calculated and its financial feasibility assessed in comparison with utility-supplied and diesel-generated electricity. With the cost and efficiency data assumed here, the unit cost of electricity produced by rice husk gasifier-dual fuel engine-generator system varies between Rs 2/kWh and Rs 7/kWh. (35 Rs approximates to SUS 1.). (author)

  6. Evidence for Non-Transmission of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus (RYMV through Rice Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sy, AA.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An indexing of the organs (radicle and plumule and components (husk, endosperm and embryo of rice seeds using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA was carried out to detect Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV and establish the exact location of the virus in the rice seed. RYMV was detected only in the husk (seed coat but not in the endosperm, plumule, radicle, nor embryo. None of the seedlings raised from the seeds expressed RYMV symptoms. No virus particle was detected by the ELISA test in the leaves of the screenhouse-reared plants obtained from seeds of infected plants. The results indicate that RYMV is apparently not transmitted through rice seed probably because the virus is seed-borne in the husk (seed coat of mature rice seeds.

  7. Effect of Temperature on Chinese Rice Wine Brewing with High Concentration Presteamed Whole Sticky Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengfeng Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of high quality Chinese rice wine largely depends on fermentation temperature. However, there is no report on the ethanol, sugars, and acids kinetics in the fermentation mash of Chinese rice wine treated at various temperatures. The effects of fermentation temperatures on Chinese rice wine quality were investigated. The compositions and concentrations of ethanol, sugars, glycerol, and organic acids in the mash of Chinese rice wine samples were determined by HPLC method. The highest ethanol concentration and the highest glycerol concentration both were attained at the fermentation mash treated at 23°C. The highest peak value of maltose (90 g/L was obtained at 18°C. Lactic acid and acetic acid both achieved maximum values at 33°C. The experimental results indicated that temperature contributed significantly to the ethanol production, acid flavor contents, and sugar contents in the fermentation broth of the Chinese rice wines.

  8. Effect of Temperature on Chinese Rice Wine Brewing with High Concentration Presteamed Whole Sticky Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Tao; Xiong, Weili; Hu, Jianhua; Xu, Baoguo; Lin, Chi-Chung; Xu, Ling; Jiang, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    Production of high quality Chinese rice wine largely depends on fermentation temperature. However, there is no report on the ethanol, sugars, and acids kinetics in the fermentation mash of Chinese rice wine treated at various temperatures. The effects of fermentation temperatures on Chinese rice wine quality were investigated. The compositions and concentrations of ethanol, sugars, glycerol, and organic acids in the mash of Chinese rice wine samples were determined by HPLC method. The highest ethanol concentration and the highest glycerol concentration both were attained at the fermentation mash treated at 23°C. The highest peak value of maltose (90 g/L) was obtained at 18°C. Lactic acid and acetic acid both achieved maximum values at 33°C. The experimental results indicated that temperature contributed significantly to the ethanol production, acid flavor contents, and sugar contents in the fermentation broth of the Chinese rice wines. PMID:24672788

  9. Development of Ozone Technology Rice Storage Systems (OTRISS) for Quality Improvement of Rice Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur, M; Kusdiyantini, E; Wuryanti, W; Winarni, T A; Widyanto, S A; Muharam, H

    2015-01-01

    This research has been carried out by using ozone to address the rapidly declining quality of rice in storage. In the first year, research has focused on the rice storage with ozone technology for small capacity (e.g., household) and the medium capacity (e.g., dormitories, hospitals). Ozone was produced by an ozone generator with Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma (DBDP). Ozone technology rice storage system (OTRISS) is using ozone charateristic which is a strong oxidizer. Ozone have a short endurance of existence and then decompose, as a result produce oxygen and radicals of oxygen. These characteristics could kill microorganisms and pests, reduce air humidity and enrich oxygen. All components used in SPBTO assembled using raw materials available in the big cities in Indonesia. Provider of high voltage (High Voltage Power Supply, 40-70 kV, 23 KH, AC) is one of components that have been assembled and tested. Ozone generator is assembled with 7 reactors of Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma (DBDP). Rice container that have been prepared for OTRISS have adjusted so can be integrated with generator, power supply and blower to blow air. OTRISS with a capacity of 75 kg and 100 kg have been made and tested. The ability of ozone to eliminate bacteria and fungi have been tested and resulted in a decrease of microorganisms at 3 log CFU/g. Testing in food chemistry showed that ozone treatment of rice had not changed the chemical content that still meet the standard of chemical content and nutritional applicable to ISO standard milled rice. The results of this study are very likely to be used as an alternative to rice storage systems in warehouse. Test and scale-up is being carried out in a mini warehouse whose condition is mimicked to rice in National Rice Storage of Indonesia (Bulog) to ensure quality. Next adaptations would be installed in the rice storage system in the Bulog. (paper)

  10. Integrated rice-duck farming mitigates the global warming potential in rice season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guochun; Liu, Xin; Wang, Qiangsheng; Yu, Xichen; Hang, Yuhao

    2017-01-01

    Integrated rice-duck farming (IRDF), as a mode of ecological agriculture, is an important way to realize sustainable development of agriculture. A 2-year split-plot field experiment was performed to evaluate the effects of IRDF on methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions and its ecological mechanism in rice season. This experiment was conducted with two rice farming systems (FS) of IRDF and conventional farming (CF) under four paddy-upland rotation systems (PUR): rice-fallow (RF), annual straw incorporating in rice-wheat rotation system (RWS), annual straw-based biogas residues incorporating in rice-wheat rotation system (RWB), and rice-green manure (RGM). During the rice growing seasons, IRDF decreased the CH 4 emission by 8.80-16.68%, while increased the N 2 O emission by 4.23-15.20%, when compared to CF. Given that CH 4 emission contributed to 85.83-96.22% of global warming potential (GWP), the strong reduction in CH 4 emission led to a significantly lower GWP of IRDF as compared to CF. The reason for this trend was because IRDF has significant effect on dissolved oxygen (DO) and soil redox potential (Eh), which were two pivotal factors for CH 4 and N 2 O emissions in this study. The IRDF not only mitigates the GWP, but also increases the rice yield by 0.76-2.43% compared to CF. Moreover, compared to RWS system, RF, RWB and RGM systems significantly reduced CH 4 emission by 50.17%, 44.89% and 39.51%, respectively, while increased N 2 O emission by 10.58%, 14.60% and 23.90%, respectively. And RWS system had the highest GWP. These findings suggest that mitigating GWP and improving rice yield could be simultaneously achieved by the IRDF, and employing suitable PUR would benefit for relieving greenhouse effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Effect of Parasite Infection on Stable Isotope Turnover Rates of δ15N, δ13C and δ34S in Multiple Tissues of Eurasian Perch Perca fluviatilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Yohannes

    Full Text Available Stable isotope analysis of commercially and ecologically important fish can improve understanding of life-history and trophic ecology. However, accurate interpretation of stable isotope values requires knowledge of tissue-specific isotopic turnover that will help to describe differences in the isotopic composition of tissues and diet. We performed a diet-switch experiment using captive-reared parasite-free Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis and wild caught specimens of the same species, infected with the pike tapeworm Triaenophorus nodulosus living in host liver tissue. We hypothesize that metabolic processes related to infection status play a major role in isotopic turnover and examined the influence of parasite infection on isotopic turn-over rate of carbon (δ13C, nitrogen (δ15N and sulphur (δ34S in liver, blood and muscle. The δ15N and δ13C turnovers were fastest in liver tissues, followed by blood and muscle. In infected fish, liver and blood δ15N and δ13C turnover rates were similar. However, in infected fish, liver and blood δ13C turnover was faster than that of δ15N. Moreover, in infected subjects, liver δ15N and δ13C turnover rates were three to five times faster than in livers of uninfected subjects (isotopic half-life of ca.3-4 days compared to 16 and 10 days, respectively. Blood δ34S turnover rate were about twice faster in non-infected individuals implying that parasite infection could retard the turnover rate of δ34S and sulphur containing amino acids. Slower turnover rate of essential amino acid could probably decrease individual immune function. These indicate potential hidden costs of chronic and persistent infections that may have accumulated adverse effects and might eventually impair life-history fitness. For the first time, we were able to shift the isotope values of parasites encapsulated in the liver by changing the dietary source of the host. We also report variability in isotopic turnover rates between tissues

  12. The use of artificial spawning substrates in order to understand the factors influencing the spawning site selection, depth of egg strands deposition and hatching time of perch (Perca fluviatilis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kubečka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of egg strands of perch Perca fluviatilis and factors affecting this distribution, in terms of spawning sites and spawning depths used, was studied in spring 2010 in Chabařovice Lake, Czech Republic, using areas with an artificial spawning substrate (A.S.S. and control areas outside the A.S.S. Perch significantly preferred a calm shore instead of a windward shore for spawning. The depths at which perch egg strands were found increased significantly during the spawning period in both A.S.S. areas and in areas outside the A.S.S. (on average from 4.9 m at the beginning to 12.3 m at the end of the spawning period. With increasing depth of deposition the size of the egg strands decreased significantly. The mean depth of egg strands on individual dates corresponded to the position of 10-12°C water layers. From the third week onward, however, egg strands were deposited in much deeper and colder water. A strong relationship was found between the depth at which egg strands were deposited and the duration of the daylight period, indicating that, at the end of the spawning season, perch do not react to the actual temperature of the water column but that they follow their inner clock, assuming that "normally" the shallower depth layers are too warm for successful embryo development. Factors influencing the depth distribution of egg strands were identified as waves, temperature and duration of the daylight period. Factors influencing the selection of spawning sites were identified as wind inducing current, internal seiches and temperature instability of the water column. The first perch larvae were present in the open water of Chabařovice Lake before mid-May, and the latest larvae not earlier than the beginning of July, since warming of the water in deeper layers was very slow. It appears that with prolonged spawning and hatching periods and with spawning occurring at various depths and temperatures, perch have evolved a powerful

  13. Genome-wide analysis of Dongxiang wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) to investigate lost/acquired genes during rice domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fantao; Xu, Tao; Mao, Linyong; Yan, Shuangyong; Chen, Xiwen; Wu, Zhenfeng; Chen, Rui; Luo, Xiangdong; Xie, Jiankun; Gao, Shan

    2016-04-26

    It is widely accepted that cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) was domesticated from common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.). Compared to other studies which concentrate on rice origin, this study is to genetically elucidate the substantially phenotypic and physiological changes from wild rice to cultivated rice at the whole genome level. Instead of comparing two assembled genomes, this study directly compared the Dongxiang wild rice (DXWR) Illumina sequencing reads with the Nipponbare (O. sativa) complete genome without assembly of the DXWR genome. Based on the results from the comparative genomics analysis, structural variations (SVs) between DXWR and Nipponbare were determined to locate deleted genes which could have been acquired by Nipponbare during rice domestication. To overcome the limit of the SV detection, the DXWR transcriptome was also sequenced and compared with the Nipponbare transcriptome to discover the genes which could have been lost in DXWR during domestication. Both 1591 Nipponbare-acquired genes and 206 DXWR-lost transcripts were further analyzed using annotations from multiple sources. The NGS data are available in the NCBI SRA database with ID SRP070627. These results help better understanding the domestication from wild rice to cultivated rice at the whole genome level and provide a genomic data resource for rice genetic research or breeding. One finding confirmed transposable elements contribute greatly to the genome evolution from wild rice to cultivated rice. Another finding suggested the photophosphorylation and oxidative phosphorylation system in cultivated rice could have adapted to environmental changes simultaneously during domestication.

  14. Cytoplasmic-genetic male sterility gene provides direct evidence for some hybrid rice recently evolving into weedy rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingxu; Lu, Zuomei; Dai, Weimin; Song, Xiaoling; Peng, Yufa; Valverde, Bernal E.; Qiang, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Weedy rice infests paddy fields worldwide at an alarmingly increasing rate. There is substantial evidence indicating that many weedy rice forms originated from or are closely related to cultivated rice. There is suspicion that the outbreak of weedy rice in China may be related to widely grown hybrid rice due to its heterosis and the diversity of its progeny, but this notion remains unsupported by direct evidence. We screened weedy rice accessions by both genetic and molecular marker tests for the cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) genes (Wild abortive, WA, and Boro type, BT) most widely used in the production of indica and japonica three-line hybrid rice as a diagnostic trait of direct parenthood. Sixteen weedy rice accessions of the 358 tested (4.5%) contained the CMS-WA gene; none contained the CMS-BT gene. These 16 accessions represent weedy rices recently evolved from maternal hybrid rice derivatives, given the primarily maternal inheritance of this trait. Our results provide key direct evidence that hybrid rice can be involved in the evolution of some weedy rice accessions, but is not a primary factor in the recent outbreak of weedy rice in China. PMID:26012494

  15. Cytoplasmic-genetic male sterility gene provides direct evidence for some hybrid rice recently evolving into weedy rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingxu; Lu, Zuomei; Dai, Weimin; Song, Xiaoling; Peng, Yufa; Valverde, Bernal E; Qiang, Sheng

    2015-05-27

    Weedy rice infests paddy fields worldwide at an alarmingly increasing rate. There is substantial evidence indicating that many weedy rice forms originated from or are closely related to cultivated rice. There is suspicion that the outbreak of weedy rice in China may be related to widely grown hybrid rice due to its heterosis and the diversity of its progeny, but this notion remains unsupported by direct evidence. We screened weedy rice accessions by both genetic and molecular marker tests for the cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) genes (Wild abortive, WA, and Boro type, BT) most widely used in the production of indica and japonica three-line hybrid rice as a diagnostic trait of direct parenthood. Sixteen weedy rice accessions of the 358 tested (4.5%) contained the CMS-WA gene; none contained the CMS-BT gene. These 16 accessions represent weedy rices recently evolved from maternal hybrid rice derivatives, given the primarily maternal inheritance of this trait. Our results provide key direct evidence that hybrid rice can be involved in the evolution of some weedy rice accessions, but is not a primary factor in the recent outbreak of weedy rice in China.

  16. Efficacy and economics of different herbicides in aerobic rice system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-03

    Aug 3, 2011 ... options for effective and economic weed control in rice under aerobic system ... constraint to aerobic rice production and therefore, ... Herbicide has become an attractive alternative to manual ... MATERIALS AND METHODS.

  17. Water culture of the rice containing Cs-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yong Ho; Keum, Dong Kwon; Lim, Kwang Muk; Jun, In; Park, Doo Won

    2008-10-01

    Pot experiments were carried out in a greenhouse in order to produce Cs-137-containing rice seeds as a source material for use in manufacturing reference rice samples of a high Cs-137 activity. Two kinds of soil were used and two pots were prepared for each kind of soil. Rice plants were water-cultured in the pots and Cs-137 was applied to the surface water to induce a Cs-137 contamination of rice seeds via a plant uptake of Cs-137. Mature rice plants were harvested and Cs-137-containing rice seeds were obtained after some treatment of the harvested plants. These produced rice seeds are going to be provided for the KRISS so as to be used in manufacturing reference rice samples for Cs-137

  18. Identification of quantitative trait loci for salinity tolerance in rice ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-12-05

    Dec 5, 2016 ... most serious biophysical constraints of rice production in many rice-producing areas ..... Thus, the large gaps in the chromosomal regions without ..... an elite maize population: I. Linkage analysis and determination of QTLs for.

  19. Production Cost Efficiency and Profitability of Abakaliki Rice in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    2014-11-17

    Nov 17, 2014 ... positive and significant effect on the total cost of rice production. They were all significant ... failure is experienced due to the flooded rice field. In addition ... for random effects on production beyond the control .... Standard error.

  20. Systemic induced tolerance against root-knot nematodes in rice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Rice plantlets were randomly grown in laboratory, sprayed with hormones and riboflavin .... between riboflavin, SA, JA and ET pathways in rice-nematodes interaction, ..... oxidative damage caused by aging as well as biotic and abiotic stress.

  1. greenhouse gaseous emission and energy analysis in rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Agriculture in Africa is associated with low food production. The attempt ... objective of this study was to assess greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy impacts of rice production in. Ghana. .... Assessment (LCA) techniques, tropical rice.

  2. 10559 A NATIONAL SURVEY OF RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) GRAIN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    The study provided quantitative measures of the quality status of rice grains available in Sierra ... using the most convenient methods at their disposal. ... rice, moisture content of grains and percentages of foreign matter, chalky immature grains ...

  3. ?-Oryzanols of North American Wild Rice (Zizania palustris)

    OpenAIRE

    Aladedunye, Felix; Przybylski, Roman; Rudzinska, Magdalena; Klensporf-Pawlik, Dorota

    2013-01-01

    ?-Oryzanol, a natural mixture of ferulic acid esters of triterpene alcohols and sterols, are an important bioactive components present in rice bran oil. In light of the recent increase in the popularity of wild rice among consumers, and the possibility of a direct relationship between ?-oryzanol composition and its bioactivity, the oryzanol profile of major wild rice (Zizania palustris) grown in North America was studied and compared to regular brown rice (Oryza sativa L.). A total of twenty-...

  4. Rice Genome Research: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Han

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Rice ( L. is the leading genomics system among the crop plants. The sequence of the rice genome, the first cereal plant genome, was published in 2005. This review summarizes progress made in rice genome annotations, comparative genomics, and functional genomics researches. It also maps out the status of rice genomics globally and provides a vision of future research directions and resource building.

  5. Organic rice of Bangladesh: focus on disease control

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, Shaikh Tanveer

    2012-01-01

    Diseases play an important role in rice production. In modern agriculture, application of hazardous chemicals is a common practice allover the world. But organic rice production system does not allow synthetic agro-chemicals due to its adverse effect on environment as well as human health. Thirty six fungal, twenty one viral, six bacterial and six nematode diseases have been recorded in rice. In Bangladesh, 31 rice diseases have been so far identified of which ten are considered as major. She...

  6. Effect of waxy rice flour and cassava starch on freeze-thaw stability of rice starch gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenrein, Sanguansri; Preechathammawong, Nutsuda

    2012-10-01

    Repeatedly frozen and thawed rice starch gel affects quality. This study investigated how incorporating waxy rice flour (WF) and cassava starch (CS) in rice starch gel affects factors used to measure quality. When rice starch gels containing 0-2% WF and CS were subjected to 5 freeze-thaw cycles, both WF and CS reduced the syneresis in first few cycles. However CS was more effective in reducing syneresis than WF. The different composite arrangement of rice starch with WF or CS caused different mechanisms associated with the rice starch gel retardation of retrogradation, reduced the spongy structure and lowered syneresis. Both swollen granules of rice starch and CS caused an increase in the hardness of the unfrozen and freeze-thawed starch gel while highly swollen WF granules caused softer gels. These results suggested that WF and CS were effective in preserving quality in frozen rice starch based products. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of germination on the physicochemical and antioxidant characteristics of rice flour from three rice varieties from Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinma, Chiemela Enyinnaya; Anuonye, Julian Chukwuemeka; Simon, Omotade Comfort; Ohiare, Raliat Ozavize; Danbaba, Nahemiah

    2015-10-15

    This study determined the effect of germination (48 h) on the physicochemical and antioxidant characteristics of rice flour from three rice varieties from Nigeria. Local rice varieties (Jamila, Jeep and Kwandala) were evaluated and compared to an improved variety (MR 219). Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of flours were determined using standard methods. Protein, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium and antioxidant properties of rice flours increased after germination while phytic acid and total starch contents decreased. Foaming capacity and stability of rice flours increased after germination. Germination resulted to changes in pasting and thermal characteristics of rice flours. Germinated rice flours had better physicochemical and antioxidant properties with reduced phytic acid and starch contents compared to MR 219, which can be utilized as functional ingredients in the preparation of rice-based products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Radiation disinfection of rice-straw products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Isao; Ohki, Yumi.

    1991-01-01

    For the quarantine treatment of rice-straw products from foreign countries, irradiation effects of gamma-rays and electron beams on plant pathogenic microorganisms especially on fungi were investigated. The total aerobic bacteria in rice-straw was determined to be 3x10 7 - 3x10 8 per gram which consisted mainly of Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Arthrobacter and Erwinia. The principal bacteria in rice-straw could be eliminated with 5 kGy of gamma irradiation. Deinococcus proteolyticus and Pseudomonas radiora were the main survivors at 5 to 12 kGy of irradiation. Saprophytic fungus which belongs to Dimorphospora also survived up to 8 kGy of irradiation. The D 10 values of 26 strains of fungi isolated from rice-straw were 1.1 to 2.5 times higher in the dry condition compared to the values when irradiated in 0.067 M phosphate buffer solution. The induction dose in the dry condition also increased from 1.5 to 10 times than that in the wet condition. In the case of electron beam irradiation of fungi under dry conditions, D 10 values were about 1.3 times higher than that of gamma irradiation. From this study, the dose necessary to reduce the plant pathogenic fungi in rice-straw at a level below 10 -4 per gram was estimated to be as 7-8 kGy for gamma-irradiation and 10 kGy for electron beam irradiation. (author)

  9. Nuclear analytical methods on ancient Thai rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won-in, K.; Thongleurm, C.; Dararutana, P.

    2013-01-01

    For more than half of humanity, rice is life. Rice is a grain which has shaped the history, culture, diet and economy of billions of people in Asia. In Thailand, it is the essence of life. Archaeological evidence revealed that rice had been planted in northeastern area of Thailand more than 5,500 years ago which is earlier than in China and India. The ancient rice grains were found in various archaeological sites in Thailand such as Nakhon Nayok, Suphan Buri and Prachin Buri Provinces. In this work, the ancient black rice from Nakhon Nayok Province was elementally analyzed using scanning electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, proton induced X-ray emission spectroscopy and micro-beam energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy was also used to study the chemical composition and bio-molecular structure. The grains were oblique in shape with a rough surface. Three major elements (Si, Ca and Al) and other trace elements were detected. The IR spectra provided some information about the presence of molecular bonds. (author)

  10. Making Rice Production More Environmentally-Friendly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Uphoff

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Irrigated rice production is one of the most essential agricultural activities for sustaining our global population, and at the same time, one of the agricultural sectors considered most eco-unfriendly. This is because it consumes a larger share of available freshwater resources, competing with varied ecosystems as well as other economic sectors; its paddy fields are responsible for significant emission of greenhouse gases; and the reliance on chemical fertilizers and various agrochemicals contributes to pollution of soils and water systems. These stresses on soils, hydrology and atmosphere are actually not necessary for rice production, which can be increased by modifying agronomic practices though more agroecologically-sound management practices. These, combined under the rubric of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI, can reduce requirements of irrigation water, chemical fertilizer and agrochemicals while increasing paddy yields and farmer’s net incomes. Here we discuss how irrigated rice production can be made more eco-friendly for the benefit of farmers, consumers and the environment. This is achieved by introducing practices that improve the growth and functioning of rice plants’ root systems and enhance the abundance, diversity and activity of beneficial soil organisms that live around plant roots and within the plants themselves as symbiotic endophytes.

  11. Arsenic biotransformation and volatilization in transgenic rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiang-Yan; Qin, Jie; Wang, Li-Hong; Duan, Gui-Lan; Sun, Guo-Xin; Wu, Hui-Lan; Chu, Cheng-Cai; Ling, Hong-Qing; Rosen, Barry P.; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2011-01-01

    Summary Biotransformation of arsenic includes oxidation, reduction, methylation and conversion to more complex organic arsenicals. Members of the class of arsenite [As(III)] S-adenosylmethyltransferase enzymes catalyze As(III) methylation to a variety of mono-, di- and trimethylated species, some of which are less toxic than As(III) itself. However, no methyltransferase gene has been identified in plants. Here, an arsM gene from the soil bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris was expressed in Japonica rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivar Nipponbare, and the transgenic rice produced methylated arsenic species, which were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). Both monomethylarsenate [MAs(V)] and dimethylarsenate [DMAs(V)] were detected in the root and shoot of transgenic rice. After 12-d exposure to As(III), the transgenic rice gave off 10-fold more volatile arsenicals. The present study demonstrates that expression of an arsM gene in rice induces arsenic methylation and volatilization, providing a potential stratagem for phytoremediation theoretically. PMID:21517874

  12. Comparative Demand Analysis for Rice in Three States of South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dauda Omoba

    2013-01-01

    Jan 1, 2013 ... The contribution of the effect of the price of rice on the budget share of rice in the study ...... it is a luxury in rural areas of Delta state. This may imply that ... between brands of rice in rural Lagos and urban. Edo was the highest ...

  13. Determinants of rice output among ADP contact farmers in mining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study analyzed factors affecting rice output among Agricultural Development Programme (ADP) contact farmers in the mining and non mining locations of IVO LGA of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Multistage random sampling technique was used to select agricultural circles and rice farmers. The sample size was 120 rice ...

  14. Rice methylmercury exposure and mitigation: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, Sarah E; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Creswell, Joel E

    2014-08-01

    Rice cultivation practices from field preparation to post-harvest transform rice paddies into hot spots for microbial mercury methylation, converting less-toxic inorganic mercury to more-toxic methylmercury, which is likely translocated to rice grain. This review includes 51 studies reporting rice total mercury and/or methylmercury concentrations, based on rice (Orzya sativa) cultivated or purchased in 15 countries. Not surprisingly, both rice total mercury and methylmercury levels were significantly higher in polluted sites compared to non-polluted sites (Wilcoxon rank sum, p<0.001). However, rice percent methylmercury (of total mercury) did not differ statistically between polluted and non-polluted sites (Wilcoxon rank sum, p=0.35), suggesting comparable mercury methylation rates in paddy soil across these sites and/or similar accumulation of mercury species for these rice cultivars. Studies characterizing the effects of rice cultivation under more aerobic conditions were reviewed to determine the mitigation potential of this practice. Rice management practices utilizing alternating wetting and drying (instead of continuous flooding) caused soil methylmercury levels to spike, resulting in a strong methylmercury pulse after fields were dried and reflooded; however, it is uncertain whether this led to increased translocation of methylmercury from paddy soil to rice grain. Due to the potential health risks, it is advisable to investigate this issue further, and to develop separate water management strategies for mercury polluted and non-polluted sites, in order to minimize methylmercury exposure through rice ingestion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Developing selection protocols for weed competitiveness in aerobic rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, D.L.; Atlin, G.N.; Bastiaans, L.; Spiertz, J.H.J.

    2006-01-01

    Aerobic rice production systems, wherein rice is dry-sown in non-puddled soil and grown as an upland crop, offer large water savings but are subject to severe weed infestation. Weed-competitive cultivars will be critical to the adoption of aerobic rice production by farmers. Breeding

  16. Physical and Chemical Properties of Some Selected Rice Varieties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Physical and chemical properties of nine rice varieties grown and processed in Ebonyi .... Therefore, one tonne of a slender variety of rice will need more storage space than the ..... during washing and boiling of milled rice Starch 36:386-390.

  17. A mechanistic model on methane oxidation in the rice rhizosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodegom, van P.M.; Leffelaar, P.A.; Goudriaan, J.

    2001-01-01

    A mechanistic model is presented on the processes leading to methane oxidation in rice rhizosphere. The model is driven by oxygen release from a rice root into anaerobic rice soil. Oxygen is consumed by heterotrophic and methanotrophic respiration, described by double Monod kinetics, and by iron

  18. Overwintering physiology of the rice stem borer larvae, Chilo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), is a major rice pest around the world. A strong ability of the rice stem borer to adapt/resist cold temperature (cold hardiness) contributes to its survival through winter. However, the physiological mechanism of its cold hardiness is poorly understood. In this study, we ...

  19. simulating rice yields under climate change scenarios using

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    The effects of climate change on rice production and yield cannot be overlooked in finding measures to increase production and yield. The CERES-Rice (Ver. 4.0) model was calibrated and evaluated for use in simulating rice yields under different climate change scenarios in Ghana using data from the Anum Valley ...

  20. Physiology and productivity of rice crop influenced by drought stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rice is sensitive to moisture stress and in view of the water scarcity in the coming years, it is imperative to evaluate the performance of rice cultivar under moisture deficit. The present study aimed to evaluate the physiological responses of two rice cultivars under drought stress induced at panicle initiation and soft dough ...

  1. Upland rice yield as affected by Brachiaria coverage management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano S. Nascente

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An important point in no-tillage system is the time between cover crop glyphosate desiccation and rice sowing. This study aimed to verify the effect of Brachiaria ruziziensis management time before rice sowing on rice yield and its components. The experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions and consisted of four types of B. ruziziensis management: with Brachiaria and with herbicide (WBWH, without Brachiaria shoots and with herbicide (NBWH, without Brachiaria shoots and without herbicide (NBNH, and with Brachiaria and without herbicide (WBNH, at four times: 30, 20, 10, and 0 days, preceding the rice sowing. The amount of B. ruziziensis dry matter increased as the management was done closer to the rice sowing date. The WBWH and WBNH managements (this one causes the lowest rice grain yield must be done 30 days before rice sowing; while NBWH management must be done ten or more days before rice sowing. On the other hand, NBNH management (this one favors the best rice grain yield can be done until rice sowing day. Despite some reduction in rice yield caused by the B. ruziziensis management, when it was done at the proper time the rice grain yield was similar to the control (without Brachiaria sowing and without herbicide application.

  2. Extracting silica from rice husk treated with potassium permanganate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, S.H.; Naveed, S.

    2008-01-01

    As an agro-waste material the rice husk is abundantly available is rice growing areas. In many areas rice husk after burning involves disposal problems because of higher quantities of silica present in it. Rice husk contains about 20 per cent silica, which is present in hydrated amorphous form. On thermal treatment the silica converts into crystobalite, which is a crystalline form of silica. However amorphous silica can be produced under controlled conditions ensuring high reactivity and large surface area. Leaching the rice husk with organic acids and alkalies removes the metallic impurities from its surface. How a dilute solution of potassium permanganate affects the rice husk is the subject of this research paper. The rice husk was treated with the dilute solution of potassium permanganate at room temperature and then analyzed by SEM, TGA and the ash by analytical treatment after burning under controlled temperature. The SEM results revealed that the protuberances of the rice husk were eaten away by the solution of potassium permanganate. Pyrolysis of rice husks showed that the thermal degradation of the treated rice husk was faster than the untreated rice husk where as analytical results confirmed the presence of more amorphous silica than untreated rice husk. (author)

  3. An overview of global rice production, supply, trade, and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthayya, Sumithra; Sugimoto, Jonathan D; Montgomery, Scott; Maberly, Glen F

    2014-09-01

    Rice is the staple food for over half the world's population. Approximately 480 million metric tons of milled rice is produced annually. China and India alone account for ∼50% of the rice grown and consumed. Rice provides up to 50% of the dietary caloric supply for millions living in poverty in Asia and is, therefore, critical for food security. It is becoming an important food staple in both Latin America and Africa. Record increases in rice production have been observed since the start of the Green Revolution. However, rice remains one of the most protected food commodities in world trade. Rice is a poor source of vitamins and minerals, and losses occur during the milling process. Populations that subsist on rice are at high risk of vitamin and mineral deficiency. Improved technologies to fortify rice have the potential to address these deficiencies and their associated adverse health effects. With the rice industry consolidating in many countries, there are opportunities to fortify a significant share of rice for distribution or for use in government safety net programs that target those most in need, especially women and children. Multisectoral approaches are needed for the promotion and implementation of rice fortification in countries. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  4. Economic survey of rice marketing in Anambra state, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study exploratorily surveyed the process of marketing of rice in Anambra State with particular reference to rice processing, storage and pricing. The results of the analysis show that old people who are mostly illiterate but highly experienced engaged in rice marketing business. Furthermore, there is a significant ...

  5. Rice value chain analysis in Tanzania: identification of constraints ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of rice (Oryza sativa L.) as a food and cash crop in Eastern Africa, is increasing, but its value chain is becoming complex. In 2012/13, rice value chain analysis was conducted in rice farming systems of Lake, Eastern and Southern-Highlands zones of Tanzania. A sample of 240 producers, 60 traders and 30 ...

  6. Upland and lowland rice in the Netherlands Indies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maat, H.

    2016-01-01

    The global trade in rice is historically recent and its total quantity relatively small. Colonial explorations were the main incentive for its development, but only beginning in the 19th century did rice-producing countries in Asia export rice outside the continent in bulk. In previous centuries

  7. Global Rice Atlas: Disaggregated seasonal crop calendar and production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balanza, Jane Girly; Gutierrez, Mary Anne; Villano, Lorena; Nelson, A.D.; Zwart, S.J.; Boschetti, Mirco; Koo, Jawoo; Reinke, Russell; Murty, M. V.R.; Laborte, Alice G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Rice is an important staple crop cultivated in more than 163 million ha globally. Although information on the distribution of global rice production is available by country and, at times, at subnational level, information on its distribution within a year is often lacking in different rice

  8. RICD: A rice indica cDNA database resource for rice functional genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Qifa

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Oryza sativa L. indica subspecies is the most widely cultivated rice. During the last few years, we have collected over 20,000 putative full-length cDNAs and over 40,000 ESTs isolated from various cDNA libraries of two indica varieties Guangluai 4 and Minghui 63. A database of the rice indica cDNAs was therefore built to provide a comprehensive web data source for searching and retrieving the indica cDNA clones. Results Rice Indica cDNA Database (RICD is an online MySQL-PHP driven database with a user-friendly web interface. It allows investigators to query the cDNA clones by keyword, genome position, nucleotide or protein sequence, and putative function. It also provides a series of information, including sequences, protein domain annotations, similarity search results, SNPs and InDels information, and hyperlinks to gene annotation in both The Rice Annotation Project Database (RAP-DB and The TIGR Rice Genome Annotation Resource, expression atlas in RiceGE and variation report in Gramene of each cDNA. Conclusion The online rice indica cDNA database provides cDNA resource with comprehensive information to researchers for functional analysis of indica subspecies and for comparative genomics. The RICD database is available through our website http://www.ncgr.ac.cn/ricd.

  9. Puffing of okara/rice blends using a rice cake machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, M; Huff, H; Hsieh, F; Mustapha, A

    2008-10-01

    Okara is the insoluble byproduct of soymilk and tofu manufactures. It is cheap, high in nutrients, and possesses great potential to be applied to functional human foods. In this study, a puffed okara/rice cake product was developed with blends of okara pellets and parboiled rice. Consumer preference and acceptance tests were conducted for the product. Okara pellets were prepared by grinding the strands obtained from extruding a mixture of dried okara and rice flour (3:2, w/w) with a twin-screw extruder. Okara pellets and parboiled rice were blended in 4 ratios, 90:10, 70:30, 40:60, and 0:100 (w/w), and tempered to 14% and 17% moisture. The blends were puffed at 221, 232, and 243 degrees C for 4, 5, or 6 s. The okara/rice cakes were evaluated for specific volume (SPV), texture, color, and percent weight loss after tumbling. Overall, the decrease in okara content and increase in moisture, heating temperature and time led to greater specific volume (SPV) and hardness, lighter color, and lower percent weight loss after tumbling. The consumer tests indicated that the okara/rice cake containing 70% okara pellets was preferred and the 90% one was liked the least. The possible drivers of liking for the puffed okara/rice cakes could be the okara content, hardness, SPV, bright color, and percent weight loss after tumbling.

  10. Contribution of rice straw carbon to CH4 emission from rice paddies using 13C-enriched rice straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Akira; Yoshida, Mariko; Kimura, Makoto

    1998-04-01

    It is generally recognized that the application of rice straw (RS) increases CH4 emission from rice paddies. To estimate the contribution of RS carbon to CH4 emission, a pot experiment was conducted using 13C-enriched RS. The percentage contributions of RS carbon to CH4 emission throughout the rice growth period were 10±1, 32±3, and 43±3% for the treatments with RS applied at the rates of 2, 4, and 6 g kg-1 soil, respectively. The increase in the rate of application of RS increased CH4 emission derived from both RS carbon and other carbon sources. The percentage contribution of RS carbon to CH4 emission was larger in the earlier period (maximum 96%) when the decomposition rate of RS was larger. After RS decomposition had slowed, CH4 emission derived from RS carbon decreased. However, the δ13C values of CH4 emitted from the pots with 13C-enriched RS applied at rates of 4 and 6 g kg-1 soil were significantly higher than those from the pots with natural RS until the harvesting stage. An increased atom-13C% of roots of rice plants growing in the pots with 6 g kg-1 of 13C-enriched RS at around the maximum tiller number stage and a decrease during the following 2 months suggested that rice plants assimilated RS carbon once and then released a portion of it. This supply of RS carbon from roots may be one of the sources of CH4 in the late period of rice growth.

  11. Effects of Position of Rainfed Rice Field in a Toposequence on Water Availability and Rice Yield in Central Java, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    SUGANDA, HUSEIN; PANINGBATAN, E.P; GUERRA, L.C; TUONG, T.P

    2003-01-01

    The productivity of rainfed rice needs to be increased in order to support the Indonesian Food Security programs, especially rice. Rainfall is one of the main sources of the water availability on the rainfed rice field. This research was conducted from October 2000 to February 2001 at four sites in Central Java Province. The objectives of this research were to study thevariability of water availability that influenced by toposequen's position and to analyze the rice yields due to treatments o...

  12. Effects of fish and prawn culture on physico-chemical parameters of water and rice yield in rice fields

    OpenAIRE

    Razzak, M.A.; Nahar, A.; Mirhaj, M.; Becker, K.; Dewan, S.

    2009-01-01

    An experiment was conducted with five treatments i.e. rice combined with fish having regular urea fertilization (T1), rice combined with prawn having regular urea fertilization (T2), rice combined with fish with supplementary feeding (T3), rice combined with prawn with supplementary feeding (T4) and without fish and prawn (T5) was kept as control. The dissolved oxygen values obtained in treatments with fish both in morning and afternoon were lower than the values of prawn containing treatment...

  13. Characterization and evaluation of rice blast resistance of Chinese indica hybrid rice parental lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunyu Wu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of resistant varieties and hybrid combinations has been the most effective and economical strategy to control blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae. However, the distribution of major R genes and blast resistance characterization in hybrid rice parents has not been well investigated, resulting in their limited use in hybrid rice blast-resistance breeding. In the present study, 88 elite indica hybrid rice parental lines were evaluated with 30 isolates of M. oryzae collected from the main planting area of indica hybrid rice in China and were characterized for the presence of 11 major resistance genes using molecular markers. The pathogenicity assays showed that four types of hybrid rice parent line showed some resistance to M. oryzae. However, the proportions of highly resistant lines and the mean resistance frequency (RF varied among the four types, with resistance in decreasing order shown by three-line restorer lines, three-line maintainer lines, two-line sterile lines, and two-line restorer lines. All 88 hybrid rice parental lines carried more than one R gene, but none carried the R genes Pi1 and Pi2. Although Pid3 and Pi9 were present only in three-line restorer lines and Pigm only in three-line maintainer lines, the remaining six R genes (Pib, Pid2, Pi5, Pia, Pi54, and Pita were present in the four types of hybrid rice parent with significantly different distribution frequencies. The correlation between R genes and resistance reactions was investigated. The results are expected to provide useful information for rational utilization of major R genes in hybrid rice breeding programs. Keywords: Hybrid rice parental lines, Magnaporthe oryzae, Pi genes, Resistance evaluation, Molecular markers

  14. Vinegar rice (Oryza sativa L.) produced by a submerged fermentation process from alcoholic fermented rice

    OpenAIRE

    Spinosa,Wilma Aparecida; Santos Júnior,Vitório dos; Galvan,Diego; Fiorio,Jhonatan Luiz; Gomez,Raul Jorge Hernan Castro

    2015-01-01

    Considering the limited availability of technology for the production of rice vinegar and also due to the potential consumer product market, this study aimed to use alcoholic fermented rice (rice wine (Oryza sativa L.)) for vinegar production. An alcoholic solution with 6.28% (w/v) ethanol was oxidized by a submerged fermentation process to produce vinegar. The process of acetic acid fermentation occurred at 30 ± 0.3°C in a FRINGS® Acetator (Germany) for the production of vineg...

  15. Genetic analysis of rice blast disease resistance genes using USDA rice mini-core and a mapping population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice blast disease caused by the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae (M. oryzae) is one of the most destructive diseases of cultivated rice, resulting in significant yield loss each year all over the world. Developing and utilizing blast resistant rice varieties is the most economical and effective m...

  16. Population genomics identifies the origin and signatures of selection of Korean weedy rice

    OpenAIRE

    He, Qiang; Kim, Kyu?Won; Park, Yong?Jin

    2016-01-01

    Summary Weedy rice is the same biological species as cultivated rice (Oryza sativa); it is also a noxious weed infesting rice fields worldwide. Its formation and population?selective or ?adaptive signatures are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the phylogenetics, population structure and signatures of selection of Korean weedy rice by determining the whole genomes of 30 weedy rice, 30 landrace rice and ten wild rice samples. The phylogenetic tree and results of ancestry infere...

  17. Effects of Variety and Hydration of Rice Flour on Cake Making Properties

    OpenAIRE

    長沼, 誠子; NAGANUMA, Seiko

    1993-01-01

    The pysicochemical characteristics and sensory attributes of rice layer cake were investigated to study the effects of rice variety and rice flour treatment on cake making properties. The rice layer cake were made from rice flour ground from 4 rice varieties (Sasanishiki, Akitakomachi, Kiyonishiki and Akihikari), water, sugar, oil, and baking powder. The treatment of rice frour with water before adding other ingredients improved appearance, texture and palatability of the baking products. The...

  18. Physicochemical Characteristics of Artificial Rice from Composite Flour: Modified Cassava Starch, Canavalia ensiformis and Dioscorea esculenta

    OpenAIRE

    Sumardiono Siswo; Pudjihastuti Isti; Abyor Handayani Noer; Kusumayanti Heny

    2018-01-01

    Indonesia is the third largest country on the global paddy rice production and also considered as a rice importer. Even, Indonesia has the biggest per capita consumption of paddy rice (140 kg of paddy rice per person per year). Product diversification using local commodities. Artificial rice is potential to be developed as a new value product using different types of grains. It is one of appropriate solutions for reducing imported rice rate. Artificial rice was produced using high nutrition c...

  19. Obtaining high purity silica from rice hulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José da Silva Júnior

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many routes for extracting silica from rice hulls are based on direct calcining. These methods, though, often produce silica contaminated with inorganic impurities. This work presents the study of a strategy for obtaining silica from rice hulls with a purity level adequate for applications in electronics. The technique is based on two leaching steps, using respectively aqua regia and Piranha solutions, which extract the organic matrix and inorganic impurities. The material was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, powder x-ray diffraction (XRD, x-ray fluorescence (XRF, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, particle size analysis by laser diffraction (LPSA and thermal analysis.

  20. Thermoplastic starch materials prepared from rice starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontes, Barbara R.B.; Curvelo, Antonio A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Rice starch is a source still little studied for the preparation of thermoplastic materials. However, its characteristics, such as the presence of proteins, fats and fibers may turn into thermoplastics with a better performance. The present study intends the evaluation of the viability of making starch thermoplastic from rice starch and glycerol as plasticizer. The results of X-ray diffraction and scanning electronic microscopy demonstrate the thermoplastic acquisition. The increase of plasticizer content brings on more hydrophilic thermoplastics with less resistance to tension and elongation at break. (author)

  1. Gene conversion in the rice genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Shuqing; Clark, Terry; Zheng, Hongkun

    2008-01-01

    -chromosomal conversions distributed between chromosome 1 and 5, 2 and 6, and 3 and 5 are more frequent than genome average (Z-test, P ... is not tightly linked to natural selection in the rice genome. To assess the contribution of segmental duplication on gene conversion statistics, we determined locations of conversion partners with respect to inter-chromosomal segment duplication. The number of conversions associated with segmentation is less...... involved in conversion events. CONCLUSION: The evolution of gene families in the rice genome may have been accelerated by conversion with pseudogenes. Our analysis suggests a possible role for gene conversion in the evolution of pathogen-response genes....

  2. The LANSCE RICE control system upgrade.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oothoudt, Michael; Schaller, S. (Stuart); Bjorklund, E. A. (Eric A.); Burns, M. J. (Mary J.); Carr, G. (Gary); Carr, G. (Gary); Faucett, John Allen,; Hayden, D. J. (David J.); Lusk, M. D. (Matthew D.); Merl, R. B. (Robert B.); Potter, J. M. (Jerry M.); Reynolds, J. A. (Jerome A.); Romero, D. B. (Dolores B.); Shelley, F. E. (Fred E.)

    2003-01-01

    The LANSCE (Los Alamos Neutron Science Center) control system upgrade program continues with the impending replacement of the RICE (Remote Instrumentation and Control Equipment) subsystem. The RICE subsystem upgrade is a challenge because of its technology (late 1960s), number of channels (>10,000), and unique characteristics (all-modules data takes, timed/flavored data takes). The plan is to replace at least the non-timed data and the command portions of the subsystem with Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs). We discuss motivations, technological challenges, proof-of-principle, and planning. The boundary condition, as usual, is that we must implement these major changes on a running accelerator.

  3. Radiation induced chlorophyll mutations in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, G.; Mustafa, G.; Soomro, A.M.; Baloch, A.W.

    1985-01-01

    Air dried grains of four local varieties of rice were treated with gamma-rays and fast neutrons for determining their mutagenic effectiveness through the occurence of chlorophyll mutations. Fast neutrons were more effective in inducing chlorophyll mutations and the rice variety Basmati 370 produced maximum number of mutations followed by varieties Sonahri Sugdasi, Jajai 77 and Sada Gulab. The highest frequency of chlorophyll mutations was that of albina types followed by striata types. The xantha, viridis and tigrina types of mutations were less frequent. (authors)

  4. The LANSCE RICE control system upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oothoudt, Michael; Schaller, S.; Bjorklund, E.A.; Burns, M.J.; Carr, G.; Faucett, John Allen; Hayden, D.J.; Lusk, M.D.; Merl, R.B.; Potter, J.M.; Reynolds, J.A.; Romero, D.B.; Shelley, F.E.

    2003-01-01

    The LANSCE (Los Alamos Neutron Science Center) control system upgrade program continues with the impending replacement of the RICE (Remote Instrumentation and Control Equipment) subsystem. The RICE subsystem upgrade is a challenge because of its technology (late 1960s), number of channels (>10,000), and unique characteristics (all-modules data takes, timed/flavored data takes). The plan is to replace at least the non-timed data and the command portions of the subsystem with Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs). We discuss motivations, technological challenges, proof-of-principle, and planning. The boundary condition, as usual, is that we must implement these major changes on a running accelerator.

  5. A comparison of rice chloroplast genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Jiabin; Xia, Hong'ai; Cao, Mengliang

    2004-01-01

    Using high quality sequence reads extracted from our whole genome shotgun repository, we assembled two chloroplast genome sequences from two rice (Oryza sativa) varieties, one from 93-11 (a typical indica variety) and the other from PA64S (an indica-like variety with maternal origin of japonica......), which are both parental varieties of the super-hybrid rice, LYP9. Based on the patterns of high sequence coverage, we partitioned chloroplast sequence variations into two classes, intravarietal and intersubspecific polymorphisms. Intravarietal polymorphisms refer to variations within 93-11 or PA64S...

  6. Managing flood prone ecosystem for rice production in Bihar plains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.R.; Singh, S.S.

    2002-06-01

    A large area of the eastern region especially Bihar (0.5 million hectare) faces flood submergence and/or drought every year which creates an unfavorable environment for crop production. In this ecosystem only flood prone rice is grown whose cultivation is entirely different than normal rice crop. Managing the flood prone ecosystem for rice production needs to evaluate the reasons and a comprehensive appropriate technology through research efforts for better rice production under such harsh ecology. An attempt was made to develop a suitable agronomic package for rice cultivation during and after flooding in flood prone plains of Bihar. (author)

  7. Cell fusion as a tool for rice improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Y; Kyozuka, J; Terada, R; Nishibayashi, S; Shimamoto, K [Plantech Research Institute, Kamoshida, Midori-ku, Yokohama (Japan)

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Cell fusion offers a unique opportunity to hybridize sexually incompatible species and to mix cytoplasmic genomes in higher plants. Recent progress in plant regeneration from rice protoplasts facilitates an evaluation of the cell fusion method for rice improvement. By using electrofusion of protoplasts, we obtained hybrid/cybrid plants of the following combinations: Hybrids of rice x barnyard grass (E. oryzicola); Hybrids of rice x wild Oryza species; Cybrids of rice with transferred cms cytoplasm. For the latter, protoplasts irradiated with 70 krad x-rays were used. (author)

  8. Defined fungal starter granules for purple glutinous rice wine

    OpenAIRE

    Ngo Thi Phuong Dung, N.T.P.

    2004-01-01

    The Mekong Delta region ofSouth Vietnamis particularly known as a production area of purple glutinous rice wine ( RuouNepThan ). The latter differs from regular rice wine for its sherry-like taste and flavour and its attractive brown-red colour. Wine is made from purple glutinous rice at home or by small cottage industries, by washing, soaking, steam-cooking, cooling and inoculation of the cooled rice with powdered rice-wine starter ( Men ). The fermentation takes place in two stages, i.e. an...

  9. Sensory acceptability evaluation of irradiated rice, oryza sativa indica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, S.; Sutantawong, M.; Ungsunanatawiwat, A.

    1971-01-01

    The non-glutinous and glutinous types of polished rice, Oryza sativa indica were subjected to gamma rays at ambient temperature and stored at 27+-1 0 C for one week. The irradiated rice was cooked and tasted by members of trained panel. Using Hedonic scale and Triangle test, the acceptability of irradiated rice was justified. Gamma irradiation up to 100 krads did not significantly cause off-color, off-odor and off flavor in irradiated non-glutino rice. Glutinous rice irradiated at 60 krads could not be significantly differentiated from non-irradiated sample

  10. Fermented Brown Rice Flour as Functional Food Ingredient

    OpenAIRE

    Ilowefah, Muna; Chinma, Chiemela; Bakar, Jamilah; Ghazali, Hasanah; Muhammad, Kharidah; Makeri, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    As fermentation could reduce the negative effects of bran on final cereal products, the utilization of whole-cereal flour is recommended, such as brown rice flour as a functional food ingredient. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of fermented brown rice flour on white rice flour, white rice batter and its steamed bread qualities. Brown rice batter was fermented using commercial baker?s yeast (Eagle brand) according to the optimum conditions for moderate acidity (pH 5.5) to...

  11. Glufosinate herbicide-tolerant (LibertyLink) rice vs. conventional rice in diets for growing-finishing swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, G L; Henry, B J; Scott, A L; Gerngross, M F; Dusek, D L; Fletcher, D W

    2005-05-01

    Genetically modified (GM) rice (LibertyLink, event LLRICE62) that is tolerant to glufosinate ammonium (Liberty) herbicide was compared with a near-isogenic (NI) conventional medium-grain brown rice (cultivar, Bengal) and a commercially milled long-grain brown rice in diets for growing-finishing pigs. The GM and NI rice were grown in 2000. The GM rice was from fields treated (GM+) or not treated (GM-) with glufosinate herbicide. The GM- and NI rice were grown using herbicide regimens typical of southern United States rice production practices. The four rice grains were similar in composition. Growing-finishing pigs (n = 96) were fed fortified rice-soybean meal diets containing the four different rice grains from 25 to 106 kg BW. Diets contained 0.99% lysine initially (growing phase), with lysine decreased to 0.80% (early finishing phase) and 0.65% (late finishing phase), when pigs reached 51 and 77 kg, respectively. The percentage of rice in the four diets was constant during each of the three phases (72.8, 80.0, and 85.8% for the growing, early-finishing, and late-finishing phases, respectively). There were six pen replicates (three pens of barrows and three pens of gilts) and four pigs per pen for each dietary treatment. All pigs were slaughtered at the termination of the study to collect carcass data. At the end of the 98-d experiment, BW gain, feed intake (as-fed basis), and feed:gain ratio did not differ (P > 0.05) for pigs fed the GM+ vs. conventional rice diets, but growth performance traits of pigs fed the GM+ rice diets were superior (P glufosinate herbicide-tolerant rice was similar in composition and nutritional value to conventional rice for growing-finishing pigs.

  12. The impact of herbicide-resistant rice technology on phenotypic diversity and population structure of United States weedy rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, Nilda Roma; Singh, Vijay; Tseng, Te Ming; Black, Howard; Young, Nelson D; Huang, Zhongyun; Hyma, Katie E; Gealy, David R; Caicedo, Ana L

    2014-11-01

    The use of herbicide-resistant (HR) Clearfield rice (Oryza sativa) to control weedy rice has increased in the past 12 years to constitute about 60% of rice acreage in Arkansas, where most U.S. rice is grown. To assess the impact of HR cultivated rice on the herbicide resistance and population structure of weedy rice, weedy samples were collected from commercial fields with a history of Clearfield rice. Panicles from each weedy type were harvested and tested for resistance to imazethapyr. The majority of plants sampled had at least 20% resistant offspring. These resistant weeds were 97 to 199 cm tall and initiated flowering from 78 to 128 d, generally later than recorded for accessions collected prior to the widespread use of Clearfield rice (i.e. historical accessions). Whereas the majority (70%) of historical accessions had straw-colored hulls, only 30% of contemporary HR weedy rice had straw-colored hulls. Analysis of genotyping-by-sequencing data showed that HR weeds were not genetically structured according to hull color, whereas historical weedy rice was separated into straw-hull and black-hull populations. A significant portion of the local rice crop genome was introgressed into HR weedy rice, which was rare in historical weedy accessions. Admixture analyses showed that HR weeds tend to possess crop haplotypes in the portion of chromosome 2 containing the ACETOLACTATE SYNTHASE gene, which confers herbicide resistance to Clearfield rice. Thus, U.S. HR weedy rice is a distinct population relative to historical weedy rice and shows modifications in morphology and phenology that are relevant to weed management. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Effect of Red Yeast Rice and Coconut, Rice Bran or Sunflower Oil Combination in Rats on Hypercholesterolemic Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Sumitra; Vellingiri, Kishore

    2016-04-01

    Dietary supplements provide a novel population based health approach for treating hyperlipidemias. Red yeast rice is known to have lipid lowering effects. Combination of red yeast rice with various oils is taken by different population around the world. In this present work, we aimed to compare the effects of red yeast rice with different oil (coconut, rice bran and sunflower oil) supplementations on lipid levels and oxidative stress in rats fed on hypercholesterolemic diet. A Randomized controlled study was conducted on 28 male Sprague Dawley rats. It included 4 arms-Control arm (hypercholesterolemic diet), Test arm A (hypercholesterolemic diet +Red yeast rice + Rice bran oil), arm B (hypercholesterolemic diet +Red yeast rice + Coconut oil) and arm C (hypercholesterolemic diet +Red yeast rice + Sunflower oil). At the end of one month, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, MDA and paraoxonase was measured. The mean values of analytes between the different groups were compared using student 't-' test. The rats fed with red yeast rice and rice bran oil combination showed significantly lower levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides and MDA when compared to the controls. The serum paraoxonase levels were significantly higher in this group when compared to the controls. The rats fed with red yeast rice and coconut oil combination showed significantly lower serum cholesterol and MDA levels when compared to the controls. The mean triglyceride and paraoxonase levels did not show any statistically significant difference from the controls. The rats on red yeast rice and sunflower oil combination did not show any statistically significant difference in the lipid levels and oxidative stress parameters. The food combination which had best outcome in preventing the development of hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress in rats fed with hypercholesterolemic diet was red yeast rice and rice bran oil. Combining red yeast rice with coconut oil and sunflower oil gave suboptimal benefits.

  14. Indica rice (Oryza sativa, BR29 and IR64).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Karabi; Datta, Swapan Kumar

    2006-01-01

    Rice is the world's most important food crop. Indica-type rice provides the staple food for more than half of the world population. To satisfy the growing demand of the ever-increasing population, more sustained production of indica-type rice is needed. In addition, because of the high per capita consumption of indica rice, improvement of any traits including its nutritive value may have a significant positive health outcome for the rice-consuming population. Rice yield productivity is greatly affected by different biotic stresses, like diseases and insect pests, and abiotic stresses like drought, cold, and salinity. Attempts to improve resistance in rice to these stresses by conventional breeding through introgression of traits have limited success owing to a lack of resistance germplasm in the wild relatives. Gene transfer technology with genes from other sources can be used to make rice plants resistant or tolerant to insect pests, diseases, and different environmental stresses. For improving the nutritional value of the edible endosperm part of the rice, genes for increasing iron, beta-carotene, or better quality protein can be introduced in rice plants by genetic engineering. Different crops have been transformed using various gene transfer methods, such as protoplast transformation, biolistic, and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. This chapter describes the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol for indica-type rice. The selectable marker genes used are hygromycin phosphotransferase (hpt), neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII), or phosphomannose isomerase (pmi), and, accordingly, the selection agents are hygromycin, kanamycin (G418), or mannose, respectively.

  15. Econometric Model of Rice Policy Based On Presidential Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadi Sembiring, Surya; Hutauruk, Julia

    2018-01-01

    The objective of research is to build an econometric model based on Presidential Instruction rice policy. The data was monthly time series from March 2005 to September 2009. Rice policy model specification using simultaneous equation, consisting of 14 structural equations and four identity equation, which was estimated using Two Stages Least Squares (2SLS) method. The results show that: (1) an increase of government purchasing price of dried harvest paddy has a positive impact on to increase in total rice production and community rice stock, (2) an increase community rice stock lead to decrease the rice imports, (3) an increase of the realization of the distribution of subsidized ZA fertilizers and the realization of the distribution of subsidized NPK fertilizers has a positive impact on to increase in total rice production and community rice stock and to reduce rice imports, (4) the price of the dried harvest paddy is highly responsive to the water content of dried harvest paddy both the short run and long run, (5) the quantity of rice imported is highly responsive to the imported rice price, both short run and long run.

  16. Breeding of ozone resistant rice: Relevance, approaches and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frei, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone concentrations have been rising across Asia, and will continue to rise during the 21st century. Ozone affects rice yields through reductions in spikelet number, spikelet fertility, and grain size. Moreover, ozone leads to changes in rice grain and straw quality. Therefore the breeding of ozone tolerant rice varieties is warranted. The mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) using bi-parental populations identified several tolerance QTL mitigating symptom formation, grain yield losses, or the degradation of straw quality. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) demonstrated substantial natural genotypic variation in ozone tolerance in rice, and revealed that the genetic architecture of ozone tolerance in rice is dominated by multiple medium and small effect loci. Transgenic approaches targeting tolerance mechanisms such as antioxidant capacity are also discussed. It is concluded that the breeding of ozone tolerant rice can contribute substantially to the global food security, and is feasible using different breeding approaches. - Highlights: • Tropospheric ozone affects millions of hectares of rice land. • Ozone affects rice yield and quality. • Breeding approaches to adapt rice to high ozone are discussed. • Challenges in the breeding of ozone resistant rice are discussed. - This review summarizes the effects of tropospheric ozone on rice and outlines approaches and challenges in the breeding of adapted varieties

  17. Rice Hulls as a Renewable Complex Material Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Glushankova

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available As a result of rice grain processing, a big amount of waste (up to 20% is produced. It is mainly rice hulls. The main components of rice hulls are cellulose, lignin and mineral ash. The mineral ash quantity in rice hulls varies from 15 up to 20%, by weight of the rice hulls. The mineral ash consists of amorphous silica (opal-type. Due to the high content of silica in rice hulls, the material burns with difficulty under natural conditions, and it is biodegradably destroyed only with difficulty, when composted. Utilization of rice hulls then becomes an ecological problem due to huge rice production and its continuous growth. At the same time, the annual quantity of silica content in rice hulls is comparable with the quantity of amorphous silica produced as a mineral resource. The issue of manufacturing cellular glass silica construction materials from rice hulls as a renewable resource is discussed in this paper. The utilization technology is based on an amorphous silicon oxide with the use of energy from the combustion of the organic component of rice hulls.

  18. Effect of rice bran supplementation on cookie baking quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younis, A.; Bhatti, M.S.; Ahmed, A

    2011-01-01

    Rice bran, a by-product obtained during polishing of un-milled rice, contains a large quantity of essential nutrients such as minerals, vitamins, fiber, amino acids and antioxidants. Supplementation of rice bran in cookies can improve their nutritional value. In the present study, cookies were prepared from wheat flour with supplementation of rice bran at the rate of 5, 10, 15 and 20 percent. The rice bran was stabilized with acid and dry heat treatment before supplementation. Chemical analysis of the cookies revealed that there was no significant difference in chemical and physical properties of cookies supplemented with acid stabilized rice bran (ASRB) and heat stabilized rice bran (HSRB). The moisture, crude protein, fat and mineral contents were significantly increased with the increment of rice bran. Average width, thickness and spread factor of cookies also increased with the increase in percentage of rice bran. Sensory evaluation of cookies showed that scores for color of cookies decreased significantly with increase in level of rice bran and sensory scores were significantly higher in the cookies prepared with HSRB. However the decrease was non-significant at 10 percent level of substitution. Highest scores for overall acceptability of supplemented cookies was recorded at 15 percent level of substitution as compared to other treatments. Hence it is concluded from the results that supplementation of HSRB at the rate of 10 percent is more suitable for production of rice bran supplemented cookies. (author)

  19. Efficacy of Selected Insecticides Applied to Hybrid Rice Seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, A.; Gore, J.; Musser, F.; Cook, D.; Walker, T.; Dobbins, C.

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid rice and insecticide seed treatments targeting rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel, have altered the landscape of rice production. The effect of reduced seeding rates on seed treatment efficacy in hybrid rice has not been studied. During 2011 and 2012, an experiment was conducted at seven locations to determine the relationship between low seeding rates used in hybrid rice and efficacy of selected insecticidal seed treatments as measured by rice water weevil densities and yield. Labeled rates of thiamethoxam, chlorantraniliprole, and clothianidin were compared with higher rates of these products to determine if labeled rates provide an acceptable level of control of the rice water weevil. Study locations were divided into low, moderate, and high groups based on rice water weevil larval densities. All seed treatments and seed treatment rates reduced rice water weevil densities. However, there was no observed yield or economic benefit from the use of an insecticidal seed treatment in areas of low pressure. Differences in yield were observed among seed treatments and seed treatment rates in moderate and high pressure locations, and all seed treatments yielded better than the untreated plots, but these differences were not always economical. All seed treatments showed an economic advantage in areas of high weevil pressure, and there were no differences among seed treatment products or rates, suggesting that currently labeled seed treatment rates in hybrid rice are effective for rice water weevil management. PMID:26537671

  20. Rice methylmercury exposure and mitigation: a comprehensive review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, Sarah E.; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Creswell, Joel E.

    2014-01-01

    Rice cultivation practices from field preparation to post-harvest transform rice paddies into hot spots for microbial mercury methylation, converting less-toxic inorganic mercury to more-toxic methylmercury, which is likely translocated to rice grain. This review includes 51 studies reporting rice total mercury and/or methylmercury concentrations, based on rice (Orzya sativa) cultivated or purchased in 15 countries. Not surprisingly, both rice total mercury and methylmercury levels were significantly higher in polluted sites compared to non-polluted sites (Wilcoxon rank sum, price percent methylmercury (of total mercury) did not differ statistically between polluted and non-polluted sites (Wilcoxon rank sum, p=0.35), suggesting comparable mercury methylation rates in paddy soil across these sites and/or similar accumulation of mercury species for these rice cultivars. Studies characterizing the effects of rice cultivation under more aerobic conditions were reviewed to determine the mitigation potential of this practice. Rice management practices utilizing alternating wetting and drying (instead of continuous flooding) caused soil methylmercury levels to spike, resulting in a strong methylmercury pulse after fields were dried and reflooded; however, it is uncertain whether this led to increased translocation of methylmercury from paddy soil to rice grain. Due to the potential health risks, it is advisable to investigate this issue further, and to develop separate water management strategies for mercury polluted and non-polluted sites, in order to minimize methylmercury exposure through rice ingestion.

  1. Lead enrichment in different genotypes of rice grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Sun, Guo-rong; Liu, Ai-ping; Zhou, Wei-dong

    2008-03-01

    Using environmental scanning electron microscopy and X-ray electron probe microanalysis, the lead content was studied in inner and outer surface of rice glume, surface of caryopsis, center of caryopsis, near aleuronic layer and aleuronic layer in 21 genotypes of rice grains. The results showed that the lead content in different part of 21 genotypes of rice grains changed as inner surface of rice glume > aleuronic layer > near aleuronic layer > surface of caryopsis > outer surface of rice glume > center of caryopsis. There were genetic differences in lead enrichment in different genotypes of rice grains, which reflected as the differences of lead content in the same part and different part of rice grains. In different genotypes of rice grains, there were significant non-linear correlations between lead content in the inner surface of rice glume, center of caryopsis, aleuronic layer and that in the other parts of rice grain. The results also indicated that the lead enrichment in the center of caryopsis regulated by glume and aleuronic layer. In addition, in different genotypes of rice grains, there were differences in regulation of lead enrichment among different parts, which changed non-linearly.

  2. Water management, rice varieties and mycorrhizal inoculation influence arsenic concentration and speciation in rice grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Wu, Songlin; Ren, Baihui; Chen, Baodong

    2016-05-01

    A pot experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of water management and mycorrhizal inoculation on arsenic (As) uptake by two rice varieties, the As-resistant BRRI dhan 47 (B47) and As-sensitive BRRI dhan 29 (B29). Grain As concentration of B47 plants was significantly lower than that of B29, and grain As concentration of B47 was higher under flooding conditions than that under aerobic conditions. In general, mycorrhizal inoculation (Rhizophagus irregularis) had no significant effect on grain As concentrations, but decreased the proportion of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in grains of B47. The proportion of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in the total grain As was dramatically higher under flooding conditions. Results demonstrate that rice variety selection and appropriate water management along with mycorrhizal inoculation could be practical countermeasures to As accumulation and toxicity in rice grains, thus reducing health risks of As exposure in rice diets.

  3. efficacy of rice husk ash against rice weevil and lesser grain borer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2017-05-05

    May 5, 2017 ... this study was to determine efficacy of RHA from “Mr. Harry” rice variety against Rhyzopertha dominica and. Sitophilus oryzae. ..... Spectroscopy, following lithium metaborate/ ..... feasibility of using RHA to treat grains meant.

  4. Production of glutinous rice flour from broken rice via ultrasonic assisted extraction of amylose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyawati, Yohana Dwi; Ahsan, Sitti Faika; Ong, Lu Ki; Soetaredjo, Felycia Edi; Ismadji, Suryadi; Ju, Yi-Hsu

    2016-07-15

    In this study, a modified aqueous leaching method by complex formation of amylose with glycerol was employed for reducing the amylose content of starch in broken white rice to less than 2%, so that the resulting starch can be classified to that of glutinous rice flour. By employing ultrasonication in alkaline condition, extraction of amylose could be performed by washing at lower temperature in shorter time compared to the existing aqueous leaching method. The effects of glycerol concentration, alkali concentration, ultrasonication and treatment time on the amylose content of the treated starch were systematically investigated. Under optimum condition, amylose content of broken white rice starch can be reduced from 27.27% to 1.43% with a yield of 80.42%. The changes in the physicochemical properties of the rice flour before and after treatment were studied. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of vanadium application on the paddy rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, T F

    1953-01-01

    The height, the root length and the weight of rice seedlings were increased by the application of ammonium vanadate. The nitrogen contents of seedlings were generally increased in proportion to the amounts of vanadate applied. Carbon contents of seedlings, however, show little difference. The best result was obtained when V/sub 2/O/sub 3/ 150 ppm was applied, but more than 500 ppm was toxic to rice seedlings, and at 1000 ppm all rice seedlings were killed. N, P, and K fertilizers were added to the rice after transplantation from the nursery, but vanadium was omitted. Little difference was found in growth and yield of the rice plants. Vanadium absorbed by younger rice seedlings has little influence on the latter growth and yields of rice plants.

  6. Recycling rice husks for high-capacity lithium battery anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Dae Soo; Ryou, Myung-Hyun; Sung, Yong Joo; Park, Seung Bin; Choi, Jang Wook

    2013-07-23

    The rice husk is the outer covering of a rice kernel and protects the inner ingredients from external attack by insects and bacteria. To perform this function while ventilating air and moisture, rice plants have developed unique nanoporous silica layers in their husks through years of natural evolution. Despite the massive amount of annual production near 10(8) tons worldwide, so far rice husks have been recycled only for low-value agricultural items. In an effort to recycle rice husks for high-value applications, we convert the silica to silicon and use it for high-capacity lithium battery anodes. Taking advantage of the interconnected nanoporous structure naturally existing in rice husks, the converted silicon exhibits excellent electrochemical performance as a lithium battery anode, suggesting that rice husks can be a massive resource for use in high-capacity lithium battery negative electrodes.

  7. Automated rice leaf disease detection using color image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugoy, Reinald Adrian D. L.; Mariano, Vladimir Y.

    2011-06-01

    In rice-related institutions such as the International Rice Research Institute, assessing the health condition of a rice plant through its leaves, which is usually done as a manual eyeball exercise, is important to come up with good nutrient and disease management strategies. In this paper, an automated system that can detect diseases present in a rice leaf using color image analysis is presented. In the system, the outlier region is first obtained from a rice leaf image to be tested using histogram intersection between the test and healthy rice leaf images. Upon obtaining the outlier, it is then subjected to a threshold-based K-means clustering algorithm to group related regions into clusters. Then, these clusters are subjected to further analysis to finally determine the suspected diseases of the rice leaf.

  8. Rice straw as a feedstock for biofuels: Availability, recalcitrance, and chemical properties: Rice straw as a feedstock for biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satlewal, Alok [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Joint Inst. for Biological Sciences, Biosciences Division; Indian Oil Corporation Ltd, Faridabad (India), Dept. of Bioenergy, DBT-IOC Centre for Advanced Bioenergy Research, Research and Development Centre; Agrawal, Ruchi [Indian Oil Corporation Ltd, Faridabad (India), Dept. of Bioenergy, DBT-IOC Centre for Advanced Bioenergy Research, Research and Development Centre; Bhagia, Samarthya [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Das, Parthapratim [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Ragauskas, Arthur J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

    2017-10-17

    The surplus availability of rice straw, its limited usage and environment pollution caused by inefficient burning has fostered research for its valorization to biofuels. This review elucidates the current status of rice straw potential around the globe along with recent advances in revealing the critical factors responsible for its recalcitrance and chemical properties. The role and accumulation of high silica content in rice straw has been elucidated with its impact on enzymatic hydrolysis in a biorefinery environment. The correlation of different pretreatment approaches in modifying the physiochemical properties of rice straw and improving the enzymatic accessibility has also been discussed. This study highlights new challenges, resolutions and opportunities for rice straw based biorefineries.

  9. Defensive Responses of Rice Genotypes for Resistance Against Rice Leaffolder Cnaphalocrocis medinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. PUNITHAVALLI

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to assess the reaction of different categories of rice genotypes viz., resistant, susceptible, hybrid, scented, popular and wild in response to the infestation by rice leaffolder (RLF, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenee and to explore the possible use of these genotypes in developing RLF-resistant rice varieties. The changes of various biochemical constituents such as leaf soluble protein, phenol, ortho-dihydroxy phenol, tannin and enzymes viz., peroxidase, phenyl alanine ammonia lyase (PAL were assessed spectrophotometrically in all the rice genotypes before and after RLF infestation. The protein profile was analyzed using sodium dodecyl sulphate-poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE method. A significant constituent of biochemical content such as tannin, phenol and ortho-dihydroxy phenol has been increased along with enzyme activities of peroxidase and PAL in the infested resistant (Ptb 33, TKM6 and LFR831311 and wild rice genotypes (Oryza minuta and O. rhizomatis. A decrease in leaf protein content was evident invariably in all the infested rice genotypes. It is also evident that the contents of biochemicals such as phenol, ortho-dihydroxy phenol and tannin were negatively correlated with leaffolder damage. However, leaf protein content was positively correlated with the damage by rice leaffolder. SDS-PAGE analysis for total protein profiling of healthy and C. medinalis-infested genotypes revealed the enhanced expression of a high molecular weight (> 97 kDa protein in all the genotypes. Besides, there was also an increased induction of a 38 kDa protein in C. medinalis infested resistant genotypes, which was absent in uninfested plants. The present investigation proved that the elevated levels of biochemicals and enzymes may play a vital role in rice plants resistance to RLF.

  10. Diversity of global rice markets and the science required for consumer-targeted rice breeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariafe Calingacion

    Full Text Available With the ever-increasing global demand for high quality rice in both local production regions and with Western consumers, we have a strong desire to understand better the importance of the different traits that make up the quality of the rice grain and obtain a full picture of rice quality demographics. Rice is by no means a 'one size fits all' crop. Regional preferences are not only striking, they drive the market and hence are of major economic importance in any rice breeding / improvement strategy. In this analysis, we have engaged local experts across the world to perform a full assessment of all the major rice quality trait characteristics and importantly, to determine how these are combined in the most preferred varieties for each of their regions. Physical as well as biochemical characteristics have been monitored and this has resulted in the identification of no less than 18 quality trait combinations. This complexity immediately reveals the extent of the specificity of consumer preference. Nevertheless, further assessment of these combinations at the variety level reveals that several groups still comprise varieties which consumers can readily identify as being different. This emphasises the shortcomings in the current tools we have available to assess rice quality and raises the issue of how we might correct for this in the future. Only with additional tools and research will we be able to define directed strategies for rice breeding which are able to combine important agronomic features with the demands of local consumers for specific quality attributes and hence, design new, improved crop varieties which will be awarded success in the global market.

  11. Diversity of Global Rice Markets and the Science Required for Consumer-Targeted Rice Breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calingacion, Mariafe; Laborte, Alice; Nelson, Andrew; Resurreccion, Adoracion; Concepcion, Jeanaflor Crystal; Daygon, Venea Dara; Mumm, Roland; Reinke, Russell; Dipti, Sharifa; Bassinello, Priscila Zaczuk; Manful, John; Sophany, Sakhan; Lara, Karla Cordero; Bao, Jinsong; Xie, Lihong; Loaiza, Katerine; El-hissewy, Ahmad; Gayin, Joseph; Sharma, Neerja; Rajeswari, Sivakami; Manonmani, Swaminathan; Rani, N. Shobha; Kota, Suneetha; Indrasari, Siti Dewi; Habibi, Fatemeh; Hosseini, Maryam; Tavasoli, Fatemeh; Suzuki, Keitaro; Umemoto, Takayuki; Boualaphanh, Chanthkone; Lee, Huei Hong; Hung, Yiu Pang; Ramli, Asfaliza; Aung, Pa Pa; Ahmad, Rauf; Wattoo, Javed Iqbal; Bandonill, Evelyn; Romero, Marissa; Brites, Carla Moita; Hafeel, Roshni; Lur, Huu-Sheng; Cheaupun, Kunya; Jongdee, Supanee; Blanco, Pedro; Bryant, Rolfe; Thi Lang, Nguyen; Hall, Robert D.; Fitzgerald, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    With the ever-increasing global demand for high quality rice in both local production regions and with Western consumers, we have a strong desire to understand better the importance of the different traits that make up the quality of the rice grain and obtain a full picture of rice quality demographics. Rice is by no means a ‘one size fits all’ crop. Regional preferences are not only striking, they drive the market and hence are of major economic importance in any rice breeding / improvement strategy. In this analysis, we have engaged local experts across the world to perform a full assessment of all the major rice quality trait characteristics and importantly, to determine how these are combined in the most preferred varieties for each of their regions. Physical as well as biochemical characteristics have been monitored and this has resulted in the identification of no less than 18 quality trait combinations. This complexity immediately reveals the extent of the specificity of consumer preference. Nevertheless, further assessment of these combinations at the variety level reveals that several groups still comprise varieties which consumers can readily identify as being different. This emphasises the shortcomings in the current tools we have available to assess rice quality and raises the issue of how we might correct for this in the future. Only with additional tools and research will we be able to define directed strategies for rice breeding which are able to combine important agronomic features with the demands of local consumers for specific quality attributes and hence, design new, improved crop varieties which will be awarded success in the global market. PMID:24454799

  12. Golden Rice is an effective source of vitamin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Guangwen; Qin, Jian; Dolnikowski, Gregory G; Russell, Robert M; Grusak, Michael A

    2009-06-01

    Genetically engineered "Golden Rice" contains up to 35 microg beta-carotene per gram of rice. It is important to determine the vitamin A equivalency of Golden Rice beta-carotene to project the potential effect of this biofortified grain in rice-consuming populations that commonly exhibit low vitamin A status. The objective was to determine the vitamin A value of intrinsically labeled dietary Golden Rice in humans. Golden Rice plants were grown hydroponically with heavy water (deuterium oxide) to generate deuterium-labeled [2H]beta-carotene in the rice grains. Golden Rice servings of 65-98 g (130-200 g cooked rice) containing 0.99-1.53 mg beta-carotene were fed to 5 healthy adult volunteers (3 women and 2 men) with 10 g butter. A reference dose of [13C10]retinyl acetate (0.4-1.0 mg) in oil was given to each volunteer 1 wk before ingestion of the Golden Rice dose. Blood samples were collected over 36 d. Our results showed that the mean (+/-SD) area under the curve for the total serum response to [2H]retinol was 39.9 +/- 20.7 microg x d after the Golden Rice dose. Compared with that of the [13C10]retinyl acetate reference dose (84.7 +/- 34.6 microg x d), Golden Rice beta-carotene provided 0.24-0.94 mg retinol. Thus, the conversion factor of Golden Rice beta-carotene to retinol is 3.8 +/- 1.7 to 1 with a range of 1.9-6.4 to 1 by weight, or 2.0 +/- 0.9 to 1 with a range of 1.0-3.4 to 1 by moles. Beta-carotene derived from Golden Rice is effectively converted to vitamin A in humans. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00680355.

  13. Fermented Brown Rice Flour as Functional Food Ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilowefah, Muna; Chinma, Chiemela; Bakar, Jamilah; Ghazali, Hasanah M; Muhammad, Kharidah; Makeri, Mohammad

    2014-02-12

    As fermentation could reduce the negative effects of bran on final cereal products, the utilization of whole-cereal flour is recommended, such as brown rice flour as a functional food ingredient. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of fermented brown rice flour on white rice flour, white rice batter and its steamed bread qualities. Brown rice batter was fermented using commercial baker's yeast (Eagle brand) according to the optimum conditions for moderate acidity (pH 5.5) to obtain fermented brown rice flour (FBRF). The FBRF was added to white rice flour at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% levels to prepare steamed rice bread. Based on the sensory evaluation test, steamed rice bread containing 40% FBRF had the highest overall acceptability score. Thus, pasting properties of the composite rice flour, rheological properties of its batter, volume and texture properties of its steamed bread were determined. The results showed that peak viscosity of the rice flour containing 40% FBRF was significantly increased, whereas its breakdown, final viscosity and setback significantly decreased. Viscous, elastic and complex moduli of the batter having 40% FBRF were also significantly reduced. However, volume, specific volume, chewiness, resilience and cohesiveness of its steamed bread were significantly increased, while hardness and springiness significantly reduced in comparison to the control. These results established the effectiveness of yeast fermentation in reducing the detrimental effects of bran on the sensory properties of steamed white rice bread and encourage the usage of brown rice flour to enhance the quality of rice products.

  14. Effects of white rice, brown rice and germinated brown rice on antioxidant status of type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Mustapha Umar; Musa, Siti Nor Asma; Azmi, Nur Hanisah; Ismail, Maznah

    2012-10-10

    Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications, and can be increased by diet like white rice (WR). Though brown rice (BR) and germinated brown rice (GBR) have high antioxidant potentials as a result of their bioactive compounds, reports of their effects on oxidative stress-related conditions such as type 2 diabetes are lacking. We hypothesized therefore that if BR and GBR were to improve antioxidant status, they would be better for rice consuming populations instead of the commonly consumed WR that is known to promote oxidative stress. This will then provide further reasons why less consumption of WR should be encouraged. We studied the effects of GBR on antioxidant status in type 2 diabetic rats, induced using a high-fat diet and streptozotocin injection, and also evaluated the effects of WR, BR and GBR on catalase and superoxide dismutase genes. As dietary components, BR and GBR improved glycemia and kidney hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, and prevented the deterioration of total antioxidant status in type 2 diabetic rats. Similarly, GBR preserved liver enzymes, as well as serum creatinine. There seem to be evidence that upregulation of superoxide dismutase gene may likely be an underlying mechanism for antioxidant effects of BR and GBR. Our results provide insight into the effects of different rice types on antioxidant status in type 2 diabetes. The results also suggest that WR consumption, contrary to BR and GBR, may worsen antioxidant status that may lead to more damage by free radicals. From the data so far, the antioxidant effects of BR and GBR are worth studying further especially on a long term to determine their effects on development of oxidative stress-related problems, which WR consumption predisposes to.

  15. Effects of White Rice, Brown Rice and Germinated Brown Rice on Antioxidant Status of Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maznah Ismail

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications, and can be increased by diet like white rice (WR. Though brown rice (BR and germinated brown rice (GBR have high antioxidant potentials as a result of their bioactive compounds, reports of their effects on oxidative stress-related conditions such as type 2 diabetes are lacking. We hypothesized therefore that if BR and GBR were to improve antioxidant status, they would be better for rice consuming populations instead of the commonly consumed WR that is known to promote oxidative stress. This will then provide further reasons why less consumption of WR should be encouraged. We studied the effects of GBR on antioxidant status in type 2 diabetic rats, induced using a high-fat diet and streptozotocin injection, and also evaluated the effects of WR, BR and GBR on catalase and superoxide dismutase genes. As dietary components, BR and GBR improved glycemia and kidney hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, and prevented the deterioration of total antioxidant status in type 2 diabetic rats. Similarly, GBR preserved liver enzymes, as well as serum creatinine. There seem to be evidence that upregulation of superoxide dismutase gene may likely be an underlying mechanism for antioxidant effects of BR and GBR. Our results provide insight into the effects of different rice types on antioxidant status in type 2 diabetes. The results also suggest that WR consumption, contrary to BR and GBR, may worsen antioxidant status that may lead to more damage by free radicals. From the data so far, the antioxidant effects of BR and GBR are worth studying further especially on a long term to determine their effects on development of oxidative stress-related problems, which WR consumption predisposes to.

  16. Effect of acetic acid on rice seeds coated with rice husk ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizandro Ciciliano Tavares

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Flooded rice cultivation promotes anaerobic conditions, favoring the formation of short chain organic acids such as acetic acid, which may be toxic to the crop. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of acetic acid on rice seeds coated with rice husk ash. The experiment was arranged in a 2 x 5 x 5 factorial randomized design, with two cultivars (IRGA 424 and BRS Querência, five doses of coating material (0, 2, 3,4 e 5 g kg-1 seed and five concentrations of acetic acid (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 mM, with 4 replications, totaling 50 treatments. The variables first count of germination, germination, shoot and root length, dry weight of shoots and roots were recorded. The results showed that coating rice seeds with rice husk ash up to 5 g kg-1 seed does not influence the performance of rice seeds of cultivars IRGA 424 and BRS Querência when exposed to concentrations of 12 mM acetic acid. The presence of acetic acid in the substrates used for seed germination reduced the vigor and viability of seeds of cultivars IRGA 424 and BRS Querência, as well as seedling development, affecting mainly the roots of BRS Querência.

  17. Innovation Chinese rice wine brewing technology by bi-acidification to exclude rice soaking process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiao Lu; Liu, Shuang Ping; Yu, Jian Shen; Yu, Yong Jian; Zhu, Sheng Hu; Zhou, Zhi Lei; Hu, Jian; Mao, Jian

    2017-04-01

    As a traditional fermented alcoholic beverage of China, Chinese rice wine (CRW) had a long history of more than 5000 years. Rice soaking process was the most crucial step during CRW brewing process, because rice soaking quality directly determined the quality of CRW. However, rice soaking water would cause the eutrophication of water bodies and waste of water. The longer time of rice soaking, the higher the content of biogenic amine, and it would have a huge impact on human health. An innovation brewing technology was carried out to exclude the rice soaking process and the Lactobacillus was added to make up for the total acid. Compared to the traditional brewing technology, the new technology saved water resources and reduced environmental pollution. The concentration of biogenic amine was also decreased by 27.16%, which improving the security of the CRW. The esters increased led to more soft-tasted CRW and less aging time; the quality of CRW would be improved with less alcohol. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Dynamic viscoelasticity of protease-treated rice batters for gluten-free rice bread making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Yuji; Inoue, Nanami; Sugimoto, Reina; Matsumoto, Kenji; Koda, Tomonori; Nishioka, Akihiro

    2018-03-01

    Papain (cysteine protease), subtilisin (Protin SD-AY10, serine protease), and bacillolysin (Protin SD-NY10, metallo protease) increased the specific volume of gluten-free rice breads by 19-63% compared to untreated bread. In contrast, Newlase F (aspartyl protease) did not expand the volume of the rice bread. In a rheological analysis, the viscoelastic properties of the gluten-free rice batters also depended on the protease categories. Principal component analysis (PCA) analysis suggested that the storage and loss moduli (G' and G″, respectively) at 35 °C, and the maximum values of G' and G″, were important factors in the volume expansion. Judging from the PCA of the viscoelastic parameters of the rice batters, papain and Protin SD-AY10 improved the viscoelasticity for gluten-free rice bread making, and Protin SD-NY effectively expanded the gluten-free rice bread. The rheological properties differed between Protin SD-NY and the other protease treatments.

  19. The land use potential of flood-prone rice fields using floating rice system in Bojonegoro regency in East Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irianto, H.; Mujiyo; Riptanti, E. W.; Qonita, A.

    2018-03-01

    Bojonegoro regency occupies the largest flood-prone rice fields of about 14,198 hectares, in East Java province. Floods commonly occur due to Bengawan Solo river over-burst, particularly in rainy season. The fields are potential for cultivating rice, but floods lasting for months causing these areas to be unproductive. The objective of this article is to examine the potential land use of flood prone rice fields in Bojonegoro regency using floating rice system as an effort to maintain productivity in rainy season. The method of this study is referential study about the rice production using floating cultivation system in other regions, which are later compared with the physical condition of the fields in Bojonegoro. The results of analysis show that rice cultivation using floating system can maintain rice production in flood prone areas during rainy season. The potential production of rice is 5-6 tons/ha. However, technical problems for cultivating rice cannot be ignored since farmers are not familiar with cultivating flooded fields. This article also explains alternatives of floating rice cultivation technique, which can be implemented effectively and efficiently. Pioneer work of developing floating rice in Bojonegoro that has been done by the Team of Faculty of Agriculture of UNS, Surakarta, is expected to serve as a medium for accelerating the adoption of cultivation technology innovation to farmers.

  20. Mechanisms of UVB-resistance in rice: Cultivar differences in the sensitivity to UVB radiation in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidema, J.

    2001-01-01

    In a study on the sensitivity to UVB radiation of rice cultivars of 5 Asian rice ecotypes, results showed that the rice cultivars widely varied in UVB sensitivity; among the Japanese rice cultivars, Sasanishiki was more resistant to UVB, while Norin 1 was less resistant; UV-sensitive Norin 1 was deficient in photorepair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (UV-induced DNA damage), and the sensitivity to UVB radiation significantly correlated with deficient CPD photorepair; and that this deficiency in Norin 1 resulted from a functionally altered photolyase. The results suggest that photorepair capacity is a principal factor in determining UVB sensitivity in rice. The effects of supplemental UVB radiation on the growth and yield of Japanese rice cultivars under field conditions were also studied in Japan since 1993. The results indicate that supplemental UVB radiation had inhibitory effects on the growth and yield of rice. Furthermore, grain size was smaller with supplemental UVB radiation

  1. The impact of seasonal rice price changes on rice self-consumption in farm household of rural Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ani, S. W.; Antriyandarti, E.

    2018-03-01

    Seasonal rice price changes are very volatile and not predictable. This price changes have a heterogeneous impact on public consumption. The problem of seasonal rice price changes is not only experienced by consumers, but also in the farmers side as producers. The objective of this study is to provide a detail overview and description of the changing seasonal rice self-consumption of farm households in rural Java in response to seasonal rice price changes and income shocks to anticipate seasonal scarcity. This paper constructs a theoretical model to address such seasonality of food deprivation by using one year of seasonally farm household panel data, empirically tests the extent to which farmers in rural Java can smooth their rice self-consumption from season to season in response to income shocks. The result shows that rice farmers increase their rice self-consumption when prices are high.

  2. Natural variation of rice blast resistance gene Pi-d2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studying natural variation of rice resistance (R) genes in cultivated and wild rice relatives can predict resistance stability to rice blast fungus. In the present study, the protein coding regions of rice R gene Pi-d2 in 35 rice accessions of subgroups, aus (AUS), indica (IND), temperate japonica (...

  3. Interaction of genotype x management on vegetative growth and weed suppression of aerobic rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, D.L.; Bastiaans, L.; Atlin, G.N.; Spiertz, J.H.J.

    2007-01-01

    Water shortage in drought-prone rice-growing areas of the world is threatening conventional irrigated rice production systems, in which rice is transplanted into fields where standing water is maintained until harvest. Aerobic rice production systems, in which rice is grown as a direct-seeded upland

  4. 7 CFR 1412.49 - Apportionment of long and medium grain rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apportionment of long and medium grain rice. 1412.49... and Peanuts 2008 through 2012 § 1412.49 Apportionment of long and medium grain rice. (a) Rice base... rice base acres in paragraph (a) of this section into two categories: (i) Long grain rice, and (ii...

  5. Rice fissure resistance QTLs from ‘Saber’ complement those from ‘Cypress’

    Science.gov (United States)

    The economic value of broken rice is about half that of whole milled rice, so one goal of producers, millers, and rice breeders is to reduce grain breakage during the dehusking and milling processes. One of the primary causes of rice breakage is fissuring, or cracking, of the rice before it enters ...

  6. Rice-Fish Culture in China

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Bumper harvests of both rice and fish provided more protein, improved ...... and photosynthesizing bacteria are the primary producers and the raw materials used ... 5-cm deep in the booting and earing stages, and about 6-cm deep in the milk ...... of fish have different shapes and feeding habits, fat contents, and distributions.

  7. Rice weevil response to basil oil fumigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basil oil, Ocimum basilicum L., is a volatile plant essential oil that is known to have insecticidal activity against stored product pests such as rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.). Basil oil was diluted in acetone and applied to a sponge held inside a tea strainer for fumigations in containers wi...

  8. Maple Sugar Harvesting/Wild Rice Harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minneapolis Public Schools, MN.

    Comprised of two separate booklets, this resource unit assists elementary teachers in explaining how the Ojibwe people harvest maple sugar and wild rice. The first booklet explains the procedure of tapping the maple trees for sap, preparation for boiling the sap, and the three forms the sugar is made into (granulated, "molded," and…

  9. Molecular regulation of drought tolerance in rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haider, I.

    2014-01-01

    Abiotic stresses are the primary cause of crop failure worldwide, reducing average yields by more than 50%. Among the various forms of abiotic stress, drought is the most limiting factor for rice productivity. Drought affects about

  10. Response of Nerica Rice to Nitrogen Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Shultana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted during T. Aman season, 2014 at the Agronomy Research Field, Bangladesh Rice Research Institute, Gazipur to determine the optimum rate of nitrogen fertilizer for higher yield in nerica rice. The experiment comprised of three rice varieties viz. NERICA1, NERICA10 and BRRI dhan57; and five nitrogen levels viz. 0, 23, 46, 69 and 92 kg ha-1. The rice var. BRRI dhan57 with 69 and 92 kg N ha-1 produced significantly identical with higher panicles m-2. But NERICA1 and NERICA10 produced higher number of panicles with 46 and 69 kg N ha-1, respectively. However, BRRI dhan57 with 46 kg N ha-1 produced highest grains panicle-1 but NERICA1 and NERICA10 produced higher number of grains panicle-1 with 23 kg N ha-1. The highest percentage of sterility was recorded in NERICA10 with 69 kg N ha-1. The regression analysis gave the optimum dose of nitrogen for NERICA1, NERICA10 and BRRI dhan57 which were 69.25, 74.25 and 85.75 kg N ha-1, respectively.

  11. Degradation of chlorpyrifos in tropical rice soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Subhasis; Adhya, Tapan K

    2015-04-01

    Chlorpyrifos [O,O-diethyl O-(3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol) phosphorothioate] is used worldwide as an agricultural insecticide against a broad spectrum of insect pests of economically important crops including rice, and soil application to control termites. The insecticide mostly undergoes hydrolysis to diethyl thiophosphoric acid (DETP) and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP), and negligible amounts of other intermediate products. In a laboratory-cum-greenhouse study, chlorpyrifos, applied at a rate of 10 mg kg(-1) soil to five tropical rice soils of wide physico-chemical variability, degraded with a half-life ranging from 27.07 to 3.82 days. TCP was the major metabolite under both non-flooded and flooded conditions. Chlorpyrifos degradation had significant negative relationship with electrical conductivity (EC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), clay and sand contents of the soils under non-flooded conditions. Results indicate that degradation of chlorpyrifos was accelerated with increase in its application frequency, across the representative rice soils. Management regimes including moisture content and presence or absence of rice plants also influenced the process. Biotic factors also play an important role in the degradation of chlorpyrifos as demonstrated by its convincing degradation in mineral salts medium inoculated with non-sterile soil suspension. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Haploid rice plants in mutation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, S [Institute of Radiation Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Ohmiya, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)

    1970-03-01

    Studies were made on chlorophyll-deficient sectors and diploid-like sectors in haploid rice plants exposed to chronic gamma irradiation, and on germinal mutations in diploid strains derived from the haploid plants. The induction and elimination of somatic mutations in haploid plants and the occurrence of drastic germinal mutations in diploid strains from haploid plants are discussed. (author)

  13. Rice breeding with induced mutations in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marie, R [Station d' Amelioration des Plantes, Institut National de Recherches Agronomiques, Montpellier (France)

    1970-03-01

    Mutation experiments with rice at Montpellier yielded strains with improved lodging resistance, grain size, maturing time, milling quality and other characters. The general performance of these mutant strains was tested in field trials. Further mutagenic treatments were made to improve the high-yielding short grain varieties with regard to grain quality and seed dormancy. (author)

  14. Studies on mutation techniques in rice breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Cailian; Chen Qiufang; Jin Wei

    2001-01-01

    Synthetical techniques for improving rice mutation breeding efficiency were studied. The techniques consist of corresponding relationship between radiosensitivity and mutation frequency, choosing appropriate materials, combination of physical and chemical mutagens, mutagenic effects of the new mutagenic agents as proton, ions, synchronous irradiation and space mutation. These techniques and methods for inducing mutations are very valuable to increase inducing mutation efficiency and breeding level

  15. Methane emission from wetland rice fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.

    1996-01-01


    Methane (CH 4 ) is an important greenhouse gas and plays a key role in tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry. Wetland rice fields are an important source of methane, accounting for approximately 20% of the global anthropogenic

  16. Impact of mutation breeding in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutger, J.N.

    1992-01-01

    More cultivars have been developed in rice through the use of mutation breeding than in any other crop. Direct releases of mutants as cultivars began some 30 years ago, and now total 198 cultivars. During the last 20 years, increasing use has been made of induced mutants in cross-breeding programs, leading to 80 additional cultivars. Principal improvements through mutation breeding have been earlier maturity, short stature, and grain character modifications. Rice has been a popular subject of mutagenesis because it is the world's leading food crop, has diploid inheritance, and is highly self-pollinated. In recent years induced mutation has been exploited to develop breeding tool mutants, which are defined as mutants that in themselves may not have direct agronomic application but may be useful genetic tools for crop improvement. Examples include the eui gene, hull colour mutants, normal genetic male steriles, and environmentally sensitive genetic male steriles. The environmentally sensitive genetic male steriles, especially those in which male sterility can be turned on or off by different photoperiod lengths, show promise for simplifying hybrid rice seed production both in China and the USA. Future applications of mutation in rice include induction of unusual endosperm starch types, plant types with fewer but more productive tillers, dominant dwarfs, dominant genetic male steriles, extremely early maturing mutants, nutritional mutants, and in vitro-derived mutants for tolerance to herbicides or other growth stresses. Refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  17. Allelopathic potential of selected rice varieties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl10

    2012-11-01

    Nov 1, 2012 ... 1Faculty of Agro Based Industry, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, 17600 Jeli, Kelantan, Malaysia. ... experiment was laid out in completely randomized design. ..... Mixed-Cultures. PLoS ONE 7(5):e37201. Islam M (2010). Allelopathic effects of rice varieties on seed germination and seedling growth of lettuce.

  18. Tulekul naiste duell : Rice - Clinton? / Aadu Hiietamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hiietamm, Aadu, 1954-

    2005-01-01

    Kui intervjuus Washington Postile ei välistanud USA välisminister Condoleezza Rice võimalust kandideerida presidendivalimistel, siis hilisemas intervjuus telekanalile ABC ütles ta, et tal puudub soov saada presidendiks. Samal ajal arutavad demokraadid Hillary Clintoni võimalusi saavutada edu järgmistel presidendivalimistel

  19. Bioavailability of zinc to aerobic rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, X.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords:Arbuscular mycorrhiza, Exudation, Oryza sativa , Rhizosphere, Rice, Soil, ZincZinc deficiency is a wide-spread constraint for crop production and human health. This thesis should contribute to alleviation of Zn deficiency problems and aimed at identifying soil

  20. A rice kinase-protein interaction map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiaodong; Richter, Todd; Chen, Mei; Fujii, Hiroaki; Seo, Young Su; Xie, Mingtang; Zheng, Xianwu; Kanrar, Siddhartha; Stevenson, Rebecca A; Dardick, Christopher; Li, Ying; Jiang, Hao; Zhang, Yan; Yu, Fahong; Bartley, Laura E; Chern, Mawsheng; Bart, Rebecca; Chen, Xiuhua; Zhu, Lihuang; Farmerie, William G; Gribskov, Michael; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Fromm, Michael E; Ronald, Pamela C; Song, Wen-Yuan

    2009-03-01

    Plants uniquely contain large numbers of protein kinases, and for the vast majority of the 1,429 kinases predicted in the rice (Oryza sativa) genome, little is known of their functions. Genetic approaches often fail to produce observable phenotypes; thus, new strategies are needed to delineate kinase function. We previously developed a cost-effective high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system. Using this system, we have generated a protein interaction map of 116 representative rice kinases and 254 of their interacting proteins. Overall, the resulting interaction map supports a large number of known or predicted kinase-protein interactions from both plants and animals and reveals many new functional insights. Notably, we found a potential widespread role for E3 ubiquitin ligases in pathogen defense signaling mediated by receptor-like kinases, particularly by the kinases that may have evolved from recently expanded kinase subfamilies in rice. We anticipate that the data provided here will serve as a foundation for targeted functional studies in rice and other plants. The application of yeast two-hybrid and TAPtag analyses for large-scale plant protein interaction studies is also discussed.

  1. Adsorptive property of rice husk for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Yuan; Yi Facheng

    2011-01-01

    The adsorption experiments were researched by using the rice husk powder as the adsorbent to remove the U(VI) from aqueous solution. The affecting factors on the U(VI) removal rate such as rice husk particle size, pH, initial concentration, adsorption time, temperature and dosage of adsorbent were evaluated, kinetics and adsorption isotherm law were analyzed, and mechanisms for U(VI) removal were discussed by SEM, FT-IR and energy spectrum analysis. The results show that U(VI) removal rate increases with the decrease of the size of adsorbent, and with the increase of adsorbent dosage and temperature. The process of adsorption can be described by an equation of pseudo 2nd-order mode, and the relation coefficient is 1. The process of adsorption also fits to Freundlich isotherm (R 2 =0.995 4). The adsorption of uranium on rice husk changes the surface form of rice husk. Hydroxyl, carboxylic, P-O and Si-O are the main functional groups in the reaction with U(VI). The adsorption mechanism is mixture adsorption, including the physical and chemical adsorption. (authors)

  2. A Reference Genome for US Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of reference genomes for rice has served as means for understanding the allelic diversity and genetic structure of a cereal grain that feeds half of the world. It has long been understood that Oryza sativa diverged into two major sub-populations Indica and Japonica, over 400 K years ...

  3. Structure, Function, and Evolution of Rice Centromeres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Jiming

    2010-02-04

    The centromere is the most characteristic landmark of eukaryotic chromosomes. Centromeres function as the site for kinetochore assembly and spindle attachment, allowing for the faithful pairing and segregation of sister chromatids during cell division. Characterization of centromeric DNA is not only essential to understand the structure and organization of plant genomes, but it is also a critical step in the development of plant artificial chromosomes. The centromeres of most model eukaryotic species, consist predominantly of long arrays of satellite DNA. Determining the precise DNA boundary of a centromere has proven to be a difficult task in multicellular eukaryotes. We have successfully cloned and sequenced the centromere of rice chromosome 8 (Cen8), representing the first fully sequenced centromere from any multicellular eukaryotes. The functional core of Cen8 spans ~800 kb of DNA, which was determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) using an antibody against the rice centromere-specific H3 histone. We discovered 16 actively transcribed genes distributed throughout the Cen8 region. In addition to Cen8, we have characterized eight additional rice centromeres using the next generation sequencing technology. We discovered four subfamilies of the CRR retrotransposon that is highly enriched in rice centromeres. CRR elements are constitutively transcribed and different CRR subfamilies are differentially processed by RNAi. These results suggest that different CRR subfamilies may play different roles in the RNAi-mediated pathway for formation and maintenance of centromeric chromatin.

  4. Rice genetic resources in postwar Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chakanda, R.T.M.

    2009-01-01

    This research presents the effect of the 10-year long civil war in Sierra Leone on rice genetic resources, using farmers and their seed systems in three selected districts as reference points. The war disrupted all forms of production and development in the country and like other sectors of the

  5. Production of Nanocellulose from Rice Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaghayegh Rezanezhad

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, nanocellulose was produced from rice husk, as a lignocellulosic waste of rice. Initially, purified cellulose was produced with chemo-mechanical and soda-anthraquinone (soda/AQ pulping and bleaching. The purified cellulose was then sonicated for 15 min using an ultrasonic processor, resulted in nanocellulose. The nanocellulose obtained by sonification has been characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM, X-ray diffraction (XRD and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. Diameter of nanocellulose from rice husk by chemical method was 30-40 nm and that of produced by soda-AQ pulping method were 10-20 nm. The nanocellulose crystallinity for chemical method obtained 60% and for that of produced with soda-AQ pulping method was 66%. The degradation onset temperature for nanocellulose from rice husk by chemical method was 165°C and that of produced with soda-AQ pulping method were 188°c. The thermal behaviors of nanocellulose and purified cellulose were almost the same, suggesting the ultrasonic treatment had minor effect on the thermal decomposition of the nanocellulose.

  6. Burkholderia glumae: next major pathogen of rice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Jong Hyun; Melanson, Rebecca A; Rush, Milton C

    2011-05-01

    Burkholderia glumae causes bacterial panicle blight of rice, which is an increasingly important disease problem in global rice production. Toxoflavin and lipase are known to be major virulence factors of this pathogen, and their production is dependent on the TofI/TofR quorum-sensing system, which is mediated by N-octanoyl homoserine lactone. Flagellar biogenesis and a type III secretion system are also required for full virulence of B. glumae. Bacterial panicle blight is thought to be caused by seed-borne B. glumae; however, its disease cycle is not fully understood. In spite of its economic importance, neither effective control measures for bacterial panicle blight nor rice varieties showing complete resistance to the disease are currently available. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying B. glumae virulence and of the rice defence mechanisms against the pathogen would lead to the development of better methods of disease control for bacterial panicle blight. Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Betaproteobacteria; Burkholderiales; Burkholderiaceae; Burkholderia. Gram-negative, capsulated, motile, lophotrichous flagella, pectolytic. Aborted seed, empty grains as a result of failure of grain filling, brown spots on panicles, seedling rot. Seed sterilization, planting partially resistant lines (no completely resistant line is available). KNOWN VIRULENCE FACTORS: Toxoflavin, lipase, type III effectors. © 2010 LSU AGCENTER. MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY © 2010 BSPP AND BLACKWELL PUBLISHING LTD.

  7. Observations of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis L. post-larvae growth performances reared in an illuminated floating cage in Varese lake (N-W Italy over a two years period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micaela Antonini

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Eurasian perch (P. fluviatilis is a very important fish species in Varese lake (N-W Italy. Since the second half of 20th century, perch catches in the lake have steadily decreased and by the end of the ‘80s the species resulted clearly endangered. The purpose of this study was to investigate growth, mortality and feeding conditions of perch postlarvae, reared in illuminated floating cage in Varese lake, to obtain fingerlings for a restocking program. In June 2006 and 2007, groups of 280 and 300 pre-weaned post-larvae (average body weight 0.64±0.09 g and 0.25±0.08 g respectively P<0.01 were held in an illuminated net cage for 90 days. The cage was illuminated inside from 20:30 p.m. to 6:30 a.m. During the trial, the nightly zooplankton accumulation inside the cage was assessed weekly. At night time the zooplankton biomass, which resulted dominated by Cladocera family, was higher inside the cage than in the lake. In 2006, 322±36 zooplankters L–1 were observed, compared to 945±600 observed in 2007 (P<0.05. In the lake, the number of zooplankters per litre was similar in both years, resulting in 63.3±50.30 and 61.10±45 zooplankters L–1, respectively on 2006 and 2007. In order to assess perch growth performances, 25 fishes were sampled from the cage every 15-20 days and length (cm and weight (g were assessed for each sample. At the end of September, specific growth rate (SGR and survival rate were assessed. In 2006 the final mean body weight of the perch fry was 4.65±1.47 g and that results significantly lower (P<0.05 than of 2007 (6.3±1.69 g. The SGR was 2.04% and 3.42%, respectively. The higher growth rate observed in 2007 was influenced by a higher zooplankton accumulation in the cage due to an improved cage management. In order to assess the cage efficiency, in September 2006 and 2007, the weight of young-of-year perch (n=50 captured in the lake were compared to those of reared fish. Wild fry showed a mean body weight significantly

  8. Effect of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis rice lines on mortality and feeding behavior of rice stem borers (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Zhang, Guoan; Zhang, Qifa; Lin, Yongjun

    2008-02-01

    Ten transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis Bt rice, Oryza sativa L., lines with different Bt genes (two Cry1Ac lines, three Cry2A lines, and five Cry9C lines) derived from the same variety Minghui 63 were evaluated in both the laboratory and the field. Bioassays were conducted by using the first instars of two main rice lepidopteran insect species: yellow stem borer, Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker) and Asiatic rice borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker). All transgenic lines exhibited high toxicity to these two rice borers. Field evaluation results also showed that all transgenic lines were highly insect resistant with both natural infestation and manual infestation of the neonate larvae of S. incertulas compared with the nontransformed Minghui63. Bt protein concentrations in leaves of 10 transgenic rice lines were estimated by the sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The cry9C gene had the highest expression level, next was cry2A gene, and the cry1Ac gene expressed at the lowest level. The feeding behavior of 7-d-old Asiatic rice borer to three classes of Bt transgenic rice lines also was detected by using rice culm cuttings. The results showed that 7-d-old larvae of Asiatic rice borer have the capacity to distinguish Bt and non-Bt culm cuttings and preferentially fed on non-Bt cuttings. When only Bt culm cuttings with three classes of different Bt proteins (CrylAc, Cry2A, and Cry9C) were fed, significant distribution difference of 7-d-old Asiatic rice borer in culm cuttings of different Bt proteins also was found. In the current study, we evaluate different Bt genes in the same rice variety in both the laboratory and the field, and also tested feeding behavior of rice insect to these Bt rice. These data are valuable for the further development of two-toxin Bt rice and establishment of appropriate insect resistance management in the future.

  9. Radiation disinfection of rice-straw products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Isao (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment); Ohki, Yumi

    1991-11-01

    For the quarantine treatment of rice-straw products from foreign countries, irradiation effects of gamma-rays and electron beams on plant pathogenic microorganisms especially on fungi were investigated. The total aerobic bacteria in rice-straw was determined to be 3x10{sup 7} - 3x10{sup 8} per gram which consisted mainly of Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Arthrobacter and Erwinia. The principal bacteria in rice-straw could be eliminated with 5 kGy of gamma irradiation. Deinococcus proteolyticus and Pseudomonas radiora were the main survivors at 5 to 12 kGy of irradiation. Saprophytic fungus which belongs to Dimorphospora also survived up to 8 kGy of irradiation. The D{sub 10} values of 26 strains of fungi isolated from rice-straw were 1.1 to 2.5 times higher in the dry condition compared to the values when irradiated in 0.067 M phosphate buffer solution. The induction dose in the dry condition also increased from 1.5 to 10 times than that in the wet condition. In the case of electron beam irradiation of fungi under dry conditions, D{sub 10} values were about 1.3 times higher than that of gamma irradiation. From this study, the dose necessary to reduce the plant pathogenic fungi in rice-straw at a level below 10{sup -4} per gram was estimated to be as 7-8 kGy for gamma-irradiation and 10 kGy for electron beam irradiation. (author).

  10. Chemical Safety of Unpolished Nigerian Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinsola Francis Awopetu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Levels of arsenic (As, lead (Pb, cadmium (Cd, calcium (Ca, chromium (Cr, potassium (K, sodium (Na, and zinc (Zn in locally cultivated rice consumed in Ondo and Ekiti States of Nigeria were investigated. The rice samples were obtained from six different rice-producing towns; Akure, Ondo, Ado, Igbemo, Ikole and Erinjiyan. The estimated dietary intake (EDI of these elements were determined and compared with the provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI and dietary reference intake (DRI values for toxic and essential elements respectively. The measured mean levels of Pb, As, Cr, Cd, Zn, Na, Ca and K were 0.047 ± 0.007, 0.041 ± 0.004, 0.570 ± 0.032, 0.026 ± 0.003, 7.856 ± 0.659, 42.15 ± 0.191, 337.11 ± 0.315, and 2650.09 ± 0.337 µg/g respectively while the average EDI were 00.101 ± 0.042 µg/day, 0.088 ± 0.14µg/day, 1.234 ± 0.045 µg/day, 0.057 ± 0.002 µg/day, 0.017 ± 0.071 mg/day, 0.091 ± 0.013 mg/day, 0.73 ± 0.018 mg/day and 5.742 ± 0.337 mg/day respectively. The EDIs were not significantly higher than the reference values for the elements except Cr. Also the rice samples were not rich enough in sodium, calcium and potassium compared to the dietary reference intakes for these elements. It is recommended that rice diets should be supplemented with other food items such as meat, fruits and vegetables.

  11. Induced mutation for tungro resistance in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, R.; Yumol, R.R.; Taura, S.

    2001-01-01

    Tungro is the most serious virus disease of rice in South and Southeast Asia. It is a composite disease of two kinds of viruses, rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV) and rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV). Damage to the plant is mostly caused by RTBV, while RTSV acts to facilitate RTBV acquisition and transmission by insect vector. Both viruses are transmitted mainly by green leafhopper (GLH). Resistance to GLH is common in rice germplasm but extremely rare for the two viruses. To induce mutations for tungro resistance, a susceptible variety IR22 was treated with N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNH) following the procedure of Satoh and Omura. The panicles of rice variety 'IR22' were soaked in 1 mM MNH solution for 45 minutes at 16 to 18 hours after flowering. Two thousand six hundred and forty fertile M 1 plants were produced. From these plants M 2 lines with 10 or more seedlings were planted in the field to evaluate their reaction against tungro under natural conditions in the 1990 dry season on the IRRI central research farm, Los Banos, the Philippines. Of these, 124 M 2 lines were selected by visual evaluation. Five plants were harvested individually from each selected line. A bulk was also made from all the remaining plants in the line. In the M 3 generation, each family consisted of five sister lines and one bulked line. One line (M 3 -723) showed no tungro symptoms and its related bulk segregated for resistance but all other M 3 lines from the same family were susceptible to tungro. The resistant line, M 3 -723, showed low infection with RTBV and RTSV when leaves were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to diagnose tungro infection. All M 4 lines from M 3 -723 showed uniform resistance in the field. They were not infected with RTBV and were resistant to RTSV infection

  12. Transcriptional changes of rice in response to rice black-streaked dwarf virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mohamed M S; Ji, Wen; Wang, Muyue; Bian, Shiquan; Xu, Meng; Wang, Weiyun; Zhang, Jiangxiang; Xu, Zhihao; Yu, Meimei; Liu, Qiaoquan; Zhang, Changquan; Zhang, Honggen; Tang, Shuzhu; Gu, Minghong; Yu, Hengxiu

    2017-09-10

    Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV), a member of the genus Fijivirus in the family Reoviridae, causes significant economic losses in rice production in China and many other Asian countries. Although a great deal of effort has been made to elucidate the interactions among the virus, insect vectors, host and environmental conditions, few RBSDV proteins involved in pathogenesis have been identified, and the biological basis of disease development in rice remains largely unknown. Transcriptomic information associated with the disease development in rice would be helpful to unravel the biological mechanism. To determine how the rice transcriptome changes in response to RBSDV infection, we carried out RNA-Seq to perform a genome-wide gene expression analysis of a susceptible rice cultivar KTWYJ3. The transcriptomes of RBSDV-infected samples were compared to those of RBSDV-free (healthy) at two time points (time points are represented by group I and II). The results derived from the differential expression analysis in RBSDV-infected libraries vs. healthy ones in group I revealed that 102 out of a total of 281 significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were up-regulated and 179 DEGs were down-regulated. Of the 2592 identified DEGs in group II, 1588 DEGs were up-regulated and 1004 DEGs were down-regulated. A total of 66 DEGs were commonly identified in both groups. Of these 66 DEGs, expression patterns for 36 DEGs were similar in both groups. Our analysis demonstrated that some genes related to disease defense and stress resistance were up-regulated while genes associated with chloroplast were down-regulated in response to RBSDV infection. In addition, some genes associated with plant-height were differentially expressed. This result indicates those genes might be involved in dwarf symptoms caused by RBSDV. Taken together, our results provide a genome-wide transcriptome analysis for rice plants in response to RBSDV infection which may contribute to the

  13. Rice Cluster I, an Important Group of Archaea Producing Methane in Rice Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, R.

    2006-12-01

    Rice fields are an important source for the greenhouse gas methane. Methane is a major degradation product of organic matter in the anoxic soil, is partially oxidized in the rhizosphere and is emitted into the atmosphere through the aerenchyma system of the plants. Anaerobic degradation of organic matter by fermenting bacteria eventually results in the production of acetate and hydrogen, the two major substrates for microbial methanogenesis. The community of methanogenic archaea consists of several major orders or families including hydrogen-utilizing Rice Cluster-I (RC-I). Environmental conditions affect the methanogenic degradation process and the community structure of the methanogenic archaea in soil and rhizosphere. For example, populations of acetoclastic Methanosaetaceae and Methanosarcinaceae are enhanced by low and high acetate concentrations, respectively. Stable isotope probing of 16S rRNA showed that RC-I methanogens are mainly active on rice roots and at low H2 concentrations. Growth and population size is largely consistent with energetic conditions. RC-I methanogens on roots seem to be responsible for methane production from plant photosynthates that account for a major part of the emitted methane. Populations of RC-I methanogens in rice field soil are also enhanced at elevated temperatures (40-50°C). Moderately thermophilic members of RC-I methanogens or other methanogenic families were found to be ubiquitously present in soils from rice fields and river marshes. The genome of a RC-I methanogen was completely sequenced out of an enrichment culture using a metagenome approach. Genes found are consistent with life in the rhizosphere and in temporarily drained, oxic soil. We found that the methanogenic community structure on the rice roots is mainly determined by the respective community structure of the soil, but is in addition affected by the rice cultivar. Rice microcosms in which soil and rice roots are mainly colonized by RC-I methanogens produce

  14. Rice Water: A Traditional Ingredient with Anti-Aging Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Marto

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The skin healing benefits of rice have been known for centuries. Rice (Oryza sativa water is a food processing waste that can potentially be incorporated into cosmetic formulations. However, no scientific evidence supports their role in skincare products. The aim of this project is to design and develop a topical gel formulation containing rice water and to evaluate its biological properties, namely, the anti-aging and antioxidant rice water properties. Rice water was evaluated in terms of physico-chemical composition and in terms of in vitro biological antioxidant activity and elastase inhibitory effect. Rice water was incorporated into a hydrogel and the developed formulation was subjected to pharmacotechnical tests such as pH and viscosity. Biological and sensory effects were evaluated on a panel of 12 volunteers for 28 days. The safety evaluation study was performed on rice water gel, using the Human Repeat Insult Patch test protocol. Rice water presented in vitro biological antioxidant activity and elastase inhibitory effect. The gel formulation containing 96% rice water was biocompatible with the human skin and presented suitable cosmetic properties. Rice water should be thus considered as an anti-aging ingredient to be used as raw material for skincare applications.

  15. Rice production model based on the concept of ecological footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiz, S. A.; Wicaksono, A. D.; Dinanti, D.

    2017-06-01

    Pursuant to what had been stated in Region Spatial Planning (RTRW) of Malang Regency for period 2010-2030, Malang Regency was considered as the center of agricultural development, including districts bordered with Malang City. To protect the region functioning as the provider of rice production, then the policy of sustainable food farming-land (LP2B) was made which its implementation aims to protect rice-land. In the existing condition, LP2B system was not maximally executed, and it caused a limited extend of rice-land to deliver rice production output. One cause related with the development of settlements and industries due to the effect of Malang City that converted land-function. Location of research focused on 30 villages with direct border with Malang City. Review was conducted to develop a model of relation between farming production output and ecological footprint variables. These variables include rice-land area (X1), built land percentage (X2), and number of farmers (X3). Analysis technique was regression. Result of regression indicated that the model of rice production output Y=-207,983 + 10.246X1. Rice-land area (X1) was the most influential independent variable. It was concluded that of villages directly bordered with Malang City, there were 11 villages with higher production potential because their rice production yield was more than 1,000 tons/year, while 12 villages were threatened with low production output because its rice production yield only attained 500 tons/year. Based on the model and the spatial direction of RTRW, it can be said that the direction for the farming development policy must be redesigned to maintain rice-land area on the regions on which agricultural activity was still dominant. Because rice-land area was the most influential factor to farming production. Therefore, the wider the rice-land is, the higher rice production output is on each village.

  16. Estimation of rice yield affected by drought and relation between rice yield and TVDI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongo, C.; Tamura, E.; Sigit, G.

    2016-12-01

    Impact of climate change is not only seen on food production but also on food security and sustainable development of society. Adaptation to climate change is a pressing issue throughout the world to reduce the risks along with the plans and strategies for food security and sustainable development. As a key adaptation to the climate change, agricultural insurance is expected to play an important role in stabilizing agricultural production through compensating the losses caused by the climate change. As the adaptation, the Government of Indonesia has launched agricultural insurance program for damage of rice by drought, flood and pest and disease. The Government started a pilot project in 2013 and this year the pilot project has been extended to 22 provinces. Having the above as background, we conducted research on development of new damage assessment method for rice using remote sensing data which could be used for evaluation of damage ratio caused by drought in West Java, Indonesia. For assessment of the damage ratio, estimation of rice yield is a key. As the result of our study, rice yield affected by drought in dry season could be estimated at level of 1 % significance using SPOT 7 data taken in 2015, and the validation result was 0.8t/ha. Then, the decrease ratio in rice yield about each individual paddy field was calculated using data of the estimated result and the average yield of the past 10 years. In addition, TVDI (Temperature Vegetation Dryness Index) which was calculated from Landsat8 data in heading season indicated the dryness in low yield area. The result suggests that rice yield was affected by irrigation water shortage around heading season as a result of the decreased precipitation by El Nino. Through our study, it becomes clear that the utilization of remote sensing data can be promising for assessment of the damage ratio of rice production precisely, quickly and quantitatively, and also it can be incorporated into the insurance procedures.

  17. Tungsten (W) bioavailability in paddy rice soils and its accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Blessing; Zhang, Weili; Sun, Pei; Wu, Mingyan; Li, Hong Hong; Khaliq, Muhammad Athar; Jayasuriya, Pathmamali; James, Swithin; Wang, Guo

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the accumulation characteristics of tungsten (W) by different indica rice cultivars from the soil and to assess the potential risks to human health via dietary intake of W in rice consumption. A total of 153 rice (ear) samples of 15 cultivars and the corresponding surface soil samples were collected from 7 cities in Fujian Province of southeastern China. The available soil W were extracted using H 2 C 2 O 4 ·2H 2 O-(NH 4 ) 2 C 2 O 4 ·H 2 O at pH 3.3). Results showed that the total soil W ranged from 2.03 mg kg -1 to 15.34 mg kg -1  and available soil W ranged from 0.03 mg kg -1 to 1.61 mg kg -1 . The W concentration in brown rice varied from 7 μg kg -1 to 283 μg kg -1 and was significantly correlated with the available soil W. The highest mean TF avail (transfer factor based on available soil W) was 0.91 for Te-you 627 (hybrid, indica rice), whereas the lowest was 0.08 for Yi-you 673 (hybrid, indica rice). The TF avail decreased with the increase in available soil W, clay content, and cation exchange capacity. The consumption of the brown rice produced from the investigated areas in some cultivars by the present study may cause risks to human health.

  18. Development of Rice Reprocessing to Strengthen Small Scale Rice Mills in Indramayu West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdaus, Y. R.; Hasbullah, R.; Djohar, S.

    2018-05-01

    Small Rice Mill (SRM) has a very important role in rice production of strong institutional relationships to farmers and rice markets. Nevertheless, the rice produced in low quality and changing consumer preferences cause SRM to have difficulty in maintaining the role. Development of a reprocessing business - called Rice to Rice Processing Plant (R2RP) - as a separate business unit will support their role and existence. This study aimed at analyzing the feasibility of R2RP business that integrates SRM and market as an independent business unit and determines mutual partnership pattern. The study was conducted with special reference to West Java Province. The qualitative method used for non-financial aspects analysis includes raw material, market, technical-technological, management and regulation and partnership pattern. The financial aspect used the quantitative method of Net Present Value (NPV), Net Benefit Cost Ratio (Net B/C), Internal Rate of Return (IRR), Payback Period (PP) and Switching Value to check their sensitivity.The results showed R2R business is feasible for non-financially, technical-technological and financial aspects. Technology has evolved to produce various qualities (premium or medium) after the quality of raw materials (low quality or off-grade rice) using profit optimization. Value of the financial parameters was NPV of Rp 137 billion, Net B/C of 5.80, IRR of 84.27 percent and PP of 2.18 years at capacity of 19,800 tons/year with total investment of Rp 30 billion (Rp 13,500/USD). The switching value analysis showed that a decrease in product prices is sensitively influencing the financial feasibility. To strengthen cooperation that enhancing mutually beneficial relationship, R2R assists equipment investment in and buy raw material from SRM at a rational agreed price.

  19. [The main nutrients digestibility of genetically modified rice and parental rice in the terminal ileum of pigs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Hu, Yi-chun; Piao, Jian-hua; Yang, Xiao-guang

    2010-10-01

    To compare the digestibility of main nutrients in genetically modified rice with double antisense starch-branching enzyme gene and parental rice. Seven Wuzhishan healthy adult barrows were surgically fitted with a T-cannula at the terminal ileum. After surgery, seven pigs were randomly divided into two groups, and fed genetically modified rice and parental rice by a crossover model. Ileal digesta were collected for analysis of main nutrient digestibility. The apparent digestibility levels of protein in genetically modified rice and parental rice were 69.50% ± 4.50%, 69.61% ± 8.40%, respectively (t = 0.01, P = 0.994); true digestibility levels of protein were 87.55% ± 4.95%, 87.64% ± 9.40%, respectively (t = 0.01, P = 0.994); fat digestibility levels were 72.86% ± 0.34%, 77.89% ± 13.09%, respectively (t = 0.95, P = 0.378); carbohydrate digestibility levels were 72.92% ± 7.43%, 92.35% ± 5.88%, respectively (t = 4.27, P = 0.005). The apparent and true digestibility of 17 amino acids had no significant difference in the two rice. Carbohydrate digestibility in genetically modified rice was significantly lower than that in non-genetically modified rice, other main nutrients digestibility in the two rice have substantial equivalence.

  20. Field trial of GABA-fortified rice plants and oral administration of milled rice in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowaka, Emi; Shimajiri, Yasuka; Kawakami, Kouhei; Tongu, Miki; Akama, Kazuhito

    2015-06-01

    Hypertension is one of the most critical risk factors accompanying cardiovascular diseases. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a non-protein amino acid that functions as a major neurotransmitter in mammals and also as a blood-pressure lowering agent. We previously produced GABA-fortified rice lines of a popular Japonica rice cultivar 'Koshihikari' by genetic manipulation of GABA shunt-related genes. In the study reported here, we grew these same novel rice lines in a field trial and administered the milled rice orally to rats. The yield parameters of the transgenic rice plants were almost unchanged compared to those of untransformed cv. 'Koshihikari' plants, while the rice grains of the transgenic plants contained a high GABA content (3.5 g GABA/kg brown rice; 0.75-0.85 GABA g/kg milled rice) in a greenhouse trial. Oral administration of a diet containing 2.5% GABA-fortified rice, with a daily intake for 8 weeks, had an approximately 20 mmHg anti-hypertensive effect in spontaneous hypertensive rats but not in normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats. These results suggest that GABA-fortified rice may be applicable as a staple food to control or prevent hypertension.

  1. The puzzle of Italian rice origin and evolution: determining genetic divergence and affinity of rice germplasm from Italy and Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingxing Cai

    Full Text Available The characterization of genetic divergence and relationships of a set of germplasm is essential for its efficient applications in crop breeding and understanding of the origin/evolution of crop varieties from a given geographical region. As the largest rice producing country in Europe, Italy holds rice germplasm with abundant genetic diversity. Although Italian rice varieties and the traditional ones in particular have played important roles in rice production and breeding, knowledge concerning the origin and evolution of Italian traditional varieties is still limited. To solve the puzzle of Italian rice origin, we characterized genetic divergence and relationships of 348 rice varieties from Italy and Asia based on the polymorphisms of microsatellite fingerprints. We also included common wild rice O. rufipogon as a reference in the characterization. Results indicated relatively rich genetic diversity (H(e = 0.63-0.65 in Italian rice varieties. Further analyses revealed a close genetic relationship of the Italian traditional varieties with those from northern China, which provides strong genetic evidence for tracing the possible origin of early established rice varieties in Italy. These findings have significant implications for the rice breeding programs, in which appropriate germplasm can be selected from a given region and utilized for transferring unique genetic traits based on its genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships.

  2. The use of induced mutation combined with crossing in high quality rice breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Do Huu At; Bui Huy Thuy; Nguyen Van Bich; Tran Duy Quy [Agricultural Genetics Institute, Division of Genetics and Hybrid Rice Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Nguyen Minh Cong [Hanoi No. 1 Teacher Training Univ., Department of Genetics (Viet Nam)

    2001-03-01

    The high quality rice varieties: Tam thom mutant rice Var., DT17 rice Var, DT21 glutinous rice Var were formed by induced mutation combined with crossing. Tam thom mutant rice Var. lost photosensitivity, could be planted 2 crops/year. DT17 rice Var with high yielding capacity, suitable for growth on lowland in summer crop, is replacing step-by-step Moctuyen rice Var. in North Vietnam. DT21 glutinous rice Var. could be planted 2 crops/year and had short growth duration, average yield was 4.0-4.5 tons/ha. These three ones had good quality, soft and scent cooked rice, suitable for customers and export requirements. Tam thom mutant rice Var. DT17 rice Var., DT21 and glutinous rice Var. were adopted for regional production by Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development and allowed to be in trial production. (author)

  3. The use of induced mutation combined with crossing in high quality rice breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Do Huu At; Bui Huy Thuy; Nguyen Van Bich; Tran Duy Quy; Nguyen Minh Cong

    2001-01-01

    The high quality rice varieties: Tam thom mutant rice Var., DT17 rice Var, DT21 glutinous rice Var were formed by induced mutation combined with crossing. Tam thom mutant rice Var. lost photosensitivity, could be planted 2 crops/year. DT17 rice Var with high yielding capacity, suitable for growth on lowland in summer crop, is replacing step-by-step Moctuyen rice Var. in North Vietnam. DT21 glutinous rice Var. could be planted 2 crops/year and had short growth duration, average yield was 4.0-4.5 tons/ha. These three ones had good quality, soft and scent cooked rice, suitable for customers and export requirements. Tam thom mutant rice Var. DT17 rice Var., DT21 and glutinous rice Var. were adopted for regional production by Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development and allowed to be in trial production. (author)

  4. Molecular evolution of the rice blast resistance gene Pi-ta in invasive weedy rice in the USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seonghee Lee

    Full Text Available The Pi-ta gene in rice has been effectively used to control rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae worldwide. Despite a number of studies that reported the Pi-ta gene in domesticated rice and wild species, little is known about how the Pi-ta gene has evolved in US weedy rice, a major weed of rice. To investigate the genome organization of the Pi-ta gene in weedy rice and its relationship to gene flow between cultivated and weedy rice in the US, we analyzed nucleotide sequence variation at the Pi-ta gene and its surrounding 2 Mb region in 156 weedy, domesticated and wild rice relatives. We found that the region at and around the Pi-ta gene shows very low genetic diversity in US weedy rice. The patterns of molecular diversity in weeds are more similar to cultivated rice (indica and aus, which have never been cultivated in the US, rather than the wild rice species, Oryza rufipogon. In addition, the resistant Pi-ta allele (Pi-ta found in the majority of US weedy rice belongs to the weedy group strawhull awnless (SH, suggesting a single source of origin for Pi-ta. Weeds with Pi-ta were resistant to two M. oryzae races, IC17 and IB49, except for three accessions, suggesting that component(s required for the Pi-ta mediated resistance may be missing in these accessions. Signatures of flanking sequences of the Pi-ta gene and SSR markers on chromosome 12 suggest that the susceptible pi-ta allele (pi-ta, not Pi-ta, has been introgressed from cultivated to weedy rice by out-crossing.

  5. Molecular Evolution of the Rice Blast Resistance Gene Pi-ta in Invasive Weedy Rice in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seonghee; Jia, Yulin; Jia, Melissa; Gealy, David R.; Olsen, Kenneth M.; Caicedo, Ana L.

    2011-01-01

    The Pi-ta gene in rice has been effectively used to control rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae worldwide. Despite a number of studies that reported the Pi-ta gene in domesticated rice and wild species, little is known about how the Pi-ta gene has evolved in US weedy rice, a major weed of rice. To investigate the genome organization of the Pi-ta gene in weedy rice and its relationship to gene flow between cultivated and weedy rice in the US, we analyzed nucleotide sequence variation at the Pi-ta gene and its surrounding 2 Mb region in 156 weedy, domesticated and wild rice relatives. We found that the region at and around the Pi-ta gene shows very low genetic diversity in US weedy rice. The patterns of molecular diversity in weeds are more similar to cultivated rice (indica and aus), which have never been cultivated in the US, rather than the wild rice species, Oryza rufipogon. In addition, the resistant Pi-ta allele (Pi-ta) found in the majority of US weedy rice belongs to the weedy group strawhull awnless (SH), suggesting a single source of origin for Pi-ta. Weeds with Pi-ta were resistant to two M. oryzae races, IC17 and IB49, except for three accessions, suggesting that component(s) required for the Pi-ta mediated resistance may be missing in these accessions. Signatures of flanking sequences of the Pi-ta gene and SSR markers on chromosome 12 suggest that the susceptible pi-ta allele (pi-ta), not Pi-ta, has been introgressed from cultivated to weedy rice by out-crossing. PMID:22043312

  6. Rice DB: an Oryza Information Portal linking annotation, subcellular location, function, expression, regulation, and evolutionary information for rice and Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narsai, Reena; Devenish, James; Castleden, Ian; Narsai, Kabir; Xu, Lin; Shou, Huixia; Whelan, James

    2013-12-01

    Omics research in Oryza sativa (rice) relies on the use of multiple databases to obtain different types of information to define gene function. We present Rice DB, an Oryza information portal that is a functional genomics database, linking gene loci to comprehensive annotations, expression data and the subcellular location of encoded proteins. Rice DB has been designed to integrate the direct comparison of rice with Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), based on orthology or 'expressology', thus using and combining available information from two pre-eminent plant models. To establish Rice DB, gene identifiers (more than 40 types) and annotations from a variety of sources were compiled, functional information based on large-scale and individual studies was manually collated, hundreds of microarrays were analysed to generate expression annotations, and the occurrences of potential functional regulatory motifs in promoter regions were calculated. A range of computational subcellular localization predictions were also run for all putative proteins encoded in the rice genome, and experimentally confirmed protein localizations have been collated, curated and linked to functional studies in rice. A single search box allows anything from gene identifiers (for rice and/or Arabidopsis), motif sequences, subcellular location, to keyword searches to be entered, with the capability of Boolean searches (such as AND/OR). To demonstrate the utility of Rice DB, several examples are presented including a rice mitochondrial proteome, which draws on a variety of sources for subcellular location data within Rice DB. Comparisons of subcellular location, functional annotations, as well as transcript expression in parallel with Arabidopsis reveals examples of conservation between rice and Arabidopsis, using Rice DB (http://ricedb.plantenergy.uwa.edu.au). © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Modified broken rice starch as fat substitute in sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Maria Limberger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The demand for low-fat beef products has led the food industry to use fat substitutes such as modified starch. About 14% of broken rice is generated during processing. Nevertheless, this by-product contains high levels of starch; being therefore, great raw material for fat substitution. This study evaluated the applicability of chemically and physically modified broken rice starch as fat substitute in sausages. Extruded and phosphorylated broken rice was used in low-fat sausage formulation. All low-fat sausages presented about 55% reduction in the fat content and around 28% reduction in the total caloric value. Fat replacement with phosphorylated and extruded broken rice starch increased the texture acceptability of low-fat sausages, when compared to low-fat sausages with no modified broken rice. Results suggest that modified broken rice can be used as fat substitute in sausage formulations, yielding lower caloric value products with acceptable sensory characteristics.

  8. [Cooking quality of pastas supplemented with rice bran].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangronis, E; Cafiero, J; Mosqueda, M

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality during and after cooking of four pastas spaghetti type. Rice bran was used as ingredient in order to increase protein and dietetic fiber content. In two of the four formulation, semolina durum was supplemented with 10 and 20% rice bran. In the other two formulation granular flour was supplemented with 10 and 20% rice bran. Time cooking, water absorbtion, solid loss, color and hardness, (instrumental and sensory), Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) and Apparent Digestibility in vivo were determined. Acceptability was evaluated by a 35-member consumer panel. Rice bran improved solid loss during cooking and increased cooking time, PERs were not affected significantly but Apparent Digestibility decreased when rice bran was increased. Sensory quality was affected because rice bran made pastas hard and dark but they were comparable to high fiber pasta existing in market.

  9. The rice agroecosystem of the MUDA irrigation scheme: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho Nai Kin

    2002-01-01

    The Green Revolution technologies were introduced to the Muda area of Malaysia in the late 1960s. These technological innovations have resulted in rapid modification of the crop habitat and triggered a chain reaction in the rice agroecosystem. The impact of these technologies on the pest flora and fauna are significant. Indiscriminate use of pesticides causes disruption of natural enemy equilibrium and other undesirable effects to the farmers and the rice environment. The main emphasis of this paper is focused on the interactions between the various biological factors such as pathogenic microorganisms, arthropods, gastropods, fishes, birds, rodents, weeds, and the physical factors in the rice agroecosystem. The impact of double cropping of rice, the provision of irrigation facilities, the changes of crop establishment methods, and the adoption of pesticides on the rice agroecosystem are found to have far reaching effects on the sustainability of rice production in the Muda area. (Author)

  10. Amorphous silica from rice husk at various temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, S.J.; Feroze, N.; Tajwar, S.

    2008-01-01

    Rice husk is being used as a source of energy in many heat generating system because of its high calorific value and its availability in many rice producing areas. Rice husk contains approximately 20% silica which is presented in hydrated form. This hydrated silica can be retrieved as amorphous silica under controlled thermal conditions. Uncontrolled burning of rice husk produces crystalline silica which is not reactive silica but can be used as filler in many applications. Amorphous silica is reactive silica which has better market value due to its reactive nature in process industry. The present study deals with the production of amorphous silica at various temperatures from rice husk. Various ashes were prepared in tube furnace by changing the burning temperatures for fixed time intervals and analyzed by XRD. It has been observed that for two hours calculation's of rice husk renders mostly amorphous silica at 650 degree C where as at higher temperatures crystalline silica was obtained. (author)

  11. Radiocarbon ages of Sorori ancient rice of Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyeong Ja, E-mail: kjkim@kigam.re.kr [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yung-Jo; Woo, Jong-Yoon [Institute of Korean Prehistory, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Jull, A.J. Timothy [NSF Arizona AMS Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Samples of Sorori ancient rice were excavated in 1998 from the Sorori Paleolithic site located at Sorori, Oksan-myeon, Cheong-won County in Chungcheongbuk-do, Korea. We have made new radiocarbon measurements for Sorori samples in 2009 at the NSF Arizona AMS Laboratory. Both ancient rice samples and surrounded peat from the Sorori site were dated. The AMS results confirmed that the ages of the rice and peat soil were 12,520 {+-} 150 and 12,552 {+-} 90 BP, respectively. These radiocarbon ages are consistent with the previously published data of quasi rice measured at Seoul National University and confirm that the Sorori rice is the oldest ancient rice currently reported.

  12. Understanding the social and economic aspects of upland rice farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taridala, S. A. A.; Abdullah, W. G.; Suaib; Wahyuni, S.; Wianti, N. I.; Zani, M.; Jabuddin, L. O.; Yusria, W. O.; Limi, M. A.; Ekaputri, A. S.

    2018-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) analyze the socio-economic characteristics of upland rice farmers, and (2) to analyze the productivity of farming in South Konawe Regency of Southeast Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. The analysis used in this research was combine economic research through quantitative and qualitative analysis. This research was conducted by survey method. The results showed that (1) farmers are generally in productive age, dominated by men, with low formal education level, and moderate family members, (2) upland rice farming is cultivated in medium land area, with fixed costs higher than variable cost, productivity that has been increased but still lower than rice paddy, and the price of rice production is relatively higher than rice paddy production price, and (3) feasible to cultivate dryland rice, and has a high efficiency value.

  13. Rice Yellow Mottle Virus stress responsive genes from susceptible and tolerant rice genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siré Christelle

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of viral infection involve concomitant plant gene variations and cellular changes. A simple system is required to assess the complexity of host responses to viral infection. The genome of the Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV is a single-stranded RNA with a simple organisation. It is the most well-known monocotyledon virus model. Several studies on its biology, structure and phylogeography have provided a suitable background for further genetic studies. 12 rice chromosome sequences are now available and provide strong support for genomic studies, particularly physical mapping and gene identification. Results The present data, obtained through the cDNA-AFLP technique, demonstrate differential responses to RYMV of two different rice cultivars, i.e. susceptible IR64 (Oryza sativa indica, and partially resistant Azucena (O. s. japonica. This RNA profiling provides a new original dataset that will enable us to gain greater insight into the RYMV/rice interaction and the specificity of the host response. Using the SIM4 subroutine, we took the intron/exon structure of the gene into account and mapped 281 RYMV stress responsive (RSR transcripts on 12 rice chromosomes corresponding to 234 RSR genes. We also mapped previously identified deregulated proteins and genes involved in partial resistance and thus constructed the first global physical map of the RYMV/rice interaction. RSR transcripts on rice chromosomes 4 and 10 were found to be not randomly distributed. Seven genes were identified in the susceptible and partially resistant cultivars, and transcripts were colocalized for these seven genes in both cultivars. During virus infection, many concomitant plant gene expression changes may be associated with host changes caused by the infection process, general stress or defence responses. We noted that some genes (e.g. ABC transporters were regulated throughout the kinetics of infection and differentiated susceptible and

  14. Bulliform Phytolith Research in Wild and Domesticated Rice Paddy Soil in South China

    OpenAIRE

    Huan, Xiujia; Lu, Houyuan; Wang, Can; Tang, Xiangan; Zuo, Xinxin; Ge, Yong; He, Keyang

    2015-01-01

    Bulliform phytoliths play an important role in researching rice origins as they can be used to distinguish between wild and domesticated rice. Rice bulliform phytoliths are characterized by numerous small shallow fish-scale decorations on the lateral side. Previous studies have shown that domesticated rice has a larger number of these decorations than wild rice and that the number of decorations ≥9 is a useful feature for identifying domesticated rice. However, this standard was established b...

  15. Chemical, Sensorial and Rheological Properties of a New Organic Rice Bran Beverage

    OpenAIRE

    Gerson Luis FACCIN; Letícia Adélia MIOTTO; Leila do Nascimento VIEIRA; Pedro Luiz Manique BARRETO; Edna Regina AMANTE

    2009-01-01

    Rice bran is a solid residue from rice polishing that is used in animal nutrition and rice oil production. Cultivation conditions with agro-toxics, lipids instability, and tendency for mycotoxin contamination restrict its application in human nutrition. Therefore, organic agriculture is an alternative to use the properties of rice bran. Rice bran beverage is a new cereal product from organic rice. This work presents the preliminary results of the chemical and rheological studies of a bath pas...

  16. Sequencing of Australian wild rice genomes reveals ancestral relationships with domesticated rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozynska, Marta; Copetti, Dario; Furtado, Agnelo; Wing, Rod A; Crayn, Darren; Fox, Glen; Ishikawa, Ryuji; Henry, Robert J

    2017-06-01

    The related A genome species of the Oryza genus are the effective gene pool for rice. Here, we report draft genomes for two Australian wild A genome taxa: O. rufipogon-like population, referred to as Taxon A, and O. meridionalis-like population, referred to as Taxon B. These two taxa were sequenced and assembled by integration of short- and long-read next-generation sequencing (NGS) data to create a genomic platform for a wider rice gene pool. Here, we report that, despite the distinct chloroplast genome, the nuclear genome of the Australian Taxon A has a sequence that is much closer to that of domesticated rice (O. sativa) than to the other Australian wild populations. Analysis of 4643 genes in the A genome clade showed that the Australian annual, O. meridionalis, and related perennial taxa have the most divergent (around 3 million years) genome sequences relative to domesticated rice. A test for admixture showed possible introgression into the Australian Taxon A (diverged around 1.6 million years ago) especially from the wild indica/O. nivara clade in Asia. These results demonstrate that northern Australia may be the centre of diversity of the A genome Oryza and suggest the possibility that this might also be the centre of origin of this group and represent an important resource for rice improvement. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Harvest season and head rice yield of upland rice cultivars submitted to parboiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diva Mendonça Garcia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE This work aimed to evaluate the effects of parboiling on the yield of upland rice cultivars harvested at different times. The cultivars were BRS Primavera and BRS Sertaneja, harvested at 30 and 47 days after flowering (DAF. For parboiling, samples were soaked in water bath at 65 °C in grain: water ratio of 1:1.6 in order to reach 25% and 30% moisture, and then were autoclaved for 10 minutes at 120 °C and 1.1 kg/cm2 of pressure. After drying up to 13% moisture in a greenhouse with forced air at 40 °C, samples were benefited, followed by separation using the trieur equipment and weighing to obtain the head rice yield. The results showed a higher yield for head rice harvested at 30 DAF than at 47 DAF (BRS Primavera 63.2 and 38.7%; BRS Sertaneja 68.5 and 55.7%, respectively. Parboiling increased the head rice yield, regardless of harvest season, but partly reflected the potential of the cultivar origin: BRS Primavera 70.06%, BRS Sertaneja 74.94%. It is concluded that the harvest season is one of the factors that most influence the quality of industrial rice and the effect of parboiling also depends on the potential of the material source.

  18. Stimulate The Growth of Rice Using Endophytic Bacteria from Lowland Rice Plant Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuni Gofar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Exploration and selection of endophytic bacteria from healthy food crops grown in lowland ecosystem is important to be conducted in order to get growth-stimulating endophytic bacteria at soil with low fertility level so that capable to optimize initial growth of food crops and subsequently can increase productivity level of lowland soil.The research objective was to isolate and to test the IAA-producing endophytic bacteria isolate in stimulating the rice crop growth at lowland area. Endophytic bacteria are isolated from tissues of rice, corn and peanut crops which grown at shallow swamp land in Ogan Ilir and Ogan Komering Ilir Districts, South Sumatra, Indonesia. There was nine isolates of nitrogen-fixer endophytic bacteria that capable to contribute IAA phytohormone into their growth media. The P31 isolate from rice crop tisssue of 2 months old produce the best rice sprouts than other isolates. This isolate can contribute of about 10 mg kg-1 IAA to its growth medium and increase the crowns dry weight and the roots dry weight respectively with magnitudes of 133% and 225% compared to control treatment. Concentration and absorbtion of N for rice crops innoculated with P31 isolates had increased by 169% and 400%, recpectively. The P31 isolates had been identified as Burkholderia pseudomallei (also known as Pseudomonas pseudomallei.

  19. [Extruded rice flour as a gluten substitute in the poduction of rice bread].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerici, Maria Teresa Pedrosa Silva; El-Dash, Ahmed A

    2006-09-01

    Research regarding the production of gluten-free bread (GFB) is very important nutritionally, technically and economically speaking, both to celiac patients and to developing countries who import wheat. The main technological problem in the production of GFB is obtaining a gluten substitute that is both inexpensive and capable of retaining gas during bread fermentation and baking. The use of gelatinized starch as an alternative for gluten seems promising. In this project, rice bread was made using pregelatinized extruded rice flour as a gluten substitute. Pre-gelatinized rice flours (PRF) were manufactured in a single screw Brabender extruder, varying extrusion temperature (108-192 degrees C) and the moisture of the raw material (19.2 - 24.8%), and were used in a proportion of 10 g for every 100 g of raw rice flour, in the production of gluten-free bread. Results showed that rice flour extruded at a high temperature (180 degrees) and low moisture content (20%), rendered bread with the best technological characteristics, presenting crust and crumb color similar to those of conventional wheat bread, although with volume and texture not as satisfactory in the same comparison.

  20. The rice growth image files - The Rice Growth Monitoring for The Phenotypic Functional Analysis | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us The Rice Growth Monitoring for The Phenotypic Functional Analysis The rice growth image file...s Data detail Data name The rice growth image files DOI 10.18908/lsdba.nbdc00945-004 Description of data contents The rice growth ima...ge files categorized based on file size. Data file File name: image files (director...y) File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/agritogo-rice-phenome/LATEST/image...ite Policy | Contact Us The rice growth image files - The Rice Growth Monitoring for The Phenotypic Functional Analysis | LSDB Archive ...

  1. Fungal diversity of rice straw for meju fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Ho; Kim, Seon-Hwa; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Lee, Jong-Kyu; Hong, Seung-Beom

    2013-12-01

    Rice straw is closely associated with meju fermentation and it is generally known that the rice straw provides meju with many kinds of microorganisms. In order to elucidate the origin of meju fungi, the fungal diversity of rice straw was examined. Rice straw was collected from 12 Jang factories where meju are produced, and were incubated under nine different conditions by altering the media (MEA, DRBC, and DG18), and temperature (15°C, 25°C, and 35°C). In total, 937 strains were isolated and identified as belonging to 39 genera and 103 species. Among these, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Eurotium, Fusarium, and Penicillium were the dominant genera. Fusarium asiaticum (56.3%), Cladosporium cladosporioides (48.6%), Aspergillus tubingensis (37.5%), A. oryzae (31.9%), Eurotium repens (27.1%), and E. chevalieri (25.0%) were frequently isolated from the rice straw obtained from many factories. Twelve genera and 40 species of fungi that were isolated in the rice straw in this study were also isolated from meju. Specifically, A. oryzae, C. cladosporioides, E. chevalieri, E. repens, F. asiaticum, and Penicillium polonicum (11.8%), which are abundant species in meju, were also isolated frequently from rice straw. C. cladosporioides, F. asiaticum, and P. polonicum, which are abundant in the low temperature fermentation process of meju fermentation, were frequently isolated from rice straw incubated at 15°C and 25°C, whereas A. oryzae, E. repens, and E. chevalieri, which are abundant in the high temperature fermentation process of meju fermentation, were frequently isolated from rice straw incubated at 25°C and 35°C. This suggests that the mycobiota of rice straw has a large influence in the mycobiota of meju. The influence of fungi on the rice straw as feed and silage for livestock, and as plant pathogens for rice, are discussed as well.

  2. Influence of Climate Factors on Rice Yields in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dek Vimean Pheakdey

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Temperature and precipitation have been known as the key determinant factors to affect rice production in climate change. In this study, the relationship between climate variables and rice yields during 1993–2012 in Cambodia was analyzed and evaluated. The Ordinary Least Squares analysis was applied to examine the relationship of three climate variables (TCV including maximum temperature, minimum temperature and rainfall against seasonal rice yields. By this period, a remarkable increasing trend of annual temperature was observed whilst rainfall was not significantly changed. The TCV explains approximately 63% and 56% of the variability of rice yields in wet and dry seasons, respectively. It is found that in Cambodia, non-climate factors such as fertilizers, water, cultivars, and soil fertility cause 40% variation to rice yields, whereas the remaining 60% can be influenced by climate variability. The levels of temperature difference (LTD between maximum and minimum temperatures of the wet season (WS and dry season (DS were 7.0 and 8.6 oC, respectively. The lower value of LTD may cause the reduction of rice in WS (2.2 tons/ha as compared to that of DS (3.0 tons/ha. Rice yield has increased 50.5% and 33.8% in DS and WS, respectively, may due to the improvement of rice cultivation practices in Cambodia such as the better use of fertilizers, pest and weed control, and irrigation, and more effective rice cultivated protocol, as the increased trend of temperature may detrimentally affect rice yield. The breeding of heat and drought tolerance rice varieties and development of irrigation system are effective to reduce the negative influence from climate change to rice production in Cambodia.

  3. Classification of Malaysia aromatic rice using multivariate statistical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, A. H.; Adom, A. H.; Shakaff, A. Y. Md; Masnan, M. J.; Zakaria, A.; Rahim, N. A.; Omar, O.

    2015-01-01

    Aromatic rice (Oryza sativa L.) is considered as the best quality premium rice. The varieties are preferred by consumers because of its preference criteria such as shape, colour, distinctive aroma and flavour. The price of aromatic rice is higher than ordinary rice due to its special needed growth condition for instance specific climate and soil. Presently, the aromatic rice quality is identified by using its key elements and isotopic variables. The rice can also be classified via Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) or human sensory panels. However, the uses of human sensory panels have significant drawbacks such as lengthy training time, and prone to fatigue as the number of sample increased and inconsistent. The GC–MS analysis techniques on the other hand, require detailed procedures, lengthy analysis and quite costly. This paper presents the application of in-house developed Electronic Nose (e-nose) to classify new aromatic rice varieties. The e-nose is used to classify the variety of aromatic rice based on the samples odour. The samples were taken from the variety of rice. The instrument utilizes multivariate statistical data analysis, including Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and K-Nearest Neighbours (KNN) to classify the unknown rice samples. The Leave-One-Out (LOO) validation approach is applied to evaluate the ability of KNN to perform recognition and classification of the unspecified samples. The visual observation of the PCA and LDA plots of the rice proves that the instrument was able to separate the samples into different clusters accordingly. The results of LDA and KNN with low misclassification error support the above findings and we may conclude that the e-nose is successfully applied to the classification of the aromatic rice varieties

  4. Cutaneous Mycoses among Rice Farmers in Anambra State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ekwealor, Chito Clare; Oyeka, Christie Amechi

    2013-01-01

    Rice grain is one of the world's most important food crops, and its cultivation is a major occupation in Anambra State, Nigeria. These rice farmers are exposed to various agents that predispose them to cutaneous mycoses. The aim of this work was to screen rice farmers for lesions suggestive of cutaneous mycoses and to isolate and identify fungal agents associated with the infection. This survey was carried out between November 2009 and June 2011 in Anambra State, Nigeria. Clinical samples col...

  5. Effects of Soil Veterinary Antibiotics Pollution on Rice Growth

    OpenAIRE

    XU Qiu-tong; GU Guo-ping; ZHANG Ming-kui

    2016-01-01

    To understand the potential effect of soil veterinary antibiotics pollution on the growth of rice, a main food crop in China, oxytetracycline which was used widely in livestock and poultry breeding was selected to test the effects of different levels of soil antibiotics pollution on growth and yield of rice plant at both seedling and growth periods. Relationship between oxytetracycline accumulated in different organs of rice plant and oxytetracycline pollution levels in the soil was character...

  6. Classification of Malaysia aromatic rice using multivariate statistical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, A. H.; Adom, A. H.; Shakaff, A. Y. Md; Masnan, M. J.; Zakaria, A.; Rahim, N. A. [School of Mechatronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Kampus Pauh Putra, 02600 Arau, Perlis (Malaysia); Omar, O. [Malaysian Agriculture Research and Development Institute (MARDI), Persiaran MARDI-UPM, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    Aromatic rice (Oryza sativa L.) is considered as the best quality premium rice. The varieties are preferred by consumers because of its preference criteria such as shape, colour, distinctive aroma and flavour. The price of aromatic rice is higher than ordinary rice due to its special needed growth condition for instance specific climate and soil. Presently, the aromatic rice quality is identified by using its key elements and isotopic variables. The rice can also be classified via Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) or human sensory panels. However, the uses of human sensory panels have significant drawbacks such as lengthy training time, and prone to fatigue as the number of sample increased and inconsistent. The GC–MS analysis techniques on the other hand, require detailed procedures, lengthy analysis and quite costly. This paper presents the application of in-house developed Electronic Nose (e-nose) to classify new aromatic rice varieties. The e-nose is used to classify the variety of aromatic rice based on the samples odour. The samples were taken from the variety of rice. The instrument utilizes multivariate statistical data analysis, including Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and K-Nearest Neighbours (KNN) to classify the unknown rice samples. The Leave-One-Out (LOO) validation approach is applied to evaluate the ability of KNN to perform recognition and classification of the unspecified samples. The visual observation of the PCA and LDA plots of the rice proves that the instrument was able to separate the samples into different clusters accordingly. The results of LDA and KNN with low misclassification error support the above findings and we may conclude that the e-nose is successfully applied to the classification of the aromatic rice varieties.

  7. Classification of Malaysia aromatic rice using multivariate statistical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, A. H.; Adom, A. H.; Shakaff, A. Y. Md; Masnan, M. J.; Zakaria, A.; Rahim, N. A.; Omar, O.

    2015-05-01

    Aromatic rice (Oryza sativa L.) is considered as the best quality premium rice. The varieties are preferred by consumers because of its preference criteria such as shape, colour, distinctive aroma and flavour. The price of aromatic rice is higher than ordinary rice due to its special needed growth condition for instance specific climate and soil. Presently, the aromatic rice quality is identified by using its key elements and isotopic variables. The rice can also be classified via Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) or human sensory panels. However, the uses of human sensory panels have significant drawbacks such as lengthy training time, and prone to fatigue as the number of sample increased and inconsistent. The GC-MS analysis techniques on the other hand, require detailed procedures, lengthy analysis and quite costly. This paper presents the application of in-house developed Electronic Nose (e-nose) to classify new aromatic rice varieties. The e-nose is used to classify the variety of aromatic rice based on the samples odour. The samples were taken from the variety of rice. The instrument utilizes multivariate statistical data analysis, including Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and K-Nearest Neighbours (KNN) to classify the unknown rice samples. The Leave-One-Out (LOO) validation approach is applied to evaluate the ability of KNN to perform recognition and classification of the unspecified samples. The visual observation of the PCA and LDA plots of the rice proves that the instrument was able to separate the samples into different clusters accordingly. The results of LDA and KNN with low misclassification error support the above findings and we may conclude that the e-nose is successfully applied to the classification of the aromatic rice varieties.

  8. Semi-dwarf mutants for rice improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, Ramli; Osman, Mohammad; Ibrahim, Rusli

    1990-01-01

    Full text: MARDI and the National University of Malaysia embarked on a programme to induce resistance against blast in rice in 1978. MARDI also obtained semi dwarf mutants of cvs 'Mahsuri', 'Muda', 'Pongsu seribu' and 'Jarum Mas', which are under evaluation. The popular local rice variety 'Manik' was subjected to gamma irradiation (15-40 krad) and 101 promising semidwarf mutants have been obtained following selection in M 2 -M 6 . 29 of them show grain yields of 6.0-7.3 t/ha, compared with 5.7t for 'Manik'. Other valuable mutants were found showing long grain, less shattering, earlier maturity, and glutinous endosperm. One mutant, resistant to brown plant hopper yields 6.3t/ha. (author)

  9. Geothermal rice drying unit in Kotchany, Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovski, K.; Dimitrov, K.; Andrejevski, B.; Popovska, S.

    1992-01-01

    A geothermal field in Kotchany (Macedonia) has very advantageous characteristics for direct application purposes. Low content of minerals, moderate temperature (78C) and substantial available geothermal water flow (up to 300 1/s) enabled the establishment of a district heating scheme comprising mainly agricultural and industrial uses. A rice drying unit of 10 t/h capacity was installed 8 years ago, using the geothermal water as the primary heat source. A temperature drop of 75/50C enables the adaptation of conventional drying technology, already proven in practice in the surrounding rice growing region. Water to air heat exchanger and all necessary equipment and materials are of local production, made of copper and carbon steel. The use of such drying units is strongly recommended for the concrete district heating scheme because it offers a very simple geothermal application and enables improvement in the annual heating load factor without high investments in geothermal water distribution lines

  10. Land Titles and Rice Production in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Broeck, Katleen; Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn

    In most of the empirical literature on land titling, the household is regarded as unitary, and land rights are found to have ambiguous effects on land allocation, investment and productivity. Using data from 12 provinces in Vietnam, we diversify land titles, and show in a household fixed effects...... analysis of plot level rice yields that land titles are indeed important. Only exclusively held titles have the expected positive effects, and the positive effect on yields is found in male headed households. Furthermore, a household level rice yield function reveals that exclusive user rights...... are inefficiency decreasing, while jointly held user rights have no efficiency effects. Finally, once the gender of the head of household is controlled for, exclusively held female titles have a greater positive effect on the efficiency of the household than that of male held titles...

  11. Responses of upland rice to fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashriyah Mat; Abdul Khalik Wood; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim; Zaini Hamzah

    1996-01-01

    The concentration and uptake of macro nutrients, micro nutrients and toxic elements were compared to dry matter yield, biomass components and primary and secondary tillering. Plant tissue analysis of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, Fe, Mn, Na, Ca, Al, Cr, As, Th and Ce were carried out using chemical and neutron activation analysis. N and K were found to accumulate in the green vegetative biomass whereas P, Ca, Mg, Fe and Zn were bound in the dead-plus-senesced component. Compared to control, urea fertilization increased the dry matter yield and uptakes of N, P, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Na, Al, Th and Ce by upland rice. In addition to similar increases; cattle manuring also increased the green vegetative biomass, secondary tillering and uptake of K, Cl, Co, Cr and As. With the exception of Th uptake, upland rice Oryza Sativa var. Seri Pelanduk subjected to cattle manuring responded better to the uptake of various elements and produced more secondary tillers

  12. Improvement of Salinity Stress Tolerance in Rice: Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi My Linh Hoang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice (Oryza sativa L. is an important staple crop that feeds more than one half of the world’s population and is the model system for monocotyledonous plants. However, rice is very sensitive to salinity and is the most salt sensitive cereal crop with a threshold of 3 dSm−1 for most cultivated varieties. Despite many attempts using different strategies to improve salinity tolerance in rice, the achievements so far are quite modest. This review aims to discuss challenges that hinder the improvement of salinity stress tolerance in rice as well as potential opportunities for enhancing salinity stress tolerance in this important crop.

  13. Molecular profiling of interspecific lowland rice populations derived ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-03

    Dec 3, 2008 ... Molecular profiling of interspecific lowland rice populations ... Both cluster and principal component analyses revealed two major groups ...... simulations. Theor ... inheritance, chromosomal location, and population dynamics.

  14. Tolerance, quality and storability of gamma-irradiated Egyptian rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, F.A.; El-Wakeil, F.A.; El-Dash, S.M.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on some organoleptic and physico-chemical properties and the storability of Egyptian rice was investigated. Radiation up to 50krad was chosen as an adequate dose causing non-significant changes in eating and cooking qualities. The effect of irradiation on degradation of starch and protein molecules is demonstrated on the basis of studies on the viscosity and solubility of rice paste. Irradiation at relatively low dose levels up to 50krad did not affect the chemical and nutritional qualities of rice regarding amino acids and B vitamins. It was also found that irradiation maintains better storability of rice under ambient temperature. (author)

  15. In vitro sterilization technique on embryo of black Toraja rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haring, F.; Riadi, M.; Rafiuddin; Sjahril, R.; Muchlis, A. R.

    2018-05-01

    Toraja black rice has a high anthocyanin content, a water-soluble pigments, with antioxidant activity. Toraja black rice has a variety of seeds colour in one panicles such as full black (the outside and inside the rice), medium black (the outside and slightly inside rice) and a little black (only the outside of rice). Embryo culture in vitro is one way to grow plants in sterile conditions. The presence of contamination and the death of the embryo require in vitro embryo culture. The sterilization technique is a very important first step to eliminate contamination and the death of embryos. This research aims to determine the right material composition for sterilization of black rice’s embryo. The experiment was done by growing black rice on half strength MS media with the treatment of three method of sterilization, i.e.: S1 (70% alcohol for 5 minutes, 3% and 2% Chlorox each for 10 minutes,), S2 (70% alcohol for 3 minutes, 2% Clorox for 10 minutes) and S3 (70% alcohol for 3 minutes and 1% Clorox for 15 minutes). The materials used are rice seedlings that have been cut in two and opened the pericarp of paddy grain, leaving a piece of rice that has a complete embryo. The best sterilization for Toraja black rice embryo culture was using the S3 composition. Best germination was seen on the seeds with full and medium black color.

  16. Elemental content of Vietnamese rice. Part 2. Multivariate data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokot, S; Phuong, T D

    1999-04-01

    Rice samples were obtained from the Red River region and some other parts of Vietnam as well as from Yanco, Australia. These samples were analysed for 14 elements (P, K, Mg, Ca, Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu, Al, Na, Ni, As, Mo and Cd) by ICP-AES, ICP-MS and FAAS as described in Part 1. This data matrix was then submitted to multivariate data analysis by principal component analysis to investigate the influences of environmental and crop cultivation variables on the elemental content of rice. Results revealed that geographical location, grain variety, seasons and soil conditions are the most likely significant factors causing changes in the elemental content between the rice samples. To assess rice quality according to its elemental content and physio-biological properties, a multicriteria decision making method (PROMETHEE) was applied. With the Vietnamese rice, the sticky rice appeared to contain somewhat higher levels of nutritionally significant elements such as P, K and Mg than the non-sticky rice. Also, rice samples grown during the wet season have better levels of nutritionally significant mineral elements than those of the dry season, but in general, the wet season seemed to provide better overall elemental and physio-biological rice quality.

  17. The dynamics of rice production in Indonesia 1961–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah R. Panuju

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice is one of the important agricultural products in Indonesia. The production has been fully supported by infrastructure including research and development as well as government regulations in pricing. Its vulnerability to climate change requires adaptation strategies on irrigation, biotechnology and selection of alternative crops. The primary goal of this paper was to evaluate the historical perspective of the dynamics of rice production, technologies particularly in seed inventions, labour in farming and consumption of rice from 1961 to 2009 in conjunction with land capability. The study of historical rice production could be a benefit for future agricultural planning in Indonesia.

  18. Avian foods, foraging and habitat conservation in world rice fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, J.D.; Kaminski, R.M.; Reinecke, K.J.

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, rice (Oryza sativa) agriculture typically involves seasonal flooding and soil tillage, which provides a variety of microhabitats and potential food for birds. Water management in rice fields creates conditions ranging from saturated mud flats to shallow (seed mass from North America ranging from 66672 kg/ha. Although initially abundant after harvest, waste rice availability can be temporally limited. Few abundance estimates for other foods, such as vertebrate prey or forage vegetation, exist for rice fields. Outside North America, Europe and Japan, little is known about abundance and importance of any avian food in rice fields. Currently, flooding rice fields after harvest is the best known management practice to attract and benefit birds. Studies from North America indicate specific agricultural practices (e.g. burning stubble) may increase use and improve access to food resources. Evaluating and implementing management practices that are ecologically sustainable, increase food for birds and are agronomically beneficial should be global priorities to integrate rice production and avian conservation. Finally, land area devoted to rice agriculture appears to be stable in the USA, declining in China, and largely unquantified in many regions. Monitoring trends in riceland area may provide information to guide avian conservation planning in rice-agriculture ecosystems.

  19. Effect of rice beer on gut bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhuwan Bhaskar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The human gut is colonized by trillions of bacteria, called microbiota influences human health and is effected by several host factors. The studies in humans and model organisms have clearly demonstrated that out of several important factors, diet has the most dominant role in regulation of the gut microbiota. Additionally, with an increase in the knowledge on the microbiota, the connections between microbial actions on dietary consumption are being revealed. Consumption of fermented beverages holds a long tradition and accounts for approximately one-third of the human diet globally. In various societies, fermentation has not only been well established as a process for food preservation, human nutrition, traditional medicine and culture but also for the improving the sensorial characteristics, such as texture, flavor and aroma and most importantly for the magnification of the nutritional values. Consumption of rice beer is an essential part of the socio-cultural life of several tribes of North-East India. It is believed to be effective against several ailments such as ameboisis, acidity, vomiting and has health modulating effects including cholesterol reduction and endocrine function. Effect of rice beer was tested on mice model. 17 healthy Swiss albino mice were taken for the study and divided into two groups: control and treated. Rice beer was fed to the treated group once daily and fecal samples were collected. Metagenomic DNA from stool samples was extracted and V6 - V8 region of the 16S rDNA gene was amplified, followed by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE.The DGGE gel was scored using GelCompar II software. Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GCMS analysis of stool samples was also carried out. Multidimensional scaling (MDS plot of the DGGE profiles showed distinct clustering of control and treated groups, indicating the effect of rice beer consumption on gut microbes.

  20. Optimizing Greenhouse Rice Production: Summary of Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Eddy, Robert; Acosta, Kevin; Liu, Yisi; Russell, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This publication provides a single-page chart summarizing our protocols for growing Rice (japonica). Split into three production goals, recommendations are given for photoperiod, temperature, lighting, container, root medium, planting density, irrigation, fertilization, algae control and fungus gnat control. This version updates our fertilization frequency, pot size, root medium and algae control recommendations. This document summarizes a series of questions and answers originally posted ...

  1. N-acetylcysteine increased rice yield

    OpenAIRE

    NOZULAIDI, MOHD; JAHAN, MD SARWAR; KHAIRI, MOHD; KHANDAKER, MOHAMMAD MONERUZZAMAN; NASHRIYAH, MAT; KHANIF, YUSOP MOHD

    2015-01-01

    N-acetylcysteine (NAC) biosynthesized reduced glutathione (GSH), which maintains redox homeostasis in plants under normal and stressful conditions. To justify the effects of NAC on rice production, we measured yield parameters, chlorophyll (Chl) content, minimum Chl fluorescence (Fo), maximum Chl fluorescence (Fm), quantum yield (Fv/Fm), net photosynthesis rate (Pn), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), and relative water content (RWC). Four treatments, N1G0 (nitrogen (N) with no NAC), ...

  2. Grain Unloading of Arsenic Species in Rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carey, Anne-Marie; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Lombi, Enzo; Newville, Matt; Choi, Yongseong; Norton, Gareth J.; Charnock, John M.; Feldmann, Joerg; Price, Adam H.; Meharg, Andrew A. (EPA); (U. South Australia); (Manchester); (Aberdeen); (UC)

    2010-01-11

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is the staple food for over half the world's population yet may represent a significant dietary source of inorganic arsenic (As), a nonthreshold, class 1 human carcinogen. Rice grain As is dominated by the inorganic species, and the organic species dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). To investigate how As species are unloaded into grain rice, panicles were excised during grain filling and hydroponically pulsed with arsenite, arsenate, glutathione-complexed As, or DMA. Total As concentrations in flag leaf, grain, and husk, were quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy and As speciation in the fresh grain was determined by x-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy. The roles of phloem and xylem transport were investigated by applying a {+-} stem-girdling treatment to a second set of panicles, limiting phloem transport to the grain in panicles pulsed with arsenite or DMA. The results demonstrate that DMA is translocated to the rice grain with over an order magnitude greater efficiency than inorganic species and is more mobile than arsenite in both the phloem and the xylem. Phloem transport accounted for 90% of arsenite, and 55% of DMA, transport to the grain. Synchrotron x-ray fluorescence mapping and fluorescence microtomography revealed marked differences in the pattern of As unloading into the grain between DMA and arsenite-challenged grain. Arsenite was retained in the ovular vascular trace and DMA dispersed throughout the external grain parts and into the endosperm. This study also demonstrates that DMA speciation is altered in planta, potentially through complexation with thiols.

  3. Efficiency of nitrogen fertilizers for rice

    OpenAIRE

    Roger, Pierre-Armand; Grant, I.F.; Reddy, P.M.; Watanabe, I.

    1987-01-01

    The photosynthetic biomass that develops in the floodwater of wetland rice fields affects nitrogen dynamics in the ecosystem. This review summarizes available data on the nature, productivity, and composition of the photosynthetic aquatic biomass, and its major activities regarding the nitrogen cycle, i.e., nitrogen fixation by free living blue-green algae and #Azolla$, nitrogen trapping, nitrogen accumulation at the soil surface, its effect on nitrogen losses by ammonia volatilization, nitro...

  4. Highly phosphorylated functionalized rice starch produced by transgenic rice expressing the potato GWD1 gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yaling; Sun, Xiao-Feng; Zhou, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Starch phosphorylation occurs naturally during starch metabolism in the plant and is catalysed by glucan water dikinases (GWD1) and phosphoglucan water dikinase/glucan water dikinase 3 (PWD/GWD3). We generated six stable individual transgenic lines by over-expressing the potato GWD1 in rice....... Transgenic rice grain starch had 9-fold higher 6-phospho (6-P) monoesters and double amounts of 3-phospho (3-P) monoesters, respectively, compared to control grain. The shape and topography of the transgenic starch granules were moderately altered including surface pores and less well defined edges...... content was positively correlated with short chains of DP6-12. The starch pasting temperature, peak viscosity and the breakdown were lower but the setback was higher for transgenic rice flour. The 6-P content was negatively correlated with texture adhesiveness but positively correlated...

  5. Highly phosphorylated functionalized rice starch produced by transgenic rice expressing the potato GWD1 gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yaling; Sun, Xiao; Zhou, Xin Mao

    2017-01-01

    Starch phosphorylation occurs naturally during starch metabolism in the plant and is catalysed by glucan water dikinases (GWD1) and phosphoglucan water dikinase/glucan water dikinase 3 (PWD/GWD3). We generated six stable individual transgenic lines by over-expressing the potato GWD1 in rice....... Transgenic rice grain starch had 9-fold higher 6-phospho (6-P) monoesters and double amounts of 3-phospho (3-P) monoesters, respectively, compared to control grain. The shape and topography of the transgenic starch granules were moderately altered including surface pores and less well defined edges....... The gelatinization temperatures of both rice flour and extracted starch were significantly lower than those of the control and hence negatively correlated with the starch phosphate content. The 6-P content was positively correlated with amylose content and relatively long amylopectin chains with DP25-36, and the 3-P...

  6. Malaysian weedy rice shows its true stripes: wild Oryza and elite rice cultivars shape agricultural weed evolution in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Beng-Kah; Chuah, Tse-Seng; Tam, Sheh May; Olsen, Kenneth M

    2014-10-01

    Weedy rice is a close relative of domesticated rice (Oryza sativa) that competes aggressively with the crop and limits rice productivity worldwide. Most genetic studies of weedy rice have focused on populations in regions where no reproductively compatible wild Oryza species occur (North America, Europe and northern Asia). Here, we examined the population genetics of weedy rice in Malaysia, where wild rice (O. rufipogon) can be found growing in close proximity to cultivated and weedy rice. Using 375 accessions and a combined analysis of 24 neutral SSR loci and two rice domestication genes (sh4, controlling seed shattering, and Bh4, controlling hull colour), we addressed the following questions: (i) What is the relationship of Malaysian weedy rice to domesticated and wild rice, and to weedy rice strains in the USA? (ii) To what extent does the presence of O. rufipogon influence the genetic and phenotypic diversity of Malaysian weeds? (iii) What do the distributions of sh4 and Bh4 alleles and associated phenotypes reveal about the origin and contemporary evolution of Malaysian weedy rice? Our results reveal the following: independent evolutionary origins for Malaysian weeds and US strains, despite their very close phenotypic resemblance; wild-to-weed gene flow in Malaysian weed populations, including apparent adaptive introgression of seed-shattering alleles; and a prominent role for modern Malaysian cultivars in the origin and recent proliferation of Malaysian weeds. These findings suggest that the genetic complexity and adaptability of weedy crop relatives can be profoundly influenced by proximity to reproductively compatible wild and domesticated populations. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Impacts of different rice-fish-prawn culture systems on yield of rice, fish and prawn and limnological conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Nahar, Ashfaqun

    2010-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the impact of fish and prawn culture on some physicochemical parameters of water, weeds, benthos, and rice yield under simultaneous method for a period of 5 months from July to November 2007. The experiment was comprised of five individual treatments having three replicates for each. The treatments were: rice combined with fish and regular urea fertilization (treatment І, T1), rice combined with prawn and regular urea fertilization (treatment ІI, T2), ...

  8. Mesoporous Silica from Rice Husk Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Mandavgane

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous silica is used as a raw material in several areas: in preparation of catalysts, in inks, as aconcrete hardening accelerator, as a component of detergents and soaps, as a refractory constituent etc.Sodium silicate is produced by reacting rice hull ash (RHA with aqueous NaOH and silica is precipitatedfrom the sodium silicate by acidification. In the present work, conversion of about 90% of silica containedin RHA into sodium silicate was achieved in an open system at temperatures of about 100 °C. The resultsshowed that silica obtained from RHA is mesoporous, has a large surface area and small particle size.Rice Husk is usually mixed with coal and this mixture is used for firing boilers. The RHA therefore, usuallycontains carbon particles. Activated carbon embedded on silica has been prepared using the carbon alreadypresent in RHA. This carbon shows good adsorption capacity. ©2010 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved(Received: 25th April 2010, Revised: 17th June 2010, Accepted: 24th June 2010[How to Cite: V.R. Shelke, S.S. Bhagade, S.A. Mandavgane. (2010. Mesoporous Silica from Rice Husk Ash. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 5 (2: 63-67. doi:10.9767/bcrec.5.2.793.63-67

  9. Mesoporous Silica from Rice Husk Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.R. Shelke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous silica is used as a raw material in several areas: in preparation of catalysts, in inks, as a concrete hardening accelerator, as a component of detergents and soaps, as a refractory constituent etc. Sodium silicate is produced by reacting rice hull ash (RHA with aqueous NaOH and silica is precipitated from the sodium silicate by acidification. In the present work, conversion of about 90% of silica contained in RHA into sodium silicate was achieved in an open system at temperatures of about 100 °C. The results showed that silica obtained from RHA is mesoporous, has a large surface area and small particle size. Rice Husk is usually mixed with coal and this mixture is used for firing boilers. The RHA therefore, usually contains carbon particles. Activated carbon embedded on silica has been prepared using the carbon already present in RHA. This carbon shows good adsorption capacity. ©2010 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved(Received: 25th April 2010, Revised: 17th June 2010, Accepted: 24th June 2010[How to Cite: V.R. Shelke, S.S. Bhagade, S.A. Mandavgane. (2010. Mesoporous Silica from Rice Husk Ash. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 5 (2: 63-67. doi:10.9767/bcrec.5.2.793.63-67][DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.5.2.793.63-67

  10. Induction of drought tolerant mutants of rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hissewy, A.A.; Abd Allah, A.

    2001-01-01

    The ultimate goal of crop breeding is to develop varieties with a high yield potential and desirable agronomic characteristics. In Egypt, the most important qualities sought by breeders have been high yield potential, resistance to major diseases and insects, and improved grain and eating quality. However, breeding efforts should concentrate on varieties with the potential to minimize yield losses under unfavorable conditions such as drought, and to maximize yields when conditions are favorable. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) in Egypt is completely irrigated and a significant portion of the rice cultivated area is subject to water deficit resulting from an inadequate or insufficient irrigation supply. Drought tolerance is a complex trait in that it results from the interaction of histological and physiological characters of plant with environmental factors, both above-ground and under-ground. Accordingly, root characters are closely related to drought tolerance. Little attention has been paid in Egyptian breeding programs to root characters and their relation to shoot characters. Furthermore, induced mutations are considered as one of the most important methods to induce useful mutants, especially with improved root characters, to overcome the drought problem. The present investigation aimed to study the effect of different doses of gamma rays on several characters of three Egyptian rice varieties, i.e. 'Giza 171', 'Giza 175' and 'Giza 176' and to induce one or more mutants possessing drought tolerance

  11. Mutation direction by irradiation in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Cailian; Chen Qiufang; Jin Wei; Lu Yimei

    2001-01-01

    The mutation directions of rice were studied. The results indicated that the mutation directions of rice induced by 14 C were invert correlation to their genetic backgrounds of tested rice varieties, i.e. early mature and short stem varieties produced later mature and higher stem mutation; late mature and high stem varieties produced earlier mature and shorter stem mutation; the varieties of middle maturity and height produced both direction mutations of earlier and later maturity or shorter and higher stem. The mutation directions induced by 14 C were also related to treated doses and stages. Frequency of earlier maturity mutation by protons treatment were higher than those induced by other mutagens. Frequency of later maturity by γ-rays were higher than those induced by other mutagens. Frequency of short stem mutation by synchronous irradiation (soft X-rays) were higher than those induced by other mutagens. Frequency of beneficial mutation induced by proton treatment were higher than those induced by γ-rays

  12. Resource Misallocation and Rice Productivity in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siwapong Dheera - Aumpon

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Thailand’s manufacturing sector is characterised by considerable resource misallocation compared with this sector in other countries, and the problem may extend to its agricultural sector as well. Using detailed household-level data on rice production from the 2013 Agricultural Census, this paper examines resource misallocation across farms in Thailand and its effect on the country’s aggregate productivity in rice farming. I find that the marginal products of land and capital were largely dispersed, which is an indication of significant resource misallocation. I further estimate that reallocation of resources could increase aggregate output and productivity by approximately a factor of 1.67. This potential gain is not small, but it is smaller than that predicted in other studies for the Thai manufacturing sector and the Malawian agricultural sector, a result suggesting that the Thai rice farming sector is relatively less plagued by resource misallocation. Other developing countries may encounter similar degrees of misallocation in their agricultural sectors. I also find that an effective reallocation policy cannot involve simply reducing the landholdings of large landholders but rather supports highproductivity farmers to have more land and capital.

  13. Sorbents based on carbonized rice peel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansurova, R. M.; Taipova, R. A.; Zhylybaeva, N. K.; Mansurov, Z. A.; Bijsenbaev, M. A.

    2004-01-01

    The process receiving of sorbents based on carbonized rice peel (RP) was received and their sorption properties were investigated. Processing carbonization of samples leading on station, this was developed in laboratory of hybrid technology. Carbonization of samples was realized in nitric atmosphere on 400-8000 deg. C. On raising temperature of carbonization content of carbon in samples is rice, hydrogen and oxygen is reduce as a result isolation of volatility products is discover. The samples carbonized on 650 deg. C (910 m 2 /g) owners with maximum removed surface is discover. On carbonization temperature 600-800 deh. C the sorption of ions, which carbonized by sorbents based on rice peel is run to 95-100 %. Electron-microscopic investigation of samples leaded on EM-125 mechanism by accelerating pressure 100 kV. From electron-microscopic print of original samples of RP it is evident, that sample consists of carbonic fractions of different species: carbonic fiber of rounded fractions, fractions of ellipsoid form and of more thickly carbonic structure. Increasing sizes of pores and modification structure of synthesized sorbent is occur during carbonization process. The RP-samples, which carbonized by 650 deg. C has the higher specific surface. Samples consist of thin carbonic scum and reducing specific surface, by higher temperature

  14. Assessment of suitability of selected rice varieties for production of expanded rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayalaxmi Kamaraddi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Expanded rice, prepared from pre-gelatinized milled rice by sand roasting method, is a popular snack food of India. Five high-yielding rice varieties of Hill zone of Karnataka state, viz., IET-13901, KHP-2, KHP-5, KHP-10, and Intan were screened for puffing quality based on their physicochemical, functional, nutritional and organoleptic parameters with Rajamudi as local check. The effect of varietal differences on expansion/puffing quality parameters, in vitro digestibility of starch and protein as well as bioaccessibility of iron, zinc, and calcium were determined. Results indicated a strong positive correlation between amylose content and expansion ratio and a negative correlation between protein and amylose content, length expansion ratio and volume expansion ratio. Expansion characteristics showed that the varieties suitable for production of puffed rice were KHP-2, IET-13901 and Intan. Nutritional analysis showed following ranges of nutrient content in expanded rice: protein, 6.22–8.17%; fat, 0.06–0.14%; and as mg/100 g calcium, 20.5–23.5; iron, 2.01–2.72; zinc, 1.22–1.82; thiamine, 0.315–0.470; riboflavin, 0.051–0.069; and niacin, 3.18–4.68. Nearly 80.3–80.8% starch and 67.6–83.2% protein was digestible. Among all varieties, KHP-2 had lowest amount of rapidly digestible starch (61.4%. Mineral bioaccessibility ranged from 42.7 to 52.1%. Sensory analysis indicated that Intan and KHP-2 were superior and suited for production of expanded rice.

  15. Cropping system diversification for food production in Mindanao rubber plantations: a rice cultivar mixture and rice intercropped with mungbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elazegui, Francisco; Duque, Jo-Anne Lynne Joy E.; Mundt, Christopher C.; Vera Cruz, Casiana M.

    2017-01-01

    Including food production in non-food systems, such as rubber plantations and biofuel or bioenergy crops, may contribute to household food security. We evaluated the potential for planting rice, mungbean, rice cultivar mixtures, and rice intercropped with mungbean in young rubber plantations in experiments in the Arakan Valley of Mindanao in the Philippines. Rice mixtures consisted of two- or three-row strips of cultivar Dinorado, a cultivar with higher value but lower yield, and high-yielding cultivar UPL Ri-5. Rice and mungbean intercropping treatments consisted of different combinations of two- or three-row strips of rice and mungbean. We used generalized linear mixed models to evaluate the yield of each crop alone and in the mixture or intercropping treatments. We also evaluated a land equivalent ratio for yield, along with weed biomass (where Ageratum conyzoides was particularly abundant), the severity of disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae and Cochliobolus miyabeanus, and rice bug (Leptocorisa acuta) abundance. We analyzed the yield ranking of each cropping system across site-year combinations to determine mean relative performance and yield stability. When weighted by their relative economic value, UPL Ri-5 had the highest mean performance, but with decreasing performance in low-yielding environments. A rice and mungbean intercropping system had the second highest performance, tied with high-value Dinorado but without decreasing relative performance in low-yielding environments. Rice and mungbean intercropped with rubber have been adopted by farmers in the Arakan Valley. PMID:28194318

  16. Transgenic rice plants expressing synthetic cry2AX1 gene exhibits resistance to rice leaffolder (Cnaphalocrosis medinalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, R; Balakrishnan, N; Sudhakar, D; Udayasuriyan, V

    2016-06-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is a major source of insecticidal genes imparting insect resistance in transgenic plants. Level of expression of transgenes in transgenic plants is important to achieve desirable level of resistance against target insects. In order to achieve desirable level of expression, rice chloroplast transit peptide sequence was fused with synthetic cry2AX1 gene to target its protein in chloroplasts. Sixteen PCR positive lines of rice were generated by Agrobacterium mediated transformation using immature embryos. Southern blot hybridization analysis of T 0 transgenic plants confirmed the integration of cry2AX1 gene in two to five locations of rice genome and ELISA demonstrated its expression. Concentration of Cry2AX1 in transgenic rice events ranged 5.0-120 ng/g of fresh leaf tissue. Insect bioassay of T 0 transgenic rice plants against neonate larvae of rice leaffolder showed larval mortality ranging between 20 and 80 % in comparison to control plant. Stable inheritance and expression of cry2AX1 gene was demonstrated in T 1 progenies through Southern and ELISA. In T 1 progenies, the highest concentration of Cry2AX1 and mortality of rice leaffolder larvae were recorded as 150 ng/g of fresh leaf tissue and 80 %, respectively. The Cry2AX1 expression even at a very low concentration (120-150 ng/g) in transgenic rice plants was found effective against rice leaffolder larvae.

  17. Development of instant noodles from high-iron rice and iron-fortified rice flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparat Reungmaneepaitoon

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Instant high-iron noodles, prepared from wheat flour and high iron brown rice flour, were developed. Three varieties of rice flour, Suphan Buri 90 (SB, Homnin 313 (HW and Homnin 1000 (HP, containing amylose content of 30.40, 19.10 and 15.74% (w/w and iron content of 1.24, 2.04 and 2.22 (mg/100 g respectively, were used to replace wheat flour for instant fried noodle production. To determine the physicochemical properties and acceptability of instant fried noodles,different percentages (30, 40, 50% (w/w of each rice flour sample were used. The instant fried noodles were fortified with ferrous sulphate at levels of 0, 32, 64% iron of RDI per serving. Increasing amount of iron content in the mixtures decreased the L* value, b* value and increased a* value for the color of the instant fried noodle with brown rice flour. The texture characteristic of the noodles with 30, 40, 50% replacement with each variety of brown rice flour were significantly different from those of wheat noodle. Tensile force of the noodles decreased from 11.57±1.30 g to 6.38±1.45 g (SB, 8.36±0.96 g to 5.71±0.57 g (HP and 10.09±1.20 g to 5.46±1.31 g (HW as the rice flour content increased from 30 to 50%. The sensoryacceptability of the noodles made from each variety of 30% brown rice flour fortified with 32% iron of RDI had higher preference scores for elasticity, firmness, color and overall acceptability, than those with 64% iron of RDI. Instant fried noodles with HW and HP brown rice flour were subjected to consumer test using 100 rural primary school children. The frequency percent of the acceptability scores of the noodle with HP and HW were 88 and 84% respectively. Shelf life studyrevealed that the developed products were still acceptable up to 4 months. These products were claimed to be high iron noodle.

  18. Rice consumption and cancer incidence in US men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ran; Zhang, Xuehong; Wu, Kana; Wu, Hongyu; Sun, Qi; Hu, Frank B; Han, Jiali; Willett, Walter C; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2016-02-01

    While both the 2012 and 2014 Consumer Reports concerned arsenic levels in US rice, no previous study has evaluated long-term consumption of total rice, white rice and brown rice in relation to risk of developing cancers. We investigated this in the female Nurses' Health Study (1984-2010), and Nurses' Health Study II (1989-2009), and the male Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2008), which included a total of 45,231 men and 160,408 women, free of cancer at baseline. Validated food frequency questionnaires were used to measure rice consumption at baseline and repeated almost every 4 years thereafter. We employed Cox proportional hazards regression model to estimate multivariable relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). During up to 26 years of follow-up, we documented 31,655 incident cancer cases (10,833 in men and 20,822 in women). Age-adjusted results were similar to multivariable-adjusted results. Compared to participants with less than one serving per week, the multivariable RRs of overall cancer for individuals who ate at least five servings per week were 0.97 for total rice (95% CI: 0.85-1.07), 0.87 for white rice (95% CI: 0.75-1.01), and 1.17 for brown rice (95% CI: 0.90-1.26). Similar non-significant associations were observed for specific sites of cancers including prostate, breast, colon and rectum, melanoma, bladder, kidney, and lung. Additionally, the null associations were observed among European Americans and non-smokers, and were not modified by BMI. Long-term consumption of total rice, white rice or brown rice was not associated with risk of developing cancer in US men and women. © 2015 UICC.

  19. Effects of Soil Veterinary Antibiotics Pollution on Rice Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Qiu-tong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To understand the potential effect of soil veterinary antibiotics pollution on the growth of rice, a main food crop in China, oxytetracycline which was used widely in livestock and poultry breeding was selected to test the effects of different levels of soil antibiotics pollution on growth and yield of rice plant at both seedling and growth periods. Relationship between oxytetracycline accumulated in different organs of rice plant and oxytetracycline pollution levels in the soil was characterized. The results showed that the effects of soil oxytetracycline pollution on rice growth mainly occurred at the seedling stage, and the effect on the underground part was obviously greater than the above-ground part of rice. Significant negative effects on biomass of the underground part of rice, root activity, and chlorophyll content and oxidase activity of the leave at the seedling stage were found when soil oxytetracycline pollution concentrations was over 30 mg·kg-1. The consequence from the impact of soil oxytetracycline pollution on rice seedling could be extended to the whole growth period of the plant, which could reduce the number of tiller and rice yield. Oxytetracycline accumulated in various organs of rice plant was in the sequence of root> leaf> stem> grain. Rice roots had low capacity to uptake oxytetracycline from the soil, the transfer capacity of oxytetracycline from the roots to leaf, stem, and grain was also weak. Considering the low oxytetracycline pollution levels in most of current actual farmland soils (less than 10 mg·kg-1 and lower accumulation character of oxytetracycline in the grain, it is thought that the direct damage of soil oxytetracycline pollution on rice production is small.

  20. Global Information Resources on Rice for Research and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shri RAM

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Various issues concerning the progress of rice research are related to ambiguous germplasm identification, difficulty in tracing pedigree information, and lack of integration between genetic resources, characterization, breeding, evaluation and utilization data. These issues are the constraints in developing knowledge-intensive crop improvement programs. The rapid growth, development and the global spread of modern information and communication technology allow quick adoption in fundamental research. Thus, there is a need to provide an opportunity for the establishment of services which describe the rice information for better accessibility to information resources used by researchers to enhance the competitiveness. This work reviews some of available resources on rice bioinformatics and their roles in elucidating and propagating biological and genomic information in rice research. These reviews will also enable stakeholders to understand and adopt the change in research and development and share knowledge with the global community of agricultural scientists. The establishment like International Rice Information System, Rice Genome Research Project and Integrated Rice Genome Explorer are major initiatives for the improvement of rice. Creation of databases for comparative studies of rice and other cereals are major steps in further improvement of genetic compositions. This paper will also highlight some of the initiatives and organizations working in the field of rice improvement and explore the availability of the various web resources for the purpose of research and development of rice. We are developing a meta web server for integration of online resources such as databases, web servers and journals in the area of bioinformatics. This integrated platform, with acronym iBIRA, is available online at ibiranet.in. The resources reviewed here are the excerpts from the resources integrated in iBIRA.

  1. SAR Agriculture Rice Production Estimation (SARPE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimadoya, M.

    2013-12-01

    The study of SAR Agriculture Rice Production Estimation (SARPE) was held in Indonesia on 2012, as part of Asia-Rice Crop Estimation & Monitoring (Asia-RiCE), which is a component for the GEO Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) initiative. The study was expected to give a breakthrough result, by using radar technology and paradigm shift of the standard production estimation system from list frame to area frame approach. This initial product estimation system is expected to be refined (fine tuning) in 2013, by participating as part of Technical Demonstration Site (Phase -1A) of Asia-RICE. The implementation period of this initial study was from the date of March 12 to December 10, 2012. The implementation of the study was done by following the approach of the BIMAS-21 framework, which has been developed since 2008. The results of this study can be briefly divided into two major components, namely: Rice-field Baseline Mapping (PESBAK - Peta Sawah Baku) and Crop Growth Monitoring. Rice-fields were derived from the mapping results of the Ministry of Agriculture (Kemtan), and validated through Student Extension Campaign of the Faculty of Agriculture, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB). While for the crop growth, it was derived from the results of image analysis process. The analysis was done, either on radar/Radarsat-2 (medium resolution) or optical/ MODIS (low resolution), based on the Planting Calendar (KATAM) of Kemtan. In this case, the planting season II/2012-2013 of rice production centers in West Java Province (Karawang, Subang and Indramayu counties). The selection of crop season and county were entirely dependent on the quality of the available PESBAK and procurement process of radar imagery. The PESBAK is still in the form of block instead of fields, so it can not be directly utilized in this study. Efforts to improve the PESBAK can not be optimal because the provided satellite image (ECW format) is not the original one. While the procurement process of

  2. The export potential of traditional varieties of rice from Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Stringfellow, Rachel; Swetman, Tony

    1996-01-01

    This research is funded by the Overseas Development Administration's Crops Post Harvest Programme. The objective of the research is to bring together information on prevailing quality/price relationships for traditional varieties of rice in Bangladesh and for competing products on the world market in order to make a judgement about Bangladesh's ability to enter the export trade for speciality rices.

  3. Swamp Rice Production in Ogun Waterside Local Government Area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the economics of swamp rice production among peasant farmers in the Waterside Local Government Area of Ogun State for 2001 cropping year. A total of 50 swamp rice farmers were randomly selected from 5 villages using multistage sampling technique. The data collected, with the aid of ...

  4. Impact of National Fadama Development Project II on Rice farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... examined the impact of National Fadama Development Project II on the profitability of rice farmers and assessed the extent to which the various innovations disseminated by the project were adopted by the rice farmer beneficiaries. The project which had all operating expenses cofinanced by the various key stakeholders ...

  5. Farmers' perception of risk in cultivating hybrid rice in Bangladesh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although there is an enormous potential for improving adoption of hybrid rice in Bangladesh, it is going through some difficulties in practice. Understanding farmers' perception about difficulties is critical to successful promotion. The present study was conducted to analyze farmers' perception of risk in cultivating hybrid rice ...

  6. Pozzolanicity and Some Engineering Properties of Rice Husk Ash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rice Husk Ash (RHA) is an agro-waste material. It is found locally in abundance in Nigeria and many other parts of the world. Rice Husks pose environmental nuisance in developing countries. Efforts have been made to convert the material to economic usage. RHA is a form of pozzolan, a potential cementitious material.

  7. Reproducible and expedient rice regeneration system using in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inevitable prerequisite for expedient regeneration in rice is the selection of totipotent explant and developing an apposite combination of growth hormones. Here, we reported a reproducible regeneration protocol in which basal segments of the stem of the in vitro grown rice plants were used as ex-plant. Using the protocol ...

  8. Adaptation Practices to Climate Change Among Rice Farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined adaptation practices to climate change among rice farmers in Anambra State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 100 rice farmers by the combination of multistage, purposive and simple random sampling techniques, through the use of interview schedule. Percentage and mean statistics were used for ...

  9. Identifying molecular markers associated with stigma characteristics in rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigma characteristics play essential roles in hybrid seed production of rice and marker-assisted breeding plays essential role because they are quantitatively inherited with single-flowered perfect spikelet. Ninety four accessions originated from 47 countries were selected from the USDA rice core c...

  10. Economic analysis of swamp rice production in Ebonyi Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the paper is to analyze the determinants and profitability of the output of swamp rice farmers in Ebonyi southern Agricultural zone of Ebonyi State. Primary data were obtained through the use of structured questionnaires. A total of eighty (80) swamp rice farmers were randomly selected from the different blocks ...

  11. Markets and institutions for promoting rice for food security and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Markets and institutions for promoting rice for food security and poverty reduction in ... “Drivers of development” is an old concept and it goes back to a generation of ... process of positive cumulative changes in the economy and in people's ... in general and how they relate to rice production and marketing are addressed.

  12. Analysis of Technical Efficiency among Swamp Rice Farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the Technical efficiency among swamp rice farmers in Niger State, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 159 swamp rice farmers. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics, and the stochastic frontier production function. The results showed ...

  13. Adoption of Rice Technologies Introduced by the United States ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study determined the levels of adoption of improved rice technologies introduced by USAID MARKETS project phase one in Anambra and Ebonyi States, Nigeria. The population of the study included all project participant rice farmers of USAID MARKETS project in both Anambra and Ebonyi States. A total sample of 80 ...

  14. Efficiency in rice production : evidence from gogounou district in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thetechnical, allocative and economic efficiencies of rice growing in the District of Gogonou and factors determining the economic efficiency have been analysed with the help of a survey carried out among 150 rice producers randomly sampled during the agricultural year 2005-2006. The data analysis is essentially based ...

  15. Effects of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) rice on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-05-24

    May 24, 2010 ... To detect potential changes in properties of weed communities in fields of ... the hypothesis that the difference between the effect of GMHT rice Bar68-1 ... seed production, to raise purity of parents of hybrid rice, ... 3. 120. 20 × 20 cm. 2007. B. May 18. Jun 5. Aug 29 Aug 5, Sept 4. ..... part of agrobiodiversity.

  16. Technical efficiency in rice ecologies of north central Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two mini-ecologies were identified within the lowland rice ecology in the study area, namely, River Basin Authority Catchment area (RBAC) and Non River Basin Authority Catchment area (NRBAC). Differentials in rice output were determined with the Chow test while the stochastic frontier production approach was ...

  17. Current Insights into Research on Rice stripe virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Kyong Cho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rice stripe virus (RSV is one of the most destructive viruses of rice, and greatly reduces rice production in China, Japan, and Korea, where mostly japonica cultivars of rice are grown. RSV is transmitted by the small brown plant-hopper (SBPH in a persistent and circulative-propagative manner. Several methods have been developed for detection of RSV, which is composed of four single-stranded RNAs that encode seven proteins. Genome sequence data and comparative phylogenetic analysis have been used to identify the origin and diversity of RSV isolates. Several rice varieties resistant to RSV have been selected and QTL analysis and fine mapping have been intensively performed to map RSV resistance loci or genes. RSV genes have been used to generate several genetically modified transgenic rice plants with RSV resistance. Recently, genome-wide transcriptome analyses and deep sequencing have been used to identify mRNAs and small RNAs involved in RSV infection; several rice host factors that interact with RSV proteins have also been identified. In this article, we review the current statues of RSV research and propose integrated approaches for the study of interactions among RSV, rice, and the SBPH.

  18. Transfer of technetium from soil to paddy and upland rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Kei; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki

    1995-01-01

    Soil-plant transfer factors (concentration ratio between the plant and soil) of technetium in paddy and upland rice plants were obtained from laboratory experiments. The transfer factor is one of the most important parameters for environmental radiation dose assessment. Technetium tracer ( 95m TcO 4 - ) was added to the soil prior to rice cultivation. The transfer factor of technetium for the hulled grains (brown rice) of paddy rice (≤0.0002) was much lower than for that of upland rice (0.021). The transfer factors for both types of hulled grains were much lower than in the leaves. The technetium decontamination rate from hulled grains by polishing was 34%, the percentage of the weight decrease being 12%. The concentration of technetium in the soil solution collected from the paddy rice soil (flooded conditions) decreased rapidly with time due to its adsorption on the soil. In the upland rice soil (non-flooded) solution, the decrease in the technetium concentration was fairly slow. The low transfer factors for the paddy rice plants could be explained by the immobilization of technetium in the flooded soil. The oxidation-reduction potentials (Eh) in the flooded soil decreased rapidly with time. We conclude that technetium tracer added as TcO 4 - to flooded soil is readily transformed to an insoluble form (e.g.TcO 2 ) under the reducing conditions provided by flooding. (author)

  19. Resource Use Efficiency in Rice Production in Jere Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried-out on resource use efficiency in rice production in Jere Local Government Area of Borno State, Nigeria. Data were obtained using structured questionnaire. Five (5) wards were purposely selected out of the twelve (12) wards to reflect areas where rice is mainly grown. A total of 100 respondents were ...

  20. Improving Farmers' Efficiency in Rice Production In Nigeria: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper assesses the effects of extension services on farmers' efficiency and productivity in rice production in Kano State, Nigeria. Data for the study were collected from 126 rice farmers selected using multi stage sampling technique. Stochastic production frontier function was estimated to ascertain the effects of ...

  1. Linkage Mapping of Stem Saccharification Digestibility in Rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohan Liu

    Full Text Available Rice is the staple food of almost half of the world population, and in excess 90% of it is grown and consumed in Asia, but the disposal of rice straw poses a problem for farmers, who often burn it in the fields, causing health and environmental problems. However, with increased focus on the development of sustainable biofuel production, rice straw has been recognized as a potential feedstock for non-food derived biofuel production. Currently, the commercial realization of rice as a biofuel feedstock is constrained by the high cost of industrial saccharification processes needed to release sugar for fermentation. This study is focused on the alteration of lignin content, and cell wall chemotypes and structures, and their effects on the saccharification potential of rice lignocellulosic biomass. A recombinant inbred lines (RILs population derived from a cross between the lowland rice variety IR1552 and the upland rice variety Azucena with 271 molecular markers for quantitative trait SNP (QTS analyses was used. After association analysis of 271 markers for saccharification potential, 1 locus and 4 pairs of epistatic loci were found to contribute to the enzymatic digestibility phenotype, and an inverse relationship between reducing sugar and lignin content in these recombinant inbred lines was identified. As a result of QTS analyses, several cell-wall associated candidate genes are proposed that may be useful for marker-assisted breeding and may aid breeders to produce potential high saccharification rice varieties.

  2. Review of the cost components of introducing industrially fortified rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roks, Eveline

    2014-09-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies affect over two billion people worldwide, particularly in developing countries. Fortification of staple foods with multiple micronutrients is a cost-effective strategy to increase vitamin and mineral intake. The objective of this paper is to review the cost elements of industrially fortified rice by identifying the costs related to the implementation of rice fortification programs, using the experience of the United Nations World Food Programme in its pilot countries. The actual total costs of rice fortification are not easily captured. Core cost elements include the production of fortified rice kernels, transportation to the point of blending, blending of fortified with unfortified rice, costs related to sales or distribution, quality control and assurance, and additional planning. In the introduction phase, organizations or coalitions seeking to advance rice fortification will face additional costs related to the initiation of rice fortification. In the scale-up phase, greater efficiency in the supply chain and economies of scale can be expected. Different cost elements are normally borne by different stakeholders. This makes the implementation of rice fortification programs a feasible option to reach vulnerable populations with inadequate access to affordable nutrition solutions. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  3. Efficacy and economics of different herbicides in aerobic rice system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aerobic rice system, the most promising irrigation water saving rice production technology, is highly impeded by severe weed pressure. Weed control through the use of same herbicide causes development of herbicide resistant weed biotypes and serious problem in weed management. This study was aimed at finding out ...

  4. Aluminum and iron contents in phosphate treated swamp rice farm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 2006 aluminum and iron contents were determined in phosphate treated swamp rice farm of Mbiabet, Akwa Ibom State. The objectives were to determine the aluminum and iron contents, the effect of drying, phosphate and lime application in an acid sulphate soil grown to rice in Nigeria. The soil samples used were ...

  5. Fungi and some mycotoxins contaminating rice ( Oryza Sativa ) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major fungal genera contaminating rice were Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, Alternaria, Mucor, Rhizopus, Trichoderma, Curvularia, elminthosporium and Cladosporium. The most prevalent fungal species on rice were .Penicillium spp., A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. niger, Mucor spp., Rhizopus spp. and Alternaria spp.

  6. Physiology and modelling of zinc allocation in aerobic rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, W.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: Zinc, rice, Oryza sativa, grain, Zn mass concentration, biofortification

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency in humans is widespread in many regions of the world, especially in the developing world. Rice, the staple food of more than half of the world’s population, is potentially an important

  7. Adapting weed management in rice to changing climates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, J.; Meinke, H.B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides some of the scientific background on how projected environmental conditions could affect weeds and weed management in rice in Africa. Elevated CO2 levels may have positive effects on rice competitiveness with C4 weeds, but these are generally outnumbered by C3 species in weed

  8. Genetic diversity studies on selected rice varieties grown in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rice grain quality is an important factor that has a great influence on its market value and consumer acceptance. It is determined by three parameters controlling the cooking and eating qualities of rice (amylose content, gelatinization temperature and gel consistency) and by the aroma, which becomes a criterion ...

  9. Rice bran phytochemicals and dietary colon chemoprevention teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    A growing body of evidence supports that dietary rice bran exhibits gastrointestinal cancer control and prevention activity using carcinogen induced animal models and human colon cancer cell lines. Our laboratory has recently reported metabolomic differences in rice from globally and genetically dis...

  10. Grain quality characteristics of imported rice in Ghana: Implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rice brands came from Asia and the USA. The rice type from Asia was found to be Jasmine-styled aromatic long grained with low amylose content and gelatinisation temperature, whereas those of USA were conventional long grain with intermediate amylose content and gelatinisation temperature. These findings were ...

  11. Isozyme and RAPD Variation on important Rice genotypes of India

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MR AVWIOROKO JO

    2013-03-06

    Mar 6, 2013 ... Ayurvedic literature (Indian Materia Media) from the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries A.D. describes different rices, particularly scented varieties with medicinal and curative properties. As far back as 400 B.C., Susruta, the great Indian pioneer in medicine, described the medicinal properties of rice. India is a ...

  12. Mycoflora and aflatoxigenic species in derivatives of milled rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIMA Carlos A. P.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty samples of rough rice stored for 6, 12 and 24 months in government authorized warehouses of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were simultaneously collected. After milling of the product, 90 samples (30 of polished rice, 30 of rice bran and 30 of rice hull were evaluated for their mycoflora, aflatoxigenic species and aflatoxin contamination. The following fungi, listed in decreasing order of frequency, were isolated on Potato-Dextrose Agar: Aspergillus spp., Nigrospora spp., Penicillium spp.; Fusarium spp.; Mucor spp.; Cladosporium spp.; Trichosporon spp. and non-sporulated fungi. The degree of fungal contamination (colony forming units per gram of product was lowest in polished rice, increasing progressively in samples of rice bran and rice hull. Among the Aspergillus species, A. flavus and A. candidus were isolated most frequently. Of the A. flavus isolates, 52.6% strains were found to be toxigenic and produced only Group B aflatoxins. Analysis of the 90 samples did not reveal the presence of aflatoxins in the rice derivatives.

  13. Rice yield prediction from yield components and limiting factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casanova, D.; Goudriaan, J.; Catala Former, M.M.; Withagen, J.C.M.

    2002-01-01

    This article aims to quantify growth at field level in relation to crop status and soil properties in irrigated direct-seeded rice. Forty fields were selected in the Ebro Delta (Spain). Rice growth was monitored and soil properties measured. Yield was related to soil properties by a deductive

  14. Acetylated starch of Ofada rice as a sustained polymer in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To formulate and evaluate repaglinide microspheres using acetylated starch of the indigenous rice species Oryza glaberrima Steud (Ofada) as polymer. Materials and Methods: Ofada rice starch was acetylated with acetic anhydride in pyridine (DS 2.68) and characterized for morphology (Scanning electron ...

  15. Oesophageal motility disorders - diagnosis with a barium-rice study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwickert, H.C.; Schadmand-Fischer, S.; Klose, P.; Staritz, M.; Ueberschaer, B.; Thelen, M.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of a 'barium-rice' study for diagnosis of dysphagia and oesophageal motility disorders. Material and methods: 203 patients with oesophageal motility disorders of various aetiologies were examined by both conventional barium study and a 'barium-rice' study. During the latter, oesophageal clearance of a defined mixture of barium sulfate and boiled rice was measured. Results: The conventional barium study revealed prolonged transit time in only 15.8% (32 of 203 cases), whereas barium-rice study was pathological in 50.8% (103 of 203 cases). In 71 of 171 patients (41.5%) with a normal barium study, barium-rice passage was prolonged. In 23 patients, radiological results were confirmed by manometric measurements. Conclusion: Oesophageal motility disorders are detected by a barim-rice study with high sensitivity independent of the underlying disease. The barium-rice study offers a simple diagnostic tool revealing quantitative and reliable results. The barium-rice study is a suitable method for screening and follow-up of patients with dysphagia and oesophageal motility disorders. (orig.) [de

  16. Rice diversity panels available through the genetic stocks oryza collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Genetic Stocks Oryza (GSOR) Collection was established in 2004 at the USDA-ARS, Dale Bumpers National Rice Research Center (DBNRRC) located in Stuttgart, AR. The mission of GSOR is to provide unique genetic resources to the rice research community for genetic and genomics related research. GSOR ...

  17. Problems and prospects of mechanical rice-transplanting in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majid, A.; Rehman, A.; Akram, M.; Zafar, A.W.; Ahmed, M.

    2003-01-01

    Among the many factors, low plant-population is the fundamental reason for poor rice-yield, despite advancements in rice-culture technology. The contracted manual transplanting of paddy seedlings is considered to be one of the key factors responsible for poor stand-establishment of rice in the field. The labourers transplant rice-seedlings at considerably wider distance than the recommended one, resulting in poor establishment of crop-stand and, ultimately, lower yield. The mechanized rice-culture is thought to be a viable substitute for manual rice-culture in Pakistan. Over the years, a lot of effort has been made in this regard, but could not popularize mechanical transplantation of paddy, for a number of reasons. The popularization of mechanical rice-culture in the country needs significant reforms in nursery raising, water management, improvement of soil organic-matter and land-preparation, along with emphasis on local manufacturing of the cost-effective simple mechanical rice transplanter. (author)

  18. Convolutional neural network with transfer learning for rice type classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vaibhav Amit; Joshi, Manjunath V.

    2018-04-01

    Presently, rice type is identified manually by humans, which is time consuming and error prone. Therefore, there is a need to do this by machine which makes it faster with greater accuracy. This paper proposes a deep learning based method for classification of rice types. We propose two methods to classify the rice types. In the first method, we train a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) using the given segmented rice images. In the second method, we train a combination of a pretrained VGG16 network and the proposed method, while using transfer learning in which the weights of a pretrained network are used to achieve better accuracy. Our approach can also be used for classification of rice grain as broken or fine. We train a 5-class model for classifying rice types using 4000 training images and another 2- class model for the classification of broken and normal rice using 1600 training images. We observe that despite having distinct rice images, our architecture, pretrained on ImageNet data boosts classification accuracy significantly.

  19. GINES: first rice mutant obtained from proton irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Maria C; Perez, Noraida; Cristo, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    A new rice variety of a good productive potential and salinity tolerance was obtained at the National Institute of Agricultural Sciences (INCA), starting from in vitro culture of J-104 rice seeds irradiated with protons. This is the first report of a variety achieved by proton irradiation

  20. Antifungal activity of rice straw extract on some phytopathogenic fungi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antifungal activity of allelochemicals extracted from rice straw on the radial growth rate and the activity of some hydrolyzing enzymes of Aspergillus flavus, Alternaria alternata and Botrytis cinerea were studied in vitro. Five different concentrations (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10%, w/v) of water, methanol and acetone extracts of rice ...

  1. PHOTOPERIOD-INDUCED POLLEN ABORTION IN PGMS RICE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-11-20

    Nov 20, 2013 ... of the Hubei Photosensitive Genic Male-sterile Rice (Oryza sativa subsp. japonica). Acta Genetica Sinica 13(2):107-112. Virmani SS (1994). Heterosis and Hybrid Rice Breeding. Monographs on Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Springer-Verlag. Berlin. Heidelberg, Germany. 22:7(1). Virmani SS (1996).

  2. Adoption Study Of Seed Priming Technology In Upland Rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adoption study was carried out during 2003 cropping season on randomly selected 83 farmers out of the 300 that participated in the upland rice seed priming technology transfer between year 2000 – 2002 to determine the impact of the technology on upland rice production in five States of Nigeria, through the use of ...

  3. Adoption of selected innovations in rice production and their effect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adoption of selected innovations in rice production and their effect on farmers living standard in Bauchi local government area, Bauchi state, Nigeria. ... International Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences ... Simple random sampling technique was used for the selection of 82 rice growers from these villages. The data ...

  4. Assessment of irradiated rice bran as iron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Heden Katsue

    2002-01-01

    Rice is the largest cereal crop in Brazil. To obtain the polish grain, its external peel is extracted after abrasive process. As a result, rice bran is obtained. It has low cost and high nutritional level, which has been include into malnourished children feeding. There is a considerable controversy related to the rice bran effect on the prevention and control of undernutrition and iron deficiency. The aim os this study was to assess the availability of in vitro iron of in natura and treated rice brans, after different levels of irradiation were applied. Both sorts of bran had their composition analyzed emphasizing the iron and phytate contents. The microbiological quality of the rice bran was also assessed. The pathogenic microorganisms were destroyed only in the in natura rice bran. As the irradiation level applied on the stabilized bran increased, its lipidic fraction reduced an the progressive destruction of the phytates occurred. The high iron content follow its availability in the rice bran, despite of the irradiation level applied, on the rice bran products and its dietetic preparations. (author)

  5. Phenological characters and genetic divergence in aromatic rices

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... Phenological properties of a plant are measured in time duration between ... The time interval between sowing and flowering in rice (Oryza sativa L.) ... locally adapted genotypes of aromatic rices have evolved because of natural ... classification of genotypes based on suitable scale is quite imperative to ...

  6. Evaluation of Price Linkages within the Supply Chain of Rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper evaluates price linkages within the supply chain of rice markets in Cross River State using weekly prices in three urban markets located in major rice producing areas of the State. The Johansen cointegration test indicated one cointegrating vector both at the 1% and 5% level of significance. The results of the ...

  7. Economic differential of integrated fish, rice cum piggery and fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fish, rice cum piggery and fish, rice cum poultry production integration platforms were set up to perfect the ideas of integrated fish farming in Sierra Leone. Water quality parameters measured biweekly included: dissolved oxygen, water temperature, pH, water hardness, water alkalinity, ammonia, nitrate, BOD and nitrite.

  8. Optimisation of wort production from rice malt using enzymes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Commercially, rice malt has never been successfully used in brewing because of its low free α-amino nitrogen (FAN) content. This study was designed to optimise rice malt replacement for barley malt in wort production and to improve FAN by adding α-amylase and protease. The response surface methodology (RSM) ...

  9. The potential of natural enemies to suppress rice leaffolder populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraker, de J.

    1996-01-01


    Rice leaffolders Cnaphalocrocis medinalis and Marasmia spp. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) are considered major pests in many Asian countries. Insecticide use against leaffolders is wide-spread, but may not be justified due to tolerance of the rice

  10. Phytase activity in brown rice during steeping and sprouting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ou, K.; Cheng, Y.; Xing, Y.; Lin, L.; Nout, M.J.R.; Liang, J.

    2011-01-01

    Phytase in brown rice will be activated and accumulated during seed germination. Changes of phytase activity in brown rice during two stages of germination (steeping and sprouting) affected by process conditions were studied. It was shown that steeping led to significant decrease of phytase activity

  11. Feasibility of Using Rice Hulls as Bedding for Laboratory Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Elizabeth T; Kass, Philip H; Evans, Kristin D

    2016-01-01

    Factors that are considered when selecting laboratory mouse bedding include animal health and comfort, cost, effects on personnel, and bioactive properties. Corncob is economical and facilitates low intracage ammonia but has undesirable influences on some endocrine studies. Rice hulls are an economical material that has not been well characterized as a bedding substrate. In this pilot study, we compared various aspects of bedding performance of rice hulls and other materials. On a per-volume basis, rice hulls were less absorbent than was corncob bedding. Rice hulls had higher odds than did corncob or reclaimed wood pulp of having moisture present at the bedding surface. The results of the absorbency tests coupled with the results of preliminary monitoring of intracage ammonia raised concern about the ability of rice hulls to control ammonia levels sufficiently in cages with high occupancy. However, ammonia was negligible when cages contained 5 young adult female mice. The relative expression of 3 cytochrome p450 genes was compared among mice housed on rice hulls, corncob, reclaimed wood pulp, or pine shavings. The expression of Cyp1a2 was 1.7 times higher in the livers of mice housed on rice hulls than on pine shavings, but other differences were not statistically significant. This study provides information on the merits of rice hulls as laboratory mouse bedding. Their relatively poor moisture control is a major disadvantage that might preclude their widespread use.

  12. Comparative nutritional evaluation of fungus and alkali treated rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feeding trial was conducted with growing white albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) for 56 days to determine whether alkali (NaOH) or fungus (Mushroom) treatment of rice husk would affect rat's performance. The treated rice husk comprised 10% of the rat's diets, the rests of which were 50% maize, 20% soybeans, 19% ...

  13. (SSR) markers for analysis of genetic diversity in African rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bonny Oloka

    2015-05-06

    May 6, 2015 ... and conservation. To address this knowledge gap, 10 highly polymorphic rice simple sequence repeat. (SSR) markers were used to characterize 99 rice genotypes to determine their diversity and place them in their different population groups. The SSR markers were multiplexed in 3 panels to increase their.

  14. Influence of intercrops on pests' populations in upland rice ( Oriza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rice and groundnut (100,000 - 200,000 plants/ha) intercrop is recommended for reduced incidence of C. zacconius and N. viridula. This result demonstrates that a careful selection of crop combination and plant population could lead to reduced insect pests' incidence in upland rice. Key words: intercrops, plant populations, ...

  15. Brewers’ Rice: A By-Product from Rice Processing Provides Natural Hepatorenal Protection in Azoxymethane-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bee Ling Tan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Brewers’ rice, which is known locally as temukut, is a mixture of broken rice, rice bran, and rice germ. Our present study was designed to identify the effect of brewers’ rice on the attenuation of liver and kidney damage induced by azoxymethane (AOM. Alanine transaminase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, aspartate transaminase (AST, creatinine, and urea were evaluated to understand potential hepatoprotective effects and the ability of brewers’ rice to attenuate kidney pathology induced by AOM treatment. Liver and kidney tissues were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining. Overall analyses revealed that brewers’ rice improved the levels of serum markers in a manner associated with better histopathological outcomes, which indicated that brewers’ rice could enhance recovery from hepatocyte and kidney damage. Taken together, these results suggest that brewers’ rice could be used in future applications to combat liver and kidney disease.

  16. Application of induced mutations and modern technologies for rice improvement at the Philippine Rice Research Institute (PhilRice)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padolina, Thelma F.

    2015-01-01

    The application of mutation techniques, i.e. gamma rays and other physical and chemical mutagens has generated a vast amount of genetic variability and has played a significant role in plant breeding and genetics. The widespread use of mutation techniques in plant breeding programs throughout the world has led to the official release of more than 3000 mutant varieties from different plant species. These varieties provide higher yields, better quality, resistance to diseases and resilience to climate change and variability. In the Philippine Rice Research Institute (PhilRice), classical induced mutagenesis and/or in combination with modern technologies as an important tool in rice breeding have been widely utilized by breeders. These recent advances offered new and exciting challenges for the development of new varieties. Moreover, it has the advantage of free regulatory restrictions imposed on genetically modified organisms. To date, high generation of new varieties, elite lines and pre-breeding materials have been derived from chemical and physical mutagenesis, another culture, in vitro mutagenesis, and molecular marker technologies. Directly benefitting the farmers are three Philippine released varieties: PSB Rc78 developed through gamma ray induction in year 2000; and NSIC Rc272 (2011) and Rc346 (2013) developed by combination of Co60 induction and another culture technology. These varieties are intended for the lowlands. In the current works, diverse mutant lines and pre-breeding materials of different target traits were generated and are now under evaluation as potential varieties and/or for use in the inbred and hybrid breeding programs. These genetic materials are in the background of traditional and modern rice varieties. Accordingly, for inbreds, mutated traits ranged from changes in morphological traits, yield, maturity, grain quality, nutritional traits, abiotic resistance such as heat, salinity, and drought tolerance, biotic resistance such as bacterial

  17. Vinegar rice (Oryza sativa L. produced by a submerged fermentation process from alcoholic fermented rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma Aparecida Spinosa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Considering the limited availability of technology for the production of rice vinegar and also due to the potential consumer product market, this study aimed to use alcoholic fermented rice (rice wine (Oryza sativa L. for vinegar production. An alcoholic solution with 6.28% (w/v ethanol was oxidized by a submerged fermentation process to produce vinegar. The process of acetic acid fermentation occurred at 30 ± 0.3°C in a FRINGS® Acetator (Germany for the production of vinegar and was followed through 10 cycles. The vinegar had a total acidity of 6.85% (w/v, 0.17% alcohol (w/v, 1.26% (w/v minerals and 1.78% (w/v dry extract. The composition of organic acids present in rice vinegar was: cis-aconitic acid (6 mg/L, maleic acid (3 mg/L, trans-aconitic acid (3 mg/L, shikimic + succinic acid (4 mg/L, lactic acid (300 mg/L, formic acid (180 mg/L, oxalic acid (3 mg/L, fumaric acid (3 mg/L and itaconic acid (1 mg/L.

  18. affect rice in integrated rice-fish culture in Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AGHOGHO A

    Rice field ecology and fish culture - an overview. Hydrobiologia 259:91-113. Fernando CH, Halwart M (2000). Fish farming in irrigation systems. Fisheries Management and Ecol. 7:45-54. Frei M, Razzak MA, Hossain MM, Ochme M, Dewan S, Becker K. (2007). Performance of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. and Nile.

  19. Information circulation in rice production: the case of UNVDA and Ndop rice farmers, Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chindong, P.E.

    2008-01-01

    The study revealed that the dominant Agricultural extension approaches used in the rice sector in Cameroon is ToT and T&V. The methods of information circulation using these approaches are individual and group methods. The extension approaches has been criticized for its ineffectiveness especially

  20. Rice yellow mottle virus is transmitted by cows, donkeys, and grass rats in irrigated rice crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarra, S.; Peters, D.

    2003-01-01

    Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV), endemic in Africa, is believed to be spread by chrysomelid beetles, although the infections in a field often cannot be explained by the prevailing number of beetles. We show that the grass rat Arvicanthis niloticus, domestic cows (Bos spp.), and donkeys (Asinus spp.)