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Sample records for schnelle null-energie anordnung karlsruhe

  1. Wolfgang Schnell (1929 - 2006)

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    Wolfgang Schnell in 2004, displaying a piece of equipment for the CLIC test facility. Wolfgang Schnell passed away on 2nd October after an illness which he endured with great courage and lucidity. Wolfgang was one of CERN's pioneers and made numerous significant contributions to the field of accelerator physics and technology throughout his career. After obtaining a degree in physics from the University of Heidelberg, he worked at the Max-Planck Institute, before joining the PS construction team in 1954. When working in the group led by Chris Schmelzer in 1959, he achieved a breakthrough during the running-in of the PS, which suffered from substantial beam loss during acceleration. With the phase-lock feed-back system built by Wolfgang, the beam went immediately to 24 GeV with hardly any losses. He was proud to show later that the electronics of his system had been built inside a coffee tin. Wolfgang Schnell with John Adams, leader of the PS project, in the famous picture which marked the start-up of the PS ...

  2. Null energy condition and superluminal propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Dubovsky, S; Nicolis, A; Rattazzi, R

    2006-01-01

    We study whether a violation of the null energy condition necessarily implies the presence of instabilities. We prove that this is the case in a large class of situations, including isotropic solids and fluids relevant for cosmology. On the other hand we present several counter-examples of consistent effective field theories possessing a stable background where the null energy condition is violated. Two necessary features of these counter-examples are the lack of isotropy of the background and the presence of superluminal modes. We argue that many of the properties of massive gravity can be understood by associating it to a solid at the edge of violating the null energy condition. We briefly analyze the difficulties of mimicking $\\dot H>0$ in scalar tensor theories of gravity.

  3. Averaged null energy condition from causality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Thomas; Kundu, Sandipan; Tajdini, Amirhossein

    2017-07-01

    Unitary, Lorentz-invariant quantum field theories in flat spacetime obey mi-crocausality: commutators vanish at spacelike separation. For interacting theories in more than two dimensions, we show that this implies that the averaged null energy, ∫ duT uu , must be non-negative. This non-local operator appears in the operator product expansion of local operators in the lightcone limit, and therefore contributes to n-point functions. We derive a sum rule that isolates this contribution and is manifestly positive. The argument also applies to certain higher spin operators other than the stress tensor, generating an infinite family of new constraints of the form ∫ duX uuu··· u ≥ 0. These lead to new inequalities for the coupling constants of spinning operators in conformal field theory, which include as special cases (but are generally stronger than) the existing constraints from the lightcone bootstrap, deep inelastic scattering, conformal collider methods, and relative entropy. We also comment on the relation to the recent derivation of the averaged null energy condition from relative entropy, and suggest a more general connection between causality and information-theoretic inequalities in QFT.

  4. Wormholes minimally violating the null energy condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouhmadi-López, Mariam [Departamento de Física, Universidade da Beira Interior, 6200 Covilhã (Portugal); Lobo, Francisco S N; Martín-Moruno, Prado, E-mail: mariam.bouhmadi@ehu.es, E-mail: fslobo@fc.ul.pt, E-mail: pmmoruno@fc.ul.pt [Centro de Astronomia e Astrofísica da Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, Edifício C8, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2014-11-01

    We consider novel wormhole solutions supported by a matter content that minimally violates the null energy condition. More specifically, we consider an equation of state in which the sum of the energy density and radial pressure is proportional to a constant with a value smaller than that of the inverse area characterising the system, i.e., the area of the wormhole mouth. This approach is motivated by a recently proposed cosmological event, denoted {sup t}he little sibling of the big rip{sup ,} where the Hubble rate and the scale factor blow up but the cosmic derivative of the Hubble rate does not [1]. By using the cut-and-paste approach, we match interior spherically symmetric wormhole solutions to an exterior Schwarzschild geometry, and analyse the stability of the thin-shell to linearized spherically symmetric perturbations around static solutions, by choosing suitable properties for the exotic material residing on the junction interface radius. Furthermore, we also consider an inhomogeneous generalization of the equation of state considered above and analyse the respective stability regions. In particular, we obtain a specific wormhole solution with an asymptotic behaviour corresponding to a global monopole.

  5. Logarithmic corrections to gravitational entropy and the null energy condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parikh, Maulik, E-mail: maulik.parikh@asu.edu; Svesko, Andrew

    2016-10-10

    Using a relation between the thermodynamics of local horizons and the null energy condition, we consider the effects of quantum corrections to the gravitational entropy. In particular, we find that the geometric form of the null energy condition is not affected by the inclusion of logarithmic corrections to the Bekenstein–Hawking entropy.

  6. Logarithmic corrections to gravitational entropy and the null energy condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maulik Parikh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Using a relation between the thermodynamics of local horizons and the null energy condition, we consider the effects of quantum corrections to the gravitational entropy. In particular, we find that the geometric form of the null energy condition is not affected by the inclusion of logarithmic corrections to the Bekenstein–Hawking entropy.

  7. Conformal symmetry wormholes and the null energy condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhfittig, Peter K. F.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we seek a relationship between the assumption of conformal symmetry and the exotic matter needed to hold a wormhole open. By starting with a Morris-Thorne wormhole having a constant energy density, we show that the conformal factor provides an extra degree of freedom sufficient to account for the exotic matter. The same holds for Morris-Thorne wormholes in a noncommutative-geometry setting. Applied to thin shells, a radius that results in a wormhole with positive surface density and negative surface pressure and that violates the null energy condition on a thin shell would exist.

  8. Conformal symmetry wormholes and the null energy condition

    CERN Document Server

    Kuhfittig, Peter K F

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we seek a relationship between the assumption of conformal symmetry and the exotic matter needed to hold a wormhole open. By starting with a Morris-Thorne wormhole having a constant energy density, it is shown that the conformal factor provides the extra degree of freedom sufficient to account for the exotic matter. The same holds for Morris-Thorne wormholes in a noncommutative-geometry setting. Applied to thin shells, there would exist a radius that results in a wormhole with positive surface density and negative surface pressure and which violates the null energy condition on the thin shell.

  9. Strong subadditivity, null energy condition and charged black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caceres, Elena [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima,Bernal Diaz del Castillo 340, Colima (Mexico); Theory Group, Department of Physics, The University of Texas,Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Kundu, Arnab [Theory Group, Department of Physics, The University of Texas,Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Pedraza, Juan F.; Tangarife, Walter [Theory Group, Department of Physics, The University of Texas,Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Texas Cosmology Center, The University of Texas,Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2014-01-16

    Using the Hubeny-Rangamani-Takayanagi (HRT) conjectured formula for entanglement entropy in the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence with time-dependent backgrounds, we investigate the relation between the bulk null energy condition (NEC) of the stress-energy tensor with the strong sub-additivity (SSA) property of entanglement entropy in the boundary theory. In a background that interpolates between an AdS to an AdS-Reissner-Nordstrom-type geometry, we find that generically there always exists a critical surface beyond which the violation of NEC would naively occur. However, the extremal area surfaces that determine the entanglement entropy for the boundary theory, can penetrate into this forbidden region only for certain choices for the mass and the charge functions in the background. This penetration is then perceived as the violation of SSA in the boundary theory. We also find that this happens only when the critical surface lies above the apparent horizon, but not otherwise. We conjecture that SSA, which is thus non-trivially related to NEC, also characterizes the entire time-evolution process along which the dual field theory may thermalize.

  10. The quantum null energy condition in curved space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zicao; Koeller, Jason; Marolf, Donald

    2017-11-01

    The quantum null energy condition (QNEC) is a conjectured bound on components (Tkk = Tab ka k^b) of the stress tensor along a null vector k a at a point p in terms of a second k-derivative of the von Neumann entropy S on one side of a null congruence N through p generated by k a . The conjecture has been established for super-renormalizeable field theories at points p that lie on a bifurcate Killing horizon with null tangent k a and for large-N holographic theories on flat space. While the Koeller-Leichenauer holographic argument clearly yields an inequality for general ( p, k^a) , more conditions are generally required for this inequality to be a useful QNEC. For d≤slant 3 , for arbitrary backgroud metric we show that the QNEC is naturally finite and independent of renormalization scheme when the expansion θ of N at the point p vanishes. This is consistent with the original QNEC conjecture which required θ and the shear σab to satisfy θ \\vert _p= \\dotθ\\vert p =0 , σab\\vert _p=0 . But for d=4, 5 more conditions than even these are required. In particular, we also require the vanishing of additional derivatives and a dominant energy condition. In the above cases the holographic argument does indeed yield a finite QNEC, though for d≥slant6 we argue these properties to fail even for weakly isolated horizons (where all derivatives of θ, σab vanish) that also satisfy a dominant energy condition. On the positive side, a corrollary to our work is that, when coupled to Einstein-Hilbert gravity, d ≤slant 3 holographic theories at large N satisfy the generalized second law (GSL) of thermodynamics at leading order in Newton’s constant G. This is the first GSL proof which does not require the quantum fields to be perturbations to a Killing horizon.

  11. Status of nuclear data activities at Karlsruhe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawano, Toshihiko [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    This is a brief introduction to nuclear data activity at Karlsruhe Research Center. Some URLs concerned are given. Topics mentioned here are, the FENDL and JEF/EFF project at INR, and measurements of neutron capture cross sections at IK III. (author)

  12. Superluminal neutrinos and extra dimensions: Constraints from the null energy condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubser, Steven S., E-mail: ssgubser@princeton.edu [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2011-11-11

    In light of the recent results from the OPERA Collaboration, indicating that neutrinos can travel superluminally, I review a simple extra-dimensional strategy for accommodating such behavior; and I also explain why it is hard in this strategy to avoid violating the null energy condition somewhere in the extra dimensions.

  13. Casa Wächter Karlsruhe Alemania Federal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehmann, Friedrich

    1979-06-01

    Full Text Available Wächter Residence, Karlsruhe - West Germany The design of this home in Karlsruhe v/as presided over by two basic criteria: function and human scale, carried up to their ultimate consequences. The first criteria had a decisive influence on the roof arrangement, as an extension of the neighboring buildings, and on the selection of construction materials to match the suburban environment where the site is located, not to forget the shaping of Windows and skylights, reflecting the internal functions and providing lighting while protecting the privacy of the interior from the exterior lines of view. The second criteria affects aspects so different from one another as the unexpected but valid room arrangement following a spiral path leading from the entrance to the master bedroom at the other end with the remaining rooms at intermediate levels affording the required degree of privacy; or the arrangement of the mechanical installations, resembling the human backbone; or, finally, the paint finish chosen, pleasing man's taste for ornamentality.

    La realización de esta vivienda, en Karlsruhe, estuvo marcada por dos criterios fundamentales: la funcionalidad y la escala humana, llevadas ambas hasta sus últimas consecuencias. La primera influyó desde la disposición de las cubiertas, como prolongación de las construcciones vecinas, hasta la elección de los materiales constructivos, acordes con el entorno suburbano de la parcela, sin olvidar la configuración de las ventanas y lucernarios que, con sus diferentes formatos, indican el uso del interior, al tiempo que posibilitan la iluminación, protegiendo de las vistas exteriores. La segunda característica afecta a aspectos tan dispares como la original, pero válida, secuencia de habitaciones —según una espiral que, desde la entrada, conduce, en el extremo opuesto, al dormitorio de los padres, quedando las restantes dependencias situadas en los niveles intermedios según su exigencia

  14. Non-minimal coupling of torsion-matter satisfying null energy condition for wormhole solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jawad, Abdul; Rani, Shamaila [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2016-12-15

    We explore wormhole solutions in a non-minimal torsion-matter coupled gravity by taking an explicit non-minimal coupling between the matter Lagrangian density and an arbitrary function of the torsion scalar. This coupling describes the transfer of energy and momentum between matter and torsion scalar terms. The violation of the null energy condition occurred through an effective energy-momentum tensor incorporating the torsion-matter non-minimal coupling, while normal matter is responsible for supporting the respective wormhole geometries. We consider the energy density in the form of non-monotonically decreasing function along with two types of models. The first model is analogous to the curvature-matter coupling scenario, that is, the torsion scalar with T-matter coupling, while the second one involves a quadratic torsion term. In both cases, we obtain wormhole solutions satisfying the null energy condition. Also, we find that the increasing value of the coupling constant minimizes or vanishes on the violation of the null energy condition through matter. (orig.)

  15. Topology and Singularities in Cosmological Spacetimes Obeying the Null Energy Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Gregory J.; Ling, Eric

    2017-11-01

    We consider globally hyperbolic spacetimes with compact Cauchy surfaces in a setting compatible with the presence of a positive cosmological constant. More specifically, for 3 + 1 dimensional spacetimes which satisfy the null energy condition and contain a future expanding compact Cauchy surface, we establish a precise connection between the topology of the Cauchy surfaces and the occurrence of past singularities. In addition to the Penrose singularity theorem, the proof makes use of some recent advances in the topology of 3-manifolds and of certain fundamental existence results for minimal surfaces.

  16. Spin, torsion and violation of null energy condition in traversable wormholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Grezia, Elisabetta; Battista, Emmanuele; Manfredonia, Mattia; Miele, Gennaro

    2017-12-01

    The static spherically symmetric traversable wormholes are analysed in the Einstein-Cartan theory of gravitation. In particular, we computed the torsion tensor for matter fields with different spin S=0, 1/2, 1, 3/2. Interestingly, only for certain values of the spin, the torsion contribution to the Einstein-Cartan field equation allows one to satisfy both flaring-out condition and null energy condition. In this scenario, traversable wormholes can be produced by using usual (non-exotic) spinning matter.

  17. Karlsruhe: En route to a superconducting r.f. separator

    CERN Document Server

    1973-01-01

    A superconducting r.f. separator is under construction at Karlsruhe for use at the SPS in the beam-line to the Omega spectrometer. Tests on a section of the first 3 m deflector have given results close to the desired parameters.

  18. Karlsruhe Research Center, Nuclear Safety Research Project (PSF). Annual report 1994; Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Projekt Nukleare Sicherheitsforschung. Jahrsbericht 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hueper, R. [ed.

    1995-08-01

    The reactor safety R and D work of the Karlsruhe Research Centre (FZKA) has been part of the Nuclear Safety Research Projet (PSF) since 1990. The present annual report 1994 summarizes the R and D results. The research tasks are coordinated in agreement with internal and external working groups. The contributions to this report correspond to the status of early 1995. An abstract in English precedes each of them, whenever the respective article is written in German. (orig.) [Deutsch] Seit Beginn 1990 sind die F+E-Arbeiten des Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZKA) zur Reaktorsicherheit im Projekt Nukleare Sicherheitsforschung (PSF) zusammengefasst. Der vorliegende Jahresbericht 1994 enthaelt Beitraege zu aktuellen Fragen der Sicherheit von Leichtwasserreaktoren und innovativen Systemen sowie der Umwandlung von minoren Aktiniden. Die konkreten Forschungsthemen und -vorhaben werden mit internen und externen Fachgremien laufend abgestimmt. An den beschriebenen Arbeiten sind die folgenden Institute und Abteilungen des FZKA beteiligt: Institut fuer Materialforschung IMF I, II, III; Institut fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik INR; Institut fuer Angewandte Thermo- und Fluiddynamik IATF; Institut fuer Reaktorsicherheit IRS; Hauptabteilung Ingenieurtechnik HIT; Hauptabteilung Versuchstechnik HVT sowie vom KfK beauftragte externe Institutionen. Die einzelnen Beitraege stellen den Stand der Arbeiten zum Fruehjahr 1995 dar und sind entsprechend dem F+E-Programm 1994 numeriert. Den in deutscher Sprache verfassten Beitraege sind Kurzfassungen in englischer Sprache vorangestellt. (orig.)

  19. Detector-related backgrounds in the Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leber, Michelle, E-mail: mleber@u.washington.edu [Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, University of Washington, Box 354290 Seattle, WA 98195-4290 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    The Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino Experiment, or KATRIN, is a next generation tritium beta decay experiment to directly measure neutrino mass with an expected sensitivity of 0.2 eV [KATRIN Design Report 2004 see (http://www-ik.fzk.de/{approx}katrin/)]. Neutrino mass does not fit into the Standard Model, and determining this mass may set the scale of new physics. To achieve this level of sensitivity, backgrounds in the experiment must be minimized. A complete Geant4 [Agostinelli S et al. 2003 Nuclear Instr. Methods A 506 250-303 Allison J et al. 2006 IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science53 No. 1 270-8] simulation of KATRIN's focal plane detector and surrounding region is being developed. These simulations will help guide the design and selection of shielding and detector construction materials to reduce backgrounds from cosmic rays and natural radioactivity.

  20. Inverted Classroom an der Hochschule Karlsruhe - ein nicht quantisierter Flip

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, Isabel; Ritter, Stefan; Vasko, Mikko; Voss, Hans-Peter

    2012-01-01

    When does a course count as 'inverted'? When first faced with a new teaching method, deliberate lectures may want to test it without abandoning the advantages of the established method. Aftes the experiment they have to evaluate additional benefits of the new system for teacher and student. Considering the high workload of lecturers, the help of a third party may be useful to obtain an objective assessment of the results during such a transition. At the University of Applied Sciences 'Hochschule Karlsruhe - Technik und Wirtschaft' in Germany, the SKATING project, funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), offers among other things individual technical and didactic advice. This includes practical help with the development, implementation and testing of innovative lecture formats like the Inverted Classroom Method (also known as flipped class). When Professors at the University stated their interest in this approach, varying teaching projects on its implementation and evaluation wer...

  1. Design and construction of superconducting quadrupole magnets at Karlsruhe

    CERN Document Server

    Arendt, F; Turowski, P

    1977-01-01

    Two types of superconducting quadrupole magnets have been developed: 6 extremely short doublets with a quadrupole length of nearly 11 cm as beam focusing elements in the Karlsruhe superconducting proton linac; 2 quadrupoles of about 1 m length for use in the hyperon experiments at the CERN SPS. The concept for these quadrupoles is a one current block winding per pole, calculated with respect to minimum field errors. Special mechanical and winding techniques have been developed to get the high geometric accuracy required for such air coils. The short doublets must be operated in persistent current mode with a thermal superconducting switch and a required time constant of tau >10 /sup 4/ hours. The hyperon beam quadrupoles must operate reliably for a long time in an inaccessible concrete shielding. (2 refs).

  2. Tritium operating experience at the tritium laboratory Karlsruhe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerr, L.; Bekris, N.; Besserer, U.; Glugla, M.; Hellriegel, W.; Penzhorn, R.D.; Rohrig, H.D.; Schubert, K.; Vollmer, T.; Wendel, J. [Karlsruhe Research Centre, Tritium Laboratory (Germany)

    1998-07-01

    The Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe began operations with gram amounts of tritium in March 1995. Since then, the experimental facilities CAPRICE and PETRA have been routinely in operation. New experimental activities include the analysis of tritium in first wall materials of fusion devices and the development of methods for the detritiation of graphite and carbon fibre composite tiles. The experience gained with Tritium Retention Systems, with the Tritium Transfer System, with portable uranium getter beds and in this context with tritium accountancy is reported. The incorporation of a new Pd packed column into the Isotope Separation System, the increase in storage capacity of the Tritium Storage System, the improvements of the analytical instrumentation and some repair activities are also described. (authors)

  3. 19 February 2015 - Professor Holger Hanselka President Karlsruhe Institute of Technology Federal Republic of Germany

    CERN Multimedia

    Gadmer, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    visiting the CMS cavern with CMS Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson K. Borras and CMS Collaboration, Team Leader, Karlsruhe Institut fur Technologie T. Muller and signing the Guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer. C. Schaefer present throughout.

  4. Drawing the nuclear landscape: 50 years of the Karlsruhe Nuklidkarte; Trazando el paisaje nuclear 50 anos de historia de la Karlsruher Nuklidkarte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Borge, M. J.; Normand, C.

    2010-07-01

    The map has been Nuklidkarte Karlsruhe nuclei since 1958 the work of thousands of physicists and hundreds of thousands experimental results produced in institutes research worldwide. With excellence as rule, has become over the years a reference the field of nuclear information. (Author) 19 refs.

  5. Analysis of simulated data for the KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino experiment using Bayesian inference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Anna Sejersen; Hannestad, Steen; Weinheimer, C.

    2011-01-01

    The KATRIN (Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino) experiment will analyze the tritium β spectrum to determine the mass of the neutrino with a sensitivity of 0.2 eV (90% C.L.). This approach to a measurement of the absolute value of the neutrino mass relies only on the principle of energy conservation and can...

  6. Karlsruhes aastapäeva rohke muusikaga / Meeli Bagger ; fotod: Meeli Bagger

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bagger, Meeli, 1958-

    2005-01-01

    Eesti Vabariigi 87. aastapäeva tähistamisest 26. veebruaril 2005 Hoepfneri Õllevabriku saalis, korraldajaks Karlsruhe Saksa-Eesti Selts. Kõnega esines Rita Fromm, kontserdil esinesid: Mari-Liis Vihermäe, Triinu Kull, Monika Hausvalter, Mait Martin, Viktoria ja Natalia Zagalskaia

  7. A decade of tritium technology development and operation at the tritium laboratory Karlsruhe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerr, L.; Besserer, U.; Bekris, N.; Bornschein, B.; Caldwell-Nichols, C.; Demange, D.; Cristescu, I.; Cristescu, I. R.; Glugla, M.; Hellriegel, G.; Schaefer, P.; Weite, S.; Wendel, J. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Inst. for Technical Physics, Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2008-07-15

    The Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK) has been designed to handle relevant amounts of tritium for the development of tritium technology for fusion reactors. This paper describes the tritium technology development and experience gained during the upgrade of facilities, interventions, replacement of failed components and operation of the TLK since its commissioning with tritium in 1994. (authors)

  8. On the mean-field theory of the Karlsruhe Dynamo Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.-H. Rädler

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe an experiment has been constructed which demonstrates a homogeneous dynamo as is expected to exist in the Earth's interior. This experiment is discussed within the framework of mean-field dynamo theory. The main predictions of this theory are explained and compared with the experimental results. Key words. Dynamo, geodynamo, dynamo experiment, mean-field dynamo theory, a-effect

  9. News from the Library: The 8th edition Karlsruhe nuclide chart has been released

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2012-01-01

    The 8th edition of the Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart contains new data not found in the 7th edition.   Since 1958, the well-known Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart has provided scientists with structured, valuable information on the half-lives, decay modes and energies of radioactive nuclides. The chart is used in many disciplines in physics (health physics, radiation protection, nuclear and radiochemistry, astrophysics, etc.) but also in the life and earth sciences (biology, medicine, agriculture, geology, etc.). The 8th edition of the Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart contains new data on 737 nuclides not found in the 7th edition. In total, nuclear data on 3847 experimentally observed ground states and isomers are presented. A new web-based version of this chart is in the final stages of development for use within the Nucleonica Nuclear Science Portal - a portal for which CERN has an institutional license. The chart is also available in paper format.   If you want to buy a paper version of the chart, ple...

  10. EL CONGRESO DE KARLSRUHE: PASO DEFINITIVO HACIA LA QUÍMICA MODERNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Cid Manzano

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Estamos celebrando en este año 2009 el 140 aniversario de la publicación de la primera tabla periódica y el 90 aniversario de la creación del IUPAC. Ambos acontecimientos se relacionan directamente con el congreso de Karlsruhe llevado a cabo en esa ciudad alemana en 1860. Este congreso fué convocado para que los químicos europeos pudieran discutir sobre asuntos muy controvertidos, como la naturaleza atómica de la materia, la nomenclatura química y los pesos atómicos. El objetivo de este artículo es proporcionar a los lectores algunos datos sobre este congreso para entender mejor cómo la tabla periódica fue desarrollada y cómo la química se convirtió en una ciencia moderna.

  11. Muusikamaail. "Musica nova" Helsingis. Händeli festival Karlsruhes. Ooperikonkurss algas. Preemiaid ja tunnustusi. Ka Parmas uus ooperimaja. / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    2002-01-01

    Soomes toimuvast uue muusika festivalist. Händeli festivalist Karlsruhes. Üle-euroopalisest noorte ooperilauljate konkursist. Ooperilaulja Doris Soffel sai Rootsi riigilt Kuningliku Põhjatähe ordeni. Sebastian Baumgarten sai ooperi "Tosca" eest noore režissööri preemia. Parmas valmis uus ooperimaja

  12. PREFACE: Selected invited contributions from the International Conference on Magnetism (Karlsruhe, Germany, 26-31 July 2009) Selected invited contributions from the International Conference on Magnetism (Karlsruhe, Germany, 26-31 July 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goll, Gernot; Löhneysen, Hilbert v.; Loidl, Alois; Pruschke, Thomas; Richter, Manuel; Schultz, Ludwig; Sürgers, Christoph; Wosnitza, Jochen

    2010-04-01

    The International Conference on Magnetism 2009 (ICM 2009) was held in Karlsruhe, Germany, from 26 to 31 July 2009. Previous conferences in this series were organized in Edinburgh, UK (1991), Warsaw, Poland (1994), Cairns, Australia (1997), Recife, Brazil (2000), Rome, Italy (2003), and Kyoto, Japan (2006). As with previous ICM conferences, the annual Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES) was integrated into ICM 2009. The topics presented at ICM 2009 were strongly correlated electron systems, quantum and classical spin systems, magnetic structures and interactions, magnetization dynamics and micromagnetics, spin-dependent transport, spin electronics, magnetic thin films, particles and nanostructures, soft and hard magnetic materials and their applications, novel materials and device applications, magnetic recording and memories, measuring techniques and instrumentation, as well as interdisciplinary topics. We are grateful to the International Advisory Committee for their help in coordinating an attractive program encompassing practically all aspects of magnetism, both experimentally and theoretically. The Program Committee comprised A Loidl, Germany (Chair), M A Continentino, Brazil, D E Dahlberg, USA, D Givord, France, G Güntherodt, Germany, H Mikeska, Germany, D Kaczorowski, Poland, Ching-Ray Chang, South Korea, I Mertig, Germany, D Vollhardt, Germany, and E F Wassermann, Germany. E F Wassermann was also head of the National Organizing Committee. His help is gratefully acknowledged. The scientific program started on Monday 27 July 2009 with opening addresses by the Conference Chairman, the Deputy Mayor of Karlsruhe, Ms M Mergen and the Chairman of the Executive Board of Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, E Umbach. ICM 2009 was attended by the Nobel Laureates P W Anderson, A Fert and P Grünberg who gave plenary talks. A special highlight was the presentation of the Magnetism Award and Néel Medal to S S P Parkin who also presented his newest results

  13. Long term evolution of the urban heat island beneath the city of Karlsruhe, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menberg, Kathrin; Blum, Philipp; Schaffitel, Axel; Bayer, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Increased air and surface temperature in urban areas are a widely spread phenomenon commonly referred to as urban heat islands (UHI). However, changes in the urban environment also lead to increased subsurface temperatures and cause extensive thermal anomalies in shallow urban aquifers. The reasons for this heating are manifold as several possible heat sources exist in the urban subsurface. Previous studies have primarily discussed basements and increased surface temperature as possible cause for heterogeneous groundwater temperature distribution. But also, sewers and district heating networks are likely to influence the temperature of the surrounding subsurface. In this study, the spatial distribution of groundwater temperature in the city Karlsruhe, Germany, is analyzed using a data set from 1977 and recent measurements from 2011. Furthermore, the anthropogenic heat input in the urban groundwater is quantified by a spatially resolved heat flux model. In the latter, several heat transport processes are considered, such as heat flux from basements and sewers, heat loss from district heating networks and heat input due to increased ground surface temperatures (GST) and reinjections of thermal waste water. Uncertainties are accounted for in a Monte Carlo simulation. In order to investigate the long-term evolution of the subsurface thermal regime, we compared the heat fluxes for the years 1977 and 2011. In both years, the spatial distribution of groundwater temperatures exhibits the highest temperatures under the city center and a large industrial site. Compared to 1977 background temperatures in 2011 have increased by approximately 1 K, while the maximum temperature is nearly equal. However, the area of the thermal anomaly has spread notably in the last 30 years. In both years the largest mean heat fluxes occurred from increased GST and basements. The development of the heat flux from increased GST reflects the evolution of surface air temperature (SAT), while the

  14. Report of the Second European Zebrafish Principal Investigator Meeting in Karlsruhe, Germany, March 21-24, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavodeassi, Florencia; Del Bene, Filippo; Fürthauer, Maximilian; Grabher, Clemens; Herzog, Wiebke; Lehtonen, Sanna; Linker, Claudia; Mercader, Nadia; Mikut, Ralf; Norton, William; Strähle, Uwe; Tiso, Natascia; Foulkes, Nicholas S

    2013-03-01

    The second European Zebrafish Principal Investigator (PI) Meeting was held in March, 2012, in Karlsruhe, Germany. It brought together PIs from all over Europe who work with fish models such as zebrafish and medaka to discuss their latest results, as well as to resolve strategic issues faced by this research community. Scientific discussion ranged from the development of new technologies for working with fish models to progress in various fields of research such as injury and repair, disease models, and cell polarity and dynamics. This meeting also marked the establishment of the European Zebrafish Resource Centre (EZRC) at Karlsruhe that in the future will serve as an important focus and community resource for zebrafish- and medaka-based research.

  15. Flue gas cleaning by the electron-beam-process (II): Recent activities at the RDK-7 pilot plant, Karlsruhe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platzer, K.-H.; Willibald, U.; Gottstein, J.; Tremmel, A.; Angele, H.-J.; Zellner, K.

    At the Badenwerk coal fired 550 MW el unit RDK-7 of the Rheinhafen-Dampfkraftwerk, Karlsruhe, a pilot plant for flue gas cleaning by means of electron excitation is operating since December 1985. The main emphasis during the previous research period was focused upon the demonstration of the technical feasibility of the process. Experiences from long-term test runs at the RDK-7 pilot plant prove that it is possible to achieve a reliable and efficient operation both of the electron beam accelerators and of the baghouse by-product precipitator by combining several optimization steps described in this paper.

  16. Development of a regional concept for energy management for the region of Karlsruhe. Final report; Entwicklung eines regionalen Energiemanagement-Konzeptes und Anwendung auf die TechnologieRegion Karlsruhe. Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rentz, O.; Fichtner, W.; Frank, M. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Industriebetriebslehre und Industrielle Produktion; Wolf, M.A.; Rejman, M.; Eyerer, P. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Chemische Technologie (ICT) (Germany); Reimert, R.; Schulz, A.; Buren, V. v. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Engler-Bunte-Institut Bereich 1 - Gas, Erdoel und Kohle; Schaefers, B.; Bernart, Y. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (DE). Institut fuer Soziologie (IfSoz) (Germany)

    2002-09-01

    Major objectives of this project are: to prepare a cross-disciplinary analysis of all characteristic aspects of the energy supply and demand patterns of a group of selected energy-intensive companies in the Karlsruhe and Rhine harbour area (5 industrial power consumers, 1 utility), to identify practical approaches for optimization and integration of energy and material flows, (networking), and to develop optimised investment and energy supply options within the framework of given conditions. The basis of the optimal solution and energy network presented and explained in detail is a new combined-cycle power plant running as a gas-fired CHP plant, substituting about 50% of the systems formerly used. (orig./CB) [German] Fragestellungen der Effizienzsteigerung und der Verwertung von Abfaellen und Abwaerme gewinnen an Relevanz vor dem Hintergrund der begrenzten Aufnahmekapazitaet der Umweltmedien fuer Schadstoffe. Im Rahmen des Projektes wurde am Beispiel der Region Karlsruhe (5 Industrieunternehmen und 1 EVU) die Entwicklung betriebsuebergreifender Energieversorgungssysteme (Netzwerke) interdisziplinaer analysiert und beschrieben. Zielsetzungen des Projekts waren unter anderem: Bestimmung von zukunftsfaehigen Optionen, intelligente Vernetzung von Energiestroemen, wirtschaftliche Optimierung betriebsuebergreifender Energiemanagement-Loesungen. Die optimale vorgestellte Loesung ist charakterisiert durch den Neubau einer zentralen, gasgefeuerten GuD-Anlage, die etwa die Haelfte der bisherigen Anlagen ersetzt und zusammen mit den weiterhin genutzten Anlagen die Energieversorgung der Unternehmen sicherstellt. (orig./CB)

  17. Feedstock recycling of plastics. Selected papers presented at the third International Symposium on Feedstock Recycling of Plastics, Karlsruhe, Sept. 25-29, 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Müller-Hagedorn, Matthias; Bockhorn, Henning [Hrsg.

    2005-01-01

    Feedstock Recycling of Plastics gives a survey of actual fundamental and applied research. It consists of selected contributions that were presented during the Third International Symposium on Feedstock Recycling of Plastics & other Innovative Plastics Recycling Techniques in Karlsruhe (Germany), 2005. The following fundamental issues of feedstock recycling are covered: - Pyrolysis or solvolysis - Pyrolysis: Processes - Strategies - Usages - Modelling - Py...

  18. Vom Klangrausch des Nordwinds und der leeren Tafel der Seele. Lepo Sumeras vierte Symphonie "Serena Borealis" in Karlsruhe uraufgeführt: Eri Klas dirigierte im Konzert der Badischen Staatskapelle zu den Kulturtagen auch Musik von Arvo Pärt und Edua

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hartmann, Ulrich

    1992-01-01

    Lepo Sumera neljanda sümfoonia "Serena Borealis" esiettekanne Karlsruhes: Eri Klas dirigeeris kontserdil kultuuripäevade raames ka Arvo Pärdi ja Eduard Tubina muusikat. Eesti muusikute esinemisest Karlsruhe kultuuripäevadel

  19. PEP725: monitoring of apple flowering in the D-A-CH region in 2015 compared with Schnellés map from 1965

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungersböck, Markus; Paul, Anita; Hübner, Thomas; Koch, Elisabeth

    2016-04-01

    The main objective of PEP725 (Pan European Phenological database) is to promote and facilitate phenological research by delivering a pan European phenological database with an open, unrestricted data access for science, research and education. The project is funded by ZAMG, the Austrian ministry of science, research and economy and EUMETNET, the network of European meteorological services. So far 21 European meteorological services and 7 partners from different phenological network operators have joined PEP725.The first datasets in PEP725 date back to 1868; however, there are only a few observations available until 1950. From 1951 onwards, the phenological networks all over Europe developed rapidly. So far more than 11 800 000 of observations are stored now in the PEP725 database and approximately 40 % of all data are flowering records. In spring 2015 PEP725 has started to develop an online monitoring of selected phenological events in Austria, Germany and Switzerland. Since recently Deutscher Wetterdienst and meteoswiss offer their observers to upload their observations via web in real time mode. In Austria ZAMG introduced this web-based feature already in 2007 and offers a contemporary visualization tool (www.zamg.ac.at/phaenologie). Also some other European countries as for instance Italy, Sweden, The Netherlands, UK has been doing visualizations of ground phenology in real time for some years. But these efforts always end at the national borders. Here we will present a trans boundary visualization of apple flowering in 2015, a normal year compared to the mean 1981 to 2010 but early when looking at Schnellés European map of apple flowering in Europe which comprises the years from 1931 to 1937. In the D-A-CH region apple flowering started in East and Southeast Austria as well as in the upper Rhine valley in the first decade of April and moved northwards and upwards till it reached Northern Germany and higher lying Alpine areas at the beginning of May 2015.

  20. Removal efficiency of silver impregnated filter materials and performance of iodie filters in the off-gas of the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant WAK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, F.J.; Herrmann, B.; Hoeflich, V. [Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Karlsruhe (Germany)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    An almost quantitative retention of iodine is required in reprocessing plants. For the iodine removal in the off-gas streams of a reprocessing plant various sorption materials had been tested under realistic conditions in the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant WAK in cooperation with the Karlsruhe research center FZK. The laboratory results achieved with different iodine sorption materials justified long time performance tests in the WAK Plant. Technical iodine filters and sorption materials for measurements of iodine had been tested from 1972 through 1992. This paper gives an overview over the most important results, Extended laboratory, pilot plant, hot cell and plant experiences have been performed concerning the behavior and the distribution of iodine-129 in chemical processing plants. In a conventional reprocessing plant for power reactor fuel, the bulk of iodine-129 and iodine-127 is evolved into the dissolver off-gas. The remainder is dispersed over many aqueous, organic and gaseous process and waste streams of the plant. Iodine filters with silver nitrate impregnated silica were installed in the dissolver off-gas of the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant WAK in 1975 and in two vessel vent systems in 1988. The aim of the Karlsruhe iodine research program was an almost quantitative evolution of the iodine during the dissolution process to remove as much iodine with the solid bed filters as possible. After shut down of the WAK plant in December 1990 the removal efficiency of the iodine filters at low iodine concentrations had been investigated during the following years. 12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Comparison of local and regional heat transport processes into the subsurface urban heat island of Karlsruhe, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Susanne; Bayer, Peter; Menberg, Kathrin; Blum, Philipp

    2014-05-01

    Temperatures in shallow urban ground are typically elevated. They manifest as subsurface urban heat islands, which are observed worldwide in different metropolitan areas and which have a site-specific areal extent and intensity. As of right now the governing heat transport processes accumulating heat in the subsurface of cities are insufficiently understood. Based on a spatial assessment of groundwater temperatures, six individual heat flux processes could be identified: (1) heat flux from elevated ground surface temperatures (GST), (2) heat flux from basements of buildings, (3) reinjection of thermal waste water, (4) sewage drains, (5) sewage leakage, and (6) district heating. In this study, the contributions of these processes are quantified on local and regional scales for the city of Karlsruhe in Germany. For the regional scale, the Regionalized Monte Carlo (RMC) method is used. This method applies a single Monte Carlo (MC) simulation for the entire study area. At relatively low data demand, the RMC method provides basic insights into the heat contribution for the entire city. For the local scale, the Local Monte Carlo (LMC) method was developed and applied. This method analyzes all dominant heat fluxes spatially dependent by performing an MC simulation for each arbitrary sized pixel of the study area (here 10 x 10 m). This more intricate approach allows for a spatial representation of all heat flux processes, which is necessary for the local planning of geothermal energy use. In order to evaluate the heat transport processes on a regional scale, we compared the mean annual thermal energies that result from the individual heat flux processes. Both methods identify the heat flux from elevated GST and the heat flux from buildings as the dominant regional processes. However, reinjection of thermal wastewater is by far the most dominant local heat flux processes with an average heat flux of 16 ± 2 W/m2 in the affected areas. Although being dominant on the regional

  2. Establishing a Research Information System as Part of an Integrated Approach to Information Management: Best Practice at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Scholze

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT is one of the largest research and higher education organisations in the world focusing on engineering and natural sciences. At present KIT, under the chairmanship of its executive board, is installing an extensive current research information system (CRIS covering all institutes and facilities of the organisation. The assumption underlying the project is that a consistent overview of research performance has become fundamental for the international competitiveness of research institutions and is increasingly important for strategic decisions at the executive level. Ultimately, it also leads to better data and control in rankings at higher education assessments. The new research information system systematically maps all of KIT’s processes and instruments to obtain, connect, present and utilise the research metadata of active researchers. This reduces the documentation workload for researchers, for the executive level and central units such as the library, and at the same time allows for and facilitates an overall view and the aggregation and visualisation of research metadata. Our vision is to build a federally structured network of systems that gathers information on KIT’s publications, research competence, research projects, patents and technological offers by retrieving data from external and internal sources as well as directly from the researchers. The network facilitates linking and aggregating of data and provides unique identifiers for individual researchers and organizational units. With its consistent data model the research information system also fosters the organisational development of KIT, which was formed in 2009 by the merger of a university and a national research centre. The researchers and their activities are at the core of the research information system. The system substantially reduces their administrative burden in documenting project information and publications. Automatic

  3. ANITA-IEAF activation code package – updating of the decay and cross section data libraries and validation on the experimental data from the Karlsruhe Isochronous Cyclotron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frisoni Manuela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ANITA-IEAF is an activation package (code and libraries developed in the past in ENEA-Bologna in order to assess the activation of materials exposed to neutrons with energies greater than 20 MeV. An updated version of the ANITA-IEAF activation code package has been developed. It is suitable to be applied to the study of the irradiation effects on materials in facilities like the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF and the DEMO Oriented Neutron Source (DONES, in which a considerable amount of neutrons with energies above 20 MeV is produced. The present paper summarizes the main characteristics of the updated version of ANITA-IEAF, able to use decay and cross section data based on more recent evaluated nuclear data libraries, i.e. the JEFF-3.1.1 Radioactive Decay Data Library and the EAF-2010 neutron activation cross section library. In this paper the validation effort related to the comparison between the code predictions and the activity measurements obtained from the Karlsruhe Isochronous Cyclotron is presented. In this integral experiment samples of two different steels, SS-316 and F82H, pure vanadium and a vanadium alloy, structural materials of interest in fusion technology, were activated in a neutron spectrum similar to the IFMIF neutron field.

  4. ANITA-IEAF activation code package - updating of the decay and cross section data libraries and validation on the experimental data from the Karlsruhe Isochronous Cyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisoni, Manuela

    2017-09-01

    ANITA-IEAF is an activation package (code and libraries) developed in the past in ENEA-Bologna in order to assess the activation of materials exposed to neutrons with energies greater than 20 MeV. An updated version of the ANITA-IEAF activation code package has been developed. It is suitable to be applied to the study of the irradiation effects on materials in facilities like the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) and the DEMO Oriented Neutron Source (DONES), in which a considerable amount of neutrons with energies above 20 MeV is produced. The present paper summarizes the main characteristics of the updated version of ANITA-IEAF, able to use decay and cross section data based on more recent evaluated nuclear data libraries, i.e. the JEFF-3.1.1 Radioactive Decay Data Library and the EAF-2010 neutron activation cross section library. In this paper the validation effort related to the comparison between the code predictions and the activity measurements obtained from the Karlsruhe Isochronous Cyclotron is presented. In this integral experiment samples of two different steels, SS-316 and F82H, pure vanadium and a vanadium alloy, structural materials of interest in fusion technology, were activated in a neutron spectrum similar to the IFMIF neutron field.

  5. Conceptual design of a First Wall mock-up experiment in preparation for the qualification of breeding blanket technologies in the Helium Loop Karlsruhe (HELOKA) facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeile, C., E-mail: christian.zeile@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Abou-Sena, A.; Boccaccini, L.V.; Ghidersa, B.E.; Kang, Q.; Kunze, A. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Lamberti, L. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Dipartimento Energia, Politecnico di Torino (Italy); Maione, I.A.; Rey, J.; Weth, A. von der [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Experiment in preparation for the qualification of Breeding Blanket technologies in HELOKA facility is proposed. • Experimental capabilities, instrumentation of the mock-up and experimental program are presented. • Design and manufacturing of the mock-up is described. • Design of modular attachment system to obtain different stress levels and distributions on the mock-up is discussed. - Abstract: An experimental program based on a First Wall mock-up is presented as preparation for the qualification of breeding blanket mock-ups at high heat flux in the Helium Loop Karlsruhe (HELOKA) facility. Two objectives of the experimental program have been defined: testing of the experimental setup and a first validation of FE models. The design and manufacturing of mock-up representing about 1/3 of the heated zone of an ITER Test Blanket Module (TBM) First Wall is discussed. A modular attachment system concept has been developed for the fixation of the mock-up in order to be able to generate different stress distributions and levels on the plate, which is confirmed by thermo-mechanical analyses. The HELOKA facility is able to provide a TBM relevant helium cooling system and to generate the required surface heat flux by an electron beam gun. An installed IR camera can be used to measure the temperature distribution on the surface.

  6. Scientists from all over the world attend the ''Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School 2009'' at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT); Wissenschaftler aus aller Welt bei der ''Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School 2009'' am Karlsruhe Institute of Technologie (KIT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Espinoza, Victor Hugo; Fischer, Ulrich [Karlsruhe Inst. of Tech. (KIT), Campus Nord/Inst. for Neutron Physics and Reactor Tech. (INR), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    The ''Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School'' is organized each year alternately by the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology and the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA), Cadarache. This year's Summer School, the 15th since its foundation, was run at the Advanced Training Center (FTU) of KIT Campus Nord on August 26 to September 4. The key topic this year was ''The Challenges in Implementing Fast Reactor Technology.'' These are the items discussed: Principles and challenges of future fast reactor designs, Fuels, fuel cycle, and recycling of minor actinides, Innovative cladding tube and structural materials, Special aspects of coolants and the challenges they pose, Fast reactor safety. Experts from 8 leading international research establishments and universities presented and discussed with the 58 participants from 16 countries the current state of the art and the latest development trends in the topics listed above. (orig.)

  7. Experience in Remote Demolition of the Activated Biological Shielding of the Multi Purpose Research Reactor (MZFR) on the German Karlsruhe Site - 12208

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenmann, Beata; Fleisch, Joachim; Prechtl, Erwin; Suessdorf, Werner; Urban, Manfred [WAK Rueckbau- und Entsorgungs- GmbH, P.O.Box 12 63, 76339 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    In 2009, WAK Decommissioning and Waste Management GmbH (WAK) became owner and operator of the waste treatment facilities of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) as well as of the prototype reactors, the Compact Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (KNK) and Multi-Purpose Reactor (MZFR), both being in an advanced stage of dismantling. Together with the dismantling and decontamination activities of the former WAK reprocessing facility since 1990, the envisaged demolishing of the R and D reactor FR2 and a hot cell facility, all governmentally funded nuclear decommissioning projects on the Karlsruhe site are concentrated under the WAK management. The small space typical of prototype research reactors represented a challenge also during the last phase of activated dismantling, dismantling of the activated biological shield of the MZFR. Successful demolition of the biological shield required detailed planning and extensive testing in the years before. In view of the limited space and the ambient dose rate that was too high for manual work, it was required to find a tool carrier system to take up and control various demolition and dismantling tools in a remote manner. The strategy formulated in the concept of dismantling the biological shield by means of a modified electro-hydraulic demolition excavator in an adaptable working scaffolding turned out to be feasible. The following boundary conditions were essential: - Remote exchange of the dismantling and removal tools in smallest space. - Positioning of various supply facilities on the working platform. - Avoiding of interfering edges. - Optimization of mass flow (removal of the dismantled mass from the working area). - Maintenance in the surroundings of the dismantling area (in the controlled area). - Testing and qualification of the facilities and training of the staff. Both the dismantling technique chosen and the proceeding selected proved to be successful. Using various designs of universal cutters developed on the basis of

  8. Modeling Groundwater-Quality Data from In-Situ Mesocosms Using PHREEQC to Provide Insights into the Electron Donors Involved in Denitrification in the Karlsruhe Aquifer, ND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korom, S. F.; Tesfay, T.

    2009-12-01

    Groundwater nitrate concentrations in the Karlsruhe aquifer in north-central North Dakota increased in the mid-1990s. In response, state regulators developed a remediation plan that included research into the natural denitrifying capabilities of the aquifer, including the analysis of aquifer sediment samples and the installation of a pair of in-situ mesocosms (ISMs) below the water table to study denitrification reactions. Sediment analysis showed concentrations of the potential electron donors ferrous iron, inorganic sulfide, and organic carbon (OC). X-ray diffraction showed the dominant minerals are quartz, plagioclase feldspar, alkali feldspar, calcite, and dolomite, with lesser amounts of ferrous-iron silicates (chlorite, hornblende, biotite) and pyrite. In the ISMs tracer tests were initiated by pumping groundwater from them, amending it with sodium nitrate and sodium bromide (Br was used as a tracer for nitrate), and pumping the amended water back into the ISMs. The large size of the ISMs (> 180 L of aquifer sediments) allowed large samples (> 1 L) to be taken from the ISMs about every two months for over two years. Samples were analyzed for major ions and saturation indices [SI = log (ion activity product/equilibrium constant)] computed. Any loss of nitrate beyond that attributable to dilution, based on the Br tracer, was considered denitrified. Major sulfate minerals were undersaturated in the ISMs; therefore, any increase in sulfate was attributed to the oxidation of pyrite. PHREEQC was used to determine if the remaining nitate lost to denitrification could be explained best by a reaction with ferrous-iron silicate (as grunerite), organic carbon (as CH2O), or a 50/50 stoichiometric mix of both. After each simulation, the modeled groundwater was “equilibrated” with quartz, albite, anorthite, calcite, dolomite, chlorite, and magnesite, such that the modeled groundwater and the actual groundwater had the same SI values for these minerals. Simulated

  9. Development of new auxiliary basis functions of the Karlsruhe segmented contracted basis sets including diffuse basis functions (def2-SVPD, def2-TZVPPD, and def2-QVPPD) for RI-MP2 and RI-CC calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellweg, Arnim; Rappoport, Dmitrij

    2015-01-14

    We report optimized auxiliary basis sets for use with the Karlsruhe segmented contracted basis sets including moderately diffuse basis functions (Rappoport and Furche, J. Chem. Phys., 2010, 133, 134105) in resolution-of-the-identity (RI) post-self-consistent field (post-SCF) computations for the elements H-Rn (except lanthanides). The errors of the RI approximation using optimized auxiliary basis sets are analyzed on a comprehensive test set of molecules containing the most common oxidation states of each element and do not exceed those of the corresponding unaugmented basis sets. During these studies an unsatisfying performance of the def2-SVP and def2-QZVPP auxiliary basis sets for Barium was found and improved sets are provided. We establish the versatility of the def2-SVPD, def2-TZVPPD, and def2-QZVPPD basis sets for RI-MP2 and RI-CC (coupled-cluster) energy and property calculations. The influence of diffuse basis functions on correlation energy, basis set superposition error, atomic electron affinity, dipole moments, and computational timings is evaluated at different levels of theory using benchmark sets and showcase examples.

  10. Schnelle Rasterkraftmikroskopie durch moderne Regelungstechnik und mechatronische Systemintegration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steininger, J.; Kuiper, S.; Schitter, G.; Ito, S.

    2012-01-01

    In atomic force microscopy (AFM) high-performance and high precision control of the scanning-system is crucial. At high imaging speeds the dynamic behaviour of the scanner may cause imaging artefacts limiting the maximum imaging rate. This contribution discusses recent improvements for faster

  11. Fast abdominal magnetic resonance imaging; Schnelle Abdomenbildgebung in der Magnetresonanztomografie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budjan, J.; Schoenberg, S.O.; Riffel, P. [University Medical Center Mannheim (Germany). Dept. of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine

    2016-06-15

    Abdominal imaging is the driving force that necessitates the development of numerous techniques for accelerated image acquisition in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Today, numerous techniques are available that enable rapid, high spatial resolution acquisition for both T1 and T2 weighted images. These techniques open new opportunities in the detection and classification of numerous pathologies in the abdomen. However, there is still ongoing progress in the development of fast and ultrafast sequences and promising techniques are currently close to clinical application. With these 4D-technologies, MRI is becoming the central imaging modality for dynamic, motion-compensated imaging of the parenchymal abdominal organs such as liver, pancreas and kidney.

  12. The Karlsruhe Atmospheric Mesoscale Model KAMM; Das Karlsruher Atmosphaerische Mesoskalige Modell KAMM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adrian, G. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Umwelt und Technik (Germany). Inst. fuer Meteorologie und Klimaforschung]|[Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.). (Germany). Inst. fuer Meteorologie und Klimaforschung

    1998-01-01

    The applications of the KAMM model range from real-time simulations over the analysis of mesoscale phenomena and the development of parametrizations to describing climatology. In the course of time, wishes emerged to change essential parts of the original model concept, calling for substantial reprogramming; so it was decided to entirely redraft the dynamic core of KAMM and to program it from the beginning including the parallelization of the code. The paper describes the basics of the new model core. (orig./KW) [Deutsch] Der Anwendungsbereich des KAMM-Modells erstreckt sich von Echtzeitsimulationen, ueber Analyse mesoskaliger Phaenomene, Entwicklung von Parametrisierungen bis hin zur beschreibenden Klimatologie. Weil im Laufe der Entstehungszeit wesentliche Aenderungswuensche des urspruenglichen Konzeptes entstanden sind, die eine Neuprogrammierung in wesentlichen Teilen erforderlich erscheinen lassen, wurde entschieden, den dynamischen Kern von KAMM voellig neu zu gestalten und bei der Programmierung eine Parallelisierung des Codes von Anfang an mit einzubeziehen. Die Grundlagen dieses neuen Modellkernes werden vorgestellt. (orig./KW)

  13. Verfahren und Anordnung zur Stromversorgung eines Messlasers, insbesondere eines Diodenlasers zur absorptionsspektroskopischen Spurengasanalytik

    OpenAIRE

    Werle, P.

    1994-01-01

    The invention relates to a process and a setup for the power supply of a measurement laser, in particular a diode laser for absorption-spectroscopic trace gas analysis. According to the invention, a diode laser power supply output stage with an extremely low bandwidth is used, whereby there is full electrical isolation between the direct-current diode laser power supply and a tuning signal implemented in the diode laser using optical means. Faults, which otherwise access the diode laser via t...

  14. Optische Anordnung zur Laserinterferenzstrukturierung einer Probe mit Strahlführung gleicher Wellenlänge

    OpenAIRE

    Lasagni, A.F.; Bieda, M.

    2012-01-01

    The arrangement has a beam splitter (1), on which a laser beam along main optical axis (H) is radiated to the arrangement and is divided into transmitted beam portion (tl) and reflected beam portion (rl). A lower positioning mirror (2t) is arranged in the beam path of transmitted beam portion and upper positioning mirror (2r) is arranged in beam path of reflected beam portion. The positioning mirrors are arranged and aligned for reflecting the two beams on a common target point (Z) so that op...

  15. Sandwiched Between Strasbourg and Karlsruhe: EU Fundamental Rights Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reestman, J.H.; Besselink, L.

    2016-01-01

    Starting out from the notion of the `Verfassungsgerichtsverbund´, coined by the President Vosskuhle of the German Federal Constitutional Court, this contribution sketches the manner in which the European Court of Justice operates, sandwiched in between the European Court of Human Rights that sets a

  16. Status of the CERN-Karlsruhe superconducting RF particle separator

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, W; Dammertz, G; Grundner, M; Husson, L; Lengeler, H; Rathgeber, E

    1975-01-01

    Measurements of single cavity sections and of two joined sections are reported. The problem of storing heat treated sections until final assembly has been investigated. Flooding a cavity at room temperature with nitrogen deteriorates its performance, after the cavity was once excited to a peak electric field of 30 MV/m, corresponding to a peak magnetic field of 850 G and a deflecting field of 5.5 Mv/m. This effect is assumed to be due to a sensibilization of the surface oxides by field emission electrons. The effect is not observed after an electric field of up to 15 MV/m and it also does not appear when the cavity is flooded with argon. (14 refs).

  17. Interferometrisches Verfahren und Interferometer mit einem Diodenlaser: Verfahren und Anordnung zur Absolutinterferometrie mit durch Diodenlaser erzeugter Strahlung (A1)

    OpenAIRE

    Werle, P.

    1997-01-01

    Using the process according to the invention and the arrangement for absolute interferometry specified for performing the process using radiation generated by diode lasers, relative or absolute distance measurements can be performed without reference interferometers using only one detector and with high precision of the test section measurement. The basic idea of the invention is to modulate radiation generated by a diode laser in such a way that at least a discrete frequency is imposed on th...

  18. Process and device for using solar energy for vehicles. Verfahren und Anordnung zur Nutzung solarer Energie fuer Kraftfahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schirm, V.; Winterling, G.

    1987-05-21

    This is a process for using solar energy for vehicles, where solar cells situated in or below the surface of the bodywork or superstructure produce electrical DC from the effect of light, by which either a fan for supplying fresh air to the passenger compartment or to the load space is driven, or the batteries of the vehicle are charged. The solar cells form a solar cell panel, which consists of two adjacent solar cell areas of the same photoelectric output. The solar cell areas can be connected in parallel or in series electrically and each solar cell area generates a DC voltage at average solar irradiation, which is about half the voltage supplied by the battery or batteries and the solar cell areas are connected in parallel to drive the fan or in series to charge the battery (or batteries).

  19. Safe and fast handling of solar cells; Sicheres und schnelles Handhaben von Solarzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otto, Claudia

    2008-11-15

    As the degree of automation in the production of PV systems is increasing, the focus of developments on flexible and fast solutions. The solar industry can optimise itsproduction processes by using robot systems for handling of solar cells, contactless transport units, and production systems for solar cell strings. (orig.)

  20. Schnelle Daten für die Wissenschaft - World Wide Web nimmt wichtige Hürde

    CERN Multimedia

    Hoffmann, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    The scientific Grid Computing reached a milestone: eight large research centers in Europe and United States exchanged a continuous data stream of 600 megabyte per second over ten days. In ten days the sent away data set corresponds to a half Petabyte

  1. High-speed pyrolysis with circulating heat carriers; Schnell-Pyrolyse mit zirkulierenden Waermetraegern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmalfeld, J.; Albrecht, J.; Solmaz, S.; Zentner, U. [Lurgi Energie und Umwelt GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    Yields and product compositions of pyrolysis reactions depend on the mode of heat supply, the temperature level, and the time of residue at reaction temperature. Using hot circulating granular materials mixed with solid or liquid materials (e.g. biogenic or hydrocarbon-rich residues and waste materials or refinery residues), the following important processes can be investigated: Separation of pyrolysis reaction and heat supply - accurate, optimal temperature levels for pyrolysis, e.g. between 5000 and 850 degrees centigrade - undiluted, unmixed pyrolysis gas - short times of residue of the pyrolysis gas for suppression of secondary reactions. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ausbeuten und Produktzusammensetzung von Pyrolyse-Reaktionen werden weitestgehend durch die Art und Weise der Waermezufuhr, das Temperaturniveau und die Verweilzeit bei Reaktionstemperatur bestimmt. Mit Hilfe des Prinzips heisser, umlaufender, koerniger Waermetraeger in Vermischung - fuer die Pyrolyse-Reaktion - mit festen oder fluessigen Einsatzstoffen (z.B. biogene oder kohlenwasserstoffreiche Rest-/Abfallstoffe, Raffinerie-Rueckstaende) lassen sich folgende wichtige, haeufig gewuenschte Vorgaenge realisieren: - Trennung von Pyrolyse-Reaktion und Waermeversorgung - Temperaturgenaue Pyrolyse-Reaktion auf gewuenschtem, optimalem Niveau waehlbar zwischen z.B. 5000 C und 850 C - Erhalt eines unverduennten, unvermischten Pyrolysegases - Kurze Verweilzeiten des Pyrolysegases zur Unterdrueckung von Sekundaerreaktionen. (orig.)

  2. Schnelles Wachstum der Breitbandzugänge zum Internet und ihrer Kapazitäten

    OpenAIRE

    Schedl, Hans

    2005-01-01

    Deutschland bei Breitband-Übertragungsgeschwindigkeiten in der Spitzengruppe: Von 2004 auf 2005 sind die Breitbandzugänge zum Internet in der EU weiterhin stark gestiegen. Hierbei ist jedoch zu berücksichtigen, dass in manchen Mitgliedsländern (wie Spanien und Frankreich) bereits Internetzugänge mit Geschwindigkeiten von mehr als 128kbit/s als Breitbandzugänge gezählt werden. Diese Übertragungsgeschwindigkeiten sind für moderne Breitbanddienste wie die Internettelefonie (in Verbindung mit dem...

  3. "Die Toten reiten schnelle." Literarische Zitate in Briefen von und an Alexander von Humboldt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo Schwarz

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Article in GermanAbstract in English and GermanAlexander von Humboldt and his correspondents liked to enrich or embellish their letters with quotations from classic works of ancient literature as well as from recent poems, plays, or novels. This paper tries to show that references to literature were very often used in order to express thoughts and feelings more clearly not so much for impressing the recipients of letters with high education. In educated circles a good knowledge of ancient and modern works of literature was a standard requirement, which often allowed the letter writers to use quotations in a playful manner.

  4. Radioactivity levels in mushrooms collected in the area of Karlsruhe during 1987 and 1988. Radioaktivitaetsgehalte von 1987 und 1988 im Raum Karlsruhe gesammelten Pilzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rueckert, G. (Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany, F.R.). Botanisches Inst. und Botanischer Garten); Diehl, J.F.; Heilgeist, M. (Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Ernaehrung, Karlsruhe (Germany, F.R.). Zentrallaboratorium fuer Isotopentechnik)

    1990-01-01

    Radioactive contamination of wild-growing mushrooms collected in the Northern Black Forest and neighbouring Rhine Valley area has been monitored since the Chernobyl reactor accident. Cs-134, Cs-137, Ag-110m and the natural nuclide K-40 were determined by gamma-spectrometry. Pooled data from all species and all locations showed a decrease in the radio-caesium levels from 1986 to 1988, both in mean values and maximum values. Samples of the same species collected at the same location exhibited large differences, although mixed samples rather than individual mushrooms were measured. Accumulation of caesium was observed particularly in Laccaria amethystina, Xerocomus badius, Xerocomus chrysenteron, Cantharellus tubaeformis, Laccaria laccata, and Russula ochroleuca, with maximum values of 3600 (1986), 2000 (1987), and 1200 (1988) Bq/kg of radio-caesium. A large number of species, among them Calocybe gambosa and Coprinus comatus, showed very small accumulations or no caesium. An accumulation of silver was found in Macrolepiota rhacodes and Agaricus arvensis, which contained a maximum of 11 Bq/kg Ag-110m. (orig.).

  5. Quick method for the determination of the luteinizing hormone (LH). Eine schnelle Methode der radioimmunologischen Bestimmung des luteinisierenden Hormons (LH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, R.

    1985-01-17

    A radioimmunological determination method for luteinizing hormone (LH) was developed, whose time requirement could be reduced from 2 days down to 2 hours. All of the parameters influenced by the test were studied and for the test correspondingly optimized. The biggest advantages of this method are the accuracy in the nanogram area, the non-dependence on the cooperation and discipline of the patients (immunological LH-measurements in urine), and the lack of time-consuming preparations and increasing costs in large treatment centers, where, for example, a large number of patients for insemination or in vitro fertilization would need to be observed at the same time. The results were tested for correctness against clinical and clinical-chemical criteria and compared with results of recently used methods. (TRV).

  6. Ein DSP-Synthesetool für schnelle Low-Power-Implementatierungen von DSP-Algorithmen

    OpenAIRE

    Drollinger, Andreas; Heubi, Alexandre; Balsiger, Peter; Pellandini, Fausto

    2007-01-01

    Dieser Artikel präsentiert ein high-level DSP-Synthesetool für Zyklus-limitierte Filter- und Datenpfadapplikationen. Das Synthesetool bildet einen einfachen und schnellen Designweg von der Gleichungsbeschreibung eines DSP-Algorithmus bis hin zu einer synthetisierbaren VHDL-Beschreibung. Es erzeugt anwendungs-spezifische DSP-Architekturen, welche den hohen Randbedingungen von Lowest-Power-Applikationen Rechnung tragen. Sämtliche Operationen der Designsynthese, inklusive der Quantifizierung der...

  7. Status seminar: rapidly biodegradable lubricants and working agents; Statusseminar: Biologisch schnell abbaubare Schmier- und Verfahrensstoffe. Guelzower Fachgespraeche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    Lubricants and hydraulic fluids based on vegetable oils have many advantages over mineral oils. They are biodegradable, have excellent tribological, wear and lubricating properties. The topics of the status seminar were: field test with biodegradable hydraulic fluids, chemical modification, additives, wear resistance, tribology. Examples of biodegradable oils were sunflower oil, rape oil and sunthetic esters.

  8. Experimental studies on the thermal properties of fast pulsed superconducting accelerator magnets; Experimentelle Untersuchungen thermischer Eigenschaften schnell gepulster supraleitender Beschleunigermagnete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleile, Alexander

    2016-01-06

    The new Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research FAIR is being constructed at the GSI research center in Darmstadt (Germany). This wordwide unique accelerator facility will provide beams of ions and antiprotons at high intensities and high energies for the fundamental research in nuclear, atomic and plasma physics as well as for applied science. The superconducting synchrotron SIS100 with a magnetic rigidity of 100 T/m, the core component of the FAIR facility will provide primary ion beams of all types from hydrogen up to uranium. One of the key technical systems of a new synchrotron are fast ramped electromagnets for the generation of fast ramped magnetic fields for deflecting and focusing of the ion beams. To reduce the energy consumption and to keep the operating costs of the synchrotron as low as possible superconducting magnet technology is applied in the SIS100. Superconducting magnets have been developed at GSI within the scope of the FAIR project. Although the superconducting magnet technology promises high cost saving, the power consumption of the fast ramped superconducting magnets can't be completely neglected. The pulsed operation generates dynamic losses in the iron yokes as well as in the superconducting coils of the magnets. A forced two-phase helium flow provides effective cooling for supercounducting magnets exposed to a continous relative high heat flow. The subject of this PhD thesis is experimental investigations and analysis of the dynamic power losses in fast ramped superconducting magnets and their dependencies on the operation cycles of the synchrotron. This research was conducted on the the first series SIS100 dipole magnet. Based on the experimentally defined dynamic heat loads and helium mass flow rates in the dipole magnet the heat loads and helium consumption for all other types of superconducting magnet modules of the SIS100 have been estimated. These results are essential for the development of the cooling system for the the superconducting magnets in the SIS100 accelerator ring and for the stable operation of the synchrotron.

  9. Quick nmr spectroscopic image processing in human brain; Schnelle {sup 1}H-MR-spektroskopische Bildgebung am Gehirn des Menschen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, T.; Aisenbrey, C.; Bachert, P. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Abt. Biophysik und Medizinische Strahlenphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Techniques allowing the reduction of the measurement tome of MR spectroscopic imaging of protons ({sup 1}H S1) were studied in a 1.5-T whole-body MR tomograph. The purpose was to facilitate the inclusion of the modality into an MRT routine protocol for examination of the human brain. The techniques were evaluated in a study with 6 healthy volunteers. Shortening of the measurement times can be achieved by reducing the number of phase-encoding steps with spherical k-space sampling, or by using delay times during T{sub g} periods for excitation and detection of several slices or echos. Since the tomograph enables echo-planar imaging, multi-gradient-echo techniques were implemented, thus sparing one phase-encoding gradient and shortening the measurement time by a factor of N. Due to signal loss, however, this technique is applicable only when the concentration of the metabolites of interest is sufficiently high to obtain a signal-to-noise ratio of at least 2 with a single acquisition. (orig.) [German] An einem 1,5-T-Ganzkoerper-MR-Tomographen wurden Techniken zur Verkuerzung der Messzeit der MR-spektroskopischen Bildgebung von Protonen ({sup 1}H-S1) untersucht. Das Ziel war es, die Einbindung dieser Modalitaet in ein MRT-Routineprotokoll fuer Untersuchungen des Gehirns des Menschen zu erleichtern. Dazu wurden die Techniken an 6 Probanden validiert. Moeglichkeiten der Messzeitreduktion bestehen darin, die Anzahl der Phasenkodierschritte durch sphaerische k-Raum-Kodierung zu verringern oder die Wartezeit waehrend einer T{sub R}-Periode zur Messung mehrerer Schichten oder mehrerer Echos zu nutzen. Auf dem Echo-Planar-Imaging-faehigen MR-Tomographen konnten Multigradientenecho-Verfahren realisiert werden, die einen Phasenkodiergradienten ersparen, wodurch sich die Messzeit um den Faktor N verkuerzt. Aufgrund des Signalverlustes ist diese Technik allerdings nur einsetzbar, wenn die betrachteten Substanzen in so hoher Konzentration vorliegen, dass bereits bei einer Akquisition ein Signal-Rausch-Verhaeltnis von mindestens 2 erreicht werden kann.

  10. Rapid total body fat measurement by magnetic resonance imaging: quantification and topography; Schnelle Ganzkoerperfettmessung mittels MRT: Quantifizierung und Topografie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, F.M.; Hunold, P.; Greiff, A. de; Nuefer, M.; Barkhausen, J.; Ladd, S.C. [Uniklinikum Essen (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Ruehm, S. [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    2007-05-15

    Purpose: To evaluate a rapid and comprehensive MR protocol based on a T1-weighted sequence in conjunction with a rolling table platform for the quantification of total body fat. Materials and Methods: 11 healthy volunteers and 50 patients were included in the study. MR data was acquired on a 1.5-T system (Siemens Magnetom Sonata). An axial T1-weighted flash 2D sequence (TR 101, TE 4.7, FA 70, FOV 50 cm, 205 x 256 matrix, slice thickness: 10 mm, 10 mm interslice gap) was used for data acquisition. Patients were placed in a supine position on a rolling table platform capable of acquiring multiple consecutive data sets by pulling the patient through the isocenter of the magnet. Data sets extending from the upper to lower extremities were collected. The images were analyzed with respect to the amount of intraabdominal, subcutaneous and total abdominal fat by semi-automated image segmentation software that employs a contour-following algorithm. Results: The obtained MR images were able to be evaluated for all volunteers and patients. Excellent correlation was found between whole body MRI results in volunteers with DEXA (r{sup 2} = 0.95) and bioimpedance (r{sup 2} = 0.89) measurements, while the correlation coefficient was 0.66 between MRI and BMI, indicating only moderate reliability of the BMI method. Variations in patients with respect to the amount of total, subcutaneous, and intraabdominal adipose tissue was not related to standard anthropometric measurements and metabolic lipid profiles (r{sup 2} = 0,001 to 0.48). The results showed that there was a significant variation in intraabdominal adipose tissue which could not be predicted from the total body fat (r{sup 2} = 0.14) or subcutaneous adipose tissue (r{sup 2} = 0.04). Although no significant differences in BMI could be found between females and males (p = 0.26), females showed significantly higher total and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (p < 0.05). Conclusion. (orig.)

  11. Verfahren und Anordnung zur Kompensation von polarisationsabhaengiger Frequenzverschiebung (PDFS) in optischen Wellenleitern sowie ein entsprechendes Computerprogramm und ein entsprechendes computerlesbares Speichermedium

    OpenAIRE

    M. Schell; Yao, H.; Keil, N.; Zawadzki, C.

    2007-01-01

    WO 2009003864 A1 UPAB: 20090205 NOVELTY - The method involves compensating a double refraction in wave guides in an interferometer i.e. Mach-Zender interferometer (10), and inserting a half-lambda plate (11) into a beam path of the interferometer. The wave guides on right and left sections of the plate (11) are sectionally brought to a preset temperature. The right section of the plate is brought to a temperature and the left section of the plate is brought to another temperature. Adjustment ...

  12. Process for optimising the energy consumption of buildings and device for carrying out the process. Verfahren zum Optimieren des Energieverbrauches in Gebaeuden sowie Anordnung zur Durchfuehrung des Verfahrens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheler, M.; Daab, H.

    1980-06-26

    The invention refers to a process for optimising the energy consumption of buildings with times of occupation which change according to a certain time programme, which will achieve a preselected reference temperature by controlled switching on and off of the energy supply for heating and cooling during the times of occupation, and where the switching time depends on certain variables and parameters. The invention is characterized by the fact that the required switch on and switch off times are measured, stored and used to calculate the next optimum switch-on and switch-off times, taking the instaneous values of the variables into account.

  13. Process for optimizing the energy consumption in buildings and device for carrying out the process. Verfahren zum Optimieren des Energieverbrauches in Gebaeuden sowie Anordnung zur Durchfuehrung des Verfahrens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheler, M.; Daab, H.

    1982-04-15

    The invention refers to a process for optimizing the energy consumption in buildings with occupation times changing according to a certain time program, where a preselected temperature is reached by controlled switching on and off of the energy supply for heating and for cooling during the times of occupation. The time of switching is made dependent on certain variables and parameters. The invention is characterized by the fact that the actual switching on and off times are measured, are stored taking the variables into account, and are used to calculate subsequent switching times, again taking into account momentary and variable factors. This process according to the invention is particularly distinguished by the fact that it can be used for buildings with heating and/or cooling, and that the required switching times are optimized by exact measurements. For longer term changes of the building parameters, there is automatic adaptation to the changed situation. A microprocessor is used for calculating the switching times. (HWJ).

  14. Anordnung zur Durchfuehrung eines Verfahrens zur Untersuchung der Wirkung eines gasfoermigen Mediums auf ein biologisches Pruefsystem unter Verwendung eines extrazellulaeren Metabolisierungssystems

    OpenAIRE

    Knebel, J.; Ritter, D.

    2009-01-01

    DE 102009039868 A1 UPAB: 20110331 NOVELTY - The arrangement of explosion devices (10) for carrying out a process for monitoring the effect of a gaseous medium on a biological test system (28) under use of an extracellular metabolizing system, comprises a permeable carrier (30) that is arranged on the biological test system over which a gaseous medium is introduced over the surface of the test system for forming an explosion atmosphere above the test system, and a supply system (40) that consi...

  15. [Radioactivity levels in mushrooms collected in the area of Karlsruhe during 1987 and 1988].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rückert, G; Diehl, J F; Heilgeist, M

    1990-06-01

    Radioactive contamination of wild-growing mushrooms collected in the Northern Black Forest and neighbouring Rhine Valley area has been monitored since the Chernobyl reactor accident. Cs-134, CS-137, Ag-100m and the natural nuclide K-40 were determined by gamma-spectrometry. Pooled data from all species and all locations showed a decrease in the radio-caesium levels from 1986 to 1988, both in mean values and maximum values. Samples of the same species collected at the same location exhibited large differences, although mixed samples rather than individual mushrooms were measured. Accumulation of caesium was observed particularly in Laccaria amethystina, Xerocomus badius, Xerocomus chrysenteron, Cantharellus tubaeformis, Laccaria laccata, and Russula ochroleuca, with maximum values of 3600 (1986), 2000 (1987), and 1200 (1988) Bq/kg of radiocaesium. A large number of species, among them Calocybe gambosa and Coprinus comatus, showed very small accumulations or no caesium. An accumulation of silver was found in Macrolepiota rhacodes and Agaricus arvensis, which contained a maximum of 11 Bq/kg Ag-110m.

  16. Long-term permeator experiment PETRA at the tritium laboratory Karlsruhe: commissioning tests with tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penzhorn, R.D.; Berndt, U.; Kirste, E.; Hellriegel, W.; Jung, W.; Pejsa, R.; Romer, O. [Research Center Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1995-10-01

    During the commissioning of the PETRA facility, the PETRA PdAg permeator was characterized using hydrogen isotopes by determining the hydrogen curves for H{sub 2}, D{sub 2} and DT as well as He curves for various H{sub 2}/D{sub 2}/He gas mixtures at 300 and 400{degree}C. A method was developed to verify the mechanical integrity of the permeator during runs with the tritium. The H{sub 2} and D{sub 2} permeation losses into the isolation vacuum of the permeator were quantified. Hydrogen permeation into the isolation vacuum could be kept at levels low enough to permit an undisturbed continuous operation of the permeator using a ZrCo tritium storage vessel. It was shown that the combination of the PETRA facility with a Normetex scroll pump, it is possible to extract at <320{degree}C >98% of the hydrogen isotopes from the ZrCo storage vessel with (a) negligible permeation losses, (b) without the danger of disproportionation of the intermetallic compound and (c) with the minimization of the tritium inventory in the facility. 5 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Correlations of the chemical shift on fasly rotating biological solids by means of NMR spectroscopy; Korrelationen der chemischen Verschiebung an schnell rotierenden biologischen Festkoerpern mittels NMR-Spektroskopie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, Christian

    2010-04-27

    The basic aim of the thesis was the development and improvement of homo- and heteronuclear feedback sequences for the generation of correlation spectra of the chemical shift. In a first step the possibility of the acquisition of {sup 13}C-{sup 13} correlation spectra of the chemical shift by means of inversion pulses with low RF power factor was studied. Furthermore it was shown that broad-band phase-modulated inversion and universal rotational pulses can be constructed by means of global optimization procedures like the genetic algorithms under regardment of the available RF field strength. By inversion, universal rotational, and 360 pulses as starting values of the optimization efficient homonuclear CN{sub n}{sup {nu}} and RN{sub n}{sup {nu}} mixing sequences as well as heteronuclear RN{sub n}{sup {nu}{sub s},{nu}{sub k}} feedback sequences were generated. The satisfactory power of the numerically optimized sequences was shown by means of the simulation as well by means of correlation experiments of the chemical shift of L-histidine, L-arginine, and the (CUG){sub 97}-RNA. This thesis deals furthermore with the possibility to acquire simultaneously different signals with several receivers. By means of numerically optimized RN{sub n}{sup {nu}{sub s},{nu}{sub k}} pulse sequences both {sup 15}N-{sup 13}C and {sup 13}C-{sup 15}N correlation spectra were simultaneously generated. Furthermore it could be shown that the simultaneous acquisition of 3D-{sup 15}N-{sup 13}C-{sup 13}C and {sup 13}C-{sup 15}N-({sup 1}H)-{sup 1}H correlation spectra is possible. By this in only one measurement process resonance assignments can be met and studies of the global folding performed. A further application of several receivers is the simultaneous acquisition of CHHC, NHHN, NHHC, as well as CHHN spectra. By such experiments it is possible to characterize the hydrogen-bonding pattern and the glycosidic torsion angle {sup {chi}} in RNA. This was demonstrated by means of the (CUG){sub 97}-RNA. The simultaneous acquisition of all relevant crossing signals of the correlation spectra leads not only to an essential time saving, but is also necessary for the quantitative determination of {sup 1}H-{sup 1}H distances.

  18. How fast can I drive with autogas, biogas or natural gas?; Wie schnell kann ich mit Autogas, Biogas oder Erdgas Auto fahren?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biedenkopf, P. [Tyczka Energie GmbH und Co KGaA, Geretsried (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Mobility is one of the most important characteristic of modern societies. Due to the finite nature of fossil fuels as well as due to political basic conditions the development of the mobility only is connected with a diversification of the fuel supply. Beside liquid fuels, gases as a source of energy become more important. Under this aspect, within the scope of the 3rd symposium ''Processes and materials for energy technologies'', held between 20th and 21st June, 2007, at the ATZ Entwicklungszentrum in Sulzbach-Rosenberg (Federal Republic of Germany), the author reports on the state of the spreading of autogas, fermentation gas and natural gas as energy source. These gases represent promising fuels for the diversification of the fuel system. Generally, in comparison of liquid fuels the operating costs per kilometre are lower in the case of gaseous fuels. Due to the lower density of the gaseous fuels, the savings are not so elevated as expected. Due to the favourable rearrangement and the nearly surface covering supply of autogas stations, the gaseous fuel autogas is most used in comparison to fermentation gas and natural gas. Principally, one can drive with autogas, fermentation gas and natural gas everywhere and at any time. The velocity essentially depends on the performance of the engine and not on the fuel itself.

  19. Prefabricated modular district heating station is available rapidly. Welded transfer station DSP Midi; Vorgefertigte, modulare Fernwaermestation ist schnell verfuegbar. Geschweisste Uebergabestation DSP Midi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Joern [Danfoss GmbH, Hamburg (Germany). District Energy Div.

    2012-03-15

    Danfoss GmbH (Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany) has developed a modular, standardized approach for welded district heating stations. The prefabricated transfer stations with a capacity up to 250 kW can be supplied in a compact frame. These stations have short delivery times and are extremely flexible: DSP MIDI systems have a modular design and adapters. Thus, DSP MIDI systems cover about 90 % of the technical connection requirements in Germany.

  20. Establishment of threshold values for bioeffects of magnetic fields with fast time variability; Bestimmung der Schwellenwerte fuer Bioeffekte zeitlich schnell veraenderlicher Magnetfelder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiser, M.; Faber, S.; Hoffmann, A.

    2000-12-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers images with outstanding tissue contrast for clinical diagnosis without any exposure to radiation for the patient. To fasten MRI switching times of magnetic gradient fields were shortened in recent years. Thus, currents in the body of a patient are induced capable of causing a stimulation of peripheral nerves. A stimulation of peripheral nerves in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was proved by means of electromyography (EMG) in a magnetic resonance imager. A wide variety of stimulation thresholds among the subjects was found. The report of subjects about a stimulation was compared with the evaluation of EMG. It could be shown, that the wide variety of stimulation thresholds among the subjects is a fact and not due to the subjective perception levels of different subjects. Different models of electrical stimulation were successfully applied to rate the stimulation by switched magnetic gradient fields in MRI. The neurophysiologic parameters chronaxie and rheobase describing the stimulation properties of different excitable tissues were determined in a stimulation experiment in MRI. A comprehensive model was established that is capable of predicting the stimulation of individual subjects undergoing arbitrary gradient time courses in MRI. Exchanging the neurophysiologic parameters in the model with the parameters of the heart, the stimulation thresholds of dog hearts determined in an experiment of another working group could be reproduced. The dependence of stimulation thresholds on constitutional parameters of the subjects and on the position of the subjects in the MR imager was investigated and significant correlation was found. A stimulation of peripheral nerves takes place, if the maximum magnetic flux density of a gradient coincides with a body area, where a large conducting loop can be formed and if sections of the conducting loop are parallel to structures of peripheral nerves (so called dermatoms). An appraisal of stimulation thresholds can result from the knowledge of the position of the subject in the MR imager, of the constitutional parameters of the subject, and of the gradient time course. (orig.) [German] Die Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) ist ein bildgebendes Verfahren, das ohne Roentgenstrahlenexposition fuer den Patienten Bilder mit unuebertroffenem Weichteilkontrast fuer die klinische Diagnose liefert. Um die Bildgebung zu beschleunigen, wurden in letzter Zeit die Schaltzeiten von magnetischen Gradientenfeldern erheblich verkuerzt. Dadurch werden jedoch Stroeme im Koerper der Patienten induziert, die eine Stimulation peripherer Nerven erzeugen koennen. Eine Stimulation peripherer Nerven in der MRT liess sich durch Elektromyographie (EMG) im Magnetresonanztomographen nachweisen. Durch Vergleich der Probandenaussagen mit dem EMG konnte gezeigt werden, dass eine starke Variation der Stimulationsschwellen zwischen den Probanden vorliegt, die nicht auf das subjektive Empfinden der Probanden zurueckzufuehren ist. Verschiedene Modelle aus der Elektrostimulation liessen sich uebertragen, um Stimulationen in der MRT durch geschaltete Magnetfelder zu beschreiben. Die neurophysiologischen Parameter Chronaxie und Rheobase, die in der Elektrostimulation das Stimulationsverhalten verschiedener erregbarer Gewebe beschreiben, konnten in einem Stimulationsexperiment in der MRT bestimmt werden. Ein umfassendes Rechenmodell wurde entwickelt, das die Stimulationswirkung einer beliebigen Gradientenschaltung fuer einzelne Probanden vorhersagen kann. Durch den Austausch der Parameter der peripheren Nerven im Rechemodell mit den Parametern des Herzens liessen sich Stimulationsschwellen des Herzens reproduzieren, die eine andere Forschungsgruppe mit elektrischer Stimulation an Hunden ermittelt hatte. Die Abhaengigkeit der Stimulationsschwelle von konstitutionellen Parametern der Probanden als auch von der Position der Probanden im Magnetresonanztomographen wurde untersucht, und signifikante Korrelationen konnten nachgewiesen werden. Eine Stimulation ist dann beguenstigt, wenn der Ort des maximalen Gradientenfeldes in einen Koerperbereich faellt, wo sich eine grosse, leitende Schleife ausbilden kann, und wenn die induzierten Ringstroeme parallel zu den Strukturen der peripheren Nerven (sog. Dermatome) verlaufen. Eine Beurteilung der Stimulation eines Probanden im Magnetresonanztomographen kann mit der Kenntnis der Position des Probanden im Magnetresonanztomographen, dessen konstitutioneller Parameter und der verwendeten Gradientenschaltung erfolgen. (orig.)

  1. Wind power via fast flying kites. A challenge for optimization and control; Windenergienutzung mit schnell fliegenden Flugdrachen. Eine Herausforderung fuer die Optimierung und Regelung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, Moritz; Houska, Boris [K.U. Leuven, Leuven Heverlee (Belgium). Electrical Engineering Dept.

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents optimization studies for kites that generate wind energy by periodically pulling a generator on the ground while flying fast in a crosswind direction. We review the current state of the art in building and modelling such systems, and formulate an optimal control problem with periodic boundary conditions and free cycle duration. The objective function is the average power at the generator. We solve this nonlinear and unstable optimal control problem numerically with the direct multiple shooting method. The result of our optimization studies is that we can attain about 5 MW average power with a 500 m{sup 2}-kite at 10 m/s wind speed. When two kites are connected to yield a ''dancing kite pair'', the efficiency can be further increased by 40% per airfoil, due to the considerably reduced line drag. (orig.)

  2. Symposium on Turbulent Shear Flows (4th) Held at Karlsruhe University (Germany, F.R.), 12-14 September 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    cellular secondary currents a) Presently Alexander von Humboldt fellow, Inst. of Hydro- in (a) water-flow with those in (b) air-flow. mechanics, Univ...Y 3 (-fvl 27)iHz 18, 831.,-% u I qv O(-If,/ 8.7)Hz." - 02 7 Dinkelacker, A., Hessel , M, Meier, G.E.A., and Schewe, G., 1977 "Investigation of Pressure

  3. Einfaches Ortungssystem fuer die Schallemissionspruefung

    OpenAIRE

    Greiff, R.

    1982-01-01

    Zur Ortung von Schallemissionssignalen, auch in dicken Koerpern und ohne Kenntnis der Schallgeschwindigkeit, werden an dem Koerper eine Anzahl von Schallaufnehmern in offener, vorzugsweise linearer Anordnung und/oder in geschlossener, vorzugsweise kreisfoermiger Anordnung befestigt und die Ankunftszeiten der Schallsignale an den einzelnen Aufnehmern gemessen und miteinander verglichen. Fuer die Schallquelle ergibt sich bei n Schallaufnehmern in offener Anordnung eine Ortsaufloesung von 2n-2, ...

  4. Programming Environments for High Level Scientific Problem Solving. IFIP WG 2.5 Working Conference 6 Held in Karlsruhe, Germany on September 23 - 27, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-27

    Ph.D.Dissertation, Tech. Report SCRD tomatic Translation of FORTRAN Pro- No.595, Center for Supercomputing Re- grams to Vector Form ACM TOPLAS search...138 DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF SYMBOLIC COMPUTATION SYSTEMS Alfonso Miola Dipartimento di Informatica e Sistemistica Universiti. degli Studi di Roma ...34La Sapienza" Via Salaria 113, 00198 Roma , Italy. Abstract The paper presents the development of a research project based on a new methodological

  5. International Annual Conference (29th) of ICT Held in Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany on June 30-July 3, 1998. Energetic Materials; Production, Processing and Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-26

    and somit in Relation zur MeBgr6IBe grof ~e endotherme Effekte auftreten. Dies 1st in Abb. 6 anhand emner Messang Jeeramnpulle mit Scheibe" gegen eine...bzw. ADN in geringen Ausbeuten; als Hauptprodukt entsteht AN. Wegen des grof ~en Interesses an ADN und der einfachen Einstufen-Synthese aus NH-3 und...empfindliche Explosivstoffe ist die Herstellung febistellenarmer Kristalle von grof ~em Interes- se. Durch Rekcristallisation aus L6sungen lassen sich

  6. The Karlsruhe Metabolomics and Nutrition (KarMeN) Study: Protocol and Methods of a Cross-Sectional Study to Characterize the Metabolome of Healthy Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bub, Achim; Kriebel, Anita; Dörr, Claudia; Bandt, Susanne; Rist, Manuela; Roth, Alexander; Hummel, Eva; Kulling, Sabine; Hoffmann, Ingrid; Watzl, Bernhard

    2016-07-15

    The human metabolome is influenced by various intrinsic and extrinsic factors. A precondition to identify such biomarkers is the comprehensive understanding of the composition and variability of the metabolome of healthy humans. Sample handling aspects have an important impact on the composition of the metabolome; therefore, it is crucial for any metabolomics study to standardize protocols on sample collection, preanalytical sample handling, storage, and analytics to keep the nonbiological variability as low as possible. The main objective of the KarMeN study is to analyze the human metabolome in blood and urine by targeted and untargeted metabolite profiling (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry [GC-MS], GC×GC-MS, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry [LC-MS/MS], and(1)H nuclear magnetic resonance [NMR] spectroscopy) and to determine the impact of sex, age, body composition, diet, and physical activity on metabolite profiles of healthy women and men. Here, we report the outline of the study protocol with special regard to all aspects that should be considered in studies applying metabolomics. Healthy men and women, aged 18 years or older, were recruited. In addition to a number of anthropometric (height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, body composition), clinical (blood pressure, electrocardiogram, blood and urine clinical chemistry) and functional parameters (lung function, arterial stiffness), resting metabolic rate, physical activity, fitness, and dietary intake were assessed, and 24-hour urine, fasting spot urine, and plasma samples were collected. Standard operating procedures were established for all steps of the study design. Using different analytical techniques (LC-MS, GC×GC-MS,(1)H NMR spectroscopy), metabolite profiles of urine and plasma were determined. Data will be analyzed using univariate and multivariate as well as predictive modeling methods. The project was funded in 2011 and enrollment was carried out between March 2012 and July 2013. A total of 301 volunteers were eligible to participate in the study. Metabolite profiling of plasma and urine samples has been completed and data analysis is currently underway. We established the KarMeN study applying a broad set of clinical and physiological examinations with a high degree of standardization. Our experimental approach of combining scheduled timing of examinations and sampling with the multiplatform approach (GC×GC-MS, GC-MS, LC-MS/MS, and(1)H NMR spectroscopy) will enable us to differentiate between current and long-term effects of diet and physical activity on metabolite profiles, while enabling us at the same time to consider confounders such as age and sex in the KarMeN study. German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00004890; https://drks-neu.uniklinik-freiburg.de/drks_web/navigate.do? navigationId=trial.HTML&TRIAL_ID=DRKS00004890 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6iyM8dMtx).

  7. Open and fast available dose rate data for the public. Challenges and opportunities of internet based communication; Offene und schnelle Verfuegbarkeit von ODL-Messwerten in der Oeffentlichkeit. Herausforderungen und Chancen durch internetbasierte Kommunikationsformen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaehringer, M.; Luff, R.; Schiesewitz, M. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Salzgitter (Germany)

    2014-01-20

    The BfS website ''ODLInfo'' had been operational for many years when it suddenly became frequently visited by the public due to the Fukushima accident. BfS responded with increased polling frequency of the gamma probes in the network and a higher frequency in update of the web site. Not yet validated data were also published. The web site was extended by explanatory text and additional functionalities, including a complete translation into english language. Many questions directed to BfS by E-mail and related to this web site had to be answered. This was used as a valuable feedback for improving the its design. Additional services were implemented for providers of special applications of smartphones. The market is characterized by a great variability between serious and lurid apps. BfS seeks to support providers in giving explanatory help. Similar websites exist on European and international level. The EU is publishing data from member states on the EURDEP site. NGOs established platforms for uploading and visualizing private dose rate measurements in Japan after 11 march 2011. This development has important implication for emergency preparedness. Information platforms must be authentic and timely. They must compete with alternative data sources in contents and presentation. Data must be presented understandable. Ideally, the public can understand the data and set it into relation to reference values. Often people want to compare their own measurements - sometimes collected with low quality equipment - with official data. Radiation issues are much better understood by the lay public if visible effects in the variability of the measured dose rate are explained.

  8. Internal combustion engine for producing a direct driving force by generating centrifugal force pulse in rapid succession. Verbrennungsmotor zur Erzeugung einer direkten Antriebskraft durch Erzeugung von schnell aufeinanderfolgenden Zentrifugalkraftimpulsen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, J.

    1991-04-25

    This is an internal combustion engine to produce a direct driving force by generating centrifugal force pulses in rapid succession with short centrifugal force pulse drive. Conventional vehicles require an internal combustion engine as the drive with subsequent transmission elements such as gearboxes, drive shafts, ships' screws, propellers etc. The effectiveness of these drive mechanisms is reduced by the liability of failure of the expensive technology, dependency on the weather and frictional and flow losses. These disadvantages are avoided by this invention by a driving force generated directly in the engine housing (1). In this, a piston (2) is caused to oscillate by combustion pressure in the housing with a semi-circular guide duct, where centrifugal force pulses (Fz) occur in the direction of the central axis. The fresh or exhaust gases are controlled via slots (3) in the guide duct, where the exhaust gas turbo-supercharger (6) produces a permament air flow. The fresh gases are formed by injecting fuel into the compression duct (4) of the turbo-ignition. The engine is started by a starting compressor with a starting carburettor and starting valves (8) controlled by a linkage (9). The engine can be used in land-, water- and air-vehicles and out in space.

  9. Contact arc metal cutting (CAMC), a young cutting technique has matured. Successful use under water in the demolition of the Karlsruhe multipurpose research reactor (MFZR); Contact-Arc-Metal-Cutting (CAMC) - Eine junge Schneidtechnologie ist den Kinderschuhen entwachsen. Erfolgreicher Einsatz unter Wasser beim Rueckbau des Mehrzweckforschungsreaktors Karlsruhe (MZFR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanke, D.; Bienia, H.; Loeb, A.; Thoma, M. [RWE NUKEM GmbH, Alzenau (Germany); Eisenmann, B.; Prechtl, E. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Suessdorf, W. [Studsvik-IFM, Stutensee-Blankenloch (Germany); Kremer, G.; Ruemenapp, T. [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde

    2006-03-15

    Dismantling radiologically burdened large components is among the most complex and difficult jobs in the demolition of nuclear installations. The technologies used and their safe operation play a key role in demolition. Dismantling highly activated components as a rule requires shielding by water. As a consequence, the techniques employed must be designed for use under water. A variety of technologies are available for these applications. One established mechanical cutting method is water abrasive suspension jet cutting (WASS). Because of the small cutting nozzle employed, this highly flexible cutting technique can be used nearly anywhere together with different guiding systems. In the course of disassembly under water of the MZFR, plasma cutting has been found to be a reliable and efficient technique for remote operation. Contact arc metal cutting is a thermal cutting technique allowing all electrically conducting materials, including those with claddings, to be cut nearly irrespective of their component geometries. The methods, technology, possible uses, and practical operation of contact arc metal cutting in the demolition of the MZFR are covered in this article. (orig.)

  10. Metals near a magnetic instability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Physikalisches Institut, Universität Karlsruhe, D-76128 Karlsruhe, Germany; Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Festkörperphysik, D-76021 Karlsruhe, Germany; Department of Physics, Kent State University, Kent, 44242 Ohio, USA; Max-Planck-Institut f¨ur chemische Physik fester Stoffe, D-01187 Dresden, Germany ...

  11. Cost/effectiveness aspects of road lighting : contribution to CIE TC 4.6 Symposium on Measures of Road Lighting Effectiveness, Karlsruhe, 5-6 July, 1977. Session II - Road lighting and accidents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flury, F.C.

    1977-01-01

    The common method to determine the effect of road lighting on traffic safety, is to compare accident numbers during daylight and darkness, before and after the measure is taken. This approach ignores the possibility of increased risk of collisions with road side obstacles due to the erection of

  12. Hydroxyl-radical-induced oxidation of cyclic dipeptides: Reactions of free peptide radicals and their peroxyl radicals. Analysis of end products and fast kinetic processes of transient species; Hydroxylradikal-induzierte Oxidation cyclischer Dipeptide: Reaktionen der freien Peptidradikale und ihrer Peroxylradikale. Analyse der Endprodukte und schnelle Kinetik der Transienten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mieden, O.J.

    1989-12-31

    In the course of this study investigations were carried out into the reactions of hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen atoms with cyclic dipeptides as well as the subsequent reactions of peptide radicals and their peroxyl radicals in aqueous solution. The radiolysis products formed in the absence and presence of oxygen or transient metal complexes were characterized and determined on a quantitative basis. The linking of information from product analyses to the kinetic data for transient species obtained by time-resolving UV/VIS and conductivity measurements (pulse radiolysis) as well as computer-assisted simulations of individual events during the reaction permitted an evaluation of the mechanisms underlying the various processes and an identification of interim products with short life-times, which did or did not belong to the group of radicals. Through the characterization of key reactions of radicals and peroxyl radicals of this substance class a major advance has been made towards a better understanding of the role of radicals in the peptide compound and the mechanisms involved in indirect radiation effects on long-chain peptides and proteins. (orig.). [Deutsch] Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wurden die Reaktionen von Hydroxyl-Radikalen und Wasserstoff-Atomen mit cyclischen Dipeptiden und die sich daran anschliessenden Reaktionen der Peptiradikale und ihrer Peroxylradikale in waessriger Loesung untersucht. Die Radiolyseprodukte in An- und Abwesenheit von Sauerstoff oder Uebergangsmetallkomplexen wurden charakterisiert und quantitativ bestimmt. Die Kombination der einander ergaenzenden Informationen aus der Produktanalyse und der kinetischen Verfolgung der Transienten durch zeitaufgeloeste UV/VIS- und Leitfaehigkeitsmessungen (Pulsradiolyse) und die rechnergestuetzte Simulation einzelner Teile des Reaktionsverlaufs ermoeglichen eine mechanistische Deutung der verschiedenen Prozesse und die Identifizierung der kurzlebigen radikalischen und nicht-radikalischen Zwischenprodukte. Durch die Aufklaerung der Schluesselreaktionen der Radikale und Peroxylradikale dieser Substanzklasse ist ein Zugang zu einem besseren Verstaendnis der Radikalreaktionen des Peptidgeruestes und der Mechanismen der indirekten Strahlenwirkung auf laengerkettige Peptide und Proteine eroeffnet. (orig.).

  13. Commensurability oscillations in NdBa 2 Cu 3 O single crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. H Küpfer1 G Ravikumar1 2 Th Wolf3 A A Zhukov4 H Wühl1. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Technische Physik and Universität Karlsruhe, Postfach 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe, Germany; Technical Physics and Prototype Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085, India ...

  14. List of participants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Robert.Crittenden@port.ac.uk de Boer Wim, University of Karlsruhe,. Karlsruhe, Germany deboer@ekp.uni-karlsruhe.de. D'Hondt Jorgen, Vrije Universiteit. Brussel, Brussel, Belgium ... Harlander Robert, Bergische Univer- sitaet Wuppertal, Wuppertal, Ger- ... USA tpmccauley@lbl.gov. Miller David, University of Glasgow,.

  15. Short-rotation coppices. State of the realizability, organisation and a model for the evaluation of the production and supply of rapidly growing wood from short-rotation coppices als a biofuel for biomass-fuelled heating power stations in Bavaria; Kurzumtriebsplantagen. Stand der Umsetzbarkeit, Organisation und ein Modell zur oekonomischen Bewertung von Produktion und Bereitstellung schnell wachsenden Holzes aus Kurzumtriebsplantagen als biogener Festbrennstoff fuer Biomasse(heiz)kraftwerke in Bayern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschlau, Helmut F.

    2011-04-07

    The study examines most aspects of Short-rotation Coppice Crops (SRC), mainly from willows (Salix sp.) and poplars (Populus sp.), for energetic use in big biomass powerstations in Bavaria (southern Germany). In addition to the compilation of framework conditions concerning environmental and agrarian politics as well as legal issues, every link in the process chain of SRC will be considered - from planting to harvesting, treatment of the wood chips and Just-in-time delivery to the powerplant - followed by an evaluation of SRC in ecological terms. The basic aim of this study is to evaluate every single link with regard to organisational und economic issues, analysis of relevant markets and to develop a comprehensive calculation model for the amount of annuities of the whole process chain.

  16. Cost/effectiveness aspects of road lighting : revised version of Contribution to CIE TC-4.6 Symposium on Measures of Road Lighting Effectiveness, Session II - Road lighting and accidents, Karlsruhe, 5-6 July 1977, SWOV R-77-46.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flury, F.C.

    1981-01-01

    The common method to determine the effect of road lighting on traffic safety, is to compare accident numbers during daylight and darkness, before and after the measure is taken. This approach ignores the possibility of increased risk of collisions with road side obstacles due to the erection of

  17. Muusikamaailm. Festival ECLAT Stuttgardis. Ooperiõhtute tipphetki. Liebermanni "Medea" Pariisis / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    2002-01-01

    Uue muusika festivalist Stuttgardi Theaterhausis. Ooperiõhtute tipphetki Milanos, Karlsruhes, New Yorgis. Pariisi Rahvusooperis Opera Bastille's tuli esiettekandele Rolf Liebermanni lavatükk "Medea".

  18. Tugi Eesti lastekodulastele / Aino Siebert

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Siebert, Aino

    2004-01-01

    7. mail Karlsruhe lähistel Eggensteini evangeelses kirikus toimunud rahvusvahelisest heategevuskontserdist, millega toetatakse eesti lastekodudes elavaid lapsi (kontserdi korraldajaks Heidelbergis asutatud Saksa-Eesti Foorum (SEF))

  19. Radiolysis and corrosion of Pu-doped UO2 pellets in chloride brine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Radiolysis and corrosion of. 238. Pu-doped UO2 pellets in chloride brine. M KELM* and E BOHNERT. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Nukleare Entsorgung, Postfach. 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe, Germany e-mail: kelm@ine.f3k.de. Abstract. Deaerated 5 M NaCl solution is irradiated in the presence of UO2 pellets.

  20. A small and compact AMS facility for tritium depth profiling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, P.O. Box 51 01 19, D-01314 Dresden, Germany; Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Tritium Laboratory, P.O. Box 35 40, D-76021 Karlsruhe, Germany; Department of Physics, University of Lund, Sölvegatan 14, SE-223 62 Lund, Sweden ...

  1. Double layer condenser as short-term storage for the Autarkic Hybrid; Doppelschicht-Kondensator als Kurzzeitspeicher fuer den Autarken Hybrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egger, A.; Schmid, M.

    1999-07-01

    An array consisting of a double layer condensers and a suitable actuator forms the short-term storage of the Autarkic Hybrid. Experimental investigations are supposed to confirm the calculated conservation potentials. The operational strategy based on neuronal networks and the error-back-propagation algorithm allow a self optimising condenser control. (orig.) [German] Eine Anordnung aus Doppelschicht-Kondensatoren und einem geeigneten Stellglied bildet den Kurzzeitspeicher des Autarken Hybrid. Experimentelle Untersuchungen sollen die berechneten Einsparpotentiale bestaetigen. Die Betriebsstrategie auf Grundlage neuronaler Netze und der Error-Backpropagation-Algorithmus gestatten eine selbstoptimierende Kondensatorsteuerung. (orig.)

  2. Salvianolic Acid B Ameliorates Motor Dysfuntion in Spinal Cord ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) rating and Schnell Swim Test (SST) were used for estimating the recovery of motor function. At the same ... Conclusion: The beneficial effect of motor function recovery was observed in SCI rats following intraperitoneal administration of Sal ..... Voda J, Yamaji T, Gold BG. Neuroimmunophilin ligands.

  3. Das lexikographische Beispiel in der Parömiographie. Formen und ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1. Einleitung. Verfolgt man die Geschichte der praktischen Lexikographie, so sieht man schnell, dass lexikographische Beispiele (LB) in Prozessen der Wörterbuch- erstellung seit immer eine bedeutende Rolle gespielt haben. Im Allgemeinen spricht man von Belegen, die entweder als Belegbeispiele (vgl. u.a. Haß 1991a).

  4. When Leeches reveal Biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnell, Ida Bærholm

    to provide information about vertebrate biodiversity. This thesis covers the development of a monitoring method based on iDNA extracted from terrestrial haematophagous leeches, a continuation of the work presented in Schnell et al., 2012. The chapters investigate and/or discuss different subjects regarding...

  5. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 15, No 36 (2016)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimization of somatic embryogenesis procedure for commercial clones of Theobroma cacao L. EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Claudia Garcia, Fabio Corrêa, Seth Findley, Alex-Alan Almeida, Marcio Costa, Juan Carlos Motamayor, Ray Schnell, ...

  6. Palladium und Kupfer-katalysierte Domino- und Multikomponentenreaktionen auf Basis der Kupplungs-Isomerisierungs-Reaktion

    OpenAIRE

    D'Souza, Daniel M.

    2007-01-01

    Die Kupplungs-Isomerisierungs-Reaktion (KIR), eine schnelle Sonogashira-Alkinylierung von elektronenziehenden Halogeniden und Propargylalkoholen gefolgt von einer basenkatalysierten Carbinol-Allenol-Enon-Isomerisierung, stellt einen milden und effizienten Zugang zu Chalkonen dar. Innerhalb der vorliegenden Arbeit konnten neue Dominoreaktionen entwickelt werden, die methodische Erweiterungen der KIR darstellen. Es ist gelungen die zwingend notwendige Akzeptorfunktionalität in situ mittels eine...

  7. Genetic Relationships among Invasive Hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata L.f. Royle) Biotypes in the US and Their Implications for Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    genetic clusters . ERDC/TN APCRP-BC-32 February 2014 3 Benoit (2011) built upon these early studies and conducted a formal cladistic analysis of...Schnell. 1997. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis of the phonetic relationships among world-wide accessions of Hydrilla verticillata. Aquatic

  8. Finding the balance : EpCaM signaling in health and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnell, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    EpCAM is een celadhesie molecuul op het epitheel, het weefsel dat het oppervlak van het lichaam bekleedt. Het is ontdekt als tumormarker. Maar hoe EpCAM precies werkt is onduidelijk. UMCG-promovendus Ulrike Schnell onderzocht het mechanisme van EpCAM signalering in tumorcellen en bij cellen met

  9. South African Journal of Education - Vol 24, No 3 (2004)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Endogenous factors that relate to the eating habits of adolescents · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. G Bester, ND Schnell, 189-193. Academic identities of black female first-year students · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  10. Seminar in honour of Professor Ugo Amaldi on the occasion of his 65th birthday

    CERN Multimedia

    Paulo Pascoal

    1999-01-01

    Entourant Ugo Amaldi (en haut, au centre), dans le sens des aiguilles d'une montre en partant de sa gauche : Luciano Maiani, Directeur general du CERN, G. Wolf (DESY), G. Kalmus (CERN), D. Treille (CERN), W. Schnell (retraite du CERN), P. Langacker (Universite de Pennsylvanie) et M. Goitein (Northeast Proton Therapy Center, Boston)

  11. Wege der estnischen Musik von russischer Romantik zum Schamanentum. Lepo Sumera als prominenter Vertreter der Neuen Musik Estlands: seeine neue Sinfonie steht im Mittelpunkt von Konzerten der Staatskapelle

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1992-01-01

    Eesti muusika tee vene romantismist £amanismini: Lepo Sumera kui eesti uue muusika silmapaistev esindaja/ Tema uus sümfoonia on Staatskapelle kontsertide keskpunktiks. Eesti kultuuripäevadelt Karlsruhes; Lepo Sumera muusikast

  12. Solid electron sources for the energy scale monitoring in the KATRIN experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Zbořil, Miroslav; Vénos, D

    The KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino (KATRIN) experiment represents a next-generation tritium $\\beta$-decay experiment designed to perform a high precision direct measurement of the electron anti-neutrino mass m($\

  13. Kinokunsti tuleviku-uuringud Kiasmas / Rael Artel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Artel, Rael, 1980-

    2003-01-01

    Helsingi Kiasma Kaasaegse Kunsti Muuseumis on näitus tulevase kinokunsti tehnilistest võimalustest "Future Cinema. The Cinematic Imaginary after Film", mis on koostatud Karlsruhe Kunsti ja Meediatehnoloogia Keskuses (kuraatorid Jefferey Shaw ja Peter Weibel)

  14. Manufacturing of microcomponents in a research institute under DIN EN ISO 9001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Dieter; Karl, Bernhard; Saile, Volker; Schulz, Joachim

    2000-08-01

    The Institute for Microstructure Technology at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe has implemented a rigorous quality management system and was certified according to the DIN ISO EN 9001 standard in January 2000.

  15. Mapping Virtual Materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh Jensen, Marianne

    2001-01-01

    A publication on the occasion of the exhibition: Olafur Eliasson: "Surround Surrounded" Neue Galerie am Landesmuseum Johanneum, Graz, Austria, March 30 - May 21, 2000. ZKM Center for Art and Media Karlsruhe, Germany, May 31 - August 26, 2001....

  16. Fault simulator trainer for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerting, K. (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.))

    1983-03-01

    A new nuclear power plant control simulator, developed at Karlsruhe for training operators, is described, based on an office type minicomputer with visual displays representing the various relevant reactor parameters, commands, controls status and safety arrangements.

  17. Superconducting RF separator for Omega Spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    The photo shows an Nb-deflector for the superconducting RF separator ready for installation in its cryostat (visible at the back). Each deflector was about 3 m long. L. Husson and P. Skacel (Karlsruhe) stand on the left, A. Scharding (CERN) stands on the right. This particle separator, the result of a collaboration between the Gesellshaft für Kernforschung, Karlsruhe, and CERN was installed in the S1 beam line to Omega spectrometer. (See Annual Report 1977.)

  18. Status and perspectives of the dismantling of nuclear power plants in Germany (Dismantling monitoring 2015); Stand und Perspektiven des Rueckbaus von Kernkraftwerken in Deutschland (''Rueckbau-Monitoring 2015'')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wealer, Ben; Seidel, Jan Paul [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany); Gerbaulet, Clemens; Hirschhausen, Christian von [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany); Deutsches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung, Berlin (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    The dismantling monitoring 2015 covers the nuclear power plants HDR Grosswelzheim, Niederaichbach (KKN), MZFR Karlsruhe, Lingen (KWL), Gundremmingen unit A (KRB-A), VAK Kahl, Muehlheim-Kaerlich (KMK), THTR-300 Hamm-Uentrop, AVR Juelich, Greifswald (KGR 1-5), KNK II Karlsruhe, Rheinsberg (KKR), Wuergassen (KWW), Stade (KKS), Obrigheim (KWO), SNR 300. The post-operational phase activities of other shut-down nuclear power plants and the active companies are summarized.

  19. Space-time slicing in Horndeski theories and its implications for non-singular bouncing solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijjas, Anna

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we show how the proper choice of gauge is critical in analyzing the stability of non-singular cosmological bounce solutions based on Horndeski theories. We show that it is possible to construct non-singular cosmological bounce solutions with classically stable behavior for all modes with wavelengths above the Planck scale where: (a) the solution involves a stage of null-energy condition violation during which gravity is described by a modification of Einstein's general relativity; and (b) the solution reduces to Einstein gravity both before and after the null-energy condition violating stage. Similar considerations apply to galilean genesis scenarios.

  20. arXiv Averaged Energy Conditions and Bouncing Universes

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2017-11-16

    The dynamics of bouncing universes is characterized by violating certain coordinate-invariant restrictions on the total energy-momentum tensor, customarily referred to as energy conditions. Although there could be epochs in which the null energy condition is locally violated, it may perhaps be enforced in an averaged sense. Explicit examples of this possibility are investigated in different frameworks.

  1. On coupling NEC-violating matter to gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saugata Chatterjee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We show that effective theories of matter that classically violate the null energy condition cannot be minimally coupled to Einstein gravity without being inconsistent with both string theory and black hole thermodynamics. We argue however that they could still be either non-minimally coupled or coupled to higher-curvature theories of gravity.

  2. Is the island universe model consistent with observations?

    OpenAIRE

    Piao, Yun-Song

    2005-01-01

    We study the island universe model, in which initially the universe is in a cosmological constant sea, then the local quantum fluctuations violating the null energy condition create the islands of matter, some of which might corresponds to our observable universe. We examine the possibility that the island universe model is regarded as an alternative scenario of the origin of observable universe.

  3. Information, a factor of competitiveness; Information als Wettbewerbsfaktor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micheel-Sprenger, C. [Ecoplan, Gesellschaft fuer Informationsmanagement mbH, Fulda (Germany)

    1997-08-11

    Strong competition and fast-changing markets necessitate market-oriented planning, consequent customer orientation, fast reactions and new forms of organisation. Flexible and responsible use of information is an essential factor for the success of an enterprise. For the German utilities, which are now confronted with a competitive free market structure, will have to make good use of the resource `information` if they intend to optimize their services. (orig./RHM) [Deutsch] Hoher Wettbewerbsdruck und der schnelle Wandel der Maerkte erfordern marktgerechte Planung, konsequente Kundenorientierung, schnelle Reaktionszeiten und neue Organisationsformen. Ein wesentlicher Faktor fuer den Erfolg eines Unternehmens ist in diesem Zusammenhang der flexible und verantwortungsbewusste Umgang mit der Ressource Information. Gerade fuer die deutschen Elektrizitaetsversorgungsunternehmen (EVU), die sich in zunehmendem Mass dem Wettbewerb stellen muessen, wird im Rahmen der Entwicklung zum `Energie-Dienstleister` die Ressource Information zu einem wettbewerbsrelevanten Faktor werden. (orig./RHM)

  4. Book of summaries of dissertations and habilitations written until February 1995 under the guidance of Professor Dr.-Ing. Ulrich Mueller. Dedicated to Professor Ulrich Mueller on the occasion of his 60th anniversary on 28 February 1995; Zusammenfassung der bis Februar 1995 unter Leitung von Herrn Professor Dr.-Ing. Ulrich Mueller abgeschlossenen Dissertationen und Habilitationen. Herrn Professor Ulrich Mueller zum 60. Geburtstag am 28. Februar 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrhard, P. [ed.; Knebel, U. [ed.

    1995-02-01

    In March 1974, Dr.-Ing Ulrich Mueller, then Privatdozent (unestablished university lecturer) at the Institut fuer Stroemungslehre und Stroemungsmaschinen (Institute for Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Kinetic Machines) of Karlsruhe University, was appointed Director of the Institut fuer Reaktorbauelemente (IRB) of the former Gesellschaft fuer Kernforschung (GfK), now called Karlsruhe Research Center. In September 1974, he was appointed additional professor. Since his qualification for lecturing at a university, 24 dissertations and two habilitations have been concluded by students under his scientific guidance and mentorship. The report in hand presents summaries of these scientific publications. The theoretical and experimental publications in the field of fluid dynamics and thermodynamics are of significance to the safety and design of components for nuclear power plants and thermonuclear reactors, relating to both basic research and industrial applications. Recent scientific work in progress now also includes aspects of long-term cooling of reactor core melts, or waste treatment by incineration and wet oxidation. The scientific problems and aspects studied in the publications reveal the constant process of change experienced in scientific research, also reflected by the fact that the Karlsruhe facility has been renamed twice in the course of time, into Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center (KfK) in 1977, and into Karlsruhe Research Center - Technology and Environment in 1995. Professor Mueller`s institute, too, has been renamed in 1993 in response to developments, into Institut fuer Angewandte Thermo- und Fluiddynamik (IATF). (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Maerz 1974 wurde der Privatdozent am Institut fuer Stroemungslehre und Stroemungsmaschinen der Universitaet Karlsruhe (TH), Herr Dr.-Ing. Ulrich Mueller zum Leiter des Instituts fuer Reaktorbauelemente (IRB) der damaligen Gesellschaft fuer Kernforschung (GfK) berufen. Im September 1974 wurde er zum ausserplanmaessigen Professor

  5. Am Puls des Wandels - Veränderungskommunikation messen und steuern : Entwicklung und Anwendung eines Controllingansatzes für Veränderungskommunikation.

    OpenAIRE

    Heyder, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Die Zielsetzung der Arbeit liegt in der Entwicklung und empirischen Anwendung eines Controllingansatzes speziell für die Veränderungskommunikation. Für den Erfolg eines Unternehmens ist kontinuierlicher Wandel von zentraler Bedeutung. So schnell wie sich die Umwelt durch z.B. zunehmenden Wettbewerb, neue Wertvorstellungen oder innovative Technologien verändert, müssen sich die Strategien, Strukturen und Prozesse in Unternehmen sowie immer auch die Mitarbeiter, ihre Denk- und Verhaltensweis...

  6. Zwischen Zumutung und Versprechen : die Demokratie in Makedonien

    OpenAIRE

    Gromes, Thorsten

    2009-01-01

    'Die Demokratisierung von ethnisch gespaltenen Nachbürgerkriegsgesellschaften gilt bisweilen als aussichtsloses Unterfangen. Dagegen kommt der makedonische Friedensprozess einer Erfolgsgeschichte gleich. Der Angriff der albanischen Nationalen Befreiungsarmee UÇK auf die makedonischen Sicherheitskräfte 2001 lief relativ glimpflich ab; die anfänglichen sezessionistischen Ziele der UÇK wichen schnell Forderungen, die Albaner mit den Makedoniern gleichzustellen. Der bewaffnete Konflikt endete mit...

  7. Between impositions and promises : democracy in Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Gromes, Thorsten

    2009-01-01

    "Die Demokratisierung von ethnisch gespaltenen Nachbürgerkriegsgesellschaften gilt bisweilen als aussichtsloses Unterfangen. Dagegen kommt der makedonische Friedensprozess einer Erfolgsgeschichte gleich. Der Angriff der albanischen Nationalen Befreiungsarmee UÇK auf die makedonischen Sicherheitskräfte 2001 lief relativ glimpflich ab; die anfänglichen sezessionistischen Ziele der UÇK wichen schnell Forderungen, die Albaner mit den Makedoniern gleichzustellen. Der bewaffnete Konflikt endete mit...

  8. Näitus "Sajand eesti puugravüüri klotsidel" / Jüri Hain

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hain, Jüri, 1941-

    2007-01-01

    Eesti Rahvusraamatukogus 15. I-3. II eksponeeritud ja rahvusraamatukogu kollektsioonist koostatud näitusest "Sajand eesti puugravüüri klotsidel: 1840-1940". Järgmistest kunstnikest ja nende töödest: Aleksander Otto Gern, Bogdan Gottlieb Friedrich Kally, August Daugell, Hermann Eduard Hartmann, Eduard Magnus Jakobson, Mart Pukits, Andres Kuusk, Karl Friedrich Schnell, Anton Suurkask (1873-1965), Arkadio Laigo, Hando Mugasto, Eduard Järv, Richard Kaljo, Ott Kangilaski, Ants Puks (1918-?), Salome Trei

  9. Ist Pop die Volksmusik von heute?

    OpenAIRE

    Arbeitskreis Studium Populärer Musik

    1986-01-01

    Zugegeben, die Frage, ob Pop die Volksmusik von heute sei, ist provokant. Genau das war beabsichtigt. Sehr schnell erhielten wir auf unser Vorhaben, ein Seminar zu diesem Thema zu veranstalten, eine Vielzahl von Rückmeldungen. Pop-, Rock- und Jazzspezialisten, Musikwissenschaftler und Musikotiunologen fühlten sich animiert, Stellung zu beziehen und ein Referat zu halten. Intensive Diskussionen schlossen sich an, beflügelt auch durch die ansprechende Atmosphdre in der stil...

  10. Pasireotid: Eine neue Therapieoption bei Morbus Cushing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luger A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Im Behandlungsalgorithmus des Morbus Cushing war bisher keine zugelassene pharmakologische Behandlungsmöglichkeit verfügbar. Mit dem Multirezeptor-Somatostatinanalogon Pasireotid steht nun mit der im April 2012 erfolgten Zulassung die erste, spezifisch für die Therapie dieses Krankheitsbildes entwickelte Substanz zur Verfügung. Die Studienevidenz belegt eine schnelle und nachhaltige Reduktion der ACTH- und Kortisolproduktion mit klinischer Besserung bei einem Großteil der Patienten.

  11. Energy management. Measures on consumption-, and cost reduction, financing programs, regulations; Energiemanagement. Massnahmen zur Verbrauchs- und Kostenreduzierung, Foerderprogramme, Vorschriften

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hessel, Volker

    2008-07-01

    The book informs quickly and soundly on possibilities to reduce energy cost by load management and optimization of facilities, on fundamentals of energy management and valuable frame conditions, on relevant laws and important financing programs. (orig./GL) [German] Das Buch informiert schnell und fundiert ueber die Moeglichkeiten zur Reduzierung der Energiekosten durch Lastmanagement und Anlagenoptimierung, ueber die Grundlagen des Energiemanagements und gueltige Rahmenbedingungen, ueber relevante Gesetze und wichtige Foerderprogramme. (orig.)

  12. Computerlinguistik in der Dolmetschpraxis unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Korpusanalyse

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Fantinuoli

    2017-01-01

    Erfolgreiches Dolmetschen setzt qualifizierte Vorbereitung voraus. Dazu gehören die nutzeradäquate Gestaltung und die kontinuierliche Pflege von Terminologiebe\\-ständen sowie die Möglichkeit auf mehrsprachige Informationen und Terminologie schnell und effizient zugreifen zu können. Um die Vorbereitungsphase zu optimieren und zu rationalisieren wird ein dolmetschorientierter Korpus-Ansatz beschrieben und eine dafür entwickelte Terminologie- und Wissensmanagementsoftware vorgestellt. Für die Ko...

  13. Die Entstehung des „Judenbildes“ in den Alltagsmedien des 19. Jahrhunderts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute Wrocklage

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available In der zweiten Hälfte des 19. Jahrhunderts beginnen, Illustratoren und Zeichner von Bildwitzen und Karikaturen das stereotype und in der Folge antisemitische Bild vom Juden herauszubilden. Es findet schnell Eingang in die illustrierten Zeitschriften und Bilderbögen der Zeit. In diesen drei untersuchten Bildmedien kennzeichnen neben der Physiognomie diskriminierende Attribute den Juden als Typus. Dieser Entwicklung und der Herausbildung der Stereotype zum antisemitischen Judenbild geht die Arbeit nach.

  14. Computergestütztes Concept Mapping zur Unterstützung vernetzenden Denkens in der Humananatomie: Wandel von Lernkultur durch Aktivierung kreativer Lernprozesse [Computer based „Concept Mapping“ supports meaningful learning in human anatomy: Changing the learning culture by activating a process of creative learning

    OpenAIRE

    Melamed, Richard J; Tillmann, Alexander; Klauer, Gertrud J.

    2008-01-01

    Zielsetzung: Studierende der Medizin werden im vorklinischen Studienabschnitt mit einer Fülle von Informationen und Detailwissen aus unterschiedlichen Gebieten konfrontiert. Viele Studierende neigen dazu, das von ihnen erwartete Wissen in Form von schnell verfügbarem, prüfungsrelevantem Wissen auswendig zu lernen. Dieses Wissen ist meist nicht konzeptuell verankert und geht in der Regel rasch verloren. Ziel des an der J.W. Goethe-Universität Frankfurt für das Fach Anatomie erarbeiteten Konzep...

  15. Sensoren zum Monitoring des Nachernteverhaltens von klimakterischen Früchten

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Cindy

    2011-01-01

    Bei pflanzlichen Frischeprodukten ist ein schnelles und zerstörungsfreies Monitoring entlang der gesamten Distributionskette von der Ernte bis hin zum Verbraucher erforderlich, um eine hohe Qualität und geringe Nachernteverluste gewährleisten zu können. Für die kontinuierliche in-situ Qualitätskontrolle klimakterischer Früchte werden deshalb als charakteristische Parameter vor allem die Ethylenbildung (Fruchtreife), wie auch die Temperatur und die Luftfeuchte untersucht. Zur Charakterisierung...

  16. Signature of the scattering of radar waves by the heterogeneity of concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Kind, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Das Radarverfahren ist ein schnelles bildgebendes Verfahren für die Untersuchung der inneren Struktur von Stahlbeton-Bauwerken und wird seit längerem erfolgreich für die zerstörungsfreie Untersuchung von Brückenbauwerken eingesetzt. Für die Rekonstruktion der Lage der Bewehrung reicht die Annahme einer homogenen Materialeigenschaft des Betons meistens aus. Nähere Untersuchungen der empfangenen Streuungen der Radarwellen zeigen, dass neben der starken Streuung der Radarwellen an den metalli...

  17. Pododermatitis bei Masthähnchen im ökologischen Landbau

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Eggert; Bellof, Gerhard; Carrasco Alarcon, Luz Salomé

    2010-01-01

    Die plantare Fußballendermatitis stellt auch in der ökologischen Hähnchenmast ein Problem dar. Die Ursachen hierfür scheinen multifaktoriell zu sein. In einem Exaktversuch an der Hochschule Weihenstephan-Triesdorf sollte an 407 Tieren ermittelt werden, welchen Einfluss der Genotyp (langsam vs. schnell wachsend), die Futterzusammensetzung (mittlerer vs. niedriger Energiegehalt) und die Haltung (Stall vs. Auslauf) auf die Prävalenz der Pododermatitis bei Masthähnchen unter den Bedingungen des ö...

  18. Digitalisierung, Visualisierung, Virtualisierung: Von der virtuellen Welt in die reale Produktion, Entwicklung eines Arbeitsplatzes der Zukunft ; Laufzeit des Vorhabens: von: 01.03.2000 bis: 31.10.2000. BMBF-Programm "Produktion 2000". Schlußbericht. Förderkennzeichen 20PV4901

    OpenAIRE

    Klumpp, B.

    2001-01-01

    Innerhalb der an das Leitprojekt "Integrierte Virtuelle Produktentstehung IVIP" angehängten Aktivität "Digitalisierung, Visualisierung, Virtualisierung" sollte ein Pilot aufgebaut werden, der die Produktentstehung und -optimierung prozeßseitig mit Ankoppelung der realen Maschine ermöglicht. Hintergrund ist die schnelle Übertragung der Modelle im Rechner auf die Maschine und die Datenaquisition aus der realen Steuerung. Ein bidirektionaler, echtzeitfähiger Datenfluß zwischen Maschine und Arbei...

  19. Effect of Fiber Orientation on Dynamic Compressive Properties of an Ultra-High Performance Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    concrete (UHPC) tends to create preferential fiber alignment, which affects the strength and must be accounted for in design. To date , most work on...are most commonly used in UHPCs. Quantitative stereology, which uses geometric probability theory to deter- mine average properties of two- and...ERDC/GSL TR-17-23 31 X-ray CT has been used by a number of researchers, particularly for deter- mining fiber orientation (Schnell et al. 2008

  20. Acrylamid und Acrolein: Toxikokinetik hitzeinduzierter Kontaminanten in Lebensmitteln

    OpenAIRE

    Watzek, Nico

    2012-01-01

    Acrylamid und Acrolein gehören zu den alpha,beta-ungesättigten Carbonylverbindungen. Sie zeichnen sich wie andere alpha,beta-ungesättigte Carbonylverbindungen durch eine hohe Reaktionsfähigkeit aus. Einerseits können sie leicht mit Proteinen und DNA reagieren, was zytotoxische und genotoxische Wirkungen hervorrufen kann, andererseits können sie aber auch schnell durch Glutathionkonjugation detoxifiziert werden. Acrylamid ist eine in großem Umfang produzierte Industriechemikalie, die haupts...

  1. Strukturelle Klebungen mit UV- und lichthärtenden Acrylaten

    OpenAIRE

    Vogt, Iris

    2009-01-01

    UV- und lichthärtenden Acrylatklebstoffen steht ein breites Anwendungsspektrum im Konstruktiven Glasbau offen. Ihr farbloses und klares Erscheinungsbild fördert eine Konstruktion, die transparent und leicht wirken soll. Kurze Aushärtezeiten, die sich im Sekunden- oder einstelligen Minutenbereich bewegen, ermöglichen eine schnelle Herstellung und reduzieren die Lagerzeiten. Die geklebten Konstruktionen können direkt weiterverarbeitet werden. Durch diese Vorteile heben sie sich von den Silikonk...

  2. Innovationshürden beseitigen : wie die Einführung medizintechnischer Innovationen in die Gesundheitsversorgung beschleunigt werden kann

    OpenAIRE

    Winter, Johannes; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Die Medizintechnik ist ein wichtiger Baustein der Gesundheitsversorgung – allerdings hat diese innovative Branche viele Hürden zu überwinden: ein Kernproblem sind die langen Zulassungs- und Erstattungswege medizintechnischer Innovationen, die schnelles Wachstum und damit das Schaffen von Arbeitsplätzen erschweren. Insbesondere kleinere Unternehmen scheitern oftmals, weil sie die hohe Vorfinanzierung aufgrund langer Zulassungs- und Vergütungswege nicht leisten können. acatech – Deutsche Akadem...

  3. Zerstörungsfreie Prüfung von modernen Werkstoffen mit dynamischen Shearografie-Verfahren

    OpenAIRE

    Menner, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Die Herausforderungen an die zerstörungsfreie Prüfung steigen mit der zunehmenden Verbreitung moderner Werkstoffe. Die ZfP-Methoden sollten nicht nur schnell und kontaktfrei arbeiten, sondern auch die in diesen Werkstoffen auftretenden neuen Defektarten zuverlässig erfassen. Elektronische Speckle-Pattern-Interferometrie (ESPI) kann unter Verwendung zeitabhängiger Anregungs- und Auswerte-Methoden viele dieser Anforderungen erfüllen, sie ist jedoch für industrielle Anwendungen nicht robust g...

  4. New plant designs for aqueous etching and electroforming of wafers; Neues modulares Anlagenkonzept fuer nasschemische Aetzprozesse und die Wafergalvanoformung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guttmann, Markus; Kaiser, Konradin; Muth, Stephanie [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Mikrostrukturtechnik; Moritz, Hans [silicet AG, Lohfelden (Germany); Schmidt, Ralf; Zwanzig, Michael [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Zuverlaessigkeit und Mikrointegration (IZM), Berlin (Germany); Hofmann, Lutz [TU Chemnitz (Germany). Zentrum fuer Mikrotechnologien; Schubert, Ina [Fraunhofer-Einrichtung fuer Elektronische Nanosysteme (ENAS), Chemnitz (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    In order to carry out a study of wafer patterning, equipment was developed for safe handling of silicon wafers from 2 to 8 inch diameters. The unit can be safely and relatively straightforwardly operated by personnel, using a wide range of etchants and electrochemical deposition processes. The design also allows the effects of electrolyte flowrate in the process chamber confronting the silicon wafer, to be assessed. These features were utilised to study copper and nickel electrodeposition to pattern the wafer surface. (orig.) [German] Zur Untersuchung der Strukturierung von Wafern wurde eine Prozesseinheit zur bruchsicheren Aufnahme von Siliziumwafern mit Durchmessern zwischen zwei und acht Zoll entwickelt. Die Einheit kann relativ einfach und mit hoher Sicherheit fuer die handhabenden Personen mit den unterschiedlichsten Medien zum Aetzen oder galvanotechnischen Aufbau betrieben werden. Die Anordnung ermoeglicht zudem die gezielte Beeinflussung der Stroemung im Prozessraum vor der Waferoberflaeche. Die Moeglichkeiten zur Untersuchung werden an der Nickel- und Kupferabscheidung zur Herstellung von Strukturen aufgezeigt. (orig.)

  5. Planning and building a gas cave store in Bremen-Lesum; Planung und Errichtung von einem Gaskavernenspeicher in Bremen-Lesum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kossert, J.; Schultz, K.F. [Mobil Erdgas Erdoel GmbH, Celle (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    In order to supply sufficient natural gas to the Northern part of Germany Mobil set up a gas cave storage in Bremen Lesum. Drilling- and brine engineering, plant design, electricity supply, brine plant are described. Remote control, personnel planning, operational experience and plants for gas operation as well as pipelines, compressors and gas drying are described. [Deutsch] Um kuenftig den Spitzenbedarf nach umweltfreundlichem Erdgas in Norddeutschland befriedigen zu koennen, errichtete Mobil einen Gaskavernenspeicher in Bremen Lesum. Im Folgenden wird die Bohr-und Soltechnik, die Anordnung der Anlagenteile, die Elektroversorgung der Solanlage sowie der Solbetrieb naeher erlaeutert. Ausserdem werden die Fernueberwachung, der Personaleinsatz, die Betriebserfahrungen und die Anlagen fuer den Gasbetrieb wie Verbindungsleitung, Kompressoranlage und Gastrocknungsanlage beschrieben.(msk)

  6. Pulsare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyne, A. G.; Graham-Smith, F.

    This book is a German translation, by S. Klose and S. Marx, of the English original "Pulsar astronomy" (see 51.003.020) published in 1990. Contents: 1. Die Entdeckung der Pulsare. 2. Die Pulsare - ein Überblick. 3. Suchprogramme und Durchmusterungen. 4. Die Entfernungen der Pulsare. 5. Langzeitaufzeichnungen der Pulsare. 6. Irregularitäten im Zeitverhalten. 7. Die jungen Pulsare. 8. Die galaktische Population der Pulsare. 9. Supernovae. 10. Doppelstern- und Millisekundenpulsare. 11. Röntgendoppelsterne und Röntgenburster. 12. Integrale Pulsprofile. 13. Die einzelnen Pulse. 14. Die geometrische Anordnung der emittierenden Regionen. 15. Strahlungsprozesse. 16. Der Mechanismus der Pulsaremission. 17. Interstellare Szintillation und Streuung. 18. Das interstellare magnetische Feld. 19. Erfolge und Aussichten. 20. Der Pulsarkatalog.

  7. Crank gears. Construction, calculation and testing from the beginnings to date; Kurbeltriebe. Konstruktion, Berechnung und Erprobung von den Anfaengen bis heute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zima, S.

    1998-12-31

    This book is a textbook, reader and history book for engineers and everybody else who is interested in crank gear technology. Contents: Preconditions, fundamentals and background of crank gear development - crank gear in piston engines - from balancing machines to plunger piston drives - drive configuration: Number and arrangement of cylinders - machine dynamics - bearings - lubrication - component development - crank gear today. [Deutsch] Voraussetzungen, Wurzeln und Hintergrund der Entwicklung des Kurbeltriebs - der Kurbeltrieb in Kolbenmaschinen - von der Balanciermaschine zum Tauchkolben-Triebwerk - Verbrennungsmotoren: Vorgaben und Optionen fuer das Triebwerk - Triebwerkskonfiguration: Zylinderzahl und -anordnung - Maschinendynamik - Lagerung im Kurbeltrieb - Schmierung - Entwicklung der Triebwerksteile - der Kurbeltrieb heute. Die Zielgruppen: Dieses Buch `Kurbeltriebe` ist ein Lehr-, Lese- und Geschichtsbuch fuer Ingenieure und alle jene, die sich fuer die Technik der Kolbenmaschinen interessieren. (orig.)

  8. Dispersion behaviour of rape oil methyl ester and rape-oil-based hydraulic oils in soils and on soil surfaces with due consideration to the technical performance capabilities of the hydraulic oils. Part-project 1: studies on model ecosystems. Part-project 2: provision of oils with defined degrees of ageing. Final report; Ausbreitungsverhalten von Rapsoelmethylester und Hydraulikoelen auf Rapsoelbasis im Boden und auf Bodenoberflaechen unter Beruecksichtigung der technischen Leistungsfaehigkeit der Hydraulikoele. Teilvorhaben 1: Untersuchungen an Modelloekosystemen. Teilvorhaben 2: Bereitstellung definiert gealterter Hydraulikoele. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, W.; Schuett, C.; Roemer, A.; Foelster, N.; Lemke, M.

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of the present cooperative research project is to study the toxicity, the degradation and in particular the dispersion behaviour of biologically rapidly degradable hydraulic oils and rape oil methyl esters (RME) in soils and waters with a special focus on hydraulic oils. This is to serve as a basis for developing guidelines for action in the event of accidents involving biologically rapidly degradable hydraulic fluids that ensure proper accident reporting and handling. The outcome of the cooperative research project is to permit a first risk assessment for the soil and water compartments in the event of accidents involving hydraulic oils and RME. Another task is to clarify to what extent it is permissible to deviate from the usual measures prescribed for oil accidents involving crude oil when biologically rapidly degradable hydraulic oils or RME are involved instead. [German] Ziel des Verbundvorhabens ist es, die Toxizitaet, den Abbau und insbesondere das Ausbreitungsverhalten von biologisch schnell abbaubaren Hydraulikoelen und Rapsoelmethylester (RME) in Boden und Wasser zu untersuchen, wobei der Schwerpunkt der Arbeiten bei den Hydraulikoelen liegt. Damit sollen Verfahrensrichtlinien angegeben werden, die im Falle von Unfaellen mit biologisch schnell abbaubaren Hydraulikfluessigkeiten oder Biodiesel eine angemessene Unfallaufnahme und -abwicklung sicherstellen. Als Ergebnis des Verbundvorhabens soll eine erste Risikoabschaetzung fuer die Kompartimente Boden und Wasser bei Unfaellen mit Hydraulikoelen und RME moeglich sein. Darueber hinaus soll geklaert werden, inwieweit Abweichungen von den ueblichen Massnahmen bei Oelunfaellen mit Mineraloelprodukten im Vergleich zu biologisch schnell abbaubaren Hydraulikoelen oder RME moeglich sind. (orig.)

  9. The KATRIN Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, Marucs

    2009-01-01

    The KArlsruhe TRitium Neutrino mass experiment, KATRIN, aims to search for the mass of the electron neutrino with a sensitivity of 0.2 eV/c^2 (90% C.L.) and a detection limit of 0.35 eV/c^2 (5 sigma). Both a positive or a negative result will have far reaching implications for cosmology and the standard model of particle physics and will give new input for astroparticle physics and cosmology. The major components of KATRIN are being set up at the Karlsruhe Institut of Technology in Karlsruhe, Germany, and test measurements of the individual components have started. Data taking with tritium is scheduled to start in 2012.

  10. Arbeitsgarantie : die indische Regierung probiert seit einiger Zeit ein neues Modell aus

    OpenAIRE

    Klonner, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    "Campus-Report" heißt die Radiosendung der Universitäten Heidelberg, Mannheim, Karlsruhe und Freiburg. Die Reportagen über aktuelle Themen aus Forschung und Wissenschaft werden montags bis freitags jeweils um ca. 19.10h im Programm von Radio Regenbogen gesendet. (Empfang in Nordbaden: UKW 102,8. In Mittelbaden: 100,4 und in Südbaden: 101,1) Uni-Radio Baden: ein gemeinsames Projekt der Universitäten Freiburg, Heidelberg, Karlsruhe und Mannheim in Zusammenarbeit mit Radio Regenbogen – unterstüt...

  11. Mikrokredite : Wissenschaftler der Universität Heidelberg erforschen in Indien die Wirkung von Mikrokrediten im Alltag am Beispiel neuer Varianten dieser Finanzierungsmethode

    OpenAIRE

    Klonner, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    "Campus-Report" heißt die Radiosendung der Universitäten Heidelberg, Mannheim, Karlsruhe und Freiburg. Die Reportagen über aktuelle Themen aus Forschung und Wissenschaft werden montags bis freitags jeweils um ca. 19.10h im Programm von Radio Regenbogen gesendet. (Empfang in Nordbaden: UKW 102,8. In Mittelbaden: 100,4 und in Südbaden: 101,1) Uni-Radio Baden: ein gemeinsames Projekt der Universitäten Freiburg, Heidelberg, Karlsruhe und Mannheim in Zusammenarbeit mit Radio Regenbogen – unterstüt...

  12. Experience with two large-scale Hell-cryostats for a superconducting RF particle separator working in closed cycle with a 300 W refrigerator

    CERN Document Server

    Barth, W

    1976-01-01

    The contribution of the Karlsruhe Institut fur Experimental Kernphysik to the RF particle separator at the SPS/CERN consists of the two superconducting deflectors and their Hell-cryostats with the cryogenic and vacuum accessories. The cryostats have to fulfil specifications concerning tightness, thermal insulation, adjustment of the cavities to the beam and reliability. Corresponding cryogenic and RF tests are performed in Karlsruhe before a 300 W refrigerator simulating normal and emergency conditions. Following a description of cryostats design the results of these measurements are compared with the specifications. Operating experience with the cryostats in closed circuit with the refrigerator are reported. (5 refs).

  13. Quantitative measurement of precipitation using radar in comparison with ground-level measurements, taking orographic influences into account; Quantitative Niederschlagsmessung mit Radar im Vergleich mit Bodenmessungen in orographisch gegliedertem Gelaende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gysi, H. [Radar-Info, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1998-01-01

    The methods of correction applied to the determination of the spatial distribution of precipitation on the basis of the volumes established by the Karlsruhe C-band precipitation radar distinctly enhance the quality of statements regarding precipitation intensities and their time integration both in summer and winter. (orig./KW) [Deutsch] Die fuer die Bestimmung der raeumlichen Niederschlagsverteilung aus Volumendaten des Karlsruher C-Band Niederschlagradars angewandten Korrekturverfahren verbessern sowohl im Sommer als auch im Winter deutlich die Qualitaet und quantitative Aussagekraft der dargestellten Niederschlagsintensitaeten und deren zeitlichen Integrationen. (orig./KW)

  14. At the Split-Field Magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    The experiments running in 1980 were R416, R418 and R421. R416 was designed by the CERN-Dortmund-Heidelberg-Karlsruhe-Paris Collège de France-Warsaw Collaboration to study rare events. On the right: the Karlsruhe calorimeter. R418 by the CERN-Heidelberg-Lund Collaboration studied p-alpha and alpha-alpha collisions. R421 by the Bologna-CERN-Frascati-Rome- Bari Collaboration aimed to the comparison of proton-antiproton with positron-electron collisions.

  15. "Experimental Pedagogy" in Germany, Elaborated for Mathematics--A Case Study in Searching the Roots of PME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubring, Gert

    2012-01-01

    PME, the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, was founded in 1976, at the "Third International Congress on Mathematical Education" in Karlsruhe, organised by the International Commission on Mathematics Instruction (ICMI). While PME is thus beyond coming of age and is reflecting its further orientation--due to…

  16. Sound Art. Klang als Medium der Kunst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forskningsformidling på udstilling om lydkunst på ZKM i Karlsruhe. Lavet i samarbejde med Mats Lindström, leder af elektronmusikstudiet EMS (Stockholm). Udstillingen er en del af Morten Søndergaards (AAU) præsentation af skandinavisk lydkunst under titlen 'Unheard Avantgarde', der igen er en del ...... den store udstilling 'Sound as a Medium of Art'....

  17. Investigation and Characterization of Water-Recrystallized Croconic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    pressing the WR CA not result in the high heat of combustion that was achieved by pressing the AR CA? A possible answer to both questions could be...of ICT ; 1996 June 25–28; Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany. 22.21-22.16. 2. Braga D, Maini L, Grepioni F. Crystallization from hydrochloric

  18. Õisi noppimas / Mati Sirkel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sirkel, Mati

    1999-01-01

    Eesti luule antoloogiad 1989-1999: Van haast naamlose kusten. Leiden, 1989 ; Antologija estonskoi poezii. Tallinn, 1990 ; Salatanssija tilantyhjää. Oulu, 1990 ; Das Leben ist noch neu. Karlsruhe, 1992 ; [Eesti luulekassett läti keeles.] Riia, 1998. Antologija estonskoi poezii. Tallinn, 1999. Die Freiheit der Kartoffelkeime. Bremerhaven, 1999.

  19. Collection of $^{83}$Rb at low implantation energy for KATRIN

    CERN Multimedia

    Zboril, M

    KATRIN, the KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino experiment aims to measure the neutrino mass by spectroscopy of the tritium $\\beta$-decay at the endpoint by means of Magnetic Adiabatic Collimation combined with an Electrostatic filter (MAC-E filter). To monitor the HV-system of the KATRIN-setup, we would need one or two $^{83}$Rb sources roughly every half a year.

  20. Fast Electrical and Optical Diagnostic Principles and Techniques: A NATO Advanced Study Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-21

    France Texas Tech University P.O. Box 4439 ’ Lubbock, TX 79409 Dr. Robert H. Price Lawrence Livermore National Lab., L-473 P.O. Box 5508 Dr. Klaus Schon...Laboratories 40 Sylvan Road Waltham, MA 02254 Dr. Adolf J. Schwab High Voltage Research Laboratory Dr. Henry L. Pugh, Jr. University of Karlsruhe Air Force

  1. Modelling the wind climate of Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frank, H.P.; Landberg, L.

    1997-01-01

    The wind climate of Ireland has been calculated using the Karlsruhe Atmospheric Mesoscale Model KAMM. The climatology is represented by 65 frequency classes of geostrophic wind that were selected as equiangular direction sectors and speed intervals with equal frequency in a sector. The results...

  2. Fatigue in the Presence of Corrosion (Fatigue sous corrosion)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    Box 20701 Carretera de Torrej6n a Ajalvir, Pk.4 2500 ES Den Haag 28850 Torrej6n de Ardoz - Madrid PORTUGAL ETATS-UNIS Estado Maior da Forqa Arrea NASA...Publications) Fachinformationszentrum Karlsruhe Carretera de Torrej6n a Ajalvir, Pk.4 D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen 2 28850 Torrej6n de Ardoz

  3. RTO Highlights 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    Office ESPAGNE National Aerospace Laboratory NLR INTA (RTO/AGARD Publications) P.O. Box 90502 Carretera de Torrej6n a Ajalvir, Pk.4 1006 BM Amsterdam...Fachinformationszentrum Karlsruhe Carretera de Torrej6n a Ajalvir, Pk.4 D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen 2 28850 Torrej6n de Ardoz - Madrid GREECE

  4. Saksamaal kõlas nii klassika kui "juhtmemuusika" / Aino Siebert ; fotod: Werner Siebert

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Siebert, Aino

    2008-01-01

    Mainzi Maakonnamuuseumis avatud Gottlieb Welté näituse "Lihvimata geniaalsus" raames toimunud Eesti päevast 30. märtsil. Karlsruhe ZKMis (Kunsti- ja Meediatehnoloogia keskus) avatud festivalist Performance-Art - kaasaegne tants ja uued meediad. Festival leiab aset Baden-Württembergi liidumaal toimuvate kultuuriürituste raames

  5. Modelling the potential of rainwater harvesting in western Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samuel

    1 Karlsruhe University of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Information Management and Media, ... supply, climate regulation and CO2 fixing (NeFo, 2010). ..... marketing RWH. The models require a number of constants and parameters. These were obtained either from literature research, derived from geodata processing ...

  6. The cryogenic pumping section of KATRIN and the test experiment TRAP

    CERN Document Server

    Eichelhardt, F

    2011-01-01

    The Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino experiment (KATRIN) employs a Cryogenic Pumping Section (CPS) at ~ 4.5 K to suppress the tritium penetration into the spectrometers. A test experiment (TRAP - Tritium Argon frost Pump) has been set up to investigate the tritium pumping performance of the CPS.

  7. Tagasiviitavad tõendid: teine pilk pilditeadusele / Beat Wyss ; intervjueerinud Ivar-Kristjan Hein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Wyss, Beat, 1947-

    2011-01-01

    Intervjuus Karlsruhe kunsti- ja disainiülikooli kunstiajaloo ja meediateooria professori Beat Wyssiga on teemaks Zürichis tema juhitav uurimisprojekt, mille keskmes on Venezia biennaal Ida-Euroopa riikide positsioonilt, tema EKA Kunstiteaduse Instituudi doktorantidele peetud seminar "Tagasiviitavad tõendid. Teine pilk pilditeadusele", tema kaasaegse kunsti universaalsed põhimõtted

  8. Timber-concrete composite beams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Linden, M.L.R.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper an easy-to-use design model for timber-concrete composite beams is discussed. The model is applicable for computer simulations as well as for hand calculations. A research programme was started in 1992 in co-operation with the University of Karlsruhe, to study the loadbearing

  9. Availability measurement of grid services from the perspective of a scientific computing centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marten, H.; Koenig, T.

    2011-12-01

    The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) is the merger of Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe and the Technical University Karlsruhe. The Steinbuch Centre for Computing (SCC) was one of the first new organizational units of KIT, combining the former Institute for Scientific Computing of Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe and the Computing Centre of the University. IT service management according to the worldwide de-facto-standard "IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL)" [1] was chosen by SCC as a strategic element to support the merging of the two existing computing centres located at a distance of about 10 km. The availability and reliability of IT services directly influence the customer satisfaction as well as the reputation of the service provider, and unscheduled loss of availability due to hardware or software failures may even result in severe consequences like data loss. Fault tolerant and error correcting design features are reducing the risk of IT component failures and help to improve the delivered availability. The ITIL process controlling the respective design is called Availability Management [1]. This paper discusses Availability Management regarding grid services delivered to WLCG and provides a few elementary guidelines for availability measurements and calculations of services consisting of arbitrary numbers of components.

  10. Local Covariance Functions and Density Distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    function K(oR) will be virtually zero for large distances. We may therefore approximate sin 1, and obtain : 2Jz +1=P± f ’ K(,R) P (cos 4)do (2.30) - 2 0 The...Moritz, H.: Advanced physical geodesy. Herbert Wichman Verlag, Karlsruhe, 1980. - Nash, R.A. and S.K. Jordan: Statistical geodesy - an engineering

  11. Stakeholder-Analyse bei der Vermittlung von Informationskompetenz in Schule und Unterricht : ein Projektbericht

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Helen

    2008-01-01

    This report was developed during my internship at FIZ Karlsruhe from July until September 2008. It documents the process and organisation of my project about information literacy. This report also served as record of achievement for my study in Library and Information Management at the Media University in Stuttgart/Germany

  12. An Agent-Based Mode-change Framework for Flexible Wireless Sensor Networks (POSTPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    networks 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT: SAR 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 14 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON (Monitor) a...8] Prehofer, C Hurler B, Wei Q and Zittebart, M., “A Framework for Network Mode Control in Wireless Sensor Networks” Telematics Technical Reports ISSN 1613-849X, University Karlsruhe, Dec/2005.

  13. Superluminal censorship

    OpenAIRE

    Visser, Matt; Bassett, Bruce; Liberati, Stefano

    1998-01-01

    We argue that ``effective'' superluminal travel, potentially caused by the tipping over of light cones in Einstein gravity, is always associated with violations of the null energy condition (NEC). This is most easily seen by working perturbatively around Minkowski spacetime, where we use linearized Einstein gravity to show that the NEC forces the light cones to contract (narrow). Given the NEC, the Shapiro time delay in any weak gravitational field is always a delay relative to the Minkowski ...

  14. Scale-dependent three-dimensional charged black holes in linear and non-linear electrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rincon, Angel; Koch, Benjamin [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Instituto de Fisica, Santiago (Chile); Contreras, Ernesto; Bargueno, Pedro; Hernandez-Arboleda, Alejandro [Universidad de los Andes, Departamento de Fisica, Bogota, Distrito Capital (Colombia); Panotopoulos, Grigorios [Universidade de Lisboa, CENTRA, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2017-07-15

    In the present work we study the scale dependence at the level of the effective action of charged black holes in Einstein-Maxwell as well as in Einstein-power-Maxwell theories in (2 + 1)-dimensional spacetimes without a cosmological constant. We allow for scale dependence of the gravitational and electromagnetic couplings, and we solve the corresponding generalized field equations imposing the null energy condition. Certain properties, such as horizon structure and thermodynamics, are discussed in detail. (orig.)

  15. Energy conditions for Bianchi type I universe in f( G) gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, M.; Fatima, H. Ismat

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we discuss energy conditions in modified Gauss-Bonnet gravity for locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type I universe model with perfect fluid. The matter contents are constructed to discuss the energy conditions bounds. We take two specific f( G) models along with present day values of Hubble, deceleration, jerk and snap parameters. It is found that weak and null energy conditions are satisfied while strong energy conditions are violated for both models which represents the accelerated expansion of the universe.

  16. Resources, reserves, time horizons. How long until our energy resources will be depleted?; Ressourcen, Reserven, Reichweiten. Wie lange reichen unsere Energievorraete?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellmer, F.W. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany)

    1998-12-01

    Anybody with an interest in the issue of sustainable development will very soon realize that the exploitation of non-renewable resources, especially energy sources, is the crucial problem. The contribution discusses the issue from the angle of geosciences. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Wer sich ernsthaft mit der Problematik der nachhaltigen Entwicklung beschaeftigt, wird schnell auf die Frage der Nutzung nichterneuerbarer Rohstoffe stossen, insbesondere der Energierohstoffe. Sie werden verbraucht und koennen nicht wie die Metallrohstoffe rezykliert werden - Rohstoffe also, um einen Begriff der Physiker zu verwenden, deren Entropie sich beim Verbrauchsvorgang wesentlich aendert. (orig.)

  17. Sprechkompetenz im DaF-Unterricht an Slowenischen Gymnasien: von der Theorie zur Praxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Retelj

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Es liegt auf der Hand, dass Fremdsprachenkenntnisse aufgrund der wachsenden Globalisierung stets an Bedeutung gewinnen. Über eine hochentwickelte Fremdsprachenkompetenz zu verfügen, ist in der heutigen Gesellschaft fast zur Selbstverständlichkeit geworden. Durch die wachsenden wirtschaftlichen Kontakte gewinnt vor allem die mündliche Kommunikation immer mehr an Bedeutung und die Erwartungen an Fremdsprachenlernende, in verschiedenen Sprachsituationen mündlich schnell und angemessen kommunizieren zu können, nehmen aus diesem Grund ständig zu.

  18. Potential-well distortion and mode-mixing instability in proton machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, King-Yuen [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)

    1996-08-01

    In proton machines, potential-well distortion leads to small amount of bunch lengthening with minimal head-tail asymmetry. Longitudinal mode-mixing instability occurs at higher azimuthal modes. When the driving resonance is of broad-band, the threshold corresponds to the Boussard-modified Keil-Schnell criterion for microwave instability. When the driving resonance is narrower than the bunch spectrum, the threshold corresponds to a similar criterion derived before. The thresholds are higher when the machine operates below transition. (author)

  19. Feasibility of Using Rational Threshold Values to Predict Sediment Impacts from Army Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    RATES. SEDIMENT DATA IN NG/ L . SUSPENDED SEDIMENT. TURBIDITY. PELECYPODA. 45 *CHRISTENSEN, S.W., D.L. DEANGELIS , AND A.G. CLARK. 1977. DEVELOPMENT OF A...ET AL Ehmomhhhhmhhu momhhhhhhmmhm 11111 . ; 15*.2iliii ,._oo m 11111 L I1.8 1.25 _L4 111111-6 MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CKART NAY-O & L BUR(AU OF...Impact Prediction." Mr. Donald Bandel, DAEN-ZCF-B, was the Technical Monitor. The work was performed by Caryn C. Vaughn and Gary D. Schnell of the

  20. Transporte auf dem Nil mit Booten und Schiffen im Alten Ägypten

    OpenAIRE

    Müller-Römer, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Der Nil bildete vom Beginn der Besiedlung des Niltals an die wichtigste Verkehrsverbindung innerhalb Nubiens und Ägyptens. Er war die Handelsstraße Ägyptens, gestattete eine schnelle Kommunikation von Nord nach Süd bzw. von Ost nach West und in den Gegenrichtungen und bildete die Grundlage für die wirtschaftliche und politische Einheit des Ägyptischen Reiches. Geophysikalische Faktoren ermöglichten durch die Fließgeschwindigkeit flussabwärts und einen beständigen Nordwind während nahezu des g...

  1. `Futuro` - the regional train of the future; Der Futuro - Regionalzug der Zukunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, P.A. [SLM Schweizerische Lokomotiv- und Maschinenfabrik AG, Winterthur (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    Passengers expect fast, comfortable and appealing means of transport, railway companies want reasonably priced, energy-saving vehicles with a minimum of expenditure on maintenance, and the manufacturer likes to keep his costs as low as possible in order to have chances in the market. This was the field of tension in which the Futuro - a completely new, flexible regional vehicle - was created. (orig.) [Deutsch] Reisende erwarten schnelle, komfortable und einladende Transportmittel, Bahngesellschaften wollen kostenguenstige, energiesparende Fahrzeuge mit geringem Aufwand an Unterhalt, und der Hersteller moechte seine Kosten tief halten, um Marktchancen zu haben. In diesem Spannungsfeld entstand der Futuro - ein voellig neues, flexibles Regionalfahrzeug. (orig.)

  2. Bildwelten des Abendlandes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Gramatzki

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Die wichtigsten Bildthemen der abendländischen Kunstgeschichte zu präsentieren und zu erläutern, ist ein Unterfangen, das sich eigentlich nur im Plural vorstellen lässt – als mehrbändiges Gemeinschaftswerk verschiedener Kunsthistoriker/-innen. Sabine Poeschel hat nun im Alleingang ein Handbuch zur Ikonographie vorgelegt, das seinem Titel alle Ehre macht: In kurzen, gut lesbaren Artikeln, die mit zahlreichen Abbildungen versehen sind, werden die Leser/-innen schnell und kompetent über die bedeutendsten Motive der abendländischen Malerei vom Mittelalter bis zur Gegenwart informiert.

  3. Insulation for sanitary and heating systems. Manufacturing of elastomer insulation materials; Daemmung von Anlagen im Sanitaer- und Heizungsbereich. Was ist bei der Verarbeitung von elastomeren Daemmstoffen zu beachten?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helms, H.; Weber, M. [Armacell (Germany)

    2001-12-01

    The following article presents the insulation of sanitary and heating systems and what is mentionable. Elastomer materials like from manufacturer SH/Armaflex offer good physical properties and due to their extraordinary flexibility are installed properly and quickly. [German] Bei Daemmungen von Anlagen im Sanitaer- und Heizungsbereich sind einige grundsaetzliche Dinge zu beachten, die im folgenden Artikel dargestellt werden. Elastomere Daemmstoffe, wie das vom Hersteller angebotene Produkt SH/Armaflex, bieten gute physikalischtechnische Werte und sind aufgrund ihrer ausserordentlichen Flexibilitaet sauber und schnell zu verarbeiten. (orig.)

  4. Private financing and market orientation in the renewable energy sector; Private Finanzierung und marktwirtschaftliche Orientierung im Bereich des Regenerativen Energiesektors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakubowski, M. [WRE AG, Frankfurt (Germany)

    1998-06-01

    Private investment in the renewable energy sector should best be encouraged by creating favourable market conditions, not by political regulation. Investment incentives that stem from political decisions offer the investor insufficient security because, as experience shows, political decisions can all too quickly be overturned by shifts in political power. [Deutsch] Um private Investitionen in dem Sektor der Erneuerbaren Energiequellen zu intensivieren, muss man mit Marktbedingungen und nicht mit politischen Regulierungen arbeiten. Durch politische Entscheidungen sanktionierte Investitionen sind fuer einen Investor keine ausreichende Absicherung seiner Investition, da die Erfahrung gelehrt hat, dass solche politischen Entscheidungen durch neue politische Konstellationen schnell umgeworfen werden koennen. (orig.)

  5. Ökologischer Landbau weltweit

    OpenAIRE

    Willer, Helga; Yussefi, Minou

    2007-01-01

    Der ökologische Landbau entwickelt sich nach wie vor in vielen Ländern sehr schnell. Zertifizierten Biolandbau gibt es in über 120 Ländern der Welt. Nicht nur auf einzelstaatlicher Ebene erhält der Biolandbau mehr Unterstützung, auch internationale Organisationen wie die Welthandels- und Entwicklungskonferenz UNCTAD oder die Welternährungsorganisation FAO wenden sich vermehrt dem Bio-landbau zu. Dieser Beitrag fasst die wesentlichen Ergebnisse der Ausgabe 2007 des Jahrbuchs zum weltweiten...

  6. Gerhard Nissen zum 60. Geburtstag

    OpenAIRE

    Müller-Küppers, M.

    1983-01-01

    Sprache, Habitus und auch der Name schafft über die Herkunft von Gerhard Nissen schnell Klarheit: Er wurde nicht von ungefähr in Tondern, dem deutsch-dänischen Grenzgebiet geboren, denn seine Großmutter mütterlicherseits war Dänin. Er besuchte die Volksschule und später das Goethe-Gymnasium in Flensburg und konnte nicht nur 1944 noch das Reifezeugnis erlangen, sondern im gleichen Jahr das Studium der Medizin beginnen, das ihn nach Wien und später nach Kiel führte. Die gleichzeitige Hinwendung...

  7. Végétations sèches des ceintures sahéliennes et soudaniennes du Sénégal à Djibouti

    OpenAIRE

    Spichiger, Rodolphe

    2013-01-01

    Préambule Monod (1957) propose une revue comparative et critique de tous les systèmes de classification de la végétation africaine, y-c. les travaux encyclopédiques produits par la prolifique école biogéographique englérienne. Schnell (1976, 1977) donne à son tour une bibliographie intéressante pour le public francophone. Plus récemment, White offre une compilation exhaustive de la littérature traitant de la flore et de la végétation de l’Afrique subsaharienne (White, 1986). Nous n’avons donc...

  8. Das Urheberrecht prallt auf die remix generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Berger

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available LehrerInnen sind ehrenhafte Menschen, die sich bemühen, keine Rechtsverstöße zu machen. Allerdings macht das geltende Urheberrecht dies sehr schwer. Die nächste Generation hat da ohnehin schon eine ganz andere Praxis. Eigentlich beginnt es oftmals ganz harmlos und mensch selbst hat dabei weder böse Hintergedanken noch kommerzielle Interessen. Eine Lehrerin möchte ein Arbeitsblatt herstellen. Schnell mal ins Internet und ein geeignetes Foto zur Illustration suchen. Download öffnen und … naja, eigentlich könnte ich da doch schnell noch eine Kleinigkeit dazu ergänzen, dann würde das optimal passen. Gesagt, getan. Im Bildbearbeitungsprogramm ist die Sache in fünf Minuten erledigt. Reinkopieren ins Arbeitsblatt. Fertig. Morgen noch in der Schule ausdrucken und kopieren. Den SchülerInnen gefällt das und sie sind motiviert, das Blatt auszufüllen. Die Lehrerin hat allerdings eine Rechtsverletzung begangen und wäre dafür auch gerichtlich verfolgbar.

  9. Ion conductivity and mass spectrometry of methanol diffusion and electroosmotic drag on proton-conducting membranes for the Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC); Ionische Leitfaehigkeit und massenspektrometrische Bestimmung der Methanol-Diffusion und des 'Electroosmotic Drag' an protonenleitenden Membranen fuer die Direkt-Methanol-Brennstoffzelle (DMFC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeztuerk, N.

    2001-07-01

    The methanol permeability of the nafion membrane is one reason why the DMFC is not marketable as yet. As a result of diffusion, permeation and electroosmotic drag, methanol is transferred to the kation side where it will reduce the fuel cell performance. Research is going on world-wide to develop new materials that will prevent methanol crossover. The report describes the development of a measuring cell that will provide the necessary information on diffusion, permeation, electroosmotic drag and conductivity. [German] Ein wesentlicher Grund, der die Einfuehrung der DMFC noch verhindert, ist die Methanoldurchlaessigkeit der Nafion-Membran. Durch Diffusion und Permeation und durch den Electroosmotic Drag gelangt Methanol auf die Kathodenseite und fuehrt dann zu einem Leistungsabfall der Brennstoffzelle. Daher werden weltweit neue Materialien entwickelt, die bei guter lonenleitfaehigkeit den Methanol-crossover unterdruecken. Zur Beurteilung und Weiterentwicklung der neuen Materialien werden Informationen zur Diffusion, Permeation, zum Electroosmotic Drag und zur Leitfaehigkeit benoetigt. Um diese Parameter schnell und einfach zu bestimmen, wurde im Rahmen der vorliegenden Arbeit eine Messzelle weiter entwickelt. Diese Messzelle erlaubt die schnelle Bestimmung aller vier wichtigen Parameter. (orig.)

  10. Visuelle Narreme und die Ästhetisierung des Politischen – Erinnerungskultur 2.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Mitterhofer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Der Beitrag widmet sich der Analyse einer Webseite auf SPIEGEL-Online, die die Terroranschläge auf das World Trade Center am 11. September 2001 im Zuge des Erinnerns zehn Jahre später rekonstruiert. Ausgehend von einer Beschreibung der Diskursfragmente, die sich aus verschiedenen digitalen Archiven speisen, wird der Frage nachgegangen, um welche Art von Erinnerungsort es sich handelt. Vor diesem Hintergrund wird die diskursive Struktur der Webseite einer Analyse unterzogen. Diese Analyse bildet den Ausgangspunkt einer Auseinandersetzung mit der Bedeutung der Diskursfragmente, insbesondere der Semantik der visuellen Elemente. Im Zentrum wird zunächst die Frage der inneren Struktur der Webseite stehen, die Anordnung der Bilder, die, so die These, einer narrativen Logik folgt. Im Weiteren wird der Frage nachgegangen, welche Rolle die Ästhetisierung als Bedingung dafür spielt, dass bestimmte Pressefotografien zu politischen Ikonen gerinnen. Ein möglicherweise überraschender Effekt, der aus dem Spannungsfeld «Schlagbild» (Aby Warburg, Ästhetisierung und emotionaler Erinnerung erwachsen kann, vervollständigt den Beitrag.

  11. Criteria for assembly of in vivo measuring systems using high-resolution {gamma}-spectroscopy for evaluation of incorporated radionuclides; Kriterien zum Aufbau von In Vivo Messsystemen zur hochaufloesenden {gamma}-Spektrometrie inkorporierter Radionuklide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahl, W. [GSF Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz

    1997-12-01

    The paper reviews the available, fundamental measuring methods relying on {gamma}-spectroscopy for their possible application in whole-body and partial-body counters for detection of manifold incorporation of radionuclides. Particular emphasis is placed on the response functions of various detectors, the assembly, the differentiated radioactivity distribution in the body, the various components of background activity and the corresponding suppression mechanisms, and possible ways of using the energy dependence for optimised detection of specific {gamma} energies in a given body region. Criteria and relations as well as their advantages and drawbacks are discussed. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Diese Arbeit prueft die zur Verfuegung stehenden grundlegenden, {gamma}-spektroskopischen Messmethoden auf deren moegliche Anwendung im Spektrum der Ganz- und Teilkoerperzaehler zum Nachweis der mannigfach inkorporierten Radionuklide. Insbesondere wird eingegangen auf die Response Funktionen verschiedener Detektoren, die Anordnung, die differenzierte Aktivitaetsverteilung im Koerper, die verschiedenen Untergrundkomponenten und deren Unterdrueckungsmechanismen sowie die Beeinflussung durch die Energieabhaengigkeit zum optimalen Nachweis spezifischer {gamma}-Energien an einem bestimmten Ort am Koerper. Kriterien und Relationen sowie deren Vor- und Nachteile werden diskutiert. (orig.)

  12. Vibroacoustic and optical investigations of cavitation phenomena in axial piston engines; Vibroakustische und optische Untersuchung der Kavitation bei Axialkolbenmaschinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunze, T.; Brunner, H.

    1996-12-31

    Hydrostatic drives are widely used. Reasons are: High-power and momentum transmission at high power density, variable arrangement of components, simplicity of designing linear drives, very high dynamics and variable design of hydraulic control systems, especially in combination with electronic solutions. However, hydrosystems have to compete with mechanical, electric and pneumatic drives, and demands on comfort, operating quality, energy efficiency, ease of servicing and environmental acceptability are getting increasingly higher. This means that innovative solutions must be found to remove the current shortcomings of hydrosystems must be overcome, i.e. noise, loss of flow, leakge of liquids, variations of rotational momentum and speed, and cavitation. The authors focus on the problem of cavitation. (orig.) [Deutsch] Hydrostatische Systeme finden in der Antriebstechnik eine breite Anwendung. Gruende dafuer sind die Uebertragbarkeit grosser Kraefte und Momente bei hoher Leistungsdichte, die freizuegige Anordnung einzelner Komponenten, die einfache Realisierung linearer Antriebe, die sehr hohe Dynamik und die vielfaeltige Gestaltung hydraulischer Steuerungen, vor allem in Verbindung mit der Elektronik. Die Hydrosysteme stehen jedoch im Wettbewerb mit mechanischen, elektrischen und pneumatischen Antrieben. Zudem steigen die Anforderungen an Komfort, Arbeitsqualitaet, Energieeffizienz, Wartungsfreundlichkeit und Umweltvertraeglichkeit. Deshalb gilt es, die Nachteile von Hydrosystemen, wie z.B. die Geraeuschbildung, die Stroemungsverluste, die Fluessigkeitsleckagen, die Drehmoment- und Drehzahlschwingungen und nicht zuletzt die Kavitation, durch innovative Loesungen zu vermindern. Der vorliegende Beitrag beschaeftigt sich dabei in erster Linie mit dem Problem der Kavitation. (orig.)

  13. Operational performance of the ETH-hybrid III drive system - at the test stand and in the vehicle; Betriebsverhalten des ETH-Hybrid III Antriebes - Auf dem dynamischen Pruefstand und im Fahrzeug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, P.; Eberle, M.K.

    1999-07-01

    The position and the way of operation of the ETH hybrid III drive system in an Otto engine, an electric motor, a flywheel and an infinitely variable wide-range transmission are presented. The consumption values for gasoline and electric power are shown for constant drive and in city cycles. The achievable conservation of 40% at gasoline operation is not limited to one cycle and shows the robustness of this measure to improve partial load operation. The sensitiveness towards the evaluated current generation is shown by means of the autarkic charge operation. (orig.) [German] Es wird die Anordnung und die Betriebsweise des ETH-Hybrid III Antriebes mit einem Ottomotor, einem Elektromotor, einem Schwungrad und einem stufenlosen Weitbereichsgetriebe dargestellt. Es werden die Verbrauchswerte bei Konstantfahrt und in Stadtzyklen sowohl fuer Benzin und Strom aufgezeigt. Die erzielbaren 40% Verbrauchseinsparung im Benzinbetrieb ist nicht nur auf einen Zyklus beschraenkt und zeigt die Robustheit dieser Teillastverbesserungsmassnahme auf. Anhand des autarken Ladebetriebes wird die Sensitivitaet gegenueber der betrachteten Stromherstellung aufgezeigt. (orig.)

  14. Zum Typus des ossetischen Kasussystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Horst Schmidt

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Altiranisch ist das altindogermanische Kasussystem weitgehend erhalten geblieben; im Singular (Sg. der avestischen (av. Nominaldeklination werden noch die acht Kasus Nominativ, Akkusativ, Genetiv, Dativ, Ablativ, Lokativ, Instrumenta! und Vokativ unterschieden; z.B. o-Stamm ahura- 'Gott': ahuri5, ahuram, ahurahyii., ahurai usw.; im Altpersischen ist dieses System durch den Zusammenfall von Dativ und Genetiv um einen Kasus reduziert worden. Auch in der typologischen Anordnung der Morpheme hat das Altiranische den aus dem Indogermanischen (idg. ererbten Status einer flektierenden Sprache bewahrt. Es ist charakterisiert durch Merkmale wie die Differenzierung von rrwnothematischer und heteroklitischer Deklination2 (vgl. Stamm vs. r/n-Stamm: av. ahura- vs. hvarǝ 'Sonne', Genetiv xvǝng, Caland-Wackernagelschen Suffixwechsel (av. dǝrǝz-ra- 'fest' : dǝrǝz-i-ra0a- 'festen Wagen habend' 3, Ablaut (av. dātā 'Geber', Genetiv dāvro, Formvariation4 (aav. Genetiv Sg. ahura-hyā vs. dāvr-ō oder Autonomie des Wortes.

  15. Numerical simulations of turbulent flow with technical roughness elements; Numerische Simulationen turbulenter Stroemungen mit technischen Rauhigkeitselementen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, J.

    1998-12-31

    Apart from improved gas turbine blades, process optimisation today aims at efficient cooling and temperature control. In order to influence the viscous lower layer, which determines the heat transition resistance, rectangular roughness elements were arranged periodically. Detailed, time-averaged heat transfer and flow structure data were obtained on roughness elements arranged in different patterns in turbulent gap flow and duct flow. Apat from heat transfer measurement by ammonia absorption, a numerical calculation method with a Low Reynolds Number k-{epsilon} Model was used. Knowledge of the local processes resulted in proposals for improved arrangements of discrete roughness elements. [Deutsch] Neben den Schaufeln moderner Gasturbinen ist eine effiziente Kuehlung und Temperierung bei vielen turbulenten Innenstroemungen Gegenstand einer verfahrenstechnischen Prozessoptimierung. Zur Beeinflussung der den Waermeuebergangswiderstand massgeblich bestimmenden, viskosen Unterschicht werden periodisch angeordnete, rechteckfoermige Rauhigkeitselemente eingesetzt. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit konnten detaillierte, zeitgemittelte und flaechendeckende Verteilungen zum Waermeuebergang und zur Stroemungsstruktur an unterschiedlich angeordneten Rauhigkeitselementen in turbulenten Spalt- und Kanalstroemungen gewonnen werden. Als Untersuchungswerkzeug ist hierbei neben einer Stoffuebergangsmessmethode, der Ammoniak-Absorptions-Methode, hauptsaechlich ein numerisches Berechnungsverfahren mit einem Low Reynolds Number k-{epsilon} Modell eingesetzt worden. Basierend auf der Kenntnis lokaler Vorgaenge sind Vorschlaege zur verbesserten Anordnung von diskreten Rauhigkeitselementen entstanden. (orig.)

  16. Integral energy concepts for housing estates; Integrale Energiekonzepte fuer Wohnsiedlungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisch, M.N.; Kuehl, L. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany)

    1998-06-01

    Integral energy concepts for housing estates require an early cooperation between architects, planners, and specialist engineers on the basis of a holistic planning approach. This is how future-oriented, sustainable concepts evolve which do justice to the multifarious requirements on the integral energy system of a housing estate. The present paper elucidates different approaches to optimising the energy efficiency of buildings such as the implementation of low-energy house concepts, building site and architectural planning, and detailed planning of heat insulation concepts, ventilation and air tightness concepts, and adapted heating systems. The solarisation of development plans has an influence on the arrangement of buildings, which are now planned to give the greatest possible passive and active solar energy gains. The authors also describe solar-assisted district heating systems for housing estates. [Deutsch] Integrale Energiekonzepte fuer Wohnsiedlungen erfordern die fruehe Zusammenarbeit von Architekten, Planern und Fachingenieuren im Rahmen einer ganzheitlichen Planung. So entstehen zukunftsweisende und tragfaehige Konzepte, die den vielschichtigen Anforderungen des Gesamtenergiesystems ``Wohnsiedlung`` gerecht werden. Im Folgenden wird die energetische Optimierung von Gebaeuden wie die Umsetzung von Niedrigenergiehaus-Konzepten, Standort und Gebaeudeplanung sowie Detailplanung in Bezug auf das Waermedaemmkonzept, Lueftungs-/Dichtheitskonzept und auf angepasste Waermeversorgungssysteme erl autert. Die Solarisierung von Bebauungsplaenen beeinflusste Anordnung der Gebaeude hinsichtlich der Nutzung passivsolarer Gewinne sowie des Einsatzes von Systemen der aktiven Solarenergienutzung. Solarunterstuetzte Nahwaermenetze fuer Wohnsiedlungen werden ebenfalls beschrieben.

  17. Energy release from pit fires for producing a fire model. Natural-scale analysis of energy release from pit fires for the purpose of establishing a fire model. Final report; Energiefreisetzung von Grubenbraenden zur Erstellung eines Brandmodell. Untersuchung ueber die Energiefreisetzung von Grubenbraenden im natuerlichen Massstab zur Erstellung eines Brandmodells. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holke, K.; Michelis, J.

    1996-12-31

    In the context of the research project, measurements were made regarding the energy release in pit fires. The heat flow in fires with standard wood fire objects and in fires on conveyor belts in underground fire sections of the DMT Tremonia experimental pit was measured for this purpose. It was found that the distribution of the mean total heat flow in the roadway crossection depended on the geometric arrangement of the fire object. The belt fire tests carried out have shown that the heat flow depended on the burning behaviour of the belts and with increasing flame propagation on the conveyor belt, the mean heat flow increased. Further, the temperature effects after wood and conveyor belt fires were simulated with the modified `MFIRE` simulation program and were compared with the corresponding experimental results. (orig./MSK) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen des Untersuchungsvorhabens wurden Messungen bezueglich der Energiefreisetzung bei Grubenbraenden durchgefuehrt. Hierzu wurde der Waermefluss bei Braenden mit Standardholzbrandobjekten und bei Foerdergurtbraenden in den untertaegigen Brandstrecken der DMT-Versuchsgrube Tremonia gemessen. Es zeigte sich, dass die Verteilung des mittleren Gesamtwaermeflusses im Streckenquerschnitt von der geometrischen Anordnung des Brandobjektes abhing. Die durchgefuehrten Gurtbrandversuche haben ergeben, dass der Waermefluss vom Brandverhalten der Gurte abhing und mit zunehmender Flammenausbreitung am Foerdergurt der mittlere Waermefluss zunahm. Weiterhin wurden mit dem modifizierten Simulationsprogramm `MFIRE` die Temperaturauswirkungen hinter Holz- und Foerdergurtbraenden simuliert und mit den entsprechenden experimentellen Ergebnissen verglichen. (orig./MSK)

  18. Identifikationsverfahren zur Analyse von EEG-Signalen bei Epilepsie mit Reaktions-Diffusions Netzwerken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollas, F.; Tetzlaff, R.

    2007-06-01

    Partielle Differentialgleichungen des Reaktions-Diffusions-Typs beschreiben Phänomene wie Musterbildung, nichtlineare Wellenausbreitung und deterministisches Chaos und werden oft zur Untersuchung komplexer Vorgänge auf den Gebieten der Biologie, Chemie und Physik herangezogen. Zellulare Nichtlineare Netzwerke (CNN) sind eine räumliche Anordnung vergleichsweise einfacher dynamischer Systeme, die eine lokale Kopplung untereinander aufweisen. Durch eine Diskretisierung der Ortsvariablen können Reaktions-Diffusions-Gleichungen häufig auf CNN mit nichtlinearen Gewichtsfunktionen abgebildet werden. Die resultierenden Reaktions-Diffusions-CNN (RD-CNN) weisen dann in ihrer Dynamik näherungsweise gleiches Verhalten wie die zugrunde gelegten Reaktions-Diffusions-Systeme auf. Werden RD-CNN zur Identifikation neuronaler Strukturen anhand von EEG-Signalen herangezogen, so besteht die Möglichkeit festzustellen, ob das gefundene Netzwerk lokale Aktivität aufweist. Die von Chua eingeführte Theorie der lokalen Aktivität Chua (1998); Dogaru und Chua (1998) liefert eine notwendige Bedingung für das Auftreten von emergentem Verhalten in zellularen Netzwerken. Änderungen in den Parametern bestimmter RD-CNN könnten auf bevorstehende epileptische Anfälle hinweisen. In diesem Beitrag steht die Identifikation neuronaler Strukturen anhand von EEG-Signalen durch Reaktions-Diffusions-Netzwerke im Vordergrund der dargestellten Untersuchungen. In der Ergebnisdiskussion wird insbesondere auch die Frage nach einer geeigneten Netzwerkstruktur mit minimaler Komplexität behandelt.

  19. Phased-array technology for automatic pipeline inspection; Phased Array-Technologie fuer automatisierte Pipeline-Inspektion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosch, J.; Hugger, A.; Franz, J. [GE Energy, PII Pipetronix GmbH, Stutensee (Germany); Falter, S.; Oberdoerfer, Y. [GE Inspection Technology Systems, Huerth (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Pipeline inspection pigs with individual test probes are limited in their function due to the fixed arrangement of sensors on the support. In contrast, the phased-array technology enables multitasking of tests, e.g. stress and corrosion testing which formerly required two different test runs with different sensor set-ups. The angles of inclination can be adapted to the test medium, and virtual sensors can be matched in size and overlap so that, e.g., small pittings will be detected. The sensor set-up presented here enables higher test speed and improved flaw detection. The contribution describes the measuring principle, the inspection pig (UltraScan DUO), and some results of prototype measurements. [German] Pruefmolche fuer die Pipelinepruefung mit Einzelpruefkoepfen sind in ihrem Funktionsumfang aufgrund der festliegenden Anordnung der Sensoren im Sensortraeger eingeschraenkt. Die Phased-Array-Technologie gestattet die simultane Durchfuehrung verschiedener Pruefaufgaben, wie beispielsweise der Rissund der Korrosionspruefung, die vorher zwei Prueflaeufe mit verschiedenen Sensortraegern erforderten. Die Einfallswinkel koennen auf das jeweilige Medium angepasst werden, und es besteht die Moeglichkeit, virtuelle Sensoren bezueglich ihrer Groesse und der gegenseitigen Ueberlappung so anzupassen, dass beispielsweise kleine Pittings gefunden werden koennen. Die ausgefuehrte Form gestattet hoehere Pruefgeschwindigkeit und verbesserte Fehlerauffindung. In diesem Artikel werden das Messprinzip und der Inspektionsmolch (UltraScan DUO) beschrieben sowie einige Prototyp-Messergebnisse vorgestellt.

  20. Collective Quantum Phase-Slip Dynamics in Superconducting Nanowire Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skacel, Sebastian T.; Voss, Jan N.; Bier, Tobias; Radke, Lucas; Weides, Martin; Rotzinger, Hannes; Mooij, Hans E.; Ustinov, Alexey V.

    2014-03-01

    Superconducting nanowire arrays exhibit quantum phase-slip (QPS) phenomenon if the superconductor has a very high normal-state sheet resistance. We experimentally study QPS effects in arrays of nanowires embedded in a resonant circuit at GHz frequencies. We probe this circuit at ultra-low microwave power, applied flux and mK temperatures. The nanowires are fabricated utilizing aluminium grown in a precisely-controlled oxygen atmosphere. In this way, we aim to control the QPS rate for a given wire width. The wires are defined with conventional electron beam lithography down to a width of 20 nm. We will present the fabrication of the nanowire arrays and first microwave measurements at mK temperatures. Center for Functional Nanostructures, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, D-76128 Karlsruhe, Germany.

  1. Comparative analysis of three atmospheric dispersion coefficient systems at the Angra dos Reis, RJ, region; Analise comparativa de tres sistemas de coeficientes de dispersao atmosferica na regiao de Angra dos Reis, RJ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biagio, Rosa Maria de Souza

    1982-07-01

    A comparative analysis was made in this work among Pasquill-Gifford (PG) atmospheric dispersion coefficients and those determined at the Juelich and Karlsruhe sites with the purpose of suggesting which one would be the most applicable to the Angra site. Each one of the three systems was determined by different experiments, carried out over sites with diversified features. The systems of Juelich and Karlsruhe were obtained over sites with high surface roughness and from stacks (elevated releases), while the PG system was obtained over sites with a small surface roughness and from ground level releases. The results of the application of these systems at a complex site like Angra,which has a highly diversified structure encompassing sea, vegetation, predominance of light winds and stable stability classes, show that the PG system, the most used in the world, is still the best choice. (author)

  2. Implementation of a quality management system at the PHOENIX facility (CryoMaK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbach, Elisabeth, E-mail: elisabeth.urbach@kit.edu; Bagrets, Nadezda; Weiss, Klaus-Peter

    2013-10-15

    Within a variety of mechanical tests in the Cryogenic Material Test Facility Karlsruhe (CryoMaK) at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) the PHOENIX facility was prepared for multiple standard tensile tests in liquid helium, liquid nitrogen and at room temperature. With the multiple specimens holder 10 specimens can be tested within one cool down one after another. A quality management system is needed for ensuring reproducible preconditions. For the guarantee of the competence of the laboratory and the measurement equipment, a quality management system was implemented and prepared for accreditation according to DIN EN ISO/IEC 17025 (ISO 17025). The implementation of a quality management system allows high precision test results included the estimation of measurement uncertainty. This paper gives an overview of the management and technical requirements for the accreditation of the PHOENIX testing facility.

  3. International Conference ML4CPS 2016

    CERN Document Server

    Niggemann, Oliver; Kühnert, Christian

    2017-01-01

    The work presents new approaches to Machine Learning for Cyber Physical Systems, experiences and visions. It contains some selected papers from the international Conference ML4CPS – Machine Learning for Cyber Physical Systems, which was held in Karlsruhe, September 29th, 2016. Cyber Physical Systems are characterized by their ability to adapt and to learn: They analyze their environment and, based on observations, they learn patterns, correlations and predictive models. Typical applications are condition monitoring, predictive maintenance, image processing and diagnosis. Machine Learning is the key technology for these developments. The Editors Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jürgen Beyerer is Professor at the Department for Interactive Real-Time Systems at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. In addition he manages the Fraunhofer Institute of Optronics, System Technologies and Image Exploitation IOSB. Prof. Dr. Oliver Niggemann is Professor for Embedded Software Engineering. His research interests are in the field of Di...

  4. Studies for integration of recent information from risk analyses into systems for accident management in the environment of nuclear installations; Untersuchungen zur Umsetzung neuer Ergebnisse von Risikoanalysen auf die Notfallschutzplanung in der Umgebung kerntechnischer Anlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1998-03-01

    The module for turbulence parametrisation (DFKSIG), developed by an ad-hoc working group of the Franco-German Commission, as well as the upstream pre-processors for calculation of the required boundary layer parameters from meteorological measurements (modules MPT and MPS) are to be integrated into the current version of the RODOS/RESY program package of the Institut fuer Neutronenphysik and Reaktortechnik (INR) of KArlsruhe Research Center. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Das im Rahmen einer ad hoc-Arbeitsgruppe der Deutsch-Franzoesischen Kommission entwickelte Modul zur Turbulenzparametrisierung (DFKSIG) sowie die vorgeschalteten Praeprozessoren zur Berechnung der erforderlichen Grenzschichtparameter aus meteorologischen Messungen (Module MPT und MPS) sollen lauffaehig in die aktuelle Version des Programmpaketes RODOS/RESY des Instituts fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik (INR) des Forschungszentrums Karlsruhe eingebaut werden. (orig.)

  5. Radio emission of energetic cosmic ray air showers: Polarization measurements with LOPES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isar, P.G. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany)], E-mail: gina.isar@ik.fzk.de; Apel, W.D. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Arteaga, J.C. [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe (Germany); Asch, T. [Inst. Prozessdatenverarbeitung und Elektronik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Auffenberg, J. [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Wuppertal (Germany); Badea, F. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Baehren, L. [Department of Astrophysics, Radboud University Nijmegen (Netherlands); Bekk, K. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Bertaina, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita Torino (Italy); Biermann, P.L. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie Bonn (Germany); Bluemer, J. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe (Germany); Bozdog, H. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Brancus, I.M. [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering Bucharest (Romania); Brueggemann, M.; Buchholz, P. [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Siegen (Germany); Buitink, S. [Department of Astrophysics, Radboud University Nijmegen (Netherlands); Cantoni, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita Torino (Italy); Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario, INAF Torino (Italy); Chiavassa, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita Torino (Italy); Cossavella, F. [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe (Germany); Daumiller, K. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany)] (and others)

    2009-06-01

    LOPES is a radio antenna array co-located with the Karlsruhe Shower Core and Array DEtector, KASCADE-Grande in Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Germany, which provides well-calibrated trigger information and air shower parameters for primary energies up to 10{sup 18}eV. By the end of 2006, the radio antennas were re-configured to perform polarization measurements of the radio signal of cosmic ray air showers, recording in the same time both, the East-West and North-South polarization directions of the radio emission. The main goal of these measurements is to reconstruct the polarization characteristics of the emitted signal. This will allow a detailed comparison with theoretical predictions. The current status of these measurements is reported here.

  6. TRITIUM-β-DECAY Experiments - the Direct way to the Absolute Neutrino Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornschein, Lutz

    2013-11-01

    Tritium-β-decay experiments provide the most sensitive approach to measure the absolute neutrino mass in a model independent way. The Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino experiment KATRIN will measure the neutrino mass scale with an expected sensitivity of 0.2 eV/c2 (90% C.L.) and so will help to clarify the roles of neutrinos in the early universe. KATRIN investigates spectroscopically the electron spectrum from tritium β-decay 3 H -> 3 {He} + {e}^ - + bar ν e close to the kinematic endpoint of 18.6 keV. It will use a windowless gaseous tritium source in combination with an electrostatic filter for energy analysis. KATRIN is currently under construction at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) Campus North. This proceeding will give an overview of the status of the main components of the KATRIN experiment.

  7. German visits to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    State secretary to Germany's Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Frieder Meyer-Krahmer, with CERN's Director-General Robert Aymar.On 21 February, Professor Frieder Meyer-Krahmer, State Secretary to Germany's Federal Ministry of Education and Research, came to CERN. He visited the ALICE and ATLAS experiments and the computing centre before meeting the CERN's Director-General, some German physicists and members of the top management. The Minister of Science, Research and the Arts of the Baden-Württemberg regional government, Peter Frankenberg, and CERN's Director-General, Robert Aymar, signing an agreement on education. In the background: Sigurd Lettow, CERN's Director of Finance and Human Resources, and Karl-Heinz Meisel, Rector of the Fachhochschule Karlsruhe. The Minister of Science, Research and the Arts of the Baden-Württemberg regional government, Prof. Peter Frankenberg, visited CERN on 23 February. He was accompanied by the Rector of the Fachhochschule Karlsruhe, Prof. Karl-Heinz Meisel, and b...

  8. Dependence of the wind climate of Ireland on the direction distribution of geostrophic wind; Die Abhaengigkeit des Windklimas von Irland von der Richtungsverteilung des geostrophischen Windes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, H.P. [Forskningcenter Risoe, Roskilde (Denmark). Afdelingen for Vindenergi og Atmosfaerefysik

    1998-01-01

    The wind climate of Ireland is calculated using the Karlsruhe Atmospheric Mesoscale Model KAMM. The dependence of the simulated wind energy on the direction distribution of geostrophic wind is studied. As geostrophic winds from the south-west are most frequent, sites on the north-west coast are particularly suited for wind power stations. In addition, geostrophic wind increases from the south-east to the north-west. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Windklima von Irland wurde mit dem Karlsruher Atmosphaerischen Mesoskaligen Modell KAMM berechnet. Hier wird die Abhaengigkeit der simultierten Windenergie von der Richtungsverteilung des geostrophischen Windes untersucht. Da geostrophische Winde aus Suedwest am haeufigsten vorkommen, eignet sich besonders die Nordwestkueste als Standort fuer Windkraftanlagen. Zusaetzlich nimmt auch der mittlere geostrophische Wind von Suedost nach Nordwest zu. (orig.)

  9. 6. annual report, research programme ``Environment and health``. Conference programme and abstracts; 6. Statuskolloquium des Projektes Umwelt und Gesundheit (PUG). Programm und Kurzfassung der Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The document contains the abstracts of papers and the contributions to the discussion forums of the 6th status colloquium of the ``Environment and Health`` project, held on 3. and 4. March 1997 at Karlsruhe Research Center, Fortbildungszentrum fuer Technik und Umwelt. The session subjects are: Air pollution and respiratory system diseases (LUVA session); Diseases caused by anthropogenic trace substances in the environment (UTOX session); Food-induced allergies and intolerance phenomena (PAUL session). (VHE) [Deutsch] Im vorliegenden Band werden die Abstracts der Vortraege und der Beitraege der Diskussionskreise des 6. Statuskolloquiums des Projektes `Umwelt und Gesundheit` im Fortbildungszentrum fuer Technik und Umwelt des Forschungszentrums Karlsruhe vom 03. und 04.03.1997 vorgestellt. Themen waren `Luftverunreinigungen und Atemwegserkrankungen` (LUVA), `Erkrankungen durch zivilisationsbedingte Spurenstoffe in der Umwelt` (UTOX) sowie `Allergien und Unvertraeglichkeitsreaktionen durch Lebensmittel` (PAUL). (VHE)

  10. Individualized three-dimensional printed cage for spinal cervical fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Spetzger

    2017-01-01

    Uwe Spetzger, MD, is the Chairman of Department of Neurosurgery, Klinikum Karlsruhe, and Institute for Anthropomatics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT, Karlsruhe, Germany. Uwe Spetzger received his medical degree in 1989 at the Medical Faculty, University of Heidelberg, Germany. He passed the US American medical exam (ECFMG in 1990. He has started his neurosurgical training in 1990 at the Department of Neurosurgery, Technical University (RWTH Aachen and got his board certification of neurosurgeon in 1996. The Grant of the Wilhelm-Tonnis-Foundation of the German Society of Neurosurgery (DGNC enables his scientific internship in 1999 at Department of Neurosurgery, University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC. In June 1999, he passed the European Examination in Neurosurgery (EANS. From 1999 - 2002 he was vice-chairman of the Department of Neurosurgery at the University of Freiburg and the director of the interdisciplinary centre for skull base surgery at Freiburg University. Since 2002 he is Chairman of the Department of Neurosurgery, Klinikum Karlsruhe and in 2003 he became an active member of the Faculty of Computer Science, Humanoids and Intelligence Systems Lab - Institute for Anthropomatics at KIT. Prof. Spetzger became the president of the international Society of Medical Innovation and Technology iSMIT in 2013 and the congress president of the 66th Annual Meeting of German Society of Neurosurgery DGNC in 2015 and the Vice-President of the International Society of Digital Medicine in 2016. He is member of several national and international neurosurgical and medical technological societies. His main surgical and research interests are cerebrovascular surgery, skull base surgery, computer-assisted and robotic surgery, neuronavigation and spinal microsurgery.

  11. 1st International Symposium on Energy System Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Fichtner, Wolf; Heuveline, Vincent; Leibfried, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The papers presented in this volume address diverse challenges in energy systems, ranging from operational to investment planning problems, from market economics to technical and environmental considerations, from distribution grids to transmission grids and from theoretical considerations to data provision concerns and applied case studies. The International Symposium on Energy System Optimization (ISESO) was held on November 9th and 10th 2015 at the Heidelberg Institute for Theoretical Studies (HITS) and was organized by HITS, Heidelberg University and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology.

  12. Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 84 FIZ/NIST Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD) (PC database for purchase)   The Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD) is produced cooperatively by the Fachinformationszentrum Karlsruhe(FIZ) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The ICSD is a comprehensive collection of crystal structure data of inorganic compounds containing more than 140,000 entries and covering the literature from 1915 to the present.

  13. Design of price adjustment clauses in energy supply contracts in view of the latest decisions of the Federal Court of Justice; Gestaltung von Preisanpassungsklauseln in Waermeliefervertraegen im Lichte der juengsten BGH-Entscheidungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollschlaeger, Stefan; Zorn, Regina [Kanzlei Becker Buettner Held, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    In spring and summer of 2011, the Federal Court of Justices (Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany) has dealt with the requirements on the structure of price adjustment clauses in heat supply contracts. Even if the court decisions still leave some issues unresolved, other issues now are resolved, or at least become clearer. The authors of the contribution under consideration report on these court decisions and their consequences for the contractual practice.

  14. A tribute to Stanislao Cannizzaro, chemical informationist and photochemist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Heinz D

    2011-12-01

    Stanislao Cannizzaro is known widely for the Cannizzaro reaction, the "disproportionation" of benzaldehyde upon reaction with alkali, for his approach to teaching chemistry, "Sunto di un corso di filosofia chimica", which he presented at the Karlsruhe Congress of 1860, and for his work on the photochemistry of santonin. In Cannizzaro's laboratory two research associates, Giacomo Ciamician and Paul Silber, and a senior colleague, Emanuele Paternó, became acquainted with the basic methods of sunlight-inducd photochemistry.

  15. The 16th International Conference on X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS16)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunwaldt, J.-D.; Hagelstein, M.; Rothe, J.

    2016-05-01

    This preface of the proceedings volume of the 16th International Conference on X- ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS16) gives a glance on the five days of cutting-edge X-ray science which were held in Karlsruhe, Germany, August 23 - 28, 2015. In addition, several satellite meetings took place in Hamburg, Berlin and Stuttgart, a Sino-German workshop, three data analysis tutorials as well as special symposia on industrial catalysis and XFELs were held at the conference venue.

  16. Ein seltener Parasitoid der Wolfspinne Pardosa alacris (Araneae: Lycosidae: Ogcodes gibbosus (Diptera: Acroceridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langer, Günther

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The emerging of an acrocerid fly from an adult female of the wolf spider Pardosa alacris (C.L. Koch, 1833 was observed near Karlsruhe (Baden-Württemberg, Germany. This record supports previous results suggesting that acrocerids infect the spider's body, and not the egg sac. A short review of the life history of acrocerids and the development of their larvae is provided, casting doubt on the infection of spider cocoons by these parasitoids

  17. Vorwort

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Die 28. Jahrestagung der Gesellschaft für Mineralstoffe und Spurenelemente e .V. (GMS) fand vom 11. bis 13. Oktober 2012 im Institut für Angewandte Biowissenschaften, Abteilung Lebensmittelchemie und Toxikologie, am Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT) statt. Unter dem Motto „Nutzen-Risiko-Bewertung von Mineralstoffen und Spurenelementen: Biochemische, physikalische und toxikologische Aspekte“ sollte das Spannungsfeld zwischen positiven, aber auch - bei Überversorgung - möglichen nachtei...

  18. Generalized Phenomenological Cyclic Stress-Strain-Strength Characterization of Granular Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-02

    after Hettler et al., 1984) .............. 147 3.6 Stress-strain response for a cyclic axial compression test on loose Fuji River sand (after Tatsuoka...Karlsruhe sand at various confining pressures and at a relative density of 99% (after Hettler et. al., 1984) .............................. 197 3.27 Results...of axial compression tests on Dutch dune sand at various confining pressures and at a relative density of 60.9% (after Hettler et. al., 1984

  19. Revaporisation of fission product deposits in the primary circuit and its impact on accident source term

    OpenAIRE

    Bottomley, P.D.W.; Knebel, K.; Van Winckel, S.; Haste, T.; Souvi, S.M.O.; Auvinen, A; Kalilainen, J.; Kärkelä, T.

    2014-01-01

    Chemical revaporisation or physical resuspension of fission product deposits from the primary circuit is now recognised to be a major source term in the late phase of severe fuel degradation in a severe nuclear accident. These results come from tests carried out under different experimental projects in the European Commission (EC) Framework Programmes. These include the revaporisation tests carried out at the Transuranium Institute (ITU), Karlsruhe under the Fourth Framework Programme, the Ph...

  20. NMR methods for the investigation of structure and transport

    CERN Document Server

    Hardy, Edme H

    2011-01-01

    Methods of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) are increasingly applied in engineering sciences. The book summarizes research in the field of chemical and process engineering performed at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). Fundamentals of the methods are exposed for readers with an engineering background. Applications cover the fields of mechanical process engineering (filtration, solid-liquid separation, powder mixing, rheometry), chemical process engineering (trickle-bed reactor, ceramic sponges), bioprocess engineering (biofilm growth), and food process engineering (microwave heating

  1. Interaktiivsed muuseumid ja kunst Tallinnas : pühendatud Märt Väljataga, Anu Juuraku ja tundmatute autorite loomingule / Raivo Kelomees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelomees, Raivo, 1960-

    2000-01-01

    Kunsti meelelahutuslikkus. Maailma interaktiivse kunsti muuseumide (Tokyo ICC, Linzi Ars Electronica Center, Karlsruhe ZKM) eesmärk, mängulistest kunstiteostest nendes muuseumides. Interaktiivsete eksponaatidega Tervishoiumuuseum ning Tallinna tehnika- ja teaduskeskus. Märt Väljataga näitus 'Sada tuhat miljardit millenniumisonetti' Linnagaleriis Tallinnas. Anu Juuraku näitus 'Tsoon 2' Kunstihoones. A. Juuraku töö "Suflöör" ja Jeffrey Shaw töö "Loetav linn" võrdlus.

  2. $\\pi_[-}$-mass and vacuum polarization - a re-evalution.

    CERN Document Server

    Backenstoss, Gerhard; Koch, H; Poelz, G; Povel, H P; Schmitt, H; Tauscher, L; Von de Malsburg, C

    1973-01-01

    The pi /sup -/-mass and vacuum polarization measurements of the CERN- Karlsruhe-Heidelberg group were re-evaluated. The pi /sup -/-mass is found to be 139.569+or-0.008 MeV. A new value of the muonic neutrino rest mass is deduced to be m/sub nu //sup 2/=0.29+or-0.90 MeV/sup 2/. (13 refs).

  3. The KASCADE-grande experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemer, J; Apel, W D; Badea, F; Bekk, K; Bozdog, H; Daumiller, K; Doll, P; Engel, R; Engler, J [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Arteaga, J C; Cossavella, F; Souza, V de; Finger, M [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe (Germany); Bertaina, M; Chiavassa, A; Cantoni, E; Di Pierro, F [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita Torino (Italy); Brancus, I M [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Brueggemann, M; Buchholz, P [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Siegen (Germany)], E-mail: Johannes.Bluemer@ik.fzk.de (and others)

    2008-07-15

    KASCADE-Grande is an extensive air shower array co-located with the original KASCADE air shower experiment at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Germany. The multi-detector system allows to investigate the energy spectrum, composition, and anisotropies of cosmic rays in the energy range extended up to 10{sup 18} eV. An overview on the performance of the apparatus and first results are presented.

  4. KASCADE-Grande: a large acceptance, high-resolution cosmic-ray detector up to 10{sup 18} eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarra, G. E-mail: navarra@to.infn.it; Antoni, T.; Apel, W.D.; Badea, F.; Bekk, K.; Bercuci, A.; Bertaina, M.; Bluemer, H.; Bozdog, H.; Brancus, I.M.; Brueggemann, M.; Buchholz, P.; Buettner, C.; Chiavassa, A.; Doll, P.; Engel, R.; Engler, J.; Fessler, F.; Ghia, P.L.; Gils, H.J.; Glasstetter, R.; Haungs, A.; Heck, D.; Hoerandel, J.R.; Iwan, A.; Kampert, K.-H.; Klages, H.O.; Kolotaev, Y.; Maier, G.; Mathes, H.J.; Mayer, H.J.; Milke, J.; Morello, C.; Mueller, M.; Obenland, R.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Ostapchenko, S.; Petcu, M.; Plewnia, S.; Rebel, H.; Roth, M.; Schieler, H.; Scholz, J.; Thouw, T.; Trinchero, G.C.; Ulrich, H.; Valchierotti, S.; Buren, J. van; Walkowiak, W.; Weindl, A.; Wochele, J.; Zabierowski, J.; Zagromski, S

    2004-02-01

    We describe the main features of the extensive air-shower array devoted to the study of cosmic-ray primaries and their interactions at primary energies 10 PeV-1 EeV which is starting operation at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. It exploits the existing KASCADE multi-detector facilities, and two new detectors: Grande and Piccolo, with the respective aims of providing a large acceptance area (0.5 km{sup 2}) and a prompt trigger signal.

  5. Macroeconomic potentials of intelligent networks in Germany. Abstract; Gesamtwirtschaftliche Potenziale intelligenter Netze in Deutschland. Kurzfassung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Within the contribution under consideration the Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI (Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany) determines the total economic effects of intelligent networks for the German economy. For the first time, the contributions of the different areas (energy, health, traffic, education, administration) are shown detailed. On the whole, it arises a societal total benefit of intelligent networks of 55.7 billion Euro per year.

  6. Uncertainty analysis of complex hydro-biogeochemical models

    OpenAIRE

    Houska, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    This thesis is about complex hydro-biogeochemical models and their practical applications. Several modelling practices and their associated uncertainty are investigated in this joined project of the working groups of Prof. Dr. Lutz Breuer, Justus Liebig University Giessen, and Prof. Dr. Klaus Butterbach-Bahl at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. The aim of the project is to develop strategies for reducing the climate footprint of agricultural production and to quantify uncertainties of model-...

  7. No Sense in Dwelling on the Past?: The Fate of the US Air Force’s German Air Force Monograph Project, 1952-69

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    and possi- bly the Iberian , Italian, and Jutland peninsulas. Following a strategic nuclear air campaign against the Soviet Union, Allied forces...closure of the Air Force Historical Division’s Karlsruhe office. 70. Wolfe , Captured Germans and Related Records, 86. 71. For a detailed treatment...Papers and Proceedings of the Conference on Captured German and Re- lated Records, November 12–13, 1968, edited by Robert Wolfe , 73–91. Athens, OH

  8. Continuous high-temperature recycling of waste by the Thermoselect process; Unterbrechungsloses Hochtemperaturrecycling - Abfallveredelung durch Thermoselect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahlberg, R. [Thermoselect Engineering S.r.l., Verbania (Italy)

    1998-09-01

    Based on the experience with the Thermoselect plant at Fondotoce, Italy (100 Mg/d), which was commissioned in 1992, a 225,000 Mg/a plant with three units (720 Mg/d) is being constructed at Karlsruhe, Germany. The plant is scheduled for commissioning in 1998. The contribution presents the product balance, the approved emission levels, and the energy uses envisaged for the Karlsruhe project. Final product quality data and energy yields illustrate the differences from conventional thermal processes. An ecobalance comparing the Thermoselect process with grate furnaces shows that water, soil and air pollution is much reduced by the new Termoselect process. Apart from high product quality, the plant also has the advantage of reduced dumping cost and no long-term ecological hazards. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Auf Basis der grosstechnischen Erfahrung mit einer seit 1992 in Fondotoce (Italien) betriebenen THERMOSELECT-Anlage (Kapazitaet 100 Mg/d), Restmuell umweltgerecht zu behandeln, wird 1998 der Aufbau einer 225.000 Mg/a-Anlage mit 3 Linien (720 Mg/d) in Karlsruhe (Deutschland) abgeschlossen. Die Produktebilanz und die genehmigten Emissionswerte sind in dem Artikel belegt. Gezeigt wird die fuer das Projekt Karlsruhe vorgesehene Energienutzung. Die Endprodduktqualitaeten und die Energieausbeute verdeutlichen die Unterschiede zu bisherigen konventionellen thermischen Verfahren. Eine erarbeitete Oekobilanz mit einem Vergleich von THERMOSELECT und Rostfeuerung zeigt die deutlich geringe Belastung der Umweltkompartimente Wasser, Boden und Luft durch das neue THERMOSELECT-Verfahren. Neben hohen Produktqualitaeten wird - verglichen mit traditionellen Techniken - ein deutlich verringerter Entsorgungspreis erreicht, wobei gleichzeitig oekologische Belastungen auszuschliessen sind. (orig./SR)

  9. THEREDA. Thermodynamic reference data base. Phase II. Release of thermodynamic data. Summary and final report; THEREDA. Thermodynamische Referenz-Datenbasis. Phase II. Freigabe thermodynamischer Daten. Zusammenfassung der Abschlussberichte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altmaier, Marcus; Gaona, Xavier; Marquardt, Christian; Montoya, Vanessa [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgung; Bok, Frank; Richter, Anke [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Resource Ecology; Moog, Helge C.; Scharge, Tina [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Koeln (Germany); Voigt, Wolfgang [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany); Wilhelm, Stefan [AF Consult AG, Baden-Daettwil (Switzerland)

    2015-12-15

    The final report on the thermodynamic reference data base THEREDA covers the following issues: project management, quality management (Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf HZDR and GRS), data base interfaces, documentation, uranium (HZDR), other nuclides (Karlsruhe Institute for technology, KIT), data for cement minerals and their reaction products (AF-Consult, GRS), phosphate (GRS), systems with CO2 and carbonate at variable temperatures and pressure (Bergakademie Freiberg, TUBAF).

  10. 2015 Annual Meeting of the German Gesellschaft für Arbeitswissenschaft

    CERN Document Server

    Stock, Patricia; Bruder, Ralph; Schlick, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    These proceedings summarize the best papers in each research area represented at the 2015 Annual Meeting of the German Gesellschaft für Arbeitswissenschaft, held at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) from February 26-28. The meeting featured more than 160 presentations and 30 posters reflecting the diversity of subject matter in the field of human and industrial engineering.

  11. The nuclear waste disaster. A view behind the curtain of the presumably clean nuclear power; Das Atommuell-Desaster. Blicke hinter die Kulissen der angeblich sauberen Atomenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, Julia; Simon, Armin; Stay, Jochen (comps.)

    2015-04-15

    The brochure on the nuclear waste disaster - a view behind the curtain of the presumably clean nuclear power discusses the following topics: Thuringia and Saxony - radiating landscapes, Gronau - 100.000 tons for eternity, Gundremmingen - nuclear waste records and castor shortage, Brunsbuettel - castor storage facility without licensing, Juelich the pebble bed drama, Karlsruhe - the hall is filled, Obrigheim - radioactive waste for cooking pots, Asse - the ticking bomb, final repositories - an illusion without solution, stop the waste production, Germany - endless nuclear waste.

  12. Proceedings of the 10{sup th} IEA international workshop on beryllium technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladimirov, P.; Reimann, J. (eds.)

    2013-07-01

    The 10{sup th} IEA Beryllium Workshop (BeWS-10) was organized by the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) with participants from Europe, U.S.A., Russia, Japan, and Kazakhstan. The main topics of the 30 papers in the proceedings are: the overview of the Be-related activities in Europe, U.S.A., RF, and Japan, results on the Be irradiation program HIDOBE-01, beryllide intermetallic compounds, technology and safety issues, and modeling of the Be radiation resistance.

  13. Diana Reference Manual. Revision 3,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-28

    private -To be filled in... ead Diana ; External Representation of DIANA Page 145 CHAPTER 5 EXTERNAL REPRESENTATION OF DIANA This chapter describes how a...1 1 mml L.~ 2 .i i .- . .... c7- 0/0 04 TARTAN LABORATOR4IES *dOORPORATED 00 N DIANA REFERENCE MANUAL Revision 3 Arthur Evans Jr. MCC Kenneth J...Butler Tartan Laboratories Incorporated Editors. Revised Diana Reference Manual G0. GOOD Inatitut fuer Informatik 11. Universitmet Karlsruhe Win. A. Wuif

  14. At R407/R408

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    R407/R408 were experiments designed by the CERN-Collège de France-Heidelberg-Karlsruhe Collaboration to study two-particle correlations in the fragmentation region requiring a large transverse momentum particle in the forward direction. Atmospheric pressure Cerenkov counters were part of the additional equipment set up during 1974 at the SFM facility. Here Paul Hanke multi-reflected on Cerenkov mirrors.

  15. Natural and anthropogenic environmental hazards. Research results of the Department of Applied Geology; Natuerliche und anthropogene Umweltgefaehrdungen. Forschungsergebnisse aus dem Lehrstuhl fuer Angewandte Geologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czurda, K.; Eiswirth, M.; Hoetzl, H. [comps.

    1998-12-31

    Applied geology is employed in mining geology, raw materials geology, engineering geology, and hydrogeology, of which the two last-mentioned are the most important for the Department of Applied Geology. This series of publications arose from the need of making research findings, dissertations, theses and conference papers accessible to the public faster and more comprehensively than in national and international journals. [Deutsch] Die Aufgaben der angewandten Geologie sind im weitesten Sinne in der Montangeologie, in der Rohstoffgeologie, in der Ingenieurgeologie und in der Hydrogeologie zu sehen. Der engere Aufgabenbereich der Institute fuer Angewandte Geologie konzentriert sich der heutigen Fragestellung entsprechend meist auf die Ingenieurgeologie und Hydrogeologie. Wenn wir daraus noch die Umweltgeologie ableiten, so ist der Lehr- und Forschungsschwerpunkt auch des Karlsruher Lehrstuhles fuer Angewandte Geologie (AGK=Angewandte Geologie Karlsruhe) umrissen. Die vorliegende Schriftenreihe ist aus der Notwendigkeit entstanden, Forschungsergebnisse, Dissertationen und ausgewaehlte Diplomarbeiten sowie Beitraege einschlaegiger Tagungen in Karlsruhe rascher und u.U. umfangreicher als in internationalen oder nationalen Journalen moeglich zu publizieren. (orig.)

  16. ITIL and Grid services at GridKa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marten, H; Koenig, T, E-mail: holger.marten@kit.ed, E-mail: tobias.koenig@kit.ed [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Steinbuch Centre for Computing Herman-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2010-04-01

    The Steinbuch Centre for Computing (SCC) is a new organizational unit of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). Founded in February 2008 as a merger of the previous Institute for Scientific Computing of Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe and the Computing Centre of the Technical University Karlsruhe, SCC provides a broad spectrum of IT services for 8.000 employees and 18.000 students and carries out research and development in key areas of information technology under the same roof. SCC is also known to host the German WLCG [1] Tier-1 centre GridKa. In order to accompany the merging of the two existing computing centres located at a distance of about 10 km and to provide common first class services for science, SCC has selected the IT service management according to the industrial quasi-standard 'IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL)' [3] as a strategic element. The paper discusses the implementation of a few ITIL key components from the perspective of a Scientific Computing Centre using examples of Grid services at GridKa.

  17. ITIL and Grid services at GridKa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marten, H.; Koenig, T.

    2010-04-01

    The Steinbuch Centre for Computing (SCC) is a new organizational unit of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). Founded in February 2008 as a merger of the previous Institute for Scientific Computing of Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe and the Computing Centre of the Technical University Karlsruhe, SCC provides a broad spectrum of IT services for 8.000 employees and 18.000 students and carries out research and development in key areas of information technology under the same roof. SCC is also known to host the German WLCG [1] Tier-1 centre GridKa. In order to accompany the merging of the two existing computing centres located at a distance of about 10 km and to provide common first class services for science, SCC has selected the IT service management according to the industrial quasi-standard "IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL)" [3] as a strategic element. The paper discusses the implementation of a few ITIL key components from the perspective of a Scientific Computing Centre using examples of Grid services at GridKa.

  18. f(R) gravity solutions for evolving wormholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Subhra [Presidency University, Department of Mathematics, Kolkata (India); Chakraborty, Subenoy [Jadavpur University, Department of Mathematics, Kolkata (India)

    2017-08-15

    The scalar-tensor f(R) theory of gravity is considered in the framework of a simple inhomogeneous space-time model. In this research we use the reconstruction technique to look for possible evolving wormhole solutions within viable f(R) gravity formalism. These f(R) models are then constrained so that they are consistent with existing experimental data. Energy conditions related to the matter threading the wormhole are analyzed graphically and are in general found to obey the null energy conditions (NEC) in regions around the throat, while in the limit f(R) = R, NEC can be violated at large in regions around the throat. (orig.)

  19. Bouncing Cosmologies with Dark Matter and Dark Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Fu Cai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We review matter bounce scenarios where the matter content is dark matter and dark energy. These cosmologies predict a nearly scale-invariant power spectrum with a slightly red tilt for scalar perturbations and a small tensor-to-scalar ratio. Importantly, these models predict a positive running of the scalar index, contrary to the predictions of the simplest inflationary and ekpyrotic models, and hence, could potentially be falsified by future observations. We also review how bouncing cosmological space-times can arise in theories where either the Einstein equations are modified or where matter fields that violate the null energy condition are included.

  20. Worse than a big rip?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouhmadi-Lopez, Mariam [Centro Multidisciplinar de Astrofisica, CENTRA, Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Departamento de Fisica, Universidade da Beira Interior, R. Marques d' Avila e Bolama, 6201-001 Covilha (Portugal); Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Mercantile House, Hampshire Terrace, Portsmouth, PO1 2EG (United Kingdom)], E-mail: mariam.bouhmadi@fisica.ist.utl.pt; Gonzalez-Diaz, Pedro F. [Colina de los Chopos, Centro de Fisica ' Miguel A. Catalan' , Instituto de Matematicas y Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: p.gonzalezdiaz@imaff.cfmac.csic.es; Martin-Moruno, Prado [Colina de los Chopos, Centro de Fisica ' Miguel A. Catalan' , Instituto de Matematicas y Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: pra@imaff.cfmac.csic.es

    2008-01-17

    We show that a generalised phantom Chaplygin gas can present a future singularity in a finite future cosmic time. Unlike the big rip singularity, this singularity happens for a finite scale factor, but like the big rip singularity, it would also take place at a finite future cosmic time. In addition, we define a dual of the generalised phantom Chaplygin gas which satisfies the null energy condition. Then, in a Randall-Sundrum 1 brane-world scenario, we show that the same kind of singularity at a finite scale factor arises for a brane filled with a dual of the generalised phantom Chaplygin gas.

  1. Traversable wormholes via a double trace deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ping; Jafferis, Daniel Louis; Wall, Aron C.

    2017-12-01

    After turning on an interaction that couples the two boundaries of an eternal BTZ black hole, we find a quantum matter stress tensor with negative average null energy, whose gravitational backreaction renders the Einstein-Rosen bridge traversable. Such a traversable wormhole has an interesting interpretation in the context of ER=EPR, which we suggest might be related to quantum teleportation. However, it cannot be used to violate causality. We also discuss the implications for the energy and holographic entropy in the dual CFT description.

  2. f( R) gravity solutions for evolving wormholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Subhra; Chakraborty, Subenoy

    2017-08-01

    The scalar-tensor f( R) theory of gravity is considered in the framework of a simple inhomogeneous space-time model. In this research we use the reconstruction technique to look for possible evolving wormhole solutions within viable f( R) gravity formalism. These f( R) models are then constrained so that they are consistent with existing experimental data. Energy conditions related to the matter threading the wormhole are analyzed graphically and are in general found to obey the null energy conditions (NEC) in regions around the throat, while in the limit f(R)=R, NEC can be violated at large in regions around the throat.

  3. New wormhole solutions on the brane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsaei, F.; Riazi, N.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, static wormholes in the brane-world scenario are studied. We show that the existence of extra terms coming from the bulk help construct exact solutions that satisfy the null energy condition. Two important classes of solutions found earlier are analyzed in more depth in order to determine the conditions necessary for consistent solutions. Two new classes of solutions with different asymptotic behavior are also introduced. We focus on the conservation of the stress-energy tensor to achieve new solutions which have the important property of asymptotic flatness. Some main mathematical and physical properties of the solutions are addressed.

  4. PREFACE: International Conference on Magnetism (ICM 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goll, Gernot; Löhneysen, Hilbert v.; Loidl, Alois; Pruschke, Thomas; Richter, Manuel; Schultz, Ludwig; Sürgers, Christoph; Wosnitza, Jochen

    2010-11-01

    The International Conference on Magnetism 2009 (ICM 2009) was held in Karlsruhe, Germany, from 26-31 July 2009. Previous conferences in this series were organized in Edingburgh, United Kingdom (1991), Warsaw, Poland (1994), Cairns, Australia (1997), Recife, Brazil (2000), Rome, Italy (2003) and Kyoto, Japan (2006). As with previous ICM conferences, the annual Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES) was integrated into ICM 2009. Conference photograph Participants of ICM 2009 in front of the Stadthalle Karlsruhe. Topics of ICM 2009 were: Strongly Correlated Electron Systems; Quantum and Classical Spin Systems; Magnetic Structures and Interactions; Magnetization Dynamics and Micromagnetics; Spin-Dependent Transport; Spin Electronics; Magnetic Thin Films, Particles, and Nanostructures; Soft and Hard Magnetic Materials and their Applications; Novel Materials and Device Applications; Magnetic Recording and Memories; Measuring Techniques and Instrumentation, as well as Interdisciplinary Topics. We are grateful to the International Advisory Committee for their help in putting up an attractive program encompassing practically all aspects of magnetism, both experimentally and theoretically. The program committee comprised A Loidl, Germany (Chair), M A Continentino, Brazil, D E Dahlberg, USA, D Givord, France, G Güntherodt, Germany, H Mikeska, Germany, D Kaczorowski, Poland, Ching-Ray Chang, South Korea, I Mertig, Germany, D Vollhardt, Germany and E F Wassermann, Germany was also head of the National Organizing Committee. His help is gratefully acknowledged. Photographs Left: Poster session in the Stadthalle Karlsruhe. Upper right: H v Löhneysen (Conference Chairman), Nobel Laureates A Fert and P. Grünberg, E Umbach (Chairman of the Executive Board of Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe) (left to right). Lower right: Nobel Laureate P W Anderson. The scientific program started on Monday 27 July 2009 with opening addresses by the Conference Chairman, the deputy

  5. Versatile Method for Renormalized Stress-Energy Computation in Black-Hole Spacetimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Adam; Ori, Amos

    2016-12-02

    We report here on a new method for calculating the renormalized stress-energy tensor (RSET) in black-hole (BH) spacetimes, which should also be applicable to dynamical BHs and to spinning BHs. This new method only requires the spacetime to admit a single symmetry. Thus far, we have developed three variants of the method, aimed for stationary, spherically symmetric, or axially symmetric BHs. We used this method to calculate the RSET of a minimally coupled massless scalar field in Schwarzschild and Reissner-Nordström backgrounds for several quantum states. We present here the results for the RSET in the Schwarzschild case in the Unruh state (the state describing BH evaporation). The RSET is type I at weak field, and becomes type IV at r≲2.78M. Then we use the RSET results to explore violation of the weak and null energy conditions. We find that both conditions are violated all the way from r≃4.9M to the horizon. We also find that the averaged weak energy condition is violated by a class of (unstable) circular timelike geodesics. Most remarkably, the circular null geodesic at r=3M violates the averaged null energy condition.

  6. Light-Ring Stability for Ultracompact Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Pedro V. P.; Berti, Emanuele; Herdeiro, Carlos A. R.

    2017-12-01

    We prove the following theorem: axisymmetric, stationary solutions of the Einstein field equations formed from classical gravitational collapse of matter obeying the null energy condition, that are everywhere smooth and ultracompact (i.e., they have a light ring) must have at least two light rings, and one of them is stable. It has been argued that stable light rings generally lead to nonlinear spacetime instabilities. Our result implies that smooth, physically and dynamically reasonable ultracompact objects are not viable as observational alternatives to black holes whenever these instabilities occur on astrophysically short time scales. The proof of the theorem has two parts: (i) We show that light rings always come in pairs, one being a saddle point and the other a local extremum of an effective potential. This result follows from a topological argument based on the Brouwer degree of a continuous map, with no assumptions on the spacetime dynamics, and, hence, it is applicable to any metric gravity theory where photons follow null geodesics. (ii) Assuming Einstein's equations, we show that the extremum is a local minimum of the potential (i.e., a stable light ring) if the energy-momentum tensor satisfies the null energy condition.

  7. Value-added services through professional innovation management; Mehrwert durch professionelles Innovationsmanagement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemeier, D. [Accenture GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Scholtissek, S.

    2001-02-01

    Competition in the deregulated internal market in electricity has changed this market into a commodity market. All traders in the energy sector today are looking for innovative marketing and sales strategies linked to the product 'electric power' and the related services. Cooperation within the framework of a multi-utility enterprise is a key example in this context. The article discusses successful business management strategies. (orig./CB) [German] Wettbewerb hat den Energiemarkt in einen Commodity-Markt verwandelt. Alle Energieversorger arbeiten heute an den gleichen Ideen wie energienahe Dienstleistungen, Innovationsbeispiel Multi Utility, Powerline Communication oder dezentrale Erzeugung. Damit diese Produkte schnell dem Kunden zur Verfuegung stehen, bedarf es einer Professionalisierung des Innovationsmanagements durch klar definierte Strategien, kreatives organisatorisches und effizientes Wissensmanagement sowie flexible Start-up-Strukturen. (orig./CB)

  8. Auf dem Weg zu semantischen APIs für Forschungsdatendienste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Fensel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Die schnelle Entwicklung der Internet- und Web-Technologie verändert den Stand der Technik in der Kommunikation von Wissen oder  Forschungsergebnissen. Insbesondere werden semantische Technologien, verknüpfte und offene Daten zu entscheidenden Faktoren für einen  erfolgreichen und effizienten Forschungsfortschritt. Zuerst definiere ich den Research Data Service (RDS und diskutiere typische aktuelle  und mögliche zukünftige Nutzungsszenarien mit RDS. Darüber hinaus bespreche ich den Stand der Technik in den Bereichen semantische Dienstleistung und Datenanmerkung und API-Konstruktion sowie infrastrukturelle Lösungen, die für die RDS-Realisierung anwendbar sind. Zum Schluss werden noch innovative Methoden der Online-Verbreitung, Förderung und effizienten Kommunikation der Forschung diskutiert.

  9. Earth Energy Designer, a software for calculating borehole heat exchangers; Earth Energy Designer, eine Software zur Berechnung von Erdwaermesondenanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanner, B. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften; Hellstroem, G. [Lund Inst. of Technology (Sweden). Dept. of Mathematical Physics

    1997-12-01

    After a lengthy test phase the first version of EED is scheduled to be released in summer/fall 1996. The code, which was developed in collaboration between Lund Institute of Technology (Sweden) and Giessen University (Germany), allows fast and reliable sizing of borehole heat exchangers. The temperature in the heat carrier fluid during the seasons can be calculated for various configurations. This paper shows the idea and structure of EED with practical examples. (orig.) [Deutsch] Nach einer laengeren Testphase soll die erste Version von EED im Sommer/Herbst 1996 freigegeben werden. Das in Kooperation der Universitaeten Lund (Schweden) und Giessen (Deutschland) geschaffene Programm ermoeglicht eine schnelle und doch zuverlaessige Auslegung von Erdwaermesonderanlagen, indem die fuer verschiedene Konfigurationen zu erwartenden Temperaturen des Waermetraegermediums im Jahresverlauf berechnet werden koennen. Der Beitrag zeigt die Grundidee und die Struktur von EED und verdeutlicht die Arbeitsweise mit praktischen Beispielen. (orig.)

  10. Alter(n – ein vielschichtiger Begriff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Maly-Lukas

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Diese Veröffentlichung, die aus einer Vortragsreihe an der katholischen Fachhochschule Freiburg entstanden ist, führt die Leserinnen und Leser in die verschiedenen Sichtweisen des Alter(ns in der modernen Gesellschaft ein. Es handelt sich um eine gelungene Zusammenstellung von Beiträgen aus unterschiedlichen Disziplinen, die sich alle aus ihrer Sicht dem Thema Alter(n widmen. Die einzelnen Artikel sind zwischen 8 und 38 Seiten lang und recht schnell und einfach zu lesen. Je nach Hintergrund und Interessen werden die einzelnen Leserinnen und Leser dabei sicher unterschiedliche Beiträge favorisieren. Schade ist nur, dass durch die ungleichen Längen der Beiträge bestimmte thematische Schwerpunkte – ob gewollt oder nicht – gesetzt werden. Dies sollte die Leserinnen und Leser, die offen für unterschiedlichste Sichtweisen des Alter(ns sind, jedoch nicht davon abhalten, dieses Buch zu lesen.

  11. Antiblockiersystem ABS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch-Dücker, Heinz-Jürgen

    Bei kritischen Fahrverhältnissen kann es während des Bremsvorgangs zum Blockieren der Räder kommen. Ursachen dafür können z.B. nasse oder glatte Fahrbahnen sowie eine schreckhafte Reaktion des Fahrers (unvorhergesehenes Hindernis) sein. Das Fahrzeug kann dadurch lenkunfähig werden, es kann ins Schleudern geraten und/oder von der Fahrbahn abkommen. Das Antiblockiersystem (ABS) erkennt beim Bremsen frühzeitig die Blockierneigung eines oder mehrerer Räder und sorgt dann sofort dafür, dass der Bremsdruck konstant gehalten oder verringert wird. So blockieren die Räder nicht und das Fahrzeug folgt der Lenkung. Damit lässt sich ein Auto sicher und schnell abbremsen bzw. zum Stillstand bringen.

  12. Der Lärm des Politischen. Die Londoner riots 2011 und ihre politischen Subjekte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Dzudzek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available August 2011 − London’s burning. Vier Tage lang kommt es zunächst in verschiedenen Stadtteilen Londons und später auch in anderen britischen Städten zu den größten Aufständen und Plünderungen der Nachkriegsgeschichte. Konservative Medien und Politik sind sich schnell einig: Der Abschaum, der sich für die Verwüstungen und Plünderungen verantwortlich zeigt, gehört mit aller Härte aus den Straßen gefegt. Die Aufständischen stellen keine politischen Forderungen. Entgegen hegemonialer Deutungen, die den riots eine politische Dimension absprechen, fragt der Artikel, inwiefern sich hier eine neue Qualität des Politischen und politischer Subjektivität zeigt, die wir mit den vertrauten repräsentationspolitischen Deutungsmustern nicht verstehen können.

  13. Im Zeichen des ‚Männlichen‘

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Löchel

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In ihrer von der Universität Kassel angenommenen Dissertation verfolgt die Germanistin Urte Helduser die diskursiven Verbindungen der frühen Moderne mit den Konstruktionen von Geschlecht anhand einer Reihe von – in der Regel von Männern verfassten – literartheoretischen und -programmatischer Schriften der frühen Moderne. Schnell ist man von ihrer mit reichem Quellenmaterial belegten These überzeugt, dass sich die literarische Moderne um 1900 der Kategorie Geschlecht „zur programmatischen Selbstverständigung“ bediente. (S. 13 Wie die Autorin zeigt, fungierte der Rekurs auf die Kategorie Geschlecht in literarischen Programmen und poetologischen Entwürfen unterschiedlicher Provenienz gegenüber konkurrierenden Modernekonzepten jeweils als „ausschließende Diskursstrategie“. (S. 37

  14. Simulation of bunches coalesing in the main ring, in the presence of a high-frequency, wide-band resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garoby, R.

    1986-12-04

    During the first part of the coalescing process, bunches are being stretched until they fill the approx. =1 kV at 53 MHz bucket. Applying the ''Keil-Schnell-Boussard'' criteria for microwave instability inside that bunch gives: vertical bar Z/n vertical bar less than or equal to 5.6 ..cap omega.. for N/sub b/ = 10/sup 10/ ppB. It is very likely that local instabilities develop inside the bunch during the manipulation. The computer program ESME was run under these conditions to give an approximate picture of the bunch distortions. Outputs are presented here. Since microwave signals had been observed during the second part of coalescing (bunch rotation), some simulations have been done at that part. No catastrophic degradation showed up with the model used, as the computer outputs indicate. 35 figs.

  15. Die Entstehung des „Judenbildes“ in den Alltagsmedien des 19. Jahrhunderts The Formation of Antisemitic Sterotypes in Press-Media of the 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute Wrocklage

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available In der zweiten Hälfte des 19. Jahrhunderts beginnen, Illustratoren und Zeichner von Bildwitzen und Karikaturen das stereotype und in der Folge antisemitische Bild vom Juden herauszubilden. Es findet schnell Eingang in die illustrierten Zeitschriften und Bilderbögen der Zeit. In diesen drei untersuchten Bildmedien kennzeichnen neben der Physiognomie diskriminierende Attribute den Juden als Typus. Dieser Entwicklung und der Herausbildung der Stereotype zum antisemitischen Judenbild geht die Arbeit nach.The stereotypes of Jews are developed in visual jokes and caricatures in the second half of 19th century. Immediately they were copied in illustrated magazines and picture-sheets of that period. Within these three visual mediums some attributes characterise the Jewish figure beside its physiognomy. The book follows the stereotypes’ development and formation into the anti-Semitic picture.

  16. Active learning as a path to critical thinking: are competencies a roadblock?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco-Schneck, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Nursing educators are called to graduate students who are critical thinkers able to face the challenge of negotiating increasingly complex health care systems (Candela, 2011; Cerullo and da Cruz, 2010). Active learning has been incited as a mechanism to foster critical thinking skills (Michel et al., 2009; Pascarella, 2005; Walker, 2003). Yet despite evidence and academic applause in favor of active pedagogies, passive pedagogies continue to dominant the nursing education landscape (Brown et al., 2009; Burbach et al., 2004; Schnell, 2005). Although, scholarly literature in nursing and education substantiate existence of various obstacles that inhibit faculty incorporation of active pedagogies, perhaps the insidious culture of competencies in nursing education is what truly engenders a milieu for the continued use of passive pedagogies. In this article, I aim to stimulate debate about the culture of competencies in nursing education as the overriding force which perpetuates use of passive pedagogies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Mathe Kompakt fur Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Zegarelli, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Der schnelle Überblick für Schüler und jeden, den es sonst noch interessiert Müssen Sie sich in der Schule oder im Beruf mit Mathematik beschäftigen und es hapert schon an den Grundlagen? Frei nach dem Motto »Einst gelernt, doch längst vergessen« bereiten oft gerade die einfachen Fragestellungen Probleme. Wie viel Prozent sind das nochmal? Wie war das doch gleich mit der Bruchrechnung und wie berechnet man eigentlich den Flächeninhalt eines Dreiecks? Keine Sorge, Mark Zegarelli erklärt es Ihnen einfach, aber zugleich amüsant, und hilft Ihnen so, Ihre Wissenslücken zu schließen. Damit ist Mathe

  18. Numerical design and simulation of gas turbines; Numerische Auslegung und Simulation von Gasturbinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaber, R.W.

    2000-12-14

    Purpose of this thesis is the development of a universal tool for the conceptual design phase of gas turbine engines. The software concept for the tool especially for tasks in industry will be provided and examples will be shown. The Gas Turbine Simulation and Design Program GTSDP given, developed in this theses, will augment the quality of work and reduce the calculation time. In parameter studies, gas turbine designs can be easily compared with respect to component efficiencies, mass, cost, and life. [German] Ziel der Arbeit ist, unter besonderer Beachtung industrieller Aufgabenstellungen ein neues universelles Auslegungsverfahren fuer die Vorauslegung von Gasturbinen zu entwickeln, die Voraussetzungen fuer ein derartiges Programmsystem bereitzustellen und die Einsatzmoeglichkeiten an ersten Beispielen aufzuzeigen. Mit dem entwickelten Gasturbinen-Vorauslegungsprogramm GTSDP wird ein Werkzeug vorgestellt, das die Arbeitsqualitaet bei gleichzeitiger Reduzierung der Durchlaufzeiten, insbesondere durch die schnelle Vergleichbarkeit von Triebwerken hinsichtlich Wirkungsgraden, Gewicht, Kosten und Lebensdauer verbessert.

  19. Longitudinal holes in debunched particle beams in storage rings, perpetuated by space-charge forces

    CERN Document Server

    Koscielniak, Shane Rupert; Lindroos, M

    2001-01-01

    Stationary, self-consistent, and localized longitudinal density perturbations on an unbunched charged-particle beam, which are solutions of the nonlinearized Vlasov-Poisson equation, have recently received some attention. In particular, we address the case that space charge is the dominant longitudinal impedance and the storage ring operates below transition energy so that the negative mass instability is not an explanation for persistent beam structure. Under the customary assumption of a bell-shaped steady-state distribution, about which the expansion is made, the usual wave theory of Keil and Schnell (1969) for perturbations on unbunched beams predicts that self-sustaining perturbations are possible only (below transition) if the impedance is inductive (or resistive) or if the bell shape is inverted. Space charge gives a capacitive impedance. Nevertheless, we report numerous experimental measurements made at the CERN Proton Synchrotron Booster that plainly show the longevity of holelike structures in coast...

  20. Analyse von Videodokumentationen in der kunstpädagogischen Forschung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Mohr

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Am Institut für Kunstpädagogik der Justus-Liebig-Universität werden seit 1996 unter der Leitung von Prof. Dr. A. von Criegern Untersuchungen zum kindlichen Bildverhalten am Computer durchgeführt. Aus ersten explorativen Studien ist inzwischen ein Forschungsprojekt entstanden, das auf breiterer theoretisch und empirischer Basis das bildnerische Verhalten von Vor- und frühen Grundschulkindern am Computer untersucht. Entgegen der bisher ergebnisorientierten, eher quantitativ arbeitenden Kinderzeichnungsforschung, stellte das Giessener Team sehr schnell fest, dass der gesamte Malprozess und mehr noch das gesamte ästhetische Verhalten am Computer mit qualitativen Methoden erforscht werden muss. Um diesem Anspruch gerecht zu werden, wurden die Beobachtungs-, Aufzeichnungs- und Analyseverfahren schrittweise optimiert und angepasst. Der Beitrag stellt die Bedeutung der im Projekt angewendeten Form der Videodokumentation für die Erforschung der digitalen Kinderzeichnung dar.

  1. Zeit ein Sachcomic

    CERN Document Server

    Callender, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Die Zeit ist ein großer Lehrmeister! Das Dumme ist nur, dass sie auf Dauer alle ihre Schüler tötet. (nach Hector Berlioz) „Solange mich niemand fragt, weiß ich, was Zeit ist“, hat der Heilige Augustus gesagt. Damit ist er fast modern, denn die Quantenphysiker behaupten sogar, „Zeit, das gibt es gar nicht!“ Je genauer man es wissen will, desto komplizierter wird das mit der Zeit: Ist die Zeit wirklich eine vierte Dimension, ähnlich wie ein Raum oder „fließt“ sie sozusagen nur dahin? Und wenn sie fließt, kann man dann sagen, wie schnell? Gibt es die Zukunft? Sind Zeitreisen möglich? Und warum scheint die Zeit sich nur in eine Richtung zu bewegen. Schwierige Probleme: aber hier, wie immer in dieser Reihe, seriös, leicht und locker erklärt.

  2. a Chiral Tagging Strategy for Determining Absolute Configuration and Enantiomeric Excess by Molecular Rotational Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelisti, Luca; Caminati, Walther; Patterson, David; Thomas, Javix; Xu, Yunjie; West, Channing; Pate, Brooks

    2017-06-01

    The introduction of three wave mixing rotational spectroscopy by Patterson, Schnell, and Doyle [1,2] has expanded applications of molecular rotational spectroscopy into the field of chiral analysis. Chiral analysis of a molecule is the quantitative measurement of the relative abundances of all stereoisomers of the molecule and these include both diastereomers (with distinct molecular rotational spectra) and enantiomers (with equivalent molecular rotational spectra). This work adapts a common strategy in chiral analysis of enantiomers to molecular rotational spectroscopy. A "chiral tag" is attached to the molecule of interest by making a weakly bound complex in a pulsed jet expansion. When this tag molecule is enantiopure, it will create diastereomeric complexes with the two enantiomers of the molecule being analyzed and these can be differentiated by molecule rotational spectroscopy. Identifying the structure of this complex, with knowledge of the absolute configuration of the tag, establishes the absolute configuration of the molecule of interest. Furthermore, the diastereomer complex spectra can be used to determine the enantiomeric excess of the sample. The ability to perform chiral analysis will be illustrated by a study of solketal using propylene oxide as the tag. The possibility of using current methods of quantum chemistry to assign a specific structure to the chiral tag complex will be discussed. Finally, chiral tag rotational spectroscopy offers a "gold standard" method for determining the absolute configuration of the molecule through determination of the substitution structure of the complex. When this measurement is possible, rotational spectroscopy can deliver a quantitative three dimensional structure of the molecule with correct stereochemistry as the analysis output. [1] David Patterson, Melanie Schnell, John M. Doyle, Nature 497, 475 (2013). [2] David Patterson, John M. Doyle, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 023008 (2013).

  3. Production of bio-oils from wood by flash pyrolysis; Herstellung von Bio-Oelen aus Holz in einer Flash-Pyrolyseanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, D.; Ollesch, T. [Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Forst- und Holzwirtschaft, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Holzchemie und Chemische Technologie des Holzes; Gerdes, C.; Kaminsky, W. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische und Makromolekulare Chemie (ITMCh)

    1998-09-01

    Flash pyrolysis is a medium-temperature process (around 475 C) in which biomass is heated up rapidly in the absence of oxygen. The pyrolysis products are cooled down rapidly, condensing into a reddish-brown liquid with around half the calorific value of a conventional heating oil. In contrast to conventional charcoal production, flash pyrolysis is a modern process whose process parameters enure high liquid yields. Modern fluidized-bed reactors for flash pyrolysis of biomass tend to have high heating rates and short times of residue. In the `Hamburg process`, fluidized-bed reactors are used successfully for pyrolysis of plastics. A flash pyrolysis plant for biomass treatment was constructed in cooperation with Hamburg University with funds provided by the `Bundesstiftung Umwelt`. This contribution describes the first series of experiments, mass balances and oil analyses using beech wood as material to be pyrolyzed. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Flash-Pyrolyse ist ein Mitteltemperatur-Prozess (ca. 475 C), in dem Biomasse unter Sauerstoffausschluss sehr schnell erhitzt wird. Die entstehenden Pyrolyseprodukte werden schnell abgekuehlt und kondensieren zu einer roetlich-braunen Fluessigkeit, die etwa die Haelfte des Heizwertes eines konventionellen Heizoeles besitzt. Flash-Pyrolyse ist, im Gegensatz zur konventionellen Holzverkohlung, ein modernes Verfahren, dessen spezielle Verfahrensparameter hohe Fluessigausbeuten ermoeglichen. Hohe Aufheizraten, verbunden mit kurzen Verweilzeiten, werden mit stationaeren Wirbelbettreaktoren erzielt die gegenwaertig vorwiegend fuer die Flash-Pyrolyse von Biomasse eingesetzt werden. Im `Hamburger Verfahren` haben sich Wirbelbettreaktoren im Bereich der Kunststoffpyrolyse bewaehrt. Daher wurde in Zusammenarbeit mit der Universitaet Hamburg und finanzieller Foerderung der Bundesstiftung Umwelt eine Flash-Pyrolyseanlage fuer Biomasse gebaut: In dieser Arbeit werden erste Versuchsreihen, Massenbilanzen und Oelanalysen aus der Pyrolyse von

  4. Determination Methods for the Exoskeletal Remains of Early Vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Karatajute-Talimaa

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The exoskeleton, consisting of micromeric elements (odontodes and their derivatives, is characteristic of the most ancient vertebrates. Great morphological and histological variability of discrete exoskeletal microremains makes it difficult to identify them. It is necessary to study not only separate scales or tesserae, but also to get a picture of the squamation in general, because species determined from discrete elements are understood as an assemblage of morphological types. For determination of discrete exoskeletal elements, their morphology, internal structure, defined tissue types of crown and basal plate, types (way of their growth, system of vascular canals should be studied in addition changes occuring during ontogenetic development of both the dermal skeletal elements and the squamation should be taken in consideration. The material of different groups of early vertebrates (astraspids, tesakoviaspids, heterostracans, thelodonts, mongolepids, chondrichthyans and acanthodians, which were widely distributed in the Early Palaeozoic, are used as examples. Ein Hautskelett aus mikromerischen Elementen (Odontodes und davon abgeleiteten Formen ist für die meisten frühen Vertebraten kennzeichnend. Große morphologische und histologische Variabilität der einzelnen Mikroreste des Hautskeletts bereitet bei ihrer Bestimmung Schwierigkeiten. Es ist notwendig, nicht nur isolierte Schuppen und Tesserae zu untersuchen, sondern man muß sich eine Vorstellung der der gesamten Beschuppung verschaffen, da Arten bestimmt auf isoliertem Material als eine Ansammlung von morphologischen Typen verstanden werden müssen. Bei der Bestimmung isolierter Elemente des Enskeletts sollte man deren Morphologie, innere Struktur, Gewebetypen der Krone und Basalplatte, Arten des Wachstums, Anordnung der Gefäßkanäle und Veränderungen während des Wachstums des Einzelelements und der Gesamtbeschuppung berücksichtigen. Hautskelett-Elemente der verschiedenen Gruppen fr

  5. Das Knochenmaterial: Ein Nano-Komposit aus Mineral und Kollagen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fratzl-Zelman N

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Eine wesentliche Aufgabe des Knochens ist seine Stützfunktion für den Körper. Die dafür notwendigen mechanischen Eigenschaften erhält der Knochen durch seinen komplexen hierarchischen Aufbau. Makroskopisch unterscheidet man Geometrie und die innere Architektur im spongiösen und im kompakten Knochen (Röhrenknochen. Das Knochenmaterial selbst ist aus komplexen Strukturen bis zur Größenordnung von wenigen Nanometern aufgebaut. Auf der untersten Ebene ist die Knochenmatrix ein Kompositmaterial aus 2 Komponenten mit ganz unterschiedlichen mechanischen Eigenschaften. Es besteht aus langen elastischen Fasern aus Typ-I-Kollagenfibrillen, in die harte 2–4 Nanometer dicke Kalziumphosphatpartikel eingelagert sind. Für die mechanische Kompetenz dieses Materials spielen viele Faktoren eine Rolle. Abweichungen z. B. im Aufbau oder bei der Quervernetzung der Kollagenmoleküle sowie in der Form, Größe und Anordnung der Mineralpartikel bewirken Veränderungen der mechanischen Eigenschaften. Wesentlich bestimmt auch der Grad der Mineralisierung die Elastizität (Steifigkeit des Knochenmaterials. Bei Knochenerkrankungen können die beschriebenen Veränderungen im Knochenmaterial zu einem erhöhten Frakturrisiko führen. In vielen Fällen ist es daher wichtig, zusätzlich zu den biochemischen Parametern und der klinischen DEXAKnochendichtemessung eine Knochenbiopsie des betroffenen Patienten zu untersuchen. Neue methodische Ansätze erlauben es, gezielt bestimmte hierarchische Ebenen des Materials zu überprüfen und die Auswirkungen von Erkrankungen auf das Knochenmaterial zu erfassen. Diese Information ist nicht nur für das Verstehen verschiedenster Erkrankungen generell notwendig, sondern kann auch zur Bestimmung des Frakturrisikos und für die Therapieentscheidung für den einzelnen Patienten wichtig sein.

  6. Post-licensing orders under atomic energy law. With special emphasis on provisions for accident management in nuclear installations; Nachtraegliche Anordnungen im Atomrecht. Unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung der Massnahmen des sogenannten anlageninternen Notfallschutzes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemmeke, R.

    1995-12-31

    betrachtet nachtraegliche Anordnungen als einen Eingriff in das verfassungsrechtlich geschuetzte Eigentum der Betreiber, denn die atomgesetzliche Regelungen genuegen den verfassungsrechtlichen Bestandsschutzanforderungen. Behandelt werden weiter das Verhaeltnis nachtraegliche Anordnung-Aenderungsgenehmigung und Ueberlegungen zur Novellierung des Atomgesetzes. (HP)

  7. Progress report within the series of GRS-F progress reports on reactor safety, sponsored by the Federal Ministry of Economics and Labour. Period: 1 July - 31 December 2003; Berichte ueber vom Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft und Arbeit gefoerderte Forschungsvorhaben auf dem Gebiet der Reaktorsicherheit. Berichtszeitraum: 01. Juli - 31. Dezember 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    (Joint Safety Research Index) der KEG. Die Anordnung der einzelnen Berichte erfolgt nach aufsteigenden Foerderkennzeichen. (orig.)

  8. Plakate des Theaters in Thorn in den Sammlungen der Kopernikus-Bücherei und im Bestand des Staatsarchivs in Thorn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlena Jabłońska

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Theaterplakate gehören zur Tätigkeit des Theaters. Anfangs erfüllten sie eine reine Gebrauchsfunktion, indem sie über ein kulturelles Ereignis informierten, das an einem bestimmten Tag, zu einer bestimmten Uhrzeit, an einem bestimmten Ort stattfinden wird. Mit der Zeit bekamen sie jedoch die Eigenschaften eines Zeugens aus der Vergangenheit, indem sie die Geschichte ihres Urhebers zeigten, das Profil seiner Tätigkeit, die in seiner Struktur vor sich gehenden Veränderungen. Die Wurzeln der Theaterplakate sind schon in der Antike zu suchen, sie wurden von Ägyptern, Römern und Griechen geschaffen. Das älteste neuzeitliche Plakat erschien 1429 in London und ist heute ein Exponat im Londoner Theatermuseum. Die Geschichte der polnischen Plakate reicht bis ins 16. oder 17. Jahrhundert zurück, hier sind sich die Forscher nicht einig, und ist entweder mit einem Jesuitenkollegium oder mit dem königlichen Theater verbunden. Die im Text analysierten Thorner Plakate stammen aus den Jahren 1922-1975 und werden in den Sammlungen der Kopernikus-Bücherei und in den Beständen des Staatsarchivs in Thorn aufbewahrt. Geschaffen wurden sie vom Theater in Thorn. Heute ist es das Wilam-Horzyca-Theater, doch sein Name, sein Tätigkeitsfeld, seine Organisationsstruktur und auch sein Profil und die Art seiner Tätigkeit änderten sich im Laufe der besprochenen Jahre vielmals. Die Plakate wurden in chronologischer Ordnung mit einer Aufteilung in Gruppen besprochen. Die Autorinnen beachteten den Inhalt, seine Anordnung und die Form der Aufzeichnung, das Format der Plakate, ihre Farbgebung, Ornamentik und die verwendete Ikonographie. Jede Gruppe wurde detailliert besprochen und illustriert. Nicht allein das Theater in Thorn schuf in der Stadt Theaterplakate. Eine ähnliche aktenkundliche Analyse lässt sich in Bezug auf das Puppentheater „Baj Pomorski” durchführen, doch ist das schon Material für einen gesonderten Artikel.

  9. Interdependences between flow patterns and oxygen entry in aeration tanks of wastewater treatment plants; Der Zusammenhang von Stroemungsstrukturen und Sauerstoffeintrag bei druckbeluefteten Belebungsbecken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiersch, B.

    2001-07-01

    The flow field, turbulence intensities and the distribution of the relative gas-holdup of aeration tanks of operating wastewater treatment plants were investigated experimentally with Acoustic-Doppler-Velocimeter probes. Based on the experimental results a hydrodynamical model in Euler-Euler-Formulation was developed and numerical studies of different tank and diffuser arrangements were performed. It was found that the flow pattern is mainly influenced by the gas sparger arrangement and the tank aspect-ratio. Combining the experimental and numerical results reasons for different aeration efficiencies were identified. Increasing the diffuser density changed the flow field from the spiral type to the cellular pattern with instable and dynamical structures. These flow patterns improved the aeration efficiency by increasing the residence time of the bubbles and the recirculating flows. (orig.) [German] In der vorliegenden Arbeit werden grundlegende Stroemungsstrukturen von druckbeluefteten Belebungsbecken anhand messtechnischer Untersuchungen der Geschwindigkeitsverteilungen, Turbulenzgroessen und relativer Gasgehaltsverteilungen von Belebungsbecken im Betriebszustand aufgezeigt. Vorab wird die Einsatzfaehigkeit von Akkustik-Doppler-Sonden in dispersen Zweiphasenstroemungen detailliert ueberprueft. Aufbauend auf den Messergebnissen wird ein numerisches Simulationsprogramm zur dynamischen Berechnung unterschiedlicher Beckenkonfigurationen entwickelt. Aus den experimentellen Ergebnissen in Verbindung mit den Berechnungsergebnissen sowie den Auswertungen frueherer Untersuchungen konnten hydromechanische Ursachen der unterschiedlichen Sauerstoffeintragseffizienz bei verschiedenen Beckenkonzeptionen abgeleitet werden. Dabei stellen die Anordnung sowie Gleichverteilung der Belueftungselemente sowie das Querschnittsverhaeltnis der Belebungsbecken die wesentlichen Einflussgroessen auf die Ausbildung der Stroemungsstrukturen dar. Mit zunehmender Belegungsdichte und

  10. KVK - a Meta Catalog of Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W. Mönnich

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the past years, the majority of libraries worldwide implemented interfaces to allow users to access to their bibliographic databases through the WWW. Usually these interfaces consist of HTML-pages with an embedded FORMS template where the search terms are entered. Thus for the first time it was made possible for the user to access almost every library using only one software: the WWW browser. However, if the user has to search more than one library catalog, e.g. when searching literature for a PhD thesis, he has to access a multitude of catalogs deal with different search forms, different search syntaxes, wildcards etc. This is the case especially for users in Germany. Faced with this situation in 1996, our team at the university library of Karlsruhe came up with the idea to create a virtual catalog enabling our library patrons to search several catalogs simultaneously. The idea was inspired by the successful introduction of meta search engines like metacrawler which perform the same function with internet search engines. So why not try to do it with library catalogs? The idea was discussed, and with support from the faculty of computer science, a prototype was built in July 1996. It proved surprisingly easy to do, so we included not only union catalogs but also bookshops. The meta catalog showed so much potential that we decided not to limit access to our local library patrons but to offer it as a service to the internet community as Karlsruher Virtueller Katalog (KVK, Karlsruhe Virtual Catalog. Once the KVK was announced in several mailing list, the usage peaked within a few weeks and has continued to do so.

  11. Influence of filling pattern structure on synchrotron radiation and beam spectrum at ANKA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinmann, Johannes; Brosi, Miriam; Bruendermann, Erik; Caselle, Michele; Blomley, Edmund; Hiller, Nicole; Kehrer, Benjamin; Mueller, Anke-Susanne; Schoenfeldt, Patrik; Schuh, Marcel; Schwarz, Markus; Siegel, Michael [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    We present the effects of the filling pattern structure in multi-bunch mode on the beam spectrum. This effects can be seen by all detectors whose resolution is better than the RF frequency, ranging from stripline and Schottky measurements to high resolution synchrotron radiation measurements. Our heterodyne measurements of the emitted coherent synchrotron radiation at 270 GHz reveal the discrete frequency harmonics around the 100'000 revolution harmonic of ANKA, the synchrotron radiation facility in Karlsruhe, Germany. Significant effects of bunch spacing, gaps between bunch trains and variations in individual bunch currents on the emitted CSR spectrum are described by theory and supported by observations.

  12. Connected, low-cost point-of-care diagnostics for rural South African clinics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, Suzanne

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available -OF-CARE DIAGNOSTICS FOR RURAL SOUTH AFRICAN CLINICS Suzanne Smith 1,2 , Kevin Land 1 , Jan G. Korvink 2 and Dario Mager 2 1 Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, South Africa and 2 Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany ABSTRACT In rural...,2]. In addition, the ASSURED criteria [3] set out by the World Health Organization for the development of new POC diagnostic tools need to be taken into consideration. In South African rural clinics, poor quality management systems, supply chain management...

  13. Better learn to like it

    OpenAIRE

    Klonner, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    China und Indien sind sowohl wirtschaftlich als auch politisch die wichtigen Märkte und Akteure der Zukunft, meint Stefan Klonner, der auf dem Gebiet der Entwicklungsökonomie forscht. Campus-Report" heißt die Radiosendung der Universitäten Heidelberg, Mannheim, Karlsruhe und Freiburg. Die Reportagen über aktuelle Themen aus Forschung und Wissenschaft werden montags bis freitags jeweils um ca. 19.10h im Programm von Radio Regenbogen gesendet. (Empfang in Nordbaden: UKW 102,8. In Mittelbade...

  14. Offer of service from municipal control in Germany; L'offre de services des regies municipales en Allemagne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamin, D.

    1997-07-01

    In Germany, the rules broaden their offer in the prospect of easing trade restrictions. The trends are summarized in three examples: The Stuttgart control makes an offer of optimisation in the energy distribution to the municipal buildings, but it is particularly active in the field of liquefied natural gas; the Karlsruhe control develops the council to customers and considers the sale of heat. the Hanover control prefers the communication and has created a label to develop its offers of service: EnerCity. (N.C.)

  15. Integral test of JENDL fusion file

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekawa, Fujio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    Integral test of JENDL Fusion File (J-FF) is performed through analyses of available benchmark experiments. As a result, good agreement between the calculated results with J-FF and the measured data is observed as a whole. Thus, J-FF is qualified to be used for nuclear design of fusion reactors. Owing to the high quality evaluation of J-FF, cross section data in J-FF for many nuclides are recommended to be assigned as data in FENDL/E-2.0 in the IAEA Consultants` Meeting held at Karlsruhe, Germany, 24-28 June, 1996. (author)

  16. Temperature dependence of fission product release rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, J.L.; McGown, M.E.; Reynolds, A.B.

    1984-10-01

    Fission product fractional release rates, K, used in the Albrecht-Wild model and measured at Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe and Oak Ridge National Laboratory can be fitted well by a single straight line for each fission product over the entire temperature range of the data when in K is plotted as a function of 1/T. Past applications of the Albrecht-Wild model have used plots of ln K versus T, which required three fits over the temperature range. Thus it is suggested that fractional release rates be represented by the Arrhenius form, K = K /SUB o/ exp(-Q/RT).

  17. Generation IV: new reactor systems; Neue Reaktorsysteme innerhalb der Generation IV Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starflinger, J.; Schulenberg, T. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). IKET; Hofmeister, J. [RWE Power AG, Regenerative Stromerzeugung, Essen (Germany); Tromm, W. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Programm Nukleare Sicherheitsforschung

    2006-07-01

    Generation IV, an initiative for international cooperation in nuclear technology, was launched by 10 states in 2000 and joined by Euratom in July 2003. Its aim is to assess nuclear energy systems complying with future safety, disposal, proliferation, and public acceptance requirements. The Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe focuses on design, thermohydraulics, and neutron kinetics. Work is mainly devoted to the high-performance light water reactor (HPLWR) with supercritical steam conditions. Thus, competence can be maintained, as the HPLWR issues qualify for later work in nuclear industry. (orig.)

  18. Analysis of the porosity distribution of mixed oxide pins; Analisis de distribucion de porosidad en barras combustibles de oxidos mixtos bajo irradiacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lieblich, M.; Lopez, J.

    1987-07-01

    In the frame of the Joint Irradiation Program IVO-FR2-Vg7 between the Centre of Nuclear Research of Karlsruhe (KfK), the irradiation of 30 mixed-oxide fuel rods in the FR2 experimental reactor was carried out. The pins were located in 10 single-walled NaK capsules. The behaviour of the fuel during its burnup was studied, mainly, the rest-porosity and cracking distribution in the pellet, partial densification, etc. In this work 3 pins from the capsule No. 165 were analyzed. The experimental results (pore and cracking profiles) were interpreted by the fuel rod code SATURN. (Author) 20 refs.

  19. [Plastic micro-tips for drug delivery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslija, A; Guber, A E; Heckele, M; Herrmann, D; Pfleging, W; Schaller, Th

    2002-01-01

    Removal or exact transfer of minimum substance volumes from reservoirs or microfluidic systems may be accomplished by means of miniaturized tips with integrated through-going capillaries. Applications in biomedical engineering, e.g. for the application of drugs, or in life sciences, e.g. equipping of microarrays, require the use of disposable plastic products for hygienic reasons and reasons of costs. For this purpose, a method to fabricate microtips out of plastic by doublesided molding has been developed at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe.

  20. Co-sintering of treated APC-residues with bottom ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergfeldt, B.; Jensen, Dorthe Lærke; Vehlow, J.

    2001-01-01

    Air pollution control residues stabilised by means of the Ferrox process can be sager disposed of due to lower contents of soluble salts and lesssoluble heavy metals stabilised in iron oxides. Co-combustion tests in the Karlsruhe test incinerator TAMARA were carried out in order to investigate...... the influence of co-sintering of Ferrox products with bottom ashes on the quality of the residues and the effects on the combustion process. Only few elements showed higher concentrations in the bottom ashes of these co-combustion tests compared to reference tests. No significant effect on the leaching...

  1. A Critical Analysis and Assessment of High Power Switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-09-01

    4] H. L. Laquer , et.al., "Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage and Transfer," LASL Rept. LA-DC-72-470. [5] H. L. Laquer , et.al., Proc. 6th...Intersoc. Energy Con- version Eng. Conf., Boston, Mass., August 3-6, 1971, p. 1089. [6] H. L. Laquer , et.al., "Design Cptions and Trade-offs in...Conf. on Magnet Technology (Interner Bericht 75-81-MAG, April 1975, Kernforschungs- zentrum Karlsruhe). 398 (13] H. Laquer , et.al., "Superconductive

  2. Laser-induced ignition and combustion in a SI engine with direct injection; Laserzuendung und Verbrennung im Ottomotor mit Direkteinspritzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, Volker; Kubach, Heiko; Spicher, Ulrich [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Kolbenmaschinen; Schiessl, Robert; Maas, Ulrich [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Thermodynamik

    2010-07-15

    Laser-induced ignition has shown huge advantages for the combustion of lean air- fuel mixtures in SI engines. A research project founded by the FVV under 'DI Laserzuendung' and No. 928 was set up at the Institute for Reciprocating Engines (IFKM) and the Institute for Technical Thermodynamics (ITT) at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) to investigate the potential of the laser-induced ignition. The emphasis was on improving combustion initiation and heat release during a direct injection with a spray-guided combustion. (orig.)

  3. First results of the air shower experiment KASCADE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haungs, A. E-mail: haungs@ik3.fzk.de; Antonia, T.; Apel, W.D.; Badea, F.; Bekk, K.; Bernloehr, K.; Bluemer, H.; Bollmann, E.; Bozdog, H.; Brancus, I.M.; Buettner, C.; Chilingarian, A.; Daumiller, K.; Dolla, P.; Engler, J.; Fessler, F.; Gils, H.J.; Glasstetter, R.; Haeusler, R.; Hafemann, W.; Heck, H.; Hoerandel, J.R.; Holst, T.; Kampert, K.-H.; Keim, H.; Kempa, J.; Klages, H.O.; Knapp, J.; Martello, D.; Mathes, H.J.; Matussek, P.; Mayer, H.J.; Milke, J.; Muehlenberg, D.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Pectu, M.; Rebel, H.; Risse, M.; Roth, M.; Schatz, G.; Schimdt, F.K.; Thouw, T.; Ulrich, H.; Vardanyan, A.; Vulpescu, B.; Weber, J.H.; Wentz, J.; Wiegert, T.; Wochele, J.; Zabierowski, J.; Zagromski, S

    2000-06-01

    The main goals of the KASCADE (KArlsruhe Shower Core and Array DEtector) experiment are the determination of the energy spectrum and elemental composition of the charged cosmic rays in the energy range around the knee at {approx} 5 PeV. Due to the large number of measured observables per single shower a variety of different approaches are applied to the data, preferably on an event-by-event basis. First results are presented and the influence of the high-energy interaction models underlying the analyses is discussed.

  4. Air shower radio detection with LOPES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemer, J; Apel, W D; Arteaga, J C; Badea, F; Bekk, K; Bozdog, H; Daumiller, K [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Asch, T [Inst. Prozessdatenverarbeitung und Elektronik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Auffenberg, J [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Wuppertal (Germany); Baehren, L; Butcher, H [ASTRON, Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Bertaina, M; Chiavassa, A [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita Torino (Italy); Biermann, P L [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie Bonn (Germany); Brancus, I M [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Brueggemann, M; Buchholz, P [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Siegen (Germany); Buitink, S [Department of Astrophysics, Radboud University Nijmegen (Netherlands); Cossavella, F; Souza, V de [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe (Germany)], E-mail: Johannes.Bluemer@ik.fzk.de (and others)

    2008-07-15

    LOPES is an array of 30 radio antenna co-located with the KASCADE-Grande extensive air shower detector in Karlsruhe, Germany. It is designed as a digital radio interferometer for the detection of radio emission from extensive air showers. LOPES features high bandwidth and fast data processing. A unique asset is the concurrent operation with KASCADE-Grande. We report about the progress in understanding the radio signals measured by LOPES. In addition, the status and further perspectives of LOPES and the large scale application of this novel detection technique are sketched.

  5. The Air-Shower Experiment KASCADE-Grande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haungs, A., E-mail: haungs@ik.fzk.d [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Apel, W.D. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Arteaga, J.C. [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Badea, F.; Bekk, K. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bertaina, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, 10125 Torino (Italy); Bluemer, J. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bozdog, H. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Brancus, I.M. [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O. Box Mg-6, RO-7690 Bucharest (Romania); Brueggemann, M.; Buchholz, P. [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Siegen, 57068 Siegen (Germany); Cantoni, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, 10125 Torino (Italy); Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario, INAF, 10133 Torino (Italy); Chiavassa, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, 10125 Torino (Italy); Cossavella, F. [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Daumiller, K. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Souza, V. de [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Di Pierro, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, 10125 Torino (Italy); Doll, P.; Engel, R.; Engler, J. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    KASCADE-Grande is an extensive air shower experiment at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Germany. Main parts of the experiment are the Grande array spread over an area of 700x700m{sup 2}, the original KASCADE array covering 200x200m{sup 2} with unshielded and shielded detectors, and additional muon tracking devices. This multi-detector system allows to investigate the energy spectrum, composition, and anisotropies of cosmic rays in the energy range up to 1 EeV. An overview on the performance of the apparatus and first results will be given.

  6. Recent results of the LOPES experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haungs, A., E-mail: haungs@ik.fzk.d [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Apel, W.D. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Arteaga, J.C. [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Asch, T. [Inst. Prozessdatenverarb. und Elektronik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Badea, F. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Baehren, L. [Dept. of Astrophysics, Radboud University Nijmegen, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands); Bekk, K. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bertaina, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, 10125 Torino (Italy); Biermann, P.L. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, 53010 Bonn (Germany); Bluemer, J. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bozdog, H. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Brancus, I.M. [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O. Box Mg-6, RO-7690 Bucharest (Romania); Brueggemann, M.; Buchholz, P. [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Siegen, 57068 Siegen (Germany); Buitink, S. [Dept. of Astrophysics, Radboud University Nijmegen, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands); Cantoni, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, 10125 Torino (Italy); Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario, INAF, 10133 Torino (Italy); Chiavassa, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, 10125 Torino (Italy); Cossavella, F. [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Daumiller, K. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    LOPES measures radio pulses from extensive air showers and aims to calibrate the emitted signal in the primary energy range of 10{sup 16}-10{sup 18} eV. LOPES, a digital radio interferometer using high bandwidths and fast data processing, is set up at the location of the KASCADE-Grande extensive air shower experiment in Karlsruhe, Germany and profits from the reconstructed air shower observables of KASCADE-Grande. We report about recent analysis results of the radio signals measured by LOPES.

  7. Preliminary test of the prototype modular cryostat for a 10 MW offshore superconducting wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiuce; Ramalingam, R.; Sanz, Santiago; Neumann, Holger

    2017-02-01

    The SUPerconducting Reliable lightweight And more POWERful offshore wind turbine (SUPRAPOWER), an EU FP7 funded research project, are under development for an innovative superconducting 10 MW class offshore wind turbine. Due to the requirements of handling, maintenance, reliability of long term and offshore operation, the cryostats are divided in two major parts: the modular cryostat able to accommodate a single coil and a thermal collector that links all the modules. The prototype modular cryostat was designed, manufactured and assembled in Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). The paper reports preliminary test results of proto-type modular cryostat with a two-stage Gifford-McMahon (GM) cryocooler.

  8. Simulation of the convective mixed layer in Athens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, H.P. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1997-10-01

    The region of Athens, Greece, has a highly complicated terrain with irregular coastline and mountains next to the sea. This results in complex flow fields. A case study of a simulation of a sea breeze with the Karlsruhe Atmospheric Mesoscale model KAMM is presented together with remarks on the advection of mixed layer air. The valley of Athens is open to the sea towards the south-west and surrounded by mountains on the other sides. Gaps between the mountains channel the flow into the valley. Simulations were done for 14 September 1994 to compare them with measurements at 6 masts by Risoe during the MEDCAPHOT-TRACE experiment. (au)

  9. International Symposium on Acoustic Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Oceans (2nd).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-26

    Canada 6 7 Italy 6 5 Japan 4 1 France 3 5 Hong Kong 3 2 Australia 1 2 Greece 1 2 India 1 2 Poland 1 1 South Africa I 1 Sweden 1 0 West Germany 1 I...395 Pretoria 0001, SOUTH AFRICA Doppler Acoustic Sounding Per- P. Thomas Kernforschungszentrum formance Test R. von Karlsruhe Ombli Holleuffer-Kypke...the Austral - M. Kanowski erating Board ian Continent P.T. Morland Brisbane, AUSTRALIA L. StUmer Comparison of Mixing Height Ob- Royal Observatory

  10. Monitoring the KATRIN source properties within the beamline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellinger, E.; Haußmann, N.; Helbing, K.; Hickford, S.; Klein, M.; Naumann, U.

    2017-09-01

    The KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino (KATRIN) experiment will measure the mass of the neutrino with a sensitivity of 0.2 eV (90 % CL). The Forward Beam Monitor (FBM) is a monitoring system which comprises of a complex mechanical setup capable of inserting a detector board into the KATRIN beamline at the end of the source and transport section. The detector board contains a Hall sensor, a temperature gauge, and two PIN diodes which can detect electrons from the source with a precision of 0.1 % in less than a minute within an electron flux density of 106 s-1mm-2.

  11. CFN lectures on functional nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Vojta, Matthias; Schön, Gerd

    2011-01-01

    This series of books contains selected and edited lectures from summer schools organized by the Center for Functional nanostructures (C.F.N.) at the University of Karlsruhe. The mission of the C.F.N. is to carry out research in the following areas: nanophotonics, nanoelectronics, molecular nanostructures and nanostructured materials. The aim of the summer schools is mainly to exchange new ideas and illustrate emerging research methodologies through a series of topical, introductory lectures. This is reflected by both the selection of topics addressed in the present volume, nanoelectronics, as well as the tutorial aspect of the contributions.

  12. 3D ultrasound computer tomography for medical imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemmeke, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institute for Data Processing and Electronics, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)], E-mail: hartmut.gemmeke@ipe.fzk.de; Ruiter, N.V. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institute for Data Processing and Electronics, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2007-10-01

    Our 3D ultrasound computer tomograph (USCT) is an device method aimed at early breast cancer diagnosis. It is capable of producing images with sub-millimeter resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio. This method is universally useable for the 3D analysis of sufficient small bodies similar to the size of a breast, which may be immersed in a liquid coupling medium. In this paper, an overview of the developed method and the first results for static test examples (phantoms) and the perspective of our 3D-USCT at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe are presented.

  13. Subjective heat stress of urban citizens: influencing factors and coping strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz-Plapp, Tina; Hackenbruch, Julia; Schipper, Hans

    2014-05-01

    Given urbanization trend and a higher probability of heat waves in Europe, heat discomfort or heat stress for the population in cities is a growing concern that is addressed from various perspectives, such as urban micro climate, urban and spatial planning, human health, work performance and economic impacts. This presentation focuses on subjective heat stress experienced by urban citizens. In order to better understand individual subjective heat stress of urban citizens and how different measures to cope with heat stress in everyday life are applied, a questionnaire survey was conducted in Karlsruhe, Germany. Karlsruhe is located in one of the warmest regions in Germany and holds the German temperature record of 40.2°C in August 2003. In 2013, two hot weather periods with continuous heat warnings by the German Weather Service for 7 and 8 days occurred during the last 10 days of July and first 10 days of August 2013 with an inofficial maximum temperature of again 40.2°C on July 27th in Karlsruhe (not taken by the official network of the German Weather Service). The survey data was collected in the six weeks after the heat using an online-questionnaire on the website of the South German Climate Office that was announced via newspapers and social media channels to reach a wide audience in Karlsruhe. The questionnaire was additionally sent as paper version to groups of senior citizens to ensure having enough respondents from this heat sensitive social group in the sample. The 428 respondents aged 17-94 show differences in subjective heat stress experienced at home, at work and during various typical activities in daily routine. They differ also in the measures they used to adjust to and cope with the heat such as drinking more, evading the heat, seeking cooler places, changing daily routines, or use of air condition. Differences in heat stress can be explained by housing type, age, subjective health status, employment, and different coping measures and strategies

  14. Mathematical efficiency calibration in gamma spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Kaminski, S; Wilhelm, C

    2003-01-01

    Mathematical efficiency calibration with the LabSOCS software was introduced for two detectors in the measurement laboratory of the Central Safety Department of Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. In the present contribution, conventional efficiency calibration of gamma spectroscopy systems and mathematical efficiency calibration with LabSOCS are compared with respect to their performance, uncertainties, expenses, and results. It is reported about the experience gained, and the advantages and disadvantages of both methods of efficiency calibration are listed. The results allow the conclusion to be drawn that mathematical efficiency calibration is a real alternative to conventional efficiency calibration of gamma spectroscopy systems as obtained by measurements of mixed gamma ray standard sources.

  15. The Re/Os Clock Revisited

    CERN Multimedia

    Leal, L C; Kitis, G; Guber, K H; Quaranta, A; Koehler, P E

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the proposed project of an accurate measurement of the relevant neutron cross sections of $^{186}$Os and $^{187}$Os is to remove the principal nuclear physics uncertainties in the analysis of the Re/Os cosmochronometer. The necessary cross section information will be obtained in complementary experiments at the nTOF facility at CERN and at the Karlsruhe Van de Graaff accelerator. Transformation of these results into significantly improved stellar reaction rates will allow to evaluate the age of the elements in the framework of galactic chemical evolution models.

  16. KIT competence center for decommissioning. Innovation and promotion of trainees; Kompetenzzentrum Rueckbau am KIT. Nachwuchsfoerderung und Innovationen fuer den Rueckbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentes, Sascha [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Technologie und Management im Baubetrieb

    2016-03-15

    The safe decommissioning of nuclear installations is technically feasible, but is also still a challenge for science, technology and industry. The expertise and know how for decommissioning must be ensured because it will be needed for further decades. Already in 2008 the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) had identified this challenge that later emerged through the closure of nuclear power plants in Germany. The KIT opened the professorship Technology and Management of the Decommissioning of Nuclear Installations. In 2014, this section was extended through the dismantling of conventional installations.

  17. Uudiseid maailmast / Nele-Eva Steinfeld

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Steinfeld, Nele-Eva

    2012-01-01

    Lühisõnumeid muusikamaailmast: Paavo Järvist saab Tokyo NHK sümfooniaorkestri peadirigent. Suri Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau. Avastati Antonio Vivaldi uusi teoseid. Glenn Gouldi klaver jõudis Ottawa Rahvuslikku Kunstide Keskusesse. Sbeliuse noodistustarkvara peakorter Suurbritannias suleti. Viini Riigiooperi rekordiliselt kasumlik hooaeg. Bayreuthi markkrahvi ooperimaja arvati UNESCO maailmapärandi nimistusse. Erkki-Sven Tüüri ooperi "Wallenberg" uuslavastus Karlsruhes. Pianist Mihkel Poll andis kontserdi Wigmore Hallis. Rahvusvaheline heliloojate rostrum Stockholmis. Suri viiuldaja Ruggiero Ricci. Lahkus pianist Mihaela Ursuleasa

  18. Decision making processes based on innovation indicators: which implications for technology assessment?

    OpenAIRE

    Nuno Boavida

    2011-01-01

    Based on the report for “Project IV” unit of the PhD programme on Technology Assessment. This thesis research has the supervision of António Moniz (FCT-UNL and ITAS-KIT) and Manuel Laranja (ISEG-UTL). Other members of the thesis committee are Stefan Kuhlmann (Twente University), Leonhard Hennen (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology-ITAS), Tiago Santos Pereira (Universidade de Coimbra/CES) and Cristina Sousa (FCT-UNL). The present work deals with the use of innovation indicators in the decisio...

  19. Design concept for the FLUTE control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsching, Sebastian; Huttel, Erhard; Mueller, Anke-Susanne; Naknaimueang, Somprasong; Nasse, Michael J.; Rossmanith, Robert; Schreck, Marco; Schuh, Marcel; Schwarz, Markus [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    FLUTE is a linac-based THz-source being constructed at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). One of the goals of the FLUTE project is the generation of femtosecond electron-bunches. In order to study the various effects influencing the final bunch length, data-acquisition and storage systems that allow correlation of parameters on a per-pulse basis are required. We are planning to use an EPICS-based control system that employs special techniques for pulse-synchronous data-acquisition. In this talk we present the current design concept for this system.

  20. Exotica ex nihilo: Traversable wormholes & non-singular black holes from the vacuum of quadratic gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Duplessis, Francis

    2015-01-01

    We present new traversable wormhole and non-singular black hole solutions in pure, scale-free $R^2$ gravity. These exotic solutions require no null energy condition violating or "exotic" matter and are supported only by the vacuum of the theory. It is well known that $f(R)$ theories of gravity may be recast as dual theories in the Einstein frame. The solutions we present are found when the conformal transformation required to move to the dual frame is singular. In the specific case of purely quadratic $R^2$ gravity, the required conformal factor is identically zero for spacetimes with $R=0$. Solutions in this case are argued to arise in the strong coupling limit of General Relativity.

  1. Causality & holographic entanglement entropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Headrick, Matthew [Martin Fisher School of Physics, Brandeis University, MS 057, 415 South Street, Waltham, MA 02454 (United States); Hubeny, Veronika E. [Centre for Particle Theory & Department of Mathematical Sciences,Science Laboratories, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Lawrence, Albion [Martin Fisher School of Physics, Brandeis University, MS 057, 415 South Street, Waltham, MA 02454 (United States); Rangamani, Mukund [Centre for Particle Theory & Department of Mathematical Sciences,Science Laboratories, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-29

    We identify conditions for the entanglement entropy as a function of spatial region to be compatible with causality in an arbitrary relativistic quantum field theory. We then prove that the covariant holographic entanglement entropy prescription (which relates entanglement entropy of a given spatial region on the boundary to the area of a certain extremal surface in the bulk) obeys these conditions, as long as the bulk obeys the null energy condition. While necessary for the validity of the prescription, this consistency requirement is quite nontrivial from the bulk standpoint, and therefore provides important additional evidence for the prescription. In the process, we introduce a codimension-zero bulk region, named the entanglement wedge, naturally associated with the given boundary spatial region. We propose that the entanglement wedge is the most natural bulk region corresponding to the boundary reduced density matrix.

  2. Butterfly velocity bound and reverse isoperimetric inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xing-Hui; Lü, H.

    2017-03-01

    We study the butterfly effect of the AdS planar black holes in the framework of Einstein's general relativity. We find that the butterfly velocities can be expressed by a universal formula vB2=T S /(2 VthP ). In doing so, we come upon a near-horizon geometrical formula for the thermodynamical volume Vth . We verify the volume formula by examining a variety of AdS black holes. We also show that the volume formula implies that the conjectured reverse isoperimetric inequality follows straightforwardly from the null-energy condition, for static AdS black holes. The inequality is thus related to an upper bound of the butterfly velocities.

  3. Relaxing the cosmological constant: a proof of concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberte, Lasma [SISSA,Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); INFN - Sezione di Trieste,Via Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Creminelli, Paolo; Khmelnitsky, Andrei [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP),Strada Costiera 11, 34151, Trieste (Italy); Pirtskhalava, David [Institute of Physics, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne,CH-1015, Lausanne (Switzerland); Trincherini, Enrico [Scuola Normale Superiore,Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126, Pisa (Italy); INFN - Sezione di Pisa,56200, Pisa (Italy)

    2016-12-06

    We propose a technically natural scenario whereby an initially large cosmological constant (c.c.) is relaxed down to the observed value due to the dynamics of a scalar evolving on a very shallow potential. The model crucially relies on a sector that violates the null energy condition (NEC) and gets activated only when the Hubble rate becomes sufficiently small — of the order of the present one. As a result of NEC violation, this low-energy universe evolves into inflation, followed by reheating and the standard Big Bang cosmology. The symmetries of the theory force the c.c. to be the same before and after the NEC-violating phase, so that a late-time observer sees an effective c.c. of the correct magnitude. Importantly, our model allows neither for eternal inflation nor for a set of possible values of dark energy, the latter fixed by the parameters of the theory.

  4. Relaxing the cosmological constant: a proof of concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberte, Lasma; Creminelli, Paolo; Khmelnitsky, Andrei; Pirtskhalava, David; Trincherini, Enrico

    2016-12-01

    We propose a technically natural scenario whereby an initially large cosmological constant (c.c.) is relaxed down to the observed value due to the dynamics of a scalar evolving on a very shallow potential. The model crucially relies on a sector that violates the null energy condition (NEC) and gets activated only when the Hubble rate becomes sufficiently small — of the order of the present one. As a result of NEC violation, this low-energy universe evolves into inflation, followed by reheating and the standard Big Bang cosmology. The symmetries of the theory force the c.c. to be the same before and after the NEC-violating phase, so that a late-time observer sees an effective c.c. of the correct magnitude. Importantly, our model allows neither for eternal inflation nor for a set of possible values of dark energy, the latter fixed by the parameters of the theory.

  5. Superluminal censorship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, Matt; Bassett, B.A.; Liberati, S

    2000-06-01

    We argue that 'effective' superluminal travel, potentially caused by the tipping over of light cones in Einstein gravity, is always associated with violations of the null energy condition (NEC). This is most easily seen by working perturbatively around Minkowski spacetime, where we use linearized Einstein gravity to show that the NEC forces the light cones to contract (narrow). Given the NEC, the Shapiro time delay in any weak gravitational field is always a delay relative to the Minkowski background, and never an advance. Furthermore, any object travelling within the lightcones of the weak gravitational field is similarly delayed with respect to the minimum traversal time possible in the background Minkowski geometry.

  6. Wormholes in viscous cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Deng

    2016-01-01

    We study the wormhole spacetime configurations in bulk viscosity cosmology. Considering three classes of viscous models, i.e., bulk viscosity as a function of Hubble parameter $H$, temperature $T$ and dark energy density $\\rho$, respectively, we obtain nine wormhole solutions. Through the analysis for the anisotropic solutions, we conclude that, to some extent, these three classes of viscous models have very high degeneracy with each other. Subsequently, without the loss of generality, to investigate the traversabilities, energy conditions and stability for the wormhole solution, we study the wormhole solution of the constant redshift function of the viscous $\\omega$CDM model with a constant bulk viscosity coefficient. We obtain the following conclusions: the value of traversal velocity decreases for decreasing bulk viscosity, and the traversal velocity for a traveler depends on not only the wormhole geometry but also the effects of cosmological background evolution; the null energy condition will be violated...

  7. Fully stable cosmological solutions with a non-singular classical bounce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijjas, Anna; Steinhardt, Paul J.

    2017-01-01

    We recently showed how it is possible to use a cubic Galileon action to construct classical cosmological solutions that enter a contracting null energy condition (NEC) violating phase, bounce at finite values of the scale factor and exit into an expanding NEC-satisfying phase without encountering any singularities or pathologies. A drawback of these examples is that singular behavior is encountered at some time either just before or just after the NEC-violating phase. In this Letter, we show that it is possible to circumvent this problem by extending our method to actions that include the next order L4 Galileon interaction. Using this approach, we construct non-singular classical bouncing cosmological solutions that are non-pathological for all times.

  8. Classically Stable Nonsingular Cosmological Bounces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijjas, Anna; Steinhardt, Paul J.

    2016-09-01

    One of the fundamental questions of theoretical cosmology is whether the Universe can undergo a nonsingular bounce, i.e., smoothly transit from a period of contraction to a period of expansion through violation of the null energy condition (NEC) at energies well below the Planck scale and at finite values of the scale factor such that the entire evolution remains classical. A common claim has been that a nonsingular bounce either leads to ghost or gradient instabilities or a cosmological singularity. In this Letter, we consider a well-motivated class of theories based on the cubic Galileon action and present a procedure for explicitly constructing examples of a nonsingular cosmological bounce without encountering any pathologies and maintaining a subluminal sound speed for comoving curvature modes throughout the NEC violating phase. We also discuss the relation between our procedure and earlier work.

  9. Quantum energy inequalities from local thermal equilibrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlemmer, Jan; Verch, Rainer [Inst. f. Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Leipzig, 04009 Leipzig (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    This talk will be about the relation between a certain notion of local thermality for states of the free scalar field on curved spacetime backgrounds and quantum energy inequalities. For states fulfilling the condition of local thermality we will present two results obtained together with for arbitrary curvature coupling: First a quantum weak energy inequality and second an expression for potential violations of the averaged null energy inequality, which involves only terms with a direct physical interpretation for the states under consideration. Furthermore this expression shows that examples proposed to point out limits to quantum energy inequalities for nonminimally coupled scalar fields are already the worst case for the set of locally thermal states.

  10. Dynamics of anisotropic power-law f(R) cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamir, M. F., E-mail: farasat.shamir@nu.edu.pk [National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences, Lahore Campus, Department of Sciences and Humanities (Pakistan)

    2016-12-15

    Modified theories of gravity have attracted much attention of the researchers in the recent years. In particular, the f(R) theory has been investigated extensively due to important f(R) gravity models in cosmological contexts. This paper is devoted to exploring an anisotropic universe in metric f(R) gravity. A locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type I cosmological model is considered for this purpose. Exact solutions of modified field equations are obtained for a well-known f(R) gravity model. The energy conditions are also discussed for the model under consideration. The viability of the model is investigated via graphical analysis using the present-day values of cosmological parameters. The model satisfies null energy, weak energy, and dominant energy conditions for a particular range of the anisotropy parameter while the strong energy condition is violated, which shows that the anisotropic universe in f(R) gravity supports the crucial issue of accelerated expansion of the universe.

  11. Thermodynamics of perfect fluids from scalar field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Ballesteros, Guillermo; Pilo, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    The low-energy dynamics of relativistic continuous media is given by a shift-symmetric effective theory of four scalar fields. These scalars describe the embedding in spacetime of the medium and play the role of Stuckelberg fields for spontaneously broken spatial and time translations. Perfect fluids are selected imposing a stronger symmetry group or reducing the field content to a single scalar. We explore the relation between the field theory description of perfect fluids to thermodynamics. By drawing the correspondence between the allowed operators at leading order in derivatives and the thermodynamic variables, we find that a complete thermodynamic picture requires the four Stuckelberg fields. We show that thermodynamic stability plus the null energy condition imply dynamical stability. We also argue that a consistent thermodynamic interpretation is not possible if any of the shift symmetries is explicitly broken.

  12. Classically stable non-singular cosmological bounces

    CERN Document Server

    Ijjas, Anna

    2016-01-01

    One of the fundamental questions of theoretical cosmology is whether the universe can undergo a non-singular bounce, i.e., smoothly transit from a period of contraction to a period of expansion through violation of the null energy condition (NEC) at energies well below the Planck scale and at finite values of the scale factor such that the entire evolution remains classical. A common claim has been that a non-singular bounce either leads to ghost or gradient instabilities or a cosmological singularity. In this letter, we examine cubic Galileon theories and present a procedure for explicitly constructing examples of a non-singular cosmological bounce without encountering any pathologies and maintaining a sub-luminal sound speed for co-moving curvature modes throughout the NEC violating phase. We also discuss the relation between our procedure and earlier work.

  13. Wormhole geometry and Noether symmetry in f(R) gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, M.; Nawazish, Iqra

    2018-02-01

    This paper investigates the geometry of static traversable wormhole through Noether symmetry approach in f(R) gravity. We take perfect fluid distribution and formulate symmetry generators with associated conserved quantities corresponding to general form, power-law and exponential f(R) models. In each case, we evaluate wormhole solutions using constant and variable red-shift functions. We analyze the behavior of shape function, viability of constructed f(R) model and stability of wormhole solutions graphically. The physical existence of wormhole solutions can be examined through null/weak energy conditions of perfect fluid and null energy condition of the effective energy-momentum tensor. The graphical interpretation of constructed wormhole solutions ensures the existence of physically viable and traversable wormholes for all models. It is concluded that the constructed wormholes are found to be stable in most of the cases.

  14. Relativistic Bose-Einstein condensates thin-shell wormholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richarte, M. G.; Salako, I. G.; Graça, J. P. Morais; Moradpour, H.; Övgün, Ali

    2017-10-01

    We construct traversable thin-shell wormholes which are asymptotically Ads/dS applying the cut and paste procedure for the case of an acoustic metric created by a relativistic Bose-Einstein condensate. We examine several definitions of the flare-out condition along with the violation or not of the energy conditions for such relativistic geometries. Under reasonable assumptions about the equation of state of the matter located at the shell, we concentrate on the mechanical stability of wormholes under radial perturbation preserving the original spherical symmetry. To do so, we consider linearized perturbations around static solutions. We obtain that dS acoustic wormholes remain stable under radial perturbations as long as they have small radius; such wormholes with finite radius do not violate the strong/null energy condition. Besides, we show that stable Ads wormhole satisfy some of the energy conditions whereas unstable Ads wormhole with large radii violate them.

  15. Existence of static wormholes in f(𝒢,T) gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, M.; Ikram, Ayesha

    This paper investigates static spherically symmetric traversable wormhole (WH) solutions in f(𝒢,T) gravity (𝒢 and T represent the Gauss-Bonnet invariant and trace of the energy-momentum tensor, respectively). We construct explicit expressions for ordinary matter by taking specific form of redshift function and f(𝒢,T) model. To analyze the possible existence of wormholes, we consider anisotropic, isotropic, as well as barotropic matter distributions. The graphical analysis shows the violation of null energy condition for the effective energy-momentum tensor throughout the evolution while ordinary matter meets energy constraints in certain regions for each case of matter distribution. It is concluded that traversable WH solutions are physically acceptable in this theory.

  16. Galilean Genesis: an alternative to inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Creminelli, Paolo; Trincherini, Enrico

    2010-01-01

    We propose a novel cosmological scenario, in which standard inflation is replaced by an expanding phase with a drastic violation of the Null Energy Condition (NEC): \\dot H >> H^2. The model is based on the recently introduced Galileon theories, that allow NEC violating solutions without instabilities. The unperturbed solution describes a Universe that is asymptotically Minkowski in the past, expands with increasing energy density until it exits the regime of validity of the effective field theory and reheats. This solution is a dynamical attractor and the Universe is driven to it, even if it is initially contracting. The study of perturbations of the Galileon field reveals some subtleties, related to the gross violation of the NEC and it shows that adiabatic perturbations are cosmologically irrelevant. The model, however, suggests a new way to produce a scale invariant spectrum of isocurvature perturbations, which can later be converted to adiabatic: the Galileon is forced by symmetry to couple to the other f...

  17. Inflation from Minkowski space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirtskhalava, David; Santoni, Luca [Scuola Normale Superiore,Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126, Pisa (Italy); Trincherini, Enrico [Scuola Normale Superiore,Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126, Pisa (Italy); INFN - Sezione di Pisa,56100 Pisa (Italy); Uttayarat, Patipan [Department of Physics, University of Cincinnati,Cincinnati, OH 45220 (United States); Department of Physics, Srinakharinwirot University,Wattana, Bangkok 10110 (Thailand)

    2014-12-23

    We propose a class of scalar models that, once coupled to gravity, lead to cosmologies that smoothly and stably connect an inflationary quasi-de Sitter universe to a low, or even zero-curvature, maximally symmetric spacetime in the asymptotic past, strongly violating the null energy condition ( H-dot ≫H{sup 2}) at intermediate times. The models are deformations of the conformal galileon lagrangian and are therefore based on symmetries, both exact and approximate, that ensure the quantum robustness of the whole picture. The resulting cosmological backgrounds can be viewed as regularized extensions of the galilean genesis scenario, or, equivalently, as ‘early-time-complete’ realizations of inflation. The late-time inflationary dynamics possesses phenomenologically interesting properties: it can produce a large tensor-to-scalar ratio within the regime of validity of the effective field theory and can lead to sizeable equilateral nongaussianities.

  18. Cosmological matching conditions and galilean genesis in Horndeski's theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishi, Sakine; Kobayashi, Tsutomu [Department of Physics, Rikkyo University, Toshima, Tokyo, 175-8501 (Japan); Tanahashi, Norihiro [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU), The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba, 277-8568 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Masahide, E-mail: sakine_n@rikkyo.ac.jp, E-mail: tsutomu@rikkyo.ac.jp, E-mail: norihiro.tanahashi@ipmu.jp, E-mail: gucci@phys.titech.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, 152-8551 (Japan)

    2014-03-01

    We derive the cosmological matching conditions for the homogeneous and isotropic background and for linear perturbations in Horndeski's most general second-order scalar-tensor theory. In general relativity, the matching is done in such a way that the extrinsic curvature is continuous across the transition hypersurface. This procedure is generalized so as to incorporate the mixing of scalar and gravity kinetic terms in the field equations of Horndeski's theory. Our matching conditions have a wide range of applications including the galilean genesis and the bounce scenarios, in which stable, null energy condition violating solutions play a central role. We demonstrate how our matching conditions are used in the galilean genesis scenario. In doing so, we extend the previous genesis models and provide a unified description of the theory admitting the solution that starts expanding from the Minkowski spacetime.

  19. Tensile strength and the mining of black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Adam R

    2013-11-22

    There are a number of important thought experiments that involve raising and lowering boxes full of radiation in the vicinity of black hole horizons. This Letter looks at the limitations placed on these thought experiments by the null energy condition, which imposes a fundamental bound on the tensile-strength-to-weight ratio of the materials involved, makes it impossible to build a box near the horizon that is wider than a single wavelength of the Hawking quanta, and puts a severe constraint on the operation of "space elevators" near black holes. In particular, it is shown that proposals for mining black holes by lowering boxes near the horizon, collecting some Hawking radiation, and dragging it out to infinity cannot proceed nearly as rapidly as has previously been claimed. As a consequence of this limitation, the boxes and all the moving parts are superfluous and black holes can be destroyed equally rapidly by threading the horizon with strings.

  20. Observational support for approaching cosmic doomsday

    CERN Document Server

    Jimenez, Jose Beltran; Saez-Gomez, Diego; Salzano, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    In this work we consider a family of cosmological models featuring future singularities. This type of cosmological evolution is typical of dark energy models with an equation of state violating some of the standard energy conditions (e.g. the null energy condition). Such kind of behavior, widely studied in the literature, may arise in cosmologies with phantom fields, theories of modified gravity or models with interacting dark matter/dark energy. We briefly review the physical consequences of these cosmological evolutions regarding geodesic completeness and the divergence of tidal forces in order to emphasize under which circumstances the singularities in some cosmological quantities correspond to actual singular spacetimes. We then introduce several phenomenological parameterizations of the Hubble expansion rate to model different singularities existing in the literature and use SN Ia, BAO and H(z) data to constrain how far in the future the singularity needs to be (under some reasonable assumptions on the b...

  1. Hyperscaling violating Lifshitz holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Ioannis

    2016-04-01

    We present an overview of the construction of the general holographic dictionary for asymptotically locally Lifshitz and hyperscaling violating Lifshitz backgrounds with arbitrary dynamical exponents z and θ, compatible with the null energy condition, which was recently developed in [W. Chemissany, I. Papadimitriou, Generalized dilatation operator method for non-relativistic holography, arxiv:arXiv:1405.3965, W. Chemissany, I. Papadimitriou, Lifshitz holography: The whole shebang, arxiv:arXiv:1408.0795]. A concrete definition of asymptotically locally Lifshitz and hyperscaling violating Lifshitz backgrounds is provided in the context of a generic bottom-up Einstein-Proca-Dilaton theory, and a systematic procedure for solving the radial Hamilton-Jacobi equation via a covariant expansion in eigenfunctions of two commuting operators is presented. The resulting asymptotic solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation is subsequently used to derive the full holographic dictionary, including the Fefferman-Graham asymptotic expansions and the non-relativistic holographic Ward identities.

  2. Radiation emitted by transverse-gradient undulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Bernhard

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Conventional undulators are used in synchrotron light sources to produce radiation with a narrow relative spectral width as compared to bending magnets or wigglers. The spectral width of the radiation produced by conventional undulators is determined by the number of undulator periods and by the energy spread and emittance of the electron beam. In more compact electron sources like for instance laser plasma accelerators the energy spread becomes the dominating factor. Due to this effect these electron sources cannot in general be used for high-gain free electron lasers (FELs. In order to overcome this limitation, modified undulator schemes, so-called transverse gradient undulators (TGUs, were proposed and a first superconducting TGU was built at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT, Karlsruhe, Germany. In this paper simulations of the expected synchrotron radiation spectral distribution are presented. An experimental test with that device is under preparation at the laser wakefield accelerator at the JETI laser at the University of Jena, Germany.

  3. Food Waste Generation at Household Level: Results of a Survey among Employees of Two European Research Centers in Italy and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Jörissen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a broad consensus in literature that private households are significant contributors to the total amount of food waste in the EU. Thus, any strategy to meaningfully combat food wastage must put the end consumer in the center of prevention activities. This requires deeper insights into people’s motivations to discard still edible food and knowledge about potential barriers to reduce wasting. This paper reports on results of an online survey among two European research centers in Italy (JRC/Ispra and Germany (KIT/Karlsruhe. The focus of the survey was on households’ behaviors (shopping, eating, and food preparation habits and its influence on the generation of food waste. Furthermore, reasons for the disposal of food as well as measures and technologies most needed to prevent wastage were discussed. The results of the survey are analyzed, especially with regard to two questions: (1 Are there considerable differences between Ispra and Karlsruhe? (2 Are there considerable similarities or inconsistencies with the results of previous studies?

  4. Decomposing the profile of PM in two low polluted German cities--mapping of air mass residence time, focusing on potential long range transport impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriou, Konstantinos; Kassomenos, Pavlos

    2014-07-01

    This paper aims to decompose the profile of particulates in Karlsruhe and Potsdam (Germany), focusing on the localization of PM potential transboundary sources. An air mass cluster analysis was implemented, followed by a study of air mass residence time on a grid of a 0.5° × 0.5° resolution. Particulate/gaseous daily air pollution and meteorological data were used to indicate PM local sources. Four Principal Component Analysis (PCA) components were produced: traffic, photochemical, industrial/domestic and particulate. PM2.5/PM10 ratio seasonal trends, indicated production of PMCOARSE (PM10-PM2.5) from secondary sources in Potsdam during warm period (WP). The residing areas of incoming slow moving air masses are potential transboundary PM sources. For Karlsruhe those areas were mainly around the city. An air mass residence time secondary peak was observed over Stuttgart. For Potsdam, areas with increased dwelling time of the arriving air parcels were detected particularly above E/SE Germany. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Research-related intercultural higher education in satellite geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, M.; Heck, B.; Krueger, C. P.

    2009-04-01

    In order to improve the education of young researchers (master degree, PhD, PostDocs) a cooperation between the Department of Geomatics (DGEOM), Federal University of Paraná (UFPR), Curitiba (Brazil) and the Geodetic Institute (GIK), University Karlsruhe (TH), Karlsruhe (Germany) was established which now exists since more than five years. The joint venture is actually called "PROBRAL: Precise positioning and height determination by means of GPS: Modeling of errors and transformation into physical heights" and focuses on research and education within the field of satellite geodesy. PROBRAL is funded by the Brazilian academic exchange service CAPES and the German academic exchange service DAAD. The geodetic aim of the research project is to validate and improve the quality of 3d positions derived from observations related to satellite navigation systems like GPS. In order to fulfill this ambitious goal sustainably, research has to be carried out in close cooperation. At the same time, e.g. to guarantee continuous success, a coordinated education has to be ensured. Besides technical education aspects key competences (e.g. language, capacity for teamwork, project management skills) are trained. Within the presentation the lessons which were learned from this project are discussed in detail.

  6. External meeting: KATRIN - direct measurement of neutrino masses with sub-eV sensitivity

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    GENEVA UNIVERSITY - ECOLE DE PHYSIQUE Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENEVE 4 - Tél : 022 379 62 73 - Fax: 022 379 69 92 Wednesday 18 April 2007 PARTICLE PHYSICS SEMINAR at 17:00 - Stückelberg Auditorium KATRIN - direct measurement of neutrino masses with sub-eV sensitivity by Prof. Guido Drexlin, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology KIT The major scientific objective of the international Karlsruhe Tritum Neutrino (KATRIN) Experiment is the model independent measurement of the electron neutrino mass in tritium beta decay with a sensitivity of 200 meV. In the cosmological context, this allows an investigation of whether massive relic neutrinos left over from the Big Bang play a specific role as hot dark matter in the evolution of large scale structures of the universe. In particle physics KATRIN will allow for discrimination between different neutrino mass models (either of quasi-degenerate or hierarchical pattern).The key components of KATRIN comprise...

  7. "I can't wait to find out what Nature has in store for us"

    CERN Document Server

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    Professor Guido Altarelli, a physicist at CERN and the University of Rome, has received two prizes since the beginning of the year: the Julius Wess prize awarded by the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) and the Sakurai prize awarded by the American Physical Society.   Guido Altarelli (left), receiving the Julius Wess prize in Karlsruhe on 16 January. It's been a good start to the year for Guido Altarelli. After receiving two prestigious prizes in the space of a few weeks for achievements during his long career, all he's waiting for is the Higgs boson! "I can't wait to find out what Nature has in store for us!", he smiles. Hardly surprising when you think that Altarelli has been looking for the answers since the very start of his career in particle physics. As a theorist at CERN for over twenty years, he has always worked closely with the experiments, first at the SPS, then at LEP and now at the LHC. Today, following the significant progress in...

  8. Protection of man: the exposed individual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohnstedt, A.; Knebel, J.U. [Programme Nuclear Safety Research, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Herrmann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Breustedt, B. [Institute for Radiation Research, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Herrmann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Present methods for quantifying radiation exposure rely on a standardized reference man (75 kg) with defined average anatomical and physiological data. But individual person actually exposed differs from this idealized standard man. Therefore the focus of investigations at the Institute for Radiation Research (Institut fuer Strahlenforschung, ISF) which was founded at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, KIT) in 2009 is based on the vision to place the exposed individual with its anatomical and physiological particularities, under consideration of age, gender, body height, body shape and environment, in the centre of an individual-related quantification of the external and internal radiation exposure. Research work at the ISF is aiming at quantifying radiation exposure by improved determination of doses essentially caused by external radiation fields and the intake of radionuclides into the body. The three main topics of the institute are - external dosimetry (e.g. using a (voxel) model of the hand to simulate skin dose distribution); - internal dosimetry (e.g. body size related efficiency calibration of in-vivo counting equipment); - numerical methods/modeling (e.g. development of a mathematical/voxel-hybrid model of the human body). (authors)

  9. Robotic assisted minimally invasive surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palep Jaydeep

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The term "robot" was coined by the Czech playright Karel Capek in 1921 in his play Rossom′s Universal Robots. The word "robot" is from the check word robota which means forced labor.The era of robots in surgery commenced in 1994 when the first AESOP (voice controlled camera holder prototype robot was used clinically in 1993 and then marketed as the first surgical robot ever in 1994 by the US FDA. Since then many robot prototypes like the Endoassist (Armstrong Healthcare Ltd., High Wycombe, Buck, UK, FIPS endoarm (Karlsruhe Research Center, Karlsruhe, Germany have been developed to add to the functions of the robot and try and increase its utility. Integrated Surgical Systems (now Intuitive Surgery, Inc. redesigned the SRI Green Telepresence Surgery system and created the daVinci Surgical System ® classified as a master-slave surgical system. It uses true 3-D visualization and EndoWrist ® . It was approved by FDA in July 2000 for general laparoscopic surgery, in November 2002 for mitral valve repair surgery. The da Vinci robot is currently being used in various fields such as urology, general surgery, gynecology, cardio-thoracic, pediatric and ENT surgery. It provides several advantages to conventional laparoscopy such as 3D vision, motion scaling, intuitive movements, visual immersion and tremor filtration. The advent of robotics has increased the use of minimally invasive surgery among laparoscopically naοve surgeons and expanded the repertoire of experienced surgeons to include more advanced and complex reconstructions.

  10. Measurement of Quantum Phase-Slips in Josephson Junction Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guichard, Wiebke

    2011-03-01

    Quantum phase-slip dynamics in Josephson junction chains could provide the basis for the realization of a new type of topologically protected qubit or for the implementation of a new current standard. I will present measurements of the effect of quantum phase-slips on the ground state of a Josephson junction chain. We can tune in situ the strength of the phase-slips. These phase-slips are the result of fluctuations induced by the finite charging energy of each junction in the chain. Our measurements demonstrate that a Josephson junction chain under phase bias constraint behaves in a collective way. I will also show evidence of coherent phase-slip interference, the so called Aharonov-Casher effect. This phenomenon is the dual of the well known Aharonov-Bohm interference. In collaboration with I.M. Pop, Institut Neel, C.N.R.S. and Universite Joseph Fourier, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble, France; I. Protopopov, L. D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kosygin str. 2, Moscow 119334, Russia and Institut fuer Nanotechnologie, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, 76021 Karlsruhe, Germany; and F. Lecocq, Z. Peng, B. Pannetier, O. Buisson, Institut Neel, C.N.R.S. and Universite Joseph Fourier. European STREP MIDAS, ANR QUANTJO.

  11. Fundamental questions hydrogeology. Workshop of GRS in cooperation with PTKA-WTE; Grundsatzfragen Hydrogeologie. Workshop der GRS in Zusammenarbeit mit dem PTKA-WTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-12-15

    Within the workshop under consideration of the Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (Cologne, Federal Republic of Germany) in cooperation with the Project Management Agency Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe Water Technology and Waste Management Division (Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany) from 5th to 6th November, 2009, in Braunschweig (Federal Republic of Germany) the following workshops were held: (1) Hydrostratigraphical and hydrogeologic structure of the Cenozoic in the Gorleben area (R.-R. Ludwig, H. Klinge); (2) Distribution of fresh water and salt water in the overburden of the Gorleben salt dome (H. Klinge, R.-R. Ludwig); (3) Chemical composition of groundwaters in the salt dome Gorleben (H. Klinge, R.-R. Ludwig); (4) Isotope investigations and age of groundwater (A. Ruebel); (5) On the hydrological situation in the Gorleben aquifer system (G. Buckau, M. Wolf, S. Geyer); (6) Description of the dynamics of fresh water and salt water in the area of the Gorleben drain in the overburden of the Gorleben salt dome (H. Klinge, R.-R. Ludwig); (7) Significance of selected glacial processes for the long-term security of repository sites in North Germany (S. Keller); (8) Model simulation of groundwater movements at the Gorleben site (K. Schelkels, P. Vogel, G. Schmidt); (9) 2D simulation of flow and transport of pollutants (A, Schneider); (10) Simulation of the groundwater flow in the surrounding area of a salt dome - Work of the BfS (J. Wollrath).

  12. Comparison of actinides and fission products recycling scheme with the normal plutonium recycling scheme in fast reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salahuddin Asif

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple recycling of actinides and non-volatile fission products in fast reactors through the dry re-fabrication/reprocessing atomics international reduction oxidation process has been studied as a possible way to reduce the long-term potential hazard of nuclear waste compared to that resulting from reprocessing in a wet PUREX process. Calculations have been made to compare the actinides and fission products recycling scheme with the normal plutonium recycling scheme in a fast reactor. For this purpose, the Karlsruhe version of isotope generation and depletion code, KORIGEN, has been modified accordingly. An entirely novel fission product yields library for fast reactors has been created which has replaced the old KORIGEN fission products library. For the purposes of this study, the standard 26 groups data set, KFKINR, developed at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Germany, has been extended by the addition of the cross-sections of 13 important actinides and 68 most important fission products. It has been confirmed that these 68 fission products constitute about 95% of the total fission products yield and about 99.5% of the total absorption due to fission products in fast reactors. The amount of fissile material required to guarantee the criticality of the reactor during recycling schemes has also been investigated. Cumulative high active waste per ton of initial heavy metal is also calculated. Results show that the recycling of actinides and fission products in fast reactors through the atomics international reduction oxidation process results in a reduction of the potential hazard of radioactive waste.

  13. Status of the KATRIN experiment with special emphasis on source-related issues

    CERN Document Server

    Sturm, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino experiment KATRIN will allow a model inde- pendent measurement of the neutrino mass scale with an expected sensitivity of 0.2 eV/c^{2} (90% C.L.) and so will help to clarify the role of neutrinos in the early universe is the direct measurement of the mass of the electron anti-neutrino. KATRIN investigates spectroscopically the electron spectrum from tritium beta- decay close to the kinematic endpoint of 18.6 keV with a high resolution electro-static filter of unprecedented energy resolution of 0.93 eV. KATRIN will be built at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe on site of the KIT Campus North. For such a precise mass-determination a key parameter is the stability of the source in terms of beta-activity und isotopic purity. For that purpose KATRIN uses a strong windowless gaseous tritium source of almost pure molecular tritium (95%) with a throughput of 40 g tritium per day stabilized on 0.1% level. The decay electrons are guided adiabatically from the source to the spectrometer by ...

  14. Fundamentals of combustion research. Final report 2000; Grundlagen der Verbrennungsforschung. Abschlussbericht 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    All ten projects were aimed at modelling and validation of practically relevant natural gas flames. Modelling comprises the use,l development and enhancement of advanced combustion and turbulence models, e.g. PDF models or higher order Reynolds stress models. Validation uses modern laser diagnostics, e.g. spontaneous Raman scattering, LIF spectroscopy, and LDA. The practical applicability is ensured by a 150 kW flame whose characteristics can be extrapolated to industrial-scale plants. For this, four identical experiments were set up in the TECFLAM institutes of Stuttgart, Karlsruhe, Heidelberg, and Darmstadt. [German] Gemeinsames Projektziel der vorliegenden zehn Vorhaben ist die Modellentwicklung und Validierung anwendungsnaher Erdgasflammen. Unter Modellentwicklung ist dabei die Nutzung, Entwicklung und Weiterentwicklung fortschrittlicher Verbrennungs- und Turbulenzmodelle wie PDF-Modelle oder Reynolds-Stress-Modelle hoeherer Ordnung zu verstehen. Validierung wird durchgefuehrt mittels moderner Laserdiagnostik-Verfahren, wie der spontanen Raman-Streuung, der LIF-Spektroskopie sowie LDA-Verfahren. Die Anwendungsnaehe wird sichergestellt durch eine Flamme mit 150 kW Leistung, deren Verhalten auf grosstechnische Anlagen extrapolierbar ist. Um dieses ehrgeizige Ziel zu erreichen, wurden vier identische Versuchsaufbauten in den TECFLAM-Instituten in Stuttgart, Karlsruhe, Heidelberg und Darmstadt errichtet. (orig.)

  15. Addiction Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Godley

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Entry into the crypt William Burroughs shared with his mother opened and shut around a failed re-enactment of William Tell’s shot through the prop placed upon a loved one’s head. The accidental killing of his wife Joan completed the installation of the addictation machine that spun melancholia as manic dissemination. An early encryptment to which was added the audio portion of abuse deposited an undeliverable message in WB. Wil- liam could never tell, although his corpus bears the in- scription of this impossibility as another form of pos- sibility. James Godley is currently a doctoral candidate in Eng- lish at SUNY Buffalo, where he studies psychoanalysis, Continental philosophy, and nineteenth-century litera- ture and poetry (British and American. His work on the concept of mourning and “the dead” in Freudian and Lacanian approaches to psychoanalytic thought and in Gothic literature has also spawned an essay on zombie porn. Since entering the Academy of Fine Arts Karlsruhe in 2007, Valentin Hennig has studied in the classes of Sil- via Bächli, Claudio Moser, and Corinne Wasmuht. In 2010 he spent a semester at the Dresden Academy of Fine Arts. His work has been shown in group exhibi- tions in Freiburg and Karlsruhe.

  16. Current Direct Neutrino Mass Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Drexlin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution, we review the status and perspectives of direct neutrino mass experiments, which investigate the kinematics of β-decays of specific isotopes (3H, 187Re, 163Ho to derive model-independent information on the averaged electron (antineutrino mass. After discussing the kinematics of β-decay and the determination of the neutrino mass, we give a brief overview of past neutrino mass measurements (SN1987a-ToF studies, Mainz and Troitsk experiments for 3H, cryobolometers for 187Re. We then describe the Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino (KATRIN experiment currently under construction at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, which will use the MAC-E-Filter principle to push the sensitivity down to a value of 200 meV (90% C.L.. To do so, many technological challenges have to be solved related to source intensity and stability, as well as precision energy analysis and low background rate close to the kinematic endpoint of tritium β-decay at 18.6 keV. We then review new approaches such as the MARE, ECHO, and Project8 experiments, which offer the promise to perform an independent measurement of the neutrino mass in the sub-eV region. Altogether, the novel methods developed in direct neutrino mass experiments will provide vital information on the absolute mass scale of neutrinos.

  17. Testing and model-aided analysis of a 2 kW el PEMFC CHP-system

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, P.; Weber, A.; Lewald, N.; Aicher, T.; Jörissen, L.; Ivers-Tiffée, E.; Szolak, R.; Brendel, M.; Kaczerowski, J.

    A prototype PEMFC CHP-system (combined heat and power) for decentralised energy supply in domestic applications has been installed in the Fuel Cell Testing Laboratory at the Institut für Werkstoffe der Elektrotechnik (IWE), Universität Karlsruhe (TH). The system, which was developed at the Zentrum für Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung ZSW, Ulm (FC-stack) and the Fraunhofer-Institut für Solare Energiesysteme ISE, Freiburg (reformer) is operated and tested in close cooperation with the Stadtwerke Karlsruhe. The tests are carried out as part of the strategic project EDISon, which is supported by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWA). The performance of the system is evaluated for different operating conditions. The tests include steady state measurements under different electrical and thermal loads as well as an analysis of the dynamic behaviour of the system during load changes. First results of these steady state and dynamic operation characteristics will be presented in this paper.

  18. Direct energy conversion using liquid metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onea Alexandru

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquid metals have excellent properties to be used as heat transport fluids due to their high thermal conductivity and their wide applicable temperature range. The latter issue can be used to go beyond limitations of existing thermal solar energy systems. Furthermore, the direct energy converter Alkali Metal Thermo Electric Converter (AMTEC can be used to make intangible areas of energy conversion suitable for a wide range of applications. One objective is to investigate AMTEC as a complementary cycle for the next generation of concentrating solar power (CSP systems. The experimental research taking place in the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT is focused on the construction of a flexible AMTEC test facility, development, test and improvement of liquid-anode and vapor-anode AMTEC devices as well as the coupling of the AMTEC cold side to the heat storage tank proposed for the CSP system. Within this project, the investigations foreseen will focus on the analyses of BASE-metal interface, electrode materials and deposition techniques, corrosion and erosion of materials brought in contact with high temperature sodium. This prototype demonstrator is planned to be integrated in the KArlsruhe SOdium LAboratory (KASOLA, a flexible closed mid-size sodium loop, completely in-house designed, presently under construction at the Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology (INR within KIT.

  19. Radiation damage effects on CMS-sensors quality assurance and irradiation tests

    CERN Document Server

    Furgeri, A J; de Boer, Wim; Forton, E; Hartmann, F; Freudenstein, S

    2004-01-01

    The LHC at CERN (Geneva, Switzerland) is a proton-proton collider with a luminosity of 10/sup 34/ (1/cm/sup 2/s) be working for 10 years (starting in 2007). CMS will be one of the general purpose detectors. The CMS tracker consists of 10 barrel layers, plus 2 times 9 endcap disks, all together 24328 silicon sensors with a total area of 206m/sup 2/ silicon, covering a pseudorapidity of eta Karlsruhe (Germany) and Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium) a fraction of 1% of the sensors are electrically qualified. In Karlsruhe the sensors are irradiated with 26 MeV - protons and in Louvain-la-Neuve with fast neutrons. For safety reasons sensors are irradiated with a fluence 50% higher than predicted. The electrical...

  20. Laser physics from principles to practical work in the lab

    CERN Document Server

    Eichhorn, Marc

    2014-01-01

    This textbook originates from a lecture course in laser physics at the Karlsruhe School of Optics and Photonics at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). A main goal in the conception of this textbook was to describe the fundamentals of lasers in a uniform and especially lab-oriented notation and formulation as well as many currently well-known laser types, becoming more and more important in the future. It closes a gap between the measureable spectroscopic quantities and the whole theoretical description and modeling. This textbook contains not only the fundamentals and the context of laser physics in a mathematical and methodical approach important for university-level studies. It allows simultaneously, owing to its conception and its modern notation, to directly implement and use the learned matter in the practical lab work. It is presented in a format suitable for everybody who wants not only to understand the fundamentals of lasers but also use modern lasers or even develop and make laser setups. T...

  1. Nuclear safety research project. Annual report 1995; Projekt Nukleare Sicherheitsforschung. Jahresbericht 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hueper, R. [ed.

    1996-08-01

    The reactor safety R and D work of the Karlsruhe Research Centre (FZK) has been part of the Nuclear Safety Research Project (PSF) since 1990. The present annual report 1995 summarizes the R and D results. The research tasks are coordinated in agreement with internal and external working groups. The contributions to this report correspond to the status of early 1996. An abstract in English precedes each of them, whenever the respective article is written in German. (orig.) [Deutsch] Seit Beginn 1990 sind die F+E-Arbeiten des Forschungszentrums Karlsruhe (FZK) zur Reaktorsicherheit im Projekt Nukleare Sicherheitsforschung (PSF) zusammengefasst. Der vorliegende Jahresbericht 1995 enthaelt Beitraege zu aktuellen Fragen der Sicherheit von Leitwasserreaktoren und innovativen Systemen sowie der Umwandlung von minoren Aktiniden. Die konkreten Forschungsthemen und -vorhaben werden mit internen und externen Fachgremien laufend abgestimmt. An den beschriebenen Arbeiten sind die folgenden Institute und Abteilungen des FZK beteiligt: Institut fuer Materialforschung IMF I, II, III; Institut fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik INR; Institut fuer Angewandte Thermo- und Fluiddynamik IATF; Institut fuer Reaktorsicherheit IRS; Hauptabteilung Informations- und Kommunikationstechnik HIK; Hauptabteilung Ingenieurtechnik HIT; Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgungstechnik INE; Hauptabteilung Versuchstechnik HVT; Institut fuer Technische Chemie ITC sowie vom FZK beauftragte externe Institutionen. Die einzelnen Beitraege stellen den Stand der Arbeiten im Fruehjahr 1996 dar und sind entsprechend dem F+E-Programm 1995 numeriert. Den in deutscher Sprache verfassten Beitraegen sind Kurzfassungen in englischer Sprache vorangestellt. (orig.)

  2. International Conference on Computational Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Atluri, Satya

    1986-01-01

    It is often said that these days there are too many conferences on general areas of computational mechanics. mechanics. and numer ical methods. vJhile this may be true. the his tory of scientific conferences is itself quite short. According to Abraham Pais (in "Subtle is the Lord ...• " Oxford University Press. 1982. p.80). the first international scientific conference ever held was the Karlsruhe Congress of Chemists. 3-5 September 1860 in Karlsruhe. Germany. There were 127 chemists in attendance. and the participants came from Austria. Belgium. France. Germany. Great Britain. Italy. Mexico. Poland. Russia. Spain. Sweden. and Switzerland. At the top of the agenda of the points to be discussed at this conference was the question: "Shall a difference be made between the expressions molecule and atom?" Pais goes on to note: "The conference did not at once succeed in bringing chemists closer together ... It is possible that the older men were offended by the impetuous behavior and imposing manner of the younger...

  3. Observed and simulated time evolution of HCl, ClONO2, and HF total columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhnke, Roland; Geomon, Ndacc Infrared, Modelling Working Group

    2010-05-01

    GEOmon, NDACC Infrared, and Modelling Working Group: M.P. Chipperfield (2), M. De Mazière (3), J. Notholt (4), S. Barthlott (1), R.L. Batchelor (5,17), R.D. Blatherwick (16), Th. Blumenstock (1), M.T. Coffey (17), P. Duchatelet (6), H. Fast (7), W. Feng (2), A. Goldman (16), D.W.T. Griffith (8), K. Hamann (1), J.W. Hannigan (17), F. Hase (1), N.B. Jones (8), A. Kagawa (9,10), Y. Kasai (9), O. Kirner (19), R. Kohlhepp (1), W. Kouker (1), I. Kramer (1), R. Lindenmaier (5), E. Mahieu (6), R.L. Mittermeier (7), B. Monge-Sanz (2), I. Murata (12), H. Nakajima (13), I. Morino (11), M. Palm (4), C. Paton-Walsh (8), Th. Reddmann (1), M. Rettinger (15), C.P. Rinsland (18), M. Schneider (1), C. Senten (3), B.-M. Sinnhuber (4), D. Smale (14), K. Strong (5), R. Sussmann (15), J.R. Taylor (5), G. Vanhaelewyn (3), T. Warneke (4), C. Whaley (5), M. Wiehle (1), and S.W. Wood (14) (1) Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), IMK-ASF, Karlsruhe, Germany, (2) University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom, (3) Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy (BIRA-IASB), Brussels, Belgium, (4) University of Bremen, Institute of Environmental Physics, Bremen, Germany, (5) Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, (6) University of Liège, Institute of Astrophysics and Geophysics, Liège, Belgium, (7) Environment Canada, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, (8) Centre for Atmospheric Chemistry, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia, (9) National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Tokyo, Japan, (10) Fujitsu FIP Corporation, Tokyo, Japan, (11) Center for Global Environmental Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), Japan, (12) Department of Environmental Studies, Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, Japan, (13) Atmospheric Environment Division, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Japan, (14) National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research Ltd (NIWA), Lauder, New Zealand, (15) Karlsruhe

  4. On the current knowledge of noise effects: necessity to change the paradigm; Zum gegenwaertigen Erkenntnissstand der Laermwirkungsforschung: Notwendigkeit eines Paradigmenwechsels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ising, H.; Kruppa, B. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Previously, extra-aural noise effects were mostly assessed using a paradigm in which the sound level played the major role. On the basis of this paradigm the relatively low sound levels of environmental noise are not considered as causing any adverse health effects. In contrast to this numerous empirical results have demonstrated long-term noise-induced health risks. Therefore a radical change of attitude-a change of paradigm-- is necessary. For an immediate triggering of protective reactions (fight/flight or defeat reactions) the information conveyed by noise is very often more relevant than the sound level. The first and fastest signal detection is mediated by a subcortical area, the amygdala. For this reason even during sleep the noise from airplanes or heavy goods vehicles may be categorized as danger signals and induce the release of stress hormones. In accordance with the noise stress hypothesis chronic stress hormone dysregulations and increases of established endogenous risk factors of ischaemic heart diseases have been observed under long-term environmental noise exposure. Therefore, an increased risk of myocardial infarction is to be expected. The results of individual studies on this subject in most cases do not reach statistical significance. However, according to the Environmental Expert Council, they show a consistent trend towards an increased cardiovascular risk if the daytime immission levels exceed 65 dB(A).t of the present studies. (orig.) [German] In der Vergangenheit wurde vielfach von einem Paradigma der Laermwirkungen ausgegangen, bei dem allein der Schallpegel die dominierende Rolle spielt. Da hiernach bei den relativ niedrigen Pegeln des Umweltlaerms keine weitergehenden gesundheitlichen Beeintraechtigungen zu erwarten sind, andererseits aber empirische Befunde fuer die Existenz langfristiger laermbedingter Gesundheitsgefahren sprechen, ist ein radikales Umdenken - ein Paradigmenwechsel - erforderlich. Fuer die schnelle Ausloesung von

  5. Investigation of ultrafast lattice heating in thin (semi-)metal films using time-resolved electron diffraction; Untersuchung der schnellen Gitteraufheizung in duennen (Halb-)Metallfilmen mit Hilfe zeitaufgeloester Elektronenbeugung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligges, Manuel

    2009-07-21

    In the framework of the present thesis the fast lattice heating in thin metal and bismuth layers after optical short-pulse excitation was studied. By irradiation of ultrathin solid films with ultrashort (femtosecond) laser pulses for sort times an extreme nonequilibrium state occurs: The electronic system is strongly excited, while the lattice system remains cold. An energetic exchange between both systems follows, which is based on the electron-phonon interaction and leads to heating of the lattice system. This lattice heating can be observed by means of the Debye-Waller effect in the electron diffraction image. By means of the excitation-interrogation scheme by a series of moment records this lattice heating can be observed time-resolvedly. The experimentally determind time scales for this process permit conclusions on the electron-phonon coupling in the studied materials. In this thesis a time-resolving transmissi9on-electron diffraction experiment with sub-picosecond time resolution was constructed and optimized. By means of this experiment the fast lattice heating in thin gold, silver, copper, and bismuth films was studied. The observed heating behaviour of the metal films shows agreement with theoretical predictions of different model calculations. The results of the measurements on bismuth films show a hitherto not observed coupling behaviour. [German] Im Rahmen der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde die schnelle Gitteraufheizung in duennen Metall- und Wismutschichten nach optischer Kurzimpulsanregung untersucht. Durch Bestrahlung duenner Festkoerperfilme mit ultrakurzen (Femtosekunden-) Laserimpulsen entsteht fuer kurze Zeiten ein extremer Nichtgleichgewichtszustand: Das elektronische System wird stark angeregt, waehrend das Gittersystem kalt bleibt. Es folgt ein energetischer Austausch zwischen beiden Systemen, der auf der Elektron-Phonon-Wechselwirkung beruht und zur Aufheizung des Gittersystems fuehrt. Diese Gitteraufheizung kann anhand des Debye

  6. Computer-assisted oral and maxillofacial surgery; Computerunterstuetzte Mund-, Kiefer- und Gesichtschirurgie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassfeld, S.; Brief, J.; Muehling, J. [Mund-, Kiefer- und Gesichtschirurgie, Heidelberg Univ. (Germany); Krempien, R.; Mende, U. [Radiologie, Heidelberg Univ. (Germany); Raczkowsky, J.; Muenchenberg, J.; Woern, H. [IPR Institut fuer Prozessrechentechnik und Robotik, Karlsruhe Univ. (Germany); Giess, H.; Meinzer, H.P. [DKFZ, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2000-03-01

    Aufnahmemodalitaeten (CT, MRT, US), untereinander in Relation gesetzt werden, sodass ein schnelles Umschalten zwischen verschiedenen Modalitaeten und das Betrachten von Mischbildern ermoeglicht werden. Segmentierungstechniken zur Rekonstruktion dreidimensionaler Darstellungen von Weichgewebe- und Knochenteilen sind erforderlich. Es muessen intuitiv bedienbare und ergonomische Methoden zur Interaktion bereitgestellt werden, die dem Mediziner eine exakte und schnelle Eingabe der beabsichtigten chirurgischen Eingriffe in der Planungs- und Simulationsphase ermoeglichen. Operation: In der Operationsphase wird dem Chirurgen mit Werkzeugen zur Instrumentennavigation bereits heute interaktive Unterstuetzung in Form von Operationsanleitung und Ueberwachung von Gefahrenpotentialen zur Verfuegung gestellt. Die Formen kuenftiger intraoperativer Unterstuetzung sind einerseits solche passiven Werkzeuge zur Unterstuetzung der intraoperativen Orientierung, andererseits aber auch so genannte Nachfuehrsysteme (semiaktive Systeme), die die chirurgische Taetigkeit begleiten und unterstuetzen, und letztendlich Roboter, die spezifische Schritte vollkommen autonom durchfuehren. Diskussion: Techniken der Virtuellen Realitaet erlangen auch in medizinischen Anwendungen zunehmend Bedeutung. Vieles befindet sich noch im Entwicklungs- oder Prototypstadium, bedeutende Auswirkungen auf die chirurgische Routinetaetigkeit sind aber bereits absehbar. (orig.)

  7. Endometriosis of the liver: Findings in imaging diagnosis; Endometriose in der Leber: Befunde der bildgebenden Diagnostik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, K. [Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik, Zentralklinikum Augsburg (Germany); Bohndorf, K. [Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik, Zentralklinikum Augsburg (Germany); Lindemann, F. [2. Chirurgische Klinik, Zentralklinikum Augsburg (Germany); Leipprand, E. [Inst. fuer Pathologie, Zentralklinikum Augsburg (Germany)

    1994-10-01

    Endometriosis of the liver is an extremely rare disease. To our knowledge, no more than three such cases were so far mentioned in the relevant literature. Moreover, we understand that nmr findings to prove the presence of hepatic endometriosis have not yet been described. We consider nmr imaging to be a suitable tool to establish a presumptive, if not firm, diagnosis of hepatic endometriosis. A sign strongly suggestive of the disorder is the irregular pattern of blood constituents of different ages that can invariably be visualized using this method. Due to the great amounts of free methaemoglobin found in subacute haemorrhages in increase insignal intensity can be observed for T{sub 1}-weighted and T{sub 2}-weighted SE sequences. The residues of former bleedings into the stroma, which are histologically confirmed by haemosiderin deposits, account for the greatly diminished signal intensity in T{sub 1}-weighted images. An unusual finding here was the comparatively high signal intensity observed for T{sub 2}-weighted images in those areas, where signals were practically absent in T{sub 1}-weighted images. In our opinion, this can be explained by scattered subacute bleedings, which are probably too small in amount to produce signals in T{sub 1}-weighted pictures. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] Endometriosen in der Leber sind ein ungewoehnlicher Befund. In der Weltliteratur sind unseres Wissens nur drei Faelle belegt. MR-Befunde einer hepatischen Endometriose liegen unserer Kenntnis nach nicht vor. Die MR-Tomographie ist unseres Erachtens in der Lage, zumindest die Verdachtsdiagnose einer hepatischen Endometriose zu stellen. Diagnostisch wegweisend ist die irregulaere Anordnung von Blutbestandteilen unterschiedlichen Alters, die mittels der MRT sicher gelingt. Subakute Blutungen haben aufgrund des hohen Anteils an freiem Methaemoglobin eine hohe Signalintensitaet in T{sub 1}- und T{sub 2}-gewichteten SE-Sequenzen. Die auch histologisch nachweisbaren Haemosiderinablagerungen als

  8. Analysis of the architecture and urbanism aspects of the reconstruction after the l'Aquila earthquake in the context of European social housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostenaru, Maria

    2010-05-01

    This paper proposes to analyse the architectural and urbanism aspects of the progetto C.A.S.E. The new architecture of the progetto C.A.S.E. is put in the context of similar developments, namely: - buildings for student dormitories, as the foreseen development is that the dwellings in progetto C.A.S.E. are only temporarily in this use, and will later build a campus. For this purpose the HaDiKo (Hans Dickmann Kolleg) from Karlsruhe, Germany, is considered. This features an award winning building from the 1960s, four others from the 1970s and an extension from 2006, with also a tight construction shedule which was followed by the author; - Italian buildings from the 20th century which do not feature Modernism, in connection with other rather traditional buildings of the Modernity, namely the Vienneise "Hof"s; - social housing from the 20th and 21st century, taking as examples the construction of the office Kramm et Strigl from the 1990s and on in Germany. Particularly the example of Bürgerparkviertel in Darmstadt from 1999 was also seen when in construction; - from the later a case is particulary considered: the prefabricated housing in Wiesbaden, which has been, in a former research of the author, put in connection with the prefabricated buildings from seismically prone Bucharest, where they proved earthquake resistant. A first interpretation is in the context of the so-called "Zeilenbau" - the opposite of the traditional urban tissue with blocks. This interpretation is helpful since in case of the social housing investigted above this was always building at the periphery as it is the case in l'Aquila. When social housing reaches the core of the towns, it becomes block building, as the "Hof"s are different from the "Neues Bauen" siedlungen. The Italian examples are helpful to see how middle class housing in Italy is seen, not only social. Construction times are also relevant, and two of the examples were investigated as such, as the progetto C.A.S.E. is currently

  9. German contributions to the CMS computing infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheurer, A.; German CMS Community

    2010-04-01

    The CMS computing model anticipates various hierarchically linked tier centres to counter the challenges provided by the enormous amounts of data which will be collected by the CMS detector at the Large Hadron Collider, LHC, at CERN. During the past years, various computing exercises were performed to test the readiness of the computing infrastructure, the Grid middleware and the experiment's software for the startup of the LHC which took place in September 2008. In Germany, several tier sites are set up to allow for an efficient and reliable way to simulate possible physics processes as well as to reprocess, analyse and interpret the numerous stored collision events of the experiment. It will be shown that the German computing sites played an important role during the experiment's preparation phase and during data-taking of CMS and, therefore, scientific groups in Germany will be ready to compete for discoveries in this new era of particle physics. This presentation focuses on the German Tier-1 centre GridKa, located at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, the German CMS Tier-2 federation DESY/RWTH with installations at the University of Aachen and the research centre DESY. In addition, various local computing resources in Aachen, Hamburg and Karlsruhe are briefly introduced as well. It will be shown that an excellent cooperation between the different German institutions and physicists led to well established computing sites which cover all parts of the CMS computing model. Therefore, the following topics are discussed and the achieved goals and the gained knowledge are depicted: data management and distribution among the different tier sites, Grid-based Monte Carlo production at the Tier-2 as well as Grid-based and locally submitted inhomogeneous user analyses at the Tier-3s. Another important task is to ensure a proper and reliable operation 24 hours a day, especially during the time of data-taking. For this purpose, the meta-monitoring tool "HappyFace", which was

  10. Latviešu literārā valoda 19. gs. 80.–90. gados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aina Blinkena

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available LETTISCHE SCHRIFTSPRACHE IN DEN 80.–90. J. DES 20. JHZusammenfassungDie Entwicklung der lettischen Schriftsprache hat sich in ihren verschiedenen Bestehungsetappen nicht gleichartig breit erforscht geworden.Die Sprache den letzten Jahrzehnten des 19. Jh. haben die Sprachwissenschaftler weniger Aufmerksamkeit geschenkt, doch in dieser Zeit vollziehen sich aktive Prozesse, die zur heutige Sprachnorm füren.In diesen Jahren hat sich die nationale Kultur gebildet, es entsteht und entwickelt sich die Literatur verschiedener Genres und Stile, die zur Klassik der lettischen Literatur geworden ist, es entwickelt sich schnell das Buchwesen. In 1886–1900 sind mehr als 3500 Titel von Büchern herausgegeben, es bestehen 100 Verlage.Große Rolle für die Erforschung und Pflege des Lettischen hat die Wissenschaftliche Kommission des Rigaer Lettischen Vereins (gegr. 1868 gespielt, die die orthographischen Prinzipien vervollkommen hat und in den von der Kommission herausgegebenen Schriften wurden die theoretischen Forschungen über die lettischen Sprache veröffentlicht. Es bildete sich die wissenschaftliche Terminologie. Die Arbeit haben die ersten akademisch gebildeten Sprachwissenschaftler der lettischen Nation K. Mühlenbach, J. Kauliņš, J. Endzelīns, P. Šmits begonnen, deren Werke als eine Brücke zum 20. Jahrhundert führt.

  11. GRS knowledge base ''Safety of pressure-bearing components'' - An example of knowledge management of a technical support organisation; GRS-Wissensbasis ''Sicherheit druckfuehrender Komponenten'' - Ein Beispiel zum Wissensmanagement einer Sachverstaendigenorganisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, H.; Michel, F. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Koeln (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    In long-lived technical systems, the main challenge is in preserving knowledge on all technical aspects throughout the plant life as several generations of engineers are involved from projecting to decommissioning. A technical support organisation has access to knowledge on safety requirements and their development with time, relevant damage cases both in Germany and abroad, research projects and analyses as well as expert documentations. A modern working environment enables fast access to, and combination of, distributed parts of knowledge provided that some prestructuring is ensured. The contribution presents an exemplary information system of GRS, whose elements may be of interest to other organisations as well. [German] Fuer technische Anlagen mit langen Lebenszeiten ist es eine besondere Herausforderung, das erforderliche Wissen zu allen technischen Sachverhalten jederzeit verfuegbar zu haben. Von der Projektierung bis zum Betriebsende einer Anlage sind mehrere Generationen von Ingenieuren mit den jeweiligen Sachverhalten befasst. Fuer eine Sachverstaendigenorganisation stehen Kenntnisse zu den sicherheitstechnischen Anforderungen und deren zeitlicher Entwicklung, relevanten Schadensereignissen im In- und Ausland, Erkenntnisse aus Forschungsvorhaben und Analysen sowie die Verfuegbarkeit des weiteren dokumentierten Fachwissens und technischer Experten im Vordergrund. Die moderne Arbeitsumgebung erlaubt heute ein schnelles Auffinden und Zusammenfuehren der vorhandenen Wissensbausteine. Eine sinnvolle Vorstrukturierung als Wegweiser im Dschungel der Informationen ist jedoch unerlaesslich. Ein auf die Beduerfnisse der GRS zugeschnittenes Beispiel wird im Einzelnen vorgestellt. Wesentliche Elemente der Struktur fuer ein praktikables Wissensmanagement sind auch fuer andere Organisationen nutzbar.

  12. Analyse und Entwurf von hochbitratigen Clock-and-Data-Recovery Schaltungen in CMOS-Technologie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-K. Bremer

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In dieser Arbeit wird ein neuartiges Schaltungskonzept für die Realisierung eines Phasendetektors einer Clock-and-Data-Recovery Schaltung vorgestellt. Es handelt sich hierbei um eine nichtlineare Phasendetektorarchitektur, die nach dem Verfahren von Alexander arbeitet. Um die Funktionalität des Phasendetektors im Hochfrequenzbereich zu gewährleisten, wurden in dem Design sehr schnell schaltende HLO-Flip-Flops (high-speed latching operation flip-flop verwendet. Ein wesentliches Entwurfsziel war die Begrenzung des selbstgenerierten Jitters des Phasendetektors. Der Schaltungsentwurf wurde mit der Simulationsumgebung Cadence Spectre durchgeführt und die Funktionalität der Schaltung im GHz-Bereich anhand von ausgewählten Simulationen verifiziert.

    This paper presents a novel realization concept for Clock-and-Data-Recovery circuits. Our Design uses a nonlinear phase detector architecture, which is based on the Alexander phase detection method. In order to ensure circuit functionality in the RF region, we use very fast switching HLO-Flip-Flops (high-speed latching operation flip-flop in our design. The primal goal in our design was the minimization of self induced jitter of the phase detector. The accuracy of our circuit design and the functionality in the GHz regime is confirmed by various circuit simulations executed with the SPECTRE Simulator.

  13. Intertextuelle und intramediale Bezüge als Orientierungsangebot – systematische Überlegungen und exemplarische Untersuchungen zu Verweisen auf das Fernsehangebot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Bachmair

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Auch wenn das Internet sich weder so schnell noch so nachhaltig im Alltag und als Bestandteil von Massenkommunikation etablierte, wie es Ende der neunziger Jahre den Anschein hatte, so zeigt sich am Internet doch, was sich mit der Vernetzungs- und Verfügbarkeitslogik verändern könnte, die dem Internet zu eigen ist. Manuel Castells (2001 mit seiner Analyse des „Informationszeitalters“ und der als instrumentellem Netzwerk organisierten Gesellschaft skizziert die Umrisse, wie sich unsere Gesellschaft mit welcher Dynamik entwickelt. Er spricht von einer „informationeilen Entwicklungsweise“ (ebd., S. 17, die anders als die „agrarische“ oder die „industrielle“ auf das gesellschaftliche Verhältnis der Menschen zur Natur („Produktion“, zu sich selber („Erfahrung“, „kulturelle Identität“ und zu anderen (.Macht“ einwirkt. Einen Aspekt dieser „informationellen Entwicklungsweise“ beschreibt Castells mit dem Hinweis auf „globale Netzwerke der Instrumentalität“, die eine „unüberschaubare Anzahl virtueller Gemeinschaften“ hervorbringt (ebd., S. 23. Dabei konstituiert sich auch eine Art von Subjektivität, die sich im Moment als „zunehmende Distanz zwischen Globalisierung und Identität, zwischen dem Netz und dem Ich“ beschreiben lässt (ebd., S. 24. In dieser Spannung bekommt .Multimedia“ die Funktion einer „symbolischen Umwelt“ (ebd., S. 415.

  14. The basics for acoustic aided vehicle function diagnosis using tractor production as an example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Lindner

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bei der Entwicklung von Traktoren entstehen aufgrund individueller Anforderungen viele Varianten von Fahrzeugen. Viele Unternehmen suchen daher nach objektiven und reproduzierbaren Methoden zur Qualitätskontrolle. Mithilfe akustischer Analysen können Komponenten oder ganze Fahrzeuge kontrolliert und fertig montierte Fahrzeuge schnell und kosteneffizient überprüft werden. Ziel der vorliegenden Studie war es zu validieren, ob der Einsatz von akustischen Messmethoden in der Endkontrolle einer Traktorproduktion technisch und wirtschaftlich sinnvoll ist. Es zeigte sich, dass Fahrzeugkomponenten, z. B. Verzahnungen, mithilfe eines ausgewählten akustischen Diagnoseverfahrens unter der Anwendung von Ordnungsanalysen anhand ihres spezifischen akustischen Fingerabdrucks erfolgreich überprüft werden können. Zusätzlich konnte ein selbst erstelltes Ziel-Geräuschspektrum definiert werden, das es ermöglicht, eine objektive und reproduzierbare Fahrzeug-Funktionsdiagnose im Rahmen der Qualitätsendkontrolle umzusetzen. Darüber hinaus stellte sich die Messung von Gesamtschallpegeln im Halbfreifeld als praktikabel dar.

  15. Analysis of the European lacquer technique and technology of polychromed wooden decoration of Chinese room in Wilanow Palace in Warsaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadrozna, Irmina; Guzowska, Anna; Jezewska, Elzbieta

    2009-07-01

    A well preserved wooden paneling decoration of one of the rooms adhering to the King's Jan III bedroom in Wilanow Palace is a unique example of European lacquerwork attributed to famous 18th century craft workshop of Martin Schnell. This decorative technique is a method of applying many layers of clear or colored composition of resins available in Europe to especially prepared ground layer. The paper summarizes the results of original painting materials identification as well as original and late layers stratigraphy. Under certainly not original parts of polychromy there were other colors found. It has been discovered also that some parts of the wooden paneling was removed and replaced with copies painted in a different technique. The 3D scanner and produced orthophotoplans allowed full documentation of the state of preservation of the whole room. The paint samples of which stratigraphic cross-sections were made have been analysed with SEM-EDS technique and ultraviolet fluorescence microscopy. Application of the most advanced analysis techniques like Gas Chromatography (GC/MS) and Fourier-Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) allowed the most exact identification of binding media.

  16. Supply Chain Management (SCM) mit Kanban

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Anja; Dickmann, Eva; Dickmann, Philipp; Gerth, Wolf-Michael; Graßy, Mario; Herron, Colin; Schmidt, Peter; Seidl, Florian; Wittmann, Claus-Eduard

    Nach Schätzungen von Mercer Management Consulting und dem Fraunhofer Institut wird der Wertschöpfungsanteil in der Automobilindustrie von durchschnittlich 35 % im Jahr 2002 auf 23 % im Jahr 2015 sinken [Merc 04]. Der Trend, die Produktionstiefe oder allgemeiner, die Wertschöpfungstiefe, zu reduzieren, hat zur Folge, dass die Kaufteile den größeren Teil der Wertschöpfung einnehmen. Die Optimierungspotentiale und der Einfluss auf die Kosten wandern immer mehr zu den Lieferanten, vor allem bei größeren Unternehmen oder Konzernen. Lieferanten-Philosophien, die auf oberflächlichen Verbindungen zu Lieferanten aufbauen, um immer optimal und schnell den günstigsten Teilepreis zu erhalten, haben sich in vielen Sparten oder Produktbereichen, z. B. im Maschinenbau, im besten Fall als kurzfristig erfolgreich erwiesen. Kooperative und nachhaltige Strategien sind der erfolgversprechendere Weg, zumindest mittelbis langfristig. In der Realität wird sehr wenig in Supply Chain-Konzepte investiert und die Umsetzungen sind daher vielmals oberflächlich.

  17. Astrochemically Relevant Molecules in the W-Band Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, Benjamin E.; Steber, Amanda; Gruet, Sébastien; Schnell, Melanie

    2017-06-01

    The interplay between laboratory spectroscopy and observational astronomy has allowed for the chemical complexity of the interstellar medium (ISM) to be explored. Our laboratory studies involve the measurement of the rotational spectra of commercially available samples in the region 75-110 GHz, thus covering a portion of Band 3 of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). Up until recently, we have concentrated on medium-sized (5 to 9 heavy atoms) nitrogen- and oxygen-containing molecules and their vibrationally excited states. Examples include amino alcohols, such as alaninol (2-amino-1-propanol), and cyanides. Further, we have extended the capabilities of our segmented chirped-pulse spectrometer [1] with electrical discharge apparatus. We present here the recent results from our set-up, including the typical rotational spectra of astrochemically relevant samples and the discharge-enabled rotational spectroscopy of mixtures of simple organic molecules. These experimental results have yielded transitions that will facilitate the detection of these molecules in the ISM with ALMA, and the discharge experiments should allow us to consider formation pathways of organic molecules from smaller building blocks. [1] B.E. Arenas, S. Gruet, A.L. Steber, B.M. Giuliano, M. Schnell, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 19 (2017) 1751-1756.

  18. Cables and transmission lines for high-voltage current. Fundamentals and product know-how for projecting of cable systems; 5. rev. enl. ed.; Kabel und Leitungen fuer Starkstrom. Grundlagen und Produkt-Know-how fuer das Projektieren von Kabelanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinhold, L.; Stubbe, R. [eds.

    1999-08-01

    The new edition of this standard reference manual presents application-oriented fundamentals and product know-how for projecting of reliable and economically efficient cable systems. The book contains a comprehensive survey of modern cables, fittings and insulated wirings as well as a detailed description of modules, materials, and ageing mechanisms. It offers tables and diagrams to facilitate projecting, introduces methods of calculation, and presents examples to show their practical application. The user is also given valuable hints on cable laying, installation and testing as well as on the relevant standards and legal regulations. The structure of the book has been modified in order to facilitate access to information and to enable the reader to select construction lines and types for every possible application. [Deutsch] Die wesentlich ueberarbeitete Auflage dieses Standardwerks bietet anwendungstechnische Grundlagen und Produkt-Know-how fuer das Projektieren zuverlaessiger und wirtschaftlicher Kabelanlagen. Das Buch gibt einen umfassenden Ueberblick ueber heute verwendete Kabel, Garnituren und isolierte Leitungen und beschreibt ausfuehrlich Aufbauelemente, Werkstoffe und deren Alterungsmechanismen. Es enthaelt zahlreiche einfach anzuwendende Projektierungstabellen und -diagramme, fuehrt in notwendige Rechenverfahren ein und demonstriert diese anhand praxisbezogener Beispiele. Der Anwender erhaelt darueber hinaus wertvolle Hinweise zum Legen, Montieren und Pruefen und wird bei allen Themen auf fachbezogene Normen und Vorschriften verwiesen. Die neue Buchstruktur laesst den Anwender schnell und einfach je nach Anwendungsfall alle erforderlichen Informationen finden und damit Bauarten und Typen fuer den jeweiligen Verwendungsbereich und Einsatzort sicher auswaehlen. (orig.)

  19. Optical fibre cable links within high pressure gas pipelines; Lichtwellenleiterkabelstrecken in Gashochdruckleitungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sander, H.; Siever, W.; Kuhn, L.; Gregor, P.E. [Aktiengesellschaft fuer Versorgungsunternehmen (AVU), Gevelsberg (Germany)]|[Alcatel Kabel AG und Co., Moenchengladbach (Germany)

    1998-10-01

    With respect to the new telecommunications law optical fibre (OF) transmission links grow up rapidly under the responsibility of urban and regional carriers with strong increasing tendency. More than 50% of the overall costs are due to erection of the cable route resp. to the cable laying procedure. Therefore, large effort has been done already to create alternative technologies with remarkable higher economy. One of the most promising solutions is the installation of OF-cables into existing pipelines. This contribution describes the integration of an OF cable link into a high pressure gas pipeline. It is shown that by using special materials, components for cable exits and particular installation procedures reliable and economical cable links can be put into operation. (orig.) [Deutsch] Vor dem Hintergrund des neuen Telekommunikationsgesetzes entstehen mit stark steigender Tendenz kabelgebundene Lichtwellenleiteruebertragungsnetze durch neue kommunale und regionale Netzbetreiber. Mehr als 50% der Errichtungskosten solcher Kabelanlagen entstehen dabei durch den Trassenaufbau bzw. durch die Verlegung der Kabel. Deshalb wird intensiv an der Festlegung alternativer, wirtschaftlicher Trassentechnologien gearbeitet. Insbesondere zeigt sich ein hohes Interesse an der Belegung von Versorgungsleitungen mit breitbandigen Lichtwellenleiterkabeln. Dieser Beitrag beschreibt die vielversprechende Methode der Installation eines LWL-Kabels in eine Gashochdruckleitung, wobei insbesondere die Bereiche Kabeltechnik, Komponenten fuer Kabelein- und Ausstiege sowie das Verlegeverfahren dargestellt werden. Es wird gezeigt, dass bei Anwendung spezieller Werkstoffe, modifizierter Werkzeuge und Installationsmethoden technisch zuverlaessige und wirtschaftlich interessante Kabelanlagen bei vorhandenen Rohrleitungen schnell realisiert werden koennen. (orig.)

  20. Fire-fighting on live electrical plants using extinguishing foam; Brandbekaempfung an unter Spannung stehenden elektrischen Anlagen mit Loeschschaum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biewald, H. [Berliner Kraft- und Licht BEWAG-AG, Berlin (Germany); Meyer, G. [Berliner Kraft- und Licht BEWAG -AG, Berlin (Germany)

    1996-08-01

    Rapid and effective fire-fighting in electrical plants, especially in confined spaces, cable ducts and tunnels, is possible using extinguishing foam. Extinguishing foam has advantages compared with other extinguishing agents in respect of its effect on plant components not immediately affected by fire and ability to remove it from the object of the fire; extinguishing foam can manage with a relatively small amount of fire-fighting water storage equipment. Occasioned by fires on cable equipment with more extensive damage, investigations into possibilities for applying extinguishing foam on live plant with rated voltages up to 110 kV have been carried out and are reported in summary form. (orig.) [Deutsch] Eine schnelle und wirksame Brandbekaempfung in elektrischen Anlagen, insbesondere in geschlossenen Raeumen, Kanaelen und Schaechten mit Kabeln, ist mit Loeschschaum moeglich. Der Loeschschaum hat gegenueber anderen Loeschmitteln Vorteile hinsichtlich seines Einflusses auf die nicht unmittelbar vom Brand betroffenen Anlagenteile und seiner Entfernbarkeit aus dem Brandobjekt; Loeschschaum kommt mit verhaeltnismaessig kleinen Loeschwasser-Rueckhalteanlagen aus. Veranlasst durch Braende in Kabelanlagen mit groesserem Ausmass wurden Untersuchungen ueber Moeglichkeiten des Loeschschaumeinsatzes an unter Spannung stehenden Anlagen mit Nennspannungen bis 110 kV durchgefuehrt, ueber die zusammengefasst berichtet wird. (orig.)

  1. Multifunctional facades - design optimisation with CAD; Multifunktionale Fassaden - Effektive Auslegung durch CAD-Einsatz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viotto, M. [Institut fuer Solare Energieversorgungstechnik (ISET), Kassel (Germany). Abt. fuer Anlagen- und Messtechnik

    1998-02-01

    The energetically optimal design of PV facades requires the consideration of many technical conditions (different elevations/orientations of modules; shading possibility; high and different module temperatures). It also requires the interface with architecture, civil and electrical engineering. To support this planning process, the software program PV-CAD was developed which rapidly calculates energy yield under conditions of inhomogeneous irradiance, shading, thermal behaviour of modules and electrical layout. PV-CAD is compatible with other civil and electrical engineering CAD programs and incorporates extensive databases (weather data; modules and inverter types). (orig.) [Deutsch] Fuer optimalen Energieertrag sind zahlreiche technische Randbedingungen bei der Auslegung einer Photovoltaik (PV)-Fassade zu beruecksichtigen (unterschiedliche Ausrichtungen/Neigungen der Module; moegliche Teilabschattung; hoehere und unterschiedliche Betriebstemperaturen). Installation und Betrieb einer PV-Fassade erfordern die Abstimmung zwischen Architektur, Bauwesen und Elektrotechnik. Zur Unterstuetzung der Planer wurde das Programm PV-CAD entwickelt, das den Energieertrag unter Beruecksichtigung von inhomogener Einstrahlung und Abschattung, Temperaturverhalten der Fassadenmodule sowie unterschiedlichen elektrischen Anlagenkonzepten schnell ermittelt; es fuegt sich nahtlos in CAD-Arbeitsumgebungen ein. (orig.)

  2. Lie. katãlyti ir katãryti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simas Karaliūnas

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available LIT. katãlyti UND katãrytiZusammenfassungDie lit. Wörter katãlyti und katãryti „schlagen, prügeln, hauen“, deren Etymologie wir im „Litauischen etymologischen Wörterbuch“ von E. Fraenkel nicht finden, scheinen die Überreste des idg. heteroklitischen Stammes zu sein und deswegen gelten als echte lit. Wörter. Sie sind, sowie auch lit. katóti „schwerfällig gehen, fahren; schlagen, prügeln“, katúoti „schnell gehen, heftig arbei­ten, essen usw.; sich schlagen“, mit abg. kotora „Streit, Zwietracht“, mhd. hader „Zank, Streit“, anord. hǫd „Kampf“, air. cath „Kampf; Truppe, Schar“, gr. κότος „Groll, Zorn“ und anderen urver­wandt. Zu dieser Gruppe gehören möglicherweise auch einige lit. Flussnamen (vgl. Katãrė, Katrà und andere und Personennamen (vgl. Katris, Katal-ýnas, Kat-éiva usw.

  3. System partners `97. Innovations of the component manufacturing industry; System Partners 97. Innovationen der Zulieferindustrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siebenpfeiffer, W. [comp.

    1997-08-01

    Innovativeness and high product quality are the two key factors of the positive image of the German car industry. The author presents some examples to illustrate this point: German producers were the first to replace carburetors with fuel injection systems with electronic control, the first to offer an antilock system, and the first to have xenon headlights. Dynamic speed control systems are another example. The component manufacturing industry has made an important contribution to all this, and it is for this reason that ATZ/MTZ have dedicated this special issue to the component manufacturing industry. (orig./AKF) [Deutsch] Die Erfolge und das Image der deutschen Automobilindustrie haben sicherlich viele Gruende. Die wichtigsten sind Innovationen und Produktqualitaet, zu der auch die schnelle Umsetzung gehoert. Ein kurzer Rueckblick auf die letzten zwei Jahrzehnte verdeutlicht mit einigen Beispielen diese Aussage. Die Abloesung des Vergasers durch die elektronisch gesteuerte Benzineinspritzung ging von hier aus. Deutsche Automobilhersteller boten ihren Kunden weltweit als erste ein Antiblockiersystem an, das Xenonlicht ist bisher nur in deutschen Pkw lieferbar. An einer Fahrdynamikregelung arbeiten zwar weltweit viele Hersteller, bei Automobilen ``Made in Germany`` ist sie jedoch bereits in Serie. Bei allen Innovationen war auch immer die deutsche Zulieferindustrie federfuehrend beteiligt. Ein Grund genug fuer die Herausgabe dieses Sonderhefts. (orig./AKF)

  4. Development and testing of a prototype furnace for thermal post-combustion with reduced nitric oxide emissions, also for retrofitting. Final report; Entwicklung und Erprobung des Prototyps einer neuen Feuerung fuer die thermische Nachverbrennung mit verringertem Stickoxidauswurf auch zur Nachruestung an bestehenden Anlagen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlowitz, O.; Akkus, N.

    2000-03-01

    A new type of furnace for thermal post-combustion was developed and tested. The new system has very low nitric oxide emissions. Technical details are presented in the report. [German] Im Rahmen des Vorhabens ist eine neue Feuerung fuer Anlagen zur thermischen Nachverbrennung entwickelt und erprobt worden, die sich durch einen gegenueber herkoemmlichen System verringerten Stickoxidauswurf auszeichnet. Technische Ausgangsbasis fuer das Vorhaben bildete ein konischer Korbbrenner, dem durch das verjuengte Ende der sogenannte Zusatzbrennstoff Erdgas zugefuehrt wurde. Die Zumischung der kohlenwasserstoffhaltigen Abluft erfolgte druch Bohrungen des Konus selbst, so dass ausgehend vom Ort der Brennstoffeinspeisung in Richtung Korboeffnung eine Zunahme des Luftverhaeltnisses ausgehend zunaechst von unterstoechiometrischen Verhaeltnissen bis hin zum endgueltigen Wert von - je nach Abluftvorwaermung - ca. (3... 10) zu verzeichnen war. Da die Stockstoffoxidbildung in derartigen Systemen im Fall sogenannter reiner Kohlenwasserstoffverbindungen, die lediglich Kohlenstoff, Wasserstoff und gegebenenfalls Sauerstoff in ihrer chemischen Bindung aufweisen, weitestgehend durch das Temperaturmaximum und die dabei zugehoerige Verweilzeit der Gase gepraegt ist, bestand der Forschungsansatz darin, die Abluftzumischung durch die Bohrungen im Konus derart zu veraendern, dass dieses Temperaturmaximum so schnell wie moeglich durchschritten bzw. weitestgehend vermieden wird. (orig.)

  5. Mehr Mathematik Wagen in der Medizin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuflhard, Peter; Dössel, Olaf; Louis, Alfred K.; Zachow, Stefan

    In diesem Artikel wird an drei Erfolgsmodellen dargestellt, wie das Zusammenwirken von Mathematik und Medizin eine Entwicklung hin zu patientenspezifischen Modellen auf Basis moderner medizinischer Bildgebung angestoßen hat, die in naher Zukunft dynamisch weiter Raum greifen wird. Dabei existiert ein Gleichklang der Interessen von Medizin und Mathematik: Beide Disziplinen wollen die Resultate schnell und zuverlässig. Für die Klinik heißt dies, dass notwendige Rechnungen in möglichst kurzer Zeit, und zwar auf dem PC, ablaufen müssen und dass die Resultate so genau und belastbar sein müssen, dass medizinische Entscheidungen darauf aufbauen können. Für die Mathematik folgt daraus, dass höchste Anforderungen an die Effizienz der verwendeten Algorithmen und die darauf aufbauende Software in Numerik und Visualisierung zu stellen sind. Allerdings ist es noch ein weiter Weg, bis anatomische und medizinisch brauchbare funktionelle Modelle auch nur für die wichtigsten Körperteile und die häufigsten Krankheitsfälle verfügbar sein werden. Führende Universitätskliniken könnten, als Zentren einer interdisziplinären Kooperation von Medizinern, Ingenieuren und Mathematikern, eine Vorreiterrolle dabei übernehmen, mehr Mathematik in der Medizin zu wagen. Dies wäre zweifellos ein wichtiger Schritt in Richtung auf eine individuelle quantitative Medizin, bei dem Deutschland die besten Voraussetzungen hätte, die Rolle des "Schrittmachers“ zu übernehmen.

  6. Visuelle Argumentation: Schlüsselbilder im Selbstverständnis von Kulturen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Behr

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Beim Intermedia-Kongress 1985 in Hamburg fand eine Bilderausstellung statt, die kein einziges Bild zeigte: „Bilder im Kopf. Pictures in our Minds“. Auf schwarzen Tafeln konnten die Besucher die Beschreibungen von 40 Fotos lesen, zum Beispiel „Albert Einstein streckt die Zunge heraus“, „Nacktes Vietnamesen-Kind, das nach einem Napalm-Angriff aus dem Dorf Trang Bang flüchtet“, „Willy Brandt knieend am Ehrenmal der Helden des Warschauer Ghettos“. Man mag nicht einmal die Einzelheiten kennen (welches Ehrenmal? – die Bilder entstehen im Kopf des Betrachters. „Die Fotos gingen um die Welt. Sie haben uns erschreckt, aufgerüttelt, belustigt. Die Bilder haben eines gemeinsam: Sie entrinnen dem Kopf des Betrachters und der Betrachterin so schnell nicht wieder“, so der damalige Erste Bürgermeister Klaus von Dohnanyi. Es sind Schlüsselbilder, Bestandteile des imaginären Museums, sie sind nicht in den Köpfen der einzelnen Leute, „sondern im kollektiven, gemeinsamen Gedächtnis gespeichert. Mein individuelles Wiedererkennen ist ein Abrufen des kollektiven, hier visuellen Gedächtnisses“ (Kutter 1987, S. 104. Archetypen der Moderne? Sie sind „im Kopf, nicht in den Köpfen“ (Kutter 1987, S. 104, sagen „etwas Wesentliches über unsere Lage“ (Kutter 1987, S. 106 – unbestritten, aber wie tun sie das und warum so erfolgreich?

  7. Gelsomina. Ein Fotoessay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Lepik

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An einem der wenigen Tage im Jahr, an denen München mit einer feinen Schneeschicht bedeckt war, kam ich zufällig an einem Zirkuszelt vorbei, vor dem ein Anhänger stand und an dem hing eine riesige Uhr. Das Ganze wirkte arrangiert, wie eine Filmszene oder ein Bild aus einem Traum. Es war aber vermutlich reiner Zufall. Ich fuhr sehr schnell nach Hause, um meine Kamera zu holen. Glücklicherweise war alles unverändert, als ich zurückkam. Nach dieser Aufnahme entstand der Wunsch, mehr Fotos von solchen ungewöhnlichen, märchenhaften Szenen zu machen. Ich reiste dann in unterschiedliche Städte und suchte gezielt nach Orten, wo ich damit rechnete, auf ungewöhnliche Szenen zu stoßen. Fündig wurde ich in Theatern, Zirkussen, Vergnügungsparks, aber auch in urbanen Randzonen, wo ich zum Beispiel ein Uhrenlager und eine Monsterwerkstadt entdeckte.

  8. Im Zeichen des ‚Männlichen‘ Under the Sign of “Masculinity”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Löchel

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In ihrer von der Universität Kassel angenommenen Dissertation verfolgt die Germanistin Urte Helduser die diskursiven Verbindungen der frühen Moderne mit den Konstruktionen von Geschlecht anhand einer Reihe von – in der Regel von Männern verfassten – literartheoretischen und -programmatischer Schriften der frühen Moderne. Schnell ist man von ihrer mit reichem Quellenmaterial belegten These überzeugt, dass sich die literarische Moderne um 1900 der Kategorie Geschlecht „zur programmatischen Selbstverständigung“ bediente. (S. 13 Wie die Autorin zeigt, fungierte der Rekurs auf die Kategorie Geschlecht in literarischen Programmen und poetologischen Entwürfen unterschiedlicher Provenienz gegenüber konkurrierenden Modernekonzepten jeweils als „ausschließende Diskursstrategie“. (S. 37Germanist Urte Helduser’s dissertation (University of Kassel pursues the construction of gender in early literary theoretical and programmatic texts of modernism mostly written by men. The reader is quickly convinced by her thesis that literary modernists around 1900 used the category of gender as a form of “programmatic self-understanding,” a thesis that she supports with extensive source material (13. As the author shows, the appeal to the category of gender in literary programmatic and poetologic projects, texts of different origin than those representing competing concepts of modernism, functions as an “exclusionary discourse strategy” (37.

  9. Grand Prix Eurovision: Eine Fankultur im Medienzeitalter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Moser

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Der Grand Prix Eurovision ist seit Jahrzehnten eine der bekanntesten Unterhaltungssendungen im europäischen Raum. Dennoch erregte es Verwunderung, wenn der Schreibende Bekannten darüber berichtete, daß dies ein Forschungsgegenstand sei. Wurde von Interviews mit Grand Prix-Fans erzählt, so fielen schnell Aussagen wie: „Wie kann man sich nur für so etwas Abseitiges und Triviales wie den Grand Prix interessieren“. Dennoch bin ich der Meinung, daß Fankulturen für die entstehende Mediengesellschaft ein nicht unwichtiges Forschungsthema darstellen. Zwar geht es nicht um eine medienpädagogische Fragestellung im engeren Sinne; die Fans des Grand Prix Eurovision sind dem Jugendalter längst entwachsen. Dennoch handelt es sich bei Fangemeinschaften um Phänomene, die im Rahmen von Jugend- und Kinderkulturen von besonderer Relevanz sind. So meint Winter (1997, daß jugendliche Fanwelten eine bedeutende Rolle als Kristallisationspunkte kultureller Differenzierung spielen: ,Die Zugehörigkeit zu einer Fan weit ist Teil der jugendlichen Lebensbewältigung in der Postmoderne, denn in der Gemeinschaft der Fans können Jugendliche emotionale Allianzen eingehen, außeralltäglichen Beschäftigungen nachgehen, expressive Identitätsmuster gemeinschaftlich realisieren und sich mit ihrer Lebenssituation als Heranwachsende auseinandersetzen“ (Winter 1997, S. 51f..

  10. Lubricants trying to meet the diverging requirements of environmental compatibility and efficient performance; Schmierstoffe im Spannungsfeld zwischen Umweltvertraeglichkeit und technischem Leistungsanspruch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornscheidt, G.A. [Carl Bechem GmbH, Hagen (Germany)

    1998-10-01

    The article addresses the political goal, to substitute lubricants on a mineral oil basis by biologically degradable oils, primarily from renewable sources as e.g. rapeseed or sunflower oils, but animal oils as well. These products can be further processed by oleochemical treatment to synthetic esters which meet the high performance requirements of technical applications. The Federal Government supports research and development activities and thus has given attractive incentives for a reorientation towards biological oils. This will not heal the hole in the ozone layer, nor will it halt destruction of the rainforests, but nevertheless enhances the chances for active environmental protection through application of new, less hazardous substances. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Wie es im Vortrag dargestellt wird, ist es ein erklaertes Ziel der Bundesregierung, problematische mineraloelbasische Schmierstoffe durch den Einsatz biologisch schnell abbaubarer Grundfluessigkeiten, vorrangig nachwachsender Rohstoffe wie Raps- und Sonnenblumenoele, aber auch tierischer Oele, zu ersetzen. Fuer technisch anspruchsvolle Anwendungen koennen diese Produkte von der Oleochemie zu synthetischen Estern weiterverarbeitet werden. Durch die Foerderung von Forschungs- und Entwicklungsmassnahmen fuer Bio-Schmieroele setzt die Bundesregierung hier deutliche Akzente. Kein Schmierstoff dieser Welt kann die Umwelt verbessern. Weder laesst sich mit Bio-Oel das Ozonloch `stopfen`, noch das Problem der sterbenden Regenwaelder loesen. Dennoch kann mit den neuen innovativen Schmierstoffen aktiv Umweltschutz betrieben werden. (orig.)

  11. Bildwelten des Abendlandes Image Worlds of the Occident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Gramatzki

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Die wichtigsten Bildthemen der abendländischen Kunstgeschichte zu präsentieren und zu erläutern, ist ein Unterfangen, das sich eigentlich nur im Plural vorstellen lässt – als mehrbändiges Gemeinschaftswerk verschiedener Kunsthistoriker/-innen. Sabine Poeschel hat nun im Alleingang ein Handbuch zur Ikonographie vorgelegt, das seinem Titel alle Ehre macht: In kurzen, gut lesbaren Artikeln, die mit zahlreichen Abbildungen versehen sind, werden die Leser/-innen schnell und kompetent über die bedeutendsten Motive der abendländischen Malerei vom Mittelalter bis zur Gegenwart informiert.The task of presenting and commenting on the most important themes in the images of the occidental history of art is one that is only imaginable in the plural-as a multivolume collaboration of many art historians. Sabine Poeschel has single-handedly presented a handbook for iconography that does its title credit: The book quickly and competently informs readers of the most important motifs of occidental painting from the Middle Ages to the present in short, readable articles furnished with numerous images.

  12. A word from Steve Myers: The Operational Performance Marathon is just starting

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    In the previous Bulletin, Lyn (Evans) referred to the construction phase of the LHC as a marathon that is now almost completed. This is absolutely true and thanks to the hard work and dedication of all the construction staff, CERN now has a superb accelerator ready to be operated and driven to its maximum potential performance. However, for many of us, the next phase of operation and exploitation of the LHC is a second marathon and the firing pistol has just been fired. My first encounter with the LHC was in the very early 1980s, when many of us were fully occupied with LEP construction. Through a chance invitation by CERN director Herwig Schopper I participated in a discussion in the US about future proton colliders. Following this meeting, in April 1983, my boss (the late Wolfgang Schnell) and I published "LEP note 440", which gave preliminary estimates of the possible performance of a proton collider in the LEP tunnel. After the controversial de...

  13. Management information systems for controlling in energy supply companies; Management-Informationssysteme fuer das Controlling im EVU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crombach, U. [CFI Controlling- und Fuehrungsinformationssysteme GmbH, Bodenheim (Germany); Ruf, J. [CFI Controlling- und Fuehrungsinformationssysteme GmbH, Bodenheim (Germany)

    1997-01-27

    Todays management information systems (MIS) allow flexible use of all data existing in the company for management and controlling. Instead of using fixed (coded) reports the user can easily decide about the presented data, either consolidated or in detail. Using well known Excel as front end for presentation and analysis provides easy access for all users. The authors describe how a data model for the MIS can be designed and stored in the `data warehouse` from the various sources in the company. A few typical charts are presented. (orig.) [Deutsch] Moderne Managementinformationssysteme (MIS) ermoeglichen die flexibel Nutzung aller im Unternehmen anfallenden Informationen fuer Fuehrung und Controlling. Anders als bei festgefuegten (programmierten) Auswertungen bestimmt der Nutzer frei ueber die dargestellten Informationen. Diese koennen einfach und schnell aus allen vorhandenen Datenquellen des Unternehmens zusammengefuehrt werden. Durch Verwendung der weit verbreiteten Tabellenkalkulationsprogramme, z.B. MS-Excel, als Bedieneroberflaeche, ist die Bedienung einfach erlernbar. Die Verfasser zeigen an einem Beispiel, wie ein solches MIS als Datenmodell konzipiert, einfach konfiguriert und schliesslich als Controllinginstrument flexible herangezogen werden kann. (orig.)

  14. Final presentation of the joint project: Laser-diagnostic and plasma-technological fundamentals of emission reduction and fuel consumption reduction in DI internal combustion engines. Results of subprojects; Abschlusspraesentation zum Verbundprojekt: Laserdiagnostische und plasmatechnologische Grundlagen zur Verminderung von Emissionen und Kraftstoffverbrauch von DI-Verbrennungsmotoren. Ergebnisse der Teilvorhaben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichel, K.; Sellhorst, M. (eds.)

    2000-07-01

    New combustion processes, especially DI combustion processes, can be developed quickly and efficiently only if efficient and industrially applicable processes are available for investigating the processes of combustion in engines, for ignition of locally varying fuel/air mixtures, and for treatment of exhaust of nonstoichiometric combustion processes. The project aimed at the development and testing of laser diagnostic methods, numerical models and plasma processes. The conference comprised the sections: Processes inside the engine; processes behind the engine; system aspects. [German] Zielstellung des Verbundprojektes ist die Verminderung von Emissionen und Kraftstoffverbrauch von neuartigen motorischen Brennverfahren, von denen der direkteinspritzende (DI) Verbrennungsmotor die guenstigsten Voraussetzungen liefert und damit ein Potential bereitstellt, die zukuenftig geforderten Emissions-Grenzwerte entsprechend der gesetzlich vorgegebenen Euro-Normen zu erreichen. Neuartige, insbesondere direkteinspritzende Brennverfahren koennen von der Automobilindustrie jedoch nur dann schnell und effizient erarbeitet werden, wenn geeignete, von der Industrie einsetzbare Verfahren - zur Untersuchung von Wirkketten der motorischen Verbrennung, - zur Zuendung oertlich schwankender Kraftstoff-Luft-Gemische, - zur Abgasnachbehandlung von Abgasen aus nichtstoechiometrischer Verbrennung zur Verfuegung stehen. Ziel des geplanten Verbundprojektes war es also, laserdiagnostische Analyseverfahren, Verfahren der numerischen Modellierung und grundlegende plasmatechnologische Verfahren zu untersuchen und weitestgehend zu erproben, damit die Verfahren oder die mit ihnen gewonnenen Erkenntnisse von der Industrie als Werkzeug eingesetzt werden koennen. Aus Sicht des Anwenders ergab sich dabei eine inhaltliche Einteilung in die Themenfelder: - Innermotorische Prozesse, - Nachmotorische Prozesse und - Systemaspekte. (orig.)

  15. Analysis of the electrical energy requirements of the GSI facility

    CERN Document Server

    Ripp, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Die Veränderung auf dem deutschen Energiemarkt durch die Energiewende bringt eine Viel-zahl von Problemen mit sich. Der stetig ansteigende Ausbau von erneuerbaren Energien und die daraus resultierende starke Schwankung der eingespeisten Energiemengen zwingen die Netzbetreiber zum Ausbau der Stromnetze [1]. Die dadurch verursachten Kosten lassen die Netznutzungsgebühren steigen, welche an die Endkunden weitergegeben werden. Ebenfalls stieg die EEG-Umlage (Erneuerbare-Energie-Gesetz) von 3,6ct/kWh im Jahr 2012 über 5,3ct/kWh im Jahr 2013 auf 6,3ct/kWh für das Jahr 2014 [2], [3], [4]. Die extrem schnell steigenden Energiekosten zwingen die Verbraucher zur Erhöhung ihrer Energieeffizienz, um die laufenden Kosten so niedrig wie möglich zu halten [3]. Dies verlangt nach innovativen Ansätzen und Lösungen im unternehmenseigenen Energiemanagement. Besonders For-schungseinrichtungen mit großem Energiebedarf müssen eine höhere Energieeffizienz reali-sieren, um bei knappen Budgets ihrem Forschungsauftrag gerec...

  16. On the way to business intelligence - Modern IT solutions for the liberalized energy market; Auf dem Weg zur Business Intelligence - moderne IT-Loesungen fuer den liberalisierten Energiemarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecker, W.; Kraus, M. [Gedos mbH, Wuerzburg (Germany). Div. Plan/Build

    2000-04-17

    The rapid change in the energy sector from a seller's market to a buyer's market shifted the focus to customer relationship management as a priority task of management. Any professional CRM system requires as a basic step a new corporate approach, abandoning departmental thinking for a holistic, process-oriented corporate management concept, which in turn has to rely on efficient marketing and sales information systems offering to staff members online access to the relevant information about customers and their needs. As for industrial or commercial buyers for example, such a database has to show the companies' demand profiles, information on plant and equipment as well as the processes, contracts, and orders. (orig./CB) [German] Der schnelle Wandel der Energieversorgung vom Angebots- zum Kaeufermarkt stellt den Kunden in den Mittelpunkt aller Bemuehungen. Hier setzt Customer Relationship Management (CRM) ein. Die Basis fuer ein professionelles CRM schaffen neben einer grundlegenden Abkehr vom Abteilungsdenken zur Prozessorientierung leistungsstarke Vertriebsinformationssysteme, die aufgabenorientiert jedem Mitarbeiter den Zugriff auf alle relevanten Informationen ueber den Kunden ermoeglichen. Im Industrie- und Gewerbekundenbereich sollten z.B. Unternehmens- und Lastprofil, Angaben zur Betriebsausstattung und -prozessen, Vertraege und Auftraege verfuegbar sein. (orig.)

  17. Risk and complication rate of uterine fibroid embolization (UFE); Risiken und Komplikationen der Embolisationstherapie von Uterusmyomen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radeleff, B. [Abteilung fuer Radiodiagnostik, Radiologische Universitaetsklinik, Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Abteilung fuer Radiodiagnostik, Radiologische Universitaetsklinik, Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120, Heidelberg (Germany); Rimbach, S. [Universitaets-Frauenklinik, Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Kauffmann, G.W.; Richter, G.M. [Abteilung fuer Radiodiagnostik, Radiologische Universitaetsklinik, Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany)

    2003-08-01

    Our goal was to evaluate risks and complication rate of uterine fibroid embolization (UFE). The most frequent complications reported in the literature are associated with angiography procedure, serious complications are extremely infrequent. The embolization of fibroids is a safe angiographic intervention. Nethertheless, the interventional radiologist must be aware of the common risks and complication and the strategies to avoid them. (orig.) [German] Ziel der Arbeit war die Evaluation der beobachteten Komplikationen und Risiken der Myomembolisation. Dazu fuehrten wir eine Literaturrecherche der 50 am haeufigsten zitierten Publikationen durch. Zusaetzlich befragten wir die in der Myomembolisation sehr erfahrenen Kollegen R. Cursch, J. Lammer, J. Spies und J.P. Pelage hinsichtlich der von ihnen beobachteten Komplikationen und Risiken. Im Vergleich dazu analysierten wir die aufgetretenen Komplikationen in unserem Patientengut. Die haeufigsten in der Literatur beschriebenen Komplikationen sind meist mit der Angiographie assoziierte wie Leistenhaematome oder leichte Leistenschmerzen, die sich schnell zurueckbilden. Die Uterusmyomembolisation (UFE) ist eine sehr sichere und risikoarme angiographische Intervention. Die moeglichen Risiken und Komplikationen und die besten Vermeidungsstrategien muessen bekannt sein. (orig.)

  18. A Characterization of Arctic Aerosols as Derived from Airborne Observations and their Influence on the Surface Radiation Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herber, A.; Stone, R.; Liu, P. S.; Li, S.; Sharma, S.; Neuber, R.; Birnbaumn, G.; Vitale, V.

    2011-12-01

    Arctic climate is influenced by aerosols that affect the radiation balance at the surface and within the atmosphere. Impacts depend on the composition and concentration of aerosols that determine opacity, which is quantified by the measure of aerosol optical depth (AOD). During winter and spring, aerosols are transported into the Arctic from lower latitude industrial regions. Trans-Arctic flight missions PAMARCMiP (Polar Airborne Measurements and Arctic Regional Climate Model Simulation Project) of the German POLAR 5 during spring 2009 and spring 2011 provided opportunities to collect a comprehensive data set from which properties of the aerosol were derived, including AOD. Measurements were made from near the surface to over 4 km in altitude during flights between Svalbard, Norway and Pt. Barrow, Alaska. These, along with measurements of particle size and concentration, and black carbon content (BC) provide a three-dimensional characterization of the aerosols encountered along track. The horizontal and vertical distribution of Arctic haze, in particular, was evaluated. During April 2009, the Arctic atmosphere was variably turbid with total column AOD (at 500 nm) ranging from ~ 0.12 to > 0.35, where clean background values are typically Mazzola, A. Lupi, R. Schnell, E.G. Dutton, P. Liu, S.M. Li, K. Dethloff, A. Lampert, C. Ritter, M. Stock, R. Neuber, and M. Maturilli, A three dimensional characterization of Arctic aerosols from airborne sun photometer observations: PAM-ARCMIP - April 2009, Journal Geophysical Research, VOL. 115, D13203, doi:10.1029/2009JD013605, 2010.

  19. MR-Venography Using High Resolution True-FISP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spuentrup, E. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik; Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Medicine; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Buecker, A.; Guenther, R.W. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik; Stuber, M. [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Medicine; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Philips Med. Syst., Best (Netherlands)

    2001-08-01

    A new fast MR-venography approach using a high resolution True-FISP imaging sequence was investigated in 20 patients suffering from 23 deep vein thromboses. Diagnosis was proven by X-ray venography, CT or ultrasound examination. The presented technique allowed for clear thrombus visualization with a high contrast to the surrounding blood pool even in calf veins. Acquisition time was less than 10 minutes for imaging the pelvis and the legs. No contrast media was needed. The presented high resolution True-FISP MR-veography is a promising non-invasive, fast MR-venography approach for detection of deep venous thrombosis. (orig.) [German] Eine neue schnelle, oertlich hochaufgeloeste MR-Phlebographietechnik mit einer axialen True-FISP Bildgebungssequenz wurde an 20 Patienten mit 23 nach-gewiesenen tiefen Beinvenenthrombosen untersucht. Die Befunde wurden mit einer konventionellen Roentgenphlebographie, einer CT oder einer Sonographie gesichert. Die vorgestellte Technik erlaubte in allen Faellen eine Thrombusdarstellung mit hohem Kontrast zum umgebenden venoesen Blut, wobei aufgrund der hohen Ortsaufloesung auch die Unterschenkelvenen beurteilt werden konnten. Die Datenaufnahmezeit zur Untersuchung des Beckens und der Beine betrug weniger als 10 Minuten. Kontrastmittel wurde nicht benoetigt. Die vorgestellte MR-Phlebographietechnik unter Verwendung einer oertlich hochauf-geloesten True-FISP Sequenz ist eine neue, vielversprechende, nicht-invasive Technik zur Diagnostik der tiefen Bein- und Beckenvenenthrombose. (orig.)

  20. DEKRA: New indoor crash test facility; DEKRA: Neue Indoor-Crashtestbahn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandel, J [ATZ Entwicklungszentrum, Sulzbach-Rosenberg (Germany)

    2005-02-01

    So far, the Dekra crash test centre specialized in outdoor crash tests with heavy and light industrial vehicles, passenger cars, and motorcycles. The test facility is used by public and private users from Europe, America, and Asia. The new indoor crash test facility provides further test options, especially in the so-called standard range of passenger carsa nd light industrial vehicles. With a rotary impact block for fast crash test sequences, generous space for optimal underfloor crash documentations, and processor-controlled impact speed, Dekra presents itself as a modern service institution for scientists and as a development partner of the international motor car industry. (orig.) [German] Bisher war das Dekra-Crash-Test-Center vor allem auf Outdoor-Crashtests mit schweren und leichten Nutzfahrzeugen, Personenkraftwagen und Motorraedern spezialisiert. Dieses Angebot wird von oeffentlichen und privaten Auftraggebern aus Europa, Amerika und Asien genutzt. 'Die neue Indoor-Crash-Test-Bahn eroeffnet zusaetzliche Testmoeglichkeiten, vor allem im so genannten Standardbereich der Personenkraftwagen und leichten Nutzfahrzeuge'. Mit einem drehbaren Aufprallblock fuer schnelle Crashtestfolgen, einer besonders geraeumigen XXL-Filmgrube fuer optimale Unterflur-Crashdokumentationen und prozessorgesteuertem Antrieb fuer noch praezisiere Aufprallgeschwindigkeiten erweitert Dekra im Bereich Unfallforschung and Crash Test Center ihr Angebot als moderner Forschungsdienstleister und Entwicklungspartner der internationalen Automobilindustrie. (orig.)

  1. Nitrogen transport during plasma-enhanced case nitriding of stainless steels - the effects of the passivating oxide layer; Stickstofftransport waehrend der plasmagestuetzten Randaufstickung nichtrostender Staehle - der Einfluss der passivierenden Oxidschicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parascandola, S.; Kruse, O.; Richter, E. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V. (FZR), Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Ionenstrahlphysik und Materialforschung; Moeller, W.

    1998-12-31

    Plasma-enhanced case nitriding at moderate temperatures is a promising technique for surface treatment of components made of stainless steels. In-situ ERD permits time-resolved and depth-dependent elemental analysis during the case nitriding process. This offers possibilities for process characterisation which are only briefly discussed in the paper. The oxide layer at the surface of the steel is a barrier to nitrogen input. In order to achieve fast nitrogen diffusion into the material, the oxide layer has to be largely removed in the low-energy ion implantation process. The observed equilibrium between diffusion and re-absorption is in good agreement with calculated as well as empirical results. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Die plasmagestuetzte Randaufstickung bei moderaten Temperaturen ist eine erfolgversprechende Technologie zur Oberflaechenveredelung von Bauteilen aus nichtrostendem Stahl. Die Analytik mit in-situ ERD erlaubt zeit- und tiefenaufgeloeste Elementanalyse waehrend des Aufstickungsprozesses. Dadurch ergeben sich Moeglichkeiten der Prozesscharakterisierung, die hier nur angedeutet werden konnten. Die Oxidschicht an der Oberflaeche der nichtrostenden Staehle stellt eine Barriere fuer den Stickstoffeintrag dar. Fuer schnelle Stickstoffdiffusion muss die Oxidschicht bei der Niederenergie-Ionenimplantation weitgehend abgebaut werden. Das beobachtete Gleichgewicht zwischen Zerstaeubung und Wiederbelegung stimmt gut mit Simulationsrechnungen bzw. empirischen Werten ueberein. (orig.)

  2. Crown ethers and phase transfer catalysis in polymer science

    CERN Document Server

    Carraher, Charles

    1984-01-01

    Phase transfer catalysis or interfacial catalysis is a syn­ thetic technique involving transport of an organic or inorganic salt from a solid or aqueous phase into an organic liquid where reaction with an organic-soluble substrate takes place. Over the past 15 years there has been an enormous amount of effort invested in the development of this technique in organic synthe­ sis. Several books and numerous review articles have appeared summarizing applications in which low molecular weight catalysts are employed. These generally include either crown ethers or onium salts of various kinds. While the term phase transfer catalysis is relatively new, the concept of using a phasetrans­ fer agent (PTA) is much older~ Both Schnell and Morgan employed such catalysts in synthesis of polymeric species in the early 1950's. Present developments are really extensions of these early applications. It has only been within the last several years that the use of phase transfer processes have been employed in polymer synthesis...

  3. Preparation and co-combustion of whole plants in a coal dust furnace; Aufbereitung und Mitverbrennung von Ganzpflanzen mit Steinkohle in einer Staubfeuerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegle, V.; Spliethoff, H.; Hein, K.R.G. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen (IVD)

    1996-12-31

    Co-combustion is a favourable and simple way of utilizing biomass. Owing to the high energy density of grains, whole plants must be ground very thoroughly for use in a coal dust furnace. This can be done with low energy consumption in a hammer mill. In addition, multifuel swirl burners permit selective supply of fuel and low-NO{sub x} combustion. The fuel with the highest nitrogen content should be blown into the inner recirculation zone. (orig) [Deutsch] Die Mitverbrennung von Biomasse ist eine guenstige und schnell zu realisierende Moeglichkeit, Biomasse in grossem Umfang zu nutzen. Um Ganzpflanzen in einer Staubfeuerung mitverbrennen zu koennen, muessen diese aufgrund der hohen Energiedichte der Koerner sehr fein aufgemahlen werden. Dies ist mit einer Hammermuehle mit geringem Energieeinsatz moeglich. Durch eine geeignete Sichtung muss diese jedoch noch weiter optimiert werden. Mit Multi-Fuel-Drallbrennern ist eine stickoxidarme Verbrennung moeglich. Der Brennstoff, der den groesseren Stickstoffeintrag in die Flamme bewirkt, soltle in die innere Rezirkulationszone eingeblasen werden. (orig)

  4. ''VaneCAM'' - the third generation of camshaft adjustment systems; ''VaneCAM'' - Nockenwellenversteller der dritten Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knecht, A. [Hydraulik-Ring GmbH, Nuertingen (Germany). Entwicklung Motorentechnik; Stephan, W. [Hydraulik-Ring GmbH, Nuertingen (Germany); Hannibal, W. [Fachhochschule Suedwestfalen, Iserlohn (Germany). Labor fuer Konstruktion und CAE-Anwendungen

    2002-04-01

    Continuously variable camphasers are now well established for modern spark-ignition engines in high-volume production. With the latest generation of camshaft adjustment systems using the vane-type actuator principle, it is possible to move rapidly and reliably through a large adjustment angle. The layout of these adjusting systems is very simple. The production costs are low in comparison to the first generation of camphasers using spur/helical gears to vary the valve timing. The new-generation systems are mechatronic, with the function depending on the coordination and tuning of hydraulic actuation and engine electronics. The term 'VaneCAM' is used for the continuously variable systems of this new generation supplied by Hydraulik-Ring in Nuertingen, Germany. (orig.) [German] Stufenlos wirkende Nockenwellenversteller haben sich an modernen Ottomotoren in den letzten Jahren in der Grossserie etabliert. Mit der neuesten Generation von Nockenwellenverstellern, die nach dem Schwenkmotor-Prinzip aufgebaut sind, lassen sich grosse Verdrehwinkel sehr schnell und betriebssicher verstellen. Der Aufbau dieser Versteller ist einfach, und die Herstellkosten sind gering im Vergleich zur ersten Generation von Verstellern. Bei den Systemen der neuen Generation handelt es sich um mechatronische Systeme, deren Funktion von dem Zusammenspiel und der Abstimmung von hydraulischer Ansteuerung und Motorelektronik abhaengt. Mit dem Begriff 'VaneCAM' werden die stufenlos wirkenden Systeme dieser neuen Generation von Hydraulik-Ring aus Nuertingen bezeichnet. (orig.)

  5. Rational imaging strategies in larynx disease; Rationelle bildgebende Strategien bei Kehlkopferkrankungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sievers, K.W. [Universitaetsklinik Rostock (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    1998-02-01

    Clinical information is indispensable for swift and cost-effective clarification of diseases of the larynx. While quality clarification of neurological changes in the area of the posterior cranial fossa and in the course of the vagus nerve as a cause of glottis malfunction is possible with MRI, localized disease of the larynx can more effectively be assessed with low-artifact CT. In the particularly difficult assessment of the post-operative larynx, a recurrence can be diagnosed only after a baseline study has been carried out after the end of therapy. With knowledge of the pretherapeutic findings, the findings immediately post-therapy, and the operation technique used, the optimal CT examination, which can be carried out quickly, will be able to provide more information about recurrence. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zur schnellen und kostenguenstigen Abklaerung von Erkrankungen des Larynx ist die klinische Information unabdingbar: Wenn neurologische Veraenderungen im Bereich der hinteren Schaedelgrube und im Verlauf des N. vagus als Ursache einer Funktionseinschraenkung der Glottis hochqualitativ mit der MRT abzuklaeren sind, so wird die lokalisierte Erkrankung des Larynx effektiver mit der artefaktarmen CT zu beurteilen sein. In der besonders problematischen Einschaetzung des postoperativen Larynx kann nur nach einer nach Beendigung der Therapie erfolgten Ausgangsuntersuchung der Verlauf ueber ein Rezidiv entscheiden: Unter Kenntnis des prae- und unmittelbar posttherapeutischen Befundes sowie der eingesetzten OP-Technik wird die schnell durchzufuehrende und optimale CT-Untersuchung am ehesten die Entscheidungshilfe geben koennen. (orig.)

  6. Characterization and long term operation of a novel superconducting undulator with 15 mm period length in a synchrotron light source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Casalbuoni

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A new cryogen-free full scale (1.5 m long superconducting undulator with a period length of 15 mm (SCU15 has been successfully tested in the ANKA storage ring. This represents a very important milestone in the development of superconducting undulators for third and fourth generation light sources carried on by the collaboration between the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology and the industrial partner Babcock Noell GmbH. SCU15 is the first full length device worldwide that with beam reaches a higher peak field than what expected with the same geometry (vacuum gap and period length with an ideal cryogenic permanent magnet undulator built with the best material available PrFeB. After a summary on the design and main parameters of the device, we present here the characterization in terms of spectral properties and the long term operation of the SCU15 in the ANKA storage ring.

  7. KARMEN: neutrino spectroscopy at ISIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drexlin, G. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik

    1996-11-01

    The Karlsruhe-Rutherford Neutrino Experiment KARMEN at the spallation neutron facility ISIS investigates fundamental properties of neutrinos as well as their interactions with matter. Low energy neutrinos with energies up to 50 MeV emitted by the pulsed {nu}-source ISIS are detected by a 56 tonne high resolution liquid scintillation calorimeter. Clear {nu}-signatures allow a reliable search for neutrino oscillations of the type {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub e} and {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub e} as well as a detailed investigation of neutrino-nucleus interactions in an energy range important for astrophysics. We present the results of the KARMEN experiment from data taking in the period from June 1990 - December 1995. (author) 9 figs., 10 refs.

  8. BioWaste-to-Liquid. An ecologic-economic consideration of pyrolysis oil based on biogenic residual materials and wastes; BioWaste-to-Liquid. Oekologisch-oekonomische Betrachtung von Pyrolyseoel auf Basis biogener Rest- und Abfallstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liemen, Franziska; Zech, Konstantin; Kroeger, Michael [DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Leipzig (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The joint research project BioWaste-to-Liquid, which is carried out by Deutsches BiomasseForschungsZentrum (DBFZ) and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), focuses on the provision of alternative fuels by means of fast pyrolysis. Alongside the various tests and technical analyses, an ecologic and economic assessment was carried out, that examines the performance of different raw materials in terms of GHG-emissions and production costs. The herein examined raw materials were Rape straw, Sunflower straw, residues of corn harvesting, hay, waste wood, bark and driftwood from river Rhine. The results show a good performance of waste wood and draft wood both in ecologic and economic terms, whilst especially Sunflower straw can be considered rather unsuitable since it is particularly affected by the negative effects of the compensatory fertilization. The other raw materials perform varyingly in the ecologic and economic assessments. (orig.)

  9. Transition from large-scale to small-scale dynamo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponty, Y; Plunian, F

    2011-04-15

    The dynamo equations are solved numerically with a helical forcing corresponding to the Roberts flow. In the fully turbulent regime the flow behaves as a Roberts flow on long time scales, plus turbulent fluctuations at short time scales. The dynamo onset is controlled by the long time scales of the flow, in agreement with the former Karlsruhe experimental results. The dynamo mechanism is governed by a generalized α effect, which includes both the usual α effect and turbulent diffusion, plus all higher order effects. Beyond the onset we find that this generalized α effect scales as O(Rm(-1)), suggesting the takeover of small-scale dynamo action. This is confirmed by simulations in which dynamo occurs even if the large-scale field is artificially suppressed.

  10. Influence of grain size distribution on dynamic shear modulus of sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyka, Ireneusz; Srokosz, Piotr E.; Bujko, Marcin

    2017-11-01

    The paper presents the results of laboratory tests, that verify the correlation between the grain-size characteristics of non-cohesive soils and the value of the dynamic shear modulus. The problem is a continuation of the research performed at the Institute of Soil Mechanics and Rock Mechanics in Karlsruhe, by T. Wichtmann and T. Triantafyllidis, who derived the extension of the applicability of the Hardin's equation describing the explicite dependence between the grain size distribution of sands and the values of dynamic shear modulus. For this purpose, piezo-ceramic bender elements generating elastic waves were used to investigate the mechanical properties of the specimens with artificially generated particle distribution. The obtained results confirmed the hypothesis that grain size distribution of non-cohesive soils has a significant influence on the dynamic shear modulus, but at the same time they have shown that obtaining unambiguous results from bender element tests is a difficult task in practical applications.

  11. Model experiments for the extension of the pumped storage hydropower plant of Vianden in Luxembourg; Wasserbauliche Modelluntersuchungen zur Erweiterung des Pumpspeicherkraftwerks Vianden in Luxemburg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohringer, Thomas; Seidel, Frank; Lehmann, Boris; Nestmann, Franz [Karlsruhe Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Wasser und Gewaesserentwicklung (IWG)

    2009-07-01

    The pumped storage hydropower plant of Vianden in Luxembourg is considered to be one of Europe's most powerful hydropower plants. Due to the extension of the plant by an additional pump-turbine the Institute of Water and River Basin Management at the Universitaet Karlsruhe (TH) was charged to run hydraulic model investigations. Fields of interest have been: the optimisation of the hydraulic shape of the new intake-outlet structure, the sediment settlement behaviour and the hydraulic conditions near the intake-outlet structure. Further a smooth operation of the plant's existing parts during construction could be guaranteed. The model experiments have brought planning reliability regarding the hydraulic function of the new structures. (orig.)

  12. Development and implementation of quality control strategies for CMS silicon strip tracker modules

    CERN Document Server

    Dirkes, Guido

    The LHC will explore physics at the energy frontier and will address many open questions in particle physics, like the search for the Higgs boson or Supersymmetry. For both high resolution track and vertex reconstruction is vital. The CMS silicon tracker consists of 15232 detector modules. Production and assembly of these will span two and a half years period, during which the quality control chain has to ensure functionality and reliability of the modules produced. The CMS group in Karlsruhe will produce and qualify 1600 modules. Therefore automatic test systems are developed and test strategies are worked out. Already during the RnD phase, first prototype tests were performed and some weak points of the design were uncovered. Two test stations are built. One focuses on a fast functionality test, including an active thermal cycle. The other focuses on debugging and repair requirements, including additional test options with lasers, radioactive sources, probes and infrared LEDs. For quality control measuremen...

  13. Performance of a TiN-coated monolithic silicon pin-diode array under mechanical stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanDevender, B.A., E-mail: brent.vandevender@pnnl.gov [Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics and Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Bodine, L.I.; Myers, A.W.; Amsbaugh, J.F.; Howe, M.A.; Leber, M.L.; Robertson, R.G.H.; Tolich, K.; Van Wechel, T.D.; Wall, B.L. [Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics and Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2012-05-01

    The Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino Experiment (KATRIN) will detect tritium {beta}-decay electrons that pass through its electromagnetic spectrometer with a highly segmented monolithic silicon pin-diode focal-plane detector (FPD). This pin-diode array will be on a single piece of 500-{mu}m-thick silicon, with contact between titanium nitride (TiN)-coated detector pixels and front-end electronics made by spring-loaded pogo pins. The pogo pins will exert a total force of up to 50 N on the detector, deforming it and resulting in mechanical stress up to 50 MPa in the silicon bulk. We have evaluated a prototype pin-diode array with a pogo-pin connection scheme similar to the KATRIN FPD. We find that pogo pins make good electrical contact to TiN and observe no effects on detector resolution or reverse-bias leakage current which can be attributed to mechanical stress.

  14. The AMS-02 transition radiation detector

    CERN Document Server

    Kirn, Th

    2004-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer AMS02 will be equipped with a large transition radiation detector (TRD) to achieve a proton background suppression necessary for dark matter searches. The AMS02 TRD consists of 20 layers of fleece radiator each with Xe/CO//2 proportional wire straw tubes read out by a dedicated low-power data- acquisition system. A space-qualified TRD design will be presented. The performance of a 20-layer prototype was tested at CERN with electron, myon and pion beams up to l00 GeV and with protons up to 250 GeV. The beam-test results will be compared to Geant3 MC predictions. The detector is under construction at RWTH Aachen; the gas system will be built at MIT, slow-control at MIT and INFN Rome and DAQ at TH Karlsruhe. This project is funded by the German Space Agency DLR, the US Department of Energy DOE and NASA.

  15. Research, Education and Innovation Bundling Forces towards a Sustainable European Energy Future

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    New technologies and applied innovation in the field of sustainable energy are needed in order to achieve a competitive and climate neutral Europe. As one of the first three Knowledge and Innovation Communities (KIC) of the European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIT), KIC InnoEnergy invests in innovation projects and new educational programmes and provides business creation service with the purpose of delivering the disruptive technologies and innovations that Europe requires to meet this ambitious goal. Its stakeholders are top European players in the industry, research institutes, universities and business schools. Six regionally bundled European hubs – Barcelona/Lisbon, Grenoble, Eindhoven, Karlsruhe, Stockholm and Krakow - lead one thematic field each in sustainable energy. The thematic fields addressed range from Intelligent “Energy-efficient Residential Buildings and Cities” over “Energy from Chemical Fuels”, “Renewable Energies”, “Clean Coal Technologies” to “European Smar...

  16. Case study of a tornado in the upper Rhine valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannesen, R.; Dotzek, N.; Gysi, H.; Beheng, K.D. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Meteorologie und Klimaforschung

    1998-08-01

    On 9 September 1995 a short-lived tornado occurred in the upper Rhine valley near Oberkirch-Nussbach, uprooting several trees as well as damaging buildings and cars. The storm, confirmed by eye witnesses and damage analyses performed by Wetteramt Freiburg of the German weather service, was also detected by the IMK C-band Doppler radar in Karlsruhe. The data show a well-defined mesocyclonic rotation in the tornado`s parent Cb cloud. The orography distinctly influenced the development of a wind field suitable for supercell formation. This points to preferred areas of tornadic activity. The dominant effects of vertical wind shear compared to convective energy during tornadogenesis are evident for this storm. Its small scale confirms the existence of small supercell storms being studied in the USA in recent years. (orig.) 21 refs.

  17. Laboratory experiments and numerical simulations on magnetic instabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Stefani, F; Kasprzyk, Ch; Paredes, A; Ruediger, G; Seilmayer, M

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic fields of planets, stars and galaxies are generated by self-excitation in moving electrically conducting fluids. Once produced, magnetic fields can play an active role in cosmic structure formation by destabilizing rotational flows that would be otherwise hydrodynamically stable. For a long time, both hydromagnetic dynamo action as well as magnetically triggered flow instabilities had been the subject of purely theoretical research. Meanwhile, however, the dynamo effect has been observed in large-scale liquid sodium experiments in Riga, Karlsruhe and Cadarache. In this paper, we summarize the results of some smaller liquid metal experiments devoted to various magnetic instabilities such as the helical and the azimuthal magnetorotational instability, the Tayler instability, and the different instabilities that appear in a magnetized spherical Couette flow. We conclude with an outlook on a large scale Tayler-Couette experiment using liquid sodium, and on the prospects to observe magnetically triggered ...

  18. The history of theoretical, material and computational mechanics mathematics meets mechanics and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This collection of 23 articles is the output of lectures in special sessions on “The History of Theoretical, Material and Computational Mechanics” within the yearly conferences of the GAMM in the years 2010 in Karlsruhe, Germany, 2011 in Graz, Austria, and in 2012 in Darmstadt, Germany; GAMM is the “Association for Applied Mathematics and Mechanics”, founded in 1922 by Ludwig Prandtl and Richard von Mises. The contributions in this volume discuss different aspects of mechanics. They are related to solid and fluid mechanics in general and to specific problems in these areas including the development of numerical solution techniques. In the first part the origins and developments of conservation principles in mechanics and related variational methods are treated together with challenging applications from the 17th to the 20th century. Part II treats general and more specific aspects of material theories of deforming solid continua and porous soils. and Part III presents important theoretical and enginee...

  19. Comparison of radon doses based on different radon monitoring approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaupotič, Janja; Smrekar, Nataša; Žunić, Zora S

    2017-04-01

    In 43 places (23 schools, 3 kindergartens, 16 offices and one dwelling), indoor radon has been monitored as an intercomparison experiment, using α-scintillation cells (SC - Jožef Stefan Institute, Slovenia), various kinds of solid state nuclear track detectors (KfK - Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany; UFO - National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba, Japan; RET - University College Dublin, Ireland) and active electronic devices (EQF, Sarad, Germany). At the same place, the radon levels and, consequently, the effective doses obtained with different radon devices differed substantially (by a factor of 2 or more), and no regularity was observed as regards which detector would show a higher or lower dose. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 9th International Conference on Management Science and Engineering Management

    CERN Document Server

    Nickel, Stefan; Machado, Virgilio; Hajiyev, Asaf

    2015-01-01

    This is the Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Management Science and Engineering Management (ICMSEM) held from July 21-23, 2015 at Karlsruhe, Germany. The goals of the conference are to foster international research collaborations in Management Science and Engineering Management as well as to provide a forum to present current findings. These proceedings cover various areas in management science and engineering management. It focuses on the identification of management science problems in engineering and innovatively using management theory and methods to solve engineering problems effectively. It also establishes a new management theory and methods based on experience of new management issues in engineering. Readers interested in the fields of management science and engineering management will benefit from the latest cutting-edge innovations and research advances presented in these proceedings and will find new ideas and research directions. A total number of 132 papers from 15 countries a...

  1. Fluid Dynamics Prize Lecture: Homogeneous Dynamos in Planets and in the Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, F. H.

    2000-11-01

    Numerical simulations of the dynamo problem of the generation of magnetic fields by convection flows in rotating spherical fluid shells have been extended to a sufficiently large parameter regime such that extrapolation to the condition of planetary cores have become feasible. Besides dipolar fields, hemispherical and quadrupolar fields are preferred in various regimes of the parameter space. In the latter two cases oscillating time dependances are always found inspite of the chaotic nature of the dynamos. Subcritical dynamo states are typical and multiple dynamo states are possible. On the experimental side the homogeneous dynamo process has recently been demonstrated without the use of ferromagnetic material in Riga and Karlsruhe. Further experiments at other laboratories are expected to realize dynamos under conditions of strong turbulence.

  2. Die Energiewerke Nord GmbH. From operator of a decommissioned Russian nuclear power plant to one of Europe's leading decommissioning companies; Die Energiewerke Nord GmbH. Der Weg vom Betreiber eines stillgelegten russischen Kernkraftwerkes zu einem fuehrenden Stilllegungsunternehmen in Europa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philipp, Marlies [Energiewerke Nord GmbH, Rubenow (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    EWN GmbH is a state-owned company with these duties: - decommissioning and demolition of the Greifswald and Rheinsberg nuclear power stations; - safe operation of the Zwischenlager Nord interim store; - development of the 'Lubminer Heide' industrial and commercial estate. Other projects for which EWN GmbH uses its know-how: - disposal of 120 decommissioned Russian nuclear submarines in Murmansk; - decommissioning and dismantling of the Juelich, NRW, AVR experimental reactor; - demolition of nuclear plants; running the Central Decontamination Operations Department at Karlsruhe, BW. Since 2008, EWN GmbH has held 25% of the shares of Deutsche Gesellschaft zum Bau- und Betrieb von Endlagern fuer Abfallstoffe mbH (DBE), a firm building and operating nuclear repositories. (orig.)

  3. Development of self-cooled liquid metal breeder blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malang, S.; Tillack, M.S. [comps.; Barleon, L.; Baumgaertner, S.; Borgstedt, H.U.; Buehler, L.; Buerkle, G.; Dammel, F.; Feuerstein, H.; Fischer, U.; Gabel, K.; Gerhardt, H.; Glasbrenner, H.; Heider, T.; Jordan, T.; Kleefeldt, K.; Kleykamp, H.; Lindau, R.; Moeslang, A.; Norajitra, F.; Reimann, G.; Reimann, J.; Riesch-Oppermann, H.; Ritzhaupt-Kleissl, H.J.; Schleisiek, K.; Schmitz, G.; Schnauder, H.; Stieglitz, R.; Tellini, B.; Tsige-Tamirat, H.

    1995-11-01

    The development of liquid metal breeder blankets for fusion reactors has been performed in the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe as a part of the European fusion blanket development program with the aim to select the two most promising concepts in 1995 for further development. In this report are described the designs of self-cooled blankets together with the results of the accompanying R and D program of the years 1992-1995. The program includes design studies as well as theoretical and experimental work in the fields of neutronics, magneto-hydrodynamics, thermohydraulics, mechanical stresses, compatibility and purification of lead-lithium, tritium extraction and control, safety, reliability, electrical insulating coatings, and fabrication technologies for blanket segments. (orig.) 250 refs.

  4. BUGLE-96 validation with MORSE-SGC/S using water and iron experiments from SINBAD 97

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-12-03

    This document summarizes the validation of MORSE-SGC/S with the BUGLE-96 cross section library. SINBAD Benchmark Experiment 2.004, Winfrith Water Benchmark Experiment and SBE 6.001, Karlsruhe Iron Sphere Benchmark Experiment were utilized for this validation. The MORESE-SGC/S code with the BUGLE-96 cross-section library was used to model the experimental configurations as given in SINDBAD 97. SINDBAD is a shielding integral benchmark archive and database developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). For means of comparison, the experimental models were also executed with MORSE-SGC/S using the BUGLE-80 cross-section library. BUGLE-96 cross section will be used for shielding applications only as recommended by ORNL.

  5. Autonomous Robot Navigation in Human-Centered Environments Based on 3D Data Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüdiger Dillmann

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient navigation of mobile platforms in dynamic human-centered environments is still an open research topic. We have already proposed an architecture (MEPHISTO for a navigation system that is able to fulfill the main requirements of efficient navigation: fast and reliable sensor processing, extensive global world modeling, and distributed path planning. Our architecture uses a distributed system of sensor processing, world modeling, and path planning units. In this arcticle, we present implemented methods in the context of data fusion algorithms for 3D world modeling and real-time path planning. We also show results of the prototypic application of the system at the museum ZKM (center for art and media in Karlsruhe.

  6. The cloud storage service bwSync&Share at KIT

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology introduced the bwSync&Share collaboration service in January 2014. The service is an on-premise alternative to existing public cloud storage solutions for students and scientists in the German state of Baden-Württemberg, which allows the synchronization and sharing of documents between multiple devices and users. The service is based on the commercial software PowerFolder and is deployed on a virtual environment to support high reliability and scalability for potential 450,000 users. The integration of the state-wide federated identity management system (bwIDM) and a centralized helpdesk portal allows the service to be used by all academic institutions in the state of Baden-Württemberg. Since starting, approximately 15 organizations and 8,000 users joined the service. The talk gives an overview of related challenges, technical and organizational requirements, current architecture and future development plans.

  7. VESPA. Behaviour of long-lived fission and activation products in the nearfield of a nuclear waste repository and the possibilities of their retention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischofer, Barbara; Hagemann, Sven [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH, Koeln (Germany); Altmaier, Marcus [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT) (Germany); and others

    2016-06-15

    The present document is the final report of the Joint Research Project VESPA (Behaviour of Long-lived Fission and Activation Products in the Near Field of a Nuclear Waste Repository and the Possibilities of Their Retention), started in July 2010 with a duration of four years. The following four institutions were collaborative Partners in VESPA: - Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH - Institut fuer Energie- und Klimaforschung, IEK-6: Nukleare Entsorgung und Reaktorsicherheit, Forschungszentrum Juelich (FZJ) - Institut fuer Ressourcenoekologie (IRE), Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) - Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgung (INE), Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT) VESPA was funded by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Energy (BMWi) under the contract numbers 02 E 10770 (GRS), 02 E 10780 (FZJ-IEF-6), 02 E 10790 (HZDR-IRE), 02 E 10800 (KIT-INE).

  8. Erstnachweis von Oxyopes lineatus in Deutschland und faunistisch-taxonomische Anmerkungen zu weiteren besonderen Arten aus Baden-Württemberg (Araneae: Lycosidae, Oxyopidae, Salticidae, Thomisidae, Trachelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer, Tobias

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The first record of the oxyopid spider Oxyopes lineatus Latreille, 1806 in Germany is presented together with information on the place of discovery, current distribution and taxonomy. Other interesting spider records from Baden-Württemberg (Germany in the collection of the Natural History Museum Karlsruhe are presented and discussed. Runcinia grammica (C. L. Koch, 1837 and Paratrachelas maculatus (Thorell, 1875 are reported for the first time for Baden-Württemberg; a record of Thanatus arenarius L. Koch, 1872 is the first rediscovery of this species here for over 100 year. The following taxonomical changes, which were proposed by Simon but not followed in the World Spider Catalog, are confirmed: Sphasus lineatus C.L. Koch, 1837 (misidentification and Sphasus lineatus Blackwall, 1861 (misidentification = Oxyopes heterophthalmus (Latreille, 1804.

  9. Kryolize - KT Fund Project

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Safety standards and best practices do exist in the field of cryogenics but, as in most domains, they are generally inserted in a few ‘envelope’ cases commonly used in the industry, whereas applicability to the particularity of research facilities are not fully tailored to its needs. The main objective in these cases is to find a harmonised approach, based on lessons learnt and scientific knowledge. The Kryolize Project was created in order to produce tools with a harmonized approach to size pressure relief devices for cryogenic applications. In view of disseminating such tools to other institutes and industrial partners, the project was submitted to CERN’s KT Fund committee. This talk will focus on the process and deliverables of the KT-Funded Kryolize project, including the method on how to cope with the sizing of pressure relief devices and the R&D collaboration agreement between CERN and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology for an experimental programme.

  10. Measurement of the thermal conductivity and heat transfer coefficient of a binary bed of beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donne, M.D.; Piazza, G. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik; Goraieb, A.; Sordon, G.

    1998-01-01

    The four ITER partners propose to use binary beryllium pebble bed as neutron multiplier. Recently this solution has been adopted for the ITER blanket as well. In order to study the heat transfer in the blanket the effective thermal conductivity and the wall heat transfer coefficient of the bed have to be known. Therefore at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe heat transfer experiments have been performed with a binary bed of beryllium pebbles and the results have been correlated expressing thermal conductivity and wall heat transfer coefficients as a function of temperature in the bed and of the difference between the thermal expansion of the bed and of that of the confinement walls. The comparison of the obtained correlations with the data available from the literature show a quite good agreement. (author)

  11. PREFACE: ARENA 2006—Acoustic and Radio EeV Neutrino detection Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lee

    2007-06-01

    The International Conference on Acoustic and Radio EeV Neutrino Activities, ARENA 2006 was jointly hosted by the Universities of Northumbria and Sheffield at the City of Newcastle Campus of the University of Northumbria in June 2006. ARENA 2006 was the latest in a series of meetings which have addressed, either separately or jointly, the use of radio and acoustic sensors for the detection of highly relativistic particles. Previous successful meetings have taken place in Los Angeles (RADHEP, 2000), Stanford (2003) and DESY Zeuthen (ARENA 2005). A total of 50 scientists from across Europe, the US and Japan attended the conference presenting status reports and results from a number of projects and initiatives spread as far afield as the Sweden and the South Pole. The talks presented at the meeting and the proceedings contained herein represent a `snapshot' of the status of the fields of acoustic and radio detection at the time of the conference. The three day meeting also included two invited talks by Dr Paula Chadwick and Dr Johannes Knapp who gave excellent summaries of the related astroparticle physics fields of high energy gamma ray detection and high energy cosmic ray detection respectively. As well as a full academic agenda there were social events including a Medieval themed conference banquet at Lumley Castle and a civic reception kindly provided by the Lord Mayor of Newcastle and hosted at the Mansion House. Thanks must go to the International Advisory Board members for their input and guidance, the Local Organising Committee for their hard work in bringing everything together and finally the delegates for the stimulating, enthusiastic and enjoyable spirit in which ARENA 2006 took place. Lee Thompson International Advisory Board G. Anton, ErlangenD. Besson, Kansas J. Blümer, KarlsruheA. Capone, Rome H. Falcke, BonnP. Gorham, Hawaii G. Gratta, StanfordF. Halzen, Madison J. Learned, HawaiiR. Nahnhauer, Zeuthen A. Rostovtzev, MoscowD. Saltzberg, Los Angeles L

  12. 13th International Conference on Integral Methods in Science and Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kirsch, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This contributed volume contains a collection of articles on state-of-the-art developments on the construction of theoretical integral techniques and their application to specific problems in science and engineering.  Written by internationally recognized researchers, the chapters in this book are based on talks given at the Thirteenth International Conference on Integral Methods in Science and Engineering, held July 21–25, 2014, in Karlsruhe, Germany.   A broad range of topics is addressed, from problems of existence and uniqueness for singular integral equations on domain boundaries to numerical integration via finite and boundary elements, conservation laws, hybrid methods, and other quadrature-related approaches.   This collection will be of interest to researchers in applied mathematics, physics, and mechanical and electrical engineering, as well as graduate students in these disciplines and other professionals for whom integration is an essential tool.

  13. Bruno Zumino (1923 - 2014)

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    Bruno Zumino died in Berkeley, California, on 21* June, aged 91. His name is mainly associated with the formulation of supersymmetry in four-dimensional space–time.   Bruno Zumino in 1985. (Image credit: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.) Zumino graduated in physics at the University of Rome in 1945 and worked in Göttingen and then at New York University, where he became Chair of the Physics Department. In 1968, he joined the Theory Division at CERN, staying until 1981. It was here that he did his pioneering work with Julius Wess of Karlsruhe in which they formulated the first supersymmetric four-dimensional quantum field theory – the Wess–Zumino model – in 1974. Today supersymmetry is a strong candidate for physics beyond the Standard Model and provides some candidate particles for dark matter. In 1976, two years after its formulation, supersymmetry was combined with the gravitational force, giving birth to supergravity and stunning deve...

  14. Sloterdijk en Politique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Tricoire

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available On entendit parler de Sloterdijk (prononcez Sloterdêk en France en 1999, lorsque « l'affaire Sloterdijk » défraya la chronique après une intervention du philosophe dans un colloque intitulé « Au-delà de l'être. La philosophie après Heidegger ». Professeur à l'Université de Karlsruhe, son intervention intitulée Règles pour le parc humain : réponse à la lettre sur l'humanisme évoque l'humanisme européen. Elle provoqua des réactions fortes, notamment ...

  15. 21st International Conference on Few-Body Problems in Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The 21st International Conference on Few-Body Problems in Physics (FB21) will take place at the Crowne Plaza Chicago Metro Downtown Hotel in the West Loop area of Chicago, Illinois, USA, from May 18th to 22nd, 2015. The first conference of this series took place in London in 1959 and subsequent meetings were held in Brela (1967), Birmingham (1969), Budapest (1971), Los Angeles (1972), Laval (1974), Delhi (1976), Graz (1978), Eugene (1980), Karlsruhe (1983), Sendai (1986), Vancouver (1989), Adelaide (1992), Williamsburg (1994), Groningen (1997), Taipei (2000), Durham (2003),Santos (2006),Bonn (2009),and Fukuoka (2012) see also "History". FB21 will be conducted with the principles passed by the General Assembly in 2008. In particular, no bona fide scientist will be excluded from participation on the grounds of national origin, nationality, or political considerations unrelated to science.

  16. Construction and test of a high power injector of hydrogen cluster ions

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, E W; Hagena, O F; Henkes, P R W; Klingelhofer, R; Moser, H O; Obert, W; Poth, I

    1979-01-01

    A high power injector of hydrogen cluster ions, rated for 1 MV and 100 kW, is described. The injector is split in three separate tanks connected by a 1 MV transfer line. The cluster ion beam source and all its auxiliary equipment is placed at high voltage, insulated by SF/sub 6/ gas at pressure of 4 bar. The main components of the injector are: The cluster ion beam source with integrated helium cryopumps, the CERN type acceleration tube with 750 mm ID, the beam dump designed to handle the mass and energy flux under DC conditions, a 1 MV high voltage terminal for the auxiliary equipment supplied by its 40 kVA power supply with power, and the 1 MV 120 kW DC high voltage generator. This injector is installed in Karlsruhe. Performance tests were carried out successfully. It is intended to use this injector for refuelling experiments at the ASDEX Tokamak. (12 refs).

  17. Optical characterisation of lithium fluoride detectors for broadband X-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidari Bateni, S. [Physics Department, University Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Rome (Italy); Bonfigli, F., E-mail: francesca.bonfigli@enea.it [ENEA, Photonics Micro- and Nano-structures Laboratory, UTAPRAD-MNF, C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Rome) (Italy); Cecilia, A.; Baumbach, T. [Research Center Karlsruhe/K.I.T., Institute for Synchrotron Radiation—ANKA (Germany); Pelliccia, D. [Research Center Karlsruhe/K.I.T., Institute for Synchrotron Radiation—ANKA (Germany); School of Physics, Monash University—ARC Centre of Excellence for Coherent X-ray Science, Victoria (Australia); Somma, F. [Physics Department, University Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Rome (Italy); Vincenti, M.A.; Montereali, R.M. [ENEA, Photonics Micro- and Nano-structures Laboratory, UTAPRAD-MNF, C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Rome) (Italy)

    2013-08-21

    Novel X-ray imaging detectors based on photoluminescence of colour centres in lithium fluoride (LiF) have been proposed and tested for extreme ultraviolet, soft and hard X-rays up to 10 keV. For the first time we present the optical characterisation of LiF crystals and thin films irradiated at the TOPO–TOMO beamline of synchroton light source Anka (Karlsruhe, Germany) in the energy range 6–40 keV for different exposure times. Absorption and photoluminescence spectra were analysed to study the optical response of the LiF-based detectors. High resolved X-ray imaging of commercial test patterns has been obtained on LiF crystals and films by optical readout with a confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscope.

  18. Compatibility of high-Δm2 νe and ν¯e neutrino oscillation searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A. A.; Anderson, C. E.; Bazarko, A. O.; Brice, S. J.; Brown, B. C.; Bugel, L.; Cao, J.; Coney, L.; Conrad, J. M.; Cox, D. C.; Curioni, A.; Djurcic, Z.; Finley, D. A.; Fleming, B. T.; Ford, R.; Garcia, F. G.; Garvey, G. T.; Green, C.; Green, J. A.; Hart, T. L.; Hawker, E.; Imlay, R.; Johnson, R. A.; Karagiorgi, G.; Kasper, P.; Katori, T.; Kobilarcik, T.; Kourbanis, I.; Koutsoliotas, S.; Laird, E. M.; Linden, S. K.; Link, J. M.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Y.; Louis, W. C.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Marsh, W.; Martin, P. S.; McGregor, G.; Metcalf, W.; Meyers, P. D.; Mills, F.; Mills, G. B.; Monroe, J.; Moore, C. D.; Nelson, R. H.; Nguyen, V. T.; Nienaber, P.; Ouedraogo, S.; Patterson, R. B.; Perevalov, D.; Polly, C. C.; Prebys, E.; Raaf, J. L.; Ray, H.; Roe, B. P.; Russell, A. D.; Sandberg, V.; Schirato, R.; Schmitz, D.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Shoemaker, F. C.; Smith, D.; Soderberg, M.; Sorel, M.; Spentzouris, P.; Stancu, I.; Stefanski, R. J.; Sung, M.; Tanaka, H. A.; Tayloe, R.; Tzanov, M.; van de Water, R.; Wascko, M. O.; White, D. H.; Wilking, M. J.; Yang, H. J.; Zeller, G. P.; Zimmerman, E. D.

    2008-07-01

    This article presents the compatibility of experimental data from neutrino oscillation experiments with a high-Δm2 two-neutrino oscillation hypothesis. Data is provided by the Bugey, Karlsruhe Rutherford Medium Energy Neutrino Experiment 2 (KARMEN2), Los Alamos Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector (LSND), and MiniBooNE experiments. The LSND, KARMEN2, and MiniBooNE results are 25.36% compatible within a two-neutrino oscillation hypothesis. However, the point of maximal compatibility is found in a region that is excluded by the Bugey data. A joint analysis of all four experiments, performed in the sin⁡22θvsΔm2 region common to all data, finds a maximal compatibility of 3.94%. This result does not account for additions to the neutrino oscillation model from sources such as CP violation or sterile neutrinos.

  19. Petal Integration for the CMS Tracker End Caps

    CERN Document Server

    Bergauer, Thomas; Friedl, Markus; Hansel, S; Hrubec, Josef; Krammer, Manfred; Pernicka, Manfred; Beaumont, Willem; De Wolf, Eddi A; Bouhali, Othmane; Clerbaux, Barbara; Dewulf, Jean-Paul; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Mahmoud, Tariq; Neukermans, Lionel; Van der Velde, C; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wickens, John; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Goorens, Robert; Heyninck, Jan; Tavernier, Stefaan; Udo, Fred; Van Lancker, Luc; Bonnet, Jean-Luc; De Callatay, Bernard; Delaere, Christophe; Florins, Benoit; Grégoire, Ghislain; Keutgen, Thomas; Lemaître, Vincent; Michotte, Daniel; Militaru, Otilia; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Rouby, Xavier; Teyssier, Daniel; Van der Donckt, M; Ageron, Michel; Baulieu, Guillaume; Bonnevaux, Alain; Boudoul, Gaelle; Chabanat, Eric; Chabert, Eric Christian; Contardo, Didier; Della Negra, Rodolphe; Estre, Nicolas; Giraud, Noël; Haroutunian, Roger; Lumb, Nicholas; Mirabito, Laurent; Perriès, Stephane; Trocmé, Benjamin; Vanzetto, Sylvain; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ernenwein, Jean-Pierre; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Berst, Jean-Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Didierjean, Francois; Hosselet, J; Goerlach, Ulrich; Graehling, Philippe; Gross, Laurent; Juillot, Pierre; Lounis, Abdenour; Maazouzi, Chaker; Ollivetto, C; Strub, Roger; Van Hove, Pierre; Adolphi, Roman; Brauer, Richard; Braunschweig, Wolfgang; Esser, Hans; Feld, Lutz; Karpinski, Waclaw; Klein, Katja; König, Stefan; Kosbow, M; Lübelsmeyer, Klaus; Olzem, Jan; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Pandoulas, Demetrios; Pierschel, Gerhard; Schael, Stefan; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Schultz von Dratzig, Arndt; Siedling, Rolf; Weber, Markus; Wittmer, Bruno; Wlochal, Michael; Beissel, Franz; Bock, E; Flossdorf, E; Flügge, Günter; Hermanns, Thomas; Heydhausen, Dirk; Jahn, Dieter; Kaussen, Gordon; Linn, Alexander; Poettgens, Michael; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Zoeller, Marc Henning; Butz, Erik; Flucke, Gero; Klanner, Robert; Pein, Uwe; Schirm, Norbert; Schleper, Peter; Steinbruck, G; Stoye, Markus; Van Staa, Rolf; Atz, Bernd; Blüm, Peter; de Boer, Wim; Bogelsbacher, F; Barvich, Tobias; Dehm, Philip; Dierlamm, Alexander; Dirkes, Guido; Fahrer, Manuel; Fernández, J; Frey, Martin; Furgeri, Alexander; Gregoriev, E; Hartmann, Frank; Heier, Stefan; Kaminski, Jochen; Ledermann, Bernhard; Muller, Th; Piaseki, C; Sabellek, Andreas; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Steck, Pia; Theel, Andreas; Weiler, Thomas; Weseler, Siegfried; Zhukov, Valery; Freudenreich, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    This note describes the assembly and testing of the 292 petals built for the CMS Tracker End Caps from the beginning of 2005 until the summer of 2006. Due to the large number of petals to be assembled and the need to reach a throughput of 10 to 15 petals per week, a distributed integration approach was chosen. This integration was carried out by the following institutes: I. and III. Physikalisches Institut - RWTH Aachen University; IIHE, ULB \\& VUB Universities, Brussels; Hamburg University; IEKP, Karlsruhe University; FYNU, Louvain University; IPN, Lyon University; and IPHC, Strasbourg University. Despite the large number of petals which needed to be reworked to cope with a late-discovered module issue, the quality of the petals is excellent with less than 0.2\\% bad channels.

  20. Corrosion of canister materials for radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kienzler, Bernhard [KIT Karlsruhe (Germany). Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgung (INE)

    2017-08-15

    In the period between 1980 and 2004, corrosion studies on various metallic materials have been performed at the Research Center Karlsruhe. The objectives of these experimental studies addressed mainly the performance of canister materials for heat producing, high-level wastes and spent nuclear fuels for a repository in a German salt dome. Additional studies covered the performance of steels for packaging wastes with negligible heat production under conditions to be expected in rocksalt and in the Konrad iron ore mine. The results of the investigations have been published in journals and conference proceedings but also in ''grey literature''. This paper presents a summary of the results of corrosion experiments with fine-grained steels and nodular cast steel.

  1. Results from KASCADE-Grande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertaina, M., E-mail: bertaina@to.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, Torino (Italy); Apel, W.D. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, KIT - Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Arteaga-Velazquez, J.C. [Universidad Michoacana, Instituto de Fisica y Matematicas, Morelia (Mexico); Bekk, K. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, KIT - Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Bluemer, J. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, KIT - Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, KIT - Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Bozdog, H. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, KIT - Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Brancus, I.M. [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Buchholz, P. [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Siegen (Germany); Cantoni, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, Torino (Italy); Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario, INAF Torino (Italy); Chiavassa, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, Torino (Italy); Cossavella, F. [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, KIT - Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); and others

    2012-11-11

    The KASCADE-Grande experiment, located at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany) is a multi-component extensive air-shower experiment devoted to the study of cosmic rays and their interactions at primary energies 10{sup 14}-10{sup 18} eV. Main goals of the experiment are the measurement of the all-particle energy spectrum and mass composition in the 10{sup 16}-10{sup 18} eV range by sampling charged (N{sub ch}) and muon (N{sub {mu}}) components of the air shower. The method to derive the energy spectrum and its uncertainties, as well as the implications of the obtained result, is discussed. An overview of the analyses performed by KASCADE-Grande to derive the mass composition of the measured high-energy comic rays is presented as well.

  2. Status of the KASCADE-Grande experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kampert, K.-H. E-mail: Karl-Heinz.Kampert@ik.fzk.de; Antoni, T.; Apel, W.D.; Badea, F.; Bekk, K.; Bercuci, A.; Bertaina, M.; Bluemer, H.; Bozdog, H.; Brancus, I.M.; Buetner, C.; Chiavassa, A.; Daumiller, K.; Doll, P.; Engler, J.; Fessler, F.; Ghia, P.L.; Gils, H.J.; Glasstetter, R.; Haeusler, R.; Haungs, A.; Heck, D.; Hoerandel, J.R.; Iwan, A.; Klages, H.O.; Maier, G.; Mathes, H.J.; Mayer, H.J.; Martello, D.; Milke, J.; Morello, C.; Mueller, M.; Navarra, G.; Obenland, R.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Ostapchenko, S.; Petcu, M.; Rebel, H.; Roth, M.; Schieler, H.; Scholz, J.; Thouw, T.; Trinchero, G.C.; Ulrich, H.; Ulrich, R.; Weber, J.H.; Weindl, A.; Wentz, J.; Wochele, J.; Zabierowski, J.; Zagromski, S

    2003-07-01

    The status and capabilities of the KASCADE-Grande extensive air shower experiment are presented. The installation is located at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe and comprises a large collecting area (0.5 km{sup 2}) electromagnetic array (Grande) operated jointly with the existing KASCADE detectors. KASCADE-Grande will cover the primary energy range 10{sup 16} eV < E{sub 0} < 10{sup 18} eV overlapping with KASCADE around 1016 eV, thus providing continuous information on the primary energy and mass of cosmic rays from 3 {center_dot} 1014 eV up to 10{sup 18} eV. The major goal of the measurements is the unambiguous observation of the 'iron knee' expected in the cosmic ray spectrum at E{sub k}{sup Fe} {approx} 10{sup 17} eV.

  3. Cosmic Ray Air Shower Detection with LOPES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haungs, A. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)], E-mail: haungs@ik.fzk.de; Apel, W.D.; Arteaga, J.C. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Asch, T. [Inst. Prozessdatenverarb. und Elektronik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Badea, A.F. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Baehren, L. [ASTRON, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Bekk, K. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bertaina, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, 10125 Torino (Italy); Biermann, P.L. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, 53010 Bonn (Germany); Bluemer, J. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bozdog, H. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Brancus, I.M. [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O. Box Mg-6, RO-7690 Bucharest (Romania); Brueggemann, M.; Buchholz, P. [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Siegen, 57068 Siegen (Germany); Buitink, S. [Dept. of Astrophysics, Radboud University Nijmegen, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands); Butcher, H. [ASTRON, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Chiavassa, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, 10125 Torino (Italy); Cossavella, F. [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Daumiller, K. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Di Pierro, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, 10125 Torino (Italy)] (and others)

    2008-01-15

    LOPES is set up at the location of the KASCADE-Grande extensive air shower experiment in Karlsruhe, Germany and aims to investigate radio pulses from extensive air showers experimentally and theoretically. Data taken during half a year of operation of 10 LOPES antennas (LOPES-10), triggered by EAS observed with KASCADE-Grande have been analysed. We report about the results of correlations with shower parameters present in the radio signals measured by LOPES-10. The extended setup LOPES-30 consists of 30 antennas which have an absolute calibration and the data of which will be compared with expectations from detailed Monte-Carlo simulations. In addition, LOPES operates antennas of a different type (LOPES{sup STAR}) which are optimized for an application at the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  4. Towards the energy spectrum and composition of primary cosmic rays in the knee region: methods and results at KASCADE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haungs, A. E-mail: haungs@ik3.fzk.de; Antoni, T.; Apel, W.D.; Badea, F.; Bekk, K.; Bernloehr, K.; Bluemer, H.; Bollmann, E.; Bozdog, H.; Brancus, I.M.; Buettner, C.; Chilingarian, A.; Daumiller, K.; Doll, P.; Engler, J.; Fessler, F.; Gils, H.J.; Glasstetter, R.; Haeusler, R.; Hafemann, W.; Heck, D.; Hoerandel, J.R.; Holst, T.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kempa, J.; Klages, H.O.; Knapp, J.; Martello, D.; Mathes, H.J.; Matussek, P.; Mayer, H.J.; Milke, J.; Muehlenberg, D.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Petcu, M.; Rebel, H.; Risse, M.; Roth, M.; Schatz, G.; Thouw, T.; Ulrich, H.; Vardanyan, A.; Vulpescu, B.; Weber, J.H.; Wentz, J.; Wiegert, T.; Wochele, J.; Zabierowski, J.; Zagromski, S

    2001-04-01

    KASCADE (KArlsruhe Shower Core and Array DEtector) is a multi-detector setup to observe the electromagnetic, muonic and hadronic air shower components simultaneously at primary energies in the region of the 'knee'. A large number of observables per single shower are registered. The main aims of the experiment are the determination of the primary energy spectrum around the 'knee' and the energy variation of the chemical composition. The measurements reveal an increasing mean mass of the primary cosmic rays above the observed kink, and a sharper knee for the light primary component than for the all-particle spectrum, and the absence of a knee for the heavy component between 1 and 10 PeV.

  5. Recent results of KASCADE phenomenology of extensive air showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatz, G. E-mail: bgschatz@t-online.de; Antoni, T.; Apel, W.D.; Badea, F.; Bekk, K.; Bernloehr, K.; Bluemer, H.; Bollmann, E.; Bozdog, H.; Brancus, I.M.; Buettner, C.; Chilingarian, A.; Daumiller, K.; Doll, P.; Engler, J.; Fessler, F.; Gils, H.J.; Glasstetter, R.; Haeusler, R.; Hafemann, W.; Haungs, A.; Heck, D.; Hoerandel, J.R.; Holst, T.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kempa, J.; Klages, H.O.; Knapp, J.; Martello, D.; Mathes, H.J.; Matussek, P.; Mayer, H.J.; Milke, J.; Muehlenberg, D.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Petcu, M.; Rebel, H.; Risse, M.; Roth, M.; Thouw, T.; Ulrich, H.; Vardanyan, A.; Vulpescu, B.; Weber, J.H.; Wentz, J.; Wiegert, T.; Wochele, J.; Zabierowski, J.; Zagromski, S

    2001-04-01

    KASCADE (KArlsruhe Shower Core and Array DEtector) is a multi-detector setup to observe the electromagnetic, muonic and hadronic air shower components simultaneously in the energy region around the 'knee' of the primary spectrum. Its main aim is to determine energy spectrum and composition of hadrons in primary cosmic rays. This is attempted by registering a large number of observables for each EAS including measurements of electrons, muons and hadrons. This contribution gives a short description of the experiment and then presents some results on the lateral distributions of various particle types and on the spectrum of hadrons. The status of our analyses to determine mass composition is presented in an accompanying contribution by A. Haungs.

  6. The LOPES experiment - Recent results, status and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huege, T., E-mail: tim.huege@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) - Campus North, Institut fuer Kernphysik (Germany); Apel, W.D. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) - Campus North, Institut fuer Kernphysik (Germany); Arteaga, J.C. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) - Campus South, Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik (Germany); Asch, T. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) - Campus North, Institut fuer Prozessdatenverarbeitung und Elektronik (Germany); Baehren, L. [Radboud University Nijmegen, Department of Astrophysics (Netherlands); Bekk, K. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) - Campus North, Institut fuer Kernphysik (Germany); Bertaina, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell& #x27; Universita Torino (Italy); Biermann, P.L. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie Bonn (Germany); Bluemer, J. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) - Campus North, Institut fuer Kernphysik (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) - Campus South, Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik (Germany); Bozdog, H. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) - Campus North, Institut fuer Kernphysik (Germany); Brancus, I.M. [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Buchholz, P. [Universitaet Siegen, Fachbereich Physik (Germany); Buitink, S. [Radboud University Nijmegen, Department of Astrophysics (Netherlands); Cantoni, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell& #x27; Universita Torino (Italy); INAF Torino, Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario (Italy); and others

    2012-01-11

    The LOPES experiment at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology has been taking radio data in the frequency range from 40 to 80 MHz in coincidence with the KASCADE-Grande air shower detector since 2003. Various experimental configurations have been employed to study aspects such as the energy scaling, geomagnetic dependence, lateral distribution, and polarization of the radio emission from cosmic rays. The high quality per-event air shower information provided by KASCADE-Grande has been the key to many of these studies and has even allowed us to perform detailed per-event comparisons with simulations of the radio emission. In this article, we give an overview of results obtained by LOPES, and present the status and perspectives of the ever-evolving experiment.

  7. Cosmic ray physics around the knee with the KASCADE experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haungs, A.; Antoni, T.; Apel, W.D.; Bekk, K.; Bernloehr, K.; Bluemer, H.; Bollmann, E.; Buettner, C.; Doll, P.; Engler, J.; Fessler, F.; Gils, H. J.; Haeusler, R.; Hafemann, W.; Heck, D.; Holst, T.; Kampert, K.-H.; Klages, H. O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matussek, P.; Mayer, H. J.; Milke, J.; Muehlenberg, D.; Oehlschlager, J.; Rebel, H.; Risse, M.; Roth, M.; Schatz, G.; Thouw, T.; Ulrich, H.; Weber, J. H.; Wentz, J.; Wiegert, T.; Wochele, J.; Zagromski, S. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Badea, F.; Bozdog, H.; Petcu, M.; Vulpescu, B. [Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Daumiller, K.; Glasstetter, R.; Knapp, J.; Martello, D. [Karlsruhe Univ., Karlsruhe (Germany). Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik; Vardanyan, A. [Yerevan Physics Institute, Cosmic Ray Division, Yerevan (Armenia); Kempa, J. [Lodz Univ., Lodz (Poland). Dept. of Experimental Physics; Zabierowski, J. [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Lodz (Poland)

    2001-10-01

    KASCADE (Karlsruhe Shower Core and Array DEtector) is a multidetector setup to observe the electromagnetic, muonic and hadronic air shower components simultaneously for the primary energy region around the knee. The large body of observables per single shower allows to follow the main aims of the experiment in analyses on an event-by-event basis, mainly: 1) slopes and structures of the primary energy spectrum; 2) the energy dependence of the chemical composition of the primaries; 3) tests of the air shower simulation tools underlying the analyses, in particular of the Monte Carlo generators based on different high-energy interaction models; 4) examinations of the air shower development in the atmosphere. Examples and results of different analysis methods are presented for the different subjects.

  8. Probabilistic BPRRC: Robust Change Detection against Illumination Changes and Background Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Kentaro

    This paper presents Probabilistic Bi-polar Radial Reach Correlation (PrBPRRC), a change detection method that is robust against illumination changes and background movements. Most of the traditional change detection methods are robust against either illumination changes or background movements; BPRRC is one of the illumination-robust change detection methods. We introduce a probabilistic background texture model into BPRRC and add the robustness against background movements including foreground invasions such as moving cars, walking people, swaying trees, and falling snow. We show the superiority of PrBPRRC in the environment with illumination changes and background movements by using three public datasets and one private dataset: ATON Highway data, Karlsruhe traffic sequence data, PETS 2007 data, and Walking-in-a-room data.

  9. An Analysis of the Thermal and Structure Behaviour of the UO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2}-Fuel in the Irradiation Experiment of the UO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2}-Fuel in the Irradiation Experiment FR2 Capsule Test Series 5a; Analisis termico y estructural del combustible UO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} irradiado en el reactor FR2 dentro del experimento KVE-Vg.5a

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Jimenez, J.; Helmut, E.

    1981-07-01

    In the Karlsruhe research reactor FR2 nine fuel pins were irradiated within three irradiation capsules in the course of the test series 5a. The pins contained UO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} fuel pellets. They reached bump values of about 6, 17 and 47 Mwd/Kg Me with linear rod powers of 400 to 600 W/cm and clad surface temperature between 500 and 700 degree centigree. A detailed analysis of the fuel structuration data (columnar-grain and equiaxed- -grain growth regions) have allowed to determine, with the help of physic-mathematical models, the radii of these regions and the heat transfer through the contact zone between fuel and clad depending on the bump. The results of the analysis showed that the fuel surface temperature rose with increasing burnup. (Author) 16 refs.

  10. Effects of some metals on beech ectomycorrhizae with special reference to Cenococcum geophilum (Fr. ). An in vivo and in vitro study. In vivo und in vitro Untersuchungen zur Schadwirkung einiger Metalle and Buchen-Ektomykorrhizen mit besonderer Beruecksichtigung von Cenococcum geophilum Fr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, H.P.

    1989-07-12

    This thesis tries to establish whether damage of the mycorrhiza could be one of the causes of the new type of forest decline. In vivo and in vitro examinations on beech mycorrhiza were carried out to investigate whether a hypothetically assumed disorder in the ectomycorrhiza symbiosis can be caused by substratum changes, for instance. It was presumed that such disorders would be structurally noticeable. For this purpose, the beech mycorrhiza of two long term observation sites near Karlsruhe were investigated as to vitality in forests affected by forest decline. Root samples taken at regular intervals during 1985 and 1986 from areas of severely damaged beeches and from areas of undamaged to lightly damaged beeches were prepared for cytological examinations. As the analysis of trace elements showed increased metal contents, particularly of copper, in the ground of damaged trees, experiments with artificial mycorrhizal formation and mycelium cultures were carried out to check the above mentioned hypothesis. Test fungus was Cenococcum geophilum. (orig.).

  11. Cooling unit for a superconducting power cable. Two years successful operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzog, Friedhelm [Messer Group GmbH, Krefeld (Germany); Kutz, Thomas [Messer Industriegase GmbH, Bad Soden (Germany); Stemmle, Mark [Nexans Deutschland GmbH, Hannover (Germany); Kugel, Torsten [Westnetz GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    High temperature super conductors (HTS) can efficiently be cooled with liquid nitrogen down to a temperature of 64 K (-209 C). Lower temperatures are not practical, because nitrogen becomes solid at 63 K (-210 C). To achieve this temperature level the coolant has to be vaporized below atmospheric pressure. Messer has developed a cooling unit with an adequate vacuum subcooler, a liquid nitrogen circulation system, and a storage vessel for cooling an HTS power cable. The cooling unit was delivered in 2013 for the German AmpaCity project of RWE Deutschland AG, Nexans and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. Within this project RWE and Nexans installed the worldwide longest superconducting power cable in the city of Essen, Germany. The cable is in operation since March 10th, 2014.

  12. Simulation of the Quench-06 experiment with Scdapsim; Simulacion del experimento Quench-06 con Scdapsim

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angel M, E. del; Nunez C, A.; Amador G, R. [CNSNS, Dr. Barragan No. 779, 03020 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: edangelm@cnsns.gob.mx

    2003-07-01

    The present work describes the pattern of the called Quench installation developed and used by the National Commission of Nuclear Security and Safeguards (CNSNS) for their participation in the International Standard Problem 45 (ISP), organized by the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). The exercise consisted on the simulation of the denominated experiment Quench-06 carried out in the experimental installation Quench located in the Forschungszentrum laboratory in Karlsruhe, Germany. The experiment Quench-06 consisted on simulating the sudden and late injection of water in a fuel assemble for a pressurized reactor (PWR). The CNSNS uses the version bd of the SCDAPSIM code developed by the company Innovative Software Systems (ISS) to simulate this experiment. The obtained results showed that the code is able to predict the experiment partially when overestimating the hydrogen production and of the partial fused of some fuel pellets, but predicting correctly the damage in the shroud. (Author)

  13. The Atomic Law, the German Bundesrat and the administrative organisation; Das Atomrecht, der Bundesrat und die Verwaltungsorganisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgi, Martin [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Deutsches und Europaeisches Oeffentliches Recht, insbesondere Wirtschaftsverfassungs- und Wirtschaftsverwaltungsrecht

    2011-02-24

    Soon, the Federal Constitutional Court (Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany) will deal with both the Eleventh Amendment of the Atomic Energy Act effecting the extension of the operating period of nuclear power plants as well as with the Twelfth Amendment of the Atomic Energy Act which in particular contains some security-related regulations due to European legal occasion. The emphasis is on the Article 87c of the Basic Law. According to Article 87c of the Basic Law, the legislation in the field of nuclear law requires the consent of the German Bundesrat. The possible of approval of both laws is subject to certain administrative organization legal circumstances. The sober investigation and evaluation of these circumstances in the context of Article 83 et seq. of the Basic Law results to the conclusion that the two amending laws do not require the consent of the German Bundesrat.

  14. The stellar neutron capture cross section of 60Fe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reifarth, Rene; Heil, Michael [GSI, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Schumann, Dorothea [PSI, 5313 Villigen (Switzerland); Dillmann, Iris; Domingo-Pardo, Cesar; Kaeppeler, Franz; Maganiec, Justyna; Voss, Fritz; Walter, Stefan [FZK, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Uberseder, Ethan; Goerres, Joachim; Wiescher, Michael [University of Notre Dame, Physics Department, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)

    2008-07-01

    60Fe is one of the most interesting radioisotopes found on earth. With an halflife of 1.5 Myr it is sensitive to the younger history of the universe (seen as 60Co decays) and the earth (seen as 60Fe in deep see manganese crusts), but contains basically no pre-solar information. In order to use the observational information in a quantitative manner, production and destruction mechanisms of 60Fe have to be understood. Therefore we measured the neutron capture cross section of 60Fe in the astrophysically interesting energy region applying the activation technique at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK). The sample material of 1.1{sup *}10{sup **}16 atoms has been retrieved from a cupper beam stop, which has been irradiated with protons at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI).

  15. Status of the development of the EU 170 GHz/1 MW/CW gyrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagonakis, Ioannis Gr., E-mail: ioannis.pagonakis@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Albajar, Ferran [The European Joint Undertaking for ITER and The Development of Fusion Energy, Barcelona (Spain); Alberti, Stefano [École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), Lausanne (Switzerland); Avramidis, Konstantinos [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Bonicelli, Tullio [The European Joint Undertaking for ITER and The Development of Fusion Energy, Barcelona (Spain); Braunmueller, Falk [École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), Lausanne (Switzerland); Bruschi, Alex [Plasma Physics Institute, National Research Council of Italy, Milano (Italy); Chelis, Ioannis [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National Technical University of Athens (Greece); Cismondi, Fabio [The European Joint Undertaking for ITER and The Development of Fusion Energy, Barcelona (Spain); Gantenbein, Gerd [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Hermann, Virgile [Thales Electron Devices (TED), Vélizy-Villacoublay (France); Hesch, Klaus [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Hogge, Jean-Philippe [École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), Lausanne (Switzerland); Jelonnek, John; Jin, Jianbo; Illy, Stefan [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Ioannidis, Zisis C. [Faculty of Physics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens (Greece); Kobarg, Thorsten [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); and others

    2015-10-15

    The progress in the development of the European 170 GHz, 1 MW/CW gyrotron for electron cyclotron heating & current drive (ECH&CD) on ITER is reported. A continuous wave (CW) prototype is being manufactured by Thales Electron Devices (TED), France, while a short-pulse (SP) prototype gyrotron is in parallel under manufacture at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), with the purpose of validating the design of the CW industrial prototype components. The fabrication of most of the sub-assemblies of the SP prototype has been completed. In a first step, an existing magnetron injection gun (MIG) available at KIT was used. Despite this non-ideal configuration, the experiments provided a validation of the design, substantiated by an excellent agreement with numerical simulations. The tube, operated without a depressed collector, is able to produce more than 1 MW of output power with efficiency in excess of 30%, as expected, and compatible with the ITER requirements.

  16. Field quality of 1.5 m long conduction cooled superconducting undulator coils with 20 mm period length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalbuoni, S.; Glamann, N.; Grau, A. W.; Holubek, T.; Saez de Jauregui, D.; Boffo, C.; Gerhard, Th A.; Turenne, M.; Walter, W.

    2017-07-01

    The Institute for Beam Physics and Technology (IBPT) at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) and the industrial partner Babcock Noell GmbH (BNG) are collaborating since 2007 on the development of superconducting undulators both for ANKA and low emittance light sources. The first full length device with 15 mm period length has been successfully tested in the ANKA storage ring for one year. The next superconducting undulator has 20 mm period length (SCU20) and is also planned to be installed in the accelerator test facility and synchrotron light source ANKA. The SCU20 1.5 m long coils have been characterized in a conduction cooled horizontal test facility developed at KIT IBPT. Here we present the local magnetic field and field integral measurements, as well as their analysis including the expected photon spectrum.

  17. Signatures of Dirac-Weyl fermions in long organic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korytar, Richard; Xenioti, Dimitra; Schmitteckert, Peter; Alouani, Mebarek; Evers, Ferdinand

    2014-03-01

    Oligoacenes are molecules which consist of N linearly fused benzene rings. They have been subject of intensive research since they were suspected to support correlated ground states with charge or spin ordering. In addition, they have been considered promising for technological application in organic electronics. We use ab-intio calculations in order to investigate how the optical gap of the molecule decreases with increasing length N. Intriguingly, we find that the limit of a metallic wire is reached with strong oscillations that exhibit periodicity with several periods that are not commensurate with the lattice symmetries. In particular, at certain magical values N*=10, 21, 32,... the gap is (almost) vanishing and revives again at intermediate values. An explanation will be offered in terms of a band-structure argument. DFG-Center of Functional Nanostructures, DFG Priority Program 1243, HC3 - SCC cluster of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology.

  18. Beam heat load and pressure rise in a cold vacuum chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Casalbuoni

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The beam heat load and the pressure in the vacuum chamber of the cold bore superconducting undulator installed at ANKA (ANgstrom source KArlsruhe have been monitored for almost two years. Possible sources of the observed heat load could be synchrotron radiation from upstream magnets, image currents, electron and ion bombardment. In this paper, the various possible contributions to the heat load are discussed and compared with experimental results. The dynamic pressure increases nonlinearly with the average beam current. The current where it assumes a maximum varies both with the bunch intensity and with the initial vacuum pressure. A correlation between the heat load and the dynamic pressure has been observed. This study suggests that electron bombardment could explain the beam heat load and pressure rise observed for a bunch length of 10 mm.

  19. Large-scale, high-resolution wind resource mapping for wind farm planning and development in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Badger, Jake; Hansen, Jens Carsten

    2014-01-01

    estimates are designed for national and provincial planning and strategic environmental impact assessment for wind power in South Africa and the results have therefore been made available in common GIS formats. The database of results is in the public domain and can be downloaded from the WASA web site......Numerical wind atlas data at 5 km resolution have been used to map the wind resources of the Wind Atlas for South Africa (WASA) domain in great detail: mean wind speed, mean wind power density, elevation and ruggedness index for every 250 metres over an area of 350,000 square kilometres. The wind......-climatological inputs to the wind resource mapping are wind atlas data sets derived from mesoscale modelling using the Karlsruhe Atmospheric Mesoscale Model (KAMM). The topographical inputs to the microscale modelling are 20-m digital height contours from 1:50,000 South African topographical maps and vector-format land...

  20. Large-scale, high-resolution wind resource mapping for wind farm planning and development in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Badger, Jake; Hansen, Jens Carsten

    estimates are designed for national and provincial planning and strategic environmental impact assessment for wind power in South Africa and the results have therefore been made available in common GIS formats. The database of results is in the public domain and can be downloaded from the WASA web site......Numerical wind atlas data at 5 km resolution have been used to map the wind resources of the Wind Atlas for South Africa (WASA) domain in great detail: mean wind speed, mean wind power density, elevation and ruggedness index for every 250 metres over an area of 350,000 square kilometres. The wind......-climatological inputs to the wind resource mapping are wind atlas data sets derived from mesoscale modelling using the Karlsruhe Atmospheric Mesoscale Model (KAMM). The topographical inputs to the microscale modelling are 20-m digital height contours from 1:50,000 South African topographical maps and vector-format land...

  1. Quality assurance and demolition: 2008 symposium; Qualitaetssicherung und Rueckbau: Symposium 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schartmann, F.; Thierfeldt, S. [Brenk Systemplanung GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    2008-04-15

    The 'Quality Assurance and Demolition Symposium, which has become a tradition established jointly by Applus RTD Deutschland GmbH (formerly compra GmbH) and Brenk Systemplanung GmbH, Aachen, was held also in 2008 with the focus on quality assurance and the demolition of nuclear facilities. The conference began with a series of lectures on knowledge and document management in general, and the use of document management systems in the nuclear field in particular. The evening lecture was presented by Axel Weis (Karlsruhe Research Center) on 'Competence Preservation in Nuclear Technology'. The 24 technical papers presented on the next 2 days of the symposium dealt with non-destructive materials testing and with special problems of radiation protection, demolition, and waste management. In 2009, the meeting will cover similar main topics and will again be held in an interesting environment, perhaps in combination with a tour of a demolition project. (orig.)

  2. The EEG grid connection point in the litigation of the Federal Court of Justice; Der EEG-Netzverknuepfungspunkt in der Rechtssprechung des BGH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brahms, Florian; Richter, Christoph [Maslaton Rechtsanwaltsgesellschaft mbH, Leipzig (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    Along with the question of compensation ability of the electricity from renewable energy sources according to the Renewable Energy Act, now a decision of the Federal Court of Justice (Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany) to the grid connection point in the sense of paragraph 5 paragraph 1 of the EEG 2009. This decision as well as an expected decision of the Federal Court of Justice to the definition of the power plant in the sense of paragraph 3 No. 1 of EEG 2009 have a significant impact on the profitability of a power plant. These decisions require a precise evaluation with regard to their transferability to similar situations. Besides the problem of determining the legal grid connection point in particular litigations at a time delay of the network connection and the requirement of evidences from the network operator to the network connection occur with regard to paragraph 7 paragraph 2 of the EEG 2009.

  3. Grid connection point according to EEG. Does the BHG succeed the clearing house?; Netzverknuepfungspunkt nach dem EEG. Folgt der BGH der Clearingstelle?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Jochen; Neusuess, Peter [Gassner, Groth, Siederer und Coll., Berlin (Germany). Bereich Anlagenzulassungs- und Energierecht

    2012-02-15

    Since the introduction of the Renewable Energy Law (EEG) in the year 2000, there is a dispute at which point a network operator has to connect an EEG system to his power distribution system. An explicit regulation on the network connection point first was made by the legislator in paragraph 5 EEG 2009. Due to the surprising recommendation of the Clearing House at the end of September 2011, the conflict opened again. At the Federal Court of Justice (Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany), three proceedings are pending on this issue. Until the Federal Court of Justice has decided one of these three proceedings, the plant operator must assess the legal situation on the basis of previous decisions. With this in mind, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on the argumentation of the decisions and on the possibilities to handle the current situation.

  4. Concluding remarks for ECRIS '02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyneis, Claude

    2002-09-09

    ECRIS'02 was held in Jyvaeskylae Finland at the edge of Lake Jyvaeskylae, which was beautiful location to meet and discuss the state of Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion sources. It was the 15th ECR Ion Source Workshop in a series stretching back to the first workshop held November 6, 1978 in Karlsruhe Germany. Overall, the workshop reports could be characterized as showing solid achievements and steady progress without any spectacular breakthroughs or highly controversial new ideas. In this short report, I will mention some of the highlights and surprises of the workshop that I observed during the meeting and reported on at the close of the meeting. As such, it will be relatively brief and not meant to be all encompassing. A short list of items that made this workshop memorable is given.

  5. Microbial degradation. Mass transfer in the system pollutant - water - sediment; Mikrobieller Abbau. Massentransfer im System Schadstoff - Wasser - Sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiehm, Andreas [Technologiezentrum Wasser (TZW), Karlsruhe (Germany). Abt. Umweltbiotechnologie und Altlasten; Kranzioch, Irene; Stoll, Claudia

    2011-09-15

    The microbial degradation of pollutants in the aquatic environment essentially is influenced by the prevailing redox conditions and mass exchange processes (bioavailability). Within a new project, the Technologiezentrum Wasser TZW (Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany) deals with the microbial conversion under dynamic conditions such as those expected in the area of the Three Gorges Dam at the Yangtze River. In particular, molecular-biological methods (PCR, polymerase chain reaction and DGGE Denatured gradient gel electrophoresis) are used for a targeted monitoring and further developed. The focus of the investigation initially focuses on the degradation of halogenated substances which are used as main substances for understanding the mass exchange between sediment and water as well as the microbial conversion processes. An enhanced understanding of the process and the compilation of the dynamic sales performance can be defined as a target.

  6. El método de los elementos finitos para el cálculo de campos electrostáticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Román Campos

    1982-09-01

    Full Text Available EI Método de los Elementos Finitos se plantea como uno de los sistemas numéricos más apropiados para el cálculo de Campos Electrostáticos por su aplicación al estudio de geometrías cerradas en las que sus condiciones de Frontera son conocidas. En el presente artículo se comenta el empleo del Programa NASTRAN  basado en este método y del Programa TOPONET para la generación de la Red de Elementos Finitos. Los ejemplos que aquí aparecen fueron corridos en el Centro de Cómputo de la Universidad Fridericiana de Karlsruhe. Alemania Federal.

  7. Ludwig Tauscher (1939-2008)

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, It is with deep sorrow and regret that we inform you that our colleague and friend Ludwig Tauscher passed away on Sunday 23 November after a heart attack. Ludwig studied physics at the University of Heidelberg, where he obtained his PhD in 1966. After several postdoctoral appointments at the MPI Heidelberg, and the Universities of Konstanz and Karlsruhe, he joined the University of Basel, where he became Professor of Physics in 1985. Ludwig devoted his entire professional life to teaching and experimental physics. He arrived at CERN in the early seventies, where he performed several experiments at the SC and at the PS, studying exotic atoms with various probes such as μ-, π-, K-, and Σ-. In the early eighties he searched for the production of nucleon-antinucleon bound states at the PS, a subject that was the main motivation for the construction of the LEAR storage ring. At LEAR he studied neutral meson productio...

  8. Commissioning of water detritiation and cryogenic distillation systems at TLK in view of ITER design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristescu, I. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)], E-mail: ion.cristescu@itp.fzk.de; Cristescu, Ioana R.; Doerr, L.; Glugla, M.; Hellriegel, G.; Michling, R. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Murdoch, D. [EFDA Close Support Unit, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Schaefer, P.; Welte, S.; Wurster, W. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    The ITER Isotope Separation System (ISS) and Water Detritiation System (WDS) will be integrated in order to reduce potential chronic tritium releases from the ISS by routing the top (protium) product from the ISS into the Liquid Phase Catalytic Exchange (LPCE) column of WDS. This provides an additional barrier against ISS tritium releases and should mitigate the memory effects due to process parameter fluctuations in the ISS. To support the research activities needed to characterize the performances of various components for WDS and ISS processes in various working conditions and configurations as needed for ITER design, an experimental facility called TRENTA and representative of the ITER WDS and ISS protium separation column has been commissioned at Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK). The TRENTA facility consists of Combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange (CECE) process, with an LPCE column of 8 m, in combination with a cryogenic distillation (CD) process. The processes description and the status of commissioning of TRENTA facility is presented.

  9. Municipal programs of photovoltaic energy development; Les programmes municipaux de developpement du photovoltaique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This study presents some remarkable actions carried out in several European municipalities for the promotion and development of photovoltaic applications: installation of solar cells on public buildings, integration of the photovoltaic energy in the urban plan, application in the transportation sector, programs of public information, of promotion, of incitation, of financing, solar electricity trade, promotion of the 'green current'. After a presentation of the general situation of photovoltaic energy in Europe, and of its development in France, nine case-forms present the experience of nine selected European cities in this domain (Amersfoort (NL), Barcelona (ES), Braedstrup (DK), Karlsruhe (DE), Lausanne (CH), Mataro (ES), Muenchen (ES), Palermo (IT), Zurich (CH)). (J.S.)

  10. Simultaneous removal of mercury, PCDD/F, and fine particles from flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korell, Jens; Paur, Hanns-R; Seifert, Helmut; Andersson, Sven

    2009-11-01

    A multifunctional scrubber (MFS) has been developed to reduce the complexity of flue gas cleaning plants. The MFS integrates an oxidizing scrubber equipped with a dioxin-absorbing tower packing material and a space charge electrostatic precipitator. All these processes have been previously developed at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. In the described multifunctional scrubber, mercury, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen chloride, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), and submicrometer particles are removed simultaneously. A MFS pilot plant with a flue gas volume flow of 250 m(3)/h has been installed in a slipstream of a waste incineration pilot plant. Pilot scale testing was performed to measure mercury, particles, and PCDD/F in the raw and clean gas. After optimization of the process these three flue gas components were separated from the flue gas in the range 87-97%.

  11. NMR methods for the investigation of structure and transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, Edme H. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik und Mechanik

    2012-07-01

    Extensive derivations of required fundamental relations for readers with engineering background New applications based on MRI, PGSE-NMR, and low-field NMR New concepts in quantitative data evaluation and image analysis Methods of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) are increasingly applied in engineering sciences. The book summarizes research in the field of chemical and process engineering performed at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). Fundamentals of the methods are exposed for readers with an engineering background. Applications cover the fields of mechanical process engineering (filtration, solid-liquid separation, powder mixing, rheometry), chemical process engineering (trickle-bed reactor, ceramic sponges), bioprocess engineering (biofilm growth), and food process engineering (microwave heating, emulsions). Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) as well as low-field NMR are covered with notes on hardware. Emphasis is placed on quantitative data analysis and image processing. (orig.)

  12. Transforming industrial heritage in St. Petersburg Possible futures for the southern industrial belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Engel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Together with ITMO University of St. Petersburg, the National Superior School of Architecture of Strasbourg (ENSAS and the Faculty of Architecture of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT set up a Collaborative Urban Design Studio on the transformation of the southern industrial belt of St. Petersburg. The sustainable redevelopment of postindustrial landscapes into attractive urban districts through new programmatic and spatial possibilities taking into account the sense of place and the unique characteristics of St. Petersburg’s urban geography, the reuse of industrial structures and their adaption to new activities, the designing of spatial structures for lively mixed-use neighbourhoods with housing and work facilities meeting different needs and incomes, are some of the key issues for a common workshop scheduled in November 2015.

  13. FLUTE: A versatile linac-based THz source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasse, M. J.; Schuh, M.; Schwarz, M. [Laboratory for Applications of Synchrotron Radiation (LAS), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Naknaimueang, S.; Mathis, Y.-L.; Rossmanith, R.; Wesolowski, P.; Huttel, E. [ANKA Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Plech, A. [Institute for Photon Science and Synchrotron Radiation (IPS), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Schmelling, M. [Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics (MPIK), 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Mueller, A.-S. [Laboratory for Applications of Synchrotron Radiation (LAS), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); ANKA Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Institute for Photon Science and Synchrotron Radiation (IPS), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    A new compact versatile linear accelerator named FLUTE is currently being designed at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. This paper presents the status of this 42 MeV machine. It will be used to generate strong (several 100 MV/m) ultra-short ({approx}1 ps) THz pulses (up to {approx}4-25 THz) for photon science experiments, as well as to conduct a variety of accelerator studies. The latter range from comparing different coherent THz radiation generation schemes to compressing electron bunches and studying the electron beam stability. The bunch charge will cover a wide range ({approx}100 pC-3 nC). Later we plan to also produce ultra-short x-ray pulses from the electron bunches, which, for example, could then be combined for THz pump-x-ray probe experiments.

  14. FLUTE: a versatile linac-based THz source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasse, M J; Schuh, M; Naknaimueang, S; Schwarz, M; Plech, A; Mathis, Y-L; Rossmanith, R; Wesolowski, P; Huttel, E; Schmelling, M; Müller, A-S

    2013-02-01

    A new compact versatile linear accelerator named FLUTE is currently being designed at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. This paper presents the status of this 42 MeV machine. It will be used to generate strong (several 100 MV/m) ultra-short (~1 ps) THz pulses (up to ~4-25 THz) for photon science experiments, as well as to conduct a variety of accelerator studies. The latter range from comparing different coherent THz radiation generation schemes to compressing electron bunches and studying the electron beam stability. The bunch charge will cover a wide range (~100 pC-3 nC). Later we plan to also produce ultra-short x-ray pulses from the electron bunches, which, for example, could then be combined for THz pump-x-ray probe experiments.

  15. Promoting equal opportunity within the transregional Collabortive Research Center "Waves to Weather" (W2W)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurian, Audine; Craig, George

    2017-04-01

    The promotion of equal opportunity (EO) is a central commitment of the transregional Collaborative Research Center "Waves to Weather" (W2W) funded by the DFG. Intense efforts are made to promote EO measures and to support female scientists and parents of young children throughout their career within the consortium. Since the start of W2W in July 2015, the following actions have been undertaken: - an EO committee has been created, which consists of parents of young children and a PhD student from the main partner institutions in Munich, in Mainz and in Karlsruhe. The EO committee has agreed on a list of EO measures to be offered within the consortium and a flyer advertising these measures has been designed, produced and distributed - childcare has been organized during the meetings organized by W2W - outreach events addressed to school girls and promoting the study of physics and mathematics at the university (e.g. Girls' Day) has been organized in Munich, in Mainz and in Karlsruhe - student helpers have been hired to reduce the workload of female principal investigators with young children - efforts are made to invite female keynote speakers to the annual meetings of W2W - regular meetings with the Women's Officer for the Faculty of Physics at the LMU are taking place, e..g to setup a parent-child office. These measures have received very positive feedback from the W2W community and from the partner institutions. Discussions and exchanges of experience with colleagues from other research programs and institutions regarding EO measures would be greatly beneficial to promote EO further.

  16. Optimization of the cold trap design for the KASOLA sodium facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onea, Alexandru; Lux, Martin; Hering, Wolfgang [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology

    2012-11-01

    The KASOLA (KArlsruhe SOdium LAboratory) experimental facility is currently under construction at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. The facility serves for research activities on thermal-hydraulics for liquid metal operated systems for transmutation (fast systems, normal operation, transient behaviour, testing of emergency cooling systems), accelerator target development, applications and development of free surface liquid metal targets for accelerators, as well as feasibility studies of liquid metals for solar applications. Supporting heat transfer studies regarding the development of turbulent liquid metal heat transfer models for CFD tools are also foreseen. In sodium operated facilities several impurities can be released during operation, e.g. argon, oxygen, hydrogen, carbon etc., with several adverse effects such as reducing the thermal performance and/or damaging structural materials. The major impurities monitored are sodium oxide Na{sub 2}O and sodium hydride NaH. Hydrogen can diffuse through the steel pipes of the sodium-air heat exchanger or, in a worse case can be generated by a sodium-water reaction, denoting therefore a leak in the tubes of the heat exchanger. Oxygen may origin from the contact with air during maintenance or from the oxide layer of metallic structures initially exposed to sodium during set into operation procedures. The oxygen as an impurity leads to the corrosion of the steel surfaces, therefore values < 2 ppm have to be ensured, while for hydrogen the accepted amount is about 50 ppb (Hemanath et al.). The sodium purification is performed in a cold trap that allows the agglomeration of sodium oxide and sodium hydride on the large surface of a wire mesh. (orig.)

  17. A nuclear simulation experiment for the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moellendorff, U. von; Giese, H.; Feuerstein, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Reaktorsicherheit]|[Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Hochleistungsimpuls- und Mikrowellentechnik]|[Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Hauptabteilung Ingenieurtechnik; Maekawa, F. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst. (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    For studying neutronic and nuclear characteristics of the projected International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), a saturation thick target of natural lithium was irradiated with 40 MeV deuterons from the Karlsruhe Isochronous Cyclotron. The resulting neutron spectrum and yield were measured by multi-foil activation. The production rates of the radionuclides tritium and beryllium-7 in the lithium were also measured. They are (6.85 g {+-} 7%) tritium and (1.85 g {+-} 12%) Be-7 per IFMIF full power year at 40 MeV and 250 mA; these values supersede preliminary results given earlier. Further, samples of two different steels, pure vanadium, and a vanadium alloy were activated in the neutron field, and specific activities of many radionuclides in becquerel per kg of material subsequently determined by gamma spectrometry. The report gives all experimental results together with sufficient experimental details to enable calculations for testing nuclear data. (orig.) [German] Zur Untersuchung von neutronischen und nuklearen Charakteristika der projektierten international fusion materials irradiation facility (IFMIF) wurde ein saettigungsdickes natuerliches Lithiumtarget mit 40-MeV-Deuteronen aus dem Karlsruher Isochronzyklotron bestrahlt. Spektrum und Ausbeute der entsiehenden Neutronen wurden mittels Multifolien-Aktivierung gemessen. Auch die Erzeugungsraten der Radionuklide Tritium und Beryllium-7 im Lithium wurden gemessen. Sie betragen (6.85 g {+-} 12%) Tritium and (1.85 g {+-} 12%) Be-7 pro IFMIF-Volleistungsjahr bei 40 MeV and 250 mA; diese Werte ersetzen frueher angegebene vorlaeufige Ergebnisse. Ausserdem wurden Proben von zwei verschiedenen Staehlen, reinem Vanadium und einer Vanadiumlegierung in dem Neutronenfeld aktiviert und anschliessend durch Gammaspektrometrie spezifische Aktivitaeten vieler Radionuklide in Becquerel pro kg Material bestimmt. Der Bericht enthaelt alle Messergebnisse zusammen mit genuegend experimentellen Einzelheiten, um

  18. Analysis of a thermite experiment to study low pressure corium dispersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, D.

    2001-08-01

    The report describes the recalculation of a thermite experiment in a reduced scale which simulates the discharge of molten core materials out of the pressure vessel of a light water reactor into the open compartments and the dome of the containment. The experiment was performed in the framework of a multinational effort at the Sandia National Laboratory, U.S.A. It is being followed by the DISCO program at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. A computational fluid dynamics code was supplemented with specific models to recalculate the Sandia experiment in order to identify problem areas which need to be addressed in the future. Therefore, a first attempt was undertaken to extrapolate to reactor conditions. This was done in two steps to separate geometric from material scaling relationships. The study shows that important experimental results can be extrapolated according to general scaling laws but that there are sensitivities, especially when replacing thermite by corium. The results show a considerable scatter and a dependence on geometric resolution and dynamics of energy transfer between participating components. (orig.) [German] Der Bericht beschreibt die Berechnung eines in reduziertem Massstab durchgefuehrten Thermitexperimentes, das den Auswurf von geschmolzenem Kernmaterial aus dem Druckbehaelter eines Leichtwasserreaktors in die angrenzenden Raeume und den Dom des Sicherheitsbehaelters beschreibt. Das Experiment wurde im Rahmen einer internationalen Uebereinkunft im Sandia National Laboratory, U.S.A., durchgefuehrt. Die Thematik wird zur Zeit im DISCO Programm im Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe weiter verfolgt. Ein Fluiddynamikcode wurde mit speziellen Modellen ergaenzt, um das Sandia Experiment nachzurechnen. Dabei wurden Problembereiche identifiziert, die zukuenftig bearbeitet werden muessen. Ein erster Versuch der Extrapolation auf den Reaktorfall wurde unternommen. Die Extrapolation wurde in zwei Schritten durchgefuehrt, um die geometrische von der

  19. Design, construction and performance of the current lead test facility CuLTKa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, T.; Bobien, S.; Fietz, W. H.; Heiduk, M.; Heller, R.; Hollik, M.; Lange, C.; Lietzow, R.; Rohr, P.

    2017-09-01

    The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) has a longtime experience in the development of High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) Current Leads (CLs) for high currents leading to several contracts with national and international partners. Within these contracts series production and cold acceptance tests of such CLs were required. The cold test of a large number of CLs requires the availability of a flexible facility which allows fast and reproducible testing. With the Current Lead Test Facility Karlsruhe (CuLTKa) a versatile and flexible test bed for CLs was designed and constructed. The facility consists of five cryostats including two test boxes and is directly connected by a transfer line to a refrigerator with a capacity of 2 kW at 4.4 K. The refrigerator supplies supercritical helium at two different temperature levels simultaneously. Each of the two test cryostats can be equipped with a pair of CLs which is short-circuited at the low temperature level via a superconducting bus bar. For current tests a power supply can provide DC currents up to 30 kA. If required, the facility design offers the potential of withstanding high voltages of up to 50 kV on the test objects. The commissioning of the facility started in July 2014. In total a series of acceptance tests of the CLs for the Japanese JT-60SA will be carried out until second half of 2017 to qualify six CLs with a current of 26 kA and 20 CLs with a current of 20 kA. In the meantime, six CLs@26 kA and 16 CLs@20 kA have been tested in CuLTKa which demonstrates the very effective operation of the facility. This paper describes the setup of the facility from cryogenic, electrical and process control point of view and will highlight the design of particular technical aspects. Furthermore, an overview of the performance during the commissioning phase will be given.

  20. Robotic assisted minimally invasive surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palep, Jaydeep H

    2009-01-01

    The term “robot” was coined by the Czech playright Karel Capek in 1921 in his play Rossom's Universal Robots. The word “robot” is from the check word robota which means forced labor. The era of robots in surgery commenced in 1994 when the first AESOP (voice controlled camera holder) prototype robot was used clinically in 1993 and then marketed as the first surgical robot ever in 1994 by the US FDA. Since then many robot prototypes like the Endoassist (Armstrong Healthcare Ltd., High Wycombe, Buck, UK), FIPS endoarm (Karlsruhe Research Center, Karlsruhe, Germany) have been developed to add to the functions of the robot and try and increase its utility. Integrated Surgical Systems (now Intuitive Surgery, Inc.) redesigned the SRI Green Telepresence Surgery system and created the daVinci Surgical System® classified as a master-slave surgical system. It uses true 3-D visualization and EndoWrist®. It was approved by FDA in July 2000 for general laparoscopic surgery, in November 2002 for mitral valve repair surgery. The da Vinci robot is currently being used in various fields such as urology, general surgery, gynecology, cardio-thoracic, pediatric and ENT surgery. It provides several advantages to conventional laparoscopy such as 3D vision, motion scaling, intuitive movements, visual immersion and tremor filtration. The advent of robotics has increased the use of minimally invasive surgery among laparoscopically naïve surgeons and expanded the repertoire of experienced surgeons to include more advanced and complex reconstructions. PMID:19547687

  1. Charging infrastructures for electric vehicles. Development and evaluation of a development strategy on the basis of driving performance; Ladeinfrastrukturen fuer Elektrofahrzeuge. Entwicklung und Bewertung einer Ausbaustrategie auf Basis des Fahrverhaltens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kley, Fabian

    2011-07-01

    Recently, electric vehicles have once again been attracting increased attention against the backdrop of rising oil prices and the necessity to reduce CO2-emissions. However, it is as yet still unclear which charging infrastructure will be required for these vehicles. Charging infrastructure has not been a major topic in the literature and electric mobility studies up to now. The focus here tends to be on technical design, different standardization efforts, or the demands for a dense infrastructure. The users' perspective is reflected to some extent in surveys conducted in the scope of acceptance studies of electric mobility. However, so far, no analysis has been made of which charging infrastructure will be required based on driving behavior. This thesis therefore describes the technical alternatives for charging an electric vehicle and assesses the charging infrastructure based on an economic assessment considering real driving behavior. An optimal charging profile is determined for each pattern of driving behavior using dynamic programming and entered into a total cost assessment. The optimization incorporates different vehicle concepts, charging infrastructures, as well as battery aging. A minimum cost vehicle concept and the optimal battery size can be determined for each charging profile helping to derive a suitable charging infrastructure. In contrast to the widely held belief that a public charging infrastructure is indispensable, this thesis was able to show that charging should take place in the private domain at low charging power levels. Besides fully electric vehicles, plug-in hybrids are well suited for early market adoption and mean that people can benefit earlier from the advantages of electric mobility with a high all-electric driving share and a guaranteed driving range because of the additional combustion engine. This thesis is based on my research conducted at the Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research (ISI) in Karlsruhe

  2. Simulation of the interaction between the atmosphere, vegetation and the Earth's surface in different parameterisation concepts; Simulation der Wechselwirkung zwischen Atmosphaere, Vegetation und Erdoberflaeche bei Verwendung unterschiedlicher Parametrisierungsansaetze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabe, F.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare two soil vegetation models based on entirely different concepts, namely the ''VEG3D'' model of the Institute of Meteorology and Climate Research of Karlsruhe University and the TERRA model of the German weather service. VEG3D comprises a multilayer soil model which calculates prognostic equations for soil heat and water flows and a vegetation layer in which the vegetation is represented by a single large leaf, in accordance with Deardorff's reference leaf concept (1976). TERRA is a two-layer soil model which calculates soil temperatures by means of the ''Extended Force Restore Method''. TERRA takes account of the vegetation by allowing the properties of the soil surface to change like a vegetation-bearing surface does. [German] Es war das Ziel dieser Arbeit, zwei Bodenvegetationsmodelle mit voellig unterschiedlichen Konzeptionen miteinander zu vergleichen. Bei diesen Modellen handelt es sich um das 'VEG3D' des Instituts fuer Meteorologie und Klimaforschung der Universitaet Karlsruhe und um das 'TERRA' des Deutschen Wetterdienstes. Das VEG3D beinhaltet ein mehrschichtiges Bodenmodell, in dem die prognostischen Gleichungen fuer Bodenwaerme- und Bodenwasserstroeme berechnet werden, sowie eine Bestandsschicht, in der die Vegetation nach dem Referenzblatt-Konzept von Deardorff (1976) durch ein einzelnes, grosses Blatt dargestellt wird. Das TERRA ist ein zweischichtiges Bodenmodell, welches die Bodentemperaturen ueber die 'Extended-Force-Restore Methode' berechnet. Vegetation wird in TERRA beruecksichtigt, in dem die Eigenschaften der Bodenoberflaeche so veraendert werden, dass sie sich verhaelt wie eine bewachsene Oberflaeche. (orig.)

  3. Host-enhanced chemical indexing in technical databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badger, E W; Siems, C D

    1989-11-01

    Many files that index engineering, physics, or other technical literature contain references to chemical compounds. Complex chemical formulas in the title or abstract often contain special characters, for example, (,), [,], +, -, degrees, and %. Upper and lower case letters often are also included. A search of these formulas and symbols in the basic index is next to impossible because the terms in this field are usually parsed to all alphanumeric characters without sensitivity to case. It is possible for an online host to use a character-recognition algorithm to scan the title and abstract data for special characters or character strings and place them in a separate index field when such files are loaded. Such an algorithm has been designed by Fachinformationszentrun Energie, Physik, Mathematik GmbH in Karlsruhe, West Germany (FIZ Karlsruhe), the European service center of STN International, the scientific and technical information network. This algorithm recognizes and analyzes chemical formulas, material descriptions, alloys, and eutectic systems as well as nuclear reactions and dopings that appear in the title, abstract, or other fields. These character strings are converted into a standardized form and placed in a new field (the element terms field) which is supplied by the online host during the loading process. A checklist of allowed terms (symbols and chemical formulas) is used to prevent irrelevant terms from being mistaken for legitimate chemical symbols. For instance, the algorithm can recognize that CPU (central processing unit) is not a legitimate chemical formula. It is easy to demonstrate the utility this additional index supplies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Observational constraints on cosmological future singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran Jimenez, Jose [Aix Marseille Univ, Universite de Toulon CNRS, CPT, Marseille (France); Lazkoz, Ruth [Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, Fisika Teorikoaren eta Zientziaren Historia Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Bilbao (Spain); Saez-Gomez, Diego [Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Departamento de Fisica, Instituto de Astrofisica e Ciencias do Espaco, Lisbon (Portugal); Salzano, Vincenzo [University of Szczecin, Institute of Physics, Szczecin (Poland)

    2016-11-15

    In this work we consider a family of cosmological models featuring future singularities. This type of cosmological evolution is typical of dark energy models with an equation of state violating some of the standard energy conditions (e.g. the null energy condition). Such a kind of behavior, widely studied in the literature, may arise in cosmologies with phantom fields, theories of modified gravity or models with interacting dark matter/dark energy. We briefly review the physical consequences of these cosmological evolution regarding geodesic completeness and the divergence of tidal forces in order to emphasize under which circumstances the singularities in some cosmological quantities correspond to actual singular spacetimes. We then introduce several phenomenological parameterizations of the Hubble expansion rate to model different singularities existing in the literature and use SN Ia, BAO and H(z) data to constrain how far in the future the singularity needs to be (under some reasonable assumptions on the behavior of the Hubble factor). We show that, for our family of parameterizations, the lower bound for the singularity time cannot be smaller than about 1.2 times the age of the universe, what roughly speaking means ∝2.8 Gyrs from the present time. (orig.)

  5. Cyclic multiverses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marosek, Konrad; Dąbrowski, Mariusz P.; Balcerzak, Adam

    2016-09-01

    Using the idea of regularization of singularities due to the variability of the fundamental constants in cosmology we study the cyclic universe models. We find two models of oscillating and non-singular mass density and pressure (`non-singular' bounce) regularized by varying gravitational constant G despite the scale factor evolution is oscillating and having sharp turning points (`singular' bounce). Both violating (big-bang) and non-violating (phantom) null energy condition models appear. Then, we extend this idea on to the multiverse containing cyclic individual universes with either growing or decreasing entropy though leaving the net entropy constant. In order to get an insight into the key idea, we consider the doubleverse with the same geometrical evolution of the two `parallel' universes with their physical evolution [physical coupling constants c(t) and G(t)] being different. An interesting point is that there is a possibility to exchange the universes at the point of maximum expansion - the fact which was already noticed in quantum cosmology. Similar scenario is also possible within the framework of Brans-Dicke theory where varying G(t) is replaced by the dynamical Brans-Dicke field φ(t) though these theories are slightly different.

  6. Interuniversal entanglement in a cyclic multiverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Pérez, Salvador; Balcerzak, Adam; Dąbrowski, Mariusz P.; Krämer, Manuel

    2017-04-01

    We study scenarios of parallel cyclic multiverses which allow for a different evolution of the physical constants, while having the same geometry. These universes are classically disconnected, but quantum-mechanically entangled. Applying the thermodynamics of entanglement, we calculate the temperature and the entropy of entanglement. It emerges that the entropy of entanglement is large at big bang and big crunch singularities of the parallel universes as well as at the maxima of the expansion of these universes. The latter seems to confirm earlier studies that quantum effects are strong at turning points of the evolution of the universe performed in the context of the timeless nature of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation and decoherence. On the other hand, the entropy of entanglement at big rip singularities is going to zero despite its presumably quantum nature. This may be an effect of total dissociation of the universe structures into infinitely separated patches violating the null energy condition. However, the temperature of entanglement is large/infinite at every classically singular point and at maximum expansion and seems to be a better measure of quantumness.

  7. Giant wormholes in ghost-free bigravity theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sushkov, Sergey V. [Department of General Relativity and Gravitation, Institute of Physics,Kazan Federal University, Kremlevskaya street 18, 420008 Kazan (Russian Federation); Volkov, Mikhail S. [Department of General Relativity and Gravitation, Institute of Physics,Kazan Federal University, Kremlevskaya street 18, 420008 Kazan (Russian Federation); Laboratoire de Mathématiques et Physique Théorique CNRS-UMR 7350, Université de Tours, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France)

    2015-06-09

    We study Lorentzian wormholes in the ghost-free bigravity theory described by two metrics, g and f. Wormholes can exist if only the null energy condition is violated, which happens naturally in the bigravity theory since the graviton energy-momentum tensors do not apriori fulfill any energy conditions. As a result, the field equations admit solutions describing wormholes whose throat size is typically of the order of the inverse graviton mass. Hence, they are as large as the universe, so that in principle we might all live in a giant wormhole. The wormholes can be of two different types that we call W1 and W2. The W1 wormholes interpolate between the AdS spaces and have Killing horizons shielding the throat. The Fierz-Pauli graviton mass for these solutions becomes imaginary in the AdS zone, hence the gravitons behave as tachyons, but since the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound is fulfilled, there should be no tachyon instability. For the W2 wormholes the g-geometry is globally regular and in the far field zone it becomes the AdS up to subleading terms, its throat can be traversed by timelike geodesics, while the f-geometry has a completely different structure and is not geodesically complete. There is no evidence of tachyons for these solutions, although a detailed stability analysis remains an open issue. It is possible that the solutions may admit a holographic interpretation.

  8. Wormholes supported by phantom energy from Shan-Chen cosmological fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Deng [Nankai University, Theoretical Physics Division, Chern Institute of Mathematics, Tianjin (China); Meng, Xin-He [Nankai University, Department of Physics, Tianjin (China); Institute of Theoretical Physics, CAS, State key Lab of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China)

    2016-03-15

    In the present paper, the exact solutions of spherically symmetrical Einstein field equations describing wormholes supported by phantom energy that violates the null energy condition from Shan-Chen background fluid are obtained. We have considered the important case of the model parameter ψ ∼ 1, which corresponds to the ''saturation effect'', and this regime corresponds to an effective form of ''asymptotic freedom'' for the fluids, but occurring at cosmological rather than subnuclear scales. Then we investigate the allowed range for the values of the model parameters g and ω when the spacetime metrics describe wormholes and discuss the possible singularities of the solutions, finding that the obtained spacetimes are geodesically complete. Furthermore, we construct two traversable wormholes through matching our obtained interior solutions to the exterior Schwarzschild solutions and analyze the traversabilities of the wormholes. Finally, we consider the case of anisotropic pressure and discover that the transverse pressure also crosses the phantom divide -1 with the growth of the wormhole dimension, and it tends to be the same as the radial pressure with the growth of the wormhole radius. (orig.)

  9. Entanglement conservation, ER=EPR, and a new classical area theorem for wormholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remmen, Grant N. [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical PhysicsCalifornia Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bao, Ning [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical PhysicsCalifornia Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Institute for Quantum Information and Matter,California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Pollack, Jason [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical PhysicsCalifornia Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2016-07-11

    We consider the question of entanglement conservation in the context of the ER=EPR correspondence equating quantum entanglement with wormholes. In quantum mechanics, the entanglement between a system and its complement is conserved under unitary operations that act independently on each; ER=EPR suggests that an analogous statement should hold for wormholes. We accordingly prove a new area theorem in general relativity: for a collection of dynamical wormholes and black holes in a spacetime satisfying the null curvature condition, the maximin area for a subset of the horizons (giving the largest area attained by the minimal cross section of the multi-wormhole throat separating the subset from its complement) is invariant under classical time evolution along the outermost apparent horizons. The evolution can be completely general, including horizon mergers and the addition of classical matter satisfying the null energy condition. This theorem is the gravitational dual of entanglement conservation and thus constitutes an explicit characterization of the ER=EPR duality in the classical limit.

  10. Giant wormholes in ghost-free bigravity theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sushkov, Sergey V.; Volkov, Mikhail S., E-mail: sergey_sushkov@mail.ru, E-mail: volkov@lmpt.univ-tours.fr [Department of General Relativity and Gravitation, Institute of Physics, Kazan Federal University, Kremlevskaya street 18, 420008 Kazan (Russian Federation)

    2015-06-01

    We study Lorentzian wormholes in the ghost-free bigravity theory described by two metrics, g and f. Wormholes can exist if only the null energy condition is violated, which happens naturally in the bigravity theory since the graviton energy-momentum tensors do not apriori fulfill any energy conditions. As a result, the field equations admit solutions describing wormholes whose throat size is typically of the order of the inverse graviton mass. Hence, they are as large as the universe, so that in principle we might all live in a giant wormhole. The wormholes can be of two different types that we call W1 and W2. The W1 wormholes interpolate between the AdS spaces and have Killing horizons shielding the throat. The Fierz-Pauli graviton mass for these solutions becomes imaginary in the AdS zone, hence the gravitons behave as tachyons, but since the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound is fulfilled, there should be no tachyon instability. For the W2 wormholes the g-geometry is globally regular and in the far field zone it becomes the AdS up to subleading terms, its throat can be traversed by timelike geodesics, while the f-geometry has a completely different structure and is not geodesically complete. There is no evidence of tachyons for these solutions, although a detailed stability analysis remains an open issue. It is possible that the solutions may admit a holographic interpretation.

  11. NEC violation in mimetic cosmology revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ijjas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the context of Einstein gravity, if the null energy condition (NEC is satisfied, the energy density in expanding space–times always decreases while in contracting space–times the energy density grows and the universe eventually collapses into a singularity. In particular, no non-singular bounce is possible. It is, though, an open question if this energy condition can be violated in a controlled way, i.e., without introducing pathologies, such as unstable negative-energy states or an imaginary speed of sound. In this letter, we will re-examine the claim that the recently proposed mimetic scenario can violate the NEC without pathologies. We show that mimetic cosmology is prone to gradient instabilities even in cases when the NEC is satisfied (except for trivial examples. Most interestingly, the source of the instability is always the Einstein–Hilbert term in the action. The matter stress-energy component does not contribute spatial gradient terms but instead makes the problematic curvature modes dynamical. We also show that mimetic cosmology can be understood as a singular limit of known, well-behaved theories involving higher-derivative kinetic terms and discuss ways of removing the instability.

  12. Horizonless, singularity-free, compact shells satisfying NEC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Karthik H.

    2017-02-01

    Gravitational collapse singularities are undesirable, yet inevitable to a large extent in General Relativity. When matter satisfying null energy condition (NEC) collapses to the extent a closed trapped surface is formed, a singularity is inevitable according to Penrose's singularity theorem. Since positive mass vacuum solutions are generally black holes with trapped surfaces inside the event horizon, matter cannot collapse to an arbitrarily small size without generating a singularity. However, in modified theories of gravity where positive mass vacuum solutions are naked singularities with no trapped surfaces, it is reasonable to expect that matter can collapse to an arbitrarily small size without generating a singularity. Here we examine this possibility in the context of a modified theory of gravity with torsion in an extra dimension. We study singularity-free static shell solutions to evaluate the validity of NEC on the shell. We find that with sufficiently high pressure, matter can be collapsed to arbitrarily small size without violating NEC and without producing a singularity.

  13. Can test fields destroy the event horizon in the Kerr–Taub–NUT spacetime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düztaş, Koray

    2018-02-01

    In this work we investigate if the interaction of the Kerr–Taub–NUT spacetime with test scalar and neutrino fields can lead to the destruction of the event horizon. It turns out that both extremal and nearly extremal black holes can be destroyed by scalar and neutrino fields if the initial angular momentum of the spacetime is sufficiently large relative to its mass and NUT charge. This is the first example in which a classical field satisfying the null energy condition can actually destroy an extremal black hole. For scalar fields, the modes that can lead to the destruction of the horizon are restricted to a narrow range due to superradiance. Since superradiance does not occur for neutrino fields, the destruction of the horizon by neutrino fields is generic, and it cannot be fixed by backreaction effects. We also show that the extremal black holes that can be destroyed by scalar fields correspond to naked singularities in the Kerr limit, in accord with the previous results which imply that extremal Kerr black holes cannot be destroyed by scalar test fields.

  14. Spinor driven cosmic bounces and their cosmological perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, Shane; Lehners, Jean-Luc; Qiu, Taotao

    2017-10-01

    When coupling fermions to gravity, torsion is naturally induced. We consider the possibility that fermion bilinears can act as a source for torsion, altering the dynamics of the early universe such that the big bang gets replaced with a classical nonsingular bounce. We extend previous studies in several ways: we allow more general fermion couplings, consider both commuting and anticommuting spinors, and demonstrate that with an appropriate choice of potential one can easily obtain essentially arbitrary equations of state, including violations of the null energy condition, as required for a bounce. As an example, we construct a model of ekpyrotic contraction followed by a nonsingular bounce into an expanding phase. We analyze cosmological fluctuations in these models, and show that the perturbations can be rewritten in real fluid form. We find indications that spinor bounces are stable, and exhibit several solutions for the perturbations. Interestingly, spinor models do not admit a scalar-vector-tensor decomposition, and consequently some types of scalar fluctuations can act as a source for gravitational waves already at linear order. We also find that the first order dynamics are directionally dependent, an effect which might lead to distinguished observational signatures.

  15. NEC violation in mimetic cosmology revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Ijjas, Anna; Steinhardt, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    In the context of Einstein gravity, if the null energy condition (NEC) is satisfied, the energy density in expanding space-times always decreases while in contracting space-times the energy density grows and the universe eventually collapses into a singularity. In particular, no non-singular bounce is possible. It is, though, an open question if this energy condition can be violated in a controlled way, i.e., without introducing pathologies, such as unstable negative-energy states or an imaginary speed of sound. In this paper, we will re-examine the claim that the recently proposed mimetic scenario can violate the NEC without pathologies. We show that mimetic cosmology is prone to gradient instabilities even in cases when the NEC is satisfied (except for trivial examples). Most interestingly, the source of the instability is always the Einstein-Hilbert term in the action. The matter stress-energy component does not contribute spatial gradient terms but instead makes the problematic curvature modes dynamical. ...

  16. N =1 supergravitational heterotic galileons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deen, Rehan; Ovrut, Burt

    2017-11-01

    Heterotic M -theory consists of a five-dimensional manifold of the form S 1 / Z 2 × M 4. It has been shown that one of the two orbifold planes, the "observable" sector, can have a low energy particle spectrum which is precisely the N = 1 super-symmetric standard model with three right-handed neutrino chiral supermultiplets. The other orbifold plane constitutes a "hidden" sector which, since its communication with the observable sector is suppressed, will be ignored in this paper. However, the finite fifth-dimension allows for the existence of three-brane solitons which, in order to render the vacuum anomaly free, must appear. That is, heterotic M -theory provides a natural framework for brane-world cosmological scenarios coupled to realistic particle physics. The complete worldvolume action of such three-branes is unknown. Here, treating these solitons as probe branes, we construct their scalar worldvolume Lagrangian as a derivative expansion of the heterotic DBI action. In analogy with similar calculations in the M 5 and AdS 5 context, this leads to the construction of "heterotic Galileons". However, realistic vacua of heterotic M -theory are necessarily N = 1 supersymmetric in four dimensions. Hence, we proceed to supersymmetrize the three-brane worldvolume action, first in flat superspace and then extend the results to N = 1 supergravity. Such a worldvolume action may lead to interesting cosmology, such as "bouncing" universe models, by allowing for the violation of the Null Energy Condition (NEC).

  17. Anisotropic compact star models in Karmarkar space time continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuloria, Pratibha

    2017-12-01

    In the present article, we have explored some new anisotropic compact star models by using embedded class one space time metric. We proceed our calculations by assuming a particular form of g_{rr} metric potential and solved for the other metric g_{tt} using Karmarkar condition. The matter density, radial pressure, tangential pressure, mass function, surface red-shift, anisotropy are all well behaved inside the fluid sphere. The solution satisfies all energy conditions i.e. strong energy condition, null energy condition, dominant energy condition and weak energy condition. The solution also satisfies the causality condition and can represent stable stellar fluid system as the adiabatic index Γ > 4/3 and the stability factor -1≤ vt2-vr2≤ 0 holds good inside the fluid sphere. We have framed our solution for two compact stars PSR J1614-2230 and SAX J1808.4-3658, which are well-behaved in all respects. The mass and radius of the compact stars PSR J1614-2230 and SAXJ1808.4-3658, obtained from the models are very close to the observational data proposed by Gangopadhyay et al. (Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 431:3216, 2013) and Bhattacharya (2001) respectively.

  18. Galilean creation of the inflationary universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Tsutomu [Department of Physics, Rikkyo University,Toshima, Tokyo 175-8501 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Masahide [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology,Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Yokoyama, Jun’ichi [Research Center for the Early Universe (RESCEU),Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo,Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo,Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (Kavli IPMU),UTIAS, WPI, The University of Tokyo,Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8568 (Japan)

    2015-07-13

    It has been pointed out that the null energy condition can be violated stably in some non-canonical scalar-field theories. This allows us to consider the Galilean Genesis scenario in which the universe starts expanding from Minkowski spacetime and hence is free from the initial singularity. We use this scenario to study the early-time completion of inflation, pushing forward the recent idea of Pirtskhalava et al. We present a generic form of the Lagrangian governing the background and perturbation dynamics in the Genesis phase, the subsequent inflationary phase, and the graceful exit from inflation, as opposed to employing the effective field theory approach. Our Lagrangian belongs to a more general class of scalar-tensor theories than the Horndeski theory and Gleyzes-Langlois-Piazza-Vernizzi generalization, but still has the same number of the propagating degrees of freedom, and thus can avoid Ostrogradski instabilities. We investigate the generation and evolution of primordial perturbations in this scenario and show that one can indeed construct a stable model of inflation preceded by (generalized) Galilean Genesis.

  19. Generalized galilean genesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishi, Sakine; Kobayashi, Tsutomu [Department of Physics, Rikkyo University, Toshima, Tokyo 175-8501 (Japan)

    2015-03-31

    The galilean genesis scenario is an alternative to inflation in which the universe starts expanding from Minkowski in the asymptotic past by violating the null energy condition stably. Several concrete models of galilean genesis have been constructed so far within the context of galileon-type scalar-field theories. We give a generic, unified description of the galilean genesis scenario in terms of the Horndeski theory, i.e., the most general scalar-tensor theory with second-order field equations. In doing so we generalize the previous models to have a new parameter (denoted by α) which results in controlling the evolution of the Hubble rate. The background dynamics is investigated to show that the generalized galilean genesis solution is an attractor, similarly to the original model. We also study the nature of primordial perturbations in the generalized galilean genesis scenario. In all the models described by our generalized genesis Lagrangian, amplification of tensor perturbations does not occur as opposed to what happens in quasi-de Sitter inflation. We show that the spectral index of curvature perturbations is determined solely from the parameter α and does not depend on the other details of the model. In contrast to the original model, a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of curvature perturbations is obtained for a specific choice of α.

  20. Supergravitational conformal Galileons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deen, Rehan; Ovrut, Burt

    2017-08-01

    The worldvolume actions of 3+1 dimensional bosonic branes embedded in a five-dimensional bulk space can lead to important effective field theories, such as the DBI conformal Galileons, and may, when the Null Energy Condition is violated, play an essential role in cosmological theories of the early universe. These include Galileon Genesis and "bouncing" cosmology, where a pre-Big Bang contracting phase bounces smoothly to the presently observed expanding universe. Perhaps the most natural arena for such branes to arise is within the context of superstring and M -theory vacua. Here, not only are branes required for the consistency of the theory, but, in many cases, the exact spectrum of particle physics occurs at low energy. However, such theories have the additional constraint that they must be N = 1 supersymmetric. This motivates us to compute the worldvolume actions of N = 1 supersymmetric three-branes, first in flat superspace and then to generalize them to N = 1 supergravitation. In this paper, for simplicity, we begin the process, not within the context of a superstring vacuum but, rather, for the conformal Galileons arising on a co-dimension one brane embedded in a maximally symmetric AdS 5 bulk space. We proceed to N = 1 supersymmetrize the associated worldvolume theory and then generalize the results to N = 1 supergravity, opening the door to possible new cosmological scenarios

  1. Lifshitz holography: the whole shebang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chemissany, Wissam [Department of Physics and SITP, Stanford University,Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Papadimitriou, Ioannis [Instituto de Física Teórica UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,Madrid 28049 (Spain)

    2015-01-12

    We provide a general algorithm for constructing the holographic dictionary for any asymptotically locally Lifshitz background, with or without hyperscaling violation, and for any values of the dynamical exponents z and θ, as well as the vector hyperscaling violating exponent (http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP04(2013)053, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP04(2013)159), that are compatible with the null energy condition. The analysis is carried out for a very general bottom up model of gravity coupled to a massive vector field and a dilaton with arbitrary scalar couplings. The solution of the radial Hamilton-Jacobi equation is obtained recursively in the form of a graded expansion in eigenfunctions of two commuting operators (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2014.08.057), which are the appropriate generalization of the dilatation operator for non scale invariant and Lorentz violating boundary conditions. The Fefferman-Graham expansions, the sources and 1-point functions of the dual operators, the Ward identities, as well as the local counterterms required for holographic renormalization all follow from this asymptotic solution of the radial Hamilton-Jacobi equation. We also find a family of exact backgrounds with z>1 and θ>0 corresponding to a marginal deformation shifting the vector hyperscaling violating parameter and we present an example where the conformal anomaly contains the only z=2 conformal invariant in d=2 with four spatial derivatives.

  2. Temporal changes in tumor oxygenation and perfusion upon normo- and hyperbaric inspiratory hyperoxia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thews, Oliver [University of Halle, Institute of Physiology, Halle (Saale) (Germany); Vaupel, Peter [University Medical Center Mainz, Department of Radiooncology and Radiotherapy, Tumor Pathophysiology Section, Mainz (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    Strahlensensitivitaet. Jedoch laesst sich eine Strahlentherapie (RT) bei Ueberdruckbedingungen technisch nur schwer realisieren, da die Bestrahlung nach der Dekompression nur sinnvoll ist, wenn der Tumor-pO{sub 2} fuer eine gewisse Zeit erhoeht bleibt. In der Untersuchung sollte daher der Zeitverlauf der Tumoroxygenierung und -durchblutung waehrend und nach hyperbarer Hyperoxie analysiert werden. Tumoroxygenierung, Erythrozytenfluss (als Perfusionsparameter) und Gefaesswiderstand wurden in experimentellen DS-Sarkomen der Ratte mit polarographischen Katheterelektroden und mittels Laser-Doppler-Flussmessungen bei einem Umgebungsdruck von 1 und 2 atm (bar) waehrend Atmung von reinem Sauerstoff oder Carbogen (95 % O{sub 2} + 5 % CO{sub 2}) kontinuierlich erfasst. Waehrend Raumluftatmung folgte der Tumor-pO{sub 2} sehr schnell innerhalb weniger Minuten der Aenderung des Umgebungsdrucks sowohl waehrend Kompression als auch Dekompression. Bei O{sub 2}-Atmung unter hyperbaren Bedingungen aenderte sich der Tumor-pO{sub 2} ueberproportional, wobei der Zeitverlauf vergleichbar schnell war. Mit Carbogen folgte der Tumor-pO{sub 2} den Druckaenderungen leicht verzoegert, doch auch hier wurden innerhalb von 10 min nach Dekompression wieder Ausgangswerte erreicht. Die Tumorperfusion erhoehte sich bei Carbogen-Atmung, blieb bei 100 % O{sub 2} jedoch konstant, was darauf hindeutet, dass Carbogen eine Vasodilatation (d. h. Abnahme des Stroemungswiderstands) erzeugt, O{sub 2} hingegen eine Vasokonstriktion (Zunahme des Stroemungswiderstands). Da der Tumor-pO{sub 2} dem Umgebungsdruck unmittelbar folgt, scheint eine Teletherapie nach Ueberdruckbehandlung nicht erfolgversprechend. Der pO{sub 2} erreichte innerhalb von 5-10 min nach der Dekompression wieder Ausgangswerte. (orig.)

  3. Suitability of thermoluminescence, chemiluminescence, ESR and viscosity measurements as detection method for the irradiation of medicinal herbs; Eignung von Thermolumineszenz-, Chemilumineszenz-, ESR- und Viskositaetsmessungen zur Identifizierung strahlenbehandelter Arzneidrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuettler, C.; Gebhardt, G.; Stock, A.; Helle, N.; Boegl, K.W.

    1993-12-31

    , Kalmuswurzel, Kamillenblueten, Kuemmel, Lavendelblueten, Leinsamen, Lindenblueten, Mariendistelfruechten, Melissenblaettern, Orthosiphonblaettern, Pfefferminzblaettern, Salbeiblaettern, Schachtelhalmkraut, Sennesblaettern, Spitzwegerichkraut, Thymian, Wacholderbeeren, Weissdornblaettern, Weizenstaerke und Wermutkraut untersucht. Je nach Arzneidroge waren die Verfahren dafuer unterschiedlich geeignet. Bei der Chemilumineszenz waren die Unterschiede zwischen unbestrahlten und bestrahlten Drogen am geringsten, dagegen liessen sich mit der Thermolumineszenz an von den Proben isolierten Mineralien gute Ergebnisse erzielen. Bei einigen Drogen liessen sich mit der ESR strahlenspezifische Signale identifizieren. Die Messung der Viskositaet koennte bei einigen Drogen als schnelle und preiswerte Vorpruefung in Frage kommen. (orig.)

  4. Visual inspection of vessel internals; Visuelle Inspektion von Kerneinbauten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabe, G. [Siemens AG KWU, Erlangen (Germany)

    1999-08-01

    Visual inspection has matured to a qualified testing method and has become a standard method for inspection of reactor pressure vessels. Until today, all known defects in RPV internals have been detected by visual inspection. The codes KTA 3204 and DIN 25435-4 describe the framework conditions and requirements for visual inspections, which should be adhered to to the most possible extent. Visual inspections are carried by now at all RPV internals, also at those where access is difficult and limited. The inspection robot SUSI is applied in most cases. The camera and manipulator technology meanwhile has been upgraded to a standard performance quality allowing reliable, fast and easy visual inspection. The personnel is trained accordingly, so as to keep abreast with enhancements. Qualification of the inspection system has been simplified and standardised to a large extent. (orig/CB) [Deutsch] Die Sichtpruefung ist zu einem qualifizierten Pruefverfahren gereift und hat bei der Inspektion der RDB-Einbauten einen festen Platz eingenommen. Bisher wurden alle bekannten Schaeden an den RDB-Einbauten bei der Sichtpruefung festgestellt. In der KTA 3204 und der DIN 25435-4 sind die Rahmenbedingungen und Anforderungen an die Sichtpruefung beschrieben, die es gilt, weitestgehend einzuhalten. Mittlerweile werden an allen RDB-Einbauten, auch an den nur bedingt zugaenglichen, Sichtpruefungen vorgenommen. Dabei hat das Inspektionsfahrzeug SUSI inzwischen den breitesten Raum eingenommen. Die Entwicklung der Kamera- und Manipulatortechnik hat inzwischen einen Stand erreicht, der eine sichere, schnelle und einfache Sichtpruefung zulaesst. Das Pruefpersonal wird laufend fuer die Sichtpruefung geschult und qualifiziert. Die Qualifizierung des Inspektionssystems wurde weitestgehend vereinfacht und standardisiert. (orig.)

  5. Fatigue behavior and microstructural characterization of nickel-base superalloy Inconel 939 produced by laser melting process; Ermuedungsverhalten und mikrostrukturelle Charakterisierung der im Laserschmelzverfahren hergestellten Nickelbasis-Superlegierung Inconel 939

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanagarajah, Pirabagini

    2016-07-01

    abhaengig. Im ausscheidungsgehaerteten Zustand besitzt das SLM-Material bei niedrigen Belastungen und Temperaturen von Raumtemperatur bis 750 C eine hoehere Lebensdauer und zeigt somit ein besseres Ermuedungsverhalten als der Gusswerkstoff. Bei hoeheren Dehnungsamplituden werden vorhandene Poren aktiviert und ein schnelles Versagen tritt ein. Mit geeigneten HIP-Parametern konnte die Porositaet allerdings deutlich reduziert werden.

  6. Mercedes-Benz`s new Brake Assist active driver support in emergency braking situations; Der neue Brake Assist von Mercedes-Benz - aktive Fahrerunterstuetzung in Notsituationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiesewetter, W. [Mercedes-Benz AG, Stuttgart (Germany); Klinkner, W. [Mercedes-Benz AG, Stuttgart (Germany); Reichelt, W. [Daimler Benz, Stuttgart (Germany); Steiner, M. [Mercedes-Benz AG, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1997-06-01

    Mercedes-Benz is the first automobile manufacturer in the world to develop an electronically controlled system for reducing stopping distance in emergency situations. It is called Brake Assist (BAS). This system has been standard in S-class and SL-class models since December 1996 and will be available in other Mercedes automobiles by the middle of 1997 - standardly, at no extra cost. The development of Brake Assist is based on the results of research carried out by Daimler-Benz which reveals that in critical situations, car drivers tend to put their foot down fast enough, but not firmly enough, on the brake pedal. In the initial stages of braking, the electronic Brake-Assist system automatically builds up maximum braking pressure within a fraction of a second, thereby considerably reducing the car`s stopping distance. After anti-lock brakes (ABS), airbag, acceleration skid control (ASR) and Electronic Stability Program (ESP), Mercedes-Benz is therefore making a further contribution towards improving road safety and reducing accident figures. (orig.) [Deutsch] Als weltweit erster Automobilhersteller hat Mercedes-Benz ein elektronisch gesteuertes System zur Verkuerzung des Bremsweges in Notsituationen entwickelt. Sein Name: Brake-Assist (BAS). Seit Dezember 1996 gehoert diese Technik bereits zur Serienausstattung der S- und SL-Klasse. Bis Mitte 1997 ist sie auch in den anderen Mercedes-Personenwagen serienmaessig vorhanden. Die Entwicklung des Brake Assist basiert auf Erkenntnissen der Daimler Benz Forschung, wonach Autofahrer in kritischen Situationen zwar schnell aber nicht kraeftig genug aufs Bremspedal treten. Der elektronische Bremsassistent baut schon am Beginn der Bremsung binnen Sekundenbruchteilen automatisch die maximale Bremskraftverstaerkung auf und verkuerzt dadurch den Anhalteweg erheblich. Damit leistet Mercedes-Benz nach Antiblockiersystem (ABS), Airbag, Antriebsschlupfregelung (ASR) und Electronic Stability Program (ESP) einen weiteren Beitrag zur

  7. Chirped Pulse Rotational Spectroscopy of a Single THUJONE+WATER Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisiel, Zbigniew; Perez, Cristobal; Schnell, Melanie

    2016-06-01

    Rotational spectroscopy of natural products dates over 35 years when six different species including thujone were investigated. Nevertheless, the technique of low-resolution microwave spectroscopy employed therein allowed determination of only a single conformational parameter. Advances in sensitivity and resolution possible with supersonic expansion techniques of rotational spectroscopy made possible much more detailed studies such that, for example, the structures of first camphor, and then of multiple clusters of camphor with water were determined. We revisited the rotational spectrum of the well known thujone molecule by using the chirped pulse spectrometer in Hamburg. The spectrum of a single thujone sample was recorded with an admixture of 18O enriched water and was successively analysed using an array of techniques, including the AUTOFIT program, the AABS package and the STRFIT program. We have, so far, been able to assign rotational transitions of α-thujone, β-thujone, another thujone isomer, fenchone, and several thujone-water clusters in the spectrum of this single sample. Natural abundance molecular populations were sufficient to determine precise heavy atom backbones of thujone and fenchone, and H_218O enrichment delivered water molecule orientations in the hydrated clusters. An overview of these results will be presented. Z.Kisiel, A.C.Legon, JACS 100, 8166 (1978) Z.Kisiel, O.Desyatnyk, E.Białkowska-Jaworska, L.Pszczółkowski, PCCP 5 820 (2003) C.Pérez, A.Krin, A.L.Steber, J.C.López, Z.Kisiel, M.Schnell, J.Phys.Chem.Lett. 7 154 (2016) N.A.Seifert, I.A.Finneran, C.Perez, et al. J.Mol.Spectrosc. 312, 12 (2015) Z.Kisiel, L.Pszczółkowski, B.J.Drouin, et al. J.Mol.Spectrosc. 280, 134 (2012). Z.Kisiel, J.Mol.Spectrosc. 218, 58 (2003)

  8. Inflammatory diseases of the myelon; Entzuendliche Erkrankungen des Myelons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitzer, C. [Universitaetsklinikum Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Neurologie; Krings, T. [Universitaetsklinikum Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Neuroradiologie; Block, F. [Universitaetsklinikum Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Neurologie; Universitaetsklinikum Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Neuroradiologie

    2001-11-01

    nachgewiesen werden. Darueber hinaus werden neuroradiologisch wesentliche Differenzialdiagnosen ausgeschlossen oder nachgewiesen. Insbesondere bei den akut einsetzenden Querschnittmyelitiden ist eine schnelle kernspintomographische Diagnostik unabdingbar, um eine gezielte Therapie moeglichst frueh zu beginnen. (orig.)

  9. Alter(n – ein vielschichtiger Begriff Ag(inge—A Multilayered Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Maly-Lukas

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Diese Veröffentlichung, die aus einer Vortragsreihe an der katholischen Fachhochschule Freiburg entstanden ist, führt die Leserinnen und Leser in die verschiedenen Sichtweisen des Alter(ns in der modernen Gesellschaft ein. Es handelt sich um eine gelungene Zusammenstellung von Beiträgen aus unterschiedlichen Disziplinen, die sich alle aus ihrer Sicht dem Thema Alter(n widmen. Die einzelnen Artikel sind zwischen 8 und 38 Seiten lang und recht schnell und einfach zu lesen. Je nach Hintergrund und Interessen werden die einzelnen Leserinnen und Leser dabei sicher unterschiedliche Beiträge favorisieren. Schade ist nur, dass durch die ungleichen Längen der Beiträge bestimmte thematische Schwerpunkte – ob gewollt oder nicht – gesetzt werden. Dies sollte die Leserinnen und Leser, die offen für unterschiedlichste Sichtweisen des Alter(ns sind, jedoch nicht davon abhalten, dieses Buch zu lesen.This publication, developed out of a series of talks at the Catholic University of Applied Sciences Freiburg, introduces readers to the varying perceptions of ag(inge in modern society. It is a felicitous collection of contributions from differing disciplines that all deal with the theme of ag(inge from their respective perspectives. The articles are between 8 and 38 pages long and are a quick and simple read. Each reader, depending on his or her background and interest, will surely favor one or the other contribution. It is unfortunate that through the differing lengths of the articles, specific thematic emphasis—intentional or not—is set. This should not keep readers who are open to differing points of view on ag(inge from reading this book.

  10. Determination of the thermodynamic correction factor of fluids confined in nano-metric slit pores from molecular simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collell, Julien; Galliero, Guillaume

    2014-05-21

    The multi-component diffusive mass transport is generally quantified by means of the Maxwell-Stefan diffusion coefficients when using molecular simulations. These coefficients can be related to the Fick diffusion coefficients using the thermodynamic correction factor matrix, which requires to run several simulations to estimate all the elements of the matrix. In a recent work, Schnell et al. ["Thermodynamics of small systems embedded in a reservoir: A detailed analysis of finite size effects," Mol. Phys. 110, 1069-1079 (2012)] developed an approach to determine the full matrix of thermodynamic factors from a single simulation in bulk. This approach relies on finite size effects of small systems on the density fluctuations. We present here an extension of their work for inhomogeneous Lennard Jones fluids confined in slit pores. We first verified this extension by cross validating the results obtained from this approach with the results obtained from the simulated adsorption isotherms, which allows to determine the thermodynamic factor in porous medium. We then studied the effects of the pore width (from 1 to 15 molecular sizes), of the solid-fluid interaction potential (Lennard Jones 9-3, hard wall potential) and of the reduced fluid density (from 0.1 to 0.7 at a reduced temperature T* = 2) on the thermodynamic factor. The deviation of the thermodynamic factor compared to its equivalent bulk value decreases when increasing the pore width and becomes insignificant for reduced pore width above 15. We also found that the thermodynamic factor is sensitive to the magnitude of the fluid-fluid and solid-fluid interactions, which softens or exacerbates the density fluctuations.

  11. Cardiovascular whole-body MRI: possibilities and limitations in prevention; Kardiovaskulaere Ganzkoerper-MRT: Moeglichkeiten und Grenzen in der Frueherkennung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herborn, C.U.; Vogt, F.M.; Goyen, M.; Goehde, S.C.; Ruehm, S.G.; Forsting, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie (Germany)

    2004-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a major challenge to the healthcare with increasing prevalence in western societies. Hence, early detection of cardiovascular pathologies and preventative strategies will experience growing relevance in the future. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) nowadays allows a comprehensive analysis of the cardiovascular system. By combining separate examinations of brain, arterial vasculature, and heart the technique permits early detection of pathological changes with high diagnostic accuracy void of adverse events. Such a protocol has been proven feasible and technically robust and can be performed within 45 min. Inherent limitations are low spatial resolution of whole-body MR angiography and lack of functional stress testing of the heart. However, while being suitable as a fast and comprehensive imaging technique for cardiovascular screening purposes, medical consequences and socioeconomic relevance must further be elucidated. (orig.) [German] Kardiovaskulaere Erkrankungen und ihre Folgen stellen in den westlichen Laendern ein bedeutendes Gesundheitsproblem mit steigender Praevalenz dar. Der Frueherkennung und Vorsorge dieser Erkrankungen kommt deshalb in der Zukunft eine wachsende Bedeutung zu. Mit der Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) gelingt heute eine umfassende Analyse des kardiovaskulaeren Systems. Durch die Kombination der Untersuchung von Gehirn, Gefaessen und Herz kann man frueh und nebenwirkungsfrei pathologische Veraenderungen mit hoher diagnostischer Genauigkeit erfassen. Das eingesetzte Protokoll laesst sich innerhalb von 45 min durchfuehren. Limitationen betreffen die raeumliche Aufloesung der Ganzkoerper-MR-Angiographie sowie die fehlende Untersuchung des Herzens unter Belastung. In ihrer bisherigen Form ist die MRT als schnelles und umfassendes Verfahren fuer die Frueherkennung kardiovaskulaerer Erkrankungen geeignet. Der medizinische Nutzen und die soziooekonomische Bedeutung muessen in den naechsten Jahren weiter analysiert werden

  12. An amantadine-sensitive chimeric BM2 ion channel of influenza B virus has implications for the mechanism of drug inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohigashi, Yuki; Ma, Chunlong; Jing, Xianghong; Balannick, Victoria; Pinto, Lawrence H.; Lamb, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Influenza A virus M2 (A/M2) and the influenza B virus BM2 are both small integral membrane proteins that form proton-selective ion channels. Influenza A virus A/M2 channel is the target of the antiviral drug amantadine (and its methyl derivative rimantadine), whereas BM2 channel activity is not affected by the drug. The atomic structure of the pore–transmembrane (TM) domain peptide has been determined by x-ray crystallography [Stouffer et al. (2008) Nature 451:596–599] and of a larger M2 peptide by NMR methods [Schnell and Chou (2008) Nature 451:591–595]. The crystallographic data show electron density (at 3.5 Å resolution) in the channel pore, consistent with amantadine blocking the pore of the channel. In contrast, the NMR data show 4 rimantadine molecules bound on the outside of the helices toward the cytoplasmic side of the membrane. Drug binding includes interactions with residues 40–45 and a polar hydrogen bond between rimantadine and aspartic acid residue 44 (D44). These 2 distinct drug-binding sites led to 2 incompatible drug inhibition mechanisms. We have generated chimeric channels between amantadine-sensitive A/M2 and amantadine-insensitive BM2 designed to define the drug-binding site. Two chimeras containing 5 residues of the A/M2 ectodomain and residues 24–36 of the A/M2 TM domain show 85% amantadine/rimantadine sensitivity and specific activity comparable to that of WT BM2. These functional data suggest that the amantadine/rimantadine binding site identified on the outside of the 4 helices is not the primary site associated with the pharmacologic inhibition of the A/M2 ion channel. PMID:19841275

  13. Functional studies indicate amantadine binds to the pore of the influenza A virus M2 proton-selective ion channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Xianghong; Ma, Chunlong; Ohigashi, Yuki; Oliveira, Fernando A.; Jardetzky, Theodore S.; Pinto, Lawrence H.; Lamb, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Influenza A and B viruses contain proton-selective ion channels, A/M2 and BM2, respectively, and the A/M2 channel activity is inhibited by the drugs amantadine and its methyl derivative rimantadine. The structure of the pore-transmembrane domain has been determined by both x-ray crystallography [Stouffer et al. (2008) Nature 451:596–599] and by NMR methods [Schnell and Chou (2008) Nature 451:591–595]. Whereas the crystal structure indicates a single amantadine molecule in the pore of the channel, the NMR data show four rimantadine molecules bound on the outside of the helices toward the cytoplasmic side of the membrane. Drug binding includes interactions with residues 40–45 with a polar hydrogen bond between rimantadine and aspartic acid residue 44 (D44) that appears to be important. These two distinct drug-binding sites led to two incompatible drug inhibition mechanisms. We mutagenized D44 and R45 to alanine as these mutations are likely to interfere with rimantadine binding and lead to a drug insensitive channel. However, the D44A channel was found to be sensitive to amantadine when measured by electrophysiological recordings in oocytes of Xenopus laevis and in mammalian cells, and when the D44 and R45 mutations were introduced into the influenza virus genome. Furthermore, transplanting A/M2 pore residues 24–36 into BM2, yielded a pH-activated chimeric ion channel that was partially inhibited by amantadine. Thus, taken together our functional data suggest that amantadine/rimantadine binding outside of the channel pore is not the primary site associated with the pharmacological inhibition of the A/M2 ion channel. PMID:18669647

  14. Designing inhibitors of M2 proton channel against H1N1 swine influenza virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi-Shi Du

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available M2 proton channel of H1N1 influenza A virus is the target protein of anti-flu drugs amantadine and rimantadine. However, the two once powerful adamantane-based drugs lost their 90% bioactivity because of mutations of virus in recent twenty years. The NMR structure of the M2 channel protein determined by Schnell and Chou (Nature, 2008, 451, 591-595 may help people to solve the drug-resistant problem and develop more powerful new drugs against H1N1 influenza virus.Docking calculation is performed to build the complex structure between receptor M2 proton channel and ligands, including existing drugs amantadine and rimantadine, and two newly designed inhibitors. The computer-aided drug design methods are used to calculate the binding free energies, with the computational biology techniques to analyze the interactions between M2 proton channel and adamantine-based inhibitors.1 The NMR structure of M2 proton channel provides a reliable structural basis for rational drug design against influenza virus. 2 The channel gating mechanism and the inhibiting mechanism of M2 proton channel, revealed by the NMR structure of M2 proton channel, provides the new ideas for channel inhibitor design. 3 The newly designed adamantane-based inhibitors based on the modeled structure of H1N1-M2 proton channel have two pharmacophore groups, which act like a "barrel hoop", holding two adjacent helices of the H1N1-M2 tetramer through the two pharmacophore groups outside the channel. 4 The inhibitors with such binding mechanism may overcome the drug resistance problem of influenza A virus to the adamantane-based drugs.

  15. Processing of CT images of the lungs using ImaqVision and LabVIEW; Bildbearbeitung computertomographischer Schnittbilder der Lunge mit ImaqVision und LabVIEW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, P.; Luecke, T.; Quintel, M. [Inst. fuer Anaesthesiologie und Operative Intensivmedizin, Universitaetsklinikum Mannheim (Germany); Huebner, U. [AVImed, Advanced Virtual Instrumentation in Medicine, Dahn (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    erlaubt durch schnelle Bildakquirierungsfrequenzen (bis zu 20 Hz) eine Visualisierung dynamischer Prozesse. Zur Quantifizierung von regionalen Luft- und Gewebeanteilen in der Lunge wurden in unserer Arbeitsgruppe mit Hilfe von LabVIEW und ImaqVision verschiedene Analysetools entwickelt. (orig.)

  16. Spinal trauma: first aid from cross-sectional imaging; Trauma der Wirbelsaeule: erste Hilfe durch Schnittbildverfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueller, G.; Schueller-Weidekamm, C. [Emergency Radiology Schueller, Neerach (Switzerland)

    2014-09-15

    The diagnosis of the traumatized spine is one of the key issues for trauma radiologists. The cross-sectional imaging procedures, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the essential methods in spinal trauma radiology. These modalities are of great help in accurately assessing injury patterns and extent and in providing indications of patient outcome. In contrast to cross-sectional imaging, radiography has a role in the evaluation of minor spinal trauma only. It is generally accepted that trauma radiologists do not use typical classifications to evaluate the spine partly because such an ideal classification system does not yet exist. Not least because of this classification difficulty, eponyms and synonyms are widely used to describe traumatology of the spine as a high level of specific information is included in these various terms. The members of the trauma team should be aware of the strengths and limitations of the methods used in the assessment of the spine. This article provides a brief outline of fundamental knowledge about the diagnosis of spinal trauma. (orig.) [German] Die Beurteilung der verletzten Wirbelsaeule nimmt fuer Traumaradiologen eine zentrale Stellung ein. Die Schnittbildverfahren CT und MRT sind ihre wesentlichen Arbeitsmethoden. Sie helfen dabei, schnell und mit hoher Zuverlaessigkeit Aussagen ueber Art und Ausmass von Verletzungen zu treffen sowie Hinweise auf die Prognose der Patienten zu geben. Die Projektionsradiographie hat ihre Bedeutung lediglich in der Diagnostik des Bagatelltraumas und ist in ihrer Aussagekraft auch dort nicht unumstritten. Traumaradiologen bedienen sich nicht ausschliesslich typischer Klassifikationen des Wirbelsaeulentraumas, z. T. auch deshalb, da es die ideale Klassifikation aus heutiger Sicht nicht gibt. Vielmehr ist es wichtig, auch ueber Eponyme und Synonyme Bescheid zu wissen, da sie ein hohes Mass an spezifischen Informationen der spinalen Verletzungen verinnerlichen. Alle

  17. Procedure when failures occur in the district heating supply; Betriebsweise des Systems bei Ausfall von Versorgungsanlagen. Methode zur kurzfristigen Betriebsbestimmung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, H.; Smolianskij, I.; Schrader, K.; Rieck-Blankenburg, U. [Stadtwerke Flensburg GmbH (Germany)

    2003-04-01

    Both electricity and heat are generated at and supplied from Flensburg combined heat and power station. Supply from reserve heating stations only takes place when required. However, this accounts for an average of less than 1% of the total annual work. Heat is distributed through a transport network with a maximum flow temperature of 130 C and a rated design pressure of PN25. Supply takes place through three main transport pipes which leave the combined heat and power station with nominal diameters of DN 400, DN 600 and DN 500. The three main transport pipes and the main network pipes are connected by larger ring connectors. Four reserve heating stations are connected to various main pipes in the primary network. In normal operation under existing conditions, the areas supplied by the three main transport pipes are operated completely separately. Should parts of the district heating system fail, the supply of heat should only be interrupted to an unavoidable extent. It must be possible to implement a rapid-reaction operating instruction even outside normal working hours, so the demand pattern had to be approximated as closely as possible throughout the duration of the fault too. The weather conditions, time of day and day of the week must be included when calculating assumed demand. (orig.) [German] Der Ausfall von Fernwaermeanlagen kann eine Unterbrechnung der Waermeversorgung von Kundenanlagen verursachen. Zur Minimierung der Dauer von Versorgungsunterbrechungen hat die schnelle Betriebsbestimmung und die sichere Realisierung dieser Betriebsweise eine wesentliche Bedeutung. Aufgrund mehrjaehriger Erfahrung wurde bei der Stadtwerke Flensburg GmbH eine Methode fuer eine kurzfristige Betriebsbestimmung entwickelt. (orig.)

  18. Development of a high performance drivage by 'Bolter-Miner' technology; Entwicklung eines Hochleistungsvortriebs mittels Bolter-Miner-Technik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vierhaus, R. [Deutsche Steinkohle AG, Herne (Germany); Terbach, G. [Bergwerk Auguste Victoria/Blumenthal, Marl (Germany)

    2002-09-05

    The introduction of the bolter miner technic at Auguste Victoria/Blumenthal mine will be shown. This benchmarking project coming from the australian mining industry was put into practice for the first time in the german hard coal industry. It was rapidly turned out, that the demands of the roadways concerning the number and length of the required bolts and as well as the safety aspects are very different to the visited headings in Australia. The way starting with an average drivage rate of 5 m/d day in the first project up to today's performance level of 16 m/d in the third project is represented. From a view on the totality it is described, what kind of demands are required by the logistics, the infrastructure, the organization of the operation, the ergonomics and last but not least the motivation of the crew to achieve a high performance of 22 m/d. (orig.) [German] Im Beitrag wird die Einfuehrung der Bolter-Miner-Technik auf dem Bergwerk Auguste Victoria/Blumenthal aufgezeigt. Dieses Benchmarking-Projekt aus dem australischen Bergbau wurde erstmalig im deutschen Steinkohlenbergbau umgesetzt. Es zeigte sich sehr schnell, dass die Anforderungen der Strecken in bezug auf die Anzahl und Laenge der einzubauenden Anker sowie die sicherheitlichen Aspekte zu den besuchten Vortrieben in Australien stark differierten. Zudem wird der Weg von durchschnittlich 5 m/d im ersten Projekt bis zu den heutigen Leistungsdaten von 16 m/d im dritten Projekt dargestellt. In einer ganzheitlichen Betrachtung wird aufgezeigt, welche Anforderungen in der Logistik, in der Infrastruktur, in der Betriebsorganisation, in der Ergonomie und in der Motivation der Mannschaft notwendig waren, Spitzenleistungen von 22 m/d zu erreichen. (orig.)

  19. Ein Versuch, Naturverhältnisse aus feministischer Sicht zu interpretieren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga Purgand

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Mit dem vorliegenden Sammelband Geschlechterverhältnisse – Naturverhältnisse wird nach dem innovativen Beitrag der feministischen Debatte für umweltsoziologisches Denken gefragt und nach Überschneidungen, Grenzen und Zwischenräumen zwischen „Geschlecht“ und „Natur“ gesucht. In ihm wird der lobenswerte Versuch unternommen, einen Zusammenhang zwischen Geschlechter- und Naturverhältnissen herzustellen „die in der Umweltsoziologie bislang stark vernachlässigte feministische Diskussion und Geschlechterforschung einzubeziehen und als genderbezogene Perspektive zu etablieren“. (S. 9 Das Buch enthält Beiträge von 15 Autorinnen, die unterschiedliche Natur- und Geschlechtsverhältnisse facettenreich, überwiegend kreativ und theoretisch anspruchsvoll betrachten. Das Buch enthält Zugänge aus der allgemeinen Soziologie, den Sprach- und Kulturwissenschaften, aus politik- und naturwissenschaftlichen Zusammenhängen. Den ausdrücklich formulierten Anspruch, von multi- zu einer inter-disziplinären Durchdringung zu gelangen, erfüllt es nur in Ansätzen (besonders mit der Einleitung und den theoretischen Problemexplikationen. Das zustande gekommene „Nach-, Zusammen- und Querdenken“ über Begriffe, Theorien und neuere Forschungsansätze (von Foucault über Butler bis zu Donna Haraway belegt die Notwendigkeit, die naturwissenschaftlichen Annahmen „immanent zu dekonstruieren“. Sehr aufschlussreich sind in diesem Zusammenhang die Beiträge von Irmgard Schultz, Elvira Scheich, aber auch von Mary Mellor und besonders von Paula-Irene Villa, die interessante und kreative Gedanken zur Klärung des Verhältnisses von Natur, Kultur und Geschlecht anbieten. Deutlich wurde, dass weiterhin ein kontroverses Ringen um angemessene konzeptionelle Fassungen von Geschlechts- und Naturverhältnissen und die Integration von Gender als zentraler analytischer Querschnitts-Kategorie nötig sind. Insgesamt ist dem Buch ist eine schnelle Verbreitung und

  20. Electrical design of the BUSSARD inverter system for ASDEX upgrade saddle coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teschke, Markus, E-mail: teschke@ipp.mpg.de; Arden, Nils; Eixenberger, Horst; Rott, Michael; Suttrop, Wolfgang

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A cost effective inverter topology for AUG's 16 in-vessel saddle coils has been found. • Use of commercially available power modules is possible. • A NPC-like topology of the power stage is realized in a modular way. • The high-speed controllers and PWM engines are realized on Linux-based systems. • First experimental results of AUG plasma shots are presented. - Abstract: A set of 16 in-vessel saddle coils is installed in the ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) nuclear fusion experiment for mitigation of edge localized modes (ELM) and feedback control of resistive wall modes (RWM). The coils were driven by DC current only during previous campaigns. Now, a new inverter system “BUSSARD” (German abbr. for “Bayerischer Umrichter, schnell schaltend für AUGs rasche Drehfelder”, translated: “bavarian fast switching inverter for AUG's fast rotating fields”) is built for the experiment. A four-phase system has been assembled to simultaneously operate up to 4 groups of coils consisting of up to 4 serial-connected coils each. The maximum current is 1.3 kA with a ripple in the range of 7% and the frequency is variable between DC and approx. 100 Hz. The switching frequency is variable between approximately 3 and 10 kHz. As a first application, rotating fields are generated. The system can be enhanced in two stages to 16-phase operation with a bandwidth of 500 Hz and a 24 phase system with a bandwidth of up to 3 kHz.