WorldWideScience

Sample records for schmitt trigger circuits

  1. Carl Schmitt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anne-Marie Eggert

    2007-01-01

    En analyse af Carl Schmitts argumentation og begrebsbrug ved etableringen af ven/fjende-distinktionen i Der Begriff des Politischen med henblik på at vise Schmitt som teoretisk decisionist.......En analyse af Carl Schmitts argumentation og begrebsbrug ved etableringen af ven/fjende-distinktionen i Der Begriff des Politischen med henblik på at vise Schmitt som teoretisk decisionist....

  2. Derrida og Carl Schmitt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diderichsen, Adam

    2005-01-01

    Derridas læsning og kritik af Carl Schmitt med særlig henblik på Derridas værk "Politiques de l'amitié".......Derridas læsning og kritik af Carl Schmitt med særlig henblik på Derridas værk "Politiques de l'amitié"....

  3. Carl Schmitt, lecteur de Bakounine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Angaut

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Mentionné à plusieurs reprises bien qu’aucun de ses écrits ne soit cité, Bakounine occupe une place particulière dans quelques-uns des principaux textes de Carl Schmitt (Théologie politique, La dictature, Le concept de politique. Les thèmes que Schmitt choisit de repérer chez Bakounine (satanisme, naturalisme, nature religieuse de l’autorité, refus de la médiation, s’ils sont l’indice d’une connaissance précise de l’œuvre du révolutionnaire russe, permettent également de l’inscrire dans une opposition terme à terme avec les théoriciens de la contre-révolution. La lecture attentive que Schmitt semble avoir faite des textes de Bakounine ne doit donc pas masquer que dans l’œuvre du théoricien allemand, Bakounine est avant tout une figure : celle de l’anarchiste russe, ennemi par excellence qui prétend en finir avec le politique. Apparemment adventice, la convocation de cette figure partiellement mythique touche dès lors à un thème central chez Schmitt, celui de la conception de la politique.

  4. Experimental triggers for internal short circuits in lithium-ion cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orendorff, Christopher J.; Roth, E. Peter; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan

    2011-08-01

    Lithium-ion cell field failures due to internal short circuits are a significant concern to the entire lithium-ion cell market from consumer electronics to electric vehicles. While the probability of these failure events occurring is estimated to be very low (1 in 5-10 million), the consequences of a cell failure due to an internal short in a high energy battery system have the potential to be catastrophic. The statistical probability of one of these events is very low and they are difficult to predict and simulate in a laboratory using some external test; which makes cell failure due to an internal short circuit a unique challenge to overcome. Several of the experiments designed to simulate internal shorts have been adopted as testing protocols across the industry; in general, they do not accurately simulate an internal short. This work highlights our efforts to experimentally trigger an internal short circuit in a lithium-ion cell.

  5. Differential Algebraic Equations of MOS Circuits and Jump Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarangapani, P.; Thiessen, T.; Mathis, W.

    2012-10-01

    Many nonlinear electronic circuits showing fast switching behavior exhibit jump effects which occurs when the state space of the electronic system contains a fold. This leads to difficulties during the simulation of these systems with standard circuit simulators. A method to overcome these problems is by regularization, where parasitic inductors and capacitors are added at the suitable locations. However, the transient solution will not be reliable if this regularization is not done in accordance with Tikhonov's Theorem. A geometric approach is taken to overcome these problems by explicitly computing the state space and jump points of the circuit. Until now, work has been done in analyzing example circuits exhibiting this behavior for BJT transistors. In this work we apply these methods to MOS circuits (Schmitt trigger, flip flop and multivibrator) and present the numerical results. To analyze the circuits we use the EKV drain current model as equivalent circuit model for the MOS transistors.

  6. The question of space in Carl Schmitt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minca, C.; Rowan, R.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present an analysis of the German legal and political theorist Carl Schmitt as a spatial thinker whose work contains many elements relevant to the concerns of political geography. In examining his fundamental concern with how to ground modern political order without theological

  7. Nos extremos do direito (Schmitt e Pachukanis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mascaro Alysson Leandro

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Dois livros que tratam de figuras situadas em pontos extremos do pensamento jurídico no século XX (Carl Schmitt e a fundamentação do direito, de Ronaldo Porto Macedo Jr. e Marxismo e direito - um estudo sobre Pachukanis, de Márcio Bilharinho Naves são examinados.

  8. O decisionismo jurídico de Carl Schmitt The juridical decisionism of Carl Schmitt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Porto Macedo Júnior

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available O nome de Carl Schmitt está condenado a associar-se à rubrica "decisionismo" jurídico, teoria segundo a qual o fundamento último do direito é uma decisão política do soberano. Este artigo se propõe mostrar como o decisionismo jurídico de Carl Schmitt dos anos 20 modifica-se, sem se tornar contraditório, com a asssimilação nos anos 30 do "institucionalismo jurídico" de autores como Maurice Hauriou e Santi Romano. A partir dos anos 30 Schmitt explicita o sentido próprio do decisionismo fundado no "pensamento da ordem concreta", ou seja, o decisionismo institucionalista.Carl Schmitt's name is irrevocably linked to the label of decisionism, the theory according to which the ultimate foundation of right is the sovereign's political decision. This paper aims to show how the juridical decisionism of Schmitt has changed without becoming contraditory as it assimilated in the thirties the '"juridical institutionalism" of authors like Hauriou and Santi Romano. Following those years Schmitt worked out the meaning of a decisionism based on the "concrete order thought", namely, the institutionalist decisionism.

  9. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The hardware of the trigger components has been mostly finished. The ECAL Endcap Trigger Concentrator Cards (TCC) are in production while Barrel TCC firmware has been upgraded, and the Trigger Primitives can now be stored by the Data Concentrator Card for readout by the DAQ. The Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT) system is complete, and the timing is being finalized. All 502 HCAL trigger links to RCT run without error. The HCAL muon trigger timing has been equalized with DT, RPC, CSC and ECAL. The hardware and firmware for the Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) jet triggers are being commissioned and data from these triggers is available for readout. The GCT energy sums from rings of trigger towers around the beam pipe beam have been changed to include two rings from both sides. The firmware for Drift Tube Track Finder, Barrel Sorter and Wedge Sorter has been upgraded, and the synchronization of the DT trigger is satisfactory. The CSC local trigger has operated flawlessly u...

  10. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Roberta Arcidiacono

    2013-01-01

    Trigger Studies Group (TSG) The Trigger Studies Group has just concluded its third 2013 workshop, where all POGs presented the improvements to the physics object reconstruction, and all PAGs have shown their plans for Trigger development aimed at the 2015 High Level Trigger (HLT) menu. The Strategy for Trigger Evolution And Monitoring (STEAM) group is responsible for Trigger menu development, path timing, Trigger performance studies coordination, HLT offline DQM as well as HLT release, menu and conditions validation – this last task in collaboration with PdmV (Physics Data and Monte Carlo Validation group). In the last months the group has delivered several HLT rate estimates and comparisons, using the available data and Monte Carlo samples. The studies were presented at the Trigger workshops in September and December, and STEAM has contacted POGs and PAGs to understand the origin of the discrepancies observed between 8 TeV data and Monte Carlo simulations. The most recent results show what the...

  11. Triggers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breitbarth, A.; van Riemsdijk, H.C.

    2004-01-01

    The concept of 'trigger' is a core concept of Chomsky's Minimalist Program. The idea that certain types of movement are triggered by some property of the target position is at least as old as the notion that the movement of noun phrases to the subject position is triggered by their need to receive

  12. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The trigger synchronization procedures for running with cosmic muons and operating with the LHC were reviewed during the May electronics week. Firmware maintenance issues were also reviewed. Link tests between the new ECAL endcap trigger concentrator cards (TCC48) and the Regional Calorimeter Trigger have been performed. Firmware for the energy sum triggers and an upgraded tau trigger of the Global Calorimeter Triggers has been developed and is under test. The optical fiber receiver boards for the Track-Finder trigger theta links of the DT chambers are now all installed. The RPC trigger is being made more robust by additional chamber and cable shielding and also by firmware upgrades. For the CSC’s the front-end and trigger motherboard firmware have been updated. New RPC patterns and DT/CSC lookup tables taking into account phi asymmetries in the magnetic field configuration are under study. The motherboard for the new pipeline synchronizer of the Global Trigg...

  13. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    2012-01-01

      Level-1 Trigger The Level-1 Trigger group is ready to deploy improvements to the L1 Trigger algorithms for 2012. These include new high-PT patterns for the RPC endcap, an improved CSC PT assignment, a new PT-matching algorithm for the Global Muon Trigger, and new calibrations for ECAL, HCAL, and the Regional Calorimeter Trigger. These should improve the efficiency, rate, and stability of the L1 Trigger. The L1 Trigger group also is migrating the online systems to SLC5. To make the data transfer from the Global Calorimeter Trigger to the Global Trigger more reliable and also to allow checking the data integrity online, a new optical link system has been developed by the GCT and GT groups and successfully tested at the CMS electronics integration facility in building 904. This new system is now undergoing further tests at Point 5 before being deployed for data-taking this year. New L1 trigger menus have recently been studied and proposed by Emmanuelle Perez and the L1 Detector Performance Group...

  14. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    At the March meeting, the CMS trigger group reported on progress in production, tests in the Electronics Integration Center (EIC) in Prevessin 904, progress on trigger installation in the underground counting room at point 5, USC55, the program of trigger pattern tests and vertical slice tests and planning for the Global Runs starting this summer. The trigger group is engaged in the final stages of production testing, systems integration, and software and firmware development. Most systems are delivering final tested electronics to CERN. The installation in USC55 is underway and integration testing is in full swing. A program of orderly connection and checkout with subsystems and central systems has been developed. This program includes a series of vertical subsystem slice tests providing validation of a portion of each subsystem from front-end electronics through the trigger and DAQ to data captured and stored. After full checkout, trigger subsystems will be then operated in the CMS Global Runs. Continuous...

  15. Astronaut Harrison Schmitt standing next to boulder during third EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Harrison H. Schmitt is photographed standing next to a huge, split boulder during the third Apollo 17 extravehicular activity (EVA-3) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site on the Moon. The lunar rover, which transported Schmitt and Eugene A. Cernan, mission commander, to this extravehicular station from their Lunar Module, is seen in the background. Schmitt is the Apollo 17 lunar module pilot. The mosaic is made from two frames from Apollo 17 Hasselblad magaine 140.

  16. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The production of the trigger hardware is now basically finished, and in time for the turn-on of the LHC. The last boards produced are the Trigger Concentrator Cards for the ECAL Endcaps (TCC-EE). After the recent installation of the four EE Dees, the TCC-EE prototypes were used for their commissioning. Production boards are arriving and are being tested continuously, with the last ones expected in November. The Regional Calorimeter Trigger hardware is fully integrated after installation of the last EE cables. Pattern tests from the HCAL up to the GCT have been performed successfully. The HCAL triggers are fully operational, including the connection of the HCAL-outer and forward-HCAL (HO/HF) technical triggers to the Global Trigger. The HCAL Trigger and Readout (HTR) board firmware has been updated to permit recording of the tower “feature bit” in the data. The Global Calorimeter Trigger hardware is installed, but some firmware developments are still n...

  17. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    by Wesley Smith

    2010-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The overall status of the L1 trigger has been excellent and the running efficiency has been high during physics fills. The timing is good to about 1%. The fine-tuning of the time synchronization of muon triggers is ongoing and will be completed after more than 10 nb-1 of data have been recorded. The CSC trigger primitive and RPC trigger timing have been refined. A new configuration for the CSC Track Finder featured modified beam halo cuts and improved ghost cancellation logic. More direct control was provided for the DT opto-receivers. New RPC Cosmic Trigger (RBC/TTU) trigger algorithms were enabled for collision runs. There is further work planned during the next technical stop to investigate a few of the links from the ECAL to the Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT). New firmware and a new configuration to handle trigger rate spikes in the ECAL barrel are also being tested. A board newly developed by the tracker group (ReTRI) has been installed and activated to block re...

  18. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    2010-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The Level-1 Trigger hardware has performed well during both the recent proton-proton and heavy ion running. Efforts were made to improve the visibility and handling of alarms and warnings. The tracker ReTRI boards that prevent fixed frequencies of Level-1 Triggers are now configured through the Trigger Supervisor. The Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) team has introduced a buffer cleanup procedure at stops and a reset of the QPLL during configuring to ensure recalibration in case of a switch from the LHC clock to the local clock. A device to test the cables between the Regional Calorimeter Trigger and the GCT has been manufactured. A wrong charge bit was fixed in the CSC Trigger. The ECAL group is improving crystal masking and spike suppression in the trigger primitives. New firmware for the Drift Tube Track Finder (DTTF) sorters was developed to improve fake track tagging and sorting. Zero suppression was implemented in the DT Sector Collector readout. The track finder b...

  19. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Trigger Hardware The status of the trigger components was presented during the September CMS Week and Annual Review and at the monthly trigger meetings in October and November. Procedures for cold and warm starts (e.g. refreshing of trigger parameters stored in registers) of the trigger subsystems have been studied. Reviews of parts of the Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) and the Global Trigger (GT) have taken place in October and November. The CERN group summarized the status of the Trigger Timing and Control (TTC) system. All TTC crates and boards are installed in the underground counting room, USC55. The central clock system will be upgraded in December (after the Global Run at the end of November GREN) to the new RF2TTC LHC machine interface timing module. Migration of subsystem's TTC PCs to SLC4/ XDAQ 3.12 is being prepared. Work is on going to unify the access to Local Timing Control (LTC) and TTC CMS interface module (TTCci) via SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol, a lightweight XML-based messaging ...

  20. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith from contributions of C. Leonidopoulos

    2010-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software Since nearly all of the Level-1 (L1) Trigger hardware at Point 5 has been commissioned, activities during the past months focused on the fine-tuning of synchronization, particularly for the ECAL and the CSC systems, on firmware upgrades and on improving trigger operation and monitoring. Periodic resynchronizations or hard resets and a shortened luminosity section interval of 23 seconds were implemented. For the DT sector collectors, an automatic power-off was installed in case of high temperatures, and the monitoring capabilities of the opto-receivers and the mini-crates were enhanced. The DTTF and the CSCTF now have improved memory lookup tables. The HCAL trigger primitive logic implemented a new algorithm providing better stability of the energy measurement in the presence of any phase misalignment. For the Global Calorimeter Trigger, additional Source Cards have been manufactured and tested. Testing of the new tau, missing ET and missing HT algorithms is underw...

  1. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The final parts of the Level-1 trigger hardware are now being put in place. For the ECAL endcaps, more than half of the Trigger Concentrator Cards for the ECAL Endcap (TCC-EE) are now available at CERN, such that one complete endcap can be covered. The Global Trigger now correctly handles ECAL calibration sequences, without being influenced by backpressure. The Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT) hardware is complete and working in USC55. Intra-crate tests of all 18 RCT crates and the Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) are regularly taking place. Pattern tests have successfully captured data from HCAL through RCT to the GCT Source Cards. HB/HE trigger data are being compared with emulator results to track down the very few remaining hardware problems. The treatment of hot and dead cells, including their recording in the database, has been defined. For the GCT, excellent agreement between the emulator and data has been achieved for jets and HF ET sums. There is still som...

  2. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The trigger system has been constantly in use in cosmic and commissioning data taking periods. During CRAFT running it delivered 300 million muon and calorimeter triggers to CMS. It has performed stably and reliably. During the abort gaps it has also provided laser and other calibration triggers. Timing issues, namely synchronization and latency issues, have been solved. About half of the Trigger Concentrator Cards for the ECAL Endcap (TCC-EE) are installed, and the firmware is being worked on. The production of the other half has started. The HCAL Trigger and Readout (HTR) card firmware has been updated, and new features such as fast parallel zero-suppression have been included. Repairs of drift tube (DT) trigger mini-crates, optical links and receivers of sector collectors are under way and have been completed on YB0. New firmware for the optical receivers of the theta links to the drift tube track finder is being installed. In parallel, tests with new eta track finde...

  3. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    R. Carlin with contributions from D. Acosta

    2012-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Data-taking continues at cruising speed, with high availability of all components of the Level-1 trigger. We have operated the trigger up to a luminosity of 7.6E33, where we approached 100 kHz using the 7E33 prescale column.  Recently, the pause without triggers in case of an automatic "RESYNC" signal (the "settle" and "recover" time) was reduced in order to minimise the overall dead-time. This may become very important when the LHC comes back with higher energy and luminosity after LS1. We are also preparing for data-taking in the proton-lead run in early 2013. The CASTOR detector will make its comeback into CMS and triggering capabilities are being prepared for this. Steps to be taken include improved cooperation with the TOTEM trigger system and using the LHC clock during the injection and ramp phases of LHC. Studies are being finalised that will have a bearing on the Trigger Technical Design Report (TDR), which is to be rea...

  4. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    At the December meeting, the CMS trigger group reported on progress in production, tests in the Electronics Integration Center (EIC) in Prevessin 904, progress on trigger installation in the underground counting room at point 5, USC55, and results from the Magnet Test and Cosmic Challenge (MTCC) phase II. The trigger group is engaged in the final stages of production testing, systems integration, and software and firmware development. Most systems are delivering final tested electronics to CERN. The installation in USC55 is underway and moving towards integration testing. A program of orderly connection and checkout with subsystems and central systems has been developed. This program includes a series of vertical subsystem slice tests providing validation of a portion of each subsystem from front-end electronics through the trigger and DAQ to data captured and stored. This is combined with operations and testing without beam that will continue until startup. The plans for start-up, pilot and early running tri...

  5. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    2011-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software New Forward Scintillating Counters (FSC) for rapidity gap measurements have been installed and integrated into the Trigger recently. For the Global Muon Trigger, tuning of quality criteria has led to improvements in muon trigger efficiencies. Several subsystems have started campaigns to increase spares by recovering boards or producing new ones. The barrel muon sector collector test system has been reactivated, new η track finder boards are in production, and φ track finder boards are under revision. In the CSC track finder, an η asymmetry problem has been corrected. New pT look-up tables have also improved efficiency. RPC patterns were changed from four out of six coincident layers to three out of six in the barrel, which led to a significant increase in efficiency. A new PAC firmware to trigger on heavy stable charged particles allows looking for chamber hit coincidences in two consecutive bunch-crossings. The redesign of the L1 Trigger Emulator...

  6. TRIGGER

    CERN Document Server

    W. Smith from contributions of C. Leonidopoulos, I. Mikulec, J. Varela and C. Wulz.

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software Over the past few months, the Level-1 trigger has successfully recorded data with cosmic rays over long continuous stretches as well as LHC splash events, beam halo, and collision events. The L1 trigger hardware, firmware, synchronization, performance and readiness for beam operation were reviewed in October. All L1 trigger hardware is now installed at Point 5, and most of it is completely commissioned. While the barrel ECAL Trigger Concentrator Cards are fully operational, the recently delivered endcap ECAL TCC system is still being commissioned. For most systems there is a sufficient number of spares available, but for a few systems additional reserve modules are needed. It was decided to increase the overall L1 latency by three bunch crossings to increase the safety margin for trigger timing adjustments. In order for CMS to continue data taking during LHC frequency ramps, the clock distribution tree needs to be reset. The procedures for this have been tested. A repl...

  7. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The road map for the final commissioning of the level-1 trigger system has been set. The software for the trigger subsystems is being upgraded to run under CERN Scientific Linux 4 (SLC4). There is also a new release for the Trigger Supervisor (TS 1.4), which implies upgrade work by the subsystems. As reported by the CERN group, a campaign to tidy the Trigger Timing and Control (TTC) racks has begun. The machine interface was upgraded by installing the new RF2TTC module, which receives RF signals from LHC Point 4. Two Beam Synchronous Timing (BST) signals, one for each beam, can now be received in CMS. The machine group will define the exact format of the information content shortly. The margin on the locking range of the CMS QPLL is planned for study for different subsystems in the next Global Runs, using a function generator. The TTC software has been successfully tested on SLC4. Some TTC subsystems have already been upgraded to SLC4. The TTCci Trigger Supervisor ...

  8. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith, from contributions of D. Acosta

    2012-01-01

      The L1 Trigger group deployed several major improvements this year. Compared to 2011, the single-muon trigger rate has been reduced by a factor of 2 and the η coverage has been restored to 2.4, with high efficiency. During the current technical stop, a higher jet seed threshold will be applied in the Global Calorimeter Trigger in order to significantly reduce the strong pile-up dependence of the HT and multi-jet triggers. The currently deployed L1 menu, with the “6E33” prescales, has a total rate of less than 100 kHz and operates with detector readout dead time of less than 3% for luminosities up to 6.5 × 1033 cm–2s–1. Further prescale sets have been created for 7 and 8 × 1033 cm–2s–1 luminosities. The L1 DPG is evaluating the performance of the Trigger for upcoming conferences and publication. Progress on the Trigger upgrade was reviewed during the May Upgrade Week. We are investigating scenarios for stagin...

  9. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    R. Arcidiacono

    2013-01-01

      In 2013 the Trigger Studies Group (TSG) has been restructured in three sub-groups: STEAM, for the development of new HLT menus and monitoring their performance; STORM, for the development of HLT tools, code and actual configurations; and FOG, responsible for the online operations of the High Level Trigger. The Strategy for Trigger Evolution And Monitoring (STEAM) group is responsible for Trigger Menu development, path timing, trigger performance studies coordination, HLT offline DQM as well as HLT release, menu and conditions validation – in collaboration and with the technical support of the PdmV group. Since the end of proton-proton data taking, the group has started preparing for 2015 data taking, with collisions at 13 TeV and 25 ns bunch spacing. The reliability of the extrapolation to higher energy is being evaluated comparing the trigger rates on 7 and 8 TeV Monte Carlo samples with the data taken in the past two years. The effect of 25 ns bunch spacing is being studied on the d...

  10. Triggering of cold-cathode thyratron in electric circuit with grounded grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, Y. D.; Landl, N. V.; Geyman, V. G.; Frants, O. B.; Bolotov, A. V.

    2017-07-01

    This paper deals with the investigations of the sealed-off hold-cathode thyratron (pseudospark switch) TPI1-10k/50, which is commercially produced by the Pulsed Technology Ltd., Ryazan, Russia. The trigger unit of the switch is based on a low-current auxiliary glow discharge. The new method for the switch triggering is proposed. The essence of the method is that the thyratron grid and the hollow cathode of the auxiliary discharge has to be grounded and the trigger pulse is applied to the ring anode of the trigger unit. In the proposed method, an undesirable high-voltage spike at the thyratron grid, which can appear with a usage of the other methods of triggering, is absent. It is shown that to trigger the thyratron a critical pulsed current to the main cathode cavity at a level of 0.8 A and higher should be provided. When the current exceeds the critical value, the jitter in the delay time to triggering falls in a range of 10 ns. This means that the method of triggering can be used in a variety of applications that require a low jitter in the delay time.

  11. PULLING THE TRIGGER: AN ANALYSIS OF CIRCUIT COURT REVIEW OF THE "PERSECUTOR BAR"

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martine Forneret

    2013-01-01

    .... Use of the persecutor bar by the Board of Immigration Appeals and circuit courts leads to situations of legal complexity because neither the judiciary nor the legislature has concretely defined "persecution...

  12. Modelling Li-ion cell thermal runaway triggered by an internal short circuit device using an efficiency factor and Arrhenius formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coman, Paul Tiberiu; Darcy, Eric; Veje, Christian

    2017-01-01

    accounts for a local short-circuit, which is triggered by the device embedded in the cell windings (jelly roll). The short circuit is modeled by calculating the total available electrical energy and adding an efficiency factor for the conversion of electric energy into thermal energy. The efficiency factor...

  13. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    2011-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software Overall the L1 trigger hardware has been running very smoothly during the last months of proton running. Modifications for the heavy-ion run have been made where necessary. The maximal design rate of 100 kHz can be sustained without problems. All L1 latencies have been rechecked. The recently installed Forward Scintillating Counters (FSC) are being used in the heavy ion run. The ZDC scintillators have been dismantled, but the calorimeter itself remains. We now send the L1 accept signal and other control signals to TOTEM. Trigger cables from TOTEM to CMS will be installed during the Christmas shutdown, so that the TOTEM data can be fully integrated within the CMS readout. New beam gas triggers have been developed, since the BSC-based trigger is no longer usable at high luminosities. In particular, a special BPTX signal is used after a quiet period with no collisions. There is an ongoing campaign to provide enough spare modules for the different subsystems. For example...

  14. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Alimena

    2013-01-01

    Trigger Strategy Group The Strategy for Trigger Evolution And Monitoring (STEAM) group is responsible for the development of future High-Level Trigger menus, as well as of its DQM and validation, in collaboration and with the technical support of the PdmV group. Taking into account the beam energy and luminosity expected in 2015, a rough estimate of the trigger rates indicates a factor four increase with respect to 2012 conditions. Assuming that a factor two can be tolerated thanks to the increase in offline storage and processing capabilities, a toy menu has been developed using the new OpenHLT workflow to estimate the transverse energy/momentum thresholds that would halve the current trigger rates. The CPU time needed to run the HLT has been compared between data taken with 25 ns and 50 ns bunch spacing, for equivalent pile-up: no significant difference was observed on the global time per event distribution at the only available data point, corresponding to a pile-up of about 10 interactions. Using th...

  15. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    by Wesley Smith

    2011-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software After the winter shutdown minor hardware problems in several subsystems appeared and were corrected. A reassessment of the overall latency has been made. In the TTC system shorter cables between TTCci and TTCex have been installed, which saved one bunch crossing, but which may have required an adjustment of the RPC timing. In order to tackle Pixel out-of-syncs without influencing other subsystems, a special hardware/firmware re-sync protocol has been introduced in the Global Trigger. The link between the Global Calorimeter Trigger and the Global Trigger with the new optical Global Trigger Interface and optical receiver daughterboards has been successfully tested in the Electronics Integration Centre in building 904. New firmware in the GCT now allows a setting to remove the HF towers from energy sums. The HF sleeves have been replaced, which should lead to reduced rates of anomalous signals, which may allow their inclusion after this is validated. For ECAL, improvements i...

  16. Hysteresis in a quantized superfluid `atomtronic' circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckel, Stephen; Lee, Jeffrey G.; Jendrzejewski, Fred; Murray, Noel; Clark, Charles W.; Lobb, Christopher J.; Phillips, William D.; Edwards, Mark; Campbell, Gretchen K.

    2014-02-01

    Atomtronics is an emerging interdisciplinary field that seeks to develop new functional methods by creating devices and circuits where ultracold atoms, often superfluids, have a role analogous to that of electrons in electronics. Hysteresis is widely used in electronic circuits--it is routinely observed in superconducting circuits and is essential in radio-frequency superconducting quantum interference devices. Furthermore, it is as fundamental to superfluidity (and superconductivity) as quantized persistent currents, critical velocity and Josephson effects. Nevertheless, despite multiple theoretical predictions, hysteresis has not been previously observed in any superfluid, atomic-gas Bose-Einstein condensate. Here we directly detect hysteresis between quantized circulation states in an atomtronic circuit formed from a ring of superfluid Bose-Einstein condensate obstructed by a rotating weak link (a region of low atomic density). This contrasts with previous experiments on superfluid liquid helium where hysteresis was observed directly in systems in which the quantization of flow could not be observed, and indirectly in systems that showed quantized flow. Our techniques allow us to tune the size of the hysteresis loop and to consider the fundamental excitations that accompany hysteresis. The results suggest that the relevant excitations involved in hysteresis are vortices, and indicate that dissipation has an important role in the dynamics. Controlled hysteresis in atomtronic circuits may prove to be a crucial feature for the development of practical devices, just as it has in electronic circuits such as memories, digital noise filters (for example Schmitt triggers) and magnetometers (for example superconducting quantum interference devices).

  17. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware The CERN group is working on the TTC system. Seven out of nine sub-detector TTC VME crates with all fibers cabled are installed in USC55. 17 Local Trigger Controller (LTC) boards have been received from production and are in the process of being tested. The RF2TTC module replacing the TTCmi machine interface has been delivered and will replace the TTCci module used to mimic the LHC clock. 11 out of 12 crates housing the barrel ECAL off-detector electronics have been installed in USC55 after commissioning at the Electronics Integration Centre in building 904. The cabling to the Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT) is terminated. The Lisbon group has completed the Synchronization and Link mezzanine board (SLB) production. The Palaiseau group has fully tested and installed 33 out of 40 Trigger Concentrator Cards (TCC). The seven remaining boards are being remade. The barrel TCC boards have been tested at the H4 test beam, and good agreement with emulator predictions were found. The cons...

  18. Benjamin & Schmitt: uma arqueologia da exceção Benjamin & Schmitt: an archeology of exception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Dymetman

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Situados em pólos opostos da vida ideológica e cultural européia dos anos 20 e 30 do século passado, Walter Benjamin e Carl Schmitt são protagonistas em um complexo jogo de afinidade e repulsa no plano das suas concepções básicas, articuladas em torno do tema do excesso. A autora propõe uma hermenêutica do excesso.Situated at opposed poles of the ideological and cultural life in the twenties and thirties of the last century. Walter Benjamin and Carl Schmitt are protagonists in a complex play of affinity and repulsion on the level of their basic conceptions, which are built around the theme of excess. The author proposes an hermeneutic of excess.

  19. ETIOLOGY, TRIGGERS AND NEUROCHEMICAL CIRCUITS ASSOCIATED WITH UNEXPECTED, EXPECTED, AND LABORATORY-INDUCED PANIC ATTACKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Philip L.; Federici, Lauren M.; Shekhar, Anantha

    2014-01-01

    Panic disorder (PD) is a severe anxiety disorder that is characterized by recurrent panic attacks (PA), which can be unexpected (uPA, i.e., no clear identifiable trigger) or expected (ePA). Panic typically involves an abrupt feeling of catastrophic fear or distress accompanied by physiological symptoms such as palpitations, racing heart, thermal sensations, and sweating. Recurrent uPA and ePA can also lead to agoraphobia, where subjects with PD avoid situations that were associated with PA. Here we will review recent developments in our understanding of PD, which includes discussions on: symptoms and signs associated with uPA and ePAs; Diagnosis of PD and the new DSM-V; biological etiology such as heritability and gene x environment and gene x hormonal development interactions; comparisons between laboratory and naturally occurring uPAs and ePAs; neurochemical systems that are associated with clinical PAs (e.g. gene associations; targets for triggering or treating PAs), adaptive fear and panic response concepts in the context of new NIH RDoc approach; and finally strengths and weaknesses of translational animal models of adaptive and pathological panic states. PMID:25130976

  20. Self-starting power management circuits for piezoelectric and electret-based electrostatic mechanical energy harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisseau, S.; Gasnier, P.; Gallardo, M.; Despesse, G.

    2013-12-01

    This paper reports on an innovative power management circuit for piezoelectric and electret-based mechanical energy harvesters able to self-start and to power battery-free Wireless Sensor Nodes (WSN) from scratch without any initial energy. The key elements of this circuit are a depletion-mode MOSFET combined with self-powered Schmitt triggers that enable to switch between (i) a non-optimized passive diode-bridge-capacitor configuration to start the system and (ii) an active power conversion path to maximize the energy extraction from mechanical energy harvesters. A discrete circuit implementing this architecture is presented and its operation is validated on simple piezoelectric and electret-based devices. An ASIC, based on the same architecture, has finally been designed, fabricated and validated.

  1. Sobre o "político": com Schmitt e apesar de Schmitt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamín Arditi

    Full Text Available Uma observação padrão na literatura é o tratamento dado por Schmitt às oscilações políticas entre a nostalgia por um Estado forte da era vestfaliana e uma descrição lúcida do novo cenário político estatal e não-estatal. Menos óbvio é que essas tensões não impedem possibilidades mais interessantes do seu trabalho. Para encontrá-las, é preciso preparar-se para pensar com e a despeito de Schmitt, seja navegando através de sua teoria do político, sem endossar todas as consequências que ele extrai delas, ou tomando sua reflexão em algumas direções que ele não previu, ou não desejou percorrer. Eu examino algumas das tensões - a natureza do vínculo entre guerra e política, o status de inimigos, a justificativa moral da excelência da ordem - e uso sua distinção entre a política e o político - talvez seu discernimento mais original - para desenvolver o tema da dupla inscrição do político.

  2. Astronaut Harrison Schmitt collects lunar rake samples during EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Harrison H. Schmitt collects lunar rake samples at Station 1 during the first Apollo 17 extravehicular activity (EVA-1) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site. This picture was taken by Astronatu Eugene Cernan, Apollo 17 commander. Schmitt is the lunar module pilot. The lunar rake, An Apollo lunar geology hand tool, is used to collect discrete samples of rocks and rock chips ranging in size from one-half inch (1.3 cm) to one inch (2.5 cm).

  3. Carl Schmitt: de Plettenberg a Uberlândia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerónimo Molina Cano

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Las ediciones y traducciones de los textos de Carl Schmitt, así como la bibliografía secundaria, incluso la terciaria (bibliografía sobre la bibliografía han aumentado exponencialmente desde su muerte. Son también frecuentes los coloquios nacionales e internacionales sobre la obra del jurista alemán. En octubre de 2012 se celebró en la Universidad Federal de Uberlândia una importante reunión científica internacional dedicada al pensamiento político, jurídico y filosófico de Carl Schmitt.

  4. Astronaut Harrison Schmitt retrieving lunar samples during EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Harrison Schmitt, Apollo 17 lunar module pilot, with his adjustable sampling scoop, heads for a selected rock on the lunar surface to retrieve the sample for study. The action was photographed by Apollo 17 crew commander, Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan on the mission's second extravehicular activity (EVA-2), at Station 5 (Camelot Crater) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site.

  5. Astronaut Harrison Schmitt participates in simulation aboard KC-135

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Harrison H. Schmitt, lunar module pilot of the Apollo 17 lunar landing mission, simulates preparing to deploy the Surface Electrical Properties Experiment during lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA) simulation training under one-sixth gravity conditions aboard a U.S. Air Force KC-135 aircraft.

  6. La cuestión del poder neutral en Schmitt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. Dotti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo busca mostrar la importancia que la teoría del pouvoir neutre de B. Constant/ tuvo en la interpretación que Carl Schmitt hace de las funciones del Reichspräsident, en los años veinte hasta el nazismo. Aun cuando Schmitt critica al romanticismo, del cual al autor de Adolphe es una figura clave, igualmente reconoce que Constant teorizó la institución constitucional más adecuada para enfrentar las situaciones críticas, cuando la constitución debe autodefenderse mediante poderes legales pero excepcionales.The article tries to show the importance that Constant's theory of the pouvoir neutre had on Carl Schmitt's interpretation of the functions of the Reichspräsident, during the twenties up to 1933. Even though Schmitt criticises Romanticism, one of its key figures is precisely Constant, the german jurist recognizes that Constant elaborated the constitutional institution which faces better than any other one those critical situations, under which any constitution must defend itself with legal but excepcional powers.

  7. Constituição, soberania e ditadura em Carl Schmitt Constitution, sovereignty and dictatorship in Carl Schmitt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Porto Macedo Júnior

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir de uma reconstrução do decisionismo schmittiano e da análise de como ele deixa sua marca em termos básicos da sua concepção como os de democracia, soberania e ditadura, examina-se o pensamento de Schmitt à luz de suas intervenções teóricas e práticas nas questões constitucionais na Alemanha de Weimar e do nacional-socialismo. Examina-se especialmente como para Schmitt a unidade e hierarquia dos poderes políticos e do direito requerem um Estado forte e um comando centralizado, no lugar de um equilíbrio pluralista.On the basis of a reconstruction of Schmitt's decisionism and of the analysis of its effects on key terms of his conception like democracy, sovereignty and dictatorship, Schmitts thought is examined regarding his theoretical and practical positions on the constitutional issues of Weimar's Germany and of National-socialism. Special attention is given to how for him the unity and the hierarchy of the political powers and of the law demand a strong State and a centralized command instead of a pluralistic balance.

  8. O CONSTITUCIONALISMO DE HANS KELSEN CONTRAPOSTO AO DE CARL SCHMITT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Araújo de Mesquita

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo possui por finalidade comparar o conceito de constitucionalismo presente entre Carl Schmitt e Hans Kelsen, na medida que os dois respeitadíssimos autores encontraram caminhos epistemológicos distintos para resolver essa situação. Para isso, é mister analisar as noções gerais do pensamento de Kelsen, presente na “Teoria Pura do Direito” até alcançar a idéia de “constituição”, e as influências sofridas por Schmitt e o seu pensamento, que visa alcançar a realidade “concreta” que por muitas vezes a norma não consegue alcançar.

  9. Figuras de la antipolítica en Carl Schmitt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Páez Canosa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo desarrolla distintas figuras que Carl Schmitt señala como formas de subjetividad antipolítica. Si desde la perspectiva del jurista alemán las operaciones que constituyen un modo de ser político son aquellas que producen o sostienen una forma representativa, lo propio de una subjetividad antipolítica son aquellas operaciones que erosionan o conducen a la destrucción de dicha forma política. El trabajo intenta mostrar que la operación fundamental en este sentido es la dilación, entendida como la postergación indefinida de la decisión. Así, bajo las diversas figuras de la antipolítica que Schmitt aborda, esta operación también adquiere diversas formas de aparición: en el caso de la subjetividad liberal se da bajo la forma de la discusión y el compromiso, en el caso del romántico político bajo la forma de la poetización.This paper develops various figures noted by Carl Schmitt as forms of anti-political subjectivity. Whereas, from the German jurist's perspective, the operations which constitute a political way of being are those which produce and care for a representative form, the specificity of a anti-political subjectivity is shaped by those operations which erode or wear that political form down. The paper aims to show that the main feature of the antipolitical way of being is the delay, meaning the indefinite postponement of the decision as such. Thus, under the various figures of the anti-politics that Schmitt deals with, this operation appears on different manners: the liberal form of postponing is the endless discussion and the compromise; the romatic form is the aesthetization of the world.

  10. ¿Por qué Carl Schmitt?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Schlink

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available En la Cultura Jurídica Alemana, Carl Schmitt llegó a tener un prestigio más notable que otros teóricos del derecho alemanes contemporáneos suyos. Aquí se examina a qué se debe eso. ¿A la contribución del pensamiento de Schmitt para interpretar y aplicar la Ley Fundamental? ¿A las contribuciones de su teoría política? La respuesta a las dos preguntas es negativa. Su fama se debe al lugar que le otorga el mito sobre el positivismo y el decisionismo del derecho en el régimen nazi. Se debe a la dificultad de integrar el pensamiento jurídico del Tercer Reich en la historia de la cultura legal alemana. Un intento de conseguirlo fue recurrir a una equívoca interpretación ad hoc de la persona de Schmitt.

  11. The leftist fascination with Schmitt and the esoteric quality of the political

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrberg, Torben Bech

    2009-01-01

    The article looks critically at the Schmitt revival among radical leftists, how they try to insulate his work from his political conviction and make a problematic distinction between liberalism and democracy, which undercuts the specificity of modern democracy and plays into reactionary identity...... politics. I then turn to how Schmitt conceptualizes the political and argue that the structure of his argument is antithetic to modern democracy. Against those who hold that it is possible to use Schmitt against himself, I argue that to adopt Schmitt for the purpose of strengthening liberal democracy runs...

  12. Submicrosecond Power-Switching Test Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folk, Eric N.

    2006-01-01

    A circuit that changes an electrical load in a switching time shorter than 0.3 microsecond has been devised. This circuit can be used in testing the regulation characteristics of power-supply circuits . especially switching power-converter circuits that are supposed to be able to provide acceptably high degrees of regulation in response to rapid load transients. The combination of this power-switching circuit and a known passive constant load could be an attractive alternative to a typical commercially available load-bank circuit that can be made to operate in nominal constant-voltage, constant-current, and constant-resistance modes. The switching provided by a typical commercial load-bank circuit in the constant-resistance mode is not fast enough for testing of regulation in response to load transients. Moreover, some test engineers do not trust the test results obtained when using commercial load-bank circuits because the dynamic responses of those circuits are, variously, partly unknown and/or excessively complex. In contrast, the combination of this circuit and a passive constant load offers both rapid switching and known (or at least better known) load dynamics. The power-switching circuit (see figure) includes a signal-input section, a wide-hysteresis Schmitt trigger that prevents false triggering in the event of switch-contact bounce, a dual-bipolar-transistor power stage that drives the gate of a metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET), and the MOSFET, which is the output device that performs the switching of the load. The MOSFET in the specific version of the circuit shown in the figure is rated to stand off a potential of 100 V in the "off" state and to pass a current of 20 A in the "on" state. The switching time of this circuit (the characteristic time of rise or fall of the potential at the drain of the MOSFET) is .300 ns. The circuit can accept any of three control inputs . which one depending on the test that one seeks to perform: a

  13. Carl Schmitt and the Challenge of Spinoza's Pantheism between the World Wars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koekkoek, Rene

    2014-01-01

    Focusing on Carl Schmitt's early work, this article argues that Schmitt's relatively unfamiliar mystical interpretation of Spinoza's pantheism, in combination with his use of the abbé Sieyès's notion of pouvoir constituant, deeply informed his particular conception of anti-liberal, dictatorial

  14. Apollo 17 Astronaut Harrison Schmitt Collects Lunar Rock Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    In this Apollo 17 onboard photo, Lunar Module pilot Harrison H. Schmitt collects rock samples from a huge boulder near the Valley of Tourus-Littrow on the lunar surface. The seventh and last manned lunar landing and return to Earth mission, the Apollo 17, carrying a crew of three astronauts: Schmitt; Mission Commander Eugene A. Cernan; and Command Module pilot Ronald E. Evans, lifted off on December 7, 1972 from the Kennedy Space Flight Center (KSC). Scientific objectives of the Apollo 17 mission included geological surveying and sampling of materials and surface features in a preselected area of the Taurus-Littrow region, deploying and activating surface experiments, and conducting in-flight experiments and photographic tasks during lunar orbit and transearth coast (TEC). These objectives included: Deployed experiments such as the Apollo lunar surface experiment package (ALSEP) with a Heat Flow experiment, Lunar seismic profiling (LSP), Lunar surface gravimeter (LSG), Lunar atmospheric composition experiment (LACE) and Lunar ejecta and meteorites (LEAM). The mission also included Lunar Sampling and Lunar orbital experiments. Biomedical experiments included the Biostack II Experiment and the BIOCORE experiment. The mission marked the longest Apollo mission, 504 hours, and the longest lunar surface stay time, 75 hours, which allowed the astronauts to conduct an extensive geological investigation. They collected 257 pounds (117 kilograms) of lunar samples with the use of the Marshall Space Flight Center designed Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV). The mission ended on December 19, 1972

  15. The ideal of State and Justice in Schmitt and Arendt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Alexander Solórzano

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two views of the contemporary political theory relating to the theme of justice and the State, Absolute Estatalismo Karl Schmitt and his theory Orthodox referring to the conflict. In Hannah Arendt came to be addressing the political consensus from the community and politics as public action. The political dilemma of justice in our times is ro- oted in the classical tradition policy ancient and modern but is exacerbated because of the rail- ways ideological conviction of the use of power, the handling of their political instrumentalization. The justice in the State has the features provided by the policy and level of social consensus or understanding that it troubled present.

  16. Analog circuit design designing waveform processing circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Feucht, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    The fourth volume in the set Designing Waveform-Processing Circuits builds on the previous 3 volumes and presents a variety of analog non-amplifier circuits, including voltage references, current sources, filters, hysteresis switches and oscilloscope trigger and sweep circuitry, function generation, absolute-value circuits, and peak detectors.

  17. Schmitt e Maquiavel: da técnica ao conflito = Schmitt and Machiavelli: from technique to conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adverse, Helton Machado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available O primeiro objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar, em linhas gerais, a recepção de Maquiavel na obra de Carl Schmitt durante a década de 1920, concedendo especial atenção ao livro sobre a ditadura e àquele sobre o conceito do político, e destacando a significativa mudança na interpretação schmittiana a partir do momento em que está em jogo a busca pelo critério próprio do político. Em seguida, discutimos brevemente as razões que explicam esta mudança de apreciação. Por fim, examinamos por que, mesmo no momento em que se encontram mais próximos, resta entre esses autores uma irredutível exterioridade

  18. Política e secularização em Carl Schmitt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helton Adverse

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo visa examinar alguns aspectos da relação entre política e secularização em Carl Schmitt, partindo de sua análise da subjetividade romântica em Romantismo Político.The article's aim is to examine some aspects of the relation between politics and secularization in the thought of Carl Schmitt, departing of his analysis of the romantic subjectivity in his book Political Romanticism.

  19. Hegemonic Sovereignty: Carl Schmitt, Antonio Gramsci and the Constituent Prince

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Kalyvas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that Schmitt’s concept of sovereignty and Gramsci’s notion of hegemony represent two distinct variations on a single theme, namely the idea of the political as the original instituting moment of society. Both Schmitt and Gramsci focused on the sources, conditions, content, and scope of the originating power of a collective will. While the former located it in the constituent power of the sovereign people, the latter placed it in the popular-national will of the modern hegemon. Both thinkers explored the complex and perplexing relationship between radical founding acts and modern democratic politics in a secular age, that is of democratic legitimacy, where with the entrance of the masses into the political sphere, the references to ultimate foundation s of authority and to an extra-social source of political power had begun to appear more dubious than ever. The last section of the article develops a notion of hegemonic sovereignty defined as an expansive and positing democratic constituent prince, aiming, through founding, total decisions, at the overall, radical, explicit, and lucid institution of society. The article briefly shows how the concept of hegemonic sovereignty can solve some problems pertaining to Schmitt’s notion of sovereignty and to Gramsci’s theory of hegemony. In so doing, the article seeks to establish the mutually reinforcing qualities of the two concepts.

  20. Carl Schmitt o la imposibilidad de una política secularizada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Alonso, Marta

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Carl Schmitt is usually regarded as a critic of modernity for his thesis concerning the theological ascent of the key concepts in the theory of the State. In this paper, l argue that there is more to theology in Schmitt's thought than a mere genealogical issue. As a matter of fact, the sphere of politics is for him prior to the constitution of the State. It is at that initial stage that Schmitt introduces the key categories of his thinking by means of theological analogies -e.g., basic anthropological choices concerning our capability for good or evil are justified by invoking the myth of the original sin. As a result of an in depth discussion of these analogies, I contend that what it is indeed impossible to secularize are the Schmittian theses themselves.

    Carl Schmitt suele ser considerado un crítico de la modernidad por sostener que los principales conceptos de la teoría del Estado son conceptos teológicos secularizados. En este trabajo pretendemos poner de manifiesto que la importancia que Schmitt concede a la teología es aún mayor. En efecto, la secularización se refiere a los conceptos claves de la teoría del Estado, pero la política es previa al Estado. Y para establecer sus categorías, Schmitt se sirve de la teología: el carácter conflictivo o pacífico del hombre remite al pecado original; el dilema amigo/enemigo a la elección entre Dios y el diablo, etc. Exploraremos el .alcance de estas analogías, intentando mostrar el carácter inerradicablemente teológico del pensamiento de Schmitt.

  1. El surgimiento del Orden Internacional Moderno según Tierra y Mar de Carl Schmitt

    OpenAIRE

    Solano Palacio, Carlos Alberto

    2014-01-01

    El propósito de esta disertación es rescatar las interpretaciones de Tierra y Mar en lo que se refiere al surgimiento del Orden Internacional Moderno, con el objetivo de explicar la percepción de los acontecimientos por parte de Carl Schmitt y su aporte filosófico-jurídico a la comprensión de la historia y teoría de las Relaciones Internacionales. La particularidad de esta obra de Schmitt es su estilo profundo: la variedad y amplitud de temas que abarca, que contrasta con la brevedad del tex...

  2. A Contingent Affinity: Max Weber, Carl Schmitt, and the Challenge of Modern Politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Pedro T

    2016-01-01

    The thesis that the theory of charismatic-plebiscitary democracy developed by Max Weber in the wake of the Weimar Republic was developed to its ultimate consequences by Carl Schmitt in the final crisis of Weimar has been hotly debated since it was first advanced in the 1950s. This paper proposes a fresh look at the controversy. By comparing both authors' concepts of politics in their relation to the problem of modernity, it argues that the Weber-Schmitt affair is neither a baseless legend nor a case of natural continuity. Instead, it should rather be understood in terms of a contingent affinity.

  3. Triggering Klystrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan, Kelton D.; /Purdue U. /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    To determine if klystrons will perform to the specifications of the LCLS (Linac Coherent Light Source) project, a new digital trigger controller is needed for the Klystron/Microwave Department Test Laboratory. The controller needed to be programmed and Windows based user interface software needed to be written to interface with the device over a USB (Universal Serial Bus). Programming the device consisted of writing logic in VHDL (VHSIC (Very High Speed Integrated Circuits) hardware description language), and the Windows interface software was written in C++. Xilinx ISE (Integrated Software Environment) was used to compile the VHDL code and program the device, and Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 was used to compile the C++ based Windows software. The device was programmed in such a way as to easily allow read/write operations to it using a simple addressing model, and Windows software was developed to interface with the device over a USB connection. A method of setting configuration registers in the trigger device is absolutely necessary to the development of a new triggering system, and the method developed will fulfill this need adequately. More work is needed before the new trigger system is ready for use. The configuration registers in the device need to be fully integrated with the logic that will generate the RF signals, and this system will need to be tested extensively to determine if it meets the requirements for low noise trigger outputs.

  4. Design and analysis of different trigger techniques for ESD clamp circuit in 0.5-µm 5 V/18 V CDMOS process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjie; Yang, Liu; Wang, Yang; Jin, Xiangliang

    2017-09-01

    In this work, gate-driven, substrate-triggered and gate-substrate-triggered techniques for both 5 V NMOS-based and 18 V NLDMOS-based power clamps under electrostatic discharge (ESD) stress were investigated in details. Schematics of the three trigger designs were depicted and their physical mechanisms were studied at first. To verify and make comparisons of their performance, they were fabricated in a standard 0.5-μm 5 V/18 V CDMOS process and characterized by transmission line pulse (TLP) test system, respectively. Experimental results show that 5 V NMOS-based power clamp with substrate-triggered technique has the lowest trigger voltage (∼8.37 V) and the highest failure current (∼3.58 A), and 18 V gate-substrate-triggered design based on NLDMOS has low trigger voltage (∼34.02 V) and greatest robustness (It2 = 3.32 A). Therefore, as for low-voltage NMOS-based ESD power clamps, substrate-triggered design obtains the most superior ESD protection performance; but for high-voltage power clamps, gate-substrate-triggered technique can make NLDMOS actualize uniform current conduction and better ESD robustness.

  5. Ajalool on ajaloolaste nägu / Jean-Claude Schmitt ; interv. Marek Tamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Schmitt, Jean-Claude

    2004-01-01

    Intervjuu ajaloolase Jean-Claude Schmittiga. Ilm. ka: Keha, pilt ja unenägu : intervjuu Jean-Claude Scmittiga // Schmitt, Jean-Claude. Püha hurdakoer : Guinefort - lasteravija 13. sajandist. - Tallinn, 2000. - Lk. 296-305 ; Kuidas kirjutatakse ajalugu? // Tamm, Marek. Kuidas kirjutatakse ajalugu? - Tallinn, 2007. - 161-177

  6. Embracing complexity: the post-secular pilgrimage of Eric-Emmanuel Schmitt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Illman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the phenomenon of pilgrimage as a personal transformative process; an exploration of spiritual space rather than a journey undertaken to a physical place. The analysis focuses on the life story and authorship of the novelist and playwright Eric-Emmanuel Schmitt (b. 1960. Schmitt began his career as an academic philosopher specialised in enlightenment rationality. A mystical experience in the deserts of Sahara, however, opened his eyes to the spiritual dimensions of reality and encouraged him to redirect his professional strivings from academic writing to fiction. Today, Schmitt has reached a world-wide audience with his plays and novels on interreligious dialogue, especially the series of five short novellas called Le cycle d’Invisible. These narratives all deal with inter-religious encounters in a complex and compassionate way as Schmitt is particularly concerned with preserving the mystery of the situations he describes. The atheist conviction of his previous life has thus given way to an agnostic and mystically inspired world view focusing on diversity, divinity and inexplicability: “I am obsessed with complexity”, as he puts it himself. The presentation is based on ethnographic material, and key themes to be addressed include pilgrimage as a spiritual journey, interreligious encounters and mystical experiences.

  7. Meeting Opposites: The Political Theologies of Walter Benjamin and Carl Schmitt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wilde, M.

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the critical dialogue between Walter Benjamin and Carl Schmitt, to which a letter and several references in their work testify. It shows how affinities and differences between their respective positions can be explained from a shared theologico-political approach. Both authors

  8. Astronaut Harrison Schmitt next to deployed U.S. flag on lunar surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Harrison Schmitt, Apollo 17 lunar module pilot, is photographed next to the U.S. flag during extravehicular activity (EVA) of NASA's final lunar landing mission in the Apollo series. The photo was taken at the Taurus-Littrow landing site. The highest part of the flag appears to point toward our planet earth in the distant background.

  9. Astronaut Harrison Schmitt looks at 'orange' soil brought back by Apollo 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Harrison H. 'Jack' Schmitt (facing camera), Apollo 17 lunar module pilot, was one of the first to look at the sample of 'orange' soil brought back from the Taurus-Littrow landing site by the Apollo 17 crewmen.

  10. Astronaut Harrison Schmitt seated in Lunar Roving Vehicle during EVA-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Harrison H. Schmitt is photographed seated in the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) at Station 9 (Van Serg Crater) during the third Apollo 17 extrvehicular activity (EVA-3) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site. This photograph was taken by Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan, crew commander.

  11. The destruction of the nameless public enemy: an interpretation of the political in Carl Schmitt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Alves da Silva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a critical analysis of the essential criteria to define the concept of the political as presented by German jurist and philosopher, Carl Schmitt. Based on the essence of the political —i.e. the friend-enemy duality—, the objective is to explore the practical implications resulting from the actual possibilities of confrontation, the key scope being the analysis of a totalitarian potential from a Schmittian´s perspective. In Schmitt´s thought, this distinction is the fundamental reason for the definition of the political. Not every opponent is necessarily the enemy –—the other one, the unknown— and likely to be physically destroyed and exterminated but only a public enemy (hostis. Given its indeterminate nature, the enemy may be prescribed according to the sovereign design or, in the context of Nazi Germany where Carl Schmitt lived, in accordance with the President of the Reich´s designs. A hypothetical-deductive methodology is used in this work based on bibliographical research, in particular regarding Carl Schmitt´s theoretical constructions.

  12. Aegla rosanae Campos Jr., um novo sinônimo de Aegla paulensis Schmitt (Crustacea, Aeglidae Aegla rosanae Campos Jr., a new synonym of Aegla paulensis Schmitt (Crustacea, Aeglidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Bond-Buckup

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The validity of Aegla rosanae Campos Jr., 1998 as a new species was analysed. On the basis of comparisons with Aegla paulensis Schmitt, A. rosanae was considered its junior synonym.

  13. Contributions to a genealogy of democracy in the twentieth century starting from the opposition Kelsen/Schmitt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Fortunato

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work I analyze the theories of Carl Schmitt and Hans Kelsen of democracy in the light of the weberian topic of rationalization. My thesis is that this counterpoint does not escape the contemporary split that characterizes the nineteenth century modernity and continues in the twentieth century. At last, I’ll maintain that the political manifestation of this aporeticalbackground –over which one must understand the challenge of democracy– is what Schmitt calls the total State.

  14. Sujeito e ordem: romantismo e decisionismo no pensamento de Carl Schmitt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Bernardo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to discuss the link in the work of Carl Schmitt between the critique of romanticism and the reflection on the themes of sovereignty and decision. Based on an analysis of some key issues in the books Politische Romantik (Political Romanticism, Politische Theologie (Political Theology, and Die Diktatur (The Dictatorship, the article analyzes how, in Carl Schmitt, romanticism and decisionism represent counterpoised conceptual universes, which refer to each other in various aspects. The attempt is thus to highlight both the structurally controversial nature of the German jurist?s ideas and the close ties between his legal/political theory and his critique of the liberal-bourgeois order as a synthesis of modernity.

  15. Irina Schmitt: wir sind halt alle anders. Göttingen: V&R unipress 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Kliewer

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Irina Schmitt untersucht, wie Jugendliche aus verschiedenen Migrationskulturen in Deutschland auf ethnische wie geschlechtsbezogene Normativität reagieren. Als teilnehmende Beobachterin gab die Autorin den Jugendlichen die Möglichkeit, sich selbst in qualitativen Fragebögen, Interviews, Postern und Foto- bzw. Kassettentagebücher darzustellen. Ein Vergleich mit kanadischen Jugendlichen zeigt, wie eine Gesellschaft, die von Heterogenität bestimmt ist, auch den Jugendlichen mehr Möglichkeiten bietet, verschiedene Kulturen positiv wahrzunehmen.Irina Schmitt examines how youth from differing migrant cultures in Germany react to ethnic and gender-oriented normativity. The author remained a participatory observer and allowed the youths the possibility of representing themselves in the form of qualitative surveys, interviews, posters, and photo or audio journals. A comparison with Canadian youths shows how a society that is determined by heterogeneity also offers youths more possibilities to positively experience different cultures.

  16. Movimentos sociais e a construção do político: Carl Schmitt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flickinger, Hans Georg

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O texto busca no pensamento de Carl Schmitt – intelectual alemão envolvido na ideologia nacional-socialista e relativamente pouco conhecido no contexto brasileiro – a crítica feita à democracia liberal-burguesa e ao sistema parlamentar-representativo, para dele extrair uma contribuição ao atual debate sobre movimentos sociais. A proposta do autor é que os movimentos sociais, ao assumirem o confronto permanente entre as temáticas legalmente confirmadas e as demandas utópicas, podem reinvindicar a voz daqueles que atualmente vêm sendo ignorados pela política cotidiana institucionalizada e recuperar o verdadeiro espaço do Político. A argumentação inicia com algumas colocações acerca do contexto histórico que originou a preocupação teórica de Carl Schmitt. Numa segunda parte, são apresentados os aspectos centrais de um texto do mesmo autor publicado em 1933 sob o título Staat, Bewegung, Volk (Estado, movimento, povo, a partir do qual são articuladas questões sistemáticas ligadas aos movimentos sociais enquanto indicadores de falhas da democracia liberal. Por fim, é reconstruído o fio condutor da argumentação desenvolvida por Schmitt, para extrair dela as observações mais importantes que contribuem para esclarecer melhor o marco conceitual- sistemático dos atuais debates sobre os movimentos sociais

  17. Radiographie de l’ennemi : Carl Schmitt et le romantisme politique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian E. Roques

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available C’est grâce à son essai Politische Romantik, publié en 1919, que Carl Schmitt fait une entrée remarquée sur la scène intellectuelle allemande. L’ouvrage se présente comme une charge systématique et radicale contre la tradition allemande du « romantisme politique », et fut vivement discuté dans les années qui suivirent sa publication. Mais aujourd’hui il se trouve relégué parmi les œuvres de jeunesse de Schmitt et reste rarement étudié par la recherche, qui le lit au mieux comme une belle contribution à l’histoire culturelle du xixe siècle.Pourtant, une étude approfondie de l’essai, ainsi que du contexte historique dans lequel il s’insère, fait apparaître que ce n’est pas dans une telle perspective que Politische Romantik manifeste toute sa portée : bien plus qu’une étude historique, cet essai constitue un élément de réponse à la crise du conservatisme allemand tel qu’il apparaît dans l’après-guerre. Le rejet du « romantisme politique » marque la rupture de Schmitt avec l’idéal « apolitique » des intellectuels allemands de l’époque, et par là constitue le premier moment du projet schmittien, tel qu’il se verra développé de manière croisée dans son étude sur le catholicisme et sa Théologie politique.

  18. Hans Kelsen e Carl Schmitt: o debate entre normativismo e decisionismo

    OpenAIRE

    Godoy, Paula Véspoli

    2010-01-01

    Este trabalho visa abordar o debate entre os juristas Hans Kelsen e Carl Schmitt ocorrido no entreguerras, durante a República de Weimar. Procura analisar a teoria e os conceitos que cada autor possui sobre questões como democracia, soberania, poder de um governante e seus limites, Estado de Direito, força e função da Constituição. Analisa os dualismos que permeiam este debate, dentre os quais, normativismo e decisionismo, Direito e Poder, Jurídico e Político, normalidade e exceção, reflexões...

  19. The War Refugees in Europe and the Feature of "Other" Carl Schmitt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Smolarek Dias

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is subject to analyze the characteristic of "Other" as created by Carl Schmitt in the scenario of war refugees in European countries. The initial hypothesis is that the presence of a population marked by representative differences promotes the collision between freedoms as seen during the “collective rape" in Cologne - Germany. The theme is justified because it affects millions of people worldwide. The method used is the deductive and the work is divided into three parts dealing with the figure of the "other”, representativeness and Criminology of Anomie, presenting a research in development with partial results.

  20. Der Feindbegriff Carl Schmitts im Antiterrorkrieg - Über das Verhältnis von Recht und Politik im Ausnahmezustand

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    Stephan Stübinger

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Die Lehren Carl Schmitts haben wieder einmal Hochkonjunktur. Insbesondere sein von der Unterscheidung zwischen Freund und Feind bestimmter Begriff des Politischen und die Idee vom Ausnahmezustand, in dem das Recht der Normallage nicht gelte, sind derzeit aktuell. Die Reaktualisierung ist vor allem der Kriegsrhetorik geschuldet, die sich im Kampf gegen den internationalen Terrorismus etabliert. Schmitts Begrifflichkeit wird in Anspruch genommen, um diverse Antiterrormaßnahmen der normalen juristischen Beurteilung zu entziehen. Die durch souveräne politische Entscheidung ausgerufene Ausnahme soll die Geltung des Rechts suspendieren. Dabei droht die Ausnahme zur Regel zu werden. Der dadurch behauptete Vorrang des Politischen wird im Rahmen einer Analyse der Schriften Schmitts und der internationalen Rezeption seiner Theorien einer kritischen Prüfung unterzogen und zurückgewiesen.

  1. Astronaut Harrison Schmitt uses scoop to retrieve lunar samples during EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Harrison Schmitt, Apollo 17 lunar module pilot, uses an adjustable sampling scoop to retrieve lunar samples during the second Apollo 17 extravehicular activity (EVA-2), at Station 5 at the Taurus-Littrow landing site. A gnomon is atop the large rock in the foreground. The gnomon is a stadia rod mounted on a tripod, and serves as an indicator of the gravitational vector and provides accurate vertical reference and calibrated length for determining size and position of objects in near-field photographs. The color scale of blue, orange and green is used to accurately determine color for photography. The rod of it is 18 inches long. The scoop Dr. Schmitt is using is 11 3/4 inches long and is attached to a tool extension which adds a potential 30 inches of length to the scoop. The pan portion, obscured in this view, has a flat bottom, flanged on both sides with a partial cover on the top. It is used to retrieve sand, dust and lunar samples too small for the tongs. The pa

  2. Review: Eine Replik auf: Schmitt, Rudolf (2011. Review Essay: Rekonstruktive und andere Metaphernanalysen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kruse

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available udolf SCHMITT ist unbestreitbar ein fundierter Experte im deutschsprachigen Raum im Hinblick auf eine umfassende und fokussierte Metaphernanalyse als ein spezifisches Verfahren der Analyse qualitativer Daten. Mit seiner in FQS erschienenen Rezension zu unserem Buch "Metaphernanalyse. Ein rekonstruktiver Ansatz" wird dies abermals deutlich. SCHMITT ordnet unser Verfahren zur rekonstruktiven Metaphernanalyse in andere sozialwissenschaftliche Metaphernanalysen ein und versucht auf dieser Grundlage, Vor- und Nachteile unseres metaphernanalytischen Zugangs hervorzuheben. Ausgehend von diesem Vergleichshorizont gelingt ihm die Besprechung eines grundlegenden Buches zur Einführung in die sozialwissenschaftliche Metaphernanalyse – welches unser Buch aber weder ist noch vorgibt zu sein. Wir begrüßen seine breit gefächerte Auswahl sozialwissenschaftlicher metaphernanalytischer Zugänge, glauben aber, dass die Zielsetzungen unseres Ansatzes (und unseres Buches in seinem Review-Essay zu sehr in den Hintergrund treten. Wir haben uns daher zu dieser Replik entschlossen, um die "sozialwissenschaftliche Metaphernanalyse" weiter in einem diskursiven Prozess zu halten. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1202102

  3. Dynamics of gonadal development of Aegla platensis Schmitt (Decapoda, Anomura, Aeglidae Dinâmica do desenvolvimento gonadal de Aegla platensis Schmitt (Decapoda, Anomura, Aeglidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina C. Sokolowicz

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available One way to estimate gonadal development through the reproductive cycle is to observe the growth of the gonads related to the organs used to store energy. The aim of this study was to follow the gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indexes during annual cycle of Aegla platensis Schmitt, 1942. Adult animals were collected in Taquara, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (29°46'S, 50°53'W. Males and females were initially weighed and dissected and had their gonads and hepatopancreas (HP removed and weighed in order to estimate the Gonadosomatic (GI and hepatosomatic (HI indexes. In females, the indexes were also compared to the degree of development of the ovaries. In males the GI showed a peak of gonadal development in the autumn (p Uma maneira de estimar o desenvolvimento gonadal ao longo do ciclo reprodutivo é observar o crescimento das gônadas em relação aos órgãos utilizados para o estoque de energia. O objetivo desse estudo foi acompanhar os índices gonadossomático e hepatossomático durante o ciclo reprodutivo de Aegla platensis Schmitt, 1942. Animais adultos foram coletados em Taquara, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil (29°46'S, 50°53'W. Machos e fêmeas foram pesados e dissecados, gônadas e hepatopâncreas (HP foram retirados e pesados para obtenção dos índices gonadossomático (IG e hepatossomático (IH. Nas fêmeas, os índices também foram comparados com o grau de desenvolvimento dos ovários. Nos machos o IG mostrou um pico de desenvolvimento gonadal no outono (p < 0,05, quando os valores do IH diminuíram (p < 0,05. Fêmeas mostraram um aumento do IG no final do verão e início do outono (p < 0,05 e os valores do IG aumentaram à medida que o ovário tornava-se maduro. Em A. platensis, tanto nos machos como nas fêmeas, os valores do IH nunca mostraram valores mais baixos que o IG, o que pode indicar que esses aeglídeos apresentam um padrão de utilização de energia diferente dos outros decápodos, onde à medida que o desenvolvimento

  4. Measuring circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Graf, Rudolf F

    1996-01-01

    This series of circuits provides designers with a quick source for measuring circuits. Why waste time paging through huge encyclopedias when you can choose the topic you need and select any of the specialized circuits sorted by application?This book in the series has 250-300 practical, ready-to-use circuit designs, with schematics and brief explanations of circuit operation. The original source for each circuit is listed in an appendix, making it easy to obtain additional information.Ready-to-use circuits.Grouped by application for easy look-up.Circuit source listings

  5. Oscillator circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Graf, Rudolf F

    1996-01-01

    This series of circuits provides designers with a quick source for oscillator circuits. Why waste time paging through huge encyclopedias when you can choose the topic you need and select any of the specialized circuits sorted by application?This book in the series has 250-300 practical, ready-to-use circuit designs, with schematics and brief explanations of circuit operation. The original source for each circuit is listed in an appendix, making it easy to obtain additional information.Ready-to-use circuits.Grouped by application for easy look-up.Circuit source listing

  6. RUEDA SUELTA ENTRE LOS NAZIS: LA AVERSIÓN TEÓRICA DE CARL SCHMITT FRENTE AL NAZISMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Andrés Duque Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El interés por Carl Schmitt en los primeros años del siglo XXI se hace cada vez más evidente, especialmente en autores que buscan renovar la tradición liberal apelando a los argumentos de este polémico autor. Pese al lugar común que significa Schmitt, su reconocimiento general viene acompañado de una suerte de estigmatización difícil de superar, con la que en ocasiones se le califica de “cómplice” de la tragedia del nazismo. En este artículo se presenta una reflexión en torno a la comprensión que tenía Carl Schmitt sobre el derecho. En dicho análisis se emplea un método hermenéutico de estudio de la primera obra de Schmitt; su tesis de habilitación de 1914. El artículo permite ver que muchos de los elementos de la filosofía política schmittiana en su conjunto, se definen en esta primera obra, la que ideológicamente se ajusta mejor al pensamiento burgués-conservador que a los fundamentos del nazismo.

  7. Driver circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Raymond T. (Inventor); Higashi, Stanley T. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A driver circuit which has low power requirements, a relatively small number of components and provides flexibility in output voltage setting. The driver circuit comprises, essentially, two portions which are selectively activated by the application of input signals. The output signal is determined by which of the two circuit portions is activated. While each of the two circuit portions operates in a manner similar to silicon controlled rectifiers (SCR), the circuit portions are on only when an input signal is supplied thereto.

  8. Schmitt. Identidad y representación como principios políticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onelio Trucco

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo haremos una inicial lectura de la relación entre identidad y representación en el pensamiento de Carl Schmitt. Teniendo en el centro su Teoría de la constitución mostraremos la necesaria presencia de los dos principios para entender el ámbito de la política. Para ello inscribiremos esas categorías en la concepción del autor acerca la soberanía popular y la noción de lo que es un pueblo. Destacamos su posición sobre la inconclusividad de la identificación del pueblo y en la parcial representación de éste, para caracterizar uno de los aspectos relevantes de la política como espacio de articulación relacional.

  9. Dynamic triggering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, David P.; Prejean, Stephanie; Schubert, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic stresses propagating as seismic waves from large earthquakes trigger a spectrum of responses at global distances. In addition to locally triggered earthquakes in a variety of tectonic environments, dynamic stresses trigger tectonic (nonvolcanic) tremor in the brittle–plastic transition zone along major plate-boundary faults, activity changes in hydrothermal and volcanic systems, and, in hydrologic domains, changes in spring discharge, water well levels, soil liquefaction, and the eruption of mud volcanoes. Surface waves with periods of 15–200 s are the most effective triggering agents; body-wave trigger is less frequent. Triggering dynamic stresses can be < 1 kPa.

  10. Schmitt e o problema da democracia: nostalgia da transcendência ou a representação como questão para a democracia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássio Corrêa Benjamin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa a questão da democracia em Carl Schmitt. Para tanto, retoma seu conceito de forma política que inclui identidade e representação. Após apresentar uma distinção fundamental para a noção de democracia, deriva algumas conseqüências do contraste com as idéias de Schmitt. A representação e a identidade como formas políticas constituiriam, então, uma impossibilidade para a democracia.This article analyses the question of democracy in Schmitt's work. For this purpose, it reviews his concept of political form which includes identity and representation. After presenting a fundamental distinction to the notion of democracy, some consequences are derived from contrast to Schmitt's ideas. The representation and the identity as political form would constitute, consequently, an impossibility for democracy.

  11. La dictadura como encarnación de lo político: anotaciones en torno a Carl Schmitt Dictatorship as Incarnation of "The Political": Annotations Concerning Carl Schmitt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmar Arley Martínez Márquez

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo es hacer una reconstrucción del concepto de lo político de Carl Schmitt, a partir de la reflexión de sus textos principales y de las críticas que algunos de sus más agudos lectores le han dirigido. La tesis que el texto plantea es que lo político, en Schmitt, equivale a la dictadura. Para demostrar este planteamiento se realiza un análisis de cuatro conceptos centrales en el desarrollo de la concepción del jurista alemán sobre lo político -soberanía, estado de excepción, decisión y enemigo. Análisis que termina por mostrar que dichos conceptos sólo adquieren su contenido explicativo en la figura de la dictadura.This article is an attempt to reconstruct Carl Schmitt's concept of "the political" starting from reflections on his main texts and criticisms that some of his most disparaging readers have directed towards him. The text's thesis is that the concept of "the political" in Schmitt is equal to dictatorship. In order to demonstrate this position the article does an analysis of four central concepts in the development of the German jurist's conceptualization -sovereignty, the state of exception, decision and enemy. This analysis ends by showing that these concepts only acquire their explanatory content in the figure of dictatorship.

  12. A sociologia dos conceitos e a história dos conceitos: um diálogo entre Carl Schmitt e Reinhart Koselleck The sociology of concepts and the conceptual history: a dialog between Carl Schmitt and Reinhart Koselleck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Hermílio Villas Bôas Castelo Branco

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Muitos trabalhos de Reinhart Koselleck teriam sido influenciados pelas idéias de Carl Schmitt. Tal influência poderia ser observada não apenas no teor de críticas, entre outras, à filosofia da história, à noção de progresso, ao liberalismo, mas, também, no plano metodológico. Este trabalho busca investigar em que medida é possível aproximar a metodologia desses autores, respectivamente, a da historia dos conceitos e a da sociologia dos conceitos. A análise das metodologias de Koselleck e Schmitt consiste numa chave para desvendar determinados pressupostos epistemológicos extraídos de uma dimensão existencial do homem, possivelmente compartilhada pelos autores.Many works from Reinhart Koselleck would have been influenced by Carl Schmitt's ideas. Such influences could be observed not only in critics to the philosophy of history, to the progress notion, to liberalism, but also in a methodological scope. This article searches to investigate in which way it is possible to approach the methodology of both authors, respectively, the conceptual history and the sociology of concepts. The methodological analysis could be a key to understand epistemological premises obtained from a existential dimension of man, probably shared by both authors.

  13. La dictadura como encarnación de lo político: anotaciones en torno a Carl Schmitt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmar Arley Martínez Márquez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo es hacer una reconstrucción del concepto de lo político de Carl Schmitt, a partir de la reflexión de sus textos principales y de las críticas que algunos de sus más agudos lectores le han dirigido. La tesis que el texto plantea es que lo político, en Schmitt, equivale a la dictadura. Para demostrar este planteamiento se realiza un análisis de cuatro conceptos centrales en el desarrollo de la concepción del jurista alemán sobre lo político –soberanía, estado de excepción, decisión y enemigo. Análisis que termina por mostrar que dichos conceptos sólo adquieren su contenido explicativo en la figura de la dictadura.

  14. O nomos e a lei: considerações sobre o realismo político em Carl Schmitt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Ferreira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo aborda o tema do realismo político no pensamento de Carl Schmitt, à luz de suas reflexões sobre o direito e a história da política internacional no mundo moderno. Para tanto, o texto analisa sua narrativa sobre a constituição da ordem das relações internacionais a partir do século XVI, apresentada no livro Der Nomos der Erde im Völkerrecht des Jus Publicum Europaeum (O Nomos da Terra no Direito Internacional do Jus Publicum Europaeum. Essa análise busca pôr em evidência a maneira como Carl Schmitt concebe a relação entre direito e realidade na época moderna e, com isso, pretende apresentar uma imagem do seu realismo político que leve em conta algumas de suas premissas históricas e filosóficas.The article deals with the political realism theme in the way of thinking of Carl Schmitt, in the light of his reflections on law and history of international politics in the modern world. For that purpose, the text analyses his narrative on the establishment of international relations order from the sixteenth century, as presented in the book Nomos der Erde im Völkerrecht des Jus Publicum Europaeum (The Nomos of the Earth in the International Law of Jus Publicum Europaeum. This analyses looks forward to place in evidence the way Carl Schmitt conceives the relation between modern age law and reality, and, by this, intends to present an image of his political realism that takes into account some of his historical and philosophical premises

  15. Rezension zu: Irina Schmitt: wir sind halt alle anders. Göttingen: V&R unipress 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Kliewer

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Irina Schmitt untersucht, wie Jugendliche aus verschiedenen Migrationskulturen in Deutschland auf ethnische wie geschlechtsbezogene Normativität reagieren. Als teilnehmende Beobachterin gab die Autorin den Jugendlichen die Möglichkeit, sich selbst in qualitativen Fragebögen, Interviews, Postern und Foto- bzw. Kassettentagebücher darzustellen. Ein Vergleich mit kanadischen Jugendlichen zeigt, wie eine Gesellschaft, die von Heterogenität bestimmt ist, auch den Jugendlichen mehr Möglichkeiten bietet, verschiedene Kulturen positiv wahrzunehmen.

  16. La teología política de Carl Schmitt. Una lectura desde su debate con Hans Kelsen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge C. Restrepo Ramos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available El concepto de teología política de Carl Schmitt ha sido leído desde diversas ópticas, usualmente restando importancia al debate que el autor sostiene con Hans Kelsen en torno a las teorías de la soberanía, el Estado y el Derecho. Aquí se propone resaltar ese debate y proponer una lectura de la obra de Schmitt, según la cual el tercer capítulo de Teología política contiene una tesis epistemológica opuesta al purismo kelseniano, cuyo alcance teórico es quizás más rico que una mera repetición de topoi reaccionarios, como lo sugieren las lecturas alternativas. Tras justificar esa lectura, el artículo se ocupa de las características específicas del concepto de teología política esbozado por Schmitt.

  17. La teología política de Carl Schmitt. Una lectura desde su debate con Hans Kelsen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge C. Restrepo Ramos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El concepto de teología política de Carl Schmitt ha sido leído desde diversas ópticas, usualmente restando importancia al debate que el autor sostiene con Hans Kelsen en torno a las teorías de la soberanía, el Estado y el Derecho. Aquí se propone resaltar ese debate y proponer una lectura de la obra de Schmitt, según la cual el tercer capítulo de Teología política contiene una tesis epistemológica opuesta al purismo kelseniano, cuyo alcance teórico es quizás más rico que una mera repetición de topoi reaccionarios, como lo sugieren las lecturas alternativas. Tras justificar esa lectura, el artículo se ocupa de las características específicas del concepto de teología política esbozado por Schmitt.

  18. Demistifikasi Tokoh Don Juan dalam La Nuit De Valognes Karya Eric-Emmanuel Schmitt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talha Bachmid

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Don Juan is a myth about a seducer, a man with many love adventures, a women’s heat conqueror, and many other predicates. Don Juan as a myth is well-known world wide over, appearing in about 50 writings such as novels, plays, operas. But a French writer Eric-Emannuel Schmitt proposes a new figure of Don Juan in his play La Nuit de Valognes (Night in Valognes: the seducer is judged by five victims and convicted to marry one of his victims in order to stop his adventures. Surprisingly, Don Juan accepts this verdict without conditions. This sudden change becomes the theme of the play: the demythification of Don Juan. A flash back scene shows the beginning of this change and the interpretations that might arise from here. One possible interpretation is proposed and discussed in this paper: Don Juan found the way to a purer love, which is the union with God, and decides to begin his journey. This play can thus be categorised as a sufi text.

  19. CARL SCHMITT. TEORÍA PARA UNA FUNDAMENTACIÓN DE LA AUTORIDAD SOBERANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsabé Pap

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo seráprofundizar en el problema centralque nos plantea la obra de CarlSchmitt: al definir al soberano por sucapacidad de declarar el estado deexcepción, el autor nos enfrenta conel punto ciego de todo ordenamientopolítico; aquel que nos muestra que elsistema legal se vuelve superfluo antela emergencia de lo inesperado. Elenfrentamiento con una situaciónsemejante no puede reglarse. Lacompetencia del soberano es, anteella, ilimitada. Normativamenteconsiderada la decisión nace de lanada. Por tanto, desprovista de todomarco procedimental o sustancial, ladecisión soberana nos enfrenta con elproblema del valor de la misma y desus consecuencias; tal vez únicomarco de referencia que resta.¿Existe algún criterio para juzgarla?¿Su finalidad de restaurar el ordenpuede servirse de cualquier medio?¿Hay lugar para la afirmación dealgún valor sustancial en esta teoría?Estas son preguntas que, al menos,intentaremos dejar planteadas.

  20. Description of the newly-hatched juvenile of Aegla castro Schmitt, 1942 (Crustacea, Anomura, Aeglidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luane Samara Alves E; Guerrero-Ocampo, Cecilia Margarita; Negreiros-Fransozo, Maria Lucia; Teixeira, Gustavo Monteiro

    2017-02-26

    This study describes and illustrates the morphology of the first juvenile stage of Aegla castro Schmitt, 1942. Ovigerous females were collected from May to July 2013, in Couro River (Mauá da Serra, Paraná, Brazil). These females were kept individually under controlled feeding, aeration, water temperature and quality and checked daily for hatching of juveniles. The newly-hatched juveniles were fixed in alcohol series and kept in 70% alcohol with glycerin in a 2:1 ratio prior to study under light microscopy. The newly-hatched juvenile of A. castro is the largest among aeglid species whose juveniles have been described. Aegla castro has asynchronous hatching. Some specimens were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, revealing details of the setal morphology, some cephalothoracic appendages and lineae aeglicae. The number of setae in newly-hatched A. castro is lower than that described for other species, but does not appear to be diagnostic. However, A. castro is the only species described that combines the presence of four plumose setae on the third maxilliped exopod and 63-65 plumose setae on the maxilla exopod.

  1. Entre autoridade e lei: considerações sobre o realismo político de Carl Schmitt

    OpenAIRE

    Rone Eleandro Santos

    2010-01-01

    Partindo da análise de Thomas Hobbes sobre o poder de decisão e a autoridade atribuída ao soberano para resolver questões que colocam o Estado em perigo, o presente artigo visa expor alguns conceitos importantes da filosofia política de Carl Schmitt como: o duplo amigo-inimigo, a questão do Liberalismo como inimigo político schmittiano, o decisionismo e o estado de exceção.

  2. Decisionismo e Hermenêutica Negativa: Carl Schmitt, Hans Kelsen e a afirmação do poder no ato interpretativo do direito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andityas Soares de Moura Costa Matos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2177-7055.2013v34n67p111O presente artigo pretende refletir sobre as teorias da interpretação jurídica nas obras de Carl Schmitt e Hans Kelsen, demonstrando que, muito embora assumam diferentes sentidos do decisionismo, acabam por gerar uma hermenêutica negativa. Para tanto, analisa-se a obra de Schmitt nos anos de 1910, período ainda marcado por um enfoque neokantiano; nos anos de 1920, no contexto da crise de Weimar; e nos anos de 1930, quando Schmitt adere ao nacional-socialismo. No que diz respeito a Kelsen, privilegia-se as duas edições da Teoria Pura do Direito (1934 e 1960. Como conclusão, percebe-se a insuficiência da hermenêutica negativa.

  3. Photon-triggered nanowire transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungkil; Lee, Hoo-Cheol; Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Hwang, Min-Soo; Park, Jin-Sung; Lee, Jung Min; So, Jae-Pil; Choi, Jae-Hyuck; Kwon, Soon-Hong; Barrelet, Carl J.; Park, Hong-Gyu

    2017-10-01

    Photon-triggered electronic circuits have been a long-standing goal of photonics. Recent demonstrations include either all-optical transistors in which photons control other photons or phototransistors with the gate response tuned or enhanced by photons. However, only a few studies report on devices in which electronic currents are optically switched and amplified without an electrical gate. Here we show photon-triggered nanowire (NW) transistors, photon-triggered NW logic gates and a single NW photodetection system. NWs are synthesized with long crystalline silicon (CSi) segments connected by short porous silicon (PSi) segments. In a fabricated device, the electrical contacts on both ends of the NW are connected to a single PSi segment in the middle. Exposing the PSi segment to light triggers a current in the NW with a high on/off ratio of >8 × 106. A device that contains two PSi segments along the NW can be triggered using two independent optical input signals. Using localized pump lasers, we demonstrate photon-triggered logic gates including AND, OR and NAND gates. A photon-triggered NW transistor of diameter 25 nm with a single 100 nm PSi segment requires less than 300 pW of power. Furthermore, we take advantage of the high photosensitivity and fabricate a submicrometre-resolution photodetection system. Photon-triggered transistors offer a new venue towards multifunctional device applications such as programmable logic elements and ultrasensitive photodetectors.

  4. ¿Qué es la política? Una lectura desde la techné política en Maquiavelo y Schmitt

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Torres Vindas, Javier

    2009-01-01

    Mediante la lectura de los realistas políticos Maquiavelo y Schmitt, se busca contestar ¿Qué es la política? Se expone el artículo en tres apartados. El primero es una reflexión del realismo político en este escrito. En el segundo exploramos qué entienden por política Maquiavelo y Schmitt, mediados por tesis de Gramsci y Weber que facilitan su interpretación. Finalmente, estableceremos los elementos para dar una respuesta a nuestra pregunta central.

  5. Sampling and Control Circuit Board for an Inertial Measurement Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelmins, David T (Inventor); Powis, Richard T., Jr. (Inventor); Sands, Obed (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A circuit board that serves as a control and sampling interface to an inertial measurement unit ("IMU") is provided. The circuit board is also configured to interface with a local oscillator and an external trigger pulse. The circuit board is further configured to receive the external trigger pulse from an external source that time aligns the local oscillator and initiates sampling of the inertial measurement device for data at precise time intervals based on pulses from the local oscillator. The sampled data may be synchronized by the circuit board with other sensors of a navigation system via the trigger pulse.

  6. Carl Schmitt's attitude towards total war and total enemy on the eve of the outbreak of WWII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molnar Aleksandar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Carl Schmitt is usually perceived as the theorist of total state, total war and total hostility. In the article, the author however tries to show that from 1937 to 1944, Schmitt was arguing that total war and total hostility were dangerous for Germany (as well as for the rest of Europe and warned against perpetuation of all efforts to totalize enemy that started in 1914. In his theoretical endeavors in this period there was place for the total state only - and especially for the total state strong enough to resist temptation of declaring total war on total enemy. The total state he recommended Hitler and his Nazi comrades was German Reich, as a part of Europe ordered and divided in the huge spaces (Grossraumordnung. Positioned in the centre of Europe, between the rest of the powers (France, Italy, USSR as well as the Scandinavian states, Germany should be careful enough to wage war only against its Eastern enemies (Poland and maybe USSR and only in order to achieve 'just' borders. Occupying in this way its huge space Germany should devote itself to the task of exploitation of various peoples such as Poles, Chechs and Slovaks, which were perceived as incapable of having their states and doomed to serve the master race - the Germans.

  7. A PROBLEMÁTICA DA REPRESENTAÇÃO POLÍTICA NO PENSAMENTO DE CARL SCHMITT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Rossi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available nosso trabalho será orientado sobre o conceito de representação política no pensamento de CarlSchmitt, ao aprofundar a leitura de sua sugestiva obra “Catolicismo e Forma Política”. Um dos pontosteóricos centrais constitui o modo em que o jurista analisa a matriz do catolicismo como a última forma derepresentação política em detrimento da matriz liberal, a qual é caracterizada especificamente na suadimensão economicista. Portanto, o esgotamento de toda possível representação consiste, para o jurista,nos valores econômicos carentes de autêntica representação. Do mesmo modo, o sugestivo do argumentode Schmitt para dar conta de tal esgotamento, se concentra na análise de três âmbitos que se implicammutuamente: metafísica, ética e política.

  8. Los límites de la influencia de Carl Schmitt en la República de Weimar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villacañas Berlanga, Jose Luis

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available This article exposes the deficits that the left-wing jurists from Weimar, Kirchheimer and Neumann, showed when trying to comprehend the democratic life and its institutions. The main thesis defended in the article is that these deficits were result of the influence that the conservative jurist Carl Schmitt had on them. By introducing arguments coming from who later became a nazism’s theorist, the left-wing jurists forund themselves disabled to theoretically defend democratic life.

    Este artículo expone los déficits de los juristas de izquierda de Weimar, Kirchheimer y Neumann a la hora de comprender la vida democrática y sus instituciones. La principal tesis de este ensayo es que estos déficits procedían de la influencia que el jurista conservador Carl Schmitt tuvo sobre ellos. Al depender de los argumentos que venían del que con el tiempo llegara a ser teórico de los nazis, los juristas de izquierdas se vieron incapaces de defender teóricamente la vida democrática.

  9. Development of atmospheric electrostatic field mill polarity sensor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EFPS). The EFPS developed is based on the phase sensitive detection (PSD) principle. The designed circuit consists of a transducer; a transimpedance amplifier; input amplifier/filter; position detector incorporating amplifier and a schmitt trigger ...

  10. Triggering Artefacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Preben Holst; Robinson, Mike

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents a general critique of the use of conceptual frameworks in design, illustrated by the well known synchronous/asynchronous, co-located/non-co-located framework. It argues that while frameworks are a necessary and inevitable starting point for design, the business of tailoring...... and adapting them to specific situations need not be ad hoc.Triggering artefacts are a way of systematically challenging both designers' preunderstandings and the conservatism of work practice. Experiences from the Great Belt tunnel and bridge project are used to illustrate howtriggering artefacts change...

  11. The ALICE Central Trigger Processor (CTP) upgrade

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krivda, M.; Alexandre, D.; Barnby, L. S.; Evans, D.; Johnes, P. G.; Jusko, A.; Lietava, R.; Pospíšil, Jan; Baillie, O. V.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, MAR (2016), C03051 ISSN 1748-0221. [Topical Workshop on Electronics for Particle Physics (TWEPP). Lisbon, 28.09.2015-02.10.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13031 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Trigger concepts and systems * Trigger algorithms * digital electronics circuits Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software Impact factor: 1.220, year: 2016

  12. Firearm trigger assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, David L.; Watson, Richard W.

    2010-02-16

    A firearm trigger assembly for use with a firearm includes a trigger mounted to a forestock of the firearm so that the trigger is movable between a rest position and a triggering position by a forwardly placed support hand of a user. An elongated trigger member operatively associated with the trigger operates a sear assembly of the firearm when the trigger is moved to the triggering position. An action release assembly operatively associated with the firearm trigger assembly and a movable assembly of the firearm prevents the trigger from being moved to the triggering position when the movable assembly is not in the locked position.

  13. Affective Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    to the intersecting streams of goods, people, ideas, and money as they circulate between African migrants and their kin who remain back home. They also show the complex ways that emotions become entangled in these exchanges. Examining how these circuits operate in domains of social life ranging from child fosterage...... to binational marriages, from coming-of-age to healing and religious rituals, the book also registers the tremendous impact of state officials, laws, and policies on migrant experience. Together these essays paint an especially vivid portrait of new forms of kinship at a time of both intense mobility and ever...

  14. LOGIC CIRCUIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, G.H.; Faught, M.L.

    1963-12-24

    A device for safety rod counting in a nuclear reactor is described. A Wheatstone bridge circuit is adapted to prevent de-energizing the hopper coils of a ball backup system if safety rods, sufficient in total control effect, properly enter the reactor core to effect shut down. A plurality of resistances form one arm of the bridge, each resistance being associated with a particular safety rod and weighted in value according to the control effect of the particular safety rod. Switching means are used to switch each of the resistances in and out of the bridge circuit responsive to the presence of a particular safety rod in its effective position in the reactor core and responsive to the attainment of a predetermined velocity by a particular safety rod enroute to its effective position. The bridge is unbalanced in one direction during normal reactor operation prior to the generation of a scram signal and the switching means and resistances are adapted to unbalance the bridge in the opposite direction if the safety rods produce a predetermined amount of control effect in response to the scram signal. The bridge unbalance reversal is then utilized to prevent the actuation of the ball backup system, or, conversely, a failure of the safety rods to produce the predetermined effect produces no unbalance reversal and the ball backup system is actuated. (AEC)

  15. Aportes para una genealogía de la democracia en el siglo xx a partir de la contraposición Kelsen/Schmitt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Fortunato

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo analizo las teorías de Carl Schmitt y Hans Kelsen sobre la democracia a la luz del tópico weberiano de la racionalización. Mi tesis es que el contrapunto entre los dos juristas no escapa a la escisión epocal que caracteriza a la modernidad decimonónica y continúa en el siglo xx. Por último, sostendré que la manifestación política de este fondo aporético–sobre el cual hay que entender el desafío de la democracia– es lo que Schmitt denomina Estado total.

  16. Controllable circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    signal. The control unit comprises a first signal processing unit, a second signal processing unit, and a combiner unit. The first signal processing unit has an output and is supplied with a first carrier signal and an input signal. The second signal processing unit has an output and is supplied...... with a second carrier signal and the input signal. The combiner unit is connected to the first and second signal processing units combining the outputs of the first and the second signal processing units to form a signal representative of the control signal......A switch-mode power circuit comprises a controllable element and a control unit. The controllable element is configured to control a current in response to a control signal supplied to the controllable element. The control unit is connected to the controllable element and provides the control...

  17. Biologia populacional de Emerita brasiliensis Schmitt (Crustacea, Hippidae na Praia Vermelha do Norte, Ubatuba (São Paulo, Brasil Population biology of Emerita brasiliensis Schmitt (Crustacea, Hippidae in Vermelha do Norte beach, Ubatuba (São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelly Makoto Nakagaki

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerita brasiliensis Schmitt, 1935 is a common mole crab called "tatuíra" in Brazil, with distribution from Espírito-Santo State (Brazil to Buenos Aires Province (Argentina. Specimens were collected bimonthly from May/1992 through March/1993 with 4mm siffers mesh, in the intertidal region at Vermelha do Norte Beach, Ubatuba, São Paulo, Brazil. The animals were sexed and measured with a precision caliper of 0.1 mm (Cl = carapace length. Males presented cl amplitude from 3.4-17.3mm (13.2±2.1mm, and females from 13.8-26.3mm (20.5±1.8mm, showing a well-defined sexual dimorfism for this variable. The population presented a smaller incidence of males in relation to females (0.54:1.00, however in May/1992 an inverse pattern occurred (1.84:1.00. Ovigerous females were present in all samples with exception of May and September/1992 with greater frequencies in July/1992 and January/1993. It is probable that female maturity occurs is reached with 17mm CL, the smallest size in wich ovigerous females were found.

  18. Analog circuit design designing dynamic circuit response

    CERN Document Server

    Feucht, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    This second volume, Designing Dynamic Circuit Response builds upon the first volume Designing Amplifier Circuits by extending coverage to include reactances and their time- and frequency-related behavioral consequences.

  19. Entre Carl Schmitt y Thomas Hobbes . Un es tudio del liberalismo moderno a partir del pensamiento de Leo Strauss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Daniel Parra Quintero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente ensayo es una lectura sobre el liberalismo moderno desde el pensamiento de Leo Strauss. A partir de su análisis del Concepto de lo político de Carl Schmitt y su crítica de la "despolitización y neutralización" liberal, Strauss responde con una afirmación del problema del derecho natural, para lo cual es fundamental como primer paso estudiar la filosofía política de Thomas Hobbes. Desde allí Strauss se plantea un punto de contraste hacia una consideración clásica del derecho natural que pueda hacer frente al nihilismo político o cosmopolitanismo apolítico en la modernidad tardía, resultado ambos tanto del histori-cismo radical como del positivismo metodológico. Strauss antepone a la afirmación de la voluntad del poder soberano la búsqueda del derecho natural como representación de la idea de la justicia.

  20. Intelligent trigger processor for the crystal box

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, G H; Cooper, M D; Hart, G W; Hoffman, C M; Hogan, G E; Hughes, E B; Matis, H S; Rolfe, J; Sandberg, V D; Williams, R A; Wilson, S; Zeman, H

    1981-01-01

    A large solid angle angular modular NaI(Tl) detector with 432 phototubes and 88 trigger scintillators is being used to search simultaneously for three lepton flavor-changing decays of the muon. A beam of up to 10/sup 6/ muons stopping per second with a 6% duty factor would yield up to 1000 triggers per second from random triple coincidences. A reduction of the trigger rate to 10 Hz is required from a hardwired primary trigger processor. Further reduction to <1 Hz is achieved by a microprocessor-based secondary trigger processor. The primary trigger hardware imposes voter coincidence logic, stringent timing requirements, and a non-adjacency requirement in the trigger scintillators defined by hardwired circuits. Sophisticated geometric requirements are imposed by a PROM-based matrix logic, and energy and vector-momentum cuts are imposed by a hardwired processor using LSI flash ADC's and digital arithmetic logic. The secondary trigger employs four satellite microprocessors to do a sparse data scan, multiplex ...

  1. Equivalent Quantum Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Escartin, Juan Carlos; Chamorro-Posada, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    Quantum algorithms and protocols are often presented as quantum circuits for a better understanding. We give a list of equivalence rules which can help in the analysis and design of quantum circuits. As example applications we study quantum teleportation and dense coding protocols in terms of a simple XOR swapping circuit and give an intuitive picture of a basic gate teleportation circuit.

  2. Universal Quantum Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Bera, Debajyoti; Fenner, Stephen; Green, Frederic; Homer, Steve

    2008-01-01

    We define and construct efficient depth-universal and almost-size-universal quantum circuits. Such circuits can be viewed as general-purpose simulators for central classes of quantum circuits and can be used to capture the computational power of the circuit class being simulated. For depth we construct universal circuits whose depth is the same order as the circuits being simulated. For size, there is a log factor blow-up in the universal circuits constructed here. We prove that this construc...

  3. Circuit analysis for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Santiago, John

    2013-01-01

    Circuits overloaded from electric circuit analysis? Many universities require that students pursuing a degree in electrical or computer engineering take an Electric Circuit Analysis course to determine who will ""make the cut"" and continue in the degree program. Circuit Analysis For Dummies will help these students to better understand electric circuit analysis by presenting the information in an effective and straightforward manner. Circuit Analysis For Dummies gives you clear-cut information about the topics covered in an electric circuit analysis courses to help

  4. Solid-state circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, G J

    2013-01-01

    Solid-State Circuits provides an introduction to the theory and practice underlying solid-state circuits, laying particular emphasis on field effect transistors and integrated circuits. Topics range from construction and characteristics of semiconductor devices to rectification and power supplies, low-frequency amplifiers, sine- and square-wave oscillators, and high-frequency effects and circuits. Black-box equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, physical equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, and equivalent circuits of field effect transistors are also covered. This volume is divided

  5. Pulling the trigger on LHC electronics

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    The conditions at CERN's Large Hadron Collider pose severe challenges for the designers and builders of front-end, trigger and data acquisition electronics. A recent workshop reviewed the encouraging progress so far and discussed what remains to be done. The LHC experiments have addressed level one trigger systems with a variety of high-speed hardware. The CMS Calorimeter Level One Regional Trigger uses 160 MHz logic boards plugged into the front and back of a custom backplane, which provides point-to-point links between the cards. Much of the processing in this system is performed by five types of 160 MHz digital applications-specific integrated circuits designed using Vitesse submicron high-integration gallium arsenide gate array technology. The LHC experiments make extensive use of field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). These offer programmable reconfigurable logic, which has the flexibility that trigger designers need to be able to alter algorithms so that they can follow the physics and detector perform...

  6. Simulation Approach for Timing Analysis of Genetic Logic Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baig, Hasan; Madsen, Jan

    2017-01-01

    in a manner similar to electronic logic circuits, but they are much more stochastic and hence much harder to characterize. In this article, we introduce an approach to analyze the threshold value and timing of genetic logic circuits. We show how this approach can be used to analyze the timing behavior...... of single and cascaded genetic logic circuits. We further analyze the timing sensitivity of circuits by varying the degradation rates and concentrations. Our approach can be used not only to characterize the timing behavior but also to analyze the timing constraints of cascaded genetic logic circuits......Constructing genetic logic circuits is an application of synthetic biology in which parts of the DNA of a living cell are engineered to perform a dedicated Boolean function triggered by an appropriate concentration of certain proteins or by different genetic components. These logic circuits work...

  7. The Central Trigger Processor (CTP)

    CERN Multimedia

    Franchini, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    The Central Trigger Processor (CTP) receives trigger information from the calorimeter and muon trigger processors, as well as from other sources of trigger. It makes the Level-1 decision (L1A) based on a trigger menu.

  8. The circuit designer's companion

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Tim

    1991-01-01

    The Circuit Designer's Companion covers the theoretical aspects and practices in analogue and digital circuit design. Electronic circuit design involves designing a circuit that will fulfill its specified function and designing the same circuit so that every production model of it will fulfill its specified function, and no other undesired and unspecified function.This book is composed of nine chapters and starts with a review of the concept of grounding, wiring, and printed circuits. The subsequent chapters deal with the passive and active components of circuitry design. These topics are foll

  9. Electronic devices and circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, Gordon John

    1972-01-01

    Electronic Devices and Circuits, Volume 3 provides a comprehensive account on electronic devices and circuits and includes introductory network theory and physics. The physics of semiconductor devices is described, along with field effect transistors, small-signal equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, and integrated circuits. Linear and non-linear circuits as well as logic circuits are also considered. This volume is comprised of 12 chapters and begins with an analysis of the use of Laplace transforms for analysis of filter networks, followed by a discussion on the physical properties of

  10. Intuitive analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Intuitive Analog Circuit Design outlines ways of thinking about analog circuits and systems that let you develop a feel for what a good, working analog circuit design should be. This book reflects author Marc Thompson's 30 years of experience designing analog and power electronics circuits and teaching graduate-level analog circuit design, and is the ideal reference for anyone who needs a straightforward introduction to the subject. In this book, Dr. Thompson describes intuitive and ""back-of-the-envelope"" techniques for designing and analyzing analog circuits, including transistor amplifi

  11. A novel pulse firing scheme for constant angle triggering of 3-phi thyristor converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, S. A. K.

    1980-12-01

    The details of a novel and simple triggering circuit for the firing angle control of 3-phi thyristor converters operating under variable frequency supply is explained. The firing angle remains almost constant for a given control voltage and for a wide range of supply frequency variations. The circuit uses only 1-phi sensing, to generate the triggering pulses necessary for 3-phi converters working under variable frequency supply and the firing pulses are spaced equidistantly. The circuit is inherently immune to noise and transients, due to the use of CMOS integrated circuits and optocouplers. The circuit can be used for applications such as rotor control of slip-ring induction motors. The experimental results obtained for the triggering circuit are presented.

  12. Electric circuits essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Electric Circuits I includes units, notation, resistive circuits, experimental laws, transient circuits, network theorems, techniques of circuit analysis, sinusoidal analysis, polyph

  13. Derecho y orden social. Los presupuestos teóricos de la teoría jurídica de Carl Schmitt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serrano G., Enrique

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to pick up a thesis from Schmitt, according to which law is not totally contained in its norms, but requires a concrete order besides these. I claim that by following such a principle, the theory of law increases his descriptive and explicative power. In particular, one can thus go beyond the day-to-day, technical knowledge of lawyers and judges, and render a proper explanation of the genesis and dynamical change of legal systems in general. Among other things, the said principle enables the theorist to construe the process that made it possible for the legal systems of modern societies to become autonomous. Yet, on the other hand, I make a critical remark against Schmitt’s belief that by thus explaining the relationship between a concrete order and its legal norms the latter are justified. Against this, I claim that they most comply with some kind of universal principle of justice. I support my claim against Schmitt on an argument of his own-one that he uses to buttress his view that the acknowledgment of the diversity of the human world is a prerequisite for keeping social conflict from becoming violent, and for turning it into a strictly political practice.

    El objetivo de este trabajo es recuperar la tesis de Schmitt en la que afirma que el derecho no se agota en las normas, sino que implica un orden concreto. Ello se debe a que dicha tesis permite ampliar la capacidad descriptiva y explicativa de la teoría jurídica. Especialmente, permite ir más allá del conocimiento técnico que requiere el trabajo cotidiano de los abogados y jueces, para dar cuenta de la génesis y dinámica de los sistema jurídicos. Entre otras cosas permite reconstruir el proceso que hizo posible la autonomía de los sistemas jurídicos propios de las sociedades modernas. Sin embargo, al mismo tiempo, se crítica la creencia de Schmitt respecto a que conceptualizar la relación entre el orden concreto y las normas jur

  14. Classical circuit theory

    CERN Document Server

    Wing, Omar

    2008-01-01

    Starting with the basic principles of circuits, this book derives their analytic properties in both the time and frequency domains. It develops an algorithmic method to design common and uncommon types of circuits, such as prototype filters, lumped delay lines, constant phase difference circuits, and delay equalizers.

  15. Signal sampling circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwsma, S.M.; Vertregt, Maarten

    2011-01-01

    A sampling circuit for sampling a signal is disclosed. The sampling circuit comprises a plurality of sampling channels adapted to sample the signal in time-multiplexed fashion, each sampling channel comprising a respective track-and-hold circuit connected to a respective analogue to digital

  16. Signal sampling circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwsma, S.M.; Vertregt, Maarten

    2010-01-01

    A sampling circuit for sampling a signal is disclosed. The sampling circuit comprises a plurality of sampling channels adapted to sample the signal in time-multiplexed fashion, each sampling channel comprising a respective track-and-hold circuit connected to a respective analogue to digital

  17. Piezoelectric drive circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treu, Jr., Charles A.

    1999-08-31

    A piezoelectric motor drive circuit is provided which utilizes the piezoelectric elements as oscillators and a Meacham half-bridge approach to develop feedback from the motor ground circuit to produce a signal to drive amplifiers to power the motor. The circuit automatically compensates for shifts in harmonic frequency of the piezoelectric elements due to pressure and temperature changes.

  18. Exact Threshold Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Podolskii, Vladimir V.

    2010-01-01

    with the well-studied corresponding hierarchies defined using ordinary threshold gates. A major open problem in Boolean circuit complexity is to provide an explicit super-polynomial lower bound for depth two threshold circuits. We identify the class of depth two exact threshold circuits as a natural subclass...

  19. Load testing circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    A load testing circuit a circuit tests the load impedance of a load connected to an amplifier. The load impedance includes a first terminal and a second terminal, the load testing circuit comprising a signal generator providing a test signal of a defined bandwidth to the first terminal of the load...

  20. Short-circuit logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Ponse, A.

    2010-01-01

    Short-circuit evaluation denotes the semantics of propositional connectives in which the second argument is only evaluated if the first argument does not suffice to determine the value of the expression. In programming, short-circuit evaluation is widely used. A short-circuit logic is a variant of

  1. The ALICE trigger electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Krivda, M; Evans, D; Jones, G T; Jovanovic, P; Jusko, A; Králik, I; Lazzeroni, C; Lietava, R; Scott, H; Sándor, L; Tapia Takaki, D; Urbán, J; Villalobos Baillie, O

    2007-01-01

    The ALICE trigger system (TRG) consists of a Central Trigger Processor (CTP) and up to 24 Local Trigger Units (LTU) for each sub-detector. The CTP receives and processes trigger signals from trigger detectors and the outputs from the CTP are 3 levels of hardware triggers: L0, L1 and L2. The 24 sub-detectors are dynamically partitioned in up to 6 independent clusters. The trigger information is propagated through the LTUs to the Front-end electronics (FEE) of each sub-detector via LVDS cables and optical fibres. The trigger information sent from LTU to FEE can be monitored online for possible errors using the newly developed TTCit board. After testing and commissioning of the trigger system itself on the surface, the ALICE trigger electronics has been installed and tested in the experimental cavern with appropriate ALICE experimental software. Testing the Alice trigger system with detectors on the surface and in the experimental cavern in parallel is progressing very well. Currently one setup is used for testi...

  2. Triggering trigeminal neuralgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Stefano, Giulia; Maarbjerg, Stine; Nurmikko, Turo

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Although it is widely accepted that facial pain paroxysms triggered by innocuous stimuli constitute a hallmark sign of trigeminal neuralgia, very few studies to date have systematically investigated the role of the triggers involved. In the recently published diagnostic classification...... and where cutaneous and mucosal trigger zones are located. Methods Clinical characteristics focusing on trigger factors were collected from 140 patients with trigeminal neuralgia, in a cross-sectional study design. Results Provocation of paroxysmal pain by various trigger manoeuvres was reported by 136...... of the 140 patients. The most frequent manoeuvres were gentle touching of the face (79%) and talking (54%). Trigger zones were predominantly reported in the perioral and nasal region. Conclusion This study confirms that in trigeminal neuralgia, paroxysmal pain is associated with triggers in virtually all...

  3. Feedback in analog circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Ochoa, Agustin

    2016-01-01

    This book describes a consistent and direct methodology to the analysis and design of analog circuits with particular application to circuits containing feedback. The analysis and design of circuits containing feedback is generally presented by either following a series of examples where each circuit is simplified through the use of insight or experience (someone else’s), or a complete nodal-matrix analysis generating lots of algebra. Neither of these approaches leads to gaining insight into the design process easily. The author develops a systematic approach to circuit analysis, the Driving Point Impedance and Signal Flow Graphs (DPI/SFG) method that does not require a-priori insight to the circuit being considered and results in factored analysis supporting the design function. This approach enables designers to account fully for loading and the bi-directional nature of elements both in the feedback path and in the amplifier itself, properties many times assumed negligible and ignored. Feedback circuits a...

  4. Additive printing of organic complementary circuits for temperature sensor tag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tse Nga; Mei, Ping; Schwartz, David E.; Kor, Sivheng; Krusor, Brent; Veres, Janos; Bröms, Per; Eriksson, Torbjörn; Wang, Yong; Hagel, Olle; Karlsson, Christer

    2015-09-01

    With the recent improvements in printed devices, it is now possible to build integrated circuit systems out of printed devices. The combination of sensor, logic, and rewritable memory will greatly enhance the functionalities of printed electronics. We have demonstrated integrated sensor tags based on organic complementary circuits patterned by inkjet printing. One example is a temperature threshold sensor tag, wherein if the thermistor temperature exceeds a pre-set threshold, the control circuit generates a pulse to write into a nonvolatile ferroelectric memory cell. The trigger temperature is set by adjusting the bias voltage across the thermistor bridge to match the trigger voltage of the printed threshold circuit, and the threshold temperatures has been tuned between 8 °C and 45 °C with a bias voltage below 30V.

  5. Trigger Monitoring at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Sidoti, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring the trigger behavior through all the trigger level is of fundamental importance to assess the quality of the data taken, to give fast feedback for the trigger configuration design and to monitor the stability of the HLT farm components. In this paper we will present the online monitoring framework and the various tools available in the ATLAS trigger system going from the ones that build the basic monitoring infrastructure and test the basic functionalities of the system to the more elaborated ones that checks the quality of the data taking looking at physics variables reconstructed online. The early experience in the 2009 cosmics data taking period will also be shown.

  6. Electric circuits and signals

    CERN Document Server

    Sabah, Nassir H

    2007-01-01

    Circuit Variables and Elements Overview Learning Objectives Electric Current Voltage Electric Power and Energy Assigned Positive Directions Active and Passive Circuit Elements Voltage and Current Sources The Resistor The Capacitor The Inductor Concluding Remarks Summary of Main Concepts and Results Learning Outcomes Supplementary Topics on CD Problems and Exercises Basic Circuit Connections and Laws Overview Learning Objectives Circuit Terminology Kirchhoff's Laws Voltage Division and Series Connection of Resistors Current Division and Parallel Connection of Resistors D-Y Transformation Source Equivalence and Transformation Reduced-Voltage Supply Summary of Main Concepts and Results Learning Outcomes Supplementary Topics and Examples on CD Problems and Exercises Basic Analysis of Resistive Circuits Overview Learning Objectives Number of Independent Circuit Equations Node-Voltage Analysis Special Considerations in Node-Voltage Analysis Mesh-Current Analysis Special Conside...

  7. Analog circuits cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Hickman, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Analog Circuits Cookbook presents articles about advanced circuit techniques, components and concepts, useful IC for analog signal processing in the audio range, direct digital synthesis, and ingenious video op-amp. The book also includes articles about amplitude measurements on RF signals, linear optical imager, power supplies and devices, and RF circuits and techniques. Professionals and students of electrical engineering will find the book informative and useful.

  8. Analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Dobkin, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Analog circuit and system design today is more essential than ever before. With the growth of digital systems, wireless communications, complex industrial and automotive systems, designers are being challenged to develop sophisticated analog solutions. This comprehensive source book of circuit design solutions aids engineers with elegant and practical design techniques that focus on common analog challenges. The book's in-depth application examples provide insight into circuit design and application solutions that you can apply in today's demanding designs. <

  9. Regenerative feedback resonant circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. Mark; Kelly, James F.; McCloy, John S.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2014-09-02

    A regenerative feedback resonant circuit for measuring a transient response in a loop is disclosed. The circuit includes an amplifier for generating a signal in the loop. The circuit further includes a resonator having a resonant cavity and a material located within the cavity. The signal sent into the resonator produces a resonant frequency. A variation of the resonant frequency due to perturbations in electromagnetic properties of the material is measured.

  10. CMOS circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    1995-01-01

    CMOS Circuits Manual is a user's guide for CMOS. The book emphasizes the practical aspects of CMOS and provides circuits, tables, and graphs to further relate the fundamentals with the applications. The text first discusses the basic principles and characteristics of the CMOS devices. The succeeding chapters detail the types of CMOS IC, including simple inverter, gate and logic ICs and circuits, and complex counters and decoders. The last chapter presents a miscellaneous collection of two dozen useful CMOS circuits. The book will be useful to researchers and professionals who employ CMOS circu

  11. Circuits and filters handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wai-Kai

    2003-01-01

    A bestseller in its first edition, The Circuits and Filters Handbook has been thoroughly updated to provide the most current, most comprehensive information available in both the classical and emerging fields of circuits and filters, both analog and digital. This edition contains 29 new chapters, with significant additions in the areas of computer-aided design, circuit simulation, VLSI circuits, design automation, and active and digital filters. It will undoubtedly take its place as the engineer's first choice in looking for solutions to problems encountered in the design, analysis, and behavi

  12. Nanoscale Microelectronic Circuit Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    Project 3: Low-Power All-Digital Chip-to-Chip Interface Circuits by Pavan Kumar Hanumolu (OSU) CDADIC Project 4: Nanoscale Clock and Data Recovery...CDADIC Project 3: Low-Power All-Digital Chip-to-Chip Interface Circuits by Pavan Kumar Hanumolu (OSU) CDADIC Project 6: Stochastic and Passive A/D...Area 3: Reconfigurable Mixed-Signal Circuits CDADIC Project 3: Low-Power All-Digital Chip-to-Chip Interface Circuits by Pavan Kumar Hanumolu (OSU

  13. Timergenerator circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    2013-01-01

    Timer/Generator Circuits Manual is an 11-chapter text that deals mainly with waveform generator techniques and circuits. Each chapter starts with an explanation of the basic principles of its subject followed by a wide range of practical circuit designs. This work presents a total of over 300 practical circuits, diagrams, and tables.Chapter 1 outlines the basic principles and the different types of generator. Chapters 2 to 9 deal with a specific type of waveform generator, including sine, square, triangular, sawtooth, and special waveform generators pulse. These chapters also include pulse gen

  14. Electronic devices and circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, Gordon John

    1968-01-01

    Electronic Devices and Circuits, Volume 1 deals with the design and applications of electronic devices and circuits such as passive components, diodes, triodes and transistors, rectification and power supplies, amplifying circuits, electronic instruments, and oscillators. These topics are supported with introductory network theory and physics. This volume is comprised of nine chapters and begins by explaining the operation of resistive, inductive, and capacitive elements in direct and alternating current circuits. The theory for some of the expressions quoted in later chapters is presented. Th

  15. Security electronics circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    MARSTON, R M

    1998-01-01

    Security Electronics Circuits Manual is an invaluable guide for engineers and technicians in the security industry. It will also prove to be a useful guide for students and experimenters, as well as providing experienced amateurs and DIY enthusiasts with numerous ideas to protect their homes, businesses and properties.As with all Ray Marston's Circuits Manuals, the style is easy-to-read and non-mathematical, with the emphasis firmly on practical applications, circuits and design ideas. The ICs and other devices used in the practical circuits are modestly priced and readily available ty

  16. MOS integrated circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfendale, E

    2013-01-01

    MOS Integral Circuit Design aims to help in the design of integrated circuits, especially large-scale ones, using MOS Technology through teaching of techniques, practical applications, and examples. The book covers topics such as design equation and process parameters; MOS static and dynamic circuits; logic design techniques, system partitioning, and layout techniques. Also featured are computer aids such as logic simulation and mask layout, as well as examples on simple MOS design. The text is recommended for electrical engineers who would like to know how to use MOS for integral circuit desi

  17. Lessons from (triggered) tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, Joan

    2010-01-01

    I test a “clock-advance” model that implies triggered tremor is ambient tremor that occurs at a sped-up rate as a result of loading from passing seismic waves. This proposed model predicts that triggering probability is proportional to the product of the ambient tremor rate and a function describing the efficacy of the triggering wave to initiate a tremor event. Using data mostly from Cascadia, I have compared qualitatively a suite of teleseismic waves that did and did not trigger tremor with ambient tremor rates. Many of the observations are consistent with the model if the efficacy of the triggering wave depends on wave amplitude. One triggered tremor observation clearly violates the clock-advance model. The model prediction that larger triggering waves result in larger triggered tremor signals also appears inconsistent with the measurements. I conclude that the tremor source process is a more complex system than that described by the clock-advance model predictions tested. Results of this and previous studies also demonstrate that (1) conditions suitable for tremor generation exist in many tectonic environments, but, within each, only occur at particular spots whose locations change with time; (2) any fluid flow must be restricted to less than a meter; (3) the degree to which delayed failure and secondary triggering occurs is likely insignificant; and 4) both shear and dilatational deformations may trigger tremor. Triggered and ambient tremor rates correlate more strongly with stress than stressing rate, suggesting tremor sources result from time-dependent weakening processes rather than simple Coulomb failure.

  18. Hobbes, les pirates et les corsaires. Le « Léviathan échoué » selon Carl Schmitt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Weber

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Parmi les nombreux problèmes que pose l’ouvrage de Carl Schmitt Le Léviathan dans la doctrine de l’État de Thomas Hobbes, il en est un, majeur, qui concerne l’utilisation de la « mythologie politique » pour expliquer la réalité ou les doctrines politiques. Il y a là, à n’en pas douter, l’expression de l’un des versants de l’irrationalisme de Schmitt. La thèse de l’auteur est très claire : parce que Hobbes ne possédait aucun « sens mythologique », il s’est trompé de monstre biblique, appelant Leviathan son traité consacré au pouvoir d’État, alors qu’il aurait dû l’appeler plus adéquatement Behemoth, manquant du coup la Meeresbild caractérisant l’Angleterre de son temps. La thèse peut paraître séduisante, elle s’appuie néanmoins sur un présupposé fort contestable, car Hobbes ne vise nullement à créer des mythes. Il s’agit donc d’interroger la théorisation hobbesienne de la piraterie, d’une part, et de la dissidence religieuse « sauvage », d’autre part, afin de montrer que le choix par Hobbes des monstres du Livre de Job est un choix rationnellement assumé.

  19. AMY trigger system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Yoshihide [National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1989-04-01

    A trigger system of the AMY detector at TRISTAN e{sup +}e{sup -} collider is described briefly. The system uses simple track segment and shower cluster counting scheme to classify events to be triggered. It has been operating successfully since 1987.

  20. Offset cancelling circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegerink, Remco J.; Seevinck, Evert; de Jager, Wim

    1989-01-01

    A monolithic offset cancelling circuit to reduce the offset voltage at an integrated audio-amplifier output is described. This offset voltage is detected using a low-pass filter with a very large time constant for which only one small on-chip capacitor is needed. The circuit was realized with a

  1. Synchronizing Hyperchaotic Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamasevicius, Arunas; Cenys, Antanas; Namajunas, Audrius

    1997-01-01

    Regarding possible applications to secure communications the technique of synchronizing hyperchaotic circuits with a single dynamical variable is discussed. Several specific examples including the fourth-order circuits with two positive Lyapunov exponents as well as the oscillator with a delay line...

  2. A Virtual Circuits Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vick, Matthew E.

    2010-01-01

    The University of Colorado's Physics Education Technology (PhET) website offers free, high-quality simulations of many physics experiments that can be used in the classroom. The Circuit Construction Kit, for example, allows students to safely and constructively play with circuit components while learning the mathematics behind many circuit…

  3. Design and Test Space Exploration of Transport-Triggered Architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zivkovic, V.; Tangelder, R.J.W.T.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach in the high level design and test of transport-triggered architectures (TTA), a special type of application specific instruction processors (ASIP). The proposed method introduces the test as an additional constraint, besides throughput and circuit area. The

  4. Min-max event-triggered computation tree logic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Very often timing verification involves the analysis of the timings of discrete events such as signal changes, sending and receiving of signals, and sensitization of edge-triggered circuit components. The main bottleneck in verifying timing properties of timed finite state machines (FSM) has been the inherent complexity of ...

  5. Confrontação e cordialidade: elementos para uma comparação entre os pensamentos autoritários de Carl Schmitt e Francisco Campos = Confrontation and cordiality: notes on the authoritarian thoughts of Carl Schmitt and Francisco Campos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liebel, Vinícius

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Propõe-se no presente artigo uma reflexão acerca dos elementos centrais presentes no bojo do pensamento autoritário de direita que se desenvolve entre as décadas de 1920 e 1930. Focado nos escritos de Carl Schmitt (Alemanha e Francisco Campos (Brasil, o paper se pretende uma peça comparativa entre os dois, membros que são de uma elite intelectual que acabaria por forjar a estrutura jurídico-ideológica do Estado Novo e do Estado Nazista. As análises aqui propostas serão feitas em uma constante justaposição das ideias da matriz europeia, especialmente com os escritos schmittianos O Conceito do Político e Teologia Política, com aquelas que resultaram na obra principal de Campos no período, O Estado Nacional. Tomando os escritos de Carl Schmitt em comparação com os de Francisco Campos, dois juristas que atuaram em primeiro plano no campo dos debates políticos em seus países e que foram decisivos na busca por legitimação das ditaduras que os marcaram, as reflexões aqui propostas buscam verificar as sincronias e os pontos de divergência entre as estruturas teóricas de ambos os autores, resultando em uma caracterização global e qualitativa de seus pensamentos

  6. CMOS analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Phillip E

    1987-01-01

    This text presents the principles and techniques for designing analog circuits to be implemented in a CMOS technology. The level is appropriate for seniors and graduate students familiar with basic electronics, including biasing, modeling, circuit analysis, and some familiarity with frequency response. Students learn the methodology of analog integrated circuit design through a hierarchically-oriented approach to the subject that provides thorough background and practical guidance for designing CMOS analog circuits, including modeling, simulation, and testing. The authors' vast industrial experience and knowledge is reflected in the circuits, techniques, and principles presented. They even identify the many common pitfalls that lie in the path of the beginning designer--expert advice from veteran designers. The text mixes the academic and practical viewpoints in a treatment that is neither superficial nor overly detailed, providing the perfect balance.

  7. ATLAS Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, B A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    During the data taking period from 2009 until 2011, the ATLAS trigger has been very successfully used to collect proton-proton data at LHC centre-of-mass energies between 900 GeV and 7 TeV. The three-level trigger system reduces the event rate from the design bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to an average recording rate of about 300 Hz. Using custom electronics with input from the calorimeter and muon detectors, the first level rejects most background collisions in less than 2.5 microseconds. Then follow two levels of software-based triggers. The trigger system is designed to select events by identifying muons, electrons, photons, taus, jets and B hadron candidates, as well as using global event signatures, such as missing transverse energy. We give an overview of the strategy and performance of the different trigger selections based mainly on the experience during the 2011 LHC run, where the trigger menu needed quick adaptations to the continuous increase of luminosity throughout the year. Examples of trigger e...

  8. Approximate circuits for increased reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlet, Jason R.; Mayo, Jackson R.

    2015-08-18

    Embodiments of the invention describe a Boolean circuit having a voter circuit and a plurality of approximate circuits each based, at least in part, on a reference circuit. The approximate circuits are each to generate one or more output signals based on values of received input signals. The voter circuit is to receive the one or more output signals generated by each of the approximate circuits, and is to output one or more signals corresponding to a majority value of the received signals. At least some of the approximate circuits are to generate an output value different than the reference circuit for one or more input signal values; however, for each possible input signal value, the majority values of the one or more output signals generated by the approximate circuits and received by the voter circuit correspond to output signal result values of the reference circuit.

  9. Approximate circuits for increased reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamlet, Jason R.; Mayo, Jackson R.

    2015-12-22

    Embodiments of the invention describe a Boolean circuit having a voter circuit and a plurality of approximate circuits each based, at least in part, on a reference circuit. The approximate circuits are each to generate one or more output signals based on values of received input signals. The voter circuit is to receive the one or more output signals generated by each of the approximate circuits, and is to output one or more signals corresponding to a majority value of the received signals. At least some of the approximate circuits are to generate an output value different than the reference circuit for one or more input signal values; however, for each possible input signal value, the majority values of the one or more output signals generated by the approximate circuits and received by the voter circuit correspond to output signal result values of the reference circuit.

  10. New methods for trigger electronics development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleland, W.E.; Stern, E.G. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The large and complex nature of RHIC experiments and the tight time schedule for their construction requires that new techniques for designing the electronics should be employed. This is particularly true of the trigger and data acquisition electronics which has to be ready for turn-on of the experiment. We describe the use of the Workview package from VIEWlogic Inc. for design, simulation, and verification of a flash ADC readout system. We also show how field-programmable gate arrays such as the Xilinx 4000 might be employed to construct or prototype circuits with a large number of gates while preserving flexibility.

  11. The ATLAS Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Hauser, R

    2004-01-01

    ATLAS is one of two general-purpose detectors at the next generation proton-proton collider, the LHC. The high rate of interactions and the large number of read-out channels make the trigger system for ATLAS a challenging task. The initial bunch crossing rate of 40~MHz has to be reduced to about 200 Hz while preserving the physics signals against a large background. ATLAS uses a three-level trigger system, with the first level implemented in custom hardware, while the high level trigger systems are implemented in software on commodity hardware. This note describes the physics motivation, the various selection strategies for different channels as well as the physical implementation of the trigger system.

  12. Trigger Finger (Stenosing Tenosynovitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the fingers glide easily with the help of pulleys. These pulleys hold the tendons close to the bone. This ... rod (Figure 1). Trigger finger occurs when the pulley becomes too thick, so the tendon cannot glide ...

  13. Calo trigger acquisition system

    CERN Multimedia

    Franchini, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Calo trigger acquisition system - Evolution of the acquisition system from a multiple boards system (upper, orange cables) to a single board one (below, light blue cables) where all the channels are collected in a single board.

  14. Asthma Triggers: Gain Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... asthma. Dogs, cats, rodents (including hamsters and guinea pigs) and other warm-blooded mammals can trigger asthma ... Page Contact Us to ask a question, provide feedback, or report a problem. Asthma Indoor Air Quality ...

  15. 2017 Tau Trigger Efficiencies

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Triggers selecting events with hadronically decaying $\\tau$ leptons ($\\tau_h$) are used in a wide variety of CMS analyses, in particular those targeting processes with a $H \\rightarrow \\tau\\tau$ decay. The performance of the $\\tau_h$ triggers is presented for data collected in 2017, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 41.5\\,fb$^{-1}$ at 13 TeV, and compared with simulation.

  16. The ATLAS Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Owen, Rhys Edward; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment employs a complex trigger system to enable the collaborations physics program. The LHC is now well in to its second running period delivering proton proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV with high instantaneous luminosity. This talk will describe the two level hardware and software trigger used to select events in this environment including recent improvements and the latest performance results.

  17. Troubleshooting analog circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pease, Robert A

    1991-01-01

    Troubleshooting Analog Circuits is a guidebook for solving product or process related problems in analog circuits. The book also provides advice in selecting equipment, preventing problems, and general tips. The coverage of the book includes the philosophy of troubleshooting; the modes of failure of various components; and preventive measures. The text also deals with the active components of analog circuits, including diodes and rectifiers, optically coupled devices, solar cells, and batteries. The book will be of great use to both students and practitioners of electronics engineering. Other

  18. Circuit analysis with Multisim

    CERN Document Server

    Baez-Lopez, David

    2011-01-01

    This book is concerned with circuit simulation using National Instruments Multisim. It focuses on the use and comprehension of the working techniques for electrical and electronic circuit simulation. The first chapters are devoted to basic circuit analysis.It starts by describing in detail how to perform a DC analysis using only resistors and independent and controlled sources. Then, it introduces capacitors and inductors to make a transient analysis. In the case of transient analysis, it is possible to have an initial condition either in the capacitor voltage or in the inductor current, or bo

  19. Optoelectronics circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    2013-01-01

    Optoelectronics Circuits Manual covers the basic principles and characteristics of the best known types of optoelectronic devices, as well as the practical applications of many of these optoelectronic devices. The book describes LED display circuits and LED dot- and bar-graph circuits and discusses the applications of seven-segment displays, light-sensitive devices, optocouplers, and a variety of brightness control techniques. The text also tackles infrared light-beam alarms and multichannel remote control systems. The book provides practical user information and circuitry and illustrations.

  20. Plasmonic Nanoguides and Circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey

    2008-01-01

    Modern communication systems dealing with huge amounts of data at ever increasing speed try to utilize the best aspects of electronic and optical circuits. Electronic circuits are tiny but their operation speed is limited, whereas optical circuits are extremely fast but their sizes are limited by diffraction. Waveguide components utilizing surface plasmon (SP) modes were found to combine the huge optical bandwidth and compactness of electronics, and plasmonics thereby began to be considered as the next chip-scale technology. In this book, the authors concentrate on the SP waveguide configurati

  1. Modern TTL circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    2013-01-01

    Modern TTL Circuits Manual provides an introduction to the basic principles of Transistor-Transistor Logic (TTL). This book outlines the major features of the 74 series of integrated circuits (ICs) and introduces the various sub-groups of the TTL family.Organized into seven chapters, this book begins with an overview of the basics of digital ICs. This text then examines the symbology and mathematics of digital logic. Other chapters consider a variety of topics, including waveform generator circuitry, clocked flip-flop and counter circuits, special counter/dividers, registers, data latches, com

  2. LHCb Topological Trigger Reoptimization

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00400931; Ilten, Philip; Khairullin, Egor; Rogozhnikov, Alex; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Williams, Michael

    2015-12-23

    The main b-physics trigger algorithm used by the LHCb experiment is the so-called topological trigger. The topological trigger selects vertices which are a) detached from the primary proton-proton collision and b) compatible with coming from the decay of a b-hadron. In the LHC Run 1, this trigger, which utilized a custom boosted decision tree algorithm, selected a nearly 100% pure sample of b-hadrons with a typical efficiency of 60-70%; its output was used in about 60% of LHCb papers. This talk presents studies carried out to optimize the topological trigger for LHC Run 2. In particular, we have carried out a detailed comparison of various machine learning classifier algorithms, e.g., AdaBoost, MatrixNet and neural networks. The topological trigger algorithm is designed to select all "interesting" decays of b-hadrons, but cannot be trained on every such decay. Studies have therefore been performed to determine how to optimize the performance of the classification algorithm on decays not used in the training. ...

  3. Topological Trigger Developments

    CERN Multimedia

    Likhomanenko, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    The main b-physics trigger algorithm used by the LHCb experiment is the so-called topological trigger. The topological trigger selects vertices which are a) detached from the primary proton-proton collision and b) compatible with coming from the decay of a b-hadron. In the LHC Run 1, this trigger utilized a custom boosted decision tree algorithm, selected an almost 100% pure sample of b-hadrons with a typical efficiency of 60-70%, and its output was used in about 60% of LHCb papers. This talk presents studies carried out to optimize the topological trigger for LHC Run 2. In particular, we have carried out a detailed comparison of various machine learning classifier algorithms, e.g., AdaBoost, MatrixNet and uBoost. The topological trigger algorithm is designed to select all "interesting" decays of b-hadrons, but cannot be trained on every such decay. Studies have therefore been performed to determine how to optimize the performance of the classification algorithm on decays not used in the training. These inclu...

  4. FPGA Trigger System to Run Klystrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Darius; /Texas A-M /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    The Klystron Department is in need of a new trigger system to update the laboratory capabilities. The objective of the research is to develop the trigger system using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology with a user interface that will allow one to communicate with the FPGA via a Universal Serial Bus (USB). This trigger system will be used for the testing of klystrons. The key materials used consists of the Xilinx Integrated Software Environment (ISE) Foundation, a Programmable Read Only Memory (Prom) XCF04S, a Xilinx Spartan 3E 35S500E FPGA, Xilinx Platform Cable USB II, a Printed Circuit Board (PCB), a 100 MHz oscillator, and an oscilloscope. Key considerations include eight triggers, two of which have variable phase shifting capabilities. Once the project was completed the output signals were able to be manipulated via a Graphical User Interface by varying the delay and width of the signal. This was as planned; however, the ability to vary the phase was not completed. Future work could consist of being able to vary the phase. This project will give the operators in the Klystron Department more flexibility to run various tests.

  5. Quantum circuits for cryptanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amento, Brittanney Jaclyn

    Finite fields of the form F2 m play an important role in coding theory and cryptography. We show that the choice of how to represent the elements of these fields can have a significant impact on the resource requirements for quantum arithmetic. In particular, we show how the Gaussian normal basis representations and "ghost-bit basis" representations can be used to implement inverters with a quantum circuit of depth O(mlog(m)). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first construction with subquadratic depth reported in the literature. Our quantum circuit for the computation of multiplicative inverses is based on the Itoh-Tsujii algorithm which exploits the property that, in a normal basis representation, squaring corresponds to a permutation of the coefficients. We give resource estimates for the resulting quantum circuit for inversion over binary fields F2 m based on an elementary gate set that is useful for fault-tolerant implementation. Elliptic curves over finite fields F2 m play a prominent role in modern cryptography. Published quantum algorithms dealing with such curves build on a short Weierstrass form in combination with affine or projective coordinates. In this thesis we show that changing the curve representation allows a substantial reduction in the number of T-gates needed to implement the curve arithmetic. As a tool, we present a quantum circuit for computing multiplicative inverses in F2m in depth O(m log m) using a polynomial basis representation, which may be of independent interest. Finally, we change our focus from the design of circuits which aim at attacking computational assumptions on asymmetric cryptographic algorithms to the design of a circuit attacking a symmetric cryptographic algorithm. We consider a block cipher, SERPENT, and our design of a quantum circuit implementing this cipher to be used for a key attack using Grover's algorithm as in [18]. This quantum circuit is essential for understanding the complexity of Grover's algorithm.

  6. [A novel serial port auto trigger system for MOSFET dose acquisition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Guangwen; Qi, Zhenyu

    2013-01-01

    To synchronize the radiation of microSelectron-HDR (Nucletron afterloading machine) and measurement of MOSFET dose system, a trigger system based on interface circuit was designed and corresponding monitor and trigger program were developed on Qt platform. This interface and control system was tested and showed stable operate and reliable work. This adopted serial port detect technique may expand to trigger application of other medical devices.

  7. Color Coding of Circuit Quantities in Introductory Circuit Analysis Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisslein, Jana; Johnson, Amy M.; Reisslein, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Learning the analysis of electrical circuits represented by circuit diagrams is often challenging for novice students. An open research question in electrical circuit analysis instruction is whether color coding of the mathematical symbols (variables) that denote electrical quantities can improve circuit analysis learning. The present study…

  8. CMS Trigger Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Donato, Silvio

    2017-01-01

    During its second run of operation (Run 2) which started in 2015, the LHC will deliver a peak instantaneous luminosity that may reach $2 \\cdot 10^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ with an average pile-up of about 55, far larger than the design value. Under these conditions, the online event selection is a very challenging task. In CMS, it is realized by a two-level trigger system the Level-1 (L1) Trigger, implemented in custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. In order to face this challenge, the L1 trigger has been through a major upgrade compared to Run 1, whereby all electronic boards of the system have been replaced, allowing more sophisticated algorithms to be run online. Its last stage, the global trigger, is now able to perform complex selections and to compute high-level quantities, like invariant masses. Likewise, the algorithms that run in the HLT go through big improvements; in particular, new appr...

  9. The CMS trigger system

    Science.gov (United States)

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J.; Borras, K.; Burgmeier, A.; Campbell, A.; Choudhury, S.; Costanza, F.; Diez Pardos, C.; Dolinska, G.; Dooling, S.; Dorland, T.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Eichhorn, T.; Flucke, G.; Gallo, E.; Garay Garcia, J.; Geiser, A.; Gizhko, A.; Gunnellini, P.; Hauk, J.; Hempel, M.; Jung, H.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Karacheban, O.; Kasemann, M.; Katsas, P.; Kieseler, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Korol, I.; Lange, W.; Leonard, J.; Lipka, K.; Lobanov, A.; Lohmann, W.; Mankel, R.; Marfin, I.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mittag, G.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Naumann-Emme, S.; Nayak, A.; Ntomari, E.; Perrey, H.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Raspereza, A.; Roland, B.; Sahin, M. Ö.; Saxena, P.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Schröder, M.; Seitz, C.; Spannagel, S.; Trippkewitz, K. D.; Walsh, R.; Wissing, C.; Blobel, V.; Centis Vignali, M.; Draeger, A. R.; Erfle, J.; Garutti, E.; Goebel, K.; Gonzalez, D.; Görner, M.; Haller, J.; Hoffmann, M.; Höing, R. 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W.; Hanson, G.; Heilman, J.; Ivova PANEVA, M.; Jandir, P.; Kennedy, E.; Lacroix, F.; Long, O. R.; Luthra, A.; Malberti, M.; Olmedo Negrete, M.; Shrinivas, A.; Wei, H.; Wimpenny, S.; Yates, B. R.; Branson, J. G.; Cerati, G. B.; Cittolin, S.; D'Agnolo, R. T.; Derdzinski, M.; Holzner, A.; Kelley, R.; Klein, D.; Letts, J.; Macneill, I.; Olivito, D.; Padhi, S.; Pieri, M.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; Tadel, M.; Vartak, A.; Wasserbaech, S.; Welke, C.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Zevi Della Porta, G.; Bradmiller-Feld, J.; Campagnari, C.; Dishaw, A.; Dutta, V.; Flowers, K.; Sevilla, M. Franco; Geffert, P.; George, C.; Golf, F.; Gouskos, L.; Gran, J.; Incandela, J.; Mccoll, N.; Mullin, S. D.; Richman, J.; Stuart, D.; Suarez, I.; West, C.; Yoo, J.; Anderson, D.; Apresyan, A.; Bornheim, A.; Bunn, J.; Chen, Y.; Duarte, J.; Mott, A.; Newman, H. B.; Pena, C.; Pierini, M.; Spiropulu, M.; Vlimant, J. R.; Xie, S.; Zhu, R. Y.; Andrews, M. 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W.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Sun, X.; Wang, Y.; Wolfe, E.; Wood, J.; Xia, F.; Clarke, C.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sturdy, J.; Belknap, D. A.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Gomber, B.; Grothe, M.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Levine, A.; Long, K.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Perry, T.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ruggles, T.; Sarangi, T.; Savin, A.; Sharma, A.; Smith, N.; Smith, W. H.; Taylor, D.; Woods, N.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the CMS trigger system and its performance during Run 1 of the LHC. The trigger system consists of two levels designed to select events of potential physics interest from a GHz (MHz) interaction rate of proton-proton (heavy ion) collisions. The first level of the trigger is implemented in hardware, and selects events containing detector signals consistent with an electron, photon, muon, τ lepton, jet, or missing transverse energy. A programmable menu of up to 128 object-based algorithms is used to select events for subsequent processing. The trigger thresholds are adjusted to the LHC instantaneous luminosity during data taking in order to restrict the output rate to 100 kHz, the upper limit imposed by the CMS readout electronics. The second level, implemented in software, further refines the purity of the output stream, selecting an average rate of 400 Hz for offline event storage. The objectives, strategy and performance of the trigger system during the LHC Run 1 are described.

  10. The CMS trigger system

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aşılar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Knünz, Valentin; König, Axel; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Matsushita, Takashi; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Lauwers, Jasper; Luyckx, Sten; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; De Bruyn, Isabelle; Deroover, Kevin; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Van Parijs, Isis; Barria, Patrizia; Brun, Hugues; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lenzi, Thomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Perniè, Luca; Randle-conde, Aidan; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Crucy, Shannon; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Gul, Muhammad; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Poyraz, Deniz; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Tytgat, Michael; Van Driessche, Ward; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Nuttens, Claude; Perrini, Lucia; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Beliy, Nikita; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Hamer, Matthias; Hensel, Carsten; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Souza Santos, Angelo; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Moon, Chang-Seong; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Plestina, Roko; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Huaqiao; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Micanovic, Sasa; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; El Sawy, Mai; Elgammal, Sherif; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Calpas, Betty; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Machet, Martina; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Zghiche, Amina; Antropov, Iurii; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Cadamuro, Luca; Chapon, Emilien; Charlot, Claude; Dahms, Torsten; Davignon, Olivier; Filipovic, Nicolas; Florent, Alice; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Lisniak, Stanislav; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Miné, Philippe; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Pigard, Philipp; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Strebler, Thomas; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Buttignol, Michael; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chanon, Nicolas; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Coubez, Xavier; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Skovpen, Kirill; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouvier, Elvire; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Courbon, Benoit; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sabes, David; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Toriashvili, Tengizi; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heister, Arno; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Preuten, Marius; Raupach, Frank; Schael, Stefan; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Verlage, Tobias; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Erdweg, Sören; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Knutzen, Simon; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Bell, Alan James; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Campbell, Alan; Choudhury, Somnath; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dolinska, Ganna; Dooling, Samantha; Dorland, Tyler; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Flucke, Gero; Gallo, Elisabetta; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gizhko, Andrii; Gunnellini, Paolo; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Karacheban, Olena; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nayak, Aruna; Ntomari, Eleni; Perrey, Hanno; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Roland, Benoit; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Saxena, Pooja; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schröder, Matthias; Seitz, Claudia; Spannagel, Simon; Trippkewitz, Karim Damun; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Gonzalez, Daniel; Görner, Martin; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Junkes, Alexandra; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Kovalchuk, Nataliia; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Marconi, Daniele; Meyer, Mareike; Nowatschin, Dominik; Ott, Jochen; Pantaleo, Felice; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Pietsch, Niklas; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Scharf, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Schwandt, Joern; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Tholen, Heiner; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt; Akbiyik, Melike; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Fink, Simon; Frensch, Felix; Friese, Raphael; Giffels, Manuel; Gilbert, Andrew; Haitz, Dominik; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Maier, Benedikt; Mildner, Hannes; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Röcker, Steffen; Roscher, Frank; Sieber, Georg; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Psallidas, Andreas; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Agapitos, Antonis; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Tziaferi, Eirini; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Loukas, Nikitas; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Strologas, John; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hazi, Andras; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Bartók, Márton; Makovec, Alajos; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chawla, Ridhi; Gupta, Ruchi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Mehta, Ankita; Mittal, Monika; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Nishu, Nishu; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Sharma, Varun; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dey, Sourav; Dutta, Suchandra; Jain, Sandhya; Majumdar, Nayana; Modak, Atanu; Mondal, Kuntal; Mukherjee, Swagata; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Roy, Ashim; Roy, Debarati; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguly, Sanmay; Ghosh, Saranya; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kole, Gouranga; Kumar, Sanjeev; Mahakud, Bibhuprasad; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mitra, Soureek; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sarkar, Tanmay; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Chauhan, Shubhanshu; Dube, Sourabh; Kothekar, Kunal; Sharma, Seema; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Behnamian, Hadi; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Goldouzian, Reza; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Caputo, Claudio; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Travaglini, Riccardo; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gonzi, Sandro; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Primavera, Federica; Calvelli, Valerio; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Monge, Maria Roberta; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Brianza, Luca; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Gerosa, Raffaele; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Marzocchi, Badder; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Esposito, Marco; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lanza, Giuseppe; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Thyssen, Filip; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bellato, Marco; Benato, Lisa; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Montecassiano, Fabio; Passaseo, Marina; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pegoraro, Matteo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Ventura, Sandro; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Zumerle, Gianni; Braghieri, Alessandro; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fedi, Giacomo; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; D'imperio, Giulia; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Traczyk, Piotr; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Ravera, Fabio; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Tamponi, Umberto; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; La Licata, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Schizzi, Andrea; Zanetti, Anna; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Kong, Dae Jung; Lee, Sangeun; Oh, Young Do; Sakharov, Alexandre; Son, Dong-Chul; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Kim, Hyunsoo; Kim, Tae Jeong; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Ryu, Min Sang; Choi, Young-Il; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Donghyun; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Dudenas, Vytautas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Byszuk, Adrian; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Pozniak, Krzysztof; Walczak, Marek; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Leonardo, Nuno; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nguyen, Federico; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Bylinkin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Kaminskiy, Alexandre; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Miagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Senghi Soares, Mara; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Castiñeiras De Saa, Juan Ramon; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Garcia-Ferrero, Juan; Gomez, Gervasio; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Trevisani, Nicolò; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benaglia, Andrea; Bendavid, Joshua; Benhabib, Lamia; Benitez, Jose F; Berruti, Gaia Maria; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Castello, Roberto; Cerminara, Gianluca; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; Daponte, Vincenzo; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Gruttola, Michele; De Guio, Federico; De Roeck, Albert; De Visscher, Simon; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dordevic, Milos; Dorney, Brian; Du Pree, Tristan; Dünser, Marc; Dupont, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Franzoni, Giovanni; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Guida, Roberto; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Hammer, Josef; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kirschenmann, Henning; Kortelainen, Matti J; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Magini, Nicolo; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Martelli, Arabella; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Neugebauer, Hannes; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuelle; Peruzzi, Marco; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Piparo, Danilo; Racz, Attila; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Ruan, Manqi; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Seidel, Markus; Sharma, Archana; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Steggemann, Jan; Stieger, Benjamin; Stoye, Markus; Takahashi, Yuta; Treille, Daniel; Triossi, Andrea; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Wardle, Nicholas; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Zagoździńska, Agnieszka; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Casal, Bruno; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Eller, Philipp; Grab, Christoph; Heidegger, Constantin; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Kasieczka, Gregor; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marionneau, Matthieu; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Masciovecchio, Mario; Meister, Daniel; Micheli, Francesco; Musella, Pasquale; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pata, Joosep; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrozzi, Luca; Quittnat, Milena; Rossini, Marco; Starodumov, Andrei; Takahashi, Maiko; Tavolaro, Vittorio Raoul; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Wallny, Rainer; Aarrestad, Thea Klaeboe; Amsler, Claude; Caminada, Lea; Canelli, Maria Florencia; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Cosa, Annapaola; Galloni, Camilla; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Lange, Clemens; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Pinna, Deborah; Robmann, Peter; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Salerno, Daniel; Yang, Yong; Cardaci, Marco; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Doan, Thi Hien; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Konyushikhin, Maxim; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Lu, Yun-Ju; Yu, Shin-Shan; Kumar, Arun; Bartek, Rachel; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Dietz, Charles; Fiori, Francesco; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Petrakou, Eleni; Tsai, Jui-fa; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Asavapibhop, Burin; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Singh, Gurpreet; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Demiroglu, Zuhal Seyma; Dozen, Candan; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Polatoz, Ayse; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Mehmet; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Isildak, Bora; Karapinar, Guler; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Yetkin, Elif Asli; Yetkin, Taylan; Cakir, Altan; Cankocak, Kerem; Sen, Sercan; Vardarlı, Fuat Ilkehan; Grynyov, Boris; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Aggleton, Robin; Ball, Fionn; Beck, Lana; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Meng, Zhaoxia; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Sakuma, Tai; Seif El Nasr-storey, Sarah; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Dominic; Smith, Vincent J; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Calligaris, Luigi; Cieri, Davide; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Williams, Thomas; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Bundock, Aaron; Burton, Darren; Casasso, Stefano; Citron, Matthew; Colling, David; Corpe, Louie; Cripps, Nicholas; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; De Wit, Adinda; Della Negra, Michel; Dunne, Patrick; Elwood, Adam; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; Kenzie, Matthew; Lane, Rebecca; Lucas, Robyn; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Raymond, David Mark; Richards, Alexander; Rose, Andrew; Seez, Christopher; Tapper, Alexander; Uchida, Kirika; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Borzou, Ahmad; Call, Kenneth; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Pastika, Nathaniel; Charaf, Otman; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Arcaro, Daniel; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Gastler, Daniel; Lawson, Philip; Rankin, Dylan; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; St John, Jason; Sulak, Lawrence; Zou, David; Alimena, Juliette; Berry, Edmund; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Cutts, David; Dhingra, Nitish; Ferapontov, Alexey; Garabedian, Alex; Hakala, John; Heintz, Ulrich; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Mao, Zaixing; Narain, Meenakshi; Piperov, Stefan; Sagir, Sinan; Syarif, Rizki; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Shalhout, Shalhout; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tripathi, Mani; Wilbur, Scott; Yohay, Rachel; Cousins, Robert; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Saltzberg, David; Takasugi, Eric; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Paneva, Mirena Ivova; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Malberti, Martina; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Wei, Hua; Wimpenny, Stephen; Yates, Brent; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Derdzinski, Mark; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Klein, Daniel; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tadel, Matevz; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Welke, Charles; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Flowers, Kristen; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; Geffert, Paul; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Gouskos, Loukas; Gran, Jason; Incandela, Joe; Mccoll, Nickolas; Mullin, Sam Daniel; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; Suarez, Indara; West, Christopher; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Anderson, Dustin; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Duarte, Javier; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Pierini, Maurizio; Spiropulu, Maria; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Andrews, Michael Benjamin; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carlson, Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Sun, Menglei; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Jensen, Frank; Johnson, Andrew; Krohn, Michael; Mulholland, Troy; Nauenberg, Uriel; Stenson, Kevin; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chaves, Jorge; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Eggert, Nicholas; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Ryd, Anders; Skinnari, Louise; Soffi, Livia; Sun, Werner; Tan, Shao Min; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Weng, Yao; Wittich, Peter; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hirschauer, James; Hu, Zhen; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Jung, Andreas Werner; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Kwan, Simon; Lammel, Stephan; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Tiehui; Lopes De Sá, Rafael; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena Ingrid; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Nahn, Steve; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Pedro, Kevin; Prokofyev, Oleg; Rakness, Gregory; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vernieri, Caterina; Verzocchi, Marco; Vidal, Richard; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Whitbeck, Andrew; Yang, Fan; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Carnes, Andrew; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Field, Richard D; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Hugon, Justin; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Low, Jia Fu; Ma, Peisen; Matchev, Konstantin; Mei, Hualin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Rank, Douglas; Rossin, Roberto; Shchutska, Lesya; Snowball, Matthew; Sperka, David; Terentyev, Nikolay; Thomas, Laurent; Wang, Jian; Wang, Sean-Jiun; Yelton, John; Hewamanage, Samantha; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Ackert, Andrew; Adams, Jordon Rowe; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Diamond, Brendan; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Khatiwada, Ajeeta; Prosper, Harrison; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Bhopatkar, Vallary; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Noonan, Daniel; Roy, Titas; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Kurt, Pelin; O'Brien, Christine; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Silkworth, Christopher; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Wu, Zhenbin; Zakaria, Mohammed; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Durgut, Süleyman; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Khristenko, Viktor; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Snyder, Christina; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Anderson, Ian; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Eminizer, Nicholas; Fehling, David; Feng, Lei; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Martin, Christopher; Osherson, Marc; Roskes, Jeffrey; Cocoros, Alice; Sarica, Ulascan; Swartz, Morris; Xiao, Meng; Xin, Yongjie; You, Can; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Bruner, Christopher; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Majumder, Devdatta; Malek, Magdalena; Murray, Michael; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Wang, Quan; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Toda, Sachiko; Lange, David; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Anelli, Christopher; Baden, Drew; Baron, Owen; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferraioli, Charles; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kellogg, Richard G; Kolberg, Ted; Kunkle, Joshua; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Shin, Young Ho; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Apyan, Aram; Barbieri, Richard; Baty, Austin; Bierwagen, Katharina; Brandt, Stephanie; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; Demiragli, Zeynep; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Gulhan, Doga; Iiyama, Yutaro; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Klute, Markus; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Mcginn, Christopher; Mironov, Camelia; Narayanan, Siddharth; Niu, Xinmei; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Varma, Mukund; Velicanu, Dragos; Veverka, Jan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ta-Wei; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Zhukova, Victoria; Dahmes, Bryan; Evans, Andrew; Finkel, Alexey; Gude, Alexander; Hansen, Peter; Kalafut, Sean; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Lesko, Zachary; Mans, Jeremy; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rusack, Roger; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Fangmeier, Caleb; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kamalieddin, Rami; Keller, Jason; Knowlton, Dan; Kravchenko, Ilya; Meier, Frank; Monroy, Jose; Ratnikov, Fedor; Siado, Joaquin Emilo; Snow, Gregory R; Alyari, Maral; Dolen, James; George, Jimin; Godshalk, Andrew; Harrington, Charles; Iashvili, Ia; Kaisen, Josh; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Roozbahani, Bahareh; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Hortiangtham, Apichart; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Teixeira De Lima, Rafael; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Sung, Kevin; Trovato, Marco; Velasco, Mayda; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Dev, Nabarun; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Meng, Fanbo; Mueller, Charles; Musienko, Yuri; Pearson, Tessa; Planer, Michael; Reinsvold, Allison; Ruchti, Randy; Smith, Geoffrey; Taroni, Silvia; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Antonelli, Louis; Brinson, Jessica; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Ji, Weifeng; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Liu, Bingxuan; Luo, Wuming; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Winer, Brian L; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Hebda, Philip; Koay, Sue Ann; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Palmer, Christopher; Piroué, Pierre; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Zuranski, Andrzej; Malik, Sudhir; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bortoletto, Daniela; Gutay, Laszlo; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Kurt; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shi, Xin; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Sun, Jian; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Xu, Lingshan; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Chen, Zhenyu; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Guilbaud, Maxime; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Northup, Michael; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Rorie, Jamal; Tu, Zhoudunming; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Galanti, Mario; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Hindrichs, Otto; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Petrillo, Gianluca; Tan, Ping; Verzetti, Mauro; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Hughes, Elliot; Kaplan, Steven; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, Raghav; Lath, Amitabh; Nash, Kevin; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Foerster, Mark; Riley, Grant; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; York, Andrew; Bouhali, Othmane; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; De Mattia, Marco; Delgado, Andrea; Dildick, Sven; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Mueller, Ryan; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Patel, Rishi; Perloff, Alexx; Rose, Anthony; Safonov, Alexei; Tatarinov, Aysen; Ulmer, Keith; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Kunori, Shuichi; Lamichhane, Kamal; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Undleeb, Sonaina; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Janjam, Ravi; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Mao, Yaxian; Melo, Andrew; Ni, Hong; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Xu, Qiao; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Sun, Xin; Wang, Yanchu; Wolfe, Evan; Wood, John; Xia, Fan; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sturdy, Jared; Belknap, Donald; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Gomber, Bhawna; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Levine, Aaron; Long, Kenneth; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ruggles, Tyler; Sarangi, Tapas; Savin, Alexander; Sharma, Archana; Smith, Nicholas; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Woods, Nathaniel

    2017-01-24

    This paper describes the CMS trigger system and its performance during Run 1 of the LHC. The trigger system consists of two levels designed to select events of potential physics interest from a GHz (MHz) interaction rate of proton-proton (heavy ion) collisions. The first level of the trigger is implemented in hardware, and selects events containing detector signals consistent with an electron, photon, muon, $\\tau$ lepton, jet, or missing transverse energy. A programmable menu of up to 128 object-based algorithms is used to select events for subsequent processing. The trigger thresholds are adjusted to the LHC instantaneous luminosity during data taking in order to restrict the output rate to 100 kHz, the upper limit imposed by the CMS readout electronics. The second level, implemented in software, further refines the purity of the output stream, selecting an average rate of 400 Hz for offline event storage. The objectives, strategy and performance of the trigger system during the LHC Run 1 are described.

  11. Trigger Monitoring at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Sidoti, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The Trigger and Data Acquisition system for the ATLAS experiment has to reduce the 40 MHz of LHC bunch crossing rate to ~200 Hz of recording rate. This is achieved through a complex distributed system composed by $sim$ 1.000 CPUs, about a third of the expected final size of the system. Monitoring the trigger behavior through all the trigger level is of fundamental importance to assess the quality of the data taken, to give fast feedback for the trigger configuration design and to monitor the stability of the HLT farm components. In this paper we will present the online monitoring framework and the various tools available in the ATLAS trigger system going from the ones that build the basic monitoring infrastructure and test the basic functionalities of the system to the more elaborated ones that checks the quality of the data taking looking at physics variables reconstructed online. The early experience in the 2009 cosmics data taking period will also be shown.

  12. Optically triggered high voltage switch network and method for switching a high voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A.; Andexler, George; Silberkleit, Lee I.

    1993-01-19

    An optically triggered solid state switch and method for switching a high voltage electrical current. A plurality of solid state switches (350) are connected in series for controlling electrical current flow between a compensation capacitor (112) and ground in a reactive power compensator (50, 50') that monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b and 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. An optical transmitter (100) controlled by the reactive power compensation system produces light pulses that are conveyed over optical fibers (102) to a switch driver (110') that includes a plurality of series connected optical triger circuits (288). Each of the optical trigger circuits controls a pair of the solid state switches and includes a plurality of series connected resistors (294, 326, 330, and 334) that equalize or balance the potential across the plurality of trigger circuits. The trigger circuits are connected to one of the distribution lines through a trigger capacitor (340). In each switch driver, the light signals activate a phototransistor (300) so that an electrical current flows from one of the energy reservoir capacitors through a pulse transformer (306) in the trigger circuit, producing gate signals that turn on the pair of serially connected solid state switches (350).

  13. Development of a triggering arrangement for the KALI-30GW MARX generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, S.; Kolge, T. S.; Agarwal, Ritu; Saroj, P. C.; Patel, Ankur; Senthil, K.; Sharma, Vishnu; Tewari, S. V.; Sharma, Archana; Mittal, K. C.

    2015-02-01

    This paper reports the design methodology and implementation experiments for a solid-state-based triggering arrangement for the MARX generator of the KALI-30GW (1 MV, 30 kA, 80 ns) pulsed power system. The 15-stage bipolar MARX generator of the KALI-30GW system is triggered using a trigatron-type spark gap. An insulated-gate bipolar-transistor (IGBT)-based trigger supply is used to trigger the first spark gap, and the next two spark gaps are triggered by using internally-generated trigger pulses. Optically-isolated arrangements are provided for a human interface. The entire assembly was tested with a dummy copper sulphate load, and an excellent triggering range of 7-12 kV was achieved. The circuit diagram, analysis and experimental results of the triggering arrangement are presented in the paper.

  14. Biologically closed electrical circuits in venus flytrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Alexander G; Carrell, Holly; Markin, Vladislav S

    2009-04-01

    The Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula Ellis) is a marvel of plant electrical, mechanical, and biochemical engineering. The rapid closure of the Venus flytrap upper leaf in about 0.1 s is one of the fastest movements in the plant kingdom. We found earlier that the electrical stimulus between a midrib and a lobe closes the Venus flytrap upper leaf without mechanical stimulation of trigger hairs. The Venus flytrap can accumulate small subthreshold charges and, when the threshold value is reached, the trap closes. Here, we investigated the electrical properties of the upper leaf of the Venus flytrap and proposed the equivalent electrical circuit in agreement with the experimental data.

  15. Developmental Trigger Thumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twu, Jonathan; Angeles, Jovito

    2016-04-01

    Developmental trigger thumb, although uncommon, can be easily identifiable in the pediatric outpatient visit. Patients often present with their thumb locked in flexion and a firm nodule at the base of the thumb. The thumb is usually passively correctable and nonpainful. It is important to examine the opposite thumb as bilateral trigger thumbs occur at a rate of 25% to 30%. Nonsurgical options have been proposed in the past including watchful waiting, extension exercises, splinting, and steroid injections with mixed results. Surgical intervention is indicated when there is painful triggering or the thumb is not passively correctable. Surgical treatment is an outpatient procedure that involves releasing the thumb flexor tendon from a small fibrous sheath called the A1 pulley. The overall recurrence rate after surgery is 1.4%. Our recommendation is for early referral to a pediatric orthopedic surgeon to evaluate for the need for surgical intervention. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. The ATLAS Tau Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Rados, PK; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Physics processes involving tau leptons play a crucial role in understanding particle physics at the high energy frontier. The ability to efficiently trigger on events containing hadronic tau decays is therefore of particular importance to the ATLAS experiment. During the 2012 run, the Large Hadronic Collder (LHC) reached instantaneous luminosities of nearly $10^{34} cm^{-2}s^{-1}$ with bunch crossings occurring every $50 ns$. This resulted in a huge event rate and a high probability of overlapping interactions per bunch crossing (pile-up). With this in mind it was necessary to design an ATLAS tau trigger system that could reduce the event rate to a manageable level, while efficiently extracting the most interesting physics events in a pile-up robust manner. In this poster the ATLAS tau trigger is described, its performance during 2012 is presented, and the outlook for the LHC Run II is briefly summarized.

  17. Microfabricated triggered vacuum switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesler, Alexander W [Tijeras, NM; Schare, Joshua M [Albuquerque, NM; Bunch, Kyle [Albuquerque, NM

    2010-05-11

    A microfabricated vacuum switch is disclosed which includes a substrate upon which an anode, cathode and trigger electrode are located. A cover is sealed over the substrate under vacuum to complete the vacuum switch. In some embodiments of the present invention, a metal cover can be used in place of the trigger electrode on the substrate. Materials used for the vacuum switch are compatible with high vacuum, relatively high temperature processing. These materials include molybdenum, niobium, copper, tungsten, aluminum and alloys thereof for the anode and cathode. Carbon in the form of graphitic carbon, a diamond-like material, or carbon nanotubes can be used in the trigger electrode. Channels can be optionally formed in the substrate to mitigate against surface breakdown.

  18. Vibration Damping Circuit Card Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Ronald Allen (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A vibration damping circuit card assembly includes a populated circuit card having a mass M. A closed metal container is coupled to a surface of the populated circuit card at approximately a geometric center of the populated circuit card. Tungsten balls fill approximately 90% of the metal container with a collective mass of the tungsten balls being approximately (0.07) M.

  19. ALICE High Level Trigger

    CERN Multimedia

    Alt, T

    2013-01-01

    The ALICE High Level Trigger (HLT) is a computing farm designed and build for the real-time, online processing of the raw data produced by the ALICE detectors. Events are fully reconstructed from the raw data, analyzed and compressed. The analysis summary together with the compressed data and a trigger decision is sent to the DAQ. In addition the reconstruction of the events allows for on-line monitoring of physical observables and this information is provided to the Data Quality Monitor (DQM). The HLT can process event rates of up to 2 kHz for proton-proton and 200 Hz for Pb-Pb central collisions.

  20. Offset cancelling circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Wiegerink, Remco J.; Seevinck, Evert; de Jager, Wim

    1989-01-01

    A monolithic offset cancelling circuit to reduce the offset voltage at an integrated audio-amplifier output is described. This offset voltage is detected using a low-pass filter with a very large time constant for which only one small on-chip capacitor is needed. The circuit was realized with a bipolar cell-based semicustom array. Measurements have shown that a -3-dB bandwidth below 5 Hz can be realized with a capacitor value of 50 pF. The resulting offset voltage at the audio-amplifier outpu...

  1. Primer printed circuit boards

    CERN Document Server

    Argyle, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Step-by-step instructions for making your own PCBs at home. Making your own printed circuit board (PCB) might seem a daunting task, but once you master the steps, it's easy to attain professional-looking results. Printed circuit boards, which connect chips and other components, are what make almost all modern electronic devices possible. PCBs are made from sheets of fiberglass clad with copper, usually in multiplelayers. Cut a computer motherboard in two, for instance, and you'll often see five or more differently patterned layers. Making boards at home is relatively easy

  2. Electronic circuits fundamentals & applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tooley, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Electronics explained in one volume, using both theoretical and practical applications.New chapter on Raspberry PiCompanion website contains free electronic tools to aid learning for students and a question bank for lecturersPractical investigations and questions within each chapter help reinforce learning Mike Tooley provides all the information required to get to grips with the fundamentals of electronics, detailing the underpinning knowledge necessary to appreciate the operation of a wide range of electronic circuits, including amplifiers, logic circuits, power supplies and oscillators. The

  3. Electrical Circuit Tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Frank

    2006-04-18

    An electrical circuit testing device is provided, comprising a case, a digital voltage level testing circuit with a display means, a switch to initiate measurement using the device, a non-shorting switching means for selecting pre-determined electrical wiring configurations to be tested in an outlet, a terminal block, a five-pole electrical plug mounted on the case surface and a set of adapters that can be used for various multiple-pronged electrical outlet configurations for voltages from 100 600 VAC from 50 100 Hz.

  4. Circuit design for reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Yu; Wirth, Gilson

    2015-01-01

    This book presents physical understanding, modeling and simulation, on-chip characterization, layout solutions, and design techniques that are effective to enhance the reliability of various circuit units.  The authors provide readers with techniques for state of the art and future technologies, ranging from technology modeling, fault detection and analysis, circuit hardening, and reliability management. Provides comprehensive review on various reliability mechanisms at sub-45nm nodes; Describes practical modeling and characterization techniques for reliability; Includes thorough presentation of robust design techniques for major VLSI design units; Promotes physical understanding with first-principle simulations.

  5. Reconfigurable CPLAG and Modified PFAL Adiabatic Logic Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously, authors have proposed CPLAG and MCPLAG circuits extracting benefits of CPL family implemented based upon semiadiabatic logic for low power VLSI circuit design along with gating concept. Also authors have communicated RCPLAG circuits adding another dimension of reconfigurability into CPLAG/MCPLAG circuits. Moving ahead, in this paper, authors have implemented/reconfigured RCPLAG universal Nand/And gate and universal Nor/Or gate for extracting behavior of dynamic positive edge triggered DFF. Authors have also implemented Adder/Subtractor circuit using different techniques. Authors have also reported modification in PFAL semiadiabatic circuit family to further reduce the power dissipation. Functionality of these is verified and found to be satisfactory. Further these are examined rigorously with voltage, Cload, temperature, and transistor size variation. Performance of these is examined with these variations with power dissipation, delays, rise, and fall times associated. From the analysis it is found that best operating condition for DFF based upon RCPLAG universal gate can be achieved at supply voltage lower than 3 V which can be used for different transistor size up to 36 μm. Average power dissipation is 0.2 μW at 1 V and 30 μW at 2 V at 100 ff Cload 25°C approximately. Average power dissipated by CPLAG Adder/Subtractot is 58 μW. Modified PFAL circuit reduces average power by 9% approximately.

  6. Power amplifier circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takeya, Hideaki; Nauta, Bram

    2015-01-01

    PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a power amplifier circuit which has high power efficiency while suppressing a fluctuation of output power relatively to a fluctuation of a power supply voltage in a high-efficiency switching amplifier which operates in a radio frequency band.SOLUTION: A duty ratio

  7. "Printed-circuit" rectenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, R. M.

    1977-01-01

    Rectifying antenna is less bulky structure for absorbing transmitted microwave power and converting it into electrical current. Printed-circuit approach, using microstrip technology and circularly polarized antenna, makes polarization orientation unimportant and allows much smaller arrays for given performance. Innovation is particularly useful with proposed electric vehicles powered by beam microwaves.

  8. Superconducting Quantum Circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Majer, J.B.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis describes a number of experiments with superconducting cir- cuits containing small Josephson junctions. The circuits are made out of aluminum islands which are interconnected with a very thin insulating alu- minum oxide layer. The connections form a Josephson junction. The current trough

  9. ESD analog circuits and design

    CERN Document Server

    Voldman, Steven H

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive and in-depth review of analog circuit layout, schematic architecture, device, power network and ESD design This book will provide a balanced overview of analog circuit design layout, analog circuit schematic development, architecture of chips, and ESD design.  It will start at an introductory level and will bring the reader right up to the state-of-the-art. Two critical design aspects for analog and power integrated circuits are combined. The first design aspect covers analog circuit design techniques to achieve the desired circuit performance. The second and main aspect pres

  10. The ATLAS Tau Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Rados, PK; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The tau lepton plays a crucial role in understanding particle physics at the Tera scale. One of the most promising probes of the Higgs boson coupling to fermions is with detector signatures involving taus. In addition, many theories beyond the Standard Model, such as supersymmetry and exotic particles (Wʹ and Zʹ), predict new physics with large couplings to taus. The ability to trigger on hadronic tau decays is therefore critical to achieving the physics goals of the ATLAS experiment. The higher instantaneous luminosities of proton-proton collisions achieved by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in 2012 resulted in a larger probability of overlap (pile-up) between bunch crossings, and so it was critical for ATLAS to have an effective tau trigger strategy. The details of this strategy are summarized in this paper, and the results of the latest performance measurements are presented.

  11. The ATLAS Tau Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Rados, PK; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The tau lepton plays a crucial role in understanding particle physics at the Tera scale. One of the most promising probes of the Higgs boson coupling to fermions is with detector signatures involving taus. In addition, many theories beyond the Standard Model, such as supersymmetry and exotic particles (Wʹ′ and Zʹ′), predict new physics with large couplings to taus. The ability to trigger on hadronic tau decays is therefore critical to achieving the physics goals of the ATLAS experiment. The higher instantaneous luminosities of proton-proton collisions achieved by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in 2012 resulted in a larger probability of overlap (pile-up) between bunch crossings, and so it was critical for ATLAS to have an effective tau trigger strategy. The details of this strategy are summarized in this poster, and the latest performance measurements are presented.

  12. Physics issues on triggering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The detector at the international linear collider (ILC) should be able to run 'trig- gerless' which means that all events can be read out and then be analysed with the offline reconstruction program in a trigger farm. The event rates for 'high Q2' events like W-pairs or q¯q are low, about 0.1/train. However, there is a significant.

  13. Neural networks for triggering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denby, B. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA)); Campbell, M. (Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (USA)); Bedeschi, F. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pisa (Italy)); Chriss, N.; Bowers, C. (Chicago Univ., IL (USA)); Nesti, F. (Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa (Italy))

    1990-01-01

    Two types of neural network beauty trigger architectures, based on identification of electrons in jets and recognition of secondary vertices, have been simulated in the environment of the Fermilab CDF experiment. The efficiencies for B's and rejection of background obtained are encouraging. If hardware tests are successful, the electron identification architecture will be tested in the 1991 run of CDF. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Novel circuits for energizing manganin stress gauges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasker, Douglas G.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a novel MOSFET pulsed constant current supplies for low impedance Manganin stress gauges. The design emphasis has been on high accuracy, low noise, simple, low cost, disposable supplies that can be used to energize multiple gauges in explosive or shock experiments. The Manganin gauges used to measure stresses in detonating explosive experiments have typical resistances of 50 mΩ and are energized with pulsed currents of 50 A. Conventional pulsed, constant current supplies for these gauges are high voltage devices with outputs as high as 500 V. Common problems with the use of high voltage supplies at explosive firing sites are: erroneous signals caused by ground loops; overdrive of oscilloscopes on gauge failure; gauge signal crosstalk; cost; and errors due to changing load impedances. The new circuit corrects these issues. It is an 18-V circuit, powered by 9-V alkaline batteries, and features an optically isolated trigger, and single-point grounding. These circuits have been successfully tested at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in explosive experiments. [LA-UR-15-24819

  15. Isolating Triggered Star Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, Elizabeth J.; Arnold, Jacob A.; /UC, Irvine; Zentner, Andrew R.; /KICP, Chicago /Chicago U., EFI; Bullock, James S.; /UC, Irvine; Wechsler, Risa H.; /KIPAC, Menlo

    2007-09-12

    Galaxy pairs provide a potentially powerful means of studying triggered star formation from galaxy interactions. We use a large cosmological N-body simulation coupled with a well-tested semi-analytic substructure model to demonstrate that the majority of galaxies in close pairs reside within cluster or group-size halos and therefore represent a biased population, poorly suited for direct comparison to 'field' galaxies. Thus, the frequent observation that some types of galaxies in pairs have redder colors than 'field' galaxies is primarily a selection effect. We use our simulations to devise a means to select galaxy pairs that are isolated in their dark matter halos with respect to other massive subhalos (N= 2 halos) and to select a control sample of isolated galaxies (N= 1 halos) for comparison. We then apply these selection criteria to a volume-limited subset of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey with M{sub B,j} {le} -19 and obtain the first clean measure of the typical fraction of galaxies affected by triggered star formation and the average elevation in the star formation rate. We find that 24% (30.5 %) of these L* and sub-L* galaxies in isolated 50 (30) h{sup -1} kpc pairs exhibit star formation that is boosted by a factor of {approx}> 5 above their average past value, while only 10% of isolated galaxies in the control sample show this level of enhancement. Thus, 14% (20 %) of the galaxies in these close pairs show clear triggered star formation. Our orbit models suggest that 12% (16%) of 50 (30) h{sup -1} kpc close pairs that are isolated according to our definition have had a close ({le} 30 h{sup -1} kpc) pass within the last Gyr. Thus, the data are broadly consistent with a scenario in which most or all close passes of isolated pairs result in triggered star formation. The isolation criteria we develop provide a means to constrain star formation and feedback prescriptions in hydrodynamic simulations and a very general method of understanding

  16. Entre o niilismo e a legitimidade do espaço simbólico: diálogo com Schmitt, Heidegger e Blumenberg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor de Oliveira Pinto Coelho

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available O artigo pretende expor uma visão crítica sobre a teoria da secularização defendida por Carl Schmitt e sobre a reflexão de Martin Heidegger a respeito da metafísica do sujeito. Mais precisamente, nosso foco recai criticamente sobre a equivalência entre niilismo e autolegislação humana presente na obra de ambos os autores. Nosso objetivo é apreender tais formulações em duas dimensões imbricadas: uma delas, teórico-filosófica, e a outra, histórica. Em seguida, buscamos colocá-las em perspectiva crítica tendo em vista especialmente a reflexão desenvolvida por Hans Blumenberg e alguns de seus comentaristas. Pretendemos proceder a contraposição entre (i a noção de autolegislação humana como niilismo e (ii a legitimidade do espaço do simbólico. Sem negar a crítica ao racionalismo limitante, que inclui a superação do sujeito cartesiano, a abordagem que defendemos legitima a dimensão de mediação entre o tempo da vida e tempo do mundo, mediação que pode se dar tanto pela elaboração científica quanto pelo pensamento filosófico ou religioso. Por fim, buscamos apontar a relação entre o espaço simbólico e a superação da noção de mímesis como imitação ou simples adequação.

  17. Reducing energy with asynchronous circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Rivas Barragan, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Reducing energy consumption using asynchronous circuits. The elastic clocks approach has been implemented along with a closed-feedback loop in order to achieve a lower energy consumption along with more reliability in integrated circuits.

  18. Diode, transistor & fet circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    2013-01-01

    Diode, Transistor and FET Circuits Manual is a handbook of circuits based on discrete semiconductor components such as diodes, transistors, and FETS. The book also includes diagrams and practical circuits. The book describes basic and special diode characteristics, heat wave-rectifier circuits, transformers, filter capacitors, and rectifier ratings. The text also presents practical applications of associated devices, for example, zeners, varicaps, photodiodes, or LEDs, as well as it describes bipolar transistor characteristics. The transistor can be used in three basic amplifier configuration

  19. Circuit Bodging : Atari Punk Console

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, B.

    2009-01-01

    Circuit bodging is back! Maxwell is proud to present small, simple, but ultimately lovable little circuits to build for your own, personal pleasure. In this edition we are featuring: The Atari Punk Console. The Atari Punk Console (or APC) is a 555 timer IC based noise maker circuit. The original was

  20. Synthetic in vitro transcription circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitz, Maximilian; Simmel, Friedrich C

    2012-01-01

    With the help of only two enzymes--an RNA polymerase and a ribonuclease--reduced versions of transcriptional regulatory circuits can be implemented in vitro. These circuits enable the emulation of naturally occurring biochemical networks, the exploration of biological circuit design principles and the biochemical implementation of powerful computational models.

  1. High voltage MOSFET switching circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1994-01-01

    The problem of source lead inductance in a MOSFET switching circuit is compensated for by adding an inductor to the gate circuit. The gate circuit inductor produces an inductive spike which counters the source lead inductive drop to produce a rectangular drive voltage waveform at the internal gate-source terminals of the MOSFET.

  2. Quantum-circuit refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kuan Yen; Partanen, Matti; Lake, Russell E.; Govenius, Joonas; Masuda, Shumpei; Möttönen, Mikko

    2017-05-01

    Quantum technology promises revolutionizing applications in information processing, communications, sensing and modelling. However, efficient on-demand cooling of the functional quantum degrees of freedom remains challenging in many solid-state implementations, such as superconducting circuits. Here we demonstrate direct cooling of a superconducting resonator mode using voltage-controllable electron tunnelling in a nanoscale refrigerator. This result is revealed by a decreased electron temperature at a resonator-coupled probe resistor, even for an elevated electron temperature at the refrigerator. Our conclusions are verified by control experiments and by a good quantitative agreement between theory and experimental observations at various operation voltages and bath temperatures. In the future, we aim to remove spurious dissipation introduced by our refrigerator and to decrease the operational temperature. Such an ideal quantum-circuit refrigerator has potential applications in the initialization of quantum electric devices. In the superconducting quantum computer, for example, fast and accurate reset of the quantum memory is needed.

  3. Neuromorphic Silicon Neuron Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indiveri, Giacomo; Linares-Barranco, Bernabé; Hamilton, Tara Julia; van Schaik, André; Etienne-Cummings, Ralph; Delbruck, Tobi; Liu, Shih-Chii; Dudek, Piotr; Häfliger, Philipp; Renaud, Sylvie; Schemmel, Johannes; Cauwenberghs, Gert; Arthur, John; Hynna, Kai; Folowosele, Fopefolu; Saighi, Sylvain; Serrano-Gotarredona, Teresa; Wijekoon, Jayawan; Wang, Yingxue; Boahen, Kwabena

    2011-01-01

    Hardware implementations of spiking neurons can be extremely useful for a large variety of applications, ranging from high-speed modeling of large-scale neural systems to real-time behaving systems, to bidirectional brain–machine interfaces. The specific circuit solutions used to implement silicon neurons depend on the application requirements. In this paper we describe the most common building blocks and techniques used to implement these circuits, and present an overview of a wide range of neuromorphic silicon neurons, which implement different computational models, ranging from biophysically realistic and conductance-based Hodgkin–Huxley models to bi-dimensional generalized adaptive integrate and fire models. We compare the different design methodologies used for each silicon neuron design described, and demonstrate their features with experimental results, measured from a wide range of fabricated VLSI chips. PMID:21747754

  4. Neuromorphic silicon neuron circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo eIndiveri

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Hardware implementations of spiking neurons can be extremely useful for a large variety of applications, ranging from high-speed modeling of large-scale neural systems to real-time behaving systems, to bidirectional brain-machine interfaces. The specific circuit solutions used to implement silicon neurons depend on the application requirements. In this paper we describe the most common building blocks and techniques used to implement these circuits, and present an overview of a wide range of neuromorphic silicon neurons, which implement different computational models, ranging from biophysically realistic and conductance based Hodgkin-Huxley models to bi-dimensional generalized adaptive Integrate and Fire models. We compare the different design methodologies used for each silicon neuron design described, and demonstrate their features with experimental results, measured from a wide range of fabricated VLSI chips.

  5. Quantum-circuit refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kuan Yen; Partanen, Matti; Lake, Russell E.; Govenius, Joonas; Masuda, Shumpei; Möttönen, Mikko

    2017-01-01

    Quantum technology promises revolutionizing applications in information processing, communications, sensing and modelling. However, efficient on-demand cooling of the functional quantum degrees of freedom remains challenging in many solid-state implementations, such as superconducting circuits. Here we demonstrate direct cooling of a superconducting resonator mode using voltage-controllable electron tunnelling in a nanoscale refrigerator. This result is revealed by a decreased electron temperature at a resonator-coupled probe resistor, even for an elevated electron temperature at the refrigerator. Our conclusions are verified by control experiments and by a good quantitative agreement between theory and experimental observations at various operation voltages and bath temperatures. In the future, we aim to remove spurious dissipation introduced by our refrigerator and to decrease the operational temperature. Such an ideal quantum-circuit refrigerator has potential applications in the initialization of quantum electric devices. In the superconducting quantum computer, for example, fast and accurate reset of the quantum memory is needed. PMID:28480900

  6. Integrated Circuit Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sketoe, J. G.; Clark, Anthony

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a DOD E3 program overview on integrated circuit immunity. The topics include: 1) EMI Immunity Testing; 2) Threshold Definition; 3) Bias Tee Function; 4) Bias Tee Calibration Set-Up; 5) EDM Test Figure; 6) EMI Immunity Levels; 7) NAND vs. and Gate Immunity; 8) TTL vs. LS Immunity Levels; 9) TP vs. OC Immunity Levels; 10) 7805 Volt Reg Immunity; and 11) Seventies Chip Set. This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  7. Cartography of serotonergic circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparta, Dennis R; Stuber, Garret D

    2014-08-06

    Serotonin is an essential neuromodulator, but the precise circuit connectivity that regulates serotonergic neurons has not been well defined. Using rabies virus tracing strategies Weissbourd et al. (2014) and Pollak Dorocic et al. (2014) in this issue of Neuron and Ogawa et al. (2014) in Cell Reports provide a comprehensive map of the inputs to serotonergic neurons, highlighting the complexity and diversity of potential upstream cellular regulators. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Synthesis of Trigger Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupferman, Orna; Vardi, Moshe Y.

    In automated synthesis, we transform a specification into a system that is guaranteed to satisfy the specification. In spite of the rich theory developed for temporal synthesis, little of this theory has been reduced to practice. This is in contrast with model-checking theory, which has led to industrial development and use of formal verification tools. We address this problem here by considering a certain class of PSL properties; this class covers most of the properties used in practice by system designers. We refer to this class as the class of trigger properties.

  9. Changes to the shuttle circuits

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    To fit with passengers expectation, there will be some changes to the shuttle circuits as from Monday 10 October. See details on http://cern.ch/ShuttleService (on line on 7 October). Circuit No. 5 is cancelled as circuit No. 1 also stops at Bldg. 33. In order to guarantee shorter travel times, circuit No. 1 will circulate on Meyrin site only and circuit No. 2, with departures from Bldg. 33 and 500, on Prévessin site only. Site Services Section

  10. Protons Trigger Mitochondrial Flashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianhua; Zhang, Xing; Huang, Zhanglong; Wu, Di; Liu, Beibei; Zhang, Rufeng; Yin, Rongkang; Hou, Tingting; Jian, Chongshu; Xu, Jiejia; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Yanru; Gao, Feng; Cheng, Heping

    2016-07-26

    Emerging evidence indicates that mitochondrial flashes (mitoflashes) are highly conserved elemental mitochondrial signaling events. However, which signal controls their ignition and how they are integrated with other mitochondrial signals and functions remain elusive. In this study, we aimed to further delineate the signal components of the mitoflash and determine the mitoflash trigger mechanism. Using multiple biosensors and chemical probes as well as label-free autofluorescence, we found that the mitoflash reflects chemical and electrical excitation at the single-organelle level, comprising bursting superoxide production, oxidative redox shift, and matrix alkalinization as well as transient membrane depolarization. Both electroneutral H(+)/K(+) or H(+)/Na(+) antiport and matrix proton uncaging elicited immediate and robust mitoflash responses over a broad dynamic range in cardiomyocytes and HeLa cells. However, charge-uncompensated proton transport, which depolarizes mitochondria, caused the opposite effect, and steady matrix acidification mildly inhibited mitoflashes. Based on a numerical simulation, we estimated a mean proton lifetime of 1.42 ns and diffusion distance of 2.06 nm in the matrix. We conclude that nanodomain protons act as a novel, to our knowledge, trigger of mitoflashes in energized mitochondria. This finding suggests that mitoflash genesis is functionally and mechanistically integrated with mitochondrial energy metabolism. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. ATLAS Tau Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Belanger-Champagne, C; Bosman, M; Brenner, R; Casado, MP; Czyczula, Z; Dam, M; Demers, S; Farrington, S; Igonkina, O; Kalinowski, A; Kanaya, N; Osuna, C; Pérez, E; Ptacek, E; Reinsch, A; Saavedra, A; Sopczak, A; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Tsuno, S; Vorwerk, V; Watson, A; Xella, S

    2008-01-01

    Moving to the high energy scale of the LHC, the identification of tau leptons will become a necessary and very powerful tool, allowing a discovery of physics beyond Standard Model. Many models, among them light SM Higgs and various SUSY models, predict an abundant production of taus with respect to other leptons. The reconstruction of hadronic tau decays, although a very challenging task in hadronic enviroments, allows to increase a signal efficiency by at least of factor 2, and provides an independent control sample to disantangle lepton tau decays from prompt electrons and muons. Thanks to the advanced calorimetry and tracking, the ATLAS experiment has developed tools to efficiently identify hadronic taus at the trigger level. In this presentation we will review the characteristics of taus and the methods to suppress low-multiplicity, low-energy jets contributions as well as we will address the tau trigger chain which provide a rejection rate of 10^5. We will further present plans for commissioning the ATLA...

  12. Power system with an integrated lubrication circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Brian D [East Peoria, IL; Akasam, Sivaprasad [Peoria, IL; Algrain, Marcelo C [Peoria, IL; Johnson, Kris W [Washington, IL; Lane, William H [Chillicothe, IL

    2009-11-10

    A power system includes an engine having a first lubrication circuit and at least one auxiliary power unit having a second lubrication circuit. The first lubrication circuit is in fluid communication with the second lubrication circuit.

  13. Integrated Circuit Readout for the Silicon Sensor Test Station

    OpenAIRE

    Atkin, E; Kluev, A.; Silaev, A.; Fedenko, A.; Karmanov, D.; Merkin, M.(Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia); Voronin, A.

    2009-01-01

    Various chips for the silicon sensors measurements are described. These chips are based on 0.35 um and 0.18um CMOS technology. Several analog chips together with self-trigger /derandomizer one allow to measure silicon sensors designed for different purposes. Tracking systems, calorimeters, particle charge measurement system and other application sensors can be investigated by the integrated circuit readout with laser or radioactive sources. Also electrical parameters of silicon sensors can be...

  14. Reversible gates and circuits descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracki, Krzystof

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents basic methods of reversible circuit description. To design reversible circuit a set of gates has to be chosen. Most popular libraries are composed of three types of gates so called CNT gates (Control, NOT and Toffoli). The gate indexing method presented in this paper is based on the CNT gates set. It introduces a uniform indexing of the gates used during synthesis process of reversible circuits. The paper is organized as follows. Section 1 recalls basic concepts of reversible logic. In Section 2 and 3 a graphical representation of the reversible gates and circuits is described. Section 4 describes proposed uniform NCT gates indexing. The presented gate indexing method provides gate numbering scheme independent of lines number of the designed circuit. The solution for a circuit consisting of smaller number of lines is a subset of solution for a larger circuit.

  15. An R&D programme on alternative technologies for the ATLAS level-1 calorimeter trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Appelquist, G; Bohm, C; Engström, M; Hellman, S; Holmgren, S O; Johansson, E; Yamdagni, N; Zhao, X; Sundblad, R; Ödmark, A; Bodo, P; Elderstig, H; Hentzell, H; Lindgren, S; Tober, M; Johansson, H; Svensson, C; Yuan, J R; Mohktari, M; Ellis, Nick

    1995-01-16

    This note describes a first-level calorimeter trigger processor designed to take advantage of new possibilities that arise as a consequence of modern design techniques and components such as optical interconnections, application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) and multi-chip modules (MCMs). The design is homogeneous down to the trigger cell level. This means that no boundary effects occur due to the system partitioning. The construction presented relies mainly on two different types of highly complex ASICs for processing and an MCM for opto-electrical conversion of input data. The trigger processor performs electron/photon identification, jet detection and missing ET calculations for the central first-level trigger and region of interest (RoI) selection for the second-level trigger. Exploring the possibilities given by advanced technologies leads to a first-level trigger architecture with advantages over more traditional designs, allowing, for example, higher precision calculations. Remaining degrees of ...

  16. Optoelectronics circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    1999-01-01

    This manual is a useful single-volume guide specifically aimed at the practical design engineer, technician, and experimenter, as well as the electronics student and amateur. It deals with the subject in an easy to read, down to earth, and non-mathematical yet comprehensive manner, explaining the basic principles and characteristics of the best known devices, and presenting the reader with many practical applications and over 200 circuits. Most of the ICs and other devices used are inexpensive and readily available types, with universally recognised type numbers.The second edition

  17. Photonic Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainak, Michael; Merritt, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Integrated photonics generally is the integration of multiple lithographically defined photonic and electronic components and devices (e.g. lasers, detectors, waveguides passive structures, modulators, electronic control and optical interconnects) on a single platform with nanometer-scale feature sizes. The development of photonic integrated circuits permits size, weight, power and cost reductions for spacecraft microprocessors, optical communication, processor buses, advanced data processing, and integrated optic science instrument optical systems, subsystems and components. This is particularly critical for small spacecraft platforms. We will give an overview of some NASA applications for integrated photonics.

  18. Integrated circuit cell library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Sterling R. (Inventor); Miles, Lowell H. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    According to the invention, an ASIC cell library for use in creation of custom integrated circuits is disclosed. The ASIC cell library includes some first cells and some second cells. Each of the second cells includes two or more kernel cells. The ASIC cell library is at least 5% comprised of second cells. In various embodiments, the ASIC cell library could be 10% or more, 20% or more, 30% or more, 40% or more, 50% or more, 60% or more, 70% or more, 80% or more, 90% or more, or 95% or more comprised of second cells.

  19. Electronics circuits and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2007-01-01

    The material in Electronics - Circuits and Systems is a truly up-to-date textbook, with coverage carefully matched to the electronics units of the 2007 BTEC National Engineering and the latest AS and A Level specifications in Electronics from AQA, OCR and WJEC. The material has been organized with a logical learning progression, making it ideal for a wide range of pre-degree courses in electronics. The approach is student-centred and includes: numerous examples and activities; web research topics; Self Test features, highlighted key facts, formulae and definitions. Each chapter ends with a set

  20. Electronics circuits and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2011-01-01

    The material in Electronics - Circuits and Systems is a truly up-to-date textbook, with coverage carefully matched to the electronics units of the 2007 BTEC National Engineering and the latest AS and A Level specifications in Electronics from AQA, OCR and WJEC. The material has been organized with a logical learning progression, making it ideal for a wide range of pre-degree courses in electronics. The approach is student-centred and includes: numerous examples and activities; web research topics; Self Test features, highlighted key facts, formulae and definitions. Ea

  1. Linear integrated circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Carr, Joseph

    1996-01-01

    The linear IC market is large and growing, as is the demand for well trained technicians and engineers who understand how these devices work and how to apply them. Linear Integrated Circuits provides in-depth coverage of the devices and their operation, but not at the expense of practical applications in which linear devices figure prominently. This book is written for a wide readership from FE and first degree students, to hobbyists and professionals.Chapter 1 offers a general introduction that will provide students with the foundations of linear IC technology. From chapter 2 onwa

  2. Electric circuits problem solver

    CERN Document Server

    REA, Editors of

    2012-01-01

    Each Problem Solver is an insightful and essential study and solution guide chock-full of clear, concise problem-solving gems. All your questions can be found in one convenient source from one of the most trusted names in reference solution guides. More useful, more practical, and more informative, these study aids are the best review books and textbook companions available. Nothing remotely as comprehensive or as helpful exists in their subject anywhere. Perfect for undergraduate and graduate studies.Here in this highly useful reference is the finest overview of electric circuits currently av

  3. Digital Optical Circuit Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    avait donc pour but de dresser un bilan des recherches; et des raisations intiEressant la technologie des circuits optiques et d󈨁udier leurs...experiment. 3. EXPERIMENTAL WAVEGUIDE DEVICE Experiments were performed using carbon disulphide, CS2 , as the nonlinear medium. CS2 has a high non- linear...x 1.60- 1.595- S1.590 15514 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 Temperature (I C) FIGURE 5 REFRACTIVE INDEX OF CARBON DISULPHIDE AT 1 .O6um AS A FUNCTION OF

  4. Digital Optical Circuit Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, B. L. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    The Proceedings for the 48th Meeting of the AGARD Avionics Panel contain the 18 papers presented a Technical Evaluation Report, and discussions that followed the presentations of papers. Seven papers were presented in the session devoted to optical bistability. Optical logic was addressed by three papers. The session on sources, modulators and demodulators presented three papers. Five papers were given in the final session on all optical systems. The purpose of this Specialists' Meeting was to present the research and development status of digital optical circuit technology and to examine its relevance in the broad context of digital processing, communication, radar, avionics and flight control systems implementation.

  5. Latent myofascial trigger points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Hong-You; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2011-10-01

    A latent myofascial trigger point (MTP) is defined as a focus of hyperirritability in a muscle taut band that is clinically associated with local twitch response and tenderness and/or referred pain upon manual examination. Current evidence suggests that the temporal profile of the spontaneous electrical activity at an MTP is similar to focal muscle fiber contraction and/or muscle cramp potentials, which contribute significantly to the induction of local tenderness and pain and motor dysfunctions. This review highlights the potential mechanisms underlying the sensory-motor dysfunctions associated with latent MTPs and discusses the contribution of central sensitization associated with latent MTPs and the MTP network to the spatial propagation of pain and motor dysfunctions. Treating latent MTPs in patients with musculoskeletal pain may not only decrease pain sensitivity and improve motor functions, but also prevent latent MTPs from transforming into active MTPs, and hence, prevent the development of myofascial pain syndrome.

  6. Optically controllable molecular logic circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Takahiro, E-mail: t-nishimura@ist.osaka-u.ac.jp; Fujii, Ryo; Ogura, Yusuke; Tanida, Jun [Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Osaka University, 1-5 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2015-07-06

    Molecular logic circuits represent a promising technology for observation and manipulation of biological systems at the molecular level. However, the implementation of molecular logic circuits for temporal and programmable operation remains challenging. In this paper, we demonstrate an optically controllable logic circuit that uses fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) for signaling. The FRET-based signaling process is modulated by both molecular and optical inputs. Based on the distance dependence of FRET, the FRET pathways required to execute molecular logic operations are formed on a DNA nanostructure as a circuit based on its molecular inputs. In addition, the FRET pathways on the DNA nanostructure are controlled optically, using photoswitching fluorescent molecules to instruct the execution of the desired operation and the related timings. The behavior of the circuit can thus be controlled using external optical signals. As an example, a molecular logic circuit capable of executing two different logic operations was studied. The circuit contains functional DNAs and a DNA scaffold to construct two FRET routes for executing Input 1 AND Input 2 and Input 1 AND NOT Input 3 operations on molecular inputs. The circuit produced the correct outputs with all possible combinations of the inputs by following the light signals. Moreover, the operation execution timings were controlled based on light irradiation and the circuit responded to time-dependent inputs. The experimental results demonstrate that the circuit changes the output for the required operations following the input of temporal light signals.

  7. Noise in biological circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Michael L; Cox, Chris D; Allen, Michael S; McCollum, James M; Dar, Roy D; Karig, David K; Cooke, John F

    2009-01-01

    Noise biology focuses on the sources, processing, and biological consequences of the inherent stochastic fluctuations in molecular transitions or interactions that control cellular behavior. These fluctuations are especially pronounced in small systems where the magnitudes of the fluctuations approach or exceed the mean value of the molecular population. Noise biology is an essential component of nanomedicine where the communication of information is across a boundary that separates small synthetic and biological systems that are bound by their size to reside in environments of large fluctuations. Here we review the fundamentals of the computational, analytical, and experimental approaches to noise biology. We review results that show that the competition between the benefits of low noise and those of low population has resulted in the evolution of genetic system architectures that produce an uneven distribution of stochasticity across the molecular components of cells and, in some cases, use noise to drive biological function. We review the exact and approximate approaches to gene circuit noise analysis and simulation, and review many of the key experimental results obtained using flow cytometry and time-lapse fluorescent microscopy. In addition, we consider the probative value of noise with a discussion of using measured noise properties to elucidate the structure and function of the underlying gene circuit. We conclude with a discussion of the frontiers of and significant future challenges for noise biology. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  8. The CMS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Gori, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system: the Level 1 Trigger, implemented on custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a tradeoff between the complexity of the algorithms running on the available computing power, the sustainable output rate, and the selection efficiency. Here we will present the performance of the main triggers used during the 2012 data taking, ranging from simpler single-object selections to more complex algorithms combining different objects, and applying analysis-level reconstruction and selection. We will discuss the optimisation of the triggers and the specific techniques to cope with the increasing LHC pile-up, reducing its impact on the physics performance.

  9. The CMS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Trocino, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system: the Level 1 Trigger, implemented in custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a tradeoff between the complexity of the algorithms running with the available computing power, the sustainable output rate, and the selection efficiency. We present the performance of the main triggers used during the 2012 data taking, ranging from simple single-object selections to more complex algorithms combining different objects, and applying analysis-level reconstruction and selection. We discuss the optimisation of the trigger and the specific techniques to cope with the increasing LHC pile-up, reducing its impact on the physics performance.

  10. The ATLAS hadronic tau trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Black, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    With the high luminosities of proton-proton collisions achieved at the LHC, the strategies for triggering have become more important than ever for physics analysis. The naive inclusive single tau lepton triggers now suffer from severe rate limitations. To allow for a large program of physics analyses with taus, the development of topological triggers that combine tau signatures with other measured quantities in the event is required. These combined triggers open many opportunities to study new physics beyond the Standard Model and to search for the Standard Model Higgs. We present the status and performance of the hadronic tau trigger in ATLAS. We demonstrate that the ATLAS tau trigger ran remarkably well over 2011, and how the lessons learned from 2011 led to numerous improvements in the preparation of the 2012 run. These improvements include the introduction of tau selection criteria that are robust against varying pileup scenarios, and the implementation of multivariate selection techniques in the tau trig...

  11. The ATLAS hadronic tau trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Black, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    With the high luminosities of proton-proton collisions achieved at the LHC, the strategies for triggering have become more important than ever for physics analysis. The naïve inclusive single tau lepton triggers now suffer from severe rate limitations. To allow for a large program of physics analyses with taus, the development of topological triggers that combine tau signatures with other measured quantities in the event is required. These combined triggers open many opportunities to study new physics beyond the Standard Model and to search for the Standard Model Higgs. We present the status and performance of the hadronic tau trigger in ATLAS. We demonstrate that the ATLAS tau trigger ran remarkably well over 2011, and how the lessons learned from 2011 led to numerous improvements in the preparation of the 2012 run. These improvements include the introduction of tau selection criteria that are robust against varying pileup scenarios, and the implementation of multivariate selection techniques in the tau tri...

  12. RD53A Integrated Circuit Specifications

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Sciveres, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Specifications for the RD53 collaboration’s first engineering wafer run of an integrated circuit (IC) for hybrid pixel detector readout, called RD53A. RD53A is intended to demonstrate in a large format IC the suitability of the technology (including radiation tolerance), the stable low threshold operation, and the high hit and trigger rate capabilities, required for HL-LHC upgrades of ATLAS and CMS. The wafer scale production will permit the experiments to prototype bump bonding assembly with realistic sensors in this new technology and to measure the performance of hybrid assemblies. RD53A is not intended to be a final production IC for use in an experiment, and will contain design variations for testing purposes, making the pixel matrix non-uniform.

  13. 1000-V, 300-ps pulse-generation circuit using silicon avalanche devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzel, D. M.; Pocha, M. D.

    1985-07-01

    A Marx configured avalanche transistor string and a pulse rise-time peaking diode are used to generate pulses of >1000 V into a 50-Ω load with rise times of less than 300 ps. The trigger delay of this circuit is about 7-10 ns, with jitter <100 ps. This circuit has been used to generate pulses at a repetition rate up to 5 kHz.

  14. Arithmetic circuits for DSP applications

    CERN Document Server

    Stouraitis, Thanos

    2017-01-01

    Arithmetic Circuits for DSP Applications is a complete resource on arithmetic circuits for digital signal processing (DSP). It covers the key concepts, designs and developments of different types of arithmetic circuits, which can be used for improving the efficiency of implementation of a multitude of DSP applications. Each chapter includes various applications of the respective class of arithmetic circuits along with information on the future scope of research. Written for students, engineers, and researchers in electrical and computer engineering, this comprehensive text offers a clear understanding of different types of arithmetic circuits used for digital signal processing applications. The text includes contributions from noted researchers on a wide range of topics, including a review o circuits used in implementing basic operations like additions and multiplications; distributed arithmetic as a technique for the multiplier-less implementation of inner products for DSP applications; discussions on look ...

  15. Integrated circuit cooled turbine blade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Jiang, Nan; Um, Jae Y.; Holloman, Harry; Koester, Steven

    2017-08-29

    A turbine rotor blade includes at least two integrated cooling circuits that are formed within the blade that include a leading edge circuit having a first cavity and a second cavity and a trailing edge circuit that includes at least a third cavity located aft of the second cavity. The trailing edge circuit flows aft with at least two substantially 180-degree turns at the tip end and the root end of the blade providing at least a penultimate cavity and a last cavity. The last cavity is located along a trailing edge of the blade. A tip axial cooling channel connects to the first cavity of the leading edge circuit and the penultimate cavity of the trailing edge circuit. At least one crossover hole connects the penultimate cavity to the last cavity substantially near the tip end of the blade.

  16. Automated Design of Quantum Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Colin P.; Gray, Alexander G.

    2000-01-01

    In order to design a quantum circuit that performs a desired quantum computation, it is necessary to find a decomposition of the unitary matrix that represents that computation in terms of a sequence of quantum gate operations. To date, such designs have either been found by hand or by exhaustive enumeration of all possible circuit topologies. In this paper we propose an automated approach to quantum circuit design using search heuristics based on principles abstracted from evolutionary genetics, i.e. using a genetic programming algorithm adapted specially for this problem. We demonstrate the method on the task of discovering quantum circuit designs for quantum teleportation. We show that to find a given known circuit design (one which was hand-crafted by a human), the method considers roughly an order of magnitude fewer designs than naive enumeration. In addition, the method finds novel circuit designs superior to those previously known.

  17. Flexible trigger menu implementation on the Global Trigger for the CMS Level-1 trigger upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    MATSUSHITA, Takashi; CMS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    The CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has continued to explore physics at the high-energy frontier in 2016. The integrated luminosity delivered by the LHC in 2016 was 41 fb‑1 with a peak luminosity of 1.5 × 1034 cm‑2s‑1 and peak mean pile-up of about 50, all exceeding the initial estimations for 2016. The CMS experiment has upgraded its hardware-based Level-1 trigger system to maintain its performance for new physics searches and precision measurements at high luminosities. The Global Trigger is the final step of the CMS Level-1 trigger and implements a trigger menu, a set of selection requirements applied to the final list of objects from calorimeter and muon triggers, for reducing the 40 MHz collision rate to 100 kHz. The Global Trigger has been upgraded with state-of-the-art FPGA processors on Advanced Mezzanine Cards with optical links running at 10 GHz in a MicroTCA crate. The powerful processing resources of the upgraded system enable implementation of more algorithms at a time than previously possible, allowing CMS to be more flexible in how it handles the available trigger bandwidth. Algorithms for a trigger menu, including topological requirements on multi-objects, can be realised in the Global Trigger using the newly developed trigger menu specification grammar. Analysis-like trigger algorithms can be represented in an intuitive manner and the algorithms are translated to corresponding VHDL code blocks to build a firmware. The grammar can be extended in future as the needs arise. The experience of implementing trigger menus on the upgraded Global Trigger system will be presented.

  18. Muon triggers in the High Level Trigger of LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel

    2011-01-01

    The muon trigger selections for both levels of the LHCb software trigger (HLT1 and 2) are described and their performance is evaluated using $B^{+} \\to J/\\psi K^{+}$ signals reconstructed in 330 pb$^{-1}$ of data which were collected in the first half 2011.

  19. Synthetic biology: integrated gene circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandagopal, Nagarajan; Elowitz, Michael B

    2011-09-02

    A major goal of synthetic biology is to develop a deeper understanding of biological design principles from the bottom up, by building circuits and studying their behavior in cells. Investigators initially sought to design circuits "from scratch" that functioned as independently as possible from the underlying cellular system. More recently, researchers have begun to develop a new generation of synthetic circuits that integrate more closely with endogenous cellular processes. These approaches are providing fundamental insights into the regulatory architecture, dynamics, and evolution of genetic circuits and enabling new levels of control across diverse biological systems.

  20. Unstable oscillators based hyperchaotic circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murali, K.; Tamasevicius, A.; G. Mykolaitis, A.

    1999-01-01

    A simple 4th order hyperchaotic circuit with unstable oscillators is described. The circuit contains two negative impedance converters, two inductors, two capacitors, a linear resistor and a diode. The Lyapunov exponents are presented to confirm hyperchaotic nature of the oscillations in the circ......A simple 4th order hyperchaotic circuit with unstable oscillators is described. The circuit contains two negative impedance converters, two inductors, two capacitors, a linear resistor and a diode. The Lyapunov exponents are presented to confirm hyperchaotic nature of the oscillations...

  1. Trigger and data acquisition

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Gaspar, C

    2001-01-01

    Past LEP experiments generate data at 0.5 MByte/s from particle detectors with over a quarter of a million readout channels. The process of reading out the electronic channels, treating them, and storing the date produced by each collision for further analysis by the physicists is called "Data Acquisition". Not all beam crossings produce interesting physics "events", picking the interesting ones is the task of the "Trigger" system. In order to make sure that the data is collected in good conditions the experiment's operation has to be constantly verified. In all, at LEP experiments over 100 000 parameters were monitored, controlled, and synchronized by the "Monotoring and control" system. In the future, LHC experiments will produce as much data in a single day as a LEP detector did in a full year's running with a raw data rate of 10 - 100 MBytes/s and will have to cope with some 800 million proton-proton collisions a second of these collisions only one in 100 million million is interesting for new particle se...

  2. How to Understand Carl Schmitt?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Rak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Book Review: Adam Wielomski, W poszukiwaniu Katechona: Teologia polityczna Carla Schmitta. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Von Borowiecky 2016 (pp. 472. ISBN: 978–83–60748–92–3. Price: PLN 54.90.

  3. Memristor Circuits and Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.

    2015-05-01

    Current CMOS-based technologies are facing design challenges related to the continuous scaling down of the minimum feature size, according to Moore’s law. Moreover, conventional computing architecture is no longer an effective way of fulfilling modern applications demands, such as big data analysis, pattern recognition, and vector processing. Therefore, there is an exigent need to shift to new technologies, at both the architecture and the device levels. Recently, memristor devices and structures attracted attention for being promising candidates for this job. Memristor device adds a new dimension for designing novel circuits and systems. In addition, high-density memristor-based crossbar is widely considered to be the essential element for future memory and bio-inspired computing systems. However, numerous challenges need to be addressed before the memristor genuinely replaces current memory and computing technologies, which is the motivation behind this research effort. In order to address the technology challenges, we begin by fabricating and modeling the memristor device. The devices fabricated at our local clean room enriched our understanding of the memristive phenomenon and enabled the experimental testing for our memristor-based circuits. Moreover, our proposed mathematical modeling for memristor behavior is an essential element for the theoretical circuit design stage. Designing and addressing the challenges of memristor systems with practical complexity, however, requires an extra step, which takes the form of a reliable and modular simulation platform. We, therefore, built a new simulation platform for the resistive crossbar, which can simulate realistic size arrays filled with real memory data. In addition, this simulation platform includes various crossbar nonidealities in order to obtain accurate simulation results. Consequently, we were able to address the significant challenges facing the high density memristor crossbar, as the building block for

  4. A dishwasher for circuits

    CERN Multimedia

    Rosaria Marraffino

    2014-01-01

    You have always been told that electronic devices fear water. However, at the Surface Mount Devices (SMD) Workshop here at CERN all the electronic assemblies are cleaned with a machine that looks like a… dishwasher.   The circuit dishwasher. Credit: Clara Nellist.  If you think the image above shows a dishwasher, you wouldn’t be completely wrong. Apart from the fact that the whole pumping system and the case itself are made entirely from stainless steel and chemical resistant materials, and the fact that it washes electrical boards instead of dishes… it works exactly like a dishwasher. It’s a professional machine (mainly used in the pharmaceutical industry) designed to clean everything that can be washed with a water-based chemical soap. This type of treatment increases the lifetime of the electronic boards and therefore the LHC's reliability by preventing corrosion problems in the severe radiation and ozone environment of the LHC tunn...

  5. Modeling cortical circuits.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrer, Brandon Robinson; Rothganger, Fredrick H.; Verzi, Stephen J.; Xavier, Patrick Gordon

    2010-09-01

    The neocortex is perhaps the highest region of the human brain, where audio and visual perception takes place along with many important cognitive functions. An important research goal is to describe the mechanisms implemented by the neocortex. There is an apparent regularity in the structure of the neocortex [Brodmann 1909, Mountcastle 1957] which may help simplify this task. The work reported here addresses the problem of how to describe the putative repeated units ('cortical circuits') in a manner that is easily understood and manipulated, with the long-term goal of developing a mathematical and algorithmic description of their function. The approach is to reduce each algorithm to an enhanced perceptron-like structure and describe its computation using difference equations. We organize this algorithmic processing into larger structures based on physiological observations, and implement key modeling concepts in software which runs on parallel computing hardware.

  6. Basic electronic circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Buckley, P M

    1980-01-01

    In the past, the teaching of electricity and electronics has more often than not been carried out from a theoretical and often highly academic standpoint. Fundamentals and basic concepts have often been presented with no indication of their practical appli­ cations, and all too frequently they have been illustrated by artificially contrived laboratory experiments bearing little relationship to the outside world. The course comes in the form of fourteen fairly open-ended constructional experiments or projects. Each experiment has associated with it a construction exercise and an explanation. The basic idea behind this dual presentation is that the student can embark on each circuit following only the briefest possible instructions and that an open-ended approach is thereby not prejudiced by an initial lengthy encounter with the theory behind the project; this being a sure way to dampen enthusiasm at the outset. As the investigation progresses, questions inevitably arise. Descriptions of the phenomena encounte...

  7. Upgrade trigger: Biannual performance update

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Couturier, Ben; Esen, Sevda; De Cian, Michel; De Vries, Jacco Andreas; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fontana, Marianna; Grillo, Lucia; Hasse, Christoph; Jones, Christopher Rob; Le Gac, Renaud; Matev, Rosen; Neufeld, Niko; Nikodem, Thomas; Polci, Francesco; Del Buono, Luigi; Quagliani, Renato; Schwemmer, Rainer; Seyfert, Paul; Stahl, Sascha; Szumlak, Tomasz; Vesterinen, Mika Anton; Wanczyk, Joanna; Williams, Mark Richard James; Yin, Hang; Zacharjasz, Emilia Anna

    2017-01-01

    This document presents the performance of the LHCb Upgrade trigger reconstruction sequence, incorporating changes to the underlying reconstruction algorithms and detector description since the Trigger and Online Upgrade TDR. An updated extrapolation is presented using the most recent example of an Event Filter Farm node.

  8. GnRH agonist triggering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kol, Shahar; Humaidan, Peter; Al Humaidan, Peter Samir Heskjær

    2013-01-01

    The concept that a bolus of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) can replace human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) as a trigger of final oocyte maturation was introduced several years ago. Recent developments in the area strengthen this premise. GnRHa trigger offers important advantages,...

  9. Triggering requirements for SSC physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilchriese, M.G.D. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1989-04-01

    Some aspects of triggering requirements for high P{sub T} physics processes at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) are described. A very wide range of trigger types will be required to enable detection of the large number of potential physics signatures possible at the SSC. Although in many cases trigger rates are not now well understood, it is possible to conclude that the ability to trigger on transverse energy, number and energy of jets, number and energy of leptons (electrons and muons), missing energy and combinations of these will be required. An SSC trigger system must be both highly flexible and redundant to ensure reliable detection of many new physics processes at the SSC.

  10. Digital circuits using universal logic gates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Sterling R. (Inventor); Miles, Lowell H. (Inventor); Cameron, Eric G. (Inventor); Donohoe, Gregory W. (Inventor); Gambles, Jody W. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    According to the invention, a digital circuit design embodied in at least one of a structural netlist, a behavioral netlist, a hardware description language netlist, a full-custom ASIC, a semi-custom ASIC, an IP core, an integrated circuit, a hybrid of chips, one or more masks, a FPGA, and a circuit card assembly is disclosed. The digital circuit design includes first and second sub-circuits. The first sub-circuits comprise a first percentage of the digital circuit design and the second sub-circuits comprise a second percentage of the digital circuit design. Each of the second sub-circuits is substantially comprised of one or more kernel circuits. The kernel circuits are comprised of selection circuits. The second percentage is at least 5%. In various embodiments, the second percentage could be at least 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, or 95%.

  11. Enhancement of Linear Circuit Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaunholt, Hans; Dabu, Mihaela; Beldiman, Octavian

    1996-01-01

    In this report a preliminary user friendly interface has been added to the LCP2 program making it possible to describe an electronic circuit by actually drawing the circuit on the screen. Component values and other options and parameters can easily be set by the aid of the interface. The interface...

  12. Compact Circuit Preprocesses Accelerometer Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Compact electronic circuit transfers dc power to, and preprocesses ac output of, accelerometer and associated preamplifier. Incorporated into accelerometer case during initial fabrication or retrofit onto commercial accelerometer. Made of commercial integrated circuits and other conventional components; made smaller by use of micrologic and surface-mount technology.

  13. Comminution circuits for compact itabirites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Ferreira Pinto

    Full Text Available Abstract In the beneficiation of compact Itabirites, crushing and grinding account for major operational and capital costs. As such, the study and development of comminution circuits have a fundamental importance for feasibility and optimization of compact Itabirite beneficiation. This work makes a comparison between comminution circuits for compact Itabirites from the Iron Quadrangle. The circuits developed are: a crushing and ball mill circuit (CB, a SAG mill and ball mill circuit (SAB and a single stage SAG mill circuit (SSSAG. For the SAB circuit, the use of pebble crushing is analyzed (SABC. An industrial circuit for 25 million tons of run of mine was developed for each route from tests on a pilot scale (grinding and industrial scale. The energy consumption obtained for grinding in the pilot tests was compared with that reported by Donda and Bond. The SSSAG route had the lowest energy consumption, 11.8kWh/t and the SAB route had the highest energy consumption, 15.8kWh/t. The CB and SABC routes had a similar energy consumption of 14.4 kWh/t and 14.5 kWh/t respectively.

  14. Biologia reprodutiva de Aegla castro Schmitt (Crustacea, Anomura, Aeglidae no Buraco do Padre, Ponta Grossa, Paraná, Brasil Reproductive biology of Aegla castro Schmitt (Crustacea, Anomura, Aeglidae from Buraco do Padre, Quebra-Perna River, Ponta Grossa, Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca de Paula Swiech-Ayoub

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive biology of Aegla caslro Schmitt, 1942 from Buraco do Padre, Ponta Grossa, Paraná State, was analyzed. The sampling was done monthly, from February/97 to January/98 with aid of hand net and screens at three stations, under an effort of 120 minutes. The mean air temperature ranged from 15.0ºC (May, July, September and October to 24.3ºC (December and January, and the water temperature from 15.8ºC (July to 22.3ºC (December. The dissolved oxygen oscillated from 95.7% (March to 100.2% saturation (August and the pH from 6.1 (July to 7.2 (September. A total of 827 specimens were obtained among which 384 males, 311 females and 132 juveniles. Males predominated over females, but the sex ratio followed the standard model of 1:1. Juveniles were found during all the study period, except in May and September. The peaks of their frequency curve occurred in April and December. The reproduction is discontinuous type with greater intensity in the colder months, from May to October. The females take part of the reproduction for two consecutive years and the species longevity was estimated in two years. The carapace length of the various development stages ranged as following: juveniles < 6.4 mm, immature females and males = from 6.5 to 12.2 mm and mature females and males = from 12.3 to 29.5 mm.

  15. Photodiode circuits for retinal prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudin, J D; Cogan, S F; Mathieson, K; Sher, A; Palanker, D V

    2011-10-01

    Photodiode circuits show promise for the development of high-resolution retinal prostheses. While several of these systems have been constructed and some even implanted in humans, existing descriptions of the complex optoelectronic interaction between light, photodiode, and the electrode/electrolyte load are limited. This study examines this interaction in depth with theoretical calculations and experimental measurements. Actively biased photoconductive and passive photovoltaic circuits are investigated, with the photovoltaic circuits consisting of one or more diodes connected in series, and the photoconductive circuits consisting of a single diode in series with a pulsed bias voltage. Circuit behavior and charge injection levels were markedly different for platinum and sputtered iridium-oxide film (SIROF) electrodes. Photovoltaic circuits were able to deliver 0.038 mC/cm(2) (0.75 nC/phase) per photodiode with 50- μm platinum electrodes, and 0.54-mC/cm(2) (11 nC/phase) per photodiode with 50-μ m SIROF electrodes driven with 0.5-ms pulses of light at 25 Hz. The same pulses applied to photoconductive circuits with the same electrodes were able to deliver charge injections as high as 0.38 and 7.6 mC/cm(2) (7.5 and 150 nC/phase), respectively. We demonstrate photovoltaic stimulation of rabbit retina in-vitro, with 0.5-ms pulses of 905-nm light using peak irradiance of 1 mW/mm(2). Based on the experimental data, we derive electrochemical and optical safety limits for pixel density and charge injection in various circuits. While photoconductive circuits offer smaller pixels, photovoltaic systems do not require an external bias voltage. Both classes of circuits show promise for the development of high-resolution optoelectronic retinal prostheses.

  16. The ATLAS Missing ET trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Beauchemin, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    Over the last few months, the ATLAS detector collected 900 GeV LHC collision events which allowed for the study the performance of the ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition system (TDAQ). With the 7 TeV collision data collected recently, the performance studies of the trigger system are critical for a successful physics program. In particular a large spectrum of physics results will rely on the capacity of the ATLAS TDAQ system to collect events based on the estimate of the missing transverse energy (MET) contained in each event. The MET trigger would be, for example, the primary trigger to be used in new physics searches for processes involving new weakly interacting particles, which could account for the astronomically observed dark matter. In addition to discovery perspectives, the MET trigger can also be used in combination with other triggers to control the rate of signatures involving low energy objects. For example, the MET trigger is necessary in order to measure non-boosted W in the tau channel. Finally...

  17. A Trigger Data Serialize ASIC for the ATLAS Forward Muon Detector Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jinhong; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The small-strip Thin-Gap Chambers (sTGC) will be used as both trigger and precision tracking muon detectors for the Phase-I upgrade of the ATLAS New Small Wheel (NSW) muon detector. A Trigger data serializer (TDS) ASIC is required to prepare trigger data for both sTGC pad and strip detectors, perform pad-strip matching, and serializer trigger data to the circuits on the rim the rim of the NSW detector. The large number of input channels (128 differential input channels), short time available to prepare and transmit trigger data (<100 ns), high speed output data rate (4.8 Gbps), harsh radiation environment (about 300 kRad), and low power consumption (<1 W) all impose great challenges for the design of this ASIC using the IBM 130 nm CMOS process. We present our design and consderation of the TDS ASIC and the first prototype we built

  18. Crossed SMPS MOSFET-based protection circuit for high frequency ultrasound transceivers and transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hojong; Shung, K Kirk

    2014-06-12

    The ultrasonic transducer is one of the core components of ultrasound systems, and the transducer's sensitivity is significantly related the loss of electronic components such as the transmitter, receiver, and protection circuit. In an ultrasonic device, protection circuits are commonly used to isolate the electrical noise between an ultrasound transmitter and transducer and to minimize unwanted discharged pulses in order to protect the ultrasound receiver. However, the performance of the protection circuit and transceiver obviously degrade as the operating frequency or voltage increases. We therefore developed a crossed SMPS (Switching Mode Power Supply) MOSFET-based protection circuit in order to maximize the sensitivity of high frequency transducers in ultrasound systems.The high frequency pulse signals need to trigger the transducer, and high frequency pulse signals must be received by the transducer. We therefore selected the SMPS MOSFET, which is the main component of the protection circuit, to minimize the loss in high frequency operation. The crossed configuration of the protection circuit can drive balanced bipolar high voltage signals from the pulser and transfer the balanced low voltage echo signals from the transducer. The equivalent circuit models of the SMPS MOSFET-based protection circuit are shown in order to select the proper device components. The schematic diagram and operation mechanism of the protection circuit is provided to show how the protection circuit is constructed. The P-Spice circuit simulation was also performed in order to estimate the performance of the crossed MOSFET-based protection circuit. We compared the performance of our crossed SMPS MOSFET-based protection circuit with a commercial diode-based protection circuit. At 60 MHz, our expander and limiter circuits have lower insertion loss than the commercial diode-based circuits. The pulse-echo test is typical method to evaluate the sensitivity of ultrasonic transducers

  19. ATLAS FTK: Fast Track Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Amerio, S; The ATLAS collaboration; Andreazza, A; Annovi, A; Beretta, M; Bevacqua, V; Bogdan, M; Bossini, E; Boveia, A; Cavaliere, V; Canelli, F; Blazey, G; Cervigni, F; Cheng, Y; Citterio, M; Crescioli, F; Dell’Orso, M; Drake, G; Dunford, M; Giannetti, P; Giorgi, F; Hoff, J; Kapliy, A; Kasten, M; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Lanza, A; Liberali, V; Liu, T; Magalotti, D; McCarn, A; Melachrinos, C; Meroni, C; Negri, A; Neubauer, M; Penning, B; Piendibene, M; Proudfoot, J; Riva, M; Roda, C; Sabatini, F; Sacco, I; Shochet, M; Stabile, A; Tang, F; Tang, J; Tripiccione, R; Tuggle, J; Vercesi, V; Verzocchi, M; Villa, M; Vitillo, R A; Volpi, G; Webster, J; Wu, J; Yorita, K; Zhang, J

    2011-01-01

    A track reconstruction system for the trigger of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider is described. The Fast Tracker is a highly parallel hardware system designed to operate at the Level-1 trigger output rate. It will provide high-quality tracks reconstructed over the entire inner detector by the start of processing in the Level-2 trigger. The system is based on associative memories for pattern recognition and fast FPGA’s for track reconstruction. Its design and expected performance under instantaneous luminosities up to 3 × 10^34/cm^2/s are discussed.

  20. Seismology: dynamic triggering of earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, Joan; Johnson, Paul

    2005-10-06

    After an earthquake, numerous smaller shocks are triggered over distances comparable to the dimensions of the mainshock fault rupture, although they are rare at larger distances. Here we analyse the scaling of dynamic deformations (the stresses and strains associated with seismic waves) with distance from, and magnitude of, their triggering earthquake, and show that they can cause further earthquakes at any distance if their amplitude exceeds several microstrain, regardless of their frequency content. These triggering requirements are remarkably similar to those measured in the laboratory for inducing dynamic elastic nonlinear behaviour, which suggests that the underlying physics is similar.

  1. Variational integrators for electric circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ober-Blöbaum, Sina, E-mail: sinaob@math.upb.de [Computational Dynamics and Optimal Control, University of Paderborn (Germany); Tao, Molei [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University (United States); Cheng, Mulin [Applied and Computational Mathematics, California Institute of Technology (United States); Owhadi, Houman; Marsden, Jerrold E. [Control and Dynamical Systems, California Institute of Technology (United States); Applied and Computational Mathematics, California Institute of Technology (United States)

    2013-06-01

    In this contribution, we develop a variational integrator for the simulation of (stochastic and multiscale) electric circuits. When considering the dynamics of an electric circuit, one is faced with three special situations: 1. The system involves external (control) forcing through external (controlled) voltage sources and resistors. 2. The system is constrained via the Kirchhoff current (KCL) and voltage laws (KVL). 3. The Lagrangian is degenerate. Based on a geometric setting, an appropriate variational formulation is presented to model the circuit from which the equations of motion are derived. A time-discrete variational formulation provides an iteration scheme for the simulation of the electric circuit. Dependent on the discretization, the intrinsic degeneracy of the system can be canceled for the discrete variational scheme. In this way, a variational integrator is constructed that gains several advantages compared to standard integration tools for circuits; in particular, a comparison to BDF methods (which are usually the method of choice for the simulation of electric circuits) shows that even for simple LCR circuits, a better energy behavior and frequency spectrum preservation can be observed using the developed variational integrator.

  2. Experimental Device for Learning of Logical Circuit Design using Integrated Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    石橋, 孝昭

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental device for learning of logical circuit design using integrated circuits and breadboards. The experimental device can be made at a low cost and can be used for many subjects such as logical circuits, computer engineering, basic electricity, electrical circuits and electronic circuits. The proposed device is effective to learn the logical circuits than the usual lecture.

  3. 30 CFR 77.800 - High-voltage circuits; circuit breakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-voltage circuits; circuit breakers. 77.800... COAL MINES Surface High-Voltage Distribution § 77.800 High-voltage circuits; circuit breakers. High-voltage circuits supplying power to portable or mobile equipment shall be protected by suitable circuit...

  4. Reflections of the academician of AUAS Fedor Schmitt on the museum audience of 1910-1920s and the relevance of their study in the context of museum sociology in Ukraine (1990-2000s years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. O. Kutsaeva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to study the origins of the actual direction of the museum activities  development in Ukraine — museum sociology, which has been described in the significant array of publications starting from the early 1990’s. Those publications are focused on different aspects of learning of needs, motivations, expectations, behaviors, a social-demographic portrait and categories of the museum audience. It has been shown that the attention of the Ukrainian museum staff to the discussed aspects is not only limited by year 1991. The scientific heritage of the academician of All-Ukrainian Academy of Sciences Fedor Schmitt (1877-1937 has been analyzed by the author of the study in order to separate aspects of his activity that can become the certain foundations of the study of the museums audience (museum sociology both in the days of the scientist and in modern Ukraine. The Soviet system not only denied his progressive views, but condemned them to death. It has been summarized by the author that most Schmitt’s papers on the issues of the museum audience were published during the scientist’s work in Kharkiv in 1912-1921. It is quite predictable that the issue of the museum audience was studied by the heritage saver and art scientist. Beginning of Ukrainian school of museology, where the leader was Mykola Bilyashivsky, the director of Kiev Museum of Antiquities and Arts (National History Museum of Ukraine, happened within the Archaeological Commission under the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences. It was led by F. Schmitt. The draft charter of commission, designed by him, pushed to the study of the theory and practice of museology in all its spheres. Schmitt’s ideas on museums that had to be built on the territory of  the Russian Empire, which suffered from the First World War, were formed under the influence of his travels to cultural centers of Europe. Although none of F. Schmitt works before the beginning of 1920s included

  5. Formações do argumento autoritário e ditatorial do século XIX ao XX: da teologia política de Donoso Cortés e Jaime Balmes a Carl Schmitt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Bueno

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa alguns dos compromissos teóricos do conservadorismo no século XIX espanhol cujo marcado enraizamento teológico católico (Donoso Cortés e Jaime Balmes sugerimos manter forte ligação com o autoritarismo. Este artigo analisa os primeiros passos conceituais realizados por Donoso e Balmes e como este pode ter sido uma das bases de apoio para a construção teórica que permitiu que o século XX desenvolvesse sólidas teorias autoritárias, especialmente por intermédio da reinterpretação de Donoso realizada por Carl Schmitt que promoveu a reconstrução da teoria da ditadura.

  6. The Maplin electronic circuits handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Tooley, Michael

    1990-01-01

    The Maplin Electronic Circuits Handbook provides pertinent data, formula, explanation, practical guidance, theory and practical guidance in the design, testing, and construction of electronic circuits. This book discusses the developments in electronics technology techniques.Organized into 11 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the common types of passive component. This text then provides the reader with sufficient information to make a correct selection of passive components for use in the circuits. Other chapters consider the various types of the most commonly used semiconductor

  7. A Top-down Approach to Genetic Circuit Synthesis and Optimized Technology Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baig, Hasan; Madsen, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Genetic logic circuits are becoming popular as an emerging field of technology. They are composed of genetic parts of DNA and work inside a living cell to perform a dedicated boolean function triggered by the presence or absence of certain proteins or other species....

  8. Transistorized Marx bank pulse circuit provides voltage multiplication with nanosecond rise-time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, E. A.; Lewis, R. N.

    1968-01-01

    Base-triggered avalanche transistor circuit used in a Marx bank pulser configuration provides voltage multiplication with nanosecond rise-time. The avalanche-mode transistors replace conventional spark gaps in the Marx bank. The delay time from an input signal to the output signal to the output is typically 6 nanoseconds.

  9. Tile Calorimeter Muon Trigger Signal

    CERN Document Server

    Cerqueira, A S; Usai, G L

    2002-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter contributes to the first level trigger with the fast analog signal coming from the trigger summing boards, so-called analog adder. The adders provide two kinds of output: the total energy sum in a trigger tower and the signal from the respective cell of the last radial calorimeter layer, which can be used for identifying muons, thus making the muon first level trigger more robust. This note reviews the adder specifications and laboratory tests, whereas the main focus is put on the data analysis from the testbeam periods in~2001. Several improvements achieved by tuning the read-out are described. Using the testbeam results, the ability to identify muons in the last radial Tilecal layer is discussed. The experimental results obtained at the testbeams are completed with the Monte Carlo simulations.

  10. Trigger points: an anatomical substratum

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Akamatsu, Flávia Emi; Ayres, Bernardo Rodrigues; Saleh, Samir Omar; Hojaij, Flávio; Andrade, Mauro; Hsing, Wu Tu; Jacomo, Alfredo Luiz

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to bring the trapezius muscle knowledge of the locations where the accessory nerve branches enter the muscle belly to reach the motor endplates and find myofascial trigger points (MTrPs...

  11. FERMIGTRIG - Fermi GBM Trigger Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This table lists all of the triggers observed by one or more of the 14 GBM detectors (12 NaI and 2 BGO). Note that there are two Browse catalogs resulting from GBM...

  12. Circuit design on plastic foils

    CERN Document Server

    Raiteri, Daniele; Roermund, Arthur H M

    2015-01-01

    This book illustrates a variety of circuit designs on plastic foils and provides all the information needed to undertake successful designs in large-area electronics.  The authors demonstrate architectural, circuit, layout, and device solutions and explain the reasons and the creative process behind each. Readers will learn how to keep under control large-area technologies and achieve robust, reliable circuit designs that can face the challenges imposed by low-cost low-temperature high-throughput manufacturing.   • Discusses implications of problems associated with large-area electronics and compares them to standard silicon; • Provides the basis for understanding physics and modeling of disordered material; • Includes guidelines to quickly setup the basic CAD tools enabling efficient and reliable designs; • Illustrates practical solutions to cope with hard/soft faults, variability, mismatch, aging and bias stress at architecture, circuit, layout, and device levels.

  13. Modeling of the Voltage Waves in the LHC Main Dipole Circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Ravaioli, E; Formenti, F; Steckert, J; Thiesen, H; Verweij, A

    2012-01-01

    When a fast power abort is triggered in the LHC main dipole chain, voltage transients are generated at the output of the power converter and across the energy-extraction switches. The voltage waves propagate through the chain of 154 superconducting dipoles and can have undesired effects leading to spurious triggering of the quench protection system and firing of the quench heaters. The phase velocity of the waves travelling along the chain changes due to the inhomogeneous AC behavior of the dipoles. Furthermore, complex phenomena of reflection and superposition are present in the circuit. For these reasons analytical calculations are not sufficient for properly analyzing the circuit behavior after a fast power abort. The transients following the switch-off of the power converter and the opening of the switches are analyzed by means of a complete electrical model, developed with the Cadence© suite (PSpice© based). The model comprises all the electrical components of the circuit, additional components simula...

  14. Binary selectable detector holdoff circuit: Design, testing, and application. [to laser radar data acquisition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadrmas, K. A.

    1973-01-01

    A very high speed switching circuit, part of a laser radar data acquisition system, has been designed and tested. The primary function of this circuit was to provide computer controlled switching of photodiode detector preamplifier power supply voltages, typically less than plus or minus 20 volts, in approximately 10 nanoseconds. Thus, in actual use, detector and/or detector preamplifier damage can be avoided as a result of sudden extremely large values of backscattered radiation being detected, such as might be due to short range, very thin atmospheric dust layers. Switching of the power supply voltages was chosen over direct switching the photodiode detector input to the preamplifier, based on system noise considerations. Also, the circuit provides a synchronized trigger pulse output for triggering devices such as the Biomation Model 8100 100 MHz analog to digital converter.

  15. A first-level calorimeter trigger for the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Perera, V.; Gee, N; Gillman, A R; Hatley, R; Leake, J W; Quinton, S; Shah, T P; Eisenhandler, Eric F; Landon, M; Brawn, I P; Carney, R E; Garvey, J; Staley, R J; Watson, A T; Ellis, Nick

    1995-01-01

    In the RD27 collaboration the authors have carried out system studies on the implementation of the first level calorimeter trigger processor system for the ATLAS experiment to be mounted at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. A demonstrator trigger system operated successfully with the RD3 and RD33 calorimeters at the full 40 MHz LHC bunch crossing (BC) rate. The prototype application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) in this system each processed data from only a single trigger cell and its environment, which would lead to an extremely large system for ATLAS. Using eight-bit parallel data even the use of ASICs, processing multiple trigger cells would demand unacceptably large numbers of input pins and module connections. Initial studies of this I/O problem produced a solution based on asynchronous transmission of zero-suppressed and BC-tagged data on 160 Mbit/s serial links. This approach appeared to be feasible but would have introduced additional latency of about 20 BCs. Further studies have led to...

  16. Behavioral synthesis of asynchronous circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sune Fallgaard

    2005-01-01

    is idle. This reduces unnecessary switching activity in the individual functional units and therefore the energy consumption of the entire circuit. A collection of behavioral synthesis algorithms have been developed allowing the designer to perform time and power constrained design space exploration....... The datapath and control architecture is then expressed in the Balsa-language, and using syntax directed compilation a corresponding handshake circuit implementation (and eventually a layout) is produced....

  17. Receiver Gain Modulation Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Hollis; Racette, Paul; Walker, David; Gu, Dazhen

    2011-01-01

    A receiver gain modulation circuit (RGMC) was developed that modulates the power gain of the output of a radiometer receiver with a test signal. As the radiometer receiver switches between calibration noise references, the test signal is mixed with the calibrated noise and thus produces an ensemble set of measurements from which ensemble statistical analysis can be used to extract statistical information about the test signal. The RGMC is an enabling technology of the ensemble detector. As a key component for achieving ensemble detection and analysis, the RGMC has broad aeronautical and space applications. The RGMC can be used to test and develop new calibration algorithms, for example, to detect gain anomalies, and/or correct for slow drifts that affect climate-quality measurements over an accelerated time scale. A generalized approach to analyzing radiometer system designs yields a mathematical treatment of noise reference measurements in calibration algorithms. By treating the measurements from the different noise references as ensemble samples of the receiver state, i.e. receiver gain, a quantitative description of the non-stationary properties of the underlying receiver fluctuations can be derived. Excellent agreement has been obtained between model calculations and radiometric measurements. The mathematical formulation is equivalent to modulating the gain of a stable receiver with an externally generated signal and is the basis for ensemble detection and analysis (EDA). The concept of generating ensemble data sets using an ensemble detector is similar to the ensemble data sets generated as part of ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) with exception of a key distinguishing factor. EEMD adds noise to the signal under study whereas EDA mixes the signal with calibrated noise. It is mixing with calibrated noise that permits the measurement of temporal-functional variability of uncertainty in the underlying process. The RGMC permits the evaluation of EDA by

  18. Flexible trigger menu implementation on the Global Trigger for the CMS Level-1 trigger upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Matsushita, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    The CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has continued to explore physics at the high-energy frontier in 2016. The integrated luminosity delivered by the LHC in 2016 was 41~fb$^{-1}$ with a peak luminosity of 1.5 $\\times$ 10$^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ and peak mean pile-up of about 50, all exceeding the initial estimations for 2016. The CMS experiment has upgraded its hardware-based Level-1 trigger system to maintain its performance for new physics searches and precision measurements at high luminosities. The Global Trigger is the final step of the CMS \\mbox{Level-1} trigger and implements a trigger menu, a set of selection requirements applied to the final list of objects from calorimeter and muon triggers, for reducing the 40 MHz collision rate to 100 kHz. The Global Trigger has been upgraded with state-of-the-art FPGA processors on Advanced Mezzanine Cards with optical links running at 10 GHz in a MicroTCA crate. The powerful processing resources of the upgraded system enable implemen...

  19. External triggering and triggered targeting strategies for drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanfei; Kohane, Daniel S.

    2017-06-01

    Drug delivery systems that are externally triggered to release drugs and/or target tissues hold considerable promise for improving the treatment of many diseases by minimizing nonspecific toxicity and enhancing the efficacy of therapy. These drug delivery systems are constructed from materials that are sensitive to a wide range of external stimuli, including light, ultrasound, electrical and magnetic fields, and specific molecules. The responsiveness conferred by these materials allows the release of therapeutics to be triggered on demand and remotely by a physician or patient. In this Review, we describe the rationales for such systems and the types of stimuli that can be deployed, and provide an outlook for the field.

  20. Trigger processing using reconfigurable logic in the CMS calorimeter trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Brooke, J J; Heath, G P; Maddox, A J; Newbold, D; Rabbetts, P D

    2001-01-01

    We present the design of the Global Calorimeter Trigger processor for the CMS detector at LHC. This is a fully pipelined processor system which collects data from all the CMS calorimeters and produces summary information used in forming the Level-1 trigger decision for each event. The design in based on the use of state-of-the-art reconfigurable logic devices (FPGAs) and fast data links. We present the results of device testing using a low-latency pipelined sort algorithm, which demonstrate that an FPGA can be used to perform processing previously foreseen to require custom ASICs. Our design approach results in a powerful, flexible and compact processor system. (0 refs).

  1. Hybrid circuits for the CMS tracker upgrade frontend electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchot, G

    2013-01-01

    The upgrade of the CMS tracker at the HL-LHC requires the design of new front-end modules to cope with the increased luminosity and to implement L1 trigger functionality. The new modules under development are based on high density hybrid circuits with new flip-chip front-end ASIC, and are wire bonded to strip sensors and connected to a service board for the data transmission. The suitability of different substrate technologies considered for the design of the hybrids is discussed, aiming for a cost effective and reliable manufacturability of the CMS tracker modules.

  2. Noise-Reduction Circuit For Imaging Photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Luis J.; Pain, Bedabrata; Staller, Craig; Hickok, Roger W.

    1995-01-01

    Developmental correlated-triple-sampling circuit suppresses capacitor reset noise and attenuates low frequency noise in integrated-and-sampled circuits of multiplexed photodiode arrays. Noise reduction circuit part of Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) instrument to fly aboard Cassini spacecraft to explore Saturn and its moons. Modified versions of circuit also useful for reducing noise in terrestrial photosensor instruments.

  3. Multi-Layer E-Textile Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Lucy E.; Bibeau, Kaila; Mulligan, Lucie; Frith, Ashton; Simon, Cory

    2012-01-01

    Stitched e-textile circuits facilitate wearable, flexible, comfortable wearable technology. However, while stitched methods of e-textile circuits are common, multi-layer circuit creation remains a challenge. Here, we present methods of stitched multi-layer circuit creation using accessible tools and techniques.

  4. A trigger processor for ARGUS

    CERN Document Server

    Schulz, H D

    1981-01-01

    The ARGUS detector at the electron-positron storage ring DORIS consists of various particle detectors arranged in cylindrical symmetry in and around an axial magnetic field. A fast secondary trigger processor has been designed to find and count circular tracks in the r- phi -plane of the detector that originate from the interaction point. The processor serves as a filter in the trigger system of the ARGUS detector and is expected to reduce the rate of background triggers by two orders of magnitude. The processor hardware is built in ECL to perform simple operations with very high speed and partly in parallel. The track finding process takes about 9 mu s plus 3 mu s for each encountered track element. Control information is stored in memories that may be loaded via CAMAC from the online computer allowing easy adaption of the processor to different experimental conditions. (1 refs).

  5. Single Event Transients in Linear Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchner, Stephen; McMorrow, Dale

    2005-01-01

    to transients. In some cases, such events produced resets by falsely triggering circuits designed to protect against over- voltage or over-current. On at least three occasions, transients caused satellites to switch into "safe mode" in which most of the systems on board the satellites were powered down for an extended period. By the time the satellites were reconfigured and returned to full operational state, much scientific data had been lost. Fortunately, no permanent damage occurred in any of the systems and they were all successfully re-activated.

  6. Front-end electronics and trigger systems - status and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spieler, Helmuth G; Spieler, Helmuth G

    2007-08-21

    The past quarter century has brought about a revolution in front-end electronics for large-scale detector systems. Custom integrated circuits specifically tailored to the requirements of large detector systems have provided unprecedented performance and enabled systems that once were deemed impossible. The evolution of integrated circuit readouts in strip detectors is summarized, the present status described, and challenges posed by the sLHC and ILC are discussed. Performance requirements increase, but key considerations remain as in the past: power dissipation, material, and services. Smaller CMOS feature sizes will not provide the required electronic noise at lower power, but will improve digital power efficiency. Significant improvements appear to be practical in more efficient power distribution. Enhanced digital electronics have provided powerful trigger processors that greatly improve the trigger efficiency. In data readout systems they also improve data throughput, while reducing power requirements. Concurrently with new developments in high energy physics, detector systems for cosmology and astrophysics have made great strides. As an example, a large-scale readout for superconducting bolometer arrays is described.

  7. Upgrade trigger: Bandwidth strategy proposal

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzpatrick, Conor; Meloni, Simone; Boettcher, Thomas Julian; Whitehead, Mark Peter; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Vesterinen, Mika Anton

    2017-01-01

    This document describes a selection strategy for the upgrade trigger using charm signals as a benchmark. The Upgrade trigger uses a 'Run 2-like' sequence consisting of a first and second stage, in between which the calibration and alignment is performed. The first stage, HLT1, uses an inclusive strategy to select beauty and charm decays, while the second stage uses offline-quality exclusive selections. A novel genetic algorithm-based bandwidth division is performed at the second stage to distribute the output bandwidth among different physics channels, maximising the efficiency for useful physics events. The performance is then studied as a function of the available output bandwidth.

  8. ATLAS FTK Fast Track Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Iizawa, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Fast TracKer (FTK) will perform global track reconstruction after each Level-1 trigger accept signal to enable the software-based higher level trigger to have early access to tracking information. FTK is a dedicated processor based on a mixture of advanced technologies. Modern, powerful Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) form an important part of the system architecture, and the large level of computing power required for pattern recognition is provided by incorporating standard-cell ASICs named Associative Memory (AM). Motivation and the architecture of the FTK system will be presented, and the status of hardware and simulation will be following.

  9. LHCb Run 2 Trigger Performance

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00038235

    2016-01-01

    During the first long shutdown of the LHC (2013-2014, LS1), the LHCb detector remained essentially unchanged, while the trigger system has been completely revisited. Upgrades to the LHCb computing infrastructure have allowed for high quality decay information to be calculated by the software trigger making a separate offline event reconstruction unnecessary. Reaching the ultimate precision of the LHCb experiment already in real time as the data arrive has the power to transform the experimental approach to processing large quantities of data

  10. Bioluminescent bioreporter integrated circuits (BBICs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Michael L.; Sayler, Gary S.; Nivens, David; Ripp, Steve; Paulus, Michael J.; Jellison, Gerald E.

    1998-07-01

    As the workhorse of the integrated circuit (IC) industry, the capabilities of CMOS have been expanded well beyond the original applications. The full spectrum of analog circuits from switched-capacitor filters to microwave circuit blocks, and from general-purpose operational amplifiers to sub- nanosecond analog timing circuits for nuclear physics experiments have been implemented in CMOS. This technology has also made in-roads into the growing area of monolithic sensors with devices such as active-pixel sensors and other electro-optical detection devices. While many of the processes used for MEMS fabrication are not compatible with the CMOS IC process, depositing a sensor material onto a previously fabricated CMOS circuit can create a very useful category of sensors. In this work we report a chemical sensor composed of bioluminescent bioreporters (genetically engineered bacteria) deposited onto a micro-luminometer fabricated in a standard CMOS IC process. The bioreporter used for this work emitted 490-nm light when exposed to toluene. This luminescence was detected by the micro- luminometer giving an indication of the concentration of toluene. Other bioluminescent bioreporters sensitive to explosives, mercury, and other organic chemicals and heavy metals have been reported. These could be incorporated (individually or in combination) with the micro-luminometer reported here to form a variety of chemical sensors.

  11. Instrumentation and test gear circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    2013-01-01

    Instrumentation and Test Gear Circuits Manual provides diagrams, graphs, tables, and discussions of several types of practical circuits. The practical circuits covered in this book include attenuators, bridges, scope trace doublers, timebases, and digital frequency meters. Chapter 1 discusses the basic instrumentation and test gear principles. Chapter 2 deals with the design of passive attenuators, and Chapter 3 with passive and active filter circuits. The subsequent chapters tackle 'bridge' circuits, analogue and digital metering techniques and circuitry, signal and waveform generation, and p

  12. High-voltage integrated transmitting circuit with differential driving for CMUTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llimos Muntal, Pere; Larsen, Dennis Øland; Færch, Kjartan Ullitz

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a high-voltage integrated differential transmitting circuit for capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) used in portable ultrasound scanners is presented. Due to its application, area and power consumption are critical and need to be minimized. The circuitry...... is designed and implemented in AMS 0.35 μ m high-voltage process. Measurements are performed on the fabricated integrated circuit in order to assess its performance. The transmitting circuit consists of a low-voltage control logic, pulse-triggered level shifters and a differential output stage that generates...... conditions is 0.936 mW including the load. The integrated circuits measured prove to be consistent and robust to local process variations by measurements....

  13. 30 CFR 75.800 - High-voltage circuits; circuit breakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-voltage circuits; circuit breakers. 75.800... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution § 75.800 High-voltage circuits; circuit breakers. High-voltage circuits entering the underground area...

  14. DT Local Trigger performance in 2015

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Local Trigger system of the CMS Drift Tube chambers (DT) was checked applying similar methods as in the LHC Run 1 (2012). The main variables shown in this note are the trigger efficiency, the trigger quality and the fraction of trigger ghosts. The performance was found to be comparable or better than in Run 1.

  15. Development of Trigger and Readout Electronics for the ATLAS New Small Wheel Detector Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Guan, Liang; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The present small wheel muon detector at ATLAS will be replaced with a New Small Wheel (NSW) detector to handle the increase in data rates and harsh radiation environment expected at the LHC. Resistive Micromegas and small strip Thin Gap Chambers will be used to provide both trigger and tracking primitives. Muon segments found at NSW will be combined with the segments found at the Big Wheel to determine the muon transverse momentum at the first-level trigger. A new trigger and readout system is developed for the NSW detector. The new system has about 2.4 million trigger and readout channels and about 8,000 Front-End boards. The large number of input channels, short time available to prepare and transmit data, harsh radiation environment, and low power consumption all impose great challenges on the design. We will discuss the overall electronics design and studies with various ASICs and high-speed circuit board prototypes.

  16. Analysis on operation characteristics and power burdens of the double quench trigger type SFCLs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Seung Taek; Lim, Sung Hun [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Soongsil University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Tae Hee [Dept. of Aero Materials Engineering, Jungwon University, Goesan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    To protect the power systems from fault current, the rated protective equipment should be installed. However growth of power system scale and concentration of loads caused the large fault current in power transmission system and distribution system. The capacities of installed protective equipment have been exceeded the due to increase of fault current. This increase is not temporary phenomenon but will be steadily as long as the industry develops. The power system operator need a counter-measurement for safety, so superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) has been received attention as effective solutions to reduce the fault current. For the above reasons various type SFCLs have been studied recently. In this paper, operation characteristics and power burden of trigger type SFCL is studied. The trigger type SFCL has been used for real system research in many countries. Another trigger type SFCL (double quench trigger type SFCL) is also studied. For this paper, short circuit test is performed.

  17. Etiology of myofascial trigger points

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bron, C.; Dommerholt, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is described as the sensory, motor, and autonomic symptoms caused by myofascial trigger points (TrPs). Knowing the potential causes of TrPs is important to prevent their development and recurrence, but also to inactivate and eliminate existing TrPs. There is general

  18. Circuit modeling for electromagnetic compatibility

    CERN Document Server

    Darney, Ian B

    2013-01-01

    Very simply, electromagnetic interference (EMI) costs money, reduces profits, and generally wreaks havoc for circuit designers in all industries. This book shows how the analytic tools of circuit theory can be used to simulate the coupling of interference into, and out of, any signal link in the system being reviewed. The technique is simple, systematic and accurate. It enables the design of any equipment to be tailored to meet EMC requirements. Every electronic system consists of a number of functional modules interconnected by signal links and power supply lines. Electromagnetic interference

  19. Embedded systems circuits and programming

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez, Julio

    2012-01-01

    During the development of an engineered product, developers often need to create an embedded system--a prototype--that demonstrates the operation/function of the device and proves its viability. Offering practical tools for the development and prototyping phases, Embedded Systems Circuits and Programming provides a tutorial on microcontroller programming and the basics of embedded design. The book focuses on several development tools and resources: Standard and off-the-shelf components, such as input/output devices, integrated circuits, motors, and programmable microcontrollers The implementat

  20. Simplified design of filter circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Lenk, John

    1999-01-01

    Simplified Design of Filter Circuits, the eighth book in this popular series, is a step-by-step guide to designing filters using off-the-shelf ICs. The book starts with the basic operating principles of filters and common applications, then moves on to describe how to design circuits by using and modifying chips available on the market today. Lenk's emphasis is on practical, simplified approaches to solving design problems.Contains practical designs using off-the-shelf ICsStraightforward, no-nonsense approachHighly illustrated with manufacturer's data sheets

  1. Programming languages for circuit design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Michael; Yordanov, Boyan

    2015-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of a programming language for Genetic Engineering of Cells (GEC). A GEC program specifies a genetic circuit at a high level of abstraction through constraints on otherwise unspecified DNA parts. The GEC compiler then selects parts which satisfy the constraints from a given parts database. GEC further provides more conventional programming language constructs for abstraction, e.g., through modularity. The GEC language and compiler is available through a Web tool which also provides functionality, e.g., for simulation of designed circuits.

  2. Pugna por la soberanía : el debate sobre el concepto de soberanía a partir de las críticas de Carl Schmitt y Hermann Heller a la Teoría pura del derecho de Hans Kelsen.

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca, Juan David

    2016-01-01

    La presente disertación tiene como objetivo principal explicar las posturas de los juristas Hans Kelsen, Carl Schmitt y Hermann Heller frente a la erradicación o liquidación del dogma de la soberanía para la teoría del Estado y del Derecho. En este sentido, de manera ya más específica, se analizarán las críticas de Heller y Schmitt frente la liquidación de la soberanía realizada por Kelsen, defendiendo que sus críticas pueden ser aglutinadas en dos grandes dimensiones. La primera asocia...

  3. Workshop on data acquisition and trigger system simulations for high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-31

    This report discusses the following topics: DAQSIM: A data acquisition system simulation tool; Front end and DCC Simulations for the SDC Straw Tube System; Simulation of Non-Blocklng Data Acquisition Architectures; Simulation Studies of the SDC Data Collection Chip; Correlation Studies of the Data Collection Circuit & The Design of a Queue for this Circuit; Fast Data Compression & Transmission from a Silicon Strip Wafer; Simulation of SCI Protocols in Modsim; Visual Design with vVHDL; Stochastic Simulation of Asynchronous Buffers; SDC Trigger Simulations; Trigger Rates, DAQ & Online Processing at the SSC; Planned Enhancements to MODSEM II & SIMOBJECT -- an Overview -- R.; DAGAR -- A synthesis system; Proposed Silicon Compiler for Physics Applications; Timed -- LOTOS in a PROLOG Environment: an Algebraic language for Simulation; Modeling and Simulation of an Event Builder for High Energy Physics Data Acquisition Systems; A Verilog Simulation for the CDF DAQ; Simulation to Design with Verilog; The DZero Data Acquisition System: Model and Measurements; DZero Trigger Level 1.5 Modeling; Strategies Optimizing Data Load in the DZero Triggers; Simulation of the DZero Level 2 Data Acquisition System; A Fast Method for Calculating DZero Level 1 Jet Trigger Properties and Physics Input to DAQ Studies.

  4. Integrated Circuit Stellar Magnitude Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, James A.

    1978-01-01

    Describes an electronic circuit which can be used to demonstrate the stellar magnitude scale. Six rectangular light-emitting diodes with independently adjustable duty cycles represent stars of magnitudes 1 through 6. Experimentally verifies the logarithmic response of the eye. (Author/GA)

  5. A Low Noise Electronic Circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annema, Anne J.; Leenaerts, Dominicus M.W.; de Vreede, Petrus W.H.

    2002-01-01

    An electronic circuit, which can be used as a Low Noise Amplifier (LNA), comprises two complementary Field Effect Transistors (M1, M2; M5, M6), each having a gate, a source and a drain. The gates are connected together as a common input terminal, and the drains are connected together as a

  6. Invention of the Integrated Circuit

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 11. Invention of the Integrated Circuit. Jack S Kilby. Classics Volume 17 Issue 11 November 2012 pp 1100-1115. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/017/11/1100-1115 ...

  7. Development of CMOS integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertino, F.; Feller, A.; Greenhouse, J.; Lombardi, T.; Merriam, A.; Noto, R.; Ozga, S.; Pryor, R.; Ramondetta, P.; Smith, A.

    1979-01-01

    Report documents life cycles of two custom CMOS integrated circuits: (1) 4-bit multiplexed register with shift left and shift right capabilities, and (2) dual 4-bit registers. Cycles described include conception as logic diagrams through design, fabrication, testing, and delivery.

  8. Data assimilation with Chua's circuit

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    noise and observational frequency, using both simulated observations and data obtained from an experimental realization of a commonly used low-dimensional dynamical system, namely, Chua circuit, in both the periodic as well as the chaotic regime. Keywords. Synchronization; ensemble Kalman filter; data assimilation.

  9. Circuit design for RF transceivers

    CERN Document Server

    Leenaerts, Domine; Vaucher, Cicero S

    2007-01-01

    Second edition of this successful 2001 RF Circuit Design book, has been updated, latest technology reviews have been added as well as several actual case studies. Due to the authors being active in industry as well as academia, this should prove to be an essential guide on RF Transceiver Design for students and engineers.

  10. Parallel circuit simulation on supercomputers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleh, R.A.; Gallivan, K.A. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (USA). Center for Supercomputing Research and Development); Chang, M.C. (Texas Instruments, Inc., Dallas, TX (USA)); Hajj, I.N.; Trick, T.N. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (USA). Coordinated Science Lab.); Smart, D. (Semiconductor Div., Analog Devices, Wilmington, MA (US))

    1989-12-01

    Circuit simulation is a very time-consuming and numerically intensive application, especially when the problem size is large as in the case of VLSI circuits. To improve the performance of circuit simulators without sacrificing accuracy, a variety of parallel processing algorithms have been investigated due to the recent availability of a number of commercial multiprocessor machines. In this paper, research in the field of parallel circuit simulation is surveyed and the ongoing research in this area at the University of Illinois is described. Both standard and relaxation-based approaches are considered. In particular, the forms of parallelism available within the direct method approach, used in programs such as SPICE2 and SLATE, and within the relaxation-based approaches, such as waveform relaxation, iterated timing analysis, and waveform-relaxation-Newton, are described. The specific implementation issues addressed here are primarily related to general-purpose multiprocessors with a shared-memory architecture having a limited number of processors, although many of the comments also apply to a number of other architectures.

  11. Designing analog circuits in CMOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annema, Anne J.; Nauta, Bram; van Langevelde, Ronald; Tuinhout, Hans

    2004-01-01

    The evolution in CMOS technology dictated by Moore's Law is clearly beneficial for designers of digital circuits, but it presents difficult challenges, such as lowered nominal supply voltages, for their peers in the analog world who want to keep pace with this rapid progression. This article

  12. Clocking Scheme for Switched-Capacitor Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard-Madsen, Jesper

    1998-01-01

    A novel clocking scheme for switched-capacitor (SC) circuits is presented. It can enhance the understanding of SC circuits and the errors caused by MOSFET (MOS) switches. Charge errors, and techniques to make SC circuits less sensitive to them are discussed.......A novel clocking scheme for switched-capacitor (SC) circuits is presented. It can enhance the understanding of SC circuits and the errors caused by MOSFET (MOS) switches. Charge errors, and techniques to make SC circuits less sensitive to them are discussed....

  13. Advanced circuit simulation using Multisim workbench

    CERN Document Server

    Báez-López, David; Cervantes-Villagómez, Ofelia Delfina

    2012-01-01

    Multisim is now the de facto standard for circuit simulation. It is a SPICE-based circuit simulator which combines analog, discrete-time, and mixed-mode circuits. In addition, it is the only simulator which incorporates microcontroller simulation in the same environment. It also includes a tool for printed circuit board design.Advanced Circuit Simulation Using Multisim Workbench is a companion book to Circuit Analysis Using Multisim, published by Morgan & Claypool in 2011. This new book covers advanced analyses and the creation of models and subcircuits. It also includes coverage of transmissi

  14. Digital circuit boards mach 1 GHz

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    A unique, practical approach to the design of high-speed digital circuit boards The demand for ever-faster digital circuit designs is beginning to render the circuit theory used by engineers ineffective. Digital Circuit Boards presents an alternative to the circuit theory approach, emphasizing energy flow rather than just signal interconnection to explain logic circuit behavior. The book shows how treating design in terms of transmission lines will ensure that the logic will function, addressing both storage and movement of electrical energy on these lines. It cove

  15. Development of circuit model for arcing on solar panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Bhoomi K.; Deshpande, S. P.; Mukherjee, S.; Gupta, S. B.; Ranjan, M.; Rane, R.; Vaghela, N.; Acharya, V.; Sudhakar, M.; Sankaran, M.; Suresh, E. P.

    2010-02-01

    The increased requirements of payload capacity of the satellites have resulted in much higher power requirements of the satellites. In order to minimize the energy loss during power transmission due to cable loss, use of high voltage solar panels becomes necessary. When a satellite encounters space plasma it floats negatively with respect to the surrounding space plasma environment. At high voltage, charging and discharging on solar panels causes the power system breakdown. Once a solar panel surface is charged and potential difference between surface insulator and conductor exceeds certain value, electrostatic discharge (ESD) may occur. This ESD may trigger a secondary arc that can destroy the solar panel circuit. ESD is also called as primary or minor arc and secondary is called major arc. The energy of minor arc is supplied by the charge stored in the coverglass of solar array and is a pulse of typically several 100 ns to several 100 μs duration. The damage caused by minor arc is less compared to major arcs, but it is observed that the minor arc is cause of major arc. Therefore it is important to develop an understanding of minor arc and mitigation techniques. In this paper we present a linear circuit analysis for minor arcs on solar panels. To study arcing event, a ground experimental facility to simulate space plasma environment has been developed at Facilitation Centre for Industrial Plasma Technologies (Institute for Plasma Research) in collaboration with Indian Space Research Organization's ISRO Satellite Technology Centre (ISAC). A linear circuit model has been developed to explain the experimental results by representing the coverglass, solar cell interconnect and wiring by an LCR circuit and the primary arc by an equivalent LR circuit. The aim of the circuit analysis is to predict the arc current which flows through the arc plasma. It is established from the model that the current depends on various parameters like potential difference between insulator

  16. Telegraph noise in coupled quantum dot circuits induced by a quantum point contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubert, D; Pioro-Ladrière, M; Schröer, D; Harbusch, D; Sachrajda, A S; Ludwig, S

    2008-05-02

    Charge detection utilizing a highly biased quantum point contact has become the most effective probe for studying few electron quantum dot circuits. Measurements on double and triple quantum dot circuits is performed to clarify a back action role of charge sensing on the confined electrons. The quantum point contact triggers inelastic transitions, which occur quite generally. Under specific device and measurement conditions these transitions manifest themselves as bounded regimes of telegraph noise within a stability diagram. A nonequilibrium transition from artificial atomic to molecular behavior is identified. Consequences for quantum information applications are discussed.

  17. ATLAS Level-1 Topological Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Daniel; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment has introduced and recently commissioned a completely new hardware sub-system of its first-level trigger: the topological processor (L1Topo). L1Topo consist of two AdvancedTCA blades mounting state-of-the-art FPGA processors, providing high input bandwidth (up to 4 Gb/s) and low latency data processing (200 ns). L1Topo is able to select collision events by applying kinematic and topological requirements on candidate objects (energy clusters, jets, and muons) measured by calorimeters and muon sub-detectors. Results from data recorded using the L1Topo trigger will be presented. These results demonstrate a significantly improved background event rejection, thus allowing for a rate reduction without efficiency loss. This improvement has been shown for several physics processes leading to low-pT leptons, including H->tau tau and J/Psi->mu mu. In addition to describing the L1Topo trigger system, we will discuss the use of an accurate L1Topo simulation as a powerful tool to validate and optimize...

  18. ATLAS FTK: Fast Track Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Volpi, Guido; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    An overview of the ATLAS Fast Tracker processor is presented, reporting the design of the system, its expected performance, and the integration status. The next LHC runs, with a significant increase in instantaneous luminosity, will provide a big challenge to the trigger and data acquisition systems of all the experiments. An intensive use of the tracking information at the trigger level will be important to keep high efficiency in interesting events, despite the increase in multiple p-p collisions per bunch crossing (pile-up). In order to increase the use of tracks within the High Level Trigger (HLT), the ATLAS experiment planned the installation of an hardware processor dedicated to tracking: the Fast TracKer (FTK) processor. The FTK is designed to perform full scan track reconstruction at every Level-1 accept. To achieve this goal, the FTK uses a fully parallel architecture, with algorithms designed to exploit the computing power of custom VLSI chips, the Associative Memory, as well as modern FPGAs. The FT...

  19. Muon Trigger for Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisyak, M.; Usvyatsov, M.; Mulhearn, M.; Shimmin, C.; Ustyuzhanin, A.

    2017-10-01

    The CRAYFIS experiment proposes to use privately owned mobile phones as a ground detector array for Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays. Upon interacting with Earth’s atmosphere, these events produce extensive particle showers which can be detected by cameras on mobile phones. A typical shower contains minimally-ionizing particles such as muons. As these particles interact with CMOS image sensors, they may leave tracks of faintly-activated pixels that are sometimes hard to distinguish from random detector noise. Triggers that rely on the presence of very bright pixels within an image frame are not efficient in this case. We present a trigger algorithm based on Convolutional Neural Networks which selects images containing such tracks and are evaluated in a lazy manner: the response of each successive layer is computed only if activation of the current layer satisfies a continuation criterion. Usage of neural networks increases the sensitivity considerably comparable with image thresholding, while the lazy evaluation allows for execution of the trigger under the limited computational power of mobile phones.

  20. Stimulus conflict triggers behavioral avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignath, David; Eder, Andreas B

    2015-12-01

    According to a recent extension of the conflict-monitoring theory, conflict between two competing response tendencies is registered as an aversive event and triggers a motivation to avoid the source of conflict. In the present study, we tested this assumption. Over five experiments, we examined whether conflict is associated with an avoidance motivation and whether stimulus conflict or response conflict triggers an avoidance tendency. Participants first performed a color Stroop task. In a subsequent motivation test, participants responded to Stroop stimuli with approach- and avoidance-related lever movements. These results showed that Stroop-conflict stimuli increased the frequency of avoidance responses in a free-choice motivation test, and also increased the speed of avoidance relative to approach responses in a forced-choice test. High and low proportions of response conflict in the Stroop task had no effect on avoidance in the motivation test. Avoidance of conflict was, however, obtained even with new conflict stimuli that had not been presented before in a Stroop task, and when the Stroop task was replaced with an unrelated filler task. Taken together, these results suggest that stimulus conflict is sufficient to trigger avoidance.

  1. Fabric circuits and method of manufacturing fabric circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Andrew W. (Inventor); Dobbins, Justin A. (Inventor); Scully, Robert C. (Inventor); Trevino, Robert C. (Inventor); Lin, Greg Y. (Inventor); Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A flexible, fabric-based circuit comprises a non-conductive flexible layer of fabric and a conductive flexible layer of fabric adjacent thereto. A non-conductive thread, an adhesive, and/or other means may be used for attaching the conductive layer to the non-conductive layer. In some embodiments, the layers are attached by a computer-driven embroidery machine at pre-determined portions or locations in accordance with a pre-determined attachment layout before automated cutting. In some other embodiments, an automated milling machine or a computer-driven laser using a pre-designed circuit trace as a template cuts the conductive layer so as to separate an undesired portion of the conductive layer from a desired portion of the conductive layer. Additional layers of conductive fabric may be attached in some embodiments to form a multi-layer construct.

  2. Analog Nonvolatile Computer Memory Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Todd

    2007-01-01

    In nonvolatile random-access memory (RAM) circuits of a proposed type, digital data would be stored in analog form in ferroelectric field-effect transistors (FFETs). This type of memory circuit would offer advantages over prior volatile and nonvolatile types: In a conventional complementary metal oxide/semiconductor static RAM, six transistors must be used to store one bit, and storage is volatile in that data are lost when power is turned off. In a conventional dynamic RAM, three transistors must be used to store one bit, and the stored bit must be refreshed every few milliseconds. In contrast, in a RAM according to the proposal, data would be retained when power was turned off, each memory cell would contain only two FFETs, and the cell could store multiple bits (the exact number of bits depending on the specific design). Conventional flash memory circuits afford nonvolatile storage, but they operate at reading and writing times of the order of thousands of conventional computer memory reading and writing times and, hence, are suitable for use only as off-line storage devices. In addition, flash memories cease to function after limited numbers of writing cycles. The proposed memory circuits would not be subject to either of these limitations. Prior developmental nonvolatile ferroelectric memories are limited to one bit per cell, whereas, as stated above, the proposed memories would not be so limited. The design of a memory circuit according to the proposal must reflect the fact that FFET storage is only partly nonvolatile, in that the signal stored in an FFET decays gradually over time. (Retention times of some advanced FFETs exceed ten years.) Instead of storing a single bit of data as either a positively or negatively saturated state in a ferroelectric device, each memory cell according to the proposal would store two values. The two FFETs in each cell would be denoted the storage FFET and the control FFET. The storage FFET would store an analog signal value

  3. Driver circuit for solid state light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Fred; Denvir, Kerry; Allen, Steven

    2016-02-16

    A driver circuit for a light source including one or more solid state light sources, a luminaire including the same, and a method of so driving the solid state light sources are provided. The driver circuit includes a rectifier circuit that receives an alternating current (AC) input voltage and provides a rectified AC voltage. The driver circuit also includes a switching converter circuit coupled to the light source. The switching converter circuit provides a direct current (DC) output to the light source in response to the rectified AC voltage. The driver circuit also includes a mixing circuit, coupled to the light source, to switch current through at least one solid state light source of the light source in response to each of a plurality of consecutive half-waves of the rectified AC voltage.

  4. Developing a Domain Model for Relay Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we stepwise develop a domain model for relay circuits as used in railway control systems. First we provide an abstract, property-oriented model of networks consisting of components that can be glued together with connectors. This model is strongly inspired by a network model...... for railways madeby Bjørner et.al., however our model is more general: the components can be of any kind and can later be refined to e.g. railway components or circuit components. Then we show how the abstract network model can be refined into an explicit model for relay circuits. The circuit model describes...... the statics as well as the dynamics of relay circuits, i.e. how a relay circuit can be composed legally from electrical components as well as how the components may change state over time. Finally the circuit model is transformed into an executable model, and we show how a concrete circuit can be defined...

  5. Model Order Reduction for Electronic Circuits:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Shontz, Suzanne

    Electronic circuits are ubiquitous; they are used in numerous industries including: the semiconductor, communication, robotics, auto, and music industries (among many others). As products become more and more complicated, their electronic circuits also grow in size and complexity. This increased...

  6. Brain-machine interface circuits and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zjajo, Amir

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a complete overview of significant design challenges in respect to circuit miniaturization and power reduction of the neural recording system, along with circuit topologies, architecture trends, and (post-silicon) circuit optimization algorithms. The introduced novel circuits for signal conditioning, quantization, and classification, as well as system configurations focus on optimized power-per-area performance, from the spatial resolution (i.e. number of channels), feasible wireless data bandwidth and information quality to the delivered power of implantable system.

  7. Circuit Tolerance Design Using Belief Rule Base

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao-Bin Xu; Zheng Liu; Yu-Wang Chen; Dong-Ling Xu; Cheng-Lin Wen

    2015-01-01

    A belief rule-based (BRB) system provides a generic nonlinear modeling and inference mechanism. It is capable of modeling complex causal relationships by utilizing both quantitative information and qualitative knowledge. In this paper, a BRB system is firstly developed to model the highly nonlinear relationship between circuit component parameters and the performance of the circuit by utilizing available knowledge from circuit simulations and circuit designers. By using rule inference in the ...

  8. Nanoelectronic circuit design and test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsir, Muzaffer Orkun

    Controlling power consumption in CMOS integrated circuits (ICs) during normal mode of operation is becoming one of the limiting factors to further scaling. In addition, it is a well known fact that during testing of a complex IC, power consumption can far exceed the values reached during its normal operation. High power consumption, combined with limited cooling support, leads to overheating of ICs. This can cause permanent damage to the chip or can invalidate test results due to the fact that extreme temperature variations lead to changes in path delays. Therefore, even good chips can fail the test. For these reasons, thermal problems during test need to be identified to prevent the loss of yield in CMOS ICs. In this thesis, we propose a methodology for thermally characterizing circuits under test. Using this methodology, it is possible to simulate the thermal profiles of the chips during test and prevent possible yield loss because of thermal problems. In addition to the problems associated with power and temperature, a more important barrier is the scaling limitations of the CMOS technology. It has been predicted that in next decade, it will not be possible to scale it further. In the near future, rather than a transition to a completely new technology, extensions to CMOS seem to be more realistic. Double-gate CMOS technology is one of the most promising alternatives that offers a simple extension to CMOS. The transistors of this technology are formed by adding a second gate across the conventional CMOS transistor gate. Designing circuits using this technology has attracted a lot of attention. However, as circuit design methods mature, there is a need to identify how these circuits can be tested. From a circuit testing viewpoint, it is unclear if CMOS fault models are comprehensive enough to model all defects in double-gate CMOS circuits. Therefore, fault models of this technology need to be defined to enable manufacturing-time testing. In this thesis, we

  9. Performance of the CMS Regional Calorimeter Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Klabbers, P; Dasu, S; Efron, J; Fobes, R; Gorski, T; Grogg, K; Grothe, M; Lazaridis, C; Leonard, J; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Weinberg, M

    2009-01-01

    The CMS Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT) receives eight-bit energies and a data quality bit from the HCAL and ECAL Trigger Primitive Generators (TPGs). The RCT uses these trigger primitives to find e/γ candidates and calculate regional calorimeter sums that are sent to the Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) for sorting and further processing. The RCT hardware consists of one clock distribution crate and 18 double-sided crates containing custom boards, ASICs, and backplanes. The RCT electronics have been completely installed since 2007. The RCT has been integrated into the CMS Level-1 Trigger chain. Regular runs, triggering on cosmic rays, prepare the CMS detector for the restart of the LHC. During this running, the RCT control is handled centrally by CMS Run Control and Monitor System communicating with the Trigger Supervisor. Online Data Quality Monitoring (DQM) evaluates the performance of the RCT during these runs. Offline DQM allows more detailed studies, including trigger efficiencies. These and other r...

  10. Novel Proresolving Aspirin-Triggered DHA Pathway

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Serhan, Charles N; Fredman, Gabrielle; Yang, Rong; Karamnov, Sergey; Belayev, Ludmila S; Bazan, Nicolas G; Zhu, Min; Winkler, Jeremy W; Petasis, Nicos A

    2011-01-01

    .... We report an aspirin-triggered DHA metabolome that biosynthesizes a potent product in inflammatory exudates and human leukocytes, namely aspirin-triggered Neuroprotectin D1/Protectin D1 [AT-(NPD1/PD1...

  11. CMOS digital integrated circuits a first course

    CERN Document Server

    Hawkins, Charles; Zarkesh-Ha, Payman

    2016-01-01

    This book teaches the fundamentals of modern CMOS technology and covers equal treatment to both types of MOSFET transistors that make up computer circuits; power properties of logic circuits; physical and electrical properties of metals; introduction of timing circuit electronics and introduction of layout; real-world examples and problem sets.

  12. On dominating and spanning circuits in graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, H.J.

    1994-01-01

    An eulerian subgraph of a graph is called a circuit. As shown by Harary and Nash-Williams, the existence of a Hamilton cycle in the line graph L(G) of a graph G is equivalent to the existence of a dominating circuit in G, i.e., a circuit such that every edge of G is incident with a vertex of the

  13. An Equivalent Circuit for Landau Damping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans

    1976-01-01

    An equivalent circuit simulating the effect of Landau damping in a stable plasma‐loaded parallel‐plate capacitor is presented. The circuit contains a double infinity of LC components. The transition from stable to unstable plasmas is simulated by the introduction of active elements into the circuit....

  14. 49 CFR 236.721 - Circuit, control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circuit, control. 236.721 Section 236.721..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.721 Circuit, control. An electrical circuit between a source of electric energy and a device which it operates. ...

  15. Piezo pump and pressurized circuit provided therewith

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Es, Johannes; Wits, Wessel Willems

    2015-01-01

    A piezo pump for use in a pressurized circuit includes a pump chamber with an inlet provided with a one way inlet valve, for connection to a feeding line of the pressurized circuit and an outlet provided with a one way outlet valve, for connection to a discharge line of the pressurized circuit and a

  16. Finding All Elementary Circuits Exploiting Transconductance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Bruccoleri, F.; Nauta, Bram

    Commonly used elementary circuits like single transistor amplifier stages, the differential pair and current mirror basically exploit the transconductance of transistors. This paper aims at finding ALL elementary transconductance based circuits. For this purpose, all graphs of two-port circuits with

  17. New Logic Circuit with DC Parametric Excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugahara, Masanori; Kaneda, Hisayoshi

    1982-12-01

    It is shown that dc parametric excitation is possible in a circuit named JUDO, which is composed of two resistively-connected Josephson junctions. Simulation study proves that the circuit has large gain and properties suitable for the construction of small, high-speed logic circuits.

  18. Advanced Microwave Circuits and Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    as sufficient gain in a wide frequency range of operation, which is very difficult to achieve. Most circuits demonstrated are not stable across the frequency band, which makes these amplifiers prone to self-oscillations and therefore limit their applicability. The trade-off between noise figure, gain, linearity......This book is based on recent research work conducted by the authors dealing with the design and development of active and passive microwave components, integrated circuits and systems. It is divided into seven parts. In the first part comprising the first two chapters, alternative concepts...... and equations for multiport network analysis and characterization are provided. A thru-only de-embedding technique for accurate on-wafer characterization is introduced. The second part of the book corresponds to the analysis and design of ultra-wideband low-noise amplifiers (LNA). The LNA is the most critical...

  19. Integrated circuits for multimedia applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandi, Luca

    2007-01-01

    , and it is applied to a broad-band dual-loop receiver architecture in order to boost the linearity performances of the stage. A simplified noise- and linearity analysis of the circuit is derived, and a comparison is provided with a more traditional dual-loop topology (a broad-band stage based on shunt......This work presents several key aspects in the design of RF integrated circuits for portable multimedia devices. One chapter is dedicated to the application of negative-feedback topologies to receiver frontends. A novel feedback technique suitable for common multiplier-based mixers is described......-series feedback), showing a difference in compression point in the order of 10dBm for the same power consumption. The same principle is also applied to a more conventional narrow-band stage in which a single loop is employed in order to enhance noise performances. Noise analysis shows sensible improvements...

  20. Foundations for microstrip circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Edwards, Terry

    2016-01-01

    Building on the success of the previous three editions, Foundations for Microstrip Circuit Design offers extensive new, updated and revised material based upon the latest research. Strongly design-oriented, this fourth edition provides the reader with a fundamental understanding of this fast expanding field making it a definitive source for professional engineers and researchers and an indispensable reference for senior students in electronic engineering. Topics new to this edition: microwave substrates, multilayer transmission line structures, modern EM tools and techniques, microstrip and planar transmision line design, transmission line theory, substrates for planar transmission lines, Vias, wirebonds, 3D integrated interposer structures, computer-aided design, microstrip and power-dependent effects, circuit models, microwave network analysis, microstrip passive elements, and slotline design fundamentals.

  1. Quantum information with superconducting circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Huard, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Ce mémoire présente ma contribution à l'avènement des circuits supraconducteurs comme composant de base des systèmes d'information quantique. Les variables macroscopiques des circuits électriques, telles que la tension et le courant, obéissent aux lois de la mécanique quantique tant qu'elles sont suffisamment découplées de leur environnement. Depuis que les premiers qubits supraconducteurs ont été réalisés il y a 15 ans, leurs temps de cohérence ont augmenté de 5 ordres de gra...

  2. Delta connected resonant snubber circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, J.S.; Peng, F.Z.; Young, R.W. Sr.; Ott, G.W. Jr.

    1998-01-20

    A delta connected, resonant snubber-based, soft switching, inverter circuit achieves lossless switching during dc-to-ac power conversion and power conditioning with minimum component count and size. Current is supplied to the resonant snubber branches solely by the dc supply voltage through the main inverter switches and the auxiliary switches. Component count and size are reduced by use of a single semiconductor switch in the resonant snubber branches. Component count is also reduced by maximizing the use of stray capacitances of the main switches as parallel resonant capacitors. Resonance charging and discharging of the parallel capacitances allows lossless, zero voltage switching. In one embodiment, circuit component size and count are minimized while achieving lossless, zero voltage switching within a three-phase inverter. 36 figs.

  3. Smart Circuit Breaker Communication Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian Mihai MACHIDON

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of the Internet of Things has fostered the development of smart technologies in fields such as power transmission and distribution systems (as is the Smart Grid and also in regard to home automation (the Smart Home concept. This paper addresses the network communication infrastructure for a Smart Circuit Breaker system, a novel application at the edge of the two afore-mentioned systems (Smart Grid and Smart Home. Such a communication interface has high requirements from functionality, performance and security point of views, given the large amount of distributed connected elements and the real-time information transmission and system management. The paper describes the design and implementation of the data server, Web interface and the embedded networking capabilities of the smart circuit breakers, underlining the protocols and communication technologies used.

  4. The Trigger System of the CMS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Felcini, Marta

    2008-01-01

    We give an overview of the main features of the CMS trigger and data acquisition (DAQ) system. Then, we illustrate the strategies and trigger configurations (trigger tables) developed for the detector calibration and physics program of the CMS experiment, at start-up of LHC operations, as well as their possible evolution with increasing luminosity. Finally, we discuss the expected CPU time performance of the trigger algorithms and the CPU requirements for the event filter farm at start-up.

  5. Monolithic readout circuits for RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Connor, P.; Harder, J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Several CMOS ASICs have been developed for a proposed RHIC experiment. This paper discusses why ASIC implementation was chosen for certain functions, circuit specifications and the design techniques used to meet them, and results of simulations and early prototypes. By working closely together from an early stage in the planning process, in-house ASIC designers and detector and data acquisition experimenters can achieve optimal use of this important technology.

  6. Three-Dimensional Circuit Layouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    the models of VLSI layout theory renders the vertices of our circuits as unit-side squares or cubes . 4. Our method of extending the two-dimensional...model assumes isometry in all 4$ dimensions: a unit of height is eqivalent to a unit of width. It is worthwhile placing these assumptions in perspective...2,13]. 4. Aside from clerical simplification, the isometry assumption acknowledges the potential problem of cross-talk between parallel runs of wire

  7. 49 CFR 236.5 - Design of control circuits on closed circuit principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... shall be designed on the closed circuit principle, except circuits for roadway equipment of intermittent... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design of control circuits on closed circuit principle. 236.5 Section 236.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued...

  8. NREL/NASA Internal Short-Circuit Instigator in Lithium Ion Cells; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Dirk; Ireland, John; Pesaran, Ahmad; Darcy, Eric; Shoesmith, Mark; McCarthy, Ben

    2013-11-14

    NREL has developed a device to test one of the most challenging failure mechanisms of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries -- a battery internal short circuit. Many members of the technical community believe that this type of failure is caused by a latent flaw that results in a short circuit between electrodes during use. As electric car manufacturers turn to Li-ion batteries for energy storage, solving the short circuit problem becomes more important. To date, no reliable and practical method exists to create on-demand internal shorts in Li-ion cells that produce a response that is relevant to the ones produced by field failures. NREL and NASA have worked to establish an improved ISC cell-level test method that simulates an emergent internal short circuit, is capable of triggering the four types of cell internal shorts, and produces consistent and reproducible results. Internal short circuit device design is small, low-profile and implantable into Li-ion cells, preferably during assembly. The key component is an electrolyte-compatible phase change material (PCM). The ISC is triggered by heating the cell above PCM melting temperature (presently 40 degrees C – 60 degrees C). In laboratory testing, the activated device can handle currents in excess of 300 A to simulate hard shorts (< 2 mohms). Phase change from non-conducting to conducting has been 100% successful during trigger tests.

  9. The ATLAS level-1 Central Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Spiwoks, R; Berge, D; Caracinha, D; Ellis, Nick; Farthouat, P; Gällnö, P; Haas, S; Klofver, P; Krasznahorkay, A; Messina, A; Ohm, C; Pauly, T; Perantoni, M; Pessoa Lima Junior, H; Schuler, G; De Seixas, J M; Wengler, T; PH-EP

    2007-01-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 Central Trigger consists of the Muon-to-Central-Trigger-Processor Interface (MUCTPI), the Central Trigger Processor (CTP), and the Timing, Trigger and Control (TTC) partitions of the sub-detectors. The MUCTPI connects the output of the muon trigger system to the CTP. At every bunch crossing it receives information on muon candidates from each of the 208 muon trigger sectors and calculates the total multiplicity for each of six pT thresholds. The CTP combines information from the calorimeter trigger and the MUCTPI and makes the final Level-1 Accept (L1A) decision on the basis of lists of selection criteria (trigger menus). The MUCTPI and the CTP provide trigger summary information to the Level-2 trigger and to the data acquisition (DAQ) for every event selected at the Level-1. They further provide accumulated and, for the CTP, bunch-by-bunch counter data for monitoring of the trigger, detector and beam conditions. The TTC partitions send timing, trigger and control signals from the CTP to the...

  10. A Hardware Track Trigger (FTK) for the ATLAS Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The design and studies of the performance for the ATLAS hardware Fast TracKer (FTK) are presented. The existing trigger system of the ATLAS experiment is deployed to reduce the event rate from the bunch crossing rate of 40 MHz to < 1 KHz for permanent storage at the LHC design luminosity of 10^34 cm^-2 s^-1. The LHC has performed exceptionally well and routinely exceeds the design luminosity and from 2015 is due to operate with higher still luminosities. This will place a significant load on the High Level trigger (HLT) system, both due to the need for more sophisticated algorithms to reject background, and from the larger data volumes that will need to be processed. The Fast TracKer is a custom electronics system that will operate at the full Level-1 accepted rate of 100 KHz and provide high quality tracks at the beginning of processing in the HLT. This will be performing by track reconstruction using hardware with massive parallelism using associative memories (AM) and FPGAs. The availability of the full...

  11. Ultra-low power integrated circuit design circuits, systems, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Dongmei; Wang, Zhihua

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the design of CMOS circuits for ultra-low power consumption including analog, radio frequency (RF), and digital signal processing circuits (DSP). The book addresses issues from circuit and system design to production design, and applies the ultra-low power circuits described to systems for digital hearing aids and capsule endoscope devices. Provides a valuable introduction to ultra-low power circuit design, aimed at practicing design engineers; Describes all key building blocks of ultra-low power circuits, from a systems perspective; Applies circuits and systems described to real product examples such as hearing aids and capsule endoscopes.

  12. LHCb Level-0 Trigger Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Sarti, Alessio

    2006-01-01

    The calorimeter and muon systems are essential components to provide a trigger for the LHCb experiment. The calorimeter system comprises a scintillating pad detector and pre-shower, followed by electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters. The calorimeter system allows photons, electrons and hadrons to be identified, and their energy to be measured. The muon system consists of five measuring stations equipped with Multi-Wire Proportional Chambers (MWPCs) and triple-Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors, separated by iron filters. It allows the muons identification and transverse momentum measurement. The status of the two systems and their expected performance is presented.

  13. Design of analog integrated circuits and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Laker, Kenneth R

    1994-01-01

    This text is designed for senior or graduate level courses in analog integrated circuits or design of analog integrated circuits. This book combines consideration of CMOS and bipolar circuits into a unified treatment. Also included are CMOS-bipolar circuits made possible by BiCMOS technology. The text progresses from MOS and bipolar device modelling to simple one and two transistor building block circuits. The final two chapters present a unified coverage of sample-data and continuous-time signal processing systems.

  14. CMOS circuit design, layout and simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, R Jacob

    2010-01-01

    The Third Edition of CMOS Circuit Design, Layout, and Simulation continues to cover the practical design of both analog and digital integrated circuits, offering a vital, contemporary view of a wide range of analog/digital circuit blocks including: phase-locked-loops, delta-sigma sensing circuits, voltage/current references, op-amps, the design of data converters, and much more. Regardless of one's integrated circuit (IC) design skill level, this book allows readers to experience both the theory behind, and the hands-on implementation of, complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) IC design via detailed derivations, discussions, and hundreds of design, layout, and simulation examples.

  15. On Demand Internal Short Circuit Device Enables Verification of Safer, Higher Performing Battery Designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darcy, Eric; Keyser, Matthew

    2017-05-15

    The Internal Short Circuit (ISC) device enables critical battery safety verification. With the aluminum interstitial heat sink between the cells, normal trigger cells cannot be driven into thermal runaway without excessive temperature bias of adjacent cells. With an implantable, on-demand ISC device, thermal runaway tests show that the conductive heat sinks protected adjacent cells from propagation. High heat dissipation and structural support of Al heat sinks show high promise for safer, higher performing batteries.

  16. Configuration of the ATLAS Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Elsing, M; Armstrong, S; Baines, J T M; Bee, C P; Biglietti, M; Bogaerts, A; Boisvert, V; Bosman, M; Brandt, S; Caron, B; Casado, M P; Cataldi, G; Cavalli, D; Cervetto, M; Comune, G; Corso-Radu, A; Di Mattia, A; Díaz-Gómez, M; Dos Anjos, A; Drohan, J; Ellis, Nick; Epp, B; Etienne, F; Falciano, S; Farilla, A; George, S; Ghete, V M; González, S; Grothe, M; Kaczmarska, A; Karr, K M; Khomich, A; Konstantinidis, N P; Krasny, W; Li, W; Lowe, A; Luminari, L; Ma, H; Meessen, C; Mello, A G; Merino, G; Morettini, P; Moyse, E; Nairz, A; Negri, A; Nikitin, N V; Nisati, A; Padilla, C; Parodi, F; Pérez-Réale, V; Pinfold, J L; Pinto, P; Polesello, G; Qian, Z; Rajagopalan, S; Resconi, S; Rosati, S; Scannicchio, D A; Schiavi, C; Segura, E; De Seixas, J M; Shears, T G; Sivoklokov, S Yu; Smizanska, M; Soluk, R A; Stanescu, C; Tapprogge, Stefan; Touchard, F; Vercesi, V; Watson, A; Wengler, T; Werner, P; Wheeler, S; Wickens, F J; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Zobernig, G; CHEP 2003 Computing in High Energy Physics

    2003-01-01

    In this paper a conceptual overview is given of the software foreseen to configure the ATLAS trigger system. Two functional software prototypes have been developed to configure the ATLAS Level-1 emulation and the High-Level Trigger software. Emphasis has been put so far on following a consistent approach between the two trigger systems and on addressing their requirements, taking into account the specific use-case of the `Region-of-Interest' mechanism for the ATLAS Level-2 trigger. In the future the configuration of the two systems will be combined to ensure a consistent selection configuration for the entire ATLAS trigger system.

  17. Integrated devices in digital circuit design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, G. S.

    Aspects of combinational design are examined, taking into account logical operations, truth tables, Karnaugh maps as input output expressions, minimum forms, maximum forms, minterm forms, symbols, fundamental relationships, Karnaugh maps as design tools, the implementation of logic functions, logic and implementation, logic nor implementation, implementation examples, the exclusive or function, symmetrical forms, reduction, and practical circuits. Multiplexers and demultiplexers in combinational circuits are considered along with fundamental mode circuits, event-driven sequential circuits, event-driven circuit implementation using multiplexers, clock-driven sequential circuits, counters and multiplexers in clock-driven sequential circuits, state diagram construction, registers in logic design, a digital system, programming and programming aids, input and output techniques, operation and configuration of independent systems, and a definition of a Boolean algebra. Attention is also given to Intel's and Motorola's executable instructions.

  18. Metabolic triggered inflammation in osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Hunter, D; Xu, J; Ding, C

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common chronic joint disorder with a multifactorial etiology including genetic and environmental factors. Metabolic triggered inflammation, induced by nutrient overload and metabolic surplus, consists of components such as obesity, pro-inflammatory cytokines and adipokines, abnormal metabolites, acute phase proteins, vitamin D deficiency, and deregulated microRNAs that may play a role in OA pathophysiology. Obesity-related metabolic factors, especially adipokines, contribute to OA development by inducing pro-inflammatory cytokines and degradative enzymes, leading to cartilage matrix impairment and subchondral bone remodeling. Ectopic metabolite deposition and low-grade systemic inflammation can contribute to a toxic internal environment that exacerbates OA. Complement components highly expressed in osteoarthritic joints have also been proposed as causative factors. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with obesity and is implicated to be associated with cartilage loss in OA. Metabolic microRNAs may explain the inflammatory link between obesity and OA. Therapies targeting metabolic-triggered inflammation and its components are anticipated to have potential for the treatment of OA. Copyright © 2014 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The UA1 trigger processor

    CERN Document Server

    Grayer, G H

    1981-01-01

    Experiment UA1 is a large multipurpose spectrometer at the CERN proton-antiproton collider. The principal trigger is formed on the basis of the energy deposition in calorimeters. A trigger decision taken in under 2.4 microseconds can avoid dead-time losses due to the bunched nature of the beam. To achieve this fast 8-bit charge to digital converters have been built followed by two identical digital processors tailored to the experiment. The outputs of groups of the 2440 photomultipliers in the calorimeters are summed to form a total of 288 input channels to the ADCs. A look-up table in RAM is used to convert the digitised photomultiplier signals to energy in one processor, and to transverse energy in the other. Each processor forms four sums from a chosen combination of input channels, and also counts the number of clusters with electromagnetic or hadronic energy above pre-determined levels. Up to twelve combinations of these conditions, together with external information, may be combined in coincidence or in...

  20. The Database Driven ATLAS Trigger Configuration System

    CERN Document Server

    Martyniuk, Alex; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    This contribution describes the trigger selection configuration system of the ATLAS low- and high-level trigger (HLT) and the upgrades it received in preparation for LHC Run 2. The ATLAS trigger configuration system is responsible for applying the physics selection parameters for the online data taking at both trigger levels and the proper connection of the trigger lines across those levels. Here the low-level trigger consists of the already existing central trigger (CT) and the new Level-1 Topological trigger (L1Topo), which has been added for Run 2. In detail the tasks of the configuration system during the online data taking are Application of the selection criteria, e.g. energy cuts, minimum multiplicities, trigger object correlation, at the three trigger components L1Topo, CT, and HLT On-the-fly, e.g. rate-dependent, generation and application of prescale factors to the CT and HLT to adjust the trigger rates to the data taking conditions, such as falling luminosity or rate spikes in the detector readout ...

  1. Universal Programmable Quantum Circuit Schemes to Emulate an Operator

    OpenAIRE

    Daskin, Anmer; Grama, Ananth; Kollias, Giorgos; Kais, Sabre

    2012-01-01

    Unlike fixed designs, programmable circuit designs support an infinite number of operators. The functionality of a programmable circuit can be altered by simply changing the angle values of the rotation gates in the circuit. Here, we present a new quantum circuit design technique resulting in two general programmable circuit schemes. The circuit schemes can be used to simulate any given operator by setting the angle values in the circuit. This provides a fixed circuit design whose angles are ...

  2. Hadronic triggers and trigger object-level analysis at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Zaripovas, Donatas Ramilas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Hadronic signatures are critical to the high energy physics analysis program at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), and are broadly used for both Standard Model measurements and searches for new physics. These signatures include generic quark and gluon jets, as well as jets originating from b-quarks or the decay of massive particles (such as electroweak bosons or top quarks). Additionally missing transverse momentum from non-interacting particles provides an interesting probe in the search for new physics beyond the Standard Model. Developing trigger selections that target these events is a huge challenge at the LHC due to the enormous event rates associated with these signatures. This challenge is exacerbated by the amount of pile-up activity, which continues to grow. In order to address these challenges, several new techniques have been developed during the past year in order to significantly improve the potential of the 2017 dataset and overcome the limiting factors, such as storage and computing requirements...

  3. Hadronic Triggers and trigger-object level analysis at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Zaripovas, Donatas Ramilas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Hadronic signatures are critical to the high energy physics analysis program, and are broadly used for both Standard Model measurements and searches for new physics. These signatures include generic quark and gluon jets, as well as jets originating from b-quarks or the decay of massive particles (such as electroweak bosons or top quarks). Additionally missing transverse momentum from non-interacting particles provides an interesting probe in the search for new physics beyond the Standard Model. Developing trigger selections that target these events is a huge challenge at the LHC due to the enormous rates associated with these signatures. This challenge is exacerbated by the amount of pile-up activity, which continues to grow. In order to address these challenges, several new techniques have been developed during the past year in order to significantly improve the potential of the 2017 dataset and overcome the limiting factors to more deeply probing for new physics, such as storage and computing requirements f...

  4. Improvement of high-voltage staircase drive circuit waveform for high-intensity therapeutic ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamano, Satoshi; Jimbo, Hayato; Azuma, Takashi; Yoshizawa, Shin; Fujiwara, Keisuke; Itani, Kazunori; Umemura, Shin-Ichiro

    2016-07-01

    Recently, in the treatment of diseases such as cancer, noninvasive or low-invasive modality, such as high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), has been put into practice as an alternative to open surgery. HIFU induces thermal ablation of the target tissue to be treated. To improve the efficiency of HIFU, we have proposed a “triggered-HIFU” technique, which uses the combination of a short-duration, high-voltage transmission and a long-duration, medium-voltage transmission. In this method, the transmission device must endure high peak voltage for the former and the high time-average power for the latter. The triggered-HIFU sequence requires electronic scanning of the HIFU focus to maximize its thermal efficiency. Therefore, the transmission device must drive an array transducer with the number of elements on the order of a hundred or more, which requires that each part of the device that drives each element must be compact. The purpose of this work is to propose and construct such a transmission device by improving the staircase drive circuit, which we previously proposed. The main point of improvement is that both N and P MOSFETs are provided for each staircase voltage level instead of only one of them. Compared with the previous ultrasonic transmission circuit, high-voltage spikes were significantly reduced, the power consumption was decreased by 26.7%, and the transmission circuit temperature rise was decreased by 14.5 °C in the triggered-HIFU heating mode.

  5. Multiple-valued logic design based on the multiple-peak BiCMOS-NDR circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Jow Gan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Three different multiple-valued logic (MVL designs using the multiple-peak negative-differential-resistance (NDR circuits are investigated. The basic NDR element, which is made of several Si-based metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor (MOS and SiGe-based heterojunction-bipolar-transistor (HBT devices, can be implemented by using a standard BiCMOS process. These MVL circuits are designed based on the triggering-pulse control, saw-tooth input signal, and peak-control methods, respectively. However, there are some transient states existing between the multiple stable levels for the first two methods. These states might affect the circuit function in practical application. As a result, our proposed peak-control method for the MVL design can be used to overcome these transient states.

  6. D-VASim: Dynamic Virtual Analyzer and Simulator for Genetic Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baig, Hasan; Madsen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    are either assembled from a standard library of well-defined genetic gates or from parts of an available library, for instance, BioBricks. The obtained behavior can be validated through in-silico analysis, solving reaction kinetics using ordinary differential equations (ODEs) or by stochastic simulation......A genetic circuit represents a gene regulator network that is triggered by a combination of external signals, such as chemicals, proteins, light or temperature, to emit signals to control gene expression or metabolic pathways accordingly. In order to match the intended behaviour, genetic circuits......, with the aim to reduce the number of required in-vitro experiments. We present a behavioural simulation and analysis tool that allows the biologist to carry out virtual lab experiments as an interactive process during simulation of the genetic circuit, rather than a batch process, which is current practice. We...

  7. Circuit QED with transmon qubits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wulschner, Karl Friedrich; Puertas, Javier; Baust, Alexander; Eder, Peter; Fischer, Michael; Goetz, Jan; Haeberlein, Max; Schwarz, Manuel; Xie, Edwar; Zhong, Ling; Deppe, Frank; Fedorov, Kirill; Marx, Achim; Menzel, Edwin; Gross, Rudolf [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Muenchen (Germany); Huebl, Hans [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Muenchen (Germany); Weides, Martin [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Superconducting quantum bits are basic building blocks for circuit QED systems. Applications in the fields of quantum computation and quantum simulation require long coherence times. We have fabricated and characterized superconducting transmon qubits which are designed to operate at a high ratio of Josephson energy and charging energy. Due to their low sensitivity to charge noise transmon qubits show good coherence properties. We couple transmon qubits to coplanar waveguide resonators and coplanar slotline resonators and characterize the devices at mK-temperatures. From the experimental data we derive the qubit-resonator coupling strength, the qubit relaxation time and calibrate the photon number in the resonator via Stark shifts.

  8. Pragmatic circuits signals and filters

    CERN Document Server

    Eccles, William

    2006-01-01

    Pragmatic Circuits: Signals and Filters is built around the processing of signals. Topics include spectra, a short introduction to the Fourier series, design of filters, and the properties of the Fourier transform. The focus is on signals rather than power. But the treatment is still pragmatic. For example, the author accepts the work of Butterworth and uses his results to design filters in a fairly methodical fashion. This third of three volumes finishes with a look at spectra by showing how to get a spectrum even if a signal is not periodic. The Fourier transform provides a way of dealing wi

  9. Quantum Memristors with Superconducting Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmilehto, J; Deppe, F; Di Ventra, M; Sanz, M; Solano, E

    2017-02-14

    Memristors are resistive elements retaining information of their past dynamics. They have garnered substantial interest due to their potential for representing a paradigm change in electronics, information processing and unconventional computing. Given the advent of quantum technologies, a design for a quantum memristor with superconducting circuits may be envisaged. Along these lines, we introduce such a quantum device whose memristive behavior arises from quasiparticle-induced tunneling when supercurrents are cancelled. For realistic parameters, we find that the relevant hysteretic behavior may be observed using current state-of-the-art measurements of the phase-driven tunneling current. Finally, we develop suitable methods to quantify memory retention in the system.

  10. Printed circuit dispersive transmission line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikezi, Hiroyuki; Lin-Liu, Yuh-Ren; DeGrassie, John S.

    1991-01-01

    A printed circuit dispersive transmission line structure is disclosed comprising an insulator, a ground plane formed on one surface of the insulator, a first transmission line formed on a second surface of the insulator, and a second transmission line also formed on the second surface of the insulator and of longer length than the first transmission line and periodically intersecting the first transmission line. In a preferred embodiment, the transmission line structure exhibits highly dispersive characteristics by designing the length of one of the transmission line between two adjacent periodic intersections to be longer than the other.

  11. HF radio systems and circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Sabin, William

    1998-01-01

    A comprehensive reference for the design of high frequency communications systems and equipment. This revised edition is loaded with practical data, much of which cannot be found in other reference books. Its approach to the subject follows the needs of an engineer from system definition and performance requirements down to the individual circuit elements that make up radio transmitters and receivers. The accompanying disk contains updated software on filters, matching networks and receiver analysis. SciTech Publishing also provides many other products related to Communication Systems Design.

  12. Circuit for Driving Piezoelectric Transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, David P.; Chapsky, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The figure schematically depicts an oscillator circuit for driving a piezoelectric transducer to excite vibrations in a mechanical structure. The circuit was designed and built to satisfy application-specific requirements to drive a selected one of 16 such transducers at a regulated amplitude and frequency chosen to optimize the amount of work performed by the transducer and to compensate for both (1) temporal variations of the resonance frequency and damping time of each transducer and (2) initially unknown differences among the resonance frequencies and damping times of different transducers. In other words, the circuit is designed to adjust itself to optimize the performance of whichever transducer is selected at any given time. The basic design concept may be adaptable to other applications that involve the use of piezoelectric transducers in ultrasonic cleaners and other apparatuses in which high-frequency mechanical drives are utilized. This circuit includes three resistor-capacitor networks that, together with the selected piezoelectric transducer, constitute a band-pass filter having a peak response at a frequency of about 2 kHz, which is approximately the resonance frequency of the piezoelectric transducers. Gain for generating oscillations is provided by a power hybrid operational amplifier (U1). A junction field-effect transistor (Q1) in combination with a resistor (R4) is used as a voltage-variable resistor to control the magnitude of the oscillation. The voltage-variable resistor is part of a feedback control loop: Part of the output of the oscillator is rectified and filtered for use as a slow negative feedback to the gate of Q1 to keep the output amplitude constant. The response of this control loop is much slower than 2 kHz and, therefore, does not introduce significant distortion of the oscillator output, which is a fairly clean sine wave. The positive AC feedback needed to sustain oscillations is derived from sampling the current through the

  13. The ATLAS Level-1 Central Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Stockton, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 trigger system is responsible for reducing the anticipated LHC collision rate from 40 MHz to less than 100 kHz. The custom-built electronics of the ATLAS Level-1 Central Trigger receives inputs from the ATLAS Level-1 Triggers and the LHC. The Level-1 calorimeter triggers are based on coarse detector information to identify high-ET jets, electrons/photons and hadrons, along with missing and total energy. In addition there are dedicated muon and forward detectors, providing triggers for different energy thresholds. The Level-1 Central Trigger combines these trigger inputs to form a Level-1 accept. This, along with trigger summary information, is then passed onto the higher levels of the trigger. From the LHC itself the Level-1 Central Trigger passes the bunch clock to all ATLAS sub-detectors. We present how the rigger information, along with dead-time rates, are monitored and logged by the online system for physics analysis, data quality assurance and operational debugging. Also presented are ...

  14. Wired and Wireless Camera Triggering with Arduino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauhanen, H.; Rönnholm, P.

    2017-10-01

    Synchronous triggering is an important task that allows simultaneous data capture from multiple cameras. Accurate synchronization enables 3D measurements of moving objects or from a moving platform. In this paper, we describe one wired and four wireless variations of Arduino-based low-cost remote trigger systems designed to provide a synchronous trigger signal for industrial cameras. Our wireless systems utilize 315 MHz or 434 MHz frequencies with noise filtering capacitors. In order to validate the synchronization accuracy, we developed a prototype of a rotating trigger detection system (named RoTriDeS). This system is suitable to detect the triggering accuracy of global shutter cameras. As a result, the wired system indicated an 8.91 μs mean triggering time difference between two cameras. Corresponding mean values for the four wireless triggering systems varied between 7.92 and 9.42 μs. Presented values include both camera-based and trigger-based desynchronization. Arduino-based triggering systems appeared to be feasible, and they have the potential to be extended to more complicated triggering systems.

  15. Does Aluminium Trigger Breast Cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Jennrich

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Breast cancer is by far the most common cancer in women in the western world. In 90% of breast cancers, environmental factors are among the causes. The frequency with which the tumour occurs in the outer upper part of the breast has risen with above average rates in recent decades. Aluminium salts as ingredients in deodorants and antiperspirants are being absorbed by the body to a greater extent than hitherto assumed. Their toxicity for healthy and diseased breast tissue cells includes various well-documented pathomechanisms. In the sense of primary and secondary prevention, the cancer-triggering potential of aluminium and its use in anti-perspirant deodorants must be re-evaluated. For the same reason the access to a targeted diagnosis and treatment of aluminium loading must be facilitated.

  16. Landslide triggering by rain infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Richard M.

    2000-01-01

    Landsliding in response to rainfall involves physical processes that operate on disparate timescales. Relationships between these timescales guide development of a mathematical model that uses reduced forms of Richards equation to evaluate effects of rainfall infiltration on landslide occurrence, timing, depth, and acceleration in diverse situations. The longest pertinent timescale is A/D0, where D0 is the maximum hydraulic diffusivity of the soil and A is the catchment area that potentially affects groundwater pressures at a prospective landslide slip surface location with areal coordinates x, y and depth H. Times greater than A/D0 are necessary for establishment of steady background water pressures that develop at (x, y, H) in response to rainfall averaged over periods that commonly range from days to many decades. These steady groundwater pressures influence the propensity for landsliding at (x, y, H), but they do not trigger slope failure. Failure results from rainfall over a typically shorter timescale H2/D0 associated with transient pore pressure transmission during and following storms. Commonly, this timescale ranges from minutes to months. The shortest timescale affecting landslide responses to rainfall is √(H/g), where g is the magnitude of gravitational acceleration. Postfailure landslide motion occurs on this timescale, which indicates that the thinnest landslides accelerate most quickly if all other factors are constant. Effects of hydrologic processes on landslide processes across these diverse timescales are encapsulated by a response function, R(t*) = √(t*/π) exp (-1/t*) - erfc (1/√t*), which depends only on normalized time, t*. Use of R(t*) in conjunction with topographic data, rainfall intensity and duration information, an infinite-slope failure criterion, and Newton's second law predicts the timing, depth, and acceleration of rainfall-triggered landslides. Data from contrasting landslides that exhibit rapid, shallow motion and slow, deep

  17. Designing and engineering evolutionary robust genetic circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieviant Jane A

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One problem with engineered genetic circuits in synthetic microbes is their stability over evolutionary time in the absence of selective pressure. Since design of a selective environment for maintaining function of a circuit will be unique to every circuit, general design principles are needed for engineering evolutionary robust circuits that permit the long-term study or applied use of synthetic circuits. Results We first measured the stability of two BioBrick-assembled genetic circuits propagated in Escherichia coli over multiple generations and the mutations that caused their loss-of-function. The first circuit, T9002, loses function in less than 20 generations and the mutation that repeatedly causes its loss-of-function is a deletion between two homologous transcriptional terminators. To measure the effect between transcriptional terminator homology levels and evolutionary stability, we re-engineered six versions of T9002 with a different transcriptional terminator at the end of the circuit. When there is no homology between terminators, the evolutionary half-life of this circuit is significantly improved over 2-fold and is independent of the expression level. Removing homology between terminators and decreasing expression level 4-fold increases the evolutionary half-life over 17-fold. The second circuit, I7101, loses function in less than 50 generations due to a deletion between repeated operator sequences in the promoter. This circuit was re-engineered with different promoters from a promoter library and using a kanamycin resistance gene (kanR within the circuit to put a selective pressure on the promoter. The evolutionary stability dynamics and loss-of-function mutations in all these circuits are described. We also found that on average, evolutionary half-life exponentially decreases with increasing expression levels. Conclusions A wide variety of loss-of-function mutations are observed in BioBrick-assembled genetic

  18. Designing and engineering evolutionary robust genetic circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleight, Sean C; Bartley, Bryan A; Lieviant, Jane A; Sauro, Herbert M

    2010-11-01

    One problem with engineered genetic circuits in synthetic microbes is their stability over evolutionary time in the absence of selective pressure. Since design of a selective environment for maintaining function of a circuit will be unique to every circuit, general design principles are needed for engineering evolutionary robust circuits that permit the long-term study or applied use of synthetic circuits. We first measured the stability of two BioBrick-assembled genetic circuits propagated in Escherichia coli over multiple generations and the mutations that caused their loss-of-function. The first circuit, T9002, loses function in less than 20 generations and the mutation that repeatedly causes its loss-of-function is a deletion between two homologous transcriptional terminators. To measure the effect between transcriptional terminator homology levels and evolutionary stability, we re-engineered six versions of T9002 with a different transcriptional terminator at the end of the circuit. When there is no homology between terminators, the evolutionary half-life of this circuit is significantly improved over 2-fold and is independent of the expression level. Removing homology between terminators and decreasing expression level 4-fold increases the evolutionary half-life over 17-fold. The second circuit, I7101, loses function in less than 50 generations due to a deletion between repeated operator sequences in the promoter. This circuit was re-engineered with different promoters from a promoter library and using a kanamycin resistance gene (kanR) within the circuit to put a selective pressure on the promoter. The evolutionary stability dynamics and loss-of-function mutations in all these circuits are described. We also found that on average, evolutionary half-life exponentially decreases with increasing expression levels. A wide variety of loss-of-function mutations are observed in BioBrick-assembled genetic circuits including point mutations, small insertions and

  19. DC circuits: I. Evidence for fine grained contextual dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, lgnatius; Allie, Saalih

    2017-01-01

    This is the first part of a broader study, exploring the contextual variations of the responses of 149 first year (non-physics major) university students at two South African universities in Cape Town. The data analysis was done in terms of the (i) forced choice responses (FCR), (ii) free written responses and (iii) personal interviews. This paper presents the development of the instrument (aspects of circuits questionnaire, or ACQ) used in the exploratory study and the results obtained from the FCR analysis of 60 students. The results showed that the student responses are triggered by the context framed by the questions and the results obtained from investigations using light bulbs cannot be generalised and may be reinterpreted. This article was extracted from the PhD thesis submitted to Faculty of Science, University of Cape Town.

  20. Triggers of oral lichen planus flares and the potential role of trigger avoidance in disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hannah X; Blasiak, Rachel; Kim, Edwin; Padilla, Ricardo; Culton, Donna A

    2017-09-01

    Many patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) report triggers of flares, some of which overlap with triggers of other oral diseases, including oral allergy syndrome and oral contact dermatitis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of commonly reported triggers of OLP flares, their overlap with triggers of other oral diseases, and the potential role of trigger avoidance as a management strategy. Questionnaire-based survey of 51 patients with biopsy-proven lichen planus with oral involvement seen in an academic dermatology specialty clinic and/or oral pathology clinic between June 2014 and June 2015. Of the participants, 94% identified at least one trigger of their OLP flares. Approximately half of the participants (51%) reported at least one trigger that overlapped with known triggers of oral allergy syndrome, and 63% identified at least one trigger that overlapped with known triggers of oral contact dermatitis. Emotional stress was the most commonly reported trigger (77%). Regarding avoidance, 79% of the study participants reported avoiding their known triggers in daily life. Of those who actively avoided triggers, 89% reported an improvement in symptoms and 70% reported a decrease in the frequency of flares. Trigger identification and avoidance can play a potentially effective role in the management of OLP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Noise Analysis of Switched-Capacitor Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retdian, Nicodimus; Takagi, Shigetaka

    Switched-capacitor (SC) circuit has been a well known analog circuit block. Since their characteristics are determined by capacitance ratio, SC circuits are suitable for on-chip implementations. Eventhough there are so many publications on the design of SC circuits, only a few of them discuss the property of noise in SC circuits. Linear noise analysis are common in continuous-time systems. However, SC circuits are operating in discrete-time domain and their noise properties are known to be a non-linear phenomenon and dificult to be analyzed by hand. This paper will show a noise analysis of an SC integrator as an example for a better understanding of the analysis method. It will be shown by simulation results that the proposed formula gives a better approximation of noise power spectral density (PSD).

  2. A concise guide to chaotic electronic circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Buscarino, Arturo; Frasca, Mattia; Sciuto, Gregorio

    2014-01-01

    This brief provides a source of instruction from which students can be taught about the practicalities of designing and using chaotic circuits. The text provides information on suitable materials, circuit design and schemes for design realization. Readers are then shown how to reproduce experiments on chaos and to design new ones. The text guides the reader easily from the basic idea of chaos to the laboratory test providing an experimental basis that can be developed for such applications as secure communications. This brief provides introductory information on sample chaotic circuits, includes coverage of their development, and the “gallery” section provides information on a wide range of circuits. Concise Guide to Chaotic Electronic Circuits will be useful to anyone running a laboratory class involving chaotic circuits and to students wishing to learn about them.

  3. A Singularity in the Kirchhoff's Circuit Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Harsha, N R Sree

    2016-01-01

    Students often have difficulty in understanding qualitatively the behaviour of simple electric circuits. In particular, as different studies have shown, they find multiple batteries connected in multiple loops difficult to analyse. In a recent paper [Phys. Educ. 50 568 (2015)], we showed such an electric circuit, which consists of ideal batteries connected in parallel, that couldn't be solved by the existing circuit analysis methods. In this paper, we shall introduce a new mathematical method of solving simple electric circuits from the solutions of more general circuits and show that the currents, in this particular circuit, take the indeterminate 0/0 form. We shall also present some of the implications of teaching the method. We believe that the description presented in this paper should help the instructors in teaching the behaviour of multiple batteries connected in parallel.

  4. Smart trigger logic for focal plane arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, James E; Campbell, David V; Holmes, Michael L; Lovejoy, Robert; Wojciechowski, Kenneth; Kay, Randolph R; Cavanaugh, William S; Gurrieri, Thomas M

    2014-03-25

    An electronic device includes a memory configured to receive data representing light intensity values from pixels in a focal plane array and a processor that analyzes the received data to determine which light values correspond to triggered pixels, where the triggered pixels are those pixels that meet a predefined set of criteria, and determines, for each triggered pixel, a set of neighbor pixels for which light intensity values are to be stored. The electronic device also includes a buffer that temporarily stores light intensity values for at least one previously processed row of pixels, so that when a triggered pixel is identified in a current row, light intensity values for the neighbor pixels in the previously processed row and for the triggered pixel are persistently stored, as well as a data transmitter that transmits the persistently stored light intensity values for the triggered and neighbor pixels to a data receiver.

  5. Practical digital electronics for technicians

    CERN Document Server

    Kimber, Will

    2013-01-01

    Practical Digital Electronics for Technicians covers topics on analog and digital signals, logic gates, combinational logic, and Karnaugh mapping. The book discusses the characteristics and types of logic families; sequential systems including latch, bistable circuits, counters and shift registers; Schmitt triggers and multivibrators; and MSI combinational logic systems. Display devices, including LED, LCD and dot matrix display; analog and digital conversion; and examples of and equipment for digital fault finding are also considered. The book concludes by providing answers to the questions

  6. Coherent-feedback control in nanophotonic circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabuchi, Hideo

    2012-06-01

    The emerging discipline of coherent-feedback quantum control provides core concepts and methods for nanopho- tonic circuit theory, which can be assimilated within modern approaches to computer-aided design. Current research in this area includes the development of software tools to enable a schematic capture workflow for compilation and analysis of quantum stochastic models for nanophotonic circuits, exploration of elementary coherent-feedback circuit motifs, and laboratory demonstrations of quantum nonlinear photonic devices.

  7. Logarithmic current-measuring transistor circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højberg, Kristian Søe

    1967-01-01

    Describes two transistorized circuits for the logarithmic measurement of small currents suitable for nuclear reactor instrumentation. The logarithmic element is applied in the feedback path of an amplifier, and only one dual transistor is used as logarithmic diode and temperature compensating...... transistor. A simple one-amplifier circuit is compared with a two-amplifier system. The circuits presented have been developed in connexion with an amplifier using a dual m.o.s. transistor input stage with diode-protected gates....

  8. Hybrid Techniques for Quantum Circuit Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    manufacture, use, or sell any patented invention that may relate to them. This report was cleared for public release by the 88th ABW, Wright-Patterson AFB...that, for any unitary stabilizer circuit, there exists an equivalent block-structured canonical circuit that applies a block of Hadamard (H) gates...operation, we map it to a conventional logic circuit that processes the SNs in an appropriate way. A quantum gate G corresponds to a 2n × 2n unitary

  9. Analog MOS integrated circuits for signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorian, R.; Temes, G. C.

    Theoretical and practical aspects of analog MOS integrated circuits are discussed. The basic properties of these circuits are described, providing necessary background material in mathematics and semiconductor device physics and technology. The operation and design of such important circuits as switched-capacitor filters, analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters, amplifiers, modulators, and oscillators. Practical problems encountered in design are discussed, solutions are provided, and some examples of actual system applications are given.

  10. Quantum simulations with circuit quantum electrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, G.; Solano, E.; Lamata, L.

    2016-01-01

    Superconducting circuits have become a leading quantum technology for testing fundamentals of quantum mechanics and for the implementation of advanced quantum information protocols. In this chapter, we revise the basic concepts of circuit network theory and circuit quantum electrodynamics for the sake of digital and analog quantum simulations of quantum field theories, relativistic quantum mechanics, and many-body physics, involving fermions and bosons. Based on recent improvements in scalabi...

  11. The analysis and design of linear circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Roland E; Toussaint, Gregory J

    2009-01-01

    The Analysis and Design of Linear Circuits, 6e gives the reader the opportunity to not only analyze, but also design and evaluate linear circuits as early as possible. The text's abundance of problems, applications, pedagogical tools, and realistic examples helps engineers develop the skills needed to solve problems, design practical alternatives, and choose the best design from several competing solutions. Engineers searching for an accessible introduction to resistance circuits will benefit from this book that emphasizes the early development of engineering judgment.

  12. Inexact Subgraph Matching for Digital Circuit Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    circuit graph perspective. As a result, attempting to locate library structures within the larger circuit context via static analysis becomes an...e.g. imaging, biology, and large data set feature analysis ), however, and practical applications of it have been studied for some time. Many of...Digital Circuit Analysis Whitney Batchelor, Frederic Tuttle, Stephen Baka, Scott Harper Secure Computing & Communications Division MacAulay-Brown

  13. Trigger selections for the LHCb upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, M; Brodzicka, J; Fitzpatrick, C; Gligorov, V V; Ilten, P; Vesterinen, M

    2014-01-01

    A study of selections for an all-software trigger to be implemented in the LHCb upgrade is presented. It is demonstrated that the strategy of using both inclusive and exclusive selections will work in the upgrade running conditions. The unique capabilities of the all-software trigger are also demonstrated. Finally, the scope and composition of the LHCb physics program are studied in the context of various trigger output rate scenarios.

  14. High temperature superconducting digital circuits and subsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martens, J.S.; Pance, A.; Whiteley, S.R.; Char, K.; Johansson, M.F.; Lee, L. [Conductus, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Hietala, V.M.; Wendt, J.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hou, S.Y.; Phillips, J. [AT and T Bell Labs., Murray Hill, NJ (United States)

    1993-10-01

    The advances in the fabrication of high temperature superconducting devices have enabled the demonstration of high performance and useful digital circuits and subsystems. The yield and uniformity of the devices is sufficient for circuit fabrication at the medium scale integration (MSI) level with performance not seen before at 77 K. The circuits demonstrated to date include simple gates, counters, analog to digital converters, and shift registers. All of these are mid-sized building blocks for potential applications in commercial and military systems. The processes used for these circuits and blocks will be discussed along with observed performance data.

  15. Ways to Optimize Analogue Switched Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hospodka

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes how analogue switched circuits (switched-capacitor and switched-current circuits can be optimized by means of a personal computer. The optimization of this kind of circuits is not so common and their analysis is more difficult in comparison with continuously working circuits. Firstly, the nonidealities occurring in these circuits whose effect on their characteristics should be optimized are discussed. Then a few ways to analyze analogue switched circuits are shown. From all optimization algorithms applicable for this kind of optimization, two ones that seem to be the most promising are proposed. The differential evolution (one of evolutionary algorithms combined with the simplex method was found to be most appropriate from these two ones. Two types of programs are required for the optimization of these circuits: a program for implementing calculations of the used optimization algorithm and a program for the analysis of the optimized circuit. Several suitable computer programs from both of the groups together with their proper settings according to authors’ experience are proposed. At the end of the paper, an example of a switched-current circuit optimization documenting the previous description is presented.

  16. Electric circuit theory applied electricity and electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Yorke, R

    1981-01-01

    Electric Circuit Theory provides a concise coverage of the framework of electrical engineering. Comprised of six chapters, this book emphasizes the physical process of electrical engineering rather than abstract mathematics. Chapter 1 deals with files, circuits, and parameters, while Chapter 2 covers the natural and forced response of simple circuit. Chapter 3 talks about the sinusoidal steady state, and Chapter 4 discusses the circuit analysis. The fifth chapter tackles frequency response of networks, and the last chapter covers polyphase systems. This book will be of great help to electrical

  17. Circuit complexity in quantum field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Robert A.; Myers, Robert C.

    2017-10-01

    Motivated by recent studies of holographic complexity, we examine the question of circuit complexity in quantum field theory. We provide a quantum circuit model for the preparation of Gaussian states, in particular the ground state, in a free scalar field theory for general dimensions. Applying the geometric approach of Nielsen to this quantum circuit model, the complexity of the state becomes the length of the shortest geodesic in the space of circuits. We compare the complexity of the ground state of the free scalar field to the analogous results from holographic complexity, and find some surprising similarities.

  18. Circuit For Control Of Electromechanical Prosthetic Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Proposed circuit for control of electromechanical prosthetic hand derives electrical control signals from shoulder movements. Updated, electronic version of prosthesis, that includes two hooklike fingers actuated via cables from shoulder harness. Circuit built around favored shoulder harness, provides more dexterous movement, without incurring complexity of computer-controlled "bionic" or hydraulically actuated devices. Additional harness and potentiometer connected to similar control circuit mounted on other shoulder. Used to control stepping motor rotating hand about prosthetic wrist to one of number of angles consistent with number of digital outputs. Finger-control signals developed by circuit connected to first shoulder harness transmitted to prosthetic hand via sliprings at prosthetic wrist joint.

  19. Analog circuit design art, science, and personalities

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Jim

    1991-01-01

    Analog Circuit Design: Art, Science, and Personalities discusses the many approaches and styles in the practice of analog circuit design. The book is written in an informal yet informative manner, making it easily understandable to those new in the field. The selection covers the definition, history, current practice, and future direction of analog design; the practice proper; and the styles in analog circuit design. The book also includes the problems usually encountered in analog circuit design; approach to feedback loop design; and other different techniques and applications. The text is

  20. Hybrid stretchable circuits on silicone substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, A., E-mail: adam.1.robinson@nokia.com; Aziz, A., E-mail: a.aziz1@lancaster.ac.uk [Nanoscience Centre, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB01FF (United Kingdom); Liu, Q.; Suo, Z. [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences and Kavli Institute for Bionano Science and Technology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Lacour, S. P., E-mail: stephanie.lacour@epfl.ch [Centre for Neuroprosthetics and Laboratory for Soft Bioelectronics Interfaces, School of Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne 1015 (Switzerland)

    2014-04-14

    When rigid and stretchable components are integrated onto a single elastic carrier substrate, large strain heterogeneities appear in the vicinity of the deformable-non-deformable interfaces. In this paper, we report on a generic approach to manufacture hybrid stretchable circuits where commercial electronic components can be mounted on a stretchable circuit board. Similar to printed circuit board development, the components are electrically bonded on the elastic substrate and interconnected with stretchable electrical traces. The substrate—a silicone matrix carrying concentric rigid disks—ensures both the circuit elasticity and the mechanical integrity of the most fragile materials.

  1. Data analysis at Level-1 Trigger level

    CERN Document Server

    Wittmann, Johannes; Aradi, Gregor; Bergauer, Herbert; Jeitler, Manfred; Wulz, Claudia; Apanasevich, Leonard; Winer, Brian; Puigh, Darren Michael

    2017-01-01

    With ever increasing luminosity at the LHC, optimum online data selection is getting more and more important. While in the case of some experiments (LHCb and ALICE) this task is being completely transferred to computer farms, the others - ATLAS and CMS - will not be able to do this in the medium-term future for technological, detector-related reasons. Therefore, these experiments pursue the complementary approach of migrating more and more of the offline and High-Level Trigger intelligence into the trigger electronics. This paper illustrates how the Level-1 Trigger of the CMS experiment and in particular its concluding stage, the Global Trigger, take up this challenge.

  2. The ATLAS Muon and Tau Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Dell'Asta, L; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    [Muon] The ATLAS experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) deploys a three-levels processing scheme for the trigger system. The level-1 muon trigger system gets its input from fast muon trigger detectors. Fast sector logic boards select muon candidates, which are passed via an interface board to the central trigger processor and then to the High Level Trigger (HLT). The muon HLT is purely software based and encompasses a level-2 (L2) trigger followed by an event filter (EF) for a staged trigger approach. It has access to the data of the precision muon detectors and other detector elements to refine the muon hypothesis. Trigger-specific algorithms were developed and are used for the L2 to increase processing speed for instance by making use of look-up tables and simpler algorithms, while the EF muon triggers mostly benefit from offline reconstruction software to obtain most precise determination of the track parameters. There are two algorithms with different approaches, namely inside-out and outside-in...

  3. Multi-channel control circuit for real-time control of events in Aditya tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edappala, Praveenlal, E-mail: praveen@ipr.res.in; Shah, Minsha; Rajpal, Rachana; Tanna, R.L.; Ghosh, Joydeep; Chattopadhyay, P.K.; Jha, R.

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Low cost microcontroller based control circuit. • The control hardware can be programmed/configured very easily for different applications. • Microcontroller programming is done in assembly language so that precise timing can be achieved with micro seconds resolution. • Successful implementation of this circuit in noisy tokamak environment. • Efficient noise and burst elimination. • Can be integrated in to the other subsystems. • Low cost solution for implementing feedback control in small and medium size tokamaks and other experiments requiring feedback control. - Abstract: Tokamak plasma is prone to many random events having potential for causing severe damages to the machine, such as disruptions, production and elimination of high-energy runaway electrons etc. These events can be mitigated by obtaining pre-cursor signal leading to these events and then taking proper measures just before their onset to avoid their happenings, like disruptions can be mitigated by massive gas injection or putting a bias voltage on an electrode placed inside the plasma, the runaways can be mitigated by gas injection and by applying specific magnetic fields. Hence for real time control of these events, the pre-cursors should be electronically recorded and the mitigation techniques should be initiated by sending triggers to their individual operational systems. To implement these methodologies of real-time controlling of events in Aditya Tokamak, a low cost multi-channel Micro-Controller based timing circuit is designed and developed in-house. This circuit first compares the precursor signals fed into it with the pre-set values and gives a trigger output whenever the signals overshoot the pre-set values. The circuit readies itself for operation along with start of the tokamak discharge and waits up to an initial pre-determined delay and then initiates a trigger at the time of overshooting of precursor signal. The circuit is fully integrated and assembled in

  4. Scaling of graphene integrated circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Massimiliano; Guerriero, Erica; Fiocco, Marco; Alberti, Ruggero; Polloni, Laura; Behnam, Ashkan; Carrion, Enrique A; Pop, Eric; Sordan, Roman

    2015-05-07

    The influence of transistor size reduction (scaling) on the speed of realistic multi-stage integrated circuits (ICs) represents the main performance metric of a given transistor technology. Despite extensive interest in graphene electronics, scaling efforts have so far focused on individual transistors rather than multi-stage ICs. Here we study the scaling of graphene ICs based on transistors from 3.3 to 0.5 μm gate lengths and with different channel widths, access lengths, and lead thicknesses. The shortest gate delay of 31 ps per stage was obtained in sub-micron graphene ROs oscillating at 4.3 GHz, which is the highest oscillation frequency obtained in any strictly low-dimensional material to date. We also derived the fundamental Johnson limit, showing that scaled graphene ICs could be used at high frequencies in applications with small voltage swing.

  5. TIME CALIBRATED OSCILLOSCOPE SWEEP CIRCUIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, V.L.; Carstensen, H.K.

    1959-11-24

    An improved time calibrated sweep circuit is presented, which extends the range of usefulness of conventional oscilloscopes as utilized for time calibrated display applications in accordance with U. S. Patent No. 2,832,002. Principal novelty resides in the provision of a pair of separate signal paths, each of which is phase and amplitude adjustable, to connect a high-frequency calibration oscillator to the output of a sawtooth generator also connected to the respective horizontal deflection plates of an oscilloscope cathode ray tube. The amplitude and phase of the calibration oscillator signals in the two signal paths are adjusted to balance out feedthrough currents capacitively coupled at high frequencies of the calibration oscillator from each horizontal deflection plate to the vertical plates of the cathode ray tube.

  6. Coulomb drag in quantum circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levchenko, Alex; Kamenev, Alex

    2008-11-21

    We study the drag effect in a system of two electrically isolated quantum point contacts, coupled by Coulomb interactions. Drag current exhibits maxima as a function of quantum point contacts gate voltages when the latter are tuned to the transitions between quantized conductance plateaus. In the linear regime this behavior is due to enhanced electron-hole asymmetry near an opening of a new conductance channel. In the nonlinear regime the drag current is proportional to the shot noise of the driving circuit, suggesting that the Coulomb drag experiments may be a convenient way to measure the quantum shot noise. Remarkably, the transition to the nonlinear regime may occur at driving voltages substantially smaller than the temperature.

  7. Electrical circuit theory and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, John

    2014-01-01

    This much-loved textbook explains the principles of electrical circuit theory and technology so that students of electrical and mechanical engineering can master the subject. Real-world situations and engineering examples put the theory into context. The inclusion of worked problems with solutions help you to learn and further problems then allow you to test and confirm you have fully understood each subject. In total the book contains 800 worked problems, 1000 further problems and 14 revision tests with answers online. This an ideal text for foundation and undergraduate degree students and those on upper level vocational engineering courses, in particular electrical and mechanical. It provides a sound understanding of the knowledge required by technicians in fields such as electrical engineering, electronics and telecommunications. This edition has been updated with developments in key areas such as semiconductors, transistors, and fuel cells, along with brand new material on ABCD parameters and Fourier's An...

  8. Trigger Points: An Anatomical Substratum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Emi Akamatsu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to bring the trapezius muscle knowledge of the locations where the accessory nerve branches enter the muscle belly to reach the motor endplates and find myofascial trigger points (MTrPs. Although anatomoclinical correlations represent a major feature of MTrP, no previous reports describing the distribution of the accessory nerve branches and their anatomical relationship with MTrP are found in the literature. Both trapezius muscles from twelve adult cadavers were carefully dissected by the authors (anatomy professors and medical graduate students to observe the exact point where the branches of the spinal accessory nerve entered the muscle belly. Dissection was performed through stratigraphic layers to preserve the motor innervation of the trapezius muscle, which is located deep in the muscle. Seven points are described, four of which are motor points: in all cases, these locations corresponded to clinically described MTrPs. The four points were common in these twelve cadavers. This type of clinical correlation between spinal accessory nerve branching and MTrP is useful to achieve a better understanding of the anatomical correlation of MTrP and the physiopathology of these disorders and may provide a scientific basis for their treatment, rendering useful additional information to therapists to achieve better diagnoses and improve therapeutic approaches.

  9. Intrasaccadic perception triggers pupillary constriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiaan Mathôt

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It is commonly believed that vision is impaired during saccadic eye movements. However, here we report that some visual stimuli are clearly visible during saccades, and trigger a constriction of the eye’s pupil. Participants viewed sinusoid gratings that changed polarity 150 times per second (every 6.67 ms. At this rate of flicker, the gratings were perceived as homogeneous surfaces while participants fixated. However, the flickering gratings contained ambiguous motion: rightward and leftward motion for vertical gratings; upward and downward motion for horizontal gratings. When participants made a saccade perpendicular to the gratings’ orientation (e.g., a leftward saccade for a vertical grating, the eye’s peak velocity matched the gratings’ motion. As a result, the retinal image was approximately stable for a brief moment during the saccade, and this gave rise to an intrasaccadic percept: A normally invisible stimulus became visible when eye velocity was maximal. Our results confirm and extend previous studies by demonstrating intrasaccadic perception using a reflexive measure (pupillometry that does not rely on subjective report. Our results further show that intrasaccadic perception affects all stages of visual processing, from the pupillary response to visual awareness.

  10. Nonlinear dynamical triggering of slow slip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Paul A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Knuth, Matthew W [WISCONSIN; Kaproth, Bryan M [PENN STATE; Carpenter, Brett [PENN STATE; Guyer, Robert A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Le Bas, Pierre - Yves [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Daub, Eric G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Marone, Chris [PENN STATE

    2010-12-10

    Among the most fascinating, recent discoveries in seismology have been the phenomena of triggered slip, including triggered earthquakes and triggered-tremor, as well as triggered slow, silent-slip during which no seismic energy is radiated. Because fault nucleation depths cannot be probed directly, the physical regimes in which these phenomena occur are poorly understood. Thus determining physical properties that control diverse types of triggered fault sliding and what frictional constitutive laws govern triggered faulting variability is challenging. We are characterizing the physical controls of triggered faulting with the goal of developing constitutive relations by conducting laboratory and numerical modeling experiments in sheared granular media at varying load conditions. In order to simulate granular fault zone gouge in the laboratory, glass beads are sheared in a double-direct configuration under constant normal stress, while subject to transient perturbation by acoustic waves. We find that triggered, slow, silent-slip occurs at very small confining loads ({approx}1-3 MPa) that are smaller than those where dynamic earthquake triggering takes place (4-7 MPa), and that triggered slow-slip is associated with bursts of LFE-like acoustic emission. Experimental evidence suggests that the nonlinear dynamical response of the gouge material induced by dynamic waves may be responsible for the triggered slip behavior: the slip-duration, stress-drop and along-strike slip displacement are proportional to the triggering wave amplitude. Further, we observe a shear-modulus decrease corresponding to dynamic-wave triggering relative to the shear modulus of stick-slips. Modulus decrease in response to dynamical wave amplitudes of roughly a microstrain and above is a hallmark of elastic nonlinear behavior. We believe that the dynamical waves increase the material non-affine elastic deformation during shearing, simultaneously leading to instability and slow-slip. The inferred

  11. Short circuit in deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samura, Kazuhiro; Miyagi, Yasushi; Okamoto, Tsuyoshi; Hayami, Takehito; Kishimoto, Junji; Katano, Mitsuo; Kamikaseda, Kazufumi

    2012-11-01

    The authors undertook this study to investigate the incidence, cause, and clinical influence of short circuits in patients treated with deep brain stimulation (DBS). After the incidental identification of a short circuit during routine follow-up, the authors initiated a policy at their institution of routinely evaluating both therapeutic impedance and system impendence at every outpatient DBS follow-up visit, irrespective of the presence of symptoms suggesting possible system malfunction. This study represents a report of their findings after 1 year of this policy. Implanted DBS leads exhibiting short circuits were identified in 7 patients (8.9% of the patients seen for outpatient follow-up examinations during the 12-month study period). The mean duration from DBS lead implantation to the discovery of the short circuit was 64.7 months. The symptoms revealing short circuits included the wearing off of therapeutic effect, apraxia of eyelid opening, or dysarthria in 6 patients with Parkinson disease (PD), and dystonia deterioration in 1 patient with generalized dystonia. All DBS leads with short circuits had been anchored to the cranium using titanium miniplates. Altering electrode settings resulted in clinical improvement in the 2 PD cases in which patients had specific symptoms of short circuits (2.5%) but not in the other 4 cases. The patient with dystonia underwent repositioning and replacement of a lead because the previous lead was located too anteriorly, but did not experience symptom improvement. In contrast to the sudden loss of clinical efficacy of DBS caused by an open circuit, short circuits may arise due to a gradual decrease in impedance, causing the insidious development of neurological symptoms via limited or extended potential fields as well as shortened battery longevity. The incidence of short circuits in DBS may be higher than previously thought, especially in cases in which DBS leads are anchored with miniplates. The circuit impedance of DBS

  12. The menacing phantom: what pulls the trigger?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giummarra, Melita J; Georgiou-Karistianis, Nellie; Nicholls, Michael E R; Gibson, Stephen J; Chou, Michael; Bradshaw, John L

    2011-08-01

    Phantom phenomena are frequent following amputation, but how this often painful experience is modified or triggered by spontaneous events or sensations often puzzles amputees and clinicians alike. We explored triggers of phantom phenomena in a heterogeneous sample of 264 upper and lower limb adult amputees with phantom sensations. Participants completed a structured questionnaire to determine the prevalence and nature of the triggers of phantom phenomena. The four categories of triggers identified include: (a) a quarter of participants experiencing psychological, emotional or autonomic triggers; (b) half experiencing behavioral triggers, "forgetting" the limb's absence and attempting to use the phantom; (c) one-fifth experiencing weather-induced triggers; and (d) one-third experiencing sensations referred from parts of the body. Upper limb amputees; and were more likely to experience weather-induced phantom phenomena than lower limb amputees; and upper and lower limb amputees were equally likely to experience referred sensations from the genitals, contradicting the homuncular remapping hypothesis. Traumatic amputees were more likely to report emotional triggers. Further, while those with emotional triggers exhibited poorer acceptance of the limitations of amputation, they were more likely to employ adaptive coping mechanisms. Finally, habitual "forgetting" behaviors were most common soon after amputation, whereas other more adaptive schemata (e.g., self-defense) were equally likely to be performed at any time following amputation. Various likely inter-related mechanisms are discussed in relation to phantom triggers. Ultimately, optimizing stump and neuroma management, as well as restoring function of central networks for pain, limb movement, and amputation-related memories, should help manage spontaneously triggered phantom phenomena. Copyright © 2011 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters. All rights reserved.

  13. 30 CFR 75.518 - Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short circuit protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... electric equipment and circuits against short circuit and overloads. Three-phase motors on all electric equipment shall be provided with overload protection that will deenergize all three phases in the event that... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric equipment and circuits; overload and...

  14. Design of an improved RCD buffer circuit for full bridge circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenyan; Wei, Xueye; Du, Yongbo; Hu, Liang; Zhang, Liwei; Zhang, Ou

    2017-05-01

    In the full bridge inverter circuit, when the switch tube suddenly opened or closed, the inductor current changes rapidly. Due to the existence of parasitic inductance of the main circuit. Therefore, the surge voltage between drain and source of the switch tube can be generated, which will have an impact on the switch and the output voltage. In order to ab sorb the surge voltage. An improve RCD buffer circuit is proposed in the paper. The peak energy will be absorbed through the buffer capacitor of the circuit. The part energy feedback to the power supply, another part release through the resistor in the form of heat, and the circuit can absorb the voltage spikes. This paper analyzes the process of the improved RCD snubber circuit, According to the specific parameters of the main circuit, a reasonable formula for calculating the resistance capacitance is given. A simulation model will be modulated in Multisim, which compared the waveform of tube voltage and the output waveform of the circuit without snubber circuit with the improved RCD snubber circuit. By comparing and analyzing, it is proved that the improved buffer circuit can absorb surge voltage. Finally, experiments are demonstrated to validate that the correctness of the RC formula and the improved RCD snubber circuit.

  15. Triggered Templated Assembly of Protein Polymersomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, F.; Wolf, de F.A.; Marcelis, A.T.M.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.; Stuart, M.A.C.; Leermakers, F.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Trigger the block: Stable biocompatible protein polymersomes can be generated by a triggered templated self-assembly route (see picture). Pluronic L121 vesicles (red core with blue corona) take up a biosynthetic triblock copolymer CSXSXC into their unilamellar shell. In response to changes in pH

  16. Supine Breast MRI Using Respiratory Triggering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Natasja N. Y.; ter Beek, Leon C.; Loo, Claudette E.; Winter-Warnars, Gonneke; Lange, Charlotte A. H.; van Loveren, Marjolein; Alderliesten, Tanja; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Nijkamp, Jasper

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate if navigator-echo respiratory-triggered magnetic resonance acquisition can acquire supine high-quality breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Supine respiratory-triggered magnetic resonance imaging (Trig-MRI) was compared to supine non-Trig-MRI to evaluate

  17. The LVL2 trigger goes online

    CERN Multimedia

    David Berge

    On Friday, the 9th of February, the ATLAS TDAQ community reached an important milestone. In a successful integration test, cosmic-ray muons were recorded with parts of the muon spectrometer, the central-trigger system and a second-level trigger algorithm. This was actually the first time that a full trigger slice all the way from the first-level trigger muon chambers up to event building after event selection by the second-level trigger ran online with cosmic rays. The ATLAS trigger and data acquisition system has a three-tier structure that is designed to cope with the enormous demands of proton-proton collisions at a bunch-crossing frequency of 40 MHz, with a typical event size of 1-2 MB. The online event selection has to reduce the incoming rate by a factor of roughly 200,000 to 200 Hz, a rate digestible by the archival-storage and offline-processing facilities. ATLAS has a mixed system: the first-level trigger (LVL1) is in hardware, while the other two consecutive levels, the second-level trigger (LVL2)...

  18. The ATLAS Level-1 Topological Trigger Performance

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00371751; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The LHC will collide protons in the ATLAS detector with increasing luminosity through 2016, placing stringent operational and physical requirements to the ATLAS trigger system in order to reduce the 40 MHz collision rate to a manageable event storage rate of 1 kHz, while not rejecting interesting physics events. The Level-1 trigger is the first rate-reducing step in the ATLAS trigger system with an output rate of 100 kHz and decision latency smaller than 2.5 μs. It consists of a calorimeter trigger, muon trigger and a central trigger processor. During the LHC shutdown after the Run 1 finished in 2013, the Level-1 trigger system was upgraded including hardware, firmware and software updates. In particular, new electronics modules were introduced in the real-time data processing path: the Topological Processor System (L1Topo). It consists of a single AdvancedCTA shelf equipped with two Level-1 topological processor blades. They receive real-time information from the Level-1 calorimeter and muon triggers, which...

  19. Do episodes of anger trigger myocardial infarction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, J; Hallqvist, J; Diderichsen, Finn

    1999-01-01

    Our objectives were to study anger as a trigger of acute myocardial infarction (MI) and to explore potential effect modification by usual behavioral patterns related to hostility.......Our objectives were to study anger as a trigger of acute myocardial infarction (MI) and to explore potential effect modification by usual behavioral patterns related to hostility....

  20. The Run-2 ATLAS Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, Savanna Marie; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger has been successfully collecting collision data during the first run of the LHC between 2009-2013 at a centre-of-mass energy between 900 GeV and 8 TeV. The trigger system consists of a hardware Level-1 (L1) and a software based high-level trigger (HLT) that reduces the event rate from the design bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to an average recording rate of a few hundred Hz. In Run-2, the LHC will operate at centre-of-mass energies of 13 and 14 TeV resulting in roughly five times higher trigger rates. We will briefly review the ATLAS trigger system upgrades that were implemented during the shutdown, allowing us to cope with the increased trigger rates while maintaining or even improving our efficiency to select relevant physics processes. This includes changes to the L1 calorimeter and muon trigger systems, the introduction of a new L1 topological trigger module and the merging of the previously two-level HLT system into a single event filter farm. At hand of a few examples, we will show the ...

  1. Trigger factors for familial hemiplegic migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Møller; Hauge, Anne Werner; Ashina, Messoud

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to identify and describe migraine trigger factors in patients with familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) from a population-based sample.......The aim was to identify and describe migraine trigger factors in patients with familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) from a population-based sample....

  2. Recent advances in silicon photonic integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, John E.; Komljenovic, Tin; Davenport, Michael; Hulme, Jared; Liu, Alan Y.; Santis, Christos T.; Spott, Alexander; Srinivasan, Sudharsanan; Stanton, Eric J.; Zhang, Chong

    2016-02-01

    We review recent breakthroughs in silicon photonics technology and components and describe progress in silicon photonic integrated circuits. Heterogeneous silicon photonics has recently demonstrated performance that significantly outperforms native III-V components. The impact active silicon photonic integrated circuits could have on interconnects, telecommunications, sensors and silicon electronics is reviewed.

  3. CLASSICS Invention of the Integrated Circuit

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    electrical functions being connected directly by cutting out areas of the various layers.” This remarkable ... In 1947 I graduated from the University of Illinois with a degree in electrical engineering. I was hired by A. S. .... first circuit attempted was a phase-shift oscillator, a favorite demonstration vehicle for linear circuits at that ...

  4. Approximability of Minimum AND-Circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arpe, J.; Manthey, Bodo

    Given a set of monomials, the {\\sc Minimum AND-Circuit} problem asks for a circuit that computes these monomials using AND-gates of fan-in two and being of minimum size. We prove that the problem is not polynomial-time approximable within a factor of less than 1.0051 unless {\\sc P = NP}, even if the

  5. Textbook Error: Short Circuiting on Electrochemical Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonicamp, Judith M.; Clark, Roy W.

    2007-01-01

    Short circuiting an electrochemical cell is an unreported but persistent error in the electrochemistry textbooks. It is suggested that diagrams depicting a cell delivering usable current to a load be postponed, the theory of open-circuit galvanic cells is explained, the voltages from the tables of standard reduction potentials is calculated and…

  6. F-Paris: integrated electronic circuits [Tender

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Fourniture, montage et tests des circuits imprimes et modules multi composants pour le trajectographe central de CMS. Maximum de 12 000 circuits imprimes et modules multi-composants necessaires au trajectographe central de l'experience CMS aupres du Large Hadron Collider" (1 page).

  7. Automatic design of digital synthetic gene circuits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario A Marchisio

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available De novo computational design of synthetic gene circuits that achieve well-defined target functions is a hard task. Existing, brute-force approaches run optimization algorithms on the structure and on the kinetic parameter values of the network. However, more direct rational methods for automatic circuit design are lacking. Focusing on digital synthetic gene circuits, we developed a methodology and a corresponding tool for in silico automatic design. For a given truth table that specifies a circuit's input-output relations, our algorithm generates and ranks several possible circuit schemes without the need for any optimization. Logic behavior is reproduced by the action of regulatory factors and chemicals on the promoters and on the ribosome binding sites of biological Boolean gates. Simulations of circuits with up to four inputs show a faithful and unequivocal truth table representation, even under parametric perturbations and stochastic noise. A comparison with already implemented circuits, in addition, reveals the potential for simpler designs with the same function. Therefore, we expect the method to help both in devising new circuits and in simplifying existing solutions.

  8. RF Circuit Design in Nanometer CMOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, Bram

    2007-01-01

    With CMOS technology entering the nanometer regime, the design of analog and RF circuits is complicated by low supply voltages, very non-linear (and nonquadratic) devices and large 1/f noise. At the same time, circuits are required to operate over increasingly wide bandwidths to implement modern

  9. Hyperchaotic circuit with damped harmonic oscillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Erik; Murali, K.; Tamasevicius, A.

    2001-01-01

    A simple fourth-order hyperchaotic circuit with damped harmonic oscillators is described. ANP3 and PSpice simulations including an eigenvalue study of the linearized Jacobian are presented together with a hardware implementation. The circuit contains two inductors with series resistance, two ideal...

  10. Understanding the Behaviour of Infinite Ladder Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucak, C.; Yegin, K.

    2008-01-01

    Infinite ladder circuits are often encountered in undergraduate electrical engineering and physics curricula when dealing with series and parallel combination of impedances, as a part of filter design or wave propagation on transmission lines. The input impedance of such infinite ladder circuits is derived by assuming that the input impedance does…

  11. DEVICES FOR COOLING ELECTRONIC CIRCUIT BOARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Ismailov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the work described structural variants of devices for cooling electronic circuit boards, made on the basis of thermoelectric batteries and consumable working substances, implementing uneven process of removing heat from heat-generating components. A comparison of temperature fields of electronic circuit simulator with his uniform and non-uniform cooling. 

  12. Circuit prevents overcharging of secondary cell batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennigan, T. J.; Potter, N. H.; Sizemore, K. O.

    1966-01-01

    Circuit prevents battery cell overcharging by detecting and reducing the charging voltage to the open-circuit voltage of the battery when this current falls to a predetermined value. The voltage control depends on the fact that the charging current falls significantly when the battery nears its fully charged state.

  13. 47 CFR 32.2232 - Circuit equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circuit equipment. 32.2232 Section 32.2232... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2232 Circuit equipment. (a) This account shall include the original cost of equipment which is used to reduce the number of...

  14. Dissipative in quantum mesoscopic RLC circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Pahlavani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The quantum theory for a mesoscopic electric circuit with charge discreteness is investigated. Taking the Caldirola-Kanai Hamiltonian in studding quantum mechanics of dissipative systems, we obtain the persistent current and the energy spectrum of a damped quantum LC-design mesoscopic circuit under the influence of a time-dependent external field.

  15. Circuits in the Sun: Solar Panel Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gfroerer, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Typical commercial solar panels consist of approximately 60 individual photovoltaic cells connected in series. Since the usual Kirchhoff rules apply, the current is uniform throughout the circuit, while the electric potential of the individual devices is cumulative. Hence, a solar panel is a good analog of a simple resistive series circuit, except…

  16. Hacking DNA copy number for circuit engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feilun; You, Lingchong

    2017-07-27

    DNA copy number represents an essential parameter in the dynamics of synthetic gene circuits but typically is not explicitly considered. A new study demonstrates how dynamic control of DNA copy number can serve as an effective strategy to program robust oscillations in gene expression circuits.

  17. Active components for integrated plasmonic circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krasavin, A.V.; Bolger, P.M.; Zayats, A.V.

    2009-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of highly efficient and compact passive and active components for integrated plasmonic circuit based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides.......We present a comprehensive study of highly efficient and compact passive and active components for integrated plasmonic circuit based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides....

  18. IMPORTANT NOTICE: Cancellation of shuttle Circuit 3

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Circuit 3 of the CERN Shuttle Service (Point 5), which has served CMS since the start of LS1, will be cancelled with effect from Tuesday 16 April. This decision has been taken in consultation with CMS, as the circuit was seldom used.   In response to increasing demand for Circuit 1 - Meyrin and feedback from passengers, the two Circuit 3 journeys will be switched to Circuit 1 – Meyrin (see new timetable below): Mornings: Four journeys instead of three. Circuit 1 now starts at 8:10 (instead of 8:19 a.m.) and runs until 9:27 a.m. (instead of 9:16 a.m.). Lunchtimes: Five journeys in place between 12:10 p.m. and 1:47 p.m. Evenings: Circuit starts at 5:23 p.m. (instead of 5:03 p.m.) and ends at 6:20 p.m. at Building 33. Please note that the circuit will depart from Building 13 instead of Building 33.  

  19. Worst Asymmetrical Short-Circuit Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arana Aristi, Iván; Holmstrøm, O; Grastrup, L

    2010-01-01

    In a typical power plant, the production scenario and the short-circuit time were found for the worst asymmetrical short-circuit current. Then, a sensitivity analysis on the missing generator values was realized in order to minimize the uncertainty of the results. Afterward the worst asymmetrical...

  20. Piezoelectric pump and pressurised circuit provided therewith

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Es, Johannes; Wits, Wessel Willems

    2015-01-01

    A piezoelectric pump for use in a pressurised circuit is provided, comprising a pump chamber (5) with an inlet (6) provided with a one way inlet valve (7), for connection to a feeding line (8) of the pressurised circuit and an outlet (9) provided with a one way outlet valve (10), for connection to a

  1. Two New Families of Floating FDNR Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Soliman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new configurations for realizing ideal floating frequency-dependent negative resistor elements (FDNR are introduced. The proposed circuits are symmetrical and are realizable by four CCII or ICCII or a combination of both. Each configuration is realizable by eight different circuits. Simulation results are included to support the theory.

  2. Design of drive circuit of laser diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Yingying; Huang, Xuegong; Xu, Xiaobin

    2016-10-01

    Aiming at the difficult problem of high precision frequency stabilization of semiconductor laser diode, the laser frequency control is realized through the design of the semiconductor drive system. Above all, the relationship between the emission frequency and the temperature of LD is derived theoretically. Then the temperature corresponding to the stable frequency is obtained. According to the desired temperature stability of LD, temperature control system is designed, which is composed of a temperature setting circuit, temperature gathering circuit, the temperature display circuit, analog PID control circuit and a semiconductor refrigerator control circuit module. By sampling technology, voltage of platinum resistance is acquired, and the converted temperature is display on liquid crystal display. PID analog control circuit controls speed stability and precision of temperature control. The constant current source circuit is designed to provide the reference voltage by a voltage stabilizing chip, which is buffered by an operational amplifier. It is connected with the MOSFET to drive the semiconductor laser to provide stable current for the semiconductor laser. PCB circuit board was finished and the experimental was justified. The experimental results show that: the design of the temperature control system could achieve the goal of temperature monitoring. Meanwhile, temperature can be stabilized at 40°C +/- 0.1°C. The output voltage of the constant current source is 2 V. The current is 35 mA.

  3. Sustainability issues in circuit board recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Jens Brøbech; Alting, Leo; Baldo, Gian Luca

    1995-01-01

    The resource recovery and environmental impact issues of printed circuit board recycling by secondary copper smelters are discussed. Guidelines concerning material selection for circuit board manufacture and concerning the recycling processes are given to enhance recovery efficiency and to lower...... the impacts on the external environment from recycling...

  4. Finding all elementary circuits exploiting transconductance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Bruccoleri, F.; Nauta, Bram

    2001-01-01

    Commonly used elementary circuits like single-transistor amplifier stages, the differential pair, and current mirrors basically exploit the transconductance property of transistors. This paper aims at finding all elementary transconductance-based circuits. For this purpose, all graphs of two-port

  5. Electronic circuit realization of the logistic map

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. An electronic circuit realization of the logistic difference equation is presented using analog electronics. The behaviour of the realized system is evalu- ated against computer simulations of the same. The circuit is found to exhibit the entire range of dynamics of the logistic equation: fixed points, periodicity, period.

  6. Event triggered architectures versus timed triggered architectures for real-time control systems

    OpenAIRE

    Doina Zmaranda; Gianina Gabor

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses the system engineering of safety-critical real-time systems making a comparison between event-triggered and timed triggered architectures. Main advantages and disadvantages of both approaches are investigated in the context of utilization for real-time control systems development. Finally, an example of implementation based on the time-triggered architecture is presented.

  7. MR imaging findings of trigger thumb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Eric Y.; Chen, Karen C.; Chung, Christine B. [VA San Diego Healthcare System, Radiology Service, San Diego, CA (United States); University of California, San Diego Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Trigger finger (or trigger thumb), also known as sclerosing tenosynovitis, is a common clinical diagnosis that rarely presents for imaging. Because of this selection bias, many radiologists may not be familiar with the process. Furthermore, patients who do present for imaging frequently have misleading examination indications. To our knowledge, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of trigger thumb have not been previously reported in the literature. In this article, we review the entity of trigger thumb, the anatomy involved, and associated imaging findings, which include flexor pollicis longus tendinosis with a distinct nodule, A1 pulley thickening, and tenosynovitis. In addition, in some cases, an abnormal Av pulley is apparent. In the rare cases of trigger finger that present for MR imaging, accurate diagnosis by the radiologist can allow initiation of treatment and avoid further unnecessary workup. (orig.)

  8. The LHCb Trigger: Present and Future

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R

    2012-01-01

    LHCb is a single arm spectrometer covering the pseudo-rapidity range between 1.9 and 4.9, and has been optimised to perform flavour physics measurements at the LHC. The present two stage trigger system is able to select charm and beauty decay products with high efficiency due the highly inclusive approach of triggering on partially reconstructed decays and the use of a novel multivariate classifier at the second stage. The trigger can select both leptonic and purely hadronic decays. The performance of the trigger is determined from the data itself without having to rely on Monte-Carlo simulation and is presented. LHCb has recently submitted their upgrade LOI, which mainly aims at profiting from much larger luminosities by moving towards a single fully software based trigger. The upgrade strategy and expected performance are presented.

  9. Synchronous ten trigger finger: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokce Yildiran

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Trigger finger is a disorder that presents with a blocking feeling and pain during finger movements. This condition more commonly occurs in the 2nd finger with involvement of multiple digits being extremely rare. There are very few known cases in which trigger finger was developed in all ten fingers. Here, an unusual case of ten-digit finger trigger is presented. A 44-year-old female housewife visited our clinic with painful blocking feeling in her hand. Her examination was compatible with trigger finger. Her hands were operated on in different sessions and A1 pulleys of all fingers were released. After the operations, blocking feeling and pain during flexion disappeared and normal range of motion was obtained. On the occasion of this very rare case, the etiology and approach for multiple trigger fingers is discussed. [Hand Microsurg 2016; 5(2.000: 84-87

  10. Application of Vector Triggering Random Decrement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, J. C.; Ibrahim, S. R.; Brincker, Rune

    1997-01-01

    result is a Random Decrement function from each measurement. In traditional Random Decrement estimation the triggering condition is a scalar condition, which should only be fulfilled in a single measurement. In vector triggering Random Decrement the triggering condition is a vector condition....... The advantage of this new approach should be a reduction in estimation time without a significant loss of accuracy, since the vector triggering conditions ensure cross information between the measurements in the Random Decrement functions. The different problems with this technique is highlighted in two......This paper deals with applications of the vector triggering Random Decrement technique. This technique is new and developed with the aim of minimizing estimation time and identification errors. The theory behind the technique is discussed in an accompanying paper. The results presented...

  11. Application of Vector Triggering Random Decrement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, J. C.; Ibrahim, S. R.; Brincker, Rune

    result is a Random Decrement function from each measurement. In traditional Random Decrement estimation the triggering condition is a scalar condition, which should only be fulfilled in a single measurement. In vector triggering Random Decrement the triggering condition is a vector condition....... The advantage of this new approach should be a reduction in estimation time without a significant loss of accuracy, since the vector triggering conditions ensure cross information between the measurements in the Random Decrement functions. The different problems with this technique is highlighted in two......This paper deals with applications of the vector triggering Random Decrement technique. This technique is new and developed with the aim of minimizing estimation time and identification errors. The theory behind the technique is discussed in an accompanying paper. The results presented...

  12. Spin-Circuit Representation of Spin Pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Kuntal

    2017-07-01

    Circuit theory has been tremendously successful in translating physical equations into circuit elements in an organized form for further analysis and proposing creative designs for applications. With the advent of new materials and phenomena in the field of spintronics and nanomagnetics, it is imperative to construct the spin-circuit representations for different materials and phenomena. Spin pumping is a phenomenon by which a pure spin current can be injected into the adjacent layers. If the adjacent layer is a material with a high spin-orbit coupling, a considerable amount of charge voltage can be generated via the inverse spin Hall effect allowing spin detection. Here we develop the spin-circuit representation of spin pumping. We then combine it with the spin-circuit representation for the materials having spin Hall effect to show that it reproduces the standard results as in the literature. We further show how complex multilayers can be analyzed by simply writing a netlist.

  13. Designing Novel Quaternary Quantum Reversible Subtractor Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghparast, Majid; Monfared, Asma Taheri

    2018-01-01

    Reversible logic synthesis is an important area of current research because of its ability to reduce energy dissipation. In recent years, multiple valued logic has received great attention due to its ability to reduce the width of the reversible circuit which is a main requirement in quantum technology. Subtractor circuits are between major components used in quantum computers. In this paper, we will discuss the design of a quaternary quantum reversible half subtractor circuit using quaternary 1-qudit, 2-qudit Muthukrishnan-Stroud and 3-qudit controlled gates and a 2-qudit Generalized quaternary gate. Then a design of a quaternary quantum reversible full subtractor circuit based on the quaternary half subtractor will be presenting. The designs shall then be evaluated in terms of quantum cost, constant input, garbage output, and hardware complexity. The proposed quaternary quantum reversible circuits are the first attempt in the designing of the aforementioned subtractor.

  14. Designing Novel Quaternary Quantum Reversible Subtractor Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghparast, Majid; Monfared, Asma Taheri

    2017-10-01

    Reversible logic synthesis is an important area of current research because of its ability to reduce energy dissipation. In recent years, multiple valued logic has received great attention due to its ability to reduce the width of the reversible circuit which is a main requirement in quantum technology. Subtractor circuits are between major components used in quantum computers. In this paper, we will discuss the design of a quaternary quantum reversible half subtractor circuit using quaternary 1-qudit, 2-qudit Muthukrishnan-Stroud and 3-qudit controlled gates and a 2-qudit Generalized quaternary gate. Then a design of a quaternary quantum reversible full subtractor circuit based on the quaternary half subtractor will be presenting. The designs shall then be evaluated in terms of quantum cost, constant input, garbage output, and hardware complexity. The proposed quaternary quantum reversible circuits are the first attempt in the designing of the aforementioned subtractor.

  15. Progress in organic integrated circuit manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, D. Martin

    2016-02-01

    This review article focuses on the development of processes for the manufacture of organic electronic circuits. Beginning with the first report of an organic transistor it highlights the key developments leading to the successful manufacture of microprocessors and other complex circuits incorporating organic transistors. Both batch processing (based on silicon integrated circuit technology) as well as mass-printing, roll-to-roll (R2R) approaches are discussed. Currently, the best circuit performances are achieved using batch processing. It is suggested that an emerging, large mass-market for electronic tags may dictate that R2R manufacture will likely be required to meet the high throughput rates needed. However, significant improvements in resolution and registration are necessary to achieve increased circuit operating speeds.

  16. On equivalent resistance of electrical circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    While the standard (introductory physics) way of computing the equivalent resistance of nontrivial electrical circuits is based on Kirchhoff's rules, there is a mathematically and conceptually simpler approach, called the method of nodal potentials, whose basic variables are the values of the electric potential at the circuit's nodes. In this paper, we review the method of nodal potentials and illustrate it using the Wheatstone bridge as an example. We then derive a closed-form expression for the equivalent resistance of a generic circuit, which we apply to a few sample circuits. The result unveils a curious interplay between electrical circuits, matrix algebra, and graph theory and its applications to computer science. The paper is written at a level accessible by undergraduate students who are familiar with matrix arithmetic. Additional proofs and technical details are provided in appendices.

  17. Grounding and shielding circuits and interference

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Applies basic field behavior in circuit design and demonstrates how it relates to grounding and shielding requirements and techniques in circuit design This book connects the fundamentals of electromagnetic theory to the problems of interference in all types of electronic design. The text covers power distribution in facilities, mixing of analog and digital circuitry, circuit board layout at high clock rates, and meeting radiation and susceptibility standards. The author examines the grounding and shielding requirements and techniques in circuit design and applies basic physics to circuit behavior. The sixth edition of this book has been updated with new material added throughout the chapters where appropriate. The presentation of the book has also been rearranged in order to reflect the current trends in the field.

  18. Automatic Testing of the Trigger Data Serializer ASIC for the Upgrade of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Pinkham, Reid; Schwarz, Thomas

    The Trigger Data Serializer (TDS) is a custom designed Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) designed at the University of Michigan to be used on the ATLAS New Small Wheel (NSW) detector. The TDS is a central hub of the NSW trigger system. It prepares the trigger data for both pad and strip detectors, performs pad-strip matching, and serializes the matched strip data to other circuits on the rim of the NSW. In total, 6000 TDS chips will be produced. As part of the TDS’ initial production run, a test platform was developed to verify the functionality of each chip before being sent to users. The test platform consisted of multiple FPGA evaluation boards with custom designed mezzanine boards to hold the TDS chip during testing and control software running on a local computer. Of the initial run of 200 chips, 161 chips were tested with the automatic setup of which 158 passed. Detailed description of the TDS and automatic test fixture can be found in this thesis.

  19. Light Sources and Ballast Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Sakai, Makoto; Yasuda, Takeo; Maehara, Akiyoshi; Okada, Atsunori; Gouriki, Takeshi; Mannami, Tomoaki

    discharge models were reported. Further, studies on ultra high-pressure mercury lamps as light sources for projectors are becoming the mainstream of HID lamp related researches. For high-pressure sodium lamps, many studies on plant growing and pest control utilizing low insect attracting aspects were also reported in 2006. Additionally, for discharge lamps, the minimum sustaining electric power for arc tubes employed in electrode-less compact fluorescent lamps was investigated. For Hg-free rare-gas fluorescent lamps, a luminance of 10,000cd/m2 was attained by a 1 meter-long external duplex spiral electrode prototype using Xe/Ne barrier discharge. As to startup circuits, the commercialization of energy saving and high value added products mainly associated with fluorescent lamps and HID lamps are becoming common. Further, the miniaturization of startup circuits for self electronic-ballasted lamps has advanced. Speaking of the overall light sources and startup circuits in 2006 and with the enforcement of RoHS in Europe in July, the momentum toward hazardous substance-free and energy saving initiatives has been enhanced from the perspective of protecting the global environment. It is anticipated that similar restrictions will be globally enforced in the future.

  20. Designing signal-enriched triggers for boosted jets.

    CERN Document Server

    Toumazou, Marina

    2017-01-01

    Triggers designed to favour the selection of hadronically decaying massive particles have been studied. Both triggers using solely ET and mass cuts (similar to new 2017 triggers) and triggers exploiting polarization information have been studied. The mass cut triggers show substantial gains in rate reduction, while the benefits of polarization triggers are less obvious. The final conclusion is that it is more useful to identify and trigger on generic boosted decays, irrespective of the polarization of the decaying particle

  1. GnRHa trigger for final oocyte maturation: is HCG trigger history?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humaidan, Peter; Alsbjerg, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    gonadotrophin (HCG) trigger. Early trials showed a severe luteal phase insufficiency after GnRHa trigger despite the application of standard luteal phase support protocols. Subsequent research has led to modifications of the luteal phase support, resulting in reproductive outcome comparable to that seen after...... HCG trigger in normal- and high-responders. GnRHa trigger facilitates a tailored approach to subsequent luteal phase support, taking into account the ovarian response to stimulation. In the future, GnRHa is likely to be used for trigger in all women co-treated with GnRH antagonists....

  2. EMI-resilient amplifier circuits

    CERN Document Server

    van der Horst, Marcel J; Linnenbank, André C

    2014-01-01

    This book enables circuit designers to reduce the errors introduced by the fundamental limitations and electromagnetic interference (EMI) in negative-feedback amplifiers.  The authors describe a systematic design approach for application specific negative-feedback amplifiers, with specified signal-to-error ratio (SER).  This approach enables designers to calculate noise, bandwidth, EMI, and the required bias parameters of the transistors used in  application specific amplifiers in order to meet the SER requirements.   ·         Describes design methods that incorporate electromagnetic interference (EMI) in the design of application specific negative-feedback amplifiers; ·         Provides designers with a structured methodology to avoid the use of trial and error in meeting signal-to-error ratio (SER) requirements; ·         Equips designers to increase EMI immunity of the amplifier itself, thus avoiding filtering at the input, reducing the number of components and avoiding detr...

  3. Quantum interference in plasmonic circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeres, Reinier W; Kouwenhoven, Leo P; Zwiller, Valery

    2013-10-01

    Surface plasmon polaritons (plasmons) are a combination of light and a collective oscillation of the free electron plasma at metal/dielectric interfaces. This interaction allows subwavelength confinement of light beyond the diffraction limit inherent to dielectric structures. As a result, the intensity of the electromagnetic field is enhanced, with the possibility to increase the strength of the optical interactions between waveguides, light sources and detectors. Plasmons maintain non-classical photon statistics and preserve entanglement upon transmission through thin, patterned metallic films or weakly confining waveguides. For quantum applications, it is essential that plasmons behave as indistinguishable quantum particles. Here we report on a quantum interference experiment in a nanoscale plasmonic circuit consisting of an on-chip plasmon beamsplitter with integrated superconducting single-photon detectors to allow efficient single plasmon detection. We demonstrate a quantum-mechanical interaction between pairs of indistinguishable surface plasmons by observing Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interference, a hallmark non-classical interference effect that is the basis of linear optics-based quantum computation. Our work shows that it is feasible to shrink quantum optical experiments to the nanoscale and offers a promising route towards subwavelength quantum optical networks.

  4. Flexible printed circuit board actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junseok; Cha, Youngsu

    2017-12-01

    Out-of-plane actuators are made possible by the breaking of planar symmetry. In this paper, we present a thin-film out-of-plane electrostatic actuator for a flexible printed circuit board (FPCB) that can be fabricated with a single step of the conventional manufacturing process. No other components are required for actuation except a single sheet of the FPCB, and it works based on the planar asymmetry resulting from asymmetrically patterned top and bottom electrodes on each side of the polyimide film. With the structural asymmetry, the application of a high voltage in the order of kilovolts results in the asymmetry of the electric fields and the body force density, which generates the bending moment that leads to macroscopic deformations. We applied the finite element method to examine the asymmetry induced by the difference in the electrodes. In the experiment, the displacement responses to step input and square wave input of various frequencies were analyzed. It was found that our actuator constitutes an underdamped system, exhibiting resonance characteristics. The maximum oscillatory amplitude was determined at resonance, and the relationship between the displacement and the applied voltage was investigated.

  5. Climatic triggers for peatland initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Paul J.; Swindles, Graeme T.; Valdes, Paul J.; Ivanovic, Ruza F.; Gregoire, Lauren J.; Smith, Mark W.; Tarasov, Lev; Haywood, Alan M.; Bacon, Karen L.

    2017-04-01

    Peatlands are carbon-dense wetlands characterised by waterlogged, organic-rich soils. Modern-day peatlands have formed mainly since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), and despite covering only 3 % of the Earth's land surface are thought to store more than a third of all global soil carbon in the form of poorly decomposed plant detritus. Concern exists that this globally important carbon store may be vulnerable to near-future warming and changes in precipitation patterns, although the links between peatland development and climate are contested. The climatic and other environmental conditions that facilitate the initiation of peat are particularly poorly understood. We present the results of a novel, global study into the climate space of peat initiation since the LGM. We compiled a catalogue of radiocarbon dates of peat initiation from 942 sites that span a range of latitudes and biomes. We used the locations and ages of these peatlands to interrogate downscaled climate hindcasts at 500-yr intervals from a coupled atmosphere-ocean-vegetation general circulation model, HadCM3. This powerful combination of modelling and observational data provides a globally-consistent, temporally-extensive estimate of the climate spaces of peat initiation. In particular, it allows us to identify local and regional climatic changes that may have acted as triggers for peat formation. Peatlands in mid- and high-latitudes of both hemispheres, particularly in maritime locations, developed shortly after local increases in the time integral of growing season temperatures, and were seemingly not influenced by rainfall regime. Peat initiation at such sites appears to have been stimulated by temperature-driven increases in plant productivity in cold, postglacial landscapes, and was not water limited. The exception is the large peatland complex of the Western Siberian Lowlands, which was not glaciated during the last glacial period, and which appears to have been prompted instead by a strong

  6. The ATLAS Level-1 Central Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Stockton, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 trigger system is responsible for reducing the anticipated LHC collision rate from 40 MHz to less than 100 kHz. This Level-1 selection identifies, jet, tau/hadron, electron/photon and muon candidates, with additional triggers for missing and total energy. These inputs are used by the Level-1 Central Trigger to form a Level-1 Accept decision. This decision, along with summary information, is then passed into the higher levels of the trigger system and sub-detectors, which also receive the clock from the Level-1 Central trigger. The performance of the Central Trigger during the first collisions will be shown. This includes details of how the trigger information, along with dead-time rates, are monitored and logged by the online system for physics analysis, data quality assurance and operational debugging. Also presented are the software tools used to efficiently display the relevant information in the control room in a way useful for shifters and experts.

  7. The ATLAS high level trigger steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, N.; Bold, T.; Eifert, T.; Fischer, G.; George, S.; Haller, J.; Hoecker, A.; Masik, J.; Nedden, M. Z.; Reale, V. P.; Risler, C.; Schiavi, C.; Stelzer, J.; Wu, X.

    2008-07-01

    The High Level Trigger (HLT) of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider receives events which pass the LVL1 trigger at ~75 kHz and has to reduce the rate to ~200 Hz while retaining the most interesting physics. It is a software trigger and performs the reduction in two stages: the LVL2 trigger and the Event Filter (EF). At the heart of the HLT is the Steering software. To minimise processing time and data transfers it implements the novel event selection strategies of seeded, step-wise reconstruction and early rejection. The HLT is seeded by regions of interest identified at LVL1. These and the static configuration determine which algorithms are run to reconstruct event data and test the validity of trigger signatures. The decision to reject the event or continue is based on the valid signatures, taking into account pre-scale and pass-through. After the EF, event classification tags are assigned for streaming purposes. Several new features for commissioning and operation have been added: comprehensive monitoring is now built in to the framework; for validation and debugging, reconstructed data can be written out; the steering is integrated with the new configuration (presented separately), and topological and global triggers have been added. This paper will present details of the final design and its implementation, the principles behind it, and the requirements and constraints it is subject to. The experience gained from technical runs with realistic trigger menus will be described.

  8. The ATLAS Electron and Photon Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Samuel David; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Electron and photon triggers covering transverse energies from 5 GeV to several TeV are essential for signal selection in a wide variety of ATLAS physics analyses to study Standard Model processes and to search for new phenomena. Final states including leptons and photons had, for example, an important role in the discovery and measurement of the Higgs boson. Dedicated triggers are also used to collect data for calibration, efficiency and fake rate measurements. The ATLAS trigger system is divided in a hardware-based Level-1 trigger and a software-based high-level trigger, both of which were upgraded during the LHC shutdown in preparation for Run-2 operation. To cope with the increasing luminosity and more challenging pile-up conditions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, the trigger selections at each level are optimized to control the rates and keep efficiencies high. To achieve this goal multivariate analysis techniques are used. The ATLAS electron and photon triggers and their performance with Run 2 dat...

  9. The ATLAS Electron and Photon Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Samuel David; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Electron and photon triggers covering transverse energies from 5 GeV to several TeV are essential for signal selection in a wide variety of ATLAS physics analyses to study Standard Model processes and to search for new phenomena. Final states including leptons and photons had, for example, an important role in the discovery and measurement of the Higgs boson. Dedicated triggers are also used to collect data for calibration, efficiency and fake rate measurements. The ATLAS trigger system is divided in a hardware-based Level-1 trigger and a software-based high-level trigger, both of which were upgraded during the LHC shutdown in preparation for Run-2 operation. To cope with the increasing luminosity and more challenging pile-up conditions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, the trigger selections at each level are optimized to control the rates and keep efficiencies high. To achieve this goal multivariate analysis techniques are used. The ATLAS electron and photon triggers and their performance with Run 2 dat...

  10. Upgrade of the CMS Global Muon Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Jeitler, Manfred; Rabady, Dinyar; Sakulin, Hannes; Stahl, Achim

    2015-01-01

    The increase in center-of-mass energy and luminosity for Run-II of the Large Hadron Collider poses new challenges for the trigger systems of the experiments. To keep triggering with a similar performance as in Run-I, the CMS muon trigger is currently being upgraded. The new algorithms will provide higher resolution, especially for the muon transverse momentum and will make use of isolation criteria that combine calorimeter with muon information already in the level-1 trigger. The demands of the new algorithms can only be met by upgrading the level-1 trigger system to new powerful FPGAs with high bandwidth I/O. The processing boards will be based on the new μTCA standard. We report on the planned algorithms for the upgraded Global Muon Trigger (μGMT) which sorts and removes duplicates from boundaries of the muon trigger sub-systems. Furthermore, it determines how isolated the muon candidates are based on calorimetric energy deposits. The μGMT will be implemented using a processing board that features a larg...

  11. Triggered tremor sweet spots in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, Joan; Prejean, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    To better understand what controls fault slip along plate boundaries, we have exploited the abundance of seismic and geodetic data available from the richly varied tectonic environments composing Alaska. A search for tremor triggered by 11 large earthquakes throughout all of seismically monitored Alaska reveals two tremor “sweet spots”—regions where large-amplitude seismic waves repeatedly triggered tremor between 2006 and 2012. The two sweet spots locate in very different tectonic environments—one just trenchward and between the Aleutian islands of Unalaska and Akutan and the other in central mainland Alaska. The Unalaska/Akutan spot corroborates previous evidence that the region is ripe for tremor, perhaps because it is located where plate-interface frictional properties transition between stick-slip and stably sliding in both the dip direction and laterally. The mainland sweet spot coincides with a region of complex and uncertain plate interactions, and where no slow slip events or major crustal faults have been noted previously. Analyses showed that larger triggering wave amplitudes, and perhaps lower frequencies (probability of triggering tremor. However, neither the maximum amplitude in the time domain or in a particular frequency band, nor the geometric relationship of the wavefield to the tremor source faults alone ensures a high probability of triggering. Triggered tremor at the two sweet spots also does not occur during slow slip events visually detectable in GPS data, although slow slip below the detection threshold may have facilitated tremor triggering.

  12. The ATLAS Trigger Performance and Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, B A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    During the data taking period from 2009 until 2012, the ATLAS trigger has been very successfully used to collect proton-proton data at LHC centre-of-mass energies between 900 GeV and 8 TeV. The three-level trigger system reduces the event rate from the design bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to an average recording rate of about 300 Hz. Using custom electronics with input from the calorimeter and muon detectors, the first level rejects most background collisions in less than 2.5 microseconds. Then follow two levels of software-based triggers. The trigger system is designed to select events by identifying muons, electrons, photons, taus, jets and B hadron candidates, as well as using global event signatures, such as missing transverse energy. We give an overview of the strategy and performance of the different trigger selections based mainly on the experience during the 2011-2012 LHC run, where the trigger menu needed quick adaptations to the continuous increase of luminosity. Examples of trigger efficiencies and...

  13. A novel interface circuit for triboelectric nanogenerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wuqi; Ma, Jiahao; Zhang, Zhaohua; Ren, Tianling

    2017-10-01

    For most triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs), the electric output should be a short AC pulse, which has the common characteristic of high voltage but low current. Thus it is necessary to convert the AC to DC and store the electric energy before driving conventional electronics. The traditional AC voltage regulator circuit which commonly consists of transformer, rectifier bridge, filter capacitor, and voltage regulator diode is not suitable for the TENG because the transformer’s consumption of power is appreciable if the TENG output is small. This article describes an innovative design of an interface circuit for a triboelectric nanogenerator that is transformerless and easily integrated. The circuit consists of large-capacity electrolytic capacitors that can realize to intermittently charge lithium-ion batteries and the control section contains the charging chip, the rectifying circuit, a comparator chip and switch chip. More important, the whole interface circuit is completely self-powered and self-controlled. Meanwhile, the chip is widely used in the circuit, so it is convenient to integrate into PCB. In short, this work presents a novel interface circuit for TENGs and makes progress to the practical application and industrialization of nanogenerators. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61434001) and the ‘Thousands Talents’ Program for Pioneer Researchers and Its Innovation Team, China.

  14. Negative inductance circuits for metamaterial bandwidth enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avignon-Meseldzija, Emilie; Lepetit, Thomas; Ferreira, Pietro Maris; Boust, Fabrice

    2017-12-01

    Passive metamaterials have yet to be translated into applications on a large scale due in large part to their limited bandwidth. To overcome this limitation many authors have suggested coupling metamaterials to non-Foster circuits. However, up to now, the number of convincing demonstrations based on non-Foster metamaterials has been very limited. This paper intends to clarify why progress has been so slow, i.e., the fundamental difficulty in making a truly broadband and efficient non-Foster metamaterial. To this end, we consider two families of metamaterials, namely Artificial Magnetic Media and Artificial Magnetic Conductors. In both cases, it turns out that bandwidth enhancement requires negative inductance with almost zero resistance. To estimate bandwidth enhancement with actual non-Foster circuits, we consider two classes of such circuits, namely Linvill and gyrator. The issue of stability being critical, both metamaterial families are studied with equivalent circuits that include advanced models of these non-Foster circuits. Conclusions are different for Artificial Magnetic Media coupled to Linvill circuits and Artificial Magnetic Conductors coupled to gyrator circuits. In the first case, requirements for bandwidth enhancement and stability are very hard to meet simultaneously whereas, in the second case, an adjustment of the transistor gain does significantly increase bandwidth.

  15. Displacement Damage in Bipolar Linear Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rax, B. G.; Johnston, A. H.; Miyahira, T.

    2000-01-01

    Although many different processes can be used to manufacture linear integrated circuits, the process that is used for most circuits is optimized for high voltage -- a total power supply voltage of about 40 V -- and low cost. This process, which has changed little during the last twenty years, uses lateral and substrate p-n-p transistors. These p-n-p transistors have very wide base regions, increasing their sensitivity to displacement damage from electrons and protons. Although displacement damage effects can be easily treated for individual transistors, the net effect on linear circuits can be far more complex because circuit operation often depends on the interaction of several internal transistors. Note also that some circuits are made with more advanced processes with much narrower base widths. Devices fabricated with these newer processes are not expected to be significantly affected by displacement damage for proton fluences below 1 x 10(exp 12) p/sq cm. This paper discusses displacement damage in linear integrated circuits with more complex failure modes than those exhibited by simpler devices, such as the LM111 comparator, where the dominant response mode is gain degradation of the input transistor. Some circuits fail catastrophically at much lower equivalent total dose levels compared to tests with gamma rays. The device works satisfactorily up to nearly 1 Mrad(Si) when it is irradiated with gamma rays, but fails catastrophically between 50 and 70 krad(Si) when it is irradiated with protons.

  16. Negative inductance circuits for metamaterial bandwidth enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avignon-Meseldzija Emilie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Passive metamaterials have yet to be translated into applications on a large scale due in large part to their limited bandwidth. To overcome this limitation many authors have suggested coupling metamaterials to non-Foster circuits. However, up to now, the number of convincing demonstrations based on non-Foster metamaterials has been very limited. This paper intends to clarify why progress has been so slow, i.e., the fundamental difficulty in making a truly broadband and efficient non-Foster metamaterial. To this end, we consider two families of metamaterials, namely Artificial Magnetic Media and Artificial Magnetic Conductors. In both cases, it turns out that bandwidth enhancement requires negative inductance with almost zero resistance. To estimate bandwidth enhancement with actual non-Foster circuits, we consider two classes of such circuits, namely Linvill and gyrator. The issue of stability being critical, both metamaterial families are studied with equivalent circuits that include advanced models of these non-Foster circuits. Conclusions are different for Artificial Magnetic Media coupled to Linvill circuits and Artificial Magnetic Conductors coupled to gyrator circuits. In the first case, requirements for bandwidth enhancement and stability are very hard to meet simultaneously whereas, in the second case, an adjustment of the transistor gain does significantly increase bandwidth.

  17. Insulation coordination for 38 KV circuit breakers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Few, R.A.; Harder, J.E.

    1985-09-01

    Based on a review of the impulse insulation requirements for 38 kV circuit breakers and the impact of insulation coordination using modern arresters, a change is suggested in the way the impulse requirements are stated for the circuit breaker. The facets of circuit breaker design which may be affected are indicated. While the general principles of this paper apply to the insulation coordination of all ratings of circuit breakers, a number of factors seem to make the 38 kV vaccum circuit breaker a particularly attractive candidate to consider for revision. Most of these factors are outlined to provide a basis for the consideration of other ratings and types of circuit breakers. Specifically it is suggested that in the present state of the art, circuit breakers for general application at 34.5 kV should have a standard requirement for 150 kV BIL phase to ground, and 200 kV BIL phase to phase and across the open break.

  18. A programming language for composable DNA circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Andrew; Cardelli, Luca

    2009-08-06

    Recently, a range of information-processing circuits have been implemented in DNA by using strand displacement as their main computational mechanism. Examples include digital logic circuits and catalytic signal amplification circuits that function as efficient molecular detectors. As new paradigms for DNA computation emerge, the development of corresponding languages and tools for these paradigms will help to facilitate the design of DNA circuits and their automatic compilation to nucleotide sequences. We present a programming language for designing and simulating DNA circuits in which strand displacement is the main computational mechanism. The language includes basic elements of sequence domains, toeholds and branch migration, and assumes that strands do not possess any secondary structure. The language is used to model and simulate a variety of circuits, including an entropy-driven catalytic gate, a simple gate motif for synthesizing large-scale circuits and a scheme for implementing an arbitrary system of chemical reactions. The language is a first step towards the design of modelling and simulation tools for DNA strand displacement, which complements the emergence of novel implementation strategies for DNA computing.

  19. Introduction to myofascial trigger points in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Rick

    2014-06-01

    In dogs, muscles make up 44%-57% of total body weight and can serve as source of both pain and dysfunction when myofascial trigger points are present. However, rarely is muscle mentioned as a generator of pain in dogs, and even less mentioned is muscle dysfunction. The veterinary practitioner with interest in pain management, rehabilitation, orthopedics, and sports medicine must be familiar with the characteristics, etiology, and precipitating factors of myofascial trigger points. Additionally, the development of examination and treatment skill is needed to effectively manage myofascial trigger points in dogs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Revisiting Pneumatic Nail Gun Trigger Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, James; Lowe, Brian; Lipscomb, Hester; Hudock, Stephen; Dement, John; Evanoff, Bradley; Fullen, Mark; Gillen, Matt; Kaskutas, Vicki; Nolan, James; Patterson, Dennis; Platner, James; Pompeii, Lisa; Schoenfisch, Ashley

    2015-03-01

    Use of a pneumatic nail gun with a sequential actuation trigger (SAT) significantly diminishes the risk for acute traumatic injury compared to use of a contact actuation trigger (CAT) nail gun. A theoretically-based increased risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders from use of a SAT nail gun, relative to CAT, appears unlikely and remains unproven. Based on current knowledge, the use of CAT nail guns cannot be justified as a safe alternative to SAT nail guns. This letter provides a perspective of ergonomists and occupational safety researchers recommending the use of the sequential actuation trigger for all nail gun tasks in the construction industry.