Sample records for schlieren method

  1. Schlieren and Shadowgraph Methods in Heat and Mass Transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Panigrahi, Pradipta Kumar


    Schlieren and Shadowgraph Methods in Heat and Mass Transfer lays out the fundamentals of refractive index based imaging techniques, optical configurations, image analysis, and three dimensional reconstructions. The present monograph aims at temperature and concentration measurements in transparent media using ray bending effects in a variable refractive index field. Data analysis procedure for three-dimensional reconstruction of temperature and concentration field using images at different view angles is presented. Test cases illustrating the validation of the quantitative analysis procedure are presented.  

  2. An improved schlieren method for measurement and automatic reconstruction of the far-field focal spot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengzhou Wang

    Full Text Available The schlieren method of measuring far-field focal spots offers many advantages at the Shenguang III laser facility such as low cost and automatic laser-path collimation. However, current methods of far-field focal spot measurement often suffer from low precision and efficiency when the final focal spot is merged manually, thereby reducing the accuracy of reconstruction. In this paper, we introduce an improved schlieren method to construct the high dynamic-range image of far-field focal spots and improve the reconstruction accuracy and efficiency. First, a detection method based on weak light beam sampling and magnification imaging was designed; images of the main and side lobes of the focused laser irradiance in the far field were obtained using two scientific CCD cameras. Second, using a self-correlation template matching algorithm, a circle the same size as the schlieren ball was dug from the main lobe cutting image and used to change the relative region of the main lobe cutting image within a 100×100 pixel region. The position that had the largest correlation coefficient between the side lobe cutting image and the main lobe cutting image when a circle was dug was identified as the best matching point. Finally, the least squares method was used to fit the center of the side lobe schlieren small ball, and the error was less than 1 pixel. The experimental results show that this method enables the accurate, high-dynamic-range measurement of a far-field focal spot and automatic image reconstruction. Because the best matching point is obtained through image processing rather than traditional reconstruction methods based on manual splicing, this method is less sensitive to the efficiency of focal-spot reconstruction and thus offers better experimental precision.

  3. Quantitative calibration of sound pressure in ultrasonic standing waves using the Schlieren method. (United States)

    Xu, Zheng; Chen, Hao; Yan, Xu; Qian, Menglu; Cheng, Qian


    We investigated the use of the Schlieren method to calibrate the sound pressure in an ultrasonic standing-wave field. Specifically, we derived an equation to calculate the light intensity of the diffraction fringe induced by the standing-wave field. The results indicated that the sound pressure in the standing-wave field relates to the light intensity of the diffraction fringe. Simulations and experiments were conducted to verify the theoretical calculation. We demonstrated that the ratio of the light intensity of different diffraction orders relates to the sound pressure amplitude, allowing the pressure amplitude to be calibrated with the Schlieren method. Therefore, this work presents a non-intrusive calibration method that is particularly suitable for calibrating high-frequency ultrasonic standing-wave fields.

  4. Use of schlieren methods to study gas flow in laser technology (United States)

    Mrňa, Libor; Pavelka, Jan; Horník, Petr; Hrabovský, Jozef


    Laser technologies such as welding and cutting rely on process gases. We suggest to use schlieren imaging to visualize the gas flow during these processes. During the process of laser welding, the shielding gas flows to the welded area to prevent oxidation of the weld pool by surrounding air. The gas also interacts with hot plasma spurting from the key hole induced by the laser beam incident on the molten material. This interaction is quite complicated because hot plasma mixes with the cold shielding gas while the system is moving along the weld. Three shielding gases were used in the presented experiment: Ar, He and N2. Differences in dynamics of the flow are clearly visible on schlieren images. Moreover, high speed recording reveals a structure consisting of hot gas bubbles. We were also able to determine the velocity of the bubbles from the recording. During laser cutting, the process gas flows coaxially with the laser beam from the nozzle to remove the molten material out of the kerf. The gas flow is critical for the quality of the resulting edge of the cut. Schlieren method was used to study gas flow under the nozzle and then under the material being cut. This actually creates another slot nozzle. Due to the very low speed of flow below the material the schleiren method is already at the limit of its sensitivity. Therefore, it is necessary to apply a differential technique to increase the contrast. Distinctive widening of the flow shaped by the kerf was observed.

  5. Visualization of Streamer Channels and Shock Waves Generated by Positive Pulsed Corona Discharge Using Laser Schlieren Method (United States)

    Ono, Ryo; Oda, Tetsuji


    Streamer channels generated by a positive pulsed corona discharge are visualized using the laser schlieren method. The discharge occurs between a point-to-plane gap at atmospheric pressure with a pulse duration of less than 1 μs. In order to enhance the intensity of the schlieren image, water vapor is added to ambient gas. The schlieren visualizes heated gas in a streamer filament of 0.4 mm diameter. A temporal variation of the schlieren image after the discharge pulse shows that the heated gas moves outward from the streamer channel due to the diffusion. The diameter of the heated filament, in which the heated gas exists, increases from 0.4 mm to 1.1 mm within 1 ms following the discharge pulse. The schlieren image also shows shock waves generated by the discharge: a spherical shock wave generated at the tip of the point electrode and a plane shock wave generated at the surface of the plane electrode.

  6. On the limits of detection of a chemical vapor plume in air using the schlieren optical method (United States)

    Bigger, Rory; Settles, Gary


    A modest benchtop z-type schlieren optical system employing twin parabolic mirrors is characterized in terms of its sensitivity limit using the standard-lens method of calibration. A measurement by this method of the free-convection boundary layer on a heated vertical plate in air compares well with known theory. A mixing tube and oxygen sensor are then used to image laminar plumes of both helium and carbon dioxide in air at various mixture ratios, revealing a minimum value of the refractive-index gradient across the plume-air mixing boundary at its origin that is required for visibility. Thus the schlieren detection of a chemical vapor plume must depend upon the concentration of vapor in the air and the vapor refractive index. A range of chemicals is explored in order to determine the detectable concentration limit by this means. The results are discussed in terms of the possible use of schlieren optics to detect explosive vapor plumes in air.

  7. A comparison of three quantitative schlieren techniques (United States)

    Hargather, Michael J.; Settles, Gary S.


    We compare the results of three quantitative schlieren techniques applied to the measurement and visualization of a two-dimensional laminar free-convection boundary layer. The techniques applied are Schardin's "calibrated" schlieren technique, in which a weak lens in the field-of-view provides a calibration of light deflection angle to facilitate quantitative measurements, "rainbow schlieren", in which the magnitude of schlieren deflection is coded by hue in the image, and "background-oriented schlieren" (BOS), in which quantitative schlieren-like results are had from measuring the distortion of a background pattern using digital-image-correlation software. In each case computers and software are applied to process the data, thus streamlining and modernizing the quantitative application of schlieren optics. (BOS, in particular, is only possible with digital-image-correlation software.) Very good results are had with the lens-calibrated standard schlieren method in the flow tested here. BOS likewise produces good results and requires less expensive apparatus than the other methods, but lacks the simplification of parallel light that they feature. Rainbow schlieren suffers some unique drawbacks, including the production of the required rainbow cutoff filter, and provides little significant benefit over the calibrated schlieren technique.

  8. Plenoptic background oriented schlieren imaging (United States)

    Klemkowsky, Jenna N.; Fahringer, Timothy W.; Clifford, Christopher J.; Bathel, Brett F.; Thurow, Brian S.


    The combination of the background oriented schlieren (BOS) technique with the unique imaging capabilities of a plenoptic camera, termed plenoptic BOS, is introduced as a new addition to the family of schlieren techniques. Compared to conventional single camera BOS, plenoptic BOS is capable of sampling multiple lines-of-sight simultaneously. Displacements from each line-of-sight are collectively used to build a four-dimensional displacement field, which is a vector function structured similarly to the original light field captured in a raw plenoptic image. The displacement field is used to render focused BOS images, which qualitatively are narrow depth of field slices of the density gradient field. Unlike focused schlieren methods that require manually changing the focal plane during data collection, plenoptic BOS synthetically changes the focal plane position during post-processing, such that all focal planes are captured in a single snapshot. Through two different experiments, this work demonstrates that plenoptic BOS is capable of isolating narrow depth of field features, qualitatively inferring depth, and quantitatively estimating the location of disturbances in 3D space. Such results motivate future work to transition this single-camera technique towards quantitative reconstructions of 3D density fields.

  9. Simultaneous visualization of transonic buffet on a rocket faring model using unsteady PSP measurement and Schlieren method (United States)

    Nakakita, K.


    Simultaneous visualization technique of the combination of the unsteady Pressure-Sensitive Paint and the Schlieren measurement was introduced. It was applied to a wind tunnel test of a rocket faring model at the JAXA 2mx2m transonic wind tunnel. Quantitative unsteady pressure field was acquired by the unsteady PSP measurement, which consisted of a high-speed camera, high-power laser diode, and so on. Qualitative flow structure was acquired by the Schlieren measurement using a high-speed camera and Xenon lamp with a blue optical filter. Simultaneous visualization was achieved 1.6 kfps frame rate and it gave the detailed structure of unsteady flow fields caused by the unsteady shock wave oscillation due to shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction around the juncture between cone and cylinder on the model. Simultaneous measurement results were merged into a movie including surface pressure distribution on the rocket faring and spatial structure of shock wave system concerning to transonic buffet. Constructed movie gave a timeseries and global information of transonic buffet flow field on the rocket faring model visually.

  10. A review of recent developments in schlieren and shadowgraph techniques (United States)

    Settles, Gary S.; Hargather, Michael J.


    Schlieren and shadowgraph techniques are used around the world for imaging and measuring phenomena in transparent media. These optical methods originated long ago in parallel with telescopes and microscopes, and although it might seem that little new could be expected of them on the timescale of 15 years, in fact several important things have happened that are reviewed here. The digital revolution has had a transformative effect, replacing clumsy photographic film methods with excellent—though expensive—high-speed video cameras, making digital correlation and processing of shadow and schlieren images routine, and providing an entirely-new synthetic schlieren technique that has attracted a lot of attention: background-oriented schlieren or BOS. Several aspects of modern schlieren and shadowgraphy depend upon laptop-scale computer processing of images using an image-capable language such as MATLAB™. BOS, shock-wave tracking, schlieren velocimetry, synthetic streak-schlieren, and straightforward quantitative density measurements in 2D flows are all recent developments empowered by this digital and computational capability.

  11. Comparative study of different Schlieren diffracting elements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This paper presents an analysis of diffraction effects taking place at differ- ent Schlieren diffracting elements. Two types of diffraction effects are prominent in the. Schlieren schemes. One is diffraction of direct light (source image) at the Schlieren ele- ment, which limits the sensitivity and resolution of Schlieren ...

  12. Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS) and other Flow Visualization Developments and Applications at GRC (United States)

    Clem, Michelle; Woike, Mark


    This is a presentation to be given at an internal NASA Advanced Schlieren Working Group Meeting. The presentation will cover the recent developments and applications of flow visualization methods at GRC. The topics being discussed will include the use of Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS) in the study of screech and its associated shock spacing as well as in the investigation of broadband shock noise reduction in the Jet-Surface Interaction Tests. In addition, other flow visualiztion methods will be discussed in an on-going study comparing schlieren, shadowgraph, BOS, and focusing schlieren.

  13. Human exhalation characterization with the aid of schlieren imaging technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Chunwen; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Liu, Li


    Highlights •Noninvasive schlieren technique was applied to characterize human exhalation. •New methods were proposed to predict exhaled velocity um and up, respectively. •Potential infection risk depended on breathing patterns and spatial distribution of exhaled air. •New data was added to airflo...

  14. Studies on the propagation of an impulse breakdown across the surface of artificial acid rainwater by high-speed Schlieren method (United States)

    Nakao, Yoshitaka; Juste, Kouamenan A.; Takeda, Satoshi; Itoh, Hidenori; Sakaguchi, Takeshi; Sakai, Yosuke; Tagashira, Hiroaki


    Rain water polluted with natural and industrial contaminants, more commonly known as acid rain, has been used as an electrolyte to account for its effect on the flashover phenomenon across high voltage outdoor insulators. Optical and electrical techniques using high speed Schlieren photography and current measurement with LED were employed. The propagation of an impulse breakdown was then studied by varying the voltage waveforms. Experiments were also conducted with artificial acid rainwater of low pH value to determine the factor of safety over the actual rainwater characteristics. It was found in the present conditions, that given the same conductivity (sigma) neither the dissolved components nor the pH value of the rainwater influence significantly the discharge growth, while a substantial decrease of the propagation speed was measured with the increase of the front duration of the applied voltage.

  15. Physically-Based Interactive Flow Visualization Based on Schlieren and Interferometry Experimental Techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Brownlee, C.


    Understanding fluid flow is a difficult problem and of increasing importance as computational fluid dynamics (CFD) produces an abundance of simulation data. Experimental flow analysis has employed techniques such as shadowgraph, interferometry, and schlieren imaging for centuries, which allow empirical observation of inhomogeneous flows. Shadowgraphs provide an intuitive way of looking at small changes in flow dynamics through caustic effects while schlieren cutoffs introduce an intensity gradation for observing large scale directional changes in the flow. Interferometry tracks changes in phase-shift resulting in bands appearing. The combination of these shading effects provides an informative global analysis of overall fluid flow. Computational solutions for these methods have proven too complex until recently due to the fundamental physical interaction of light refracting through the flow field. In this paper, we introduce a novel method to simulate the refraction of light to generate synthetic shadowgraph, schlieren and interferometry images of time-varying scalar fields derived from computational fluid dynamics data. Our method computes physically accurate schlieren and shadowgraph images at interactive rates by utilizing a combination of GPGPU programming, acceleration methods, and data-dependent probabilistic schlieren cutoffs. Applications of our method to multifield data and custom application-dependent color filter creation are explored. Results comparing this method to previous schlieren approximations are finally presented. © 2011 IEEE.

  16. A Novel, Portable, Projection, Focusing Schlieren System (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The schlieren technique has been used for flow diagnostics in wind tunnels since the beginning of aerospace research, due to its ability to make airflows ?...

  17. A Novel, Portable, Projection, Focusing Schlieren System (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The schlieren technique has been used for flow diagnostics in wind tunnels since the beginning of aerospace research due to its ability to make airflows especially...

  18. Digital Schlieren System for Flow Diagnostics Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is an SBIR proposal to develop a revolutionary digital schlieren imaging system that will greatly improve a widely used aerodynamics tool and render it so...

  19. Flow visualization techniques, new developments and modernization of the existing Schlieren system in the Trisonic Wind Tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius PANAIT


    Full Text Available Schlieren flow visualization methods are an important part of high speed wind tunnel testing, being a fast and reliable method of graphically presenting complex dynamic phenomena that occur in high subsonic, transonic and supersonic regimes. Images can be processed and effects of configuration changes can be understood faster. Quantitative variations of the Schlieren method enable CFD simulations to use real data, resulting in greater precision and thus help improve efficiency of the re-design phase for the aerodynamic object. A modification of the classic Schlieren system is proposed, that would enable extraction of such data with minimal costs

  20. Schlieren technique in soap film flows (United States)

    Auliel, M. I.; Hebrero, F. Castro; Sosa, R.; Artana, G.


    We propose the use of the Schlieren technique as a tool to analyse the flows in soap film tunnels. The technique enables to visualize perturbations of the film produced by the interposition of an object in the flow. The variations of intensity of the image are produced as a consequence of the deviations of the light beam traversing the deformed surfaces of the film. The quality of the Schlieren image is compared to images produced by the conventional interferometric technique. The analysis of Schlieren images of a cylinder wake flow indicates that this technique enables an easy visualization of vortex centers. Post-processing of series of two successive images of a grid turbulent flow with a dense motion estimator is used to derive the velocity fields. The results obtained with this self-seeded flow show good agreement with the statistical properties of the 2D turbulent flows reported on the literature.

  1. Schlieren Photographic Studies Of Dynamic Stall (United States)

    Carr, L.; Chandrasekhara, M.


    Report describes stroboscopic Schlieren photographic observations of flows around airfoil oscillating sinusoidally about fixed angle of attack. Conducted in wind tunnel on (NACA) 0012 airfoil oscillating with amplitude of 10 degrees about mean angle of attack of 10 degrees. Photographs taken along span of airfoil. Mach numbers and frequencies chosen to encompass conditions on retreating blades of helicopter rotors in forward flight.

  2. Rainbow schlieren vs Mach-Zehnder interferometer - A comparison (United States)

    Howes, W. L.


    The rainbow schlieren apparatus is simpler, cheaper, and more easily built to large scale than the interferometer. The accuracies of the two instruments are similar but only if refraction is properly accounted for in interferometry. The measurement thresholds of both instruments are similar. The rainbow schlieren device provides more detailed information because the detection threshold of the rainbow schlieren is an order of magnitude better than that of the interferometer.

  3. Laser Schlieren System Detects Sounds Of Leaks (United States)

    Shakkottai, Parthasarathy P.; Alwar, A. Vijayaragavan


    Hostile environments monitored safely and noninvasively. Modified laser schlieren system acts as microphone to detect sounds of leaks remotely. Sensitive to acoustical frequencies above audible range and especially suited for monitoring leaks of high-pressure steam from boilers or chemical vapors from processing equipment. Does not require placement of delicate equipment in harsh environment monitored, and no contact needed with boiler or other unit being monitored. Detects sound waves via variation of index of refraction of air at acoustical frequencies. Used to monitor sound frequencies beyond range of human hearing.

  4. Application Focused Schlieren to Nozzle Ejector Flowfields (United States)

    Mitchell, L. Kerry; Ponton, Michael K.; Seiner, John M.; Manning, James C.; Jansen, Bernard J.; Lagen, Nicholas T.


    The motivation of the testing was to reduce noise generated by eddy Mach wave emission via enhanced mixing in the jet plume. This was to be accomplished through the use of an ejector shroud, which would bring in cooler ambient fluid to mix with the hotter jet flow. In addition, the contour of the mixer, with its chutes and lobes, would accentuate the merging of the outer and inner flows. The objective of the focused schlieren work was to characterize the mixing performance inside of the ejector. Using flow visualization allowed this to be accomplished in a non-intrusive manner.

  5. Application of schlieren interferometry to temperature measurements during laser welding of high-density polyethylene films. (United States)

    Coelho, João M P; Abreu, Manuel A; Rodrigues, F Carvalho


    Schlieren interferometry is found to be an alternative tool for temperature measurement during thermoplastic laser welding with regard to methods based on thermocouples or optical pyrometers. In fact, these techniques are not easily applied when materials to be processed have reduced thickness, negligible heat conduction, and low emissivity, as is the case of welding high-density polyethylene films with 10.6-microm CO2 laser radiation, even if the method reaches its applicability limit after approximately 1 s of the interaction process. The schlieren method provides the means and the results to probe the thermal variations of the laser-thermoplastic interaction on both the surface and the interface between the sample material and the air.

  6. Phase knife-edge laser Schlieren diffraction interferometry with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    581–589. Phase knife-edge laser Schlieren diffraction interferometry with boundary diffraction wave theory. RAJ KUMAR1, D MOHAN2, SUSHIL K KAURA1, D P CHHACHHIA1 and A K AGGARWAL1 ... contrast but also avoids the loss in phase information as it lets through light from all parts of the test object and its thin ...

  7. Background-Oriented Schlieren for Large-Scale and High-Speed Aerodynamic Phenomena (United States)

    Mizukaki, Toshiharu; Borg, Stephen; Danehy, Paul M.; Murman, Scott M.; Matsumura, Tomoharu; Wakabayashi, Kunihiko; Nakayama, Yoshio


    Visualization of the flow field around a generic re-entry capsule in subsonic flow and shock wave visualization with cylindrical explosives have been conducted to demonstrate sensitivity and applicability of background-oriented schlieren (BOS) for field experiments. The wind tunnel experiment suggests that BOS with a fine-pixel imaging device has a density change detection sensitivity on the order of 10(sup -5) in subsonic flow. In a laboratory setup, the structure of the shock waves generated by explosives have been successfully reconstructed by a computed tomography method combined with BOS.

  8. Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS) of a Supersonic Aircraft in Flight (United States)

    Heineck, James T.; Banks, Daniel W.; Schairer, Edward T.; Haering, Edward A.; Bean, Paul S.


    This article describes the development and use of Background Oriented Schlieren on a full-scale supersonic jet in flight. A series of flight tests was performed in October, 2014 and February 2015 using the flora of the desert floor in the Supersonic Flight Corridor on the Edwards Air Force Base as a background. Flight planning was designed based on the camera resolution, the mean size and color of the predominant plants, and the navigation and coordination of two aircraft. Software used to process the image data was improved with additional utilities. The planning proved to be effective and the vast majority of the passes of the target aircraft were successfully recorded. Results were obtained that are the most detailed schlieren imagery of an aircraft in flight to date.

  9. Optical Flow Visualization Using the Modular Background-Oriented Full-Scale Schlieren Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Hwei Su


    Full Text Available Background-oriented full-scale schlieren (BOFSS with large test sections is a famous technique, specially developed for optical flow visualization. This article presents the technique using a modular background-oriented light source instead of the retroreflective method. The modular background- oriented light source is convenient to enlarge the area of the light source and providing a larger testing section, thus the test sections become flexible. Moreover, the article also focuses on investigating the BOFSS sensitivity with different percentages of cutoff grid. The setting composed of fluorescent lamp Philips-865, atomizing films, and linear grating mask. The linear grating mask is alternated with black lines with width of 6 mm. The area of light source and test section are 2 × 2 and 1 × 1 m2, respectively. The present study applies different percentages of cutoff grid to block light source, and 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90% percentages of cutoff grid are been tested. The test subjects are heat flux from burning candles and Bunsen burner, acetone gas flow, LPG flow and compressed butane gas. The results show that a cutoff grid with 90% of light blockage presented the best result for conventional Z-arrangement schlieren technique. Whereas, cutoff 60 percent light shows the best results for full-scale schilieren technique.

  10. Comparative measurements of natural convection heat transfer in channels by holographic interferometry and schlieren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosini, Dario [DIMEG, Universita dell' Aquila, Loc. Monteluco di Roio, I-67040 Roio Poggio (AQ) (Italy); Tanda, Giovanni [DIPTEM, Universita di Genova, Via all' Opera Pia 15a, I-67100 Genova (Italy)


    In this work, natural convection heat transfer in vertical channels is experimentally investigated by applying different optical techniques, namely holographic interferometry and schlieren. Both these techniques are based on the temperature dependence of the air refractive index but they detect different optical quantities and their use involves different instrumentation and optical components. Optical methods, non-intrusive in nature, are particularly suitable for the visualization of flow and thermal fields as witnessed by their increasing use in a range of scientific and engineering disciplines; for this reason, the introduction of these experimental tools into a laboratory course can be of high value. Physics and engineering students can get familiarized with optical techniques, grasp the basics of thermal phenomena, usually elusive, which can be more easily understood if they are made visible, and begin to master digital image analysis, a key skill in laboratory activities. A didactic description of holographic interferometry and schlieren is provided and experimental results obtained for vertical, smooth and rib-roughened channels with asymmetrical heating are presented. A comparison between distributions of the local heat transfer coefficient (or its dimensionless counterpart, the Nusselt number) revealed good agreement between the results separately obtained by the two techniques, thus proving their suitability for investigating free convection heat transfer in channels.

  11. Full-scale high-speed schlieren imaging of explosions and gunshots (United States)

    Settles, Gary S.; Grumstrup, Torben P.; Dodson, Lori J.; Miller, J. D.; Gatto, Joseph A.


    High-speed imaging and cinematography are important in research on explosions, firearms, and homeland security. Much can be learned from imaging the motion of shock waves generated by such explosive events. However, the required optical equipment is generally not available for such research due to the small aperture and delicacy of the optics and the expense and expertise required to implement high-speed optical methods. For example, previous aircraft hardening experiments involving explosions aboard full-scale aircraft lacked optical shock imaging, even though such imaging is the principal tool of explosion and shock wave research. Here, experiments are reported using the Penn State Full-Scale Schlieren System, a lens-and-grid-type optical system with a very large field-of-view. High-speed images are captured by photography using an electronic flash and by a new high-speed digital video camera. These experiments cover a field-of-view of 2x3 m at frame rates up to 30 kHz. Our previous high-speed schlieren cinematography experiments on aircraft hardening used a traditional drum camera and photographic film. A stark contrast in utility is found between that technology and the all-digital high-speed videography featured in this paper.

  12. Background Oriented Schlieren Applied to Study Shock Spacing in a Screeching Circular Jet (United States)

    Clem, Michelle M.; Zaman, Khairul B. M. Q.; Fagan, Amy F.


    Background oriented schlieren (BOS) is a recent development of the schlieren and shadowgraph methods. The BOS technique has the ability to provide visualizations of the density gradient in both the axial and radial directions. The resultant magnitude of the density gradients allows for comparison with shadowgraph images. This paper first compares data obtained by the BOS and shadowgraph techniques at identical conditions in a free jet. The patterns and spacing of the shock trains obtained by the two techniques are found to be consistent with one another. This provides confidence in the shock spacing measurement by the BOS technique. Due to its simpler setup, BOS is then applied to investigate the shock spacing associated with the screech phenomenon, especially during stage jumps. Screech frequencies from a 37.6 mm convergent nozzle, as a function of jet Mach number (M(sub j)), are shown to exhibit various stages. As many as eight stages are identified with the present nozzle over the range 1.0 < M(sub j) <1.7. BOS images are acquired at various screech conditions and the shock spacing is examined as a function of M(sub j).

  13. Predicting the visibility of a chemical vapor plume using schlieren optics (United States)

    Bigger, Rory; Settles, Gary


    Chemicals plumes from a freely-evaporating liquid surface and from the exit of a circular pipe are considered. For the freely-evaporating case, the visibility of fourteen chemicals was tested in two schlieren optical systems. One system was a modest bench-top system and the other was a lard system of extraordinary sensitivity. Plume visibility was found to be a function of the vapor pressure and vapor refractive index. An empirical fit to the plume-visibility data, compared with the sensitivities of these systems (measured using a standard-lens method), suggests guidelines for predicting the visibility of plumes of other chemicals using other schlieren equipment. For the circular opening case, plume visibility of the same chemicals was found to be a function of plume geometry and refractive index. The peak light-ray deflections (also measured with a standard lens) caused by plumes of two different sizes were found to scale based on plume geometry. This scaling information and plume refractive index can be used to predict plume visibility for arbitrary chemicals in arbitrary systems, if the system sensitivity is known. One application of this work lies in the optical detection of plumes emitted by contraband material.

  14. Simultaneous schlieren photography and soot foil in the study of detonation phenomena (United States)

    Kellenberger, Mark; Ciccarelli, Gaby


    The use of schlieren photography has been essential in unravelling the complex nature of high-speed combustion phenomena, but its line-of-sight integration makes it difficult to decisively determine the nature of multi-dimensional combustion wave propagation. Conventional schlieren alone makes it impossible to determine in what plane across the channel an observed structure may exist. To overcome this, a technique of simultaneous high-speed schlieren photography and soot foils was demonstrated that can be applied to the study of detonation phenomena. Using a kerosene lamp, soot was deposited on a glass substrate resulting in a semi-transparent sheet through which schlieren source light could pass. In order to demonstrate the technique, experiments were carried out in mixtures of stoichiometric hydrogen-oxygen at initial pressures between 10 and 15 kPa. Compared to schlieren imaging obtained without a sooted foil, high-speed video results show schlieren images with a small reduction of contrast with density gradients remaining clear. Areas of high temperature cause soot lofted from the foil to incandescence strongly, resulting in the ability to track hot spots and flame location. Post-processing adjustments were demonstrated to make up for camera sensitivity limitations to enable viewing of schlieren density gradients. High-resolution glass soot foils were produced that enable direct coupling of schlieren video to triple-point trajectories seen on the soot foils, allowing for the study of three-dimensional propagation mechanisms of detonation waves.

  15. Optical probing of exploding wires using schlieren and interferometric imaging. (United States)

    Romanova, V. M.; Pikuz, S. A.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Hu, Min; Sinars, D. B.; Kusse, B. R.; Dimant, Ya. S.; Greenly, J. B.; Hummer, D. A.


    Optical diagnostics using an Nd:YAG laser (l=532 nm) were used to probe exploding fine wires (7.5-20 mm initial diameter) driven by a sinusoidal 4.5/,kA current pulse (350 ns risetime). Phase transitions from vapor to plasma have been directly observed during the explosion process of various wire materials (Al, Au, etc.). Three simultaneous schlieren channels and 1--3 interferometry channels were used. For some experiments, the schlieren channels were made up of a bright-field iris, a dark-field knife edge, and a dark-field strip block. For other experiments, three bright-field images were made at 10 ns intervals. Interferometry was performed using a new astigmatism-free shearing interferometer based on a double-prism air wedge. The images were made with a 4 ns exposure time at 50--2000 ns after the start of the wire current. Simultaneous X-ray backlighting [1] of the wires enabled reliable interpretation of the optical images, and with a step wedge [2] was used to measure the ion density. Combining the ion density and electron density measurements allowed us to estimate the ionization state of the exploded wire. 1. T.A.Shelkovenko, S.A.Pikuz, A.R.Mingaleev, D.A.Hammer, Rev. Sci. Instrum., 70, 667 (1999). 2. S.A.Pikuz, T.A.Shelkovenko, A.R.Mingaleev, H.Neves, D.A.Hammer, Phys. Plasmas (in press).

  16. Quantitative Image Analysis Techniques with High-Speed Schlieren Photography (United States)

    Pollard, Victoria J.; Herron, Andrew J.


    Optical flow visualization techniques such as schlieren and shadowgraph photography are essential to understanding fluid flow when interpreting acquired wind tunnel test data. Output of the standard implementations of these visualization techniques in test facilities are often limited only to qualitative interpretation of the resulting images. Although various quantitative optical techniques have been developed, these techniques often require special equipment or are focused on obtaining very precise and accurate data about the visualized flow. These systems are not practical in small, production wind tunnel test facilities. However, high-speed photography capability has become a common upgrade to many test facilities in order to better capture images of unsteady flow phenomena such as oscillating shocks and flow separation. This paper describes novel techniques utilized by the authors to analyze captured high-speed schlieren and shadowgraph imagery from wind tunnel testing for quantification of observed unsteady flow frequency content. Such techniques have applications in parametric geometry studies and in small facilities where more specialized equipment may not be available.

  17. Spray formation of biodiesel-water in air-assisted atomizer using Schlieren photography (United States)

    Amirnordin, S. H.; Khalid, A.; Sapit, A.; Salleh, H.; Razali, A.; Fawzi, M.


    Biodiesels are attractive renewable energy sources, particularly for industrial boiler and burner operators. However, biodiesels produce higher nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions compared with diesel. Although water-emulsified fuels can lower NOx emissions by reducing flame temperature, its influence on atomization needs to be investigated further. This study investigates the effects of water on spray formation in air-assisted atomizers. The Schlieren method was used to capture the spray images in terms of tip penetration, spray angle, and spray area. The experiment used palm oil biodiesel at different blending ratios (B5, B10, and B15) and water contents (0vol%-15vol%). Results show that water content in the fuel increases the spray penetration and area but reduces the spray angle because of the changes in fuel properties. Therefore, biodiesel-water application is applicable to burner systems.

  18. Background Oriented Schlieren Implementation in a Jet-Surface Interaction Test (United States)

    Clem, Michelle M.; Brown, Clifford A.; Fagan, Amy


    Many current and future aircraft designs rely on the wing or other aircraft surfaces to shield the engine noise from observers on the ground. However the available data regarding how a planar surface interacts with a jet to shield and/or enhance the jet noise are currently limited. Therefore, the Jet-Surface Interaction Tests supported by NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Program's Fixed Wing Project were undertaken to supply experimental data covering a wide range of surface geometries and positions interacting with high-speed jet flows in order to support the development of noise prediction methods. Phase 1 of the Test was conducted in the Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory at NASA Glenn Research Center and consisted of validating noise prediction schemes for a round nozzle interacting with a planar surface. Phased array data and far-field acoustic data were collected for both the shielded and reflected sides of the surface. Phase 1 results showed that the broadband shock noise was greatly reduced by the surface when the jet was operated at the over-expanded condition, however, it was unclear whether this reduction was due a change in the shock cell structure by the surface. In the present study, Background Oriented Schlieren is implemented in Phase 2 of the Jet-Surface Interaction Tests to investigate whether the planar surface interacts with the high-speed jet ow to change the shock cell structure. Background Oriented Schlieren data are acquired for under-expanded, ideally-expanded, and over-expanded ow regimes for multiple axial and radial positions of the surface at three different plate lengths. These data are analyzed with far-field noise measurements to relate the shock cell structure to the broadband shock noise produced by a jet near a surface.

  19. Characterizing pyrotechnic igniter output with high-speed schlieren imaging (United States)

    Skaggs, M. N.; Hargather, M. J.; Cooper, M. A.


    Small-scale pyrotechnic igniter output has been characterized using a high-speed schlieren imaging system for observing critical features of the post-combustion flow. The diagnostic, with laser illumination, was successfully applied towards the quantitative characterization of the output from Ti/KClO_4 and TiH_{1.65}/KClO_4 pyrotechnic igniters. The high-speed image sequences showed shock motion, burned gas expansion, and particle motion. A statistical-based analysis methodology for tracking the full-field shock motion enabled straightforward comparisons across the experimental parameters of pyrotechnic material and initial density. This characterization of the mechanical energy of the shock front within the post-combustion environment is a necessary addition to the large body of literature focused on pyrotechnic combustion behavior within the powder bed. Ultimately, understanding the role that the combustion behavior has on the resulting multiphase environment is required for tailored igniter development and comparative performance assessments.

  20. Schlieren image velocimetry measurements in a rocket engine exhaust plume (United States)

    Morales, Rudy; Peguero, Julio; Hargather, Michael


    Schlieren image velocimetry (SIV) measures velocity fields by tracking the motion of naturally-occurring turbulent flow features in a compressible flow. Here the technique is applied to measuring the exhaust velocity profile of a liquid rocket engine. The SIV measurements presented include discussion of visibility of structures, image pre-processing for structure visibility, and ability to process resulting images using commercial particle image velocimetry (PIV) codes. The small-scale liquid bipropellant rocket engine operates on nitrous oxide and ethanol as propellants. Predictions of the exhaust velocity are obtained through NASA CEA calculations and simple compressible flow relationships, which are compared against the measured SIV profiles. Analysis of shear layer turbulence along the exhaust plume edge is also presented.

  1. Schlieren Technique Applied to Magnetohydrodynamic Generator Plasma Torch (United States)

    Chopra, Nirbhav; Pearcy, Jacob; Jaworski, Michael


    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generators are a promising augmentation to current hydrocarbon based combustion schemes for creating electrical power. In recent years, interest in MHD generators has been revitalized due to advances in a number of technologies such as superconducting magnets, solid-state power electronics and materials science as well as changing economics associated with carbon capture, utilization, and sequestration. We use a multi-wavelength schlieren imaging system to evaluate electron density independently of gas density in a plasma torch under conditions relevant to MHD generators. The sensitivity and resolution of the optical system are evaluated alongside the development of an automated analysis and calibration program in Python. Preliminary analysis shows spatial resolutions less than 1mm and measures an electron density of ne = 1 ×1016 cm-3 in an atmospheric microwave torch. Work supported by DOE contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  2. An All Electronic, Adaptive, Focusing Schlieren System for Flight Research Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is a proposal to develop an electronic, focusing schlieren system for flight research based on electronic cameras and spatial light modulators as dynamic...

  3. An All Electronic, Adaptive, Focusing Schlieren System for Flight Research Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Visualization of turbulence and shock phenomena by schlieren imaging has led to important discoveries in aerodynamics, and there has been much interest in applying...

  4. Wide range instantaneous temperature measurements of convective fluid flows by using a schlieren system based in color images (United States)

    Martínez-González, A.; Moreno-Hernández, D.; Monzón-Hernández, D.; León-Rodríguez, M.


    In the schlieren method, the deflection of light by the presence of an inhomogeneous medium is proportional to the gradient of its refractive index. Such deflection, in a schlieren system, is represented by light intensity variations on the observation plane. Then, for a digital camera, the intensity level registered by each pixel depends mainly on the variation of the medium refractive index and the status of the digital camera settings. Therefore, in this study, we regulate the intensity value of each pixel by controlling the camera settings such as exposure time, gamma and gain values in order to calibrate the image obtained to the actual temperature values of a particular medium. In our approach, we use a color digital camera. The images obtained with a color digital camera can be separated on three different color-channels. Each channel corresponds to red, green, and blue color, moreover, each one has its own sensitivity. The differences in sensitivity allow us to obtain a range of temperature values for each color channel. Thus, high, medium and low sensitivity correspond to green, blue, and red color channel respectively. Therefore, by adding up the temperature contribution of each color channel we obtain a wide range of temperature values. Hence, the basic idea in our approach to measure temperature, using a schlieren system, is to relate the intensity level of each pixel in a schlieren image to the corresponding knife-edge position measured at the exit focal plane of the system. Our approach was applied to the measurement of instantaneous temperature fields of the air convection caused by a heated rectangular metal plate and a candle flame. We found that for the metal plate temperature measurements only the green and blue color-channels were required to sense the entire phenomena. On the other hand, for the candle case, the three color-channels were needed to obtain a complete measurement of temperature. In our study, the candle temperature was took as

  5. Interferometric and schlieren characterization of the plasmas and shock wave dynamics during laser-triggered discharge in atmospheric air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Wenfu; Li, Xingwen, E-mail:; Wu, Jian; Yang, Zefeng; Jia, Shenli; Qiu, Aici [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Shaanxi 710049 (China)


    This paper describes our efforts to reveal the underlying physics of laser-triggered discharges in atmospheric air using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and schlieren photography. Unlike the hemispherical shock waves that are produced by laser ablation, bell-like morphologies are observed during laser-triggered discharges. Phase shifts are recovered from the interferograms at a time of 1000 ns by the 2D fast Fourier transform method, and then the values of the refractive index are deduced using the Abel inversion. An abundance of free electrons is expected near the cathode surface. The schlieren photographs visualize the formation of stagnation layers at ∼600 ns in the interaction zones of the laser- and discharge-produced plasmas. Multiple reflected waves are observed at later times with the development of shock wave propagations. Estimations using the Taylor-Sedov self-similar solution indicated that approximately 45.8% and 51.9% of the laser and electrical energies are transferred into the gas flow motions, respectively. Finally, numerical simulations were performed, which successfully reproduced the main features of the experimental observations, and provided valuable insights into the plasma and shock wave dynamics during the laser-triggered discharge.

  6. From Shadowgraph to Monochromatic Schlieren: Time-Resolved Imaging of Dim Laser-Induced Phenomena in the Presence of Saturating Plasma Emission (United States)

    Sinko, John E.; Pakhomov, Andrew V.


    Plasma emission generated during a laser ablation event can saturate an imaging system, washing out valuable information about non-luminous features such as vapor plumes and shock waves. A step-by-step experimental history of development of imaging system from Shadowgraph to Monochromatic Schlieren is presented here as a method of resolving this issue. An ICCD system was used to image ablation events on μs-timescales in combination with a fiber-coupled Nd:YAG laser operating at a primary output of 50 mW at 532 nm wavelength, which was used as the illumination source. A monochromatic band pass filter at 532±10 nm was inserted into the Schlieren system between the focusing lens and the spatial filter, producing a minute shift in the Schlieren focus. With the filter, the saturation effects were eliminated and features such as shock waves and vapor plumes were clearly visible even when plasma was present. Issues with implementation of this system for application to the study of laser propulsion are discussed in detail.

  7. On the fundamental relation of laser schlieren deflectometry for temperature measurements in filamentary plasmas (United States)

    Schäfer, Jan; Bonaventura, Zdeněk; Foest, Rüdiger


    Recently, laser schlieren deflectometry (LSD) had been successfully employed as a temperature measurement method to reveal the heat convection generated by micro filaments of a self-organized non-thermal atmospheric plasma jet. Based on the theory of the temperature measurements using LSD, in this work, three approaches for an application of the method are introduced: (i) a hyperbolic-like model of refractive index is applied which allows an analytical theory for the evaluation of the deflection angle to be developed, (ii) a Gaussian shape model for the filament temperature is implemented which is analyzed numerically and (iii) an experimental calibration of the laser deflection with a gas mixture of helium and argon is performed. Thus, these approaches demonstrate that a universal relation between the relative maximum temperature of the filament core (T1/T0) and a the maximum deflection angle δ1 of the laser beam can be written as T1/T0=(1 - δ1/δ0)-1, where δ0 is a parameter that is defined by the configuration of the experiment and by the assumed model for the shape of the temperature profile. Contribution to the topical issue "The 14th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (HAKONE XIV)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ronny Brandenburg and Lars Stollenwark

  8. A comprehensive statistical investigation of schlieren image velocimetry (SIV) using high-velocity helium jet (United States)

    Biswas, Sayan; Qiao, Li


    A detailed statistical assessment of seedless velocity measurement using Schlieren Image Velocimetry (SIV) was explored using open source Robust Phase Correlation (RPC) algorithm. A well-known flow field, an axisymmetric turbulent helium jet, was analyzed near and intermediate region (0≤ x/d≤ 20) for two different Reynolds numbers, Re d = 11,000 and Re d = 22,000 using schlieren with horizontal knife-edge, schlieren with vertical knife-edge and shadowgraph technique, and the resulted velocity fields from SIV techniques were compared to traditional Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements. A novel, inexpensive, easy to setup two-camera SIV technique had been demonstrated to measure high-velocity turbulent jet, with jet exit velocities 304 m/s (Mach = 0.3) and 611 m/s (Mach = 0.6), respectively. Several image restoration and enhancement techniques were tested to improve signal to noise ratio (SNR) in schlieren and shadowgraph images. Processing and post-processing parameters for SIV techniques were examined in detail. A quantitative comparison between self-seeded SIV techniques and traditional PIV had been made using correlation statistics. While the resulted flow field from schlieren with horizontal knife-edge and shadowgraph showed excellent agreement with PIV measurements, schlieren with vertical knife-edge performed poorly. The performance of spatial cross-correlations at different jet locations using SIV techniques and PIV was evaluated. Turbulence quantities like turbulence intensity, mean velocity fields, Reynolds shear stress influenced spatial correlations and correlation plane SNR heavily. Several performance metrics such as primary peak ratio (PPR), peak to correlation energy (PCE), the probability distribution of signal and noise were used to compare capability and potential of different SIV techniques.

  9. Optical-flow-based background-oriented schlieren technique for measuring a laser-induced underwater shock wave

    CERN Document Server

    Hayasaka, Keisuke; Liu, Tianshu; Kameda, Masaharu


    The background-oriented schlieren (BOS) technique with the physics-based optical flow method (OF-BOS) is developed for measuring the pressure field of a laser-induced underwater shock wave. Compared to BOS with the conventional cross-correlation method in PIV (called PIV-BOS), by using the OF-BOS, the displacement field generated by the small density gradient in water can be obtained at the spatial resolution of one vector per pixel. The corresponding density and pressure fields can be further extracted. It is particularly demonstrated that the sufficiently high spatial resolution of the extracted displacement vector field is required in the tomographic reconstruction to correctly infer the pressure field of the spherical underwater shock wave. The capability of the OF-BOS is critically evaluated based on synchronized hydrophone measurements. Special emphasis is placed on direct comparison between the OF-BOS with the PIV-BOS.

  10. Background-Oriented Schlieren Applications in NASA Glenn Research Center's Ground Test Facilities (United States)

    Clem, Michelle M.; Woike, Mark R.


    This is a presentation for an invited session at the 2015 SciTech Conference 53rd AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting. The presentation covers the recent applications of Background-Oriented Schlieren in NASA Glenn Research Center's ground test facilities, such as the 8x6 SWT, open jet rig, and AAPL.

  11. Background-Oriented Schlieren used in a hypersonic inlet test at NASA GRC (United States)

    Clem, Michelle; Woike, Mark; Saunders, John


    Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS) is a derivative of the classical schlieren technology, which is used to visualize density gradients, such as shock wave structures in a wind tunnel. Changes in refractive index resulting from density gradients cause light rays to bend, resulting in apparent motion of a random background pattern. The apparent motion of the pattern is determined using cross-correlation algorithms (between no-flow and with-flow image pairs) producing a schlieren-like image. One advantage of BOS is its simplified setup which enables a larger field-of-view (FOV) than traditional schlieren systems. In the present study, BOS was implemented into the Combined Cycle Engine Large-Scale Inlet Mode Transition Experiment (CCE LIMX) in the 10x10 Supersonic Wind Tunnel at NASA Glenn Research Center. The model hardware for the CCE LIMX accommodates a fully integrated turbine based combined cycle propulsion system. To date, inlet mode transition between turbine and ramjet operation has been successfully demonstrated. High-speed BOS was used to visualize the behavior of the flow structures shock waves during unsteady inlet unstarts, a phenomenon known as buzz. Transient video images of inlet buzz were recorded for both the ramjet flow path (high speed inlet) and turbine flow path (low speed inlet). To understand the stability limits of the inlet, operation was pushed to the point of unstart and buzz. BOS was implemented in order to view both inlets simultaneously, since the required FOV was beyond the capability of the current traditional schlieren system. An example of BOS data (Images 1-6) capturing inlet buzz are presented.

  12. Microscale schlieren visualization of near-bubble mass transport during boiling of 2-propanol/water mixtures in a square capillary (United States)

    Sun, Chen-li; Huang, Chien-Yuan


    In this study, we successfully utilize the microscale schlieren method to visualize the microscale mass transport near the vapor-liquid interface during boiling of 2-propanol/water mixtures in a square capillary. Because the variation in the refractive index with composition is much greater than that with temperature, the microscale schlieren method proves to be a powerful tool for investigating the solutocapillary convection without the interference of thermocapillarity. When the difference between the equilibrium vapor and liquid mole fractions is large, we observe high concentration gradients near the vapor-liquid interface due to both mass diffusion and the solutocapillary effects. Although the solutocapillary convection is decidedly affected by the eruptive nature of the boiling process, the near-bubble mass transport still plays a vital role in boiling heat transfer. In a square capillary of d = 900 μm, mass diffusion dominates and the depletion of 2-propanol near the vapor-liquid interface increases. This leads to an increase in the local bubble point causing the deterioration of heat transfer for 2-propanol/water mixtures. However, in the smaller square capillary of d = 500 μm, the solutocapillary effect becomes more important. The induced convection near the contact line helps to augment the boiling heat transfer at x = 0.015, despite the fact that mass diffusion tends to cause a higher concentration gradient normal to the bubble front during the boiling process. Herein, we prove that the microscale schlieren method is able to provide valuable insight into the leverage between different mechanisms in heat transfer during the vaporization process of 2-propanol/water mixtures in a square capillary.

  13. Application of POD on time-resolved schlieren in supersonic multi-stream rectangular jets (United States)

    Berry, M. G.; Magstadt, A. S.; Glauser, M. N.


    In this paper, we present an experimental investigation of a supersonic rectangular nozzle with aft deck used for three-stream engines. The jet utilizes a single expansion ramp nozzle (SERN) configuration along with multiple streams, operating at a bulk flow Mj,1 = 1.6 and bypass stream Mj,3 = 1.0. This idealized representation consists of two canonical flows: a supersonic convergent-divergent (CD) jet and a sonic wall jet. Time-resolved schlieren experiments were performed up to 100 kHz. Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD), as suggested by Lumley for structure identification in turbulent flows, is applied to the schlieren images and the spatial eigenfunctions and time-dependent coefficients are related to the flow structures. This research seeks to lay a foundation for fundamental testing of multi-stream SERNs and the identification of the flow physics that dominate these modern military nozzles.

  14. Error analysis of supersonic air-to-air ejector schlieren pictures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolář J.


    Full Text Available The scope of this article is focused on general analysis of errors and uncertainties possibly arising from CFD-to-schlieren pictures matching. Analysis is based on classic analytical equations. These are firstly evaluated with the presumption of constant density gradient along the ray course. In other words, the deflection of light-ray caused by density gradient is negligible in compare to the cross size of constant gradient area. It is the aim of this work to determine, whether this presumption is applicable in case of supersonic air-to-air ejector. The colour and black and white schlieren pictures are carried out and compared to CFD results. Simulations had covered various eddy viscosities. Computed pressure gradients are transformed into deflection angles and further to ray displacement. Resulting computed light- ray deflection is matched to experimental results

  15. A critical examination of the components of the Schlieren effect in flow analysis. (United States)

    Dias, Ana Cristi B; Borges, Eduardo P; Zagatto, Elias A G; Worsfold, Paul J


    The Schlieren effect is a consequence of light inflexions altering the spectrophotometric measurements that are due to the formation of optical artefacts such as mirror and lenses inside the flowing sample. It may influence signal-to-noise ratio, sample throughput and measurement repeatability in spectrophotometric flow-based procedures. It was critically examined, in order to provide guidelines for system design. Results demonstrate that the magnitude of the Schlieren effect is governed by the combined influence of two components. The first is related to loss of light by reflection at sharp liquid interfaces and prevails under poor mixing conditions. In this situation the transmitted light becomes more intense and somewhat erratic. The second is related to light refraction in regions with pronounced refractive index gradients, and prevails under good mixing conditions. It can lead to positive or negative modifications of the transmitted light, the direction being dependent on the relevance of these components. The importance of the solubility of the chemical species involved, the possibility of interactions with the inner wall of the tubing, and the feasibility of dual-wavelength spectrophotometry for compensating purposes are discussed.

  16. Schlieren Measurements of Buoyancy Effects on Flow Transition in Low-Density Gas Jets (United States)

    Pasumarthi, Kasyap S.; Agrawal, Ajay K.


    The transition from laminar to turbulent flow in helium jets discharged into air was studied using Rainbow Schlieren Deflectometry technique. In particular, the effects of buoyancy on jet oscillations and flow transition length were considered. Experiments to simulate microgravity were conducted in the 2.2s drop tower at NASA Glenn Research Center. The jet Reynolds numbers varied from 800 to1200 and the jet Richardson numbers ranged between 0.01 and 0.004. Schlieren images revealed substantial variations in the flow structure during the drop. Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis of the data obtained in Earth gravity experiments revealed the existence of a discrete oscillating frequency in the transition region, which matched the frequency in the upstream laminar regime. In microgravity, the transition occurred farther downstream indicating laminarization of the jet in the absence of buoyancy. The amplitude of jet oscillations was reduced by up to an order of magnitude in microgravity. Results suggest that jet oscillations were buoyancy induced and that the brief microgravity period may not be sufficient for the oscillations to completely subside.

  17. Schlieren, Phase-Contrast, and Spectroscopy Diagnostics for the LBNL HIF Plasma Channel Experiment (United States)

    Ponce, D. M.; Niemann, C.; Fessenden, T. J.; Leemans, W.; Vandersloot, K.; Dahlbacka, G.; Yu, S. S.; Sharp, W. M.; Tauschwitz, A.


    The LBNL Plasma Channel experiment has demonstrated stable 42-cm Z-pinch discharge plasma channels with peak currents in excess of 50 kA for a 7 torr nitrogen, 30 kV discharge. These channels offer the possibility of transporting heavy-ion beams for inertial fusion. We postulate that the stability of these channels resides in the existance of a neutral-gas density depresion created by a pre-pulse discharge before the main capacitor bank discharge is created. Here, we present the results and experimental diagnostics setup used for the study of the pre-pulse and main bank channels. Observation of both the plasma and neutral gas dynamics is achieved. Schlieren, Zernike's phase-contrast, and spectroscopic techniques are used. Preliminary Schlieren results show a gas shockwave moving radially at a rate of ≈ 10^6 mm/sec as a result of the fast and localized deposited energy during the evolution of the pre-pulse channel. This data will be used to validate simulation codes (BUCKY and CYCLOPS).

  18. Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS) measurement in supersonic flow with 4K high-speed camera (United States)

    Ota, M.; Kurihara, K.; Arimoto, H.; Shida, K.; Inage, T.


    The Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS) technique is one of the novel measurement techniques and its application range is very wide. The principle of BOS is similar to that of the conventional schlieren technique, it exploits the bending of light ray caused by a refractive-index change corresponding to the density change in the medium. The BOS technique allows the quantitative measurement of density with very simple experimental setup and proper image analysis. Only a background and a digital camera are required for the experiment, so that even the real scale experiments can be realized. In recent years, the development of the high-speed camera is remarkable and so many high-speed phenomena can now be captured. To realize the precise measurement with BOS technique using high-speed camera, higher resolution (larger number of pixels) is desirable. In this paper, with a technical support from Nobby Tech Ltd., a 4K high-speed camera (4096 × 2160 pixels) is applied to the BOS measurement of the lateral jet/cross flow interaction filed in the supersonic wind tunnel test as a trial of the quantitative density measurement with higher resolution. The measurement system consists of a 4K high-speed camera and a pulsed laser for background illumination. A telecentric optical system is also employed to improve the spatial resolution of the measurement. The measurement results of BOS technique up to 1000 fps with higher resolution are discussed.

  19. High-Speed Rainbow Schlieren Visualization of an Oscillating Helium Jet Undergoing Gravitational Change (United States)

    Leptuch, Peter A.; Agrawal, Ajay K.


    Rainbow schlieren deflectometry combined with high-speed digital imaging was used to study buoyancy effects on flow structure of a helium jet discharged vertically into air. The experimental data were taken using the 2.2-sec drop tower facility at the NASA John H. Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The test conditions pertained to jet Reynolds number of 490 and jet Richardson number of 0.11, for which buoyancy is often considered unimportant. Experimental results show global oscillations at a frequency of 27 Hz in Earth gravity. In microgravity, the jet oscillations vanished and the jet width increased. Results provide a direct physical evidence of the importance of buoyancy on the flow structure of low-density gas jets at a Richardson number considered too small to account for gravity.

  20. Quantifying liquid boundary and vapor distributions in a fuel spray by rainbow schlieren deflectometry. (United States)

    Taber Wanstall, C; Agrawal, Ajay K; Bittle, Joshua A


    The rainbow schlieren deflectometry (RSD) technique is used to determine the liquid boundary and the fuel volume fraction distributions in the vapor region of a high-pressure fuel spray. Experiments were conducted in a constant pressure flow vessel, whereby a customized single-hole common-rail diesel injector is used to introduce n-heptane fuel into a coflow of low-speed ambient air at two different test conditions. Only the quasi-steady period of the fuel spray is considered, and multiple injections are performed to acquire statistically significant data at an image acquisition rate of 20 kHz. An algorithm to identify the liquid boundary using intensity recorded by the RSD images is presented. The results are compared against measurements obtained by the Mie scattering technique. Results demonstrate that the RSD can be a powerful optical diagnostics technique to simultaneously quantify both the vapor and liquid regions in the high-pressure fuel sprays.

  1. Measurement of spray characteristics using the background-oriented schlieren technique (United States)

    Lee, Junyong; Kim, Namho; Min, Kyoungdoug


    The background-oriented schlieren (BOS) technique has not yet been used in the visualization of fuel spray in automotive research despite its great promise. To investigate the potential of this technique, the density distribution of a cross section of the spray was obtained by applying a filtered back projection (FBP) to the BOS results. Using the density distribution, the penetration lengths of the liquid and vapor phases of the fuel were measured and compared with the results of Mie scattering and shadowgraph images. The results show that the BOS technique is applicable for measuring the liquid and vapor penetration lengths simultaneously. Furthermore, the analysis of the back-projected density distribution revealed that the BOS technique is capable of visualizing the difference in the transient change in the density distribution due to changes in the injection pressure and the fuel volatility.

  2. Schlieren studies of compressibility effects on dynamic stall of airfoils in transient pitching motion (United States)

    Chandrasekhara, M. S.; Ahmed, S.; Carr, L. W.


    Compressibility effects on the flowfield of an airfoil executing rapid transient pitching motion from 0 - 60 degrees over a wide range of Mach numbers and pitching rates were studied using a stroboscopic schlieren flow visualization technique. The studies have led to the first direct experimental documentation of multiple shocks on the airfoil upper surface flow for certain conditions. Also, at low Mach numbers, additional coherent vortical structures were found to be present along with the dynamic stall vortex, whereas at higher Mach numbers, the flow was dominated by a single vortex. The delineating Mach number for significant compressibility effects was 0.3 and the dynamic stall process was accelerated by increasing the Mach number above that value. Increasing the pitch rate monotonically delayed stall to angles of attack as large as 27 degrees.

  3. Application of Background Oriented Schlieren for Altitude Testing of Rocket Engines (United States)

    Wernet, Mark P.; Stiegemeier, Benjamin R.


    A series of experiments was performed to determine the feasibility of using the Background Oriented Schlieren, BOS, flow visualization technique to image a simulated, small, rocket engine, plume under altitude test conditions. Testing was performed at the NASA Glenn Research Centers Altitude Combustion Stand, ACS, using nitrogen as the exhaust gas simulant. Due to limited optical access to the facility test capsule, all of the hardware required to conduct the BOS were located inside the vacuum chamber. During the test series 26 runs were performed using two different nozzle configurations with pressures in the test capsule around 0.3 psia. No problems were encountered during the test series resulting from the optical hardware being located in the test capsule and acceptable resolution images were captured. The test campaign demonstrated the ability of using the BOS technique for small, rocket engine, plume flow visualization during altitude testing.

  4. Schlieren measurements in the round cylinder of an optically accessible internal combustion engine. (United States)

    Kaiser, Sebastian Arnold; Salazar, Victor Manuel; Hoops, Alexandra A


    This paper describes the design and experimental application of an optical system to perform schlieren measurements in the curved geometry of the cylinder of an optically accessible internal combustion engine. Key features of the system are a pair of cylindrical positive meniscus lenses, which keep the beam collimated while passing through the unmodified, thick-walled optical cylinder, and a pulsed, high-power light-emitting diode with narrow spectral width. In combination with a high-speed CMOS camera, the system is used to visualize the fuel jet after injection of hydrogen fuel directly into the cylinder from a high-pressure injector. Residual aberrations, which limit the system's sensitivity, are characterized experimentally and are compared to the predictions of ray-tracing software.

  5. Qualitative real-time schlieren and shadowgraph imaging of human exhaled airflows: an aid to aerosol infection control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian W Tang

    Full Text Available Using a newly constructed airflow imaging system, airflow patterns were visualized that were associated with common, everyday respiratory activities (e.g. breathing, talking, laughing, whistling. The effectiveness of various interventions (e.g. putting hands and tissues across the mouth and nose to reduce the potential transmission of airborne infection, whilst coughing and sneezing, were also investigated. From the digital video footage recorded, it was seen that both coughing and sneezing are relatively poorly contained by commonly used configurations of single-handed shielding maneuvers. Only some but not all of the forward momentum of the cough and sneeze puffs are curtailed with various hand techniques, and the remaining momentum is disseminated in a large puff in the immediate vicinity of the cougher, which may still act as a nearby source of infection. The use of a tissue (in this case, 4-ply, opened and ready in the hand proved to be surprisingly effective, though the effectiveness of this depends on the tissue remaining intact and not ripping apart. Interestingly, the use of a novel 'coughcatcher' device appears to be relatively effective in containing coughs and sneezes. One aspect that became evident during the experimental procedures was that the effectiveness of all of these barrier interventions is very much dependent on the speed with which the user can put them into position to cover the mouth and nose effectively.From these qualitative schlieren and shadowgraph imaging experiments, it is clear that making some effort to contain one's cough or sneeze puffs is worthwhile. Obviously, there will be a large amount of variation between individuals in the exact hand or tissue (the most common methods configuration used for this and other practical factors may hinder such maneuvers in daily life, for example, when carrying shopping bags or managing young children.

  6. Study of Buoyancy Effects in Diffusion Flames Using Rainbow Schlieren Deflectometry (United States)

    Agrawal, Ajay K.; Gollahalli, Subramanyam R.; Griffin, DeVon


    rainbow schlieren deflectometry for visualization. The visualized images are digitized for quantification.The work reported here is divided into three sections; rainbow schlieren deflectometry (RSD), microgravity experiments and sub-atmospheric pressure experiments. The first section demonstrates the application of RSD for quantitative measurements in non-reacting and reacting flow systems. A computational effort to complement the experimental work is also included. In the second section, the experiments conducted at the 2.2s NASA Lewis Drop tower facility are described. The experiments were conducted to study the behavior of laminar, transitional and turbulent hydrogen flames in microgravity. The ability of RSD technique to provide quantitative data is highlighted. The final section deals with the sub-atmospheric pressure tests, which demonstrate that buoyancy in hydrogen diffusion flames can be scaled with pressure at normal gravity.

  7. Characterization of Turbulent Non-Uniform Exploding Wire Plasma Using High Resolution Interferometry, Schlieren and Shadowography Imaging (United States)

    Caplinger, J.; Sarkisov, G.; Wallerstein, A. J.; Sotnikov, V.; Lundberg, J.; Reed, Z.


    High resolution interferogram, Schlieren, and shadowgraph imaging has been used to characterize an exploding wire plasma. Using an 80 kV high voltage pulse generator with a rise time of 5 ns, exploding wire plasmas are created in aluminum, gold, tin, stainless steel, platinum and silver wires. The plasma is probed over a period of 3-7 ns using a 532 nm frequency doubled Nd:YAG Q-switched laser. The resulting laser radiation is imaged as an interferogram using an air-wedge interferometer, a shadowgraph and as a Schlieren image using two CCDs. Calculations resulting from the interferograms reveal ionizations between 10-20% for Aluminum wires at atmospheric pressure. This is confirmed by the Schlieren images as the refraction caused by neutrals is dominant. Single wire, two parallel wires, and other two wire configurations are investigated. Additionally, influence of chamber pressure on plasma uniformity, shock wave propagation velocity and instabilities is presented. Work supported by the Air Force Research Laboratory.

  8. Spray-Wall Impingement of Diesel-CNG Dual Fuel Jet using Schlieren Imaging Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Mhadi Abaker


    Full Text Available Natural gas is a low cost fuel with high availability in nature. However, it cannot be used by itself in conventional diesel engines due to its low flame speed and high ignition temperature. The addition of a secondary fuel to enhance the mixture formation and combustion process facilitate its wider use as an alternative fuel. An experimental study was performed to investigate the diesel-CNG dual fuel jet-wall impingement. A constant volume optical chamber was designed to facilitate maximum optical access for the study of the jet-wall impingement at different injection pressures, temperatures and injector-wall distances. The bottom plate of the test rig was made of aluminum (piston material and it was heated up to 500 K at ambient pressure. An injector driver was used to control the single-hole nozzle diesel injector combined with a natural gas injector. The injection timing of both injectors was synchronized with a camera trigger. The jet-wall impingement of diesel and diesel-CNG dual fuel jets was recorded with a high speed camera using Schlieren imaging technique and associated image processing software. The measurements of the jet radial penetration were higher in diesel-CNG dual fuel while the jet height travel along were higher in the case of diesel single fuel.

  9. Retroreflective Background Oriented Schlieren Imaging Results from the NASA Plume/Shock Interaction Test (United States)

    Smith, Nathanial T.; Durston, Donald A.; Heineck, James T.


    In support of NASA's Commercial Supersonics Technology (CST) project, a test was conducted in the 9-by-7 ft. supersonic section of the NASA Ames Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT). The tests were designed to study the interaction of shocks with a supersonic jet characteristic of those that may occur on a commercial supersonic aircraft. Multiple shock generating geometries were tested to examine the interaction dynamics as they pertain to sonic boom mitigation. An integral part of the analyses of these interactions are the interpretation of the data generated from the retroreflective Background Oriented Schlieren (RBOS) imaging technique employed for this test. The regularization- based optical flow methodology used to generate these data is described. Sample results are compared to those using normalized cross-correlation. The reduced noise, additional feature detail, and fewer false artifacts provided by the optical flow technique produced clearer time-averaged images, allowing for better interpretation of the underlying flow phenomena. These images, coupled with pressure signatures in the near field, are used to provide an overview of the detailed interaction flowfields.

  10. Study of ethanol and gasoline fuel sprays using mie-scatter and schlieren imaging (United States)

    Bouchard, Lauren; Bittle, Joshua; Puzinauskas, Paul


    Many cars today are capable of running on both gasoline and ethanol, however it is not clear how well optimized the engines are for the multiple fuels. This experiment looks specifically at the fuel spray in a direct injection system. The length and angle of direct injection sprays were characterized and a comparison between ethanol and gasoline sprays was made. Fuels were tested using a modified diesel injector in a test chamber at variable ambient pressures and temperatures in order to simulate both high and low load combustion chamber conditions. Rainbow schlieren and mie-scatter imaging were both used to investigate the liquid and vapor portions of the sprays. The sprays behaved as expected with temperature and pressure changes. There was no noticeable fuel effect on the liquid portion of the spray (mie-scatter), though the gasoline vapor spray angles were wider than ethanol spray angles (possible a result of the distillation curves of the two fuels). Funding from NSF REU site Grant EEC 1358991 is greatly appreciated.

  11. Application of background-oriented schlieren (BOS) technique to a laser-induced underwater shock wave

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, Shota; Kameda, Masaharu


    We build an ultra-high-speed imaging system based on the background-oriented schlieren (BOS) technique in order to capture a laser-induced underwater shock wave. This BOS technique is able to provide two-dimensional density-gradient field of fluid and requires a simple setup. The imaging system consists of an ultra-high speed video camera, a laser stroboscope, and a patterned background. This system takes images every 0.2 $\\mu$s. Furthermore, since the density change of water disturbed by the shock is exceedingly small, the system has high spatial resolution $\\sim$ 10 $\\mu$m/pixel. Using this BOS system, we examine temporal position of a shock wave. The position agrees well with that measured by conventional shadowgraph, which indicates that the high-speed imaging system can successfully capture the instantaneous position of the underwater shock wave that propagates with the speed of about 1500 m/s. The local density gradient can be determined up to $O$(10$^3$ kg/m$^4$), which is confirmed by the gradient est...

  12. Shadowgraph, Schlieren and interferometry in a 2D cavitating channel flow (United States)

    Mauger, Cyril; Méès, Loïc; Michard, Marc; Azouzi, Alexandre; Valette, Stéphane


    Cavitation plays an important role in fuel atomization mechanisms, but the physics of cavitation and its impact on spray formation and injector efficiency are not well documented yet. Experimental investigations are required to support the development and the validation of numerical models and the design of tomorrow's injectors, in the context of pollutant and fuel consumption reduction. The complexity of modern injectors and the extreme conditions of injection do not facilitate experimental investigations. In this paper, experiments are conducted in a simplified geometry. The model nozzle consists of a transparent 2D micro-channel supplied with a test oil (ISO 4113). Three different optical techniques are proposed to investigate the channel flow, with the pressure drop between upstream and downstream chambers as a parameter. A shadowgraph-like imaging technique allows the observation of cavitation inception and vapor cavities development throughout the channel. The technique also reveals the presence of density gradients (pressure or temperature) in the channel flow. However, this additional information is balanced by difficulties in image interpretation, which are discussed in the paper. In addition, a combination of Schlieren technique and interferometric imaging is used to measure the density fields inside the channel. The three techniques results are carefully analyzed and confronted. These results reveal a wealth of information on the flow, with pressure waves generated by bubble collapses, turbulence in the wake of vapor cavities and bubble survival in flow regions of high pressure. Our results also show that cavitation inception is located in the shear layers between the recirculation zones and the main flow, relatively far from the inlet corner, where the pressure is minimum in average. To explain this behavior, we propose a scenario of cavitation inception based on the occurrence and the growing of instabilities in the shear layers.

  13. Shadowgraph, Schlieren and interferometry in a 2D cavitating channel flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauger, Cyril; Mees, Loic; Michard, Marc; Azouzi, Alexandre [Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Laboratoire de Mecanique des Fluides et d' Acoustique (LMFA), CNRS UMR5509, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, INSA de Lyon, Ecully (France); Valette, Stephane [Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Saint Etienne, Laboratoire de Tribologie et Dynamique des Systemes (LTDS), CNRS UMR5513, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, Saint-Etienne (France)


    Cavitation plays an important role in fuel atomization mechanisms, but the physics of cavitation and its impact on spray formation and injector efficiency are not well documented yet. Experimental investigations are required to support the development and the validation of numerical models and the design of tomorrow's injectors, in the context of pollutant and fuel consumption reduction. The complexity of modern injectors and the extreme conditions of injection do not facilitate experimental investigations. In this paper, experiments are conducted in a simplified geometry. The model nozzle consists of a transparent 2D micro-channel supplied with a test oil (ISO 4113). Three different optical techniques are proposed to investigate the channel flow, with the pressure drop between upstream and downstream chambers as a parameter. A shadowgraph-like imaging technique allows the observation of cavitation inception and vapor cavities development throughout the channel. The technique also reveals the presence of density gradients (pressure or temperature) in the channel flow. However, this additional information is balanced by difficulties in image interpretation, which are discussed in the paper. In addition, a combination of Schlieren technique and interferometric imaging is used to measure the density fields inside the channel. The three techniques results are carefully analyzed and confronted. These results reveal a wealth of information on the flow, with pressure waves generated by bubble collapses, turbulence in the wake of vapor cavities and bubble survival in flow regions of high pressure. Our results also show that cavitation inception is located in the shear layers between the recirculation zones and the main flow, relatively far from the inlet corner, where the pressure is minimum in average. To explain this behavior, we propose a scenario of cavitation inception based on the occurrence and the growing of instabilities in the shear layers. (orig.)

  14. A shock tube laser schlieren study of methyl acetate dissociation in the fall-off regime. (United States)

    Annesley, Christopher J; Franklin Goldsmith, C; Tranter, Robert S


    The pyrolysis of methyl acetate, 2% and 4% dilute in krypton, was investigated in a diaphragmless shock tube (DFST) using laser schlieren densitometry (LS). Experiments were performed at 122 ± 3 and 63 ± 2 Torr over the temperature range of 1492-2266 K. Master equation models for the four main dissociation paths of methyl acetate based on a prior study by Peukert et al. [S. Peukert, R. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Su and J. Michael, Combust. Flame, 2012, 159, 2312-2323] were refined and formed the basis for simulating the LS experiments. The density gradient profiles from the LS experiments indicate that the initial dissociation proceeds predominantly by breakage of the C-O bond leading ultimately to two methyl radicals and CO2, accounting for 83-88% of the methyl acetate loss over this temperature range. Rate coefficients for dissociation of methyl acetate were satisfactorily simulated with a master equation model, with modelled rate coefficients of k120 Torr = 9.06 × 10(81) × T(-19.07) × exp(-61 600K/T) s(-1), k60 Torr = 3.71 × 10(82) × T(-19.34) × exp(-61 200K/T) s(-1), and of k∞ = 1.97 × 10(30) × T(-3.80) × exp(-47 900K/T) s(-1) for the major channel, based on fitting to 120 Torr and 60 Torr data taken in this study. The model also captures the pressure dependency of methyl acetate dissociation and resolves an earlier discrepancy concerning the mechanism of dissociation of methyl acetate.

  15. Schlieren imaging of nano-scale atom-surface inelastic transition using a Fresnel biprism atom interferometer (United States)

    Grucker, J.; Baudon, J.; Perales, F.; Dutier, G.; Bocvarski, V.; Karam, J.-C.; Vassilev, G.; Ducloy, M.


    Surface-induced exo-energetic inelastic transitions among atomic Zeeman states in a magnetic field (“van der Waals Zeeman” transitions) are useable as tuneable beam splitters. A transversally coherent atom beam impinging a pair of opposite surfaces (e.g. 2 edges of a slit or of an ensemble of periodic slits) gives rise to two coherently diffracted wave packets. Within the wave packet overlap, non-localised interference fringes of the Young-slit type are predicted. From the diffraction pattern observed in the Fraunhofer regime (Schlieren image), detailed information about the transition amplitude on a scale of a few nanometers should be derived.

  16. Schlieren visualization of flow-field modification over an airfoil by near-surface gas-density perturbations generated by a nanosecond-pulse-driven plasma actuator (United States)

    Komuro, Atsushi; Takashima, Keisuke; Konno, Kaiki; Tanaka, Naoki; Nonomura, Taku; Kaneko, Toshiro; Ando, Akira; Asai, Keisuke


    Gas-density perturbations near an airfoil surface generated by a nanosecond dielectric-barrier-discharge plasma actuator (ns-DBDPA) are visualized using a high-speed Schlieren imaging method. Wind-tunnel experiments are conducted for a wind speed of 20 m s-1 with an NACA0015 airfoil whose chord length is 100 mm. The results show that the ns-DBDPA first generates a pressure wave and then stochastic perturbations of the gas density near the leading edge of the airfoil. Two structures with different characteristics are observed in the stochastic perturbations. One structure propagates along the boundary between the shear layer and the main flow at a speed close to that of the main flow. The other propagates more slowly on the surface of the airfoil and causes mixing between the main and shear flows. It is observed that these two heated structures interact with each other, resulting in a recovery in the negative pressure coefficient at the leading edge of the airfoil.

  17. Investigations on gas-air mixture formation in the ignition chamber of two-stage combustion chamber using high-speed Schlieren imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bueschke Wojciech


    Full Text Available Combustion of the lean mixtures in the spark ignition engines provides higher thermal efficiency compared to the combustion of the stoichiometric mixture but is more restrictive to the ignition systems. Due to the limitations of conventional ignition systems, advanced concepts are being used, e. g. spark-jet ignition. Presented research has been carried to determine: 1. The impact of fuel injection pressure on the velocity of mixture formation, 2. Fuel distribution inside ignition chamber in defined phases of chamber filling, 3. Influence of chamber back-pressure on gas jet development. Investigations have been carried using the ignition chamber providing optical access. The visualization has been done with Schlieren-method with “Z”-setup basing on two ϕ = 150 mm parabolic mirrors. Images have been recorded with LaVision HSS5 camera with CMOS transducer. The paper contains a comparison of gas penetration parameters for a different injection pressures and chamber backpressures. The injection into the quasi-static air has been compared to the injection in dynamic conditions. It is stated, that both injection pressure and chamber back-pressure influence gas jet-development in the ignition chamber. The regions of the chamber with increased swirling and therefore providing more efficient micromixing have been identified.

  18. Optical diagnostic suite (schlieren, interferometry, and grid image refractometry) on OMEGA EP using a 10-ps, 263-nm probe beam. (United States)

    Froula, D H; Boni, R; Bedzyk, M; Craxton, R S; Ehrne, F; Ivancic, S; Jungquist, R; Shoup, M J; Theobald, W; Weiner, D; Kugland, N L; Rushford, M C


    A 10-ps, 263-nm (4ω) laser is being built to probe plasmas produced on the OMEGA EP [J. H. Kelly, L. J. Waxer, V. Bagnoud, I. A. Begishev, J. Bromage, B. E. Kruschwitz, T. E. Kessler, S. J. Loucks, D. N. Maywar, R. L. McCrory et al., J. Phys. IV France 133, 75-80 (2006)]. A suite of optical diagnostics (schlieren, interferometry, and grid image refractometry) has been designed to diagnose and characterize a wide variety of plasmas. Light scattered by the probe beam is collected by an f/4 catadioptric telescope and a transport system is designed to image with a near-diffraction-limited resolution (~1 - μm full width at half maximum) over a 5-mm field of view to a diagnostic table. The transport system provides a contrast greater than 1 : 10(4) with respect to all wavelengths outside of the 263 ± 2 nm measurement range.

  19. Time-resolved schlieren POD and aft deck pressure correlations on a rectangular supersonic nozzle and sonic wall jet (United States)

    Berry, Matthew; Magstadt, Andrew; Stack, Cory; Gaitonde, Datta; Glauser, Mark


    A multi-stream single expansion ramp nozzle (SERN) with aft deck, based on three-stream engine concepts, is currently undergoing experimental tests at Syracuse University's Skytop Turbulence Laboratory. In the context of this study, we view this as an idealized representation consisting of two canonical flows; a supersonic convergent-divergent (CD) nozzle and a sonic wall jet (representing the 3rd stream). The jet operates at a bulk flow of Mj , 1 = 1 . 6 and wall jet Mj , 3 = 1 . 0 . Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) is then performed on the schlieren images and the time-dependent coefficients are related to the near-field deck pressure. Structures within the flow field are correlated to particular flow events and help track the downstream evolution of the jet. A multitude of scales are seen within the flow corresponding to a wide range of coherent structures. High fidelity LES is also performed on the same nozzle geometry and relations are made back to the experiments. AFOSR Turbulence and Transition Program (Grant No. FA9550-15-1-0435) with program managers Dr. I. Leyva and Dr. R. Ponnappan.

  20. Brewster angle reflection measurements of Hg density and laser deflection (Schlieren) measurements of Hg density gradients in an ultra-high pressure arc lamp (United States)

    Kane, J; Kato, M; Lawler, J E


    A Brewster angle reflection measurement is used to determine the Hg vapor density at the arc tube wall of an ultra-high pressure lamp. The density measurement in combination with the wall temperature yields a pressure of 201 ± 11 bar. This lamp pressure in combination with an arc core temperature measurement yields an arc core Hg vapor density of 1.78 × 1020 cm-3, which agrees with the density from resonance collisional line broadening measurements of the 1014 nm Hg line. These density results are combined with Abel inverted laser deflection or schlieren measurements to determine a density/temperature map of the Hg vapor in the lamp. The laser deflection technique is sensitive in the arc core and mantle, unlike emission techniques which are sensitive only in the arc core.

  1. Measurements of Tip Vortices from a Full-Scale UH-60A Rotor by Retro- Reflective Background Oriented Schlieren and Stereo Photogrammetry (United States)

    Schairer, Edward; Kushner, Laura K.; Heineck, James T.


    Positions of vortices shed by a full-scale UH-60A rotor in forward flight were measured during a test in the National Full- Scale Aerodynamics Complex at NASA Ames Research Center. Vortices in a region near the tip of the advancing blade were visualized from two directions by Retro-Reflective Background-Oriented Schlieren (RBOS). Correspondence of points on the vortex in the RBOS images from both cameras was established using epipolar geometry. The object-space coordinates of the vortices were then calculated from the image-plane coordinates using stereo photogrammetry. One vortex from the tip of the blade that had most recently passed was visible in most of the data. The visibility of the vortices was greatest at high thrust and low advance ratios. At these favorable conditions, vortices from the most recent passages of all four blades were detected. The vortex positions were in good agreement with PIV data for a case where PIV measurements were also made. RBOS and photogrammetry provided measurements of the angle at which each vortex passed through the PIV plane.

  2. Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Fiona W.M.


    Full Text Available Rapid prototyping of microchannel gain lots of attention from researchers along with the rapid development of microfluidic technology. The conventional methods carried few disadvantages such as high cost, time consuming, required high operating pressure and temperature and involve expertise in operating the equipment. In this work, new method adapting xurography method is introduced to replace the conventional method of fabrication of microchannels. The novelty in this study is replacing the adhesion film with clear plastic film which was used to cut the design of the microchannel as the material is more suitable for fabricating more complex microchannel design. The microchannel was then mold using polymethyldisiloxane (PDMS and bonded with a clean glass to produce a close microchannel. The microchannel produced had a clean edge indicating good master mold was produced using the cutting plotter and the bonding between the PDMS and glass was good where no leakage was observed. The materials used in this method is cheap and the total time consumed is less than 5 hours where this method is suitable for rapid prototyping of microchannel.

  3. method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Kimball


    Full Text Available This paper presents an interior point algorithm to solve the multiperiod hydrothermal economic dispatch (HTED. The multiperiod HTED is a large scale nonlinear programming problem. Various optimization methods have been applied to the multiperiod HTED, but most neglect important network characteristics or require decomposition into thermal and hydro subproblems. The algorithm described here exploits the special bordered block diagonal structure and sparsity of the Newton system for the first order necessary conditions to result in a fast efficient algorithm that can account for all network aspects. Applying this new algorithm challenges a conventional method for the use of available hydro resources known as the peak shaving heuristic.

  4. Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Gnatov


    Full Text Available Recently repair and recovery vehicle body operations become more and more popular. A special place here is taken by equipment that provides performance of given repair operations. The most interesting things are methods for recovery of car body panels that allow the straightening without disassembling of car body panels and damaging of existing protective coating. Now, there are several technologies for repair and recovery of car body panels without their disassembly and dismantling. The most perspective is magnetic-pulse technology of external noncontact straightening. Basics of magnetic-pulse attraction, both ferromagnetic and nonferromagnetic thin-walled sheet metal, are explored. Inductor system calculation models of magnetic-pulse straightening tools are presented. Final analytical expressions for excited efforts calculation in the tools under consideration are introduced. According to the obtained analytical expressions, numerical evaluations of excited forces were executed. The volumetric epures of the attractive force radial distributions for different types of inductors were built. The practical testing of magnetic-pulse straightening with research tools is given. Using the results of the calculations we can create effective tools for an external magnetic-pulse straightening of car body panels.

  5. Comparative study of different Schlieren diffracting elements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 70; Issue 1. Comparative ... A K Aggarwal1. Coherent Optics Division, Central Scientific Instruments Organisation, Sector 30, Chandigarh 160 030, India; Department of Applied Physics, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar 125 001, India ...

  6. Reverse Circulation Drilling Method Based on a Supersonic Nozzle for Dust Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongyu Wu


    Full Text Available To reduce dust generated from drilling processes, a reverse circulation drilling method based on a supersonic nozzle is proposed. The suction performance is evaluated by the entrainment ratio. A series of preliminary laboratory experiments based on orthogonal experimental design were conducted to test the suction performance and reveal the main factors. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD were conducted to thoroughly understand the interaction mechanism of the flows. The Schlieren technique was further carried out to reveal the flow characteristic of the nozzle. The results show that the supersonic nozzle can significantly improve the reverse circulation effect. A high entrainment ratio up to 0.76 was achieved, which implied strong suction performance. The CFD results agreed well with experimental data with a maximum difference of 17%. This work presents the great potential for supersonic nozzles and reverse circulation in dust control, which is significant to protect the envrionment and people’s health.

  7. Analysis of localized fringes in the holographic optical Schlieren system (United States)

    Kurtz, R. L.


    The relation between localization of interference fringes in classical and holographic interferometry is reviewed and an application of holographic interferometry is considered for which the object is a transparent medium with nonhomogeneous refractive index. The technique is based on the analysis of the optical path length change of the object wave as it propagates through a transparent medium. Phase shifts due to variations of the speed of light within the medium give rise to an interference pattern. The resulting interferogram can be used to determine the physical properties of the medium or transparent object. Such properties include the mass density of fluids, electron densities of plasmas, the temperature of fluids, the chemical species concentration of fluids, and the state of stress in solids. The optical wave used can be either a simple plane or spherical wave, or it may be a complicated spatial wave scattered by a diffusing screen. The mathematical theory on the formation and analysis of localized fringes, the general theoretical concepts used, and a computer code for analysis are included along with the inversion of fringe order data.

  8. Phase knife-edge laser Schlieren diffraction interferometry with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. Raj Kumar1 D Mohan2 Sushil K Kaura1 D P Chhachhia1 A K Aggarwal1. Coherent Optics Division, Central Scientific Instruments Organisation, Sector 30, Chandigarh 160 030, India; Department of Applied Physics, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar 125 001, India ...

  9. Comparative study of standing wave reduction methods using random modulation for transcranial ultrasonication. (United States)

    Furuhata, Hiroshi; Saito, Osamu


    Various transcranial sonotherapeutic technologies have risks related to standing waves in the skull. In this study, we present a comparative study on standing waves using four different activation methods: sinusoidal (SIN), frequency modulation by noise (FMN), periodic selection of random frequency (PSRF), and random switching of both inverse carriers (RSBIC). The standing wave was produced and monitored by the schlieren method using a flat plane and a human skull. The minimum ratio RSW, which is defined by the ratio of the mean of the difference between local maximal value and local minimal value of amplitude to the average value of the amplitude, was 36% for SIN, 24% for FMN, 13% for PSRF, and 4%for RSBIC for the flat reflective plate, and it was 25% for SIN, 11% for FMN, 13% for PSRF, and 5% for RSBIC for the inner surface of the human skull. This study is expected to have a role in the development of safer therapeutic equipment. Copyright © 2013 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Perturbation methods

    CERN Document Server

    Nayfeh, Ali H


    1. Introduction 1 2. Straightforward Expansions and Sources of Nonuniformity 23 3. The Method of Strained Coordinates 56 4. The Methods of Matched and Composite Asymptotic Expansions 110 5. Variation of Parameters and Methods of Averaging 159 6. The Method of Multiple Scales 228 7. Asymptotic Solutions of Linear Equations 308 References and Author Index 387 Subject Index 417

  11. expansion method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we shall apply the (G /G)-expansion method to obtain the exact travelling wave solution of the two-dimensional ... In §3, we apply our method to the mentioned equations. In §4, some conclusions are ..... The exact solution obtained by this method can be used to check computer codes or as initial condition for ...

  12. Projection Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Falko Jens; Poulsen, Mikael Zebbelin


    When trying to solve a DAE problem of high index with more traditional methods, it often causes instability in some of the variables, and finally leads to breakdown of convergence and integration of the solution. This is nicely shown in [ESF98, p. 152 ff.].This chapter will introduce projection...... methods as a way of handling these special problems. It is assumed that we have methods for solving normal ODE systems and index-1 systems....

  13. Computing methods

    CERN Document Server

    Berezin, I S


    Computing Methods, Volume 2 is a five-chapter text that presents the numerical methods of solving sets of several mathematical equations. This volume includes computation sets of linear algebraic equations, high degree equations and transcendental equations, numerical methods of finding eigenvalues, and approximate methods of solving ordinary differential equations, partial differential equations and integral equations.The book is intended as a text-book for students in mechanical mathematical and physics-mathematical faculties specializing in computer mathematics and persons interested in the

  14. Method 59

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellsson, G.


    OCDE/GD(94)41. Er supplerende rapport til rapport: The OECD Workshop on Methods for Monitoring Organisms in the Environment, Ottawa 14-17 September 1992. Environment Monograph 90.......OCDE/GD(94)41. Er supplerende rapport til rapport: The OECD Workshop on Methods for Monitoring Organisms in the Environment, Ottawa 14-17 September 1992. Environment Monograph 90....

  15. galerkin's methods

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    CSSS, CSCS, CCSS, CCSC and CCCC plates. (c) Future studies can employ the shape function presented herein and the Galerkin's method to analyze plate. (d) Future studies should use the shape function used herein and Galerkin's method to analyze plate on elastic foundation. (e) It is suggested that further work in this ...

  16. Dosimetry methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaughlin, W.L.; Miller, A.; Kovacs, A.


    Chemical and physical radiation dosimetry methods, used for the measurement of absorbed dose mainly during the practical use of ionizing radiation, are discussed with respect to their characteristics and fields of application....

  17. Sieve methods

    CERN Document Server

    Halberstam, Heine


    Derived from the techniques of analytic number theory, sieve theory employs methods from mathematical analysis to solve number-theoretical problems. This text by a noted pair of experts is regarded as the definitive work on the subject. It formulates the general sieve problem, explores the theoretical background, and illustrates significant applications.""For years to come, Sieve Methods will be vital to those seeking to work in the subject, and also to those seeking to make applications,"" noted prominent mathematician Hugh Montgomery in his review of this volume for the Bulletin of the Ameri

  18. Statistical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Szulc, Stefan


    Statistical Methods provides a discussion of the principles of the organization and technique of research, with emphasis on its application to the problems in social statistics. This book discusses branch statistics, which aims to develop practical ways of collecting and processing numerical data and to adapt general statistical methods to the objectives in a given field.Organized into five parts encompassing 22 chapters, this book begins with an overview of how to organize the collection of such information on individual units, primarily as accomplished by government agencies. This text then

  19. Characterization methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, J.T. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh (United States)


    Methods discussed in this compilation of notes and diagrams are Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and other surface analysis techniques (auger electron spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and scanning tunnelling microscopy). A comparative evaluation of different techniques is performed. In-vacuo and in-situ analyses are described.

  20. Digital Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogers, R.


    In Digital Methods, Richard Rogers proposes a methodological outlook for social and cultural scholarly research on the Web that seeks to move Internet research beyond the study of online culture. It is not a toolkit for Internet research, or operating instructions for a software package; it deals

  1. Contraceptive Methods. (United States)

    Colquitt, Charlie W; Martin, Tonya S


    The prevention of pregnancy remains an important part of the practice of medicine. Contraception can occur at a number of points in the basic reproductive biological process and through a number of contraceptive product options. Pharmacists are health care providers appropriately positioned to assist patients in suitable contraceptive product selection based on their personal situations and lifestyles. This article provides an overview of available products for prevention of pregnancy and associated risks and benefits. Contraceptive products are categorized by their hormonal content and method of action. Hormonal options include oral contraceptive pills, contraceptive patch, implants, injection, intravaginal, and intrauterine devices. Barrier products prevent pregnancy by creating a physical obstacle to the successful fertilization of an egg by sperm. All products and methods are associated with benefits and potential complications that must be considered as patients, and health care providers select the most satisfactory option.

  2. Numerical methods


    Agelet de Saracibar Bosch, Carlos; Boman, Romain; Bussetta, Philippe; Cajas García, Juan Carlos; Cervera Ruiz, Miguel; Chiumenti, Michèle; Coll Sans, Abel; Dadvand, Pooyan; Hernández Ortega, Joaquín Alberto; Houzeaux, Guillaume; Pasenau de Riera, Miguel; Ponthot, Jean Philippe


    As one of the results of an ambitious project, this handbook provides a well-structured directory of globally available software tools in the area of Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME). The compilation covers models, software tools, and numerical methods allowing describing electronic, atomistic, and mesoscopic phenomena, which in their combination determine the microstructure and the properties of materials. It reaches out to simulations of component manufacture compris...

  3. Numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Dahlquist, Germund


    ""Substantial, detailed and rigorous . . . readers for whom the book is intended are admirably served."" - MathSciNet (Mathematical Reviews on the Web), American Mathematical Society.Practical text strikes fine balance between students' requirements for theoretical treatment and needs of practitioners, with best methods for large- and small-scale computing. Prerequisites are minimal (calculus, linear algebra, and preferably some acquaintance with computer programming). Text includes many worked examples, problems, and an extensive bibliography.

  4. Schlieren Imaging and Pulsed Detonation Engine Testing of Ignition by a Nanosecond Repetitively Pulsed Discharge (United States)


    Lefkowitz a,⇑, Peng Guo a, Timothy Ombrello b, Sang Hee Won a, Christopher A. Stevens c, John L. Hoke c, Frederick Schauer b, Yiguang Ju a aDeparment...S.-T. Yu, S. Williams, C. Carter, F. Schauer , J. Hoke, C. Cathey, M. Gundersen, in: 45th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, NV, 2007. [17] S.V...Laux, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 (46) (2013) 464010. [24] F.R. Schauer , J.S. Stutrud, R.P. Bradley, in: 39th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, NV

  5. Schlieren-cinematographic and holographic diagnostic of a laser-produced plasma in xenon. (United States)

    Hugenschmidt, M; Vollrath, K; Hirth, A


    We have studied extensively a gas breakdown in xenon produced by a giant pulse ruby laser with a power theory, to relate the optically measured expansion velocity with the plasma parameters involved. The mean specific internal energy epsilon , for instance, attained values in excess of 10(12) erg/g which decayed rapidly during the first 100 nsec to about 5. 10(10) erg/g. By comparing the results to theoretical calculations of we obtained a first estimate of the temperature, taking into consideration the partial densities n(j) as well as the partition functions Z(j)((i)) of the xenon atoms, the single-charged ions, and the double-charged ones. Furthermore, a two-step iteration computer program was used to give more detailed and more accurate results on the variations of the pressure, temperature, partial densities, and enthalpy as a function of time.

  6. Time Evolution of the Density Field of a Micro-Explosion Using Background Oriented Schlieren (United States)

    Suriyanarayanan, P.; Venkatakrishnan, L.; Jagadeesh, G.

    In recent years micro-explosions have found interesting trans-disciplinary applications in the areas of food preservation,wood science, drug delivery, gene therapy and bio-medical applications [1, 2]. Generating controlled micro-explosions in a laboratory environment in a reliable manner is essential; to study and understand some of the near field flow dynamics associated with blast waves.

  7. Shadowgraph, Schlieren and interferometry in a 2D cavitating channel flow


    Mauger, Cyril; Méès, Loïc; Michard, Marc; Azouzi, Alexandre; Valette, Stéphane


    International audience; Cavitation plays an important role in fuel atomization mechanisms but the physics of cavitation and its impact on spray formation and injector efficiency are not well documented yet. Experimental investigations are required to support the development and the validation of numerical models and the design of tomorrow's injectors, in the context of pollutant and fuel consumption reduction. The complexity of modern injectors and the extreme conditions of injection do not f...

  8. Casting methods (United States)

    Marsden, Kenneth C.; Meyer, Mitchell K.; Grover, Blair K.; Fielding, Randall S.; Wolfensberger, Billy W.


    A casting device includes a covered crucible having a top opening and a bottom orifice, a lid covering the top opening, a stopper rod sealing the bottom orifice, and a reusable mold having at least one chamber, a top end of the chamber being open to and positioned below the bottom orifice and a vacuum tap into the chamber being below the top end of the chamber. A casting method includes charging a crucible with a solid material and covering the crucible, heating the crucible, melting the material, evacuating a chamber of a mold to less than 1 atm absolute through a vacuum tap into the chamber, draining the melted material into the evacuated chamber, solidifying the material in the chamber, and removing the solidified material from the chamber without damaging the chamber.

  9. WELDING METHOD (United States)

    Cornell, A.A.; Dunbar, J.V.; Ruffner, J.H.


    A semi-automatic method is described for the weld joining of pipes and fittings which utilizes the inert gasshielded consumable electrode electric arc welding technique, comprising laying down the root pass at a first peripheral velocity and thereafter laying down the filler passes over the root pass necessary to complete the weld by revolving the pipes and fittings at a second peripheral velocity different from the first peripheral velocity, maintaining the welding head in a fixed position as to the specific direction of revolution, while the longitudinal axis of the welding head is disposed angularly in the direction of revolution at amounts between twenty minutas and about four degrees from the first position.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin LUPU


    Full Text Available In this article presents applications of “Divide et impera” method using object -oriented programming in C #.Main advantage of using the "divide et impera" cost in that it allows software to reduce the complexity of the problem,sub-problems that were being decomposed and simpler data sharing in smaller groups of data (eg sub -algorithmQuickSort. Object-oriented programming means programs with new types that integrates both data and methodsassociated with the creation, processing and destruction of such data. To gain advantages through abstractionprogramming (the program is no longer a succession of processing, but a set of objects to life, have differentproperties, are capable of specific action s and interact in the program. Spoke on instantiation new techniques,derivation and polimorfismul object types.

  11. On method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Kortlandt


    Full Text Available The basis of linguistic reconstruction is the comparative method, which starts from the assumption that there is “a stronger affinity, both in the roots of verbs and in the forms of grammar, than could possibly have been produced by accident”, implying the existence of a common source (thus Sir William Jones in 1786. It follows that there must be a possible sequence of developments from the reconstructed system to the attested data. These developments must have been either phonetically regular or analogical. The latter type of change requires a model and a motivation. A theory which does not account for the data in terms of sound laws and well-motivated analogical changes is not a linguistic reconstruction but philosophical speculation.The pre-laryngealist idea that any Proto-Indo-European long vowel became acute in Balto-Slavic is a typical example of philosophical speculation contradicted by the comparative evidence. Other examples are spontaneous glottalization (Jasanoff’s “acute assignment”, unattested anywhere in the world, Jasanoff’s trimoraic long vowels, Eichner’s law, Osthoff’s law, and Szemerényi’s law, which is an instance of circular reasoning. The Balto-Slavic acute continues the Proto-Indo-European laryngeals and the glottalic feature of the traditional Proto-Indo-European “unaspirated voiced” obstruents (Winter’s law. My reconstruction of Proto-Indo-European glottalic obstruents is based on direct evidence from Indo-Iranian, Armenian, Baltic and Germanic and indirect evidence from Indo-Iranian, Greek, Latin and Slavic.

  12. Coal - testing methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This Standard specifies the method for the particle-size analysis, the method for determination of the float and sink characteristics, the method for determination of Hardgrove grindability indices, the method for determination of the crucible swelling number, the method for determination of the swelling properties, the method for determination of the fluidity properties, the method for determination of the coking properties, the method for determination of the fusibility of ash, and the method for determination of Roga indices of coal.

  13. An Improved Newton's Method. (United States)

    Mathews, John H.


    Describes Newton's method to locate roots of an equation using the Newton-Raphson iteration formula. Develops an adaptive method overcoming limitations of the iteration method. Provides the algorithm and computer program of the adaptive Newton-Raphson method. (YP)

  14. Ensemble Data Mining Methods (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ensemble Data Mining Methods, also known as Committee Methods or Model Combiners, are machine learning methods that leverage the power of multiple models to achieve...

  15. From Method to Post Method: A Panacea! (United States)

    Masouleh, Nima Shakouri


    The foundation of language teaching has undergone many changes. The rise and fall of language teaching methods depends upon a variety of factors extrinsic to a method itself and often reflects the influence of profit-seekers and promoters, as well as the forces of the intellectual marketplace. There was always a source of contention among people…

  16. Methodics of obstacle swimming


    Picka, Matěj


    Title: Methodics of Obstacle swimming Objective: The objectve of my disertation is to define requirments for Obstacle swimming and present the most effective methods for mastering in this discipline of Military Penthatlon Methods: Methods of pedagogical research Methods or theoretical and empirical research Results: The outcome of this thesis is to create methodics for obstacle swimming, show major mistakes in overcoming obstacles and give examples for ideal training session for swimming itse...

  17. Methods in aquatic bacteriology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Austin, B


    .... Within these sections detailed chapters consider sampling methods, determination of biomass, isolation methods, identification, the bacterial microflora of fish, invertebrates, plants and the deep...

  18. Precomputing method lookup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jul, Eric


    This paper looks at Method Lookup and discusses the Emerald approach to making Method Lookup more efficient by precomputing method lookup as early as possible — even moving it back into the compilation phase, if possible, thus eliminating method lookup entirely for many simple procedure calls. ...

  19. Advanced differential quadrature methods

    CERN Document Server

    Zong, Zhi


    Modern Tools to Perform Numerical DifferentiationThe original direct differential quadrature (DQ) method has been known to fail for problems with strong nonlinearity and material discontinuity as well as for problems involving singularity, irregularity, and multiple scales. But now researchers in applied mathematics, computational mechanics, and engineering have developed a range of innovative DQ-based methods to overcome these shortcomings. Advanced Differential Quadrature Methods explores new DQ methods and uses these methods to solve problems beyond the capabilities of the direct DQ method.After a basic introduction to the direct DQ method, the book presents a number of DQ methods, including complex DQ, triangular DQ, multi-scale DQ, variable order DQ, multi-domain DQ, and localized DQ. It also provides a mathematical compendium that summarizes Gauss elimination, the Runge-Kutta method, complex analysis, and more. The final chapter contains three codes written in the FORTRAN language, enabling readers to q...

  20. Radiochemical method development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, M.D.; Aldstadt, J.H.; Alvarado, J.S.; Crain, J.S.; Orlandini, K.A.; Smith, L.L.


    The authors have developed methods for chemical characterization of the environment under a multitask project that focuses on improvement of radioanalytical methods with an emphasis on faster and cheaper routine methods. The authors have developed improved methods for separation of environmental levels of technetium-99, radium, and actinides from soil and water; separation of actinides from soil and water matrix interferences; and isolation of strontium. They are also developing methods for simultaneous detection of multiple isotopes (including nonradionuclides) by using a new instrumental technique, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The new ICP-MS methods have greater sensitivity and efficiency and could replace many radiometric techniques. They are using flow injection analysis to integrate and automate the separation methods with the ICP-MS methodology. The final product of all activities will be methods that are available (published in the U.S. Department of Energy`s analytical methods compendium) and acceptable for use in regulatory situations.

  1. [Medical Equipment Maintenance Methods]. (United States)

    Liu, Hongbin


    Due to the high technology and the complexity of medical equipment, as well as to the safety and effectiveness, it determines the high requirements of the medical equipment maintenance work. This paper introduces some basic methods of medical instrument maintenance, including fault tree analysis, node method and exclusive method which are the three important methods in the medical equipment maintenance, through using these three methods for the instruments that have circuit drawings, hardware breakdown maintenance can be done easily. And this paper introduces the processing methods of some special fault conditions, in order to reduce little detours in meeting the same problems. Learning is very important for stuff just engaged in this area.

  2. Consumer Behavior Research Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros


    emphasizes the discussion of primary research methods. Based on the nature of the data primary research methods are further distinguished into qualitative and quantitative. The chapter describes the most important and popular qualitative and quantitative methods. It concludes with an overall evaluation......This chapter starts by distinguishing consumer behavior research methods based on the type of data used, being either secondary or primary. Most consumer behavior research studies phenomena that require researchers to enter the field and collect data on their own, and therefore the chapter...... of the methods and how to improve quality in consumer behavior research methods....

  3. Quasi-Newton Methods (United States)

    Walker, H. F.


    The problem to be solved is formulated precisely and the introduction of quasi-Newton methods is motivated by considering the classical Newton and secant methods and their properties. Three highly successful quasi-Newton methods are surveyed: Broyden's method for the solution of general nonlinear equations, and the Davidon-Fletcher-Powell and Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno procedures for unconstrained minimization. Finally, the properties of these methods are compared to those of Newton's method and UHMLE in potential applications to maximum-likelihood estimation of parameters in mixture distributions.

  4. High-Speed Schlieren and 10-Hz Kr PLIF for the new AFRL Mach-6 Ludwieg Tube Hypersonic Wind Tunnel (United States)


    prediction and control of heat transfer, skin friction , and other boundary-layer properties. Accurate knowledge of laminar-turbulent 1 Research...for hypersonic flows3. Traditionally, researchers have used surface sensors, such as pressure sensors, hot wires, and heat-flux gauges, to study the...3.28107/m, as shown in Figure 1. More details about the Ludwieg tube facility can be found from ref. 17. The inner surface of the driver tube

  5. Pesticide Analytical Methods (United States)

    Pesticide manufacturers must develop and submit analytical methods for their pesticide products to support registration of their products under FIFRA. Learn about these methods as well as SOPs for testing of antimicrobial products against three organisms.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankevich Anatoliy Nikolaevich


    Full Text Available The main idea of the method of solving multidimensional boundary problems is reduction of initial differential equations in partial derivatives to the system of ordinary differential equations. One-dimensional resolving equations allow extending the potential of the method of lines. Although efficient and highly-precise numerical methods have been developed for solution of one-dimensional and initial-boundary value problems their use is impossible in the method of lines. The author considers a new method of lines which is used in order to reduce the dimensionality of multidimensional problems of structural mechanics. The method is used for calculation of thick plates, plates of variable thickness, heterogeneous and multilayered plates. It is proposed to replace finite-difference relations by projection relations which will extend the potential of the method of lines and will allow using the method in the dynamic problems.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Kirova


    Full Text Available This article discusses methods of transfer pricing as a set of methods and operations on the justification of compliance rates in a transaction between related parties market level.

  8. NIOSH Method 7905: Phosphorus (United States)

    Method 7905 describes procedures for analysis of phosphorus in air samples using GC-FPD. The method is applicable to vapor-phase phosphorus only; if particulate phosphorus is expected, a filter could be used in the sampling train.

  9. Dissolution Methods Database (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — For a drug product that does not have a dissolution test method in the United States Pharmacopeia (USP), the FDA Dissolution Methods Database provides information on...

  10. SAM Chemical Methods Query (United States)

    Laboratories measuring target chemical, radiochemical, pathogens, and biotoxin analytes in environmental samples can use this online query tool to identify analytical methods in EPA's Selected Analytical Methods for Environmental Remediation and Recovery

  11. SAM Biotoxin Methods Query (United States)

    Laboratories measuring target biotoxin analytes in environmental samples can use this online query tool to identify analytical methods included in EPA's Selected Analytical Methods for Environmental Remediation and Recovery for select biotoxins.

  12. SAM Pathogen Methods Query (United States)

    Laboratories measuring target pathogen analytes in environmental samples can use this online query tool to identify analytical methods in EPA's Selected Analytical Methods for Environmental Remediation and Recovery for select pathogens.

  13. SAM Radiochemical Methods Query (United States)

    Laboratories measuring target radiochemical analytes in environmental samples can use this online query tool to identify analytical methods in EPA's Selected Analytical Methods for Environmental Remediation and Recovery for select radiochemical analytes.

  14. SAM Methods Query (United States)

    Laboratories measuring target chemical, radiochemical, pathogens, and biotoxin analytes in environmental samples can use this online query tool to identify analytical methods included in EPA's Selected Analytical Methods for Environmental Remediation

  15. Design Methods in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Torben Elgaard; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup


    on engineering design, and on the other hand the understanding of method use, which has emerged from micro-sociological studies of practice (ethnomethodology). Second, it reviews a number of case studies conducted by engineering students, who were instructed to investigate the actual use of design methods......The paper challenges the dominant and widespread view that a good design method will guarantee a systematic approach as well as certain results. First, it explores the substantial differences between on the one hand the conception of methods implied in Pahl & Beitz’s widely recognized text book...... in Danish companies. The paper concludes that design methods in practice deviate substantially from Pahl & Beitz’s description of method use: The object and problems, which are the starting points for method use, are more contested and less given than generally assumed; The steps of methods are often...

  16. Noise-Measuring Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond, J. M.


    A noise-measuring method based on the use of a calibrated noise generator and an output meter with a special scale is described. The method eliminates the effect of noise contributions occurring in the circuits following the device under test.......A noise-measuring method based on the use of a calibrated noise generator and an output meter with a special scale is described. The method eliminates the effect of noise contributions occurring in the circuits following the device under test....

  17. Conformable variational iteration method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Acan


    Full Text Available In this study, we introduce the conformable variational iteration method based on new defined fractional derivative called conformable fractional derivative. This new method is applied two fractional order ordinary differential equations. To see how the solutions of this method, linear homogeneous and non-linear non-homogeneous fractional ordinary differential equations are selected. Obtained results are compared the exact solutions and their graphics are plotted to demonstrate efficiency and accuracy of the method.

  18. Mixed methods research. (United States)

    Halcomb, Elizabeth; Hickman, Louise


    Mixed methods research involves the use of qualitative and quantitative data in a single research project. It represents an alternative methodological approach, combining qualitative and quantitative research approaches, which enables nurse researchers to explore complex phenomena in detail. This article provides a practical overview of mixed methods research and its application in nursing, to guide the novice researcher considering a mixed methods research project.

  19. Mimetic discretization methods

    CERN Document Server

    Castillo, Jose E


    To help solve physical and engineering problems, mimetic or compatible algebraic discretization methods employ discrete constructs to mimic the continuous identities and theorems found in vector calculus. Mimetic Discretization Methods focuses on the recent mimetic discretization method co-developed by the first author. Based on the Castillo-Grone operators, this simple mimetic discretization method is invariably valid for spatial dimensions no greater than three. The book also presents a numerical method for obtaining corresponding discrete operators that mimic the continuum differential and

  20. The Generalized Sturmian Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avery, James Emil


    these ideas clearly so that they become more accessible. By bringing together these non-standard methods, the book intends to inspire graduate students, postdoctoral researchers and academics to think of novel approaches. Is there a method out there that we have not thought of yet? Can we design a new method...... generations of researchers were left to work out how to achieve this ambitious goal for molecular systems of ever-increasing size. This book focuses on non-mainstream methods to solve the molecular electronic Schrödinger equation. Each method is based on a set of core ideas and this volume aims to explain...

  1. Methods for assessing geodiversity (United States)

    Zwoliński, Zbigniew; Najwer, Alicja; Giardino, Marco


    The accepted systematics of geodiversity assessment methods will be presented in three categories: qualitative, quantitative and qualitative-quantitative. Qualitative methods are usually descriptive methods that are suited to nominal and ordinal data. Quantitative methods use a different set of parameters and indicators to determine the characteristics of geodiversity in the area being researched. Qualitative-quantitative methods are a good combination of the collection of quantitative data (i.e. digital) and cause-effect data (i.e. relational and explanatory). It seems that at the current stage of the development of geodiversity research methods, qualitative-quantitative methods are the most advanced and best assess the geodiversity of the study area. Their particular advantage is the integration of data from different sources and with different substantive content. Among the distinguishing features of the quantitative and qualitative-quantitative methods for assessing geodiversity are their wide use within geographic information systems, both at the stage of data collection and data integration, as well as numerical processing and their presentation. The unresolved problem for these methods, however, is the possibility of their validation. It seems that currently the best method of validation is direct filed confrontation. Looking to the next few years, the development of qualitative-quantitative methods connected with cognitive issues should be expected, oriented towards ontology and the Semantic Web.

  2. Methods of Software Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Gurin


    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the problem of software verification (SW. Methods of software verification designed to check the software for compliance with the stated requirements such as correctness, system security and system adaptability to small changes in the environment, portability and compatibility, etc. These are various methods both by the operation process and by the way of achieving result. The article describes the static and dynamic methods of software verification and paid attention to the method of symbolic execution. In its review of static analysis are discussed and described the deductive method, and methods for testing the model. A relevant issue of the pros and cons of a particular method is emphasized. The article considers classification of test techniques for each method. In this paper we present and analyze the characteristics and mechanisms of the static analysis of dependencies, as well as their views, which can reduce the number of false positives in situations where the current state of the program combines two or more states obtained both in different paths of execution and in working with multiple object values. Dependences connect various types of software objects: single variables, the elements of composite variables (structure fields, array elements, the size of the heap areas, the length of lines, the number of initialized array elements in the verification code using static methods. The article pays attention to the identification of dependencies within the framework of the abstract interpretation, as well as gives an overview and analysis of the inference tools.Methods of dynamic analysis such as testing, monitoring and profiling are presented and analyzed. Also some kinds of tools are considered which can be applied to the software when using the methods of dynamic analysis. Based on the work a conclusion is drawn, which describes the most relevant problems of analysis techniques, methods of their solutions and

  3. [A scientific reading method]. (United States)

    Moreau, D


    To provide high quality services, nursing professionals must be prepared to update their knowledge constantly. To achieve this, various methods are available such as courses, conferences and research projects. All of these methods share one essential intellectual activity, scientific reading. Scientific reading is a complex and demanding activity that requires more than basic reading skills. Many nurses find it boring and arduous, probably because it gives them no pleasure, but especially because they lack a method. In this article, the author proposes a scientific reading method consisting of three stages: an overview approach to the text, a superficial reading, and an in-depth reading of the text. This method is simple, easy to use, and entirely appropriate for scientific reading. The author hopes that this method will give more nurses the desire to read and use scientific literature in the practice of their profession.

  4. Performative Schizoid Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie


    A performative schizoid method is developed as a method contribution to performance as research. The method is inspired by contemporary research in the human and social sciences urging experimentation and researcher engagement with creative and artistic practice. In the article, the method...... is presented and an example is provided of a first exploratory engagement with it. The method is used in a specific project Becoming Iris, making inquiry into arts-based knowledge creation during a three month visiting scholarship at a small, independent visual art academy. Using the performative schizoid...... method in Becoming Iris results in four audio-visual and performance-based productions, centered on an emergent theme of the scholartist as a bird in borrowed feathers. Interestingly, the moral lesson of the fable about the vain jackdaw, who dresses in borrowed peacock feathers and becomes a castout...

  5. Structural Reliability Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Madsen, H. O.

    The structural reliability methods quantitatively treat the uncertainty of predicting the behaviour and properties of a structure given the uncertain properties of its geometry, materials, and the actions it is supposed to withstand. This book addresses the probabilistic methods for evaluation...... of structural reliability, including the theoretical basis for these methods. Partial safety factor codes under current practice are briefly introduced and discussed. A probabilistic code format for obtaining a formal reliability evaluation system that catches the most essential features of the nature...

  6. The Feldenkrais method


    Sholl, Robert


    In this short article I discuss some strategies in the educational method focused on learning and movement known as the Feldenkrais Method. This was created by the engineer and physicist (also a judo teacher), Mosche Feldenkrais (1904-1984). I will show how this Method can impact upon creative practice referring to the ways in which this was articulated at two conferences held at the University of West London in 2016 and 2017.

  7. Applied iterative methods

    CERN Document Server

    Hageman, Louis A


    This graduate-level text examines the practical use of iterative methods in solving large, sparse systems of linear algebraic equations and in resolving multidimensional boundary-value problems. Assuming minimal mathematical background, it profiles the relative merits of several general iterative procedures. Topics include polynomial acceleration of basic iterative methods, Chebyshev and conjugate gradient acceleration procedures applicable to partitioning the linear system into a "red/black" block form, adaptive computational algorithms for the successive overrelaxation (SOR) method, and comp

  8. Qualitative research methods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sofaer, Shoshanna


    The use of rigorous qualitative research methods can enhance the development of quality measures, the development and dissemination of comparative quality reports, as well as quality improvement efforts...

  9. Applied Bayesian hierarchical methods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Congdon, P


    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Posterior Inference from Bayes Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Markov Chain Monte Carlo Sampling in Relation to Monte Carlo Methods: Obtaining Posterior...

  10. Methods in ALFA Alignment

    CERN Document Server

    Melendez, Jordan


    This note presents two model-independent methods for use in the alignment of the ALFA forward detectors. Using a Monte Carlo simulated LHC run at \\beta = 90m and \\sqrt{s} = 7 TeV, the Kinematic Peak alignment method is utilized to reconstruct the Mandelstam momentum transfer variable t for single-diractive protons. The Hot Spot method uses fluctuations in the hitmap density to pinpoint particular regions in the detector that could signal a misalignment. Another method uses an error function fit to find the detector edge. With this information, the vertical alignment can be determined.

  11. Studying Aid: Some Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)


    textabstractINVESTIGATING IDEAS, IDEOLOGIES AND PRACTICES This paper presents some methods for trying to make sense of international aid and of its study.1 Some of the methods may be deemed ethnographic; the others are important partners to them, but rather different. In the course of discussing

  12. Improved rational hydrograph method (United States)

    Crobeddu, E.; Bennis, S.; Rhouzlane, S.


    SummaryThis paper presents an improved rational hydrograph method to compute the runoff at the outlet of a small urban catchment. The new formulation, based on the linear system theory, explicitly considers the contributions of pervious and impervious areas, the time variability of rainfall, the initial abstraction on impervious areas and the infiltration on pervious areas. Moreover, the rational method formula appears to be a special case of the proposed rational hydrograph method. A sensitivity analysis conducted on the improved rational hydrograph method has emphasized the most influent parameters. A sequential procedure is proposed to calibrate parameters of the improved rational hydrograph method on the basis of appropriate storm events. The improved rational hydrograph method was applied to 41 rainfall events gauged in 7 different North American and European urban catchments. Runoff computed with the improved rational hydrograph method was compared to measured runoff, as well as to the runoff derived from the nonlinear reservoir model. A good agreement was achieved between simulated and observed runoff hydrographs. Moreover, runoff hydrographs derived with the proposed method are equivalent to those computed with the nonlinear reservoir model.

  13. Structural Reliability Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Madsen, H. O.

    The structural reliability methods quantitatively treat the uncertainty of predicting the behaviour and properties of a structure given the uncertain properties of its geometry, materials, and the actions it is supposed to withstand. This book addresses the probabilistic methods for evaluation...

  14. Methods for data classification (United States)

    Garrity, George [Okemos, MI; Lilburn, Timothy G [Front Royal, VA


    The present invention provides methods for classifying data and uncovering and correcting annotation errors. In particular, the present invention provides a self-organizing, self-correcting algorithm for use in classifying data. Additionally, the present invention provides a method for classifying biological taxa.

  15. The PANGLOSS method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaards, K.; Ferreira Pires, Luis; Pras, Aiko; Schot, J.


    A method for the development of concurrent and distributed systems is described. The method follows from a project (PANGLOSS) that aims at developing a high performance gateway. It emphasizes the use of a formal description technique (LOTOS) and a cyclic approach. In the cyclic approach, the design

  16. Water treatment method (United States)

    Martin, Frank S.; Silver, Gary L.


    A method for reducing the concentration of any undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite.

  17. Maps and navigation methods (United States)

    Duval, A


    Different maps and scales are discussed with particular emphasis on their use in aviation. The author makes the observation that current navigation methods are slow and dangerous and should be replaced by scientific methods of navigation based on loxodromy and the use of the compass.

  18. Parallel Adams methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. van der Houwen; E. Messina


    textabstractIn the literature, various types of parallel methods for integrating nonstiff initial-value problems for first-order ordinary differential equation have been proposed. The greater part of them are based on an implicit multistage method in which the implicit relations are solved by the

  19. The TESOL Methods Course. (United States)

    Grosse, Christine Uber


    Presents results of an empirical study of the curriculum of the Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) methods course in the United States. Information is provided about the content of the TESOL methods course, its goals, requirements, instructional materials, and common problems, and the identification of possible avenues for…

  20. N ewton's Method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of his day and a friend of New- ton, published the method in his book ... lished in 1736 (l}. Keywords. Implicit function theorem,. Sard's theorem, regular value,. Newton-Raphson scheme. GENERAL I ARTICLE. N ewton's Method. Vivek S Borkar ... equation fn(x) = 0 to find Xn+l, where fn is trle lin- ear approximation to f at Xn ...

  1. Research Methods in Education (United States)

    Check, Joseph; Schutt, Russell K.


    "Research Methods in Education" introduces research methods as an integrated set of techniques for investigating questions about the educational world. This lively, innovative text helps students connect technique and substance, appreciate the value of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, and make ethical research decisions.…

  2. The Method of Archimedes. (United States)

    Del Grande, John


    Describes the method that Archimedes utilized to calculate the volumes of spheres and other solids. The method found the volume of a sphere by comparing the mass of parallel slices of a sphere and a cone with that of a cylinder of known mass. (MDH)

  3. Soybean allergen detection methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mona H; Holzhauser, Thomas; Bisson, Caroline


    Soybean containing products are widely consumed, thus reliable methods for detection of soy in foods are needed in order to make appropriate risk assessment studies to adequately protect soy allergic patients. Six methods were compared using eight food products with a declared content of soy...

  4. Validating Analytical Methods (United States)

    Ember, Lois R.


    The procedures utilized by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) to develop, evaluate, and validate analytical methods for the analysis of chemical pollutants are detailed. Methods validated by AOAC are used by the EPA and FDA in their enforcement programs and are granted preferential treatment by the courts. (BT)

  5. Multiscale and Stabilized Methods (United States)


    Barbosa and Hughes (1992), Codina (1998,2000), Franca and Do Carmo (1989), Franca and Farhat (1995), Franca and Frey (1992), Franca, Frey and Hughes (1992...University of Technology, Austria, July 7-12, 2002. Franca LP, Do Carmo EGD. The Galerkin gradient least-squares method. Computer Methods in Applied

  6. Adaptive method of lines

    CERN Document Server

    Saucez, Ph


    The general Method of Lines (MOL) procedure provides a flexible format for the solution of all the major classes of partial differential equations (PDEs) and is particularly well suited to evolutionary, nonlinear wave PDEs. Despite its utility, however, there are relatively few texts that explore it at a more advanced level and reflect the method''s current state of development.Written by distinguished researchers in the field, Adaptive Method of Lines reflects the diversity of techniques and applications related to the MOL. Most of its chapters focus on a particular application but also provide a discussion of underlying philosophy and technique. Particular attention is paid to the concept of both temporal and spatial adaptivity in solving time-dependent PDEs. Many important ideas and methods are introduced, including moving grids and grid refinement, static and dynamic gridding, the equidistribution principle and the concept of a monitor function, the minimization of a functional, and the moving finite elem...

  7. Engaging with mobile methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Trandberg


    This chapter showcases how mobile methods are more than calibrated techniques awaiting application by tourism researchers, but productive in the enactment of the mobile (Law and Urry, 2004). Drawing upon recent findings deriving from a PhD course on mobility and mobile methods it reveals...... the conceptual ambiguousness of the term ‘mobile methods’. In order to explore this ambiguousness the chapter provides a number of examples deriving from tourism research, to explore how mobile methods are always entangled in ideologies, predispositions, conventions and practice-realities. Accordingly......, the engagements with methods are acknowledged to be always political and contextual, reminding us to avoid essentialist discussions regarding research methods. Finally, the chapter draws on recent fieldwork to extend developments in mobilities-oriented tourism research, by employing auto-ethnography to call...

  8. Methods in Modern Biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Nölting, Bengt


    Incorporating recent dramatic advances, this textbook presents a fresh and timely introduction to modern biophysical methods. An array of new, faster and higher-power biophysical methods now enables scientists to examine the mysteries of life at a molecular level. This innovative text surveys and explains the ten key biophysical methods, including those related to biophysical nanotechnology, scanning probe microscopy, X-ray crystallography, ion mobility spectrometry, mass spectrometry, proteomics, and protein folding and structure. Incorporating much information previously unavailable in tutorial form, Nölting employs worked examples and 267 illustrations to fully detail the techniques and their underlying mechanisms. Methods in Modern Biophysics is written for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, postdocs, researchers, lecturers and professors in biophysics, biochemistry and related fields. Special features in the 2nd edition: • Illustrates the high-resolution methods for ultrashort-living protei...

  9. Evaluation of dual flow thrust vectored nozzles with exhaust stream impingement. MS Thesis Final Technical Report, Oct. 1990 - Jul. 1991 (United States)

    Carpenter, Thomas W.


    The main objective of this project was to predict the expansion wave/oblique shock wave structure in an under-expanded jet expanding from a convergent nozzle. The shock structure was predicted by combining the calculated curvature of the free pressure boundary with principles and governing equations relating to oblique shock wave and expansion wave interaction. The procedure was then continued until the shock pattern repeated itself. A mathematical model was then formulated and written in FORTRAN to calculate the oblique shock/expansion wave structure within the jet. In order to study shock waves in expanding jets, Schlieren photography, a form of flow visualization, was employed. Thirty-six Schlieren photographs of jets from both a straight and 15 degree nozzle were taken. An iterative procedure was developed to calculate the shock structure within the jet and predict the non-dimensional values of Prandtl primary wavelength (w/rn), distance to Mach Disc (Ld) and Mach Disc radius (rd). These values were then compared to measurements taken from Schlieren photographs and experimental results. The results agreed closely to measurements from Schlieren photographs and previously obtained data. This method provides excellent results for pressure ratios below that at which a Mach Disc first forms. Calculated values of non-dimensional distance to the Mach Disc (Ld) agreed closely to values measured from Schlieren photographs and published data. The calculated values of non-dimensional Mach Disc radius (rd), however, deviated from published data by as much as 25 percent at certain pressure ratios.

  10. Basics of Bayesian methods. (United States)

    Ghosh, Sujit K


    Bayesian methods are rapidly becoming popular tools for making statistical inference in various fields of science including biology, engineering, finance, and genetics. One of the key aspects of Bayesian inferential method is its logical foundation that provides a coherent framework to utilize not only empirical but also scientific information available to a researcher. Prior knowledge arising from scientific background, expert judgment, or previously collected data is used to build a prior distribution which is then combined with current data via the likelihood function to characterize the current state of knowledge using the so-called posterior distribution. Bayesian methods allow the use of models of complex physical phenomena that were previously too difficult to estimate (e.g., using asymptotic approximations). Bayesian methods offer a means of more fully understanding issues that are central to many practical problems by allowing researchers to build integrated models based on hierarchical conditional distributions that can be estimated even with limited amounts of data. Furthermore, advances in numerical integration methods, particularly those based on Monte Carlo methods, have made it possible to compute the optimal Bayes estimators. However, there is a reasonably wide gap between the background of the empirically trained scientists and the full weight of Bayesian statistical inference. Hence, one of the goals of this chapter is to bridge the gap by offering elementary to advanced concepts that emphasize linkages between standard approaches and full probability modeling via Bayesian methods.

  11. Methods for age estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sümeyra Demirkıran


    Full Text Available Concept of age estimation plays an important role on both civil law and regulation of criminal behaviors. In forensic medicine, age estimation is practiced for individual requests as well for request of the court. In this study it is aimed to compile the methods of age estimation and to make recommendations for the solution of the problems encountered. In radiological method the epiphyseal lines of the bones and views of the teeth are used. In order to estimate the age by comparing bone radiographs; Greulich-Pyle Atlas (GPA, Tanner-Whitehouse Atlas (TWA and “Adli Tıpta Yaş Tayini (ATYT” books are used. Bone age is found to be 2 years older averagely than chronologic age, especially in puberty, according to the forensic age estimations described in the ATYT book. For the age estimation with teeth, Demirjian method is used. In time different methods are developed by modifying Demirjian method. However no accurate method was found. Histopathological studies are done on bone marrow cellularity and dermis cells. No correlation was found between histopathoogical findings and choronologic age. Important ethical and legal issues are brought with current age estimation methods especially in teenage period. Therefore it is required to prepare atlases of bone age compatible with our society by collecting the findings of the studies in Turkey. Another recommendation could be to pay attention to the courts of age raising trials of teenage women and give special emphasis on birth and population records

  12. Numerical methods in metalforming (United States)

    Rebelo, N.


    At the very heart of metal forming analysis is the theory of plasticity. A brief description of this theory is given. The infinitesimal theory of plasticity, simplified by discarding the elastic part of deformation (also known as the flow theory) has produced several approximate methods of analysis that have proved very useful in metal forming. The basic assumptions are presented that lead to the uniform deformation method, the slab method, the upper-bound method and the slip-line field method. The availability of computers with relatively inexpensive, large amounts of number-crunching capabilities fostered the development of the finite element method. Originally used in structural analysis, it rapidly expanded into other fields, and has been applied to metal forming analysis since the early seventies. This is the area in which most of the recent work in this field has been done. The first one is based on the rigid plastic approach (the flow theory) for which the infinitesimal theory of plasticity has been sufficient. It leads to relatively simple formulations which have allowed its users to attack the difficult problems specific to metal forming applications. The second one is based on the more complete elasto-plastic approach which almost always requires a large deformation theory of plasticity. The formulations are more complicated and have followed, if not actually led to, development in the theory itself. This reports ends with an introduction to the fundamental concepts of the finite element method.

  13. Methods for RNA Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivarius, Signe

    of the transcriptome, 5’ end capture of RNA is combined with next-generation sequencing for high-throughput quantitative assessment of transcription start sites by two different methods. The methods presented here allow for functional investigation of coding as well as noncoding RNA and contribute to future...... RNAs rely on interactions with proteins, the establishment of protein-binding profiles is essential for the characterization of RNAs. Aiming to facilitate RNA analysis, this thesis introduces proteomics- as well as transcriptomics-based methods for the functional characterization of RNA. First, RNA...

  14. Catalytic reforming methods (United States)

    Tadd, Andrew R; Schwank, Johannes


    A catalytic reforming method is disclosed herein. The method includes sequentially supplying a plurality of feedstocks of variable compositions to a reformer. The method further includes adding a respective predetermined co-reactant to each of the plurality of feedstocks to obtain a substantially constant output from the reformer for the plurality of feedstocks. The respective predetermined co-reactant is based on a C/H/O atomic composition for a respective one of the plurality of feedstocks and a predetermined C/H/O atomic composition for the substantially constant output.

  15. Structural Reliability Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Madsen, H. O.

    The structural reliability methods quantitatively treat the uncertainty of predicting the behaviour and properties of a structure given the uncertain properties of its geometry, materials, and the actions it is supposed to withstand. This book addresses the probabilistic methods for evaluation...... of structural reliability, including the theoretical basis for these methods. Partial safety factor codes under current practice are briefly introduced and discussed. A probabilistic code format for obtaining a formal reliability evaluation system that catches the most essential features of the nature...... of the uncertainties and their interplay is the developed, step-by-step. The concepts presented are illustrated by numerous examples throughout the text....

  16. Montessori Method and ICTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Drigas


    Full Text Available This article bridges the gap between the Montessori Method and Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs in contemporary education. It reviews recent research works which recall the Montessori philosophy, principles and didactical tools applying to today’s computers and supporting technologies in children’s learning process. This article reviews how important the stimulation of human senses in the learning process is, as well as the development of Montessori materials using the body and the hand in particular, all according to the Montessori Method along with recent researches over ICTs. Montessori Method within information society age acquires new perspectives, new functionality and new efficacy.

  17. Generalized subspace correction methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolm, P. [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Arbenz, P.; Gander, W. [Eidgenoessiche Technische Hochschule, Zuerich (Switzerland)


    A fundamental problem in scientific computing is the solution of large sparse systems of linear equations. Often these systems arise from the discretization of differential equations by finite difference, finite volume or finite element methods. Iterative methods exploiting these sparse structures have proven to be very effective on conventional computers for a wide area of applications. Due to the rapid development and increasing demand for the large computing powers of parallel computers, it has become important to design iterative methods specialized for these new architectures.

  18. Numerical methods using Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Lindfield, George


    Numerical Methods using MATLAB, 3e, is an extensive reference offering hundreds of useful and important numerical algorithms that can be implemented into MATLAB for a graphical interpretation to help researchers analyze a particular outcome. Many worked examples are given together with exercises and solutions to illustrate how numerical methods can be used to study problems that have applications in the biosciences, chaos, optimization, engineering and science across the board. Numerical Methods using MATLAB, 3e, is an extensive reference offering hundreds of use

  19. Methods in mummy research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels


    Mummies are human remains with preservation of non-bony tissue. Many mummy studies focus on the development and application of non-destructive methods for examining mummies, including radiography, CT-scanning with advanced 3-dimensional visualisations, and endoscopic techniques, as well as minima......Mummies are human remains with preservation of non-bony tissue. Many mummy studies focus on the development and application of non-destructive methods for examining mummies, including radiography, CT-scanning with advanced 3-dimensional visualisations, and endoscopic techniques, as well...... as minimally-destructive chemical, physical and biological methods for, e.g., stable isotopes, trace metals and DNA....

  20. Method for inducing hypothermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Lance B [Chicago, IL; Hoek, Terry Vanden [Chicago, IL; Kasza, Kenneth E [Palos Park, IL


    Systems for phase-change particulate slurry cooling equipment and methods to induce hypothermia in a patient through internal and external cooling are provided. Subcutaneous, intravascular, intraperitoneal, gastrointestinal, and lung methods of cooling are carried out using saline ice slurries or other phase-change slurries compatible with human tissue. Perfluorocarbon slurries or other slurry types compatible with human tissue are used for pulmonary cooling. And traditional external cooling methods are improved by utilizing phase-change slurry materials in cooling caps and torso blankets.

  1. Method for inducing hypothermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Lance B.; Hoek, Terry Vanden; Kasza, Kenneth E.


    Systems for phase-change particulate slurry cooling equipment and methods to induce hypothermia in a patient through internal and external cooling are provided. Subcutaneous, intravascular, intraperitoneal, gastrointestinal, and lung methods of cooling are carried out using saline ice slurries or other phase-change slurries compatible with human tissue. Perfluorocarbon slurries or other slurry types compatible with human tissue are used for pulmonary cooling. And traditional external cooling methods are improved by utilizing phase-change slurry materials in cooling caps and torso blankets.

  2. Method for inducing hypothermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Lance B. (Chicago, IL); Hoek, Terry Vanden (Chicago, IL); Kasza, Kenneth E. (Palos Park, IL)


    Systems for phase-change particulate slurry cooling equipment and methods to induce hypothermia in a patient through internal and external cooling are provided. Subcutaneous, intravascular, intraperitoneal, gastrointestinal, and lung methods of cooling are carried out using saline ice slurries or other phase-change slurries compatible with human tissue. Perfluorocarbon slurries or other slurry types compatible with human tissue are used for pulmonary cooling. And traditional external cooling methods are improved by utilizing phase-change slurry materials in cooling caps and torso blankets.

  3. Lean Government Methods Guide (United States)

    This Guide focuses primarily on Lean production, which is an organizational improvement philosophy and set of methods that originated in manufacturing but has been expanded to government and service sectors.

  4. Withdrawal Method (Coitus Interruptus) (United States)

    ... fluid and pregnancy Withdrawal method (coitus interruptus) About Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  5. Methods for cellobiosan utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linger, Jeffrey; Beckham, Gregg T.


    Disclosed herein are enzymes useful for the degradation of cellobiosan in materials such a pyrolysis oils. Methods of degrading cellobiosan using enzymes or organisms expressing the same are also disclosed.

  6. Compressive Spectral Renormalization Method

    CERN Document Server

    Bayindir, Cihan


    In this paper a novel numerical scheme for finding the sparse self-localized states of a nonlinear system of equations with missing spectral data is introduced. As in the Petviashivili's and the spectral renormalization method, the governing equation is transformed into Fourier domain, but the iterations are performed for far fewer number of spectral components (M) than classical versions of the these methods with higher number of spectral components (N). After the converge criteria is achieved for M components, N component signal is reconstructed from M components by using the l1 minimization technique of the compressive sampling. This method can be named as compressive spectral renormalization (CSRM) method. The main advantage of the CSRM is that, it is capable of finding the sparse self-localized states of the evolution equation(s) with many spectral data missing.

  7. Concrete compositions and methods (United States)

    Chen, Irvin; Lee, Patricia Tung; Patterson, Joshua


    Provided herein are compositions, methods, and systems for cementitious compositions containing calcium carbonate compositions and aggregate. The compositions find use in a variety of applications, including use in a variety of building materials and building applications.

  8. Methods in Modern Biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Nölting, Bengt


    Incorporating recent dramatic advances, this textbook presents a fresh and timely introduction to modern biophysical methods. An array of new, faster and higher-power biophysical methods now enables scientists to examine the mysteries of life at a molecular level. This innovative text surveys and explains the ten key biophysical methods, including those related to biophysical nanotechnology, scanning probe microscopy, X-ray crystallography, ion mobility spectrometry, mass spectrometry, proteomics, and protein folding and structure. Incorporating much information previously unavailable in tutorial form, Nölting employs worked examples and about 270 illustrations to fully detail the techniques and their underlying mechanisms. Methods in Modern Biophysics is written for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, postdocs, researchers, lecturers, and professors in biophysics, biochemistry and related fields. Special features in the 3rd edition: Introduces rapid partial protein ladder sequencing - an important...

  9. Stochastic optimization methods

    CERN Document Server

    Marti, Kurt


    Optimization problems arising in practice involve random parameters. For the computation of robust optimal solutions, i.e., optimal solutions being insensitive with respect to random parameter variations, deterministic substitute problems are needed. Based on the distribution of the random data, and using decision theoretical concepts, optimization problems under stochastic uncertainty are converted into deterministic substitute problems. Due to the occurring probabilities and expectations, approximative solution techniques must be applied. Deterministic and stochastic approximation methods and their analytical properties are provided: Taylor expansion, regression and response surface methods, probability inequalities, First Order Reliability Methods, convex approximation/deterministic descent directions/efficient points, stochastic approximation methods, differentiation of probability and mean value functions. Convergence results of the resulting iterative solution procedures are given.

  10. Continuation Newton methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Axelsson, Owe; Sysala, Stanislav


    Roč. 70, č. 11 (2015), s. 2621-2637 ISSN 0898-1221 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-18652S Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : system of nonlinear equations * Newton method * load increment method * elastoplasticity Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 1.398, year: 2015

  11. Method of treating depression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henn, Fritz


    Methods for treatment of depression-related mood disorders in mammals, particularly humans are disclosed. The methods of the invention include administration of compounds capable of enhancing glutamate transporter activity in the brain of mammals suffering from depression. ATP-sensitive K.sup.+ channel openers and .beta.-lactam antibiotics are used to enhance glutamate transport and to treat depression-related mood disorders and depressive symptoms.

  12. Method of treating depression (United States)

    Henn, Fritz [East Patchogue, NY


    Methods for treatment of depression-related mood disorders in mammals, particularly humans are disclosed. The methods of the invention include administration of compounds capable of enhancing glutamate transporter activity in the brain of mammals suffering from depression. ATP-sensitive K.sup.+ channel openers and .beta.-lactam antibiotics are used to enhance glutamate transport and to treat depression-related mood disorders and depressive symptoms.

  13. Method of peat recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheyde, V.P.; Remizov, V.V.; Serov, N.N.


    The proposed method of peat recovery includes cutting bricks from the bed, and lifting and storing them in drying platforms. In order to increase efficiency of the recovery process, the peat is excavated from longitudinal parallel strips located between peat brick cutting strips at the same time as bricks are cut from the bed. The deep-slit method is used. The depth of excavation strips is greater than the depth of the strips that are cut.

  14. Universality of Newton's method


    Ramm, A. G.


    Convergence of the classical Newton's method and its DSM version for solving operator equations $F(u)=h$ is proved without any smoothness assumptions on $F'(u)$. It is proved that every solvable equation $F(u)=f$ can be solved by Newton's method if the initial approximation is sufficiently close to the solution and $||[F'(y)]^{-1}||\\leq m$, where $m>0$ is a constant.

  15. Methods of experimental physics

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Dudley


    Methods of Experimental Physics, Volume 3: Molecular Physics focuses on molecular theory, spectroscopy, resonance, molecular beams, and electric and thermodynamic properties. The manuscript first considers the origins of molecular theory, molecular physics, and molecular spectroscopy, as well as microwave spectroscopy, electronic spectra, and Raman effect. The text then ponders on diffraction methods of molecular structure determination and resonance studies. Topics include techniques of electron, neutron, and x-ray diffraction and nuclear magnetic, nuclear quadropole, and electron spin reson

  16. Multicriteria identification sets method (United States)

    Kamenev, G. K.


    A multicriteria identification and prediction method for mathematical models of simulation type in the case of several identification criteria (error functions) is proposed. The necessity of the multicriteria formulation arises, for example, when one needs to take into account errors of completely different origins (not reducible to a single characteristic) or when there is no information on the class of noise in the data to be analyzed. An identification sets method is described based on the approximation and visualization of the multidimensional graph of the identification error function and sets of suboptimal parameters. This method allows for additional advantages of the multicriteria approach, namely, the construction and visual analysis of the frontier and the effective identification set (frontier and the Pareto set for identification criteria), various representations of the sets of Pareto effective and subeffective parameter combinations, and the corresponding predictive trajectory tubes. The approximation is based on the deep holes method, which yields metric ɛ-coverings with nearly optimal properties, and on multiphase approximation methods for the Edgeworth-Pareto hull. The visualization relies on the approach of interactive decision maps. With the use of the multicriteria method, multiple-choice solutions of identification and prediction problems can be produced and justified by analyzing the stability of the optimal solution not only with respect to the parameters (robustness with respect to data) but also with respect to the chosen set of identification criteria (robustness with respect to the given collection of functionals).


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Kryvenko


    Full Text Available Analysis of visualization techniques for various types of graphs is done. Conclusion about the relevance of method development for metagraph visualizing is made. The paper deals with issues that arise when solving the problem of metagraph visualization, such as: the placement of nodes that belong to metavertices and do not belong to them, figures intersection of metavertices. These problems are exemplified. Criteria are proposed for the final image to be considered coherent, understandable for users and corresponding to a predetermined metagraph. The problem of metagraph visualization is posed. The method based on the principles of force algorithms is proposed for the problem solving. The rules for forces between metagraph nodes are defined in the framework of the method. These forces depend on nodes type between which they are performed and the presence of edges between them. This method does not involve human intervention during the formation of the image, thus saving time at frequent changes that require rebuilding of the image. The resulting image gives the possibility to portray clearly the entities of the subject area and the links between them. Graphical analysis methods can be applied to the image. Areas for the future researches are identified. They are: minimization of the number of edges intersections and the area occupied by the resulting image. Results of the modified visualization method can improve the visual metagraph representation.

  18. [Barrier methods of contraception]. (United States)

    Goldsmith, A; Edelman, D A


    Vaginal methods of contraception were the earliest types used and some references to them date back to antiquity. Most of the vaginal contraceptive agents identified by the ancient Greeks, Indians, Japanese, and Chinese have been found in modern laboratory tests to have spermicidal properties, but it is doubtful that the methods were fully reliable or were used by many people. During the 19th century the condom, vaginal spermicides, and diaphragm became available. The development of nonoxynol-9 and other nonirritating but effective spermicidal agents improved vaginal contraceptives greatly by the 1950s, but starting in the 1960s newer methods began to replace the vaginal methods. Interest in barrier methods has been reawakened somewhat by concern about the health effects of hormonal methods. At present all barrier methods leave something to be desired. Failure rates of 3-30% for barrier methods in general have been estimated, but the higher rates are believed due to incorrect or inconsistent use. Theoretical failure rates of condoms and diaphragms have been estimated at 3/100 women-years, but in actual use failure rates may reach 15 for condoms and 13 for diaphragms used with spermicides. Use-effectiveness rates are greatly influenced by motivation. For a variety of reasons, the acceptability of barrier methods is low, especially in developing countries. New developments in spermicidal agents include sperm inhibitors, which impede the fertilizing capacity of sperm rather than attempting a spermicidal effect; a number of such agents have been studied and have proven more effective in animal tests than conventional spermicides. Neosampoon, a new spermicidal foam, has attracted an increasing number of users, especially in developing countries. A new condom, made of thin polymers and containing a standard dose of nonoxynol-9, has been designed to dissolve in the vaginal fluid. Further studies are needed of its acceptability, efficacy, and side effects before it becomes

  19. Surrogate methods in geophysics (United States)

    Christiansen, Bo


    When testing complicated null-hypotheses where closed analytic expressions are not available we often rely on Monte Carlo methods to produce artificial surrogate data. However, many geophysical time-series have internal structures ranging from the correlations of simple first order auto-regression processes to more complex structures such as pseudo-periodic behavior. Forcing wrong assumptions - in the extreme case, independence - on the artificial data may lead to serious errors such as overestimation of the number of degrees of freedom and therefore also overestimation of p-values and unwarranted acceptance of null-hypotheses. Ideally, the artificial data should therefore fulfill the considered null-hypothesis but in all other aspects be statistically similar to the original data. Such aspects may include temporal correlations, power-spectra, distributions, pseudo-periodicity, and temporal asymmetry. Artificial surrogate data are also used for other purposes such as testing new algorithms on data with a specified structure. The aim of the present paper is to review the different methods to generate artificial data. We include methods based on randomizing the phases of the Fourier spectrum, pseudo-periodic surrogates based on drawing analogs in reconstructed (embedded) phase-space, ARMA processes, methods based on wavelets, and two new approaches based on Empirical Mode Decomposition and Singular Spectrum analysis. The different methods are applied to univariate time-series of different levels of complexity such as the El Nino-Southern Oscillation, the Quasi-biennial oscillation, and the Vostok ice core. The methods' abilities to faithfully reproduce the salient features of the original time-series are compared. We also investigate the possibilities of extending the methods to multivariate fields.

  20. The lod score method. (United States)

    Rice, J P; Saccone, N L; Corbett, J


    The lod score method originated in a seminal article by Newton Morton in 1955. The method is broadly concerned with issues of power and the posterior probability of linkage, ensuring that a reported linkage has a high probability of being a true linkage. In addition, the method is sequential, so that pedigrees or lod curves may be combined from published reports to pool data for analysis. This approach has been remarkably successful for 50 years in identifying disease genes for Mendelian disorders. After discussing these issues, we consider the situation for complex disorders, where the maximum lod score (MLS) statistic shares some of the advantages of the traditional lod score approach but is limited by unknown power and the lack of sharing of the primary data needed to optimally combine analytic results. We may still learn from the lod score method as we explore new methods in molecular biology and genetic analysis to utilize the complete human DNA sequence and the cataloging of all human genes.

  1. Methods of Melanoma Detection. (United States)

    Leachman, Sancy A; Cassidy, Pamela B; Chen, Suephy C; Curiel, Clara; Geller, Alan; Gareau, Daniel; Pellacani, Giovanni; Grichnik, James M; Malvehy, Josep; North, Jeffrey; Jacques, Steven L; Petrie, Tracy; Puig, Susana; Swetter, Susan M; Tofte, Susan; Weinstock, Martin A


    Detection and removal of melanoma, before it has metastasized, dramatically improves prognosis and survival. The purpose of this chapter is to (1) summarize current methods of melanoma detection and (2) review state-of-the-art detection methods and technologies that have the potential to reduce melanoma mortality. Current strategies for the detection of melanoma range from population-based educational campaigns and screening to the use of algorithm-driven imaging technologies and performance of assays that identify markers of transformation. This chapter will begin by describing state-of-the-art methods for educating and increasing awareness of at-risk individuals and for performing comprehensive screening examinations. Standard and advanced photographic methods designed to improve reliability and reproducibility of the clinical examination will also be reviewed. Devices that magnify and/or enhance malignant features of individual melanocytic lesions (and algorithms that are available to interpret the results obtained from these devices) will be compared and contrasted. In vivo confocal microscopy and other cellular-level in vivo technologies will be compared to traditional tissue biopsy, and the role of a noninvasive "optical biopsy" in the clinical setting will be discussed. Finally, cellular and molecular methods that have been applied to the diagnosis of melanoma, such as comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), will be discussed.

  2. Methods-in-Place

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Barwin


    Full Text Available A collaborative research project with Noojmowin Teg Health Centre on Manitoulin Island, Ontario, examined the impacts of traditional medicine workshops on participants’ perceptions of culture, health, and environment. Methods used in this research turned out to be as revealing as the results themselves. This article examines how geography and the social, physical, and affective elements of place inform research methodology and challenges the idea that qualitative methods can be applied generically irrespective of the context. While researchers reflect on the role of (social place in influencing the research process and results, we argue that the place of research should also be taken into account to adopt and develop methodologies and data collection methods that are locally and culturally relevant. We discuss how “art voice” was a highly appropriate method in a community that has a rich history and contemporary culture of visual art. This article contributes to the growing movement toward seeking culturally relevant, community-based decolonizing methods, particularly in the context of Indigenous health research.

  3. Epitope prediction methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karosiene, Edita

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules play a crucial role in adaptive immunity by sampling peptides from self and non-self proteins to be recognised by the immune system. MHC molecules present peptides on cell surfaces for recognition by CD8+ and CD4+ T lymphocytes that can initiate......-MHC prediction methods, and over the last decade several such methods have been successfully developed and used for epitope discovery purposes. My PhD project has been dedicated to improve methods for predicting peptide-MHC interactions by developing new strategies for training prediction algorithms based...... virus. The analysis demonstrated the absence of distinct regions of higher epitope density within the virus polyprotein. Also, the density of epitopes among different proteins was demonstrated to mostly depend on protein length and amino acid composition, underlining the importance of identifying...

  4. Sampling system and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decker, David L.; Lyles, Brad F.; Purcell, Richard G.; Hershey, Ronald Lee


    In one embodiment, the present disclosure provides an apparatus and method for supporting a tubing bundle during installation or removal. The apparatus includes a clamp for securing the tubing bundle to an external wireline. In various examples, the clamp is external to the tubing bundle or integral with the tubing bundle. According to one method, a tubing bundle and wireline are deployed together and the tubing bundle periodically secured to the wireline using a clamp. In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides an apparatus and method for coupling conduit segments together. A first pump obtains a sample and transmits it through a first conduit to a reservoir accessible by a second pump. The second pump further conducts the sample from the reservoir through a second conduit. In a specific example, one or more clamps are used to connect the first and/or second conduits to an external wireline.

  5. Relativistic methods for chemists

    CERN Document Server

    Barysz, Maria


    "Relativistic Methods for Chemists", written by a highly qualified team of authors, is targeted at both experimentalists and theoreticians interested in the area of relativistic effects in atomic and molecular systems and processes and in their consequences for the interpretation of the heavy element's chemistry. The theoretical part of the book focuses on the relativistic methods for molecular calculations discussing relativistic two-component theory, density functional theory, pseudopotentials and correlations. The experimentally oriented chapters describe the use of relativistic methods in different applications focusing on the design of new materials based on heavy element compounds, the role of the spin-orbit coupling in photochemistry and photobiology, and chirality and its relations to relativistic description of matter and radiation. This book is written at an intermediate level in order to appeal to a broader audience than just experts working in the field of relativistic theory.

  6. Energy methods in dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Le, Khanh Chau


    The above examples should make clear the necessity of understanding the mechanism of vibrations and waves in order to control them in an optimal way. However vibrations and waves are governed by differential equations which require, as a rule, rather complicated mathematical methods for their analysis. The aim of this textbook is to help students acquire both a good grasp of the first principles from which the governing equations can be derived, and the adequate mathematical methods for their solving. Its distinctive features, as seen from the title, lie in the systematic and intensive use of Hamilton's variational principle and its generalizations for deriving the governing equations of conservative and dissipative mechanical systems, and also in providing the direct variational-asymptotic analysis, whenever available, of the energy and dissipation for the solution of these equations. It will be demonstrated that many well-known methods in dynamics like those of Lindstedt-Poincare, Bogoliubov-Mitropolsky, Ko...

  7. Robust iterative methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saadd, Y.


    In spite of the tremendous progress achieved in recent years in the general area of iterative solution techniques, there are still a few obstacles to the acceptance of iterative methods in a number of applications. These applications give rise to very indefinite or highly ill-conditioned non Hermitian matrices. Trying to solve these systems with the simple-minded standard preconditioned Krylov subspace methods can be a frustrating experience. With the mathematical and physical models becoming more sophisticated, the typical linear systems which we encounter today are far more difficult to solve than those of just a few years ago. This trend is likely to accentuate. This workshop will discuss (1) these applications and the types of problems that they give rise to; and (2) recent progress in solving these problems with iterative methods. The workshop will end with a hopefully stimulating panel discussion with the speakers.

  8. Grid generation methods

    CERN Document Server

    Liseikin, Vladimir D


    This new edition provides a description of current developments relating to grid methods, grid codes, and their applications to actual problems. Grid generation methods are indispensable for the numerical solution of differential equations. Adaptive grid-mapping techniques, in particular, are the main focus and represent a promising tool to deal with systems with singularities. This 3rd edition includes three new chapters on numerical implementations (10), control of grid properties (11), and applications to mechanical, fluid, and plasma related problems (13). Also the other chapters have been updated including new topics, such as curvatures of discrete surfaces (3). Concise descriptions of hybrid mesh generation, drag and sweeping methods, parallel algorithms for mesh generation have been included too. This new edition addresses a broad range of readers: students, researchers, and practitioners in applied mathematics, mechanics, engineering, physics and other areas of applications.

  9. Method of spraying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burminskiy, E.P.; Karpenko, V.M.; Remizov, A.V.


    In the proposed method for spraying fluid or gas, expansion of the regulation range is achieved because regulation of the supply of the sprayer is done by changing the ratio of consumption of its streams. The device for realizing the method contains outer and inner annular collectors for supply of the sprayer with corresponding outlet nozzles, and also annular fuel slits. The streams of spraying agent flowing from the group of nozzles freely penetrate each other and form two streams. One of the streams in the form of a converging cone is directed to the central zone of the spray (S) and the other in the form of a diverging cone into the peripheral zone. With regulation of the ratio of flow of the sprayer, the spray is expanded or constricted. Thus, the proposed method makes it possible in broad limits to regulate the form of the spray and to guarantee high quality of spraying with any angle of opening of the spray.

  10. Unorthodox theoretical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedd, Sean [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    The use of the ReaxFF force field to correlate with NMR mobilities of amine catalytic substituents on a mesoporous silica nanosphere surface is considered. The interfacing of the ReaxFF force field within the Surface Integrated Molecular Orbital/Molecular Mechanics (SIMOMM) method, in order to replicate earlier SIMOMM published data and to compare with the ReaxFF data, is discussed. The development of a new correlation consistent Composite Approach (ccCA) is presented, which incorporates the completely renormalized coupled cluster method with singles, doubles and non-iterative triples corrections towards the determination of heats of formations and reaction pathways which contain biradical species.

  11. Methods for pretreating biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balan, Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce E; Chundawat, Shishir; Sousa, Leonardo


    A method for pretreating biomass is provided, which includes, in a reactor, allowing gaseous ammonia to condense on the biomass and react with water present in the biomass to produce pretreated biomass, wherein reactivity of polysaccharides in the biomass is increased during subsequent biological conversion as compared to the reactivity of polysaccharides in biomass which has not been pretreated. A method for pretreating biomass with a liquid ammonia and recovering the liquid ammonia is also provided. Related systems which include a biochemical or biofuel production facility are also disclosed.

  12. Hyman's method revisited (United States)

    Galántai, A.; Hegedus, C. J.


    The QR algorithm is considered one of the most reliable methods for computing matrix eigenpairs. However, it is unable to detect multiple eigenvalues and Jordan blocks. Matlab's eigensolver returns heavily perturbed eigenvalues and eigenvectors in such cases and there is no hint for possible principal vectors. This paper calls attention to Hyman's method as it is applicable for computing principal vectors and higher derivatives of the characteristic polynomial that may help to estimate multiplicity, an important information for more reliable computation. We suggest a test matrix collection for Jordan blocks. The first numerical tests with these matrices reveal that the computational problems are deeper than expected at the beginning of this work.


    Smith, C.S.


    A method is described for rolling uranium metal at relatively low temperatures and under non-oxidizing conditions. The method involves the steps of heating the uranium to 200 deg C in an oil bath, withdrawing the uranium and permitting the oil to drain so that only a thin protective coating remains and rolling the oil coated uranium at a temperature of 200 deg C to give about a 15% reduction in thickness at each pass. The operation may be repeated to accomplish about a 90% reduction without edge cracking, checking or any appreciable increase in brittleness.

  14. Splines and variational methods

    CERN Document Server

    Prenter, P M


    One of the clearest available introductions to variational methods, this text requires only a minimal background in calculus and linear algebra. Its self-contained treatment explains the application of theoretic notions to the kinds of physical problems that engineers regularly encounter. The text's first half concerns approximation theoretic notions, exploring the theory and computation of one- and two-dimensional polynomial and other spline functions. Later chapters examine variational methods in the solution of operator equations, focusing on boundary value problems in one and two dimension

  15. Practical methods of optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Fletcher, R


    Fully describes optimization methods that are currently most valuable in solving real-life problems. Since optimization has applications in almost every branch of science and technology, the text emphasizes their practical aspects in conjunction with the heuristics useful in making them perform more reliably and efficiently. To this end, it presents comparative numerical studies to give readers a feel for possibile applications and to illustrate the problems in assessing evidence. Also provides theoretical background which provides insights into how methods are derived. This edition offers rev

  16. An oil heating method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinin, N.S.; Alpatov, G.K.; Glovatskiy, Ye.A.; Plyusnin, D.V.; Zhuravlev, V.S.


    The goal of the invention is to ensure complete utilization of the fuel combustion heat in simplification of a method for heating oil in a pipeline and to reduce the expenditures of its implementation. This goal is achieved by the fact that in the known method, which provides for the action on the oil being transported of high temperature, the oil is degassified inside the pipe in the pipeline sector, an oxidant (air) is supplied into the gas isolation zone and the obtained mixture is ignited.


    Imhoff, D.H.; Harker, W.H.


    This patent relates to a method of producing neutrons in which there is produced a heated plasma containing heavy hydrogen isotope ions wherein heated ions are injected and confined in an elongated axially symmetric magnetic field having at least one magnetic field gradient region. In accordance with the method herein, the amplitude of the field and gradients are varied at an oscillatory periodic frequency to effect confinement by providing proper ratios of rotational to axial velocity components in the motion of said particles. The energetic neutrons may then be used as in a blanket zone containing a moderator and a source fissionable material to produce heat and thermal neutron fissionable materials. (AEC)

  18. Exploring Monte Carlo methods

    CERN Document Server

    Dunn, William L


    Exploring Monte Carlo Methods is a basic text that describes the numerical methods that have come to be known as "Monte Carlo." The book treats the subject generically through the first eight chapters and, thus, should be of use to anyone who wants to learn to use Monte Carlo. The next two chapters focus on applications in nuclear engineering, which are illustrative of uses in other fields. Five appendices are included, which provide useful information on probability distributions, general-purpose Monte Carlo codes for radiation transport, and other matters. The famous "Buffon's needle proble

  19. Methods of Multivariate Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Rencher, Alvin C


    Praise for the Second Edition "This book is a systematic, well-written, well-organized text on multivariate analysis packed with intuition and insight . . . There is much practical wisdom in this book that is hard to find elsewhere."-IIE Transactions Filled with new and timely content, Methods of Multivariate Analysis, Third Edition provides examples and exercises based on more than sixty real data sets from a wide variety of scientific fields. It takes a "methods" approach to the subject, placing an emphasis on how students and practitioners can employ multivariate analysis in real-life sit

  20. Tautomerism methods and theories

    CERN Document Server

    Antonov, Liudmil


    Covering the gap between basic textbooks and over-specialized scientific publications, this is the first reference available to describe this interdisciplinary topic for PhD students and scientists starting in the field. The result is an introductory description providing suitable practical examples of the basic methods used to study tautomeric processes, as well as the theories describing the tautomerism and proton transfer phenomena. It also includes different spectroscopic methods for examining tautomerism, such as UV-VIs, time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, and NMR spectrosc

  1. Molecular methods for biofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Ferrera, Isabel


    This chapter deals with both classical and modern molecular methods that can be useful for the identification of microorganisms, elucidation and comparison of microbial communities, and investigation of their diversity and functions. The most important and critical steps necessary for all molecular methods is DNA isolation from microbial communities and environmental samples; these are discussed in the first part. The second part provides an overview over DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and DNA sequencing methods. Protocols and analysis software as well as potential pitfalls associated with application of these methods are discussed. Community fingerprinting analyses that can be used to compare multiple microbial communities are discussed in the third part. This part focuses on Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE), Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) and Automated rRNA Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA) methods. In addition, classical and next-generation metagenomics methods are presented. These are limited to bacterial artificial chromosome and Fosmid libraries and Sanger and next-generation 454 sequencing, as these methods are currently the most frequently used in research. Isolation of nucleic acids: This chapter discusses, the most important and critical steps necessary for all molecular methods is DNA isolation from microbial communities and environmental samples. Nucleic acid isolation methods generally include three steps: cell lysis, removal of unwanted substances, and a final step of DNA purification and recovery. The first critical step is the cell lysis, which can be achieved by enzymatic or mechanical procedures. Removal of proteins, polysaccharides and other unwanted substances is likewise important to avoid their interference in subsequent analyses. Phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol is commonly used to recover DNA, since it separates nucleic acids into an aqueous phase and precipitates proteins and

  2. Coating method for graphite (United States)

    Banker, J.G.; Holcombe, C.E. Jr.


    A method of limiting carbon contamination from graphite ware used in induction melting of uranium alloys is provided. The graphite surface is coated with a suspension of Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/ particles in water containing about 1.5 to 4 percent by weight sodium carboxymethylcellulose.

  3. Numerical Methods in Linguistics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 1. Numerical Methods in Linguistics - An Introduction to Glottochronology. Raamesh Gowri Raghavan. General Article Volume 10 Issue 1 January 2005 pp 17-24. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  4. Model Correction Factor Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus; Randrup-Thomsen, Søren; Morsing Johannesen, Johannes


    The model correction factor method is proposed as an alternative to traditional polynomial based response surface techniques in structural reliability considering a computationally time consuming limit state procedure as a 'black box'. The class of polynomial functions is replaced by a limit stat...

  5. communication method and apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to a non-lingual communication method and apparatus, wherein a physical or physiological signal consciously created by a first subject (1) is detected and converted into a transmitted output signal presented to a second subject (7) in order to communicate information...

  6. Structural Reliability Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Madsen, H. O.

    of structural reliability, including the theoretical basis for these methods. Partial safety factor codes under current practice are briefly introduced and discussed. A probabilistic code format for obtaining a formal reliability evaluation system that catches the most essential features of the nature...

  7. Sampling system and method (United States)

    Decker, David L.; Lyles, Brad F.; Purcell, Richard G.; Hershey, Ronald Lee


    The present disclosure provides an apparatus and method for coupling conduit segments together. A first pump obtains a sample and transmits it through a first conduit to a reservoir accessible by a second pump. The second pump further conducts the sample from the reservoir through a second conduit.

  8. Photovoltaic device and method (United States)

    Cleereman, Robert J; Lesniak, Michael J; Keenihan, James R; Langmaid, Joe A; Gaston, Ryan; Eurich, Gerald K; Boven, Michelle L


    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PVD") and method of use, more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with an integral locator and electrical terminal mechanism for transferring current to or from the improved photovoltaic device and the use as a system.

  9. Adhesive compositions and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Scott D.; Sendijarevic, Vahid; O' Connor, James


    The present invention encompasses polyurethane adhesive compositions comprising aliphatic polycarbonate chains. In one aspect, the present invention encompasses polyurethane adhesives derived from aliphatic polycarbonate polyols and polyisocyanates wherein the polyol chains contain a primary repeating unit having a structure:. In another aspect, the invention provides articles comprising the inventive polyurethane compositions as well as methods of making such compositions.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Drift, E.W.; Van de Grampel, J.C.; Puyenbroek, R.; Rousseeuw, B.A.C.


    Abstract of WO 9411788 (A1) The invention relates to method of providing a microstructure in electric conductors, semiconductors and insulators utilizing a multilayer resist system, wherein in the image layer a siliceous polymer comprising chemically unstable side groups, and an initiator are used,

  11. Photovoltaic device and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleereman, Robert; Lesniak, Michael J.; Keenihan, James R.; Langmaid, Joe A.; Gaston, Ryan; Eurich, Gerald K.; Boven, Michelle L.


    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PVD") and method of use, more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with an integral locator and electrical terminal mechanism for transferring current to or from the improved photovoltaic device and the use as a system.

  12. Software specification methods

    CERN Document Server

    Habrias, Henri


    This title provides a clear overview of the main methods, and has a practical focus that allows the reader to apply their knowledge to real-life situations. The following are just some of the techniques covered: UML, Z, TLA+, SAZ, B, OMT, VHDL, Estelle, SDL and LOTOS.

  13. Six Sigma method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Does, R.J.M.M.; de Mast, J.; Balakrishnan, N.; Brandimarte, P.; Everitt, B.; Molenberghs, G.; Piegorsch, W.; Ruggeri, F.


    Six Sigma is built on principles and methods that have proven themselves over the twentieth century. It has incorporated the most effective approaches and integrated them into a full program. It offers a management structure for organizing continuous improvement of routine tasks, such as

  14. (3) Simple processing method

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adeyinka Odunsi

    Simple Processing Method for Recycling Poultry Waste into. Animal Feed Ingredient. *Komolafe, A. A. and Sonaiya, E. B. ... recycled and become consumables to livestock, thus entering the human food chain. Poultry waste is not ... on the concrete roof (20.5 m high) of the Faculty of Agriculture, Obafemi. Awolowo University ...

  15. Modern Reduction Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, Pher G


    With its comprehensive overview of modern reduction methods, this book features high quality contributions allowing readers to find reliable solutions quickly and easily. The monograph treats the reduction of carbonyles, alkenes, imines and alkynes, as well as reductive aminations and cross and heck couplings, before finishing off with sections on kinetic resolutions and hydrogenolysis. An indispensable lab companion for every chemist.

  16. production methods and

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Mar 1, 2003 ... Production Methods and Composition of Bushera: a Ugandan Traditional Fermented Cereal Bererage. Peer Reviewed. M uyan ja ... ingredients, the fermentation process and the uses of. Bushera are presented. ... of germinated sorghum flour to three quarters of water. (v/v), mixing thoroughly and then ...

  17. Proven Weight Loss Methods (United States)

    Fact Sheet Proven Weight Loss Methods What can weight loss do for you? Losing weight can improve your health in a number of ways. ... you feel better. There are proven ways to lose weight. You can find what works for you. Research ...

  18. Method of photocatalytic nanotagging (United States)

    Shelnutt, John A [Tijeras, NM; Medforth, Craig J [Winters, CA; Song, Yujiang [Albuquerque, NM


    A nanotagged chemical structure comprising a chemical structure with an associated photocatalyst and a tagging nanoparticle (a nanotag) grown in proximity to the photocatalyst, and a method for making the nanotagged chemical structure. The nanoparticle is grown in proximity to the photocatalyst by using a photocatalytic reduction reaction.

  19. Method I : Planar reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, H.; Hoveijn, I.; Lunter, G.; Vegter, G.


    We apply the planar reduction method to a general two degree of freedom system with optional symmetry, near equilibrium and close to resonance. As a leading example the spring-pendulum close to 1:2 resonance is used. The resulting planar model is computed explicitly, and the bifurcation curves

  20. Research Methods in Sociolinguistics (United States)

    Hernández-Campoy, Juan Manuel


    The development of Sociolinguistics has been qualitatively and quantitatively outstanding within Linguistic Science since its beginning in the 1950s, with a steady growth in both theoretical and methodological developments as well as in its interdisciplinary directions within the spectrum of language and society. Field methods in sociolinguistic…

  1. Ergonomics research methods (United States)

    Uspenskiy, S. I.; Yermakova, S. V.; Chaynova, L. D.; Mitkin, A. A.; Gushcheva, T. M.; Strelkov, Y. K.; Tsvetkova, N. F.


    Various factors used in ergonomic research are given. They are: (1) anthrometric measurement, (2) polyeffector method of assessing the functional state of man, (3) galvanic skin reaction, (4) pneumography, (5) electromyography, (6) electrooculography, and (7) tachestoscopy. A brief summary is given of each factor and includes instrumentation and results.

  2. Biomass treatment method (United States)

    Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T.; Tucker, III; Melvin P.; Lyons, Robert C.


    A method for treating biomass was developed that uses an apparatus which moves a biomass and dilute aqueous ammonia mixture through reaction chambers without compaction. The apparatus moves the biomass using a non-compressing piston. The resulting treated biomass is saccharified to produce fermentable sugars.

  3. Methods of materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Jesper; Matthiesen, Noomi Christine Linde


    , and the method of participant observation is suggested as a viable approach to achieve this end. An empirical example of how authority is produced in a parent-teacher conference, not only through language but also through material objects and embodied being, is then presented. The article concludes by suggesting...

  4. Analysis of numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Isaacson, Eugene


    This excellent text for advanced undergraduates and graduate students covers norms, numerical solution of linear systems and matrix factoring, iterative solutions of nonlinear equations, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, polynomial approximation, and other topics. It offers a careful analysis and stresses techniques for developing new methods, plus many examples and problems. 1966 edition.

  5. Method of purifying isosaccharinate (United States)

    Rai, Dhanpat; Moore, Robert C.; Tucker, Mark D.


    A method of purifying isosaccharinate by mixing sodium carbonate, potassium carbonate, sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide with calcium isosaccharinate, removing the precipitated calcium carbonate and adjusting the pH to between approximately 4.5 to 5.0 thereby removing excess carbonate and hydroxide to provide an acidic solution containing isosaccharinate.

  6. Qualitative Methods Reclaimed. (United States)


    concerning such a process (e.g., Schutz, 1970; Gadamer , 1975). If, however, readers feel philosophy is important enough to be left to the philosophers...Political Science Association. Gadamer , Hans G. 1975 Truth and Method. New York: Continuum. Glaser, Barney G. and Anselm Strauss 1967 The Discovery of

  7. Teaching Materials and Methods. (United States)

    Physiologist, 1987


    Contains abstracts of presented papers which deal with teaching materials and methods in physiology. Includes papers on preconceptual notions in physiology, somatosensory activity recorded in the dorsal root ganglion of the bull frog, and the use of the Apple Macintosh microcomputer in teaching human anatomy and physiology. (TW)

  8. The Prescribed Velocity Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    The- velocity level in a room ventilated by jet ventilation is strongly influenced by the supply conditions. The momentum flow in the supply jets controls the air movement in the room and, therefore, it is very important that the inlet conditions and the numerical method can generate a satisfactory...

  9. The Box Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    The velocity level in a room ventilated by jet ventilation is strongly influenced by the supply conditions. The momentum flow in the supply jets controls the air movement in the room and, therefore, it is very important that the inlet conditions and the numerical method can generate a satisfactory...

  10. Polynomial Optimization Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. van Eeghen (Piet)


    htmlabstractThis thesis is an exposition of ideas and methods that help un- derstanding the problem of minimizing a polynomial over a basic closed semi-algebraic set. After the introduction of some the- ory on mathematical tools such as sums of squares, nonnegative polynomials and moment matrices,

  11. Mie scattering imaging of a transverse, sonic jet in supersonic flow (United States)

    Hermanson, J. C.; Winter, M.


    The structure of a nonreacting transverse sonic jet in a supersonic primary stream was visualized by single-shot planar Mie scattering and conventional spark schlieren photography. Sites for Mie scattering were provided by the condensation of ethanol vapor premixed with the transverse jet injectant gas. The planar, time-resolved Mie scattering technique readily reveals large-scale turbulent structure in the transverse jet that cannot be resolved using the schlieren method. The structure appears to be characterized by regions of unmixed gas that penetrate well across the jet centerline. The observed structure persists far downstream (at least 25 orifice diameters) of the jet injector site.

  12. Fashion, Mediations & Method Assemblages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie; Jespersen, Astrid Pernille

    , 1997). "Mediation" is an activity rather than an actor; a co-constructive relation that creates what it mediates - the producer and the consumer. Hennion argues "that something effectively `happens´ in this process, which transforms the ways things were before" (Hennion & Grenier 2000, p. 346). Hennion...... to STS literature by expanding one of its central debates to a new empirical setting; fashion specifically, and the aesthetic-cultural field on a more general level. In trying to make a theoretical connection between aesthetics and sociality of fashion, the paper suggests the term of "mediator" (Hennion......, it is an important ambition of this paper to go into a methodological discussion of how "that which effectively happens" can be approached. To this end, the paper will combine Hennion's term of the "mediator" with John Laws methodological term of "method assemblages". Method assemblages is a suggested as a way...

  13. Motor degradation prediction methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, J.R.; Kelly, J.F.; Delzingaro, M.J.


    Motor Operated Valve (MOV) squirrel cage AC motor rotors are susceptible to degradation under certain conditions. Premature failure can result due to high humidity/temperature environments, high running load conditions, extended periods at locked rotor conditions (i.e. > 15 seconds) or exceeding the motor`s duty cycle by frequent starts or multiple valve stroking. Exposure to high heat and moisture due to packing leaks, pressure seal ring leakage or other causes can significantly accelerate the degradation. ComEd and Liberty Technologies have worked together to provide and validate a non-intrusive method using motor power diagnostics to evaluate MOV rotor condition and predict failure. These techniques have provided a quick, low radiation dose method to evaluate inaccessible motors, identify degradation and allow scheduled replacement of motors prior to catastrophic failures.

  14. Cross-impact method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzić Nenad


    Full Text Available The paper displays the application of the Cross-Impact method in pedagogy, namely a methodological approach which crosses variables in a novel, but statistically justified manner. The method is an innovation in pedagogy as well as in research methodology of social and psychological phenomena. Specifically, events and processes are crossed, that is, experts' predictions of about future interaction of events and processes. Therefore, this methodology is futuristic; it concerns predicting future, which is of key importance for pedagogic objectives. The paper presents two instances of the cross-impact approach: the longer, displayed in fourteen steps, and the shorter, in four steps. They are both accompanied with mathematic and statistical formulae allowing for quantification, that is, a numerical expression of the probability of a certain event happening in the future. The advantage of this approach is that it facilitates planning in education which so far has been solely based on lay estimates and assumptions.

  15. Biological tracer method (United States)

    Strong-Gunderson, Janet M.; Palumbo, Anthony V.


    The present invention is a biological tracer method for characterizing the movement of a material through a medium, comprising the steps of: introducing a biological tracer comprising a microorganism having ice nucleating activity into a medium; collecting at least one sample of the medium from a point removed from the introduction point; and analyzing the sample for the presence of the biological tracer. The present invention is also a method for using a biological tracer as a label for material identification by introducing a biological tracer having ice nucleating activity into a material, collecting a sample of a portion of the labelled material and analyzing the sample for the presence of the biological tracer.

  16. The Montessori Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathleen HASKINS


    Full Text Available Dr. Maria Montessori provided the world with a powerful philosophy and practice for the advancement of humanity: change how we educate children and we change the world. She understood two things very clearly: One, that we can build a better world, a more just and peaceful place, when we educate for the realization of the individual and collective human potential; and two, that the only way to create an educational system that will that will serve this end is to scrap the current system entirely and replace it with a completely new system. She gave us a system through which to accomplish that goal: The Montessori Method. The following is a personal and professional account of the Montessori Method of educating children.

  17. The random projection method

    CERN Document Server

    Vempala, Santosh S


    Random projection is a simple geometric technique for reducing the dimensionality of a set of points in Euclidean space while preserving pairwise distances approximately. The technique plays a key role in several breakthrough developments in the field of algorithms. In other cases, it provides elegant alternative proofs. The book begins with an elementary description of the technique and its basic properties. Then it develops the method in the context of applications, which are divided into three groups. The first group consists of combinatorial optimization problems such as maxcut, graph coloring, minimum multicut, graph bandwidth and VLSI layout. Presented in this context is the theory of Euclidean embeddings of graphs. The next group is machine learning problems, specifically, learning intersections of halfspaces and learning large margin hypotheses. The projection method is further refined for the latter application. The last set consists of problems inspired by information retrieval, namely, nearest neig...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana L. IONESCU


    Full Text Available Companies operating in a global economy that is constantly changing and developming, especially during the financial crisis and political instability. It is necessary to adapt and develop sales methods in such environment. For large companies who base their activity on sales it has become a necessity to learn different types of sales approaches because their knowledge enables them to grow the number of customers and therefore the sales and the turnover. This paper aims to exame the most effective sales methods used on the highly sensitive economic and social environment – the insurance market. In the field of insurances, the sales process is even more important because sellers need to sell an intangible product that may materialize in the future, but there is no certainty.

  19. Developments in Surrogating Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans van Dormolen


    Full Text Available In this paper, I would like to talk about the developments in surrogating methods for preservation. My main focus will be on the technical aspects of preservation surrogates. This means that I will tell you something about my job as Quality Manager Microfilming for the Netherlands’ national preservation program, Metamorfoze, which is coordinated by the National Library. I am responsible for the quality of the preservation microfilms, which are produced for Metamorfoze. Firstly, I will elaborate on developments in preservation methods in relation to the following subjects: · Preservation microfilms · Scanning of preservation microfilms · Preservation scanning · Computer Output Microfilm. In the closing paragraphs of this paper, I would like to tell you something about the methylene blue test. This is an important test for long-term storage of preservation microfilms. Also, I will give you a brief report on the Cellulose Acetate Microfilm Conference that was held in the British Library in London, May 2005.

  20. Method card design dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wölfel, Christiane; Merritt, T.


    There are many examples of cards used to assist or provide structure to the design process, yet there has not been a thorough articulation of the strengths and weaknesses of the various examples. We review eighteen card-based design tools in order to understand how they might benefit designers....... The card-based tools are explained in terms of five design dimensions including the intended purpose and scope of use, duration of use, methodology, customization, and formal/material qualities. Our analysis suggests three design patterns or archetypes for existing card-based design method tools...... and highlights unexplored areas in the design space. The paper concludes with recommendations for the future development of card-based methods for the field of interaction design....

  1. Glycoconjugates and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertozzi, Carolyn C [Albany, CA; Yarema, Kevin J [Albany, CA; Mahal, Lara K [Berkeley, CA


    Methods for making the functionalized glycoconjugates include (a) contacting a cell with a first monosaccharide, and (b) incubating the cell under conditions whereby the cell (i) internalizes the first monosaccharide, (ii) biochemically processes the first monosaccharide into a second saccharide, (iii) conjugates the saccharide to a carrier to form a glycoconjugate, and (iv) extracellularly expresses the glycoconjugate to form an extracellular glycoconjugate comprising a selectively reactive functional group. Methods for forming products at a cell further comprise contacting the functional group of the extracellularly expressed glycoconjugate with an agent which selectively reacts with the functional group to form a product. Subject compositions include cyto-compatible monosaccharides comprising a nitrogen or ether linked functional group selectively reactive at a cell surface and compositions and cells comprising such saccharides.

  2. Glycoconjugates and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertozzi, Carolyn (Albany, CA); Yarema, Kevin J. (Albany, CA); Mahal, Lara K. (Berkeley, CA)


    Methods for making the functionalized glycoconjugates include (a) contacting a cell with a first monosaccharide, and (b) incubating the cell under conditions whereby the cell (i) internalizes the first monosaccharide, (ii) biochemically processes the first monosaccharide into a second saccharide, (iii) conjugates the saccharide to a carrier to form a glycoconjugate, and (iv) extracellularly expresses the glycoconjugate to form an extracellular glycoconjugate comprising a selectively reactive functional group. Methods for forming products at a cell further comprise contacting the functional group of the extracellularly expressed glycoconjugate with an agent which selectively reacts with the functional group to form a product. Subject compositions include cyto-compatible monosaccharides comprising a nitrogen or ether linked functional group selectively reactive at a cell surface and compositions and cells comprising such saccharides.

  3. Glycoconjugates and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertozzi, Carolyn (Albany, CA); Yarema, Kevin J. (Albany, CA); Mahal, Lara K. (Berkeley, CA)


    Methods for making the functionalized glycoconjugates include (a) contacting a cell with a first monosaccharide, and (b) incubating the cell under conditions whereby the cell (i) internalizes the first monosaccharide, (ii) biochemically processes the first monosaccharide into a second saccharide, (iii) conjugates the saccharide to a carrier to form a glycoconjugate, and (iv) extracellularly expresses the glycoconjugate to form an extracellular glycoconjugate comprising a selectively reactive functional group. Methods for forming products at a cell further comprise contacting the functional group of the extracellularly expressed glycoconjugate with an agent which selectively reacts with the functional group to form a product. Subject compositions include cyto-compatible monosaccharides comprising a nitrogen or ether linked functional group selectively reactive at a cell surface and compositions and cells comprising such saccharides.

  4. Glycoconjugates And Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertozzi, Carolyn (Albany, CA); Yarema, Kevin J. (Albany, CA); Mahal, Lara K. (Berkeley, CA)


    Methods for making the functionalized glycoconjugates include (a) contacting a cell with a first monosaccharide, and (b) incubating the cell under conditions whereby the cell (i) internalizes the first monosaccharide, (ii) biochemically processes the first monosaccharide into a second saccharide, (iii) conjugates the saccharide to a carrier to form a glycoconjugate, and (iv) extracellularly expresses the glycoconjugate to form an extracellular glycoconjugate comprising a selectively reactive functional group. Methods for forming products at a cell further comprise contacting the functional group of the extracellularly expressed glycoconjugate with an agent which selectively reacts with the functional group to form a product. Subject compositions include cyto-compatible monosaccharides comprising a nitrogen or ether linked functional group selectively reactive at a cell surface and compositions and cells comprising such saccharides.

  5. The Montessori Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathleen Haskins


    Full Text Available Dr. Maria Montessori provided the world with a powerful philosophy and practice for the advancement of humanity: change how we educate children and we change the world. She understood two things very clearly: One, that we can build a better world, a more just and peaceful place, when we educate for the realization of the individual and collective human potential; and two, that the only way to create an educational system that will that will serve this end is to scrap the current system entirely and replace it with a completely new system. She gave us a system through which to accomplish that goal: The Montessori Method. The following is a personal and professional account of the Montessori Method of educating children.

  6. Elastic Remote Methods


    Jayaram, K.,


    Part 2: Cloud Computing; International audience; For distributed applications to take full advantage of cloud computing systems, we need middleware systems that allow developers to build elasticity management components right into the applications.This paper describes the design and implementation of ElasticRMI, a middleware system that (1) enables application developers to dynamically change the number of (server) objects available to handle remote method invocations with respect to the appl...

  7. Comments on PDF methods (United States)

    Chen, J.-Y.


    Viewgraphs are presented on the following topics: the grand challenge of combustion engineering; research of probability density function (PDF) methods at Sandia; experiments of turbulent jet flames (Masri and Dibble, 1988); departures from chemical equilibrium; modeling turbulent reacting flows; superequilibrium OH radical; pdf modeling of turbulent jet flames; scatter plot for CH4 (methane) and O2 (oxygen); methanol turbulent jet flames; comparisons between predictions and experimental data; and turbulent C2H4 jet flames.

  8. Method of casting aerogels (United States)

    Poco, John F.


    The invention describes a method for making monolithic castings of transparent silica aerogel with densities in the range from 0.001 g/cm.sup.3 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3. Various shapes of aerogels are cast in flexible polymer molds which facilitate removal and eliminate irregular surfaces. Mold dimensions are preselected to account for shrinkage of alcogel which occurs during the drying step of supercritical extraction of solvent.

  9. Method for making nanomaterials (United States)

    Fan, Hongyou; Wu, Huimeng


    A method of making a nanostructure by preparing a face centered cubic-ordered metal nanoparticle film from metal nanoparticles, such as gold and silver nanoparticles, exerting a hydrostatic pressure upon the film at pressures of several gigapascals, followed by applying a non-hydrostatic stress perpendicularly at a pressure greater than approximately 10 GPA to form an array of nanowires with individual nanowires having a relatively uniform length, average diameter and density.

  10. Qualitative Methods Overview


    Moriarty, Joanna


    The social care evidence base reveals a distinct preference for qualitative methods covering a broad range of social care topics. This review provides an introduction to the different ways in which qualitative research has been used in social care and some of the reasons why it has been successful in identifying under-researched areas, in documenting the experiences of people using services, carers, and practitioners, and in evaluating new types of service or intervention. Examples of complet...

  11. Situational method engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Henderson-Sellers, Brian; Ågerfalk, Pär J; Rossi, Matti


    While previously available methodologies for software ? like those published in the early days of object technology ? claimed to be appropriate for every conceivable project, situational method engineering (SME) acknowledges that most projects typically have individual characteristics and situations. Thus, finding the most effective methodology for a particular project needs specific tailoring to that situation. Such a tailored software development methodology needs to take into account all the bits and pieces needed for an organization to develop software, including the software process, the

  12. Method for scavenging mercury (United States)

    Chang, Shih-ger [El Cerrito, CA; Liu, Shou-heng [Kaohsiung, TW; Liu, Zhao-rong [Beijing, CN; Yan, Naiqiang [Berkeley, CA


    Disclosed herein is a method for removing mercury from a gas stream comprising contacting the gas stream with a getter composition comprising bromine, bromochloride, sulphur bromide, sulphur dichloride or sulphur monochloride and mixtures thereof. In one preferred embodiment the getter composition is adsorbed onto a sorbent. The sorbent may be selected from the group consisting of flyash, limestone, lime, calcium sulphate, calcium sulfite, activated carbon, charcoal, silicate, alumina and mixtures thereof. Preferred is flyash, activated carbon and silica.

  13. Hazard identification methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna ORYMOWSKA


    Full Text Available This article presents the main hazards that occur in the context of inland navigation and their impact on the vessel. First, characteristics are extracted from the following methods with regard to identifying threats: involving steering gear damage to an inland vessel moving on a straight waterway. Next, a hazard identification model is presented, which is appropriate to a situation involving steering gear damage to an inland vessel moving on a straight fairway.

  14. Methods of celestial mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Brouwer, Dirk


    Methods of Celestial Mechanics provides a comprehensive background of celestial mechanics for practical applications. Celestial mechanics is the branch of astronomy that is devoted to the motions of celestial bodies. This book is composed of 17 chapters, and begins with the concept of elliptic motion and its expansion. The subsequent chapters are devoted to other aspects of celestial mechanics, including gravity, numerical integration of orbit, stellar aberration, lunar theory, and celestial coordinates. Considerable chapters explore the principles and application of various mathematical metho

  15. Polymer compositions and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Scott D.; Willkomm, Wayne R.


    The present invention encompasses polyurethane compositions comprising aliphatic polycarbonate chains. In one aspect, the present invention encompasses polyurethane foams, thermoplastics and elastomers derived from aliphatic polycarbonate polyols and polyisocyanates wherein the polyol chains contain a primary repeating unit having a structure: ##STR00001## In another aspect, the invention provides articles comprising the inventive foam and elastomer compositions as well as methods of making such compositions.

  16. Carbon nanotubes decorating methods


    A.D. Dobrzańska-Danikiewicz; Łukowiec, D.; D. Cichock; W. Wolany


    Purpose: The work is to present and characterise various methods of depositing carbon nanotubes with nanoparticles of precious metals, and also to present the results of own works concerning carbon nanotubes coated with platinum nanoparticles.Design/methodology/approach: Electron transmission and scanning microscopy has been used for imaging the structure and morphology of the nanocomposites obtained and the distribution of nanoparticles on the surface of carbon nanotubes.Findings: The studie...

  17. Emotions: Methods of Assessment


    Mortillaro, Marcello; Mehu, Marc


    Emotions are brief episodes during which several functional components are synchronized in response to an eliciting event. Emotions can be assessed by measuring responses in each of these components: subjective feeling, physiology, expression, and motivation. In this article we review the most advanced methods that can be used to assess emotions in each of the four components: self-report measures and questionnaires, measures of physiological activation, instruments for the analysis of nonver...

  18. Method for scavenging mercury (United States)

    Chang, Shih-ger; Liu, Shou-heng; Liu, Zhao-rong; Yan, Naiqiang


    Disclosed herein is a method for removing mercury from a gas stream comprising contacting the gas stream with a getter composition comprising bromine, bromochloride, sulphur bromide, sulphur dichloride or sulphur monochloride and mixtures thereof. In one preferred embodiment the getter composition is adsorbed onto a sorbent. The sorbent may be selected from the group consisting flyash, limestone, lime, calcium sulphate, calcium sulfite, activated carbon, charcoal, silicate, alumina and mixtures thereof. Preferred is flyash, activated carbon and silica.

  19. Polymer compositions and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Scott D.; Willkomm, Wayne R.


    The present invention encompasses polyurethane compositions comprising aliphatic polycarbonate chains. In one aspect, the present invention encompasses polyurethane foams, thermoplastics and elastomers derived from aliphatic polycarbonate polyols and polyisocyanates wherein the polyol chains contain a primary repeating unit having a structure: ##STR00001## In another aspect, the invention provides articles comprising the inventive foam and elastomer compositions as well as methods of making such compositions.

  20. Vector wave propagation method. (United States)

    Fertig, M; Brenner, K-H


    In this paper, we extend the scalar wave propagation method (WPM) to vector fields. The WPM [Appl. Opt.32, 4984 (1993)] was introduced in order to overcome the major limitations of the beam propagation method (BPM). With the WPM, the range of application can be extended from the simulation of waveguides to simulation of other optical elements like lenses, prisms and gratings. In that reference it was demonstrated that the wave propagation scheme provides valid results for propagation angles up to 85 degrees and that it is not limited to small index variations in the axis of propagation. Here, we extend the WPM to three-dimensional vectorial fields (VWPMs) by considering the polarization dependent Fresnel coefficients for transmission in each propagation step. The continuity of the electric field is maintained in all three dimensions by an enhanced propagation vector and the transfer matrix. We verify the validity of the method by transmission through a prism and by comparison with the focal distribution from vectorial Debye theory. Furthermore, a two-dimensional grating is simulated and compared with the results from three-dimensional RCWA. Especially for 3D problems, the runtime of the VWPM exhibits special advantage over the RCWA.

  1. Validation of analytical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Rius, F.


    Full Text Available In this paper we shall discuss the concept of method validation, describe the various elements and explain its close relationship with fitness for purpose. Method validation is based on the assumption that a series of requirements are fulfilled and we shall explain how these requirements are selected, the way in which evidence is supplied and what work has to be carried out in the laboratory. The basic principles of method validation and the different ways to validate a methodology, by inter-laboratory comparison or performing an in-house validation, are also described.En este artículo se discute el concepto de validación del método, se describen los elementos que la componen y se explica la fuerte relación entre la validación y las características de ajuste. El método de validación se basa en el cumplimiento de una serie de requerimientos, se explica como seleccionar esos requerimientos, la forma en que se suministran evidencias, y que trabajo se debe llevar a cabo en el laboratorio. También se describen, los principios básicos del método de validación y los diferentes caminos para validar una metodología, tanto en la comparación entre laboratorios o como cuando se lleva a cabo una validación dentro del laboratorio.

  2. Multigrid methods III

    CERN Document Server

    Trottenberg, U; Third European Conference on Multigrid Methods


    These proceedings contain a selection of papers presented at the Third European Conference on Multigrid Methods which was held in Bonn on October 1-4, 1990. Following conferences in 1981 and 1985, a platform for the presentation of new Multigrid results was provided for a third time. Multigrid methods no longer have problems being accepted by numerical analysts and users of numerical methods; on the contrary, they have been further developed in such a successful way that they have penetrated a variety of new fields of application. The high number of 154 participants from 18 countries and 76 presented papers show the need to continue the series of the European Multigrid Conferences. The papers of this volume give a survey on the current Multigrid situation; in particular, they correspond to those fields where new developments can be observed. For example, se­ veral papers study the appropriate treatment of time dependent problems. Improvements can also be noticed in the Multigrid approach for semiconductor eq...

  3. Stochastic Methods in Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kallianpur, Gopinath; Hida, Takeyuki


    The use of probabilistic methods in the biological sciences has been so well established by now that mathematical biology is regarded by many as a distinct dis­ cipline with its own repertoire of techniques. The purpose of the Workshop on sto­ chastic methods in biology held at Nagoya University during the week of July 8-12, 1985, was to enable biologists and probabilists from Japan and the U. S. to discuss the latest developments in their respective fields and to exchange ideas on the ap­ plicability of the more recent developments in stochastic process theory to problems in biology. Eighteen papers were presented at the Workshop and have been grouped under the following headings: I. Population genetics (five papers) II. Measure valued diffusion processes related to population genetics (three papers) III. Neurophysiology (two papers) IV. Fluctuation in living cells (two papers) V. Mathematical methods related to other problems in biology, epidemiology, population dynamics, etc. (six papers) An important f...

  4. Petroleum refining method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bembel' , V.M.; Plyusnin, A.N.; Safonov, G.A.


    Current methods (Sp) for refining petroleum products (NP) and for removing nitrogen, tar, and polycyclic ArU's by means of complex chelation formed with chloride metal in the presence of organic solvents, are examined. These methods are designed to simplify such processes while at the same time preventing the formation of harmful impurities by employing chloride metals from the groups: Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, and Mn. These chloride metals act in the role of an organic solvent when using alkaline carbonate, dimethylsulphide, dimethylformamide, or fural but do not mix with oil. Currently employed methods are carried out as follows. A chelation solution is prepared in a compatible solvent with a chelation content of 0.01-0.2 gram-molecules per liter. Following this, the solution is mixed with NP at a volume of 0.5 parts extractant to 5 parts NP during a period of 5-25 minutes. Depending on the vicosity of the NP, mixing is done at a temperature of 20-80 degrees. Following the mixing and separation with either a settling or centrifuging phase, the light fraction (clear NP) is routed for catalytic refinement while the extract is mixed with water (at a temperature of 10 - 90 degrees) until it is completely dissolved and following which the nitrogen, pitch, and polyacrylide materials in the NP float to the surface.

  5. The data embedding method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandford, M.T. II; Bradley, J.N.; Handel, T.G.


    Data embedding is a new steganographic method for combining digital information sets. This paper describes the data embedding method and gives examples of its application using software written in the C-programming language. Sandford and Handel produced a computer program (BMPEMBED, Ver. 1.51 written for IBM PC/AT or compatible, MS/DOS Ver. 3.3 or later) that implements data embedding in an application for digital imagery. Information is embedded into, and extracted from, Truecolor or color-pallet images in Microsoft{reg_sign} bitmap (.BMP) format. Hiding data in the noise component of a host, by means of an algorithm that modifies or replaces the noise bits, is termed {open_quote}steganography.{close_quote} Data embedding differs markedly from conventional steganography, because it uses the noise component of the host to insert information with few or no modifications to the host data values or their statistical properties. Consequently, the entropy of the host data is affected little by using data embedding to add information. The data embedding method applies to host data compressed with transform, or {open_quote}lossy{close_quote} compression algorithms, as for example ones based on discrete cosine transform and wavelet functions. Analysis of the host noise generates a key required for embedding and extracting the auxiliary data from the combined data. The key is stored easily in the combined data. Images without the key cannot be processed to extract the embedded information. To provide security for the embedded data, one can remove the key from the combined data and manage it separately. The image key can be encrypted and stored in the combined data or transmitted separately as a ciphertext much smaller in size than the embedded data. The key size is typically ten to one-hundred bytes, and it is in data an analysis algorithm.

  6. A Pluralistic, Longitudinal Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evers, Winie; Marroun, Sana; Young, Louise


    and analysis. Longitudinal research considers a Danish advertising and communication firm looking for new ideas by involving their network in order to help them to compete in their environment of rapid globalization and emergence of new technologies. A five stage research design considered how network...... on relationship and network assessments was measured by analysis of both the workshops’ discourse and by comparison of reflective interviews with participants before and after each workshop. Collective and comparative lexicographic (i.e. semantic) analysis was used to ascertain participants’ perceptions......, resulting in bringing more business to the firm. This example illustrates the value of longitudinal, pluralistic methods coupled with systematic analysis of participant’s discourse....

  7. Formal Methods in Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei Serna A.


    Full Text Available The application of formal methods in industry has progressed extensively over the past decade and the results are promising. But despite these achievements and it have been documented in numerous studies, it is still very common the skepticism about its usefulness and applicability. The goal of this paper is to show that its evolution over the past decade exceeds all previous processes and each time they do a better job to satisfy industrial needs. This is achieved by the description of some experiments and the result of various applications in industry and through an analyzing of the needs of companies that must be satisfy the research community in this field.

  8. Methods of Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, James T


    A practical, accessible introduction to advanced geometry Exceptionally well-written and filled with historical and bibliographic notes, Methods of Geometry presents a practical and proof-oriented approach. The author develops a wide range of subject areas at an intermediate level and explains how theories that underlie many fields of advanced mathematics ultimately lead to applications in science and engineering. Foundations, basic Euclidean geometry, and transformations are discussed in detail and applied to study advanced plane geometry, polyhedra, isometries, similarities, and symmetry. An

  9. Approximation and perturbation methods

    CERN Document Server

    Iyer, B R


    Few problems in nature are amenable to an exact solution and hence when one proceeds from elegant problems of theory to messy complicated problems of practice one is forced to recourse to methods of approximation and perturbation. The development of such techniques has been natural in attempts to extract physically verifiable consequences from either exact solutions of general relativity or from specific astrophysical systems for which an exact solution is impossible to find. However, this should not be taken to imply giving up of mathematical rigour and an appeal to only physical intuition.

  10. Control system design method (United States)

    Wilson, David G [Tijeras, NM; Robinett, III, Rush D.


    A control system design method and concomitant control system comprising representing a physical apparatus to be controlled as a Hamiltonian system, determining elements of the Hamiltonian system representation which are power generators, power dissipators, and power storage devices, analyzing stability and performance of the Hamiltonian system based on the results of the determining step and determining necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the Hamiltonian system, creating a stable control system based on the results of the analyzing step, and employing the resulting control system to control the physical apparatus.

  11. Introduction to Numerical Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoonover, Joseph A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    These are slides for a lecture for the Parallel Computing Summer Research Internship at the National Security Education Center. This gives an introduction to numerical methods. Repetitive algorithms are used to obtain approximate solutions to mathematical problems, using sorting, searching, root finding, optimization, interpolation, extrapolation, least squares regresion, Eigenvalue problems, ordinary differential equations, and partial differential equations. Many equations are shown. Discretizations allow us to approximate solutions to mathematical models of physical systems using a repetitive algorithm and introduce errors that can lead to numerical instabilities if we are not careful.

  12. Method through motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steijn, Arthur


    Contemporary scenography often consists of video-projected motion graphics. The field is lacking in academic methods and rigour: descriptions and models relevant for the creation as well as in the analysis of existing works. In order to understand the phenomenon of motion graphics in a scenographic...... context, I have been conducting a practice-led research project. Central to the project is construction of a design model describing sets of procedures, concepts and terminology relevant for design and studies of motion graphics in spatial contexts. The focus of this paper is the role of model...

  13. Recurrent fuzzy ranking methods (United States)

    Hajjari, Tayebeh


    With the increasing development of fuzzy set theory in various scientific fields and the need to compare fuzzy numbers in different areas. Therefore, Ranking of fuzzy numbers plays a very important role in linguistic decision-making, engineering, business and some other fuzzy application systems. Several strategies have been proposed for ranking of fuzzy numbers. Each of these techniques has been shown to produce non-intuitive results in certain case. In this paper, we reviewed some recent ranking methods, which will be useful for the researchers who are interested in this area.

  14. Methods of thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Reiss, Howard


    Since there is no shortage of excellent general books on elementary thermodynamics, this book takes a different approach, focusing attention on the problem areas of understanding of concept and especially on the overwhelming but usually hidden role of ""constraints"" in thermodynamics, as well as on the lucid exposition of the significance, construction, and use (in the case of arbitrary systems) of the thermodynamic potential. It will be especially useful as an auxiliary text to be used along with any standard treatment.Unlike some texts, Methods of Thermodynamics does not use statistical m

  15. Method of geoelectrical exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aladinskiy, Yu.V.; Bobrovnikov, L.Z.; Chernyak, G.Ya.; Lyakhov, L.L.; Plyusnin, M.I.; Popov, V.A.; Sharapanov, N.N.


    A method is proposed for geoelectrical exploration (nonstationary fields) in which the electromagnetic field is excited by current pulses and signals of secondary electromagnetic field are measured in the intervals between the current pulses. In order to improve the accuracy of measurements by separating the polarization and induction effects, difference in absolute values of the signals of the secondary electromagnetic field measured through the same time interval are determined after disengagement of the current pulses of different duration by which the magnitude of polarization effects are judged.

  16. Electrical estimating methods

    CERN Document Server

    Del Pico, Wayne J


    Simplify the estimating process with the latest data, materials, and practices Electrical Estimating Methods, Fourth Edition is a comprehensive guide to estimating electrical costs, with data provided by leading construction database RS Means. The book covers the materials and processes encountered by the modern contractor, and provides all the information professionals need to make the most precise estimate. The fourth edition has been updated to reflect the changing materials, techniques, and practices in the field, and provides the most recent Means cost data available. The complexity of el

  17. Aircraft Nuclear Survivability Methods. (United States)


    8217DUPLICATE SAMPLE-- PDF ABORTO 4880 PDFFLAG$"S":PDFW0:RETURN 4890 PDFMAX=(GPLUS-G)/(XDUM(I%+1)-XDUM(I%)) 4900 XHI=.5* (XDUM(I%) +XDLJM(I%+l)) 4910 IF 1...A.19 Modification of the PDF Estimation Method A.25 Endpoint Extrapolation................A.27 Derivation of the General Form . . . . A...A.24 A.13 Model 1332 With Centered Difference PDF Applied to a Uniformly Distributed Variable. A.28 A.14 Model 1332 With Centered Difference PDF

  18. Hybrid least squares method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazareth, L.


    A hybrid algorithm is developed which blends two different approximations to the Hessian, the Levenberg--Marquardt approximation and Davidon's Optimally Conditioned Quasi-Newton approximation, through adaptively chosen parameters. The aim is to study how to combine effectively two different models of the function which are deduced from the available information. A particular implementation is discussed. Also test results and comparisons against the Levenberg--Marquardt and Davidon's Quasi-Newton method, which correspond to limiting cases of the hybrid algorithm.

  19. Alternative Methods of Regression

    CERN Document Server

    Birkes, David


    Of related interest. Nonlinear Regression Analysis and its Applications Douglas M. Bates and Donald G. Watts ".an extraordinary presentation of concepts and methods concerning the use and analysis of nonlinear regression models.highly recommend[ed].for anyone needing to use and/or understand issues concerning the analysis of nonlinear regression models." --Technometrics This book provides a balance between theory and practice supported by extensive displays of instructive geometrical constructs. Numerous in-depth case studies illustrate the use of nonlinear regression analysis--with all data s

  20. Methods of making monolayers (United States)

    Alford, Kentin L [Pasco, WA; Simmons, Kevin L [Kennewick, WA; Samuels, William D [Richland, WA; Zemanian, Thomas S [Richland, WA; Liu, Jun [Albuquerque, NM; Shin, Yongsoon [Richland, WA; Fryxell, Glen E [Kennewick, WA


    The invention pertains to methods of forming monolayers on various surfaces. The surfaces can be selected from a wide array of materials, including, for example, aluminum dioxide, silicon dioxide, carbon and SiC. The substrates can be planar or porous. The monolayer is formed under enhanced pressure conditions. The monolayer contains functionalized molecules, and accordingly functionalizes a surface of the substrate. The properties of the functionalized substrate can enhance the substrate's applicability for numerous purposes including, for example, utilization in extracting contaminants, or incorporation into a polymeric matrix.

  1. Geometrical method of decoupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Baumgarten


    Full Text Available The computation of tunes and matched beam distributions are essential steps in the analysis of circular accelerators. If certain symmetries—like midplane symmetry—are present, then it is possible to treat the betatron motion in the horizontal, the vertical plane, and (under certain circumstances the longitudinal motion separately using the well-known Courant-Snyder theory, or to apply transformations that have been described previously as, for instance, the method of Teng and Edwards. In a preceding paper, it has been shown that this method requires a modification for the treatment of isochronous cyclotrons with non-negligible space charge forces. Unfortunately, the modification was numerically not as stable as desired and it was still unclear, if the extension would work for all conceivable cases. Hence, a systematic derivation of a more general treatment seemed advisable. In a second paper, the author suggested the use of real Dirac matrices as basic tools for coupled linear optics and gave a straightforward recipe to decouple positive definite Hamiltonians with imaginary eigenvalues. In this article this method is generalized and simplified in order to formulate a straightforward method to decouple Hamiltonian matrices with eigenvalues on the real and the imaginary axis. The decoupling of symplectic matrices which are exponentials of such Hamiltonian matrices can be deduced from this in a few steps. It is shown that this algebraic decoupling is closely related to a geometric “decoupling” by the orthogonalization of the vectors E[over →], B[over →], and P[over →], which were introduced with the so-called “electromechanical equivalence.” A mathematical analysis of the problem can be traced down to the task of finding a structure-preserving block diagonalization of symplectic or Hamiltonian matrices. Structure preservation means in this context that the (sequence of transformations must be symplectic and hence canonical. When

  2. Methods of graded rings

    CERN Document Server

    Nastasescu, Constantin


    The topic of this book, graded algebra, has developed in the past decade to a vast subject with new applications in noncommutative geometry and physics. Classical aspects relating to group actions and gradings have been complemented by new insights stemming from Hopf algebra theory. Old and new methods are presented in full detail and in a self-contained way. Graduate students as well as researchers in algebra, geometry, will find in this book a useful toolbox. Exercises, with hints for solution, provide a direct link to recent research publications. The book is suitable for courses on Master level or textbook for seminars.

  3. Research methods in information

    CERN Document Server

    Pickard, Alison Jane


    The long-awaited 2nd edition of this best-selling research methods handbook is fully updated and includes brand new coverage of online research methods and techniques, mixed methodology and qualitative analysis. There is an entire chapter contributed by Professor Julie McLeod, Sue Childs and Elizabeth Lomas focusing on research data management, applying evidence from the recent JISC funded 'DATUM' project. The first to focus entirely on the needs of the information and communications community, it guides the would-be researcher through the variety of possibilities open to them under the heading "research" and provides students with the confidence to embark on their dissertations. The focus here is on the 'doing' and although the philosophy and theory of research is explored to provide context, this is essentially a practical exploration of the whole research process with each chapter fully supported by examples and exercises tried and tested over a whole teaching career. The book will take readers through eac...

  4. Leap-Frogging Newton's Method (United States)

    Kasturiarachi, A. Bathi


    Using Newton's method as an intermediate step, we introduce an iterative method that approximates numerically the solution of f(x) = 0. The method is essentially a leap-frog Newton's method. The order of convergence of the proposed method at a simple root is cubic and the computational efficiency in general is less, but close to that of Newton's…

  5. Conjugated polymer nanoparticles, methods of using, and methods of making

    KAUST Repository

    Habuchi, Satoshi


    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for conjugated polymer nanoparticle, method of making conjugated polymer nanoparticles, method of using conjugated polymer nanoparticle, polymers, and the like.

  6. [Surgical methods of abortion]. (United States)

    Linet, T


    A state of the art of surgical method of abortion focusing on safety and practical aspects. A systematic review of French-speaking or English-speaking evidence-based literature about surgical methods of abortion was performed using Pubmed, Cochrane and international recommendations. Surgical abortion is efficient and safe regardless of gestational age, even before 7 weeks gestation (EL2). A systematic prophylactic antibiotics should be preferred to a targeted antibiotic prophylaxis (grade A). In women under 25 years, doxycycline is preferred (grade C) due to the high prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis. Systematic cervical preparation is recommended for reducing the incidence of complications from vacuum aspiration (grade A). Misoprostol is a first-line agent (grade A). When misoprostol is used before a vacuum aspiration, a dose of 400 mcg is recommended. The choice of vaginal route or sublingual administration should be left to the woman: (i) the vaginal route 3 hours before the procedure has a good efficiency/safety ratio (grade A); (ii) the sublingual administration 1 to 3 hours before the procedure has a higher efficiency (EL1). The patient should be warned of more common gastrointestinal side effects. The addition of mifepristone 200mg 24 to 48hours before the procedure is interesting for pregnancies between 12 and 14 weeks gestations (EL2). The systematic use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is recommended for limiting the operative and postoperative pain (grade B). Routine vaginal application of an antiseptic prior to the procedure cannot be recommended (grade B). The type of anesthesia (general or local) should be left up to the woman after explanation of the benefit-risk ratio (grade B). Paracervical local anesthesia (PLA) is recommended before performing a vacuum aspiration under local anesthesia (grade A). The electric or manual vacuum methods are very effective, safe and acceptable to women (grade A). Before 9 weeks gestation

  7. Data mining methods

    CERN Document Server

    Chattamvelli, Rajan


    DATA MINING METHODS, Second Edition discusses both theoretical foundation and practical applications of datamining in a web field including banking, e-commerce, medicine, engineering and management. This book starts byintroducing data and information, basic data type, data category and applications of data mining. The second chapterbriefly reviews data visualization technology and importance in data mining. Fundamentals of probability and statisticsare discussed in chapter 3, and novel algorithm for sample covariants are derived. The next two chapters give an indepthand useful discussion of data warehousing and OLAP. Decision trees are clearly explained and a new tabularmethod for decision tree building is discussed. The chapter on association rules discusses popular algorithms andcompares various algorithms in summary table form. An interesting application of genetic algorithm is introduced inthe next chapter. Foundations of neural networks are built from scratch and the back propagation algorithm is derived...

  8. Standard environmental test methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schafer, D R


    This guide to uniformity in testing is intended primarily as an aid to persons responsible for designing, developing, and performing environmental tests. It will also be of use to those concerned with production, evaluation, and quality control and assurance. Checklists for preparing the environmental testing portion of product specifications are included, as are copies of Process Standards covering the instrumentation, equipment, and methods for use in environmental testing of Sandia National Laboratories components. Techniques and equipment are constantly improving. This version of SC-4452 reflects current state-of-the-art and practice in environmental testing. Previously existing sections of the document have ben updated and new ones have been added, e.g., Transient Testing on Vibration Machines.

  9. Radiofrequency attenuator and method (United States)

    Warner, Benjamin P [Los Alamos, NM; McCleskey, T Mark [Los Alamos, NM; Burrell, Anthony K [Los Alamos, NM; Agrawal, Anoop [Tucson, AZ; Hall, Simon B [Palmerston North, NZ


    Radiofrequency attenuator and method. The attenuator includes a pair of transparent windows. A chamber between the windows is filled with molten salt. Preferred molten salts include quarternary ammonium cations and fluorine-containing anions such as tetrafluoroborate (BF.sub.4.sup.-), hexafluorophosphate (PF.sub.6.sup.-), hexafluoroarsenate (AsF.sub.6.sup.-), trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3CF.sub.2SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.3C.sup.-). Radicals or radical cations may be added to or electrochemically generated in the molten salt to enhance the RF attenuation.

  10. Methods for studying oogenesis. (United States)

    Hudson, Andrew M; Cooley, Lynn


    Drosophila oogenesis is an excellent system for the study of developmental cell biology. Active areas of research include stem cell maintenance, gamete development, pattern formation, cytoskeletal regulation, intercellular communication, intercellular transport, cell polarity, cell migration, cell death, morphogenesis, cell cycle control, and many more. The large size and relatively simple organization of egg chambers make them ideally suited for microscopy of both living and fixed whole mount tissue. A wide range of tools is available for oogenesis research. Newly available shRNA transgenic lines provide an alternative to classic loss-of-function F2 screens and clonal screens. Gene expression can be specifically controlled in either germline or somatic cells using the Gal4/UAS system. Protein trap lines provide fluorescent tags of proteins expressed at endogenous levels for live imaging and screening backgrounds. This review provides information on many available reagents and key methods for research in oogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cyclostationarity theory and methods

    CERN Document Server

    Leśkow, Jacek; Napolitano, Antonio; Sanchez-Ramirez, Andrea


    In the last decade the research in signal analysis was dominated by models that encompass nonstationarity as an important feature. This book presents the results of a workshop held in Grodek—Poland in February 2013 which was dedicated to the investigation of cyclostationary signals. Its main objective is to highlight the strong interactions between theory and applications of cyclostationary signals with the use of modern statistical tools. An important application of cyclostationary signals is the analysis of mechanical signals generated by a vibrating mechanism. Cyclostationary models are very important to perform basic operations on signals in both time and frequency domains. One of the fundamental problems in diagnosis of rotating machine is the identification of significant modulating frequencies that contribute to the cyclostationary nature of the signals. The book shows that there are modern tools available for analyzing cyclostationary signals without the assumption of gaussianity. Those methods are...

  12. Method for controlling brazing (United States)

    Hosking, F Michael [Albuquerque, NM; Hall, Aaron C [Albuquerque, NM; Givler, Richard C [Albuquerque, NM; Walker, Charles A [Albuquerque, NM


    A method for making a braze joint across a discontinuity in a work piece using alternating current. A filler metal is pre-placed at a location sufficiently close to the discontinuity such that, when an alternating current is applied across a work piece to heat the work piece and melt the filler metal, the filler metal is drawn into the discontinuity. The alternating current is maintained for a set residence time, generally less than 10 seconds and more particularly less than 3 seconds. The alternating current is then altered, generally by reducing the current and/or voltage such that the filler metal can solidify to form a braze joint of desired quality and thickness.

  13. Radioactive air sampling methods

    CERN Document Server

    Maiello, Mark L


    Although the field of radioactive air sampling has matured and evolved over decades, it has lacked a single resource that assimilates technical and background information on its many facets. Edited by experts and with contributions from top practitioners and researchers, Radioactive Air Sampling Methods provides authoritative guidance on measuring airborne radioactivity from industrial, research, and nuclear power operations, as well as naturally occuring radioactivity in the environment. Designed for industrial hygienists, air quality experts, and heath physicists, the book delves into the applied research advancing and transforming practice with improvements to measurement equipment, human dose modeling of inhaled radioactivity, and radiation safety regulations. To present a wide picture of the field, it covers the international and national standards that guide the quality of air sampling measurements and equipment. It discusses emergency response issues, including radioactive fallout and the assets used ...

  14. Microencapsulation system and method (United States)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor)


    A microencapsulation apparatus is provided which is configured to form co-axial multi-lamellar microcapsules from materials discharged from first and second microsphere dispensers of the apparatus. A method of fabricating and processing microcapsules is also provided which includes forming distinct droplets comprising one or more materials and introducing the droplets directly into a solution bath to form a membrane around the droplets such that a plurality of microcapsules are formed. A microencapsulation system is provided which includes a microcapsule production unit, a fluidized passage for washing and harvesting microcapsules dispensed from the microcapsule production unit and a flow sensor for sizing and counting the microcapsules. In some embodiments, the microencapsulation system may further include a controller configured to simultaneously operate the microcapsule production unit, fluidized passage and flow sensor to process the microcapsules in a continuous manner.

  15. Baryons with functional methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Christian S.


    Full Text Available We summarise recent results on the spectrum of ground-state and excited baryons and their form factors in the framework of functional methods. As an improvement upon similar approaches we explicitly take into account the underlying momentum-dependent dynamics of the quark-gluon interaction that leads to dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. For light octet and decuplet baryons we find a spectrum in very good agreement with experiment, including the level ordering between the positive- and negative-parity nucleon states. Comparing the three-body framework with the quark-diquark approximation, we do not find significant differences in the spectrum for those states that have been calculated in both frameworks. This situation is different in the electromagnetic form factor of the Δ, which may serve to distinguish both pictures by comparison with experiment and lattice QCD.

  16. Floating Silicon Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellerman, Peter


    The Floating Silicon Method (FSM) project at Applied Materials (formerly Varian Semiconductor Equipment Associates), has been funded, in part, by the DOE under a “Photovoltaic Supply Chain and Cross Cutting Technologies” grant (number DE-EE0000595) for the past four years. The original intent of the project was to develop the FSM process from concept to a commercially viable tool. This new manufacturing equipment would support the photovoltaic industry in following ways: eliminate kerf losses and the consumable costs associated with wafer sawing, allow optimal photovoltaic efficiency by producing high-quality silicon sheets, reduce the cost of assembling photovoltaic modules by creating large-area silicon cells which are free of micro-cracks, and would be a drop-in replacement in existing high efficiency cell production process thereby allowing rapid fan-out into the industry.

  17. Method for radioactivity monitoring (United States)

    Umbarger, C. John; Cowder, Leo R.


    The disclosure relates to a method for analyzing uranium and/or thorium contents of liquid effluents preferably utilizing a sample containing counting chamber. Basically, 185.7-keV gamma rays following .sup.235 U alpha decay to .sup.231 Th which indicate .sup.235 U content and a 63-keV gamma ray doublet found in the nucleus of .sup.234 Pa, a granddaughter of .sup.238 U, are monitored and the ratio thereof taken to derive uranium content and isotopic enrichment .sup.235 U/.sup.235 U + .sup.238 U) in the liquid effluent. Thorium content is determined by monitoring the intensity of 238-keV gamma rays from the nucleus of .sup.212 Bi in the decay chain of .sup.232 Th.

  18. Mathematical methods in engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Machado, José


    This book presents a careful selection of the contributions presented at the Mathematical Methods in Engineering (MME10) International Symposium, held at the Polytechnic Institute of Coimbra- Engineering Institute of Coimbra (IPC/ISEC), Portugal, October 21-24, 2010. The volume discusses recent developments about theoretical and applied mathematics toward the solution of engineering problems, thus covering a wide range of topics, such as:  Automatic Control, Autonomous Systems, Computer Science, Dynamical Systems and Control,  Electronics, Finance and Economics, Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer, Fractional Mathematics, Fractional Transforms and Their Applications,  Fuzzy Sets and Systems, Image and Signal Analysis, Image Processing, Mechanics, Mechatronics, Motor Control and Human Movement Analysis, Nonlinear Dynamics, Partial Differential Equations, Robotics, Acoustics, Vibration and Control, and Wavelets.

  19. Freeze drying method (United States)

    Coppa, Nicholas V.; Stewart, Paul; Renzi, Ernesto


    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

  20. Adaptive multiresolution methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Kai


    Full Text Available These lecture notes present adaptive multiresolution schemes for evolutionary PDEs in Cartesian geometries. The discretization schemes are based either on finite volume or finite difference schemes. The concept of multiresolution analyses, including Harten’s approach for point and cell averages, is described in some detail. Then the sparse point representation method is discussed. Different strategies for adaptive time-stepping, like local scale dependent time stepping and time step control, are presented. Numerous numerical examples in one, two and three space dimensions validate the adaptive schemes and illustrate the accuracy and the gain in computational efficiency in terms of CPU time and memory requirements. Another aspect, modeling of turbulent flows using multiresolution decompositions, the so-called Coherent Vortex Simulation approach is also described and examples are given for computations of three-dimensional weakly compressible mixing layers. Most of the material concerning applications to PDEs is assembled and adapted from previous publications [27, 31, 32, 34, 67, 69].

  1. Location predicting methods for UAVs (United States)

    Peng, Xiaodong; Zhang, Yu


    Location prediction of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is important for fighting with its enemy and ensuring its normal operation. This paper presents the motion model of UAVs and reduces the state space into 7 dimensions. The Bayesian Network, Markov Chain, Curve Fitting and Neural Network are introduced for designing predicting methods. Then Curve Fitting Predicting method, Markov Chain Predicting method, Bayesian Network Predicting method and Neural Network Predicting method are designed for UAVs. The simulation result shows that 1) Neural Network Predicting method has highest predicting accuracy; 2) Markov Chain Predicting method and Bayesian Network Predicting method methods have similar performance and both are better than Bayesian Network Predicting method methods; 3) Neural Network Predicting method is the first choice when predicting the locations of UAVs.

  2. Characterization Methods of Encapsulates (United States)

    Zhang, Zhibing; Law, Daniel; Lian, Guoping

    , reliable methods which can be used to characterize these properties of encapsulates are vital. In this chapter, the state-of-art of these methods, their principles and applications, and release mechanisms are described as follows.

  3. Business Research Method - A Review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    S A Chintaman


    ..., various designs of observation studies, the communication approach in data collection, errors in communication research, methods to be chosen for communication method, experimentation-its uses for research...

  4. Methods and Technologies Branch (MTB) (United States)

    The Methods and Technologies Branch focuses on methods to address epidemiologic data collection, study design and analysis, and to modify technological approaches to better understand cancer susceptibility.

  5. Role of empirical methods (United States)

    Sternfeld, H.


    There are different levels of helicopter noise prediction which may be appropriate at various stages in the design process. In the early preliminary design stages, when available information is usually limited to parameters such as gross weight, tip speed, forward speed, rotor radius, and possibly number of blades, one is limited to purely empirically based methodology. As the design progresses, and airfoil blade planforms and twists are defined, predictions of airloads, vortex paths, and compressibility effects may permit application of more analytically based sound pressure level prediction methods. At the present stage of development of first principle prediction methodology, however, the designer may still find it necessary to supplement such analyses with modifications based on empirical experience. Various causes and parameters of helicopter noise were identified and discussed from the standpoint of prediction. Rotational noise, blade-vortex interaction noise, thickness noise, broadband noise, and flyover noise were considered. A modular computer program for helicopter noise prediction (HELNOP) was described briefly. Wind tunnel models as useful tools in predicting full scale helicopter noise were also discussed.

  6. Bismuth generator method (United States)

    Bray, L.A.; DesChane, J.R.


    A method is described for separating {sup 213}Bi from a solution of radionuclides wherein the solution contains a concentration of the chloride ions and hydrogen ions adjusted to allow the formation of a chloride complex. The solution is then brought into contact with an anion exchange resin, whereupon {sup 213}Bi is absorbed from the solution and adhered onto the anion exchange resin in the chloride complex. Other non-absorbing radionuclides such as {sup 225}Ra, {sup 225}Ac, and {sup 221}Fr, along with HCl are removed from the anion exchange resin with a scrub solution. The {sup 213}Bi is removed from the anion exchange resin by washing the anion exchange resin with a stripping solution free of chloride ions and with a reduced hydrogen ion concentration which breaks the chloride anionic complex, releasing the {sup 213}Bi as a cation. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the anion exchange resin is provided as a thin membrane, allowing for extremely rapid adherence and stripping of the {sup 213}Bi. A preferred stripping solution for purification of {sup 213}Bi for use in medical applications includes sodium acetate, pH 5.5. A protein conjugated with bifunctional chelating agents in vivo with the NaOAc receives the {sup 213}Bi as it is being released from the anion exchange resin. 10 figs.

  7. Method for biological purification (United States)

    Lucido, John A.; Keenan, Daniel; Premuzic, Eugene T.; Lin, Mow S.; Shelenkova, Ludmila


    An apparatus is disclosed for containing a microorganism culture in an active exponential growth and delivering a supply of microorganisms to an environment containing wastes for bio-augmenting the biodegradation of the wastes. The apparatus comprises a bioreactor and an operably connected controller. The bioreactor has a bioreactor chamber for containing a supply of microorganisms, a second chamber for containing a supply of water and inorganic nutrients, and a third chamber for containing a supply of organic nutrients. The bioreactor is operably connected to the controller in which a first pump is operably connected in fluid communication between the bioreactor chamber and the second chamber and third chamber, and a second pump is operably connected in fluid communication between the bioreactor chamber and the environment containing wastes to be biodegraded. The controller further includes a timer and regulator operably connected to the first and second pumps to effectively maintain the microorganisms in exponential growth in the bioreactor chamber and to deliver microorganisms to an environment to be treated. Also, disclosed is a method for bio-augmenting the biodegradation of wastes.

  8. Statistical methods for forecasting

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, Bovas


    The Wiley-Interscience Paperback Series consists of selected books that have been made more accessible to consumers in an effort to increase global appeal and general circulation. With these new unabridged softcover volumes, Wiley hopes to extend the lives of these works by making them available to future generations of statisticians, mathematicians, and scientists."This book, it must be said, lives up to the words on its advertising cover: ''Bridging the gap between introductory, descriptive approaches and highly advanced theoretical treatises, it provides a practical, intermediate level discussion of a variety of forecasting tools, and explains how they relate to one another, both in theory and practice.'' It does just that!"-Journal of the Royal Statistical Society"A well-written work that deals with statistical methods and models that can be used to produce short-term forecasts, this book has wide-ranging applications. It could be used in the context of a study of regression, forecasting, and time series ...

  9. Production Methods for Hyaluronan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen G. Boeriu


    Full Text Available Hyaluronan is a polysaccharide with multiple functions in the human body being involved in creating flexible and protective layers in tissues and in many signalling pathways during embryonic development, wound healing, inflammation, and cancer. Hyaluronan is an important component of active pharmaceutical ingredients for treatment of, for example, arthritis and osteoarthritis, and its commercial value far exceeds that of other microbial extracellular polysaccharides. Traditionally hyaluronan is extracted from animal waste which is a well-established process now. However, biotechnological synthesis of biopolymers provides a wealth of new possibilities. Therefore, genetic/metabolic engineering has been applied in the area of tailor-made hyaluronan synthesis. Another approach is the controlled artificial (in vitro synthesis of hyaluronan by enzymes. Advantage of using microbial and enzymatic synthesis for hyaluronan production is the simpler downstream processing and a reduced risk of viral contamination. In this paper an overview of the different methods used to produce hyaluronan is presented. Emphasis is on the advancements made in the field of the synthesis of bioengineered hyaluronan.

  10. Desulfurization apparatus and method (United States)

    Rong, Charles; Jiang, Rongzhong; Chu, Deryn


    A method and system for desulfurization comprising first and second metal oxides; a walled enclosure having an inlet and an exhaust for the passage of gas to be treated; the first and second metal oxide being combinable with hydrogen sulfide to produce a reaction comprising a sulfide and water; the first metal oxide forming a first layer and the second metal oxide forming a second layer within the walled surroundings; the first and second layers being positioned so the first layer removes the bulk amount of the hydrogen sulfide from the treated gas prior to passage through the second layer, and the second layer removes substantially all of the remaining hydrogen sulfide from the treated gas; the first metal oxide producing a stoichiometrical capacity in excess of 500 mg sulfur/gram; the second metal oxide reacts with the hydrogen sulfide more favorably but has a stoichometrical capacity which is less than the first reactant; whereby the optimal amount by weight of the first and second metal oxides is achieved by utilizing two to three units by weight of the first metal oxide for every unit of the second metal oxide.

  11. Conference on Logical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Remmel, Jeffrey; Shore, Richard; Sweedler, Moss; Progress in Computer Science and Applied Logic


    The twenty-six papers in this volume reflect the wide and still expanding range of Anil Nerode's work. A conference on Logical Methods was held in honor of Nerode's sixtieth birthday (4 June 1992) at the Mathematical Sciences Institute, Cornell University, 1-3 June 1992. Some of the conference papers are here, but others are from students, co-workers and other colleagues. The intention of the conference was to look forward, and to see the directions currently being pursued, in the development of work by, or with, Nerode. Here is a brief summary of the contents of this book. We give a retrospective view of Nerode's work. A number of specific areas are readily discerned: recursive equivalence types, recursive algebra and model theory, the theory of Turing degrees and r.e. sets, polynomial-time computability and computer science. Nerode began with automata theory and has also taken a keen interest in the history of mathematics. All these areas are represented. The one area missing is Nerode's applied mathematica...

  12. Imaging unsteady three-dimensional transport phenomena

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jan 5, 2014 ... interferometry, schlieren imaging, and shadowgraph. Images recorded in these configurations can be analysed to yield time sequences of three-dimensional distributions of the transported variables. Optical methods are non-intrusive, inertia-free and can image cross-sections of the experimental apparatus.

  13. Image processing of vaporizing GDI sprays: a new curvature-based approach (United States)

    Lazzaro, Maurizio; Ianniello, Roberto


    This article introduces an innovative method for the segmentation of Mie-scattering and schlieren images of GDI sprays. The contours of the liquid phase are obtained by segmenting the scattering images of the spray by means of optimal filtering of the image, relying on variational methods, and an original thresholding procedure based on an iterative application of Otsu’s method. The segmentation of schlieren images, to get the contours of the spray vapour phase, is obtained by exploiting the surface curvature of the image to strongly enhance the intensity texture due to the vapour density gradients. This approach allows one to unambiguously discern the whole vapour phase of the spray from the background. Additional information about the spray liquid phase can be obtained by thresholding filtered schlieren images. The potential of this method has been substantiated in the segmentation of schlieren and scattering images of a GDI spray of isooctane. The fuel, heated to 363 K, was injected into nitrogen at a density of 1.12 and 3.5 kg m‑3 with temperatures of 333 K and 573 K.

  14. A method cache for Patmos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degasperi, Philipp; Hepp, Stefan; Puffitsch, Wolfgang


    For real-time systems we need time-predictable processors. This paper presents a method cache as a time-predictable solution for instruction caching. The method cache caches whole methods (or functions) and simplifies worst-case execution time analysis. We have integrated the method cache...

  15. Hydrogen storage methods (United States)

    Züttel, Andreas

    Hydrogen exhibits the highest heating value per mass of all chemical fuels. Furthermore, hydrogen is regenerative and environmentally friendly. There are two reasons why hydrogen is not the major fuel of today's energy consumption. First of all, hydrogen is just an energy carrier. And, although it is the most abundant element in the universe, it has to be produced, since on earth it only occurs in the form of water and hydrocarbons. This implies that we have to pay for the energy, which results in a difficult economic dilemma because ever since the industrial revolution we have become used to consuming energy for free. The second difficulty with hydrogen as an energy carrier is its low critical temperature of 33 K (i.e. hydrogen is a gas at ambient temperature). For mobile and in many cases also for stationary applications the volumetric and gravimetric density of hydrogen in a storage material is crucial. Hydrogen can be stored using six different methods and phenomena: (1) high-pressure gas cylinders (up to 800 bar), (2) liquid hydrogen in cryogenic tanks (at 21 K), (3) adsorbed hydrogen on materials with a large specific surface area (at Tchemically bonded in covalent and ionic compounds (at ambient pressure), or (6) through oxidation of reactive metals, e.g. Li, Na, Mg, Al, Zn with water. The most common storage systems are high-pressure gas cylinders with a maximum pressure of 20 MPa (200 bar). New lightweight composite cylinders have been developed which are able to withstand pressures up to 80 MPa (800 bar) and therefore the hydrogen gas can reach a volumetric density of 36 kg.m-3, approximately half as much as in its liquid state. Liquid hydrogen is stored in cryogenic tanks at 21.2 K and ambient pressure. Due to the low critical temperature of hydrogen (33 K), liquid hydrogen can only be stored in open systems. The volumetric density of liquid hydrogen is 70.8 kg.m-3, and large volumes, where the thermal losses are small, can cause hydrogen to reach a

  16. Research of speech recognition methods


    Prokopovič, Valerij


    Two speech recognition methods: Dynamic Time Warping and Hidden Markov model based methods were investigated in this work To estimate efficiency of the methods, speaker dependent and speaker independent isolated word recognition experiments were performed. During experimental research it was determined that Dynamic Time Warping method is suitable only for speaker dependent speech recognition. Hidden Markov model based method is suitable for both – speaker dependent and speaker independent spe...

  17. Method Points: towards a metric for method complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham McLeod


    Full Text Available A metric for method complexity is proposed as an aid to choosing between competing methods, as well as in validating the effects of method integration or the products of method engineering work. It is based upon a generic method representation model previously developed by the author and adaptation of concepts used in the popular Function Point metric for system size. The proposed technique is illustrated by comparing two popular I.E. deliverables with counterparts in the object oriented Unified Modeling Language (UML. The paper recommends ways to improve the practical adoption of new methods.

  18. Methods in Computational Cosmology (United States)

    Vakili, Mohammadjavad

    State of the inhomogeneous universe and its geometry throughout cosmic history can be studied by measuring the clustering of galaxies and the gravitational lensing of distant faint galaxies. Lensing and clustering measurements from large datasets provided by modern galaxy surveys will forever shape our understanding of the how the universe expands and how the structures grow. Interpretation of these rich datasets requires careful characterization of uncertainties at different stages of data analysis: estimation of the signal, estimation of the signal uncertainties, model predictions, and connecting the model to the signal through probabilistic means. In this thesis, we attempt to address some aspects of these challenges. The first step in cosmological weak lensing analyses is accurate estimation of the distortion of the light profiles of galaxies by large scale structure. These small distortions, known as the cosmic shear signal, are dominated by extra distortions due to telescope optics and atmosphere (in the case of ground-based imaging). This effect is captured by a kernel known as the Point Spread Function (PSF) that needs to be fully estimated and corrected for. We address two challenges a head of accurate PSF modeling for weak lensing studies. The first challenge is finding the centers of point sources that are used for empirical estimation of the PSF. We show that the approximate methods for centroiding stars in wide surveys are able to optimally saturate the information content that is retrievable from astronomical images in the presence of noise. The fist step in weak lensing studies is estimating the shear signal by accurately measuring the shapes of galaxies. Galaxy shape measurement involves modeling the light profile of galaxies convolved with the light profile of the PSF. Detectors of many space-based telescopes such as the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) sample the PSF with low resolution. Reliable weak lensing analysis of galaxies observed by the HST

  19. Dianhydrides, polyimides, methods of making each, and methods of use

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Xiaohua


    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for an aromatic dianhydride, a method of making an aromatic dianhydride, an aromatic dianhydride-based polyimide, a method of making an aromatic dianhydride-based polyimide, and the like.

  20. John Butcher and hybrid methods (United States)

    Mehdiyeva, Galina; Imanova, Mehriban; Ibrahimov, Vagif


    As is known there are the mainly two classes of the numerical methods for solving ODE, which is commonly called a one and multistep methods. Each of these methods has certain advantages and disadvantages. It is obvious that the method which has better properties of these methods should be constructed at the junction of them. In the middle of the XX century, Butcher and Gear has constructed at the junction of the methods of Runge-Kutta and Adams, which is called hybrid method. Here considers the construction of certain generalizations of hybrid methods, with the high order of accuracy and to explore their application to solving the Ordinary Differential, Volterra Integral and Integro-Differential equations. Also have constructed some specific hybrid methods with the degree p ≤ 10.

  1. The Value of Mixed Methods Research: A Mixed Methods Study (United States)

    McKim, Courtney A.


    The purpose of this explanatory mixed methods study was to examine the perceived value of mixed methods research for graduate students. The quantitative phase was an experiment examining the effect of a passage's methodology on students' perceived value. Results indicated students scored the mixed methods passage as more valuable than those who…

  2. Catalysts, methods of making catalysts, and methods of use

    KAUST Repository

    Renard, Laetitia


    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for catalysts, methods of making catalysts, methods of using catalysts, and the like. In an embodiment, the method of making the catalysts can be performed in a single step with a metal nanoparticle precursor and a metal oxide precursor, where a separate stabilizing agent is not needed.

  3. Lectures on Monte Carlo methods

    CERN Document Server

    Madras, Neal


    Monte Carlo methods form an experimental branch of mathematics that employs simulations driven by random number generators. These methods are often used when others fail, since they are much less sensitive to the "curse of dimensionality", which plagues deterministic methods in problems with a large number of variables. Monte Carlo methods are used in many fields: mathematics, statistics, physics, chemistry, finance, computer science, and biology, for instance. This book is an introduction to Monte Carlo methods for anyone who would like to use these methods to study various kinds of mathemati

  4. Numerical Methods for Stochastic Computations A Spectral Method Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Xiu, Dongbin


    The first graduate-level textbook to focus on fundamental aspects of numerical methods for stochastic computations, this book describes the class of numerical methods based on generalized polynomial chaos (gPC). These fast, efficient, and accurate methods are an extension of the classical spectral methods of high-dimensional random spaces. Designed to simulate complex systems subject to random inputs, these methods are widely used in many areas of computer science and engineering. The book introduces polynomial approximation theory and probability theory; describes the basic theory of gPC meth

  5. [Physical methods and molecular biology]. (United States)

    Serdiuk, I N


    The review is devoted to the description of the current state of physical and chemical methods used for studying the structural and functional bases of living processes. Special attention is focused on the physical methods that have opened a new page in the research of the structure of biological macromolecules. They include primarily the methods of detecting and manipulating single molecules using optical and magnetic traps. New physical methods, such as two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and magnetic resonance microscopy are also analyzed briefly in the review. The path that physics and biology have passed for the latest 55 years shows that there is no single method providing all necessary information on macromolecules and their interactions. Each method provides its space-time view of the system. All physical methods are complementary. It is just complementarity that is the fundamental idea justifying the existence in practice of all physical methods, whose description is the aim of the review.

  6. Comparison of Artificial Compressibility Methods (United States)

    Kiris, Cetin; Housman, Jeffrey; Kwak, Dochan


    Various artificial compressibility methods for calculating the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are compared. Each method is described and numerical solutions to test problems are conducted. A comparison based on convergence behavior, accuracy, and robustness is given.

  7. Operator theory and numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Fujita, H; Suzuki, T


    In accordance with the developments in computation, theoretical studies on numerical schemes are now fruitful and highly needed. In 1991 an article on the finite element method applied to evolutionary problems was published. Following the method, basically this book studies various schemes from operator theoretical points of view. Many parts are devoted to the finite element method, but other schemes and problems (charge simulation method, domain decomposition method, nonlinear problems, and so forth) are also discussed, motivated by the observation that practically useful schemes have fine mathematical structures and the converses are also true. This book has the following chapters: 1. Boundary Value Problems and FEM. 2. Semigroup Theory and FEM. 3. Evolution Equations and FEM. 4. Other Methods in Time Discretization. 5. Other Methods in Space Discretization. 6. Nonlinear Problems. 7. Domain Decomposition Method.

  8. Mixed methods research for TESOL

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, James; Farr, Fiona


    Defining and discussing the relevance of theoretical and practical issues involved in mixed methods research. Covering the basics of research methodology, this textbook shows you how to choose and combine quantitative and qualitative research methods to b

  9. Statistical methods for quality improvement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ryan, Thomas P


    ...."-TechnometricsThis new edition continues to provide the most current, proven statistical methods for quality control and quality improvementThe use of quantitative methods offers numerous benefits...

  10. Explorative methods in linear models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høskuldsson, Agnar


    The author has developed the H-method of mathematical modeling that builds up the model by parts, where each part is optimized with respect to prediction. Besides providing with better predictions than traditional methods, these methods provide with graphic procedures for analyzing different feat...... features in data. These graphic methods extend the well-known methods and results of Principal Component Analysis to any linear model. Here the graphic procedures are applied to linear regression and Ridge Regression.......The author has developed the H-method of mathematical modeling that builds up the model by parts, where each part is optimized with respect to prediction. Besides providing with better predictions than traditional methods, these methods provide with graphic procedures for analyzing different...

  11. International Conference eXtended Discretization MethodS

    CERN Document Server

    Benvenuti, Elena


    This book gathers selected contributions on emerging research work presented at the International Conference eXtended Discretization MethodS (X-DMS), held in Ferrara in September 2015. It highlights the most relevant advances made at the international level in the context of expanding classical discretization methods, like finite elements, to the numerical analysis of a variety of physical problems. The improvements are intended to achieve higher computational efficiency and to account for special features of the solution directly in the approximation space and/or in the discretization procedure. The methods described include, among others, partition of unity methods (meshfree, XFEM, GFEM), virtual element methods, fictitious domain methods, and special techniques for static and evolving interfaces. The uniting feature of all contributions is the direct link between computational methodologies and their application to different engineering areas.

  12. The Hertz's Method of Superpotential (United States)

    Bleyer, U.; Treder, H.-J.

    The Method of HERTZ consists in the solution of the electromagnetic field equations by the help of a superpotential. We analyse the applicability of this method to more general field equations.Translated AbstractDie Hertzsche Methode der SuperpotentialeGemäß HERTZ können die Feldgleichungen der Elektrodynamik mit Hilfe eines Superpotentials gelöst werden. Wir untersuchen im folgenden die Anwendbarkeit dieser Methode auf allgemeinere Feldgleichungen.

  13. Greener Methods for Aspirin Synthesis


    Barilone, Jessica


    In this semester long study, I used microwave irradiation to synthesize aspirin. I compared this method to a traditional method that utilizes a strong acid. I compared the percent yield and the purity of the methods to pure aspirin. 

  14. Activity based costing (ABC Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Ph.D. Saveta Tudorache


    Full Text Available In the present paper the need and advantages are presented of using the Activity BasedCosting method, need arising from the need of solving the information pertinence issue. This issue has occurreddue to the limitation of classic methods in this field, limitation also reflected by the disadvantages ofsuch classic methods in establishing complete costs.

  15. Methods of analyzing crude oil (United States)

    Cooks, Robert Graham; Jjunju, Fred Paul Mark; Li, Anyin; Rogan, Iman S.


    The invention generally relates to methods of analyzing crude oil. In certain embodiments, methods of the invention involve obtaining a crude oil sample, and subjecting the crude oil sample to mass spectrometry analysis. In certain embodiments, the method is performed without any sample pre-purification steps.

  16. Activity based costing (ABC Method)


    Prof. Ph.D. Saveta Tudorache; University Lecturer Anca Bratu


    In the present paper the need and advantages are presented of using the Activity Based Costing method, need arising from the need of solving the information pertinence issue. This issue has occurred due to the limitation of classic methods in this field, limitation also reflected by the disadvantages of such classic methods in establishing complete costs.

  17. The nonconforming virtual element method


    de Dios, B. Ayuso; Lipnikov, K.; Manzini, G


    We introduce the nonconforming Virtual Element Method (VEM) for the approximation of second order elliptic problems. We present the construction of the new element in two and three dimensions, highlighting the main differences with the conforming VEM and the classical nonconforming finite element methods. We provide the error analysis and establish the equivalence with a family of mimetic finite difference methods.

  18. Chemical control methods and tools (United States)

    Steven Manning; James. Miller


    After determining the best course of action for control of an invasive plant population, it is important to understand the variety of methods available to the integrated pest management professional. A variety of methods are now widely used in managing invasive plants in natural areas, including chemical, mechanical, and cultural control methods. Once the preferred...

  19. Extraction Methods, Variability Encountered in

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodelier, P.L.E.; Nelson, K.E.


    Synonyms Bias in DNA extractions methods; Variation in DNA extraction methods Definition The variability in extraction methods is defined as differences in quality and quantity of DNA observed using various extraction protocols, leading to differences in outcome of microbial community composition

  20. Improved method for coliform verification.


    Diehl, J D


    Modification of a method for coliform verification presented in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater is described. Modification of the method, which is based on beta-galactosidase production, involves incorporation of a lactose operon inducer in medium upon which presumptive coliform isolates are cultured prior to beta-galactosidase assay.

  1. Safety training for working youth: Methods used versus methods wanted. (United States)

    Zierold, Kristina M


    Safety training is promoted as a tool to prevent workplace injury; however, little is known about the safety training experiences young workers get on-the-job. Furthermore, nothing is known about what methods they think would be the most helpful for learning about safe work practices. To compare safety training methods teens get on the job to those safety training methods teens think would be the best for learning workplace safety, focusing on age differences. A cross-sectional survey was administered to students in two large high schools in spring 2011. Seventy percent of working youth received safety training. The top training methods that youth reported getting at work were safety videos (42%), safety lectures (25%), and safety posters/signs (22%). In comparison to the safety training methods used, the top methods youth wanted included videos (54%), hands-on (47%), and on-the-job demonstrations (34%). This study demonstrated that there were differences in training methods that youth wanted by age; with older youth seemingly wanting more independent methods of training and younger teens wanting more involvement. Results indicate that youth want methods of safety training that are different from what they are getting on the job. The differences in methods wanted by age may aid in developing training programs appropriate for the developmental level of working youth.

  2. Factorization method of quadratic template (United States)

    Kotyrba, Martin


    Multiplication of two numbers is a one-way function in mathematics. Any attempt to distribute the outcome to its roots is called factorization. There are many methods such as Fermat's factorization, Dixońs method or quadratic sieve and GNFS, which use sophisticated techniques fast factorization. All the above methods use the same basic formula differing only in its use. This article discusses a newly designed factorization method. Effective implementation of this method in programs is not important, it only represents and clearly defines its properties.

  3. Excitation Methods for Bridge Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, C.R.; Duffy, T.A.; Cornwell, P.J.; Doebling, S.W.


    This paper summarizes the various methods that have been used to excited bridge structures during dynamic testing. The excitation methods fall into the general categories of ambient excitation methods and measured-input excitation methods. During ambient excitation the input to the bridge is not directly measured. In contrast, as the category label implies, measured-input excitations are usually applied at a single location where the force input to the structure can be monitored. Issues associated with using these various types of measurements are discussed along with a general description of the various excitation methods.

  4. Evaluation of modal testing methods (United States)

    Chen, J.-C.


    Modal tests are playing an increasingly important role in structural dynamics efforts which are in need of analytical model verification or trouble shootings. In the meantime, the existing modal testing methods are undergoing great changes as well as new methods are being created. Although devoted advocates of each method can be found to argue the relative advantages and disadvantages, the general superiority, if any, of one or the other is not yet evident. The Galileo spacecraft, a realistic, complex structural system, will be used as a test article for performing modal tests by various methods. The results will be used to evaluate the relative merits of the various modal testing methods.

  5. Overview of paint removal methods (United States)

    Foster, Terry


    With the introduction of strict environmental regulations governing the use and disposal of methylene chloride and phenols, major components of chemical paint strippers, there have been many new environmentally safe and effective methods of paint removal developed. The new methods developed for removing coatings from aircraft and aircraft components include: mechanical methods using abrasive media such as plastic, wheat starch, walnut shells, ice and dry ice, environmentally safe chemical strippers and paint softeners, and optical methods such as lasers and flash lamps. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages, and some have unique applications. For example, mechanical and abrasive methods can damage sensitive surfaces such as composite materials and strict control of blast parameters and conditions are required. Optical methods can be slow, leaving paint residues, and chemical methods may not remove all of the coating or require special coating formulations to be effective. As an introduction to environmentally safe and effective methods of paint removal, this paper is an overview of the various methods available. The purpose of this overview is to introduce the various paint removal methods available.

  6. The Plastic Tension Field Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas


    . The emphasis is attached to the presentation of a design method based on the diagonal tension field theory. Also, how to determine the load-carrying capacity of a given steel plate girder with transverse web stiffeners, is briefly presented. The load-carrying capacity may be predicted by applying both......This paper describes a calculation method for steel plate girders with transverse web stiffeners subjected to shear. It may be used for predicting the failure load or, as a design method, to determine the optimal amount of internal web stiffeners. The new method is called the plastic tension field...... method. The method is based on the theory of plasticity and is analogous to the so-called diagonal compression field method developed for reinforced concrete beams with transverse stirrups, which is adopted in the common European concrete code (Eurocode 2). Many other theories have been developed...

  7. Compositions, antibodies, asthma diagnosis methods, and methods for preparing antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Hongjun; Zangar, Richard C.


    Methods for preparing an antibody are provided with the method including incorporating 3-bromo-4-hydroxy-benzoic acid into a protein to form an antigen, immunizing a mammalian host with the antigen, and recovering an antibody having an affinity for the antigen from the host. Antibodies having a binding affinity for a monohalotyrosine are provided as well as composition comprising an antibody bound with monohalotyrosine. Compositions comprising a protein having a 3-bromo-4-hydroxy-benzoic acid moiety are also provided. Methods for evaluating the severity of asthma are provide with the methods including analyzing sputum of a patient using an antibody having a binding affinity for monohalotyrosine, and measuring the amount of antibody bound to protein. Methods for determining eosinophil activity in bodily fluid are also provided with the methods including exposing bodily fluid to an antibody having a binding affinity for monohalotyrosine, and measuring the amount of bound antibody to determine the eosinophil activity.

  8. A new automatic baseline correction method based on iterative method (United States)

    Bao, Qingjia; Feng, Jiwen; Chen, Fang; Mao, Wenping; Liu, Zao; Liu, Kewen; Liu, Chaoyang


    A new automatic baseline correction method for Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectra is presented. It is based on an improved baseline recognition method and a new iterative baseline modeling method. The presented baseline recognition method takes advantages of three baseline recognition algorithms in order to recognize all signals in spectra. While in the iterative baseline modeling method, besides the well-recognized baseline points in signal-free regions, the 'quasi-baseline points' in the signal-crowded regions are also identified and then utilized to improve robustness by preventing the negative regions. The experimental results on both simulated data and real metabolomics spectra with over-crowded peaks show the efficiency of this automatic method.

  9. User interface inspection methods a user-centered design method

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Chauncey


    User Interface Inspection Methods succinctly covers five inspection methods: heuristic evaluation, perspective-based user interface inspection, cognitive walkthrough, pluralistic walkthrough, and formal usability inspections. Heuristic evaluation is perhaps the best-known inspection method, requiring a group of evaluators to review a product against a set of general principles. The perspective-based user interface inspection is based on the principle that different perspectives will find different problems in a user interface. In the related persona-based inspection, colleagues assume the

  10. The Monte Carlo method the method of statistical trials

    CERN Document Server

    Shreider, YuA


    The Monte Carlo Method: The Method of Statistical Trials is a systematic account of the fundamental concepts and techniques of the Monte Carlo method, together with its range of applications. Some of these applications include the computation of definite integrals, neutron physics, and in the investigation of servicing processes. This volume is comprised of seven chapters and begins with an overview of the basic features of the Monte Carlo method and typical examples of its application to simple problems in computational mathematics. The next chapter examines the computation of multi-dimensio

  11. LC-MS/MS Method for Serum Creatinine: Comparison with Enzymatic Method and Jaffe Method. (United States)

    Ou, Meixian; Song, Yunxiao; Li, Shuijun; Liu, Gangyi; Jia, Jingying; Zhang, Menqi; Zhang, Haichen; Yu, Chen


    Accurate quantification of creatinine (Cre) is important to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Differences among various methods of Cre quantification were previously noted. This study aims to develop a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for serum Cre and compare this method with clinical routine methods. LC-MS/MS analysis was performed on API 4000 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer coupled with an Agilent 1200 liquid chromatography system. After adding isotope-labeled Cre-d3 as internal standard, serum samples were prepared via a one-step protein precipitation with methanol. The LC-MS/MS method was compared with frequently used enzymatic method and Jaffe method. This developed method, with a total run time of 3 min, had a lower limit of quantification of 4.4 μmol/L, a total imprecision of 1.15%-3.84%, and an average bias of 1.06%. No significant matrix effect, carryover, and interference were observed for the LC-MS/MS method. The reference intervals of serum Cre measured by LC-MS/MS assay were 41-79 μmol/L for adult women, and 46-101 μmol/L for adult men. Using LC-MS/MS as a reference, the enzymatic method showed an average bias of -2.1% and the Jaffe method showed a substantial average bias of 11.7%. Compared with the LC-MS/MS method, significant negative bias was observed for the enzymatic and Jaffe methods in hemolytic and lipimic samples. We developed a simple, specific, and accurate LC-MS/MS method to analyze serum Cre. Discordance existed among different methods.

  12. Shuttle onboard IMU alignment methods (United States)

    Henderson, D. M.


    The current approach to the shuttle IMU alignment is based solely on the Apollo Deterministic Method. This method is simple, fast, reliable and provides an accurate estimate for the present cluster to mean of 1,950 transformation matrix. If four or more star sightings are available, the application of least squares analysis can be utilized. The least squares method offers the next level of sophistication to the IMU alignment solution. The least squares method studied shows that a more accurate estimate for the misalignment angles is computed, and the IMU drift rates are a free by-product of the analysis. Core storage requirements are considerably more; estimated 20 to 30 times the core required for the Apollo Deterministic Method. The least squares method offers an intermediate solution utilizing as much data that is available without a complete statistical analysis as in Kalman filtering.

  13. Automated methods of corrosion measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Bech-Nielsen, Gregers; Reeve, John Ch


    Measurements of corrosion rates and other parameters connected with corrosion processes are important, first as indicators of the corrosion resistance of metallic materials and second because such measurements are based on general and fundamental physical, chemical, and electrochemical relations....... Hence improvements and innovations in methods applied in corrosion research are likeliy to benefit basic disciplines as well. A method for corrosion measurements can only provide reliable data if the beckground of the method is fully understood. Failure of a method to give correct data indicates a need...... to revise assumptions regarding the basis of the method, which sometimes leads to the discovery of as-yet unnoticed phenomena. The present selection of automated methods for corrosion measurements is not motivated simply by the fact that a certain measurement can be performed automatically. Automation...

  14. Monte Carlo methods for electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Sadiku, Matthew NO


    Until now, novices had to painstakingly dig through the literature to discover how to use Monte Carlo techniques for solving electromagnetic problems. Written by one of the foremost researchers in the field, Monte Carlo Methods for Electromagnetics provides a solid understanding of these methods and their applications in electromagnetic computation. Including much of his own work, the author brings together essential information from several different publications.Using a simple, clear writing style, the author begins with a historical background and review of electromagnetic theory. After addressing probability and statistics, he introduces the finite difference method as well as the fixed and floating random walk Monte Carlo methods. The text then applies the Exodus method to Laplace's and Poisson's equations and presents Monte Carlo techniques for handing Neumann problems. It also deals with whole field computation using the Markov chain, applies Monte Carlo methods to time-varying diffusion problems, and ...

  15. Microencapsulation and Electrostatic Processing Method (United States)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor); Mosier, Benjamin (Inventor)


    Methods are provided for forming spherical multilamellar microcapsules having alternating hydrophilic and hydrophobic liquid layers, surrounded by flexible, semi-permeable hydrophobic or hydrophilic outer membranes which can be tailored specifically to control the diffusion rate. The methods of the invention rely on low shear mixing and liquid-liquid diffusion process and are particularly well suited for forming microcapsules containing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs. These methods can be carried out in the absence of gravity and do not rely on density-driven phase separation, mechanical mixing or solvent evaporation phases. The methods include the process of forming, washing and filtering microcapsules. In addition, the methods contemplate coating microcapsules with ancillary coatings using an electrostatic field and free fluid electrophoresis of the microcapsules. The microcapsules produced by such methods are particularly useful in the delivery of pharmaceutical compositions.

  16. Understanding Creativity Methods in Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biskjaer, Michael Mose; Dalsgaard, Peter; Halskov, Kim


    This paper contributes an analytical framework to improve understanding of the composition of recognized creativity methods used in design. Based on an extensive literature review, our framework synthesizes key concepts from design and particularly creativity research, and is further supported...... by significant experience with creativity methods in design. We propose that nine concepts are relevant for analyzing creativity methods in design: process structure, materials, tools, combination, metaphor, analogy, framing, divergence, and convergence. To test their relevance as components of an analytical...... framework, we use these key concepts to analyze three recognized creativity methods that we have often used ourselves: Inspiration Card Workshops, Fictional Inquiry, and Extreme Characters. Our analytical framework expands current categorizations of methods and offers new insight into how creativity methods...

  17. The Doctrinal Method: Incorporating Interdisciplinary Methods in Reforming the Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Hutchinson (Terry)


    textabstractThe doctrinal methodology is in a period of change and transition. Realising that the scope of the doctrinal method is too constricting, academic lawyers are becoming eclectic in their use of research method. In this transitional time, legal scholars are increasingly infusing evidence

  18. Chebyshev and Fourier spectral methods

    CERN Document Server

    Boyd, John P


    Completely revised text focuses on use of spectral methods to solve boundary value, eigenvalue, and time-dependent problems, but also covers Hermite, Laguerre, rational Chebyshev, sinc, and spherical harmonic functions, as well as cardinal functions, linear eigenvalue problems, matrix-solving methods, coordinate transformations, methods for unbounded intervals, spherical and cylindrical geometry, and much more. 7 Appendices. Glossary. Bibliography. Index. Over 160 text figures.

  19. Mixed Method Research: An Overview


    Dewan Mahboob HOSSAIN


    This article gives a general overview of mixed method research. In mixed method, the researchers combine both qualitative and quantitative approaches in a single research project. The article first attempts to define mixed method research. Then it gives a comparison of qualitative and quantitative approaches. It also introduces the well-known controversy among the researchers: which of these approaches is superior? By explaining this controversy, the article identifies the need for mixed meth...

  20. Developing the Business Modelling Method


    Meertens, Lucas Onno; Iacob, Maria Eugenia; Nieuwenhuis, Lambertus Johannes Maria; Shishkov, B; Shishkov, Boris


    Currently, business modelling is an art, instead of a science, as no scientific method for business modelling exists. This, and the lack of using business models altogether, causes many projects to end after the pilot stage, unable to fulfil their apparent promise. We propose a structured method to create “as-is” business models in a repeatable manner. The method consists of the following steps: identify the involved roles, recognize relations among roles, specify the main activities, and qua...

  1. Qualitative methods in workplace learning


    Fabritius, Hannele


    Methods of learning in the workplace will be introduced. The methods are connect to competence development and to the process of conducting development discussions in a dialogical way. The tools developed and applied are a fourfold table, a cycle of work identity, a plan of personal development targets, a learning meeting and a learning map. The methods introduced will aim to better learning at work.

  2. Methods of forming CIGS films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansfield, Lorelle; Ramanathan, Kannan


    Methods for forming CIGS films are provided. According to an aspect of the invention, a method of forming a CIGS film includes a precursor step, which includes simultaneously evaporating Cu, In, Ga, Se, and Sb onto a substrate. The Se is incident on the substrate at a rate of at least 20 .ANG./s. The method also includes a selenization step, which includes evaporating Se over the substrate after the precursor step.

  3. A Voltage Quality Detection Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Wei, Mu


    This paper presents a voltage quality detection method based on a phase-locked loop (PLL) technique. The technique can detect the voltage magnitude and phase angle of each individual phase under both normal and fault power system conditions. The proposed method has the potential to evaluate various...... power quality disturbances, such as interruptions, sags and imbalances. Simulation studies have been performed. The effectiveness of the proposed method has been demonstrated under the simulated typical power disturbances....

  4. Regression methods for medical research

    CERN Document Server

    Tai, Bee Choo


    Regression Methods for Medical Research provides medical researchers with the skills they need to critically read and interpret research using more advanced statistical methods. The statistical requirements of interpreting and publishing in medical journals, together with rapid changes in science and technology, increasingly demands an understanding of more complex and sophisticated analytic procedures.The text explains the application of statistical models to a wide variety of practical medical investigative studies and clinical trials. Regression methods are used to appropriately answer the

  5. Local method for detecting communities (United States)

    Bagrow, James P.; Bollt, Erik M.


    We propose a method of community detection that is computationally inexpensive and possesses physical significance to a member of a social network. This method is unlike many divisive and agglomerative techniques and is local in the sense that a community can be detected within a network without requiring knowledge of the entire network. A global application of this method is also introduced. Several artificial and real-world networks, including the famous Zachary karate club, are analyzed.

  6. On-line survey method


    Dvornáková, Táňa


    Thesis deals with modern ways of surveys using advancing information technology and internet which makes surveys using web applications more effective. After a short review of public opinion history the summary of principal czech and forign survey organizations engaged in determination of survey rules are presented. Thesis follows with description of classic and modern data collecting methods. Main attention is devoted to on-line survey method. The description of method, possibilities of real...

  7. Improving the Modified Euler Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham OCHOCHE


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to propose an improved approximation technique for the computation of the numerical solutions of initial value problems (IVP. The method we have improved upon is the Modified Euler method. By the simple improvement we effected we were able to obtain a much better performance by our Improved Modified Euler (IME method which was shown to also be of order two.

  8. Modern Methods of Rail Welding (United States)

    Kozyrev, Nikolay A.; Kozyreva, Olga A.; Usoltsev, Aleksander A.; Kryukov, Roman E.; Shevchenko, Roman A.


    Existing methods of rail welding, which are enable to get continuous welded rail track, are observed in this article. Analysis of existing welding methods allows considering an issue of continuous rail track in detail. Metallurgical and welding technologies of rail welding and also process technologies reducing aftereffects of temperature exposure are important factors determining the quality and reliability of the continuous rail track. Analysis of the existing methods of rail welding enable to find the research line for solving this problem.

  9. Reflexive Learning through Visual Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth


    What. This chapter concerns how visual methods and visual materials can support visually oriented, collaborative, and creative learning processes in education. The focus is on facilitation (guiding, teaching) with visual methods in learning processes that are designerly or involve design. Visual...... methods are exemplified through two university classroom cases about collaborative idea generation processes. The visual methods and materials in the cases are photo elicitation using photo cards, and modeling with LEGO Serious Play sets. Why. The goal is to encourage the reader, whether student...

  10. System Approach in RIPRAN Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Lacko


    Full Text Available The article describes reasons, principles for design, structure and using of RIPRAN method (Risk Project Analysis for risk project analysis. The RIPRAN method is used to identify, quantify risks, and design proposals that reduce risk in the project to increase the likelihood of successful completion of the project. The method uses a system and process approach to risk analysis and respects international ISO standards that recommend how to perform a high‑quality risk analysis of the project. The method has been incorporated into the national standard of the Czech Republic among the recommended knowledge for certified project managers. The third version of the method is available. The method is included in teaching at many universities in the Czech Republic, trained by a number of training firms and used by firms to analyse the risks of corporate projects or by various risk analysis institutions for projects funded by the EU structural funds. The aim of the article is to inform about the RIPRAN method. At the same time, the paper points out that the method describes the procedure for risk analysis of the project and presents the benefits of RIPRAN application. The description of a system approach application when designing the RIPRAN method serves as an example of a system approach to risk engineering.

  11. Chemical methods of rock analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jeffery, P. G; Hutchison, D


    .... Such methods include those based upon spectrophotometry, flame emission spectrometry and atomic absorption spectroscopy, as well as gravimetry, titrimetry and the use of ion-selective electrodes...

  12. Optimization of Medical Teaching Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Fei


    Full Text Available In order to achieve the goal of medical education, medicine and adapt to changes in the way doctors work, with the rapid medical teaching methods of modern science and technology must be reformed. Based on the current status of teaching in medical colleges method to analyze the formation and development of medical teaching methods, characteristics, about how to achieve optimal medical teaching methods for medical education teachers and management workers comprehensive and thorough change teaching ideas and teaching concepts provide a theoretical basis.

  13. Methods of making microfluidic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Buttner, Ulrich


    Microfluidics has advanced in terms of designs and structures, however, fabrication methods are either time consuming or expensive to produce, in terms of the facilities and equipment needed. A fast and economically viable method is provided to allow, for example, research groups to have access to microfluidic fabrication. Unlike most fabrication methods, a method is provided to fabricate a microfluidic device in one step. In an embodiment, a resolution of 50 micrometers was achieved by using maskless high-resolution digital light projection (MDLP). Bonding and channel fabrication of complex or simple structures can be rapidly incorporated to fabricate the microfluidic devices.

  14. Method choice involves many factors. (United States)

    Finger, W R


    The age and health of a client, the willingness of the client's partners to participate in family planning, sexual behaviors of both partners, and a careful review of the risks and benefits of each available contraceptive method determine a client's choice of contraceptive method. Providers must have the most current scientific information on health risks and benefits of contraceptive methods and must understand how most clients perceive those risks and benefits. Most people do not take into account the small risk of death associated with any contraceptive method when making a contraceptive method choice. Providers must help each client to choose a method that is safe and that he/she can use without fear. They should address myths and ease fears even if the client does not mention such myths. Physicians' views of contraceptive methods influence family planning acceptance and use. Physicians play a contributing role in the development of national policies and delivery guidelines, educational and training curricula, and management practices. They maintain misperceptions about risks and attitudes that limit the availability of some methods, especially long acting methods, thus limiting the public's choice of methods. For example, bias against IUD use among providers is the leading reason IUD use is falling in Kenya. Providers need to be trained to counsel clients about contraceptive options, not towards specific methods. Proper counseling should result in improved continuation rates. Counseling needs to go beyond just addressing contraceptive side effects and proper use; it needs to address cultural effects of side effects (e.g., irregular bleeding), gender issues, and fears (e.g., OCs cause cancer).

  15. Color image definition evaluation method based on deep learning method (United States)

    Liu, Di; Li, YingChun


    In order to evaluate different blurring levels of color image and improve the method of image definition evaluation, this paper proposed a method based on the depth learning framework and BP neural network classification model, and presents a non-reference color image clarity evaluation method. Firstly, using VGG16 net as the feature extractor to extract 4,096 dimensions features of the images, then the extracted features and labeled images are employed in BP neural network to train. And finally achieve the color image definition evaluation. The method in this paper are experimented by using images from the CSIQ database. The images are blurred at different levels. There are 4,000 images after the processing. Dividing the 4,000 images into three categories, each category represents a blur level. 300 out of 400 high-dimensional features are trained in VGG16 net and BP neural network, and the rest of 100 samples are tested. The experimental results show that the method can take full advantage of the learning and characterization capability of deep learning. Referring to the current shortcomings of the major existing image clarity evaluation methods, which manually design and extract features. The method in this paper can extract the images features automatically, and has got excellent image quality classification accuracy for the test data set. The accuracy rate is 96%. Moreover, the predicted quality levels of original color images are similar to the perception of the human visual system.

  16. Neonatal blood gas sampling methods

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood gas sampling is part of everyday practice in the care of babies admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit, particularly for those receiving respiratory support. There is little published guidance that systematically evaluates the different methods of neonatal blood gas sampling, where each method has its individual ...

  17. Effectiveness of Family Planning Methods (United States)

    ... 12 % How to make your method most effective After procedure, little or nothing to do or remember. Vasectomy and hysteroscopic sterilization: Use another method for first 3 months. Injectable: Get repeat injections on time. Pills: Take a pill each day. Patch, Ring: Keep in place, change on time. ...

  18. Matrix Methods to Analytic Geometry. (United States)

    Bandy, C.


    The use of basis matrix methods to rotate axes is detailed. It is felt that persons who have need to rotate axes often will find that the matrix method saves considerable work. One drawback is that most students first learning to rotate axes will not yet have studied linear algebra. (MP)

  19. Developing the Business Modelling Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meertens, Lucas Onno; Iacob, Maria Eugenia; Nieuwenhuis, Lambertus Johannes Maria; Shishkov, B; Shishkov, Boris


    Currently, business modelling is an art, instead of a science, as no scientific method for business modelling exists. This, and the lack of using business models altogether, causes many projects to end after the pilot stage, unable to fulfil their apparent promise. We propose a structured method to

  20. Methods of Teaching Speech Recognition (United States)

    Rader, Martha H.; Bailey, Glenn A.


    Objective: This article introduces the history and development of speech recognition, addresses its role in the business curriculum, outlines related national and state standards, describes instructional strategies, and discusses the assessment of student achievement in speech recognition classes. Methods: Research methods included a synthesis of…

  1. Forecasting Using Random Subspace Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Boot (Tom); D. Nibbering (Didier)


    textabstractRandom subspace methods are a novel approach to obtain accurate forecasts in high-dimensional regression settings. We provide a theoretical justification of the use of random subspace methods and show their usefulness when forecasting monthly macroeconomic variables. We focus on two

  2. Personalization Methods for Internet Portals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Dębska


    Full Text Available The article presents methods of acquiring and gathering data about users of internet portals, with particular emphasis on educational portals. Definitions, aims and tasks related to the process of personalization of e-learning portals are thoroughly discussed. So are knowledge acquisition techniques applied in personalization, especially artificial intelligence methods.

  3. Preparation methods of alginate nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paques, J.P.; Linden, van der E.; Rijn, van C.J.M.; Sagis, L.M.C.


    This article reviews available methods for the formation of alginate nano-aggregates, nanocapsules and nanospheres. Primarily, alginate nanoparticles are being prepared by two methods. In the “complexation method”, complex formation on the interface of an oil droplet is used to form alginate

  4. Sometimes "Newton's Method" Always "Cycles" (United States)

    Latulippe, Joe; Switkes, Jennifer


    Are there functions for which Newton's method cycles for all non-trivial initial guesses? We construct and solve a differential equation whose solution is a real-valued function that two-cycles under Newton iteration. Higher-order cycles of Newton's method iterates are explored in the complex plane using complex powers of "x." We find a class of…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple, rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of iodate (IO3-) in table salt and sea water. The proposed method is based on the reaction of iodate with potassium iodide in an acid medium to liberate iodine. The liberated iodine bleaches the blue color of methylene blue ...

  6. Numerical Methods in Fluid Dynamics. (United States)

    treatment of time-dependent three-dimensional flows; Un example de modele mathematique complexe en mecanique des fluides ....des equations de Navier-Stokes des fluides visqueux incompressibles; Numerical solution of steady state Navier-Stokes equations; Numerical solution of...dynamics; Application of finite elements methods in fluid dynamics; Computational methods for inviscid transonic flows with inbedded shock waves; Numerical

  7. Methods in Logic Based Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Georg Kronborg


    Desing and theory of Logic Based Control systems.Boolean Algebra, Karnaugh Map, Quine McClusky's algorithm. Sequential control design. Logic Based Control Method, Cascade Control Method. Implementation techniques: relay, pneumatic, TTL/CMOS,PAL and PLC- and Soft_PLC implementation. PLC...

  8. Electrochemical method for transferring graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present application discloses a method for separating a graphene-support layer laminate from a conducting substrate-graphene-support layer laminate, using a gentle, controllable electrochemical method. In this way, substrates which are fragile, expensive or difficult to manufacture can be used...... - and even re-used - without damage or destruction of the substrate or the graphene....

  9. Local theory of extrapolation methods (United States)

    Kulikov, Gennady


    In this paper we discuss the theory of one-step extrapolation methods applied both to ordinary differential equations and to index 1 semi-explicit differential-algebraic systems. The theoretical background of this numerical technique is the asymptotic global error expansion of numerical solutions obtained from general one-step methods. It was discovered independently by Henrici, Gragg and Stetter in 1962, 1964 and 1965, respectively. This expansion is also used in most global error estimation strategies as well. However, the asymptotic expansion of the global error of one-step methods is difficult to observe in practice. Therefore we give another substantiation of extrapolation technique that is based on the usual local error expansion in a Taylor series. We show that the Richardson extrapolation can be utilized successfully to explain how extrapolation methods perform. Additionally, we prove that the Aitken-Neville algorithm works for any one-step method of an arbitrary order s, under suitable smoothness.

  10. Transformation method and wave control (United States)

    Chang, Zheng; Hu, Jin; Hu, Geng-Kai


    Transformation method provides an efficient way to control wave propagation by materials. The transformed relations for field and material during a transformation are essential to fulfill this method. We propose a systematic method to derive the transformed relations for a general physic process, the constraint conditions are obtained by considering geometrical and physical constraint during a mapping. The proposed method is applied to Navier's equation for elastodynamics, Helmholtz's equation for acoustic wave and Maxwell's equation for electromagnetic wave, the corresponding transformed relations are derived, which can be used in the framework of transformation method for wave control. We show that contrary to electromagnetic wave, the transformed relations are not uniquely determined for elastic wave and acoustic wave, so we have a freedom to choose them differently. Using the obtained transformed relations, we also provide some examples for device design, a concentrator for elastic wave, devices for illusion acoustic and illusion optics are conceived and validated by numerical simulations.

  11. Approximation methods in probability theory

    CERN Document Server

    Čekanavičius, Vydas


    This book presents a wide range of well-known and less common methods used for estimating the accuracy of probabilistic approximations, including the Esseen type inversion formulas, the Stein method as well as the methods of convolutions and triangle function. Emphasising the correct usage of the methods presented, each step required for the proofs is examined in detail. As a result, this textbook provides valuable tools for proving approximation theorems. While Approximation Methods in Probability Theory will appeal to everyone interested in limit theorems of probability theory, the book is particularly aimed at graduate students who have completed a standard intermediate course in probability theory. Furthermore, experienced researchers wanting to enlarge their toolkit will also find this book useful.

  12. Analytic methods for cosmological likelihoods (United States)

    Taylor, A. N.; Kitching, T. D.


    We present general, analytic methods for cosmological likelihood analysis and solve the `many parameters' problem in cosmology. Maxima are found by Newton's method, while marginalization over nuisance parameters, and parameter errors and covariances are estimated by analytic marginalization of an arbitrary likelihood function, expanding the log-likelihood to second order, with flat or Gaussian priors. We show that information about remaining parameters is preserved by marginalization. Marginalizing over all parameters, we find an analytic expression for the Bayesian evidence for model selection. We apply these methods to data described by Gaussian likelihoods with parameters in the mean and covariance. These methods can speed up conventional likelihood analysis by orders of magnitude when combined with Markov chain Monte Carlo methods, while Bayesian model selection becomes effectively instantaneous.

  13. Creativity Methods in Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biskjaer, Michael Mose; Dalsgaard, Peter; Halskov, Kim


    The field of interaction design encompasses a variety of methods for fostering innovation and creativity. In this paper, we present a selection of such methods that scaffold ideation and concept development in the early phases of design. As a conceptual frame for discussing these methods, we...... introduce four aspects that are particularly salient in the field of interaction design: tradition and transcendence, convergence and divergence, degree of structure, and sources of inspiration. We then outline how the methods relate to each of these aspects. The paper contributes to design practitioners...... by providing an overview of the methods and insights into when and how they may be employed to foster creativity and innovation in the design process; with regards to design research, the main contribution of the paper lies in the establishment and discussion of the four aspects as a frame for analyzing...

  14. Meshless Methods in Solid Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Youping; Eskandarian, Azim


    Finite element method has been the dominant technique in computational mechanics in the past decades, and it has made significant contributions to the developments in engineering and science. Nevertheless, finite element method is not well suited to problems having severe mesh distortion owing to extremely large deformations of materials, encountering moving discontinuities such as crack propagation along arbitrary and complex paths, involving considerable meshing and re-meshing in structural optimization problems, or having multidomain of influence in multi-phenomenon physical problems. It is impossible to completely overcome those mesh-related difficulties by a mesh-based method. The highly structured nature of finite element approximations imposes severe penalties in the solutions of those problems. Distinguishing with finite element, finite difference and finite volume methods, meshless method discretizes the continuum body only with a set of nodal points and the approximation is constructed entirely in t...

  15. Evaluation of Two New Smoothing Methods in Equating: The Cubic B-Spline Presmoothing Method and the Direct Presmoothing Method (United States)

    Cui, Zhongmin; Kolen, Michael J.


    This article considers two new smoothing methods in equipercentile equating, the cubic B-spline presmoothing method and the direct presmoothing method. Using a simulation study, these two methods are compared with established methods, the beta-4 method, the polynomial loglinear method, and the cubic spline postsmoothing method, under three sample…

  16. Enhancing the (MSLDIP) image steganographic method (ESLDIP method) (United States)

    Seddik Saad, Al-hussien


    Message transmissions over the Internet still have data security problem. Therefore, secure and secret communication methods are needed for transmitting messages over the Internet. Cryptography scrambles the message so that it cannot be understood. However, it makes the message suspicious enough to attract eavesdropper's attention. Steganography hides the secret message within other innocuous-looking cover files (i.e. images, music and video files) so that it cannot be observed [1].The term steganography originates from the Greek root words "steganos'' and "graphein'' which literally mean "covered writing''. It is defined as the science that involves communicating secret data in an appropriate multimedia carrier, e.g., image, audio text and video files [3].Steganographic techniques allow one party to communicate information to another without a third party even knowing that the communication is occurring. The ways to deliver these "secret messages" vary greatly [3].Our proposed method called Enhanced SLDIP (ESLDIP). In which the maximmum hiding capacity (MHC) of proposed ESLDIP method is higher than the previously proposed MSLDIP methods and the PSNR of the ESLDIP method is higher than the MSLDIP PSNR values', which means that the image quality of the ESLDIP method will be better than MSLDIP method and the maximmum hiding capacity (MHC) also improved. The rest of this paper is organized as follows. In section 2, steganography has been discussed; lingo, carriers and types. In section 3, related works are introduced. In section 4, the proposed method will be discussed in details. In section 5, the simulation results are given and Section 6 concludes the paper.

  17. A Natural Method for Family Planning: Lactational Amenorrhea Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayten Senturk Erenel


    Full Text Available Use of an family planning method during the postpartum period is important both to space births, and to prevent unwanted pregnancies. Under-utilization of family planning services during this period not only leads to adverse conditions caused by excessive fertility, but also has negative effects on both maternal and infant health. Women are in close contact with health care providers before, during, and after childbirth, when they are most likely to be impressed by the services they receive. Effective provision of health care services in these periods is therefore of great importance. Literature indicates high rates of success and compliance with family planning services provided during these periods. Many women neglect to use a modern contraceptive method in the postpartum period believing that breastfeeding alone ensures sufficient protection against pregnancy. Indeed, breastfeeding can be 98% effective as a contraceptive method; however, this is only true if certain criteria are observed. There are three basic criteria for the lactational amenorrhea method to be effective: the baby must be less than six months old, must be exclusively or almost exclusively breast-fed, and the mother must not be menstruating. In a conference held in Bellago in August 1988 by the World Health Organization and other international agencies, a consensus was developed for effective use of lactational amenorrhea method, and it was agreed to adopt breastfeeding as a potential family planning method in maternal and child health programs. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(4.000: 383-390

  18. Comparison of site evaluation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, M.D.; Pierce, B.L.


    This report presents results of tests of different final site selection methods used for siting large-scale facilities such as nuclear power plants. Test data are adapted from a nuclear power plant siting study conducted on Long Island, New York. The purpose of the tests is to determine whether or not different final site selection methods produce different results, and to obtain some understanding of the nature of any differences found. Decision rules and weighting methods are included. Decision rules tested are Weighting Summation, Power Law, Decision Analysis, Goal Programming, and Goal Attainment; weighting methods tested are Categorization, Ranking, Rating Ratio Estimation, Metfessel Allocation, Indifferent Tradeoff, Decision Analysis lottery, and Global Evaluation. Results show that different methods can, indeed, produce different results, but that the probability that they will do so is controlled by the structure of differences among the sites being evaluated. Differences in weights and suitability scores attributable to methods have reduced significance if the alternatives include one or two sites that are superior to all others in many attributes. The more tradeoffs there are among good and bad levels of different attributes at different sites, the more important are the specifics of methods to the final decision. 5 refs., 14 figs., 19 tabs.

  19. An enhanced splined saddle method (United States)

    Ghasemi, S. Alireza; Goedecker, Stefan


    We present modifications for the method recently developed by Granot and Baer [J. Chem. Phys. 128, 184111 (2008)], 10.1063/1.2916716. These modifications significantly enhance the efficiency and reliability of the method. In addition, we discuss some specific features of this method. These features provide important flexibilities which are crucial for a double-ended saddle point search method in order to be applicable to complex reaction mechanisms. Furthermore, it is discussed under what circumstances this methods might fail to find the transition state and remedies to avoid such situations are provided. We demonstrate the performance of the enhanced splined saddle method on several examples with increasing complexity, isomerization of ammonia, ethane and cyclopropane molecules, tautomerization of cytosine, the ring opening of cyclobutene, the Stone-Wales transformation of the C60 fullerene, and finally rolling a small NaCl cube on NaCl(001) surface. All of these calculations are based on density functional theory. The efficiency of the method is remarkable in regard to the reduction of the total computational time.

  20. Methodical bases of geodemographic forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Катерина Сегіда


    Full Text Available The article deals with methodological features of the forecast of population size and composition. The essence and features of probabilistic demographic forecasting, methods, a component and dynamic ranks are considered; requirements to initial indicators for each type of the forecast are provided. It is noted that geo-demographic forecast is an important component of regional geo-demographic characteristic. Features of the demographic forecast development by component method (recursors of age are given, basic formulae of calculation, including the equation of demographic balance, a formula recursors taking into account gender and age indicators, survival coefficient are presented. The basic methodical principles of the demographic forecast are given by an extrapolation method (dynamic ranks, calculation features by means of the generalized indicators, such as extrapolation on the basis of indicators of an average pure gain, average growth rate and average rate of a gain are presented. To develop population forecast, the method of retrospective extrapolation (for the short-term forecast and a component method (for the mid-term forecast are mostly used. The example of such development by component method for gender and age structure of the population of Kharkiv region with step-by-step explanation of calculation is provided. The example of Kharkiv region’s population forecast development is provided by the method of dynamic ranks. Having carried out calculations of the main forecast indicators by administrative units, it is possible to determine features of further regional demographic development, to reveal internal territorial distinctions in demographic development. Application of separate forecasting methods allows to develop the forecast for certain indicators, however essential a variety, nonlinearity and not stationarity of the processes constituting demographic development forces to look +for new approaches and

  1. Introduction to precise numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Aberth, Oliver


    Precise numerical analysis may be defined as the study of computer methods for solving mathematical problems either exactly or to prescribed accuracy. This book explains how precise numerical analysis is constructed. The book also provides exercises which illustrate points from the text and references for the methods presented. All disc-based content for this title is now available on the Web. · Clearer, simpler descriptions and explanations ofthe various numerical methods· Two new types of numerical problems; accurately solving partial differential equations with the included software and computing line integrals in the complex plane.

  2. Standardized Methods for Electronic Shearography (United States)

    Lansing, Matthew D.


    Research was conducted in development of operating procedures and standard methods to evaluate fiber reinforced composite materials, bonded or sprayed insulation, coatings, and laminated structures with MSFC electronic shearography systems. Optimal operating procedures were developed for the Pratt and Whitney Electronic Holography/Shearography Inspection System (EH/SIS) operating in shearography mode, as well as the Laser Technology, Inc. (LTI) SC-4000 and Ettemeyer SHS-94 ISTRA shearography systems. Operating practices for exciting the components being inspected were studied, including optimal methods for transient heating with heat lamps and other methods as appropriate to enhance inspection capability.

  3. Method of synthesizing tungsten nanoparticles (United States)

    Thoma, Steven G; Anderson, Travis M


    A method to synthesize tungsten nanoparticles has been developed that enables synthesis of nanometer-scale, monodisperse particles that can be stabilized only by tetrahydrofuran. The method can be used at room temperature, is scalable, and the product concentrated by standard means. Since no additives or stabilizing surfactants are required, this method is particularly well suited for producing tungsten nanoparticles for dispersion in polymers. If complete dispersion is achieved due to the size of the nanoparticles, then the optical properties of the polymer can be largely maintained.

  4. The FEM-2 design method (United States)

    Pratt, T. W.; Adams, L. M.; Mehrotra, P.; Vanrosendale, J.; Voigt, R. G.; Patrick, M.


    The FEM-2 parallel computer is designed using methods differing from those ordinarily employed in parallel computer design. The major distinguishing aspects are: (1) a top-down rather than bottom-up design process; (2) the design considers the entire system structure in terms of layers of virtual machines; and (3) each layer of virtual machine is defined formally during the design process. The result is a complete hardware/software system design. The basic design method is discussed and the advantages of the method are considered. A status report on the FEM-2 design is included.

  5. quadratic spline finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Bahadir


    Full Text Available The problem of heat transfer in a Positive Temperature Coefficient (PTC thermistor, which may form one element of an electric circuit, is solved numerically by a finite element method. The approach used is based on Galerkin finite element using quadratic splines as shape functions. The resulting system of ordinary differential equations is solved by the finite difference method. Comparison is made with numerical and analytical solutions and the accuracy of the computed solutions indicates that the method is well suited for the solution of the PTC thermistor problem.

  6. Method of passivating semiconductor surfaces (United States)

    Wanlass, M.W.


    A method is described for passivating Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound surfaces. The method includes selecting a passivating material having a lattice constant substantially mismatched to the lattice constant of the semiconductor compound. The passivating material is then grown as an ultrathin layer of passivating material on the surface of the Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound. The passivating material is grown to a thickness sufficient to maintain a coherent interface between the ultrathin passivating material and the semiconductor compound. In addition, a device formed from such method is also disclosed.

  7. Method of making optoelectric devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    into a light harvesting polymer that is substantially insoluble in the solvent comprised in the coating ink; (d) forming a hole transport layer on the active layer according to the following method: i) coating the active layer with a solution comprising a hole transporting compound, water and an alcohol......A method of preparing an optoelectric device, comprising: (a) providing a substrate on which is formed a first electrode layer; (b) forming an electron transport layer according to the following method: i) forming a film of a coating ink comprising zinc acetate in aqueous solution; ii) drying...

  8. Machine learning methods for planning

    CERN Document Server

    Minton, Steven


    Machine Learning Methods for Planning provides information pertinent to learning methods for planning and scheduling. This book covers a wide variety of learning methods and learning architectures, including analogical, case-based, decision-tree, explanation-based, and reinforcement learning.Organized into 15 chapters, this book begins with an overview of planning and scheduling and describes some representative learning systems that have been developed for these tasks. This text then describes a learning apprentice for calendar management. Other chapters consider the problem of temporal credi

  9. Radar Methods in Urban Environments (United States)


    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0344 Radar Methods in Urban Environments Arye Nehorai WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY THE Final Report 10/26/2016 DISTRIBUTION A...Methods in Urban Environments 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA9550-11-1-0210 5c.  PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F 6. AUTHOR(S) Arye Nehorai 5d...Methods in Urban Environments Grant No. FA9550-11-1-0210 Final Report August 2011 – July 2016 Arye Nehorai Department of Electrical and Systems

  10. Computational Methods Development at Ames (United States)

    Kwak, Dochan; Smith, Charles A. (Technical Monitor)


    This viewgraph presentation outlines the development at Ames Research Center of advanced computational methods to provide appropriate fidelity computational analysis/design capabilities. Current thrusts of the Ames research include: 1) methods to enhance/accelerate viscous flow simulation procedures, and the development of hybrid/polyhedral-grid procedures for viscous flow; 2) the development of real time transonic flow simulation procedures for a production wind tunnel, and intelligent data management technology; and 3) the validation of methods and the flow physics study gives historical precedents to above research, and speculates on its future course.

  11. Integral equation methods for electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Volakis, John


    This text/reference is a detailed look at the development and use of integral equation methods for electromagnetic analysis, specifically for antennas and radar scattering. Developers and practitioners will appreciate the broad-based approach to understanding and utilizing integral equation methods and the unique coverage of historical developments that led to the current state-of-the-art. In contrast to existing books, Integral Equation Methods for Electromagnetics lays the groundwork in the initial chapters so students and basic users can solve simple problems and work their way up to the mo

  12. Lectures on the coupling method

    CERN Document Server

    Lindvall, Torgny


    An important tool in probability theory and its applications, the coupling method is primarily used in estimates of total variation distances. The method also works well in establishing inequalities, and it has proven highly successful in the study of Markov and renewal process asymptotics. This text represents a detailed, comprehensive examination of the method and its broad variety of applications. Readers progress from simple to advanced topics, with end-of-discussion notes that reinforce the preceding material. Topics include renewal theory, Markov chains, Poisson approximation, ergodicity

  13. User-Centered Agile Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Beyer, Hugh


    With the introduction and popularization of Agile methods of software development, existing relationships and working agreements between user experience groups and developers are being disrupted. Agile methods introduce new concepts: the Product Owner, the Customer (but not the user), short iterations, User Stories. Where do UX professionals fit in this new world? Agile methods also bring a new mindset -- no big design, no specifications, minimal planning -- which conflict with the needs of UX design. This lecture discusses the key elements of Agile for the UX community and describes strategie

  14. A Tutorial on Heuristic Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui; Werra, D. de; Silver, E.


    In this paper we define a heuristic method as a procedure for solving a well-defined mathematical problem by an intuitive approach in which the structure of the problem can be interpreted and exploited intelligently to obtain a reasonable solution. Issues discussed include: (i) the measurement...... of the quality of a heuristic method, (ii) different types of heuristic procedures, (iii) the interactive role of human beings and (iv) factors that may influence the choice or testing of heuristic methods. A large number of references are included....

  15. Manufacturing method of photonic crystal (United States)

    Park, In Sung; Lee, Tae Ho; Ahn, Jin Ho; Biswas, Rana; Constant, Kristen P.; Ho, Kai-Ming; Lee, Jae-Hwang


    A manufacturing method of a photonic crystal is provided. In the method, a high-refractive-index material is conformally deposited on an exposed portion of a periodic template composed of a low-refractive-index material by an atomic layer deposition process so that a difference in refractive indices or dielectric constants between the template and adjacent air becomes greater, which makes it possible to form a three-dimensional photonic crystal having a superior photonic bandgap. Herein, the three-dimensional structure may be prepared by a layer-by-layer method.

  16. Formal Methods: Practice and Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woodcock, Jim; Larsen, Peter Gorm; Bicarregui, Juan


    Formal methods use mathematical models for analysis and verification at any part of the program life-cycle. We describe the state of the art in the industrial use of formal methods, concentrating on their increasing use at the earlier stages of specification and design. We do this by reporting....... Based on this, we discuss the issues surrounding the industrial adoption of formal methods. Finally, we look to the future and describe the development of a Verified Software Repository, part of the worldwide Verified Software Initiative. We introduce the initial projects being used to populate...

  17. A method of phenomenological interviewing. (United States)

    Bevan, Mark T


    In this article I propose a method of interviewing for descriptive phenomenological research that offers an explicit, theoretically based approach for researchers. My approach enables application of descriptive phenomenology as a total method for research, and not one just focused on data analysis. This structured phenomenological approach to interviewing applies questions based on themes of experience contextualization, apprehending the phenomenon and its clarification. The method of questioning employs descriptive and structural questioning as well as novel use of imaginative variation to explore experience. The approach will help researchers understand how to undertake descriptive phenomenological research interviews.

  18. Probabilistic methods in combinatorial analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Sachkov, Vladimir N


    This 1997 work explores the role of probabilistic methods for solving combinatorial problems. These methods not only provide the means of efficiently using such notions as characteristic and generating functions, the moment method and so on but also let us use the powerful technique of limit theorems. The basic objects under investigation are nonnegative matrices, partitions and mappings of finite sets, with special emphasis on permutations and graphs, and equivalence classes specified on sequences of finite length consisting of elements of partially ordered sets; these specify the probabilist

  19. Population Set based Optimization Method (United States)

    Manekar, Y.; Verma, H. K.


    In this paper an population set based optimization method is proposed for solving some benchmark functions and also to solve optimal power flow problem like `combined economic and emission dispatch problem (CEED)' with multiple objective functions. This algorithm has taken into consideration all the equality and inequality constraints. The improvement in system performance is based on reduction in cost of power generation and active power loss. The proposed algorithms have been compared with the other methods like GA, PSO etc reported in the literature. The results are impressive and encouraging. The study results show that the proposed method holds better solutions in CEED problems.

  20. User-centered agile method

    CERN Document Server

    Deuff, Dominique


    Agile development methods began to emerge around 20 years ago. However, it was not until the early 2000s that they began to be widely used in industry. This growth was often due to the advent of Internet services requiring faster cycles of development in order to heighten the rate at which an ever-greater number of functionalities were made available. In parallel, user-centered design (UCD) methods were also becoming more and more widely used: hence, user-centered design and agile methods were bound to cross paths, at least in the telecoms industry! During this period, in the field of telec

  1. Statistical methods for physical science

    CERN Document Server

    Stanford, John L


    This volume of Methods of Experimental Physics provides an extensive introduction to probability and statistics in many areas of the physical sciences, with an emphasis on the emerging area of spatial statistics. The scope of topics covered is wide-ranging-the text discusses a variety of the most commonly used classical methods and addresses newer methods that are applicable or potentially important. The chapter authors motivate readers with their insightful discussions, augmenting their material withKey Features* Examines basic probability, including coverage of standard distributions, time s

  2. Methods for Equating Mental Tests. (United States)


    1983) compared conventional and IRT methods for equating the Test of English as a Foreign Language ( TOEFL ) after chaining. Three conventional and...ID-A149 544 METHODS FOR ’EQUATING MENTAL TESTS (U) ASSESSMENT SYSTEMS 1/2 CORP ST PAUL MN K A GIRLLUCA ET AL. NOV 84 AFHRL-TR-84-35 F4i689-82-C-0023... TEST CHART NATIONAL BUREAU Of STANDARDS- 1963-A -I% AFHRL-TR-84-35 AIR FORCE 0, METHODS FOR EQUATING MENTAL TESTS H U By Kathleen A. Gialluca Leslie I

  3. Nonparametric statistical methods using R

    CERN Document Server

    Kloke, John


    A Practical Guide to Implementing Nonparametric and Rank-Based ProceduresNonparametric Statistical Methods Using R covers traditional nonparametric methods and rank-based analyses, including estimation and inference for models ranging from simple location models to general linear and nonlinear models for uncorrelated and correlated responses. The authors emphasize applications and statistical computation. They illustrate the methods with many real and simulated data examples using R, including the packages Rfit and npsm.The book first gives an overview of the R language and basic statistical c

  4. Mechanical methods for induction of labour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jozwiak, Marta; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W. M.; Kelly, Anthony J.; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Irion, Olivier; Boulvain, Michel


    Background Mechanical methods were the first methods developed to ripen the cervix and induce labour. During recent decades they have been substituted by pharmacological methods. Potential advantages of mechanical methods, compared with pharmacological methods, may include simplicity of

  5. Functional methods in differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Hokkanen, Veli-Matti


    In recent years, functional methods have become central to the study of theoretical and applied mathematical problems. As demonstrated in this Research Note, functional methods can not only provide more generality, but they can also unify results and techniques and lead to better results than those obtained by classical methods. Presenting entirely original results, the authors use functional methods to explore a broad range of elliptic, parabolic, and hyperbolic boundary value problems and various classes of abstract differential and integral equations. They show that while it is crucial to choose an appropriate functional framework, this approach can lead to mathematical models that better describe concrete physical phenomena. In particular, they reach a concordance between the physical sense and the mathematical sense for the solutions of some special models. Beyond its importance as a survey of the primary techniques used in the area, the results illuminated in this volume will prove valuable in a wealth ...

  6. Propagating Class and Method Combination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik


    This paper presents a mixin based class and method combination mechanism with block structure propagation. Traditionally, mixins can be composed to form new classes, possibly merging the implementations of methods (as in CLOS). In our approach, a class or method combination operation may cause any...... number of implicit combinations. For example, it is possible to specify separate aspects of a family of classes, and then combine several aspects into a full-fledged class family. The combination expressions would explicitly combine whole-family aspects, and by propagation implicitly combine the aspects...... for each member of the class family, and again by propagation implicitly compose each method from its aspects. As opposed to CLOS, this is type-checked statically; and as opposed to other systems for advanced class combination/ merging/weaving, it is integrated directly in the language, ensuring a clear...

  7. Ingenious mathematical problems and methods

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, Louis A


    Collection of 100 of the best submissions to a math puzzle column features problems in engineering situations, logic, number theory, and geometry. Most solutions include details of several different methods.

  8. Methods for treating lignocellulosic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, Robert; Gregoire, Claire; Travisano, Philip; Madsen, Lee; Matis, Neta; Har-Tal, Yael Miriam; Eliahu, Shay; Lawson, James Alan; Lapidot, Noa; Burke, Luke; Eyal, Aharon M.; Bauer, Timothy Allen; Sade, Hagit; McWilliams, Paul; Zviely, Michael; Carden, Adam


    The present invention relates to methods of processing lignocellulosic material to obtain hemicellulose sugars, cellulose sugars, lignin, cellulose and other high-value products. Also provided are hemicellulose sugars, cellulose sugars, lignin, cellulose, and other high-value products.

  9. Photometric invariant stereo matching method

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gu, Feifei; Zhao, Hong; Zhou, Xiang; Li, Jinjun; Bu, Penghui; Zhao, Zixin


    A robust stereo matching method based on a comprehensive mathematical model for color formation process is proposed to estimate the disparity map of stereo images with noise and photometric variations...

  10. Antibody engineering: methods and protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chames, Patrick


    "Antibody Engineering: Methods and Protocols, Second Edition was compiled to give complete and easy access to a variety of antibody engineering techniques, starting from the creation of antibody repertoires and efficient...

  11. Computational methods in stochastic dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Papadrakakis, Manolis; Papadopoulos, Vissarion


    Covering what is an emerging frontier in research, this book focuses on advanced computational methods and software tools. These can be of huge assistance in tackling complex problems in stochastic dynamic and seismic analysis as well as structure design.

  12. Data transmission system and method (United States)

    Bruck, Jehoshua (Inventor); Langberg, Michael (Inventor); Sprintson, Alexander (Inventor)


    A method of transmitting data packets, where randomness is added to the schedule. Universal broadcast schedules using encoding and randomization techniques are also discussed, together with optimal randomized schedules and an approximation algorithm for finding near-optimal schedules.

  13. Chemical methods of rock analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jeffery, P. G; Hutchison, D


    A practical guide to the methods in general use for the complete analysis of silicate rock material and for the determination of all those elements present in major, minor or trace amounts in silicate...

  14. Chemometric methods in capillary electrophoresis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hanrahan, Grady; Gomez, Frank A


    ... 113 6 CHEMOMETRIC METHODS FOR THE OPTIMIZATION OF CE AND CE- MS IN PHARMACEUTICAL, ENVIRONMENTAL, AND FOOD ANALYSIS Javier Hernández-Borges, Miguel Ángel Rodríguez-Delgado, and Alejandro Cifuent...

  15. Nonlinear programming analysis and methods

    CERN Document Server

    Avriel, Mordecai


    This text provides an excellent bridge between principal theories and concepts and their practical implementation. Topics include convex programming, duality, generalized convexity, analysis of selected nonlinear programs, techniques for numerical solutions, and unconstrained optimization methods.

  16. Methods for treating lignocellulosic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, Robert; Gregoire, Claire; Travisano, Philip; Madsen, Lee; Matis, Neta; Har-Tal, Yael; Eliahu, Shay; Lawson, James Alan; Lapidot, Noa; Eyal, Aharon M.; Bauer, Timothy Allen; Sade, Hagit; McWilliams, Paul; Zviely, Michael; Carden, Adam


    The present invention relates to methods of processing lignocellulosic material to obtain hemicellulose sugars, cellulose sugars, lignin, cellulose and other high-value products. Also provided are hemicellulose sugars, cellulose sugars, lignin, cellulose, and other high-value products.

  17. Graph modeling systems and methods (United States)

    Neergaard, Mike


    An apparatus and a method for vulnerability and reliability modeling are provided. The method generally includes constructing a graph model of a physical network using a computer, the graph model including a plurality of terminating vertices to represent nodes in the physical network, a plurality of edges to represent transmission paths in the physical network, and a non-terminating vertex to represent a non-nodal vulnerability along a transmission path in the physical network. The method additionally includes evaluating the vulnerability and reliability of the physical network using the constructed graph model, wherein the vulnerability and reliability evaluation includes a determination of whether each terminating and non-terminating vertex represents a critical point of failure. The method can be utilized to evaluate wide variety of networks, including power grid infrastructures, communication network topologies, and fluid distribution systems.

  18. [Alternative treatment methods in ENT]. (United States)

    Friese, K H


    In this review, the most important complementary und alternative therapies are discussed, focusing particularly on their use in otorhinolaryngology. These therapies include balneology, Kneipp therapy, microbiological therapy, fasting, excretion therapy, different oxygen therapies, hydro-colon therapy, urine therapy, own-blood therapy, Bach therapy, orthomolecular therapy, order therapy, environmental medicine, phytotherapy, homeopathy, complex homeopathy, anthroposophy, neural therapy, electroaccupuncture according to Voll and similar therapies, nasal reflex therapy, reflex-zone massage, manual therapy, massage, lymph drainage, aroma therapy, thermotherapy, bioresonance, kinesiology, hopi candles, and dietetics. Some of these methods and regimens can be recommended, but others should be rejected. In universities, these methods are only represented to a minor extend, but are more accepted by otorhinolaryngologists in practice. This paper provides a guide to which alternative therapies are sensible and possible in otorhinolaryngology. The aim is to stimulate interest in these methods. It is necessary to discuss these alternative methods reasonably and credibly with patients.


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library



    .... Our article aims to study audit sampling in audit of financial statements. As an audit technique largely used, in both its statistical and nonstatistical form, the method is very important for auditors...

  20. Selection Method for COTS Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedman, Jonas; Andersson, Bo


    requires new skills and methods supporting the process of evaluating and selecting information systems. This paper presents a method for selecting COTS systems. The method includes the following phases: problem framing, requirements and appraisal, and selection of systems. The idea and distinguishing...... feature behind the method is that improved understanding of organizational ‘ends’ or goals should govern the selection of a COTS system. This can also be expressed as a match or fit between ‘ends’ (e.g. improved organizational effectiveness) and ‘means’ (e.g. implementing COTS systems). This way...... of approaching the selection of COTS systems as viewing them as a ‘means’ to reach organizational ‘ends’ is different from the mainstream views of information systems development, namely the view that sees information systems development as a problem-solving process, and the underlying ontological view in other...

  1. Biological Methods and Manual Development (United States)

    EPA scientists conduct research to develop and evaluate analytical methods for the identification, enumeration, evaluation of aquatic organisms exposed to environmental stressors and to correlate exposures with effects on chemical and biological indicators

  2. Algorithm in the Multisignal Method (United States)

    Fukuda, Hiroshi; Negishi, Teruo

    This paper deals with an algorithm in a multisignal method instead of the binary notation system that has been used in the computer information processing. The remarkable feature in this method is to be able to express a plural meaning or different meanings in just one bit. A bit in the proposed method can serve as, so to speak, an extended bit by itself. So hereafter we call it a “mut, ” a newly coined word for a multiple digit. With a mut, a multisignal is produced, which belongs to one of the following three systems of the multisignal method: the fixed multi-notation system, the selective multi-notation system, and the general multisignal system. Consequently, this algorithm may be applied to many aspects of the multimedia. Moreover, using this system, a large quantity of expressions can be made with high speed, and the programming can be done easily.

  3. Improved method for methane generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A method for treatment of a material comprising lignocellulosic fibres is disclosed. More particularly, the treatment increases the accessibility of the lignocellulosic fibres for following microbial or biological processes....

  4. DDOT MXD+ method development report. (United States)


    Mixed-use development has become increasingly common across the country, including Washington, D.C. : However, a straightforward and empirically validated method for evaluating the traffic impacts of such : projects is still needed. The data presente...

  5. Methods for treating lignocellulosic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, Robert; Gregoire, Claire; Travisano, Philip; Madsen, Lee; Matis, Neta; Har-Tal, Yael Miriam; Eliahu, Shay; Lawson, James Alan; Lapidot, Noa; Eyal, Aharon M.; Bauer, Timothy Allen; McWilliams, Paul; Zviely, Michael; Carden, Adam


    The present invention relates to methods of processing lignocellulosic material to obtain hemicellulose sugars, cellulose sugars, lignin, cellulose and other high-value products. Also provided are hemicellulose sugars, cellulose sugars, lignin, cellulose, and other high-value products.

  6. Methods for treating lignocellulosic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, Robert; Travisano, Philip; Madsen, Lee; Matis, Neta; Lawson, James Alan; Lapidot, Noa; Eyal, Aharon M.; Bauer, Timothy Allen; Belman, Ziv-Vladimir; Hallac, Bassem; Zviely, Michael


    The present invention relates to methods of processing lignocellulosic material to obtain hemicellulose sugars, cellulose sugars, lignin, cellulose and other high-value products. Also provided are hemicellulose sugars, cellulose sugars, lignin, cellulose, and other high-value products.

  7. Peptides and methods against diabetes (United States)

    Albertini, Richard J.; Falta, Michael T.


    This invention relates to methods of preventing or reducing the severity of diabetes. In one embodiment, the method involves administering to the individual a peptide having substantially the sequence of a on-conserved region sequence of a T cell receptor present on the surface of T cells mediating diabetes or a fragment thereof, wherein the peptide or fragment is capable of causing an effect on the immune system to regulate the T cells. In particular, the T cell receptor has the V.beta. regional V.beta.6 or V.beta.14. In another embodiment, the method involves gene therapy. The invention also relates to methods of diagnosing diabetes by determining the presence of diabetes predominant T cell receptors.

  8. Information System Quality Assessment Methods


    Korn, Alexandra


    This thesis explores challenging topic of information system quality assessment and mainly process assessment. In this work the term Information System Quality is defined as well as different approaches in a quality definition for different domains of information systems are outlined. Main methods of process assessment are overviewed and their relationships are described. Process assessment methods are divided into two categories: ISO standards and best practices. The main objective of this w...

  9. Dietary assessment methods: dietary records. (United States)

    Ortega, Rosa M; Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen; López-Sobaler, Ana M


    Dietary records or food diaries can be highlighted among dietary assessment methods of the current diet for their interest and validity. It is a prospective, open-ended survey method collecting data about the foods and beverages consumed over a previously specified period of time. Dietary records can be used to estimate current diet of individuals and population groups, as well as to identify groups at risk of inadequacy. It is a dietary assessment method interesting for its use in epidemiological or in clinical studies. High validity and precision has been reported for the method when used following adequate procedures and considering the sufficient number of days. Thus, dietary records are often considered as a reference method in validation studies. Nevertheless, the method is affected by error and has limitations due mainly to the tendency of subjects to report food consumption close to those socially desirable. Additional problems are related to the high burden posed on respondents. The method can also influence food behavior in respondents in order to simplify the registration of food intake and some subjects can experience difficulties in writing down the foods and beverages consumed or in describing the portion sizes. Increasing the number of days observed reduces the quality of completed diet records. It should also be considered the high cost of coding and processing information collected in diet records. One of the main advantages of the method is the registration of the foods and beverages as consumed, thus reducing the problem of food omissions due to memory failure. Weighted food records provide more precise estimates of consumed portions. New Technologies can be helpful to improve and ease collaboration of respondents, as well as precision of the estimates, although it would be desirable to evaluate the advantages and limitations in order to optimize the implementation. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2015. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights

  10. Seismic reflection and refraction methods

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chaubey, A.K.

    , reflection method is a very sophisticated version of the echosounding used in submarines, ships, and radar systems. Whereas, in seismic refraction method, principal portion of the wave-path is along the interface between the two layers and hence... into electrical signals, which are recorded digitally. The Ocean Bottom Seismometers 221 (OBS) are normally designed to record the earth motion under oceans and lakes from air-gun seismic sources. The air gun array is towed behind a ship usually at a...

  11. Unstructured mesh methods for CFD (United States)

    Peraire, J.; Morgan, K.; Peiro, J.


    Mesh generation methods for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) are outlined. Geometric modeling is discussed. An advancing front method is described. Flow past a two engine Falcon aeroplane is studied. An algorithm and associated data structure called the alternating digital tree, which efficiently solves the geometric searching problem is described. The computation of an initial approximation to the steady state solution of a given poblem is described. Mesh generation for transient flows is described.

  12. Qualitative methods in travel surveys


    HANNES, Els; Janssens, Davy; Wets, Geert


    This chapter explains the added value of integrating qualitative methods in travel surveys. The introduction briefly frames some general aspects of qualitative research. Distinct steps in a research process structure the remainder of this chapter. First, questions and contexts most applicable for qualitative methods are addressed. Next, its actual use, role and timing in travel surveys are discussed. Sampling and data collection issues are treated subsequently, followed by a brief account on ...

  13. Factors in Agile Methods Adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Abdalhamid


    Full Text Available There are many factors that can affect the process of adopting Agile methods during software developing. This paper illustrates the critical factors in Agile methods adoption in software organizations. To present the success and failure factors, an exploratory study is carried out among the critical factors of success and failure from existing studies. Dimensions and Factors are introduced utilizing success and failure dimensions. The mind map was used to clarify these factors.

  14. [Isaac Newton's Anguli Contactus method]. (United States)

    Wawrzycki, Jarosław


    In this paper we discuss the geometrical method for calculating the curvature of a class of curves from the third Book of Isaac Newton's Principia. The method involves any curve which is generated from an elementary curve (actually from any curve whose curvature we known of) by means of transformation increasing the polar angular coordinate in a constant ratio, but unchanging the polar radial angular coordinate.

  15. Critical review on biofilm methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azeredo, Joana; F. Azevedo, Nuno; Briandet, Romain


    Biofilms are widespread in nature and constitute an important strategy implemented by microorganisms to survive in sometimes harsh environmental conditions. They can be beneficial or have a negative impact particularly when formed in industrial settings or on medical devices. As such, research in...... and limitations of several methods. Accordingly, this review aims at helping scientists in finding the most appropriate and up-to-date methods to study their biofilms....

  16. Electrokinetic remediation prefield test methods (United States)

    Hodko, Dalibor (Inventor)


    Methods for determining the parameters critical in designing an electrokinetic soil remediation process including electrode well spacing, operating current/voltage, electroosmotic flow rate, electrode well wall design, and amount of buffering or neutralizing solution needed in the electrode wells at operating conditions are disclosed These methods are preferably performed prior to initiating a full scale electrokinetic remediation process in order to obtain efficient remediation of the contaminants.

  17. Algebraic Methods to Design Signals (United States)


    as a code division multiple access ( CDMA ) system, which has been adopted as a standard for multiple access methods in mobile radio communication...applications in spread spectrum communication systems such as a code division multiple access ( CDMA ) system, which has been adopted as a standard for...multiple access methods in mobile radio communication systems. We continue our mathematical framework based on group algebras, character theory

  18. Method of sterilization using ozone (United States)

    Murphy, Oliver J. (Inventor); Hitchens, G. Duncan (Inventor)


    Methods of using ozone have been developed which sterilize instruments and medical wastes, oxidize, organics found in wastewater, clean laundry, break down contaminants in soil into a form more readily digested by microbes, kill microorganisms present in food products, and destroy toxins present in food products. The preferred methods for killing microorganism and destroying toxins use pressurized, humidified, and concentrated ozone produced by an electrochemical cell.

  19. Genetic methods in current practice


    Laštůvková, Iveta


    The submited work is concentrated on the topic of genetic methods in current practice. An important factor is the development of literacy training and reading. The work highlights the various stages of reading, ie, preparation for reading, hearing and vision development and reading comprehension. The objective of the methodological procedures applied in the genetic method of reading training. Key words: Literacy Reading with comprehension Genetic Metod Block letter Analysis Synthesis

  20. New disinfection and sterilization methods.


    Rutala, W A; Weber, D.J.


    New disinfection methods include a persistent antimicrobial coating that can be applied to inanimate and animate objects (Surfacine), a high-level disinfectant with reduced exposure time (ortho-phthalaldehyde), and an antimicrobial agent that can be applied to animate and inanimate objects (superoxidized water). New sterilization methods include a chemical sterilization process for endoscopes that integrates cleaning (Endoclens), a rapid (4-hour) readout biological indicator for ethylene oxid...

  1. Programming the finite element method

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, I M; Margetts, L


    Many students, engineers, scientists and researchers have benefited from the practical, programming-oriented style of the previous editions of Programming the Finite Element Method, learning how to develop computer programs to solve specific engineering problems using the finite element method. This new fifth edition offers timely revisions that include programs and subroutine libraries fully updated to Fortran 2003, which are freely available online, and provides updated material on advances in parallel computing, thermal stress analysis, plasticity return algorithms, convection boundary c

  2. Tourism research and audio methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Trandberg


    • Audio methods enriches sensuous tourism ethnographies. • The note suggests five research avenues for future auditory scholarship. • Sensuous tourism research has neglected the role of sounds in embodied tourism experiences.......• Audio methods enriches sensuous tourism ethnographies. • The note suggests five research avenues for future auditory scholarship. • Sensuous tourism research has neglected the role of sounds in embodied tourism experiences....

  3. Combinatorial methods with computer applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gross, Jonathan L


    Combinatorial Methods with Computer Applications provides in-depth coverage of recurrences, generating functions, partitions, and permutations, along with some of the most interesting graph and network topics, design constructions, and finite geometries. Requiring only a foundation in discrete mathematics, it can serve as the textbook in a combinatorial methods course or in a combined graph theory and combinatorics course.After an introduction to combinatorics, the book explores six systematic approaches within a comprehensive framework: sequences, solving recurrences, evaluating summation exp

  4. Methods for Cervical Cancer Screening


    Vargas-Revilla, Tatiana; Seáñez-de-Villa, Jesús Manuel; León-Rovira, Noel; Barrón-Cano, Olivia Maricela


    Cervical cancer affects a great portion of the world’s female population,and it became the third cause of death for women in developing countries such as CostaRica.The most common method to diagnose this cancer is the Papanicolaou testor Papsmear; nevertheless, high levels of sensitivity and specificity are required. Consequently, different organizations have developed multiple methods to detect and classify this cancer. This article is divided in three sections: the first one focuses on the ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Audit sampling involves the application of audit procedures to less than 100% of items within an account balance or class of transactions. Our article aims to study audit sampling in audit of financial statements. As an audit technique largely used, in both its statistical and nonstatistical form, the method is very important for auditors. It should be applied correctly for a fair view of financial statements, to satisfy the needs of all financial users. In order to be applied correctly the method must be understood by all its users and mainly by auditors. Otherwise the risk of not applying it correctly would cause loose of reputation and discredit, litigations and even prison. Since there is not a unitary practice and methodology for applying the technique, the risk of incorrectly applying it is pretty high. The SWOT analysis is a technique used that shows the advantages, disadvantages, threats and opportunities. We applied SWOT analysis in studying the sampling method, from the perspective of three players: the audit company, the audited entity and users of financial statements. The study shows that by applying the sampling method the audit company and the audited entity both save time, effort and money. The disadvantages of the method are difficulty in applying and understanding its insight. Being largely used as an audit method and being a factor of a correct audit opinion, the sampling method’s advantages, disadvantages, threats and opportunities must be understood by auditors.

  6. Manifold methods for methane combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, B.; Pope, S.B. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)


    Great progresses have been made in combustion research, especially, the computation of laminar flames and the probability density function (PDF) method in turbulent combustion. For one-dimensional laminar flames, by considering the transport mechanism, the detailed chemical kinetic mechanism and the interactions between these two basic processes, today it is a routine matter to calculate flame velocities, extinction, ignition, temperature, and species distributions from the governing equations. Results are in good agreement with those obtained for experiments. However, for turbulent combustion, because of the complexities of turbulent flow, chemical reactions, and the interaction between them, in the foreseeable future, it is impossible to calculate the combustion flow field by directly integrating the basic governing equations. So averaging and modeling are necessary in turbulent combustion studies. Averaging, on one hand, simplifies turbulent combustion calculations, on the other hand, it introduces the infamous closure problems, especially the closure problem with chemical reaction terms. Since in PDF calculations of turbulent combustion, the averages of the chemical reaction terms can be calculated, PDF methods overcome the closure problem with the reaction terms. It has been shown that the PDF method is a most promising method to calculate turbulent combustion. PDF methods have been successfully employed to calculate laboratory turbulent flames: they can predict phenomena such as super equilibrium radical levels, and local extinction. Because of these advantages, PDF methods are becoming used increasingly in industry combustor codes.

  7. Decomposition methods in turbulence research (United States)

    Uruba, Václav


    Nowadays we have the dynamical velocity vector field of turbulent flow at our disposal coming thanks advances of either mathematical simulation (DNS) or of experiment (time-resolved PIV). Unfortunately there is no standard method for analysis of such data describing complicated extended dynamical systems, which is characterized by excessive number of degrees of freedom. An overview of candidate methods convenient to spatiotemporal analysis for such systems is to be presented. Special attention will be paid to energetic methods including Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) in regular and snapshot variants as well as the Bi-Orthogonal Decomposition (BOD) for joint space-time analysis. Then, stability analysis using Principal Oscillation Patterns (POPs) will be introduced. Finally, the Independent Component Analysis (ICA) method will be proposed for detection of coherent structures in turbulent flow-field defined by time-dependent velocity vector field. Principle and some practical aspects of the methods are to be shown. Special attention is to be paid to physical interpretation of outputs of the methods listed above.

  8. Decomposition methods in turbulence research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uruba Václav


    Full Text Available Nowadays we have the dynamical velocity vector field of turbulent flow at our disposal coming thanks advances of either mathematical simulation (DNS or of experiment (time-resolved PIV. Unfortunately there is no standard method for analysis of such data describing complicated extended dynamical systems, which is characterized by excessive number of degrees of freedom. An overview of candidate methods convenient to spatiotemporal analysis for such systems is to be presented. Special attention will be paid to energetic methods including Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD in regular and snapshot variants as well as the Bi-Orthogonal Decomposition (BOD for joint space-time analysis. Then, stability analysis using Principal Oscillation Patterns (POPs will be introduced. Finally, the Independent Component Analysis (ICA method will be proposed for detection of coherent structures in turbulent flow-field defined by time-dependent velocity vector field. Principle and some practical aspects of the methods are to be shown. Special attention is to be paid to physical interpretation of outputs of the methods listed above.

  9. The WST method, a fracture mechanics test method for FRC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lofgren, I.; Stang, Henrik; Olesen, John Forbes


    The applicability of the wedge-splitting test method (WST), for determining fracture properties of fibre-reinforced concrete, is discussed. Experimental results, using the WST method, are compared with results from uniaxial tension tests (UTT) and three-point bending tests (3PBT) for five different......-crack opening (sigma-w) relationships have been determined for each mix and test method. For the two WST specimen sizes, there is no apparent difference either in the number of fibres (per cm(2)) crossing the fracture plane or in the fracture properties. The major factor contributing to the scatter in the test...... results is believed to be related to the variation in the number of fibres across the fracture plane. Furthermore, the inverse analyses indicate no systematic differences in the determined parameters between two WST specimens or between the WST and the 3PBT....

  10. Method for obtaining Chromosomes Method for obtaining Chromosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogart James P.


    Full Text Available It is very easy to obtain chromosomes from anuran amphibians.Amphibians have very large chromosomes which can easily be seen with an ordinary microscope. The method used has been tested in the laboratory and also at collecting sites. All that is required are a few chemicals and simple equipment.It is very easy to obtain chromosomes from anuran amphibians.Amphibians have very large chromosomes which can easily be seen with an ordinary microscope. The method used has been tested in the laboratory and also at collecting sites. All that is required are a few chemicals and simple equipment.

  11. Comparison between performances of Monte Carlo method and method of lines solution of discrete ordinates method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirkaya, Gokmen [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Middle East Technical University, Inonu Bulvari, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Arinc, Faruk [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Middle East Technical University, Inonu Bulvari, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Selcuk, Nevin [Department of Chemical Engineering, Middle East Technical University, Inonu Bulvari, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)]. E-mail:; Ayranci, Isil [Department of Chemical Engineering, Middle East Technical University, Inonu Bulvari, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)


    Monte Carlo method was used to predict the incident radiative heat fluxes on the freeboard walls of the METU 0.3 MW{sub t} atmospheric bubbling fluidized bed combustor based on the data reported previously. The freeboard was treated as a rectangular enclosure with gray interior walls and gray, absorbing, emitting and isotropically scattering medium. A Monte Carlo solver was developed and the performance of the solver was assessed by comparing its predictions with those of method of lines solution of discrete ordinates method and experimental measurements reported previously. Parametric studies were carried out to examine the effects of particle load and anisotropic scattering on the predicted incident radiative heat fluxes. The comparisons show that Monte Carlo method reproduces the measured incident radiative heat fluxes reasonably well for the freeboard problem.

  12. Methods for Melting Temperature Calculation (United States)

    Hong, Qi-Jun

    Melting temperature calculation has important applications in the theoretical study of phase diagrams and computational materials screenings. In this thesis, we present two new methods, i.e., the improved Widom's particle insertion method and the small-cell coexistence method, which we developed in order to capture melting temperatures both accurately and quickly. We propose a scheme that drastically improves the efficiency of Widom's particle insertion method by efficiently sampling cavities while calculating the integrals providing the chemical potentials of a physical system. This idea enables us to calculate chemical potentials of liquids directly from first-principles without the help of any reference system, which is necessary in the commonly used thermodynamic integration method. As an example, we apply our scheme, combined with the density functional formalism, to the calculation of the chemical potential of liquid copper. The calculated chemical potential is further used to locate the melting temperature. The calculated results closely agree with experiments. We propose the small-cell coexistence method based on the statistical analysis of small-size coexistence MD simulations. It eliminates the risk of a metastable superheated solid in the fast-heating method, while also significantly reducing the computer cost relative to the traditional large-scale coexistence method. Using empirical potentials, we validate the method and systematically study the finite-size effect on the calculated melting points. The method converges to the exact result in the limit of a large system size. An accuracy within 100 K in melting temperature is usually achieved when the simulation contains more than 100 atoms. DFT examples of Tantalum, high-pressure Sodium, and ionic material NaCl are shown to demonstrate the accuracy and flexibility of the method in its practical applications. The method serves as a promising approach for large-scale automated material screening in which

  13. New hormonal methods of contraception. (United States)

    Newton, J R


    Three types of new contraceptive delivery system have been discussed in this chapter. Each have novel methods of delivery and may be acceptable to certain groups of women. It is clear that subdermal contraceptive implants are extremely useful as a long-term method of contraception, and provided insertion occurs correctly, removal will then be easy. The second-generation implants using a single rod, compared with the first-generation ones using six capsules, would appear to offer advantages both to the patient and in relation to the training of medical and paramedical personnel who have to fit the subdermal implant. The main disadvantage is the incidence of irregular bleeding, which, by and large, can be overcome by pre-insertion counselling and by time. The second method of delivery, vaginal rings, offers high patient acceptability, but a usable ring for contraception has as yet to be developed. Two approaches appear to be the use of a continuous progestogen-only ring, or a combined ring releasing oestrogen and progestogen with a 21-day-in, 7-day-out cycle of use. Ongoing studies will indicate whether vaginal lesions are significant or related to the flexibility of the ring. If these studies prove satisfactory, further development of the vaginal rings, both as an alternative method for interval use or as a specific postpartum form of contraception using progesterone-releasing rings, will be developed. Significant developments in the use of a combined monthly injectable have led to the release of two preparations, Cyclofem and Mesigyna, which are now available in many countries. This combined approach offers a significant reduction in amenorrhoea rates and unacceptable bleeding, the majority of women having acceptable menstrual patterns even during the first 3 months of use. All three methods have low and acceptable rates of pregnancy, the lowest being seen with the subdermal implants and with combined monthly injectables. Due to the length of action of subdermal

  14. Efficient methods of piping cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Vladimir Aleksandrovich


    Full Text Available The article contains the analysis of the efficient methods of piping cleaning of water supply and sanitation systems. Special attention is paid to the ice cleaning method, in course of which biological foil and various mineral and organic deposits are removed due to the ice crust buildup on the inner surface of water supply and drainage pipes. These impurities are responsible for the deterioration of the organoleptic properties of the transported drinking water or narrowing cross-section of drainage pipes. The co-authors emphasize that the use of ice compared to other methods of pipe cleaning has a number of advantages due to the relative simplicity and cheapness of the process, economical efficiency and lack of environmental risk. The equipment for performing ice cleaning is presented, its technological options, terms of cleansing operations, as well as the volumes of disposed pollution per unit length of the water supply and drainage pipelines. It is noted that ice cleaning requires careful planning in the process of cooking ice and in the process of its supply in the pipe. There are specific requirements to its quality. In particular, when you clean drinking water system the ice applied should be hygienically clean and meet sanitary requirements.In pilot projects, in particular, quantitative and qualitative analysis of sediments adsorbed by ice is conducted, as well as temperature and the duration of the process. The degree of pollution of the pipeline was estimated by the volume of the remote sediment on 1 km of pipeline. Cleaning pipelines using ice can be considered one of the methods of trenchless technologies, being a significant alternative to traditional methods of cleaning the pipes. The method can be applied in urban pipeline systems of drinking water supply for the diameters of 100—600 mm, and also to diversion collectors. In the world today 450 km of pipelines are subject to ice cleaning method.Ice cleaning method is simple

  15. Comparison of regional screening methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, B.F.; Rowe, M.D.


    This report describes results of tests of different regional screening methods applied to data from western Maryland and the western United States. The purpose of these tests was to determine whether or not different regional screening methods produce different results, and to obtain some understanding of the nature of any differences found. Methods tested include Exclusionary Screening, Weighting Summation, Power Law, and Decision Analysis; weighting methods used include Categorization, Rating, Metfessel Allocation, Indifference Tradeoff, Churchman-Ackoff, and Decision Analysis. Results show that different methods do, indeed, produce different results, and that choice of decision rule is most important to results. Exclusionary Screening, in particular, can force decision tradeoffs that decision makers would not make were they to evaluate them directly. Nevertheless, differences in regional screening results do not necessarily mean differences in quality of the final site decision. The final result can depend on the skill with which the stages of the siting process following screening are conducted. The function of screening is to ease the task in those following stages by selecting candidate areas having high probability of containing suitable candidate sites. 32 refs., 32 figs., 43 tabs.

  16. Assessment methods of body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karaba-Jakovljević Dea


    Full Text Available Body composition assessment has an important role in many fields of medicine, in evaluation of health status of the individual, as well as in sports sciences as a part of physiological profile of athletes. There are several methods for body composition assessment, which provide indirect data on the body structure. For instance in anthropometry, simple techniques such as skinfold measurements provide simply, quick and nonexpensive assessment of body fat mass. Bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA is described as a method with rising validity, especially for measurement in regional body composition. The value of BIA in routine clinical terms is still limited, while DXA has potential of becoming new golden standard for body composition assessment. More sophisiticated methods such is MRI have advantage over other techniques for estimation of regional body composition, since it provides the only accurate and viable approach for the estimation of intra-abdominal adipose tissue. This method is limited to experimental studies on smaller group of individuals, since it is expensive and not available to routine assessment. Combination of more methods may be the best approach for obtaining accurate results and informations about health status of individual.

  17. Long acting methods of contraception. (United States)

    Newton, J


    Long acting methods of contraception have been developed and refined over the last 10 years. From the classical long acting progestogen-only depot preparations we now have a range of delivery systems including both combined and progestogen only injection systems and vaginal rings also containing either progestogen only or oestrogen and progestogen in combination. Subcutaneous implants at present containing only a progestogen, offer a range of durations from 2-5 years. The efficacy of these methods is high, with failure rates as low as 0.1 per 100 woman years. However, with progestogen only systems a significant proportion of women develop unpredictable menstrual bleeding, which with counselling is acceptable. The commonest reason for discontinuation still remains menstrual disorders and recent WHO workshops have investigated the cause of this bleeding and refined the reference periods of analysis. The method of action of progestogen-only systems is primarily cervical mucus blockade and prevention of sperm penetration. However, they also tend to produce a thinned atrophic endometrium. Ovarian effects ranging from complete anovulation to disordered luteal phase, persistent follicles and disorganised hormone production add to the contraceptive effect in more than half of the treatment cycles, but cause some of the menstrual disturbance. All these long acting methods are essential to family planning programmes, offering highly acceptable, and in some cases novel methods with high efficacy.

  18. Semi-supervised clustering methods (United States)

    Bair, Eric


    Cluster analysis methods seek to partition a data set into homogeneous subgroups. It is useful in a wide variety of applications, including document processing and modern genetics. Conventional clustering methods are unsupervised, meaning that there is no outcome variable nor is anything known about the relationship between the observations in the data set. In many situations, however, information about the clusters is available in addition to the values of the features. For example, the cluster labels of some observations may be known, or certain observations may be known to belong to the same cluster. In other cases, one may wish to identify clusters that are associated with a particular outcome variable. This review describes several clustering algorithms (known as “semi-supervised clustering” methods) that can be applied in these situations. The majority of these methods are modifications of the popular k-means clustering method, and several of them will be described in detail. A brief description of some other semi-supervised clustering algorithms is also provided. PMID:24729830

  19. Distance sampling methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Buckland, S T; Marques, T A; Oedekoven, C S


    In this book, the authors cover the basic methods and advances within distance sampling that are most valuable to practitioners and in ecology more broadly. This is the fourth book dedicated to distance sampling. In the decade since the last book published, there have been a number of new developments. The intervening years have also shown which advances are of most use. This self-contained book covers topics from the previous publications, while also including recent developments in method, software and application. Distance sampling refers to a suite of methods, including line and point transect sampling, in which animal density or abundance is estimated from a sample of distances to detected individuals. The book illustrates these methods through case studies; data sets and computer code are supplied to readers through the book’s accompanying website.  Some of the case studies use the software Distance, while others use R code. The book is in three parts.  The first part addresses basic methods, the ...

  20. ADOxx Modelling Method Conceptualization Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesat Efendioglu


    Full Text Available The importance of Modelling Methods Engineering is equally rising with the importance of domain specific languages (DSL and individual modelling approaches. In order to capture the relevant semantic primitives for a particular domain, it is necessary to involve both, (a domain experts, who identify relevant concepts as well as (b method engineers who compose a valid and applicable modelling approach. This process consists of a conceptual design of formal or semi-formal of modelling method as well as a reliable, migratable, maintainable and user friendly software development of the resulting modelling tool. Modelling Method Engineering cycle is often under-estimated as both the conceptual architecture requires formal verification and the tool implementation requires practical usability, hence we propose a guideline and corresponding tools to support actors with different background along this complex engineering process. Based on practical experience in business, more than twenty research projects within the EU frame programmes and a number of bilateral research initiatives, this paper introduces the phases, corresponding a toolbox and lessons learned with the aim to support the engineering of a modelling method. ”The proposed approach is illustrated and validated within use cases from three different EU-funded research projects in the fields of (1 Industry 4.0, (2 e-learning and (3 cloud computing. The paper discusses the approach, the evaluation results and derived outlooks.