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Sample records for schizotypal personality disorder

  1. Schizotypal Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are at an increased risk of: Depression Anxiety Work, school, relationship and social problems Other personality disorders Problems with alcohol or drugs Suicide attempts Temporary psychotic episodes, usually in response to stress Schizophrenia By Mayo Clinic Staff . Mayo Clinic Footer ...

  2. Visual perception and working memory in schizotypal personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, C M; O'Donnell, B F; Niznikiewicz, M A; Voglmaier, M M; McCarley, R W; Shenton, M E

    2000-05-01

    Patients affected by schizophrenia show deficits in both visual perception and working memory. The authors tested early-stage vision and working memory in subjects with schizotypal personality disorder, which has been biologically associated with schizophrenia. Eleven subjects who met DSM-III-R criteria for schizotypal personality disorder and 12 normal comparison subjects were evaluated. Performance thresholds were obtained for tests of visual discrimination and working memory. Both form and trajectory processing were evaluated for each task. Subjects with schizotypal personality disorder showed intact discrimination of form and trajectory but were impaired on working memory tasks. These data suggest that subjects with schizotypal personality disorder, unlike patients affected by schizophrenia, have relatively intact visual perception. Subjects with schizotypal personality disorder do show specific deficits on tasks of comparable difficulty when working memory demands are imposed. Schizotypal personality disorder may be associated with a more specific visual processing deficit than schizophrenia, possibly reflecting disruption of frontal lobe systems subserving visual working memory operations.

  3. [Etiological and therapeutic aspects of schizoid and schizotypal personality disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, H; Jünemann, K

    2001-09-01

    Following the introduction to the history of the concepts of abnormal personality, with regard to the schizoid and schizotypal forms, we present their systematic assessment in the modern classification systems.Both, the schizoid and schizotypal forms, are usually considered as schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Biological and clinical data indicate relations to other axis-I disorders as well. However there are few systematic and strictly controlled studies on the psychotherapeutic and pharmacological treatment of schizotypal and schizoid personality disorders. Basic theoretic assumptions concerning both treatment concepts - for personality disorders in general, and especially in schizoid and schizotypal personality disorder - are given. Finally the role of neuroleptics and antidepressants for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders is discussed. New possibilities may emerge from the use of the recently developed atypical drugs, but further research in randomised studies is needed. Current prospective studies on early detected schizophrenia-spectrum disorders will broaden our knowledge about prevention and therapy.

  4. Neuropsychological profile in patients with schizotypal personality disorder or schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Mié; Sumiyoshi, Tomiki; Kato, Kanade; Yoneyama, Eiichi; Kurachi, Masayoshi

    2004-04-01

    Neuropsychological impairments have been consistently reported in patients with schizophrenia. As little is known whether subjects with schizotypal personality disorder exhibit neurocognitive dysfunction similar to that in schizophrenia, we assessed the neuropsychological profile of 15 subjects with schizotypal personality disorder and compared it with that for 15 patients with schizophrenia and for 15 psychiatrically normal volunteers. All participants were administered a standard neuropsychological battery assessing language ability, spatial ability, visuomotor function, verbal memory, visual memory, auditory attention, visual attention, and executive function. Performance on most of the cognitive domains was impaired in patients with schizotypal personality disorder but less than patients with schizophrenia. Specifically, impairment in verbal memory and visuomotor ability in patients with schizotypal personality disorder and patients with schizophrenia were comparable, while patients with schizophrenia performed worse on the test of executive function than did patients with schizotypal personality disorder. As a whole, cognitive deficits in patients with schizotypal personality disorder were qualitatively similar to, but quantitatively milder than, those for patients with schizophrenia. The results suggest that cognitive abilities related to frontotemporal lobe function are disturbed across these schizophrenia-spectrum disorders.

  5. Visual Perception and Working Memory in Schizotypal Personality Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Farmer, Carrie M.; O?Donnell, Brian F.; Niznikiewicz, Margaret A.; Voglmaier, Martina M.; McCarley, Robert William; Shenton, Martha Elizabeth

    2000-01-01

    Objective: Patients affected by schizophrenia show deficits in both visual perception and working memory. The authors tested early-stage vision and working memory in subjects with schizotypal personality disorder, which has been biologically associated with schizophrenia. Method: Eleven subjects who met DSM-III-R criteria for schizotypal personality disorder and 12 normal comparison subjects were evaluated. Performance thresholds were obtained for tests of visual discrimination and working me...

  6. Neuropsychological performance in schizotypal personality disorder: importance of working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitropoulou, Vivian; Harvey, Phillip D; Zegarelli, Gayle; New, Antonia S; Silverman, Jeremy M; Siever, Larry J

    2005-10-01

    Cognitive deficits consistently have been reported in schizophrenia patients and in patients with schizotypal personality disorder. For this study, the authors wanted to identify which of the domains of cognitive impairment represent "core" deficits of schizophrenia, comparing subjects with schizotypal personality disorder to two comparison groups: healthy volunteers and patients with personality disorders unrelated to schizophrenia. Three groups completed a neuropsychological battery: patients with DSM-III-R schizotypal personality disorder (N=82); patients with DSM-III-R personality disorders unrelated to schizophrenia (i.e., a personality disorder other than schizotypal, schizoid, or paranoid [N=44]); and healthy volunteers (N=63). The battery included the California Verbal Learning Test, Trailmaking Test parts A and B, the Dot test of working memory, the Stroop Color and Word Test, the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test, the WMS visual reproduction test, and the WAIS-R vocabulary and block design. Normative standards for performance that controlled for age, gender, and education were created from the scores of the healthy volunteers. Overall, schizotypal personality disorder patients performed significantly worse than the healthy volunteers and those with personality disorders unrelated to schizophrenia. Specifically, patients with schizotypal personality disorder demonstrated impaired performance on the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test, WMS visual reproduction test, Dot test, and California Verbal Learning Test. In addition, in a regression analysis, performance on the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test demonstrated the largest effect size. Indeed, it accounted for unique variance above and beyond all other cognitive measures, since controlling for Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test performance abolished group differences across all other measures. Patients with schizotypal personality disorder demonstrated moderate cognitive impairment compared with

  7. Antipsychotic treatment of schizotypy and schizotypal personality disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Klaus Damgaard; Skyum, Eva Marie; Hashemi, Nasseh

    2017-01-01

    Schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) is characterised by thought disorders, experiences of illusions, obsessive ruminations, bizarre or eccentric behaviour, cognitive problems and deficits in social functioning - symptoms that SPD shares with schizophrenia. Efforts have been undertaken...... in combination with the following diagnostic terms: latent schizophrenia, schizotypal disorder, latent type schizophrenia, or SPD. Studies were categorised according to evidence level on the basis of their methodology from A, being the best, to E, being the worst. Five hundred and nine studies were retrieved...

  8. Visual Perception and Working Memory in Schizotypal Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Carrie M.; O’Donnell, Brian F.; Niznikiewicz, Margaret A.; Voglmaier, Martina M.; McCarley, Robert W.; Shenton, Martha E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Patients affected by schizophrenia show deficits in both visual perception and working memory. The authors tested early-stage vision and working memory in subjects with schizotypal personality disorder, which has been biologically associated with schizophrenia. Method Eleven subjects who met DSM-III-R criteria for schizotypal personality disorder and 12 normal comparison subjects were evaluated. Performance thresholds were obtained for tests of visual discrimination and working memory. Both form and trajectory processing were evaluated for each task. Results Subjects with schizotypal personality disorder showed intact discrimination of form and trajectory but were impaired on working memory tasks. Conclusions These data suggest that subjects with schizotypal personality disorder, unlike patients affected by schizophrenia, have relatively intact visual perception. Subjects with schizotypal personality disorder do show specific deficits on tasks of comparable difficulty when working memory demands are imposed. Schizotypal personality disorder may be associated with a more specific visual processing deficit than schizophrenia, possibly reflecting disruption of frontal lobe systems subserving visual working memory operations. PMID:10784472

  9. Prosodic abnormalities in schizotypal personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, Chandlee C; Vu, Mai-Anh T; Voglmaier, Martina M; Niznikiewicz, Margaret A; McCarley, Robert W; Panych, Lawrence P

    2012-12-01

    Patients with schizophrenia speak with blunted vocal affect but little is known regarding the prosody of persons with schizotypal personality disorder (SPD). This work examined expressive prosody in SPD, its relationship to brain structure, and outlined a framework for measuring elements of prosody in clinical populations. Twenty-eight antipsychotic-naïve SPD subjects were matched with 27 healthy comparison (HC) subjects. Subjects read aloud short sentences and responded to probes to record both predetermined and self-generated speech samples. Samples were analyzed acoustically (pause proportion, duration, attack, and pitch variability) and subjectively by raters (amount of pauses, degree of emotion portrayed, and how much they wanted to hear more from the subjects) on paragraph, sentence, word, word-fragment, and syllable levels. Alexithymia and ability to self-monitor behavior were compared between groups. The pars opercularis was manually traced on structural MRI data. SPD subjects' speech had significantly more pauses, was slower, had less pitch variability, and expressed less emotion than HC subjects. Pitch variability correlated with socio-economic status achievement. There was no difference between groups in left or right pars opercularis volumes. A statistically significant correlation suggested that smaller left pars opercularis volumes in SPD subjects correlated with more pauses and less emotion. SPD subjects reported more alexithymia and difficulty self-monitoring their behavior compared with controls. In SPD subjects the high alexithymia correlated with raters not wanting to hear more from them and SPD subjects' inability to modulate their social behavior correlated with their having fewer friends. Thus, the SPD subjects exhibited insight. SPD subjects displayed significant prosodic deficits that were measurable in speech samples as brief as a word-fragment. The determinants of these deficits are not known although these may include a dysfunctional

  10. Electrophysiological Correlates of Language Processing in Schizotypal Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niznikiewicz, Margaret A.; Voglmaier, Martina; Shenton, Martha E.; Seidman, Larry J.; Dickey, Chandlee C.; Rhoads, Richard; Teh, Enkeat; McCarley, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study examined whether the electrophysiological correlates of language processing found previously to be abnormal in schizophrenia are also abnormal in schizotypal individuals. The authors used the N400 component to evaluate language dysfunction in schizotypal individuals. Method Event-related potentials were recorded in 16 comparison subjects and 17 schizotypal individuals (who met full DSM-III-R criteria) to sentences presented both visually and aurally; half of the sentences ended with an expected word completion (congruent condition), and the other half ended with an unexpected word completion (incongruent condition). Results In the congruent condition, the N400 amplitude was more negative in individuals with schizotypal personality disorder than in comparison subjects in both the visual and auditory modalities. In addition, in the visual modality, the N400 latency was prolonged in the individuals with schizotypal personality disorder. Conclusions The N400 was found to be abnormal in the individuals with schizotypal personality disorder relative to comparison subjects. The abnormality was similar to the abnormality the authors’ laboratory reported earlier in schizophrenic subjects, in which the N400 amplitude was found to be more negative in both congruent and incongruent sentence completions. The N400 abnormality is consistent with the inefficient use of context. PMID:10401451

  11. The five-factor model in schizotypal personality disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Gurrera, Ronald Joseph; Dickey, Chandlee C.; Niznikiewicz, Margaret A.; Voglmaier, Martina M.; Shenton, Martha Elizabeth; McCarley, Robert William

    2005-01-01

    Studies of the five-factor model of personality in schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) have produced inconsistent results, particularly with respect to openness. In the present study, the NEO-FFI was used to measure five-factor personality dimensions in 28 community volunteers with SPD and 24 psychiatrically healthy individuals. Standard multivariate statistical analyses were used to evaluate personality differences as a function of diagnosis and gender. Individuals with SPD had significan...

  12. Early stage vision in schizophrenia and schizotypal personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Brian F; Bismark, Andrew; Hetrick, William P; Bodkins, Misty; Vohs, Jenifer L; Shekhar, Anantha

    2006-09-01

    Previous studies of visual perception have reported deficits in contrast sensitivity and dot motion discrimination in schizophrenia. We tested whether these deficits also appear in schizotypal personality disorder (SPD). SPD appears to be genetically and symptomatically related to schizophrenia, but without the marked psychosocial impairment associated with psychotic disorders. The present study investigated contrast sensitivity for moving and static gratings, form discrimination and dot motion discrimination in 24 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (SZ), 16 individuals with SPD, and 40 control subjects. SZ, but not SPD subjects, showed impairments on tests of contrast sensitivity for static and moving gratings, form discrimination in noise, and dot motion discrimination. Visual performance did not differ between medicated SZ patients and patients withdrawn from medication. These results confirm early stage visual deficits in schizophrenia regardless of medication status. SPD subjects, in contrast, show intact early stage visual processing despite the presence of marked schizotypal symptoms.

  13. Discourse Cohesion in the Verbal Interactions of Individuals Diagnosed with Autistic Disorder or Schizotypal Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltaxe, Christiane A. M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study compared high functioning adolescents and young adults with autism (n=8) or schizotypal personality disorder (n=9) in use of social language referencing. Both groups had similar rates, types, and patterns of cohesive reference errors, though subjects with schizotypal disorder used cohesive ties of reference more often and more correctly…

  14. Functional Impairment in Patients With Schizotypal, Borderline, Avoidant, or Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Skodol, Andrew E; Gunderson, John G; McGlashan, Thomas H; Dyck, Ingrid R; Stout, Robert L; Bender, Donna S; Grilo, Carlos M; Shea, M. Tracie; Zanarini, Mary C; Morey, Leslie C; Sanislow, Charles A; Oldham, John M

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare psychosocial functioning in patients with schizotypal, borderline, avoidant, or obsessive-compulsive personality disorder and patients with major depressive...

  15. Empathic accuracy and cognition in schizotypal personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripoll, Luis H; Zaki, Jamil; Perez-Rodriguez, Maria Mercedes; Snyder, Rebekah; Strike, Kathryn Sloan; Boussi, Ayelet; Bartz, Jennifer A; Ochsner, Kevin N; Siever, Larry J; New, Antonia S

    2013-11-30

    Interpersonal dysfunction contributes to significant disability in the schizophrenia spectrum. Schizotypal Personality Disorder (SPD) is a schizophrenia-related personality demonstrating social cognitive impairment in the absence of frank psychosis. Past research indicates that cognitive dysfunction or schizotypy may account for social cognitive dysfunction in this population. We tested SPD subjects and healthy controls on the Empathic Accuracy (EA) paradigm and the Reading of the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET), assessing the impact of EA on social support. We also explored whether EA differences could be explained by intelligence, working memory, trait empathy, or attachment avoidance. SPD subjects did not differ from controls in RMET, but demonstrated lower EA during negative valence videos, associated with lower social support. Dynamic, multimodal EA paradigms may be more effective at capturing interpersonal dysfunction than static image tasks such as RMET. Schizotypal severity, trait empathy, and cognitive dysfunction did not account for empathic dysfunction in SPD, although attachment avoidance is related to empathic differences. Empathic dysfunction for negative affect contributes to decreased social support in the schizophrenia spectrum. Future research may shed further light on potential links between attachment avoidance, empathic dysfunction, and social support. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Neuropsychological performance in schizotypal personality disorder: evidence regarding diagnostic specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitropoulou, Vivian; Harvey, Phillip D; Maldari, Liza A; Moriarty, Patrick J; New, Antonia S; Silverman, Jeremy M; Siever, Larry J

    2002-12-15

    Individuals with schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) share cognitive deficits with schizophrenic patients, suggesting that these deficits represent a core feature of the schizophrenia spectrum. We investigated the neuropsychological profile in SPD patients compared with two comparison groups: healthy volunteers (HV) and patients who met criteria for another non-schizophrenia spectrum personality disorder (NSS). We tested 48 DSM-III-R SPD patients, 22 NSS and 32 HV on a neuropsychologic battery that included the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), Trail Making A and B, the DOT test of working memory, the Stroop Color-Word Interference, the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT), the Wechsler Memory Scale Visual Reproduction Test (WMSV-R), and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale vocabulary and block design. Normative standards for performance were created using the HV group. SPD patients performed significantly worse compared with HVs; specifically, SPD patients demonstrated impaired performance on the PASAT and the WMSV-R immediate and delayed recall compared to HV. Moreover, SPD patients were impaired in the PASAT and the WMSV-R immediate condition compared with the NSS group. The NSS patients did not differ from HV on any of the cognitive tasks. The interpersonal factor of the schizotypal symptoms inversely correlated with the PASAT score (r = -.32, p impairment. These differences reached statistical significance for the PASAT (an auditory working memory task), and the WMSV-R immediate and delayed recall (a learning-recall test). In contrast, performance of NSS patients did not differ from that of HVs. The types of deficits observed in SPD patients are qualitatively similar to but milder than those seen in patients with schizophrenia.

  17. [Differential diagnosis between Schizotypal Personality Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorders: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünver, Buket; Öner, Özgür; Yurtbaşı, Pınar

    2015-01-01

    Schizotypal personality disorder is characterized by social and interpersonal deficits marked by discomfort with, and reduced capacity for, close relationships as well as by cognitive or perceptual distortions and eccentricities of behavior. Inappropriate or constricted affect, reduced capacity for relationships, lack of close friends and reduced capacity for social life are the symptoms that overlap both schizotypal personality disorder and autism spectrum disorders. The making of differential diagnosis may be difficult since several symptoms are similar between these disorders. In this study, we discussed the differential diagnosis issues on the basis of an adolescent case. Odd appearance, magical thoughts, reference thoughts suggests Schizotypal Personality Disorder whereas lack of eye contact at 2 years old, a preference to be isolated and play alone and referral to a child psychiatrist at 4 years old suggest Autism Spectrum Disorders. Based on the results of psychological assessment, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) profile is compatible with autistic children's profiles. Based on Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire, the patient's anxiety, lack of close friends, constricted affect symptoms which take place in the category of interpersonal schizotypy seems to overlap with lack of communication of Autism Spectrum Disorders. This case report indicates that, separation of autism and schizophrenia, a very important historical breakthrough in autism research, may be blurred in cases with less typical clinical pictures representing autistic and schizophrenic "spectrum" diagnosis.

  18. Two-Year Stability and Change of Schizotypal, Borderline, Avoidant, and Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Sanislow, Charles A.; Gunderson, John G.; Pagano, Maria E.; Yen, Shirley; Zanarini, Mary C.; Shea, Tracie M.; Skodol, Andrew E.; Stout, Robert L.; Morey, Leslie C.; McGlashan, Thomas H.

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined the stability of schizotypal (STPD), borderline (BPD), avoidant (AVPD) and obsessive-compulsive (OCPD) personality disorders (PDs) over 2 years of prospective multiwave follow-up. Six hundred thirty-three participants recruited at 4 collaborating sites who met criteria for 1 or more of the 4 PDs or for major depressive…

  19. Two-Year Stability and Change of Schizotypal, Borderline, Avoidant, and Obsessive–Compulsive Personality Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Grilo, Carlos. M.; Shea, M. Tracie; Sanislow, Charles A.; Skodol, Andrew E.; Gunderson, John G.; Stout, Robert L.; PAGANO, MARIA E.; Yen, Shirley; Morey, Leslie C.; Zanarini, Mary C.; McGlashan, Thomas H.

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined the stability of schizotypal (STPD), borderline (BPD), avoidant (AVPD) and obsessive– compulsive (OCPD) personality disorders (PDs) over 2 years of prospective multiwave follow-up. Six hundred thirty-three participants recruited at 4 collaborating sites who met criteria for 1 or more of the 4 PDs or for major depressive disorder (MDD) without PD were assessed with semistructured interviews at baseline, 6, 12, and 24 months. Lifetable survival analyses revealed that the PD...

  20. Reduced functional connectivity between bilateral precuneus and contralateral parahippocampus in schizotypal personality disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yikang; Tang, YunXiang; Zhang, TianHong; Li, Hui; Tang, Yingying; Li, Chunbo; Luo, Xingguang; He, Yongguang; Lu, Zheng; Wang, Jijun

    2017-01-01

    Background Schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) is linked to schizophrenia in terms of shared genetics, biological markers and phenomenological characteristics. In the current study, we aimed to determine whether the previously reported altered functional connectivity (FC) with precuneus in patients with schizophrenia could be extended to individuals with SPD. Methods Twenty subjects with SPD and 19 healthy controls were recruited from 4461 freshmen at a university in Shanghai and received ...

  1. Treatment outlines for paranoid, schizotypal and schizoid personality disorders. The Quality Assurance Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    Treatment outlines for paranoid, schizotypal and schizoid personality disorders were developed by having nominated experts consider their own views in the light of the treatment literature and the responses of practising psychiatrists. In the detailed recommendations it is clear that while patients with all three disorders often present for treatment in a crisis and often see no issue other than the resolution of the crisis, patients with schizoid personality disorder can use long-term psychotherapy to develop and change to the extent of no longer being handicapped.

  2. Migration Status, Familial Risk for Mental Disorder, and Schizotypal Personality Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odin van der Stelt

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Markedly raised incidence rates of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders have been observed in several migrant and ethnic minority groups. To contribute to a better understanding of the elevated risk for psychotic disorders that is conferred by migration status, the present study examined effects associated with migration risk status on schizotypal personality traits, which are thought to reflect an underlying vulnerability to psychotic disorder. Effects of migration status were also compared to effects associated with a family history of psychopathology, which represents a robust nonspecific risk factor. We assessed schizotypal traits, using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ, in a community-based sample of 62 Moroccan migrants and 41 Dutch nonmigrants, who were classified by the presence or absence of a family history of psychopathology. Overall, Moroccan migrants obtained higher SPQ scores than Dutch nonmigrants. However, migrants who had been classified as having a familial load of psychopathology displayed higher SPQ scores than migrants without such a family history, who in turn did not differ from Dutch nonmigrants. Furthermore, migrants with a familial load, relative to migrants without such a family history, reported higher levels of substance use and feelings of anxiety or depression, and perceived more often ethnic discrimination, which closely paralleled their SPQ scores. These findings indicate that primarily those migrants who are both intrinsically vulnerable and chronically exposed to social adversity, particularly ethnic discrimination, are at elevated risk for psychotic and other disorders. The results add to the evidence that migration status and perceived discrimination are associated with mental health.

  3. The correlates of obsessive-compulsive, schizotypal, and borderline personality disorders in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melca, Isabela A; Yücel, Murat; Mendlowicz, Mauro V; de Oliveira-Souza, Ricardo; Fontenelle, Leonardo F

    2015-06-01

    We assessed correlates of obsessive-compulsive (OCPD), schizotypal (SPD) and borderline (BPD) personality disorders in 110 obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients. We found OCD patients with OCPD (20.9%) to exhibit higher rates of hoarding and bipolar disorders, increased severity of hoarding and symmetry, lower prevalence of unacceptable thoughts involving sex and religion and less non-planning impulsivity. Conversely, OCD patients with SPD (13.6%) displayed more frequently bipolar disorder, increased severity of depression and OCD neutralization, greater prevalence of "low-order" behaviors (i.e., touching), lower low-planning impulsivity and greater "behavioral" compulsivity. Finally, in exploratory analyses, OCD patients with BPD (21.8%) exhibited lower education, higher rates of several comorbid psychiatric disorders, greater frequency of compulsions involving interpersonal domains (e.g. reassurance seeking), increased severity of depression, anxiety and OCD dimensions other than symmetry and hoarding, more motor and non-planning impulsivity, and greater "cognitive" compulsivity. These findings highlight the importance of assessing personality disorders in OCD samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The relationship of the Severe Personality disorders with behavioral activation and inhibition systems in patients with paranoid, borderline and schizotypal personality disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setareh Jani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Given the disruptive effects of personality disorders on personal and family life, it is essential to recognize their predisposing factors to understand them more accurately, and identify their preventive measures treatment facilitators. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the relationship of severe personality disorders with behavioral activation and inhibition systems in patients with paranoid, borderline and schizotypal personality disorders. Methods: The present descriptive-correlational study recruited patients with paranoid, borderline and schizotypal personality disorders presenting to psychiatry clinics in Ardabil using convenient sampling method. A total of 30 paranoid patients, 30 borderline patients and 20 schizotypal patients were selected by a psychiatrist through psychiatric examination, clinical interview and completing Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-III. The following instruments were used: MCMI- III and behavioral activation-inhibition system scale (BIS-BAS. The data were analyzed with Pearson’s correlation coefficient and stepwise regression. Results: BIS and BAS systems were both significant for predicting borderline and paranoid personality disorders, but only BIS was significant for predicting schizotypal personality disorder. Conclusion: These findings can help experts to have a better and more accurate understanding of personality disorders and use proper methods to predict the probability of these disorders and develop treatments.

  5. Antipsychotic treatment of schizotypy and schizotypal personality disorder: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Klaus Damgaard; Skyum, Eva; Hashemi, Nasseh; Schjerning, Ole; Fink-Jensen, Anders; Nielsen, Jimmi

    2017-04-01

    Schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) is characterised by thought disorders, experiences of illusions, obsessive ruminations, bizarre or eccentric behaviour, cognitive problems and deficits in social functioning - symptoms that SPD shares with schizophrenia. Efforts have been undertaken to investigate the relationship between these conditions regarding genetics, pathophysiology, and phenomenology. However, treatment of SPD with antipsychotics has received less scientific attention. Embase and PubMed databases were searched using all known generic names of antipsychotics as search terms in combination with the following diagnostic terms: latent schizophrenia, schizotypal disorder, latent type schizophrenia, or SPD. Studies were categorised according to evidence level on the basis of their methodology from A, being the best, to E, being the worst. Five hundred and nine studies were retrieved and scrutinised. Sixteen studies, from the period 1972 to 2012, on antipsychotic treatment of SPD were extracted. Four studies were categorised as evidence level A, two as level B, six as level C and three as level D, with one study level E. Only four randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials, on subjects with well-defined diagnoses, exists. Only amisulpride, risperidone and thiothixene have been studied according to evidence level A. This result warrants further high quality studies of the effects of antipsychotic treatment of SPD.

  6. The Melbourne Assessment of Schizotypy in Kids: A Useful Measure of Childhood Schizotypal Personality Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey P. Jones

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite being identified as a high risk cohort for psychosis, there has been relatively little research on the clinical presentation and assessment of Schizotypal Personality Disorder (SPD in childhood. The current study aimed to develop a measure of childhood SPD (Melbourne Assessment of Schizotypy in Kids (MASK and assess discriminant validity against another neurodevelopmental disorder, autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Sixty-eight children aged between 5 and 12 (21 SPD, 15 ASD, and 32 typically developing and their parents were administered the MASK. The MASK is a 57-item semistructured interview that obtains information from the child, their parents, and the clinician. The results showed high internal consistency for the MASK and higher scores in the SPD group. A factor analysis revealed two MASK factors: social/pragmatic symptoms and positive schizotypal symptoms. Both factors were associated with SPD, while only the social/pragmatic factor was associated with ASD. Within the two clinical groups, a receiver operating characteristic curve showed that the MASK (cut-off score: 132 out of 228 was a good indicator of SPD diagnosis. These preliminary MASK findings were reliable and consistent and suggest that childhood SPD is characterised by complex symptomology distinguishable from ASD.

  7. Dorso- and ventro-lateral prefrontal volume and spatial working memory in schizotypal personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Kim E; Hazlett, Erin A; Savage, Kimberley R; Berlin, Heather A; Hamilton, Holly K; Zelmanova, Yuliya; Look, Amy E; Koenigsberg, Harold W; Mitsis, Effie M; Tang, Cheuk Y; McNamara, Margaret; Siever, Larry J; Cohen, Barry H; New, Antonia S

    2011-04-15

    Schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) individuals and borderline personality disorder (BPD) individuals have been reported to show neuropsychological impairments and abnormalities in brain structure. However, relationships between neuropsychological function and brain structure in these groups are not well understood. This study compared visual-spatial working memory (SWM) and its associations with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) gray matter volume in 18 unmedicated SPD patients with no BPD traits, 18 unmedicated BPD patients with no SPD traits, and 16 healthy controls (HC). Results showed impaired SWM in SPD but not BPD, compared with HC. Moreover, among the HC group, but not SPD patients, better SWM performance was associated with larger VLPFC (BA44/45) gray matter volume (Fisher's Z p-values impairments may be a core neuropsychological deficit specific to SPD patients and highlight the role of VLPFC subcomponents in normal and dysfunctional memory performance. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Dorso- and Ventro-lateral Prefrontal Volume and Spatial Working Memory in Schizotypal Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Kim E.; Hazlett, Erin A.; Savage, Kimberley R.; Berlin, Heather A.; Hamilton, Holly K.; Zelmanova, Yuliya; Look, Amy E.; Koenigsberg, Harold W.; Mitsis, Effie M.; Tang, Cheuk Y.; McNamara, Margaret; Siever, Larry J.; Cohen, Barry H.; New, Antonia S.

    2011-01-01

    Schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) individuals and borderline personality disorder (BPD) individuals have been reported to show neuropsychological impairments and abnormalities in brain structure. However, relationships between neuropsychological function and brain structure in these groups are not well understood. This study compared visual-spatial working memory (SWM) and its associations with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) gray matter volume in 18 unmedicated SPD patients with no BPD traits, 18 unmedicated BPD patients with no SPD traits, and 16 healthy controls (HC). Results showed impaired SWM in SPD but not BPD, compared with HC. Moreover, among the HC group, but not SPD patients, better SWM performance was associated with larger VLPFC (BA44/45) gray matter volume (Fisher's Z p-valuesimpairments may be a core neuropsychological deficit specific to SPD patients and highlight the role of VLPFC subcomponents in normal and dysfunctional memory performance. PMID:21115066

  9. DSM-III-R SCHIZOTYPAL PERSONALITY TRAITS IN OFFSPRING OF SCHIZOPHRENIC DISORDER, AFFECTIVE DISORDER, AND NORMAL CONTROL PARENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires-Wheeler, Elizabeth; Skodol, Andrew E.; Bassett, Anne; Erlenmeyer-Kimling, L.

    2011-01-01

    Summary The aggregation of disorder in families identified by a schizophrenic disorder proband (index case) has provided indirect clues to the question of diagnostic boundaries of schizophrenic spectrum categories. The Danish Adoption Studies provided quasi-experimental evidence for the range of expression of a putative schizophrenic spectrum disorder which was subsequently denoted schizotypal personality disorder (STPD) in DSM-III-R. It has been hypothesized that such schizophrenic spectrum categories bear a genetic relationship to schizophrenic disorder and thus are continuous with schizophrenia in terms of etiology and pathogenesis. For meaningful use of such spectrum categories in genetic analyses, e.g., linkage analysis, it is important that rates of spectrum traits and disorder in normal control and in psychiatric control populations are known. The rate of DSM-III-R schizotypal traits and disorder was assessed in three offspring groups (ages 18–29) defined by parental diagnoses, including schizophrenic disorder (N = 90), affective disorder (N = 79), and no parental disorder (N = 161). The assessment was conducted by trained social workers and psychologists by means of a direct interview (Personality Disorder Examination). The interviewers were blind to the parental status and to previous psychiatric assessments of these offspring. The rates of three, four and five schizotypal features were elevated in the offspring with parental psychiatric disorder in contrast to the offspring with no parental psychiatric disorder. However, the rates between the offspring of the schizophrenic disorder parental group and the offspring of the affective disorder parental group did not differ significantly, thus failing to support the assumption of diagnostic specificity. PMID:2635220

  10. Childhood and Current Autistic Features in Adolescents with Schizotypal Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterberg, Michelle L.; Trotman, Hanan D.; Brasfield, Joy L.; Compton, Michael T.; Walker, Elaine F.

    2008-01-01

    The diagnostic boundaries between autistic- and schizophrenia-spectrum disorders have varied over the years, and some overlap in diagnostic criteria persists. The present study examined childhood and current signs of autistic disorder (AD) in adolescents with schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) or other personality disorders, as well as healthy controls. A structured interview was administered to rate participants’ current symptoms. Participants’ guardians were interviewed with the Autism Diagnostic Inventory-Revised (ADI-R), a clinical assessment of childhood and current autistic signs. Compared to both the other personality-disordered and healthy groups, adolescents with SPD were rated as having significantly more impairment on childhood and current social functioning, and having more unusual interests and behaviors. For the entire sample, impaired childhood social functioning and unusual interests and behaviors were associated with higher negative symptom scores. Current impairments in social functioning, unusual interests and behaviors, and communication were also linked with greater negative symptoms. However, neither childhood nor current autistic features significantly predicted later conversion to an Axis I psychotic disorder over the course of three years of follow-up. The findings indicate that past and current autistic signs are more common in adolescents with SPD, but neither current nor childhood autistic features are linked with conversion to psychosis. PMID:18554872

  11. The relationship of information-processing deficits and clinical symptoms in schizotypal personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadenhead, K S; Perry, W; Braff, D L

    1996-11-01

    Individuals with schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) are thought to be phenotypically related to individuals with schizophrenia. This assumption is partially supported by the fact that SPD patients have deficits on biological markers similar to those found in schizophrenia. Visual backward masking (VBM) performance and critical stimulus duration (CSD), measures of information processing found to be abnormal in schizophrenia patients, were assessed in 14 SPD and 21 comparison subjects. There was no significant difference between groups in VBM performance; however; there were significant correlations between VBM deficits and the number of SPD symptoms, as well as elevated scores on the Ego. Impairment Index (EII). Additionally, there was a trend (p = 056) toward elevations in CSD in the SPD versus the comparison group and CSD inflation appears to be most prominent in individuals with a greater number of social deficit symptoms and elevated physical anhedonia scores. These findings suggest an important relationship between symptoms of SPD and neurophysiologic deficits.

  12. Reduced functional connectivity between bilateral precuneus and contralateral parahippocampus in schizotypal personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yikang; Tang, Yunxiang; Zhang, Tianhong; Li, Hui; Tang, Yingying; Li, Chunbo; Luo, Xingguang; He, Yongguang; Lu, Zheng; Wang, Jijun

    2017-02-02

    Schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) is linked to schizophrenia in terms of shared genetics, biological markers and phenomenological characteristics. In the current study, we aimed to determine whether the previously reported altered functional connectivity (FC) with precuneus in patients with schizophrenia could be extended to individuals with SPD. Twenty subjects with SPD and 19 healthy controls were recruited from 4461 freshmen at a university in Shanghai and received a resting-state scan of MRI. All participants were evaluated by the Chinese version of Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) and the Chinese version of Symptom Checklist (SCL-90). The imaging data were analysed using the seed-based functional connectivity method. Compared with the controls, SPD subjects exhibited reduced FC between bilateral precuneus and contralateral parahippocampus. In SPD group, SPQ total score was negatively correlated with FC between right precuneus and left parahippocampus (r = -0.603, p = 0.006); there was a negative trend between SPQ subscale score of suspiciousness and FC between left precuneus and right parahippocampus (r = -0.553, p = 0.014); and a positive trend was found between SPQ subscale score of odd or eccentric behaviour and FC between left precuneus and right superior temporal gyrus (r = 0.543, p = 0.016). As for the SCL-90 score, a similar negative trend was found between SCL-90 subscale score of suspiciousness and FC between right precuneus and left parahippocampus (r = -0.535, p = 0.018) in SPD group. Our findings suggest that the decreased functional connectivity between precuneus and contralateral parahippocampus might play a key role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia spectrum disorder.

  13. Comparing Facial Emotional Recognition in Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder and Patients with Schizotypal Personality Disorder with a Normal Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Farsham

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: No research has been conducted on facial emotional recognition on patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD and schizotypal personality disorder (SPD. The present study aimed at comparing facial emotion recognition in these patients with the general population. The neurocognitive processing of emotions can show the pathologic style of these 2 disorders. Method:  Twenty BPD patients, 16 SPD patients, and 20 healthy individuals were selected by available sampling method. Structural Clinical Interview for Axis II, Millon Personality Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory and Facial Emotional Recognition Test was were conducted for all participants.Discussion: The results of one way ANOVA and Scheffe’s post hoc test analysis revealed significant differences in neuropsychology assessment of  facial emotional recognition between BPD and  SPD patients with normal group (p = 0/001. A significant difference was found in emotion recognition of fear between the 2 groups of BPD and normal population (p = 0/008. A significant difference was observed between SPD patients and control group in emotion recognition of wonder (p = 0/04(.The obtained results indicated a deficit in negative emotion recognition, especially disgust emotion, thus, it can be concluded that these patients have the same neurocognitive profile in the emotion domain.

  14. Neurophysiological evidence of impaired self-monitoring in schizotypal personality disorder and its reversal by dopaminergic antagonism.

    OpenAIRE

    Rabella, Mireia; Grasa, Eva; Corripio, Iluminada; Romero, Sergio; Mañanas, Miquel Àngel; Antonijoan, Rosa Mª.; Münte, Thomas F.; Pérez, Víctor; Riba, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) is a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder characterized by odd or bizarre behavior, strange speech, magical thinking, unusual perceptual experiences, and social anhedonia. Schizophrenia proper has been associated with anomalies in dopaminergic neurotransmission and deficits in neurophysiological markers of self-monitoring, such as low amplitude in cognitive event-related brain potentials (ERPs) like the error-related negativity (ERN), and the erro...

  15. Context processing in schizotypal personality disorder: evidence of specificity of impairment to the schizophrenia spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Margaret M; Barch, Deanna M; Flory, Janine D; Harvey, Philip D; Siever, Larry J

    2008-05-01

    Working memory abnormalities, which are particularly pronounced on context processing tasks, appear relatively specific to schizophrenia spectrum illnesses compared with other psychotic disorders. However, the specificity of context processing deficits to schizotypal personality disorder (SPD), a prototype of schizophrenia, has not been studied. The authors administered 3 versions of the modified AX Continuous Performance Test and an N-back working memory test to 63 individuals with SPD and 25 with other personality disorders, as well as 42 healthy controls. For the AX Continuous Performance Test standard and degraded versions, there was a significant Trial Type x Delay x Group interaction, as SPDs made significantly more errors reflecting poor maintenance of context and fewer errors reflecting good maintenance of context. SPDs also demonstrated poor performance on the N-back, especially at the 2-back condition. Context processing errors and N-back accuracy scores were related to disorganization symptoms. These findings, which are quite similar to those previously reported in patients with schizophrenia, suggest that context processing deficits are specific to the schizophrenia spectrum and are not a reflection of overall psychopathology.

  16. Socioeconomic background and the developmental course of schizotypal and borderline personality disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Patricia; Chen, Henian; Gordon, Kathy; Johnson, Jeffrey; Brook, Judith; Kasen, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    Low socioeconomic status (SES) background has been identified as a risk for several mental disorders. However evidence regarding SES and the developmental course of personality disorder (PD) has not been addressed. Nor is it clear whether an SES relationship to PD symptom course may be attributable to known associated risks. Further, specificity of such relationships to a particular PD diagnostic pattern independent of comorbidity with other PD or with depression has not been investigated. Data are from a general population studied longitudinally between ages 10 and 36 in four assessment waves. Effects of SES-associated risks on the level of symptoms of schizotypal and borderline disorders are estimated and compared to effects on depressive symptoms. Low family SES had robust modest independent effects on both PDs over the entire age span despite substantial cumulative effects of trauma history, stressful recent life events, IQ, poor parenting, and comorbid symptoms. SES effects on depressive symptoms were generally absent, but a small "protective" effect of low SES appeared when comorbidity with PD symptoms was taken into account. Cumulatively, these risks account for developmental failures of substantial magnitude and consequence, marking the importance of understanding the remaining mechanisms of SES effects and programmatic implications for minimizing associated risk.

  17. The effects of guanfacine on context processing abnormalities in schizotypal personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Margaret M; Barch, Deanna M; Romero, Michelle J; Minzenberg, Michael J; Triebwasser, Joseph; Harvey, Philip D; Siever, Larry J

    2007-05-15

    The signature of impaired cognition in people with schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) may be centrally related to working memory impairments. Guanfacine, an alpha2A agonist that acts post-synaptically in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), has shown potential for reducing working memory limitations in other populations. This study examined the potential of guanfacine for improving context processing, a feature of working memory, in SPD. 29 individuals with SPD entered into a 4-week, randomized parallel-design, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of guanfacine treatment, followed by a 4-week open-label extension. A modified version of the AX-Continuous Performance Test (AX-CPT) was administered. On this task, evidence of intact context processing includes few BX errors (false cue, correct probe) and higher levels of AY errors (correct cue, false probe). At the end of double-blind treatment, participants treated with guanfacine demonstrated a significant reduction in BX errors and a small but significant increase in AY errors, a pattern that was not seen in the participants treated with placebo. SPD participants improved in their context processing toward a normal response bias, making fewer BX and more AY errors, after being treated with guanfacine.

  18. Two-Year Prevalence and Stability of Individual DSM-IV Criteria for Schizotypal, Borderline, Avoidant, and Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorders: Toward a Hybrid Model of Axis II Disorders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McGlashan, Thomas H; Grilo, Carlos M; Sanislow, Charles A; Ralevski, Elizabeth; Morey, Leslie C; Gunderson, John G; Skodol, Andrew E; Shea, M. Tracie; Zanarini, Mary C; Bender, Donna; Stout, Robert L; Yen, Shirley; Pagano, Maria

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study tracked the individual criteria of four DSM-IV personality disorders-borderline, schizotypal, avoidant, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders-and how they change over 2 years. METHOD...

  19. Working memory in schizotypal personality disorder: fMRI activation and deactivation differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Mai-Anh T; Thermenos, Heidi W; Terry, Douglas P; Wolfe, David J; Voglmaier, Martina M; Niznikiewicz, Margaret A; McCarley, Robert W; Seidman, Larry J; Dickey, Chandlee C

    2013-12-01

    Schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) is considered a schizophrenia spectrum disorder, sharing with schizophrenia cognitive, neuropsychological, epidemiological, and biological characteristics. Working memory may be one area of shared deficit, although to date, this is only the second study to investigate working memory in SPD using fMRI. In a block-design fMRI study, fifteen antipsychotic-naïve SPD and sixteen healthy control subjects performed blocks of a 2back visual working memory task and 0back continuous performance task while undergoing whole-brain fMRI at 3T. Whole-brain analyses were performed for the 0back>rest (fixation baseline) and the 2back>0back contrasts (isolating the working memory component from the visual perception and attention component). Parameter estimates were extracted to determine whether observed differences were due to task-induced activation and/or deactivation. Activation differences emerged between the two groups, without differences in task performance. In the 0back task, SPD showed decreased task-induced activation of the left postcentral gyrus. In the 2back>0back contrast, HC showed greater task-induced activation of the left posterior cingulate gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, insula, and middle frontal gyrus. These differences were due to SPD subjects' decreased task-induced activation in the left posterior cingulate gyrus, and task-induced deactivation in the remaining regions. These findings suggest that compared to HC subjects, individuals with SPD may achieve comparable working memory performance. However, differences emerge at the level of functional neural activation, attributable to different task-induced activation and deactivation patterns. Such differential recruitment of neural resources may be beneficial, contributing to SPD subjects' ability to perform these tasks comparably to HC subjects. © 2013.

  20. Factors in sensory processing of prosody in schizotypal personality disorder: an fMRI experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, Chandlee C; Morocz, Istvan A; Minney, Daniel; Niznikiewicz, Margaret A; Voglmaier, Martina M; Panych, Lawrence P; Khan, Usman; Zacks, Rayna; Terry, Douglas P; Shenton, Martha E; McCarley, Robert W

    2010-08-01

    Persons diagnosed with schizophrenia demonstrate deficits in prosody recognition. To examine prosody along the schizophrenia spectrum, antipsychotic-naïve schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) subjects and healthy control subjects were compared. It was hypothesized that SPD subjects would perform more poorly; with cognitive and demographic factors contributing to the poor performance. The superior temporal gyrus (STG) was selected as the region-of-interest (ROI) given its known abnormalities in SPD and its important role in the processing of prosody. SPD and healthy comparison (HC) subjects were matched on age, IQ, and parental social-economic status (PSES). Cognitive measures included the Speech Sound Perception Test (SSPT) to examine phonological processing (SPD=68, HC=74) and the Verbal Fluency task to examine executive functioning (SPD=129, HC=138). The main experiment was a novel fMRI task of prosody identification using semantically neutral sentences spoken with emotional prosody (SPD=16, HC=13). Finally, volumetric measurement of the superior temporal sulcus (STS), a key region for processing prosody, and partially overlapping with the STG, was performed (SPD=30, HC=30). Phonological processing and executive functioning were both impaired in SPD subjects compared with HC subjects. Contrary to the prediction, SPD subjects, as a group, were similar to HC subjects in terms of correctly indentifying the emotion conveyed and reaction time. Within the SPD group, prosody identification accuracy was influenced by executive functioning, IQ and perhaps PSES, relationships not found with HC subjects. Phonological perception aided prosody identification in both diagnostic groups. As expected, both groups activated the STG while performing the prosody identification task. However, SPD subjects may have been less "efficient" in their recruitment of STG neurons. Finally, SPD subjects demonstrated a trend toward smaller STS volumes on the left, particularly the lower bank

  1. The Differential Effects of Child Abuse and PTSD on Schizotypal Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Abigail D.; Thomas, Katherine M.; Ressler, Kerry J.; Bradley, Bekh

    2010-01-01

    Objective Previous findings suggest a relation between trauma exposure and risk for schizotypal personality disorder (SPD). However, the reasons for this relationship are not well understood. Some research suggests that exposure to trauma, particularly early trauma and child abuse, as well as PTSD may play a role. Methods We examined subjects (N=541) recruited from the primary care clinics of an urban public hospital as part of an NIMH-funded study of trauma related risk and resilience. We evaluated childhood abuse with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and the Early Trauma Inventory (ETI) and SPD with the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP). We assessed for lifetime PTSD using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS). Results We found that of the three forms of abuse analyzed (emotional, physical, and sexual), only emotional abuse significantly predicted SPD (p<.001, R=0.28) when all three abuse types were simultaneously entered into a regression model. Lifetime PTSD symptoms also significantly predicted SPD (p<.001, R=0.26). PTSD was specifically predictive of four of the eight SPD symptoms (p≤.001): excessive social anxiety, a lack of close friends or confidants, unusual perceptual experiences, and eccentric behavior or appearance. Using a Sobel test, we also found a partial mediation effect of PTSD on the relation between emotional abuse and SPD (z=3.45, p<.001). Conclusions These findings point to the important influence of emotional abuse on SPD and suggest that PTSD symptoms may provide a link between damaging childhood experiences and SPD symptoms in traumatized adults. PMID:21683181

  2. Prevalence, correlates, disability, and comorbidity of DSM-IV schizotypal personality disorder: results from the wave 2 national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulay, Attila J; Stinson, Frederick S; Dawson, Deborah A; Goldstein, Risë B; Chou, S Patricia; Huang, Boji; Saha, Tulshi D; Smith, Sharon M; Pickering, Roger P; Ruan, W June; Hasin, Deborah S; Grant, Bridget F

    2009-01-01

    To present nationally representative findings on the prevalence, correlates, and comorbidity of and disability associated with DSM-IV schizotypal personality disorder (SPD). This study used the 2004-2005 Wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, which targeted a nationally representative sample of the adult civilian population of the United States aged 18 years and older and residing in households and group quarters. In Wave 2, attempts were made to conduct face-to-face reinterviews with all respondents to the Wave 1 interview. Lifetime prevalence of SPD was 3.9%, with significantly greater rates among men (4.2%) than women (3.7%) (p personality disorder was associated with substantial mental disability in both sexes. Co-occurrence rates of Axis I and other Axis II disorders among respondents with SPD were much higher than rates of co-occurrence of SPD among respondents with other disorders. After adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and additional comorbidity, associations remained significant in both sexes between SPD and 12-month and lifetime bipolar I disorder, social and specific phobias, and posttraumatic stress disorder, as well as 12-month bipolar II disorder, lifetime generalized anxiety disorder, and borderline and narcissistic personality disorders (all p personality disorders, whereas much of the comorbidity between SPD and most mood and anxiety disorders appears to reflect factors common to these disorders. Some of the associations with SPD were sex specific. Schizotypal personality disorder and dependent, avoidant, and borderline personality disorders were associated with the occurrence of schizophrenia or psychotic episode. Schizotypal personality disorder is a prevalent, fairly stable, highly disabling disorder in the general population. Sex differences in associations of SPD with other specific Axis I and II disorders can inform more focused, hypothesis-driven investigations of factors underlying the

  3. [Confirmatory factor analysis of schizotypal personality traits in university students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Emre; Baysan Arabaci, Leyla

    2009-01-01

    Investigating the factor structure of schizotypal traits in normal population is important to describe the clinical phenotypes associated with susceptibility to schizophrenia. Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) is a commonly used self-rated measure to assess schizotypal traits. While Raine's three-factorial model is most commonly supported model explaining factor structure of schizotypal traits, there is also evidence supporting alternative models. The aim of this study is compare the goodness-of-fitness of various models about factor structure of the SPQ in a substantial number of university students. 1059 university students were participated in the study. Alternative models regarding factor structure of the SPQ were compared with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The effect of gender on the factor structure of schizotypal traits is also studied. The 4 factorial model that included cognitive-perceptual, paranoid, interpersonal and disorganized dimensions fit the data the best. Raine's three factorial model did not fit the data adequately. However, after minor modifications, Raine's model also had a satisfactory goodness-of-fit. Gender had no effect on the factor structure of the SPQ. Results of these study supported 4-factorial model of Stefanis and modified version of Raine's model to explain factor structure of schizotypal traits. The structure of schizotypal traits is in parallel with structure of symptom dimensions in schizophrenia. This outcome is compatible with the views seeing schizotypal traits in general population in continuum with schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

  4. Two-Year Prevalence and Stability of Individual DSM-IV Criteria for Schizotypal, Borderline, Avoidant, and Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorders: Toward a Hybrid Model of Axis II Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlashan, Thomas H.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Sanislow, Charles A.; Ralevski, Elizabeth; Morey, Leslie C.; Gunderson, John G.; Skodol, Andrew E.; Shea, M. Tracie; Zanarini, Mary C.; Bender, Donna; Stout, Robert L.; Yen, Shirley; Pagano, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study tracked the individual criteria of four DSM-IV personality disorders—borderline, schizotypal, avoidant, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders—and how they change over 2 years. Method This clinical sample of patients with personality disorders was derived from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study and included all participants with borderline, schizotypal, avoidant, or obsessive-compulsive personality disorder for whom complete 24-month blind follow-up assessments were obtained (N=474). The authors identified and rank-ordered criteria for each of the four personality disorders by their variation in prevalence and changeability (remission) over time. Results The most prevalent and least changeable criteria over 2 years were paranoid ideation and unusual experiences for schizotypal personality disorder, affective instability and anger for borderline personality disorder, feeling inadequate and feeling socially inept for avoidant personality disorder, and rigidity and problems delegating for obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. The least prevalent and most changeable criteria were odd behavior and constricted affect for schizotypal personality disorder, self-injury and behaviors defending against abandonment for borderline personality disorder, avoiding jobs that are interpersonal and avoiding potentially embarrassing situations for avoidant personality disorder, and miserly behaviors and strict moral behaviors for obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. Conclusions These patterns highlight that within personality disorders the relatively fixed criteria are more trait-like and attitudinal, whereas the relatively intermittent criteria are more behavioral and reactive. These patterns suggest that personality disorders are hybrids of traits and symptomatic behaviors and that the interaction of these elements over time helps determine diagnostic stability. These patterns may also inform criterion selection for

  5. Neurophysiological evidence of impaired self-monitoring in schizotypal personality disorder and its reversal by dopaminergic antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabella, Mireia; Grasa, Eva; Corripio, Iluminada; Romero, Sergio; Mañanas, Miquel Àngel; Antonijoan, Rosa M; Münte, Thomas F; Pérez, Víctor; Riba, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) is a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder characterized by odd or bizarre behavior, strange speech, magical thinking, unusual perceptual experiences, and social anhedonia. Schizophrenia proper has been associated with anomalies in dopaminergic neurotransmission and deficits in neurophysiological markers of self-monitoring, such as low amplitude in cognitive event-related brain potentials (ERPs) like the error-related negativity (ERN), and the error positivity (Pe). These components occur after performance errors, rely on adequate fronto-striatal function, and are sensitive to dopaminergic modulation. Here we postulated that analogous to observations in schizophrenia, SPD individuals would show deficits in self-monitoring, as measured by the ERN and the Pe. We also assessed the capacity of dopaminergic antagonists to reverse these postulated deficits. We recorded the electroencephalogram (EEG) from 9 SPD individuals and 12 healthy controls in two separate experimental sessions while they performed the Eriksen Flanker Task, a classical task recruiting behavioral monitoring. Participants received a placebo or 1 mg risperidone according to a double-blind randomized design. After placebo, SPD individuals showed slower reaction times to hits, longer correction times following errors and reduced ERN and Pe amplitudes. While risperidone impaired performance and decreased ERN and Pe in the control group, it led to behavioral improvements and ERN amplitude increases in the SPD individuals. These results indicate that SPD individuals show deficits in self-monitoring analogous to those in schizophrenia. These deficits can be evidenced by neurophysiological measures, suggest a dopaminergic imbalance, and can be reverted by dopaminergic antagonists.

  6. Characterization of the fiber connectivity profile of the cerebral cortex in schizotypal personality disorder: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai eLiu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Schizotypal personality disorder (SPD is considered one of the classic disconnection syndromes. However, the specific cortical disconnectivity pattern has not been fully investigated. In this study, we aimed to explore significant alterations in whole-cortex structural connectivity in SPD individuals (SPDs by combining the techniques of brain surface morphometry and white matter (WM tractography. Diffusion and structural MR data were collected from twenty subjects with SPD (all males; age, 19.7 ± 0.9 yrs and eighteen healthy controls (all males; age, 20.3 ± 1.0 yrs. To measure the structural connectivity for a given unit area of the cortex, the fiber connectivity density (FiCD value was proposed and calculated as the sum of the fractional anisotropy of all the fibers connecting to that unit area in tractography. Then, the resultant whole-cortex FiCD maps were compared in a vertex-wise manner between SPDs and controls. Compared with normal controls, SPDs showed significantly decreased FiCD in the rostral middle frontal gyrus (crossing BA9 and BA10 and significantly increased FiCD in the anterior part of the fusiform/inferior temporal cortex (P < 0.05, Monte Carlo simulation corrected. Moreover, the gray matter volume extracted from the left rostral middle frontal cluster was observed to be significantly greater in the SPD group (P = 0.02. Overall, this study identifies a decrease in connectivity in the left middle frontal cortex as a key neural deficit at the whole-cortex level in SPD, thus providing insight into its neuropathological basis.

  7. Schizoid Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with schizoid personality disorder: Are in touch with reality, so they're unlikely to experience paranoia or ... People with schizoid personality disorder are at an increased risk of: Developing schizotypal personality disorder, schizophrenia or ...

  8. Effects of the D1 dopamine receptor agonist dihydrexidine (DAR-0100A) on working memory in schizotypal personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, Daniel R; Zaluda, Lauren C; McClure, Margaret M; Perez-Rodriguez, M Mercedes; Strike, K Sloan; Barch, Deanna M; Harvey, Philip D; Girgis, Ragy R; Hazlett, Erin A; Mailman, Richard B; Abi-Dargham, Anissa; Lieberman, Jeffrey A; Siever, Larry J

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacological enhancement of prefrontal D1 dopamine receptor function remains a promising therapeutic approach to ameliorate schizophrenia-spectrum working memory deficits, but has yet to be rigorously evaluated clinically. This proof-of-principle study sought to determine whether the active enantiomer of the selective and full D1 receptor agonist dihydrexidine (DAR-0100A) could attenuate working memory impairments in unmedicated patients with schizotypal personality disorder (SPD). We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of DAR-0100A (15 mg/150 ml of normal saline administered intravenously over 30 min) in medication-free patients with SPD (n=16) who met the criteria for cognitive impairment (ie, scoring below the 25th percentile on tests of working memory). We employed two measures of verbal working memory that are salient to schizophrenia-spectrum cognitive deficits, and that clinical data implicate as being associated with prefrontal D1 availability: (1) the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT); and (2) the N-back test (ratio of 2-back:0-back scores). Study procedures occurred over four consecutive days, with working memory testing on Days 1 and 4, and DAR-0100A/placebo administration on Days 2-4. Treatment with DAR-0100A was associated with significantly improved PASAT performance relative to placebo, with a very large effect size (Cohen's d=1.14). Performance on the N-back ratio was also significantly improved; however, this effect rested on both a non-significant enhancement and diminution of 2-back and 0-back performance, respectively; therefore interpretation of this finding is more complicated. DAR-0100A was generally well tolerated, with no serious medical or psychiatric adverse events; common side effects were mild to moderate and transient, consisting mainly of sedation, lightheadedness, tachycardia, and hypotension; however, we were able to minimize these effects, without altering the dose, with supportive

  9. Pergolide treatment of cognitive deficits associated with schizotypal personality disorder: continued evidence of the importance of the dopamine system in the schizophrenia spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Margaret M; Harvey, Philip D; Goodman, Marianne; Triebwasser, Joseph; New, Antonia; Koenigsberg, Harold W; Sprung, Larry J; Flory, Janine D; Siever, Larry J

    2010-05-01

    Cognitive deficits observed in schizophrenia are also frequently found in individuals with other schizophrenia spectrum disorders, such as schizotypal personality disorder (SPD). Dopamine appears to be a particularly important modulator of cognitive processes such as those impaired in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, we administered pergolide, a dopamine agonist targeting D(1) and D(2) receptors, to 25 participants with SPD and assessed the effect of pergolide treatment, as compared with placebo, on neuropsychological performance. We found that the pergolide group showed improvements in visual-spatial working memory, executive functioning, and verbal learning and memory. These results suggest that dopamine agonists may provide benefit for the cognitive abnormalities of schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

  10. Pergolide Treatment of Cognitive Deficits Associated with Schizotypal Personality Disorder: Continued Evidence of the Importance of the Dopamine System in the Schizophrenia Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Margaret M; Harvey, Philip D; Goodman, Marianne; Triebwasser, Joseph; New, Antonia; Koenigsberg, Harold W; Sprung, Larry J; Flory, Janine D; Siever, Larry J

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive deficits observed in schizophrenia are also frequently found in individuals with other schizophrenia spectrum disorders, such as schizotypal personality disorder (SPD). Dopamine appears to be a particularly important modulator of cognitive processes such as those impaired in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, we administered pergolide, a dopamine agonist targeting D1 and D2 receptors, to 25 participants with SPD and assessed the effect of pergolide treatment, as compared with placebo, on neuropsychological performance. We found that the pergolide group showed improvements in visual-spatial working memory, executive functioning, and verbal learning and memory. These results suggest that dopamine agonists may provide benefit for the cognitive abnormalities of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. PMID:20130535

  11. Schizotypal personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Updated by: Fred K. Berger, MD, addiction and forensic Psychiatrist, Scripps Memorial Hospital, La Jolla, CA. Also ... for EHRs For Developers U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department ...

  12. Correlation of individual differences in schizotypal personality traits with amphetamine-induced dopamine release in striatal and extrastriatal brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Neil D; Cowan, Ronald L; Park, Sohee; Ansari, M Sib; Baldwin, Ronald M; Li, Rui; Doop, Mikisha; Kessler, Robert M; Zald, David H

    2011-04-01

    Schizotypal personality traits are associated with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders demonstrate increased dopamine transmission in the striatum. The authors sought to determine whether individual differences in normal variation in schizotypal traits are correlated with dopamine transmission in the striatum and in extrastriatal brain regions. Sixty-three healthy volunteers with no history of psychiatric illness completed the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire and underwent positron emission tomography imaging with [(18)F]fallypride at baseline and after administration of oral d-amphetamine (0.43 mg/kg). Dopamine release, quantified by subtracting each participant's d-amphetamine scan from his or her baseline scan, was correlated with Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire total and factor scores using region-of-interest and voxel-wise analyses. Dopamine release in the striatum was positively correlated with overall schizotypal traits. The association was especially robust in the associative subdivision of the striatum. Voxel-wise analyses identified additional correlations between dopamine release and schizotypal traits in the left middle frontal gyrus and left supramarginal gyrus. Exploratory analyses of Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire factor scores revealed correlations between dopamine release and disorganized schizotypal traits in the striatum, thalamus, medial prefrontal cortex, temporal lobe, insula, and inferior frontal cortex. The association between dopamine signaling and psychosis phenotypes extends to individual differences in normal variation in schizotypal traits and involves dopamine transmission in both striatal and extrastriatal brain regions. Amphetamine-induced dopamine release may be a useful endophenotype for investigating the genetic basis of schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

  13. [Schizophrenia-like personality disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suslow, T; Arolt, V

    2009-03-01

    According to DSM-IV the cluster A personality disorders include paranoid, schizoid, and schizotypal personality disorders. There exists a phenomenological similarity between the experience and behaviour of the so-called odd or eccentric personality disorders and the symptoms of schizophrenia. Evidence of common etiological factors is still the best for the schizotypal personality disorder. The cluster A personality disorders are among the less common personality disorders with a high co-occurrence. Present findings about the neurobiological substrate of the schizotypal personality disorder are discussed also taking neuropsychological results into consideration. A central prerequisite of psychotherapeutic and pharmacological treatment of cluster A personality disorders is a strong therapeutic patient relationship.

  14. The relationship between interview-based schizotypal personality dimension scores and the continuous performance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedwell, Jeffrey S; Kamath, Vidyulata; Compton, Michael T

    2009-03-01

    The existing research that has examined cognitive performance in samples with subclinical schizotypal personality features has been largely limited to psychometric self-report questionnaires, which may be biased by distorted self-awareness of symptoms. The present study examined the relationship between performance on a degraded-AX continuous performance test (CPT) and continuous dimension scores created from a structured clinical interview for schizotypal personality disorder (SPD), which reflected both the breadth and severity of schizotypal personality symptoms, in 52 undergraduate students. Only one participant met full diagnostic criteria for SPD. The overall dimension score from the SPD clinical interview showed a positive correlation with both omission (r(s)=.47) and false alarm (r(s)=.41) errors on the CPT. Interpersonal symptoms were positively correlated with omission errors (r(s)=.47), while Disorganized symptoms were positively correlated with false alarm errors (r(s)=.40). Results suggest that higher SPD interview-based dimension scores are associated with lower levels of performance on the CPT, even when examining a relatively subclinical sample of young adults. In contrast, scores from the psychometric Abbreviated Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire in the same sample did not correlate with accuracy measures on the CPT, suggesting that the interview-based measure of schizotypal personality may have a stronger relationship with CPT accuracy. Findings also add to a growing literature suggesting that Interpersonal SPD symptoms are primarily related to omission errors, while Disorganized SPD symptoms are primarily related to false alarm errors.

  15. Psychometric properties of the arabic version of the schizotypal personality questionnaire in Tunisian university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Aymen Lahmar; Leila, Gassab; Faouzia, Beltaief; Anwar, Mechri

    2014-05-01

    The schizotypal personality disorder is considered as a marker of schizophrenia proneness. The schizotypal personality questionnaire (SPQ) is an instrument to help to the diagnosis of schizotypal personality disorder extensively studied in the literature. aim: To assess psychometric properties (reliability and factor structure) of the Arabic version of the SPQ in a sample of Tunisian university students. method: The sample included 490 students (145 males and 345 females; mean age: 20.4 ± 1.4 years), from the faculty of medicine and the health sciences school of Monastir. Thirty-three students participated in the second assessment of the SPQ three months later. results: Cronbach's (α) internal consistency reliability coefficients were 0.92 for the total SPQ and from 0.62 to 0.75 for the SPQ subscales. The test-retest reliability was good with the intraclass correlation coefficients equal to 0.83 for the total SPQ and from 0.67 to 0.87 for the SPQ subscales (Pdisorganized) and the four-factor model (cognitive-perceptual, paranoid, interpersonal, and disorganized) have provided a good fit to the data, accounting for 70.7% and 77.3% of the total variance of the scale, respectively. The results showed that the Arabic version of the SPQ had adequate psychometric properties and confirmed the multidimensional structure of the schizotypal personality in nonclinical populations.

  16. Validation of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief Form in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Paíno-Piñeiro, Mercedes; Lemos-Giráldez, Serafín; Villazón-García, Ursula; Muñiz, José

    2009-06-01

    The main objective of the study was to validate the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief (SPQ-B) in a sample of non-clinical adolescents. In addition, the schizotypal personality structure and differences in the dimensions of schizotypy according to gender and age are analyzed. The sample comprises 1683 students, 818 males (48.6%), with a mean age of 15.9 years (SD=1.2). The results showed that the SPQ-B had adequate psychometric properties. Internal consistency of the subscales and total score ranged from 0.61 to 0.81. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the three-factor model (positive, negative, and disorganized) and the four-factor model (positive, paranoid, negative, and disorganized) fit reasonably well in comparison to the remaining models. With regard to gender and age, statistically significant differences were found due to age but not to gender. In line with previous literature, the results confirmed the multi-factor structure of the schizotypal personality in non-clinical adolescent populations. Future studies could use the SPQ-B as a screening self-report of rapid and efficient application for the detection of adolescents vulnerable to the development of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders in the general population, in genetically high-risk samples and in clinical studies.

  17. Schizotypal Personality Traits and Atypical Lateralization in Motor and Language Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Tomohisa; Sugimori, Eriko; Tanno, Yoshihiko

    2009-01-01

    Atypical cerebral lateralization in motor and language functions in regard to schizotypal personality traits in healthy populations, as well as among schizophrenic patients, has attracted attention because these traits may represent a risk factor for schizophrenia. Although the relationship between handedness and schizotypal personality has been…

  18. The validity of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire in a Greek sample: Tests of measurement invariance and latent mean differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaousis, Ioannis; Zouraraki, Chrysoula; Karamaouna, Penny; Karagiannopoulou, Leda; Giakoumaki, Stella G

    2015-10-01

    The Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) is a widely used scale for measuring schizotypal characteristics modeled on DSM-III-R criteria for schizotypal personality disorder (SPD). The aim of this study was to examine the factorial structure of the Greek SPQ, its factorial invariance across gender and different age groups and possible gender and age group differences at latent mean level. Eight hundred sixty-five community participants completed the Greek version of the SPQ. With regard to the factorial structure of the original first-order model, the results showed that a seven-factor model (sub-scales "no close friends" with "constricted affect" and "ideas of reference" with "unusual perceptual experiences" were combined) was replicated adequately. Furthermore, the second-order "paranoid" model provided also adequate fit. With regard to the factorial invariance of the SPQ across gender and age, the analysis revealed that both, the first- and second-order models showed measurement invariance (configural, metric and structural) across gender and age groups (17-35 vs. 36-70). Latent mean differences across gender and age groups were also found. Based on these findings, we can conclude that the Greek version of the SPQ is a psychometrically sound instrument for measuring schizotypal characteristics and a useful screening tool for SPD across gender and age. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Testing measurement invariance of the schizotypal personality questionnaire-brief scores across Spanish and Swiss adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ortuño-Sierra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schizotypy is a complex construct intimately related to psychosis. Empirical evidence indicates that participants with high scores on schizotypal self-report are at a heightened risk for the later development of psychotic disorders. Schizotypal experiences represent the behavioural expression of liability for psychotic disorders. Previous factorial studies have shown that schizotypy is a multidimensional construct similar to that found in patients with schizophrenia. Specifically, using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief (SPQ-B, the three-dimensional model has been widely replicated. However, there has been no in-depth investigation of whether the dimensional structure underlying the SPQ-B scores is invariant across countries. METHODS: The main goal of this study was to examine the measurement invariance of the SPQ-B scores across Spanish and Swiss adolescents. The final sample was made up of 261 Spanish participants (51.7% men; M = 16.04 years and 241 Swiss participants (52.3% men; M = 15.94 years. RESULTS: The results indicated that Raine et al.'s three-factor model presented adequate goodness-of-fit indices. Moreover, the results supported the measurement invariance (configural and partial strong invariance of the SPQ-B scores across the two samples. Spanish participants scored higher on Interpersonal dimension than Swiss when latent means were compared. DISCUSSION: The study of measurement equivalence across countries provides preliminary evidence for the Raine et al.'s three-factor model and of the cross-cultural validity of the SPQ-B scores in adolescent population. Future studies should continue to examine the measurement invariance of the schizotypy and psychosis-risk syndromes across cultures.

  20. Autistic and schizotypal traits and global functioning in bipolar I disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Akel, Ahmad; Clark, Jennifer; Perry, Amy; Wood, Stephen J; Forty, Liz; Craddock, Nick; Jones, Ian; Gordon-Smith, Katherine; Jones, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    To determine the expression of autistic and positive schizotypal traits in a large sample of adults with bipolar I disorder (BD I), and the effect of co-occurring autistic and positive schizotypal traits on global functioning in BD I. Autistic and positive schizotypal traits were self-assessed in 797 individuals with BD-I recruited by the Bipolar Disorder Research Network. Differences in global functioning (rated using the Global Assessment Scale) during lifetime worst depressive and manic episodes (GASD and GASM respectively) were calculated in groups with high/low autistic and positive schizotypal traits. Regression analyses assessed the interactive effect of autistic and positive schizotypal traits on global functioning. 47.2% (CI=43.7-50.7%) showed clinically significant levels of autistic traits, and 23.22% (95% CI=20.29-26.14) showed clinically significant levels of positive schizotypal traits. In the worst episode of mania, the high autistic, high positive schizotypal group had better global functioning compared to the other groups. Individual differences analyses showed that high levels of both traits were associated with better global functioning in both mood states. Autistic and schizotypal traits were assessed using self-rated questionnaires. Expression of autistic and schizotypal traits in adults with BD I is prevalent, and may be important to predict illness aetiology, prognosis, and diagnostic practices in this population. Future work should focus on replicating these findings in independent samples, and on the biological and/or psychosocial mechanisms underlying better global functioning in those who have high levels of both autistic and positive schizotypal traits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Neural correlates of irony comprehension: the role of schizotypal personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, A M; Mutschler, D E; Wild, B; Erb, M; Lengsfeld, I; Saur, R; Grodd, W

    2010-04-01

    To detect that a conversational turn is intended to be ironic is a difficult challenge in everyday language comprehension. Most authors suggested a theory of mind deficit is crucial for irony comprehension deficits in psychiatric disorders like schizophrenia; however, the underlying pathophysiology and neurobiology are unknown and recent research highlights the possible role of language comprehension abnormalities. Fifteen female right-handed subjects completed personality testing as well as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and neuropsychology. Subjects were recruited from the general population. No subject had a lifetime history of relevant psychiatric disorder; however, subjects differed in their score on the German version of the schizotypal personality questionnaire (SPQ). During fMRI scans, the subjects silently read 44 short text vignettes that ended in either an ironic or a literal statement. Imaging was performed using a 3 T Siemens scanner. The influence of schizotypy on brain activation was investigated by using an SPM5 regression analysis with the SPQ total score and the SPQ cognitive-perceptual score as regressors. Reading ironic in contrast to literal sentences activated a bilateral network including left medial prefrontal and left inferior parietal gyri. During reading of ironic sentences, brain activation in the middle temporal gyrus of both hemispheres showed a significant negative association with the SPQ total score and the SPQ cognitive-perceptual score. Significant positive correlation with the SPQ total score was present in the left inferior frontal gyrus. We conclude schizotypal personality traits are associated with a dysfunctional lateral temporal language rather than a theory of mind network.

  2. Experience of pleasure and emotional expression in individuals with schizotypal personality features.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-fang Shi

    Full Text Available Difficulties in feeling pleasure and expressing emotions are one of the key features of schizophrenia spectrum conditions, and are significant contributors to constricted interpersonal interactions. The current study examined the experience of pleasure and emotional expression in college students who demonstrated high and low levels of schizotypal personality disorder (SPD traits on self-report questionnaires. One hundred and seventeen subjects with SPD traits and 116 comparison controls were recruited to participate. Cluster analyses conducted in the SPD group identified negative SPD and positive SPD subgroups. The negative SPD group exhibited deficient emotional expression and anticipatory pleasure, but showed intact consummatory pleasure. The positive SPD group reported significantly greater levels of anticipatory, consummatory and total pleasure compared to the control group. Both SPD groups reported significantly more problems in everyday memory and greater levels of depressive and anxiety-related symptoms.

  3. Personality disorder types proposed for DSM-5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skodol, A.E.; Bender, D.S.; Morey, L.C.; Clark, L.A.; Oldham, J.M.; Alarcon, R.D.; Krueger, R.F.; Verheul, R.; Bell, C.C.; Siever, L.J.

    2011-01-01

    The Personality and Personality Disorders Work Group has proposed five specific personality disorder (PD) types for DSM-5, to be rated on a dimension of fit: antisocial/psychopathic, avoidant, borderline, obsessive-compulsive, and schizotypal. Each type is identified by core impairments in

  4. Happy facial expression processing with different social interaction cues: an fMRI study of individuals with schizotypal personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jia; Wang, Yi; Jin, Zhen; Di, Xin; Yang, Tao; Gur, Ruben C; Gur, Raquel E; Shum, David H K; Cheung, Eric F C; Chan, Raymond C K

    2013-07-01

    In daily life facial expressions change rapidly and the direction of change provides important clues about social interaction. The aim of conducting this study was to elucidate the dynamic happy facial expression processing with different social interaction cues in individuals with (n=14) and without (n=14) schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) traits. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), dynamic happy facial expression processing was examined by presenting video clips depicting happiness appearing and disappearing under happiness inducing ('praise') or reducing ('blame') interaction cues. The happiness appearing condition consistently elicited more brain activations than the happiness disappearing condition in the posterior cingulate bilaterally in all participants. Further analyses showed that the SPD group was less deactivated than the non-SPD group in the right anterior cingulate cortex in the happiness appearing-disappearing contrast. The SPD group deactivated more than the non-SPD group in the left posterior cingulate and right superior temporal gyrus in the praise-blame contrast. Moreover, the incongruence of cues and facial expression activated the frontal-thalamus-caudate-parietal network, which is involved in emotion recognition and conflict resolution. These results shed light on the neural basis of social interaction deficits in individuals with schizotypal personality traits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Differences in social functioning among patients with major psychiatric disorders: Interpersonal communication is impaired in patients with schizophrenia and correlates with an increase in schizotypal traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuyama, Toshiki; Ohi, Kazutaka; Shimada, Takamitsu; Uehara, Takashi; Kawasaki, Yasuhiro

    2017-03-01

    Impaired social functioning is a hallmark of major psychiatric disorders. The purpose of this study was to detect a disorder-specific factor of social dysfunction among patients with major psychiatric disorders (PSY), including schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder (BIP) and major depressive disorder (MDD). Social functioning was assessed in patients with SCZ (n=80), BIP (n=27) or MDD (n=29) and healthy controls (HC, n=68) using the Social Functioning Scale (SFS). Compared to HC, the SCZ, BIP and MDD patient groups showed lower total SFS scores. No differences in the total scores for social functioning were observed between patient groups. We next investigated seven subscales of the SFS among PSY and observed significant diagnostic effects on all subscales of the SFS. Notably, patients with SCZ have poorer interpersonal communication than patients with MDD. Furthermore, the poorer interpersonal communication score was significantly correlated with an increase in schizotypal personality traits, as assessed by the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) in HC. Although there were no differences in overall social functioning among PSY, disorder-specific factors, such as interpersonal communication, were evident in SCZ. The correlation between poor interpersonal communication and the increase in schizotypal traits suggests that poor interpersonal communication may be an intermediate phenotype of SCZ. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Altered depth perception is associated with presence of schizotypal personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbato, Mariapaola; Collinson, Simon Lowes; Casagrande, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Impaired depth perception, a fundamental aspect of early visual processing, has been shown in patients with schizophrenia suggesting a disturbance to magnocellular and possibly parvocellular pathways. Despite some evidence showing visual-perceptive deficits in people with schizotypal personality traits (SPT), depth perception has not been evaluated in these subjects. 12 clinically healthy schizotypy and 17 control participants were examined using a novel stereoscopic depth perception task. A mixed ANOVA design considered the Group (SPT/control) as independent factor, and trial Block (BD/BD+/BD-) and target Condition (SDSS/SDDS/DDSS/DDDS) were considered as repeated measures. Schizotypal participants were not significantly different to controls on simple judgements of depth but demonstrated a subtle impairment in perceiving binocular depth when performing high difficulty judgements. The presence of subtle depth perception problems in schizotypal subjects, similar but less marked than those of schizophrenia patients, may suggest a less pervasive disturbance of early information processing. If so, such deficits could be considered as innate neurological changes that may occur in people vulnerable for schizophrenia, thus with the potential to be a novel intermediate phenotype.

  7. [Schizotypical Disorder or Schizophrenia? Assessment of Penal Responsibility in a Patricide Case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutrim, Ruy Justo C; Forte Stuchi, Luísa; Martins Valença, Alexandre

    2013-09-01

    Patricide is the murder of one of the parents. We report a case of a man who had committed two homicides, at different times, one of them being considered a parricide. He was referred for forensic psychiatric evaluation and later evaluated in a psychiatric assistance service. Psychiatric interview was carried out and the final psychiatric diagnosis was established based on the DSM-IV-TR criteria and retrospective analysis of forensic and clinical records. The court appointed forensic experts concluded that the patient suffered from schizotypical disorder, presenting cognitive and volitive impairment. He was found not guilty by reason of insanity. Later, in a second assessment, being in a psychiatric assistance service, the patient received a diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia. The determination of criminal responsibility is essential to the proper disposition of convicted persons in any system of criminal law that protects human rights. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  8. Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Personality disorders are a group of mental illnesses. They involve long-term patterns of thoughts and behaviors that are ... problems with relationships and work. People with personality disorders have trouble dealing with everyday stresses and problems. ...

  9. Examination of the factor structure of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire among British and Trinidadian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, David; Swami, Viren; Towell, Tony; Hutchinson, Gerard; Morgan, Kevin D

    2015-01-01

    Much debate in schizotypal research has centred on the factor structure of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ), with research variously showing higher-order dimensionality consisting of two to seven dimensions. In addition, cross-cultural support for the stability of those factors remains limited. Here, we examined the factor structure of the SPQ among British and Trinidadian adults. Participants from a White British subsample (n = 351) resident in the UK and from an African Caribbean subsample (n = 284) resident in Trinidad completed the SPQ. The higher-order factor structure of the SPQ was analysed through confirmatory factor analysis, followed by multiple-group analysis for the model of best fit. Between-group differences for sex and ethnicity were investigated using multivariate analysis of variance in relation to the higher-order domains. The model of best-fit was the four-factor structure, which demonstrated measurement invariance across groups. Additionally, these data had an adequate fit for two alternative models: (a) 3-factor and (b) modified 4-factor model. The British subsample had significantly higher scores across all domains than the Trinidadian group, and men scored significantly higher on the disorganised domain than women. The four-factor structure received confirmatory support and, importantly, support for use with populations varying in ethnicity and culture.

  10. Examination of the Factor Structure of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire among British and Trinidadian Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Barron

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Much debate in schizotypal research has centred on the factor structure of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ, with research variously showing higher-order dimensionality consisting of two to seven dimensions. In addition, cross-cultural support for the stability of those factors remains limited. Here, we examined the factor structure of the SPQ among British and Trinidadian adults. Participants from a White British subsample (n=351 resident in the UK and from an African Caribbean subsample (n=284 resident in Trinidad completed the SPQ. The higher-order factor structure of the SPQ was analysed through confirmatory factor analysis, followed by multiple-group analysis for the model of best fit. Between-group differences for sex and ethnicity were investigated using multivariate analysis of variance in relation to the higher-order domains. The model of best-fit was the four-factor structure, which demonstrated measurement invariance across groups. Additionally, these data had an adequate fit for two alternative models: (a 3-factor and (b modified 4-factor model. The British subsample had significantly higher scores across all domains than the Trinidadian group, and men scored significantly higher on the disorganised domain than women. The four-factor structure received confirmatory support and, importantly, support for use with populations varying in ethnicity and culture.

  11. Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... narcissistic personality have an exaggerated sense of self-importance, are absorbed by fantasies of unlimited success, and ... with avoidant personality disorder may have no close relationships outside of their family circle, although they would like to, and are ...

  12. Assessing the construct validity of the Chinese-Version Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief on male and female undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wei-Fen; Lane, Hsien-Yuan; Chiang, Li-Chi; Wu, Po-Lun; Yang, Shu-Ju; Tsai, Guochuan E

    2015-06-01

    Screening for the schizotypal personality trait is one strategy to identify people who may be susceptible to early psychosis or be at high risk for prodromal psychosis. The Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief (SPQ-B) has been widely used to assess the schizotypal personality and has been translated into Chinese. However, the psychometric properties of the Chinese-version scale have yet to be evaluated. This study evaluates the construct validity of the Chinese-version SPQ-B on a sample of male and female undergraduate students in Taiwan. A cross-sectional design with convenient sampling was used for this study. The data were collected using the Chinese-version SPQ-B between October 2008 and June 2009. Participants included 513 male and 675 female undergraduate students in Taiwan. The factor construct validity of the scale was examined by confirmatory factor analysis using structural equation modeling with SPSS AMOS version 17 software. The results show that the three-factor model fits the data better than the one-factor model for both male and female participants. The male participants scored significantly higher than their female counterparts in terms of total scale, interpersonal subscales, and disorganized subscales. The Chinese version of the SPQ-B adequately achieves three-factor construct validity for undergraduate students. The scale may be used to screen for the schizotypal personality trait in both male and female college students to identify those at an elevated risk for mental illness.

  13. Sub-optimal parenting is associated with schizotypic and anxiety personality traits in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giakoumaki, S G; Roussos, P; Zouraraki, C; Spanoudakis, E; Mavrikaki, M; Tsapakis, E M; Bitsios, P

    2013-05-01

    Part of the variation in personality characteristics has been attributed to the child-parent interaction and sub-optimal parenting has been associated with psychiatric morbidity. In the present study, an extensive battery of personality scales (Trait Anxiety Inventory, Behavioural Inhibition/Activation System questionnaire, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised, Temperament and Character Inventory, Schizotypal Traits Questionnaire, Toronto Alexithymia Scale) and the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) were administered in 324 adult healthy males to elucidate the effects of parenting on personality configuration. Personality variables were analysed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and the factors "Schizotypy", "Anxiety", "Behavioural activation", "Novelty seeking" and "Reward dependence" were extracted. Associations between personality factors with PBI "care" and "overprotection" scores were examined with regression analyses. Subjects were divided into "parental style" groups and personality factors were subjected to categorical analyses. "Schizotypy" and "Anxiety" were significantly predicted by high maternal overprotection and low paternal care. In addition, the Affectionless control group (low care/high overprotection) had higher "Schizotypy" and "Anxiety" compared with the Optimal Parenting group (high care/low overprotection). These results further validate sub-optimal parenting as an important environmental exposure and extend our understanding on the mechanisms by which it increases risk for psychiatric morbidity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. How to tell a happy from an unhappy schizotype: personality factors and mental health outcomes in individuals with psychotic experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia O. Alminhana

    Full Text Available Objective: It is unclear why some individuals reporting psychotic experiences have balanced lives while others go on to develop mental health problems. The objective of this study was to test if the personality traits of harm avoidance, self-directedness, and self-transcendence can be used as criteria to differentiate healthy from unhealthy schizotypal individuals. Methods: We interviewed 115 participants who reported a high frequency of psychotic experiences. The instruments used were the Temperament and Character Inventory (140, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, and the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences. Results: Harm avoidance predicted cognitive disorganization (β = 0.319; t = 2.94, while novelty seeking predicted bipolar disorder (β = 0.136, Exp [β] = 1.146 and impulsive non-conformity (β = 0.322; t = 3.55. Self-directedness predicted an overall decrease in schizotypy, most of all in cognitive disorganization (β = -0.356; t = -2.95 and in impulsive non-conformity (β = -0.313; t = -2.83. Finally, self-transcendence predicted unusual experiences (β = 0.256; t = 2.32. Conclusion: Personality features are important criteria to distinguish between pathology and mental health in individuals presenting high levels of anomalous experiences (AEs. While self-directedness is a protective factor, both harm avoidance and novelty seeking were predictors of negative mental health outcomes. We suggest that the impact of AEs on mental health is moderated by personality factors.

  15. [Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief - Likert format: Factor structure analysis in general population in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferchiou, A; Todorov, L; Lajnef, M; Baudin, G; Pignon, B; Richard, J-R; Leboyer, M; Szöke, A; Schürhoff, F

    2017-12-01

    The main objective of the study was to explore the factorial structure of the French version of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief (SPQ-B) in a Likert format, in a representative sample of the general population. In addition, differences in the dimensional scores of schizotypy according to gender and age were analyzed. As the study in the general population of schizotypal traits and its determinants has been recently proposed as a way toward the understanding of aetiology and pathophysiology of schizophrenia, consistent self-report tools are crucial to measure psychometric schizotypy. A shorter version of the widely used Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ-Brief) has been extensively investigated in different countries, particularly in samples of students or clinical adolescents, and more recently, a few studies used a Likert-type scale format which allows partial endorsement of items and reduces the risk of defensive answers. A sample of 233 subjects representative of the adult population from an urban area near Paris (Créteil) was recruited using the "itinerary method". They completed the French version of the SPQ-B with a 5-point Likert-type response format (1=completely disagree; 5=completely agree). We examined the dimensional structure of the French version of the SPQ-B with a Principal Components Analysis (PCA) followed by a promax rotation. Factor selection was based on Eigenvalues over 1.0 (Kaiser's criterion), Cattell's Scree-plot test, and interpretability of the factors. Items with loadings greater than 0.4 were retained for each dimension. The internal consistency estimate of the dimensions was calculated with Cronbach's α. In order to study the influence of age and gender, we carried out a simple linear regression with the subscales as dependent variables. Our sample was composed of 131 women (mean age=52.5±18.2 years) and 102 men (mean age=53±18.1 years). SPQ-B Likert total scores ranged from 22 to 84 points (mean=43.6

  16. Personality disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bosch, L.M.C.; Verheul, R.; Verster, J.C.; Brady, K.; Galanter, M.; Conrod, P.

    2012-01-01

    Subject of this chapter is the often found combination of personality disorders and ­substance abuse disorders. The serious nature of this comorbidity is shown through the discussion of prevalence and epidemiological data. Literature shows that the comorbidity, hampering the diagnostic process, is

  17. Personality disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrer, Peter; Mulder, Roger; Crawford, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Personality disorder is now being accepted as an important condition in mainstream psychiatry across the world. Although it often remains unrecognized in ordinary practice, research studies have shown it is common, creates considerable morbidity, is associated with high costs to services and to s......Personality disorder is now being accepted as an important condition in mainstream psychiatry across the world. Although it often remains unrecognized in ordinary practice, research studies have shown it is common, creates considerable morbidity, is associated with high costs to services...... and to society, and interferes, usually negatively, with progress in the treatment of other mental disorders. We now have evidence that personality disorder, as currently classified, affects around 6% of the world population, and the differences between countries show no consistent variation. We are also getting...... increasing evidence that some treatments, mainly psychological, are of value in this group of disorders. What is now needed is a new classification that is of greater value to clinicians, and the WPA Section on Personality Disorders is currently undertaking this task....

  18. Cross-cultural invariance of the factor structure of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire across Spanish and American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Compton, Michael T; Tone, Erin B; Ortuño-Sierra, Javier; Paino, Mercedes; Fumero, Ascensión; Lemos-Giráldez, Serafín

    2014-12-30

    The main goal of this study was to examine the cross-cultural invariance of the factor structure of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) (Raine, 1991) in two large samples of Spanish and American young adults. The final sample was made up of 2313 college students (508 men, 22%). Their mean age was 20.5 years (S.D.=3.2). The results indicated that the Stefanis et al. (2004) four-factor model yielded the best goodness-of-fit indices compared to alternative models. Moreover, the results support configural, metric, and partial measurement invariance of the covariances of the SPQ across the two samples. The finding of measurement equivalence across cultures provides essential evidence of construct validity for the schizotypy dimensions and of the cross-cultural validity of SPQ scores. The finding of comparable dimensional structures in cross-cultural samples lends further support to the continuum model of schizotypy and schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Future studies should continue to examine the validity of scores on the SPQ and other schizotypy measures and their variation or consistency across cultures.

  19. Covariance and specificity in adolescent schizotypal and borderline trait expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badoud, Deborah; Billieux, Joël; Eliez, Stephan; Imhof, Anouk; Heller, Patrick; Eytan, Ariel; Debbané, Martin

    2015-10-01

    The first aim of the present study is to assess the overlap between borderline and schizotypal traits during adolescence. The second objective is to examine whether some psychological factors (i.e. cognitive coping mechanisms, impulsivity and encoding style) are differentially related to borderline and schizotypal traits and may therefore improve the efficiency of clinical assessments. One hundred nineteen community adolescents (57 male) aged from 12 to 19 years completed a set of questionnaires evaluating the expression of borderline and schizotypal traits as well as cognitive emotion regulation (CER), impulsivity and encoding style. Our data first yielded a strong correlation between borderline and schizotypal scores (r = 0.70, P borderline traits, whereas an internal encoding style predominantly explained schizotypal traits. Our results support the abundant literature showing that borderline and schizotypal traits frequently co-occur. Moreover, we provide original data indicating that borderline and schizotypal traits during adolescence are linked to different specific psychological mechanisms. Thus, we underline the importance of considering these mechanisms in clinical assessments, in particular to help disentangle personality disorder traits in youths. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. Social workers' ratings of comorbid personality disorders in substance abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Morten

    2005-07-01

    Clinical diagnoses of personality disorders have been discredited in the literature. However, the artificial dichotomization of dimensions, along with the constraint of having to select only one or a few diagnoses, may have limited the ability of clinical judgment to converge with other clinician's judgments, or with relevant external criteria. Assessment with a dimensional approach to personality disorders may provide improved agreement. In this study, substance abusers were rated by two different staff members involved in their treatment. Inter-rater agreement was moderately high for paranoid, schizotypal, antisocial, and borderline personality disorder, and high-moderate discriminant validity was found for all personality disorders except schizoid and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.

  1. Any Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Personality Disorders in Adults Data Sources Share Personality Disorders Definitions Personality disorders represent “an enduring pattern ... Topics page on Borderline Personality Disorder . Prevalence of Personality Disorders in Adults Based on diagnostic interview data ...

  2. Personality disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Sebastian; Heinskou, Torben; Sørensen, Per

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In this naturalistic study, patients with personality disorders (N = 388) treated at Stolpegaard Psychotherapy Center, Mental Health Services, Capital Region of Denmark were allocated to two different kinds of treatment: a standardized treatment package with a preset number of treatment...... characteristics associated with clinicians' allocation of patients to the two different personality disorder services. METHODS: Patient characteristics across eight domains were collected in order to study whether there were systematic differences between patients allocated to the two different treatments....... Patient characteristics included measures of symptom severity, personality pathology, trauma and socio-demographic characteristics. Significance testing and binary regression analysis were applied to identify important predictors. RESULTS: Patient characteristics on fifteen variables differed...

  3. Change in personality status in neurotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seivewright, Helen; Tyrer, Peter; Johnson, Tony

    2002-06-29

    Personality disorders are generally thought not to change by much over time. We assessed the personality status of 202 patients who had a defined diagnostic and statistical manual (DSM)-III neurotic disorder, dysthymia, panic disorder, or generalised anxiety. All patients had had drug and psychological treatment in a randomised controlled trial. 12 years after entry to the study, we reassessed the personality status of 178 (88%) of these patients using the same test (personality assessment schedule). The personality traits of patients in the cluster B flamboyant group (antisocial, histrionic) became significantly less pronounced over 12 years, but those in the cluster A odd, eccentric group (schizoid, schizotypal, paranoid), and the cluster C anxious, fearful group (obsessional, avoidant) became more pronounced. The measure of agreement between baseline and 12-year personality clusters was poor or slight (kappa=0.14, 95% CI 0.04-0.23). Our results suggest that the assumption that personality characteristics do not change with time is incorrect.

  4. Confirmation of a four-factor structure of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire among undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Michael T; Goulding, Sandra M; Bakeman, Roger; McClure-Tone, Erin B

    2009-06-01

    Although several exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses have supported the initially proposed factor structure of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) in which its nine subscales are grouped into cognitive-perceptual, interpersonal, and disorganized domains, others have revealed different latent structures. This study determined the best-fitting factor structure from among five models that have been proposed in the literature, as well as five additional hierarchically related models. Undergraduate college students (n=825) completed the SPQ as well as the Perceptual Aberration Scale (PAS) and the Revised Social Anhedonia Scale (SAS). Confirmatory factor analyses involving the nine SPQ subscales were conducted using the Linear Structural Relations Program (LISREL 8.72). The best fitting model was a previously described 4-factor model including cognitive-perceptual, paranoid, negative, and disorganized domains. Correlations between the derived SPQ domains and the PAS score ranged r=.26-.39, and correlations between the SPQ domains and the SAS ranged r=.07-.41. The present findings support a 4-factor model over the standard 3-factor model that is typically used to derive SPQ subscale scores. The four derived domains are minimally to moderately correlated with other measures of psychosis-proneness.

  5. Chinese version of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire: Factor structure replication and invariance across sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junhong; Bernardo, Allan B I; Zaroff, Charles M

    2016-09-01

    The Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) is a self-report measure assessing symptoms of schizotypy. The SPQ has been used in both normative and clinical samples and has much theoretical and empirical support. A three-factor structure of the SPQ, derived on the basis of work in schizophrenia, consisting of Cognitive-Perceptual, Interpersonal, and Disorganized factors, has been well replicated. The present study aimed to (i) validate this three-factor structure in the Chinese version of the SPQ in a sample of individuals of Chinese ethnicity, and (ii) test for invariance across sex. A total of 209 (99 males) undergraduate university students (Mage  = 19.5, SD = 1.6) were administered the SPQ. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated a better fit between the data and the three-factor model compared with a one-factor model. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis also found strong measurement invariance across sex. The current results add to a growing body of literature evidencing cross-cultural validity of the SPQ and its invariance across sex. Research and clinical implications of the current results are discussed. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Investigating the prevalence of personality disorders and its relationship with personality traits among students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davod Ghaderi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to investigate the prevalence of personality disorders and its relationship with personality traits among students. This research was among epidemiological-correlational descriptive studies. Method: For this purpose, 389 male students were selected via a multi-stage cluster sampling method. All subjects completed Millon's personality disorder (1987 and five-factor personality Costaand McCrae's questionnaires (1989. Results: The results showed that the prevalence of personality disorders is among students. It was also found that there existed a positive correlation between schizoid, avoidant, dependent, schizotypal, borderline and paranoid personality disorders with Neuroticism factor (r = .1. There was a significant negative correlation between schizoid, avoidant and schizotypal personality disorders with extraversion factor (r = .1 and significant positive correlation between histrionic disorders and extraversion (r = .1. There was a significant negative correlation between dependent personality disorder and Openness factor (r = .1 , significant negative correlation between narcissistic, antisocial and paranoid personality disorders with agree ableness factor (r = .1 and finally, significant negative correlation between antisocial, passive-aggressive and borderline personality disorders with accountability factor (r = .1and a significant positive correlation between accountability factor and compulsive personality disorder (r = .1. Conclusion: The results suggest a prevalence of personality disorders among students and significant correlation between some disorders with personality factors. Further studies in this area could provide more insightful findings in the field.

  7. Child and adolescent psychiatric disorders predicting adult personality disorder: a follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramklint, Mia; von Knorring, Anne-Liis; von Knorring, Lars; Ekselius, Lisa

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine associations between childhood and adolescent psychiatric disorders and adult personality disorders in a group of former child psychiatric inpatients. One hundred and fifty-eight former inpatients with a mean age of 30.5 +/- 7.1 years at investigation had their childhood and adolescent Axis I disorders, obtained from their medical records, coded into DSM-IV diagnoses. Personality disorders in adulthood were assessed by means of the DSM-IV and ICD-10 Personality Questionnaire (DIP-Q). The predictive effects of child and adolescent Axis I disorders on adult personality disorders were examined with logistic regression analyses. The odds of adult schizoid, avoidant, dependent,borderline and schizotypal personality disorders increased by almost 10, five, four, three and three times, respectively, given a prior major depressive disorder. Those effects were independent of age, sex and other Axis I disorders. In addition, the odds of adult narcissistic and antisocial personality disorders increased by more than six and five times, respectively, given a prior disruptive disorder, and the odds of adult borderline, schizotypal, avoidant and paranoid personality disorders increased between two and three times given a prior sub-stance-related disorder. The results illustrate an association between mental disorders in childhood and adolescence and adult personality disorders. Identification and successful treatment of childhood psychiatric disorders may help to reduce the risk for subsequent development of an adult personality disorder.

  8. The Pathophysiology of Schizophrenia Disorders: Perspectives From the Spectrum

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Siever, Larry J; Davis, Kenneth L

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This overview focuses on neurobiological abnormalities found in subjects with schizotypal personality disorder, the prototype of the schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and chronic schizophrenia...

  9. A disembodied man: A case of somatopsychic depersonalization in schizotypal disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaytseva, Yuliya; Szymanski, Caroline; Gutyrchik, Evgeny; Pechenkova, Ekaterina; Vlasova, Rosa; Wittmann, Marc

    2015-12-01

    In the general concept of self-disturbances in schizophrenia and schizophrenia spectrum disorders, somatopsychic depersonalization (SPD) occupies a special place as it constitutes a syndrome that comprises feelings of detachment from one's own body and mental processes. However, apart from clinical descriptions, to date the pathophysiology of SPD is not fully understood due to the rareness of the syndrome and a lack of experimental studies. In a case study of one patient with schizotypal disorder, we applied a multimodal approach to understanding the SPD phenomena. The patient's clinical profile was identified as disruption of implicit bodily function, accompanied by depressive symptoms. On a neuropsychological level, the patient exhibited impairment in executive functioning, intact tactile perception and kinesthetic praxis. Behavioral tests revealed an altered sense of time but unimpaired self-agency. Furthermore, the patient exhibited a lack of empathy and he had autistic traits, although with a sufficient ability to verbalize his feelings. On the neurobiological level using an active and passive touch paradigm during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we found a hyperconnectivity of the default-mode network and salience network and a hypoconnectivity of the central executive brain networks in the performance of the touch task as well as intact perceptual touch processing emerging from the direct comparisons of the touch conditions. Our data provide evidence for the important role of altered large-brain network functioning in SPD that corresponds to the specific behavioral and neurocognitive phenomena. © 2015 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Screening of personality disorders among chinese college students by Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiting; Ling, Hui; Yang, Bingjun; Dou, Gang

    2007-08-01

    Four thousand eight hundred and eleven students were sampled from 26 universities in 21 cities of China and evaluated using the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+(PDQ-4+). Results showed that male students obtained significantly higher scores than female students on paranoid, schizotypal, antisocial, narcissistic, passive-aggressive, and depressive personality disorder scales, and lower scores on the borderline scale. Students from rural areas scored higher than those from urban areas on the schizoid, schizotypal, narcissistic, avoidant, compulsive-obsessive, passive-aggressive, and depressive personality disorder scales, and lower on the paranoid and dependent scales. Singleton students obtained significantly higher scores than nonsingletons on paranoid, antisocial and dependent scales, and lower on schizoid, avoidant, compulsive-obsessive, passive-aggressive, depressive scales. Students from single-parent families scored significantly higher on the schizotypal scales; and students from foster families scored significantly higher on the antisocial, passive-aggressive, and depressive scales. Students from poor families scored significantly higher than those from average or wealthy families on schizoid, schizotyal, antisocial, borderline, narcissistic, avoidant, obsessive-compulsive, passive-aggressive, and depressive personality disorders. The results suggest that low family income, low social status, and parental style contribute to the development of personality disorders.

  11. Electrophysiological correlates of visual backward masking in high schizotypic personality traits participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favrod, Ophélie; Sierro, Guillaume; Roinishvili, Maya; Chkonia, Eka; Mohr, Christine; Herzog, Michael H; Cappe, Céline

    2017-08-01

    Visual backward masking is strongly deteriorated in patients with schizophrenia. Masking deficits are associated with strongly reduced amplitudes of the global field power in the EEG. Healthy participants who scored high in cognitive disorganization (a schizotypic trait) were impaired in backward masking compared to participants who scored low. Here, we show that the global field power is also reduced in healthy participants scoring high (n=25) as compared to low (n=20) in cognitive disorganization, though quantitatively less pronounced than in patients (n=10). These results point to similar mechanisms underlying visual backward masking deficits along the schizophrenia spectrum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Histrionic personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Personality disorder - histrionic; Attention seeking - histrionic personality disorder ... Causes of histrionic personality disorder are unknown. Genes and early childhood events may be responsible. It is diagnosed more often in women than ...

  13. Narcissistic Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narcissistic personality disorder Overview Narcissistic personality disorder — one of several types of personality disorders — is a mental condition in which people have an inflated sense of their own importance, a deep need ...

  14. Relationship of personality disorders to the course of major depressive disorder in a nationally representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skodol, Andrew E; Grilo, Carlos M; Keyes, Katherine M; Geier, Timothy; Grant, Bridget F; Hasin, Deborah S

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of specific personality disorder comorbidity on the course of major depressive disorder in a nationally representative sample. Data were drawn from 1,996 participants in a national survey. Participants who met criteria for major depressive disorder at baseline in face-to-face interviews (in 2001-2002) were reinterviewed 3 years later (in 2004-2005) to determine persistence and recurrence. Predictors included all DSM-IV personality disorders. Control variables included demographic characteristics, other axis I disorders, family and treatment histories, and previously established predictors of the course of major depressive disorder. A total of 15.1% of participants had persistent major depressive disorder, and 7.3% of those who remitted had a recurrence. Univariate analyses indicated that avoidant, borderline, histrionic, paranoid, schizoid, and schizotypal personality disorders all elevated the risk for persistence. With axis I comorbidity controlled, all personality disorders except histrionic personality disorder remained significant. With all other personality disorders controlled, borderline and schizotypal disorders remained significant predictors. In final, multivariate analyses that controlled for age at onset of major depressive disorder, the number of previous episodes, duration of the current episode, family history, and treatment, borderline personality disorder remained a robust predictor of major depressive disorder persistence. Neither personality disorders nor other clinical variables predicted recurrence. In this nationally representative sample of adults with major depressive disorder, borderline personality disorder robustly predicted persistence, a finding that converges with recent clinical studies. Personality psychopathology, particularly borderline personality disorder, should be assessed in all patients with major depressive disorder, considered in prognosis, and addressed in treatment.

  15. Antisocial personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sociopathic personality; Sociopathy; Personality disorder - antisocial ... A person with antisocial personality disorder may: Be able to act witty and charming Be good at flattery and manipulating other people's emotions Break the ...

  16. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Search About Us Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) Diagnosis and Treatment Resources For Professionals Contact Us NYP.org Borderline Personality Disorder Resource Center Diagnosis ...

  17. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search About Us Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) Diagnosis and Treatment Resources For Professionals Contact Us NYP.org Borderline Personality Disorder Resource Center Diagnosis and Treatment ...

  18. Genetics, Cognition and Neurobiology of Schizotypal Personality: A Review of the Overlap with Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich eEttinger

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Schizotypy refers to a set of temporally stable traits that are observed in the general population and that resemble the signs and symptoms of schizophrenia. Here, we review evidence from studies on genetics, cognition, perception, motor and oculomotor control, brain structure, brain function and psychopharmacology in schizotypy. We specifically focused on identifying areas of overlap between schizotypy and schizophrenia. Evidence was corroborated that significant overlap exists between the two, covering the behavioural, brain structural and functional as well molecular levels. In particular, several studies showed that individuals with high levels of schizotypal traits exhibit alterations in neurocognitive task performance and underlying brain function similar to the deficits seen in patients with schizophrenia. Studies of brain structure have shown both volume reductions and increases in schizotypy, pointing to schizophrenia-like deficits as well as possible protective or compensatory mechanisms. Experimental pharmacological studies have shown that high levels of schizotypy are associated with (i enhanced dopaminergic response in striatum following administration of amphetamine and (ii improvement of cognitive performance following administration of antipsychotic compounds. Together, this body of work suggests that schizotypy shows overlap with schizophrenia across multiple behavioural and neurobiological domains, suggesting that the study of schizotypal traits may be useful in improving our understanding of the aetiology of schizophrenia.

  19. An examination of the factorial structure of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief (SPQ-B) among undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Michael T; Goulding, Sandra M; Bakeman, Roger; McClure-Tone, Erin B

    2009-12-01

    Cognitive-perceptual, interpersonal, and disorganized subscales of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief (SPQ-B), reflecting the three commonly used subscales of the full-version SPQ, have been used in a number of studies. However, the factorial validity of SPQ-B subscales remains to be clarified. Utilizing data from 825 undergraduate students, confirmatory factor analyses involving the 22 items of the SPQ-B were conducted. A significant chi(2) difference test favored the 3-factor over the 1-factor model and fit indices for the 3-factor model were generally satisfactory. However, several of the items may index more than one of the hypothesized factors, so the item-factor separation is not sharp. Thus, more research is needed on the factorial validity of the increasingly used SPQ-B subscales.

  20. Differential Impairment as an Indicator of Sex Bias in DSM-IV Criteria for Four Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggs, Christina D.; Morey, Leslie C.; Skodol, Andrew E.; Shea, M. Tracie; Sanislow, Charles A.; Grilo, Carlos M.; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Zanarini, Mary C.; Gunderson, John G.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the possibility of sex bias in the diagnostic criteria for borderline, schizotypal, avoidant, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders. A clinical sample of 668 individuals was evaluated for personality disorder criteria using a semistructured interview, and areas of functional impairment were…

  1. The Questionnaire of Personality Disorders (VMO: Construction and preleminary research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Benedik

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the development of the self-report Questionnaire of Personality Disorders (VMO, which was constructed on the basis of DSM-IV classification for personality disorders(American Psychiatric Association, 1994, Beck's theory of dysfunctional cognitive schemas (Beck in Freeman, 1990 and psychoanalytic theories of basic personality structures. We focused on the basic experiencing of self and others, which is characteristic of specific personality type. In regard to these theories we believe that personality disorder is a broader term; the disorders within it are not limited to existing DSM-IV axis II categories. The personality disorders are complex phenomenon, which are better described on dimensional then categorical scales as well. The questionnaire consists of 213 items, which correspond to 12 clinical scales (for histrionic, obsessive-compulsive, passive-aggressive, avoidant, dependent, depressive, narcissistic, borderline, antisocial, paranoid, schizoid and schizotypal personality disorders and a lie scale. According to the personality organization theory (Kernberg, 1986 and other psychoanalytic theories it is divided into four parts: for neurotic (histrionic, obsessive-compulsive, passive-aggressive and avoidant disorders, depressive (dependent and depressive disorders, borderline (narcissistic, borderline and antisocial disorders and psychotic disorders (paranoid, schizoid and schizotypal disorders. The questionnaire was administered to 415 adult psychiatric patients and 215 health persons of both sexes. They were compared according to the responses of the questionnaire. The internal reliability of scales is sufficient, but correlation between scales is quite strong. The validity was tested with the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire (PDQ-4, Hyler, 1994 and through comparing of the results of healthy individuals and psychiatric patients with different diagnosis. The results are generally in accordance with the

  2. Relationship of Personality Disorders to the Course of Major Depressive Disorder in a Nationally Representative Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skodol, Andrew E.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Keyes, Katherine; Geier, Timothy; Grant, Bridget F.; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of specific personality disorder co-morbidity on the course of major depressive disorder in a nationally-representative sample. Method Data were drawn from 1,996 participants in a national survey. Participants who met criteria for major depressive disorder at baseline in face-to-face interviews (2001–2002) were re-interviewed three years later (2004–2005) to determine persistence and recurrence. Predictors included all DSM-IV personality disorders. Control variables included demographic characteristics, other Axis I disorders, family and treatment histories, and previously established predictors of the course of major depressive disorder. Results 15.1% of participants had persistent major depressive disorder and 7.3% of those who remitted had a recurrence. Univariate analyses indicated that avoidant, borderline, histrionic, paranoid, schizoid, and schizotypal personality disorders all elevated the risk for persistence. With Axis I co-morbidity controlled, all but histrionic personality disorder remained significant. With all other personality disorders controlled, borderline and schizotypal remained significant predictors. In final, multivariate analyses that controlled for age at onset of major depressive disorder, number of previous episodes, duration of current episode, family history, and treatment, borderline personality disorder remained a robust predictor of major depressive disorder persistence. Neither personality disorders nor other clinical variables predicted recurrence. Conclusions In this nationally-representative sample of adults with major depressive disorder, borderline personality disorder robustly predicted persistence, a finding that converges with recent clinical studies. Personality psychopathology, particularly borderline personality disorder, should be assessed in all patients with major depressive disorder, considered in prognosis, and addressed in treatment. PMID:21245088

  3. Paranoid personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Personality disorder - paranoid; PPD ... American Psychiatric Association. Paranoid personality disorder. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of ental Disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013:649-652. Blais MA, ...

  4. [The concept of schizoidia in psychiatry : From schizoidia to schizotypy and cluster A personality disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter

    2017-12-01

    From a perspective of conceptual evolution schizoidia was initially considered to describe features both of the premorbid personality of schizophrenic patients and of the personalities of non-psychotic family members (Bleuler, Kahlbaum, Kraepelin). On a psychopatholocial level a close link to the complex basic symptom of autism was stressed. From the very beginnings of modern psychiatry schizoidia was discussed within a conceptual frame of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (Kretschmer, Hoch, Polatin). Approaches to operationalize these conceptual works laid the basis for the cluster A personalities in DSM-III. Due to the prominent concept of schizotypy (Kety, Rado, Meehl) three split up diagnostic categories of schizotypal, schizoid and paranoid personality disorders resulted. Cluster A personality disorders are frequent in community-based epidemiological studies. Health-care seeking behaviour due to primary personality-related problems, however, seems to be less paramount compared to cluster B and C personality disorders. Many family- and twin-based genetic studies convincingly stress a close link between schizotypal personality disorder and schizophrenia. This link is less pronounced for paranoid personality disorder, and even vanishingly low for schizoid personality disorder. From a perspective of schizophrenia spectrum disorders a vast amount of data from molecular genetic, neurobiological, neuropsychological and psychosocial research has impressingly confirmed this link for schizotypal personality disorder. Major research deficits, however, have to be noticed for paranoid and schizoid personality disorder.

  5. Predicting Personality Disorder Functioning Styles by the Five-Factor Nonverbal Personality Questionnaire in Healthy Volunteers and Personality Disorder Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qianqian; Ma, Guorong; Zhu, Qisha; Fan, Hongying; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Detecting personality disorders in the illiterate population is a challenge, but nonverbal tools measuring personality traits such as the Five-Factor Nonverbal Personality Questionnaire (FFNPQ) might help. We hypothesized that FFNPQ traits are associated with personality disorder functioning styles in a predictable way, especially in a sample of personality disorder patients. We therefore invited 106 personality disorder patients and 205 healthy volunteers to answer the FFNPQ and the Parker Personality Measure (PERM) which measures 11 personality disorder functioning styles. Patients scored significantly higher on the FFNPQ neuroticism and conscientiousness traits and all 11 PERM styles. In both groups, the 5 FFNPQ traits displayed extensive associations with the 11 PERM styles, respectively, and the associations were more specific in patients. Associations between neuroticism, extraversion and agreeableness traits and most PERM styles were less exclusive, but conscientiousness was associated with antisocial (-) and obsessive-compulsive styles, and openness to experience with schizotypal and dependent (-) styles. Our study has demonstrated correlations between FFNPQ traits and PERM styles, and implies the nonverbal measure of personality traits is capable of aiding the diagnoses of personality disorders in the illiterate population. Enlarging sample size and including the illiterate might make for more stable results. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Personality disorders and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, Johanna Catherine; Xu, Haiyong; French, Michael T; Ettner, Susan L

    2014-01-01

    We examine the impact of Axis II personality disorders (PDs) on body weight. PDs are psychiatric conditions that develop early in life from a mixture of genetics and environment, are persistent, and lead to substantial dysfunction for the affected individual. The defining characteristics of PDs conceptually link them with body weight, but the direction of the relationship likely varies across PD type. To investigate these links, we analyze data from Wave II of the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions. We measure body weight with the body mass index (BMI) and a dichotomous indicator for obesity (BMI≥30). We find that women with PDs have significantly higher BMI and are more likely to be obese than otherwise similar women. We find few statistically significant or economically meaningful effects for men. Paranoid, schizotypal, and avoidant PDs demonstrate the strongest adverse impacts on women's body weight while dependent PD may be protective against elevated body weight among men. Findings from unconditional quantile regressions demonstrate a positive gradient between PDs and BMI in that the effects are greater for higher BMI respondents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Personality disorder types proposed for DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skodol, Andrew E; Bender, Donna S; Morey, Leslie C; Clark, Lee Anna; Oldham, John M; Alarcon, Renato D; Krueger, Robert F; Verheul, Roel; Bell, Carl C; Siever, Larry J

    2011-04-01

    The Personality and Personality Disorders Work Group has proposed five specific personality disorder (PD) types for DSM-5, to be rated on a dimension of fit: antisocial/psychopathic, avoidant, borderline, obsessive-compulsive, and schizotypal. Each type is identified by core impairments in personality functioning, pathological personality traits, and common symptomatic behaviors. The other DSM-IV-TR PDs and the large residual category of personality disorder not otherwise specified (PDNOS) will be represented solely by the core impairments combined with specification by individuals' unique sets of personality traits. This proposal has three main features: (1) a reduction in the number of specified types from 10 to 5; (2) description of the types in a narrative format that combines typical deficits in self and interpersonal functioning and particular configurations of traits and behaviors; and (3) a dimensional rating of the degree to which a patient matches each type. An explanation of these modifications in approach to diagnosing PD types and their justifications--including excessive co-morbidity among DSM-IV-TR PDs, limited validity for some existing types, lack of specificity in the definition of PD, instability of current PD criteria sets, and arbitrary diagnostic thresholds--are the subjects of this review.

  8. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About Us Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) Diagnosis and Treatment Resources For Professionals Contact Us NYP.org Borderline Personality Disorder Resource Center Diagnosis and Treatment Psychotherapy Psychotherapy Diagnosis and Treatment Psychotherapy Questions to ...

  9. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Search About Us Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) Diagnosis and Treatment Resources For Professionals Contact Us NYP.org Borderline Personality Disorder Resource Center Diagnosis and Treatment Psychotherapy Psychotherapy Diagnosis and Treatment Psychotherapy ...

  10. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Search About Us Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) Diagnosis and Treatment Resources For Professionals Contact Us NYP.org Borderline Personality Disorder Resource Center Diagnosis and Treatment Psychotherapy Psychotherapy Diagnosis and Treatment Psychotherapy Questions to ...

  11. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Search About Us Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) Diagnosis and Treatment Resources For Professionals Contact Us NYP.org Borderline Personality Disorder Resource Center Diagnosis and Treatment Psychotherapy ...

  12. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Search About Us Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) Diagnosis and Treatment Resources For Professionals Contact Us NYP.org Borderline Personality Disorder Resource Center Diagnosis and Treatment ...

  13. Normal personality, personality disorder and psychosis: current views and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaratnasingam, Sivasankaran; Janca, Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review recent literature examining the occurrence of psychotic experiences in normal population and those with personality disorders. Up to 15% of individuals in the general population report some type or degree of psychotic experience. Most of these individuals function adequately, do not require psychiatric treatment and do not receive diagnosis of a psychotic illness. A significant number of individuals diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (25-50%) also report psychotic symptoms. These are not easily differentiated from the psychotic symptoms reported by individuals with schizophrenia, nor are they always transient. However, emerging research has confirmed that individuals with schizotypal personality disorder are dimensionally related to those with schizophrenia and are at an increased risk of transition to psychosis. Psychotic symptoms are best considered as 'trans-diagnostic' entities on a continuum from normal to pathological. There is a large body of evidence for a dimensional relationship between schizotypal personality disorder and schizophrenia. There is also a significant amount of research showing that psychotic symptoms in borderline personality disorder are frequent, nontransient and represent a marker of illness severity. This review highlights the need to move beyond traditional assumptions and categorical boundaries when evaluating psychotic experiences and psychopathological phenomena.

  14. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... borderline personality disorder (BPD). Therapy may be given one-on-one and through support groups, enabling people with BPD ... reassign extreme positive or negative images associated with one person to another person, such as the therapist. ...

  15. Personality profiles in young adults with disordered eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynal, Patrick; Melioli, Tiffany; Chabrol, Henri

    2016-08-01

    Personality traits are closely related to eating disorders (ED) and might be involved in their development and maintenance. Nevertheless little is known regarding the association between personality traits and disordered eating in subclinical populations. College students answered questionnaires assessing disordered eating behaviors (DEB) and the following personality disorder (PD) traits: schizotypal, autistic, obsessional, borderline and cyclothymic. Participants with DEB (n=101, 87% women) displayed significantly higher scores for several variables including schizotypy, cyclothymic, borderline and obsessional traits compared to other participants (n=378). Cluster analysis in the DEB subsample led to the identification of three groups: 1) a cluster with a high level of traits (HT); 2) a cluster scoring high on schizotypal, borderline and cyclothymic traits (SBC); 3) a cluster with a low level of traits (LT). Symptoms of depression, suicidal ideations, trait anger and obsessive-compulsive symptoms were higher in the HT and the SBC clusters compared to the LT cluster. Given that two thirds of participants suffering from DEB appeared to display a morbid personality profile, it appears of prime importance to take into account PD traits of individuals with DEB. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Borderline personality disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Paris, Joel

    2005-01-01

    BORDERLINE PERSONALITY DISORDER is a chronic psychiatric disorder characterized by marked impulsivity, instability of mood and interpersonal relationships, and suicidal behaviour that can complicate medical care. Identifying this diagnosis is important for treatment planning. Although the cause of borderline personality disorder is uncertain, most patients improve with time. There is an evidence base for treatment using both psychotherapy and psychopharmacology. The clinical challenge centres...

  17. Treatment of personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Anthony W; Gunderson, John; Mulder, Roger

    2015-02-21

    The evidence base for the effective treatment of personality disorders is insufficient. Most of the existing evidence on personality disorder is for the treatment of borderline personality disorder, but even this is limited by the small sample sizes and short follow-up in clinical trials, the wide range of core outcome measures used by studies, and poor control of coexisting psychopathology. Psychological or psychosocial intervention is recommended as the primary treatment for borderline personality disorder and pharmacotherapy is only advised as an adjunctive treatment. The amount of research about the underlying, abnormal, psychological or biological processes leading to the manifestation of a disordered personality is increasing, which could lead to more effective interventions. The synergistic or antagonistic interaction of psychotherapies and drugs for treating personality disorder should be studied in conjunction with their mechanisms of change throughout the development of each. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disorder (BPD) Diagnosis and Treatment Resources For Professionals Contact Us NYP.org Borderline Personality Disorder Resource Center Diagnosis and Treatment Psychotherapy Psychotherapy Diagnosis and Treatment ...

  19. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources For Professionals Contact Us NYP.org Borderline Personality Disorder Resource Center Diagnosis and Treatment Psychotherapy Psychotherapy Diagnosis and Treatment Psychotherapy Questions to Ask ...

  20. Cluster A personality pathology in social anxiety disorder: a comparison with panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Mia Skytte; Arendt, Mikkel; Fentz, Hanne Nørr; Hougaard, Esben; Rosenberg, Nicole K

    2014-10-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) has been associated with cluster A personality disorder (PD) traits, mainly paranoid and schizoid traits. The aim of the study was to further investigate cluster A personality pathology in patients with SAD. Self-reported PD traits were investigated in a clinical sample of 161 participants with SAD and in a clinical comparison group of 145 participants with panic disorder with or without agoraphobia (PAD). A diagnosis of SAD was associated with more paranoid and schizotypal PD traits, and an association between depression and personality pathology could indicate a state-effect of depression on PD traits. Patients with SAD had more cluster A personality pathology than patients with PAD, with the most solid indication for paranoid personality pathology.

  1. Brain Processing of proprioception and self-disorder in Schizophrenia spectrum patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfred, Sidse Marie

    12 first-admitted schizophrenia spectrum subjects (six with schizophrenia and six with schizotypal personality disorder: 7 females, one left-handed) Mean age: 27 years (STD 5,4)......12 first-admitted schizophrenia spectrum subjects (six with schizophrenia and six with schizotypal personality disorder: 7 females, one left-handed) Mean age: 27 years (STD 5,4)...

  2. Social functioning in Chinese college students with and without schizotypal personality traits: an exploratory study of the Chinese version of the First Episode Social Functioning Scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The First Episode Social Functioning Scale (FESFS was designed to measure social functioning of young individuals with schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to validate a Chinese version of the FESFS in a sample of young Chinese adults. METHOD: The FESFS was translated to Chinese prior to being administered to 1576 college students. The factor structure, reliability, and validity of the scale were examined. RESULTS: Two items were deleted after item analysis and the internal consistency of the whole scale was .89. A six-factor structure was derived by exploratory factor analysis. The factors were interpersonal, family and friends, school, living skills, intimacy, and balance. Estimates of the structural equation model supported this structure, with Goodness of Fit Chi-Square χ(2 = 1097.53 (p<0.0001, the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA = 0.058, and the comparative fit index (CFI = 0.93. Scale validity was supported by significant correlations between social functioning factors scores and schizophrenia personality questionnaire (SPQ scores. Individuals with schizotypal personality features presented poorer social functioning than those without schizotypal personality features. CONCLUSIONS: The Chinese revised version of the FESFS was found to have good psychometric properties and could be used in the future to examine social functioning in Chinese college students.

  3. St. John’s Wort for Major Depressive Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    disorder , psychotic disorders not elsewhere classified, bipolar disorder , or antisocial personality disorder ; History of multiple adverse drug reactions...current or past history of bipolar disorder or any psychotic disorder , or borderline, antisocial , or schizotypal personality disorder . Anyone with a prior...alcohol or substance abuse, organic mental disorders , psychotic disorders , personality disorders ,

  4. Patterns of personality disorders in women with chronic eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, J O; Hellzén, M

    2004-09-01

    The aim of this study was to describe patterns of personality disorders (PDs) in women with chronic eating disorders (EDs). An index group of nineteen women who have had EDs for an average of 8.5 years was compared with a control group of same-aged women from the general population. At the time of the study the index group received treatment at a tertiary treatment center in Stockholm. The PDs were assessed using the DSM-IV part of the DSM-IV and ICD-10 Personality Questionnaire (DIP-Q). In the index group, eighteen of nineteen fulfilled the criteria for one or more PD. The number of PD diagnoses for each women ranged from zero (n = 1) to eight (n = 2) with a median of three. Among the controls, only one woman fulfilled the criteria for one or more PD. The most prevalent disorders in the index group were Borderline, Avoidant, and Obsessive-Compulsive. The index group had significantly higher DIP-Q dimensional scores than the controls in the Paranoid, Schizoid, Schizotypal, Borderline, Histrionic, Avoidant, and Dependent scales. Although the assessment of PD symptoms was limited to self-reports, the high prevalence of PD diagnoses and PD symptoms most probably reflects the severe psychiatric impairments in patients suffering from chronic ED.

  5. Personality disorders and the 3-year course of alcohol, drug, and nicotine use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasin, Deborah; Fenton, Miriam C; Skodol, Andrew; Krueger, Robert; Keyes, Katherine; Geier, Timothy; Greenstein, Eliana; Blanco, Carlos; Grant, Bridget

    2011-11-01

    Little is known about the role of a broad range of personality disorders in the course of substance use disorder (SUD) and whether these differ by substance. The existing literature focuses mostly on antisocial personality disorder and does not come to clear conclusions. To determine the association between the 10 DSM-IV personality disorders and the persistence of common SUDs in a 3-year prospective study of a national sample. Data were drawn from participants in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) who had alcohol dependence (n = 1172), cannabis use disorder (n = 454), or nicotine dependence (n = 4017) at baseline and who were reinterviewed 3 years later. Control variables included demographic characteristics, family history of substance disorders, baseline Axis I disorders and treatment status, and prior SUD duration. Main Outcome Measure  Persistent SUD, defined as meeting full criteria for the relevant SUD throughout the 3-year follow-up period. Persistent SUD was found among 30.1% of participants with alcohol dependence, 30.8% with cannabis use disorder, and 56.6% with nicotine dependence at baseline. Axis I disorders did not have strong or consistent associations with persistent SUD. In contrast, antisocial personality disorder was significantly associated with persistent alcohol, cannabis, and nicotine use disorders (adjusted odds ratios, 2.46-3.51), as was borderline personality disorder (adjusted odds ratios, 2.04-2.78) and schizotypal personality disorder (adjusted odds ratios, 1.65-5.90). Narcissistic, schizoid, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders were less consistently associated with SUD persistence. The consistent findings on the association of antisocial, borderline, and schizotypal personality disorders with persistent SUD indicates the importance of these personality disorders in understanding the course of SUD. Future studies should examine dimensional representations of personality

  6. Personality Disorders and the 3-Year Course of Alcohol, Drug, and Nicotine Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasin, Deborah; Fenton, Miriam C.; Skodol, Andrew; Krueger, Robert; Keyes, Katherine; Geier, Timothy; Greenstein, Eliana; Blanco, Carlos; Grant, Bridget

    2012-01-01

    Context Little is known about the role of a broad range of personality disorders in the course of substance use disorder (SUD), and whether these differ by substance. The existing literature focuses mostly on antisocial personality disorder and does not come to clear conclusions. Objective To determine the association between the ten DSM-IV personality disorders and the persistence of common SUDs in a 3-year prospective study of a national sample. Design Data were drawn from participants in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) who had alcohol dependence (N=1,172), cannabis use disorder (N=454) or nicotine dependence (N=4,017) at baseline and who were re-interviewed three years later. Control variables included demographic characteristics, family history of substance disorders, baseline Axis I disorders and treatment status, and prior SUD duration. Main outcome measure Persistent SUD, defined as meeting full criteria for the relevant SUD throughout the 3-year follow-up period. Results Persistent SUD was found among 30.1% of participants with alcohol dependence, 30.8% with cannabis use disorder, and 56.6% with nicotine dependence at baseline. Axis I disorders did not have strong or consistent associations with persistent SUD. In contrast, antisocial personality disorder was significantly associated with persistent alcohol, cannabis and nicotine use disorders (adjusted odds ratios: 2.46-3.51), as was borderline personality disorder (adjusted odds ratios: 2.04-2.78) and schizotypal personality disorder (adjusted odds ratios: 1.65-5.90). Narcissistic, schizoid, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders were less consistently associated with SUD persistence. Conclusions The consistent findings on the association of antisocial, borderline and schizotypal personality disorders with persistent SUD indicates the importance of these personality disorders in understanding the course of SUD. Future studies should examine dimensional

  7. State Effects of Major Depression on the Assessment of Personality and Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Leslie C.; Shea, M. Tracie; Markowitz, John C.; Stout, Robert L.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Gunderson, John G.; Grilo, Carlos M.; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Yen, Shirley; Sanislow, Charles A.; Skodol, Andrew E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether personality disorders diagnosed during a depressive episode have long-term outcomes more typical of other patients with personality disorders or of patients with non-comorbid major depression. Method The study used six year outcome data collected from the multisite Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study (CLPS). Diagnoses and personality measures gathered from the study cohort at the index assessment using interview and self-report methods were associated with symptomatic, functional, and personality measures at six year follow-up. 668 patients were initially recruited to the CLPS study, of whom 522 were successfully followed for six years. All individuals had a DSM-IV diagnosis of one of four personality disorders (PD: Borderline, Schizotypal, Obsessive-Compulsive, or Avoidant) or had a DSM-IV diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) with no accompanying personality disorder. Results Results demonstrated that the group of patients with comorbid PD/MDD at the index evaluation had six year outcomes similar to patients with pure PD, and significantly worse than those of patients with pure MDD. Stability estimates of personality traits were similar for PD patients with and without MDD at the index evaluation. Conclusions The long term outcome of patients diagnoses with comorbid PD/MDD appears similar to those with pure PD and is significantly worse than those with pure MDD, suggesting that PD diagnoses established during depressive episodes are valid reflects of personality pathology rather than an artifact of depressive mood. PMID:20160004

  8. Personality disorders and obesity: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, G; Loeber, S; Herpertz, S

    2016-08-01

    Studies demonstrate an association between personality traits and obesity as well as their prognostic influence on weight course. In contrast, only few studies have investigated the association between personality disorders (PDs) and obesity. The present review summarizes through a comprehensive and critical evaluation the results of 68 studies identified by database research (PubMed and PsycINFO) covering the last 35 years that investigated the association between PDs, overweight and obesity as well as the predictive value of PDs for the development of obesity and the effectiveness of weight reduction treatments. Adults with any PD have a higher risk of obesity. In the female general population, there is an association between avoidant or antisocial PD and severe obesity. Further, women with paranoid or schizotypal PD have a higher risk of obesity. Clinical studies including foremost female participants showed a higher comorbidity of PDs, especially borderline PD and avoidant PD, in binge-eating disorder. Regarding both genders, patients with PD show less treatment success in conservative weight-loss treatment programmes for obesity than patients without PD. In prevention and conservative weight-loss treatment strategies, more care should be taken to address the special needs of patients with comorbid PDs. © 2016 World Obesity.

  9. The influence of schizotypal traits on attention under high perceptual load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotesbury, Hanne; Gaigg, Sebastian B; Kirhan, Saim; Haenschel, Corinna

    2018-03-01

    Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (SSD) are known to be characterised by abnormalities in attentional processes, but there are inconsistencies in the literature that remain unresolved. This article considers whether perceptual resource limitations play a role in moderating attentional abnormalities in SSD. According to perceptual load theory, perceptual resource limitations can lead to attenuated or superior performance on dual-task paradigms depending on whether participants are required to process, or attempt to ignore, secondary stimuli. If SSD is associated with perceptual resource limitations, and if it represents the extreme end of an otherwise normally distributed neuropsychological phenotype, schizotypal traits in the general population should lead to disproportionate performance costs on dual-task paradigms as a function of the perceptual task demands. To test this prediction, schizotypal traits were quantified via the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) in 74 healthy volunteers, who also completed a dual-task signal detection paradigm that required participants to detect central and peripheral stimuli across conditions that varied in the overall number of stimuli presented. The results confirmed decreasing performance as the perceptual load of the task increased. More importantly, significant correlations between SPQ scores and task performance confirmed that increased schizotypal traits, particularly in the cognitive-perceptual domain, are associated with greater performance decrements under increasing perceptual load. These results confirm that attentional difficulties associated with SSD extend sub-clinically into the general population and suggest that cognitive-perceptual schizotypal traits may represent a risk factor for difficulties in the regulation of attention under increasing perceptual load.

  10. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ask Your BPD Treatment Provider There are different types of therapy for borderline personality disorder (BPD). Therapy ... BPD to interact with others. The most effective type of therapy appears to be dialectical behavior therapy ( ...

  11. Borderline Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... jail time Conflict-filled relationships, marital stress or divorce Self-injury, such as cutting or burning, and ... stigma of mental illness Borderline personality disorder Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse ...

  12. Attachment and personality disorders among child molesters: The role of trust

    OpenAIRE

    Garofalo, C.; Bogaerts, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated multivariate associations between attachment styles and personality disorders (PDs)—and the mediating role of trust—in a sample of child molesters (n = 84) and a matched control group from the general community (n = 80). Among child molesters, canonical correlation analysis revealed that two variates resembling avoidant and anxious attachment dimensions were associated with PD traits. Attachment avoidance was related to schizoid, schizotypal, and avoidant PDs, w...

  13. Dimensions of DSM-IV personality disorders and life-success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Simone; Farrington, David P; Coid, Jeremy W

    2007-12-01

    This study examined associations between dimensional representations of DSM-IV personality disorders and life-success in a community sample of 304 men at age 48. Measures included a standardized social interview and the SCID-II for assessment of personality disorders. The identified indicators of life-success were factor-analyzed resulting in two moderately correlated components representing "status and wealth" and "successful intimate relationships." Avoidant, obsessivecompulsive, and narcissistic dimensional scores were positively associated with "status and wealth." Inverse relationships were found between dependent, schizotypal, schizoid, and adult antisocial personality disorder dimensions and this domain of life-success. Avoidant, schizoid, and borderline personality disorder dimensions were negatively associated with "successful intimate relationships." The findings suggest that although most personality disorders are associated with impaired psychosocial functioning and life-failure, some personality disorder traits (even if considered as pathological) can contribute positively to one important aspect of life-success: status and wealth.

  14. Predicting personality disorder functioning styles by the Chinese Adjective Descriptors of Personality: a preliminary trial in healthy people and personality disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hongying; Zhu, Qisha; Ma, Guorong; Shen, Chanchan; Zhang, Bingren; Wang, Wei

    2016-08-30

    Cultural and personality factors might contribute to the clinical differences of psychiatric patients all over the world including China. One cultural oriented Chinese Adjective Descriptors of Personality (CADP) designed to measure normal personality traits, might be specifically associated with different personality disorder functioning styles. We therefore have invited 201 healthy volunteers and 67 personality disorder patients to undergo CADP, the Parker Personality Measure (PERM), and the Plutchik-van Praag Depression Inventory (PVP) tests. Patients scored significantly higher on PVP scale and all 11 PERM personality disorder functioning styles, as well as CADP Emotional and Unsocial traits. The PVP was significantly correlated with some CADP traits and PERM styles in both groups. In healthy volunteers, only one CADP trait, Unsocial, prominently predicted 11 PERM styles. By contrast in patients, CADP Intelligent predicted the PERM Narcissistic and Passive-Aggressive styles; CADP Emotional the PERM Paranoid, Borderline, and Histrionic styles; CADP Conscientious the PERM Obsessive-Compulsive style; CADP Unsocial the PERM Schizotypal, Antisocial, Narcissistic, Avoidant, Dependent, and Passive-Aggressive styles; CADP Agreeable the PERM Antisocial style. As a preliminary study, our results demonstrated that, in personality disorder patients, all five CADP traits were specifically associated with almost all 11 personality disorder functioning styles, indicating that CADP might be used as an aid to diagnose personality disorders in China.

  15. Borderline personality disorder and disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvig, Tyler J

    2011-04-01

    Assessing functional impairment of individuals with borderline personality disorder is challenging. This article discusses the diagnosis of borderline personality disorder, examines the most common iterations of this disorder in disability claims, explores cases in which borderline personality disorder may cause impairment, and identifies signs of the impairment due to this disorder. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Personality disorders and pathological gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaddiparti, Krishna; Cottler, Linda B

    2017-01-01

    To explore recent developments in the field of personality disorders and their association with pathological gambling or gambling disorder. The review covers literature published from 2015 to present time (August 2016) to understand the prevalence rates of common personality disorders among pathological gamblers. Commonly seen personality disorders among pathological or problem gamblers represent Cluster B disorders. There are reports indicating prevalence of Clusters A and C personality disorders as well. The rates of personality disorders among pathological gamblers reported in these studies align with Hill's guidelines - Strength, Specificity, Temporality, Biological gradient, Plausibility and Replicability indicating a strong association between pathological gambling and personality disorders. Studies are predominantly cross-sectional and consistently show that the presence of a personality disorder is associated with gambling severity and early age of onset pathological gambling. Research on pathological gambling should advance beyond estimating rates of personality disorders and focus on longitudinal research to understand the pathways between personality disorders and onset and severity of pathological gambling.

  17. Schizoid personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Dammann

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The schizoid personality disorder is characterized by a lack of interest in close relationships, both in the family and in other interpersonal relationships, including intimate/sexual interactions, a superiority of introverted activities, emotional coldness, estrangement and flattened affect (DSM-5. This video lecture is devoted to the review of the prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment of this disorder. In addition, the lecture examines clinical cases and an example of managing such patients.

  18. [Antisocial personality disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repo-Tiihonen, Eila; Hallikainen, Tero

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASP), especially psychopathy as its extreme form, has provoked fear and excitement over thousands of years. Ruthless violence involved in the disorder has inspired scientists, too.The abundance of research results concerning epidemiology, physiology, neuroanatomy, heritability, and treatment interventions has made ASP one of the best documented disorders in psychiatry. Numerous interventions have been tested, but there is no current treatment algorithm. Biological and sociological parameters indicate the importance of early targeted interventions among the high risk children. Otherwise, as adults they cause the greatest harm. The use of medications or psychotherapy for adults needs careful consideration.

  19. [Borderline personality disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipos, V; Schweiger, U

    2006-02-23

    Characteristics of a borderline personality disorder include emotional instability and a self-threatening lack of impulsive control. As a result, interpersonal relationships are rendered difficult. The central elements of treatment are psychoeducation, self-management, improved stress tolerance and awareness, emotion managment and training in social competence.

  20. Studies of Personality Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronningstam, Elsa; Simonsen, Erik; Oldham, John M

    2014-01-01

    The past 25 years have shown major advances in the studies of personality disorders. This collaborative article by the presidents, past and present, of ISSPD reflects on the progress within several significant areas of studies, i.e., assessment, neuroscience, treatment, prevention, advocacy...

  1. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ask Your BPD Treatment Provider There are different types of therapy for borderline personality disorder (BPD). Therapy may be given one-on-one and through support groups, enabling people with BPD to interact with others. The most effective type of therapy appears to be dialectical behavior therapy ( ...

  2. Evidence for impaired visual context processing in schizotypy with thought disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlhaas, Peter J; Silverstein, Steven M; Phillips, William A; Lovell, Paul G

    2004-06-01

    Visual context processing was examined in relation to schizotypy in a large nonclinical university population. Schizotypal status was assessed with the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) [Schizophr. Bull. 17 (1991) 555]. Schizotypal (n=32) and non-schizotypal (n=37) subjects were tested on a contour integration task (where context processing is necessary for good performance) and a visual size perception task (where context processing impairs accurate performance). In addition, a short form of the Thought Disorder Index (TDI) [Psychol. Assess. 5 (1993) 75] was administered to 28 schizotypal subjects. Thought disordered schizotypal subjects showed significantly impaired performance on the contour integration task but more accurate performance on the visual size perception task. These results support the hypothesis that deficits in visual context processing are the manifestation of a larger disturbance of cognitive coordination in schizotypy and schizophrenia.

  3. The therapeutic alliance in the treatment of personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Donna S

    2005-03-01

    Because personality disorders are associated with significant impairment in interpersonal relationships, special issues and problems arise in the formation of a therapeutic alliance in the treatment of patients with these disorders. In particular, patients with narcissistic, borderline, and paranoid personality traits are likely to have troubled interpersonal attitudes and behaviors that will complicate the patient's engagement with the therapist. While a strong positive therapeutic alliance is predictive of more successful treatment outcomes, strains and ruptures in the alliance may lead to premature termination of treatment. Therefore, clinicians need to consider the patient's characteristic way of relating in order to select appropriate interventions to effectively retain and involve the patient in treatment. Research has shown not only the importance of building an alliance but also that this alliance is vital in the earliest phase of treatment. The author first reviews several definitions of the therapeutic alliance with reference to how they apply to the treatment of patients with personality disorders. Issues relevant to forming a therapeutic alliance with patients with personality disorders are then discussed in terms of the three DSM-IV-TR personality disorder clusters. However, the author notes that these categories do not adequately capture the complexity of character pathology and that clinicians also need to consider which aspects of a patient's personality pathology are dominant at the moment in considering salient elements of the therapeutic alliance. In dealing with Cluster A personality disorders (schizotypal, schizoid, and paranoid personality disorders), what is most relevant for alliance building is the profound impairment in interpersonal relationships. The Cluster B "dramatic" personality disorders (antisocial, borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic) are all associated with pushing the limits. Consequently, clinicians need to exercise great

  4. Course of illness in a sample of patients diagnosed with a schizotypal disorder and treated in a specialized early intervention setting. Findings from the 3.5year follow-up of the OPUS II study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Nikolai; Glenthøj, Louise Birkedal; Melau, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    transition to psychosis. RESULTS: Of those 59 who attended the follow-up interview 19 (32%) developed a psychotic disorder at follow-up. There were no differences between the two treatment groups on transition rates or clinical outcomes. We found that lower level of functioning at baseline predicted......BACKGROUND: Previous studies report that 20% to 30% of those initially diagnosed with schizotypal disorder go on to develop a psychotic disorder (predominantly schizophrenia). Schizotypal disorder share some traits of those used to identify patients at ultra-high risk for psychosis. METHOD: As part....... This may be attributable to the intervention in our study occurring at a later stage in the illness than prior studies....

  5. Narcissism and Narcissistic Personality Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Dammann

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This a video is one of the series of lectures about personality disorders. It covers the concept of narcissism and the concept of narcissism personality disorder.  The lecture is mainly focused on the differences between normal and pathological narcissism as well as etiology, diagnosis and practical recommendations on treatment of narcissism personality disorder.

  6. Personality disorder in mental handicap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, A H; Ballinger, B R

    1987-11-01

    100 randomly selected mildly or moderately mentally retarded adults were assessed for personality disorder using the Standardized Assessment of Personality devised by Mann et al. (1981). By the terms of this instrument 56% of patients showed features of abnormal personality, and in 22% this abnormality was marked, suggesting the presence of personality disorder. Personality problems may be a more significant factor in assessing a mentally retarded person's acceptability in a community setting than has hitherto been realized.

  7. Borderline Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Any Anxiety Disorder Among Children Agoraphobia Among Adults Agoraphobia Among Children Generalized Anxiety Disorder Among Adults Generalized Anxiety Disorder Among Children Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Among Adults Panic Disorder Among Adults Panic Disorder Among Children Post- ...

  8. Sociotropy, autonomy, and personality disorder criteria in psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Jennifer Q; Robins, Clive J; Gittes-Fox, Marci

    2002-12-01

    Sociotropy and autonomy (Beck, 1983) are sets of beliefs, concerns, and behavioral tendencies that are proposed to create vulnerability to depression and other psychopathology and to influence its manifestation and treatment response. Other theoretical frameworks (Blatt, 1974) have made similar suggestions. We investigated the differential relations of sociotropy and autonomy to dimensional scores for each DSM-III-R personality disorder (PD) in a sample of 188 psychiatric patients, controlling for the other set of characteristics and for the other PDs. Histrionic and dependent PD traits were related specifically to sociotropy. Paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal, and passive-aggressive PD traits were related specifically to autonomy. Borderline, narcissistic, avoidant, and self-defeating PD traits were related significantly and about equally to both sociotropy and autonomy. Obsessive-compulsive PD traits were not related consistently to either. Results were mostly as predicted and suggest that sociotropy and autonomy may be useful constructs for understanding and treating PDs.

  9. ICD-11 and DSM-5 personality trait domains capture categorical personality disorders: Finding a common ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Bo; Sellbom, Martin; Skjernov, Mathias; Simonsen, Erik

    2017-08-01

    The five personality disorder trait domains in the proposed International Classification of Diseases, 11th edition and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition are comparable in terms of Negative Affectivity, Detachment, Antagonism/Dissociality and Disinhibition. However, the International Classification of Diseases, 11th edition model includes a separate domain of Anankastia, whereas the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition model includes an additional domain of Psychoticism. This study examined associations of International Classification of Diseases, 11th edition and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition trait domains, simultaneously, with categorical personality disorders. Psychiatric outpatients ( N = 226) were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders Interview and the Personality Inventory for DSM-5. International Classification of Diseases, 11th edition and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition trait domain scores were obtained using pertinent scoring algorithms for the Personality Inventory for DSM-5. Associations between categorical personality disorders and trait domains were examined using correlation and multiple regression analyses. Both the International Classification of Diseases, 11th edition and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition domain models showed relevant continuity with categorical personality disorders and captured a substantial amount of their information. As expected, the International Classification of Diseases, 11th edition model was superior in capturing obsessive-compulsive personality disorder, whereas the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition model was superior in capturing schizotypal personality disorder. These preliminary findings suggest that little information is 'lost' in a transition to trait domain

  10. Cluster A personality disorders: considering the 'odd-eccentric' in psychiatric nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Brent A

    2007-02-01

    Psychiatric nurses are familiar with the concept of personality disorder because of their contact with persons with the most common personality disorder in clinical settings - borderline type, who frequently engage mental health services. Perhaps it is this familiarity that has focused research and clinical attention on borderline personality disorder compared with the other personality disorders. The significance of cluster A personality disorders for nursing is multifaceted because of their severity, prevalence, inaccurate diagnosis, poor response to treatment, and similarities to axis I diagnoses. Despite this, literature reviews have established that relatively few studies have focused on the treatment of the cluster A personality disorders - paranoid, schizotypal, and schizoid - resulting in a dearth of evidence-based interventions for this group of clients. A discussion of these disorders in the context of personality disorder and their individual characteristics demonstrates the distinctive and challenging engagement techniques required by psychiatric nurses to provide effective treatment and care. It is also strongly indicated that the discipline of psychiatric nursing has not yet begun to address the care of persons with cluster A personality disorders.

  11. The effect of personality disorders on treatment outcomes in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Nicola; Hertenstein, Elisabeth; Nissen, Christoph; Herbst, Nirmal; Külz, Anne Katrin; Voderholzer, Ulrich

    2013-12-01

    The effect of comorbid personality disorders (PD) on treatment outcomes in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is unclear. The authors systematically review results from investigations of therapy outcomes in adult patients with OCD and a comorbid PD. PsycINFO and MEDLINE were searched for original articles. Twenty-three studies assessing PDs through interviews were selected. Cluster A PDs, particularly schizotypal PD, narcissistic PD, and the presence of two or more comorbid PDs, were associated with poorer treatment outcomes in patients with OCD. With regard to other PDs and clusters, the results are inconsistent or the sample sizes are too small to reach a conclusion. OCD patients with different comorbid PDs differ in their therapeutic response to treatment. To optimize the treatment of OCD, the predictive value of PDs on the treatment outcome should be further investigated, and treatment of Axis I and II comorbidity requires more attention.

  12. Children with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders: thought disorder and communication problems in a family interactional context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompson, M C; Asarnow, J R; Hamilton, E B; Newell, L E; Goldstein, M J

    1997-05-01

    Thought disorder and communication patterns during an interactional task were examined in families of children with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (schizophrenia and schizotypal personality disorder), depressed children, and normal controls. Children with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders showed significantly more thought disorder than their normal peers; levels of thought disorder among depressed children fell between those observed in the other two groups but did not differ significantly from either of them. Similarly, mothers of children with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders showed more thought disorder than mothers of normal control children but did not differ from mothers of depressed children. Children with schizotypal personality disorder did not differ from children with schizophrenia. These findings demonstrate that the thought disorder present in childhood-onset schizophrenia and schizotypal personality disorders is manifest in an important social context, the family.

  13. [Borderline personality disorder and transsexualism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seikowski, Kurt; Gollek, Sabine; Harth, Wolfgang; Reinhardt, Michaela

    2008-04-01

    The study addresses the question whether, as often assumed, the symptoms of borderline personality disorders occur more frequently in transsexuals or not. We examined 164 transsexuals. The subjects completed the following questionnaires: The Borderline-Personality Inventory (BPI), the Freiburg Personality Inventory (FPI) and the Questionnaire for Assessment of One's Own Body (FbeK). In 80 % of all the examined transsexuals, there was evidence of symptoms of neither a borderline personality disorder nor of other personality disorders. If borderline symptoms occurred, they were predictable from the variables depressivity, low composure, low sociability and lack of confidence in relation to the external appearance. The data obtained refute the often-assumed increased relationship between borderline personality disorders and transsexuality. It should be assumed that a borderline personality disorder is primarily a psychiatric illness, while transsexuality is a disorder of gender identity in which secondary borderline symptoms may arise in some cases.

  14. Current understanding of the relationships between obsessive-compulsive disorder and personality disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starcevic, Vladan; Brakoulias, Vlasios

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to examine the relationships between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and personality disturbance, with a particular focus on the diagnostic, aetiological and treatment implications of these relationships. Personality disorders are common in OCD. They interact in various ways and in accordance with a number of the proposed models. The relationship between OCD and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder is the most important, but it can be conceptualised in different ways and may vary from one person to another. The most clinically relevant implication of the presence of schizotypal personality disorder in OCD is poor prognosis and treatment outcome of OCD. The findings of the effects of personality disorders on treatment outcome of OCD have been inconsistent for most personality disorders, largely due to poor quality of research. Better understanding of the specific relationships between OCD and personality disturbance should lead to a more tailored treatment approach. Large prospective studies are needed to better understand how various relationships between OCD and specific personality disorders could be conceptualised more soundly. Such studies will also provide the foundation for more effective treatments of OCD patients with co-occurring personality disorders.

  15. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    OCPD has some of the same symptoms as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). People with OCD have unwanted thoughts, while ... PM, Oldfield VB, Carter N. The association between obsessive compulsive ... compulsive personality disorder: prevalence and clinical ...

  16. Using personality neuroscience to study personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abram, Samantha V; DeYoung, Colin G

    2017-01-01

    Personality neuroscience integrates techniques from personality psychology and neuroscience to elucidate the neural basis of individual differences in cognition, emotion, motivation, and behavior. This endeavor is pertinent not only to our understanding of healthy personality variation, but also to the aberrant trait manifestations present in personality disorders and severe psychopathology. In the current review, we focus on the advances and limitations of neuroimaging methods with respect to personality neuroscience. We discuss the value of personality theory as a means to link specific neural mechanisms with various traits (e.g., the neural basis of the "Big Five"). Given the overlap between dimensional models of normal personality and psychopathology, we also describe how researchers can reconceptualize psychopathological disorders along key dimensions, and, in turn, formulate specific neural hypotheses, extended from personality theory. Examples from the borderline personality disorder literature are used to illustrate this approach. We provide recommendations for utilizing neuroimaging methods to capture the neural mechanisms that underlie continuous traits across the spectrum from healthy to maladaptive. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Factor analysis demonstrates a common schizoidal phenotype within autistic and schizotypal tendency: Implications for neuroscientific studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talitha Caitlyn Ford

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Behavioural and cognitive dysfunction, particularly social and communication impairments are shared between autism and schizophrenia spectrum disorders, while evidence for a diametric autism-positive schizophrenia symptom profile is inconsistent. We investigated the shared phenotype at a personality trait level, particularly its resemblance to schizoid personality disorder, as well as differential aspects of the autism-schizophrenia model.Items of the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ and Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ were pseudo-randomly combined, and were completed by 449 (162 male, 287 female non-clinical participants aged 18-40. A Factor Analysis revealed three factors; the first represented a shared social disorganization phenotype, the second reflected perceptual oddities specific to schizotypy while the third reflected social rigidity specific to autism. The AQ and SPQ were strongly correlated with Factor 1 (AQ: r=.75, p<.001; SPQ: r=.96, p<.001, SPQ score was correlated with Factor 2 (r=.51, p<.001, particularly in Cognitive-Perceptual features (r=.66, p<.001, and AQ score was strongly correlated with Factor 3 (r=.76, p<.001. Furthermore, there was no relationship between Factor 1 and Factor 2.Thus, there is robust evidence for a shared social disorganization phenotype in autistic and schizotypal tendency, which reflects the schizoid phenotype. Discriminating and independent dimensions of schizotypal and autistic tendency exist in Factors 2 and 3 respectively. Current diagnostic protocols could result in different diagnoses depending on the instrument used, suggesting the need for neuromarkers that objectively differentiate autistic and schizotypal traits and resolve the question of commonality versus comorbidity.

  18. PERSONALITY TRAITS AND BORDERLINE PERSONALITY DISORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senija TAHIROVIC

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The people with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD show pathological personality traits in three of the five domains (APA 2013. In addition to diagnostic criteria for BPD, described by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5, the dimensional model of personality disorder, based on five-factor model of personality, seems to gain interest as it promisses to eliminate problems associated with poor-fit, co-morbidity and unclear diagnosis. The purpose of this study is to identify the personality traits by people who are already diagnosed with BPD using the DSM-5 categorical criteria. Based on the theoretical concepts and existing research findings as well as increased interest in the dimensional personality theory, we assume that people diagnosed with BPD will show high levels of pathology on three trait domains: negative affectivity, disinhibition and antagonism. This study was conducted in Germany in psychiatric clinic. Fifteen participants represented a convenience sample, of patients already diagnosed with BPD. For this study Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5 was used. The findings supported the assumptions that people with BPD show some degree of anxiousness, emotional lability, hostility, impulsivity, risk taking and separation anxiety. The study also found that traits such as distractibility, withdrawal and submissiveness were also present in this participant group. Even though, study was conducted with small number of participants it has provided contribution to the already existing knowledge and understanding in regards to common personality treats for people diagnosed with BPD.

  19. [Personality disorders in eating disorder patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Murcia, Francisco M; Cangas, Adolfo J; Pozo, Eugenia M; Martínez Sánchez, Margarita; López Pérez, Manuel

    2009-02-01

    Personality disorders in eating disorder patients. A follow-up study was designed to analyze the relation between personality disorders (PD) and the course of eating disorders (ED) in 34 patients who required treatment over 4 years and half. 91% of the clinical sample met the criteria for PD at the initial assessment and 36% at the end of treatment, with a significant reduction in MCMI-II scores at follow-up. The outcome of the ED was significantly related to the PD outcome. There was a higher rate of improvement of PD in the bulimic group (61%) than in anorexic group (34%). The patients who presented schizoid and avoidant personality disorders were the most resistant and they adhered less to treatment. The prevalence of PD in the clinical sample and its relation to the course of ED from a person-centered model is discussed.

  20. Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Any Anxiety Disorder 52.4 60.5 Any Mood Disorder 24.1 34.3 Any Impulse Control Disorder ... NCS-R study page . Last Updated: November 2017 STATISTICS HOME Contact Us The National Institute of Mental ...

  1. The stability of DSM personality disorders over twelve to eighteen years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestadt, Gerald; Di, Chongzhi; Samuels, J F; Bienvenu, O J; Reti, I M; Costa, P; Eaton, William W; Bandeen-Roche, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Stability of personality disorders is assumed in most nomenclatures; however, the evidence for this is limited and inconsistent. The aim of this study is to investigate the stability of DSM-III personality disorders in a community sample of eastern Baltimore residents unselected for treatment. Two hundred ninety four participants were examined on two occasions by psychiatrists using the same standardized examination twelve to eighteen years apart. All the DSM-III criteria for personality disorders were assessed. Item-response analysis was adapted into two approaches to assess the agreement between the personality measures on the two occasions. The first approach estimated stability in the underlying disorder, correcting for error in trait measurement, and the second approach estimated stability in the measured disorder, without correcting for item unreliability. Five of the ten personality disorders exhibited moderate stability in individuals: antisocial, avoidant, borderline, histrionic, and schizotypal. Associated estimated ICCs for stability of underlying disorder over time ranged between approximately 0.4 and 0.7-0.8. A sixth disorder, OCPD, exhibited appreciable stability with estimated ICC of approximately 0.2-0.3. Dependent, narcissistic, paranoid, and schizoid disorders were not demonstrably stable. The findings suggest that six of the DSM personality disorder constructs themselves are stable, but that specific traits within the DSM categories are both of lesser importance than the constructs themselves and require additional specification.

  2. Typology of schizotypy in non-clinical young adults: Psychopathological and personality disorder traits correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynal, Patrick; Goutaudier, Nelly; Nidetch, Victoria; Chabrol, Henri

    2016-12-30

    Few typological studies address schizotypy in young adults. Schizotypal traits were assessed on 466 college students using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief (SPQ-B). Other measures evaluated personality traits previously associated with schizotypy (borderline, obsessionnal, and autistic traits), psychopathological symptoms (suicidal ideations, depressive and obsessive-compulsive symptoms) and psychosocial functioning. A factor analysis was first performed on SPQ-B results, leading to four factors: negative schizotypy, positive schizotypy, social anxiety, and reference ideas. Based on these factors, a cluster analysis was conducted, which yielded four clearly distinct groups characterized by "Low" (non schizotypy), "High schizotypy" (mixed positive and negative), "Positive schizotypy", and "Social impairment". Regarding personality disorder traits and psychopathological symptoms, the "High schizotypy" cluster scored higher than the "Positive" and the "Social impairment" groups, which scored higher than the "Low" cluster. The "Positive" group had higher levels of interpersonal relationships than in the "High" and the "Social impairment" clusters, suggesting that positive schizotypy was associated to benefits such as perceived social relationships. Nevertheless the "Positive" cluster was also linked to high levels of personality disorder traits and psychopathological symptoms, and to low academic achievement, at levels similar those observed in the "Social impairment" cluster, confirming an unhealthy side to positive schizotypy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Imagery Rescripting for Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arntz, Arnoud

    2011-01-01

    Imagery rescripting is a powerful technique that can be successfully applied in the treatment of personality disorders. For personality disorders, imagery rescripting is not used to address intrusive images but to change the implicational meaning of schemas and childhood experiences that underlie the patient's problems. Various mechanisms that may…

  4. Prescribing and borderline personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanen, Andrew M; Thompson, Katherine N

    2016-01-01

    Summary Accurate diagnosis is fundamental to effective management of borderline personality disorder, but many patients remain undetected. The first-line management for borderline personality disorder is psychosocial treatment, not drugs. There are major prescribing hazards including polypharmacy, overdose and misuse. Drug treatment might be warranted for patients who have a co-occurring mental disorder such as major depression. If a drug is prescribed for borderline personality disorder, it should only be as an adjunct to psychosocial treatment. There should be clear and collaborative goals that are regularly reviewed with the patient. Use single drugs prescribed in limited quantities for a limited time. Stop drugs that are ineffective. PMID:27340322

  5. Personality disorders and the persistence of anxiety disorders in a nationally representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skodol, Andrew E; Geier, Timothy; Grant, Bridget F; Hasin, Deborah S

    2014-09-01

    Among individuals with anxiety disorders, comorbid personality disorders (PDs) increase cross-sectional symptom severity and decrease functioning. Little is known, however, about how PDs influence the course of anxiety disorders over time. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of PDs on the persistence of four anxiety disorders in a nationally representative sample in the United States. Two waves of data were collected on 34,653 participants, 3 years apart. At both waves, participants were evaluated for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social and specific phobias, and panic disorder. Predictors of persistence included all DSM-IV PDs. Control variables included demographics, comorbid PDs, age at onset of the anxiety disorder, number of prior episodes, duration of the current episode, treatment history, and cardinal symptoms of exclusionary diagnoses for each anxiety disorder. Any PD, two or more PDs, borderline PD, schizotypal PD, mean number of PD criteria met, and mean number of PDs diagnosed predicted the persistence of all four anxiety disorders. Narcissistic PD predicted persistence of GAD and panic disorder. Schizoid and avoidant PDs also predicted persistence of GAD. Finally, avoidant PD predicted persistence of social phobia. Particular patterns of cross-cluster PD comorbidity were strong predictors of the persistence of individual anxiety disorders as well. In this national sample, a variety of PDs robustly predicted the persistence of anxiety disorders over 3 years, consistent with the results of recent prospective clinical studies. Personality psychopathology should be assessed and addressed in treatment for all patients with anxiety disorders. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Personality disorders and smoking in Spanish general and clinical population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Del Río, Elena; López-Durán, Ana; Martínez, Úrsula; Becoña, Elisardo

    2016-08-01

    There is consistent evidence about the relationship between smoking and mental health. This study compares the relationship between tobacco use and personality disorders (PDs) in Spanish adults from general and clinical population, taking into account nicotine dependence (ND), and the presence of any mental disorder. The sample was made up of 1,079 smokers (519 from general population, 560 from clinical population). PDs were assessed by means of the International Personality Disorder Examination Questionnaire, Module DSM-IV. Individuals seeking treatment to quit smoking had a higher likelihood of presenting a paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal, borderline, antisocial, and dependent PD compared to smokers from the general population. This likelihood was higher when ND was taken into account. Among smokers from the general population, ND was associated with a higher likelihood of presenting a borderline and dependent PD. A significant relationship between smoking and several PDs exist, especially in nicotine dependent smokers. Relevance of the findings regarding the influence of PDs in smoking cessation interventions is discussed.

  7. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sense of identity associated with emotionally intense mental images of themselves and others. The therapist helps the patient unconsciously reassign extreme positive or negative images associated with one person to another person, such ...

  8. Conduct disorder and antisocial personality disorder in persons with severe psychiatric and substance use disorders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mueser, Kim T; Crocker, Anne G; Frisman, Linda B; Drake, Robert E; Covell, Nancy H; Essock, Susan M

    2006-01-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) are established risk factors for substance use disorders in both the general population and among persons with schizophrenia and other severe mental illnesses...

  9. Reduced functional connectivity between bilateral precuneus and contralateral parahippocampus in schizotypal personality disorder

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhu, Yikang; Tang, Yunxiang; Zhang, Tianhong; Li, Hui; Tang, Yingying; Li, Chunbo; Luo, Xingguang; He, Yongguang; Lu, Zheng; Wang, Jijun

    2017-01-01

    ...) with precuneus in patients with schizophrenia could be extended to individuals with SPD. Methods Twenty subjects with SPD and 19 healthy controls were recruited from 4461 freshmen at a university in Shanghai and received a resting-state scan of MRI...

  10. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... arise and they are feeling unstable. A Treatable Disorder Diagnosis is often a relief when people with ... possibly brought on by negative childhood experiences – that affects how people react to their environment, interact with ...

  11. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... when certain challenging situations arise and they are feeling unstable. A Treatable Disorder Diagnosis is often a ... learn to reflect and verbalize what they’re feeling, rather than acting out these emotions impulsively. Schema- ...

  12. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... arise and they are feeling unstable. A Treatable Disorder Diagnosis is often a relief ... with emotionally intense mental images of themselves and others. The therapist helps ...

  13. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The therapist helps the patient unconsciously reassign extreme positive or negative images associated with one person to ... possibly brought on by negative childhood experiences – that affects how people react to their environment, interact with ...

  14. [Childhood trauma and personality disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeddu, F; Fossati, A; Lingiardi, V; Maffei, C

    1993-12-01

    The influence of the model of object relations on modern psychodynamic research has led to increased emphasis on the importance of relations and traumatic events in the genesis of some psychic disorders, especially with regard to personality disorders. The development of axis II in the DSM-III system has increased the number of empiric studies in this field. In this paper, the Authors report data relating to a sample of 49 subjects with personality disorders (DSM-III-R) in which the presence of sexual abuse, physical maltreatment and negative family atmosphere was examined using a self-administered questionnaire (CAT). The results suggest a significant presence of these events throughout the sample and reveal a correlation between some personality disorders and specific traumatic events. It may therefore be hypothesized that the presence of these events represents an important factor from the point of treatment, both in technical and in prognostic terms.

  15. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and personality disorder: evidence from the British National Survey of Psychiatric Morbidity 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Albina R; Moran, Paul; Bebbington, Paul; Brugha, Traolach; Bhugra, Dinesh; Coid, Jeremy W; Farrell, Michael; Jenkins, Rachel; Lewis, Glyn; Meltzer, Howard; Prince, Martin

    2006-11-01

    Previous studies indicate that most individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have comorbid personality disorders (PDs), particularly from the anxious cluster. However, the nature and strength of this association remains unclear, as the majority of previous studies have relied heavily on clinical populations. We analysed the prevalence of screen positive personality disorder in a representative sample of adults with OCD living in private households in the UK. A secondary analysis of data from the 2000 British National Survey of Psychiatric Morbidity. The prevalence of PD, as determined by the SCID-II questionnaire, was compared in participants with OCD, with other neuroses and non-neurotic controls. Within the OCD group we also analysed possible differences relating to sex and subtypes of the disorder. The prevalence of any screen positive PD in the OCD group (N=108) was 74%, significantly greater than in both control groups. The most common screen positive categories were paranoid, obsessive-compulsive, avoidant, schizoid and schizotypal. Compared to participants with other neuroses, OCD cases were more likely to screen positively for paranoid, avoidant, schizotypal, dependent and narcissistic PDs. Men with OCD were more likely to screen positively for PDs in general, cluster A PDs, antisocial, obsessive-compulsive and narcissistic categories. The presence of comorbid neuroses in people with OCD had no significant effect on the prevalence of PD. Personality pathology is highly prevalent among people with OCD who are living in the community and should be routinely assessed, as it may affect help-seeking behaviour and response to treatment.

  16. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... acting out to verbalizing psychological conflicts and developing adaptive outlets for emotions. Contact the Borderline Personality Resource Center Call us: 888-694-2273 Email us: bpdresourcecenter@nyp.org X X For Professionals Disclaimer Privacy Notice © 2018 NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital

  17. Personality disorders in euthymic bipolar patients: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severino Bezerra-Filho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To identify, by means of a systematic review, the frequency with which comorbid personality disorders (PDs have been assessed in studies of euthymic bipolar patients.Methods:PubMed, ciELO and PsychINFO databases were searched for eligible articles published between 1997 and 2013. After screening 1,249 empirical papers, two independent reviewers identified three articles evaluating the frequency of PDs in patients with bipolar disorders assessed in a state of euthymia.Results:The total sample comprised 376 euthymic bipolar patients, of whom 155 (41.2% had at least one comorbid PD. Among them, we found 87 (23.1% in cluster B, 55 (14.6% in cluster C, and 25 (6.6% in cluster A. The frequencies of PD subtypes were: borderline, 38 (10.1%; histrionic, 29 (7.7%; obsessive-compulsive, 28 (7.4%; dependent, 19 (5%; narcissistic, 17 (4.5%; schizoid, schizotypal, and avoidant, 11 patients each (2.95%; paranoid, five (1.3%; and antisocial, three (0.79%.Conclusion:The frequency of comorbid PD was high across the spectrum of euthymic bipolar patients. In this population, the most common PDs were those in cluster B, and the most frequent PD subtype was borderline, followed by histrionic and obsessive-compulsive.

  18. A comparison of personality disorder characteristics of patients with nonepileptic psychogenic pseudoseizures with those of patients with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Cynthia L; Jovine, Luydmilla; Burgut, Fadime T; Carey, Bridget T; Nikolov, Blagovest G; Ferrando, Stephen J

    2009-03-01

    We sought to determine the type of personality disorder cluster associated with patients with nonepileptic psychogenic seizures (NES) compared with that of patients with epileptic seizures (ES). Consecutive adult patients admitted for video/EEG monitoring found to have NES were compared with a simultaneously admitted patient with confirmed epilepsy. Personality was assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis II Personality Disorders. Personality disorders were then divided into personality clusters described in the DSM-IV-TR: A = paranoid, schizotypal, schizoid; B = borderline, histrionic, antisocial, narcissistic; or C = avoidant, dependent, obsessive-compulsive. Thirteen of 16 patients with NES and 12 of 16 patients with ES met criteria for personality disorders. Patients with NES were more likely to meet criteria for a personality disorder in Cluster A or B, compared with patients with ES, who were more likely to have Cluster C personality disorders (chi(2) test, P=0.007). We propose that the personality traits of patients with NES contribute to the development of nonepileptic psychogenic seizures. However, the large proportion of patients with ES with Cluster C personality disorders was unexpected, and further, for the patients with epilepsy, the direction of the association of their personality traits with the development of epilepsy is unknown.

  19. Neuroimaging in Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Yildirim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging has been used in antisocial personality disorder since the invention of computed tomography and new modalities are introduced as technology advances. Magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, functional magnetic resonance imaging and radionuclide imaging are such techniques that are currently used in neuroimaging. Although neuroimaging is an indispensible tool for psychiatric reseach, its clinical utility is questionable until new modalities become more accessible and regularly used in clinical practice. The aim of this paper is to provide clinicians with an introductory knowledge on neuroimaging in antisocial personality disorder including basic physics principles, current contributions to general understanding of pathophysiology in antisocial personality disorder and possible future applications of neuroimaging. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(1: 98-108

  20. Aggression in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Látalová, K; Prasko, J

    2010-09-01

    This review examined aggressive behavior in Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and its management in adults. Aggression against self or against others is a core component of BPD. Impulsiveness is a clinical hallmark (as well as a DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criterion) of BPD, and aggressive acts by BPD patients are largely of the impulsive type. BPD has high comorbidity rates with substance use disorders, Bipolar Disorder, and Antisocial Personality Disorder; these conditions further elevate the risk for violence. Treatment of BDP includes psychodynamic, cognitive behavioral, schema therapy, dialectic behavioral, group and pharmacological interventions. Recent studies indicate that many medications, particularly atypical antipsychotics and anticonvulsants, may reduce impulsivity, affective lability as well as irritability and aggressive behavior. But there is still a lack of large, double blind, placebo controlled studies in this area.

  1. Envy manifestations and personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habimana, E; Massé, L

    2000-06-01

    Personality disorders are frequently associated with socially unacceptable behaviours that might not be always considered deviant. On the other hand, envy has been linked with various forms of maladjustment such as interpersonal conflicts, low self-esteem, depression, anxiety, aggressiveness, and even criminal behaviour such as vandalism and even murder. According to the DSM-IV, none of the personality disorders, except the narcissistic personality, is formally associated with envy. Nevertheless, this "deadly sin" is so omnipresent in human relationships that it cannot be restricted only to the narcissistic personalities. Most scholars recognise that people would deny that they envy someone else since envy is socially considered as highly undesirable; verbal reports are expected to be biased. To circumvent this difficulty, a projective questionnaire is proposed. We constructed two questionnaires: a direct version (DV) and an indirect version (IV). The sample consisted of 786 students from high school and university. Results suggest that the indirect version provides a more accurate assessment of envy.

  2. Affective disorders among patients with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjåstad, Hege Nordem; Gråwe, Rolf W; Egeland, Jens

    2012-01-01

    The high co-occurrence between borderline personality disorder and affective disorders has led many to believe that borderline personality disorder should be considered as part of an affective spectrum. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the prevalence of affective disorders are higher for patients with borderline personality disorder than for patients with other personality disorders. In a national cross-sectional study of patients receiving mental health treatment in Norway (N = 36 773), we determined whether psychiatric outpatients with borderline personality disorder (N = 1 043) had a higher prevalence of affective disorder in general, and whether they had an increased prevalence of depression, bipolar disorder or dysthymia specifically. They were compared to patients with paranoid, schizoid, dissocial, histrionic, obsessive-compulsive, avoidant, dependent, or unspecified personality disorder, as well as an aggregated group of patients with personality disorders other than the borderline type (N = 2 636). Odds ratios were computed for the borderline personality disorder group comparing it to the mixed sample of other personality disorders. Diagnostic assessments were conducted in routine clinical practice. More subjects with borderline personality disorder suffered from unipolar than bipolar disorders. Nevertheless, borderline personality disorder had a lower rate of depression and dysthymia than several other personality disorder groups, whereas the rate of bipolar disorder tended to be higher. Odds ratios showed 34% lower risk for unipolar depression, 70% lower risk for dysthymia and 66% higher risk for bipolar disorder in patients with borderline personality disorder compared to the aggregated group of other personality disorders. The results suggest that borderline personality disorder has a stronger association with affective disorders in the bipolar spectrum than disorders in the unipolar spectrum. This association may reflect

  3. Affective disorders among patients with borderline personality disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hege Nordem Sjåstad

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The high co-occurrence between borderline personality disorder and affective disorders has led many to believe that borderline personality disorder should be considered as part of an affective spectrum. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the prevalence of affective disorders are higher for patients with borderline personality disorder than for patients with other personality disorders. METHODS: In a national cross-sectional study of patients receiving mental health treatment in Norway (N = 36 773, we determined whether psychiatric outpatients with borderline personality disorder (N = 1 043 had a higher prevalence of affective disorder in general, and whether they had an increased prevalence of depression, bipolar disorder or dysthymia specifically. They were compared to patients with paranoid, schizoid, dissocial, histrionic, obsessive-compulsive, avoidant, dependent, or unspecified personality disorder, as well as an aggregated group of patients with personality disorders other than the borderline type (N = 2 636. Odds ratios were computed for the borderline personality disorder group comparing it to the mixed sample of other personality disorders. Diagnostic assessments were conducted in routine clinical practice. RESULTS: More subjects with borderline personality disorder suffered from unipolar than bipolar disorders. Nevertheless, borderline personality disorder had a lower rate of depression and dysthymia than several other personality disorder groups, whereas the rate of bipolar disorder tended to be higher. Odds ratios showed 34% lower risk for unipolar depression, 70% lower risk for dysthymia and 66% higher risk for bipolar disorder in patients with borderline personality disorder compared to the aggregated group of other personality disorders. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that borderline personality disorder has a stronger association with affective disorders in the bipolar spectrum than

  4. Affective Disorders among Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjåstad, Hege Nordem; Gråwe, Rolf W.; Egeland, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Background The high co-occurrence between borderline personality disorder and affective disorders has led many to believe that borderline personality disorder should be considered as part of an affective spectrum. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the prevalence of affective disorders are higher for patients with borderline personality disorder than for patients with other personality disorders. Methods In a national cross-sectional study of patients receiving mental health treatment in Norway (N = 36 773), we determined whether psychiatric outpatients with borderline personality disorder (N = 1 043) had a higher prevalence of affective disorder in general, and whether they had an increased prevalence of depression, bipolar disorder or dysthymia specifically. They were compared to patients with paranoid, schizoid, dissocial, histrionic, obsessive-compulsive, avoidant, dependent, or unspecified personality disorder, as well as an aggregated group of patients with personality disorders other than the borderline type (N = 2 636). Odds ratios were computed for the borderline personality disorder group comparing it to the mixed sample of other personality disorders. Diagnostic assessments were conducted in routine clinical practice. Results More subjects with borderline personality disorder suffered from unipolar than bipolar disorders. Nevertheless, borderline personality disorder had a lower rate of depression and dysthymia than several other personality disorder groups, whereas the rate of bipolar disorder tended to be higher. Odds ratios showed 34% lower risk for unipolar depression, 70% lower risk for dysthymia and 66% higher risk for bipolar disorder in patients with borderline personality disorder compared to the aggregated group of other personality disorders. Conclusions The results suggest that borderline personality disorder has a stronger association with affective disorders in the bipolar spectrum than disorders in the unipolar

  5. Defense mechanisms and personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingiardi, V; Lonati, C; Delucchi, F; Fossati, A; Vanzulli, L; Maffei, C

    1999-04-01

    The evaluation of defense mechanisms represents one of the most promising fields in the psychodynamic-oriented empirical research on personality disorders (PDs). This study examines the association between DSM-IV PDs and defense mechanisms. We evaluated a sample of 50 adult outpatients seeking personality assessment and psychotherapeutic treatment. PDs have been assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorder, version 2.0. Defense mechanisms have been evaluated by a group of trained clinical psychologists and psychiatrists (interrater reliability from .61 to .95) using Perry's Defense Mechanism Rating Scale. Our results support the hypothesis that some defense mechanisms underlie PDs and that defenses call for further attention as we assess PDs.

  6. Stability and Change in Personality Disorder Symptoms in 1-Year Follow-up of Depressed Adolescent Outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandholm, Thea; Kiviruusu, Olli; Karlsson, Linnea; Pankakoski, Maiju; Pelkonen, Mirjami; Marttunen, Mauri

    2017-01-01

    We investigated stability and change in personality disorder (PD) symptoms and whether depression severity, comorbid clinical psychiatric disorders, and social support predict changes in personality pathology among adolescent outpatients. The 1-year outcome of PD symptoms among consecutive adolescent psychiatric outpatients with depressive disorders (N = 189) was investigated with symptom count of depression, comorbid psychiatric disorders, and perceived social support as predictors. An overall decrease in PD symptoms in most PD categories was observed. Decreases in depression severity and in number of comorbid diagnoses correlated positively with decreases in PD symptoms of most PD categories. Social support from close friends predicted a decrease in schizotypal and narcissistic, whereas support from family predicted a decrease in paranoid symptoms. Our results suggest that among depressed adolescent outpatients, PD symptoms are relatively unstable, changes co-occuring with changes/improvement in overall psychopathology. Social support seems a possibly effective point for intervention efforts regarding positive outcome of PD symptoms.

  7. Interactive decision-making in people with schizotypal traits: a game theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van 't Wout, Mascha; Sanfey, Alan G

    2011-01-30

    Studies that have investigated whether deficits in social cognition observed in schizophrenia are also present in schizotypal individuals have largely been inconclusive, and none of these studies have examined social interactive behavior. Here, we investigated interactive decision-making behavior in individuals differing in the amount of schizotypal symptoms using tasks derived from Game Theory. In total 1691 undergraduate students were screened with the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief version. We selected 69 people distributed across the full schizotypal continuum to participate in Ultimatum and Dictator Games in which they played against human and non-human, computer partners. The results showed that higher levels of schizotypal symptoms, particularly positive and disorganized schizotypy, were related to proposing higher offers to all partners. Additionally, the amount of interpersonal schizotypal symptoms was associated with an increased acceptance rate of very unfair offers from human partners, possibly reflecting a blunted emotional response to such offers. We conclude that positive and disorganized schizotypal symptoms are associated with less adequate bargaining behavior, similar to what has been recently observed in patients with schizophrenia. The observed similarities on Ultimatum Game behavior between patients with schizophrenia and individuals with more schizotypal symptoms contribute to the growing evidence that social cognitive deficits may represent a marker of vulnerability to schizophrenia. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  8. Clusters of personality disorder cognitions in the eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Glenn; Ormonde, Lisa; Kuteyi, Yemi

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether comorbid personality disorder pathology in the eating disorders clusters into broader patterns, and whether those clusters have clinical validity in terms of levels of eating pathology and axis 1 comorbidity. The sample consisted of 214 eating-disordered women who completed measures of personality disorder cognitions, eating pathology and axis 1 pathology at assessment. Three clusters of eating disorder patients emerged-low levels of personality pathology overall, high levels of cognitions underpinning anxiety-based personality pathology, and high levels of all of the dimensions of personality pathology. These groups were validated by differences in levels of eating cognitions and axis 1 pathology. Personality disorder cognitions are clinically relevant to the eating disorders, but they might best be understood as broader sets of cognitions ('anxiety-centred' and 'general'), rather than in terms of individual personality disorder comorbidity or existing DSM personality disorder clusters. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  9. Personality Disorders in patients with disorders in eating behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa Carina Góngora

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The interest for the systematic study of personality disorder in patients with eating disorders starts in 1980 with the edition of the DSM III multiaxial classification system. Since then, several publications have been focused on the prevalence and the effect on treatment of personality disorders in bulimic and anorexic patients. These researches showed inconsistent results due to conceptual and methodological divergences. In this paper, the more relevant findings of these studies are presented and the possible sources of discrepancy are analyzed. In general, there is a moderate comorbidity between personality disorders and eating disorders. The most frequent disorders are borderline, histrionic, obsessive-compulsive, dependent and avoidant personality disorders. Borderline and histrionic personality disorders are more frequently associated with bulimia, whereas avoidant and obsessive- compulsive personality disorders are more characteristic of anorexia nervosa. Nevertheless, the effect of the relationship between eating disorders and personality disorders in treatment remains uncertain, giving raise to several controversies and researches. 

  10. Parenting behaviors associated with risk for offspring personality disorder during adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey G; Cohen, Patricia; Chen, Henian; Kasen, Stephanie; Brook, Judith S

    2006-05-01

    Research has suggested that some types of parental child-rearing behavior may be associated with risk for offspring personality disorder (PD), but the association of parenting with offspring PD has not been investigated comprehensively with prospective longitudinal data. To investigate the association of parental child-rearing behavior with risk for offspring PD during adulthood. The Children in the Community study, a prospective longitudinal investigation. A community-based sample of 593 families interviewed during childhood (mean age, 6 years), adolescence (mean ages, 14 and 16 years), emerging adulthood (mean age, 22 years), and adulthood (mean age, 33 years) of the offspring. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders. Ten types of parenting behavior that were evident during the child-rearing years were associated with elevated offspring risk for PD during adulthood when childhood behavioral or emotional problems and parental psychiatric disorders were controlled statistically. Parental behavior in the home during the child-rearing years was associated with elevated risk for offspring PD at mean ages of 22 and 33 years. Risk for offspring PD at both assessments increased steadily as a function of the number of problematic parenting behaviors that were evident. Low parental affection or nurturing was associated with elevated risk for offspring antisocial (P = .003), avoidant (P = .01), borderline (P = .002), depressive (P = .02), paranoid (P = .002), schizoid (P = .046), and schizotypal (Pparental behavior (eg, harsh punishment) was associated with elevated risk for offspring borderline (P = .001), paranoid (P = .004), passive-aggressive (P = .046), and schizotypal (P = .02) PDs. Parental behavior during the child-rearing years may be associated with risk for offspring PD that endures into adulthood. This risk may not be attributable to offspring behavioral and emotional problems or parental psychiatric disorder, and it may not diminish

  11. Boundary issues and personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutheil, Thomas G

    2005-03-01

    The author first presents an overview of the basic elements of boundary theory and clarifies the distinction between boundary crossings and boundary violations. The concepts of context dependence, power asymmetry, and fiduciary duty as they relate to boundary problems are also discussed. The intrinsic and extrinsic consequences of boundary problems are reviewed. The extrinsic consequences fall into three major categories: civil lawsuits, complaints to the board of registration, and complaints to professional societies. The author then reviews types of boundary issues that arise in relation to histrionic, dependent, antisocial, and borderline personality disorders. Countertransference issues that arise in working with patients with personality disorders are discussed, as well as cultural differences that may affect the perception of boundary problems. The article ends with a list of risk management principles and recommendations for avoiding boundary problems in the therapeutic relationship.

  12. Consistency of reporting sexual and physical abuse during psychological treatment of personality disorder: an explorative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinhoven, Philip; Bamelis, Lotte; Haringsma, Rimke; Molendijk, Marc; Arntz, Arnoud

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of decreasing, consistent and increasing reports of sexual and physical abuse after 12 months of long-term psychological treatment of personality disorders, to investigate demographic and clinical characteristics predictive of inconsistency of reporting abuse, and to explore whether autobiographical memory may account for this inconsistency. In 229 clinical participants with an SCID II diagnosed personality disorder, 180 (78.6%) reported the same instances of invasive sexual and/or physical abuse on a trauma questionnaire (SPAQ) at baseline and follow-up, 25 (10.9%) decreased and 24 (10.4%) increased their abuse reports. Consistency of reporting abuse did not differ between schema-focused therapy, clarification-oriented psychotherapy and treatment-as-usual. Current depressive episode (SCID-I) and decreased capacity to produce specific negative memories on the Autobiographical Memory Test were characteristic of decreasing abuse reporters, while increasing abuse reporters showed higher levels of Cluster A personality pathology (in particular schizotypal traits) on the Assessment of DSM-IV Personality Disorders (ADP-IV). These results suggest that even in treatment procedures directed at exploring someone's personal past with abuse-related imagery consistency of reporting abuse is quite stable. However, certain clinical characteristics may make some persons more likely to change their trauma reports. Moreover, reduced negative memory specificity may represent an avoidant strategy associated with no longer reporting instances of abuse. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Personality dimensions and disorders in pathological gambling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Schreiber, Liana R N; Grant, Jon E

    2013-01-01

    This review presents the most current research in personality dimensions and disorders with respect to pathological gambling.......This review presents the most current research in personality dimensions and disorders with respect to pathological gambling....

  14. Linking Career Counseling to Personality Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjos, Diane

    1995-01-01

    Relates personality disorders to career development issues and counseling interventions. Case examples suggesting career-focused treatment interventions for dependent, borderline, obsessive-compulsive, and passive-aggressive personality disorders are presented. (Author/JBJ)

  15. Subtypes of borderline personality disorder patients: a cluster-analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Maaike L; Feenstra, Dine J; Bales, Dawn L; de Vos, Jasmijn; Lucas, Zwaan; Verheul, Roel; Luyten, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    The borderline personality disorder (BPD) population is notably heterogeneous, and this has potentially important implications for intervention. Identifying distinct subtypes of patients may represent a first step in identifying which treatments work best for which individuals. A cluster-analysis on dimensional personality disorder (PD) features, as assessed with the SCID-II, was performed on a sample of carefully screened BPD patients (N = 187) referred for mentalization-based treatment. The optimal cluster solution was determined using multiple indices of fit. The validity of the clusters was explored by investigating their relationship with borderline pathology, symptom severity, interpersonal problems, quality of life, personality functioning, attachment, and trauma history, in addition to demographic and clinical features. A three-cluster solution was retained, which identified three clusters of BPD patients with distinct profiles. The largest cluster (n = 145) consisted of patients characterized by "core BPD" features, without marked elevations on other PD dimensions. A second "Extravert/externalizing" cluster of patients (n = 27) was characterized by high levels of histrionic, narcissistic, and antisocial features. A third, smaller "Schizotypal/paranoid" cluster (n = 15) consisted of patients with marked schizotypal and paranoid features. Patients in these clusters showed theoretically meaningful differences in terms of demographic and clinical features. Three meaningful subtypes of BPD patients were identified with distinct profiles. Differences were small, even when controlling for severity of PD pathology, suggesting a strong common factor underlying BPD. These results may represent a stepping stone toward research with larger samples aimed at replicating the findings and investigating differential trajectories of change, treatment outcomes, and treatment approaches for these subtypes. The study was retrospectively registered 16 April 2010 in the

  16. DSM-IV personality disorders and associations with externalizing and internalizing disorders: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harford, Thomas C; Chen, Chiung M; Saha, Tulshi D; Smith, Sharon M; Ruan, W June; Grant, Bridget F

    2013-11-01

    Although associations between personality disorders and psychiatric disorders are well established in general population studies, their association with liability dimensions for externalizing and internalizing disorders has not been fully assessed. The purpose of this study is to examine associations between personality disorders (PDs) and lifetime externalizing and internalizing Axis I disorders. Data were obtained from the total sample of 34,653 respondents from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Drawing on the literature, a 3-factor exploratory structural equation model was selected to simultaneously assess the measurement relations among DSM-IV Axis I substance use and mood and anxiety disorders and the structural relations between the latent internalizing-externalizing dimensions and DSM-IV PDs, adjusting for gender, age, race/ethnicity, and marital status. Antisocial, histrionic, and borderline PDs were strong predictors for the externalizing factor, while schizotypal, borderline, avoidant, and obsessive-compulsive PDs had significantly larger effects on the internalizing fear factor when compared to the internalizing misery factor. Paranoid, schizoid, narcissistic, and dependent PDs provided limited discrimination between and among the three factors. An overarching latent factor representing general personality dysfunction was significantly greater on the internalizing fear factor followed by the externalizing factor, and weakest for the internalizing misery factor. Personality disorders offer important opportunities for studies on the externalizing-internalizing spectrum of common psychiatric disorders. Future studies based on panic, anxiety, and depressive symptoms may elucidate PD associations with the internalizing spectrum of disorders. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Personality and disinhibitory psychopathology: alcoholism and antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, K J; Trull, T J

    1994-02-01

    We discuss the relation between personality factors and two adult forms of disinhibitory psychopathology--alcohol abuse or dependence and antisocial personality disorder. First, we briefly review various methodological issues relevant to research in this area. Next, we review empirical findings relating three broad-band personality trait dimensions neuroticism/emotionality, impulsivity/disinhibition, extraversion/sociability) to both alcohol abuse and dependence and antisocial personality disorder. Finally, theoretical models of the relationship between personality and each of these two disorders are presented. We conclude that although no single personality description is likely to be both a sensitive and specific indicator of either alcoholism or antisocial personality disorder, personality variables are important components of etiological models of these disorders.

  18. Potential markers of aggressive behavior: the fear of other persons' laughter and its overlaps with mental disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth M Weiss

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anecdotal evidence suggested that some outbreaks of aggression and violence may be related to a fear of being laughed at and ridiculed. The present study examined the potential association of the fear of other persons' laughter (gelotophobia with emotion-related deficits predisposing for aggression, anger and aggression proneness, and its overlaps with relevant mental disorders. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Gelotophobic individuals were compared to a non-phobic control group with respect to emotion regulation skills and strategies, alexithymia, anger proneness, and aggressive behavior. Social phobia was diagnosed using the Structural Clinical Interview (SCID-I for DSM IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Additionally, the SCID-II modules for Cluster A Personality Disorders, which includes schizoid, paranoid, and schizotypal personality disorder were administered to all participants. The findings show that gelotophobia is associated with deficits in the typical handling of an individual's own affective states, greater anger proneness and more aggressive behavior according to self-report as compared to non-phobic individuals. 80% of the subjects in the gelotophobia group had an additional diagnosis of social phobia and/or Cluster A personality disorder. The additional diagnoses did not predict additional variance of anger or aggressive behavior as compared to gelotophobia alone. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Features related to aggression and violence that are inherent in mental disorders such as social phobia and Cluster A personality disorders may be particularly evident in the symptom of fear of other persons' laughter.

  19. Personal Relationships and Digestive Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Upper GI Disorders Lower GI Disorders Other Disorders Kids & Teens Manage Your Health Finding a Doctor The Digestive ... Upper GI Disorders Lower GI Disorders Other Disorders Kids & Teens Manage Your Health Finding a Doctor The Digestive ...

  20. Comorbid personality disorders in subjects with panic disorder: which personality disorders increase clinical severity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Ozkan

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Personality disorders are common in subjects with panic disorder. Personality disorders have shown to affect the course of panic disorder. The purpose of this study was to examine which personality disorders effect clinical severity in subjects with panic disorder. This study included 122 adults (71 female, 41 male, who met DSM-IV criteria for panic disorder (with or without agoraphobia. Clinical assessment was conducted by using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II and the Panic and Agoraphobia Scale (PAS, Global Assessment Functioning Scale (GAF, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI. Patients who had a history of sexual abuse were assessed with Sexual Abuse Severity Scale. Logistic regressions were used to identify predictors of suicide attempts, suicidal ideation, agoraphobia, different panic attack symptoms, sexual abuse, and early onset of disorders. The rates of comorbid Axis I and Axis II psychiatric disorders were 80.3% and 33.9%, consecutively, in patients with panic disorder. Panic disorder patients with comorbid personality disorders had more severe anxiety, depression and agoraphobia symptoms, and had earlier ages of onset, and lower levels of functioning. The rates of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts were 34.8% and 9.8%, consecutively, in subjects with panic disorder. The rate of patients with panic disorder had a history of childhood sexual abuse was 12.5%. The predictor of sexual abuse was more than one comorbid Axis II diagnosis. The predictors of suicide attempt were comorbid paranoid and borderline personality disorders, and the predictor of suicidal ideation was major depressive disorder in subjects with panic disorder. In conclusion, this study documents that comorbid personality disorders increase the clinical severity of panic disorder. Patients with more than one

  1. Attachment and Personality Disorders Among Child Molesters: The Role of Trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Carlo; Bogaerts, Stefan

    2017-07-01

    The present study investigated multivariate associations between attachment styles and personality disorders (PDs)-and the mediating role of trust-in a sample of child molesters ( n = 84) and a matched control group from the general community ( n = 80). Among child molesters, canonical correlation analysis revealed that two variates resembling avoidant and anxious attachment dimensions were associated with PD traits. Attachment avoidance was related to schizoid, schizotypal, and avoidant PDs, with a marginal contribution of antisocial PD. Attachment anxiety was related to borderline and histrionic PDs, with a marginal contribution of obsessive-compulsive PD. Paranoid and dependent PDs contributed to both variates. In the control group, a more general association between attachment insecurity and PDs emerged. Finally, mistrust significantly explained the associations between attachment and PDs in both samples. Future studies should examine whether treatment for PDs in child molesters could benefit from a focus on attachment and trust.

  2. Psychopathy/antisocial personality disorder conundrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogloff, James R P

    2006-01-01

    Psychopathy has traditionally been characterised as a disorder primarily of personality (particularly affective deficits) and, to a lesser extent, behaviour. Although often used interchangeably, the diagnostic constructs of psychopathy, antisocial personality disorder, and dissocial personality disorder are distinct. In this article, the relevant historical and contemporary literature concerning psychopathy is briefly reviewed. The diagnostic criteria for psychopathy, antisocial personality disorder, and dissocial personality disorder are compared. Consideration is given to the assessment, prevalence, and implications of psychopathy for violence risk and treatment efficacy. The DSM-IV-TR criteria for antisocial personality disorder, in particular, are largely behaviourally based. The ICD criteria for dissocial personality disorder, while paying more attention to affective deficits, also do not represent the broad personality and behavioural components of psychopathy. Since 1980, a great deal of research on these disorders has been conducted, using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist, Revised (PCL-R). The PCL-R assesses both personality (interpersonal and affective) and behavioural (lifestyle and antisocial) deficits. As such, the research and clinical implications of psychopathy, as operationalised by the PCL-R, cannot be readily extrapolated to the diagnoses of antisocial personality disorder and dissocial personality disorder. As currently construed, the diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder grossly over-identifies people, particularly those with offence histories, as meeting the criteria for the diagnosis. For example, research shows that between 50% and 80% of prisoners meet the criteria for a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, yet only approximately 15% of prisoners would be expected to be psychopathic, as assessed by the PCL-R. As such, the characteristics and research findings drawn from the psychopathy research may not be relevant for those

  3. Unpleasant and Pleasant Referential Thinking: Relations with Self- Processing, Paranoia, and Other Schizotypal Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero, David C; Kerns, John G

    2011-04-01

    Referential thinking is the tendency to view innocuous stimuli as having a specific meaning for the self and is associated with personality traits and disorders. In three studies, this research examined the relations among referential thinking, self-processing, and paranoia. In study 1, follow-up questions on the Referential Thinking Scale (Lenzenweger, Bennett, & Lilenfeld, 1997) revealed that referential thoughts are experienced as unpleasant and pleasant. In Study 2, unpleasant referential thinking was more strongly associated with paranoia and maladaptive self-processing and personality. CFAs in Study 1 and 2 found that unpleasant and pleasant referential thinking loaded on different factors. In Study 3, a group of participants with elevated schizotypal personality reported more unpleasant and pleasant referential thoughts than a control group.

  4. Unpleasant and Pleasant Referential Thinking: Relations with Self- Processing, Paranoia, and Other Schizotypal Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero, David C.; Kerns, John G.

    2015-01-01

    Referential thinking is the tendency to view innocuous stimuli as having a specific meaning for the self and is associated with personality traits and disorders. In three studies, this research examined the relations among referential thinking, self-processing, and paranoia. In study 1, follow-up questions on the Referential Thinking Scale (Lenzenweger, Bennett, & Lilenfeld, 1997) revealed that referential thoughts are experienced as unpleasant and pleasant. In Study 2, unpleasant referential thinking was more strongly associated with paranoia and maladaptive self-processing and personality. CFAs in Study 1 and 2 found that unpleasant and pleasant referential thinking loaded on different factors. In Study 3, a group of participants with elevated schizotypal personality reported more unpleasant and pleasant referential thoughts than a control group. PMID:26028792

  5. [Psychotherapy of personality disorders in adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baader, Aline; Schmeck, Klaus; Resch, Franz; Kaess, Michael

    2014-01-01

    By the current state of knowledge adolescent personality disorders should be taken seriously due to their high prevalence and severe symptomatology. Personality disorders are characterized by a stable pattern of deviation concerning cognition, affectivity, impulse control, and interpersonal relationships and have negative repercussions in psychosocial functioning and subsequent development. There is emerging evidence that personality disorder diagnosis is reliable and valid during adolescence. It is essential to detect youth with personality pathology in order to refer them to specific psychotherapeutic interventions and consequently avoid further chronification and life-long functional impairment. This selective review will give an overview over personality disorders in adolescents as well as according psychotherapeutic interventions.

  6. Medical comorbidity of cluster B personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douzenis, Athanassios; Tsopelas, Christos; Tzeferakos, George

    2012-09-01

    Cluster B personality disorders are associated with behaviour and lifestyle that cause significant problems not only for the personality disordered individual but for society as well. Despite the fact that cluster B personality disorders have attracted a lot of research interest recently, their association with medical (physical health) problems is less studied, though it is anticipated that personality is clinically important and influences the outcome of somatic disease illnesses. Cluster B personality disorders are associated with Axis I psychiatric disorders such as addiction that have serious and life-threatening physical comorbidity. Lifestyle and health behaviours associated with cluster B personality disorders lead to medical problems and enhance preexisting physical problems. Furthermore, personality traits associated with cluster B personality disorders disrupt both medical treatment and follow-up, influencing negatively life expectancy and quality of life. It is imperative that clinicians of all medical specialties are aware of the influence personality disorders and certain personality traits such as impulsivity can have on the outcome of the illness. Further research on the interaction between personality disorders and medical illness is needed.

  7. Antisocial Personality disorder | Chinasa | Abia State University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Personality disorders are mental disorders that are characterized by persistent maladaptive patterns of behavior, cognition and inner experience. These patterns develop early in life, are inflexible and associated with significant distress or disability. Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is a psychiatric condition ...

  8. Case Study: Psychiatric Misdiagnosis of Non-24-Hours Sleep-Wake Schedule Disorder Resolved by Melatonin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagan, Yaron; Ayalon, Liat

    2005-01-01

    This case study describes a 14-year-old male suffering from significant academic and personal difficulties, who has been diagnosed with depression, schizotypal personality disorder, and learning disabilities. Because of excessive sleepiness, assessment for a potential sleep disorder was performed. An overnight polysomnographic study revealed no…

  9. Personality disorders and traits in patients with body dysmorphic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, K A; McElroy, S L

    2000-01-01

    Individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) have been postulated to have schizoid, narcissistic, and obsessional personality traits and to be sensitive, introverted, perfectionistic, and insecure. However, data on personality traits and disorders in BDD are limited. This study assessed 148 subjects with BDD, 26 of whom participated in a fluvoxamine treatment study; 74 subjects were assessed for personality disorders with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSMIII-R Personality Disorders (SCID-II), 100 subjects completed the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), and 51 subjects completed the Rathus Assertiveness Scale. Forty-two subjects (57%) had one or more personality disorders, with avoidant personality disorder (43%) being most common, followed by dependent (15%), obsessive-compulsive (14%), and paranoid (14%) personality disorders. On the NEO-FFI, the mean scores were in the very high range for neuroticism, the low range for extraversion and conscientiousness, the low-average range for agreeableness, and the average range for openness to experience. On the Rathus Assertiveness Scale, the mean score was -17.1 +/- 32.0 for women and -17.0 +/- 32.3 for men. Among fluvoxamine responders, the number of personality disorders significantly decreased between the study baseline and endpoint. These findings suggest that the rate of personality disorders in BDD is relatively high, with avoidant personality disorder being most common. The high neuroticism scores and low extraversion scores are consistent with this finding.

  10. Personality disorders in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik; Haahr, Ulrik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of personality disorders in the early course of first-episode psychosis and their likely presence in the premorbid period. Fifty-five patients were enrolled at baseline and premorbid function was evaluated by the Premorbid Adjustment Scale....... Thirty-three of these of the patients were assessed at two-year follow-up for comorbid personality disorders by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders and by the self-report instrument Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II. Half of the patients met the criteria of two...... or more personality disorders, while one-third of the patients did not fulfil the criteria for any personality disorder. The schizoid and the avoidant were the most frequent personality disorders and both were associated with social withdrawal during childhood and adolescence. The limitation of the study...

  11. Treatment of comorbid anxiety disorders and personality disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arntz, A.; Emmelkamp, P.; Ehring, T.

    2014-01-01

    For a long time the diagnosis of personality disorder was associated with therapeutic pessimism: People with these problems were viewed as untreatable, due to fundamental character complications. Failures of anxiety disorder treatment tended to be labeled as "personality disorder". There is little

  12. The continuum between Bipolar Disorder and Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elisei, Sandro; Anastasi, Serena; Verdolini, Norma

    2012-09-01

    Several studies have been carried out regarding the possible overlap between Bipolar Disorder and borderline personality disorder. Up to now, it is not possible to provide a definitive picture. In fact, there is currently significant debate about the relationship between Borderline Personality Disorder and Bipolar Disorder. MEDLINE searches were performed to identify the latest studies of these disorders, considering psychodynamic aspects. Bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder share common clinical features, namely affective instability and impulsivity which however differ in quality. Consequently, to better understand these aspects, it is necessary to trace the stages of childhood psychological development. It has been claimed that Bipolar Disorder Type II can be divided into two subtypes: one stable and functional between episodes and one unstable between episodes which is related to Borderline Personality Disorder. However, better diagnostic theories, psychiatrist's empathy and patience remain the essential tool to understand and to face human suffering.

  13. The efficacy of various modalities of psychotherapy for personality disorders: a systematic review of the evidence and clinical recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheul, Roel; Herbrink, Marjolein

    2007-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to review the level of empirical evidence for four different formats and settings that are available for psychotherapy delivery, i.e., group psychotherapy, out-patient individual psychotherapy, day hospital psychotherapy, and in-patient psychotherapy. The focus is on studies which include a wide range of DSM-IV-TR Axis II personality disorders. The results show that various psychotherapeutic treatments have proven to be efficacious with respect to reducing symptomatology and personality pathology, and improving social functioning in patients with Cluster A, B, C, or not-otherwise-specified personality disorders. This is especially true for cognitive-behaviorally or psychodynamically oriented out-patient individual psychotherapies. However, some evidence indicates that this also applies to (1) long-term, psychodynamically oriented group psychotherapy, (2) short-term, psychodynamically oriented psychotherapy in a day hospital setting, and (3) various duration variants of psychodynamically oriented, in-patient psychotherapy programmes. The available evidence mostly applies to borderline, dependent, avoidant and not-otherwise-specified personality disorder, and perhaps also paranoid, obsessive-compulsive, and schizotypal personality disorder. It is unknown whether these conclusions also apply to schizoid, antisocial, narcissistic, and histrionic personality disorder.

  14. Gender Patterns in Borderline Personality Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Sansone, Randy A.; Sansone, Lori A.

    2011-01-01

    Gender differences in patients with borderline personality disorder are potentially relevant because they may guide clinicians in assessment and treatment. To date, a number of clinical features in borderline personality disorder have been examined for gender differences. As for prevalence, earlier research concluded that a higher proportion of women than men suffer from borderline personality disorder, although more recent research has determined no differences in prevalence by gender. In ad...

  15. Mentalization based treatment for borderline personality disorder

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bateman, Anthony; Fonagy, Peter

    2010-01-01

    .... Given the generality of this definition, most mental disorders will inevitably involve some difficulties with mentalization, but it is the application of the concept to the treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD...

  16. Splitting in schizophrenia and borderline personality disorder

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pec, Ondrej; Bob, Petr; Raboch, Jiri

    2014-01-01

    .... A purpose of this study is to examine relationships between psychological process of splitting and disturbed cognitive and affective functions in schizophrenia and borderline personality disorder (BPD...

  17. Psychiatric literacy and the personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; Winceslaus, Julian

    2012-01-01

    This study was concerned with investigating the mental health literacy of lay people in regard to the personality disorders. 223 participants responded to a questionnaire entitled 'eccentric people' which contained vignettes of 10 personality disorders which they rated as well as labelled. Lay people recognize people with personality disorders as being unhappy, unsuccessful at work and as having poor personal relationships, but do not associate these problems with psychological causes. Rates of correct labelling were under 7% for 7/10 personality disorders. Cluster A (apart from paranoid) was commonly labelled as depression or as an autism spectrum disorder. Clusters B and C (apart from obsessive-compulsive) were commonly labelled as 'low self-esteem'. History of psychological education and illness were positively correlated with correct recognition of 70 and 60% of the personality disorders, respectively. The mental health literacy of lay people in regard to the personality disorders is low. This raises concerns for health-seeking behaviour and diagnosis, as well as stigma and social neglect of people living with personality disorders. The question of cultural influences on the manifestation, diagnosis and recognition of mental illnesses, and the personality disorders in particular, is discussed. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Personality disorder: still the patients psychiatrists dislike?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartonas, Dimitrios; Kyratsous, Michalis; Dracass, Sarah; Lee, Tennyson; Bhui, Kamaldeep

    2017-02-01

    Aims and method In 1988, Lewis and Appleby demonstrated that psychiatrists hold negative attitudes towards patients with personality disorder. We assessed the attitudes of psychiatry trainees towards patients with borderline personality disorder and depression, expecting an improvement. 166 trainees were block randomised to receive one of four case vignettes that varied by diagnosis and ethnic group. We used Lewis and Appleby's original questionnaire and the Attitudes to Personality Disorder Questionnaire (APDQ). Results We received 76 responses. Lewis and Appleby's questionnaire showed more negative attitudes towards personality disorder than depression, with no significant patient ethnic group effects, and the APDQ also showed a (weak) trend towards more negative attitudes to personality disorder. In subgroup analysis, only in the White British patient group were there significantly more negative attitudes to personality disorder. Factor analysis showed significantly less sense of purpose when working with personality disorder. Clinical implications The perceived greater lack of purpose in working with personality disorder should be the target of clinical training and intervention. Targeted interventions that include training in managing personality disorder, supervision and practice in non-specialist, general psychiatry settings are important.

  19. Obsessive compulsive personality disorder and Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Nicoletti

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the frequency of personality disorders in Parkinson's disease (PD patients and in a group of healthy controls. METHODS: Patients affected by PD diagnosed according to the United Kingdom Parkinson's disease Society Brain Bank diagnostic criteria and a group of healthy controls were enrolled in the study. PD patients with cognitive impairment were excluded from the study. Structured Clinical Interview for Personality Disorders-II (SCID-II has been performed to evaluate the presence of personality disorders. Presence of personality disorders, diagnosed according to the DSM-IV, was confirmed by a psychiatric interview. Clinical and pharmacological data were also recorded using a standardized questionnaire. RESULTS: 100 PD patients (57 men; mean age 59.0 ± 10.2 years and 100 healthy subjects (52 men; mean age 58.1 ± 11.4 years were enrolled in the study. The most common personality disorder was the obsessive-compulsive personality disorder diagnosed in 40 PD patients and in 10 controls subjects (p-value<0.0001 followed by the depressive personality disorder recorded in 14 PD patients and 4 control subjects (p-value 0.02. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder was also found in 8 out of 16 de novo PD patients with a short disease duration. CONCLUSION: PD patients presented a high frequency of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder that does not seem to be related with both disease duration and dopaminergic therapy.

  20. The Biological Basis to Personality Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perugula, Malathi L; Narang, Puneet D; Lippmann, Steven B

    2017-04-13

    To provide understanding into the biological basis of thinking and behavior in people with personality disorders, explain anatomic findings, and appraise therapeutic options. PubMed was searched with no date restrictions using the terms personality disorders DSM-5, cluster B personality disorders, biological psychiatry of personality disorders, neurobiology of personality disorders, and neurobiology of cluster B personality disorders. We identified 2,790 English-language articles and utilized 18 in this report. There are anatomic features typical to the brains of individuals with cluster B personality disorders, for example, abnormalities in the superior frontal cortex and amygdala and enlarged striatal volumes. Emotional dysregulation and impulsiveness are 2 prominent symptoms. Hereditary factors may contribute to the development of such conditions. Understanding the neurobiology of cluster B personality disorders expands knowledge that hopefully results in better clinical management and development of improved treatments. Psychotherapy is currently the most effective intervention for borderline personality disorders. Symptomatic pharmacotherapies may be prescribed adjunctively on an individualized basis if clinically indicated (eg, with a coexistant depression).

  1. DSM-5 Personality Traits and DSM-IV Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Christopher J.; Thomas, Katherine M.; Markon, Kristian E.; Wright, Aidan G.C.; Krueger, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Two issues pertinent to the DSM-5 proposal for personality pathology, the recovery of DSM-IV personality disorders (PDs) by proposed DSM-5 traits and the validity of the proposed DSM-5 hybrid model which incorporates both personality pathology symptoms and maladaptive traits, were evaluated in a large undergraduate sample (N = 808). Proposed DSM-5 traits as assessed with the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 explained a substantial proportion of variance in DSM-IV PDs as assessed with the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+, and trait indicators of the six proposed DSM-5 PDs were mostly specific to those disorders with some exceptions. Regression analyses support the DSM-5 hybrid model in that pathological traits and an indicator of general personality pathology severity provided incremental information about PDs. Findings are discussed in the context of broader issues around the proposed DSM-5 model of personality disorders. PMID:22250660

  2. Personality disorders in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik; Haahr, Ulrik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of personality disorders in the early course of fi rst-episode psychosis and their likely presence in the premorbid period. Fifty-fi ve patients were enrolled at baseline and premorbid function was evaluated by the Premorbid Adjustment Scale....... Thirty-three of these of the patients were assessed at two-year follow-up for comorbid personality disorders by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders and by the self-report instrument Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II. Half of the patients met the criteria of two...... or more personality disorders, while one-third of the patients did not fulfi l the criteria for any personality disorder. The schizoid and the avoidant were the most frequent per- sonality disorders and both were associated with social withdrawal during childhood and adolescence. The limitation...

  3. Differentiating normal and disordered personality using the General Assessment of Personality Disorder (GAPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschel, Annett G; John Livesley, W

    2013-05-01

    Criteria to differentiate personality disorder from extremes of normal personality variations are important given growing interest in dimensional classification because an extreme level of a personality dimension does not necessarily indicate disorder. The DSM-5 proposed classification of personality disorder offers a definition of general personality disorder based on chronic interpersonal and self/identity pathology. The ability of this approach to differentiate personality disorder from other mental disorders was evaluated using a self-report questionnaire, the General Assessment of Personality Disorder (GAPD). This measure was administered to a sample of psychiatric patients (N = 149) from different clinical sub-sites. Patients were divided into personality disordered and non-personality disordered groups on the basis of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders (SCID-II). The results showed a hit rate of 82% correct identified patients and a good accuracy of the predicted model. There was a substantial agreement between SCID-II interview and GAPD personality disorder diagnoses. The GAPD appears to predict personality disorder in general, which provides support of the DSM-5 general diagnostic criteria of personality disorder. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Obsessive compulsive personality disorder and Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoletti, Alessandra; Luca, Antonina; Raciti, Loredana; Contrafatto, Donatella; Bruno, Elisa; Dibilio, Valeria; Sciacca, Giorgia; Mostile, Giovanni; Petralia, Antonio; Zappia, Mario

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the frequency of personality disorders in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and in a group of healthy controls. Patients affected by PD diagnosed according to the United Kingdom Parkinson's disease Society Brain Bank diagnostic criteria and a group of healthy controls were enrolled in the study. PD patients with cognitive impairment were excluded from the study. Structured Clinical Interview for Personality Disorders-II (SCID-II) has been performed to evaluate the presence of personality disorders. Presence of personality disorders, diagnosed according to the DSM-IV, was confirmed by a psychiatric interview. Clinical and pharmacological data were also recorded using a standardized questionnaire. 100 PD patients (57 men; mean age 59.0 ± 10.2 years) and 100 healthy subjects (52 men; mean age 58.1 ± 11.4 years) were enrolled in the study. The most common personality disorder was the obsessive-compulsive personality disorder diagnosed in 40 PD patients and in 10 controls subjects (p-valuepersonality disorder recorded in 14 PD patients and 4 control subjects (p-value 0.02). Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder was also found in 8 out of 16 de novo PD patients with a short disease duration. PD patients presented a high frequency of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder that does not seem to be related with both disease duration and dopaminergic therapy.

  5. Personality disorder and treatment outcome in alcohol use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton-Howes, Giles; Foulds, James

    2017-10-20

    As personality disorder impacts the outcome of most major mental disorders, it would be consistent for it to impact negatively on the outcome of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). This update is to provide an up-to-date overview of the recent literature examining the impact of personality disorder and personality traits on the treatment outcome of AUDs. Comorbidity between personality disorder and AUD is significant and approaches 50%. Patients with AUD and comorbid personality disorder are substantially less likely to remain in treatment, drink more per drinking day and drink more frequently. If retained in treatment, comorbidity does not, however, lead to poorer outcomes. Relapse to drinking is more common in patient with high novelty seeking and lower reward dependence and persistence. Reporting from most studies is of moderate-to-poor quality and a single high-quality study may alter these findings. Landmark alcohol studies are notably quiet on the impact of personality on AUD treatment outcome. Both personality disorder and higher novelty seeking impact negatively on the treatment outcome of AUD. As personality disorder is common in this group, clinicians engaged in AUD treatment should screen for personality disturbance, either disorder or high novelty seeking.

  6. Borderline Personality Disorder, Language, and Stigma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kling, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    ... between client and clinician. Keywords: borderline personality disorder; language; stigma; countertransference Studies spanning the last three decades find that approximately half of mental health professionals have negative and pejorative attitudes toward those diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD; Fallon, 2003; Lewis & Appleby, 1988; S...

  7. Borderline personality disorder and emotional intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peter, M.; Schuurmans, H.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.; Smeets, G.; Verkoeijen, P.; Arntz, A.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated emotional intelligence (EI) in borderline personality disorder (BPD). It was hypothesized that patients with BPD (n = 61) compared with patients with other personality disorders (PDs; n = 69) and nonpatients (n = 248) would show higher scores on the ability to perceive

  8. Vulnerability, Borderline Personality Disorders. Clinical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Borderline personality disorder and vulnerability are difficult to assess and are rather elusive to define. A case study material is presented from a cognitive analytical model. An attempt of the dominant features of cognitive analytical therapy and discussion of vulnerability in relation to personality disorder is provided.

  9. Five-factor model personality domains in the prediction of Axis II personality disorders: an exploratory study in late adulthood women non-clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques-Calado, Joana; Duarte-Silva, Maria Eugénia; Junqueira, Diana; Sacoto, Carlota; Keong, Ana Marta

    2014-05-01

    Relationships between Axis II personality disorders (DSM-IV) and the five-factor model were explored in a non-clinical sample of late adulthood women. The sample consists of 90 women (M = 72.29 years of age, standard deviation = 7.10), who were administered with two measures, the NEO-FFI and the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+. Some personality disorders scales such as paranoid, schizotypal, borderline and dependent demonstrate a differentiated pattern of five-factor model domain predictors. Low agreeableness predicted schizoid, narcissistic and antisocial; histrionic, obsessive-compulsive and negativistic were predicted by high neuroticism and low agreeableness; high neuroticism and low extraversion, in turn, predicted dependent and depressive scales. Also, two clusters of personality disorders are identified, one associated with low agreeableness and another with low agreeableness and high neuroticism. This study suggest that some traits become maladaptive personality traits, and correspond more closely to psychopathology, when they become opposite to what would be expected in line with studies in normal late adulthood development. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. [High-conflict-divorce and personality disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindler, Manfred

    2009-01-01

    We tried to identify clues related to personality disorders - especially related to borderline personality--in parents of high-conflict divorce. We compared n = 34 high-conflict clients of psychological counselling to n = 45 clients not related to high-conflict divorce. Parents of high-conflict divorce did not show significantly more hints related to personality disorder. Parents who live separated scored higher than parents living together. Extreme-group-analyses over all clients revealed in 20% definitely evidence of personality disorders or very low resiliency. Psychological counselling in the realm of Child care units also addresses clients who rate themselves as seriously impaired or non-resilient.

  11. [Personality disorders, psychopathy and serial killers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morana, Hilda C P; Stone, Michael H; Abdalla-Filho, Elias

    2006-10-01

    To illustrate the basic characteristics of several specific personality disorders, focusing mainly in antisocial personality disorder. The differences between antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy are highlighted. Serial killers and its psychopathic aspects are also discussed. A bibliographic review was completed in order to outline convergences and divergences among different authors about this controversial issue, especially those concerning the possibility of treatment. While anti-social personality disorder is a medical diagnosis, the term "psychopathy" (which belongs to the sphere of forensic psychiatry) may be understood as a "legal diagnosis". It is not still possible to identify an effective treatment for serial killers. Personality disorders, especially of the antisocial type, still represent a formidable challenge to forensic psychiatry today. Questions as yet unanswered include the best and most humane place for patients with this condition and the nature of a standardised treatment recommendation.

  12. Do DSM-5 Section II personality disorders and Section III personality trait domains reflect the same genetic and environmental risk factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichborn-Kjennerud, T; Krueger, R F; Ystrom, E; Torvik, F A; Rosenström, T H; Aggen, S H; South, S C; Neale, M C; Knudsen, G P; Kendler, K S; Czajkowski, N O

    2017-09-01

    DSM-5 includes two conceptualizations of personality disorders (PDs). The classification in Section II is identical to the one found in DSM-IV, and includes 10 categorical PDs. The Alternative Model (Section III) includes criteria for dimensional measures of maladaptive personality traits organized into five domains. The degree to which the two conceptualizations reflect the same etiological factors is not known. We use data from a large population-based sample of adult twins from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health Twin Panel on interview-based DSM-IV PDs and a short self-report inventory that indexes the five domains of the DSM-5 Alternative Model plus a domain explicitly targeting compulsivity. Schizotypal, Paranoid, Antisocial, Borderline, Avoidant, and Obsessive-compulsive PDs were assessed at the same time as the maladaptive personality traits and 10 years previously. Schizoid, Histrionic, Narcissistic, and Dependent PDs were only assessed at the first interview. Biometric models were used to estimate overlap in genetic and environmental risk factors. When measured concurrently, there was 100% genetic overlap between the maladaptive trait domains and Paranoid, Schizotypal, Antisocial, Borderline, and Avoidant PDs. For OCPD, 43% of the genetic variance was shared with the domains. Genetic correlations between the individual domains and PDs ranged from +0.21 to +0.91. The pathological personality trait domains, which are part of the Alternative Model for classification of PDs in DSM-5 Section III, appears to tap, at an aggregate level, the same genetic risk factors as the DSM-5 Section II classification for most of the PDs.

  13. Relationship between personality and disability in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güleç, Medine Yazici; Hocaoğlu, Ciçek

    2011-01-01

    The co-morbidity of major depressive disorder (MDD ) with personality disorders (PDs) in patients with long-standing work disability at a psychiatry clinic was investigated. The purpose of our study was to evaluate personality for contributing to disability in patients with MDD and to investigate the relationship with these two psychometric characters in patients with MDD. Seventy-two patients with a MDD and 72 healthy controls were assessed by means of both clinician and self-rating scales for depression, anxiety, disability, and the SCID-II personality inventory. There was no difference between the personality parameters of the groups regarding schizotypal and antisocial PDs. Avoidant personality was found to be less common in the patient group (p=0.030). Dependent (p less than 0.001), obsessive (p=0.003), passive-aggressive (p=0.025), self-defeating (p less than 0.001), paranoid (p less than 0.001), schizoid (p=0.012), histrionic (p=0.001), narcissistic (p less than 0.001), and borderline (p less than 0.001) PDs in patients were more common than in controls. On the disability sub-scales, physical role limitation, vitality, social functioning, emotional role limitation, and mental health were significantly lower in patient group than normal control group. While Cluster A was not related to any disability subscale, Cluster B had a positive correlation with vitality and mental health, whereas Cluster C and Cluster NOS had a negative correlation with emotional role limitation. Only the emotional role limitation predicts the presence of depression, whereas only self-defeating, obsessive, paranoid, and passive aggressive personality predict the emotional role limitation. Patients with MDD have personality and disability problems. PDs in depression contribute to disability. Our results demonstrated that the emotional role limitation is the unique sub-scale that predicts the MDD group.

  14. Dreams and Nightmares in Personality Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schredl, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Although the relationship between dreaming and psychopathology has been studied quite extensively, research on dreaming in patients with personality disorders has been very scarce. In patients with borderline personality disorder, negatively toned dreams and heightened nightmare frequency have been found-characteristics not determined by co-morbid depression or posttraumatic stress disorder. The review includes suggestions for future studies as the existing results clearly indicate that this line of research is most interesting. Lastly, clinical recommendations especially regarding the treatment of the often found co-morbid nightmare disorder will be given.

  15. Panic disorder: Psychobiological aspects of personality dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Draganić-Gajić Saveta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Attempts to understand the underlying mechanisms of association between psychological factors and panic disorder have been mostly based on psychodynamic description. Evidence of the importance of serotonergic (5-HT system in panic disorder (PD, however, has substanti ally increased in recent years. OBJECTIVE The objective of our study was to determine whether there was a specific personality profile of panic disorder patients and how it was related to possible neurobiological mechanisms underlying personality dimensions. PATIENTS AND METHODS Sample consisted of 14 inpatients with ICD-X diagnosis of panic disorder and 34 healthy control subjects. Personality dimensions were assessed by Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-201 and Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ. To assess central 5-HT function, platelet monoamine-oxidase (MAO activity was measured. RESULTS In panic disorder group, higher scores of histrionic, depressive and hypochondriac subscales and significant increase of harm avoidance (HA scale as well as low MAO activity were found. Negative correlation was established between MAO activity and psychopathic deviance MMPI scale. CONCLUSION The obtained results might indicate a specific personality profile of patients with panic disorder, which is characterized by high neuroticism, fearfulness, inhibition, shyness and apprehensive worry. Low MAO activity and high HA scores possibly indicate underlying hyperserotonergic state. The observed correlation between personality traits and MAO activity provide additional support for the hypothesized functional relationship between underlying central monoaminergic activity and temperament traits associated with anxiety, depression and impulsivity.

  16. Comparing Diagnostic Tools in Personality Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel AKGÜN AKTAÞ

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Personality Disorder is defined as; continually self experience and behavioral pattern which has great variations of individual cultural normal expectations. Several diagnostic tools were developed for diagnosing personality disorders. In our study consistency of different diagnostic tools used for thhe diagnosis of personality disorders were evaluated. 39 inpatients diagnosed as personality disorder from Dýþkapý Yýldýrým Beyazýt Traning and Reseach Hospital were recruited into the study. Psychotic patients are excluded from the study. Sociodemographic Information Form, MMPI and PBQ scales were given all the patients. Both PBQ personality subscales and MMPI PD scales were compared with semi-structured SCID-II interview diagnoses. Findings suggest less correlation than expected. Relatively higher correlation was found between PBQ personality subscales and MMPI-PD. Most common psychiatric comorbid disorder was depression. These findings suggest that further studies are needed for the development of diagnostic tools which take the differences of self report scales and clinical evalution into consideration. Beside, the differences of the categorical and dimensional classification of personality disorders should be bear in mind in evaluation of this patient group. [JCBPR 2016; 5(1.000: 22-27

  17. Parents' personality clusters and eating disordered daughters' personality and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amianto, Federico; Ercole, Roberta; Marzola, Enrica; Abbate Daga, Giovanni; Fassino, Secondo

    2015-11-30

    The present study explores how parents' personality clusters relate to their eating disordered daughters' personality and psychopathology. Mothers and fathers were tested with the Temperament Character Inventory. Their daughters were assessed with the following: Temperament and Character Inventory, Eating Disorder Inventory-2, Symptom Checklist-90, Parental Bonding Instrument, Attachment Style Questionnaire, and Family Assessment Device. Daughters' personality traits and psychopathology scores were compared between clusters. Daughters' features were related to those of their parents. Explosive/adventurous mothers were found to relate to their daughters' borderline personality profile and more severe interoceptive awareness. Mothers' immaturity was correlated to their daughters' higher character immaturity, inadequacy, and depressive feelings. Fathers who were explosive/methodic correlated with their daughters' character immaturity, severe eating, and general psychopathology. Fathers' character immaturity only marginally related to their daughters' specific features. Both parents' temperament clusters and mothers' character clusters related to patients' personality and eating psychopathology. The cluster approach to personality-related dynamics of families with an individual affected by an eating disorder expands the knowledge on the relationship between parents' characteristics and daughters' illness, suggesting complex and unique relationships correlating parents' personality traits to their daughters' disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Personality disorder, emotional intelligence, and locus of control of patients with alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Om; Sharma, Neelu; Singh, Amool R; Sengar, K S; Chaudhury, Suprakash; Ranjan, Jay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    To assess personality disorder (PD), emotional intelligence (EI), and locus of control of alcohol dependent (AD) patients and its comparison with normal controls. Based on purposive sampling technique, 33 AD patients were selected from the De-Addiction Ward of Ranchi Institute of Neuro-Psychiatry and Allied Sciences (RINPAS) and 33 matched normal subjects were selected from Ranchi and nearby places. Both the groups were matched on various sociodemographic parameters, that is, age, gender, and socioeconomic level. All participants were assessed with Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III, Mangal EI Inventory, and Locus of Control scale. Obtained responses were scored by using standard scoring procedures and subsequently statistically analyzed by using Chi-square test. AD patients have more comorbid pathological personality traits and disorders in comparison to their normal counterparts. Depressive, narcissistic, and paranoid PDs were prominent among AD group; followed by schizotypal, antisocial, negativistic, dependent, schizoid, sadistic, masochistic, and borderline PD. In comparison to normal participants, AD patients were significantly deficient in almost all the areas of EI and their locus of control was externally oriented. Patients with AD have significantly higher PDs, low EI, and an external orientation on the locus of control. Identification and management of these comorbid conditions are likely to improve the management and outcome of AD.

  19. Personality disorder, emotional intelligence, and locus of control of patients with alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om Prakash

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess personality disorder (PD, emotional intelligence (EI, and locus of control of alcohol dependent (AD patients and its comparison with normal controls. Materials and Methods: Based on purposive sampling technique, 33 AD patients were selected from the De-Addiction Ward of Ranchi Institute of Neuro-Psychiatry and Allied Sciences (RINPAS and 33 matched normal subjects were selected from Ranchi and nearby places. Both the groups were matched on various sociodemographic parameters, that is, age, gender, and socioeconomic level. All participants were assessed with Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III, Mangal EI Inventory, and Locus of Control scale. Obtained responses were scored by using standard scoring procedures and subsequently statistically analyzed by using Chi-square test. Results: AD patients have more comorbid pathological personality traits and disorders in comparison to their normal counterparts. Depressive, narcissistic, and paranoid PDs were prominent among AD group; followed by schizotypal, antisocial, negativistic, dependent, schizoid, sadistic, masochistic, and borderline PD. In comparison to normal participants, AD patients were significantly deficient in almost all the areas of EI and their locus of control was externally oriented. Conclusion: Patients with AD have significantly higher PDs, low EI, and an external orientation on the locus of control. Identification and management of these comorbid conditions are likely to improve the management and outcome of AD.

  20. How semantic deficits in schizotypy help understand language and thought disorders in schizophrenia: a systematic and integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Anderson Tonelli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Disorders of thought are psychopathological phenomena commonly present in schizophrenia and seem to result from deficits of semantic processing. Schizotypal personality traits consist of tendencies to think and behave that are qualitatively similar to schizophrenia, with greater vulnerability to such disorder. This study reviewed the literature about semantic processing deficits in samples of individuals with schizotypal traits and discussed the impact of current knowledge upon the comprehension of schizophrenic thought disorders. Studies about the cognitive performance of healthy individuals with schizotypal traits help understand the semantic deficits underlying psychotic thought disorders with the advantage of avoiding confounding factors usually found in samples of individuals with schizophrenia, such as the use of antipsychotics and hospitalizations. Methods: A search for articles published in Portuguese or English within the last 10 years on the databases MEDLINE, Web of Science, PsycInfo, LILACS and Biological Abstracts was conducted, using the keywords semantic processing, schizotypy and schizotypal personality disorder. Results: The search retrieved 44 manuscripts, out of which 11 were firstly chosen. Seven manuscripts were additionally included after reading these papers. Conclusion: The great majority of the included studies showed that schizotypal subjects might exhibit semantic processing deficits. They help clarify about the interfaces between cognitive, neurophysiological and neurochemical mechanisms underlying not only thought disorders, but also healthy human mind's creativity.

  1. ADHD in adolescents with borderline personality disorder

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Speranza, Mario; Revah-Levy, Anne; Cortese, Samuele; Falissard, Bruno; Pham-Scottez, Alexandra; Corcos, Maurice

    2011-01-01

    ...) diagnosis in Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD), and its impact on the clinical presentation of BPD in adolescents, and to determine which type of impulsivity specifically characterizes adolescents with BPD-ADHD...

  2. Personality disorder: a new global perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    TYRER, PETER; MULDER, ROGER; CRAWFORD, MIKE; NEWTON-HOWES, GILES; SIMONSEN, ERIK; NDETEI, DAVID; KOLDOBSKY, NESTOR; FOSSATI, ANDREA; MBATIA, JOSEPH; BARRETT, BARBARA

    2010-01-01

    Personality disorder is now being accepted as an important condition in mainstream psychiatry across the world. Although it often remains unrecognized in ordinary practice, research studies have shown it is common, creates considerable morbidity, is associated with high costs to services and to society, and interferes, usually negatively, with progress in the treatment of other mental disorders. We now have evidence that personality disorder, as currently classified, affects around 6% of the world population, and the differences between countries show no consistent variation. We are also getting increasing evidence that some treatments, mainly psychological, are of value in this group of disorders. What is now needed is a new classification that is of greater value to clinicians, and the WPA Section on Personality Disorders is currently undertaking this task. PMID:20148162

  3. Personality disorder: a new global perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrer, Peter; Mulder, Roger; Crawford, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Personality disorder is now being accepted as an important condition in mainstream psychiatry acreoss the world. Although it often remains unrecognized in ordinary practice, research studies have shown it is common, creates considerable morbidity, is associated with high costs to services...... and to society, and interferes, usually negatively, with progress in the treatment of other mental disorders. We now have evidence that personality disorder, as currently classified, affects around 6% of the world population, and the differences between countries show no consistent variation. We are also getting...... incerasing evidence that some teratments, manilyl psychological, are of value in this group of disorders. What is now needed is a new classification that is of greater value to clinicians, and the WPA Section on Personality Disorders is currently undertaking this task....

  4. Historical Roots of Histrionic Personality Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa eNovais

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Histrionic Personality Disorder is one of the most ambiguous diagnostic categories in psychiatry. Hysteria is a classical term that includes a wide variety of psychopathological states.Ancient Egyptians and Greeks blamed a displaced womb, for many women’s afflictions. Several researchers from the 18th and 19th centuries studied this theme, namely, Charcot who defined hysteria as a neurosis with an organic basis and Sigmund Freud who redefined neurosis as a re-experience of past psychological trauma. Histerical personality disorder (HPD made its first official appearance in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders II (DSM-II and since the DSM-III, histrionic personality disorder is the only disorder that kept the term derived from the old concept of hysteria.The subject of hysteria has reflected positions about health, religion and relationships between the sexes in the last 4000 years, and the discussion is likely to continue.

  5. Two-year stability of personality disorder in older adolescent outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanen, Andrew M; Jackson, Henry J; McGorry, Patrick D; Allot, Kelly A; Clarkson, Verity; Yuen, Hok Pan

    2004-12-01

    The 2-year stability of categorical and dimensional personality disorder (PD) in an older adolescent psychiatric outpatient sample was examined. One hundred and one 15-18-year-old participants were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Axis II Disorders (SCID-II) at baseline and 97 were re-interviewed, face-to-face, at 2 years. Of those with a categorical PD diagnosis at baseline, 74% still met criteria for a PD at follow-up, with marked gender differences (83% of females and 56% of males). Kappa for specific PDs was low for all except antisocial. Rank order and mean level dimensional stability ranged from high (antisocial, schizoid) to moderate (borderline, histrionic, schizotypal) to low (other PDs), with no decline in PD scores over the 2 years. There was no substantial influence upon stability of dimensional PD from the presence of Axis I disorder at baseline or from outpatient or inpatient treatment. However, categorical PD endured in 100% of those receiving inpatient care. The study supports that, in late teenage outpatients, the 2-year stability of the global category of PD is high and the stability of dimensionally rated PD appears to be similar to that found in young adults in a variety of settings, especially for some cluster A and B PDs. Diagnosis and early intervention appears to be justified in this age group.

  6. Internal consistency and factor structure of personality disorders in a forensic intellectual disability sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, William R; Steptoe, Lesley; Hogue, Todd E; Taylor, John L; Mooney, Paul; Haut, Fabian; Johnston, Susan; O'Brien, Gregory

    2007-06-01

    The publication of the DSM-III (American Psychiatric Association (APA), 1980) prompted a significant increase in interest and research on personality disorder (PD), and the concept has subsequently been incorporated into mental health legislation in the developed world. Despite this, such research on people with intellectual disability (ID) has been sporadic, with widely varying results. The present study addresses a number of criticisms directed at previous research. DSM-IV (APA, 2000) diagnoses of PD were made on 164 participants with ID on the basis of four independent sources of classification. Reliability data for each PD was acceptable and alpha was .74 or above, with the exception of schizotypal PD (.63). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted, with the former revealing a 4-factor solution accounting for 58.9% of the variance, and a 2-factor solution accounting for 37.2% of the variance emerging for the latter. The factors were orthogonal, and we called the first factor "avoidant/rumination/inhibited" and the second factor "acting out". We review these findings in relation to previous research on PD and alternative frameworks for the understanding of personality. We hypothesise consistencies between these findings and previous work on personality and ID. A number of drawbacks to the research are discussed, including a caution on the pejorative nature of a diagnosis of PD in an already devalued population.

  7. Antisocial personality disorder and anxiety disorder: a diagnostic variant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coid, Jeremy; Ullrich, Simone

    2010-06-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) with co-morbid anxiety disorder may be a variant of ASPD with different etiology and treatment requirements. We investigated diagnostic co-morbidity, ASPD criteria, and anxiety/affective symptoms of ASPD/anxiety disorder. Weighted analyses were carried out using survey data from a representative British household sample. ASPD/anxiety disorder demonstrated differing patterns of antisocial criteria, co-morbidity with clinical syndromes, psychotic symptoms, and other personality disorders compared to ASPD alone. ASPD criteria demonstrated specific associations with CIS-R scores of anxiety and affective symptoms. Findings suggest ASPD/anxiety disorder is a variant of ASPD, determined by symptoms of anxiety. Although co-morbid anxiety and affective symptoms are the same as in anxiety disorder alone, associations with psychotic symptoms require further investigation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Temperament and personality in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotella, Francesco; Fioravanti, Giulia; Ricca, Valdo

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades, three main different personality domains have been investigated in the field of eating disorders: personality traits, temperament, and personality disorders. The use of a wide range of instruments and the presence of many different approaches in the definition of personality dimensions make it difficult to summarize the emerging results from different studies. The aim of this narrative review is to critically highlight and discuss all interesting developments in this field, as reflected in the recent literature. The study of personality and temperament in eating disorders seems to be in line with the recently suggested dimensional approach, which highlights the importance of symptoms aggregation, rather than the categorical diagnoses. Recent literature seems to confirm that specific personality and temperamental profiles can be drawn for patients with eating disorders, which can discriminate different eating disorders' diagnoses/symptoms. These observations have relevant clinical implications as treatment of eating disorders is largely based on psychotherapeutic interventions. However, large longitudinal studies are needed to better clarify the suggested relationships and to identify more defined therapeutic strategies.

  9. The relationship between borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Mark; Morgan, Theresa A.

    2013-01-01

    It is clinically important to recognize both bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in patients seeking treatment for depression, and it is important to distinguish between the two. Research considering whether BPD should be considered part of a bipolar spectrum reaches differing conclusions. We reviewed the most studied question on the relationship between BPD and bipolar disorder: their diagnostic concordance. Across studies, approximately 10% of patients with BPD had bipolar I disorder and another 10% had bipolar II disorder. Likewise, approximately 20% of bipolar II patients were diagnosed with BPD, though only 10% of bipolar I patients were diagnosed with BPD. While the comorbidity rates are substantial, each disorder is nontheless diagnosed in the absence of the other in the vast majority of cases (80% to 90%). In studies examining personality disorders broadly, other personality disorders were more commonly diagnosed in bipolar patients than was BPD. Likewise, the converse is also true: other axis I disorders such as major depression, substance abuse, and post-traumatic stress disorder are also more commonly diagnosed in patients with BPD than is bipolar disorder. These findings challenge the notion that BPD is part of the bipolar spectrum. PMID:24174890

  10. Construct Validity of Adolescent Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jeanette; Elkins, Irene J.; Legrand, Lisa; Peuschold, Dawn; Iacono, William G.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the construct validity of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) diagnosed in adolescence. Boys and girls were grouped by history of DSM-III-R conduct disorder (CD) and ASPD: Controls (n = 340) had neither diagnosis; CD Only (n = 77) had CD by age 17 but no ASPD through age 20; Adolescent ASPD (n = 64) had ASPD by age 17. The…

  11. Maturation in patients with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levallius, Johanna; Rydén, Göran; Norring, Claes

    2015-08-30

    Patients with borderline personality disorder have a characteristic and extreme personality associated with psychopathology. The aim was to investigate personality change in relation to suicidality following treatment. 21 patients were assessed before and after psychotherapy on personality (NEO PI-R) and suicidality (SUAS). At follow-up, Neuroticism and Conscientiousness normalized along with six lower-order facets; Depression, Impulsiveness, Competence, Achievement Striving, Self-Discipline and Deliberation. Thirteen patients showed a positive personality development paralleled by a lesser degree of suicidality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. INTEGRATIVE TREATMENT OF PERSONALITY DISORDER. PART I: PSYCHOTHERAPY

    OpenAIRE

    Divac Jovanovic, Mirjana; Svrakic, Dragan

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we outline the concept of integrative therapy of borderline personality, also referred to as fragmented personality, which we consider to be the core psychopathology underlying all clinical subtypes of personality disorder. Hence, the terms borderline personality, borderline disorder, fragmented personality, and personality disorder are used interchangeably, as synonyms. Our integrative approach combines pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy, each specifically tailored to ...

  13. Depersonalization and personality in panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Lilian; Navinés, Ricard; Crippa, José A; Fagundo, Ana B; Gutierrez, Fernando; Nardi, Antonio E; Bulbena, Antonio; Valdés, Manuel; Martín-Santos, Rocío

    2011-01-01

    Prevalence and clinical correlates of depersonalization symptoms have been associated with panic disorder. Personality traits might increase the likelihood of experiencing depersonalization symptoms or depersonalization disorder in panic patients. The objectives of this study are to establish the prevalence of depersonalization symptoms during the panic attack and in depersonalization disorder and to examine the personality factors associated with the presence of depersonalization in patients with panic disorder. The sample comprised 104 consecutive adult outpatients with panic disorder, diagnosed according to the Semistructured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (Axis I/II disorders). Participants were assessed with the Cambridge Depersonalization Scales, the Temperament and Character Inventory, and the Panic and Agoraphobia Scale. Forty-eight percent of the sample had depersonalization symptoms during the panic attack, whereas 20% of patients had a depersonalization disorder. Women presented more depersonalization disorders than did men (P = .036). Patients with panic disorder with depersonalization disorder had a more severe panic disorder (P = .002). Logistic regression analysis showed that self-transcendence trait (odds ratio, 1.089; 95% confidence interval, 1.021-1.162; P = .010) and severity of panic (odds ratio, 1.056; 95% confidence interval, 1.005-1.110; P = .032) were independently associated with depersonalization disorder. A high prevalence of depersonalization symptoms and depersonalization disorder was confirmed in patients with panic disorder, supporting a dosage effect model for understanding depersonalization pathology. Self-transcendence trait and severity of panic disorder were reported as risk factors for depersonalization disorder. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Personality characteristics in patients with somatized disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Anatolyevna Tolkach

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study personality characteristics, behavioral style, and modes of relations with their people in patients with somatized disorder. Subjects and methods. Eighty-six patients diagnosed as having somatized disorder were examined using Leary's interpersonal diagnosis system. Results. The author revealed the following personality characteristics and behavioral styles: a depressed need for authoritarianism, dominance, autonomy, aggressiveness, a display of qualities, such as superfriendliness, benevolence, submissiveness, dependency, and suspiciousness. These characteristics give an insight into the development of somatization in patients with somatized disorder.

  15. Neurophysiological evidence of impaired self-monitoring in schizotypal personality disorder and its reversal by dopaminergic antagonism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireia Rabella

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: These results indicate that SPD individuals show deficits in self-monitoring analogous to those in schizophrenia. These deficits can be evidenced by neurophysiological measures, suggest a dopaminergic imbalance, and can be reverted by dopaminergic antagonists.

  16. Neurochemical alterations associated with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmaca, Murad; Karakoc, Tevfik; Mermi, Osman; Gurkan Gurok, M; Yildirim, Hanefi

    2015-01-01

    In neuroimaging on borderline personality disorder, prior studies focused on the hippocampus and amygdala, as mentioned above. However, no study investigated whether there were neurochemical changes in the patients with borderline personality disorder. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to investigate neurochemical change of patients diagnosed with borderline disorder and hypothesized that neurochemicals would change in the hippocampus region of these patients. Seventeen patients and the same number of healthy control subjects were analyzed by using a 1.5 Tesla GE Signa Imaging System. N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline compounds (CHO), and creatine (CRE) values of hippocampal region were measured. The mean NAA/CRE ratio in the hippocampus region was significantly reduced in the patients with borderline personality disorder compared to that of healthy control subjects, In addition, NAA/CHO ratio of the patients with borderline personality disorder was also significantly reduced when compared to that of healthy subjects. There was no difference in the ratio of CHO/CRE. In summary, we present evidence for reduced NAA in the patients with borderline personality disorder. © 2015, The Author(s).

  17. Controversies Surrounding Classification of Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrer, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, it is apparent that personality disorder is a common condition. Some of the concepts of personality disorder that are currently in use are flawed and need to be revised. The aim of this article is to discuss the controversy created by the uncertainties in the current classification system and to suggest ways forward. In particular, the clinician needs to be aware of the importance of assessing personality abnormality in terms of a severity dimension, and of the ways in which such an abnormality can impact on treatments for other conditions. These changes in the notion of personality disorder are needed as, for the first time, a good evidence base is being established for potential treatments and these will be maximized if we have a classification fit for therapeutic purpose. PMID:20396426

  18. Autobiographical memory in borderline personality disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Morten; Elklit, Ask; Simonsen, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder is a severe psychiatric illness. A key feature of the disorder is a disorganized sense of self often referred to as identity diffusion. Autobiographical memory is memory for personal life events. One of the main functions of these memories is to enable us...... to understand who we are by connecting past, present and future experiences. It seems that autobiographical memory is in some way disrupted in individuals with borderline personality disorder. A systematic review is conducted looking at studies that focus on the potential connections. We find that although...... a number of studies have been published results remain inconsistent. Furthermore, we find that many of the studies suffer from inadequate designs particularly regarding the reported measures of autobiographical memory. We discuss potential links between personality functioning, identity diffusion...

  19. Borderline Personality Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Time for Integration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Shannon

    2003-01-01

    An increasing prevalence of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnoses among women illustrates problems and limitations of the medical model system. Article explores overlapping relationship between BPD and PTSD and critiques how both are viewed within the mental health community. Previous research is…

  20. Personality disorder symptomatology is associated with anomalies in striatal and prefrontal morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris E Payer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Personality disorder symptomatology (PD-Sx can result in personal distress and impaired interpersonal functioning, even in the absence of a clinical diagnosis, and is frequently comorbid with psychiatric disorders such as substance use, mood, and anxiety disorders; however, they often remain untreated, and are not taken into account in clinical studies. To investigate brain morphological correlates of PD-Sx, we measured subcortical volume and shape, and cortical thickness / surface area, based on structural magnetic resonance images. We investigated 37 subjects who reported PD-Sx exceeding DSM-IV Axis-II screening thresholds, and 35 age, sex, and smoking status-matched control subjects. Subjects reporting PD-Sx were then grouped into symptom-based clusters: N=20 into Cluster B (reporting Antisocial, Borderline, Histrionic, or Narcissistic PD-Sx and N=28 into Cluster C (reporting Obsessive-Compulsive, Avoidant, or Dependent PD-Sx; N=11 subjects reported PD-Sx from both clusters, and none reported Cluster A (Paranoid, Schizoid, or Schizotypal PD-Sx. Compared to control, Cluster C PD-Sx was associated with greater striatal surface area localized to the caudate tail, smaller ventral striatum volumes, and greater cortical thickness in right prefrontal cortex. Both Cluster B and C PD-Sx groups also showed trends toward greater posterior caudate volumes and orbitofrontal surface area anomalies, but these findings did not survive correction for multiple comparisons. The results point to morphological abnormalities that could contribute to Cluster C PD-Sx. In addition, the observations parallel those in substance use disorders, pointing to the importance of considering PD-Sx when interpreting findings in often-comorbid psychiatric disorders.

  1. Personality disorders, common mental disorders and receipt of disability benefits: evidence from the British National Survey of Psychiatric Morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, A K; Skogen, J C; Harvey, S B; Stewart, R; Hotopf, M; Moran, P

    2012-12-01

    Common mental disorders (CMDs) are associated with occupational impairment and the receipt of disability benefits (DBs). Little is known about the relationship between personality disorders (PDs) and work disability, and whether the association between CMDs and work disability is affected by the presence of co-morbid PDs. The aim of this study was to examine the association between DB and individual categories of PDs, with special attention to the effect of co-morbid CMDs on this association. The association between DB and PD was examined using data from the 2000 British National Survey of Psychiatric Morbidity. Probable PD caseness was identified using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (SCID-II) screening questionnaire. The impact of CMDs, assessed with the revised version of the Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R), was examined as a covariate and in a stratified analysis of co-morbidity. Other covariates included sociodemographic factors, long-standing illnesses and substance use. Probable PD was associated with DB, with the strongest associations found for borderline, dependent and schizotypal PD. Antisocial PD was not associated with DB. The relationship between PD and DB was strongly modified by CMD, reducing the association from an odds ratio (OR) of 2.84 to 1.34 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00-1.79)]. In the stratified analysis, co-morbid PD and CMD showed a stronger association with DB than PD without CMD but, when fully adjusted, this effect was not significantly different from the association between CMD without PD. Individuals screening positive for PD are more likely to experience severe occupational outcomes, especially in the presence of co-morbid CMD.

  2. Affective Bipolar Disorder and Borderline Personality Disorder - Comorbidity or Continuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Ferreira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The association between bipolar disorder and borderline personality has been studied by several researchers. Comorbidity has been emphasized by some authors which observe a prognostic impairment of bipolar disorder because the delay of the diagnostic. Symptoms related with alcohol and drugs abuse, suicidary behaviour and impulsivity, often present in borderline patients, make the treatment difficult. Other authors consider these symptoms as being part of the bipolar disease, proposing a continuum between the two entities. In this case, borderline personality would be a mild form of an affective disorder. We will discuss different opinions and their cli- nical and therapeutic consequences.

  3. Stability and change in personality and personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Christopher J; Bleidorn, Wiebke

    2017-09-04

    In this paper, we review recent findings related to stability and change in personality and personality disorder. Estimates of stability vary depending on a number of methodological and substantive factors. These factors include the type of stability being examined, the type of construct being assessed, the method being used to assess personality, how participants are sampled, and developmental trends in personality stability and change. We describe current evidence about personality stability with respect to each of these factors. We conclude that current gaps in the literature can be filled by more carefully attending to factors that impact estimates of stability and change, and provide recommendations about how future research can fill those gaps. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Conscientiousness and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Douglas B; Widiger, Thomas A

    2011-07-01

    A dimensional perspective on personality disorder hypothesizes that the current diagnostic categories represent maladaptive variants of general personality traits. However, a fundamental foundation of this viewpoint is that dimensional models can adequately account for the pathology currently described by these categories. While most of the personality disorders have well established links to dimensional models that buttress this hypothesis, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) has obtained only inconsistent support. The current study administered multiple measures of 1) conscientiousness-related personality traits, 2) DSM-IV OCPD, and 3) specific components of OCPD (e.g., compulsivity and perfectionism) to a sample of 536 undergraduates who were oversampled for elevated OCPD scores. Six existing measures of conscientiousness-related personality traits converged strongly with each other supporting their assessment of a common trait. These measures of conscientiousness correlated highly with scales assessing specific components of OCPD, but obtained variable relationships with measures of DSM-IV OCPD. More specifically, there were differences within the conscientiousness instruments such that those designed to assess general personality functioning had small to medium relationships with OCPD, but those assessing more maladaptive variants obtained large effect sizes. These findings support the view that OCPD does represent a maladaptive variant of normal-range conscientiousness.

  5. Prevalence of substance use disorders in psychiatric patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftdahl, Nanna Gilliam; Nordentoft, Merete; Hjorthøj, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The present study established the national prevalence of substance use disorders (SUDs) among Danish psychiatric patients. Furthermore, patients with SUDs and those without SUDs were compared on a range of socio-demographic, clinical, and treatment characteristics. METHODS: Data were...... obtained from several Danish population-based registers. The study population was defined as all individuals with incidents of schizophrenia, schizotypal disorder, other psychoses, bipolar disorder, depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD...... % for schizophrenia, 35 % for schizotypal disorder, 28 % for other psychoses, 32 % for bipolar disorder, 25 % for depression, 25 % for anxiety, 11 % for OCD, 17% for PTSD, and 46 % for personality disorders. Alcohol use disorder was the most dominating SUD in every psychiatric category (25 % of all included patients...

  6. [Relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder, personality disorders, and personal history in a postraumatic unit (descriptive study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinetto, Marcela; Larregina, Luciana; Benvenuto, Cecilia

    2007-01-01

    In examining predictors of Posttraumatic Stress Disorders, researchers have focused on trauma intensity, symptoms severity, personality disorders and devoted less attention to other variables. This descriptive study examine how personality disorders, intensity of trauma and demographic variables (previous trauma and vulnerability) are related to the likelihood of experiencing a trauma, and to the severity of posttraumatic symptoms in a sample of 50 patients reporting a wide range of trauma.

  7. Physical therapy for persons with vestibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Susan L; Alghwiri, Alia; Alghadir, Ahmad

    2015-02-01

    Persons with vestibular disorders experience symptoms of dizziness and balance dysfunction, resulting in falls, as well as impairments of daily life. Various interventions provided by physical therapists have been shown to decrease dizziness and improve postural control. In the present review, we will focus on the role of physical therapy in the management of vestibular symptoms in patients with peripheral and central vestibular disorders. Persons with both acute and chronic central and peripheral vestibular disorders improve with vestibular rehabilitation. New interventions during the past 5 years have been designed to enhance recovery from problems with balance and dizziness. Examples include the use of virtual reality, vibrotactile feedback, optokinetic flow, YouTube videos, and innovative methods to change the gain of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). Patients with central and peripheral vestibular disorders benefit from physical therapy interventions. Advances in physical therapy interventions include new methods to stimulate adaptation of the VOR and the vestibulospinal systems.

  8. Neurocognitive Deficits in Borderline Personality Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Marianne Skovgaard; Ruocco, Anthony C; Carcone, Dean

    2017-01-01

    The present study evaluates the severity of neurocognitive deficits and assesses their relations with self-reported childhood trauma and dimensions of personality psychopathology in 45 outpatients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) matched to 56 non-psychiatric controls. Participants...... completed a comprehensive battery of neurocognitive tests, a retrospective questionnaire on early life trauma and a dimensional measure of personality psychopathology. Patients with BPD primarily showed deficits in verbal comprehension, sustained visual attention, working memory and processing speed....... Comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and an elevated childhood history of physical trauma were each accompanied by more severe neurocognitive deficits. There were no statistically significant associations between neurocognitive function and dimensions of personality psychopathology. These results...

  9. Borderline personality disorder and group therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehls, N

    1991-06-01

    This study examined the process and outcome of group therapy for community health center clients with borderline personality disorder. The results indicated that group members rated Yalom's curative factors to be increasingly helpful over time, and that universality and existential factors were consistently ranked as very helpful group process variables. The group sessions also were associated with positive outcomes, as evidenced by significant improvement in Goal Attainment Scale scores and the depression and hostility scales of the Brief Symptom Inventory. The results of this study suggest that group therapy is a valued and effective treatment option for people with borderline personality disorder.

  10. Alternative dimensional models of personality disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Widiger, Thomas A; Simonsen, Erik

    2005-01-01

    The recognition of the many limitations of the categorical model of personality disorder classification has led to the development of quite a number of alternative proposals for a dimensional classification. The purpose of this article is to suggest that future research work toward the integration...... of these alternative proposals within a common hierarchical structure. An illustration of a potential integration is provided using the constructs assessed within existing dimensional models. Suggestions for future research that will help lead toward a common, integrative dimensional model of personality disorder...

  11. Invited essay: Identity and borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Carsten René

    2010-06-01

    The general consensus is that disturbed identity is one of the defining characteristics of borderline personality disorder. So far it has not been possible to reach a generally accepted definition of identity, and the clinical phenomenon of identity disturbance involves inner subjective states that are not directly accessible to observation and reliable assessment. In this article a preliminary definition of identity is suggested and different levels, dimensions, and categories of identity are delineated. Essential elements of identity disturbance or identity diffusion in BPD patients are described and related to other aspects of borderline personality disorder: mentalization failures, disrupted relationships, impulsive or nonvolitional behavior, deficits in memory, dissociation, and dysfunctional self-narratives.

  12. Investigation of Personality Disordes and Personality Traits in Men with Gender Identity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Noorian

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study is to investigation of personality disorders and personality traits in men who have gender identity disorder (GID. Identification of personality disorders can be useful for enhancement of the quality of help to the patients. Materials & Methods: This analytical and cross-sectional study was a comparative and case – control research. 40 men with gender identity disorder were selected by convenient sampling from individuals who have been referred to Tehran Navab Safavi welfare center. Also, 40 available individuals who have no any diagnostic criteria about gender identity disorder in DSM-IV-TR and worked in Islamic Azad University (Tehran Sciences and Researches Unit were selected as control group and matched with patients. Personality disorders and those frequencies were evaluated with Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II (MCMI-II. Data were analyzed using by Chi-square and Independent T tests. Results: The results showed that gender identity disorder patients get higher scores as compared to control group in scales “Dependent” (P=0/038, “Histrionic” (P<0/001, “Antisocial” (P=0/017, “Passive – aggressive” (P=0/007, “Borderline” (P<0/001 and “Paranoid” (P=0/021 and their difference was significant. Conclusion: Generally, the results of this study showed persons who have gender identity disorder also have some symptoms of personality disorders more than normal people.

  13. Unblending Borderline Personality and Bipolar Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Giacomo, Ester; Aspesi, Flora; Fotiadou, Maria; Arntz, Arnoud; Aguglia, Eugenio; Barone, Lavinia; Bellino, Silvio; Carpiniello, Bernardo; Colmegna, Fabrizia; Lazzari, Marina; Lorettu, Liliana; Pinna, Federica; Sicaro, Aldo; Signorelli, Maria Salvina; Clerici, Massimo

    2017-08-01

    Borderline Personality (BPD) and Bipolar (BP) disorders stimulate an academic debate between their distinction and the inclusion of Borderline in the Bipolar spectrum. Opponents to this inclusion attribute the important differences and possible diagnostic incomprehension to overlapping symptoms. We tested 248 Borderline and 113 Bipolar patients, consecutively admitted to the Psychiatric Unit, through DSM-IV Axis I and II Disorders (SCID-I/II), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and Borderline Personality Disorder Severity Index-IV (BPDSI-IV). All the tests statistically discriminated the disorders (p disorders to a higher degree. Comorbidity proves to be extremely small (3.6%). However, Borderline patients with manic features offer a privileged point of view for a deeper analysis. This allows for the possibility of a more precise examination of the nature and load of each symptom. Borderline Personality and Bipolar Disorders can be distinguished with high precision using common and time-sparing tests. The importance of discriminating these clinical features may benefit from this evidence. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Select comorbid personality disorders and the treatment of chronic depression with nefazodone, targeted psychotherapy, or their combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddux, Rachel E; Riso, Lawrence P; Klein, Daniel N; Markowitz, John C; Rothbaum, Barbara O; Arnow, Bruce A; Manber, Rachel; Blalock, Janice A; Keitner, Gabor I; Thase, Michael E

    2009-10-01

    Individuals with chronic depression respond poorly to both medication and psychotherapy. The reasons for the poorer response, however, remain unclear. One potential factor is the presence of comorbid Axis II personality disorders (PDs), which occur at high rates among these patients. This study examines the moderating influence of co-occurring PDs, primarily in cluster C, among 681 chronically depressed adult outpatients who were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of treatment with nefazodone, a specialized psychotherapy for chronic depression, or their combination. At baseline, 50.4% (n=343) of patients met criteria for one or more Axis II disorders. Following 12 weeks of treatment, patients with comorbid PDs had statistically lower depression scores (M=12.2, SD=+9.2) than patients without comorbid PDs (M=13.5, SD=+8.7). There was no differential impact of a comorbid PD on responsiveness to medication versus psychotherapy. The results did not change when the data were analyzed using an intent-to-treat sample or when individual personality disorders were examined separately. Patients with severe borderline, antisocial, and schizotypal PDs were excluded from study entry; therefore, these data primarily apply to patients with cluster C PDs and may not generalize to other Axis II conditions. Comorbid Axis II disorders did not negatively affect treatment outcome and did not differentially affect response to psychotherapy versus medication. Treatment formulations for chronically depressed patients with certain PDs may not need to differ from treatment formulations of chronically depressed patients without co-occurring PDs.

  15. Borderline Personality Disorder: Therapeutic Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Michael H

    2016-01-01

    Proponents of the now half-dozen major psychotherapeutic approaches tend to claim the superiority of their different approaches-known widely by their acronyms: CBT for Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, DBT for Dialectic Behavioral Therapy, MBT for Mentalization-Based Therapy, TFP for Transference- Focused Psychotherapy, and so on. The data thus far support the utility of each method, but do not show clear-cut superiority of any one method. A large percentage of BPD patients eventually improve or even recover, but these favorable results appear to derive from a multiplicity of factors. These include the personality traits of both patient and therapist, the unpredictable life events over time, the socioeconomic and cultural background of the patient, and the placebo effect of simply being in treatment. These latter factors constitute the contextual model, which operates alongside the medical model, each playing a role in eventual outcome. The contextual model will be discussed extensively in a separate article.

  16. The prevalence of personality disorder among UK primary care attenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, P; Jenkins, R; Tylee, A; Blizard, R; Mann, A

    2000-07-01

    To determine the prevalence rate of personality disorder among a consecutive sample of UK primary care attenders. Associations between a diagnosis of personality disorder, sociodemographic background and common mental disorder were examined. Three hundred and three consecutive primary care attenders were examined for the presence of ICD-10 and DSM-4 personality disorders using an informant-based interview. Personality disorder was diagnosed in 24% (95% CI: 19-29) of the sample. Personality-disordered subjects were more likely to have psychiatric morbidity as indicated by GHQ-12, to report previous psychological morbidity, to be single and to attend the surgery on an emergency basis. 'Cluster B' personality disorders were particularly associated with psychiatric morbidity. There is a high prevalence rate of personality disorders among primary care attenders. These disorders are associated with the presence of common mental disorder and unplanned surgery attendance. Personality disorders may represent a significant source of burden in primary care.

  17. Comorbid personality disorders among patients with depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wongpakaran N

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nahathai Wongpakaran, Tinakon Wongpakaran, Vudhichai Boonyanaruthee, Manee Pinyopornpanish, Suthi Intaprasert Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Purpose: To investigate the personality disorders (PDs diagnosed in patients with depressive disorders.Material and methods: This study included a cross-sectional analysis, and was an extension of the Thai Study of Affective Disorder (THAISAD project. Eighty-five outpatients with depressive disorders were interviewed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Inventory to assess for depression, in accordance with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision and using the Thai version of the Structured Clinical Interview for PDs to assess for PD.Results: Seventy-seven percent of the patients had at least one PD, 40% had one PD and 60% had two or more PDs (mixed cluster. The most common PDs found were borderline PD (20% and obsessive–compulsive PD (10.6%, while the occurrence of avoidant PD was low when compared to the findings of previous, related studies. Among the mixed cluster, cluster A combined with cluster C was the common mix. Both dysthymic disorder and double depression were found to have a higher proportion of PDs than major depressive disorder (85.7% versus 76.1%. Dependent PD was found to be less common in this study than in previous studies, including those carried out in Asia.Conclusion: The prevalence of PDs among those with depressive disorder varied, and only borderline PD seems to be consistently high within and across cultures. Mixed cluster plays a prominent role in depression, so more attention should be paid to patients in this category. Keywords: personality disorders, depressive disorder, prevalence, Asian, mixed cluster, SCID-II

  18. Personality Correlates of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilveil, Ira; Clark, Dona

    This study delineates personality correlates of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD.) A standardized projective technique (the Roberts Apperception Test for Children (RATC) and the Conners Parent Rating Scale were administered to 52 ADHD children, ages 6-15. Results indicated that, when compared to the RATC standardization sample, ADHD…

  19. Suicide, suicide litigation, and borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutheil, Thomas G

    2004-06-01

    In the category of malpractice liability affecting mental health practitioners of all disciplines, malpractice based on suicide is the leading claim by a significant margin. Our discussion here will be organized in two sections. First, we consider the theory, practice, and psychology of malpractice litigation itself in relation to suicide. Second, we describe how those basic principles apply to patients with borderline personality disorder.

  20. An Integrative Dimensional Classification of Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiger, Thomas A.; Livesley, W. John; Clark, Lee Anna

    2009-01-01

    Psychological assessment research concerns how to describe psychological dysfunction in ways that are both valid and useful. Recent advances in assessment research hold the promise of facilitating significant improvements in description and diagnosis. One such contribution is in the classification of personality disorder symptomatology. The…

  1. [Psychopathy and associated personality disorders: searching for a particular effect of the borderline personality disorder?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nioche, A; Pham, T H; Ducro, C; de Beaurepaire, C; Chudzik, L; Courtois, R; Réveillère, C

    2010-06-01

    Recent clinical and empirical works are based on Cleckley's clinical observations in which psychopathy is viewed as a personality disorder, characterised by a lack of emotions, callousness, unreliability and superficiality. Hare operationalised Cleckley's concept of psychopathy by developing the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised composed of 20 items that load on two factors in majority: factor 1 (personality aspects of psychopathy) and factor 2 (behavioural manifestations), close to the antisocial personality disorder (DSM-IV criteria). Comorbidity is strong with antisocial personality disorder but also with histrionic, narcissistic and borderline disorders. As results of categorical studies relative to comorbidity suggest a strong comorbidity between psychopathy and other personality disorders, and particularly cluster B disorders (axis II, DSM-IV), this study assesses the relationships between psychopathy (dimensional approach) and personality disorders (categorical approach) and particularly with the borderline personality disorder. The aim of this study is also to underline the complementarity of categorical (SCID-II) and dimensional approaches (PCL-R), and the utility of the standardised clinical examination. We hypothesised positive associations between psychopathy and other personality disorders, mainly with the cluster B axis II (narcissistic, antisocial, histrionic, and borderline). Among those disorders, a particular link exists with the borderline personality disorder, considering that their association may attenuate the pathological level of the psychopathy. The sample included 80 male inmates from French prisons (age: M=31.48; SD=11.06). Each participant was evaluated with the PCL-R to assess the level of psychopathy and the SCID-II to assess the possible presence of personality disorders. The MINI and the WAIS-III were used to exclude respectively those who presented an axis I comorbidity (mood disorders and psychotic disorders established at the moment

  2. 38 CFR 4.127 - Mental retardation and personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... personality disorders. 4.127 Section 4.127 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings Mental Disorders § 4.127 Mental retardation and personality disorders. Mental retardation and personality disorders are not diseases or injuries...

  3. Antisocial Personality as a Neurodevelopmental Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, Adrian

    2018-01-25

    Although antisocial personality disorder (APD) is one of the most researched personality disorders, it is still surprisingly resistant to treatment. This lack of clinical progress may be partly due to the failure to view APD as a neurodevelopmental disorder and to consider early interventions. After first defining what constitutes a neurodevelopmental disorder, this review evaluates the extent to which APD meets neurodevelopmental criteria, covering structural and functional brain imaging, neurocognition, genetics and epigenetics, neurochemistry, and early health risk factors. Prevention and intervention strategies for APD are then outlined, focusing on addressing early biological and health systems, followed by forensic and clinical implications. It is argued both that APD meets criteria for consideration as a neurodevelopmental disorder and that consideration should be given both to the possibility that early onset conduct disorder is neurodevelopmental in nature, and also to the inclusion of psychopathy as a specifier in future Diagnostic and Statistical Manual revisions of APD. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Clinical Psychology Volume 14 is May 7, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  4. A synopsis of the WPA Educational Program on Personality Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik; Ronningstam, Elsa; Millon, Theodore

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the headlines of the Educational Program on Personality Disorders produced by the WPA Section on Personality Disorders and the International Society on the Study of Personality Disorders. Lifelong personality traits serve as a substrate and a context for understanding more...... is substantial. Numerous theories, models and methods have been proposed to describe and to understand personality and its disorders: descriptive, statistical, psychoanalytic, evolutionary, neurobiologic. Classification has either taken a prototypical or a polythetic approach, but in recent years dimensional...

  5. ADHD in adolescents with borderline personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cortese Samuele

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of a comorbid Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD diagnosis in Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD, and its impact on the clinical presentation of BPD in adolescents, and to determine which type of impulsivity specifically characterizes adolescents with BPD-ADHD. Methods ADHD diagnoses were sought in a sample of 85 DSM-IV BPD adolescents drawn from the EURNET BPD. Axis-I and -II disorders were determined with the K-SADS-PL and the SIDP-IV, respectively. Impulsivity was assessed with the BIS-11. Results 11% (N = 9 of BPD participants had a current ADHD diagnosis. BPD-ADHD adolescents showed higher prevalence of Disruptive disorders (Chi2 = 9.09, p = 0.01 and a non-significant trend for a higher prevalence of other cluster B personality disorders (Chi2 = 2.70, p = 0.08. Regression analyses revealed a significant association between Attentional/Cognitive impulsivity scores and ADHD (Wald Z = 6.69; p = 0.01; Exp(B = 2.02, CI 95% 1.19-3.45. Conclusions Comorbid ADHD influences the clinical presentation of adolescents with BPD and is associated with higher rates of disruptive disorders, with a trend towards a greater likelihood of cluster B personality disorders and with higher levels of impulsivity, especially of the attentional/cognitive type. A subgroup of BPD patients may exhibit developmentally driven impairments of the inhibitory system persisting since childhood. Specific interventions should be recommended for this subsample of BPD adolescents.

  6. Suppresion of aggression in regard of some personality disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Židanik

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article people with depressive, dependent and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder and people without personality disorder are compared in regard of the suppression of aggression that shows itself in physical symptoms (i.e. nail biting or in the interpersonal behaviour (lack of assertiveness. The data from the sample (138 people from psychiatric ambulatory care unit were got with a self-evaluation questionnaire for personality disorders. The results show significant differences between obsessive-compulsive disorded and persons without any personality disorder in regard of the presence of symptoms and significant differences between depressive and dependent disorded persons in comparation with people without any personality disorder in regard of the presence of symptoms and behaviour patterns. The data also suggest, that people with dependent personality disorder show a higher degree of supression of aggression in behaviour patterns than people with depressive personality disorder and that the people with depressive personality disorder show a higher degree of supression of aggression in behaviour patterns as people with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. There were no significant differences between different personality disorded persons regarding symptoms of aggressive suppression. The aim of this article is in better differential diagnostics between personality disorders mentioned.

  7. Prevalence, correlates, disability, and comorbidity of DSM-IV narcissistic personality disorder: results from the wave 2 national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Frederick S; Dawson, Deborah A; Goldstein, Risë B; Chou, S Patricia; Huang, Boji; Smith, Sharon M; Ruan, W June; Pulay, Attila J; Saha, Tulshi D; Pickering, Roger P; Grant, Bridget F

    2008-07-01

    To present nationally representative findings on prevalence, sociodemographic correlates, disability, and comorbidity of narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) among men and women. Face-to-face interviews with 34,653 adults participating in the Wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions conducted between 2004 and 2005 in the United States. Prevalence of lifetime NPD was 6.2%, with rates greater for men (7.7%) than for women (4.8%). NPD was significantly more prevalent among black men and women and Hispanic women, younger adults, and separated/divorced/widowed and never married adults. NPD was associated with mental disability among men but not women. High co-occurrence rates of substance use, mood, and anxiety disorders and other personality disorders were observed. With additional comorbidity controlled for, associations with bipolar I disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and schizotypal and borderline personality disorders remained significant, but weakened, among men and women. Similar associations were observed between NPD and specific phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, and bipolar II disorder among women and between NPD and alcohol abuse, alcohol dependence, drug dependence, and histrionic and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders among men. Dysthymic disorder was significantly and negatively associated with NPD. NPD is a prevalent personality disorder in the general U.S. population and is associated with considerable disability among men, whose rates exceed those of women. NPD may not be as stable as previously recognized or described in the DSM-IV. The results highlight the need for further research from numerous perspectives to identify the unique and common genetic and environmental factors underlying the disorder-specific associations with NPD observed in this study.

  8. The Natural History of Antisocial Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Donald W

    2015-07-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is characterized by a pattern of socially irresponsible, exploitative, and guiltless behaviour. ASPD is associated with co-occurring mental health and addictive disorders and medical comorbidity. Rates of natural and unnatural death (suicide, homicide, and accidents) are excessive. ASPD is a predictor of poor treatment response. ASPD begins early in life, usually by age 8 years. Diagnosed as conduct disorder in childhood, the diagnosis converts to ASPD at age 18 if antisocial behaviours have persisted. While chronic and lifelong for most people with ASPD, the disorder tends to improve with advancing age. Earlier onset is associated with a poorer prognosis. Other moderating factors include marriage, employment, early incarceration (or adjudication during childhood), and degree of socialization.

  9. Antisocial personality disorder: a current review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Andrea L; Johnson, Alexandria K; Raine, Adrian

    2013-12-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM 5) classification of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) describes individuals who engage in repetitive irresponsible, delinquent, and criminal behavior. The diagnosis is highly controversial, with many researchers and clinicians arguing that the category is too heterogeneous, overinclusive, and demonstrates considerable overlap with other disorders. This review focuses on recent studies that have improved our understanding of the characteristics of individuals who fit the ASPD definition by exploring how subtypes differ and how comorbid conditions influence the presentation of ASPD. In addition, we discuss research on the etiology of ASPD that has identified genetic and environmental factors that may contribute to the development and persistence of antisocial behavior, and brain imaging research that has improved our understanding of the relationships between ASPD and other psychopathology. Finally, we discuss promising preliminary research on treatment for this disorder.

  10. Personality disorders from a phenomenological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörr Zengers, O

    2008-01-01

    Different studies have questioned the capacity of the categorical diagnostics to establish a clear distinction between the existence or not of a determined personality disorder. The dimensional perspective would approach more to reality, in the measure that it tries to measure the different intensity degrees in which these disorders are present in the patients. But its application is very laborious and besides, presupposes that those categories whose nuances it pretends to measure really exist. The foresaid leads us to appeal to phenomenological perspective, which seems to be more adequate for the study of complex realities, as it is the case of the personality and its disorders. The essential features of the phenomenological method in the sense of Husserl are described, as well as his contribution to the study of personality disorders. This can be summarized in three fundamental points: the ideal types, introduced in psychiatry by Karl Jaspers, the existential types, by Ludwig Binswanger, and the dialectic typologies and polarities, by Wolfgang Blankenburg and the undersigned. This author defines and develops each one of these concepts, aiming to show their advantages with respect to the categorical and dimensional systems.

  11. Affect regulation and Depressive Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Tsen; Huprich, Steven K; Hsiao, Wei-Cheng

    2011-12-01

    Depressive Personality Disorder (DPD) has been under consideration for inclusion in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders since 1994; yet, few studies have been published that test whether those with DPD have affective experiences that are characterized exclusively by depression and negative affect. One hundred ninety-seven undergraduate students were interviewed for DPD and Borderline Personality Disorder with the Personality Disorder Interview for DSM-IV (Widiger, Mangine, Corbitt, Ellis, & Thomas, 1995), in order to control for frequently co-occurring BPD which is characterized by affective lability. Participants also were administered measures of affective lability, affective intensity, anxious and depressive states, and more trait-like manifestations of depression, anxiety, and anger. Results indicate that those with DPD may be described as having a mood state characterized by transitions from a baseline neutral mood to one of anxiety, with their experiences being more prominently depressed and dysphoric. They also have tendencies toward angry hostility, though they may not report frequent shifts from a baseline neutral mood to anger. Those with DPD also report intense, frequent experiences of depression and dysphoria, with many shifts between depression and anxiety.

  12. Catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met genotype in healthy and personality disorder individuals: Preliminary results from an examination of cognitive tests hypothetically differentially sensitive to dopamine functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winnie W Leung

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Winnie W Leung1, Margaret M McClure1, Larry J Siever1,2, Deanna M Barch3, Philip D Harvey1,21Department of Veterans Affairs, VISN 3 Mental Illness Research, Education, and Clinical Center (MIRECC, Bronx, NY, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry, Mt. Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; 3Departments of Psychology and Psychiatry, Washington University, St. Louis, MO, USAAbstract: A functional polymorphism of the gene coding for Catechol-O-methyltrasferase (COMT, an enzyme responsible for the degradation of the catecholamine dopamine (DA, epinephrine, and norepinephrine, is associated with cognitive deficits. However, previous studies have not examined the effects of COMT on context processing, as measured by the AX-CPT, a task hypothesized to be maximally relevant to DA function. 32 individuals who were either healthy, with schizotypal personality disorder, or non-cluster A, personality disorder (OPD were genotyped at the COMT Val158Met locus. Met/Met (n = 6, Val/Met (n = 10, Val/Val (n = 16 individuals were administered a neuropsychological battery, including the AX-CPT and the N-back working memory test. For the AX-CPT, Met/Met demonstrated more AY errors (reflecting good maintenance of context than the other genotypes, who showed equivalent error rates. Val/Val demonstrated disproportionately greater deterioration with increased task difficulty from 0-back to 1-back working memory demands as compared to Met/Met, while Val/Met did not differ from either genotypes. No differences were found on processing speed or verbal working memory. Both context processing and working memory appear related to COMT genotype and the AX-CPT and N-back may be most sensitive to the effects of COMT variation.Keywords: COMT, dopamine, context processing, working memory, schizotypal personality disorder

  13. Borderline personality disorder and mood spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrocal, Carmen; Ruiz Moreno, Modesto A; Rando, Miguel A; Benvenuti, Antonella; Cassano, Giovanni B

    2008-06-30

    Several lines of evidence have raised the question of whether Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is an independent disease entity or it might be better conceptualized as belonging to the spectrum of mood disorders. This study explores a wide array of lifetime mood features (mood, cognitions, energy, and rhythmicity and vegetative functions) in patients with BP and mood disorders. The sample consisted of 25 BPD patients who did not meet the criteria for bipolar disorders, 16 bipolar disorders patients who did not meet the criteria for BPD, 19 unipolar patients who did not meet the criteria for BPD, and 30 non-clinical subjects. Clinical diagnoses were determined by administering the structured clinical interviews for DSM-IV disorders. The Mood Spectrum Self-Report (MOODS-SR) was used for measuring lifetime mood phenomenology. Clinical subjects displayed higher mean scores than normal subjects in all domains of the MOODS-SR, and BPD patients displayed higher scores than unipolar patients in the Mood and Cognition depressive subdomains. Differences between patients with BP and bipolar disorders on MOODS psychopathology did not attain statistical significance for any (sub)domain considered. The results of this study are consistent with previous findings suggesting the importance of mood dysregulations in patients with BPD.

  14. Personality disorder and public mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrer, Peter

    2008-08-01

    The diagnosis of personality disorder often appears to tell as much about the diagnoser as the diagnosed. For many it describes those who are deemed personally offensive, and as such it is not so much a diagnosis as a value judgment, the product of a negative interaction between two people that is given spurious respectability by a medical label. It is argued that these attitudes constitute a disastrous misperception of the truth, as personality disturbance (diathesis) in its many forms, including the unsatisfactory term 'disorder', is a highly significant contributor to human misery and handicap and a major cost to public mental health. It achieves this sorry record largely through stealth, because the current categorical system fails to embrace the breadth and heterogeneity of abnormal personality and the notion of offensive immutability makes the diagnosis a stigmatic one. This can be avoided by recoding personality in terms of severity. New treatments are now beginning to show evidence of efficacy and it is not unreasonable to hope that a condition that has been muttered about for years in parentheses will now be better recognised and defined, exposed without misunderstanding, and managed appropriately and well.

  15. [Current therapies of borderline personality disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada, P; Guenot, F; Charbon, P; Kolly, S; Perroud, N

    2015-09-16

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a highly prevalent disorder characterized by identity disturbance, emotion dysregulation, interpersonal difficulties and self-damaging behaviours. Mental health professionals most of the time encounter difficulties in the care of these hard-to-treat patients mainly due to the frequent crises often leading to drop-outs. In this perspective, technical and theoretical changes to traditional psychotherapeutic approaches were developed. We here give the major principles that should be considered when treating BPD patients in order not only to reduce the risk of being iatrogenic but also to apply the current psychotherapeutic and psychiatric modalities internationally recognized to be efficient.

  16. The Five-Factor Model of Personality and Borderline Personality Disorder: A Genetic Analysis of Comorbidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Distel, M.A.; Trull, T.J.; Willemsen, G.; Vink, J.M.; Derom, C.A.; Lynskey, M.; Martin, N.G.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recently, the nature of personality disorders and their relationship with normal personality traits has received extensive attention. The five-factor model (FFM) of personality, consisting of the personality traits neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and

  17. Borderline personality disorder and emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Mathell; Schuurmans, Hanneke; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M; Smeets, Guus; Verkoeijen, Peter; Arntz, Arnoud

    2013-02-01

    The present study investigated emotional intelligence (EI) in borderline personality disorder (BPD). It was hypothesized that patients with BPD (n = 61) compared with patients with other personality disorders (PDs; n = 69) and nonpatients (n = 248) would show higher scores on the ability to perceive emotions and impairments in the ability to regulate emotions. EI was assessed with the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (Mayer, Salovey, and Caruso [New York: MHS, 2002]). As compared with the PD group and the nonpatient group, the patients with BPD displayed the anticipated deficits in their ability to understand, whereas no differences emerged with respect to their ability to perceive, use, and regulate emotions. In addition, a negative relationship was found between the severity of BPD and total EI score. However, this relationship disappeared when intelligence quotient was partialled out. These results suggest that BPD is associated with emotion understanding deficits, whereas temporary severity of BPD is associated with emotion regulation deficits.

  18. [Construction of educational software about personality disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botti, Nadja Cristiane Lappann; Carneiro, Ana Luíza Marques; Almeida, Camila Souza; Pereira, Cíntia Braga Silva

    2011-01-01

    The study describes the experience of building educational software in the area of mental health. The software was developed to enable the nursing student identify personality disorders. In this process, we applied the pedagogical framework of Vygotsky and the theoretical framework of the diagnostic criteria defined by DSM-IV. From these references were identified personality disorders characters in stories and / or children's movies. The software development bank was built with multimedia graphics data, sound and explanatory. The software developed like educational game like questions with increasing levels of difficulty. The software was developed with Microsoft Office PowerPoint 2007. It is believed in the validity of this strategy for teaching-learning to the area of mental health nursing.

  19. Understanding Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven C. Hertler

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available With the ultimate goal of better understanding Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD, the present work is a review and critique of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., DSM-IV diagnostic criteria at the end of their 18 years of use. Problems of specificity (polythetic criteria and failure to employ a hallmark feature make OCPD an indistinct diagnostic category that consequently contains a plurality of types. Problems of sensitivity (missing elements and concrete expression of signs make it more difficult to cull OCPD persons from the population at large. Collectively, these problems of specificity and sensitivity have undermined the efficiency of the DSM-IV criteria set; but more importantly, these problems continue to distort the clinical understanding of OCPD generally.

  20. Repeat neurobehavioral study of borderline personality disorder.

    OpenAIRE

    van Reekum, R.; Links, P. S.; Finlayson, M. A.; Boyle, M.; Boiago, I; Ostrander, L A; Moustacalis, E

    1996-01-01

    Previous research has tentatively identified a large subgroup of patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) with histories of developmental or acquired brain insults. Similarly, these studies have demonstrated a possible biological correlation between the severity of BPD and the number of previous brain insults. The possibility of frontal system cognitive dysfunction in BPD has been raised. This single-blind, case-control study of BPD showed that 13 of 24 subjects with BPD had suffer...

  1. Hypersensitivity in Borderline Personality Disorder during Mindreading

    OpenAIRE

    Frick, Carina; Lang, Simone; Kotchoubey, Boris; Sieswerda, Simkje; Dinu-Biringer, Ramona; Berger, Moritz; Veser, Sandra; Essig, Marco; Barnow, Sven

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: One of the core symptoms of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is the instability in interpersonal relationships. This might be related to existent differences in mindreading between BPD patients and healthy individuals. METHODS: We examined the behavioural and neurophysiological (fMRI) responses of BPD patients and healthy controls (HC) during performance of the 'Reading the Mind in the Eyes' test (RMET). RESULTS: Mental state discrimination was significantly better and faster...

  2. [Language disorders and cognitive functions in persons with schizophrenic disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszkiewicz, Justyna; Wciórka, Jacek; Anczewska, Marta; Chrostek, Anna; Switaj, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between clinical and neuropsychological measures of language disorders as well as characteristics of the mental condition of patients diagnosed as having schizophrenic disorders. There were 45 persons with schizophrenic disorder (acc. ICD-10) examined with The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the side effect rating scale (UKU), Wisconsin Cards Storting Test (WCST), verbal fluency task, Ruff's Test, "Similarities" --WAIS-R subtest, 10 graphics of The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT). Patient's speech was evaluated independently by two diagnosticians using Thought, Language and Communication Scale (TLCS). Time since the onset of illness and the number of hospitalisations were associated with total TLCS scores and with most of the WCST indicators. Total amount and most of the particular language disorders correlated positively with total PANSS scores. Total amount of language disorders was connected with the number of trials, which were necessary to complete the first category and also with the global scores obtained in "Similarities". There were also many correlations between particular language phenomenons and results of several neuropsychological tests. Correlation between psychopathological evaluation of language disorders according to TLCS and evaluation of the schizophrenic syndrome score is found to be significant. The psychopathological rating of general and particular language disorders shows significant correlations with some indicators of executive function, verbal and nonverbal fluency and the ability for abstract thinking.

  3. [Symptoms of DSM IV borderline personality disorder in a nonclinical population of adolescents: study of a series of 35 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabrol, H; Chouicha, K; Montovany, A; Callahan, S

    2001-01-01

    personality disorder in adolescents. Two criteria of schizotypal personality disorder were also frequent in this group: 68.6% of the borderline group reported odd beliefs or magical thinking, in particular beliefs in clairvoyance or telepathy and 88.6% reported unusual perceptual experiences, in particular sensing the presence of a force or person and bodily illusions. Moreover, 31.4% of the borderline group reported transient "quasi" psychotic experiences, mainly "quasi" visual hallucinations. Auditory hallucinations or delusional ideas were not observed. This symptomatology suggests a "quasi" psychotic dimension of adolescent borderline personality disorder. Affective instability was the next most frequent symptom which was usually marked by a cyclothymic appearance. Comorbidity with major depressive disorder was high: 85.7% of the borderline subjects had a concurrent diagnosis of major depression versus 45.8% of the non-borderline subjects. Thus, major depression is more frequent than most of the borderline personality disorder criteria, with the exception of the already noted paranoid ideation and affective instability. Hypomanic symptoms were frequent in the borderline group (65.7%) as well as in the non-borderline group (38.8%). This symptomatology suggests that adolescent borderline personality disorder is linked to an attenuated bipolar spectrum characterised by major depressive episodes and soft signs of bipolarity. However, hypomanic symptoms, which were quite frequent in non-borderline subjects, might also be due to a mechanism of defence, i.e. the denial of depression. Comorbidity with anxiety disorders appeared also to be high: anxiety symptoms were found in 91.4% of the borderline subjects who reported symptoms of generalised anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and somatoform disorders. The overall clinical appearance of these borderline adolescents not referred for treatment seemed to be quite similar to that of borderline adolescents in clinical samples. This

  4. Dependent personality disorder: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disney, Krystle L

    2013-12-01

    Dependent personality disorder (DPD) has evolved from an abstract idea rooted in a historic and psychoanalytic context to a codified diagnosis in the DSM-IV-TR. This comprehensive review paper chronicles the evolution of DPD through each version of the DSM. Major topics relevant to the disorder are also investigated, including gender and cultural considerations, stability and manifestations of DPD across different developmental stages, comorbidity issues, and others. The purpose of this review is to provide a broad yet comprehensive examination of the complex angles of maladaptive dependency and to identify essential next steps in furthering our knowledge of this disorder. The paper concludes with a discussion of shortcomings in the body of research relevant to DPD, along with specific suggestions for improvement in this field of study. © 2013.

  5. Emotional Intelligence and Personality in Anxiety Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie P. Lizeretti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders (AD are by far the most frequent psychiatric disorders, and according to epidemiologic data their chronicity, comorbidities, and negative prognostic constitute a public health problem. This is why it is necessary to continue exploring the factors which contribute to the incidence, appearance, and maintenance of this set of disorders. The goal of this study has been to analyze the possible relationship between Emotional Intelligence (EI and personality disorders (PersD in outpatients suffering from AD. The sample was made up of 146 patients with AD from the Mental Health Center at the Health Consortium of Maresme, who were evaluated with the STAI, MSCEIT, and MCMI-II questionnaires. The main findings indicate that 89,4% of the patients in the sample met the criteria for the diagnosis of some PersD. The findings also confirm that patients with AD present a low EI, especially because of difficulties in the skills of emotional comprehension and regulation, and the lack of these skills is related to a higher level of anxiety and the presence of PersD. These findings suggest the need to consider emotional skills of EI and personality as central elements for the diagnosis and treatment of AD.

  6. Psycho-education for substance use and antisocial personality disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thylstrup, Birgitte; Schrøder, Sidsel; Hesse, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Background: Antisocial personality disorder often co-exists with drug and alcohol use disorders. Methods: This trial examined the effectiveness of offering psycho-education for antisocial personality disorder in community substance use disorder treatment centers in Denmark. A total of 176 patients...... in substance use were associated with randomization to Impulsive Lifestyle Counselling. The findings support the usefulness of providing psycho-education to outpatients with antisocial personality disorder. Trial registration: ISRCTN registry, ISRCTN67266318, 17/7/2012...

  7. Personality Disorders in a Non-Patient Population in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Studies of the epidemiology of personality disorders in Nigeria are scanty. From clinical experience, diagnoses of personality disorders are hardly ever made in both out patients and inpatients in our mental health department. It is unclear whether the non-diagnosis of personality disorders in our psychiatric ...

  8. Co-occurrence of dissociative identity disorder and borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Colin A; Ferrell, Lynn; Schroeder, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The literature indicates that, among individuals with borderline personality disorder, pathological dissociation correlates with a wide range of impairments and difficulties in psychological function. It also predicts a poorer response to dialectical behavior therapy for borderline personality disorder. We hypothesized that (a) dissociative identity disorder commonly co-occurs with borderline personality disorder and vice versa, and (b) individuals who meet criteria for both disorders have more comorbidity and trauma than individuals who meet criteria for only 1 disorder. We interviewed a sample of inpatients in a hospital trauma program using 3 measures of dissociation. The most symptomatic group was those participants who met criteria for both borderline personality disorder and dissociative identity disorder on the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule, followed by those who met criteria for dissociative identity disorder only, then those with borderline personality disorder only, and finally those with neither disorder. Greater attention should be paid to the relationship between borderline personality disorder and dissociative identity disorder.

  9. [Mentalization based treatment and borderline personality disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, C; Rahioui, H; Smadja, M; Gorsane, M A; Louppe, F

    2017-08-01

    The borderline personality disorder is a complex psychiatric disorder that represents a high number of patients in a psychiatric adult service. Even if some therapies have shown to be effective in the therapeutic care of the borderline personality disorder they only target certain symptoms (e.g. anxiety, sadness, self-mutilation). The aim of this paper is to introduce a therapeutic model little known in France: the mentalization based therapy (MBT) developed in 2004 by Bateman and Fonagy. This therapeutic model apprehends the borderline personality disorder in all its complexity and is based on two main concepts: Bowlby's attachment theory and the concept of mentalization. The MBT is based on the hypothesis that a deficit of mentalization leads to the development of borderline disorder. The capacity of mentalization, also known as reflexive function, is acquired in infancy through interpersonal relationships, in particular those of attachment, and is the ability to understand the mental state (emotions, needs, thoughts, etc.) of oneself and others which underlies explicit behaviour. This reflexive capacity is of a better quality when the person has a secure attachment style. Indeed, borderline patients have, mainly, a deficit of mentalization capacity associated with an insecure attachment style. Thus, the main objective of the Bateman and Fonagy approach is to develop and reinforce the mentalization capacity through a therapeutic relationship as a secure base, a group therapy and the concept of insight. Classically, MBT is structured over a period of 18 months divided into 3 distinct phases distributed in two therapeutic axes: group and individual therapy. The initial phase aims to engage the patient in the therapy by evaluating attachment style, mentalization's ability, interpersonal functioning; providing psychoeducation about borderline disorder and establishing a therapeutic contract. To evaluate attachment style, the authors strongly recommend the use of the

  10. Personality traits of patients with mood and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.; van Straten, A.; Donker, M.

    2005-01-01

    Although it is well established that personality traits of patients with mental disorder differ significantly from the traits of other persons, differences in personality characteristics between different mental disorders have not been examined very thoroughly. In this study, we examine personality

  11. An exploration of links between early parenting experiences and personality disorder type and disordered personality functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, G; Roy, K; Wilhelm, K; Mitchell, P; Austin, M P; Hadzi-Pavlovic, D

    1999-01-01

    Reports of early parenting were assessed using two measures, the Parental Bonding Index (PBI) and the Measure of Parenting Style (MOPS), in a sample of 265 patients with DSM-defined major depressive disorder. Psychiatrists then rated the extent to which sample members evidenced the personality "styles" underpinning 15 separate personality disorders, returning personality vignette scores. The extent of disordered functioning was also assessed across "parameters" and "domains" by psychiatrists, referrers, and family members, using a range of measures. Those with higher scores on vignettes measuring borderline, anxious, depressive, and self-defeating personality style rated parents as uncaring, overcontrolling, and abusive. When vignettes were consolidated into scores akin to the DSM clusters, the most consistent links between perceived dysfunctional parenting were with the Cluster C (anxious), and Cluster B (dramatic) styles and were nonsignificant for Cluster A (eccentric) style. Meeting criteria for an increasing number of personality disorder clusters was associated with increasing levels of adverse parenting. Multiple regression analyses indicated that disordered functioning (as assessed by the three independent rater groups) was most distinctly associated with paternal indifference and maternal overcontrol.

  12. Treatment rates for patients with borderline personality disorder and other personality disorders: a 16-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanarini, Mary C; Frankenburg, Frances R; Reich, D Bradford; Conkey, Lindsey C; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to document the use of 16 treatment modalities reported by 290 patients with borderline personality disorder and 72 patients with other axis II disorders over 16 years of prospective follow-up. This study built upon previous findings of the McLean Study of Adult Development. Treatment use was assessed at baseline and at eight two-year follow-up periods with a semistructured interview of proven reliability and validity. Patients with borderline personality disorder reported significantly higher rates of use of 12 of the 16 treatment modalities studied. Only four of the 16 treatment modalities were used by roughly the same percentage of patients with borderline personality disorder and those with other axis II disorders: individual therapy, intensive individual therapy, couples or family therapy, and electroconvulsive therapy. In addition, rates of participation in 13 treatment modalities declined significantly over the first eight years of follow-up for those in both study groups. However, the rates of participation in 15 of 16 treatment modalities did not decline significantly over the second eight years of follow-up for those in either study group. The results of this study suggest that rates of treatment use by patients with borderline personality disorder decline significantly over the short and medium term. They also suggest that these rates remain stable or fail to decline further over the longer term.

  13. The Coraline Effect: The Misdiagnosis of Personality Disorders in College Students Who Grew up with a Personality Disordered Parent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donatone, Brooke

    2016-01-01

    College students may be misdiagnosed as personality disordered when in fact their problems are better explained by their upbringing. Growing up with a personality disordered parent may cause them to initially present with what appear to be personality disordered traits due to issues such as not learning adequate coping skills. Accurate diagnosis…

  14. Patients with personality disorder admitted to secure forensic psychiatry services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coid, J; Kahtan, N; Gault, S; Jarman, B

    1999-12-01

    Treatment of patients with personality disorder remains controversial and severe mental illness is prioritized in secure forensic psychiatry services. To compare patients with personality disorder and mental illness according to demography, referral, criminality, previous institutionalisation and diagnostic comorbidity. A record survey of 511 patients with personality disorder and 2575 with mental illness admitted to secure forensic psychiatry services between 1 January 1988 and 31 December 1994 from half of England and Wales. Personality disorder admissions declined over time; more were female, White, younger and extensively criminal (specifically, sexual and arson offences). Personality disorder was highly comorbid; antisocial, borderline, paranoid and dependent personality disorder were most prevalent. Patients with personality disorder were highly selected and previously known to psychiatric services. Referrer, diagnostic comorbidity and behavioural presentation determined their pathways into care. Future research must determine whether their continuing admission represents effective use of scarce resources and whether new services are required.

  15. Personality disorders in young adult survivors of pediatric burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Christopher R; Russell, William; Robert, Rhonda S; Holzer, Charles E; Blakeney, Patricia; Meyer, Walter J

    2012-04-01

    Life experience shapes personality and chronic trauma in childhood has been associated with risk for development of subsequent personality disorder. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence and character of personality disorders and traits in young adult survivors of severe pediatric burn injury. METHOD.: SCID-II and 16PF were completed by 98 young adult survivors of pediatric burn trauma. 48 (49%) met criteria for one or more personality disorders. The most frequent personality disorders were Paranoid (19.4%), Passive Aggressive (18.4%), Antisocial (17.3%), Depressive (11.2%), and Borderline (9.2%). Diagnosis with a personality disorder was associated with comorbid Axis I diagnoses and strongly correlated with personality traits as measured by the 16PF. Pediatric burn trauma is similar to other chronic traumas of childhood in significant correlation with subsequent personality disorder.

  16. Developmental trajectories to male borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Marianne; Patel, Uday; Oakes, Allison; Matho, Andrea; Triebwasser, Joseph

    2013-12-01

    Due to the higher diagnostic prevalence of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in females, there exists a dearth of literature on the manifestations of BPD in men and minimal information on male developmental trajectories to the disorder. To identify precursors of BPD in males, surveys were administered to parents about their BPD male offspring and non-BPD male siblings. Questions covered aspects of probands' lives from infancy to late adolescence. BPD offspring were identified through self-reported clinical diagnoses and standardized diagnostic criteria embedded within the survey. A total of 263 male offspring (97 meeting strict criteria for BPD and 166 non-BPD siblings) were studied. The authors found that parents describe the early emergence of a constellation of symptoms in their BPD sons that include separation anxiety starting in infancy, body image concerns in childhood, and impulsivity, emptiness, and odd thinking in adolescence. This trajectory differs from the developmental course found in females diagnosed with BPD.

  17. Headache features in persons with anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukina E.V.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to estimate the impact of anxiety on personality characteristics of headache in young adults studying full-time. Material and Methods. We observed 92 people aged from 15 to 25 years old, socially adapted, students in schools, colleges and universities on a full-time offices. Results. The perception of headache strongly depends on the emotional state of the individual, so it is very important to take this into account in the analysis of complaints and anamnesis of patients. Conclusion. Anxiety personality disorders hinder objectifying cephalgia, leading to misdiagnosis and incorrect treatment tactically with the possible development of abuse headaches. Therefore, it is necessary to convey to the patient the importance of reducing the impact of modifiable risk factors to explain the relationship of his condition with these factors and create a positive attitude to treatment.

  18. Are DSM-IV-TR borderline personality disorder, ICD-10 emotionally unstable personality disorder, and CCMD-III impulsive personality disorder analogous diagnostic categories across psychiatric nomenclatures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ching Man; Leung, Freedom; You, Jianing; Cheung, Fanny

    2012-08-01

    This study examined the validity of the borderline construct which encompasses diagnostic criteria from the DSM-IV-TR Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD), ICD-10 Emotionally Unstable Personality Disorder (EUPD), and CCMD-III Impulsive Personality Disorder (IPD) in a sample of 1,419 Chinese psychiatric patients. Participants completed the Chinese Personality Disorder Inventory and the Chinese Personality Assessment Inventory-2 assessing various disordered personality features. Adequate internal consistency was found for the borderline construct (α = .83). Exploratory factor analysis revealed two components: (1) affective and cognitive disturbances, and (2) impulse dysregulation, which were replicated by confirmatory factor analysis. Item analysis indicated that the various borderline criteria displayed similar levels of diagnostic efficiency, which does not support the elimination of fear of abandonment and transient psychotic features from the EUPD and IPD criteria set. Findings of this study suggest that BPD, EUPD, and IPD may represent analogous diagnostic categories across classification systems.

  19. Personal goals and prolonged grief disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelen, Paul A

    2011-01-01

    Prolonged grief disorder (PGD, previously called complicated grief) is a debilitating condition that can develop following the loss of a loved one. The present study investigated the relationship between different features of personal goals of bereaved individuals and PGD symptom severity. To this end, 160 bereaved people were asked to write down seven important personal goals and to complete self-report measures of PGD and depression symptom severity. With respect to the form of goals, the findings showed that more severe PGD symptomatology was associated with lower specificity of goals, a reduced sense of control over achieving goals and a lower perceived likelihood of achieving goals. With respect to the content of the goals, it was found that mourners with more severe levels of PGD symptoms reported more goals that were associated with loss (compared with goals unrelated to the loss), more goals related to feeling states and less goals related to work/education and close relationships. Implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Key Practitioner Message: • The severity of prolonged grief disorder (PGD) symptoms after bereavement is associated with different features of personal goals, including reduced specificity of goals, lower perceived probability and controllability of achieving goals and an enhanced focus on loss-related goals and goals related to feeling states. • In the treatment of PGD, it could be useful to change the negative beliefs that patients have about the probability and controllability of achieving goals and to help them in finding ways to achieve valued goals. • As recovery from loss hinges (in part) on the person's ability to continue (or restore) activities that are satisfying and meaningful, it could furthermore be fruitful to help patients to reduce their focus on 'inward-directed' goals (associated with their own feelings) and to increase their focus on 'outward-directed' goals

  20. Antisocial personality disorder with and without antecedent childhood conduct disorder: does it make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D; Knight, Raymond A

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether prior conduct disorder increased deviance in persons diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder. One hundred and three male inmates satisfying adult antisocial and conduct disorder criteria for antisocial personality disorder achieved significantly higher scores on self-report measures of criminal thinking and antisocial attitudes than 137 male inmates satisfying only the adult criteria for antisocial personality disorder and 87 male nonantisocial inmates. Inmates satisfying adult antisocial and conduct disorder criteria for antisocial personality disorder were also more likely to receive disciplinary infractions for misconduct than inmates in the other two conditions. The theoretical, diagnostic, and practical implications of these results are discussed.

  1. Mechanisms shaping the development of personality and personality disorders in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenkiewicz, Kamila; Srebnicki, Tomasz; Bryńska, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Until the end of the nineties last century personality disorders could not be diagnosed before the age of eighteen. Nevertheless, the results of studies published in the last decade have revealed that personality disorders can be observed in children and adolescents and that personality disorders diagnosed in adult patients had been present as early as in childhood. The knowledge of possible mechanisms shaping personality disorders in childhood is unsatisfactory and needs to be expanded. Developmental psychology explains the development of abnormal personality through inappropriate attachment patterns and abnormal transitions between developmental phases. Genetic and temperamental factors are also important in the aetiology of personality disorders as well as early maladaptive schemas resulting from personal experiences and interactions with others. The aim of this article is to review the current knowledge on the mechanisms shaping the development of personality and personality disorders in childhood and adolescence.

  2. Integrating Early Intervention for Borderline Personality Disorder and Mood Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanen, Andrew M; Berk, Michael; Thompson, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been demonstrated to be a reliable and valid construct in young people (adolescents and young adults). Both borderline- and mood-related psychopathology become clinically apparent from puberty through to young adulthood, frequently co-occur, can reinforce one another, and can be difficult to differentiate clinically. This Gordian knot of overlapping clinical features, common risk factors, and precursors to both BPD and mood disorders complicates clinical assessment, prevention, and treatment. Regardless of whether an individual crosses an arbitrary diagnostic threshold, a considerable proportion of young people with borderline- and mood-related psychopathology will develop significant and persistent functional, vocational, and interpersonal impairment and disability during this critical risk and developmental period. There is a clear need for early intervention, but spurious diagnostic certainty risks stigma, misapplication of diagnostic labels, inappropriate treatment, and unfavorable outcomes. This article aims to integrate early intervention for BPD and mood disorders in the clinical context of developmental and phenomenological change and evolution. "Clinical staging," similar to disease staging in general medicine, is presented as a pragmatic, heuristic, and trans-diagnostic framework to guide prevention and intervention. It acknowledges that the early stages of these disorders cannot be disentangled sufficiently to allow for disorder-specific preventive measures and early interventions. Clinical staging defines an individual's location along the continuum of the evolving temporal course of a disorder. Such staging aids differentiation of early or milder clinical phenomena from those that accompany illness progression and chronicity, and suggests the application of appropriate and proportionate intervention strategies.

  3. Shame in patients with narcissistic personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Kathrin; Vater, Aline; Rüsch, Nicolas; Schröder-Abé, Michela; Schütz, Astrid; Fydrich, Thomas; Lammers, Claas-Hinrich; Roepke, Stefan

    2014-02-28

    Shame has been described as a central emotion in narcissistic personality disorder (NPD). However, there is a dearth of empirical data on shame in NPD. Patients with NPD (N=28), non-clinical controls (N=34) and individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD, N=31) completed self-report measures of state shame, shame-proneness, and guilt-proneness. Furthermore, the Implicit Association Test (IAT) was included as a measure of implicit shame, assessing implicit shame-self associations relative to anxiety-self associations. Participants with NPD reported higher levels of explicit shame than non-clinical controls, but lower levels than patients with BPD. Levels of guilt-proneness did not differ among the three study groups. The implicit shame-self associations (relative to anxiety-self associations) were significantly stronger among patients with NPD compared to nonclinical controls and BPD patients. Our findings indicate that shame is a prominent feature of NPD. Implications for diagnosis and treatment are discussed. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  4. Personality pathology comorbidity in adult females with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bolle, Marleen; De Clercq, Barbara; Pham-Scottez, Alexandra; Mels, Saskia; Rolland, Jean-Pierre; Guelfi, Julien Daniel; Braet, Caroline; De Fruyt, Filip

    2011-03-01

    Personality pathology is examined in 100 female in-patients diagnosed with eating disorders. The Eating Disorder Inventory-II and the NEO-PI-R were self-administered and personality pathology was assessed using a structured interview. Clinicians additionally evaluated patients' global functioning. The results indicated sizeable personality disorder comorbidity, and two dimensions of personality pathology, for example, an internalizing and an externalizing factor, could be identified. Patients' global functioning was primarily associated with dimensions of personality pathology, but not with eating disorder symptoms. Assessment and therapeutic interventions should focus on this co-occurring pathology in order to improve patients' functioning.

  5. Dissociation in schizophrenia and borderline personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pec O

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ondrej Pec,1,2 Petr Bob,1,3 Jiri Raboch1 1Center for Neuropsychiatric Research of Traumatic Stress, Department of Psychiatry, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, 2Psychotherapeutic and Psychosomatic Clinic ESET, Prague, 3Central European Institute of Technology, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic Background: Dissociation likely plays a key role in schizophrenia and borderline personality disorder (BPD, although empirical studies that compare specific manifestations of these symptoms in schizophrenia and BPD are rare. In this context, the purpose of this study was to compare the occurrence of dissociative and other psychopathological symptoms in these disorders, and to assess the possible influence of antipsychotic medication on the dissociative symptoms. Methods: We assessed 31 patients with schizophrenia and 36 patients with BPD. Dissociative symptoms were measured by the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES, symptoms related to stress and traumatic experiences were assessed using the Trauma Symptom Checklist-40 (TSC-40, and other psychopathological symptoms were measured with the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS. We also assessed actual daily doses of antipsychotic medication in chlorpromazine equivalents in all participants. Results: The results show that symptoms of traumatic stress measured by the TSC-40 had significantly higher scores in the BPD group. The data also show that dissociative symptoms (DES were significantly correlated with symptoms of traumatic stress (TSC-40 and with symptoms assessed by the HoNOS. Remarkably significant correlations were found between levels of antipsychotic medication and the DES and between antipsychotic medication and the depersonalization/derealization component of the DES in BPD patients. Conclusion: The results support an important role of dissociative processes in schizophrenia and BPD and suggest a significant relationship between manifestations

  6. Case study: Malingering or multiple personality disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba García-Cortés

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The dissociative identity disorder (DID can be considered a rare disorder because of its seemingly low prevalence. However, in recent years it points to the possible underdiagnosis because its complexity and confusion at the time of differential diagnosis. On the other hand, the malingering of mental psychopathology can have a major socio-economic and legal impact, particularly important in this type of disorder, given the inability it generates and its complex diagnostic. This paper refers the case of a patient admitted to the short-term hospitalization unit of Dr. Rodríguez Lafora Hospital (Madrid with depressive symptoms. Then the patient seemed to become a TID case. The evaluation consisted of a psychological history and the application of the Structured Inventory of Malingered Symptoms (SIMS and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-II. The results showed an altered personality profile as well as likely malingered symptoms, what prevented us from a DID diagnosis. In view of the results, possible implications of this case for the clinical setting are discussed.

  7. MULTIPLE PERSONALITY DISORDER: A MYTH OR A REALITY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MULTIPLE PERSONALITY DISORDER: A MYTH OR A. REALITY? CASEREPORTS AND LITERATURE REVIEW. A.O. OSEI. Ankaful Psychiatric Hospital, PO. Box 412, Cape Coast, Ghana. SUMMARY. Multiple personality disorder, a condition in which the patient has alternating personalities manifest- ing in his body at ...

  8. Emotional Functioning in Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder: Comparison to Borderline Personality Disorder and Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenkamp, Maria M; Suvak, Michael K; Dickstein, Benjamin D; Shea, M Tracie; Litz, Brett T

    2015-12-01

    Few studies have investigated emotional functioning in obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD). To explore the nature and extent of emotion difficulties in OCPD, the authors examined four domains of self-reported emotional functioning--negative affectivity, anger, emotion regulation, and emotion expressivity--in women with OCPD and compared them to a borderline personality disorder (BPD) group and a healthy control group. Data were collected as part of a larger psychophysiological experimental study on emotion regulation and personality. Compared to healthy controls, participants with OCPD reported significantly higher levels of negative affectivity, trait anger, emotional intensity, and emotion regulation difficulties. Emotion regulation difficulties included lack of emotional clarity, nonacceptance of emotional responses, and limited access to effective emotion regulation strategies. Participants with OCPD scored similarly to participants with BPD on only one variable, namely, problems engaging in goal-directed behavior when upset. Results suggest that OCPD may be characterized by notable difficulties in several emotional domains.

  9. Clinical importance of personality difficulties: diagnostically sub-threshold personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karukivi, Max; Vahlberg, Tero; Horjamo, Kalle; Nevalainen, Minna; Korkeila, Jyrki

    2017-01-14

    Current categorical classification of personality disorders has been criticized for overlooking the dimensional nature of personality and that it may miss some sub-threshold personality disturbances of clinical significance. We aimed to evaluate the clinical importance of these conditions. For this, we used a simple four-level dimensional categorization based on the severity of personality disturbance. The sample consisted of 352 patients admitted to mental health services. All underwent diagnostic assessments (SCID-I and SCID-II) and filled in questionnaires concerning their social situation and childhood adversities, and other validated tools, including the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), health-related quality of life (15D), and the five-item Mental Health Index (MHI-5). The patients were categorized into four groups according to the level of personality disturbance: 0 = No personality disturbance, 1 = Personality difficulty (one criterion less than threshold for one or more personality disorders), 2 = Simple personality disorder (one personality disorder), and 3 = Complex/Severe personality disorder (two or more personality disorders or any borderline and antisocial personality disorder). The proportions of the groups were as follows: no personality disturbance 38.4% (n = 135), personality difficulty 14.5% (n = 51), simple personality disorder 19.9% (n = 70), and complex/severe personality disorder 24.4% (n = 86). Patients with no personality disturbance were significantly differentiated (p personality disorders stood out as being worst off. Social dysfunction was related to the severity of the personality disturbance. Patients with a personality difficulty or a simple personality disorder had prominent symptoms and difficulties, but the differences between these groups were mostly non-significant. An elevated severity level of personality disturbance is associated with an

  10. Personality disorder symptoms and functioning in elderly depressed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, R C; Spielman, L A; Alexopoulos, G S; Klausner, E

    1998-01-01

    The authors evaluated the relationship of personality disorder symptoms to disability and social and interpersonal functioning in geriatric depression. Measures of personality disorder and cognitive, affective, social, interpersonal, medical, socioeconomic factors, and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) status were administered to 47 elderly patients at various levels of remission from major depression. Total personality disorder scores were inversely associated with IADL, sociability, and presence of a satisfying relationship, both alone and in interaction with depression. The associations between personality disorder and functioning were most prominent in subjects with low residual depression. Symptoms of personality disorder in elderly patients may be associated with disability and impaired social and interpersonal functioning after an acute depressive episode; personality disorder symptoms may also have treatment implications for geriatric depression.

  11. Psychopathological traits in college students from top-ranking french schools: Do autistic features impair success in science when associated with schizotypal traits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choteau, Laura; Raynal, Patrick; Goutaudier, Nelly; Chabrol, Henri

    2016-03-30

    The link between personality and the interest of individuals for science has not been thoroughly explored. In this report, we studied psychopathological traits in students studying science in French top-ranking institutions. Three hundred and forty seven individuals answered questionnaires assessing autistic and schizotypal dimensions, as well as anxiety, depression symptomatology and attachment quality. A cluster analysis based on autistic and schizotypal traits led to the identification of 4 distinct profiles: a "low trait cluster", a "moderate autistic trait cluster", a "moderate schizotypal trait cluster" and a "high trait cluster" (HTC) composed of individuals with high scores on both autistic and schizotypal scales. Each cluster represented 20.1-27.1% of participants and was clearly different from the three others, both on autistic and on schizotypal dimensions. These groups could be also typified by their level of anxiety, depression or degraded attachment, which are proportional to the extent of psychopathological traits. Moreover, students from the HTC cluster displayed lower academic results, thus implying that autistic traits might impair success in science when they are associated with moderate schizotypal personality features. This study also suggests that depression and anxiety might mediate performance inhibition in the HTC group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Personality Pathology of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder without Accompanying Intellectual Impairment in Comparison to Adults with Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunz, Sandra; Westphal, Linda; Ritter, Kathrin; Heuser, Isabella; Dziobek, Isabel; Roepke, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Differentiating autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) without accompanying intellectual impairment from personality disorders is often challenging. Identifying personality traits and personality pathology specific to ASD might facilitate diagnostic procedure. We recruited a sample of 59 adults with ASD without accompanying intellectual impairment, 62…

  13. Prevalence, correlates, disability, and comorbidity of DSM-IV borderline personality disorder: results from the Wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Bridget F; Chou, S Patricia; Goldstein, Risë B; Huang, Boji; Stinson, Frederick S; Saha, Tulshi D; Smith, Sharon M; Dawson, Deborah A; Pulay, Attila J; Pickering, Roger P; Ruan, W June

    2008-04-01

    To present nationally representative findings on prevalence, sociodemographic correlates, disability, and comorbidity of borderline personality disorder (BPD) among men and women. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 34,653 adults participating in the 2004-2005 Wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Personality disorder diagnoses were made using the Wave 2 Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-DSM-IV Version. Prevalence of lifetime BPD was 5.9% (99% CI = 5.4 to 6.4). There were no differences in the rates of BPD among men (5.6%, 99% CI = 5.0 to 6.2) and women (6.2%, 99% CI = 5.6 to 6.9). BPD was more prevalent among Native American men, younger and separated/divorced/widowed adults, and those with lower incomes and education and was less prevalent among Hispanic men and women and Asian women. BPD was associated with substantial mental and physical disability, especially among women. High co-occurrence rates of mood and anxiety disorders with BPD were similar. With additional comorbidity controlled for, associations with bipolar disorder and schizotypal and narcissistic personality disorders remained strong and significant (odds ratios > or = 4.3). Associations of BPD with other specific disorders were no longer significant or were considerably weakened. BPD is much more prevalent in the general population than previously recognized, is equally prevalent among men and women, and is associated with considerable mental and physical disability, especially among women. Unique and common factors may differentially contribute to disorder-specific comorbidity with BPD, and some of these associations appear to be sex-specific. There is a need for future epidemiologic, clinical, and genetically informed studies to identify unique and common factors that underlie disorder-specific comorbidity with BPD. Important sex differences observed in rates of BPD and associations with BPD can inform more focused

  14. Emotional Granularity and Borderline Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvak, Michael K.; Litz, Brett T.; Sloan, Denise M.; Zanarini, Mary C.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Hofmann, Stefan G.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the affective dysregulation component of borderline personality disorder (BPD) from an emotional granularity perspective, which refers to the specificity in which one represents emotions. Forty-six female participants meeting criteria for BPD and 51 female control participants without BPD and Axis I pathology completed tasks that assessed the degree to which participants incorporated information about valence (pleasant–unpleasant) and arousal (calm–activated) in their semantic/conceptual representations of emotions and in using labels to represent emotional reactions. As hypothesized, participants with BPD emphasized valence more and arousal less than control participants did when using emotion terms to label their emotional reactions. Implications and future research directions are discussed. PMID:21171723

  15. Computational Psychiatry in Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineberg, Sarah K; Stahl, Dylan; Corlett, Philip

    2017-03-01

    We review the literature on the use and potential use of computational psychiatry methods in Borderline Personality Disorder. Computational approaches have been used in psychiatry to increase our understanding of the molecular, circuit, and behavioral basis of mental illness. This is of particular interest in BPD, where the collection of ecologically valid data, especially in interpersonal settings, is becoming more common and more often subject to quantification. Methods that test learning and memory in social contexts, collect data from real-world settings, and relate behavior to molecular and circuit networks are yielding data of particular interest. Research in BPD should focus on collaborative efforts to design and interpret experiments with direct relevance to core BPD symptoms and potential for translation to the clinic.

  16. Psychopharmacologic treatment of borderline personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripoll, Luis H.

    2013-01-01

    The best available evidence for psychopharmacologic treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is outlined here. BPD is defined by disturbances in identity and interpersonal functioning, and patients report potential medication treatment targets such as impulsivity, aggression, transient psychotic and dissociative symptoms, and refractory affective instability Few randomized controlled trials of psychopharmacological treatments for BPD have been published recently, although multiple reviews have converged on the effectiveness of specific anticonvulsants, atypical antipsychotic agents, and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation. Stronger evidence exists for medication providing significant improvements in impulsive aggression than in affective or other interpersonal symptoms. Future research strategies will focus on the potential role of neuropeptide agents and medications with greater specificity for 2A serotonin receptors, as well as optimizing concomitant implementation of evidence-based psychotherapy and psychopharmacology, in order to improve BPD patients' overall functioning. PMID:24174895

  17. Hypersensitivity in borderline personality disorder during mindreading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Frick

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: One of the core symptoms of borderline personality disorder (BPD is the instability in interpersonal relationships. This might be related to existent differences in mindreading between BPD patients and healthy individuals. METHODS: We examined the behavioural and neurophysiological (fMRI responses of BPD patients and healthy controls (HC during performance of the 'Reading the Mind in the Eyes' test (RMET. RESULTS: Mental state discrimination was significantly better and faster for affective eye gazes in BPD patients than in HC. At the neurophysiological level, this was manifested in a stronger activation of the amygdala and greater activity of the medial frontal gyrus, the left temporal pole and the middle temporal gyrus during affective eye gazes. In contrast, HC subjects showed a greater activation in the insula and the superior temporal gyri. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that BPD patients are highly vigilant to social stimuli, maybe because they resonate intuitively with mental states of others.

  18. The Relationship between Concurrent Substance Use Disorders and Eating Disorders with Personality Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Courbasson

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The current pilot study investigated whether patients with concurrent substance use disorders and eating disorders (SUD and ED who experienced a reduction in SUD and ED symptoms following treatment for SUD and ED also experienced a reduction in personality disorder (PD symptoms. Method: Twenty patients with SUD and ED and PD were assessed pre and post treatment using clinical interviews, self-report questionnaires, and a therapist questionnaire on DSM-IV-TR symptoms for PD. Results: Symptoms for the personality disorders were reduced following treatment. This reduction was correlated with a decrease in the number of symptoms of ED at post treatment. Discussion: Chronic concurrent SUD and ED may make it difficult to separate PD symptoms from co-occurring disorders. Many features attributed to PDs may be reduced when problematic substance use and disordered eating are addressed, a fact that may increase clinician and patients’optimism about therapeutic change.

  19. Personality disorders and violence: what is the link?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Howard, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Despite a well-documented association between personality disorders (PDs) and violence, the relationship between them is complicated by the high comorbidity of mental disorders, the heterogeneity of violence...

  20. Personality disorders as maladaptive, extreme variants of normal personality: borderline personality disorder and neuroticism in a substance using sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Douglas B; Carroll, Kathleen M; Rounsaville, Bruce J; Ball, Samuel A

    2013-10-01

    Although the current diagnostic manual conceptualizes personality disorders (PDs) as categorical entities, an alternative perspective is that PDs represent maladaptive extreme versions of the same traits that describe normal personality. Existing evidence indicates that normal personality traits, such as those assessed by the five-factor model (FFM), share a common structure and obtain reasonably predictable correlations with the PDs. However, very little research has investigated whether PDs are more extreme than normal personality traits. Utilizing item-response theory analyses, the authors of the current study extend previous research to demonstrate that the diagnostic criterion for borderline personality disorder and FFM neuroticism could be fit along a single latent dimension. Furthermore, the authors' findings indicate that the borderline criteria assessed the shared latent trait at a level that was more extreme (d = 1.11) than FFM neuroticism. This finding provides further evidence for dimensional understanding of personality pathology and suggests that a trait model in DSM-5 should span normal and abnormal personality functioning, but focus on the extremes of these common traits.

  1. Personality Assessment Inventory profiles of university students with eating disorders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    MacGregor, Michael Wm; Lamborn, Paige

    2014-01-01

    .... This study sought to determine on which of the 22 Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) scales patients with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS...

  2. Substance abusers' personality disorders and staff members' emotional reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thylstrup, Birgitte; Hesse, Morten

    2008-01-01

    workshops completed a self-report inventory of emotional reactions to patients, the Feeling Word Checklist-58, and substance abusers completed a self-report of DSM-IV personality disorder, the DSM-IV and ICD-10 Personality Disorder Questionnaire. Correlational analysis and multiple regression analysis...... impact on emotional reactions. Conclusion The findings confirm clinical experiences that personality disorder features in patients with substance abuse have an impact on staff members reactions to them. These reactions should be considered in supervision of staff, and in treatment models for patients...... with co-morbid personality disorders and substance abuse....

  3. Personality disorders in obsessive-compulsive disorder: A comparative study versus other anxiety disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Pena-Garijo, Josep; Edo, Silvia; Meliá de Alba, Amanda; Ruipérez Rodríguez, María Ángeles

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this paper is to provide evidence for the relationship between personality disorders (PDs), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and other anxiety disorders different from OCD (non-OCD) symptomatology. Method. The sample consisted of a group of 122 individuals divided into three groups (41 OCD; 40 non-OCD, and 41 controls) matched by sex, age, and educational level. All the individuals answered the IPDE questionnaire and were evaluated by means of the SCID-I and SCID...

  4. Associations linking parenting styles and offspring personality disorder are moderated by parental personality disorder, evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hui Green; Huang, Yueqin; Liu, Zhaorui; Liu, Baohua

    2011-08-30

    The aim of the study is to examine the association linking parenting and personality disorder controlling for parental personality disorder, and whether this association is moderated by parental PD. Data were from community-dwelling high school students aged 18 and above and their parents living in Beijing, China. A total of 181 cases and 2,605 controls were included in this study. Personality disorder in students was assessed via a two-stage approach, Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire as a screening tool and International Personality Disorder Examination as the diagnostic tool. Information about parenting was collected from students using Egna Minnen av. Betraffande Uppfostran. Negative parenting styles, e.g. rejective or over-protective parenting, were found to be associated with the occurrence of personality disorder. Conflictive parenting styles were also found to be associated with personality disorder. Generally stronger associations were found for students with parental personality disorder as compared to students without parental personality disorder. Findings from this study support the role of parenting in the occurrence of PD, especially for children with family history of personality disorder. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Clinical aspects of personality disorder diagnosis in the DSM-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Modica

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Personality disorders represent psychopathological conditions hard to be diagnosed. The Author highlights the clinical aspects of personality disorder diagnosis according to the criteria of the DSM-5. In this study, some of the numerous definitions of personality are mentioned; afterwards, some of the theories on the development of personality shall be. Later on, concepts of temperament, character and personality get analysed. Then, the current approach to personality disorders according to the two models of DSM-5 is reported. The first model is included in the Section II of DSM-5; while in the Section III there exists a proposal for a so-called alternate model. The first one suggests a qualitative or categorical kind of approach to personality disorders, whereas the alternate model proposes a dimensional or quantitative kind of approach and aims to formulate, as well as a diagnosis for general alterations of the personological functioning, even a trait-based personality disorder diagnosis, which can be formulated when a personality disorder is there but doesn't fit criteria for a specific disorder. Ultimately, it can be so claimed: 1 diagnostic criteria of the first model are similar to those of DSM-IV with its respective strenghts and weaknesses, and namely high probability in diagnosis, where  there, of personality disorder, yet insufficient sensitivity in the specification of the disorder; 2 the alternate model, despite criticism, thanks to the possibility of delivering a trait-based personality disorder diagnosis, seems to be more equipped both in the identification of the personality disorder and further specifications.

  6. Ten-Year Course of Borderline Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, John G.; Stout, Robert L.; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Shea, M. Tracie; Morey, Leslie C.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Zanarini, Mary C.; Yen, Shirley; Markowitz, John C.; Sanislow, Charles; Ansell, Emily; Pinto, Anthony; Skodol, Andrew E.

    2011-01-01

    Context Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is traditionally considered chronic and intractable. Objective To compare the course of BPD’s psychopathology and social function with that of other personality disorders and with major depressive disorder (MDD) over 10 years. Design A collaborative study of treatment-seeking, 18-to 45-year-old patients followed up with standardized, reliable, and repeated measures of diagnostic remission and relapse and of both global social functioning and subtypes of social functioning. Setting Nineteen clinical settings (hospital and outpatient) in 4 northeastern US cities. Participants Three study groups, including 175 patients with BPD, 312 with cluster C personality disorders, and 95 with MDD but no personality disorder. Main Outcome Measures The Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders and its follow-along version (the Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders–Follow-Along Version) were used to diagnose personality disorders and assess changes in them. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders and the Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation were used to diagnose MDD and assess changes in MDD and in social function. Results Eighty-five percent of patients with BPD remitted. Remission of BPD was slower than for MDD (Ppersonality disorders (Ppersonality disorders (P=.008). All BPD criteria declined at similar rates. Social function scores showed severe impairment with only modest albeit statistically significant improvement; patients with BPD remained persistently more dysfunctional than the other 2 groups (Pdisorder. PMID:21464343

  7. Psychodynamic personality profile in first-episode severe mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, J; Karlsson, H; Taiminen, T; Lauerma, H; Ilonen, T; Leinonen, K-M; Wallenius, E; Virtanen, H; Heinimaa, M; Kaljonen, A; Salokangas, R K R

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this study was to relate measures of psychoanalytically derived personality traits to descriptive diagnosis and psychopathology in severe mental disorders. Sixty-one consecutive first-episode patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and severe major depression were interviewed. Personality traits were assessed with the Karolinska Psychodynamic Profile (KAPP) and compared with the DSM-IV diagnosis and symptom clusters derived from the BPRS. There were no marked differences in personality traits between the three diagnostic groups, between schizophrenia and affective disorders or between psychotic and non-psychotic illness. However, personality traits had significant associations with symptoms, especially with the emotional retardation cluster. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that severe mental disorders would differ from each other in terms of long-standing psychodynamic personality profiles. Certain dysfunctional personality traits may predict especially negative emotional symptoms and possibly also predispose a person to them.

  8. [Personality and personality disorders in the elderly: diagnostic, course and management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amad, A; Geoffroy, P A; Vaiva, G; Thomas, P

    2013-10-01

    Little is known about personality and personality disorders in the elderly. This paper summarizes the literature in these fields. Articles were selected using a Medline and Google Scholar search. The keywords were personality, personality disorder, aging and elderly. Personality is not fixed and can change across the life-time including in the elderly. Personality disorders are frequent with a prevalence estimated between 10 and 20%. These rates are essentially equivalent to that of younger groups. Clinical presentation of these disorders may change over time. Longitudinal observations generally support that the "immature" personality disorders (cluster B), show improvement over time, while the more "mature" (clusters A and C) are characterized by a more chronic course. Many patients with late onset schizophrenia or delusional disorder have a premorbid cluster A personality. Patients with cluster C personality are also stable, and exposed, like all other personality disorders, to depression. Studies suggest that personality disorders may attenuate, re-emerge or appear de novo according to the cluster and the social context. Diagnosing personality disorders in the elderly is a complex undertaking, largely because of the difficulty encountered in distinguishing functional impairments related to personality from those related to physiological and environmental aspects of aging. Tools for assessing personality disorders exist, but there is no ideal assessment instrument for geriatric personality disorders. Psychiatric history and biographical elements have to be collected accurately. Personality disorders may seriously complicate mental and physical health and quality of life. Indeed, a greater risk of depression, suicide, dementia and social isolation is shown in this population. Different types of caring and treatment exist including psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy. Pharmacological strategies should consider augmentation with psychotherapeutic strategies

  9. Chronic complex dissociative disorders and borderline personality disorder: disorders of emotion dysregulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Bethany L; Lanius, Ruth A

    2014-01-01

    Emotion dysregulation is a core feature of chronic complex dissociative disorders (DD), as it is for borderline personality disorder (BPD). Chronic complex DD include dissociative identity disorder (DID) and the most common form of dissociative disorder not otherwise specified (DDNOS, type 1), now known as Other Specified Dissociative Disorders (OSDD, type 1). BPD is a common comorbid disorder with DD, although preliminary research indicates the disorders have some distinguishing features as well as considerable overlap. This article focuses on the epidemiology, clinical presentation, psychological profile, treatment, and neurobiology of chronic complex DD with emphasis placed on the role of emotion dysregulation in each of these areas. Trauma experts conceptualize borderline symptoms as often being trauma based, as are chronic complex DD. We review the preliminary research that compares DD to BPD in the hopes that this will stimulate additional comparative research.

  10. Dependent personality, separation anxiety disorder and other anxiety disorders in OCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroczkowski, M M; Goes, F S; Riddle, M A; Grados, M A; Bienvenu, O J; Greenberg, B D; Fyer, A J; McCracken, J T; Rauch, S L; Murphy, D L; Knowles, J A; Piacentini, J; Cullen, B; Rasmussen, S A; Pauls, D L; Nestadt, G; Samuels, J

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether dependent personality and/or general personality dimensions might explain the strong relationships between separation anxiety disorder (Sep-AD) and three other anxiety disorders (agoraphobia, panic disorder and social anxiety disorder) in individuals with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Using data from 509 adult participants collected during the OCD Collaborative Genetic Study, we used logistic regression models to evaluate the relationships between Sep-AD, dependent personality score, general personality dimensions and three additional anxiety disorders. The dependent personality score was strongly associated with Sep-AD and the other anxiety disorders in models adjusted for age at interview, age at onset of OC symptoms and worst ever OCD severity score. Several general personality dimensions, especially neuroticism, extraversion and conscientiousness, were also related to Sep-AD and the other anxiety disorders. Sep-AD was not independently related to these anxiety disorders, in multivariate models including general personality and dependent personality disorder scores. The results suggest that Sep-AD in childhood and these other anxiety disorders in adulthood are consequences of dependent personality disorder (for agoraphobia and panic disorder) or introversion (for social phobia). It is unknown whether these results would be similar in a non-OCD sample. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. A parallel process growth model of avoidant personality disorder symptoms and personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Aidan G C; Pincus, Aaron L; Lenzenweger, Mark F

    2013-07-01

    Avoidant personality disorder (AVPD), like other personality disorders, has historically been construed as a highly stable disorder. However, results from a number of longitudinal studies have found that the symptoms of AVPD demonstrate marked change over time. Little is known about which other psychological systems are related to this change. Although cross-sectional research suggests a strong relationship between AVPD and personality traits, no work has examined the relationship of their change trajectories. The current study sought to establish the longitudinal relationship between AVPD and basic personality traits using parallel process growth curve modeling. Parallel process growth curve modeling was applied to the trajectories of AVPD and basic personality traits from the Longitudinal Study of Personality Disorders (Lenzenweger, M. F., 2006, The longitudinal study of personality disorders: History, design considerations, and initial findings. Journal of Personality Disorders, 20, 645-670. doi:10.1521/pedi.2006.20.6.645), a naturalistic, prospective, multiwave, longitudinal study of personality disorder, temperament, and normal personality. The focus of these analyses is on the relationship between the rates of change in both AVPD symptoms and basic personality traits. AVPD symptom trajectories demonstrated significant negative relationships with the trajectories of interpersonal dominance and affiliation, and a significant positive relationship to rates of change in neuroticism. These results provide some of the first compelling evidence that trajectories of change in PD symptoms and personality traits are linked. These results have important implications for the ways in which temporal stability is conceptualized in AVPD specifically, and PD in general.

  12. Personality functioning in patients with avoidant personality disorder and social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikenaes, Ingeborg; Hummelen, Benjamin; Abrahamsen, Gun; Andrea, Helene; Wilberg, Theresa

    2013-12-01

    Avoidant personality disorder (APD) and social phobia (SP) are closely related, such that they are suggested to represent different severity levels of one social anxiety disorder. This cross-sectional study aimed to compare patients with APD to patients with SP, with particular focus on personality dysfunction. Ninety-one adult patients were examined by diagnostic interviews and self-report measures, including the Index of Self-Esteem and the Severity Indices of Personality Problems. Patients were categorized in three groups; SP without APD (n = 20), APD without SP (n = 15), and APD with SP (n = 56). Compared to patients with SP without APD, patients with APD reported more symptom disorders, psychosocial problems, criteria of personality disorders, and personality dysfunction regarding self-esteem, identity and relational problems. These results indicate that APD involves more severe and broader areas of personality dysfunction than SP, supporting the conceptualization of APD as a personality disorder as proposed for DSM-5.

  13. Personality disorder symptoms are differentially related to divorce frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disney, Krystle L; Weinstein, Yana; Oltmanns, Thomas F

    2012-12-01

    Divorce is associated with a multitude of outcomes related to health and well-being. Data from a representative community sample (N = 1,241) of St. Louis residents (ages 55-64) were used to examine associations between personality pathology and divorce in late midlife. Symptoms of the 10 DSM-IV personality disorders were assessed with the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality and the Multisource Assessment of Personality Pathology (both self and informant versions). Multiple regression analyses showed Paranoid and Histrionic personality disorder symptoms to be consistently and positively associated with number of divorces across all three sources of personality assessment. Conversely, Avoidant personality disorder symptoms were negatively associated with number of divorces. The present paper provides new information about the relationship between divorce and personality pathology at a developmental stage that is understudied in both domains. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Personality Disorder Symptoms Are Differentially Related to Divorce Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disney, Krystle L.; Weinstein, Yana; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    Divorce is associated with a multitude of outcomes related to health and well-being. Data from a representative community sample (N = 1,241) of St. Louis residents (ages 55–64) were used to examine associations between personality pathology and divorce in late midlife. Symptoms of the 10 DSM–IV personality disorders were assessed with the Structured Interview for DSM–IV Personality and the Multisource Assessment of Personality Pathology (both self and informant versions). Multiple regression analyses showed Paranoid and Histrionic personality disorder symptoms to be consistently and positively associated with number of divorces across all three sources of personality assessment. Conversely, Avoidant personality disorder symptoms were negatively associated with number of divorces. The present paper provides new information about the relationship between divorce and personality pathology at a developmental stage that is understudied in both domains. PMID:23244459

  15. Personality factors and eating disorders: self-uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Lojewski, Astrid; Abraham, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    The International Personality Disorder Examination interview (IPDE) was used to examine common features of personality amongst eating disorder (ED) patients. Female inpatients (N=155), aged 18 to 45, BMIconcept. The contribution of this factor structure to development and duration of illness should be studied. © 2013.

  16. Personality Disorders Classification and Symptoms in Cocaine and Opioid Addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malow, Robert M.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined extent to which personality disorders and associated symptom criteria were found among 117 cocaine- and opioid-dependent men in drug dependence treatment unit. Drug groups were distinguished by higher rates of antisocial and borderline symptomatology rather than by features associated with other personality disorders. Different…

  17. Assessment and Treatment of Personality Disorders: A Behavioral Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson-Gray, Rosemery O.; Lootens, Christopher M.; Mitchell, John T.; Robertson, Christopher D.; Hundt, Natalie E.; Kimbrel, Nathan A.

    2009-01-01

    Personality disorders are complex and highly challenging to treatment providers; yet, for clients with these problems, there exist very few treatment options that have been supported by research. Given the lack of empirically-supported therapies for personality disorders, it can be difficult to make treatment decisions for this population. The…

  18. The economic burden of personality disorders in mental health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soeteman, D.I.; Hakkaart-van Roijen, L.; Verheul, R.; Busschbach, J.J.V.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Some evidence suggests that personality disorders are associated with a high economic burden due to, for example, a high demand on psychiatric, health, and social care services. However, state-of-the-art cost studies for the broad range of personality disorder diagnoses are lacking. The

  19. Treating borderline personality disorder as a trainee psychologist ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treating borderline personality disorder as a trainee psychologist: Issues of resistance, inexperience and countertransference. ... This article attempts to address the gap in literature by exploring the difficulties experienced by a trainee psychologist in treating a patient with borderline personality disorder. A case study is used ...

  20. Experiences of women living with borderline personality disorder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is limited understanding of the experiences of women living with borderline personality disorder. It was therefore decided to discover how women living with this disorder would tell their life story. For the researcher, who worked in a psychotherapy ward where most women were living with borderline personality ...

  1. School Climate and Continuity of Adolescent Personality Disorder Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasen, Stephanie; Cohen, Patricia; Chen, Henian; Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Crawford, Thomas N.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Schools are key social contexts for shaping development and behavior in youths; yet, little is known of their influence on adolescent personality disturbance. Method: A community-based sample of 592 adolescents was assessed for family and school experiences, Axis I psychiatric disorders, and Axis II personality disorder (PD) symptoms,…

  2. Stability of the pregnancy obsessive compulsive personality disorder symptoms checklist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Broekhoven, K.E.M.; Karreman, A.; Hartman, E.E.; Pop, V.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Because stability over time is central to the definition of personality disorder, aim of the current study was to determine the stability of the Pregnancy Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD) Symptoms Checklist (N = 199 women). Strong positive correlations between assessments at 32 weeks

  3. Treating Obesity: Clinical Implications of Comorbid Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Randy A.; Wiederman, Michael W.; Sansone, Lori A.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews possible links between obesity and borderline-personality disorder and discusses treatment approaches for those individuals demonstrating such comorbidity. Approaches include modification of current techniques for obesity treatment and incorporation of psychodynamic counseling specific to borderline-personality disorder. (Author/GCP)

  4. Subtyping Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Neuropsychological Correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine L. Harris

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We administered neuropsychological measures considered sensitive to prefrontal dysfunction (both orbitofrontal and dorsolateral prefrontal neocortex to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD patients and control subjects. OCD subjects exhibited performance deficits, in comparison to community controls, on three measures sensitive to orbitofrontal neocortex dysfunction. Contrary to expectation, OCD patients also exhibited performance deficits on measures sensitive to dorsolateral prefrontal neocortex dysfunction. However, distinct neurocognitive profiles emerged when we examined the impact of comorbid schizotypal personality features on neuropsychological test performance. Primary OCD patients displayed impaired performance on measures sensitive to orbitofrontal dysfunction; however, they did not differ from control subjects on tests of dorsolateral function. OCD subjects presenting with schizotypal personality features performed poorly not only on tests sensitive to orbitofrontal dysfunction, but also on tests sensitive to dorsolateral dysfunction. Findings suggest that OCD can be subdivided into clinical subtypes, and distinct prefrontal subsystems may be differentially involved in these subtypes.

  5. Investigating the prevalence of personality disorders and its relationship with personality traits among students

    OpenAIRE

    Davod Ghaderi; Ali Mostafaei; Saadi Bayazidi; Mahdi Shahnazari

    2016-01-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the prevalence of personality disorders and its relationship with personality traits among students. This research was among epidemiological-correlational descriptive studies. Method: For this purpose, 389 male students were selected via a multi-stage cluster sampling method. All subjects completed Millon's personality disorder (1987) and five-factor personality Costaand McCrae's questionnaires (1989). Results: The results showed that the prevalence ...

  6. Prevalence of personality disorders among female prisoners of Zahedan prison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Mazaheri

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of personality disorders among female prisoners of Zahedan prison. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive survey and the statistical sample constituted of 80 female prisoners in Zahedan prison. All participants were assessed by Millon’s multi-axis clinical questionnaire. Results: Our results indicated that prevalence of personality disorders in the study sample in question was 95%. Anti-social personality disorder with about 86.2% prevalence was the most common disorder. Drug-dependence and sadistic-aggressive personality with 60% and 56.2% prevalence, respectively, were in next places.Conclusion: The findings show that the statistical society in question represents high prevalence of personality disorders. This illustrates the need for broader investigations, preventive measures, and mental health-related cares

  7. Social cognition in borderline personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan eRoepke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many typical symptoms of borderline personality disorder (BPD occur within interpersonal contexts, suggesting that BPD is characterized by aberrant social cognition. While research consistently shows that BPD patients have biases in mental state attribution (e.g., evaluate others as malevolent, the research focusing on accuracy in inferring mental states (i.e., cognitive empathy is less consistent. For complex and ecologically valid tasks in particular, emerging evidence suggests that individuals with BPD have impairments in the attribution of emotions, thoughts, and intentions of others (e.g., Preißler et al., 2010. A history of childhood trauma and co-morbid PTSD seem to be strong additional predictors for cognitive empathy deficits. Together with reduced emotional empathy and aberrant sending of social signals (e.g., expression of mixed and hard-to-read emotions, the deficits in attribution might contribute to behavioral problems in BPD. Given the importance of social cognition on the part of both the sender and the recipient in maintaining interpersonal relationships and therapeutic alliance, these impairments deserve more attention.

  8. Emotions and memory in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Dorina; Elzinga, Bernet; Schmahl, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Memory processes such as encoding, storage, and retrieval of information are influenced by emotional content. Because patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) are particularly susceptible to emotional information, it is relevant to understand whether such memory processes are altered in this patient group. This systematic literature review collects current evidence on this issue. Research suggests that emotional information interferes more strongly with information processing and learning in BPD patients than in healthy controls. In general, BPD patients do not seem to differ from healthy control subjects in their ability to memorize emotional information, but they tend to have specific difficulties forgetting negative information. Also, BPD patients seem to recall autobiographical, particularly negative events with stronger arousal than healthy controls, while BPD patients also show specific temporo-prefrontal alterations in neural correlates. No substantial evidence was found that the current affective state influences learning and memory in BPD patients any differently than in healthy control subjects. In general, a depressive mood seems to both deteriorate and negatively bias information processing and memories, while there is evidence that dissociative symptoms impair learning and memory independently of stimulus valence. This review discusses methodological challenges of studies on memory and emotions in BPD and makes suggestions for future research and clinical implications. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Social judgement in borderline personality disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Nicol

    Full Text Available Borderline personality disorder (BPD is a common and serious mental illness, associated with a high risk of suicide and self harm. Those with a diagnosis of BPD often display difficulties with social interaction and struggle to form and maintain interpersonal relationships. Here we investigated the ability of participants with BPD to make social inferences from faces.20 participants with BPD and 21 healthy controls were shown a series of faces and asked to judge these according to one of six characteristics (age, distinctiveness, attractiveness, intelligence, approachability, trustworthiness. The number and direction of errors made (compared to population norms were recorded for analysis.Participants with a diagnosis of BPD displayed significant impairments in making judgements from faces. In particular, the BPD Group judged faces as less approachable and less trustworthy than controls. Furthermore, within the BPD Group there was a correlation between scores on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ and bias towards judging faces as unapproachable.Individuals with a diagnosis of BPD have difficulty making appropriate social judgements about others from their faces. Judging more faces as unapproachable and untrustworthy indicates that this group may have a heightened sensitivity to perceiving potential threat, and this should be considered in clinical management and treatment.

  10. Electroencephalographic abnormalities in antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzada-Reyes, Ana; Alvarez-Amador, Alfredo; Galán-García, Lídice; Valdés-Sosa, Mitchell

    2012-01-01

    The presence of brain dysfunction in violent offenders has been frequently examined with inconsistent results. The aim of the study was to assess the EEG of 84 violent offenders by visual inspection and frequency-domain quantitative analysis in 84 violent prisoners. Low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) was also employed for theta band of the EEG spectra. Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) was present in 50 of the offenders and it was absent in the remaining 34. The prevalence of EEG abnormalities, by visual inspection, was similar for both the ASPD group (82%) and non-ASPD group (79%). The brain topography of these anomalies also did not differ between groups, in contrast to results of the EEG quantitative analysis (QEEG) and LORETA that showed remarkable regional differences between both groups. QEEG analysis showed a pattern of excess of theta-delta activities and decrease of alpha band on the right fronto-temporal and left temporo-parietal regions in the ASPD group. LORETA signified an increase of theta activity (5.08 Hz) in ASPD group relative to non-ASPD group within left temporal and parietal regions. Findings indicate that QEEG analysis and techniques of source localization may reveal differences in brain electrical activity among offenders with ASPD, which was not obvious to visual inspection. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  11. [Psychiatric disorders and childhood trauma in prisoners with antisocial personality disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, D; Spitzer, C; Kuwert, P; Barnow, S; Orlob, S; Lüth, H; Freyberger, H J; Dudeck, M

    2009-03-01

    Previous studies indicate high prevalence rates of mental disorders and trauma among prisoners. Based on a sample of 102 male German prisoners, the comorbidity and childhood trauma experiences in 72 criminals with antisocial personality disorder were investigated. Furthermore, associations of antisocial personality disorder and early traumatic experiences with the age at first conviction and the lifetime months of imprisonment were examined. Subjects had high rates of comorbid lifetime and current disorders as well as childhood trauma experiences. Physical abuse in childhood and adolescence was identified as a predictor for lifetime months of imprisonment, antisocial personality disorder was found to be a predictor for the age at first conviction. Our findings confirm the hypothesis of prisoners with antisocial personality disorder being a severely traumatized population with serious mental disorders. Traumatic childhood experiences and antisocial personality disorder are associated with criminality variables. This has important implications on preventive treatments as well as on how prison services are addressing these problems.

  12. The effects of comorbid personality disorders on cognitive behavioral treatment for panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telch, Michael J; Kamphuis, Jan H; Schmidt, Norman B

    2011-04-01

    The present study investigated the influence of personality pathology assessed both dimensionally and categorically on acute clinical response to group cognitive-behavioral treatment in a large sample of panic disorder patients (N = 173) meeting DSMIII-R criteria for panic disorder with or without agoraphobia. Nearly one-third of the sample met for one or more personality disorders, with the majority meeting for a Cluster C diagnosis. Patients with one or more comorbid personality disorders displayed higher baseline and higher post treatment scores across multiple indices of panic disorder severity compared to those without personality disorders. After controlling for panic disorder severity at baseline, the presence of both Cluster C and Cluster A Pers-Ds predicted a poorer outcome, whereas when assessed dimensionally, only Cluster C symptoms predicted a poorer treatment response. However, the influence of personality pathology was modest relative to that of baseline panic disorder severity. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Assessment of Personality Problems among Patients with Substance Use Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lien Ingebjørg Aspeland

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM – Several studies have shown that personality disorders (PDs are frequently occurring among patients with substance use disorders (SUDs. A development from research of co-occurrence estimates in this patient group investigates personality problems as dimensional constructs, which seek to capture the core of personality pathology. The aim of our study was to explore whether personality problems might be assessed among SUD patients in early stages of treatment. We also sought to investigate personality problem severity among Norwegian adult SUD patients.

  14. Personality disorders in older adults : Emerging research issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Alphen, S.P.J.; van Dijk, S.D.M.; Videler, A.C.; Rossi, G.; Dierckx, E.; Bouckaert, F.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.

    2015-01-01

    Empirical research focusing on personality disorders (PDs) among older adults is mainly limited to studies on psychometric properties of age-specific personality tests, the age neutrality of specific items/scales, and validation of personality inventories for older adults. We identified only two

  15. Personality disorders in older adults : emerging research issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Alphen, S. P. J.; van Dijk, S. D. M.; Videler, A. C.; Rossi, G.; Dierckx, E.; Bouckaert, F.; Oude Voshaar, R. C.

    Empirical research focusing on personality disorders (PDs) among older adults is mainly limited to studies on psychometric properties of age-specific personality tests, the age neutrality of specific items/scales, and validation of personality inventories for older adults. We identified only two

  16. Dangerous and severe personality disorder: an ethical concept?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glen, Sally

    2005-04-01

    Most clinicians and mental health practitioners are reluctant to work with people with dangerous and severe personality disorders because they believe there is nothing that mental health services can offer. Dangerous and severe personality disorder also signals a diagnosis which is problematic morally. Moral philosophy has not found an adequate way of dealing with personality disorders. This paper explores the question: What makes a person morally responsible for his actions and what is a legitimate mitigating factor? How do psychiatric nurses working with this client group understand the awful things some clients do? What concepts do they need, if they are to know how to explain and how to react? It is suggested that dangerous and severe personality disorder is best regarded as a moral category, framed in terms of goodness, badness, obligation and other ethical concepts. It seems plausible that in important ways the dangerous and severe personality disordered client does not understand morality or understands it differently. The peculiar position of the dangerous and severe personality disordered individual in our system of moral responsibility stems from his apparent inability to see the importance of the interests of others. It might be more helpful to regard personality disordered clients as we do children: partially but not fully reasonable for their actions. We might regard the dangerous and severe personality disordered client responsible for those actions which he most clearly understands, such as causing others physical pain, but not for those with which he is only superficially engaged, such as causing emotional pain. The paper concludes by suggesting that the dangerous and severe personality disordered individual does not fit easily into any conventional moral category, be it criminal, patient, animal or child, and thus an assessment of his moral accountability must take into consideration his special circumstances.

  17. Treatment of borderline personality disorder and co-occurring anxiety disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenstein, Helen R.

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent among individuals with borderline personality disorder, with comorbidity rates of up to 90%. Anxiety disorders have been found to reduce the likelihood of achieving remission from borderline personality disorder over time and to increase the risk of suicide and self-injury in this population. Evidence-based treatments for borderline personality disorder have not sufficiently focused on targeting anxiety disorders, and their effects on these disorders are either limited or unknown. Conversely, evidence-based treatments for anxiety disorders typically exclude suicidal, self-injuring, and seriously comorbid patients, thereby limiting their generalizability to individuals with borderline personality disorder. To address these limitations, recent research has begun to emerge focused on developing and evaluating treatments for individuals with co-occurring borderline personality disorder and anxiety disorders, specifically posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), with promising initial results. However, there is a need for additional research in this area, particularly studies evaluating the treatment of anxiety disorders among high-risk and complex borderline personality disorder patients. PMID:23710329

  18. CARDIOVASCULAR DISORDERS AMONG PERSONS WITH DOWN SYNDROME

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, Jeroen C.; van Engelen, Klaartje; Bouma, Berto J.; Bilardo, Catia M.; Blom, Nico A.; Mulder, Barbara J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Down syndrome is the most common chromosomal abnormality among liveborn infants and is the most frequent chromosomal cause of intellectual disability (Frid, Drott, Lundell, Rasmussen, & Anneren, 1999). It is a multisystem disorder, characterized by various congenital defects, organic disorders,

  19. Pharmacological interventions for antisocial personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Najat; Duggan, Conor; Stoffers, Jutta; Huband, Nick; Völlm, Birgit A; Ferriter, Michael; Lieb, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Background Antisocial personality disorder (AsPD) is associated with a wide range of disturbance including persistent rule-breaking, criminality, substance misuse, unemployment, homelessness and relationship difficulties. Objectives To evaluate the potential beneficial and adverse effects of pharmacological interventions for people with AsPD. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2009, Issue 3), MEDLINE (1950 to September 2009), EMBASE (1980 to 2009, week 37), CINAHL (1982 to September 2009), PsycINFO (1872 to September 2009), ASSIA (1987 to September 2009), BIOSIS (1985 to September 2009), COPAC (September 2009), National Criminal Justice Reference Service Abstracts (1970 to July 2008), Sociological Abstracts (1963 to September 2009), ISI-Proceedings (1981 to September 2009), Science Citation Index (1981 to September 2009), Social Science Citation Index (1981 to September 2009), SIGLE (1980 to April 2006), Dissertation Abstracts (September 2009), ZETOC (September 2009) and the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (September 2009). Selection criteria Controlled trials in which participants with AsPD were randomly allocated to a pharmacological intervention and a placebo control condition. Two trials comparing one drug against another without a placebo control are reported separately. Data collection and analysis Three review authors independently selected studies. Two review authors independently extracted data. We calculated mean differences, with odds ratios for dichotomous data. Main results Eight studies met the inclusion criteria involving 394 participants with AsPD. Data were available from four studies involving 274 participants with AsPD. No study set out to recruit participants solely on the basis of having AsPD, and in only one study was the sample entirely of AsPD participants. Eight different drugs were examined in eight studies. Study quality was relatively poor. Inadequate reporting meant the

  20. Disrupted functional connectome in antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weixiong; Shi, Feng; Liao, Jian; Liu, Huasheng; Wang, Tao; Shen, Celina; Shen, Hui; Hu, Dewen; Wang, Wei; Shen, Dinggang

    2017-08-01

    Studies on antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) subjects focus on brain functional alterations in relation to antisocial behaviors. Neuroimaging research has identified a number of focal brain regions with abnormal structures or functions in ASPD. However, little is known about the connections among brain regions in terms of inter-regional whole-brain networks in ASPD patients, as well as possible alterations of brain functional topological organization. In this study, we employ resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) to examine functional connectome of 32 ASPD patients and 35 normal controls by using a variety of network properties, including small-worldness, modularity, and connectivity. The small-world analysis reveals that ASPD patients have increased path length and decreased network efficiency, which implies a reduced ability of global integration of whole-brain functions. Modularity analysis suggests ASPD patients have decreased overall modularity, merged network modules, and reduced intra- and inter-module connectivities related to frontal regions. Also, network-based statistics show that an internal sub-network, composed of 16 nodes and 16 edges, is significantly affected in ASPD patients, where brain regions are mostly located in the fronto-parietal control network. These results suggest that ASPD is associated with both reduced brain integration and segregation in topological organization of functional brain networks, particularly in the fronto-parietal control network. These disruptions may contribute to disturbances in behavior and cognition in patients with ASPD. Our findings may provide insights into a deeper understanding of functional brain networks of ASPD.

  1. DSM-5-classificatie van persoonlijkheidsstoornissen bij ouderen [DSM-5 classification of personality disorders in older persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alphen, S.P. van; Rossi, G.; Dierckx, E.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although it is generally agreed that personality disorders are an important topic in old-age psychiatry, DSM-5 has paid relatively little attention to older persons affected with this severe mental disorder. AIM: To look closely and carefully at several aspects of the way in which DSM-5

  2. Personality functioning in patients with avoidant personality disorder and social phobia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eikenaes, I.; Hummelen, B.; Abrahamsen, G.; Andrea, H.; Wilberg, T.

    2013-01-01

    Avoidant personality disorder (APD) and social phobia (SP) are closely related, such that they are suggested to represent different severity levels of one social anxiety disorder. This cross-sectional study aimed to compare patients with APD to patients with SP, with particular focus on personality

  3. The Association Between ADHD and Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Simonsen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Children with ADHD have an increased risk of later developing personality disorders and criminal behavior. The object of the present review is to analyze the associations between ADHD and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). Method: A review of literature was done using EMBASE, Psyc......INFO, and Medline databases. Results: Eighteen prospective studies (n = 5,501) showed that ADHD with and without comorbid conduct disorder (CD) is a strong predictor for the risk of later development of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). Some of the 13 cross-sectional/retrospective studies (n = 2...... with or without comorbid CD to develop later onset of antisocial personality disorder. (J. of Att. Dis. 2013; XX(X) 1-XX)....

  4. Personality traits in bipolar disorder and influence on outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparding, Timea; Pålsson, Erik; Joas, Erik; Hansen, Stefan; Landén, Mikael

    2017-05-03

    The aim was to investigate the personality profile of bipolar disorder I and II, and healthy controls, and to study whether personality influences the course of bipolar disorder. One hundred ten patients with bipolar disorder I, 85 patients with bipolar disorder II, and 86 healthy individuals had their personality profile assessed using the Swedish universities Scales of Personality (SSP), an instrument developed to explore personality-related vulnerabilities and correlates of psychiatric disorders. Patients were followed prospectively for 2 years. To assess the impact of Neuroticism, Aggressiveness, and Disinhibition on illness course, we performed logistic regressions with the outcome variables mood episodes (depressive, hypo/manic, mixed), suicide attempts, violence, and the number of sick leave days. Bipolar disorder I and II demonstrated higher global measures of Neuroticism, Aggressiveness, and Disinhibition as compared with healthy controls. A third of the patients scored ≥1 SD above the population-based normative mean on the global neuroticism measure. The two subtypes of bipolar disorder were, however, undistinguishable on all of the personality traits. In the unadjusted model, higher neuroticism at baseline predicted future depressive episodes and suicide attempts/violent behavior, but this association disappeared when adjusting for baseline depressive symptoms as assessed with MADRS. A significant minority of the patients scored ≥1 SD above the population mean on the global measures of Neuroticism, Aggressiveness and Disinhibition; scores this high are usually evident clinically. Yet, the personality profile does not seem to have prognostic value over a 2-year period.

  5. [Impulsiveness Among Short-Term Prisoners with Antisocial Personality Disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Fabian U; Otte, Stefanie; Vasic, Nenad; Jäger, Markus; Dudeck, Manuela

    2015-07-01

    The study aimed to investigate the correlation between impulsiveness and the antisocial personality disorder among short-term prisoners. The impulsiveness was diagnosed by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS). Short-term prisoners with antisocial personality disorder scored significant higher marks on the BIS total scale than those without any personality disorder. In detail, they scored higher marks on each subscale regarding attentional, motor and nonplanning impulsiveness. Moderate and high effects were calculated. It is to be considered to regard impulsivity as a conceptual component of antisociality. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Social cognition in the differential diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders and personality disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijkers, J.C.L.M.; Vissers, C.T.W.M.; Verbeeck, W.J.C.; Arntz, A.R.; Egger, J.I.M.

    2014-01-01

    Average intelligent patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and patients with personality disorders (PD) are expected to show different problems in social cognition. Consequently, measuring social cognition may contribute to a better understanding and differentiation of ASD and PD. Therefore,

  7. Personality disorders in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a comparative study versus other anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena-Garijo, Josep; Edo Villamón, Silvia; Meliá de Alba, Amanda; Ruipérez, M Ángeles

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide evidence for the relationship between personality disorders (PDs), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and other anxiety disorders different from OCD (non-OCD) symptomatology. The sample consisted of a group of 122 individuals divided into three groups (41 OCD; 40 non-OCD, and 41 controls) matched by sex, age, and educational level. All the individuals answered the IPDE questionnaire and were evaluated by means of the SCID-I and SCID-II interviews. Patients with OCD and non-OCD present a higher presence of PD. There was an increase in cluster C diagnoses in both groups, with no statistically significant differences between them. Presenting anxiety disorder seems to cause a specific vulnerability for PD. Most of the PDs that were presented belonged to cluster C. Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD) is the most common among OCD. However, it does not occur more frequently among OCD patients than among other anxious patients, which does not confirm the continuum between obsessive personality and OCD. Implications for categorical and dimensional diagnoses are discussed.

  8. Personality Disorders in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Comparative Study versus Other Anxiety Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Pena-Garijo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this paper is to provide evidence for the relationship between personality disorders (PDs, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD, and other anxiety disorders different from OCD (non-OCD symptomatology. Method. The sample consisted of a group of 122 individuals divided into three groups (41 OCD; 40 non-OCD, and 41 controls matched by sex, age, and educational level. All the individuals answered the IPDE questionnaire and were evaluated by means of the SCID-I and SCID-II interviews. Results. Patients with OCD and non-OCD present a higher presence of PD. There was an increase in cluster C diagnoses in both groups, with no statistically significant differences between them. Conclusions. Presenting anxiety disorder seems to cause a specific vulnerability for PD. Most of the PDs that were presented belonged to cluster C. Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD is the most common among OCD. However, it does not occur more frequently among OCD patients than among other anxious patients, which does not confirm the continuum between obsessive personality and OCD. Implications for categorical and dimensional diagnoses are discussed.

  9. Poor Sleep and Its Relation to Impulsivity in Patients with Antisocial or Borderline Personality Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Veen, M. M.; Karsten, J.; Lancel, M.

    2017-01-01

    Studies investigating sleep and personality disorders consistently demonstrate a relation between personality disorders characterized by behavioral disinhibition and/or emotional dysregulation (traditionally termed cluster B personality disorders) and poor sleep. This finding is in line with

  10. The influence of comorbid personality disorders on recovery from depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wongpakaran T

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tinakon Wongpakaran, Nahathai Wongpakaran, Vudhichai Boonyanaruthee, Manee Pinyopornpanish, Suthi Intaprasert Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Purpose: The impact of personality disorders on the treatment of and recovery from depression is still a controversial topic. The aim of this paper is to provide more information on what has led to this disagreement.Materials and methods: Clinician-rated Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD scores were assessed among 82 depressed outpatients who were receiving a routine treatment combination of antidepressant medication and psychosocial intervention. The participants were followed up over five visits at 3-month intervals: at the baseline, at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. Personality disorders were assessed after the last visit in accordance with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision. These repeated measures were used to explore the impact of personality disorders on HAMD scores by using a linear mixed model.Results: Among the four personality clusters that were used (A, B, C, and mixed, only those in cluster B and in the mixed cluster were found to take significantly longer than those without personality disorders, for reduction in HAMD scores over the course of treatment.Conclusion: In this study, the impact of personality disorders on treatment outcomes varied with the way that the personality disorder variables were described and used as independent predictors. This is because the outcomes were influenced by the impact weight of each personality disorder, even within the same cluster. Keywords: depressive disorder, mixed linear model, impact, multilevel analysis

  11. Personality disorders and treatment drop out in the homeless

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salavera C

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Carlos Salavera,1 José M Tricás,2 Orosia Lucha21Faculty of Education, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain; 2Physiotherapy Research Unit, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, SpainAbstract: The homeless drop out of treatment relatively frequently. Also, prevalence rates of personality disorders are much higher in the homeless group than in the general population. We hypothesize that when both variables coexist – homelessness and personality disorders – the possibility of treatment drop out grows. The aim of this study was to analyze the hypotheses, that is, to study how the existence of personality disorders affects the evolution of and permanence in treatment. One sample of homeless people in a therapeutic community (N = 89 was studied. The structured clinical interview for the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-IV-TR was administered and participants were asked to complete the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II (MCMI-II. Cluster B personality disorders (antisocial, borderline, and narcissistic avoided permanence in the treatment process while cluster C disorders, as dependent, favored adhesion to the treatment and improved the prognosis. Knowledge of these personality characteristics should be used to advocate for better services to support homeless people and prevent their dropping out before completing treatment.Keywords: MCMI-II, abandonment, personality disorder, homeless

  12. DSM-5 section III personality traits and section II personality disorders in a Flemish community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiaens, Tim; Smits, Dirk; De Hert, Marc; Vanwalleghem, Dominique; Claes, Laurence

    2016-04-30

    The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5; Krueger et al., 2012) is a dimensional self-report questionnaire designed to measure personality pathology according to the criterion B of the DSM-5 Section III personality model. In the current issue of DSM, this dimensional Section III personality model co-exists with the Section II categorical personality model derived from DSM-IV-TR. Therefore, investigation of the inter-relatedness of both models across populations and languages is warranted. In this study, we first examined the factor structure and reliability of the PID-5 in a Flemish community sample (N=509) by means of exploratory structural equation modeling and alpha coefficients. Next, we investigated the predictive ability of section III personality traits in relation to section II personality disorders through correlations and stepwise regression analyses. Results revealed a five factor solution for the PID-5, with adequate reliability of the facet scales. The variance in Section II personality disorders could be predicted by their theoretically comprising Section III personality traits, but additional Section III personality traits augmented this prediction. Based on current results, we discuss the Section II personality disorder conceptualization and the Section III personality disorder operationalization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Case study: Malingering or multiple personality disorder?

    OpenAIRE

    García-Cortés, Alba; Pérez-Fernández, Francisco; Corbí-Gran, Beatriz; Martín-Moreno-Blasco, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    The dissociative identity disorder (DID) can be considered a rare disorder because of its seemingly low prevalence. However, in recent years it points to the possible underdiagnosis because its complexity and confusion at the time of differential diagnosis. On the other hand, the malingering of mental psychopathology can have a major socio-economic and legal impact, particularly important in this type of disorder, given the inability it generates and its complex diagnostic. This paper refers ...

  14. Milestones in the history of personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocq, Marc-Antoine

    2013-06-01

    This paper analyzes the major historical milestones in the study of normal and abnormal personality, from antiquity up until the 20th century. Special attention is paid to the interaction between dimensional and typological approaches, which was a major issue during the preparation of DSM-5. Theories of personality started with the humoral theory of Greek medicine. Pinel, and later Esquirol and Prichard, are credited with the first descriptions of abnormal personalities in textbooks of psychiatry. Between the late 19th and early 20th centuries, elaborate systems of normal and abnormal personality, associating to some degree types and dimensions, were devised by a succession of European psychologists, such as Ribot, Heymans, and Lazursky. Emil Kraepelin and Kurt Schneider proposed classifications of abnormal personality types. In parallel, psychoanalysts stressed the role of early life experiences. Towards the mid-20th century, statistical methods were applied to the scientific validation of personality dimensions with pioneers such as Cattell, anticipating the five-factor model.

  15. Pharmacological interventions for borderline personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffers, Jutta; Völlm, Birgit A; Rücker, Gerta; Timmer, Antje; Huband, Nick; Lieb, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Background Drugs are widely used in borderline personality disorder (BPD) treatment, chosen because of properties known from other psychiatric disorders (“off-label use”), mostly targeting affective or impulsive symptom clusters. Objectives To assess the effects of drug treatment in BPD patients. Search methods We searched bibliographic databases according to the Cochrane Developmental, Psychosocial and Learning Problems Group strategy up to September 2009, reference lists of articles, and contacted researchers in the field. Selection criteria Randomised studies comparing drug versus placebo, or drug versus drug(s) in BPD patients. Outcomes included total BPD severity, distinct BPD symptom facets according to DSM-IV criteria, associated psychopathology not specific to BPD, attrition and adverse effects. Data collection and analysis Two authors selected trials, assessed quality and extracted data, independently. Main results Twenty-eight trials involving a total of 1742 trial participants were included. First-generation antipsychotics (flupenthixol decanoate, haloperidol, thiothixene); second-generation antipsychotics (aripirazole, olanzapine, ziprasidone), mood stabilisers (carbamazepine, valproate semisodium, lamotrigine, topiramate), antidepressants (amitriptyline, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, phenelzine sulfate, mianserin), and dietary supplementation (omega-3 fatty acid) were tested. First-generation antipsychotics were subject to older trials, whereas recent studies focussed on second-generation antipsychotics and mood stabilisers. Data were sparse for individual comparisons, indicating marginal effects for first-generation antipsychotics and antidepressants. The findings were suggestive in supporting the use of second-generation antipsychotics, mood stabilisers, and omega-3 fatty acids, but require replication, since most effect estimates were based on single studies. The long-term use of these drugs has not been assessed. Adverse event data were scarce

  16. Pharmacological interventions for borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffers, Jutta; Völlm, Birgit A; Rücker, Gerta; Timmer, Antje; Huband, Nick; Lieb, Klaus

    2010-06-16

    Drugs are widely used in borderline personality disorder (BPD) treatment, chosen because of properties known from other psychiatric disorders ("off-label use"), mostly targeting affective or impulsive symptom clusters. To assess the effects of drug treatment in BPD patients. We searched bibliographic databases according to the Cochrane Developmental, Psychosocial and Learning Problems Group strategy up to September 2009, reference lists of articles, and contacted researchers in the field. Randomised studies comparing drug versus placebo, or drug versus drug(s) in BPD patients. Outcomes included total BPD severity, distinct BPD symptom facets according to DSM-IV criteria, associated psychopathology not specific to BPD, attrition and adverse effects. Two authors selected trials, assessed quality and extracted data, independently. Twenty-eight trials involving a total of 1742 trial participants were included. First-generation antipsychotics (flupenthixol decanoate, haloperidol, thiothixene); second-generation antipsychotics (aripirazole, olanzapine, ziprasidone), mood stabilisers (carbamazepine, valproate semisodium, lamotrigine, topiramate), antidepressants (amitriptyline, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, phenelzine sulfate, mianserin), and dietary supplementation (omega-3 fatty acid) were tested. First-generation antipsychotics were subject to older trials, whereas recent studies focussed on second-generation antipsychotics and mood stabilisers. Data were sparse for individual comparisons, indicating marginal effects for first-generation antipsychotics and antidepressants.The findings were suggestive in supporting the use of second-generation antipsychotics, mood stabilisers, and omega-3 fatty acids, but require replication, since most effect estimates were based on single studies. The long-term use of these drugs has not been assessed.Adverse event data were scarce, except for olanzapine. There was a possible increase in self-harming behaviour, significant weight gain

  17. Distinguishing between adjustment disorder and depressive episode in clinical practice: the role of personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Anne M; Jabbar, Faraz; Kelly, Brendan D; Casey, Patricia

    2014-10-01

    There is significant symptomatic overlap between diagnostic criteria for adjustment disorder and depressive episode, commonly leading to diagnostic difficulty. Our aim was to clarify the role of personality in making this distinction. We performed detailed assessments of features of personality disorder, depressive symptoms, social function, social support, life-threatening experiences and diagnosis in individuals with clinical diagnoses of adjustment disorder (n=173) or depressive episode (n=175) presenting at consultation-liaison psychiatry services across 3 sites in Dublin, Ireland. Fifty six per cent of participants with adjustment disorder had likely personality disorder compared with 65% of participants with depressive episode. Compared to participants with depressive episode, those with adjustment disorder had fewer depressive symptoms; fewer problems with social contacts or stress with spare time; and more life events. On multi-variable testing, a clinical diagnosis of adjustment disorder (as opposed to depressive episode) was associated with lower scores for personality disorder and depressive symptoms, and higher scores for life-threatening experiences. We used clinical diagnosis as the main diagnostic classification and generalisability may be limited to consultation-liaison psychiatry settings. Despite a substantial rate of likely personality disorder in adjustment disorder, the rate was even higher in depressive episode. Moreover, features of likely personality disorder are more strongly associated with depressive episode than adjustment disorder, even when other distinguishing features (severity of depressive symptoms, life-threatening experiences) are taken into account. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Integrative Treatment of Personality Disorder. Part I: Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Mirjana Divac; Svrakic, Dragan

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we outline the concept of integrative therapy of borderline personality, also referred to as fragmented personality, which we consider to be the core psychopathology underlying all clinical subtypes of personality disorder. Hence, the terms borderline personality, borderline disorder, fragmented personality, and personality disorder are used interchangeably, as synonyms. Our integrative approach combines pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy, each specifically tailored to accomplish a positive feedback modulation of their respective effects. We argue that pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy of personality disorder complement each other. Pharmacological control of disruptive affects clears the stage, in some cases builds the stage, for the psychotherapeutic process to take place. In turn, psychotherapy promotes integration of personality fragments into more cohesive structures of self and identity, ultimately establishing self-regulation of mood and anxiety. We introduce our original method of psychotherapy, called reconstructive interpersonal therapy (RIT). The RIT integrates humanistic-existential and psychodynamic paradigms, and is thereby designed to accomplish a deep reconstruction of core psychopathology within the setting of high structure. We review and comment the current literature on the strategies, goals, therapy process, priorities, and phases of psychotherapy of borderline disorders, and describe in detail the fundamental principles of RIT.

  19. Psychological interventions for antisocial personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbon, Simon; Duggan, Conor; Stoffers, Jutta; Huband, Nick; Völlm, Birgit A; Ferriter, Michael; Lieb, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Background Antisocial personality disorder (AsPD) is associated with a wide range of disturbance including persistent rule-breaking, criminality, substance use, unemployment, homelessness and relationship difficulties. Objectives To evaluate the potential beneficial and adverse effects of psychological interventions for people with AsPD. Search methods Our search included CENTRAL Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ASSIA, BIOSIS and COPAC. Selection criteria Prospective, controlled trials in which participants with AsPD were randomly allocated to a psychological intervention and a control condition (either treatment as usual, waiting list or no treatment). Data collection and analysis Three authors independently selected studies. Two authors independently extracted data. We calculated mean differences, with odds ratios for dichotomous data. Main results Eleven studies involving 471 participants with AsPD met the inclusion criteria, although data were available from only five studies involving 276 participants with AsPD. Only two studies focused solely on an AsPD sample. Eleven different psychological interventions were examined. Only two studies reported on reconviction, and only one on aggression. Compared to the control condition, cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) plus standard maintenance was superior for outpatients with cocaine dependence in one study, but CBT plus treatment as usual was not superior for male outpatients with recent verbal/physical violence in another. Contingency management plus standard maintenance was superior for drug misuse for outpatients with cocaine dependence in one study but not in another, possibly because of differences in the behavioural intervention. However, contingency management was superior in social functioning and counselling session attendance in the latter. A multi-component intervention utilising motivational interviewing principles, the ‘Driving Whilst Intoxicated program’, plus

  20. Relationship between Personality Disorders and Relapses among Sample of Substance Abuse Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Osama Hasan Gaber

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationship between Personality Disorders and Relapses among Sample of 75 Substance Abuse Patients (personality disorder scale (prepared by the researchers) were used Pearson Correlation Coefficient showed that there are statistically significant relationship between Antisocial personality disorder(ASPD), Borderline personality disorder (BPD, Avoidant personality disorder (AVPD) and Dependent personality disorder (DPD) and substance abuse relapses (P≤=0.00)...

  1. Sex Bias in Classifying Borderline and Narcissistic Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braamhorst, Wouter; Lobbestael, Jill; Emons, Wilco H M; Arntz, Arnoud; Witteman, Cilia L M; Bekker, Marrie H J

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated sex bias in the classification of borderline and narcissistic personality disorders. A sample of psychologists in training for a post-master degree (N = 180) read brief case histories (male or female version) and made DSM classification. To differentiate sex bias due to sex stereotyping or to base rate variation, we used different case histories, respectively: (1) non-ambiguous case histories with enough criteria of either borderline or narcissistic personality disorder to meet the threshold for classification, and (2) an ambiguous case with subthreshold features of both borderline and narcissistic personality disorder. Results showed significant differences due to sex of the patient in the ambiguous condition. Thus, when the diagnosis is not straightforward, as in the case of mixed subthreshold features, sex bias is present and is influenced by base-rate variation. These findings emphasize the need for caution in classifying personality disorders, especially borderline or narcissistic traits.

  2. Personality Traits in Panic Disorder Patients With and Without Comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zugliani, Morena M; Martin-Santos, Rocio; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Freire, Rafael Christophe

    2017-11-01

    Panic disorder (PD) is often correlated with high neuroticism and low extraversion. This study aims to ascertain whether PD patients differ from healthy controls in regard to personality traits and determine if these traits are correlated with comorbid disorders, anxiety, and depression symptoms. Personality traits of 69 PD patients and 42 controls were compared using the Maudsley Personality Inventory. In PD patients, comorbidities, anxiety, and depression symptoms were also evaluated. PD patients showed higher neuroticism and lower extraversion compared with healthy controls. Patients without comorbidities presented similar results to controls, whereas those with comorbidities presented higher neuroticism and lower extraversion scores. PD per se may be unrelated to deviant personality traits, although comorbidities with major depressive disorder and agoraphobia are probably associated with high neuroticism and low extraversion. These traits show a strong correlation with the accumulation and severity of these disorders.

  3. A case of dhat syndrome with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, A N; Brahma, A

    2004-10-01

    Personality disorder cases exhibit varieties of abnormal sexual behaviours. The present case is exemplifying how the perception of semen loss is associated with repeated deliberate self-harm attempts.

  4. Affect regulation and psychopathology in women with borderline personality disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik; Andersen, Rune; Timmerby, Nina

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Dysfunction in affect regulation is a prominent feature that grossly impairs behavioural and interpersonal domains of experience and underlies a great deal of the psychopathology in borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, no study has yet been published that evaluates...

  5. Prediction of the 10-Year Course of Borderline Personality Disorder

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zanarini, Mary C; Hennen, John; Reich, D. Bradford; Frankenburg, Frances R; Silk, Kenneth R

    2006-01-01

    ...: A total of 290 inpatients meeting criteria for both the Revised Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines and DSM-III-R for borderline personality disorder were assessed during their index admission...

  6. Personality Disorder Symptoms and Marital Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, Susan C.; Turkheimer, Eric; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

    2008-01-01

    Pathological personality is strongly linked with interpersonal impairment, yet no study to date has examined the relationship between concurrent personality pathology and dysfunction in marriage--a relationship that most people find central to their lives. In a cross-sectional study of a community sample of married couples (N = 82), the authors…

  7. Comorbidity of Personality Disorders and Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)--Review of Recent Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthies, Swantje; Philipsen, Alexandra

    2016-04-01

    Children suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may remit until adulthood. But, more than 60-80% have persisting ADHD symptoms. ADHD as an early manifesting neurodevelopmental disorder is considered a major risk factor for the development of comorbid psychiatric disorders in later life. Particularly, personality disorders are oftentimes observed in adult patients suffering from ADHD. If ADHD and personality disorders share common etiological mechanisms and/or if ADHD as a severely impairing condition influences psychological functioning and learning and leads to unfavorable learning histories is unclear. The development of inflexible and dysfunctional beliefs on the basis of real and perceived impairments or otherness due to the core symptoms of ADHD is intuitively plausible. Such beliefs are a known cause for the development of personality disorders. But, why some personality disorders are more frequently found in ADHD patients as for example antisocial and borderline personality disorder remains subject of debate. Because of the high prevalence of ADHD and the high impact of personality disorders on daily functioning, it is important to take them into account when treating patients with ADHD. Research on the developmental trajectories leading to personality disorders in adult ADHD patients might open the door for targeted interventions to prevent impairing comorbid clinical pictures.

  8. Personality disorders and treatment drop out in the homeless

    OpenAIRE

    Salavera C; Tricás JM; Lucha O

    2013-01-01

    Carlos Salavera,1 José M Tricás,2 Orosia Lucha21Faculty of Education, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain; 2Physiotherapy Research Unit, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, SpainAbstract: The homeless drop out of treatment relatively frequently. Also, prevalence rates of personality disorders are much higher in the homeless group than in the general population. We hypothesize that when both variables coexist – homelessness and personality disorders &ndash...

  9. Substance abusers' personality disorders and staff members' emotional reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Hesse Morten; Thylstrup Birgitte

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Previous research has indicated that aggressive behaviour and DSM-IV cluster B personality disorders (PD) may be associated with professionals' emotional reactions to clients, and that cluster C PD may be associated with positive emotional reactions. Methods Staff members recruited from workshops completed a self-report inventory of emotional reactions to patients, the Feeling Word Checklist-58, and substance abusers completed a self-report of DSM-IV personality disorder, ...

  10. Generalized social phobia versus avoidant personality disorder : Differences in psychopathology, personality traits, and social and occupational functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Velzen, CJM

    2000-01-01

    Four groups of patients with social phobia (SP) were compared with regard to psychopathologic characteristics, personality traits, and social and occupational functioning. Fifteen persons with discrete social phobia without any personality disorder (DSP), 28 persons with generalized social phobia

  11. Care plan for the patient with a dependent personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Ruiz Galán

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Personality is unique for each individual and can be defined as the dynamic collection of characteristics relative to emotions, thought and behaviour.Personality trout’s only mean a Personality Disorder (PD when they are inflexible and maladjusted and cause notable functional deterioration or uneasiness.According to Bermudez personality is “the enduring organization of structural and functional features, innate and acquired under the special conditions of each one’s development that shape the particular and specific collection of behaviour to face different situations”.According to the Diagnostic a Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV, a Personality Disorder is “an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates markedly from the expectations of the person’s culture is pervasive and an inflexible, is stable over time and leads to distress or impairment. The onset of these patterns of behaviour is the beginning of the adulthood and, in rare instances, early adolescence”.There are several types of Personality Disorders (paranoid, schizoid, borderline, antisocial, dependent…. Dependent Personality Disorder is one of the most frequent in the Mental Health Services.People who suffer from this disorder are unable to take a decision by themselves because they don’t have confidence in themselves. They need a lot of social support and affection until the point of deny their individuality by subordinating their desires to other person’s desires and permitting these persons to manage their lives. Maybe they feel desolated by separation and loss and can support any situation, even maltreatment to keep a relationship.As we a deduce this diagnosis is sensible to cultural influences. This work aims to elaborate an standarized plan of cares for the patient with Dependent Personality Disorder by using nursing Diagnosis of NANDA II, Outcomes Criteria (NOC and Interventions Criteria (NIC.

  12. Personality disorder categories as combinations of dimensions: translating cooperative behavior in borderline personality disorder into the five-factor framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnqvist, Jan-Erik; Verkasalo, Markku; Wichardt, Philipp C; Walkowitz, Gari

    2012-04-01

    The authors examined the proposal that personality disorder categories may denote particular detrimental combinations of personality dimensions. A multiround economic exchange game (ten round trust game), conducted with university students pre-selected on basis of their personalities (N = 164), provided a framework within which to investigate inability to repair ruptured cooperation. This behavior, thought to be characteristic of patients diagnosed with DSM-IV borderline personality disorder, was predicted only by the combination of high Neuroticism and low Agreeableness. Our results highlight an advantage of the categorical approach, category labels being a much more economic means of description than the delineation of interactions between dimensions.

  13. The DSM-5 Levels of Personality Functioning and Severity of Iranian Patients With Antisocial and Borderline Personality Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Mehdi; Pourshahbaz, Abbas; Mohammadkhani, Parvaneh; Khodaie Ardakani, Mohammad Reza; Lotfi, Mozhgan

    2015-08-01

    Fundamental problems with Personality Disorders (PD) diagnostic system in the previous version of DSM, led to the revision of DSM. Therefore, a multidimensional system has been proposed for diagnosis of personality disorder features in DSM-5. In the dimensional approach of DSM-5, personality disorders diagnosis is based on levels of personality functioning (Criteria A) and personality trait domains (Criteria B). The purpose of this study was firstly, to examine the DSM-5 levels of personality functioning in antisocial and borderline personality disorders, and second, to explore which levels of personality functioning in patients with antisocial and borderline personality disorders can better predicted severity than others. This study had a cross sectional design. The participants consisted of 252 individuals with antisocial (n = 122) and borderline personality disorders (n = 130). They were recruited from Tehran prisoners, and clinical psychology and psychiatry centers of Razi and Taleghani Hospitals, Tehran, Iran. The sample was selected based on judgmental sampling. The SCID-II-PQ, SCID-II and DSM-5 levels of personality functioning were used to diagnose and assess personality disorders. The data were analyzed by correlation and multiple regression analysis. All statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS 16 software. Firstly, it was found that DSM-5 levels of personality functioning have a strong correlation with antisocial and borderline personality symptoms, specially intimacy and self-directedness (P antisocial personality disorder severity (P personality disorder severity, as well (P personality functioning are a significant predictor of personality disorders severity. The results partially confirm existing studies.

  14. Personality Disorder among Male Prisoner in Erbil/ Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Saman SH.; Ali, Sirwan K.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives: Personality disorders are enduring, persistent and pervasive disorders of inner experience and behavior that cause distress or significant impairment in social functioning. They have strong relationship to offending and violence; our aim in the study was to determine the prevalence rate of each specific types of…

  15. Autonomic Impairment in Borderline Personality Disorder: A Laboratory Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Anna; Klonsky, E. David; Hajcak, Greg

    2009-01-01

    Recent research suggests that emotional dysfunction in psychiatric disorders can be reflected in autonomic abnormalities. The present study examines sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic nervous system activity in individuals with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) before, during, and following a social stressor task. Data were obtained…

  16. The Emotional Lexicon of Individuals Diagnosed with Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawda, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the specific emotional lexicons in narratives created by persons diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) to test the hypothesis that individuals with ASPD exhibit deficiencies in emotional language. Study participants consisted of 60 prison inmates with ASPD, 40 prison inmates without ASPD, and 60 men without…

  17. Screening for Borderline Personality Disorders with the MMPI-168.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Camille; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Investigated the possible use of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-168 as a screening instrument for identifying individuals (N=27) with borderline personality disorders. Results demonstrated that the MMPI-168 response pattern of borderline patients was clearly distinguishable from the great majority of college graduates. (WAS)

  18. Mortality Among Persons With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Sandra M; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mors, Ole

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Several mental disorders have consistently been found to be associated with decreased life expectancy, but little is known about whether this is also the case for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). OBJECTIVE: To determine whether persons who receive a diagnosis of OCD are at increased...... risk of death. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Using data from Danish registers, we conducted a nationwide prospective cohort study with 30 million person-years of follow-up. The data were collected from Danish longitudinal registers. A total of 3 million people born between 1955 and 2006 were...... at birth, and somatic comorbidities, to compare persons with OCT with persons without OCD. RESULTS: Of 10,155 persons with OCD (5935 women and 4220 men with a mean [SD] age of 29.1 [11.3] years who contributed a total of 54,937 person-years of observation), 110 (1.1%) died during the average follow-up of 9...

  19. Increased Treatment Complexity for Major Depressive Disorder for Inpatients With Comorbid Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Hauke F; Godemann, Frank

    2017-05-01

    The study examined inpatient treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD) when it is complicated by comorbid personality disorder. In this descriptive analysis of a large data sample from 2013 (German VIPP data set) of 58,913 cases from 75 hospitals, three groups were compared: patients with MDD, patients with MDD and a comorbid personality disorder, and patients with a main diagnosis of personality disorder. Compared with MDD patients, those with comorbid personality disorder had higher rates of recurrent depression and nearly twice as many readmissions within one year, despite longer mean length of stay. Records of patients with comorbidities more often indicated accounting codes for "complex diagnostic procedures," "crisis intervention," and "constant observation." Patients with comorbid disorders differed from patients with a main diagnosis of personality disorder in treatment indicator characteristics and distribution of personality disorder diagnoses. Personality disorder comorbidity made MDD treatment more complex, and recurrence of MDD episodes and hospital readmission occurred more often than if patients had a sole MDD diagnosis.

  20. Personality dimensions in bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Carol B; Thuras, Paul; Ackard, Diann M; Mitchell, James E; Berg, Kelly; Sandager, Nora; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Pederson, Melissa W; Crow, Scott J

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine differences in personality dimensions among individuals with bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, non-binge eating obesity, and a normal-weight comparison group as well as to determine the extent to which these differences were independent of self-reported depressive symptoms. Personality dimensions were assessed using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire in 36 patients with bulimia nervosa, 54 patients with binge eating disorder, 30 obese individuals who did not binge eat, and 77 normal-weight comparison participants. Participants with bulimia nervosa reported higher scores on measures of stress reaction and negative emotionality compared to the other 3 groups and lower well-being scores compared to the normal-weight comparison and the obese samples. Patients with binge eating disorder scored lower on well-being and higher on harm avoidance than the normal-weight comparison group. In addition, the bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder groups scored lower than the normal-weight group on positive emotionality. When personality dimensions were reanalyzed using depression as a covariate, only stress reaction remained higher in the bulimia nervosa group compared to the other 3 groups and harm avoidance remained higher in the binge eating disorder than the normal-weight comparison group. The higher levels of stress reaction in the bulimia nervosa sample and harm avoidance in the binge eating disorder sample after controlling for depression indicate that these personality dimensions are potentially important in the etiology, maintenance, and treatment of these eating disorders. Although the extent to which observed group differences in well-being, positive emotionality, and negative emotionality reflect personality traits, mood disorders, or both, is unclear, these features clearly warrant further examination in understanding and treating bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder.

  1. [Links between personality disorders, attachment disorders and violent behavior: a literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genest, Andrée-Anne; Mathieu, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    Past research has established that personality disorders and attachment disorders are important risk factors for the perpetration of violent acts in a context of an intimate relationship. Very few studies have been conducted linking personality and attachment disorders to violent behaviors outside of the domestic violence context. This paper proposes to address this gap by reviewing the literature and linking these important concepts to general violence. This will allow a better understanding of the dynamics of violence and possibly open the door to new research and interventions taking into account both attachment and personality disorders as prodromic factors.

  2. [Anorexia and borderline personality disorder : bonds pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayn, Delphine; Pham-Scottez, Alexandra

    Comorbidity with a borderline personality disorder is far from rare in patients suffering from eating disorders. Clinically, this presents as chronic instability in many areas: interpersonal relationships, self-image, emotions, mood and acting out. Treatment is mainly based on a containing and reassuring therapeutic framework. A care plan may be put in place that incorporates reducing impulsive harmful, eating and self-harming behaviours. Dialectical behaviour therapy is intended in particular to prevent suicide risk in borderline personality disorder patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Clinical characteristics of hospitalized military patients with narcissistic personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leetz, K L; Martino-Saltzman, D; Gormley, T M

    1991-09-01

    Clinical characteristics of 21 psychiatric military inpatients meeting DSM-III and DSM-III-R criteria for narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) were compared to the characteristics of 42 inpatients having other personality disorders (OPD). Chart review indicated that the major differences between NPD and OPD patient groups included a greater likelihood for NPD patients to have been admitted for physically violent conduct and that they were more likely to be undergoing a personally significant rejection, such as divorce or separation, at the time of hospitalization. Additionally, there was a tendency for NPD patients to be sexually abusive towards children, indicating a violation of the incest taboo.

  4. The alternative DSM-5 personality disorder traits criterion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Bo; Maples-Keller, Jessica L; Bo, Sune

    2016-01-01

    The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013a) offers an alternative model for Personality Disorders (PDs) in Section III, which consists in part of a pathological personality traits criterion measured...... with the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5). The PID-5 selfreport instrument currently exists in the original 220-item form, a short 100-item form, and a brief 25-item form. For clinicians and researchers, the choice of a particular PID- 5 form depends on feasibility, but also reliability and validity. The goal...

  5. ANANKASTIK PERSONALITY DISORDER IN SCHIZOPHRENIA PARANOID PATIENT: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damarnegara ..

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Anankastik personality disorder is a health problem that can disturb the activities of person and can accompany a variety of other mental health problems. The patient in thiscase is a patient with an anankastik or obsessive compulsive personality disorder withthe axis I diagnoses is Paranoid Schizophrenia and was given haloperidol 2x5mg, buthave not done psychotherapy because the patient has not been cooperative. Theprognosis is dependent on patient compliance in taking medication and controls for thesetting of the dose, and the support of her family. 

  6. Impulsivity in personality disorders: current views and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Catherine; Balaratnasingam, Sivasankaran

    2017-11-07

    Impulsivity is considered a trans-diagnostic feature of many mental disorders, yet our understanding of the concept and approaches to measurement have evolved significantly with advances in neuroimaging. This review will provide an overview of impulsivity as it is currently understood, its association with personality disorder and implications for treatment. Impulsivity is now considered to involve failure of inhibitory control, either motor or cognitive, and deficits of the reward valuation system. Inhibitory control, and discounting of rewards are both independently associated with personality disorder. The tendency to choose immediate rewards over those with an associated delay is a feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD) regardless of conditions of stress. Deficits in response inhibition were also associated with BPD and were worsened under conditions of stress. These findings indicate that state impulsivity has an important role in the expression of impulsive behaviour. Exploratory studies measuring changes in these networks following psychotherapy have confirmed such methods could be used to measuring treatment response. Understanding the discrete mechanisms of impulsive decision-making and behavior, and their implications in personality disorder, offers new targets for diagnosis and intervention. Future research should aim to understand changes of impulsivity with development. Identifying the role of psychological and pharmacological intervention in modulating the development of impulsivity may prevent progression to personality disorder, and associated adverse outcomes.

  7. Experiences of women living with borderline personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ntshingila

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There is limited understanding of the experiences of women living with borderline personality disorder. It was therefore decided to discover how women living with this disorder would tell their life story. For the researcher, who worked in a psychotherapy ward where most women were living with borderline personality disorder, the care of these women was of vital importance, as they were less understood by mental health care providers.The research aimed to explore and describe the experiences of women living with borderline personality disorder. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual study design was used. Data was collected through in-depth phenomenological interviews that focused on the central question, “Tell me your life story”. Eight participants living with borderline personality disorder were interviewed. Tesch's method for data analysis was used (Creswell, 2009:186, along with an independent coder. Measures to ensure trustworthiness and ethical principles were applied throughout the research. From the findings obtained by means of the interviews of women living with borderline personality disorder, it was evident that there were childhood experiences of living in an unsafe space, related to unhealthy family dynamics, boundary violations and educational challenges. They experienced chronic feelings of emptiness in their relationships with theself. They also presented with a pattern of unstable interpersonal relationships and compromised mental health, which was apparent through the early on set of mental problems, emotional upheaval, looking for emotional escape and having different triggerfactors. Lastly, all these women yearned for facilitated mental health.

  8. Personality disorders and treatment drop out in the homeless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salavera, Carlos; Tricás, José M; Lucha, Orosia

    2013-01-01

    The homeless drop out of treatment relatively frequently. Also, prevalence rates of personality disorders are much higher in the homeless group than in the general population. We hypothesize that when both variables coexist - homelessness and personality disorders - the possibility of treatment drop out grows. The aim of this study was to analyze the hypotheses, that is, to study how the existence of personality disorders affects the evolution of and permanence in treatment. One sample of homeless people in a therapeutic community (N = 89) was studied. The structured clinical interview for the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-IV-TR) was administered and participants were asked to complete the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II (MCMI-II). Cluster B personality disorders (antisocial, borderline, and narcissistic) avoided permanence in the treatment process while cluster C disorders, as dependent, favored adhesion to the treatment and improved the prognosis. Knowledge of these personality characteristics should be used to advocate for better services to support homeless people and prevent their dropping out before completing treatment.

  9. A rare case of trichotillomania with antisocial personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priti Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichotillomania (TTM is characterised by recurrent and irresistible urge to pull out one’s own body hair. It is often associated with trichorrhizophagia in which there is a habit to eat the roots of pulled out hairs. It can also present with many comorbid psychiatric problems including personality disorders. High rates of comorbid mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders have been detected in patients of TTM. The lifetime prevalence of comorbid personality disorders has been much less extensively studied. We present a rare case of 28-year-old male having TTM with antisocial personality disorder and discuss difficult management issues with this comorbidity. Our patient improved with a combination of fluoxetine and sodium valproate.

  10. Pearls for Working with People Who Have Personality Disorder Diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Gene; Oshman, Lauren

    2016-06-01

    Personality disorders are a group of diagnostic categories applicable when people show personality traits that are so extreme they cause clear difficulties in their lives and relationships. More widespread agreement is found on sorting by three broad categories (odd/eccentric, dramatic/emotional/erratic, and anxious/fearful) than by more specific subtypes. Primary care physicians need to recognize when extreme personality traits are causing difficulties in their relationships with patients and to have a way to approach these difficulties when they arise. This article reviews current thinking on the diagnosis and treatment of personality disorders, focusing especially on dramatic/emotional/erratic disorders, which are those most often problematic in clinical settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Dependent Personality Disorder: Comparing an Expert Generated and Empirically Derived Five-Factor Model Personality Disorder Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua D.; Lynam, Donald R.

    2008-01-01

    Assessment of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th Ed.; "DSM-IV") personality disorders (PDs) using five-factor model (FFM) prototypes and counts has shown substantial promise, with a few exceptions. Miller, Reynolds, and Pilkonis suggested that the expert-generated FFM dependent prototype might be misspecified in…

  12. Antisocial personality disorder is on a continuum with psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coid, Jeremy; Ullrich, Simone

    2010-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and psychopathy are different diagnostic constructs. It is unclear whether they are separate clinical syndromes or whether psychopathy is a severe form of ASPD. A representative sample of 496 prisoners in England and Wales was interviewed in the second phase of a survey carried out in 1997 using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry, the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Axis II personality disorders, and the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised. Among those 18 years and older (n = 470), 211 (44.9%) received a diagnosis of ASPD, of whom 67 (31.8%) were classified as psychopaths, indicated by Psychopathy Checklist-Revised scores of 25 and above. Symptoms of ASPD and psychopathy both demonstrated low diagnostic contrast when comparing subgroups of ASPD above and below the cutoff for psychopathy. There were no differences in demography, Axis I comorbidity, and treatment-seeking behavior. Psychopathic individuals with ASPD demonstrated comorbid schizoid and narcissistic personality disorder, more severe conduct disorder and adult antisocial symptoms, and more violent convictions. Psychopathy and ASPD are not separate diagnostic entities, but psychopathic ASPD is a more severe form than ASPD alone with greater risk of violence. Dimensional scores of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition personality disorders (other than ASPD) may be helpful in identifying this specific subgroup. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Distinguishing between adjustment disorder and depressive episode in clinical practice: The role of personality disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Doherty, Anne; Jabbar, Faraz; Kelly, Brendan D.; Casey, Patricia R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is significant symptomatic overlap between diagnostic criteria for adjustment disorder and depressive episode, commonly leading to diagnostic difficulty. Our aim was to clarify the role of personality in making this distinction. Methods: We performed detailed assessments of features of personality disorder, depressive symptoms, social function, social support, life-threatening experiences and diagnosis in individuals with clinical diagnoses of adjustment disorder (n=173) or ...

  14. Relationship between Personality Disorder Functioning Styles and the Emotional States in Bipolar I and II Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Jiashu Yao; You Xu; Yanhua Qin; Jing Liu; Yuedi Shen; Wei Wang; Wei Chen

    2015-01-01

    Background Bipolar disorder types I (BD I) and II (BD II) behave differently in clinical manifestations, normal personality traits, responses to pharmacotherapies, biochemical backgrounds and neuroimaging activations. How the varied emotional states of BD I and II are related to the comorbid personality disorders remains to be settled. Methods We therefore administered the Plutchick ? van Praag Depression Inventory (PVP), the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ), the Hypomanic Checklist-32 (HCL-...

  15. The General Assessment of Personality Disorder (GAPD) as an Instrument for Assessing the Core Features of Personality Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghuis, H.; Kamphuis, J.H.; Verheul, R.; Larstone, R.; Livesley, J.

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a psychometric evaluation of the General Assessment of Personality Disorder (GAPD), a self-report questionnaire for assessing the core components of personality dysfunction on the basis of Livesley's (2003) adaptive failure model. Analysis of samples from a general (n = 196) and

  16. Language disorders and cognitive functions in persons with schizophrenic disorders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Waszkiewicz, Justyna; Wciórka, Jacek; Anczewska, Marta; Chrostek, Anna; Switaj, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between clinical and neuropsychological measures of language disorders as well as characteristics of the mental condition of patients diagnosed...

  17. Impact of deleting 5 DSM-IV personality disorders on prevalence, comorbidity, and the association between personality disorder pathology and psychosocial morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Mark; Chelminski, Iwona; Young, Diane; Dalrymple, Kristy; Martinez, Jennifer

    2012-02-01

    A high rate of comorbidity among the personality disorders has been consistently identified as a problem. To address the problem of excessive comorbidity, the DSM-5 Personality and Personality Disorders Work Group recommended reducing the number of specific personality disorder diagnoses from 10 to 5 by eliminating paranoid, schizoid, histrionic, narcissistic, and dependent personality disorders. No study has examined the impact of this change. The present report from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services (MIDAS) project examined the impact of eliminating these 5 personality disorders on the prevalence of personality disorders in a large sample of psychiatric outpatients presenting for treatment, comorbidity among the personality disorders, and association with psychosocial morbidity. From September 1997 to June 2008, 2,150 psychiatric patients presenting to the Rhode Island Hospital outpatient practice were evaluated with semistructured diagnostic interviews for DSM-IV Axis I and Axis II disorders and measures of psychosocial morbidity. More than one-quarter of the patients were diagnosed with one of the 10 DSM-IV personality disorders (28.6%, n = 614). When 5 personality disorders were excluded from consideration, then 25.8% (n = 555) were diagnosed with at least 1 of the 5 personality disorders proposed for retention in DSM-5, and the comorbidity rate dropped from 29.8% to 21.3%. Compared to patients without a personality disorder, the patients with either a retained or an excluded personality disorder had greater psychosocial morbidity. There was little difference in psychosocial morbidity between patients with a retained and an excluded personality disorder. The Personality and Personality Disorders Work Group's desired goal of reducing comorbidity would be achieved by deleting 5 personality disorders, although comorbidity would not be eliminated. The reduction of comorbidity could come with a cost of false-negative diagnoses

  18. Development of Antisocial Personality Disorder in Detained Youths: The Predictive Value of Mental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Jason J.; Romero, Erin Gregory; Welty, Leah J.; Abram, Karen M.; Teplin, Linda A.; McClelland, Gary M.; Paskar, Leah D.

    2007-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (APD) is a serious public and mental health concern. Understanding how well conduct disorder (CD) and other mental disorders predict the development of APD among youths involved in the juvenile justice system is critical for prevention. The authors used a stratified random sample of 1,112 detained youths to examine…

  19. Disability and borderline personality disorder in chronic pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Randy A; Sinclair, J David; Wiederman, Michael W

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between disability and borderline personality symptomatology, and, among those that have, findings have been inconsistent. In the present study, the relationship between medical disability and borderline personality symptomatology was examined in a sample of chronic pain patients. In a consecutive insured sample of male and female chronic pain patients (n=117), who were being initially evaluated by an outpatient pain specialist, the criterion of having "ever been on medical disability" and features of borderline personality disorder were examined using the borderline personality scale of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4. While 35% of participants acknowledged having ever been on medical disability, there was no statistically significant difference between those with a history versus those without a history of medical disability with regard to the prevalence of borderline personality symptomatology. Findings suggest that among chronic pain patients, there may be no meaningful relationship between having ever been on medical disability and borderline personality symptomatology.

  20. Elevated expectancies among persons diagnosed with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sheri L; Eisner, Lori R; Carver, Charles S

    2009-06-01

    Students at risk for bipolar disorder endorse highly ambitious goals. This study examined expectations for the future among people with actual bipolar disorder, versus people with no history of mood disorder and persons with history of unipolar depression. One hundred and three students were assessed for Axis I disorders and completed a measure of expected life outcomes. History of mania, but not history of depression, related to higher expectations of achieving popular fame and wealth. People with history of mania anticipate great success in domains involving public recognition.

  1. Attachment and social cognition in borderline personality disorder: Specificity in relation to antisocial and avoidant personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeney, Joseph E; Stepp, Stephanie D; Hallquist, Michael N; Scott, Lori N; Wright, Aidan G C; Ellison, William D; Nolf, Kimberly A; Pilkonis, Paul A

    2015-07-01

    Theory and research point to the role of attachment difficulties in borderline personality disorder (BPD). Attachment insecurity is believed to lead to chronic problems in social relationships, attributable, in part, to impairments in social cognition, which comprise maladaptive mental representations of self, others, and self in relation to others. However, few studies have attempted to identify social-cognitive mechanisms that link attachment insecurity to BPD and to assess whether such mechanisms are specific to the disorder. For the present study, empirically derived indices of mentalization, self-other boundaries, and identity diffusion were tested as mediators between attachment style and personality disorder symptoms. In a cross-sectional structural equation model, mentalization and self-other boundaries mediated the relationship between attachment anxiety and BPD. Mentalization partially mediated the relationship between attachment anxiety and antisocial personality disorder (PD) symptoms, and self-other boundaries mediated the relationship between attachment anxiety. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Cardiovascular disease in persons with depressive and anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelzangs, Nicole; Seldenrijk, Adrie; Beekman, Aartjan T F; van Hout, Hein P J; de Jonge, Peter; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2010-09-01

    Associations between depression, and possibly anxiety, with cardiovascular disease have been established in the general population and among heart patients. This study examined whether cardiovascular disease was more prevalent among a large cohort of depressed and/or anxious persons. In addition, the role of specific clinical characteristics of depressive and anxiety disorders in the association with cardiovascular disease was explored. Baseline data from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety were used, including persons with a current (i.e. past year) or remitted DSM-IV depressive or anxiety disorder (N=2315) and healthy controls (N=492). Additional clinical characteristics (subtype, duration, severity, and psychoactive medication) were assessed. Cardiovascular disease (stroke and coronary heart disease) was assessed using algorithms based on self-report and medication use. Persons with current anxiety disorders showed an about three-fold increased prevalence of coronary heart disease (OR anxiety only=2.70, 95%CI=1.31-5.56; OR comorbid anxiety/depression=3.54, 95%CI=1.79-6.98). No associations were found for persons with depressive disorders only or remitted disorders, nor for stroke. Severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms--but no other clinical characteristics--most strongly indicated increased prevalence of coronary heart disease. Cross-sectional design. Within this large psychopathology-based cohort study, prevalence of coronary heart disease was especially increased among persons with anxiety disorders. Increased prevalence of coronary heart disease among depressed persons was largely owing to comorbid anxiety. Anxiety-alone as well as comorbid to depressive disorders-as risk indicator of coronary heart disease deserves more attention in both research and clinical practice. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Tonic arousal and activity: relationships to personality and personality disorder traits in panic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, R J; Bayon, E P; Clark, D B; Taylor, C B

    1988-07-01

    Personality theorists have long predicted a relationship between personality traits and autonomic activation. In this study, 48 patients with panic disorder underwent personality assessment by questionnaire (Eysenck Personality Inventory: 48 patients) and by interview (Personality Disorders Examination: 35 patients). Ambulatory heart rate and activity were measured by the Vitalog method and were used as measures of activation and autonomic arousal. There was a significant positive correlation between histrionic traits and activity level and a significant negative correlation between sociability and heart rate. The findings are consistent with previous studies showing a negative relationship between sensation-seeking personality traits and cerebrospinal fluid levels of norepinephrine and a positive relationship between extroversion and cerebrospinal fluid levels of dopamine.

  4. Patient personality and therapist response: an empirical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colli, Antonello; Tanzilli, Annalisa; Dimaggio, Giancarlo; Lingiardi, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between therapists' emotional responses and patients' personality disorders and level of psychological functioning. A random national sample of psychiatrists and clinical psychologists (N=203) completed the Therapist Response Questionnaire to identify patterns of therapists' emotional response, and the Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure-200 to assess personality disorders and level of psychological functioning in a randomly selected patient currently in their care and with whom they had worked for a minimum of eight sessions and a maximum of 6 months (one session per week). There were several significant relationships between therapists' responses and patients' personality pathology. Paranoid and antisocial personality disorders were associated with criticized/mistreated countertransference, and borderline personality disorder was related to helpless/inadequate, overwhelmed/disorganized, and special/overinvolved countertransference. Disengaged countertransference was associated with schizotypal and narcissistic personality disorders and negatively associated with dependent and histrionic personality disorders. Schizoid personality disorder was associated with helpless/inadequate responses. Positive countertransference was associated with avoidant personality disorder, which was also related to both parental/protective and special/overinvolved therapist responses. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder was negatively associated with special/overinvolved therapist responses. In general, therapists' responses were characterized by stronger negative feelings when working with lower-functioning patients. Patients' specific personality pathologies are associated with consistent emotional responses, which suggests that clinicians can make diagnostic and therapeutic use of their responses to patients.

  5. Personality Disorders in Later Life: Questions about the Measurement, Course, and Impact of Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltmanns, Thomas F.; Balsis, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Lifespan perspectives have played a crucial role in shaping our understanding of many forms of psychopathology. Unfortunately, little attention has been given to personality disorders in middle adulthood and later life. Several issues are responsible for this deficiency, including difficulty applying the diagnostic criteria for personality disorders to older people and challenges in identifying appropriate samples of older participants. The goal of this review is to explore the benefits of considering older adults in the study of personality disorders. Later life offers a unique opportunity for investigators to consider links between personality pathology and consequential outcomes in people’s lives. Many domains are relevant, including health, longevity, social adjustment, marital relationships, and the experience of major life events. We review each domain and consider ways in which the study of middle-aged and older adults challenges researchers to evaluate how personality disorders in general are defined and measured. PMID:21219195

  6. Trustworthiness Appraisal in Borderline Personality Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Masland, Sara Rose

    2016-01-01

    Borderline personality (BPD) is a highly impairing illness with marked instability across multiple domains, including affect, interpersonal functioning, identity, and behavior. Within the past 15 years, researchers have sought to understand and characterize deficits in social cognition that might contribute to or arise from affective or interpersonal dysfunction. The purpose of this dissertation is to understand one aspect of impaired social cognition in BPD: biased trust processing. Individu...

  7. Personality features and personality disorders in chronic fatigue syndrome: a population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Nater, U M; Jones, J F; Lin, J-M S; Maloney, E; Reeves, W. C.; C. Heim

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) presents unique diagnostic and management challenges. Personality may be a risk factor for CFS and may contribute to the maintenance of the illness. METHODS: 501 study participants were identified from the general population of Georgia: 113 people with CFS, 264 with unexplained unwellness but not CFS (insufficient fatigue, ISF) and 124 well controls. We used the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire, 4th edition, to evaluate DSM-IV personality disorde...

  8. Coping and personality in older patients with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouws, Sigfried N T M; Paans, Nadine P G; Comijs, Hannie C; Dols, Annemiek; Stek, Max L

    2015-09-15

    Little is known about coping styles and personality traits in older bipolar patients. Adult bipolar patients show a passive coping style and higher neuroticism scores compared to the general population. Our aim is to investigate personality traits and coping in older bipolar patients and the relationship between coping and personality. 75 Older patients (age > 60) with bipolar I or II disorder in a euthymic mood completed the Utrecht Coping List and the NEO Personality Inventory FFI and were compared to normative data. Older bipolar patients show more passive coping styles compared to healthy elderly. Their personality traits are predominated by openness, in contrast conscientiousness and altruism are relatively sparse. Neuroticism was related to passive coping styles, whereas conscientiousness was related to an active coping style. Older bipolar patients have more passive coping styles. Their personality is characterized by openness and relatively low conscientiousness and altruism. Our sample represents a survival cohort; this may explain the differences in personality traits between older patients in this study and in adult bipolar patients in other studies. The association between coping styles and personality traits is comparable to reports of younger adult patients with bipolar disorder. Longitudinal studies are warranted to explore if coping and personality change with ageing in bipolar patients and to determine which coping style is most effective in preventing mood episodes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Take charge: Personality as predictor of recovery from eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levallius, Johanna; Roberts, Brent W; Clinton, David; Norring, Claes

    2016-12-30

    Many treatments for eating disorders (ED) have demonstrated success. However, not all patients respond the same to interventions nor achieve full recovery, and obvious candidates like ED diagnosis and symptoms have generally failed to explain this variability. The current study investigated the predictive utility of personality for outcome in ED treatment. One hundred and thirty adult patients with bulimia nervosa or eating disorder not otherwise specified enrolled in an intensive multimodal treatment for 16 weeks. Personality was assessed with the NEO Personality Inventory Revised (NEO PI-R). Outcome was defined as recovered versus still ill and also as symptom score at termination with the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2). Personality significantly predicted both recovery (70% of patients) and symptom improvement. Patients who recovered reported significantly higher levels of Extraversion at baseline than the still ill, and Assertiveness emerged as the personality trait best predicting variance in outcome. This study indicates that personality might hold promise as predictor of recovery after treatment for ED. Future research might investigate if adding interventions to address personality features improves outcome for ED patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Similarities and differences in borderline and organic personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiesen, Birgit B; Simonsen, Erik; Soegaard, Ulf; Kvist, Kajsa

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that brain injury patients with Organic Personality Disorder (OPD) may display "borderline" traits due to prefrontal damage, and their personality structure may be unstable and close to a borderline personality organisation. They may have few general neuropsychological dysfunctions but specific executive deficits. Similar deficits have been found in patients with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). The objective of this study was to identify differences and similarities between the neuropsychological and personality profiles of BPD and OPD patients. Twenty BPD patients and 24 OPD patients were assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders (SCID-II), the Karolinska Psychodynamic Profile (KAPP), and a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery. Very few neuropsychological differences were found between the two patient groups. However, the verbal fluency, verbal intelligence, verbal memory, and immediate auditory memory/attention of the BPD patients were significantly poorer than the OPD patients'. The KAPP profiles of the BPD patients showed significantly poorer functioning in three areas: frustration tolerance, the body as a factor of self-esteem, and overall personality organisation. These results support our clinical experience and expectations concerning the severity of symptoms of both patient groups. We suggest considering in depth assessments of both neuropsychological and personality-related problems for each of these patients in order to inform treatment.

  11. Are personality disorders associated with social welfare burden in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Michael G; Fu, Quana; Beaver, Devin; DeLisi, Matt; Perron, Brian; Howard, Matthew

    2010-12-01

    This study examined the association between personality disorders and use of major social welfare services in a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults (N = 43,093). Social welfare services received and diagnoses of personality, substance use, mood, and anxiety disorders were assessed with the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-DSM-IV-version. Analyses quantified the association between personality disorders and forms of public assistance while controlling for numerous confounds. Logistic regression analyses revealed dependent personality disorder, paranoid personality disorder, antisocial personality disorder, and avoidant personality disorder were significantly associated with increased odds of receiving public assistance. In contrast, persons diagnosed with histrionic, schizoid, and obsessive-personality disorder were not significantly more likely to receive any public welfare service. Development of effective prevention and treatment of personality disorders would likely lead to reductions in overall social welfare burden.

  12. Personality disorder research agenda for the DSM-V

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Widiger, Thomas A; Simonsen, Erik; Krueger, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The American Psychiatric Association is sponsoring a series of international conferences to set a research agenda for the development of the next edition of the diagnostic manual. The first conference in this series, "Dimensional Models of Personality Disorder: Etiology, Pathology, Phenomenology......, and Treatment," was devoted to reviewing the existing research and setting a future research agenda that would be most effective in leading the field toward a dimensional classification of personality disorder. The purpose of this article, authored by the Steering Committee of this conference, was to provide...... a summary of the conference papers and their recommendations for research. Covered herein are the reviews and recommendations concerning alternative dimensional models of personality disorder, behavioral genetics and gene mapping, neurobiological mechanisms, childhood antecedents, cross-cultural issues...

  13. Schema therapy for emotional dysregulation in personality disorders: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadomo, Harold; Panzeri, Marta; Caponcello, Daniele; Carmelita, Alessandro; Grecucci, Alessandro

    2017-11-07

    To give an update on the most recent studies regarding the role of schema therapy in the treatment of emotion dysregulation related to personality disorders. In personality disorders, a lack of emotion regulation can be found. Schema therapy treats emotion dysregulation with a series of techniques, such as imagery rescripting, limited reparenting, chairwork, and cognitive restructuring to remove dysregulatory mechanism. Schema therapy is one of the most efficient therapies for personality disorders. However, there is a lack of recent studies on how it treats emotion dysregulation. Although the treatment of emotional dysregulation is not the core of schema therapy, it is certainly important inside this theoretical framework. The mode model helps clinicians address their work toward the reduction of dysfunctional modes, whereas fostering functional modes.

  14. Becoming one person: living with dissociative identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, T; Nickeas, R

    2006-04-01

    Dissociative identity disorder is a rare diagnosis, although people currently with a diagnosis of psychosis may in fact be experiencing what is associated with the disorder. This article is co-authored by a nurse and a person who has lived with alters (multiple personalities) for nearly all of her life. Because of the rarity of the diagnosis, there is much misunderstanding and ignorance among lay people and mental health professionals. This article therefore clarifies historical and contemporary issues surrounding this particular mental health problem both through examining the literature and through narrative of the person's experience. Special attention is given to the reality of coping with the difficulties that dissociative identity disorder create.

  15. WPA ISSPD educational program: Module II. Advances in research and understanding of personality disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronningstam, Elsa; Simonsen, Erik; Millon, Theodore

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in research, clinical observations and treatment have contributed to several major changes in the conceptualization of personality disorders. Featured in an educational programme on personality disorders prepared by the World Psychiatric Association (WPA) Section on Personality Di...

  16. QEEG guided neurofeedback therapy in personality disorders: 13 case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surmeli, Tanju; Ertem, Ayben

    2009-01-01

    According to DSM-IV, personality disorder constitutes a class only when personality traits are inflexible and maladaptive and cause either significant functional impairment or subjective distress. Classical treatment of choice for personality disorders has been psychotherapy and/or psychopharmacotherapy. Our study is to determine if subjects with antisocial personality disorders will benefit from quantitative EEG (qEEG) guided neurofeedback treatment. Thirteen subjects (9 male, 4 female) ranged in age from 19 to 48 years. All the subjects were free of medications and illicit drugs. We excluded subjects with other mental disorders by clinical assessment. Psychotherapy or psychopharmacotherapy or any other treatment model was not introduced to any of the subjects during or after neurofeedback treatment. For the subject who did not respond to neurofeedback, training was applied with 38 sessions of LORETA neurofeedback training without success. Evaluation measures included qEEG analysis with Nx Link data base, MMPI, T.O.V.A tests and SA-45 questionaries at baseline, and at the end of neurofeedback treatment. Lexicor qEEG signals were sampled at 128 Hz with 30 minutes-neurofeedback sessions completed between 80-120 sessions depending on the case, by Biolex neurofeedback system. At baseline and after every 20 sessions, patients were recorded with webcam during the interview. Twelve out of 13 subjects who received 80-120 sessions of neurofeedback training showed significant improvement based on SA-45 questionaries, MMPI, T.O.V.A. and qEEG/Nx Link data base (Neurometric analysis) results, and interviewing by parent/family members. Neurofeedback can change the view of psychiatrists and psychologists in the future regarding the treatment of personality disorders. This study provides the first evidence for positive effects of neurofeedback treatment in antisocial personality disorders. Further study with controls is warranted.

  17. Personality traits in unaffected twins discordant for affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, M; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Mortensen, E L

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether a high genetic liability to develop affective disorder is associated with specific personality traits. METHOD: A cross-sectional, high-risk, case-control study. Through nation-wide registers, healthy monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins with (high-risk twins......) and without (the control group/low-risk twins) a co-twin history of affective disorder were identified. Personality traits were compared for a total of 211 high-risk and low-risk twins. RESULTS: In univariate analyses, the high-risk twins had a higher level of neuroticism than the control twins (P = 0.......03). In multivariate analyses, a high genetic liability to affective disorder was not significantly associated with neuroticism but correlated to sex, minor psychopathology and recent life events. CONCLUSION: A high genetic liability to affective disorder showed an association with neuroticism, but the association...

  18. Are patients deemed 'dangerous and severely personality disordered' different from other personality disordered patients detained in forensic settings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Rick; Khalifa, Najat; Duggan, Conor; Lumsden, John

    2012-02-01

    In 1999, the UK government initiated a programme for the assessment and treatment of individuals deemed to have 'dangerous and severe personality disorder' (DSPD). After over 10 years of specialist service development, it is not clear whether DSPD patients represent a distinct group. The aim of this study was to establish whether people admitted to DSPD hospital units could be distinguished in presentation or personality traits from people with personality disorder admitted to standard secure hospital services. Thirty-eight men detained in high-security hospital DSPD units were compared with 62 men detained in conventional medium or high security hospital units, using the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) and other standard personality disorder, clinical and offending measures. Compared with their counterparts in standard services, the DSPD group had higher scores on PCL-R psychopathy, significantly more convictions before age 18 years, greater severity of institutional violence and more prior crimes of sexual violence. Regression analysis confirmed that only PCL-R Factor 1, reflecting core interpersonal and affective features of psychopathy, predicted group membership. The DSPD group emerged as having higher psychopathy scores, but as there is currently no evidence that the core personality features of psychopathy are amenable to treatment, there is little justification for treating high-psychopathy forensic patients differently from those with other disorders of personality. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Preliminary study of relationships between hypnotic susceptibility and personality disorder functioning styles in healthy volunteers and personality disorder patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Wei

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypnotic susceptibility is one of the stable characteristics of individuals, but not closely related to the personality traits such as those measured by the five-factor model in the general population. Whether it is related to the personality disorder functioning styles remains unanswered. Methods In 77 patients with personality disorders and 154 healthy volunteers, we administered the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale: Form C (SHSSC and the Parker Personality Measure (PERM tests. Results Patients with personality disorders showed higher passing rates on SHSSC Dream and Posthypnotic Amnesia items. No significant correlation was found in healthy volunteers. In the patients however, SHSSC Taste hallucination (β = 0.26 and Anosmia to Ammonia (β = -0.23 were significantly correlated with the PERM Borderline style; SHSSC Posthypnotic Amnesia was correlated with the PERM Schizoid style (β = 0.25 but negatively the PERM Narcissistic style (β = -0.23. Conclusions Our results provide limited evidence that could help to understand the abnormal cognitions in personality disorders, such as their hallucination and memory distortions.

  20. Self-mutilation and suicide attempts: relationships to bipolar disorder, borderline personality disorder, temperament and character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Peter R; Light, Katrina J; Rowe, Sarah L; Cloninger, C Robert; Kennedy, Martin A

    2010-03-01

    Self-mutilation has traditionally been associated with borderline personality disorder, and seldom examined separately from suicide attempts. Clinical experience suggests that self-mutilation is common in bipolar disorder. A family study was conducted on the molecular genetics of depression and personality, in which the proband had been treated for depression. All probands and parents or siblings were interviewed with a structured interview and completed the Temperament and Character Inventory. Fourteen per cent of subjects interviewed reported a history of self-mutilation, mostly by wrist cutting. Self-mutilation was more common in bipolar I disorder subjects then in any other diagnostic groups. In multiple logistic regression self-mutilation was predicted by mood disorder diagnosis and harm avoidance, but not by borderline personality disorder. Furthermore, the relatives of non-bipolar depressed probands with self-mutilation had higher rates of bipolar I or II disorder and higher rates of self-mutilation. Sixteen per cent of subjects reported suicide attempts and these were most common in those with bipolar I disorder and in those with borderline personality disorder. On multiple logistic regression, however, only mood disorder diagnosis and harm avoidance predicted suicide attempts. Suicide attempts, unlike self-mutilation, were not familial. Self-mutilation and suicide attempts are only partially overlapping behaviours, although both are predicted by mood disorder diagnosis and harm avoidance. Self-mutilation has a particularly strong association with bipolar disorder. Clinicians need to think of bipolar disorder, not borderline personality disorder, when assessing an individual who has a history of self-mutilation.

  1. Dracula. Disorders of the self and borderline personality organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raines, J M; Raines, L C; Singer, M

    1994-12-01

    It has been proposed that Bram Stoker's novel Dracula can best be understood as a dramatic, hyperbolic, and fantastic expression of themes consistent with contemporary psychoanalytic conceptions of borderline personality disorder organization. Such an understanding may, in turn, shed further light on the nature of the intrapsychic world and experiences of borderline patients. Excerpts from the novel can be used to support the conceptualization of recent contributions to object relations theory and the understanding of borderline personality organization. It is uncanny how consistent Dracula's characteristics are to the generally seen complaints of patients suffering from this disorder.

  2. Early Intervention for Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychodynamic Therapy in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzer, Simone; Cropp, Carola; Streeck-Fischer, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) should be understood as a disorder of development (Streeck-Fischer 2008, 2013) that has its first manifestation in late childhood and adolescence. There are only few treatment studies of adolescents meeting the diagnostic criteria of borderline personality disorder, although early interventions for these patients are urgently needed (see Chanen & McCutcheon 2013). We examined the effectiveness of an inpatient psychodynamic therapy (PDT). Twenty-eight adolescents fulfilling the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria of borderline personality disorder were treated with psychodynamic therapy. The mean duration of treatment was 29.87 weeks (SD = 15.88). Outcomes were remission rates, GAF, GSI, SDQ, IIP and BPI scores. Assessments were made at admission and after treatment. Pre-post comparisons and comparisons with normative data were conducted. At the end of treatment 39.29% of the patients were remitted. We found significant improvements for the GAF, GSI, SDQ, IIP (all p0.001) and the BPI (p = 0.006). These clinically relevant improvements demonstrate the effectiveness of psychodynamic therapy in adolescents with borderline personality disorder and stress the usefulness of an early intervention for these patients.

  3. Relationship between alexithymia and dependent personality disorder: a dimensional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loas, Gwenolé; Baelde, Olympe; Verrier, Annie

    2015-02-28

    The present study had two aims and used two different samples. The first aim was to determine if alexithymia and dependent personality disorder (DPD) are distinct or overlapping constructs. The second aim was to determine the specificity and the stability of the relationship between alexithymia and DPD. The first study used exploratory principal components analysis (PCA) in a sample of 477 non-clinical subjects who completed three questionnaires measuring alexithymia (Twenty item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, i.e. TAS-20), dependent personality disorder (Dependent Personality Questionnaire, i.e. DPQ) and depression (Beck Depression Inventory-II, i.e. BDI-II). The second study used a sample of 305 subjects consecutively admitted to an outpatient department of legal medicine. The subjects completed (at admission and 3 months later) the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, screen questionnaire (SCID-II-SQ), the TAS-20 and the BDI. Multiple regressions were done. For the first study, the PCA yielded a four-factor solution with no overlap of the significant factor loadings for the items from each scale and with the factors corresponding to their respective construct. For the second study, multiple regressions showed that only avoidant personality disorder was an independent predictor of the TAS-20 scores. Alexithymia is a construct that is distinct and separate from DPD and depression. Alexithymia is not a stable feature of DPD while it is a core feature of avoidant personality disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Using the mood disorder questionnaire and bipolar spectrum diagnostic scale to detect bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder among eating disorder patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Screening scales for bipolar disorder including the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) and Bipolar Spectrum Diagnostic Scale (BSDS) have been plagued by high false positive rates confounded by presence of borderline personality disorder. This study examined the accuracy of these scales for detecting bipolar disorder among patients referred for eating disorders and explored the possibility of simultaneous assessment of co-morbid borderline personality disorder. Methods Participants were 78 consecutive female patients who were referred for evaluation of an eating disorder. All participants completed the mood and eating disorder sections of the SCID-I/P and the borderline personality disorder section of the SCID-II, in addition to the MDQ and BSDS. Predictive validity of the MDQ and BSDS was evaluated by Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis of the Area Under the Curve (AUC). Results Fifteen (19%) and twelve (15%) patients fulfilled criteria for bipolar II disorder and borderline personality disorder, respectively. The AUCs for bipolar II disorder were 0.78 (MDQ) and 0.78 (BDSD), and the AUCs for borderline personality disorder were 0.75 (MDQ) and 0.79 (BSDS). Conclusions Among patients being evaluated for eating disorders, the MDQ and BSDS show promise as screening questionnaires for both bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder. PMID:23443034

  5. Early improvement in eating attitudes during cognitive behavioural therapy for eating disorders: the impact of personality disorder cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Emma C; Waller, Glenn; Gannon, Kenneth

    2014-03-01

    The personality disorders are commonly comorbid with the eating disorders. Personality disorder pathology is often suggested to impair the treatment of axis 1 disorders, including the eating disorders. This study examined whether personality disorder cognitions reduce the impact of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for eating disorders, in terms of treatment dropout and change in eating disorder attitudes in the early stages of treatment. Participants were individuals with a diagnosed eating disorder, presenting for individual outpatient CBT. They completed measures of personality disorder cognitions and eating disorder attitudes at sessions one and six of CBT. Drop-out rates prior to session six were recorded. CBT had a relatively rapid onset of action, with a significant reduction in eating disorder attitudes over the first six sessions. Eating disorder attitudes were most strongly associated with cognitions related to anxiety-based personality disorders (avoidant, obsessive-compulsive and dependent). Individuals who dropped out of treatment prematurely had significantly higher levels of dependent personality disorder cognitions than those who remained in treatment. For those who remained in treatment, higher levels of avoidant, histrionic and borderline personality disorder cognitions were associated with a greater change in global eating disorder attitudes. CBT's action and retention of patients might be improved by consideration of such personality disorder cognitions when formulating and treating the eating disorders.

  6. Personality traits and personality disorders in older women: an explorative study between normal development and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques-Calado, Joana; Duarte-Silva, Maria Eugénia; Keong, Ana Marta; Sacoto, Carlota; Junqueira, Diana

    2014-01-01

    The relationships between Axis II personality disorders (DSM-IV) and the Five-Factor Model (FFM) were explored in older women. The sample consists of 90 participants (M = 72.29 years, SD = 7.10) who were administered the NEO-Five-Factor Inventory and the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire. The highest prevalence of A and C clusters and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder was observed. Also, elevated neuroticism and decreased agreeableness and openness appear as valuable traits in the description of psychopathology. The study of maladaptive personality functioning within an aging population can be described with the same traits that underlie normal personality functioning, extending the range of psychopathology to a dimensional approach.

  7. Diagnosis and subtypes of adolescent antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Meredith; Westen, Drew

    2010-04-01

    The present study examined the application of the Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD) diagnosis to adolescents and investigated the possibility of subtypes of APD adolescents. As part of a broader study of adolescent personality in clinically-referred patients, experienced clinicians provided personality data on a randomly selected patient in their care using the SWAP-II-A personality pathology instrument. Three hundred thirteen adolescents met adult DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for APD. To characterize adolescents with the disorder, we aggregated the data to identify the items most descriptive and distinctive of APD adolescents relative to other teenagers in the sample (N = 950). Q-factor analysis identified five personality subtypes: psychopathic-like, socially withdrawn, impulsive-histrionic, emotionally dysregulated, and attentionally dysregulated. The five subtypes differed in predictable ways on a set of external criteria related to global adaptive functioning, childhood family environment, and family history of psychiatric illness. Both the APD diagnosis and the empirically derived APD subtypes provided incremental validity over and above the DSM-IV disruptive behavior disorders in predicting global adaptive functioning, number of arrests, early-onset severe externalizing pathology, and quality of peer relationships. Although preliminary, these results provide support for the use of both APD and personality-based subtyping systems in adolescents.

  8. [Epistemic and historical elucidation of the borderline personality disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londoño Paredes, Diego Enrique

    2015-01-01

    The particularities of those that have been considered "hard cases" in the clinical field, and their relationship with personality disorders, are discussed together with their quintessential conceptual and diagnostic model: the borderline personalities. The aim of the study is to historically and epistemologically rebuild their origins within psychiatry and psychoanalysis. From a classical epistemological and historical study, a brief tour is made through the nineteenth century alienism and the postulate of "partial insanity". Next, a passage is spawned through the concepts that emerged from this postulate: "monomania" and "moral insanity", up to mid-century Kraepelin and the "fundamental states" of manic-depressive insanity as pathological constitutional forms or characters, and reaching the twentieth century with characterology and psychopathic personalities. Finally, psychoanalysis is analyzed as the main source of borderline personality disorders arising from the problems encountered in analytical treatments and the development of the notion of "character neurosis". Borderline personality disorders are the result of the conjunction of a number of factors, heirs of the notion of "partial insanity", of the fundamental states of manic-depression insanity, of characterology, of the idea of constitutions and pathological personalities, together with the emerging concerns of psychoanalysis in the early twentieth century. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  9. Personality features and personality disorders in chronic fatigue syndrome: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nater, Urs M; Jones, James F; Lin, Jin-Mann S; Maloney, Elizabeth; Reeves, William C; Heim, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) presents unique diagnostic and management challenges. Personality may be a risk factor for CFS and may contribute to the maintenance of the illness. 501 study participants were identified from the general population of Georgia: 113 people with CFS, 264 with unexplained unwellness but not CFS (insufficient fatigue, ISF) and 124 well controls. We used the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire, 4th edition, to evaluate DSM-IV personality disorders. We used the NEO Five-Factor Inventory to assess personality features (neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness). The Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory measured 5 dimensions of fatigue, and the Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form 36 measured 8 dimensions of functional impairment. Twenty-nine percent of the CFS cases had at least 1 personality disorder, compared to 28% of the ISF cases and 7% of the well controls. The prevalence of paranoid, schizoid, avoidant, obsessive-compulsive and depressive personality disorders were significantly higher in CFS and ISF compared to the well controls. The CFS cases had significantly higher scores on neuroticism, and significantly lower scores on extraversion than those with ISF or the well controls. Personality features were correlated with selected composite characteristics of fatigue. Our results suggest that CFS is associated with an increased prevalence of maladaptive personality features and personality disorders. This might be associated with being noncompliant with treatment suggestions, displaying unhealthy behavioral strategies and lacking a stable social environment. Since maladaptive personality is not specific to CFS, it might be associated with illness per se rather than with a specific condition. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Personality disorders in ADHD Part 3: Personality disorder, social adjustment, and their relation to dimensions of adult ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimherr, Frederick W; Marchant, Barrie K; Williams, Erika D; Strong, Robert E; Halls, Corinne; Soni, Poonam

    2010-05-01

    This study explored the relationship between the dimensions of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), personality disorder (PD), and adverse social adjustment. In a controlled trial of osmotic release oral system methylphenidate, PD was assessed using the Wisconsin Personality Disorders Inventory IV (WISPI-IV), the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II), and a final consensus diagnosis. Participants were categorized 2 ways: (1) ADHD alone, ADHD with emotional dysregulation (ADHD + ED), and ADHD plus emotional dysregulation plus oppositional symptoms (ADHD + ED + ODD); and (2) those with no PD (PD-negative), 1 (PD-positive), and 2 or more (PD-plus) PDs. None of the ADHD-alone patients had a PD compared with 33% of ADHD + ED patients and 68% of ADHD + ED + ODD patients. The level of ADHD-related emotional and oppositional symptoms correlated significantly with the severity of PD dimensions as assessed by WISPI-IV z scores and the number of items endorsed on the SCID-II screening questionnaire. Complex presentations (define by both ADHD and personality categories) were associated with high childhood ADHD ratings and problems in work, extended family, and economic functioning. The ADHD symptoms of emotional dysregulation and oppositional symptoms were associated with increased Axis II disorders. Adverse outcomes were concentrated in patients with ADHD combined with emotional and oppositional symptoms, and in those with comorbid PDs.

  11. Do people with borderline personality disorder complicated by antisocial personality disorder benefit from the STEPPS treatment program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Donald W; Simsek-Duran, Fatma; Blum, Nancee; McCormick, Brett; Allen, Jeff

    2016-08-01

    Systems Training for Emotional Predictability and Problem Solving (STEPPS) is a group treatment for persons with borderline personality disorder (BPD). We describe results from two data sets on outcome in persons who participated in STEPPS with BPD alone or BPD plus antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). In Study 1, we examined the effect of comorbid ASPD on outcome in 65 persons with BPD who participated in a randomized controlled trial at an academic medical centre. In Study 2, we examined the effect of comorbid ASPD on outcome in 64 offenders with BPD who participated in STEPPS in correctional settings. All subjects were assessed for the presence of BPD and ASPD. In Study 1, subjects with ASPD experienced greater improvement in BPD symptoms, impulsiveness and global symptoms. In Study 2, offenders with ASPD experienced greater improvement in positive and negative behaviours and positive affectivity. We conclude that persons with BPD plus ASPD benefit from STEPPS in community and correctional settings. The findings suggest that persons with BPD plus ASPD show greater improvement in some domains than persons with BPD only. People with ASPD should not be automatically excluded from participation in the program. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Personal Space Regulation in Childhood Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessaroli, Erica; Santelli, Erica; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe; Frassinetti, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    People appropriately adjust the distance between themselves and others during social interaction, and they may feel discomfort and move away when another person intrudes on their personal space. In the present study, we investigated personal space in children with persistent difficulties in the domain of social behavior, such as children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and in children with typical development (TD). The stop-distance paradigm was used to derive estimates of interpersonal distance, before and after a brief interaction with an unfamiliar adult confederate. The results showed that ASD children felt comfortable at a greater distance compared to TD children. Moreover, personal space shrunk after interaction with the confederate in TD children, but it failed to do so in ASD children. These findings reveal that autism deeply affects the regulation of personal space, influencing both its size and flexibility. PMID:24086410

  13. Personal recovery in personality disorder: Systematic review and meta-synthesis of qualitative methods studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Andrew; Sanders, Caroline; Doyle, Michael; Shaw, Jenny

    2016-02-01

    Support of personal recovery represents the aim for many modern mental health services. There is a lack of conceptual clarity around the application of the term however and this is particularly problematic with regard to the personality disorder diagnoses. This study sought to review the existing qualitative methods literature in relation to the experience of personal recovery in personality disorder. A systematic literature search was conducted. Identified studies were incorporated through meta-synthesis in order to develop higher order descriptive themes representative of the individual experience described within included studies. Three studies were identified and incorporated into the meta-synthesis. Three novel higher order themes were developed: Safety and containment as a prerequisite to recovery, social networks and autonomy in the recovery process and identity construction as a process of change. Personal recovery in personality disorder is revealed as a complex process reflecting both personal and social experiences or desires. These findings have important implications for clinical practice - emphasising the need to work closely with individuals and to develop an understanding of both their social experience and networks. Further research, taking greater account of social context in the recovery process, is necessary. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. A review of the dissociative disorders: from multiple personality disorder to the posttraumatic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modesto J. Romero-López

    Full Text Available In this paper we review the idea of dissociation, dissociative disorders and their relationship with the processes of consciousness. We will deal specifically with multiple personality disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder. Both polarize the discussion of diagnostic categories with dissociative symptoms. This review compares the initial ideas (one century old with the current scenario and emerging trends in research, which are relating cognitive processes and dissociative phenomena and disorders from a neuroscientific approach. We discuss the ideas on dissociation, hypnosis and suicide associated with these disorders. There seems to be a lack of consensus as to the nature of dissociation with theoretical, empirical and clinical implications.

  15. Psychotherapeutic treatment levels of personality disorders in older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Videler, Arjan; Cornelis, Christina; Rossi, G.; van Royen, R.J.J.; Rosowsky, E.; van Alphen, S.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of personality disorders (PDs) in older adults is a highly underexplored topic. In this article clinical applicability of the findings from a recent Delphi study regarding treatment aspects of PDs in older adults is explored. This concerns the relevance of three psychotherapeutic treatment

  16. Democratic therapeutic community treatment for personality disorder: randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Steve; Scott, Lisle; Attwood, Gillian; Saunders, Kate; Dean, Madeleine; De Ridder, Ritz; Galea, David; Konstantinidou, Haroula; Crawford, Mike

    2017-02-01

    Democratic therapeutic community (DTC) treatment has been used for many years in an effort to help people with personality disorder. High-quality evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is absent. To test whether DTC treatment reduces use of in-patient services and improves the mental health of people with personality disorder. An RCT of 70 people meeting DSM-IV criteria for personality disorder (trial registration: ISRCTN57363317). The intervention was DTC and the control condition was crisis planning plus treatment as usual (TAU). The primary outcome was days of in-patient psychiatric treatment. Secondary outcomes were social function, mental health status, self-harm and aggression, attendance at emergency departments and primary care, and satisfaction with care. All outcomes were measured at 12 and 24 months after randomisation. Number of in-patient days at follow-up was low among all participants and there was no difference between groups. At 24 months, self- and other directed aggression and satisfaction with care were significantly improved in the DTC compared with the TAU group. DTC is more effective than TAU in improving outcomes in personality disorder. Further studies are required to confirm this conclusion. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.

  17. Dream Content Analysis in Persons with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoust, Anne-Marie; Lusignan, Felix-Antoine; Braun, Claude M. J.; Mottron, Laurent; Godbout, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Dream questionnaires were completed by 28 young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) participants. Seventy-nine typically developed individual served as the control group. In a subset of 17 persons with ASD and 11 controls matched for verbal IQ, dream narratives were obtained following REM sleep awakenings in a sleep laboratory.…

  18. The Function of Aggression in Personality Disordered Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daffern, Michael; Howells, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested that psychological interventions for personality disorders should focus on improving adaptive expression of the functional needs expressed through problematic behaviors such as aggression. The measurement of function is a necessary condition for devising a function-based treatment approach. Two studies that employ a method…

  19. Real-World Effectiveness of Clozapine for Borderline Personality Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Christopher; Polcwiartek, Christoffer; Correll, Christoph U

    2017-01-01

    While some second-generation antipsychotics have shown efficacy on patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD), limited data exist regarding the effect of clozapine. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effects of clozapine on naturalistic outcomes in BPD patients with a 2-year mirror....... The number of patients with intentional self-harm or overdose decreased significantly from 189 to 114 individuals (p

  20. Personality disorders and treatment drop out in the homeless

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salavera, Carlos; Tricás, José M; Lucha, Orosia

    2013-01-01

    ... the situation, and their inertia, determines treatment abandonment, with higher levels than in other populations. (8-10) Studies on withdrawal from treatment in people under addiction treatment have been done (11-16) and these have analyzed the comorbidity between dropping out and personality disorders. (17) The reviewed literature concludes t...

  1. Borderline Personality Disorder: A Dysregulation of the Endogenous Opioid System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandelow, Borwin; Schmahl, Christian; Falkai, Peter; Wedekind, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    The neurobiology of borderline personality disorder (BPD) remains unclear. Dysfunctions of several neurobiological systems, including serotoninergic, dopaminergic, and other neurotransmitter systems, have been discussed. Here we present a theory that alterations in the sensitivity of opioid receptors or the availability of endogenous opioids…

  2. Personality in panic disorder with agoraphobia: a Rorschach study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, C.; Cohen, L.

    1992-01-01

    In this study, we tested several hypotheses derived from self psychology (Diamond, 1987) regarding personality features of patients suffering from panic disorder and agoraphobia (PDA). PDA patients are thought to suffer from a deficit in negative affect-regulating capacity, surrounded by defenses

  3. Multidimensional Model of Trauma and Correlated Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Willem H. J.

    2005-01-01

    Many studies have revealed an important relationship between psychosocial trauma and antisocial personality disorder. A multidimensional model is presented which describes the psychopathological route from trauma to antisocial development. A case report is also included that can illustrate the etiological process from trauma to severe antisocial…

  4. Effects of induced anger in patients with antisocial personality disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobbestael, J.; Arntz, A.R.; Cima, M.; Chakhssi, F.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Anger is the main deregulated emotion in patients with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). The aim of this study was to examine emotional, cognitive and physiological correlates of anger and compare these between ASPD patients with varying degree of psychopathy (PP) and control

  5. Antisocial personality disorder in DSM-5: missteps and missed opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynam, Donald R; Vachon, David D

    2012-10-01

    This paper evaluates the proposal for antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-fifth edition (DSM-5). Some aspects of the proposal are appealing: personality disorders will be assessed using trait criteria, and these criteria are similar to trait descriptions of DSM-IV ASPD. Other aspects of the proposal are less appealing. First, the DSM-5 will depend on a newly constructed personality trait system rather than relying on a well validated, widely studied one. Second, the trait profile of ASPD is incomplete; although this profile reflects the traits included in DSM-IV, it maps poorly onto the full personality profile of ASPD. Third, the DSM Workgroup missed an opportunity to finally unify ASPD and psychopathy; history and research suggest that these disorders have diverged mistakenly. Fourth, the newly proposed criteria of impairments in self- and interpersonal functioning are of questionable derivation and utility. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Comparison of Cluster C personality disorders in couples with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main purpose of this study was to compare personality disorders in Cluster C with normal couples divorce. In this cross-sectional study.The study population consisted of men and women seeking divorce Urmia in 2010, which was referred to the offices of the two groups, men and women seeking divorce (33 males and ...

  7. Inpatient management of borderline personality disorder at Helen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of this report was to establish a profile of patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) admitted to the acute inpatient psychiatric assessment unit at the Helen Joseph Hospital, in Johannesburg, over the course of 1 year. Methods: A retrospective record review was conducted to investigate the ...

  8. Antisocial personality disorder, sexual sadism, malignant narcissism, and serial murder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geberth, V J; Turco, R N

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines the research on serial murder and its relationship to antisocial personality disorder and sexual sadism. The concept of malignant narcissism is also discussed. Case studies of serial killers are examined regarding the nature of sexual violation and crime scene behavior.

  9. Further Comments toward a Dimensional Classification of Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiger, Thomas A.; Trull, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    Responds to the comments by H. N. Garb (2007) and A. M. Ruscio (2007) on the current authors' original article "Plate tectonics in the classification of personality disorder: Shifting to a dimensional model" (2007). Unable to respond to all of Garb's and Ruscio's concerns given space limitations, the current authors attempt to respond to key…

  10. Personality Disorders and Clinical Syndromes in ADHD Prisoners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Wells, June; Young, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The main objective of this article is to investigate the type of personality disorders and clinical syndromes (CSs) that were best related to ADHD symptoms among prisoners. Method: The authors screened for childhood and adult ADHD symptoms and administered the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III) to 196 serving prisoners.…

  11. Outdoor Adventure & Eating Disorders: A Personal Perspective to Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Kaye

    1999-01-01

    A female outdoor educator who had recovered from anorexia nervosa reflects on the boundaries between her personal and professional identity as she anticipates taking on a research role in adventure-therapy programs. Gender issues in outdoor education are discussed in relation to women's body image and eating disorders. (SV)

  12. Sustained efficacy of dialectical behaviour therapy for borderline personality disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bosch, Louisa M. C.; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; Stijnen, Theo; Verheul, Roel; van den Brink, Wim

    2005-01-01

    Dialectical Behaviour Therapy (DBT) is considered one of the most promising treatments for borderline personality disorder (BPD). Recently, we reported significantly positive effects of 12 months DBT on parasuicidal behaviour and impulsivity in a mixed group of female BPD patients with and without

  13. Cognitive coping and defense styles in patients with personality disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Wijk-Herbrink (Marjolein); H. Andrea (Helene); R. Verheul (Roel)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis study investigates the associations between cognitive coping (as measured with the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire; CERQ), defense mechanisms (as measured with the Defense Style Questionnaire- 60; DSQ-60) and personality disorders (PDs; as measured with the SIDP-IV

  14. Schema therapy for aggressive offenders with personality disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen-de Vos, M.; Bernstein, D.P.; Arntz, A.; Tafrate, R.C.; Mitchell, D.

    2014-01-01

    Schema therapy (ST) is increasingly used in personality-disordered (PD) patients. ST is an integrative psychotherapy that blends elements of cognitive-behavioral, psychodynamic and experiential approaches. The key concepts in ST are early maladaptive schemas, (dysfunctional) coping styles and schema

  15. Interpersonal Precipitants and Suicide Attempts in Borderline Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, Beth S.; Groves, Shelly A.; Oquendo, Maria A.; Mann, J. John; Stanley, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is often characterized by multiple low lethality suicide attempts triggered by seemingly minor incidents, and less commonly by high lethality attempts that are attributed to impulsiveness or comorbid major depression. The relationships among life events, impulsiveness, and type of suicidal behavior has hardly…

  16. Borderline Personality Traits and Disorder: Predicting Prospective Patient Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Christopher J.; Zanarini, Mary C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Decisions about the composition of personality assessment in the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (5th ed.; DSM-V) will be heavily influenced by the clinical utility of candidate constructs. In this study, we addressed 1 aspect of clinical utility by testing the incremental validity of 5-factor model (FFM)…

  17. Development and Validation of the Minnesota Borderline Personality Disorder Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornovalova, Marina A.; Hicks, Brian M.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Although large epidemiological data sets can inform research on the etiology and development of borderline personality disorder (BPD), they rarely include BPD measures. In some cases, however, proxy measures can be constructed using instruments already in these data sets. In this study, the authors developed and validated a self-report measure of…

  18. Borderline Personality Disorder in an Intermediate Psychological Therapies Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Seamus; Danquah, Adam N.; Berry, Katherine; Hopper, Mary

    2017-01-01

    The intermediate psychological therapies service is provided for individuals referred with common mental health problems within the primary care psychological therapies service, but whose difficulties are longstanding and/or complex. The prevalence of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in intermediate psychological therapy services has not been…

  19. Role of biological factors in etiopathogenesis of borderline personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Rabe-Jabłońska

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Emotionally labile personality of borderline type (borderline personality occurs in 1-2% of individuals from general population; 75% of this group are women. Similarly to most of the other mental disorders, the borderline personality results from a combination of biological, social and psychological factors. The subject of this study is a survey of the current knowledge on biological factors of borderline personality. Most researchers are of the opinion that these personality disorders are determined genetically, with such inherited temperamental traits as: dysregulation, impulsivity, and hypersensitivity. Perhaps hereditary is also a defect within the serotonergic system, endogenous opioid system and/or dopaminergic system related to the reward system. Many researchers have recently perceived the dysfunction of endogenous opioid system as an integral component of borderline personality. There is now a lot of evidence showing that this dysfunction as well as that of the reward system may account for most of the borderline personality symptoms which constitute an involuntary attempt of stimulating the inefficient systems. This is how e.g. the presence of reckless sexual behaviours, unstable interpersonal relationships and inability to delay the reward in borderline personality is accounted for. Such observations may in the future constitute an important indication for seeking a more effective pharmacotherapy for patients with borderline personality. It is possible that in some patients the described dysfunctions may be alleviated with time. This is implied by the results of comprehensive prospective studies which show a significant regression of symptoms and improvement in functioning of most patients with borderline personality after at least several years.

  20. Comorbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with personality disorders in homeless people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salavera, Carlos; Antoñanzas, José Luis; Bustamante, Juan Carlos; Carrón, José; Usán, Pablo; Teruel, Pilar; Bericat, Carmen; Monteagudo, Lucía; Larrosa, Soledad; Tricás, José M; Lucha, Orosia; Noé, Raquel; Jarie, Laurane; Cerra, Raquel

    2014-12-16

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a condition that begins in childhood but can continue into adulthood, and may be the cause of many disadaptive behaviors, as in the case of homeless people, who often display a high incidence of personality disorders. The goal of this study is to analyze the comorbidity of ADHD with axis II disorders in a Spanish homeless population. The outcomes show high comorbidity between these two kinds of disorders, and that the prevalence of axis II disorders is higher among people with ADHD than among the general population. From these results we can draw the conclusion that in homeless people ADHD in childhood continues into adulthood, when it is very often observed together with personality disorders. Finally, the implications of this study both for clinical practice and for future lines of research are discussed.