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Sample records for schizotypal ambivalence scale

  1. Social functioning in Chinese college students with and without schizotypal personality traits: an exploratory study of the Chinese version of the First Episode Social Functioning Scale.

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    Yi Wang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The First Episode Social Functioning Scale (FESFS was designed to measure social functioning of young individuals with schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to validate a Chinese version of the FESFS in a sample of young Chinese adults. METHOD: The FESFS was translated to Chinese prior to being administered to 1576 college students. The factor structure, reliability, and validity of the scale were examined. RESULTS: Two items were deleted after item analysis and the internal consistency of the whole scale was .89. A six-factor structure was derived by exploratory factor analysis. The factors were interpersonal, family and friends, school, living skills, intimacy, and balance. Estimates of the structural equation model supported this structure, with Goodness of Fit Chi-Square χ(2 = 1097.53 (p<0.0001, the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA = 0.058, and the comparative fit index (CFI = 0.93. Scale validity was supported by significant correlations between social functioning factors scores and schizophrenia personality questionnaire (SPQ scores. Individuals with schizotypal personality features presented poorer social functioning than those without schizotypal personality features. CONCLUSIONS: The Chinese revised version of the FESFS was found to have good psychometric properties and could be used in the future to examine social functioning in Chinese college students.

  2. Measuring ambivalence to science

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    Gardner, P. L.

    Ambivalence is a psychological state in which a person holds mixed feelings (positive and negative) towards some psychological object. Standard methods of attitude measurement, such as Likert and semantic differential scales, ignore the possibility of ambivalence; ambivalent responses cannot be distinguished from neutral ones. This neglect arises out of an assumption that positive and negative affects towards a particular psychological object are bipolar, i.e., unidimensional in opposite directions. This assumption is frequently untenable. Conventional item statistics and measures of test internal consistency are ineffective as checks on this assumption; it is possible for a scale to be multidimensional and still display apparent internal consistency. Factor analysis is a more effective procedure. Methods of measuring ambivalence are suggested, and implications for research are discussed.

  3. Conservative Ideology and Ambivalent Sexism

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    Christopher, Andrew N.; Mull, Melinda S.

    2006-01-01

    To assess the relationship between different facets of conservative ideology and ambivalent sexism, 246 residents of two towns in southern Michigan completed a social dominance orientation scale (SDO), a right-wing authoritarianism scale (RWA), a Protestant work ethic scale (PWE), and the Glick and Fiske (1996) Ambivalent Sexism Inventory via a…

  4. Ambivalent Precarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Sine; Ungruhe, Christian

    2016-01-01

    hand, labor migrants’ accounts show that this precarity is not exclusively based on oppression, misery, and exploitation, but that labor migration is also driven by hope and the imagination of a better future; hardships may even open up new opportunities. This article aims to scrutinize the ambivalence...... are described for female and male soccer players who originate from various West African settings and move to Northern European locations. The analysis finds ambivalent precarization processes at various points of the career. The temporality of precarization processes becomes apparent when comparing the large...... number of young men and women who strive to migrate to the few individuals who become professional players abroad but often struggle with occupational challenges after their careers. The article ends by suggesting an engagement with the ambivalences of precarious work in future studies, both in sport...

  5. Network Ambivalence

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    Patrick Jagoda

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The language of networks now describes everything from the Internet to the economy to terrorist organizations. In distinction to a common view of networks as a universal, originary, or necessary form that promises to explain everything from neural structures to online traffic, this essay emphasizes the contingency of the network imaginary. Network form, in its role as our current cultural dominant, makes scarcely imaginable the possibility of an alternative or an outside uninflected by networks. If so many things and relationships are figured as networks, however, then what is not a network? If a network points towards particular logics and qualities of relation in our historical present, what others might we envision in the future? In  many ways, these questions are unanswerable from within the contemporary moment. Instead of seeking an avant-garde approach (to move beyond networks or opting out of networks (in some cases, to recover elements of pre-networked existence, this essay proposes a third orientation: one of ambivalence that operates as a mode of extreme presence. I propose the concept of "network aesthetics," which can be tracked across artistic media and cultural forms, as a model, style, and pedagogy for approaching interconnection in the twenty-first century. The following essay is excerpted from Network Ambivalence (Forthcoming from University of Chicago Press. 

  6. Autistic and schizotypal traits and global functioning in bipolar I disorder.

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    Abu-Akel, Ahmad; Clark, Jennifer; Perry, Amy; Wood, Stephen J; Forty, Liz; Craddock, Nick; Jones, Ian; Gordon-Smith, Katherine; Jones, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    To determine the expression of autistic and positive schizotypal traits in a large sample of adults with bipolar I disorder (BD I), and the effect of co-occurring autistic and positive schizotypal traits on global functioning in BD I. Autistic and positive schizotypal traits were self-assessed in 797 individuals with BD-I recruited by the Bipolar Disorder Research Network. Differences in global functioning (rated using the Global Assessment Scale) during lifetime worst depressive and manic episodes (GASD and GASM respectively) were calculated in groups with high/low autistic and positive schizotypal traits. Regression analyses assessed the interactive effect of autistic and positive schizotypal traits on global functioning. 47.2% (CI=43.7-50.7%) showed clinically significant levels of autistic traits, and 23.22% (95% CI=20.29-26.14) showed clinically significant levels of positive schizotypal traits. In the worst episode of mania, the high autistic, high positive schizotypal group had better global functioning compared to the other groups. Individual differences analyses showed that high levels of both traits were associated with better global functioning in both mood states. Autistic and schizotypal traits were assessed using self-rated questionnaires. Expression of autistic and schizotypal traits in adults with BD I is prevalent, and may be important to predict illness aetiology, prognosis, and diagnostic practices in this population. Future work should focus on replicating these findings in independent samples, and on the biological and/or psychosocial mechanisms underlying better global functioning in those who have high levels of both autistic and positive schizotypal traits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluating ambivalence: social-cognitive and affective brain regions associated with ambivalent decision-making.

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    Nohlen, Hannah U; van Harreveld, Frenk; Rotteveel, Mark; Lelieveld, Gert-Jan; Crone, Eveline A

    2014-07-01

    Ambivalence is a state of inconsistency that is often experienced as affectively aversive. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated the role of cognitive and social-affective processes in the experience of ambivalence and coping with its negative consequences. We examined participants' brain activity during the dichotomous evaluation (pro vs contra) of pretested ambivalent (e.g. alcohol), positive (e.g. happiness) and negative (e.g. genocide) word stimuli. We manipulated evaluation relevance by varying the probability of evaluation consequences, under the hypothesis that ambivalence is experienced as more negative when outcomes are relevant. When making ambivalent evaluations, more activity was found in the anterior cingulate cortex, the insula, the temporal parietal junction (TPJ) and the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC)/precuneus, for both high and low evaluation relevance. After statistically conservative corrections, activity in the TPJ and PCC/precuneus was negatively correlated with experienced ambivalence after scanning, as measured by Priester and Petty's felt ambivalence scale (1996). The findings show that cognitive and social-affective brain areas are involved in the experience of ambivalence. However, these networks are differently associated with subsequent reduction of ambivalence, thus highlighting the importance of understanding both cognitive and affective processes involved in ambivalent decision-making. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Ambivalent Sexism Revisited

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    Glick, Peter; Fiske, Susan T.

    2011-01-01

    It is close to 20 years since the authors began the collaboration that led to ambivalent sexism theory and its associated measure, both reviewed in their 1997 "Psychology of Women Quarterly" article, "Hostile and Benevolent Sexism: Measuring Ambivalent Sexist Attitudes Toward Women." This article reports the development and validation of the…

  9. Overlap between autistic and schizotypal personality traits is not accounted for by anxiety and depression.

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    Mealey, Alex; Abbott, Gavin; Byrne, Linda K; McGillivray, Jane

    2014-10-30

    Autism spectrum and schizophrenia spectrum disorders are classified separately in the DSM-5, yet research indicates that these two disorders share overlapping features. The aim of the present study was to examine the overlap between autistic and schizotypal personality traits and whether anxiety and depression act as confounding variables in this relationship within a non-clinical population. One hundred and forty-four adults completed the Autism Spectrum Quotient and the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21. A number of associations were seen between autistic and schizotypal personality traits. However, negative traits were the only schizotypal feature to uniquely predict global autistic traits, thus highlighting the importance of interpersonal qualities in the overlap of autistic and schizotypal characteristics. The inclusion of anxiety and depression did not alter relationships between autistic and schizotypal traits, indicating that anxiety and depression are not confounders of this relationship. These findings have important implications for the conceptualisation of both disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Interpersonal ambivalence, perceived relationship adjustment, and conjugal loss.

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    Bonanno, G A; Notarius, C I; Gunzerath, L; Keltner, D; Horowitz, M J

    1998-12-01

    Ambivalence is widely assumed to prolong grief. To examine this hypothesis, the authors developed a measure of ambivalence based on an algorithmic combination of separate positive and negative evaluations of one's spouse. Preliminary construct validity was evidenced in relation to emotional difficulties and to facial expressions of emotion. Bereaved participants, relative to a nonbereaved comparison sample, recollected their relationships as better adjusted but were more ambivalent. Ambivalence about spouses was generally associated with increased distress and poorer perceived health but did not predict long-term grief outcome once initial outcome was controlled. In contrast, initial grief and distress predicted increased ambivalence and decreased Dyadic Adjustment Scale scores at 14 months postloss, regardless of initial scores on these measures. Limitations and implications of the findings are discussed.

  11. Schizotypal personality disorder inside and outside the schizophrenic spectrum.

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    Torgersen, Svenn; Edvardsen, J; Øien, P A; Onstad, S; Skre, I; Lygren, S; Kringlen, E

    2002-03-01

    The concept of schizotypal personality disorder has been heavily discussed since its introduction into the official classification of mental disorders in DSM-III. The aim of this study was to investigate the difference between schizotypal personality disorder within and outside the genetic spectrum of schizophrenia. Schizotypals with and without schizophrenic cotwins and first-degree relatives were compared, with individuals with other mental disorders and no mental disorders as controls. It appeared that only inadequate rapport and odd communication were more pronounced among schizotypals within, compared to schizotypals outside the schizophrenic spectrum. Schizotypals outside the schizophrenic spectrum, however, scored higher than schizotypals inside the schizophrenic spectrum on ideas of reference, suspiciousness, paranoia, social anxiety, self-damaging acts, chronic anger, free-floating anxiety and sensitivity to rejection. Interestingly, the four last features are seldom observed among schizotypals inside the schizophrenic spectrum. Monozygotic non-schizophrenic cotwins of schizophrenics score high on inadequate rapport, odd communication, social isolation and delusions/hallucinations. Monozygotic non-schizophrenic cotwins of schizotypals outside the schizophrenic genetic spectrum score high on illusions, depersonalization, derealization and magical thinking. Negative schizotypal features appear to be inside the schizophrenic spectrum, while positive borderline-like features are outside having another genetic endowment.

  12. THE PREDICTIVE POWER OF RELIGIOUS ORIENTATION TYPES ON AMBIVALENT SEXISM

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    Fatih Ozdemir

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to predict ambivalent sexism (including hostile sexism and benevolent sexism with religious orientation types as intrinsic religiosity, extrinsic religiosity and quest religiosity. In addition, the effect of demographic variables (including age, gender, education on sexist attitudes was tested. 583 (N_female= 318; N_male= 265 university students who study in different universities of Ankara/Turkey (M_age= 22.10; SD = 2.33 completed Ambivalent Sexism Inventory, and Religious Orientation Scale. Findings indicated significant gender differences on study variables and significant associations between ambivalent sexism and religious orientation types within university students sample in Turkey.

  13. Schizotypal traits in painters: Relations with intelligence, creativity and creative productivity

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    Međedović Janko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present research we explored the presence of schizotypal traits in painters. Furthermore, the relations of schizotypy and creativity-related variables (intelligence, creativity and creative productivity were analyzed. Study participants were divided into the criterion (132 students of art academy and art high school and control group (119 psychology students and members of grammar school. Two hypotheses were set: 1 schizotypal traits are more pronounced in painters than in control group; 2 schizotypy is more closely associated with the creativitylinked variables in the criterion than in control group. Schizotypy was operationalized by Disintegration construct and measured via DELTA 10 inventory. Intelligence was assessed by Advanced Progressive Matrices-18; creativity was measured by the same labeled scale from HEXACO-PI-R inventory and creative productivity was explored by a set of questions regarding the frequency of creative behavior. Results showed that Magical thinking, Enhanced awareness, Somatoform Dysregulation, Perceptual distortions and Social anhedonia were the schizotypal traits which were more pronounced in painters as compared to the control group. Factor analyses performed in each group separately revealed a latent component loaded both with schizotypal traits, creativity and creative productivity, but only in the group of painters: schizotypy and creativity were not so closely related in the control group. Thus, the study hypotheses were largely confirmed. Results provide a more detailed understanding of the relations between schizotypy and creativity.

  14. [Differential diagnosis between Schizotypal Personality Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorders: a case report].

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    Ünver, Buket; Öner, Özgür; Yurtbaşı, Pınar

    2015-01-01

    Schizotypal personality disorder is characterized by social and interpersonal deficits marked by discomfort with, and reduced capacity for, close relationships as well as by cognitive or perceptual distortions and eccentricities of behavior. Inappropriate or constricted affect, reduced capacity for relationships, lack of close friends and reduced capacity for social life are the symptoms that overlap both schizotypal personality disorder and autism spectrum disorders. The making of differential diagnosis may be difficult since several symptoms are similar between these disorders. In this study, we discussed the differential diagnosis issues on the basis of an adolescent case. Odd appearance, magical thoughts, reference thoughts suggests Schizotypal Personality Disorder whereas lack of eye contact at 2 years old, a preference to be isolated and play alone and referral to a child psychiatrist at 4 years old suggest Autism Spectrum Disorders. Based on the results of psychological assessment, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) profile is compatible with autistic children's profiles. Based on Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire, the patient's anxiety, lack of close friends, constricted affect symptoms which take place in the category of interpersonal schizotypy seems to overlap with lack of communication of Autism Spectrum Disorders. This case report indicates that, separation of autism and schizophrenia, a very important historical breakthrough in autism research, may be blurred in cases with less typical clinical pictures representing autistic and schizophrenic "spectrum" diagnosis.

  15. When less is more: Psychometric properties of Norwegian short-forms of the Ambivalent Sexism Scales (ASI and AMI) and the Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance (IRMA) Scale.

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    Bendixen, Mons; Kennair, Leif Edward Ottesen

    2017-12-01

    This paper reports on the development and the psychometric properties of short forms of Ambivalent Sexism Scales toward women (ASI; Glick & Fiske, 1996) and men (AMI; Glick & Fiske, 1999), and a scale measuring rape stereotypes (IRMA; McMahon & Farmer, 2011). The short form AMI/ASI were applied for examining gender and educational differences in university students (N = 512) and in high school students (N = 1381), and for predicting individual differences in rape stereotypes in the latter. The short forms demonstrated good to excellent psychometric properties across samples of emerging adults. Relative to female students, male students reported markedly more hostility toward women and more stereotypical beliefs about rape. Despite sampling from a highly gender egalitarian and secular culture, these gender differences are on a par with those reported internationally. Rape stereotypes were predicted by sexism in high school students. Additional predictors were educational program, relationship status, and acceptance of derogatory sexual slurs. The paper questions the validity of separate constructs for benevolent sexism toward women versus men. The short form versions of the scales may substitute the original versions in future research, and help prevent attrition while measuring the same constructs. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The Schizotypic Syndrome Questionnaire (SSQ): Psychometrics, validation and norms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kampen, D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the psychometric properties (reliability and factor structure) and validity (relationship with various self-report measures and SPEM dysfunction) of the SSQ or Schizotypic Syndrome Questionnaire, a 108-item inventory for the measurement of 12 prodromal or schizotypic symptoms

  17. Social Media and Experiential Ambivalence

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    Jenny L. Davis

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available At once fearful and dependent, hopeful and distrustful, our contemporary relationship with technology is highly ambivalent. Using experiential accounts from an ongoing Facebook-based qualitative study (N = 231, I both diagnose and articulate this ambivalence. I argue that technological ambivalence is rooted primarily in the deeply embedded moral prescription to lead a meaningful life, and a related uncertainty about the role of new technologies in the accomplishment of this task. On the one hand, technology offers the potential to augment or even enhance personal and public life. On the other hand, technology looms with the potential to supplant or replace real experience. I examine these polemic potentialities in the context of personal experiences, interpersonal relationships, and political activism. I conclude by arguing that the pervasive integration and non-optionality of technical systems amplifies utopian hopes, dystopian fears, and ambivalent concerns in the contemporary era.

  18. Psychopathological traits in college students from top-ranking french schools: Do autistic features impair success in science when associated with schizotypal traits?

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    Choteau, Laura; Raynal, Patrick; Goutaudier, Nelly; Chabrol, Henri

    2016-03-30

    The link between personality and the interest of individuals for science has not been thoroughly explored. In this report, we studied psychopathological traits in students studying science in French top-ranking institutions. Three hundred and forty seven individuals answered questionnaires assessing autistic and schizotypal dimensions, as well as anxiety, depression symptomatology and attachment quality. A cluster analysis based on autistic and schizotypal traits led to the identification of 4 distinct profiles: a "low trait cluster", a "moderate autistic trait cluster", a "moderate schizotypal trait cluster" and a "high trait cluster" (HTC) composed of individuals with high scores on both autistic and schizotypal scales. Each cluster represented 20.1-27.1% of participants and was clearly different from the three others, both on autistic and on schizotypal dimensions. These groups could be also typified by their level of anxiety, depression or degraded attachment, which are proportional to the extent of psychopathological traits. Moreover, students from the HTC cluster displayed lower academic results, thus implying that autistic traits might impair success in science when they are associated with moderate schizotypal personality features. This study also suggests that depression and anxiety might mediate performance inhibition in the HTC group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. F7. SEX DIFFERENCES IN THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN SELF-REPORTS OF CHILDHOOD ADVERSITIES AND SCHIZOTYPAL PERSONALITY TRAITS

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    Toutountzidis, Diamantis; Gale, Tim; Irvine, Karen; Sharma, Shivani; Laws, Keith

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background While it has been repeatedly documented that people with schizophrenia report higher levels of adverse events in childhood (emotional, physical and sexual abuse), this has not been extensively examined in healthy individuals who score highly on schizotypal personality traits. The continuum hypothesis of psychosis and schizophrenia suggests it is important to assess the relationship in those who are healthy but who experience some psychotic-like symptoms. Of course, it is problematic to rely upon the veracity of events that anyone might recall from their childhood, but this is likely to be compounded by the presence of well-documented memory and executive problems, as well as symptoms such as delusional thinking, in some adults with psychosis. One advantage of examining healthy participants is that recall is not affected by the condition itself or memory- and executive-function problems. As there is evidence that the expression of psychotic disorders differ between males and females, the etiological mechanisms and pathways to the development and experience of psychotic symptoms may equally differ. Indeed, sex differences in the association between childhood trauma and psychotic symptoms have been noted. The aim of this present study was to investigate any links between childhood trauma and psychotic-like symptoms in healthy individuals. Based on previous research the expectation is that associations will be found between self-reports of childhood trauma and schizotypal personality traits. These associations would be expected to differ between males and females. Methods The sample consisted of 320 participants (221 females, 99 males) with a mean age of 28.24 (SD 12.76). Childhood traumatic events were assessed by three sub-scales (Physical Punishment; Emotional Abuse; and Sexual Events) of the Early Trauma Inventory Self Report-Short Form (ETISR-SF; Bremner et al., 2007). Schizotypal personality traits were assessed using the Five Factor

  20. Antipsychotic treatment of schizotypy and schizotypal personality disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Klaus Damgaard; Skyum, Eva; Hashemi, Nasseh

    2017-01-01

    Schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) is characterised by thought disorders, experiences of illusions, obsessive ruminations, bizarre or eccentric behaviour, cognitive problems and deficits in social functioning - symptoms that SPD shares with schizophrenia. Efforts have been undertaken...

  1. Semantic Dysfunction in Women With Schizotypal Personality Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Niznikiewicz, Margaret A.; Shenton, Martha E.; Voglmaier, Martina; Nestor, Paul G.; Dickey, Chandlee C.; Frumin, Melissa; Seidman, Larry J.; Allen, Christopher G.; McCarley, Robert W.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: This study examined whether early or late processes in semantic networks were abnormal in women with a diagnosis of schizotypal personality disorder. The N400 component of the EEG event-related potentials was used as a probe of semantic processes. Method: Word pairs were presented with short and long stimulus-onset asynchronies to investigate, respectively, early and late semantic processes in 16 women with schizotypal personality disorder and 15 normal female comparison subjects. ...

  2. Semantic dysfunction in women with schizotypal personality disorder.

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    Niznikiewicz, Margaret A; Shenton, Martha E; Voglmaier, Martina; Nestor, Paul G; Dickey, Chandlee C; Frumin, Melissa; Seidman, Larry J; Allen, Christopher G; McCarley, Robert W

    2002-10-01

    This study examined whether early or late processes in semantic networks were abnormal in women with a diagnosis of schizotypal personality disorder. The N400 component of the EEG event-related potentials was used as a probe of semantic processes. Word pairs were presented with short and long stimulus-onset asynchronies to investigate, respectively, early and late semantic processes in 16 women with schizotypal personality disorder and 15 normal female comparison subjects. Event-related potentials were recorded in response to the last words in a pair. With the short stimulus-onset asynchrony, the N400 amplitude was less negative in the schizotypal personality disorder group than in the normal comparison group. No group differences were found with the long stimulus-onset asynchrony. The finding of a less negative than normal N400 amplitude with the short stimulus-onset asynchrony in women with schizotypal personality disorder supports the hypothesis that persons with this disorder evince an overactivation of semantic networks. The absence of group differences with the long stimulus-onset asynchrony, which is primarily sensitive to processes involved in context integration, suggests that in this group of schizotypal personality disorder subjects, additional demands on working memory may be necessary to bring out the semantic dysfunction.

  3. Schizotypal Estimators in Adolescence: The Concurrent Validity of the RISC.

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    Rust, John; Chiu, Herbert

    1988-01-01

    Administered Minnesota Counseling Inventory and Rust Inventory of Schizotypal Cognition (RISC) to 174 adolescents in Hong Kong. Results showed that negative schizophrenic symptoms of social dysfunction and emotional instability as measured by Minnesota Counseling Inventory were positively and significantly correlated with positive schizotypal…

  4. Interpersonal ambivalence in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

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    Moritz, Steffen; Niemeyer, Helen; Hottenrott, Birgit; Schilling, Lisa; Spitzer, Carsten

    2013-10-01

    The social attitudes and interpersonal relationships of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are subject to a longstanding controversy. Whereas cognitive-behavioural researchers emphasize exaggerated pro-social attitudes in OCD like inflated responsibility and worry for other people (especially significant others), dynamic theories traditionally focus on anti-social attitudes such as latent aggression and hostility. In two recent studies, we gathered support not only for a co-existence of these seemingly opposing attitudes in OCD, but also for a functional connection: inflated responsibility in part appears to serve as a coping strategy (or “defense”) against negative interpersonal feelings. In the present study, we tested a shortened version of the Responsibility and Interpersonal Behaviours and Attitudes Questionnaire (RIBAQ-R). The scale was administered to 34 participants with OCD and 34 healthy controls. The questionnaire concurrently measures pro-social and anti-social interpersonal attitudes across three subscales. In line with our prior studies, patients displayed higher scores on both exaggerated pro-social attitudes (e.g. “I suffer from a strict conscience concerning my relatives”) as well as latent aggression (e.g. “Sometimes I would like to harm strangers on the street“) and suspiciousness/distrust (e.g. “I cannot even trust my own family”). A total of 59% of the patients but only 12% of the healthy controls showed marked interpersonal ambivalence (defined as scores higher than one standard deviation from the mean of the nonclinical controls on both the prosocial and at least one of the two anti-social subscales). The study asserts high interpersonal ambivalence in OCD. Further research is required to pinpoint both the dynamic and causal links between opposing interpersonal styles. Normalization and social competence training may prove beneficial to resolve the apparent problems of patients with OCD regarding anger

  5. Focus groups reveal consumer ambivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    According to qualitative research, Salvadoreans are ambivalent about the use of contraceptives. Since complete responsibility for management of the CSM project was accepted by the Association Demografica Salvadorena (ADS), the agency which operates the contraceptive social marketing project in El Salvador, in November 1980, the need for decisions in such areas as product price increases, introduction of new condom brands, promotion of the vaginal foaming tablet, and assessment of product sales performance had arisen. The ICSMP funded market research, completed during 1983, was intended to provide the data on which such decisions by ADS could be based. The qualitative research involved 8 focus groups, comprised of men and women, aged 18-45, contraceptive users and nonusers, from the middle and lower socioeconomic strata of the city of San Salvador and other suburban areas. In each group a moderator led discussion of family planning and probed respondents for specific attitudes, knowledge, and behavior regarding the use of contraceptives. To assess attitudes at a more emotional level, moderators asked respondents to "draw" their ideas on certain issues. A marked discrepancy was revealed between respondents' intellectual responses to the issues raised in group discussion, as opposed to their feelings expressed in the drawings. Intellectually, participants responded very positively to family planning practice, but when they were asked to draw their perceptions, ambivalent feelings emerged. Drawings of both the user and the nonuser convey primarily negative aspects for either choice. The user is tense and moody toward her children; the nonuser loses her attractiveness and "dies." Figures also show drawings of some of the attitudes of single and married male participants. 1 drawing shows an incomplete and a complete circle, symbolizing a sterilized man (incomplete) and a nonsterilized man (complete). Another picture depicts a chained man who has lost his freedom

  6. The Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief lacks measurement invariance across three countries.

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    Liu, Shujuan; Mellor, David; Ling, Mathew; Saiz, José L; Vinet, Eugenia V; Xu, Xiaoyan; Renati, Solomon; Byrne, Linda K

    2017-12-01

    The Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief (SPQ-B) is a commonly-used tool for measuring schizotypal personality traits and due to its wide application, its cross-cultural validity is of interest. Previous studies suggest that the SPQ-B either has a three- or four-factor structure, but the majority of studies have been conducted in Western contexts and little is known about the psychometric properties of the scale in other populations. In this study factorial invariance testing across three cultural contexts-Australia, China and Chile was conducted. In total, 729 young adults (Mean age = 23.99 years, SD = 9.87 years) participated. Invariance testing did not support the four-factor model across three countries. Confirmatory Factor Analyses revealed that neither the four- nor three-factor model had strong fit in any of the settings. However, in comparison with other competing models, the four-factor model showed the best for the Australian sample, while the three-factor model was the most reasonable for both Chinese and Chilean samples. The reliability of the SPQ-B scores, estimated with Omega, ranged from 0.86 to 0.91. These findings suggest that the SPQ-B factors are not consistent across different cultural groups. We suggest that these differences could be attributed to potential confounding cultural and translation issues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. An MRI Study of Superior Temporal Gyrus Volume in Women With Schizotypal Personality Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Dickey, Chandlee C.; McCarley, Robert William; Voglmaier, Martina M.; Niznikiewicz, Margaret A.; Seidman, Larry Joel; Demeo, Susan; Frumin, Melissa; Shenton, Martha Elizabeth

    2003-01-01

    Objective: An abnormal superior temporal gyrus has figured prominently in schizophrenia research, and left superior temporal gyrus volume has been shown to be smaller in male subjects with schizotypal personality disorder. This is the first structural magnetic resonance imaging study to examine a group of female subjects with schizotypal personality disorder. Method: The superior temporal gyrus was drawn on coronal images acquired from female subjects recruited from the community (schizotypal...

  8. The relationship of the Severe Personality disorders with behavioral activation and inhibition systems in patients with paranoid, borderline and schizotypal personality disorders

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    Setareh Jani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Given the disruptive effects of personality disorders on personal and family life, it is essential to recognize their predisposing factors to understand them more accurately, and identify their preventive measures treatment facilitators. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the relationship of severe personality disorders with behavioral activation and inhibition systems in patients with paranoid, borderline and schizotypal personality disorders. Methods: The present descriptive-correlational study recruited patients with paranoid, borderline and schizotypal personality disorders presenting to psychiatry clinics in Ardabil using convenient sampling method. A total of 30 paranoid patients, 30 borderline patients and 20 schizotypal patients were selected by a psychiatrist through psychiatric examination, clinical interview and completing Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-III. The following instruments were used: MCMI- III and behavioral activation-inhibition system scale (BIS-BAS. The data were analyzed with Pearson’s correlation coefficient and stepwise regression. Results: BIS and BAS systems were both significant for predicting borderline and paranoid personality disorders, but only BIS was significant for predicting schizotypal personality disorder. Conclusion: These findings can help experts to have a better and more accurate understanding of personality disorders and use proper methods to predict the probability of these disorders and develop treatments.

  9. The five-factor model in schizotypal personality disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Gurrera, Ronald J.; Dickey, Chandlee C.; Niznikiewicz, Margaret A.; Voglmaier, Martina M.; Shenton, Martha E.; McCarley, Robert W.

    2005-01-01

    Studies of the five-factor model of personality in schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) have produced inconsistent results, particularly with respect to openness. In the present study, the NEO-FFI was used to measure five-factor personality dimensions in 28 community volunteers with SPD and 24 psychiatrically healthy individuals. Standard multivariate statistical analyses were used to evaluate personality differences as a function of diagnosis and gender. Individuals with SPD had significan...

  10. Defense mechanisms in schizotypal, borderline, antisocial, and narcissistic personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J Christopher; Presniak, Michelle D; Olson, Trevor R

    2013-01-01

    Numerous authors have theorized that defense mechanisms play a role in personality disorders. We reviewed theoretical writings and empirical studies about defenses in schizotypal, borderline, antisocial, and narcissistic personality disorders, developing hypotheses about these differential relationships. We then examined these hypotheses using dynamic interview data rated for defenses in a study of participants (n = 107) diagnosed with these four personality disorder types. Overall, the prevalence of immature defenses was substantial, and all four disorders fit within the broad borderline personality organization construct. Defenses predicted the most variance in borderline and the least variance in schizotypal personality disorder, suggesting that dynamic factors played the largest role in borderline and the least in schizotypal personality. Central to borderline personality were strong associations with major image-distorting defenses, primarily splitting of self and other's images, and the hysterical level defenses, dissociation and repression. Narcissistic and antisocial personality disorders shared minor image-distorting defenses, such as omnipotence or devaluation, while narcissistic also used splitting of self-images and antisocial used disavowal defenses like denial. Overall, differential relationships between specific defenses and personality disorder types were largely consistent with the literature, and consistent with the importance that the treatment literature ascribes to working with defenses.

  11. Schizotypal Personality Traits and Atypical Lateralization in Motor and Language Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Tomohisa; Sugimori, Eriko; Tanno, Yoshihiko

    2009-01-01

    Atypical cerebral lateralization in motor and language functions in regard to schizotypal personality traits in healthy populations, as well as among schizophrenic patients, has attracted attention because these traits may represent a risk factor for schizophrenia. Although the relationship between handedness and schizotypal personality has been…

  12. Schizotypal perceptual aberrations of time: correlation between score, behavior and brain activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahar Arzy

    Full Text Available A fundamental trait of the human self is its continuum experience of space and time. Perceptual aberrations of this spatial and temporal continuity is a major characteristic of schizophrenia spectrum disturbances--including schizophrenia, schizotypal personality disorder and schizotypy. We have previously found the classical Perceptual Aberration Scale (PAS scores, related to body and space, to be positively correlated with both behavior and temporo-parietal activation in healthy participants performing a task involving self-projection in space. However, not much is known about the relationship between temporal perceptual aberration, behavior and brain activity. To this aim, we composed a temporal Perceptual Aberration Scale (tPAS similar to the traditional PAS. Testing on 170 participants suggested similar performance for PAS and tPAS. We then correlated tPAS and PAS scores to participants' performance and neural activity in a task of self-projection in time. tPAS scores correlated positively with reaction times across task conditions, as did PAS scores. Evoked potential mapping and electrical neuroimaging showed self-projection in time to recruit a network of brain regions at the left anterior temporal cortex, right temporo-parietal junction, and occipito-temporal cortex, and duration of activation in this network positively correlated with tPAS and PAS scores. These data demonstrate that schizotypal perceptual aberrations of both time and space, as reflected by tPAS and PAS scores, are positively correlated with performance and brain activation during self-projection in time in healthy individuals along the schizophrenia spectrum.

  13. A systematic literature review on ambivalent sexism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Svetek

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Manifestations of sexism are under the constant influence of social changes and changes in gender relations. This paper presents modern forms of sexism, with an emphasis on the ambivalent sexism theory (Glick and Fiske, 1996. Ambivalent sexism theory addresses sexism not only on societal but also on interpersonal and personal level. In addition, this article provides a comprehensive review of the empirical findings in the field of benevolent and hostile sexism and their effect on close relations, sexual violence, beauty ideals and practices, women’s self-esteem, and their career decisions and aspirations. Finally, I place ambivalent sexism theory into the broader societal and psychological context and discuss the possibilities of surmounting current sexist ideologies and practices.

  14. [Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief - Likert format: Factor structure analysis in general population in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferchiou, A; Todorov, L; Lajnef, M; Baudin, G; Pignon, B; Richard, J-R; Leboyer, M; Szöke, A; Schürhoff, F

    2017-12-01

    The main objective of the study was to explore the factorial structure of the French version of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief (SPQ-B) in a Likert format, in a representative sample of the general population. In addition, differences in the dimensional scores of schizotypy according to gender and age were analyzed. As the study in the general population of schizotypal traits and its determinants has been recently proposed as a way toward the understanding of aetiology and pathophysiology of schizophrenia, consistent self-report tools are crucial to measure psychometric schizotypy. A shorter version of the widely used Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ-Brief) has been extensively investigated in different countries, particularly in samples of students or clinical adolescents, and more recently, a few studies used a Likert-type scale format which allows partial endorsement of items and reduces the risk of defensive answers. A sample of 233 subjects representative of the adult population from an urban area near Paris (Créteil) was recruited using the "itinerary method". They completed the French version of the SPQ-B with a 5-point Likert-type response format (1=completely disagree; 5=completely agree). We examined the dimensional structure of the French version of the SPQ-B with a Principal Components Analysis (PCA) followed by a promax rotation. Factor selection was based on Eigenvalues over 1.0 (Kaiser's criterion), Cattell's Scree-plot test, and interpretability of the factors. Items with loadings greater than 0.4 were retained for each dimension. The internal consistency estimate of the dimensions was calculated with Cronbach's α. In order to study the influence of age and gender, we carried out a simple linear regression with the subscales as dependent variables. Our sample was composed of 131 women (mean age=52.5±18.2 years) and 102 men (mean age=53±18.1 years). SPQ-B Likert total scores ranged from 22 to 84 points (mean=43.6

  15. Borderline or Schizotypal? Differential Psychodynamic Assessment in Severe Personality Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAN Riel, Laura; Ingenhoven, Theo J M; VAN Dam, Quin D; Polak, Marike G; Vollema, Meinte G; Willems, Anne E; Berghuis, Han; VAN Megen, Harold

    2017-03-01

    Considerable overlap in symptoms between patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and schizotypal personality disorder (STPD) complicates personality diagnostics. Yet very little is known about the level of psychodynamic functioning of both personality disorders. Psychodynamic assessment procedures may specify personality characteristics relevant for differential diagnosis and treatment planning. In this cross-sectional study we explored the differences and similarities in level of personality functioning and psychodynamic features of patients with severe BPD or STPD. In total, 25 patients with BPD and 13 patients with STPD were compared regarding their level of personality functioning (General Assessment of Personality Disorder), current quasipsychotic features (Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire), and psychodynamic functioning [Developmental Profile (DP) interview and Developmental Profile Inventory (DPI) questionnaire]. Both groups of patients showed equally severe impairments in the level of personality functioning and the presence of current quasipsychotic features. As assessed by the DP interview, significant differential psychodynamic patterns were found on the primitive levels of functioning. Moreover, subjects with BPD had significantly higher scores on the adaptive developmental levels. However, the self-questionnaire DPI was not able to elucidate all of these differences. In conclusion, our study found significant differences in psychodynamic functioning between patients with BPD and STPD as assessed with the DP interview. In complicated diagnostic cases, personality assessment by psychodynamic interviewing can enhance subtle but essential differentiation between BPD and STPD.

  16. Caught between Empires: Ambivalence in Australian Films ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Caught between Empires: Ambivalence in Australian Films. Greg McCarthy. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for ...

  17. Some suggestions for the DSM-5 schizotypal personality disorder construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummelen, Benjamin; Pedersen, Geir; Karterud, Sigmund

    2012-05-01

    This study relates to the schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) proposal of the upcoming fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) by investigating the construct validity of SPD as defined by DSM-IV in a large sample of patients from the Norwegian Network of Personality-Focused Treatment Programs (N = 2619), assessed by structured diagnostic interviews and the Longitudinal, Expert All Data standard. We investigated factor structure and psychometric properties of the SPD criteria, as well as co-occurrence patterns between SPD and other PDs. Thirty-six patients were diagnosed with SPD and 513 patients (21%) endorsed at least 2 schizotypal criteria. We found that 2 factors were specific for SPD, a cognitive-perceptual factor (ideas of reference, magical thinking, and unusual perceptual experiences) and an oddness factor (odd thinking and speech, constricted affect, and odd appearance or behavior). The criteria belonging to these factors had appropriate psychometric properties. The criteria of the cognitive-perceptual factor were more strongly associated with borderline personality disorder (PD) than with the other PDs. We did not find support for a consistent factor that reflected interpersonal problems. The criteria that used to be part of this factor (suspiciousness, lack of friends or confidants, and excessive social anxiety) performed poorly as specific SPD criteria. SPD was more strongly associated with antisocial PD and paranoid PD than with the other PDs. We suggest that ideas of reference should be included explicitly under the schizotypal facet of cognitive dysregulation in DSM-5, with less emphasis on the social phobic aspects of this feature. Furthermore, there should be more emphasis on the cognitive aspects of suspiciousness in SPD, and it should be considered to split up the affectivity criterion into constricted affect and inappropriate affect, with the latter type of affect being the expression of problems with

  18. Using the MMPI-2-RF to discriminate psychometrically identified schizotypic college students from a matched comparison sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Helen K; Bolinskey, P Kevin; Novi, Jonathan H; Hudak, Daniel V; James, Alison V; Myers, Kevin R; Schuder, Kelly M

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the extent to which the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) profiles of 52 individuals making up a psychometrically identified schizotypes (SZT) sample could be successfully discriminated from the protocols of 52 individuals in a matched comparison (MC) sample. Replication analyses were performed with an additional 53 pairs of SZT and MC participants. Results showed significant differences in mean T-score values between these 2 groups across a variety of MMPI-2-RF scales. Results from discriminant function analyses indicate that schizotypy can be predicted effectively using 4 MMPI-2-RF scales and that this method of classification held up on replication. Additional results demonstrated that these MMPI-2-RF scales nominally outperformed MMPI-2 scales suggested by previous research as being indicative of schizophrenia liability. Directions for future research with the MMPI-2-RF are suggested.

  19. Does gratitude always work? Ambivalence over emotional expression inhibits the beneficial effect of gratitude on well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lung Hung; Chen, Mei-Yen; Tsai, Ying-Mei

    2012-01-01

    The psychological benefit of gratitude has been well demonstrated in previous studies. However, when we examined these studies closely, we found that the moderators were rarely investigated, suggesting that further work is needed to explore the boundaries of gratitude In this regard, the authors have proposed that ambivalence over emotional expression might be a potential moderator that would inhibit the beneficial effect of gratitude on well-being. Two studies were conducted to examine our hypothesis. Study 1 consisted of 353 Taiwanese college students who completed the Gratitude Questionnaire-Taiwan version (GQ-T), Ambivalence over Emotional Expression Questionnaire (AEQ), and one question about subjective happiness. We found that ambivalence over emotional expression significantly moderated the effect of gratitude on happiness. To validate our findings in Study 1, 233 Taiwanese college students were recruited for Study 2, and they completed the GQ-T, AEQ, subjective happiness short-form UCLA loneliness scale, as well as the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Both studies demonstrated that ambivalence over emotional expression moderated the relationship between gratitude and well-being indexes. Simply stated, the authors found that across the two independent samples, among students who are high in ambivalence over emotional expression, the beneficial effect of gratitude on subjective happiness was inhibited. However, the moderating pattern for loneliness and depression was contrary to our expectations, indicating that high ambivalence over emotional expression does not inhibit gratitude. Possible explanations and implications for social relationships and emotional expression are discussed.

  20. EEG synchronization to modulated auditory tones in schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and schizotypal personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Colleen A; Sporns, Olaf; Lysaker, Paul H; O'Donnell, Brian F

    2003-12-01

    The authors tested whether neural synchronization deficits were present in subjects with schizophrenia and schizotypal personality disorder. Amplitude-modulated tones were used to evaluate auditory steady-state evoked potential entrainment in a combined group of 21 subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, 11 subjects with schizotypal personality disorder, and 22 nonpsychiatric comparison subjects. The schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder group exhibited decreased power compared to the schizotypal personality disorder and nonpsychiatric comparison groups. There were no differences between groups in N100 amplitude. Subjects with schizophrenia but not subjects with schizotypal personality disorder have deficits in steady-state responses to periodic stimuli, despite an intact response to sensory-evoked potentials (N100). These deficits reflect aberrant neural synchronization or resolution and may contribute to disturbed perceptual and cognitive integration in schizophrenia.

  1. Overlap of autistic and schizotypal traits in adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barneveld, Petra S; Pieterse, Jolijn; de Sonneville, Leo; van Rijn, Sophie; Lahuis, Bertine; van Engeland, Herman; Swaab, Hanna

    2011-03-01

    This study addresses the unraveling of the relationship between autism spectrum and schizophrenia spectrum traits in a population of adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Recent studies comparing isolated symptoms of both spectrum disorders as well as diagnostic criteria for each (DSM-IV-TR) suggest resemblances in the clinical phenotype. A group of 27 adolescents with ASD (11 to 18 years) and 30 typically developing adolescents, matched for age and gender, participated in this study. Within the ASD group 11 adolescents satisfied DSM-IV-TR criteria for schizotypal personality disorders. Autistic and schizotypal traits were identified by means of well validated questionnaires (Autism Questionnaire, AQ and Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Revised, SPQ). Significantly more schizotypal traits in adolescents with ASD were found than in typically developing controls. Besides high levels of negative symptoms, adolescents with ASD also displayed high levels of positive and disorganized symptoms. There appeared to be a relationship between the mean level of autistic symptoms and schizotypal traits, as well as specific associations between autistic symptoms and negative, disorganized and positive schizotypal symptoms within individuals. Schizotypal symptomatology in all sub dimensions that are reflected by the SPQ scores, was most prominently associated with attention switching problems of the autism symptoms from the AQ. These findings indicate that patients diagnosed with an ASD show schizophrenia spectrum traits in adolescence. Although other studies have provided empirical support for this overlap in diagnostic criteria between both spectrum disorders, the present findings add to the literature that behavioral overlap is not limited to negative schizotypal symptoms, but extends to disorganized and positive symptoms as well. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of schizotypal symptoms following psychiatric disorders in childhood or adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagel, Selene S A A; Swaab, Hanna; De Sonneville, Leo M J; Van Rijn, Sophie; Pieterse, Jolijn K; Scheepers, Floor; Van Engeland, Herman

    2013-11-01

    It was examined how juvenile psychiatric disorders and adult schizotypal symptoms are associated. 731 patients of the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry of the University Medical Centre Utrecht, the Netherlands, with mean age of 12.1 years (SD = 4.0) were reassessed at the mean age of 27.9 years (SD = 5.7) for adult schizotypal symptoms using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Revised (Vollema, Schizophr Bull 26(3):565-575, 2000). Differences between 13 juvenile DSM categories and normal controls (n = 80) on adult schizotypal total and factor scores were analyzed, using (M)ANCOVA. Pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD), deferred diagnosis, sexual and gender identity disorders and depressive disorders had higher SPQ total scores when compared to normal controls (p gender identity disorders, depressive disorders, disruptive disorders, and the category of 'Other conditions that may be a focus of clinical attention' (p < 0.001). No differences with normal controls were found for adult positive schizotypal symptoms (p < 0.110). The current findings are suggestive of the idea that psychiatric disorders in childhood or adolescence are a more general expression of a liability to schizophrenia spectrum pathology in future life. In addition, specific patterns of adult schizotypal symptomatology are associated with different types of juvenile psychiatric disorder.

  3. Sub-optimal parenting is associated with schizotypic and anxiety personality traits in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giakoumaki, S G; Roussos, P; Zouraraki, C; Spanoudakis, E; Mavrikaki, M; Tsapakis, E M; Bitsios, P

    2013-05-01

    Part of the variation in personality characteristics has been attributed to the child-parent interaction and sub-optimal parenting has been associated with psychiatric morbidity. In the present study, an extensive battery of personality scales (Trait Anxiety Inventory, Behavioural Inhibition/Activation System questionnaire, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised, Temperament and Character Inventory, Schizotypal Traits Questionnaire, Toronto Alexithymia Scale) and the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) were administered in 324 adult healthy males to elucidate the effects of parenting on personality configuration. Personality variables were analysed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and the factors "Schizotypy", "Anxiety", "Behavioural activation", "Novelty seeking" and "Reward dependence" were extracted. Associations between personality factors with PBI "care" and "overprotection" scores were examined with regression analyses. Subjects were divided into "parental style" groups and personality factors were subjected to categorical analyses. "Schizotypy" and "Anxiety" were significantly predicted by high maternal overprotection and low paternal care. In addition, the Affectionless control group (low care/high overprotection) had higher "Schizotypy" and "Anxiety" compared with the Optimal Parenting group (high care/low overprotection). These results further validate sub-optimal parenting as an important environmental exposure and extend our understanding on the mechanisms by which it increases risk for psychiatric morbidity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Correlation of individual differences in schizotypal personality traits with amphetamine-induced dopamine release in striatal and extrastriatal brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Neil D; Cowan, Ronald L; Park, Sohee; Ansari, M Sib; Baldwin, Ronald M; Li, Rui; Doop, Mikisha; Kessler, Robert M; Zald, David H

    2011-04-01

    Schizotypal personality traits are associated with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders demonstrate increased dopamine transmission in the striatum. The authors sought to determine whether individual differences in normal variation in schizotypal traits are correlated with dopamine transmission in the striatum and in extrastriatal brain regions. Sixty-three healthy volunteers with no history of psychiatric illness completed the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire and underwent positron emission tomography imaging with [(18)F]fallypride at baseline and after administration of oral d-amphetamine (0.43 mg/kg). Dopamine release, quantified by subtracting each participant's d-amphetamine scan from his or her baseline scan, was correlated with Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire total and factor scores using region-of-interest and voxel-wise analyses. Dopamine release in the striatum was positively correlated with overall schizotypal traits. The association was especially robust in the associative subdivision of the striatum. Voxel-wise analyses identified additional correlations between dopamine release and schizotypal traits in the left middle frontal gyrus and left supramarginal gyrus. Exploratory analyses of Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire factor scores revealed correlations between dopamine release and disorganized schizotypal traits in the striatum, thalamus, medial prefrontal cortex, temporal lobe, insula, and inferior frontal cortex. The association between dopamine signaling and psychosis phenotypes extends to individual differences in normal variation in schizotypal traits and involves dopamine transmission in both striatal and extrastriatal brain regions. Amphetamine-induced dopamine release may be a useful endophenotype for investigating the genetic basis of schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

  5. The ambivalence of ritual in violence: Orthodox Christian perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian G. Simion

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article demonstrates that ritual plays an ambivalent role in the interaction betweenreligion and violence. Ritual triggers and gives meaning to violence, or it enforces peace andcoexistence. The first part of the article defines the ambivalence of ritual in the context ofviolence. The second part surveys standard rituals of peace and violence from Hinduism,Buddhism, Judaism, Christianity and Islam. The third part focuses on the ambivalent natureof Orthodox Christian rituals.

  6. Sleep spindles are related to schizotypal personality traits and thalamic glutamine/glutamate in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustenberger, Caroline; O'Gorman, Ruth L; Pugin, Fiona; Tüshaus, Laura; Wehrle, Flavia; Achermann, Peter; Huber, Reto

    2015-03-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder affecting approximately 1% of the worldwide population. Yet, schizophrenia-like experiences (schizotypy) are very common in the healthy population, indicating a continuum between normal mental functioning and the psychosis found in schizophrenic patients. A continuum between schizotypy and schizophrenia would be supported if they share the same neurobiological origin. Two such neurobiological markers of schizophrenia are: (1) a reduction of sleep spindles (12-15 Hz oscillations during nonrapid eye movement sleep), likely reflecting deficits in thalamo-cortical circuits and (2) increased glutamine and glutamate (Glx) levels in the thalamus. Thus, this study aimed to investigate whether sleep spindles and Glx levels are related to schizotypal personality traits in healthy subjects. Twenty young male subjects underwent 2 all-night sleep electroencephalography recordings (128 electrodes). Sleep spindles were detected automatically. After those 2 nights, thalamic Glx levels were measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Subjects completed a magical ideation scale to assess schizotypy. Sleep spindle density was negatively correlated with magical ideation (r = -.64, P .1). The common relationship of sleep spindle density with schizotypy and thalamic Glx levels indicates a neurobiological overlap between nonclinical schizotypy and schizophrenia. Thus, sleep spindle density and magical ideation may reflect the anatomy and efficiency of the thalamo-cortical system that shows pronounced impairment in patients with schizophrenia. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Smaller superior temporal gyrus volume specificity in schizotypal personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Kim E.; Hazlett, Erin A.; New, Antonia S.; Haznedar, M. Mehmet; Newmark, Randall E.; Zelmanova, Yuliya; Passarelli, Vincent; Weinstein, Shauna R.; Canfield, Emily L.; Meyerson, David A.; Tang, Cheuk Y.; Buchsbaum, Monte S.; Siever, Larry J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Superior temporal gyrus (STG/BA22) volume is reduced in schizophrenia and to a milder degree in schizotypal personality disorder (SPD), representing a less severe disorder in the schizophrenia-spectrum. SPD and Borderline personality disorder (BPD) are severe personality disorders characterized by social and cognitive dysfunction. However, while SPD is characterized by social withdrawal/anhedonia, BPD is marked by hyper-reactivity to interpersonal stimuli and hyper-emotionality. This is the first morphometric study to directly compare SPD and BPD patients in temporal volume. Methods We compared three age-gender- and education-matched groups: 27 unmedicated SPD individuals with no BPD traits, 52 unmedicated BPD individuals with no SPD traits, and 45 healthy controls. We examined gray matter volume of frontal and temporal lobe Brodmann areas (BAs), and dorsal/ventral amygdala from 3T magnetic resonance imaging. Results In the STG, an auditory association area reported to be dysfunctional in SPD and BPD, the SPD patients had significantly smaller volume than healthy controls and BPD patients. No group differences were found between BPD patients and controls. Smaller BA22 volume was associated with greater symptom severity in SPD patients. Reduced STG volume may be an important endophenotype for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. SPD is distinct from BPD in terms of STG volume abnormalities which may reflect different underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and could help discriminate between them. PMID:19473820

  8. Profiles of Cognitive Deficits in Paranoid Schizophrenia and Schizotypal Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebedeva G.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the search for more accurate psycho-diagnostic methods and assessment tools for determining the degree of cognitive deficits in patients with schizophrenic disorders. The concepts of "cognitive deficits" and "cognitive profile", understood as the ratio of intact and damaged components of cognitive processes and their schematic representation are discussed. The authors substantiate the need for a clear gradation of cognitive impairments in schizophrenia, development of universal translation algorithms of traditional qualitative results (meaningful analysis of violations of cognitive activity in quantitative indicators. The article is based on the results of experimental psychological study. The investigation involved 128 patients: 76 people with Paranoid schizophrenia (F20 according to ICD-10 and 52 persons with Schizotypal disorder (F21 according to ICD-10. To assess the cognitive deficit, both traditional domestic methods and foreign tests, rarely used in the practice of a medical psychologist were conducted. The study analyzed the difference in cognitive tests performance between groups of patients with several types of schizophrenia and with different disease duration (up to 5 years and more. On the basis of quantitative data, a "cognitive profile" was lined for each disease. As a result, different variants of cognitive deficits, depending on the shape and course of the disease have been identified. The structure and dynamics of the cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia and various forms depending on the different duration of the disease is described in detail. Also cognitive profiles compiled on this basis.

  9. The influence of schizotypal traits on attention under high perceptual load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotesbury, Hanne; Gaigg, Sebastian B; Kirhan, Saim; Haenschel, Corinna

    2018-03-01

    Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (SSD) are known to be characterised by abnormalities in attentional processes, but there are inconsistencies in the literature that remain unresolved. This article considers whether perceptual resource limitations play a role in moderating attentional abnormalities in SSD. According to perceptual load theory, perceptual resource limitations can lead to attenuated or superior performance on dual-task paradigms depending on whether participants are required to process, or attempt to ignore, secondary stimuli. If SSD is associated with perceptual resource limitations, and if it represents the extreme end of an otherwise normally distributed neuropsychological phenotype, schizotypal traits in the general population should lead to disproportionate performance costs on dual-task paradigms as a function of the perceptual task demands. To test this prediction, schizotypal traits were quantified via the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) in 74 healthy volunteers, who also completed a dual-task signal detection paradigm that required participants to detect central and peripheral stimuli across conditions that varied in the overall number of stimuli presented. The results confirmed decreasing performance as the perceptual load of the task increased. More importantly, significant correlations between SPQ scores and task performance confirmed that increased schizotypal traits, particularly in the cognitive-perceptual domain, are associated with greater performance decrements under increasing perceptual load. These results confirm that attentional difficulties associated with SSD extend sub-clinically into the general population and suggest that cognitive-perceptual schizotypal traits may represent a risk factor for difficulties in the regulation of attention under increasing perceptual load.

  10. Rubber hand illusion, empathy, and schizotypal experiences in terms of self-other representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Tomohisa; Mao, Zhu; Sugimori, Eriko; Tanno, Yoshihiko

    2011-12-01

    When participants observed a rubber hand being touched, their sense of touch was activated (rubber hand illusion: RHI). While this illusion might be caused by multi-modal integration, it may also be related to empathic function, which enables us to simulate the observed information. We examined individual differences in the RHI, including empathic and schizotypal personality traits, as previous research had suggested that schizophrenic patients would be more subject to the RHI. The results indicated that people who experience a stronger RHI might have stronger empathic and schizotypal personalites simultaneously. We discussed these relationships in terms of self-other representations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The complexity and ambivalence of immigration attitudes: ambivalent stereotypes predict conflicting attitudes toward immigration policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Christine; Dobria, Ovidiu; Wetherell, Geoffrey

    2013-07-01

    Americans' conflicted attitudes toward immigrants and immigration has stymied immigration reform for decades. In this article, we explore the nuanced nature of stereotypes about immigrants and how they relate to ambivalent attitudes toward immigrant groups and the disparate array of immigration policies that affect them. Using item response theory and multiple regression analysis, we identified and related stereotypes of different immigrant groups to group-based and policy attitudes. Results demonstrate that ambivalent stereotypes mapped onto ambivalent group-based and immigration policy attitudes. Specifically, stereotypes that portray groups in positive or sympathetic ways predicted positive attitudes toward the group and more supportive attitudes toward policies that facilitate their immigration to the United States. Conversely, negative qualities predicted negative attitudes toward the same group and support for policies that prevent the group from immigrating. Results are discussed in light of current theory related to stereotype content, complementarity of stereotypes, and broader implications for immigration attitudes and policy. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. The influence of oxytocin on volitional and emotional ambivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preckel, Katrin; Scheele, Dirk; Eckstein, Monika; Maier, Wolfgang; Hurlemann, René

    2015-07-01

    Moral decisions and social relationships are often characterized by strong feelings of ambivalence which can be a catalyst for emotional distress and several health-related problems. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has been identified as a key brain region in monitoring conflicting information, but the neurobiological substrates of ambivalence processing are still widely unknown. We have conducted two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments involving 70 healthy male volunteers to investigate the effects of the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) on neural and behavioral correlates of ambivalence. We chose moral decision-making and the imagery of partner infidelity as examples to probe volitional and emotional ambivalence. In both experiments, intranasal OXT diminished neural responses in the ACC to ambivalence. Under OXT, moral dilemma vignettes also elicited a reduced activation in the orbitofrontal cortex, and the imagery of partner infidelity was rated as less arousing. Interestingly, the OXT-induced differential activation in the ACC predicted the magnitude of arousal reduction. Taken together, our findings reveal an unprecedented role of OXT in causing a domain-general decrease of neural responses to ambivalence. By alleviating emotional distress, OXT may qualify as a treatment option for psychiatric disorders with heightened ambivalence sensitivity such as schizophrenia or obsessive-compulsive disorder. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. [Structuralistic and meta-psychological approaches to ambivalence in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumida, Kyoko; Tsuda, Hitoshi

    2003-01-01

    The word "ambivalence" generally signifies a psychic state in which a subject holds a contradictory or conflicted attitude towards an object. The literal meaning of the word is that two valences occur simultaneously, and this connotes the epistemological and ethical problem of where and how the valences arise. The concept of ambivalence implies that the relationship between the subject and the world is ambivalent, that the subject has free will in the alternative evaluation, and that the meanings of the two valences derive from the meta-level outside the world. These reflections lead us to the supposition that ambivalence is closely associated with the function of language. The ambivalent attitude of the subject divides the significance of the object; the appearance of the given ambivalent meanings is the moment of the subject's choice. This phenomenon of division, choice, and given meanings is more than analogous to F. de Saussure's conception of language in terms of sign, différenciation, and l'arbitraire de langue. A view of ambivalence as a fundamental phenomenon concerning subject, world, and language affords insight specifically into ambivalence in schizophrenia. For people with schizophrenia, ambivalent conflict often takes the form of a dichotomy between "good and bad". The more severe the ambivalent symptom, the more similar it seems to a philosophical question about the nature of existence in the world. When schizophrenic people raise philosophical questions directly such as "Is my existence good or bad?" or "To be or not to be?", they seek approval for their existence, assaying to live with "good" intentions. Unfortunately they come to be blamed for harbouring "bad" intentions. When they have an interrogative attitude even to everyday matters, they cannot resolve such questions as "Is the red cup good or bad?", or "Is the green cup good or bad?", and hence "Which cup should I use?". If the projection of the self into the world is essentially the choice

  14. Two-Year Stability and Change of Schizotypal, Borderline, Avoidant, and Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Sanislow, Charles A.; Gunderson, John G.; Pagano, Maria E.; Yen, Shirley; Zanarini, Mary C.; Shea, Tracie M.; Skodol, Andrew E.; Stout, Robert L.; Morey, Leslie C.; McGlashan, Thomas H.

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined the stability of schizotypal (STPD), borderline (BPD), avoidant (AVPD) and obsessive-compulsive (OCPD) personality disorders (PDs) over 2 years of prospective multiwave follow-up. Six hundred thirty-three participants recruited at 4 collaborating sites who met criteria for 1 or more of the 4 PDs or for major depressive…

  15. Increased glutamate/GABA+ ratio in a shared autistic and schizotypal trait phenotype termed Social Disorganisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talitha C. Ford

    2017-01-01

    Results suggest that a higher expression of the SD phenotype may be associated with increased glutamate/GABA+ ratio in the right ST region, which may affect speech prosody processing, and lead behavioural characteristics that are shared within the autistic and schizotypal spectra.

  16. Association of Substance Use Disorders With Conversion From Schizotypal Disorder to Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorthøj, Carsten; Albert, Nikolai; Nordentoft, Merete

    2018-04-25

    Understanding the role of substance use disorders in conversion from schizotypal disorder to schizophrenia may provide physicians and psychiatrists with important tools for prevention or early detection of schizophrenia. To investigate whether substance use disorders, in particular cannabis use disorder, are associated with conversion to schizophrenia in individuals with schizotypal disorder. This prospective cohort study included a population-based sample of all individuals born in Denmark from January 1, 1981, through August 10, 2014, with an incident diagnosis of schizotypal disorder and without a previous diagnosis of schizophrenia. Follow-up was completed on August 10, 2014, and data were analyzed from March 10, 2017, through February 15, 2018. Information on substance use disorders combined from 5 different registers. Cox proportional hazards regression using time-varying information on substance use disorders and receipt of antipsychotics and adjusted for parental history of mental disorders, sex, birth year, and calendar year were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for conversion to schizophrenia. A total of 2539 participants with incident schizotypal disorder were identified (1448 men [57.0%] and 1091 women [43.0%]; mean [SD] age, 20.9 [4.4] years). After 2 years, 16.3% (95% CI, 14.8%-17.8%) experienced conversion to schizophrenia. After 20 years, the conversion rate was 33.1% (95% CI, 29.3%-37.3%) overall and 58.2% (95% CI, 44.8%-72.2%) among those with cannabis use disorders. In fully adjusted models, any substance use disorder was associated with conversion to schizophrenia (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.11-1.63). When data were stratified by substance, cannabis use disorders (HR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.01-1.68), amphetamine use disorders (HR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.14-3.17), and opioid use disorders (HR, 2.74; 95% CI, 1.38-5.45) were associated with conversion to schizophrenia. These associations were not explained by concurrent use of antipsychotics, functional

  17. Ambiguity, Ambivalence and Extravagance in The Hunger Games

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    I argue that Katniss Everdeen from The Hunger Games is an emblem of what Julia Kristeva calls the “extravagant girl” who wants to have it all and to be the best at everything. Katniss has an ambiguous gender identity, both masculine and feminine, paternal and maternal. And she has ambivalent desires. I conclude that this ambiguity and ambivalence open up new possibilities for girls and initiate an aesthetics of ambiguity.

  18. The influence of schizotypal traits on attention under high perceptual load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne Stotesbury

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (SSD are known to be characterised by abnormalities in attentional processes, but there are inconsistencies in the literature that remain unresolved. This article considers whether perceptual resource limitations play a role in moderating attentional abnormalities in SSD. According to perceptual load theory, perceptual resource limitations can lead to attenuated or superior performance on dual-task paradigms depending on whether participants are required to process, or attempt to ignore, secondary stimuli. If SSD is associated with perceptual resource limitations, and if it represents the extreme end of an otherwise normally distributed neuropsychological phenotype, schizotypal traits in the general population should lead to disproportionate performance costs on dual-task paradigms as a function of the perceptual task demands. To test this prediction, schizotypal traits were quantified via the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ in 74 healthy volunteers, who also completed a dual-task signal detection paradigm that required participants to detect central and peripheral stimuli across conditions that varied in the overall number of stimuli presented. The results confirmed decreasing performance as the perceptual load of the task increased. More importantly, significant correlations between SPQ scores and task performance confirmed that increased schizotypal traits, particularly in the cognitive-perceptual domain, are associated with greater performance decrements under increasing perceptual load. These results confirm that attentional difficulties associated with SSD extend sub-clinically into the general population and suggest that cognitive-perceptual schizotypal traits may represent a risk factor for difficulties in the regulation of attention under increasing perceptual load.

  19. Ambivalent journey: Teacher career paths in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, David W.; Al-Barwani, Thuwayba; Mawali, Fathiya Al; Green, Elizabeth

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated the career paths of 625 university graduates who prepared to be secondary school teachers in Oman, their assessment of their current work situation, and the extent to which their initial commitment to teaching was related to their subsequent career satisfaction and intention to remain in teaching. While nearly all graduates entered teaching, their decision was marked by ambivalence. Nearly half of the graduates reported being only somewhat or not at all committed to teaching as a career when they graduated. It also appears that initial commitment to teaching operates as an important lens through which teachers view their subsequent careers. Those initially more committed to teaching were more likely to be satisfied with the progress they made in their career, more likely to think that their current teaching position offered them opportunities for advancement, and more likely to want to remain in teaching than were graduates who had a lower initial commitment to teaching. The authors discuss both the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.

  20. The link between ambivalence over emotional expression and depressive symptoms among Chinese breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qian; Man, Jenny; You, Jin; LeRoy, Angie S

    2015-08-01

    Ambivalence over emotional expression (AEE) is the conflict between wanting to express emotion yet fearing the consequences of such expression. Recent literature reveals a close link between AEE and depressive symptoms among college students. Although cancer survivors experience intense emotions, few studies have examined the relationship between AEE and depressive symptoms and the underlying mechanisms among cancer survivors. Furthermore, relevant research is absent among Asians, whose culture discourages emotional expression. The present study investigated AEE's associations with depressive symptoms in Asian breast cancer survivors, and examined intrusive thoughts as a mediator. Intrusive thoughts are repetitive and unwanted thoughts about stressful events. We hypothesized that AEE would increase intrusive thoughts which in turn would increase depressive symptoms. A total of 118 Chinese American breast cancer survivors completed a questionnaire packet containing the Ambivalence over Emotional Expression Questionnaire (AEQ), Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), and the Impact of Event Scale (IES). AEE was positively associated with depressive symptoms (β=.45, pChinese breast cancer survivors who are highly ambivalent over emotional expression may have increased risk for depressive symptoms, and such relationships can be partially explained by a cognitive mechanism: intrusive thoughts. Future research may explore other mediators and design interventions specifically targeted at reducing AEE and intrusive thoughts with the ultimate goal of reducing depression. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Intimate Partner Violence and Controlling Behavior Among Male Same-Sex Relationships in China: Relationship With Ambivalent Sexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Diandian; Zheng, Lijun

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we examined intimate partner violence (IPV), cold violence, and controlling behaviors in male same-sex relationships in China, with a focus on the characteristics of IPV and controlling behaviors, and their relationships with ambivalent sexism. IPV was categorized as psychological aggression, physical injury, physical assault, and sexual coercion and was measured using the revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2), an eight-item scale measuring cold violence that was designed specifically for this study. Controlling behaviors were measured using a 34-item scale that was designed for this study, and sexist attitudes toward women and men were assessed using the short forms of the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI) and the Ambivalence toward Men Inventory (AMI), respectively. Participants ( N = 272) reported instances of perpetration of or victimization by IPV and controlling behaviors within the past 6 months and indicated ambivalent sexism (hostile attitude toward men and women and benevolent attitude toward men and women [HM, HS, BM, and BS, respectively]). Almost 47.1% of the participants reported an experience of IPV, and the prevalence of cold violence and controlling behaviors was found to be 65.1% and 80.5%, respectively. Psychological aggression was the most common, followed sequentially by sexual coercion, physical assault, and injury in present study. We found a strong association between perpetration and victimization and that different forms of violence tend to co-occur in both IPV and controlling behaviors. As predicted, ambivalent sexism was positively correlated with IPV and controlling behaviors, specifically HS and HM. The results indicated the high prevalence of IPV and controlling behaviors among male same-sex relationships, and sexism contributing to this high prevalence.

  2. Ambivalent Sexism as a Mediator for Sex Role Orientation and Gender Stereotypes in Romantic Relationships: A Study in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferzan Curun

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the mediating effects of ambivalent sexism (hostile and benevolent in the relationship between sex role orientation (masculinity and femininity and gender stereotypes (dominance and assertiveness in college students. The variables were measured using the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI, the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI, and the Attitudes toward Gender Stereotypes in Romantic Relationships Scale (AGSRRS. These inventories were administered to 250 undergraduate students at Istanbul University in Istanbul and Suleyman Demirel University in Isparta, Turkey. Results indicate that benevolent sexism mediates the relationship between hostile sexism and male dominance. Benevolent sexism also mediates femininity and male dominance, as well as femininity and male assertiveness. Hostile sexism was mediated only between the masculine personality trait and benevolent sexism. The present findings expand the literature on sex role orientation by revealing evidence that masculine and feminine individuals experience ambivalent sexism distinctively. The results are discussed in terms of the assumptions of sex role orientation, ambivalent sexism, and gender stereotypes.

  3. Adolescent resting state networks and their associations to schizotypal trait expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalaura Lagioia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The rising interest in temporally coherent brain networks during baseline adult cerebral activity finds convergent evidence for an identifiable set of resting state networks (RSNs. To date, little is know concerning the earlier developmental stages of functional connectivity in RSNs. This study’s main objective is to characterize the RSNs in a sample of adolescents. We further examine our data from a developmental psychopathology perspective of psychosis-proneness, by testing the hypothesis that early schizotypal symptoms are linked to disconnection in RSNs. In this perspective, this study examines the expression of adolescent schizotypal traits and their potential associations to dysfunctional RSNs. Thirty-nine adolescents aged between 12 and 20 years old underwent an eight minute fMRI “resting state” session. In order to explore schizotypal trait manifestations, the entire population was assessed by the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ. After conventional processing of the fMRI data, we applied group-level independent component analysis (ICA. Twenty ICA maps and associated time-courses were obtained, among which there were resting state networks (RSNs that are consistent with findings in the literature. We applied a regression analysis at group level between the energy of RSN-associated time courses in different temporal frequency bins and the clinical measures (3 in total. Our results highlight the engagement of six relevant RSNs; 1 a default-mode network; 2 a dorso-lateral attention network; 3 a visual network; 4 an auditory network; 5 a sensory motor network; 6 a self-referential network. The regression analysis reveals a statistically significant correlation between the clinical measures and some of the RSNs, specifically the visual and the auditory network. In particular, a positive correlation is obtained for the visual network in the low frequency range (0.05 Hz with SPQ measures, while the auditory network correlates

  4. Ambivalence about Children in the Family Building Process in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhardt, Eva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sweden provides strong support for childbearing and parenthood, including generously subsidized medical, maternal, and child care, paid parental leave, and child allowances. In this context, attitudes towards parenthood are likely to have a particularly strong impact on the decision about whether and when to have children. We examine the links between first births and holding attitudes about children, not just of positive and negative attitudes, but also of ambivalence, namely those who both value children but also value the things that compete with parenthood for young adults’ time and other resources. Our analysis shows, measuring attitudes before the transition to parenthood, that ambivalence about childbearing delays the transition to parenthood, but not nearly as much as holding purely negative attitudes. Further, reporting an ambivalent experience from the first child had no significant effect on further childbearing, which testifies to the strong two-child norm in Sweden.

  5. High estradiol levels improve false memory rates and meta-memory in highly schizotypal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgetts, Sophie; Hausmann, Markus; Weis, Susanne

    2015-10-30

    Overconfidence in false memories is often found in patients with schizophrenia and healthy participants with high levels of schizotypy, indicating an impairment of meta-cognition within the memory domain. In general, cognitive control is suggested to be modulated by natural fluctuations in oestrogen. However, whether oestrogen exerts beneficial effects on meta-memory has not yet been investigated. The present study sought to provide evidence that high levels of schizotypy are associated with increased false memory rates and overconfidence in false memories, and that these processes may be modulated by natural differences in estradiol levels. Using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm, it was found that highly schizotypal participants with high estradiol produced significantly fewer false memories than those with low estradiol. No such difference was found within the low schizotypy participants. Highly schizotypal participants with high estradiol were also less confident in their false memories than those with low estradiol; low schizotypy participants with high estradiol were more confident. However, these differences only approached significance. These findings suggest that the beneficial effect of estradiol on memory and meta-memory observed in healthy participants is specific to highly schizotypal individuals and might be related to individual differences in baseline dopaminergic activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Validation of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief Form in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Paíno-Piñeiro, Mercedes; Lemos-Giráldez, Serafín; Villazón-García, Ursula; Muñiz, José

    2009-06-01

    The main objective of the study was to validate the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief (SPQ-B) in a sample of non-clinical adolescents. In addition, the schizotypal personality structure and differences in the dimensions of schizotypy according to gender and age are analyzed. The sample comprises 1683 students, 818 males (48.6%), with a mean age of 15.9 years (SD=1.2). The results showed that the SPQ-B had adequate psychometric properties. Internal consistency of the subscales and total score ranged from 0.61 to 0.81. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the three-factor model (positive, negative, and disorganized) and the four-factor model (positive, paranoid, negative, and disorganized) fit reasonably well in comparison to the remaining models. With regard to gender and age, statistically significant differences were found due to age but not to gender. In line with previous literature, the results confirmed the multi-factor structure of the schizotypal personality in non-clinical adolescent populations. Future studies could use the SPQ-B as a screening self-report of rapid and efficient application for the detection of adolescents vulnerable to the development of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders in the general population, in genetically high-risk samples and in clinical studies.

  7. Interaction Effects of Season of Birth and Cytokine Genes on Schizotypal Traits in the General Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita V. Alfimova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Literature suggests that the effect of winter birth on vulnerability to schizophrenia might be mediated by increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines due to prenatal infection and its inadequate regulation by anti-inflammatory factors. As the response of the immune system depends on genotype, this study assessed the interaction effects of cytokine genes and season of birth (SOB on schizotypy measured with the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ-74. We searched for associations of IL1B rs16944, IL4 rs2243250, and IL-1RN VNTR polymorphisms, SOB, and their interactions with the SPQ-74 total score in a sample of 278 healthy individuals. A significant effect of the IL4 X SOB interaction was found, p=0.007 and η2=0.028. We confirmed this effect using an extended sample of 373 individuals. Homozygotes CC born in winter showed the highest SPQ total score and differed significantly from winter-born T allele carriers, p=0.049. This difference was demonstrated for cognitive-perceptual and disorganized but not interpersonal dimensions. The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the cytokine genes by SOB interaction can influence variability of schizotypal traits in the general population. The IL4 T allele appeared to have a protective effect against the development of positive and disorganized schizotypal traits in winter-born individuals.

  8. Interaction Effects of Season of Birth and Cytokine Genes on Schizotypal Traits in the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfimova, Margarita V; Korovaitseva, Galina I; Lezheiko, Tatyana V; Golimbet, Vera E

    2017-01-01

    Literature suggests that the effect of winter birth on vulnerability to schizophrenia might be mediated by increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines due to prenatal infection and its inadequate regulation by anti-inflammatory factors. As the response of the immune system depends on genotype, this study assessed the interaction effects of cytokine genes and season of birth (SOB) on schizotypy measured with the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ-74). We searched for associations of IL1B rs16944, IL4 rs2243250, and IL-1RN VNTR polymorphisms, SOB, and their interactions with the SPQ-74 total score in a sample of 278 healthy individuals. A significant effect of the IL4 X SOB interaction was found, p = 0.007 and η 2 = 0.028. We confirmed this effect using an extended sample of 373 individuals. Homozygotes CC born in winter showed the highest SPQ total score and differed significantly from winter-born T allele carriers, p = 0.049. This difference was demonstrated for cognitive-perceptual and disorganized but not interpersonal dimensions. The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the cytokine genes by SOB interaction can influence variability of schizotypal traits in the general population. The IL4 T allele appeared to have a protective effect against the development of positive and disorganized schizotypal traits in winter-born individuals.

  9. Migration Status, Familial Risk for Mental Disorder, and Schizotypal Personality Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odin van der Stelt

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Markedly raised incidence rates of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders have been observed in several migrant and ethnic minority groups. To contribute to a better understanding of the elevated risk for psychotic disorders that is conferred by migration status, the present study examined effects associated with migration risk status on schizotypal personality traits, which are thought to reflect an underlying vulnerability to psychotic disorder. Effects of migration status were also compared to effects associated with a family history of psychopathology, which represents a robust nonspecific risk factor. We assessed schizotypal traits, using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ, in a community-based sample of 62 Moroccan migrants and 41 Dutch nonmigrants, who were classified by the presence or absence of a family history of psychopathology. Overall, Moroccan migrants obtained higher SPQ scores than Dutch nonmigrants. However, migrants who had been classified as having a familial load of psychopathology displayed higher SPQ scores than migrants without such a family history, who in turn did not differ from Dutch nonmigrants. Furthermore, migrants with a familial load, relative to migrants without such a family history, reported higher levels of substance use and feelings of anxiety or depression, and perceived more often ethnic discrimination, which closely paralleled their SPQ scores. These findings indicate that primarily those migrants who are both intrinsically vulnerable and chronically exposed to social adversity, particularly ethnic discrimination, are at elevated risk for psychotic and other disorders. The results add to the evidence that migration status and perceived discrimination are associated with mental health.

  10. Exaggerated perception of facial expressions is increased in individuals with schizotypal traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uono, Shota; Sato, Wataru; Toichi, Motomi

    2015-07-02

    Emotional facial expressions are indispensable communicative tools, and social interactions involving facial expressions are impaired in some psychiatric disorders. Recent studies revealed that the perception of dynamic facial expressions was exaggerated in normal participants, and this exaggerated perception is weakened in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Based on the notion that ASD and schizophrenia spectrum disorder are at two extremes of the continuum with respect to social impairment, we hypothesized that schizophrenic characteristics would strengthen the exaggerated perception of dynamic facial expressions. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the relationship between the perception of facial expressions and schizotypal traits in a normal population. We presented dynamic and static facial expressions, and asked participants to change an emotional face display to match the perceived final image. The presence of schizotypal traits was positively correlated with the degree of exaggeration for dynamic, as well as static, facial expressions. Among its subscales, the paranoia trait was positively correlated with the exaggerated perception of facial expressions. These results suggest that schizotypal traits, specifically the tendency to over-attribute mental states to others, exaggerate the perception of emotional facial expressions.

  11. Attitude Ambivalence, Social Norms, and Behavioral Intentions: Developing Effective Antitobacco Persuasive Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohman, Zachary P.; Crano, William D.; Niedbala, Elizabeth M.

    2018-01-01

    This study assessed the moderating effects of attitude ambivalence on the relationship between social norms, attitudes, and behavioral intentions to use tobacco. It was predicted that people would use social norms to reduce attitude ambivalence, and that reduced ambivalence would lead to changes in attitudes and behavioral intentions. To test this hypothesis, participants (N =152) were exposed to persuasive communications designed to influence attitude ambivalence and perceived social norms regarding tobacco use. Analysis indicated that providing a social norm antagonistic to tobacco use significantly reduced ambivalence among participants reading the ambivalence message (p changes in tobacco attitudes from pre- to postpersuasive communications demonstrated a significant decrease in tobacco attitudes only for participants reading the ambivalence message who were provided with the antitobacco use norm (p changes in attitudes toward tobacco. These results point to the important role of social norms in mediating the effects of attitude ambivalence on subsequent behavior in preventative programs targeting tobacco use. PMID:26460476

  12. Attitude ambivalence, social norms, and behavioral intentions: Developing effective antitobacco persuasive communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohman, Zachary P; Crano, William D; Niedbala, Elizabeth M

    2016-03-01

    This study assessed the moderating effects of attitude ambivalence on the relationship between social norms, attitudes, and behavioral intentions to use tobacco. It was predicted that people would use social norms to reduce attitude ambivalence, and that reduced ambivalence would lead to changes in attitudes and behavioral intentions. To test this hypothesis, participants (N = 152) were exposed to persuasive communications designed to influence attitude ambivalence and perceived social norms regarding tobacco use. Analysis indicated that providing a social norm antagonistic to tobacco use significantly reduced ambivalence among participants reading the ambivalence message (p attitudes from pre- to postpersuasive communications demonstrated a significant decrease in tobacco attitudes only for participants reading the ambivalence message who were provided with the antitobacco use norm (p attitudes toward tobacco. These results point to the important role of social norms in mediating the effects of attitude ambivalence on subsequent behavior in preventative programs targeting tobacco use. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. School-associated problem behavior in childhood and adolescence and development of adult schizotypal symptoms: a follow-up of a clinical cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagel, Selene; de Sonneville, Leo; van Engeland, Herman; Swaab, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    How school-associated behavioral problems in childhood and adolescence precede distinctive adult schizotypal symptoms was examined. Gender specific findings were explored. After 11.6 (SD = 3.1) years, 159 patients of the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry of the University Medical Centre Utrecht, the Netherlands were reassessed for adult schizotypal symptoms. Severity of behavioral symptoms in childhood and adolescence using Teacher Report Form (TRF; Verhulst et al. 1997) and adult schizotypal symptoms using Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Revised (Raine in Schizophrenia Bulletin 17:555-564, 1991) were examined by Spearman's bivariate correlations. Multiple regression analyses were performed to determine the combined predictive value of significant TRF subscales for schizotypal symptomatology. Moderation was tested by adding the interactions of gender with TRF subscales to the models. Disregarding gender, correlational analyses revealed that TRF Total problems, in specific thought problems, social problems, and attentional problems were associated with disorganized schizotypal symptoms in adult life. TRF thought problems was also associated with future positive schizotypal symptoms. When gender was taken into account, for boys only thought problems was associated with adult positive schizotypal symptoms, whereas for girls externalizing problems, specifically attentional and aggressive problems, were associated with the higher levels of adult disorganized schizotypal symptoms. Moderated regression analyses provided trend significant evidence confirming that in girls externalizing problems were positively associated with general and disorganized schizotypal symptoms. When using teachers as informants, it was found that juvenile behavioral abnormalities were differentially associated with type of adult schizotypal symptoms, with these associations being further modified by gender.

  14. Relationship between social-cognitive and social-perceptual aspects of theory of mind and neurocognitive deficits, insight level and schizotypal traits in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mısır, Emre; Bora, Emre; Akdede, Berna Binnur

    2018-05-01

    The primary aim of the current study was to investigate different aspects of theory of mind (ToM), including social-cognitive (ToM-reasoning) and social-perceptual (ToM-decoding) in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We also aimed to investigate the relationship between ToM, neurocognition and a number of clinical variables including overvalued ideas, schizotypal personality traits, level of insight, and disease severity. Thirty-four patients who have been diagnosed with OCD according to DSM-IV and 30 healthy controls were included in the study. All participants were given a neuropsychological battery including tasks measuring ToM-reasoning, ToM-decoding and other neurocognitive functions. Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ), Yale Brown Obsession and Compulsion Scale (YBOC-S) and Overvalued Ideas Scale (OVIS) were also administered to the participants. Patients with OCD showed significant deficits in both aspects of ToM. ToM performances of patients showed a significant positive correlation with neurocognitive functions. When controlled for general cognition factor, patient-control difference for ToM-reasoning (F = 3,917; p = 0,05), but not ToM-decoding, remained statistically significant. ToM-reasoning impairment of patients was significantly related to the severity of OCD symptoms and poor insight (p = 0,026 and p = 0,045, respectively). On the other hand, general cognitive factor (β = 0,778; t = 3,146; p = 0,04) was found to be the only significant predictor of ToM-reasoning in OCD patients in the multiple linear regression model. OCD is associated with ToM impairment, which is related to schizotypal traits, disease severity and poor insight, yet neurocognitive deficits also significantly contribute to this finding. However, ToM-reasoning impairment could be considered as a relatively distinct feature of OCD, which is partly separate from general cognitive deficits. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Ambivalent messages in Seventeen Magazine: a content analytic comparison of 1997 and 2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joshi, S.P.; Peter, J.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Previous content analyses of teen girl magazines have investigated the concept of sexual ambivalence--messages about sex and sexuality that contradict each other. However, no study to date has examined a more encompassing notion of sexual ambivalence by focusing on relationship ambivalence (i.e.,

  16. How to Capture and Present Complexity, Ambivalence and Ambiguity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    Bakhtin was a literary theorist and was the widely acknowledged father of dialogism. This working paper shows how Bakhtin and dialogism can be used to capture complexity, ambivalence and ambiguity in the social world. In following the spirit of dialogism, I will refer to my own research experiences...

  17. Poor nutrition at age 3 and schizotypal personality at age 23: the mediating role of age 11 cognitive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venables, Peter H; Raine, Adrian

    2012-08-01

    Poor prenatal nutrition has been associated with schizophrenia spectrum disorders in the Netherlands and China, and it has been suggested that perinatal and postnatal nutritional factors lead to the development of schizophrenia and the exhibition of schizotypal traits later in life. There appears to be no prior research on the existence of possible factors that may mediate the relationship between malnutrition and schizophrenia spectrum disorders or whether this association is a direct one. The authors tested the hypothesis that low IQ mediates the relationship between early childhood malnutrition and adult schizotypal personality. Participants were drawn from a birth cohort of 1,795 boys and girls who were followed prospectively. Objective indicators of malnutrition (anemia and stunting) were assessed at age 3. Verbal and performance intelligence were assessed at age 11, and schizotypal personality was assessed at age 23. Both stunting and anemia at age 3 were associated with low IQ at age 11. Low performance IQ at age 11 was associated with increased interpersonal and disorganized features of schizotypal personality at age 23. Poor performance IQ was found to mediate the relationship between poor nutrition at age 3 and interpersonal and disorganized features of schizotypy at age 23. Findings in female participants were replicated in male participants. Given that poor nutrition is an alterable risk factor, these findings suggest that nutritional enhancements may improve brain functioning and possibly reduce some features of schizotypal personality disorder.

  18. Schizotypal traits in healthy women predict prefrontal activation patterns during a verbal fluency task: a near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Hiroaki; Nagamine, Mitsue; Soshi, Takahiro; Okabe, Shigeo; Kim, Yoshiharu; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    Previous functional neuroimaging studies have reported that patients with schizophrenia show reduced prefrontal activation during cognitive tasks whereas patients with schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) show preserved or even increased right prefrontal activation, compared to healthy controls; on the other hand, reduced hemispheric laterality is considered to be common to these two disorders. The aim of this study was to examine the possible association between schizotypal traits at a nonclinical level and prefrontal activation patterns during a letter version of the verbal fluency task (VFT). We examined the relationships of schizotypal traits as measured by the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) in a nonclinical female population with prefrontal activation patterns during the VFT, using near-infrared spectroscopy. Twenty-seven healthy participants were divided into high (n = 14) and low (n = 13) SPQ groups by the median split of the total SPQ score. Compared to the low SPQ group, the high SPQ group showed significantly larger right prefrontal activation during the performance of the VFT, leading to more bilateral activation. Our results suggest that schizotypal traits at a nonclinical level may be related to relative right prefrontal laterality with overall prefrontal activation being preserved, consistent with previous findings obtained by studies of patients with SPD. 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Childhood trauma is not a confounder of the overlap between autistic and schizotypal traits: A study in a non-clinical adult sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jing-Bo; Wang, Ya; Lui, Simon S Y; Cheung, Eric F C; Chan, Raymond C K

    2017-11-01

    Childhood trauma has been shown to be a robust risk factor for mental disorders, and may exacerbate schizotypal traits or contribute to autistic trait severity. However, little is known whether childhood trauma confounds the overlap between schizotypal traits and autistic traits. This study examined whether childhood trauma acts as a confounding variable in the overlap between autistic and schizotypal traits in a large non-clinical adult sample. A total of 2469 participants completed the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ), the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ), and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form. Correlation analysis showed that the majority of associations between AQ variables and SPQ variables were significant (p autistic and schizotypal traits could not be explained by shared variance in terms of exposure to childhood trauma. The findings point to important overlaps in the conceptualization of ASD and SSD, independent of childhood trauma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Testing measurement invariance of the schizotypal personality questionnaire-brief scores across Spanish and Swiss adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ortuño-Sierra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schizotypy is a complex construct intimately related to psychosis. Empirical evidence indicates that participants with high scores on schizotypal self-report are at a heightened risk for the later development of psychotic disorders. Schizotypal experiences represent the behavioural expression of liability for psychotic disorders. Previous factorial studies have shown that schizotypy is a multidimensional construct similar to that found in patients with schizophrenia. Specifically, using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief (SPQ-B, the three-dimensional model has been widely replicated. However, there has been no in-depth investigation of whether the dimensional structure underlying the SPQ-B scores is invariant across countries. METHODS: The main goal of this study was to examine the measurement invariance of the SPQ-B scores across Spanish and Swiss adolescents. The final sample was made up of 261 Spanish participants (51.7% men; M = 16.04 years and 241 Swiss participants (52.3% men; M = 15.94 years. RESULTS: The results indicated that Raine et al.'s three-factor model presented adequate goodness-of-fit indices. Moreover, the results supported the measurement invariance (configural and partial strong invariance of the SPQ-B scores across the two samples. Spanish participants scored higher on Interpersonal dimension than Swiss when latent means were compared. DISCUSSION: The study of measurement equivalence across countries provides preliminary evidence for the Raine et al.'s three-factor model and of the cross-cultural validity of the SPQ-B scores in adolescent population. Future studies should continue to examine the measurement invariance of the schizotypy and psychosis-risk syndromes across cultures.

  1. The ambivalence of losing weight after bariatric surgery

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    Christine Warholm

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is grounded in a phenomenological lifeworld perspective. It aims at providing rich descriptions of lived experience of the process of losing weight after obesity surgery. Two women participated in in-depth interviews four times each during the first postoperative year. Based on the women's experiences, a meaning structure—the ambivalence of losing weight after obesity surgery—was identified across the women's processes of change. This consisted of five core themes: movement and activity—freedom but new demands and old restraints; eating habits and digestion—the complexity of change; appearance—smaller, but looser; social relations—stability and change; and being oneself—vulnerability and self-assurance. These core themes changed over time in terms of dominance. The experience of ambivalence is discussed according to a phenomenological perspective of the body as lived experience.

  2. Parenting an overweight or obese child: a process of ambivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugstvedt, Karen Therese Sulheim; Graff-Iversen, Sidsel; Bechensteen, Brit; Hallberg, Ulrika

    2011-03-01

    Childhood overweight represents a health problem, and research points towards parents as key players. The aim of this study was to deepen the knowledge of how parents of children who are overweight or obese experience their parenthood. Focus group discussions with 17 parents were analysed according to the qualitative method of modified grounded theory. The results expressed the parents' ambivalence between preventing the child's overweight and not negatively affecting the child's self-esteem. The most important issue seemed to be their concern about the child's construction of self-understanding and experiences in interaction with the environment. The parents had become uncertain of their responsibility, priorities and how to act. In conclusion, parenting a child with weight issues could be a process of loving the child the way he/she is while still wanting changes for improved health, resulting in ambivalence. In addition to traditional advice about lifestyle, many parents seem to need counselling assistance with respect to their parental role.

  3. Ambivalence and Ambiguity in The Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman

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    Monica Michlin

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This close reading of the text highlights how Miss Jane, in her double role as protagonist and narrator, shows considerable ambivalence towards friend and foe alike, with the result that the apparently transparent ideological meaning of entire episodes is blurred by what some critics have merely put down to “conservatism.” I examine Miss Jane’s almost constant suppression of emotion, and frequent displays of ambivalence towards other black people; her ambiguous relationship to oppressive, but familiar whites like Albert Cluveau or Robert Samson; and her conflicted relation to black heroes and heroics. Is the leading character a variation on the “mammy” who has internalized racist figures of speech, and uses contradictory images that undermine black heroics and validate white oppression? Or is Gaines’s point to undo the “retrick” of heroics and of alienation alike, and, against of backdrop of constant, ordinary destruction of black lives, to cast the adult Miss Jane as a Brer Rabbit-like figure, for whom survival and resistance are both dialectically connected and opposed? Is there a contradiction between her “progress” towards resistance shown in the last section, and her metadiscursive comments in the present, and does her literally walking out of her own story give a conclusive meaning to her narrative, or does it point to the author’s not having been able to resolve the ambivalence and ambiguities within the text?

  4. Affective responses to ambivalence are context-dependent : A facial EMG study on the role of inconsistency and evaluative context in shaping affective responses to ambivalence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nohlen, H.U.; van Harreveld, F.; Rotteveel, M.; Barends, A.J.; Larsen, J.T.

    It has long been debated whether attitudinal ambivalence elicits negative affect and evidence for such a link is inconclusive. Using facial EMG, we tested the idea that affective responses to ambivalence are dependent on the inconsistency of evaluations in the current situation. In a person

  5. The evolution of autistic-like and schizotypal traits: A sexual selection hypothesis

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    Marco Del Giudice

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a new hypothesis on the evolution of autistic-like and schizotypal personality traits. We argue that autistic-like and schizotypal traits contribute in opposite ways to individual differences in reproductive and mating strategies, and have been maintained – at least in part – by sexual selection through mate choice. Whereas positive schizotypy can be seen as a psychological phenotype oriented to high mating effort and good genes displays in both sexes, autistic-like traits in their non-pathological form contribute to a male-typical strategy geared toward high parental investment, low mating effort, and long-term resource allocation. At the evolutionary-genetic level, this sexual selection hypothesis is consistent with Crespi and Badcock’s “imprinted brain” theory of autism and psychosis; the effect of offspring mating behavior on resource flow within the family connects sexual selection with genomic imprinting in the context of human biparental care. We conclude by presenting the results of an empirical study testing one of the predictions derived from our hypothesis. In a sample of 200 college students, autistic-like traits predicted lower interest in short-term mating, higher partner-specific investment, and stronger commitment to long-term romantic relations, whereas positive schizotypy showed the opposite pattern of effects.

  6. Examination of the factor structure of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire among British and Trinidadian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, David; Swami, Viren; Towell, Tony; Hutchinson, Gerard; Morgan, Kevin D

    2015-01-01

    Much debate in schizotypal research has centred on the factor structure of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ), with research variously showing higher-order dimensionality consisting of two to seven dimensions. In addition, cross-cultural support for the stability of those factors remains limited. Here, we examined the factor structure of the SPQ among British and Trinidadian adults. Participants from a White British subsample (n = 351) resident in the UK and from an African Caribbean subsample (n = 284) resident in Trinidad completed the SPQ. The higher-order factor structure of the SPQ was analysed through confirmatory factor analysis, followed by multiple-group analysis for the model of best fit. Between-group differences for sex and ethnicity were investigated using multivariate analysis of variance in relation to the higher-order domains. The model of best-fit was the four-factor structure, which demonstrated measurement invariance across groups. Additionally, these data had an adequate fit for two alternative models: (a) 3-factor and (b) modified 4-factor model. The British subsample had significantly higher scores across all domains than the Trinidadian group, and men scored significantly higher on the disorganised domain than women. The four-factor structure received confirmatory support and, importantly, support for use with populations varying in ethnicity and culture.

  7. The Melbourne Assessment of Schizotypy in Kids: A Useful Measure of Childhood Schizotypal Personality Disorder

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    Harvey P. Jones

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite being identified as a high risk cohort for psychosis, there has been relatively little research on the clinical presentation and assessment of Schizotypal Personality Disorder (SPD in childhood. The current study aimed to develop a measure of childhood SPD (Melbourne Assessment of Schizotypy in Kids (MASK and assess discriminant validity against another neurodevelopmental disorder, autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Sixty-eight children aged between 5 and 12 (21 SPD, 15 ASD, and 32 typically developing and their parents were administered the MASK. The MASK is a 57-item semistructured interview that obtains information from the child, their parents, and the clinician. The results showed high internal consistency for the MASK and higher scores in the SPD group. A factor analysis revealed two MASK factors: social/pragmatic symptoms and positive schizotypal symptoms. Both factors were associated with SPD, while only the social/pragmatic factor was associated with ASD. Within the two clinical groups, a receiver operating characteristic curve showed that the MASK (cut-off score: 132 out of 228 was a good indicator of SPD diagnosis. These preliminary MASK findings were reliable and consistent and suggest that childhood SPD is characterised by complex symptomology distinguishable from ASD.

  8. Genetics, Cognition and Neurobiology of Schizotypal Personality: A Review of the Overlap with Schizophrenia

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    Ulrich eEttinger

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Schizotypy refers to a set of temporally stable traits that are observed in the general population and that resemble the signs and symptoms of schizophrenia. Here, we review evidence from studies on genetics, cognition, perception, motor and oculomotor control, brain structure, brain function and psychopharmacology in schizotypy. We specifically focused on identifying areas of overlap between schizotypy and schizophrenia. Evidence was corroborated that significant overlap exists between the two, covering the behavioural, brain structural and functional as well molecular levels. In particular, several studies showed that individuals with high levels of schizotypal traits exhibit alterations in neurocognitive task performance and underlying brain function similar to the deficits seen in patients with schizophrenia. Studies of brain structure have shown both volume reductions and increases in schizotypy, pointing to schizophrenia-like deficits as well as possible protective or compensatory mechanisms. Experimental pharmacological studies have shown that high levels of schizotypy are associated with (i enhanced dopaminergic response in striatum following administration of amphetamine and (ii improvement of cognitive performance following administration of antipsychotic compounds. Together, this body of work suggests that schizotypy shows overlap with schizophrenia across multiple behavioural and neurobiological domains, suggesting that the study of schizotypal traits may be useful in improving our understanding of the aetiology of schizophrenia.

  9. Approach-avoidance pattern of visual attention in hazardous drinkers with ambivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Saerom; Cho, Sungkun; Lee, Jang-Han

    2014-03-01

    Ambivalence toward alcohol often develops when hazardous drinkers try to quit or to control their drinking. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences between hazardous drinkers with and without ambivalence toward alcohol in terms of their visual attention to alcohol-related pictures over time using an eye-tracker. The study included 20 hazardous drinkers with ambivalence and 21 hazardous drinkers without ambivalence. The eye movements of the participants were monitored while the participants conducted a free-viewing task in which 20 pairs of alcohol-related pictures and matched control pictures were presented. The results showed that the hazardous drinkers with ambivalence were more attentive to the alcohol-related pictures at first and were more attentive to the control pictures toward the end of the task. On the other hand, the hazardous drinkers without ambivalence were more attentive to the alcohol-related pictures from beginning to end. The findings of this study indicated that ambivalence toward alcohol resulted in the inclination to approach and then avoid alcohol in a consecutive sequence. The present results could be helpful in distinguishing hazardous drinkers who may have ambivalence toward alcohol and identifying the pattern of ambivalence more concretely. Additionally, further studies need to consider the time that is important to measure ambivalence toward alcohol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Explicit and implicit memory in female college students with schizotypal traits: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bo-Yeon; Kim, Bit-Na; Kim, Myung-Sun

    2011-04-01

    The explicit and implicit memory of nonclinical individuals with schizotypal traits was investigated using event-related potentials. Explicit and implicit memory was measured with continuous recognition and categorization tasks, respectively. On the recognition task, the control group demonstrated a greater old/new effect in response to the old than to the new words during the 250-750 ms post-stimulus period, whereas schizotypal trait group did not exhibit an old/new effect during the 550-650 ms period. The control group demonstrated faster response times to the old than to the new words, whereas the schizotypal group demonstrated longer response times to the old than to the new words. On the categorization task, both groups showed old/new effects during the 250-550 ms after stimulus onset and responded more rapidly and with fewer errors to the old than to the new words. These results suggest that individuals with schizotypal traits have impaired explicit but preserved implicit memory. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Do ambivalent women have an unmet need for family planning? A longitudinal study from Bali, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, Mellissa H; Tavrow, Paula; Adinata, N Ardika

    2011-01-01

    Fertility intentions often can predict contraceptive demand and fertility outcomes. Little is known about women reporting ambivalent fertility intentions, who are usually classified as having an unmet need for contraception. This study's objectives were to determine 1) which fertility intention group ambivalent women more closely resemble and 2) whether ambivalent women seem to have an unmet contraceptive need. We analyzed longitudinal data from 1,018 married Balinese women aged 15 to 45, of whom 33% desired more children, 52% wanted no more, and 14% were ambivalent. Ambivalent women were compared with those with definitive intentions using bivariate analyses. Regression analysis was used to determine the predictors of birth avoidance. Although ambivalent women were significantly older, and had less education and more children than women who wanted more children, ambivalent women were more similar in their contraceptive use to those who wanted more children than those who wanted no more. However, in terms of birth outcomes, ambivalent women resembled more the women who intended to avoid childbearing: After 4 years, 33% of ambivalent women had another birth compared with 29% of women who wanted no more and 57% of women who desired more children. Contraceptive use at baseline did not predict ambivalent women's fertility outcomes, unlike the other groups. Despite their relatively low rates of contraceptive use at baseline, ambivalent women generally avoided giving birth during the study period. This suggests that ambivalent women may not have a high unmet need for family planning. Copyright © 2011 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Ambivalent Relations between Bureaucracy and Public Innovation:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz Larsen, Troels

    2015-01-01

    Building on a growing body of literature on public innovation and the rediscovery of bureaucracy, this article explores the relations between innovation and bureaucracy. A framework for studying innovation in a bureaucratic context is developed and its relevance assessed through a case study...... of the successful implementation but failed diffusion of an innovation project. The case study demonstrates how a bureaucratic context represents not only barriers to innovation but also a number of complex drivers. The outline of these ambivalent relations is used to tease out the Janus face of the new spirit...... of innovation in public administration....

  13. Two-Year Stability and Change of Schizotypal, Borderline, Avoidant, and Obsessive–Compulsive Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Shea, M. Tracie; Sanislow, Charles A.; Skodol, Andrew E.; Gunderson, John G.; Stout, Robert L.; Pagano, Maria E.; Yen, Shirley; Morey, Leslie C.; Zanarini, Mary C.; McGlashan, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the stability of schizotypal (STPD), borderline (BPD), avoidant (AVPD) and obsessive– compulsive (OCPD) personality disorders (PDs) over 2 years of prospective multiwave follow-up. Six hundred thirty-three participants recruited at 4 collaborating sites who met criteria for 1 or more of the 4 PDs or for major depressive disorder (MDD) without PD were assessed with semistructured interviews at baseline, 6, 12, and 24 months. Lifetable survival analyses revealed that the PD groups had slower time to remission than the MDD group. Categorically, PD remission rates range from 50% (AVPD) to 61% (STPD) for dropping below diagnostic threshold on a blind 24-month reassessment but range from 23% (STPD) to 38% (OCPD) for a more stringent definition of improvement. Dimensionally, these findings suggest that PDs may be characterized by maladaptive trait constellations that are stable in their structure (individual differences) but can change in severity or expression over time. PMID:15482035

  14. Ambivalence and pregnancy: adolescents' attitudes, contraceptive use and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, Hannah; Martin, Anne; Bearman, Peter S

    2004-01-01

    It is often argued that adolescents who become pregnant do not sufficiently appreciate the negative consequences, and that prevention programs should target participants' attitudes toward pregnancy. Data from the first two waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used to examine whether 15-19-year-old females' attitudes toward pregnancy influence their contraceptive consistency and their risk of pregnancy. Characteristics and attitudes associated with pregnancy and contraceptive use were assessed using bivariate and multivariate analysis. Twenty percent of female adolescents were defined as having antipregnancy attitudes, 8% as having propregnancy attitudes and 14% as being ambivalent toward pregnancy; the remainder were considered to have mainstream attitudes. Among sexually experienced adolescents, having an attitude toward pregnancy was not associated with risk of pregnancy. However, those who were ambivalent about pregnancy had reduced odds of using contraceptives consistently and inconsistently rather than not practicing contraception at all (odds ratios, 0.5 and 0.4, respectively). Antipregnancy respondents did not differ from proprepregancy respondents in terms of their contraceptive consistency. However, having a positive attitude toward contraception was associated with increased likelihood of inconsistent and consistent contraceptive use compared with nonuse (1.6 and 2.1, respectively). Programs designed to prevent pregnancy need to give young women information about pregnancy and opportunities to discuss the topic so that they form opinions. Furthermore, programs should emphasize positive attitudes toward contraception, because effective contraceptive use is shaped by such attitudes and is strongly associated with reduction of pregnancy risk.

  15. Ambivalence about supervised injection facilities among community stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strike, Carol; Watson, Tara Marie; Kolla, Gillian; Penn, Rebecca; Bayoumi, Ahmed M

    2015-08-21

    Community stakeholders express a range of opinions about supervised injection facilities (SIFs). We sought to identify reasons for ambivalence about SIFs amongst community stakeholders in two Canadian cities. We used purposive sampling methods to recruit various stakeholder representatives (n = 141) for key informant interviews or focus group discussions. Data were analyzed using a thematic process. We identified seven reasons for ambivalence about SIFs: lack of personal knowledge of evidence about SIFs; concern that SIF goals are too narrow and the need for a comprehensive response to drug use; uncertainty that the community drug problem is large enough to warrant a SIF(s); the need to know more about the "right" places to locate a SIF(s) to avoid damaging communities or businesses; worry that a SIF(s) will renew problems that existed prior to gentrification; concern that resources for drug use prevention and treatment efforts will be diverted to pay for a SIF(s); and concern that SIF implementation must include evaluation, community consultation, and an explicit commitment to discontinue a SIF(s) in the event of adverse outcomes. Stakeholders desire evidence about potential SIF impacts relevant to local contexts and that addresses perceived potential harms. Stakeholders would also like to see SIFs situated within a comprehensive response to drug use. Future research should determine the relative importance of these concerns and optimal approaches to address them to help guide decision-making about SIFs.

  16. Ambivalent features of the genius in philosophical conceptualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Karanfilova

    2017-04-01

    The role of art as a form of productive activity has been studied in the article. It is inherent in all forms of human activity and is manifested in the independence of thought, originality of propositions and innovative initiative. Category of creativity is a key not only for understanding the dynamics of social and historical processes and prospects of the development of the individual, but also for understanding the specifics of the innovation of human activities that do not fit to the traditional norms and standards of conduct. The diversity and multidimensionality of art as a social phenomenon leads to a variety of social consequences; the creativity, which is embodied in different forms, is not only creative, but sometimes ambivalent manifestation. Ambivalent manifestation of creativity has to have in it an element of the destruction, necessary for the destruction of the obsolete conservative phenomena and the approval of a new, progressive, significantly expanding the existing borders of reality. This process is dialectical in nature, so its effects may lead to negative social manifestations.

  17. AN AMBIVALENT CONRAD IN AN OUTPOST OF PROGRESS

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    Majid SADEGHZADEGAN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to portray the racist and anti-racist dimensions of Joseph Conrad in his short story “An Outpost of Progress” (1897. Conrad’s alleged racist status espoused by thinkers such as Chinua Achebe and Edward Said, particularly in Heart of Darkness, has constantly been the subject of heated debates in literature. A myriad of analogous traces in the short story “An Outpost of Progress” lend Conrad’s voice to a highly racist position while many other anti-racist traces observed in the story could lower the resonance of the same voice, hence an inconclusive ambivalence or a liminal position in Conrad’s tone. This paper is thus divided into two sections. The first section has the racist traces of Conrad in the short story on top of its agenda whereas the second section ventures into the anti-racist footprints of Conrad’s voice in the story. In so doing, this paper sets out to turn to Achebe and Said in arguing for the racist position of Conrad; however, the anti-racist facets of the story will be substantiated via relying on the arguments developed by thinkers such as D. C. R. A. Goonetilleke and Benita Parry. An ironic ambivalence swaying from a racist tone to an anti-racist tone in Conrad’s voice in “An Outpost of Progress” is the conclusive maxim.

  18. Abortion Decision and Ambivalence: Insights via an Abortion Decision Balance Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allanson, Susie

    2007-01-01

    Decision ambivalence is a key concept in abortion literature, but has been poorly operationalised. This study explored the concept of decision ambivalence via an Abortion Decision Balance Sheet (ADBS) articulating reasons both for and against terminating an unintended pregnancy. Ninety-six women undergoing an early abortion for psychosocial…

  19. Review: Joschka Philipps, Ambivalent Rage: Youth Gangs and Urban Protest in Conakry, Guinea (2013)

    OpenAIRE

    Ineke van Kessel; Afrika-Studiecentrum Leiden

    2014-01-01

    Review of the Monograph:Joschka Philipps, Ambivalent Rage: Youth Gangs and Urban Protest in Conakry, Guinea, Paris: L’Harmattan, 2013, ISBN 978-2-343-01577-4, 238 pp. Besprechung der Monographie:Joschka Philipps, Ambivalent Rage: Youth Gangs and Urban Protest in Conakry, Guinea, Paris: L’Harmattan, 2013, ISBN 978-2-343-01577-4, 238 Seiten

  20. Social Acceptance of Dairy Farming: The Ambivalence Between the Two Faces of Modernity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, B.K.; Bock, B.B.; Oosting, S.J.; Wiskerke, J.S.C.; Zijpp, van der A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Society’s relationship with modern animal farming is an ambivalent one: on the one hand there is rising criticism about modern animal farming; on the other hand people appreciate certain aspects of it, such as increased food safety and low food prices. This ambivalence reflects the two faces of

  1. Seeing Themselves through Borrowed Eyes: Asian Americans in Ethnic Ambivalence/Evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Lucy

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on the second stage of ethnic identity development, Ethnic Ambivalence/Evasion, experienced by Asian Americans through 39 personal narratives. Ethnic Ambivalence/Evasion, one of four identified stages that culminate with ethnic identity incorporation, typically occurs during the years of childhood and adolescence, and so is a stage…

  2. Intergenerational Ambivalence in Adolescence and Early Adulthood: Implications for Depressive Symptoms over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, Lauren A.; Birditt, Kira S.; Antonucci, Toni C.

    2016-01-01

    The parent-child relationship is often characterized by ambivalence, defined as the simultaneous experience of positive and negative relationship quality. This study examines reports of intergenerational ambivalence in 3 developmental periods: adolescence, emerging adulthood, and young adulthood, as well as its implications for depressive symptoms…

  3. Les Ambivalences du Silence: Les "Maximes" de la Rochefoucauld Par Quatre Chemins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcat, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Maxims are famous for their moral pronouncements, yet La Rochefoucauld's "Maximes" (1678) have become infamous for offering little moral guidance. Morally ambivalent at best, the "Maximes" are also less known for their other forms of ambivalence, whether rhetorical, psychological, anthropological or linguistic. Such are…

  4. Emoticon-Based Ambivalent Expression: A Hidden Indicator for Unusual Behaviors in Weibo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Hu

    Full Text Available Recent decades have witnessed online social media being a big-data window for testifying conventional social theories quantitatively and exploring much detailed human behavioral patterns. In this paper, by tracing the emoticon use in Weibo, a group of hidden "ambivalent users" are disclosed for frequently posting ambivalent tweets containing both positive and negative emotions. Further investigation reveals that this ambivalent expression could be a novel indicator of many unusual social behaviors. For instance, ambivalent users with the female as the majority like to make a sound in midnights and at weekends. They mention their close friends frequently in ambivalent tweets, which attract more replies and serve as a more private communication way. Ambivalent users also respond differently to public affairs from others and demonstrate more interests in entertainment and sports events. Moreover, the sentiment shift in ambivalent tweets is more evident than usual and exhibits a clear "negative to positive" pattern. The above observations, though being promiscuous seemingly, actually point to the self-regulation of negative mood in Weibo, which could find its basis from the traditional emotion management theories in sociology but makes an important extension to the online environment in this study. Finally, as an interesting corollary, ambivalent users are found connected with compulsive buyers and turn out to be perfect targets for online marketing.

  5. Emoticon-Based Ambivalent Expression: A Hidden Indicator for Unusual Behaviors in Weibo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yue; Zhao, Jichang; Wu, Junjie

    2016-01-01

    Recent decades have witnessed online social media being a big-data window for testifying conventional social theories quantitatively and exploring much detailed human behavioral patterns. In this paper, by tracing the emoticon use in Weibo, a group of hidden "ambivalent users" are disclosed for frequently posting ambivalent tweets containing both positive and negative emotions. Further investigation reveals that this ambivalent expression could be a novel indicator of many unusual social behaviors. For instance, ambivalent users with the female as the majority like to make a sound in midnights and at weekends. They mention their close friends frequently in ambivalent tweets, which attract more replies and serve as a more private communication way. Ambivalent users also respond differently to public affairs from others and demonstrate more interests in entertainment and sports events. Moreover, the sentiment shift in ambivalent tweets is more evident than usual and exhibits a clear "negative to positive" pattern. The above observations, though being promiscuous seemingly, actually point to the self-regulation of negative mood in Weibo, which could find its basis from the traditional emotion management theories in sociology but makes an important extension to the online environment in this study. Finally, as an interesting corollary, ambivalent users are found connected with compulsive buyers and turn out to be perfect targets for online marketing.

  6. Mixed feelings : Ambivalence as a predictor of relapse in ex-smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menninga, Karin M.; Dijkstra, Arie; Gebhardt, Winifred A.

    Objectives. Ambivalence can be viewed as a normal temporary psychological state in a decision process, for example, on quitting smoking. However, when ambivalence is still present after the decision has been made, it may undermine the motivation to stick to the decision. In smoking cessation,

  7. Ambivalence and Stereotypes Cause Sexual Harassment: A Theory with Implications for Organizational Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, Susan T.; Glick, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Theorizes that workplace sexual harassment results from the complex interplay of ambivalent motives and gender stereotyping of women and jobs. It argues that ambivalence combines hostile and "benevolent" sexist motives based on paternalism, gender differentiation, and heterosexuality and that organizational context can encourage or discourage the…

  8. One way and the other: the bidirectional relationship between ambivalence and body movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Iris K; Eerland, Anita; van Harreveld, Frenk; Rotteveel, Mark; van der Pligt, Joop; van der Stoep, Nathan; Zwaan, Rolf A

    2013-03-01

    Prior research exploring the relationship between evaluations and body movements has focused on one-sided evaluations. However, people regularly encounter objects or situations about which they simultaneously hold both positive and negative views, which results in the experience of ambivalence. Such experiences are often described in physical terms: For example, people say they are "wavering" between two sides of an issue or are "torn." Building on this observation, we designed two studies to explore the relationship between the experience of ambivalence and side-to-side movement, or wavering. In Study 1, we used a Wii Balance Board to measure movement and found that people who are experiencing ambivalence move from side to side more than people who are not experiencing ambivalence. In Study 2, we induced body movement to explore the reverse relationship and found that when people are made to move from side to side, their experiences of ambivalence are enhanced.

  9. Neurophysiological evidence of impaired self-monitoring in schizotypal personality disorder and its reversal by dopaminergic antagonism

    OpenAIRE

    Mireia Rabella; Eva Grasa; Iluminada Corripio; Sergio Romero; Miquel Àngel Mañanas; Rosa Mª. Antonijoan; Thomas F. Münte; Víctor Pérez; Jordi Riba

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) is a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder characterized by odd or bizarre behavior, strange speech, magical thinking, unusual perceptual experiences, and social anhedonia. Schizophrenia proper has been associated with anomalies in dopaminergic neurotransmission and deficits in neurophysiological markers of self-monitoring, such as low amplitude in cognitive event-related brain potentials (ERPs) like the error-related negativity (ERN), and the erro...

  10. Ambivalent sexism, stereotypes and values in military population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Zubieta

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing presence of women in the public sphere has provoked cultural changes that affect social cognition. These changes implicate social organizations such as the Military. Focusing the interest in approaching modern forms of prejudice in terms of gender inequalities, we studied ambivalent sexism attitudes, values and social dominance orientation in a sample of 238 males and females from the National Military School training to become officials. Results show the presence of sexist attitudes. In sex roles and gender typing, female participants show an androgynous stereotype probably related to the need to present themselves closer to men in order to assume leadership.

  11. DIY-Bio - economic, epistemological and ethical implications and ambivalences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keulartz, Jozef; van den Belt, Henk

    2016-12-01

    Since 2008, we witness the emergence of the Do-It-Yourself Biology movement, a global movement spreading the use of biotechnology beyond traditional academic and industrial institutions and into the lay public. Practitioners include a broad mix of amateurs, enthusiasts, students, and trained scientists. At this moment, the movement counts nearly 50 local groups, mostly in America and Europe, but also increasingly in Asia. Do-It-Yourself Bio represents a direct translation of hacking culture and practicesfrom the realm of computers and software into the realm of genes and cells. Although the movement is still in its infancy, and it is even unclear whether it will ever reach maturity, the contours of a new paradigm of knowledge production are already becoming visible. We will subsequently sketch the economic, the epistemological and the ethical profile of Do-It-Yourself Bio, and discuss its implications and also its ambivalences.

  12. Gadamer’s Ambivalence toward the Enlightenment Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    رابرت داستال

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores Gadamer’s ambivalent relationship with modernity.  Gadamer is a prominent critic of the Enlightenment project.  His criticisms are both theoretical and practical.  Theoretically, representationalism is at the center of modern epistemology for Gadamer.  Practically, Gadamer sees the demotion of prudence (phronesis as fundamental to the “bad” Enlightenment.  Gadamer’s attempt to revive an appreciation of rhetoric is a way to the join the theoretical and practical dimensions of speech and life. The central representative philosopher of the Enlightenment for Gadamer is Kant.  The antithetical thinker is Aristotle.  Gadamer would have his Kant and his Aristotle too.  The tension between these is at the heart of Gadamer’s philosophical hermeneutics.

  13. The symbolic constitution of addiction: language, alienation, ambivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Ryan

    2012-07-01

    The author offers an articulation of addiction, via existential-phenomenology and Lacanian psychoanalysis, where it is argued that the addicted subject is constituted via a symbolic structuring evolving from societal practices, laws and the effects of language. Language carries a heritage, which bears on the knowledge and practices of designated subjects and practitioners of that discourse. Addiction, as one particular form of embodied existence and knowledgeable practice, finds expression through the speech and habits of the addict. Addiction, it is argued, is symbolically saturated with ambivalence and alienation. Also the addict is described as the complete modern technocratic subject, consumed by the ideology of consumption. The clinical implications are briefly explored where it is noted that two major approaches to addiction, namely 12-step fellowships and motivational interviewing, both attend to language as a critical component of their treatment approach.

  14. Ambivalence in International Dialogue: Implications for Diplomatic Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsiyya Mustafayeva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Diplomats are civil servants who represent their governments abroad. By the nature of their work, diplomats work in multicultural environments. Working in intercultural settings can involve grey areas, paradoxes, and a wide range of emotions. This article analyzes how diplomats construct their professional identity, how they approach intercultural diversity and how they manage ambivalence. Qualitative interviews with senior diplomats as well as a review of literature from multiple disciplines indicate that it is vital for diplomats to be highly skilled in self-management; in building and maintaining relationships; and in operating in intercultural environments. We argue that it is essential to include these emotional, social, and cultural competences in diplomatic training so that diplomats may become effective bridge-builders. This will be particularly relevant for a diplomat whose country is currently involved in a conflict with another country, as well as for diplomats who work in the context of a political conflict. 

  15. Dimensional assessment of schizotypal, psychotic, and other psychiatric traits in children and their parents: development and validation of the Childhood Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences on a representative US sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David W; Lusk, Laina G; Slane, Mylissa M; Michael, Andrew M; Myers, Scott M; Uljarević, Mirko; Mason, Oliver; Claridge, Gordon; Frazier, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    Healthy functioning relies on a variety of perceptual, cognitive, emotional, and behavioral abilities that are distributed throughout the normal population. Variation in these traits define the wide range of neurodevelopmental (NDD) and neuropsychiatric (NPD) disorders. Here, we introduce a new measure for assessing these traits in typically developing children and children at risk for NDD and NPD from age 2 to 18 years. The Childhood Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences (CO-LIFE) was created as a dimensional, parent-report measure of schizotypal and psychotic traits in the general population. Parents of 2,786 children also self-reported on an adapted version of the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences (O-LIFE-US). The CO-LIFE resulted in continuous distributions for the total score and for each of three factor analytically-derived subscales. Item response theory (IRT) analyses indicated strong reliability across the score range for the O-LIFE-US and the CO-LIFE. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were high across all scales. Parent-child intraclass correlations were consistent with high heritability. The scales discriminated participants who reported a lifetime psychiatric diagnosis from those who reported no diagnosis. The O-LIFE-US and CO-LIFE scores correlated positively with the Social Responsiveness Scale 2 (SRS-2) indicating good convergent validity. Like the original O-LIFE, the O-LIFE-US and the CO-LIFE are valid and reliable tools that reflect the spectrum of psychiatric and schizotypal traits in the general population. Such scales are necessary for conducting family studies that aim to examine a range of psychological and behavioral traits in both children and adults and are well-suited for the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative of the NIMH. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  16. What is to be done with surplus embryos? Attitude formation with ambivalence in German fertility patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kufner, K; Tonne, M; Barth, J

    2009-01-01

    Improved pregnancy rates in IVF have led to increasing numbers of surplus embryos which can potentially be used for purposes like donation to another infertile couple or further research. Individuals report high levels of ambivalence concerning the donation of surplus embryos. This study examined which strategies infertile patients use to deal with this ambivalence when asked to evaluate potential dispositions of surplus embryos created during IVF. Guideline-based interviews with fertility patients were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Following the principle of theoretical sampling, eight interviews were analysed by use of Grounded Theory. Analyses focused on processes of individual attitude formation. Strategies for handling ambivalence during attitude formation were identified: the six strategies comprise cognitive and communicative strategies, and were integrated into a model of attitude formation under ambivalence. As ambivalence is a relevant phenomenon in attitude formation within IVF treatment, assessment of ambivalence is strongly recommended in social science studies investigating ethical problems in patient care. In the context of informed consent, there is a need for individual counselling which draws attention to the conflicting values during attitude formation. Counsellors should be aware of the signs of and the strategies to deal with ambivalence.

  17. Ambivalence, prejudice and negative behavioural tendencies towards out-groups: The moderating role of attitude basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costarelli, Sandro; Gerłowska, Justyna

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments explored the relations between prejudice (suppression), (cognitive) ambivalence and negative behavioural tendencies towards out-groups. The current work argues that expressing out-group ambivalence based on cognitive, but not affective, information is a strategy to justify one's otherwise suppressed prejudice, which may ultimately "cover" the discriminatory nature of out-group-directed negative behavioural tendencies. Two experiments show that (1) participants evaluating the out-group in a normative context inducing prejudice suppression are more likely to self-report ambivalent beliefs rather than ambivalent emotions concerning the out-group as compared with participants whose prejudice expression is induced and (2) high-prejudice participants compared with low-prejudice participants are more prone to out-group-directed negative behavioural tendencies when these latter are self-reported after the expression of ambivalent beliefs but not ambivalent emotions concerning the out-group, and when the expression of their prejudicial evaluations is salient but not when it is not. In light of the extent to which ambivalent attitudes towards out-groups are often seamlessly integrated into public discourse, the implications of the findings are discussed not only for intergroup research but also at the societal level.

  18. Openness to experience, intellect, schizotypal personality disorder, and psychoticism: resolving the controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Michael; Bagby, R Michael; Markon, Kristian; Ring, Angela J; Ryder, Andrew G

    2014-08-01

    Section III of DSM-5 includes an alternative model for personality disorders comprising five higher-order pathological personality traits, four of which resemble domains from the Big Five/Five-Factor Model of Personality (FFM). There has, however, been considerable debate regarding the association of FFM Openness-to-Experience/Intellect (OE/I) with DSM-5 Psychoticism and Schizotypal Personality Disorder (STPD). The authors identify several limitations in the literature, including inattention to (a) differences in the conceptualization of OE/I in the questionnaire and lexical traditions and (b) the symptom heterogeneity of STPD. They then address these limitations in two large patient samples. The results suggest that OE/I per se is weakly associated with Psychoticism and STPD symptoms. However, unique variance specific to the different conceptualizations of OE/I demonstrates much stronger associations, often in opposing directions. These results clarify the debate and the seemingly discrepant views that OE/I is unrelated to Psychoticism and contains variance relevant to Psychoticism.

  19. Event-related potential correlates of suspicious thoughts in individuals with schizotypal personality features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue-bing; Huang, Jia; Cheung, Eric F C; Gong, Qi-yong; Chan, Raymond C K

    2011-01-01

    Suspiciousness is a common feature of schizophrenia. However, suspicious thoughts are also commonly experienced by the general population. This study aimed to examine the underlying neural mechanism of suspicious thoughts in individuals with and without schizotypal personality disorder (SPD)-proneness, using an event-related potential (ERP) paradigm. Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded when the "feeling of being seen through" was evoked in the participants. The findings showed a prominent positive deflection of the difference wave within the time window 250-400 ms after stimuli presentation in both SPD-prone and non-SPD-prone groups. Furthermore, the P3 amplitude was significantly reduced in the SPD-prone group compared to the non-SPD-prone group. The current density analysis also indicated hypoactivity in both frontal and temporal regions in the SPD-prone group, suggesting that the frontotemporal cortical network may play a role in the onset of suspicious thoughts. The P3 of difference wave was inversely correlated with the cognitive-perception factor and the suspiciousness/paranoid ideation trait, which provided preliminary electrophysiological evidence for the association of suspiciousness with SPD features.

  20. The correlates of obsessive-compulsive, schizotypal, and borderline personality disorders in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melca, Isabela A; Yücel, Murat; Mendlowicz, Mauro V; de Oliveira-Souza, Ricardo; Fontenelle, Leonardo F

    2015-06-01

    We assessed correlates of obsessive-compulsive (OCPD), schizotypal (SPD) and borderline (BPD) personality disorders in 110 obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients. We found OCD patients with OCPD (20.9%) to exhibit higher rates of hoarding and bipolar disorders, increased severity of hoarding and symmetry, lower prevalence of unacceptable thoughts involving sex and religion and less non-planning impulsivity. Conversely, OCD patients with SPD (13.6%) displayed more frequently bipolar disorder, increased severity of depression and OCD neutralization, greater prevalence of "low-order" behaviors (i.e., touching), lower low-planning impulsivity and greater "behavioral" compulsivity. Finally, in exploratory analyses, OCD patients with BPD (21.8%) exhibited lower education, higher rates of several comorbid psychiatric disorders, greater frequency of compulsions involving interpersonal domains (e.g. reassurance seeking), increased severity of depression, anxiety and OCD dimensions other than symmetry and hoarding, more motor and non-planning impulsivity, and greater "cognitive" compulsivity. These findings highlight the importance of assessing personality disorders in OCD samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cluster analysis reveals subclinical subgroups with shared autistic and schizotypal traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Talitha C; Apputhurai, Pragalathan; Meyer, Denny; Crewther, David P

    2018-07-01

    Autism and schizophrenia spectrum research is typically based on coarse diagnostic classification, which overlooks individual variation within clinical groups. This method limits the identification of underlying cognitive, genetic and neural correlates of specific symptom dimensions. This study, therefore, aimed to identify homogenous subclinical subgroups of specific autistic and schizotypal traits dimensions, that may be utilised to establish more effective diagnostic and treatment practices. Latent profile analysis of subscale scores derived from an autism-schizotypy questionnaire, completed by 1678 subclinical adults aged 18-40 years (1250 females), identified a local optimum of eight population clusters: High, Moderate and Low Psychosocial Difficulties; High, Moderate and Low Autism-Schizotypy; High Psychosis-Proneness; and Moderate Schizotypy. These subgroups represent the convergent and discriminant dimensions of autism and schizotypy in the subclinical population, and highlight the importance of examining subgroups of specific symptom characteristics across these spectra in order to identify the underlying genetic and neural correlates that can be utilised to advance diagnostic and treatment practices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Dorso- and ventro-lateral prefrontal volume and spatial working memory in schizotypal personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Kim E; Hazlett, Erin A; Savage, Kimberley R; Berlin, Heather A; Hamilton, Holly K; Zelmanova, Yuliya; Look, Amy E; Koenigsberg, Harold W; Mitsis, Effie M; Tang, Cheuk Y; McNamara, Margaret; Siever, Larry J; Cohen, Barry H; New, Antonia S

    2011-04-15

    Schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) individuals and borderline personality disorder (BPD) individuals have been reported to show neuropsychological impairments and abnormalities in brain structure. However, relationships between neuropsychological function and brain structure in these groups are not well understood. This study compared visual-spatial working memory (SWM) and its associations with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) gray matter volume in 18 unmedicated SPD patients with no BPD traits, 18 unmedicated BPD patients with no SPD traits, and 16 healthy controls (HC). Results showed impaired SWM in SPD but not BPD, compared with HC. Moreover, among the HC group, but not SPD patients, better SWM performance was associated with larger VLPFC (BA44/45) gray matter volume (Fisher's Z p-values <0.05). Findings suggest spatial working memory impairments may be a core neuropsychological deficit specific to SPD patients and highlight the role of VLPFC subcomponents in normal and dysfunctional memory performance. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Differential metabolic rates in prefrontal and temporal Brodmann areas in schizophrenia and schizotypal personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchsbaum, Monte S; Nenadic, Igor; Hazlett, Erin A; Spiegel-Cohen, Jacqueline; Fleischman, Michael B; Akhavan, Arash; Silverman, Jeremy M; Siever, Larry J

    2002-03-01

    In an exploration of the schizophrenia spectrum, we compared cortical metabolic rates in unmedicated patients with schizophrenia and schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) with findings in age- and sex-matched normal volunteers. Coregistered magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) scans were obtained in 27 schizophrenic, 13 SPD, and 32 normal volunteers who performed a serial verbal learning test during tracer uptake. A template of Brodmann areas derived from a whole brain histological section atlas was used to analyze PET findings. Significantly lower metabolic rates were found in prefrontal areas 44-46 in schizophrenic patients than in normal volunteers. SPD patients did not differ from normal volunteers in most lateral frontal regions, but they had values intermediate between those of normal volunteers and schizophrenic patients in lateral temporal regions. SPD patients showed higher than normal metabolic rates in both medial frontal and medial temporal areas. Metabolic rates in Brodmann area 10 were distinctly higher in SPD patients than in either normal volunteers or schizophrenic patients.

  4. Schizotypal traits and cognitive performance in siblings of patients with psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Samaniego, L; Gaviria, Ana M; Vilella, E; Valero, J; Labad, A

    2017-12-01

    Schizotypy has been proposed to be the expression of genetic vulnerability to schizophrenia. The available literature shows cognitive similarities between schizotypy and schizophrenia, with mildly impaired performance being associated with schizotypy. This study aims to determine the relationship between schizotypy and cognitive performance in siblings of patients with psychosis. Schizotypal features and cognitive performance on a neuropsychological battery were compared between 48 siblings of patients with psychosis and 44 healthy controls. The relationships between schizotypy and cognitive performance were analysed by controlling the condition of being a sibling. Siblings showed poorer performance on vigilance/sustained attention (M = 37.6; SD = 7.1) and selective attention/interference control/working memory (M = 23.28; SD = 2.7) tasks. The variance in vigilance/sustained attention performance was explained, at 30%, by the interpersonal factor of schizotypy on the suspiciousness dimension and the condition of being a sibling. Interpersonal features of schizotypy in siblings of patients with psychosis are associated with deficits in vigilance/sustained attention performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Schizotypical Disorder or Schizophrenia? Assessment of Penal Responsibility in a Patricide Case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutrim, Ruy Justo C; Forte Stuchi, Luísa; Martins Valença, Alexandre

    2013-09-01

    Patricide is the murder of one of the parents. We report a case of a man who had committed two homicides, at different times, one of them being considered a parricide. He was referred for forensic psychiatric evaluation and later evaluated in a psychiatric assistance service. Psychiatric interview was carried out and the final psychiatric diagnosis was established based on the DSM-IV-TR criteria and retrospective analysis of forensic and clinical records. The court appointed forensic experts concluded that the patient suffered from schizotypical disorder, presenting cognitive and volitive impairment. He was found not guilty by reason of insanity. Later, in a second assessment, being in a psychiatric assistance service, the patient received a diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia. The determination of criminal responsibility is essential to the proper disposition of convicted persons in any system of criminal law that protects human rights. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  6. Increased glutamate/GABA+ ratio in a shared autistic and schizotypal trait phenotype termed Social Disorganisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Talitha C; Nibbs, Richard; Crewther, David P

    2017-01-01

    Autism and schizophrenia are multi-dimensional spectrum disorders that have substantial phenotypic overlap. This overlap is readily identified in the non-clinical population, and has been conceptualised as Social Disorganisation (SD). This study investigates the balance of excitatory glutamate and inhibitory γ -aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentrations in a non-clinical sample with high and low trait SD, as glutamate and GABA abnormalities are reported across the autism and schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Participants were 18 low (10 females) and 19 high (9 females) SD scorers aged 18 to 40 years who underwent 1 H-MRS for glutamate and GABA+macromolecule (GABA+) concentrations in right and left hemisphere superior temporal (ST) voxels. Reduced GABA+ concentration ( p  = 0.03) and increased glutamate/GABA+ ratio ( p  = 0.003) in the right ST voxel for the high SD group was found, and there was increased GABA+ concentration in the left compared to right ST voxel ( p  = 0.047). Bilateral glutamate concentration was increased for the high SD group ( p  = 0.006); there was no hemisphere by group interaction ( p  = 0.772). Results suggest that a higher expression of the SD phenotype may be associated with increased glutamate/GABA+ ratio in the right ST region, which may affect speech prosody processing, and lead behavioural characteristics that are shared within the autistic and schizotypal spectra.

  7. Glutamate/GABA+ ratio is associated with the psychosocial domain of autistic and schizotypal traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Talitha C; Nibbs, Richard; Crewther, David P

    2017-01-01

    The autism and schizophrenia spectra overlap to a large degree in the social and interpersonal domains. Similarly, abnormal excitatory glutamate and inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmitter concentrations have been reported for both spectra, with the interplay of these neurotransmitters important for cortical excitation to inhibition regulation. This study investigates whether these neurotransmitter abnormalities are specific to the shared symptomatology, and whether the degree of abnormality increases with increasing symptom severity. Hence, the relationship between the glutamate/GABA ratio and autism and schizophrenia spectrum traits in an unmedicated, subclinical population was investigated. A total of 37 adults (19 female, 18 male) aged 18-38 years completed the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) and Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ), and participated in the resting state proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study in which sequences specific for quantification of glutamate and GABA+ concentration were applied to a right and left superior temporal voxel. There were significant, moderate, positive relationships between right superior temporal glutamate/GABA+ ratio and AQ, SPQ and AQ+SPQ total scores (pGABA+ coinciding with higher scores on these subscales. Only the relationships between glutamate/GABA+ ratio and Social Anxiety, Constricted Affect, Social Skills and Communication survived multiple comparison correction (pGABA+ ratio reduced with increasing restricted imagination (pschizophrenia spectra.

  8. Attitudinal Ambivalence as a Protective Factor Against Junk Food Advertisements: A Moderated Mediation Model of Behavioral Intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Weina; Yamamoto, Masahiro

    2015-08-01

    This study investigates the role of attitudinal ambivalence in moderating the effects of junk food advertisements on behavioral intentions by tapping different facets of this construct-felt ambivalence, potential ambivalence, and affective-cognitive ambivalence. Results based on an online survey of college students indicate that attention to junk food advertisements has an indirect positive effect on intentions to eat junk food through its positive effect on attitudes toward junk food. A moderated mediation model reveals that this indirect effect of junk food advertisements is weakened as respondents' levels of felt ambivalence increase. This moderating role is not observed for the measures of potential ambivalence and affective-cognitive ambivalence. Implications are discussed for health interventions.

  9. Feeling conflicted and seeking information: when ambivalence enhances and diminishes selective exposure to attitude-consistent information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicki, Vanessa; Wegener, Duane T; Clark, Jason K; Fabrigar, Leandre R; Smith, Steven M; Durso, Geoffrey R O

    2013-06-01

    To date, little research has examined the impact of attitudinal ambivalence on attitude-congruent selective exposure. Past research would suggest that strong/univalent rather than weak/ambivalent attitudes should be more predictive of proattitudinal information seeking. Although ambivalent attitude structure might weaken the attitude's effect on seeking proattitudinal information, we believe that conflicted attitudes might also motivate attitude-congruent selective exposure because proattitudinal information should be effective in reducing ambivalence. Two studies provide evidence that the effects of ambivalence on information choices depend on amount of issue knowledge. That is, ambivalence motivates attitude-consistent exposure when issue knowledge is relatively low because less familiar information is perceived to be effective at reducing ambivalence. Conversely, when knowledge is relatively high, more unambivalent (univalent) attitudes predicted attitude-consistent information seeking.

  10. The effect of images of thin and overweight body shapes on women's ambivalence towards chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Kevin; Rae, Kirsty; Stritzke, Werner G K

    2012-02-01

    Many women experience ambivalent orientations towards chocolate, both craving for it and having concerns about eating it. The present study investigated the effect of viewing thin and overweight images of models in chocolate advertisements on ambivalent attitudes. Participants were 84 females, aged 17-63, allocated to a thin model condition, an overweight model condition, or a control group. As predicted, following exposure to their respective images, participants in the thin condition had increased avoidance, approach and guilt scores, while participants in the overweight condition had decreased approach and guilt scores, with no change in avoidance. Control participants demonstrated ambivalence, but no changes over time. The findings show that common advertising strategies for chocolate are likely to exacerbate ambivalence in female consumers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Difficult Questions and Ambivalent Answers on Genetic Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Wiszmeg

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A qualitative pilot study on the attitudes of some citizens in southern Sweden toward predictive genetic testing – and a quantitative nation wide opinion poll targeting the same issues, was initiated by the Cultural Scientific Research Team of BAGADILICO. The latter is an international biomedical research environment on neurological disease at Lund University. The data of the two studies crystallized through analysis into themes around which the informants’ personal negotiations of opinions and emotions in relation to the topic centred: Concept of Risk,‘Relations and Moral Multi-layers, Worry, Agency and Autonomy, Authority, and Rationality versus Emotion. The studies indicate that even groups of people that beforehand are non-engaged in the issue, harbour complex and ambivalent emotions and opinions toward questions like this. A certain kind of situation bound pragmatism that with difficulty could be shown by quantitative methods alone emerges. This confirms our belief that methodological consideration of combining quantitative and qualitative methods is crucial for gaining a more complex representation of attitudes, as well as for problematizing the idea of a unified public open to inquiry.

  12. Ambivalent Sexism, Alcohol Use, and Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renzetti, Claire M; Lynch, Kellie R; DeWall, C Nathan

    2015-09-09

    Research on risk factors for men's perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) has shown a high correlation with problem alcohol use. Additional studies, however, indicate that the alcohol-IPV link is neither simple nor necessarily direct and that a range of factors may moderate this relationship. Using a national, community-based sample of 255 men, the present study examined the moderating effects of ambivalent sexism (i.e., hostile and benevolent sexism) on the relationship between alcohol use and IPV perpetration. The findings show that both greater alcohol consumption and high hostile sexism are positively associated with IPV perpetration, and that hostile sexism moderates the alcohol-IPV relationship for perpetration of physical IPV, but not for psychological IPV. Moreover, high levels of alcohol consumption have a greater impact on physical IPV perpetration for men low in hostile sexism than for men high in hostile sexism, lending support to the multiple threshold model of the alcohol-IPV link. Implications of the findings for prevention, intervention, and future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Ambivalent Sexism Inventory: Adaptation to Basque Population and Sexism as a Risk Factor of Dating Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibabe, Izaskun; Arnoso, Ainara; Elgorriaga, Edurne

    2016-11-15

    There is currently a consensus that sexism is one of the most important causes of intimate partner violence, but this has yet to be empirically demonstrated conclusively. The key objective of the study was to adapt Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI) and to validate it to the Basque language. It also aims to analyze the prevalence of violence in dating relationships and verify if ambivalent sexism in young men and women is a valid predictor of perpetration and/or victimization in their dating relationships. Ambivalent Sexism Inventory and Dating Relationship Questionnaire were administered to 1378 undergraduate students (66% women and 45% Basque), aged between 17 and 30. The psychometric properties of the Basque and Spanish versions of the ASI are deemed to be acceptable. Sufficient guarantees are provided to be used as an instrument for measuring ambivalent sexism in adult Basque speakers. Ambivalent sexism among young men and women are both positively associated with the perpetration of violence and victimization in their dating relationships. However, ambivalent sexism or two sub-types of sexism (hostile and benevolent) are not relevant risk factors to be perpetrator or victim of violence in dating relationships, due to accounting for 3% or less of variance in dating violence.

  14. A disembodied man: A case of somatopsychic depersonalization in schizotypal disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaytseva, Yuliya; Szymanski, Caroline; Gutyrchik, Evgeny; Pechenkova, Ekaterina; Vlasova, Rosa; Wittmann, Marc

    2015-12-01

    In the general concept of self-disturbances in schizophrenia and schizophrenia spectrum disorders, somatopsychic depersonalization (SPD) occupies a special place as it constitutes a syndrome that comprises feelings of detachment from one's own body and mental processes. However, apart from clinical descriptions, to date the pathophysiology of SPD is not fully understood due to the rareness of the syndrome and a lack of experimental studies. In a case study of one patient with schizotypal disorder, we applied a multimodal approach to understanding the SPD phenomena. The patient's clinical profile was identified as disruption of implicit bodily function, accompanied by depressive symptoms. On a neuropsychological level, the patient exhibited impairment in executive functioning, intact tactile perception and kinesthetic praxis. Behavioral tests revealed an altered sense of time but unimpaired self-agency. Furthermore, the patient exhibited a lack of empathy and he had autistic traits, although with a sufficient ability to verbalize his feelings. On the neurobiological level using an active and passive touch paradigm during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we found a hyperconnectivity of the default-mode network and salience network and a hypoconnectivity of the central executive brain networks in the performance of the touch task as well as intact perceptual touch processing emerging from the direct comparisons of the touch conditions. Our data provide evidence for the important role of altered large-brain network functioning in SPD that corresponds to the specific behavioral and neurocognitive phenomena. © 2015 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. Glutamate/GABA+ ratio is associated with the psychosocial domain of autistic and schizotypal traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talitha C Ford

    Full Text Available The autism and schizophrenia spectra overlap to a large degree in the social and interpersonal domains. Similarly, abnormal excitatory glutamate and inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA neurotransmitter concentrations have been reported for both spectra, with the interplay of these neurotransmitters important for cortical excitation to inhibition regulation. This study investigates whether these neurotransmitter abnormalities are specific to the shared symptomatology, and whether the degree of abnormality increases with increasing symptom severity. Hence, the relationship between the glutamate/GABA ratio and autism and schizophrenia spectrum traits in an unmedicated, subclinical population was investigated.A total of 37 adults (19 female, 18 male aged 18-38 years completed the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ and Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ, and participated in the resting state proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study in which sequences specific for quantification of glutamate and GABA+ concentration were applied to a right and left superior temporal voxel.There were significant, moderate, positive relationships between right superior temporal glutamate/GABA+ ratio and AQ, SPQ and AQ+SPQ total scores (p<0.05, SPQ subscales Social Anxiety, No Close Friend, Constricted Affect, Odd Behaviour, Odd Speech, Ideas of Reference and Suspiciousness, and AQ subscales Social Skills, Communication and Attention Switching (p<0.05; increased glutamate/GABA+ coinciding with higher scores on these subscales. Only the relationships between glutamate/GABA+ ratio and Social Anxiety, Constricted Affect, Social Skills and Communication survived multiple comparison correction (p< 0.004. Left superior temporal glutamate/GABA+ ratio reduced with increasing restricted imagination (p<0.05.These findings demonstrate evidence for an association between excitatory/inhibitory neurotransmitter concentrations and symptoms that are shared between the autism and

  16. Religious Fundamentalism/Religious Modernism: Conceptual Adversaries or Ambivalent Phenomena?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. GOLOVUSHKIN

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Both religious modernism and religious fundamentalism appeared as problems in academic and theological literature at the beginning of the 20th century. They came about as the result of the dynamic development of modernistic ideology in Russia, the United States, Western Europe and the Islamic world. Today, the concepts of religious modernism and religious fundamentalism are widely used to describe religious processes and phenomena which are the result of interaction between religion (as a dynamic spiritual and social subsystem and society - as a social system experiencing evolution. The concept of religious modernism is traditionally associated with religious renewal, the contemporary world, and innovation. Fundamentalism, on the contrary, is an ideological commitment to the “roots and origins” of religion. Under the aegis of fundamentalism, any religious idea, value or concept has a right to exist. Religious Studies, during the course of time and the production of ever new material, encountered a serious theoretic-methodological problem: How can various religious movements and religious traditions be organized into groups since some of them combine elements of religious modernism and of religious fundamentalism? Already at the end of the nineteen-eighties, the well-established view defining “fundamentalism-modernism” as contrary positions had to be rethought. Studies dating from the nineteen-nineties and the beginning of the new millennium concentrated on noting the social origins and the political character of these phenomena. They demonstrated that neither fundamentalism nor modernism present the whole picture. The lines dividing them are so blurred, that they become confl uent. Consequently, the author concludes that religious fundamentalism and religious modernism are ambivalent phenomena, which can, on occasion, interact with each other.

  17. The ambivalent relationship between war and peace: public speeches concerning the issue of terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rita CALABRÒ

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the 9/11 attacks, a coalition of West Countries, led by the United States of America, militarily occupied two countries – Afghanistan and Iraq – in part rewriting the rules which up until then had clearly outlined the difference between a war of aggression and a war of defence. By analyzing the various speeches of ten important world leaders of West Democratic Countries on terrorism of fundamentalist matrix, we will outline a contradiction: declaring the necessity of war as a condition and objective of peace. This is solved in different ways: it becomes an ambivalent strategy in the cases of Obama and Merkel, with the latter being less explicit; in the cases of Bush, Berlusconi, Blair and Rice it leads, albeit with different motivations and arguments, to a stark choice: war; whereas it disappears in the speeches of Zapatero, Prodi and Cameron, who speak of actions and strategies to combat terrorism without ever mentioning war. Without offering any value judgment of the content of the various arguments, I only take them as a pretext to reflect on the rules of ambivalent communication: a communication which starts from a clear contradiction, and argues the necessity of it, before demonstrating its usefulness and proposing strategies of action that take it into account. The essay is divided into two parts: in the first one (which is published in this issue I discuss the concept of sociological ambivalence, I distinguish ambivalence from contradictions and ambiguity and I identify the argumentative strategies of an ambivalent communication. Then I analyze the speech the President of the United States of America Barack Obama delivered on December 10, 2009 in Oslo when he received the Nobel Peace Prize as an example of “good” ambivalent communication. In the second part of the essay (which will be published in the next issue, I analyze the speeches of other world leaders as different examples of ambivalent communication.

  18. Entre crainte et désir pour les objets connectés : Comprendre l'ambivalence des consommateurs

    OpenAIRE

    Ardelet , Caroline; Veg-Sala , Nathalie; Goudey , Alain; Haikel-Elsabeh , Marie

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Our research explores consumers’ ambivalence about the purchase and the use of smart objects. A qualitative study with two steps (composed by 22 consumers’ individual interviews and two focus groups) investigates the dimensions of ambivalence (easiness, intelligence, social links and emotion of smart objects). We find different schemas of ambivalence, depending on the link between the consumer (user or non user) and the function given to the objet (utilitarian, experie...

  19. Ten-year stability of self-reported schizotypal personality features in patients with psychosis and their healthy siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Izco, Lucía; Sánchez-Torres, Ana M; Lorente-Omeñaca, Ruth; Fañanás, Lourdes; Rosa, Araceli; Salvatore, Paola; Peralta, Victor; Cuesta, Manuel J

    2015-06-30

    Schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) symptoms or features are common in patients with psychosis and their healthy relatives. However, the long-term stability of these SPD features and therefore their constituting enduring traits underlying vulnerability to psychosis remain to be clarified. Thirty-two patients with psychotic disorders and 29 of their healthy siblings were included from the long-term follow-up study of 89 nuclear families. Participants were clinically assessed by means of a semi-structured diagnostic interview, whereas the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief (SPQ-B) was applied for the self-assessment of SPD symptoms. The assessments were carried out upon admission to the study and at follow-up, about 10 years later. The patients had higher scores than their siblings on the SPQ-B both at baseline and follow-up. In addition, self-reported SPD symptoms remained stable over time in total scores and in all the SPQ-B subscores, except for the SPQ-B Disorganization subscale. Self-reported SPD symptoms were stable over the long term among patients with psychotic disorders and their healthy siblings. This finding provides new support for including the SPD construct as a trait measure for studies addressing both vulnerability to psychosis in first-degree relatives of patients with psychosis and long-term persistence of symptoms in patients suffering from psychosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Longitudinal volume changes of the pituitary gland in patients with schizotypal disorder and first-episode schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tsutomu; Zhou, Shi-Yu; Nakamura, Kazue; Tanino, Ryoichiro; Furuichi, Atsushi; Kido, Mikio; Kawasaki, Yasuhiro; Noguchi, Kyo; Seto, Hikaru; Kurachi, Masayoshi; Suzuki, Michio

    2011-01-15

    An enlarged volume of the pituitary gland has been reported in the schizophrenia spectrum, possibly reflecting the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) hyperactivity. However, it remains largely unknown whether the pituitary size longitudinally changes in the course of the spectrum disorders. In the present study, longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were obtained from 18 patients with first-episode schizophrenia, 13 patients with schizotypal disorder, and 20 healthy controls. The pituitary volume was measured at baseline and follow-up (mean, 2.7 years) scans and was compared across groups. The pituitary volume was larger in the schizophrenia patients than controls at baseline, and both patient groups had significantly larger pituitary volume than controls at follow-up. In a longitudinal comparison, both schizophrenia (3.6%/year) and schizotypal (2.7%/year) patients showed significant pituitary enlargement compared with controls (-1.8%/year). In the schizophrenia patients, greater pituitary enlargement over time was associated with less improvement of delusions and higher scores for thought disorders at the follow-up. These findings suggest that the pituitary gland exhibits ongoing volume changes during the early course of the schizophrenia spectrum as a possible marker of state-related impairments. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Ambivalent sexism and attitudes toward women in different stages of reproductive life: a semantic, cross-cultural approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisler, Joan C; Gorman, Jennifer A; Marván, Maria Luisa; Johnston-Robledo, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    College students in southeastern Mexico (n = 185) and the northeastern United States (n = 96) utilized a semantic differential scale to rate subtypes of women: a menstruating woman, a menopausal woman, a pregnant woman, a premenstrual woman, a woman with a hysterectomy, a teenage girl, a woman in love, and a woman with a young baby. Americans reported significantly more negative attitudes than Mexicans did toward a menstruating woman, a premenstrual woman, a teenage girl, and a pregnant woman. Participants chose more positive words to describe a teenage girl, a woman in love, a pregnant woman, and a woman with a young baby, which is suggestive of a pronatal bias. Participants also completed the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI). Men scored significantly higher than women on hostile sexism. Mexicans scored significantly higher than Americans on both hostile and benevolent sexism. Sexism scores are related to attitudes toward premenstrual, menstruating, and menopausal women; women with a hysterectomy; and women with a young baby.

  2. The relationship of the Severe Personality disorders with behavioral activation and inhibition systems in patients with paranoid, borderline and schizotypal personality disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Setareh Jani; Mehri Molaee

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Given the disruptive effects of personality disorders on personal and family life, it is essential to recognize their predisposing factors to understand them more accurately, and identify their preventive measures treatment facilitators. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the relationship of severe personality disorders with behavioral activation and inhibition systems in patients with paranoid, borderline and schizotypal personality disorders. Methods: The present...

  3. Avoidant Personality Disorder is a Separable Schizophrenia Spectrum Personality Disorder even when Controlling for the Presence of Paranoid and Schizotypal Personality Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Fogelson, D. L.; Nuechterlein, K. H.; Asarnow, R. A.; Payne, D. L.; Subotnik, K. L.; Jacobson, K. C.; Neale, M. C.; Kendler, K. S.

    2007-01-01

    It is unresolved whether avoidant personality disorder (APD) is an independent schizophrenia (Sz)-spectrum personality disorder (PD). Some studies find APD and social anxiety symptoms (Sxs) to be a separable dimension of psychopathology in relatives (Rels) of schizophrenics while other studies find avoidant Sxs to be correlated with schizotypal and paranoid Sxs.

  4. Solidarity and ambivalence: comparing two perspectives on intergenerational relations using longitudinal panel data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogerbrugge, Martijn J A; Komter, Aafke E

    2012-05-01

    Research on family relations has extensively used the intergenerational solidarity model proposed by Bengtson and colleagues. Recently, the relevance of this model for explaining changes in family relations has been questioned, and the concept of intergenerational ambivalence has been proposed as a relevant addition to the model, supposedly acting as a catalyst, and thus serving as an explanation for changes in family relations. This study tests both the viability of the intergenerational solidarity model and the hypothesized effect of ambivalence employing longitudinal data. We use data from 2 waves of the Netherlands' Kinship Panel Study on parent-adult child relationships to estimate latent variable structural equation models. Affection, association, and support between family members are core, mutually reinforcing dimensions of solidarity. The hypothesis that ambivalence is a catalyst for change in family relations was not confirmed. Adding conflict separately revealed that it only affects the core solidarity dimensions but is itself, like normative and structural solidarity, not influenced by them. The relevance of the concept of intergenerational ambivalence for studying changes in family relations can be questioned. The viability of the intergenerational solidarity model is, however, confirmed. The concept of intergenerational ambivalence might be further explored in qualitative studies on family change.

  5. Course of illness in a sample of patients diagnosed with a schizotypal disorder and treated in a specialized early intervention setting. Findings from the 3.5 year follow-up of the OPUS II study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Nikolai; Glenthøj, Louise Birkedal; Melau, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    of a randomized clinical trial testing the effect of prolonged specialized early intervention, we recruited 83 participants diagnosed with a schizotypal disorder. Participants were recruited 18 months into their two-year treatment program, and follow-up interviews were conducted three and a half year later......BACKGROUND: Previous studies report that 20% to 30% of those initially diagnosed with schizotypal disorder go on to develop a psychotic disorder (predominantly schizophrenia). Schizotypal disorder share some traits of those used to identify patients at ultra-high risk for psychosis. METHOD: As part...

  6. Reduced Theta-Band Power and Phase Synchrony during Explicit Verbal Memory Tasks in Female, Non-Clinical Individuals with Schizotypal Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong Woo; Jang, Kyoung-Mi; Jung, Ki-Young; Kim, Myung-Sun; Kim, Kyung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    The study of non-clinical individuals with schizotypal traits has been considered to provide a promising endophenotypic approach to understanding schizophrenia, because schizophrenia is highly heterogeneous, and a number of confounding factors may affect neuropsychological performance. Here, we investigated whether deficits in explicit verbal memory in individuals with schizotypal traits are associated with abnormalities in the local and inter-regional synchrony of brain activity. Memory deficits have been recognized as a core problem in schizophrenia, and previous studies have consistently shown explicit verbal memory impairment in schizophrenic patients. However, the mechanism of this impairment has not been fully revealed. Seventeen individuals with schizotypal traits and 17 age-matched, normal controls participated. Multichannel event-related electroencephalograms (EEGs) were recorded while the subjects performed a continuous recognition task. Event-related spectral perturbations (ERSPs) and inter-regional theta-band phase locking values (TPLVs) were investigated to determine the differences in local and global neural synchrony between the two subject groups. Additionally, the connection patterns of the TPLVs were quantitatively analyzed using graph theory measures. An old/new effect was found in the induced theta-band ERSP in both groups. However, the difference between the old and new was larger in normal controls than in schizotypal trait group. The tendency of elevated old/new effect in normal controls was observed in anterior-posterior theta-band phase synchrony as well. Our results suggest that explicit memory deficits observed in schizophrenia patients can also be found in non-clinical individuals with psychometrically defined schizotypal traits.

  7. Nations’ Income Inequality Predicts Ambivalence in Stereotype Content: How Societies Mind the Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Federica; Fiske, Susan T.; Kervyn, Nicolas; Cuddy, Amy J. C.; Akande, Adebowale (Debo); Adetoun, Bolanle E.; Adewuyi, Modupe F.; Tserere, Magdeline M.; Ramiah, Ananthi Al; Mastor, Khairul Anwar; Barlow, Fiona Kate; Bonn, Gregory; Tafarodi, Romin W.; Bosak, Janine; Cairns, Ed; Doherty, Claire; Capozza, Dora; Chandran, Anjana; Chryssochoou, Xenia; Iatridis, Tilemachos; Contreras, Juan Manuel; Costa-Lopes, Rui; González, Roberto; Lewis, Janet I.; Tushabe, Gerald; Leyens, Jacques-Philippe; Mayorga, Renée; Rouhana, Nadim N.; Castro, Vanessa Smith; Perez, Rolando; Rodríguez-Bailón, Rosa; Moya, Miguel; Morales Marente, Elena; Palacios Gálvez, Marisol; Sibley, Chris G.; Asbrock, Frank; Storari, Chiara C.

    2013-01-01

    Income inequality undermines societies: the more inequality, the more health problems, social tensions, and the lower social mobility, trust, life expectancy. Given people’s tendency to legitimate existing social arrangements, the Stereotype Content Model (SCM) argues that ambivalence—perceiving many groups as either warm or competent, but not both—may help maintain socio-economic disparities. The association between stereotype ambivalence and income inequality in 37 cross-national samples from Europe, the Americas, Oceania, Asia, and Africa investigates how groups’ overall warmth-competence, status-competence, and competition-warmth correlations vary across societies, and whether these variations associate with income inequality (Gini index). More unequal societies report more ambivalent stereotypes, while more equal ones dislike competitive groups and do not necessarily respect them as competent. Unequal societies may need ambivalence for system stability: income inequality compensates groups with partially positive social images. PMID:23039178

  8. Stakeholder perspectives and reactions to "academic" cognitive enhancement: Unsuspected meaning of ambivalence and analogies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forlini, Cynthia; Racine, Eric

    2012-07-01

    The existence of diverging discourses in the media and academia on the use of prescription medications to improve cognition in healthy individuals, i.e. "cognitive enhancement" (CE) creates the need to better understand perspectives from stakeholders. This qualitative focus-group study examined perspectives from students, parents and healthcare providers on CE. Stakeholders expressed ambivalence regarding CE (i.e. reactions to, definitions of, risks, and benefits). They were reluctant to adopt analogies to performance-enhancing steroids and caffeine though these analogies were useful in discussing concepts common to the use of different performance-enhancing substances. Media coverage of CE was criticized for lack of scientific rigor, ethical clarity, and inadvertent promotion of CE. Ambivalence of stakeholders suggests fundamental discomfort with economic and social driving forces of CE. Forms of public dialogue that voice the unease and ambivalence of stakeholders should be pursued to avoid opting hastily for permissive or restrictive health policies for CE.

  9. Ambivalent Sexism in Close Relationships: (Hostile) Power and (Benevolent) Romance Shape Relationship Ideals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tiane L.; Fiske, Susan T.; Glick, Peter; Chen, Zhixia

    2013-01-01

    Gender-based structural power and heterosexual dependency produce ambivalent gender ideologies, with hostility and benevolence separately shaping close-relationship ideals. The relative importance of romanticized benevolent versus more overtly power-based hostile sexism, however, may be culturally dependent. Testing this, northeast US (N=311) and central Chinese (N=290) undergraduates rated prescriptions and proscriptions (ideals) for partners and completed Ambivalent Sexism and Ambivalence toward Men Inventories (ideologies). Multiple regressions analyses conducted on group-specific relationship ideals revealed that benevolent ideologies predicted partner ideals, in both countries, especially for US culture’s romance-oriented relationships. Hostile attitudes predicted men’s ideals, both American and Chinese, suggesting both societies’ dominant-partner advantage. PMID:23914004

  10. Managing ambivalent prejudices: The smart-but-cold, and the warm-butdumb sterotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, Susan T

    2012-01-01

    Not all biases are equivalent, and not all biases are uniformly negative. Two fundamental dimensions differentiate stereotyped groups in cultures across the globe: status predicts perceived competence, and cooperation predicts perceived warmth. Crossing the competence and warmth dimensions, two combinations produce ambivalent prejudices: pitied groups (often traditional women or older people) appear warm but incompetent, and envied groups (often nontraditional women or outsider entrepreneurs) appear competent but cold. Case studies in ambivalent sexism, heterosexism, racism, anti-immigrant biases, ageism, and classism illustrate both the dynamics and the management of these complex but knowable prejudices.

  11. Resolving Partnership Ambivalence: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Very Brief Cognitive and Experiential Interventions with Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trachsel, Manuel; Ferrari, Lara; Holtforth, Martin Grosse

    2012-01-01

    Both the experiential two-chair approach (TCA) and the cognitive decision-cube technique (DCT) have been used for the treatment of ambivalence in counselling. The aims of this study were (a) to show that partnership ambivalence is reduced after a brief stand-alone intervention using either TCA or DCT, and (b) to test the hypothesized mechanisms of…

  12. Acculturation matters in the relation between ambivalence over emotional expressions and well-being among Chinese American breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, William; Lu, Qian

    2017-10-01

    Ambivalence over emotional expression (AEE) is the inner conflict of desiring emotion expression and fearing consequence of emotion expression. Few studies to date have examined the effects of AEE within an ethnic group that prioritizes emotional self-control. The present study examined the associations between AEE and well-being (viz., quality of life and depressive symptoms) as a function of acculturation among a sample of Chinese American breast cancer survivors. Ninety-six Chinese breast cancer survivors (M age  = 54.64 years old, SD = 7.98) were recruited from Southern California. Participants filled out a paper-pen questionnaire containing the Ambivalence over Emotional Expression Questionnaire (AEQ), the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast (FACT-B), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale-Short Form (CESD-10). Acculturation was a statistically significant moderator of the relations between AEE and depressive symptoms, and a statistically marginally significant moderator of the relations between AEE and quality of life. Simple slopes revealed that AEE was negatively associated with quality of life (B = -.45, p acculturation, but not associated for women with low acculturation (Bs = -.15 and .04, ps > .05, for quality of life and depressive symptoms, respectively). These results suggest that less acculturated Chinese breast cancer survivors are protected by Chinese cultural values of emotional self-control and restraint, and thus do not experience the detrimental effects of AEE on their depressive symptoms and quality of life. Implications are discussed.

  13. One way and the other: the bidirectional relationship between ambivalence and body movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, I.K.; Eerland, A.; van Harreveld, F.; Rotteveel, M.; van der Pligt, J.; van der Stoep, N.; Zwaan, R.A.

    2013-01-01

    Prior research exploring the relationship between evaluations and body movements has focused on one-sided evaluations. However, people regularly encounter objects or situations about which they simultaneously hold both positive and negative views, which results in the experience of ambivalence. Such

  14. NGSS, Disposability, and the Ambivalence of Science in/under Neoliberalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the ambivalence of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) and its Framework towards neoliberal governance. The paper examines the ways that the NGSS serves as a mechanism within neoliberal governance: in its production of disposable populations through testing and through the infusion of engineering throughout the NGSS to…

  15. Between Utopia and Dystopia: Colonial Ambivalence and Early Modern Perception of Sápmi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naum, Magdalena Ewa

    2016-01-01

    The northernmost regions of Fennoscandia attracted attention of travellers and geographers for centuries. These regions were often imagined in ambivalent terms as homelands of evil and dearth or as places of true happiness. From the seventeenth century onwards, Sápmi (Lapland) became a destinatio...

  16. A Dual Process Motivational Model of Ambivalent Sexism and Gender Differences in Romantic Partner Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibley, Chris G.; Overall, Nickola C.

    2011-01-01

    We tested a dual process motivational model of ambivalent sexism and gender differences in intimate partner preferences. Meta-analysis of 32 samples (16 with men, 16 with women; N = 5,459) indicated that Benevolent Sexism (BS) in women was associated with greater preferences for high-resource partners (r = 0.24), whereas Hostile Sexism (HS) in men…

  17. Ambivalence and alliance ruptures in cognitive behavioral therapy for generalized anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Jennifer A; Button, Melissa L; Westra, Henny A

    2014-01-01

    Client ambivalence about change (or motivation) is regarded as central to outcomes in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). However, little research has been conducted to examine the impact of client ambivalence about change on therapy process variables such as the therapeutic alliance. Given the demonstrated limitations of self-report measures of key constructs such as ambivalence and motivation, the present study instead employed a newly adapted observational measure of client ambivalence. Client statements regarding change (change talk (CT) and counter-change talk (CCT)) were coded in early (session 1 or 2) therapy sessions of CBT for generalized anxiety disorder. The frequency of CT and CCT was then compared between clients who later experienced an alliance rupture with their therapist, and clients who did not. The results showed that clients in dyads who later experienced an alliance rupture expressed significantly more CCT at the outset of therapy than clients who did not later experience an alliance rupture. However, CT utterances did not significantly differ between alliance rupture and no-rupture groups. CCT may strain the alliance because clients expressing higher levels of CCT early in therapy may be less receptive to therapist direction in CBT. Consequently, it is recommended that clients and therapists work together to carefully address these key moments in therapy so as to prevent alliance rupture and preserve client engagement in therapy.

  18. One way and the other: The bi-directional relationship between ambivalence and body movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, I.K.; Eerland, A.; van Harreveld, F.; Rotteveel, M.; van der Pligt, J.; van der Stoep, N.; Zwaan, R.A.

    2013-01-01

    Prior research exploring the relationship between evaluations and body movements has focused on one-sided evaluations. However, people regularly encounter objects or situations about which they simultaneously hold both positive and negative views, which results in the experience of ambivalence. Such

  19. Relationships and cardiovascular risk: perceived spousal ambivalence in specific relationship contexts and its links to inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uchino, B.N.; Bosch, J.A.; Smith, T.W.; Carlisle, M.; Birmingham, W.; Bowen, K.S.; Light, K.C.; O'Hartaigh, B.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Although perceiving one’s social ties as sources of ambivalence has been linked to negative health outcomes, the more specific contexts by which such relationships influence health remain less studied. We thus examined if perceived spousal relationship quality in three theoretically

  20. NICU nurses’ ambivalent attitudes in skin-to-skin care practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingjerd G. Kymre

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article illuminates the essence of Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU nurses’ attitudes in skin-to-skin care (SSC practice for preterm infants and their parents. Health care providers are in a unique position to influence the dynamic between infants and parents, and SSC affects both partners in the dyad. The design is descriptively phenomenological in terms of reflective lifeworld approach. Eighteen Swedish, Danish, and Norwegian nurses from NICUs offering varied possibilities and extents of SSC participated. NICU nurses’ attitudes in SSC practice are ambivalent. The nurses consider the sensory, wellness, and mutuality experiences to be primary and vital and enact SSC as much as possible. But “as much as possible” is a broad and varied concept, and their attitudes are ambivalent in terms of not always facilitating what they consider to be the optimal caring conditions. The source of NICU nurses’ ambivalent attitudes in SSC practice is a complex interplay of beliefs, norms, and evidence, which have a multidisciplinary basis. The ambivalent attitudes are, to a great extent, the result of the need to balance these multidisciplinary concerns. This needs to be acknowledged in considering SSC practice, as well as acknowledging that clinical judgments concerning optimal SSC depend on parents and infants unlimited access to each other, which NICU nurses can influence.

  1. Neural dissociations in attitude strength: Distinct regions of cingulate cortex track ambivalence and certainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luttrell, Andrew; Stillman, Paul E; Hasinski, Adam E; Cunningham, William A

    2016-04-01

    People's behaviors are often guided by valenced responses to objects in the environment. Beyond positive and negative evaluations, attitudes research has documented the importance of attitude strength--qualities of an attitude that enhance or attenuate its impact and durability. Although neuroscience research has extensively investigated valence, little work exists on other related variables like metacognitive judgments about one's attitudes. It remains unclear, then, whether the various indicators of attitude strength represent a single underlying neural process or whether they reflect independent processes. To examine this, we used functional MRI (fMRI) to identify the neural correlates of attitude strength. Specifically, we focus on ambivalence and certainty, which represent metacognitive judgments that people can make about their evaluations. Although often correlated, prior neuroscience research suggests that these 2 attributes may have distinct neural underpinnings. We investigate this by having participants make evaluative judgments of visually presented words while undergoing fMRI. After scanning, participants rated the degree of ambivalence and certainty they felt regarding their attitudes toward each word. We found that these 2 judgments corresponded to distinct brain regions' activity during the process of evaluation. Ambivalence corresponded to activation in anterior cingulate cortex, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, and posterior cingulate cortex. Certainty, however, corresponded to activation in unique areas of the precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex. These results support a model treating ambivalence and certainty as distinct, though related, attitude strength variables, and we discuss implications for both attitudes and neuroscience research. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Tensions in the Parent and Adult Child Relationship: Links to Solidarity and Ambivalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birditt, Kira S.; Miller, Laura M.; Fingerman, Karen L.; Lefkowitz, Eva S.

    2009-01-01

    Tensions are normative in the parent and adult child relationship, but there is little research on the topics that cause the most tension or whether tensions are associated with overall relationship quality. Adult sons and daughters, aged 22 to 49, and their mothers and fathers (N = 158 families, 474 individuals) reported the intensity of different tension topics and relationship quality (solidarity and ambivalence) with one another. Tensions varied between and within families by generation, gender and age of offspring. In comparison to tensions regarding individual issues, tensions regarding the relationship were associated with lower affective solidarity and greater ambivalence. Findings are consistent with the developmental schism hypothesis, which indicates that parent-child tensions are common and are the result of discrepancies in developmental needs which vary by generation, gender, and age. PMID:19485648

  3. Ambivalent sexism: a tool for understanding and improving gender relations in organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrisson, Ingrid; Anderzén, Marie; Lenell, Fredrik; Sandelin, Håkan

    2012-02-01

    This study tested predictions regarding ambivalent sexism, previously studied cross-culturally, here "within-culturally", between groups from different organizational settings. Based on three samples (334 adults in general, 744 industrial employees, and 189 high school students), completing a Swedish version of the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI), the results revealed that men scored higher on hostile and benevolent sexism than women, and high school students scored higher than both adult samples on both forms of sexism. The results generally confirmed the predictions; the gender gap in benevolent sexism decreased as a function of increasing levels of general sexism and the correlation between hostile and benevolent sexism decreased with higher levels of general sexism. In fact, the groups scoring highest on general sexism displayed significant negative correlations indicating a polarized ideology of women among these groups. Implications, both theoretical and practical, derived from these results are discussed. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2011 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  4. Determinants of emergency contraception non-use among women in unplanned or ambivalent pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmara Alves dos Santos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To analyze the determinants of emergency contraception non-use among women in unplanned and ambivalent pregnancies. Method Cross-sectional study with a probabilistic sample of 366 pregnant women from 12 primary health care units in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. A multinomial logistic regression was performed, comparing three groups: women who used emergency contraception to prevent ongoing pregnancies (reference; women who made no use of emergency contraception, but used other contraceptive methods; and women who made no use of any contraceptive methods at all. Results Cohabitation with a partner was the common determinant of emergency contraception non-use. No pregnancy risk awareness, ambivalent pregnancies and no previous use of emergency contraception also contributed to emergency contraception non-use. Conclusion Apart from what is pointed out in the literature, knowledge of emergency contraception and the fertile period were not associated to its use.

  5. Consumer responses to advertising on the Internet: the effect of individual difference on ambivalence and avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chang Hyun; Villegas, Jorge

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the effect that individual characteristics have on consumer advertising processing under high- and low-interactivity circumstances on the Web. Tests on the relationship between individual differences and advertising responses form the basis of this empirical study on the Web. The results indicated that consumers have a higher tendency to avoid or experience ambivalence about Internet advertisements under low-interactivity circumstances, and attitudinal ambivalence lead to avoidance when responding to advertisements on the Internet. Personality variables are the main factors in consumer decision-making behaviors and Internet characteristics, such as levels of interactivity, can greatly influence the effectiveness of advertising in online environments. Advertising credibility could influence people's consumer attitudes, beliefs, or behaviors over time on the Web.

  6. Ambivalent Sexism and Power-Related Gender-role Ideology in Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhixia; Fiske, Susan T.; Lee, Tiane L.

    2013-01-01

    Glick-Fiske's (1996) Ambivalent Sexism Inventory(ASI) and a new Gender-Role Ideology in Marriage (GRIM) inventory examine ambivalent sexism toward women, predicting power-related, gender-role beliefs about mate selection and marriage norms. Mainland Chinese, 552, and 252 U.S. undergraduates participated. Results indicated that Chinese and men most endorsed hostile sexism; Chinese women more than U.S. women accepted benevolent sexism. Both Chinese genders prefer home-oriented mates (women especially seeking a provider and upholding him; men especially endorsing male-success/female-housework, male dominance, and possibly violence). Both U.S. genders prefer considerate mates (men especially seeking an attractive one). Despite gender and culture differences in means, ASI-GRIM correlations replicate across those subgroups: Benevolence predicts initial mate selection; hostility predicts subsequent marriage norms. PMID:24058258

  7. Ambivalent and shifting codes of fear and desire in Dracula movies

    OpenAIRE

    Özkaracalar, Kaya

    2004-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. This study, which takes Robin Wood’s methodology to find the answer to the question ‘what does the monster stand for?’ as its base with certain nuances, investigates the ambivalent and shifting sets of connotations embedded in Dracula movies. The main focus is on the sexual and sexuality-related connotations involving fear and desire. A secondary set of connotations related to Otherness attributed to foreign cultures is also investigate...

  8. Affect and self-efficacy infuse the experience of ambivalent photographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muth Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ambivalent pictures offer several interpretations of different valence-e.g., some photographs by Claudia Otto document scenes which can be perceived as sad or happy, dangerous or sweet, and so on. We show that task experiences influence the experienced valence of these images. Previous work already documented that responses to images are task-dependent and self-created insights heighten pleasure. A resulting positive mood and high self-efficacy might broaden attention to positive valence. In contrast, low self-efficacy leads to the prediction of negative task experiences and strengthens the salience of a positive experience. In our study, participants rated the valence of ambivalent photographs to be more positive after positive feedback regarding the accomplishment of a precedent puzzle. We revealed a trend of positive feedback being more effective when it followed negative experiences. The experience of ambivalent images is strongly linked to mood and self-efficacy and both is influenced by taskexperiences in psycho-aesthetic studies.

  9. Harsh, inconsistent parental discipline and romantic relationships: mediating processes of behavioral problems and ambivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surjadi, Florensia F; Lorenz, Frederick O; Conger, Rand D; Wickrama, K A S

    2013-10-01

    According to the Development of Early Adult Romantic Relationships (DEARR) model (Bryant, C. M., & Conger, R. D. [2002]. Conger, R. D., Cui, M., Bryant, C. M., & Elder, G. H., Jr. [2000] interactional characteristics in the family of origin influence early adult romantic relationships by promoting or inhibiting the development of interpersonal competencies that contribute to relationship success in young adulthood. The present study uses the DEARR model as a general framework to help examine the long-term link between parental discipline practices in adolescence and young adult's interactions in the early years of marriage or cohabitation. Using prospective data from 288 target participants, their families, and their romantic partner, beginning when the targets were adolescents and continuing up to the fifth year of their marital or cohabiting relationships, we found empirical support for the DEARR model. Parental discipline practices in adolescence were associated with romantic relationship quality during the early years of marriage or cohabitation through processes in late adolescence and young adulthood. Specifically, harsh and inconsistent discipline practices were associated with greater attitudinal ambivalence toward parents in adolescence. Inconsistent discipline was also associated with higher risks of externalizing problems during late adolescence years. Externalizing problems and ambivalence toward parents predicted poorer relationship quality through aggressive behaviors and ambivalence toward a romantic partner during the early years of marriage or cohabitation. Implications for practitioners working with couples and families are discussed.

  10. Interactions between Obsessional Symptoms and Interpersonal Ambivalences in Psychodynamic Therapy: An Empirical Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelis, Shana; Desmet, Mattias; Van Nieuwenhove, Kimberly L H D; Meganck, Reitske; Willemsen, Jochem; Inslegers, Ruth; Feyaerts, Jasper

    2017-01-01

    The classical symptom specificity hypothesis (Blatt, 1974) particularly associates obsessional symptoms to interpersonal behavior directed at autonomy and separation from others. Cross-sectional group research, however, has yielded inconsistent findings on this predicted association, and a previous empirical case study (Cornelis et al., in press; see Chapter 2) documented obsessional pathology to be rooted in profound ambivalences between autonomous and dependent interpersonal dynamics. Therefore, in the present empirical case study, concrete operationalizations of the classical symptom specificity hypothesis are contrasted to alternative hypotheses based on the observed complexities in Chapter 2. Dynamic associations between obsessional symptoms and interpersonal functioning is further explored, aiming at further contribution to theory building (i.e., through suggestions for potential hypothesis-refinement; Stiles, 2009). Similar to the first empirical case study (Chapter 1), Consensual Qualitative Research for Case studies is used to quantitatively and qualitatively describe the longitudinal, clinical interplay between obsessional symptoms and interpersonal dynamics throughout the process of supportive-expressive psychodynamic therapy. In line with findings from Chapter 1, findings reveal close associations between obsessions and interpersonal dynamics, and therapist interventions focusing on interpersonal conflicts are documented as related to interpersonal and symptomatic alterations. Observations predominantly accord to the ambivalence-hypothesis rather than to the classical symptom specificity hypothesis. Yet, meaningful differences are observed in concrete manifestations of interpersonal ambivalences within significant relationships. Findings are again discussed in light of conceptual and methodological considerations; and limitations and future research indications are addressed.

  11. Interactions between Obsessional Symptoms and Interpersonal Ambivalences in Psychodynamic Therapy: An Empirical Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shana Cornelis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The classical symptom specificity hypothesis (Blatt, 1974 particularly associates obsessional symptoms to interpersonal behavior directed at autonomy and separation from others. Cross-sectional group research, however, has yielded inconsistent findings on this predicted association, and a previous empirical case study (Cornelis et al., in press; see Chapter 2 documented obsessional pathology to be rooted in profound ambivalences between autonomous and dependent interpersonal dynamics. Therefore, in the present empirical case study, concrete operationalizations of the classical symptom specificity hypothesis are contrasted to alternative hypotheses based on the observed complexities in Chapter 2. Dynamic associations between obsessional symptoms and interpersonal functioning is further explored, aiming at further contribution to theory building (i.e., through suggestions for potential hypothesis-refinement; Stiles, 2009. Similar to the first empirical case study (Chapter 1, Consensual Qualitative Research for Case studies is used to quantitatively and qualitatively describe the longitudinal, clinical interplay between obsessional symptoms and interpersonal dynamics throughout the process of supportive-expressive psychodynamic therapy. In line with findings from Chapter 1, findings reveal close associations between obsessions and interpersonal dynamics, and therapist interventions focusing on interpersonal conflicts are documented as related to interpersonal and symptomatic alterations. Observations predominantly accord to the ambivalence-hypothesis rather than to the classical symptom specificity hypothesis. Yet, meaningful differences are observed in concrete manifestations of interpersonal ambivalences within significant relationships. Findings are again discussed in light of conceptual and methodological considerations; and limitations and future research indications are addressed.

  12. Ambivalent stereotypes of nurses and physicians: impact on students' attitude toward interprofessional education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollami, Alfonso; Caricati, Luca; Mancini, Tiziana

    2015-03-13

    Nurse-physician stereotypes have been proposed as a factor hindering interprofessional collaboration among practitioners and interprofessional learning among nursing and medical students. Using socio-psychological theories about ambivalent stereotypes, the present work aimed to analyse: a) the content of nurse and physician stereotypes held by nursing and medical students and b) the role of auto-stereotype on students' attitude toward interprofessional education (IPE).  Methods. A cross-sectional on-line survey was adopted and a questionnaire was emailed to 205 nursing students and 151 medical students attending an Italian university. Nursing and medical students shared the stereotypical belief that nurses are warmer but less competent than physicians. Nurses and physicians were basically depicted with ambivalent stereotypes: nurses were seen as communal, socially competent and caring but less competent, not agentic and less autonomous, while physicians were seen as agentic, competent and autonomous, but less communal, less collectivist and less socially competent. Moreover, a professional stereotypical image impacted the students' attitude toward IPE. More precisely, when nurses and physicians were seen with classic ambivalent stereotypes, both nursing and medical students were less favourable towards interprofessional education programmes. The content of professional stereotypes of healthcare students was still linked to classical views of nurses as caring and physicians as curing. This seemed to limit students' attitude and intention to be engaged in IPE.

  13. Disentangling the impact of resistance and ambivalence on therapy outcomes in cognitive behavioural therapy for generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Melissa L; Westra, Henny A; Hara, Kimberley M; Aviram, Adi

    2015-01-01

    Resistance and ambivalence about change are increasingly recognized as important determinants of treatment outcomes. Moreover, resistance and ambivalence are thought to be theoretically related in that clients who are more ambivalent about change are more likely to demonstrate resistance to the process and tasks of treatment. In the context of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for generalized anxiety disorder, the present study simultaneously examined early resistance and ambivalence using two observer-based coding systems in order to determine their inter-relationship and, importantly, to investigate their relative contributions to outcome. Resistance was also coded during mid-treatment in order to investigate possible mediation pathways. Early ambivalence (clients' arguments against change or counter-change talk) was found to be no longer related to outcomes when early resistance was taken into account, suggesting that disharmony in the therapeutic relationship is more important to outcomes than ambivalence per se. Moreover, mid-treatment resistance partially mediated the relationship between early resistance and post-treatment worry severity. That is, higher early opposition to therapist direction is related to poorer outcomes, in part because it is associated with greater resistance during the working phase of CBT. The findings underscore the critical need for therapists to be sensitive to identifying resistance early and throughout treatment.

  14. High and low schizotypal female subjects do not differ in spatial memory abilities in a virtual reality task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Montes, José Manuel; Noguera, Carmen; Alvarez, Dolores; Ruiz, Marina; Cimadevilla Redondo, José Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Schizotypy is a psychological construct related to schizophrenia. The exact relationship between both entities is not clear. In recent years, schizophrenia has been associated with hippocampal abnormalities and spatial memory problems. The aim of this study was to determine possible links between high schizotypy (HS) and low schizotypy (LS) and spatial abilities, using virtual reality tasks. We hypothesised that the HS group would exhibit a lower performance in spatial memory tasks than the LS group. Two groups of female students were formed according to their score on the ESQUIZO-Q-A questionnaire. HS and LS subjects were tested on two different tasks: the Boxes Room task, a spatial memory task sensitive to hippocampal alterations and a spatial recognition task. Data showed that both groups mastered both tasks. Groups differed in personality features but not in spatial performance. These results provide valuable information about the schizotypy-schizophrenia connections. Schizotypal subjects are not impaired on spatial cognition and, accordingly, the schizotypy-schizophrenia relationship is not straightforward.

  15. Comparing Facial Emotional Recognition in Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder and Patients with Schizotypal Personality Disorder with a Normal Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Farsham

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: No research has been conducted on facial emotional recognition on patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD and schizotypal personality disorder (SPD. The present study aimed at comparing facial emotion recognition in these patients with the general population. The neurocognitive processing of emotions can show the pathologic style of these 2 disorders. Method:  Twenty BPD patients, 16 SPD patients, and 20 healthy individuals were selected by available sampling method. Structural Clinical Interview for Axis II, Millon Personality Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory and Facial Emotional Recognition Test was were conducted for all participants.Discussion: The results of one way ANOVA and Scheffe’s post hoc test analysis revealed significant differences in neuropsychology assessment of  facial emotional recognition between BPD and  SPD patients with normal group (p = 0/001. A significant difference was found in emotion recognition of fear between the 2 groups of BPD and normal population (p = 0/008. A significant difference was observed between SPD patients and control group in emotion recognition of wonder (p = 0/04(.The obtained results indicated a deficit in negative emotion recognition, especially disgust emotion, thus, it can be concluded that these patients have the same neurocognitive profile in the emotion domain.

  16. How to tell a happy from an unhappy schizotype: personality factors and mental health outcomes in individuals with psychotic experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia O. Alminhana

    Full Text Available Objective: It is unclear why some individuals reporting psychotic experiences have balanced lives while others go on to develop mental health problems. The objective of this study was to test if the personality traits of harm avoidance, self-directedness, and self-transcendence can be used as criteria to differentiate healthy from unhealthy schizotypal individuals. Methods: We interviewed 115 participants who reported a high frequency of psychotic experiences. The instruments used were the Temperament and Character Inventory (140, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, and the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences. Results: Harm avoidance predicted cognitive disorganization (β = 0.319; t = 2.94, while novelty seeking predicted bipolar disorder (β = 0.136, Exp [β] = 1.146 and impulsive non-conformity (β = 0.322; t = 3.55. Self-directedness predicted an overall decrease in schizotypy, most of all in cognitive disorganization (β = -0.356; t = -2.95 and in impulsive non-conformity (β = -0.313; t = -2.83. Finally, self-transcendence predicted unusual experiences (β = 0.256; t = 2.32. Conclusion: Personality features are important criteria to distinguish between pathology and mental health in individuals presenting high levels of anomalous experiences (AEs. While self-directedness is a protective factor, both harm avoidance and novelty seeking were predictors of negative mental health outcomes. We suggest that the impact of AEs on mental health is moderated by personality factors.

  17. Comparing Facial Emotional Recognition in Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder and Patients with Schizotypal Personality Disorder with a Normal Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsham, Aida; Abbaslou, Tahereh; Bidaki, Reza; Bozorg, Bonnie

    2017-04-01

    Objective: No research has been conducted on facial emotional recognition on patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and schizotypal personality disorder (SPD). The present study aimed at comparing facial emotion recognition in these patients with the general population. The neurocognitive processing of emotions can show the pathologic style of these 2 disorders. Method: Twenty BPD patients, 16 SPD patients, and 20 healthy individuals were selected by available sampling method. Structural Clinical Interview for Axis II, Millon Personality Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory and Facial Emotional Recognition Test was were conducted for all participants. Discussion: The results of one way ANOVA and Scheffe's post hoc test analysis revealed significant differences in neuropsychology assessment of facial emotional recognition between BPD and SPD patients with normal group (p = 0/001). A significant difference was found in emotion recognition of fear between the 2 groups of BPD and normal population (p = 0/008). A significant difference was observed between SPD patients and control group in emotion recognition of wonder (p = 0/04(. The obtained results indicated a deficit in negative emotion recognition, especially disgust emotion, thus, it can be concluded that these patients have the same neurocognitive profile in the emotion domain.

  18. THE PREDICTIVE POWER OF RELIGIOUS ORIENTATION TYPES ON AMBIVALENT SEXISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gul Ulubayram

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study is to examine stress and stress related factors in tuberculosis patients. In addition, to determine the impact of socio-demographic variables such as age, gender and educational level over stress symptoms hereby comprises a further objective of this study. Method: The study included totally 129 tuberculosis patients and 161 non-patients (normal group participants. Tuberculosis patients registered in Ankara Tuberculosis Dispensary No.4, and Atatürk Chest Diseases and Chest Surgery Hospital. There are 75 Pulmonary Tuberculosis (AC TB and 54 Extra- Pulmonary Tuberculosis (AD TB patients. As regards data collection tools; Demographic Information Form, Brief Symptom Inventory, Stress Symptoms Scale, Stress Vulnerability Scale, and Stress Coping Scale were used. Results: Within the context of diagnosis groups; it was found that; stress symptoms of tuberculosis patients are higher than the normal group, they use their ineffective coping ways more and their life satisfactions are lower. There exists no gender and diagnosis group main effect in terms of the psychological symptoms of stress, however “gender x diagnosis group” interaction effect draws attention herein. In tuberculosis patients, ineffective coping the stress and relation pleasure variables are confronted as joint variables which are predicting both the psychological and physical health. Another point which draws attention in regression analyzes is that; “education” variable takes place among the variables which predict the psychological symptoms of stress in tuberculosis patients. Conclusion: Under the light of these findings, tuberculosis patients, during their treatment processes, may be encouraged to attend various training programs prepared for stress management and effective dealing strategies with stress. By increasing the patients’ motivation towards the treatment, these programs may provide supplementary benefits to the treatment by

  19. Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales are a visible peeling or flaking of outer skin layers. These layers are called the stratum ... Scales may be caused by dry skin, certain inflammatory skin conditions, or infections. Examples of disorders that ...

  20. Neurophysiological evidence of impaired self-monitoring in schizotypal personality disorder and its reversal by dopaminergic antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabella, Mireia; Grasa, Eva; Corripio, Iluminada; Romero, Sergio; Mañanas, Miquel Àngel; Antonijoan, Rosa M; Münte, Thomas F; Pérez, Víctor; Riba, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) is a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder characterized by odd or bizarre behavior, strange speech, magical thinking, unusual perceptual experiences, and social anhedonia. Schizophrenia proper has been associated with anomalies in dopaminergic neurotransmission and deficits in neurophysiological markers of self-monitoring, such as low amplitude in cognitive event-related brain potentials (ERPs) like the error-related negativity (ERN), and the error positivity (Pe). These components occur after performance errors, rely on adequate fronto-striatal function, and are sensitive to dopaminergic modulation. Here we postulated that analogous to observations in schizophrenia, SPD individuals would show deficits in self-monitoring, as measured by the ERN and the Pe. We also assessed the capacity of dopaminergic antagonists to reverse these postulated deficits. We recorded the electroencephalogram (EEG) from 9 SPD individuals and 12 healthy controls in two separate experimental sessions while they performed the Eriksen Flanker Task, a classical task recruiting behavioral monitoring. Participants received a placebo or 1 mg risperidone according to a double-blind randomized design. After placebo, SPD individuals showed slower reaction times to hits, longer correction times following errors and reduced ERN and Pe amplitudes. While risperidone impaired performance and decreased ERN and Pe in the control group, it led to behavioral improvements and ERN amplitude increases in the SPD individuals. These results indicate that SPD individuals show deficits in self-monitoring analogous to those in schizophrenia. These deficits can be evidenced by neurophysiological measures, suggest a dopaminergic imbalance, and can be reverted by dopaminergic antagonists.

  1. Stability of functional impairment in patients with schizotypal, borderline, avoidant, or obsessive–compulsive personality disorder over two years

    Science.gov (United States)

    SKODOL, ANDREW E.; PAGANO, MARIA E.; BENDER, DONNA S.; SHEA, M. TRACIE; GUNDERSON, JOHN G.; YEN, SHIRLEY; STOUT, ROBERT L.; MOREY, LESLIE C.; SANISLOW, CHARLES A.; GRILO, CARLOS M.; ZANARINI, MARY C.; McGLASHAN, THOMAS H.

    2012-01-01

    Background A defining feature of personality disorder (PD) is an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that is stable over time. Follow-up and follow-along studies have shown considerable diagnostic instability of PDs, however, even over short intervals. What, then, about personality disorder is stable ? The purpose of this study was to determine the stability of impairment in psychosocial functioning in patients with four different PDs, in contrast to patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and no PD, prospectively over a 2-year period. Method Six hundred treatment-seeking or treated patients were recruited primarily from clinical services in four metropolitan areas of the Northeastern USA. Patients were assigned to one of five diagnostic groups: schizotypal (STPD) (n=81), borderline (BPD) (n=155), avoidant (AVPD) (n=137), or obsessive–compulsive (OCPD) (n=142) personality disorders or MDD and no PD (n=85), based on the results of semi-structured interview assessments and self-report measures. Impairment in psychosocial functioning was measured using the Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation (LIFE) at baseline and at three follow-up assessments. Results Significant improvement in psychosocial functioning occurred in only three of seven domains of functioning and was largely the result of improvements in the MDD and no PD group. Patients with BPD or OCPD showed no improvement in functioning overall, but patients with BPD who experienced change in personality psychopathology showed some improvement in functioning. Impairment in social relationships appeared most stable in patients with PDs. Conclusion Impairment in functioning, especially social functioning, may be an enduring component of personality disorder. PMID:15841879

  2. Characterization of the fiber connectivity profile of the cerebral cortex in schizotypal personality disorder: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai eLiu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Schizotypal personality disorder (SPD is considered one of the classic disconnection syndromes. However, the specific cortical disconnectivity pattern has not been fully investigated. In this study, we aimed to explore significant alterations in whole-cortex structural connectivity in SPD individuals (SPDs by combining the techniques of brain surface morphometry and white matter (WM tractography. Diffusion and structural MR data were collected from twenty subjects with SPD (all males; age, 19.7 ± 0.9 yrs and eighteen healthy controls (all males; age, 20.3 ± 1.0 yrs. To measure the structural connectivity for a given unit area of the cortex, the fiber connectivity density (FiCD value was proposed and calculated as the sum of the fractional anisotropy of all the fibers connecting to that unit area in tractography. Then, the resultant whole-cortex FiCD maps were compared in a vertex-wise manner between SPDs and controls. Compared with normal controls, SPDs showed significantly decreased FiCD in the rostral middle frontal gyrus (crossing BA9 and BA10 and significantly increased FiCD in the anterior part of the fusiform/inferior temporal cortex (P < 0.05, Monte Carlo simulation corrected. Moreover, the gray matter volume extracted from the left rostral middle frontal cluster was observed to be significantly greater in the SPD group (P = 0.02. Overall, this study identifies a decrease in connectivity in the left middle frontal cortex as a key neural deficit at the whole-cortex level in SPD, thus providing insight into its neuropathological basis.

  3. Solidarity-conflict and ambivalence: testing two conceptual frameworks and their impact on quality of life for older family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, Ariela

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to test empirically two major conceptualizations of parent-child relations in later adulthood-intergenerational solidarity-conflict and ambivalence paradigms-and their predictive validity on elders' quality of life using comparative cross-national data. Data were from a sample of 2,064 elders (aged 75 and older) from the five-country OASIS study (Old Age and Autonomy: The Role of Service Systems and Intergenerational Family Solidarity; Norway, England, Germany, Spain, and Israel). Multivariate and block-recursive regression models estimated the predictivity of the two conceptualizations of family dynamics on quality of life controlling for country, personal characteristics, and activity of daily living functioning. Descriptive analyses indicated that family solidarity, especially the affective/cognitive component (called Solidarity A), was high in all five countries, whereas conflict and ambivalence were low. When I entered all three constructs into the regression Solidarity A, reciprocal intergenerational support and ambivalence predicted quality of life. Controlling for activity of daily living functioning, socioeconomics status, and country, intergenerational relations had only a weak explanatory power, and personal resources explained most of the variance. The data suggest that the three constructs exist simultaneously but in varying combinations, confirming that in cross-cultural contexts family cohesion predominates, albeit with low degrees of conflict and ambivalence. The solidarity construct evidenced relatively robust measurement. More work is required to enhance the ambivalence measurement.

  4. Persuading people to eat less junk food: a cognitive resource match between attitudinal ambivalence and health message framing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Changmin

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the interactive effects of attitudinal ambivalence and health message framing on persuading people to eat less junk food. Within the heuristic-systematic model of information processing, an attitudinal ambivalence (ambivalent or univalent toward eating junk food) by health message framing (advantage- or disadvantage-framed appeals) between-subjects experiment was conducted to explore a cognitive resource-matching effect and the underlying mediation processes. Ambivalent individuals reported a higher level of cognitive elaboration than univalent individuals did. The disadvantage frame engendered more extensive cognitive elaboration than the advantage frame did. Ambivalent individuals were more persuaded by the disadvantage frame and, for them, cognitive elaboration mediated the persuasion process via the systematic route. Univalent individuals were equally persuaded by the advantage frame and the disadvantage frame and, for them, neither the perceived frame valence nor cognitive elaboration mediated persuasion. Discussion of the null results among the univalent group leads to a response-reinforcement explanation. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  5. NGSS, disposability, and the ambivalence of science in/under neoliberalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Matthew

    2017-12-01

    This paper explores the ambivalence of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) and its Framework towards neoliberal governance. The paper examines the ways that the NGSS serves as a mechanism within neoliberal governance: in its production of disposable populations through testing and through the infusion of engineering throughout the NGSS to resolve social problems through technical fixes. However, the NGSS, like earlier standards, is reactionary to forces diminishing the power of institutional science (e.g., the AAAS) including neoliberal prioritizing market value over evidence. The NGSS explicitly takes on neoliberal junk science such as the anti-global-warming Heartland Institute.

  6. The Ambivalence of the Gene Trade in Octavia E. Butler’s Xenogenesis Trilogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Sáez de Adana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The ambivalence of gene trading in Octavia Butler's Xenogenesis trilogy is treated in this paper. Genetic manipulation is one of the main science-related issues addressed in that trilogy. The behavior of the alien race presented in the paper, the Oankali, is analyzed from three points of view and compared with contemporary human behavior. Interbreeding with other species and the creation of new ones, the use of genetic engineering to cure diseases and the acknowledgement of DNA information as property when it is used for research or other objectives are considered.

  7. Ambivalent participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groes-Green, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Participation in young peoples' sexual cultures in Maputo, Mozambique led to reflections about the field dynamics of power, participation, desire, and discomfort. Structural inequalities of race, gender, and educational status resulted in informants seeing me as a morally righteous person to whom......' continued participation. I show how negotiating the risks of participation may simultaneously satisfy the desire for knowledge and curb erotic desires....

  8. Social Ambivalence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    With Facebook we see a built in commercialization of our communication infrastructure to an unprecedented degree. Instead of choosing transparency, Facebook chooses to build its own business motives invisibly into the software architecture, so that it becomes a nonhuman actor. Behind our back...

  9. The positive emotions that facilitate the fulfillment of needs may not be positive emotions at all: the role of ambivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Simon A; Wilson, Samuel G

    2015-01-01

    According to some scholars, if individuals experience over three times as many positive emotions as negative emotions, they are more likely to thrive. We contend, however, that perhaps positive and negative emotions that overlap in time are likely to enhance wellbeing. Specifically, if positive and negative emotions are experienced simultaneously rather than separately-called ambivalent emotions-the fundamental needs of individuals are fulfilled more frequently. Considerable evidence supports this perspective. First, many emotions that enhance wellbeing, although classified as positive, also coincide with negative feelings. Second, ambivalent emotions, rather than positive or negative emotions separately, facilitate creativity and resilience. Third, ambivalent emotions activate distinct cognitive systems that enable individuals to form attainable goals, refine their skills, and enhance their relationships. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Ten-year stability and latent structure of the DSM-IV schizotypal, borderline, avoidant, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanislow, Charles A; Little, Todd D; Ansell, Emily B; Grilo, Carlos M; Daversa, Maria; Markowitz, John C; Pinto, Anthony; Shea, M Tracie; Yen, Shirley; Skodol, Andrew E; Morey, Leslie C; Gunderson, John G; Zanarini, Mary C; McGlashan, Thomas H

    2009-08-01

    Evaluation of the validity of personality disorder (PD) diagnostic constructs is important for the impending revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Prior factor analytic studies have tested these constructs in cross-sectional studies, and models have been replicated longitudinally, but no study has tested a constrained longitudinal model. The authors examined 4 PDs in the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders study (schizotypal, borderline, avoidant, and obsessive-compulsive) over 7 time points (baseline, 6 months, 1 year, 2 years, 4 years, 6 years, and 10 years). Data for 2-, 4-, 6- and 10-year assessments were obtained in semistructured interviews by raters blind to prior PD diagnoses at each assessment. The latent structure of the 4 constructs was differentiated during the initial time points but became less differentiated over time as the mean levels of the constructs dropped and stability increased. Obsessive-compulsive PD became more correlated with schizotypal and borderline PD than with avoidant PD. The higher correlation among the constructs in later years may reflect greater shared base of pathology for chronic personality disorders.

  11. Avoidant personality disorder is a separable schizophrenia-spectrum personality disorder even when controlling for the presence of paranoid and schizotypal personality disorders The UCLA family study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogelson, D L; Nuechterlein, K H; Asarnow, R A; Payne, D L; Subotnik, K L; Jacobson, K C; Neale, M C; Kendler, K S

    2007-03-01

    It is unresolved whether avoidant personality disorder (APD) is an independent schizophrenia (Sz)-spectrum personality disorder (PD). Some studies find APD and social anxiety symptoms (Sxs) to be separable dimensions of psychopathology in relatives (Rels) of schizophrenics while other studies find avoidant Sxs to be correlated with schizotypal and paranoid Sxs. Rates of APD among first-degree Rels of Sz probands, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) probands, and community control (CC) probands were examined. Further analyses examined rates when controlling for the presence of schizotypal (SPD) and paranoid (PPD) personality disorders, differences in APD Sxs between relative groups, and whether APD in Rels of Szs reflects a near miss for another Sz-spectrum PD. Three hundred sixty-two first-degree Rels of Sz probands, 201 relatives of ADHD probands, and 245 Rels of CC probands were interviewed for the presence of DSM-III-R Axis I and II disorders. Diagnoses, integrating family history, interview information, and medical records, were determined. APD occurred more frequently in Rels of Sz probands compared to CC probands (pavoids social or occupational activities..." and "exaggerates the potential difficulties..." 65% of the Rels of Sz probands who had diagnoses of APD were more than one criterion short of a DSM-III-R diagnosis of either SPD or PPD. This indicates that APD is a separate Sz-spectrum disorder, and not merely a sub-clinical form of SPD or PPD.

  12. [The efficacy and tolerability of pericyazine in the treatment of patients with schizotypal disorder, organic personality disorders and pathocharacterological changes within personality disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilov, D S

    To assess the efficacy and tolerability of pericyazine in the treatment of patients with mental disorders manifesting with psychopathic-like symptoms and correction of pathocharacterological disorders in patients with personality disorders during the short-term admission to the hospital or the long-term outpatient treatment. Sixty-three patients with schizotypal personality disorder and organic personality disorder with psychopathic-like symptoms and pathocharacterological changes within the diagnosis of dissocial personality disorder and borderline personality disorder were examined. Patients received pericyazine during the short-term admission to the hospital (6 weeks) or the long-term outpatient treatment (6 month). Efficacy, tolerability and compliance were assessed in the study. Treatment with pricyazine was effective in all patients. The improvement was seen in patients with organic personality disorders and patients with personality disorders (psychopathy). The maximal effect was observed in inpatients and this effect remained during outpatient treatment. The improvement of mental state of patients with schizotypal personality disorder achieved during inpatient treatment with pericyazine continued during the long-term outpatient treatment. Side-effects were restricted to extrapyramidal symptoms, the frequency of metabolic syndrome was low. During outpatient treatment, the compliance was higher if the patient was managed by the same psychiatrist during inpatient- and outpatient treatment.

  13. What can the study of first impressions tell us about attitudinal ambivalence and paranoia in schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trémeau, Fabien; Antonius, Daniel; Todorov, Alexander; Rebani, Yasmina; Ferrari, Kelsey; Lee, Sang Han; Calderone, Daniel; Nolan, Karen A; Butler, Pamela; Malaspina, Dolores; Javitt, Daniel C

    2016-04-30

    Although social cognition deficits have been associated with schizophrenia, social trait judgments - or first impressions - have rarely been studied. These first impressions, formed immediately after looking at a person's face, have significant social consequences. Eighty-one individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 62 control subjects rated 30 neutral faces on 10 positive or negative traits: attractive, mean, trustworthy, intelligent, dominant, fun, sociable, aggressive, emotionally stable and weird. Compared to controls, patients gave higher ratings for positive traits as well as for negative traits. Patients also demonstrated more ambivalence in their ratings. Patients who were exhibiting paranoid symptoms assigned higher intensity ratings for positive social traits than non-paranoid patients. Social trait ratings were negatively correlated with everyday problem solving skills in patients. Although patients appeared to form impressions of others in a manner similar to controls, they tended to assign higher scores for both positive and negative traits. This may help explain the social deficits observed in schizophrenia: first impressions of higher degree are harder to correct, and ambivalent attitudes may impair the motivation to interact with others. Consistent with research on paranoia and self-esteem, actively-paranoid patients' positive social traits judgments were of higher intensity than non-paranoid patients'. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Examining the Psychological Effect of Rape Acknowledgment: The Interaction of Acknowledgment Status and Ambivalent Sexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Laura C; Miller, Katherine E; Leheney, Emma K; Ballman, Alesha D; Scarpa, Angela

    2017-07-01

    Although the majority of rape survivors do not label their experiences as rape (i.e., unacknowledged rape), the literature is mixed in terms of how this affects survivors' psychological functioning. To elucidate the discrepancies, the present study examined the interaction between rape acknowledgement and ambivalent sexism in relation to depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The analyzed sample included 128 female rape survivors who were drawn from a larger college sample of 1,595 participants. The participants completed measures of sexual assault experiences, ambivalent sexism, and depression and PTSD symptoms. The results supported a significant interaction between acknowledgement status and benevolent sexism in relation to both depression and PTSD symptoms. Conversely, the present study failed to find support for an interaction between acknowledgment status and hostile sexism. The clinical implications suggest that rather than seeing acknowledging rape as essential to the recovery process, clinicians should assess for and take into account other factors that may contribute to psychological functioning. Additionally, the findings support that more complex models of trauma recovery should be investigated with the goal of working toward a more comprehensive understanding of the longitudinal process of rape acknowledgment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Ambivalent sexism, attitudes towards menstruation and menstrual cycle-related symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marván, Ma Luisa; Vázquez-Toboada, Rocío; Chrisler, Joan C

    2014-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between ambivalent sexism and beliefs and attitudes towards menstruation, and, in turn, to study the influence of these variables on menstrual cycle-related symptoms. One hundred and six Mexican women completed the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory, the Beliefs about and Attitudes toward Menstruation Questionnaire and the Menstrual Distress Questionnaire. The higher scores on benevolent sexism were associated with the most positive attitudes towards menstruation and also with the belief that a menstruating woman should or should not do some activities and that menstruation keeps women from their daily activities. The higher scores on hostile sexism were associated with rejection of menstruation as well as with feelings of embarrassment about it. Beliefs about and attitudes towards menstruation predicted menstrual cycle-related symptoms related to negative affect, impaired concentration and behavioural changes, but did not predict somatic symptoms. These results will be useful to health professionals and advocates who want to change the negative expectations and stereotypes of premenstrual and menstrual women and reduce the sexism and negative attitudes towards women that are evident in Mexican culture. © 2013 International Union of Psychological Science.

  16. When love meets drugs: pharmaceuticalizing ambivalence in post-socialist China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhiying

    2012-03-01

    In this article, I examine the interaction between intimacy and psychiatry to explore the ambivalences in the use of pharmaceuticals in psychiatric practice. Of particular interest is how pharmaceuticals come to constitute in multiple ways what pathology is and what form of life needs to be restored, and how psychiatric medications reconfigure the ambivalence of intimacy in post-socialist China. Following the life of Mei, a female psychiatric patient, for two years, I have made a series of discoveries related to medicine and intimacy in China. Specifically, I show that psychopharmaceuticals indicate a diseased body that threatens the intimate bond. They also highlight a socially suffering subject that is in lack of love from the intimate partner who demands the latter's redemption. I discuss how these multiple and contradicting meanings of psychopharmaceuticals and intimacy are socio-historically situated. Thus, while previous research in medical anthropology criticizes pharmaceuticalization for reducing the socio-political life (bios) to a biological body (zoē), I argue that these life forms co-exist in a pharmaceutical "zone of indistinction" (Agamben, Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life. Stanford University Press, Stanford, 1998), in which they constitute and contradict each other. This discussion warns researchers against falling back into the usual orientation of either biomedicine or the social sciences.

  17. Renewable energies. Ambivalences, governance, legal issues; Erneuerbare Energien. Ambivalenzen, Governance, Rechtsfragen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekardt, Felix; Hennig, Bettina; Unnerstall, Herwig (eds.)

    2012-07-01

    The present publication is dedicated to renewable energies. The move to a new energy and climate policy impinges on many central humanistic issues (including issues of a legal, economic, sociological, ethical and politological nature). How is it possible to resolve the ambivalences that are associated with the use of renewable energies and which draw our attention not only to renewable energies as such but also to issues of energy efficiency and sufficiency. What political and economic instruments are needed in order to accelerate the market entry of renewable energies and at the same time contain the ambivalences associated with them? And what questions of legal interpretation result from the application of such instruments in practice, be it in the context of subsidies under the Renewable Energy Law or the laws on the planning of building projects. And where lie the causes of the fact seen here that so many individuals in business, the political realm and the public at large are finding it hard to go with the transition to renewable energies?.

  18. Postcolonial Issues and Colonial Closures: Portrayals of Ambivalence in Shaun Tan’s The Arrival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Lucena Dalmaso

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2016v69n2p63 This article aims to investigate the visual representation of the connection between immigration and the construction of an Australian identity as a nation in Shaun Tan’s graphic novel The Arrival (2006. Based on the debate about imagined communities and the ambivalence on the narration of a nation, proposed by Benedict Anderson and Homi Bhabha, we will discuss how The Arrival creates moments for the appearance of the ambivalence of cultural difference at the same time that it also constructs a horizontal imagined community. On these terms, The Arrival depicts some of the liminal positionality that immigrants have to deal when they arrive in a new place, but also constructs a cohesive and homogeneous narrative that entails the assimilation of the immigrants. In other words, this work offers a closure that can be read as an assimilation of the colonial discourse for a series post-colonial issues.

  19. A tainted trade? Moral ambivalence and legitimation work in the private security industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumala, Angélica; Goold, Benjamin; Loader, Ian

    2011-06-01

    The private security industry is often represented - and typically represents itself - as an expanding business, confident of its place in the world and sure of its ability to meet a rising demand for security. But closer inspection of the ways in which industry players talk about its past, present and future suggests that this self-promotion is accompanied by unease about the industry's condition and legitimacy. In this paper, we analyse the self-understandings of those who sell security - as revealed in interviews conducted with key industry players and in a range of trade materials - in order to highlight and dissect the constitutive elements of this ambivalence. This analysis begins by describing the reputational problems that are currently thought to beset the industry and the underlying fears about its status and worth that these difficulties disclose. We then examine how security players seek to legitimate the industry using various narratives of professionalization. Four such narratives are identified - regulation, education, association and borrowing - each of which seeks to justify private security and enhance the industry's social worth. What is striking about these legitimation claims is that they tend not to justify the selling of security in market terms. In conclusion we ask why this is the case and argue that market justifications are 'closed-off' by a moral ambivalence that attaches to an industry trading in products which cannot guarantee to deliver the condition that its consumers crave. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2011.

  20. A Tale of Ambivalence: Salman Rushdie's "Two Years, Eight Months and Twenty-Eight Nights"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarik Ziyad Gulcu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Salman Rushdie’s memoirs, essays and novels contribute to the appreciation of the contradictions in his outlook on life. His experiences in his family enable Rushdie to make efforts for objective and tolerant judgement of British lifestyle and culture. However, his isolation from the society in Britain despite his struggle for adaptation to British cultural values cause contradictions in his cultural identity. While Rushdie expresses his allegiance to India and its culture in The Ground Beneath Her Feet (1999, he reflects his alienation from his homeland in this novel as well. Similarly, in his Imaginary Homelands (1981-1991 whereas Rushdie questions the injustice and inequality caused by imperialism in The New Empire within Britain (1982, he justifies the colonialist discourse in Kipling (1990. He elaborates on the contradictions in his outlook on life in terms of his cultural ambivalence in his fictions such as Midnight’s Children (1981 and Shame (1983. However, in his latest novel, Two Years, Eight Months and Twenty-Eight Nights (2015, Rushdie reflects his cultural identity conflict in terms of rationalism-mysticism dichotomy. With the use of allegory as well as the lack of linearity in time and space, Rushdie justifies his cultural ambivalence in relation to the dynamism of contemporary world. Thus, Rushdie’s latest novel invites reading for its representation of the oppositions in his approach to life.

  1. Effects of the D1 dopamine receptor agonist dihydrexidine (DAR-0100A) on working memory in schizotypal personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, Daniel R; Zaluda, Lauren C; McClure, Margaret M; Perez-Rodriguez, M Mercedes; Strike, K Sloan; Barch, Deanna M; Harvey, Philip D; Girgis, Ragy R; Hazlett, Erin A; Mailman, Richard B; Abi-Dargham, Anissa; Lieberman, Jeffrey A; Siever, Larry J

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacological enhancement of prefrontal D1 dopamine receptor function remains a promising therapeutic approach to ameliorate schizophrenia-spectrum working memory deficits, but has yet to be rigorously evaluated clinically. This proof-of-principle study sought to determine whether the active enantiomer of the selective and full D1 receptor agonist dihydrexidine (DAR-0100A) could attenuate working memory impairments in unmedicated patients with schizotypal personality disorder (SPD). We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of DAR-0100A (15 mg/150 ml of normal saline administered intravenously over 30 min) in medication-free patients with SPD (n=16) who met the criteria for cognitive impairment (ie, scoring below the 25th percentile on tests of working memory). We employed two measures of verbal working memory that are salient to schizophrenia-spectrum cognitive deficits, and that clinical data implicate as being associated with prefrontal D1 availability: (1) the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT); and (2) the N-back test (ratio of 2-back:0-back scores). Study procedures occurred over four consecutive days, with working memory testing on Days 1 and 4, and DAR-0100A/placebo administration on Days 2-4. Treatment with DAR-0100A was associated with significantly improved PASAT performance relative to placebo, with a very large effect size (Cohen's d=1.14). Performance on the N-back ratio was also significantly improved; however, this effect rested on both a non-significant enhancement and diminution of 2-back and 0-back performance, respectively; therefore interpretation of this finding is more complicated. DAR-0100A was generally well tolerated, with no serious medical or psychiatric adverse events; common side effects were mild to moderate and transient, consisting mainly of sedation, lightheadedness, tachycardia, and hypotension; however, we were able to minimize these effects, without altering the dose, with supportive

  2. Complexity of Language Ideologies in Transnational Movement: Korean "Jogi Yuhak" Families' Ambivalent Attitudes towards Local Varieties of English in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, So Hee

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the complex and competing language ideologies that Korean educational migrant families in Singapore hold about the normativity and legitimacy of English language varieties. During their educational migration in Singapore, Korean families show ambivalent attitudes toward the local variety of English in Singapore, Singlish.…

  3. "It Was Fine, if You Wanted to Leave": Educational Ambivalence in a Nova Scotian Coastal Community, 1963-1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This article reports on a study of schooling in southwest Nova Scotia. Using Bourdieu's concepts of cultural capital and habitus, I analyze rural men's relationships involving identity, work, place, and schooling to explain continuing high male dropout rates and local traditions of ambivalence and resistance to schooling. I conclude that the…

  4. "Doctor, are you trying to kill me?": ambivalence about the patient package insert for estrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Elizabeth Siegel

    2002-01-01

    In 1976, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration proposed new requirements for patient labeling for estrogens prescribed for menopausal and postmenopausal women. This paper explores the variety of responses to this proposal from women and their husbands, feminist and consumer activists, physicians, pharmacists, and pharmaceutical manufacturers, as represented in letters written to the FDA. The drug industry and the medical profession opposed patient labeling on the grounds of cost and a resentment of governmental intrusion. Feminists and consumer advocates were in favor of the idea, but the response from current estrogen users was mixed: most women wished to be better informed, but many expressed concern that estrogen would be removed from the market. This ambivalence suggests unresolved tensions regarding conceptions of female aging, the medical management of menopause and aging, informed consent in medicine, and governmental regulation of medical practice. The debate thus represents an important moment in the history of women's health care.

  5. [Affective bipolar disorder and ambivalence in relation to the drug treatment: analyzing the causal conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miasso, Adriana Inocenti; Cassiani, Silvia Helena De Bortoli; Pedrão, Luiz Jorge

    2011-04-01

    This study was performed with an aim to understand the conditions causing the ambivalence of the person with bipolar affective disorder (BAD) regarding following the drug treatment. A qualitative approach was used, with the Grounded Theory as the methodology framework, under the light of Symbolic Interactionism. Participants were 14 individuals with BAD who were being followed at an Outpatient Clinic for Mood Disorders of a university hospital and 14 relatives they indicated. Interviews and observation were the main forms of obtaining data. Results revealed three categories that described the referred causal conditions: experiencing the crises of the disorder; needing the drug; and living with the side effects of the drugs. It was found that there is a need to change the attitude of some health professionals from blaming the patient for interrupting the treatment to one of listening, valuing their symbolic and affective universe as well as the partnership in the treatment.

  6. Diversity and ambivalence in general practitioners' attitudes towards preventive health checks - a qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Anne; Christensen, Bo; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen

    2012-01-01

    .The purpose of our study is to describe GPs' attitudes towards and concerns about providing preventive health checks and to describe their experiences with the health checks that they provide in daily practice. METHODS: A qualitative descriptive study was conducted based on three semi-structured focus group...... practice. CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed that health checks are performed differently. Their quality differs, and the GPs perform the health check based on their personal attitude towards this service and prevention in general. Our analysis suggests that the doctors are basically uncertain about the best...... that there was great diversity in the content. The GPs were somewhat ambivalent towards health checks. Many GPs found the service beneficial for the patients. Concurrently, they had reservations about promoting ill-health, they questioned whether the health checks were a core mission of primary care, and they were...

  7. Perceptions of sexual harassment: the effects of gender, legal standard, and ambivalent sexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, R L; Hurt, L; Russell, B; Mannen, K; Gasper, C

    1997-02-01

    This research tests the possibility that the reasonable woman as compared to the reasonable person test of hostile work environment sexual harassment interacts with hostile and benevolent sexist beliefs and under some conditions triggers protectionist attitudes toward women who complain of sexual harassment. We administered to a sample of undergraduates the ambivalent sexism inventory along with the fact patterns in two harassment cases and asked them to make legally relevant decisions under either the reasonable woman or person standard. We found that those high in hostile sexism, and women, found more evidence of harassment. However, those high in benevolent sexism did not exhibit the hostile sexism effects. Although men were less sensitive to the reasonable woman standard than women, under some conditions the reasonable woman standard enabled both genders to find greater evidence of harassment. The results are discussed from the perspectives of law and psychology.

  8. The Ambivalence of Strengths and Weaknesses of E-Learning Educational Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venera Mihaela Cojocariu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents a thorough phase in the effort to identify and assort the strengths and weaknesses of e-learning educational services. This paper reviews a synthesis of the assessments on the e-learning educational services through a survey of the specialized literature from 2000 to 2012 in order to identify the strengths and weaknesses of e-learning educational services which were reported during the past decade. The steps of our approach are the following: 1. The identification of a large number of specialized studies that analyze the above mentioned issue; 2. A basic theoretical review of the research from the perspective of identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the e-learning educational services and some of their implications on the intellectual development of the beneficiaries; 3. A descriptive statistical data analysis which is carried out in order to extract information about strengths and weaknesses relevant to the literature taken into consideration; 4. Results classification and interpretation; 5. Formulating practical suggestions for the notion of e-learning educational services considering the development of studies on the impact of their use on the intellectual development of the beneficiaries. The study results highlighted that strengths and weaknesses are not 'pure', but ambivalent, simultaneously incorporating meanings and limits with different weights. A predictive model of future e-learning educational services can be designed on the basis of the results obtained in the research. This predictive model is based on a pedagogical concept that takes into account the ambivalence of the higher indices which have been identified.

  9. Role conflict and ambivalence in the aged-parent-adult-child relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinjia Yu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The parent-child relationship is important to the solidarity of families and the emotional well-being of family members. Since people are more dependent on their close social relationships as they age, understanding the quality of relationships between aged parents and their adult children is a critical topic. Previous research shows that this relationship is complicated with both kinship and ambivalence. However, there is little research on the causes of this complexity. This paper proposes a role model to explain this complexity by studying the leadership transition within a family as the child grows. Design/methodology/approach – In this paper, we proposed a novel perception to understand this transition process and explain related problems based on the analysis of the leader-follower relationship between the parents and their children. Findings – When a child is born, his/her parents become the leader of this family because of their abilities, responsibilities and the requirements of the infant. This leader-follower role structure will last a long time in this family. Decades later, when the parents become old and the child grows up, the inter-generational contracts within the family and the requirement of each members change. This transition weakens the foundation of the traditional leader-follower role structure within the family. If either the parent or the child does not want to accept their new roles, both of them will suffer and struggle in this relationship. This role conflict will cause ambivalence in the relationship between aged parents and their adult children. Originality/value – Based on the quantitative study model provided in this paper, we can moderate the relationships between aged parents and their adult children. This effort is meaningful in enhancing the quality of life and emotional wellbeing for senior citizens.

  10. Schizotypal personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Updated by: Fred K. Berger, MD, addiction and forensic Psychiatrist, Scripps Memorial Hospital, La Jolla, CA. Also ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  11. Schizotypal Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... behavior on others. They may also misinterpret others' motivations and behaviors and develop significant distrust of others. ... Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER). All rights reserved.

  12. Dimensional Structure and Measurement Invariance of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire - Brief Revised (SPQ-BR) Scores Across American and Spanish Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Cohen, Alex; Ortuño-Sierra, Javier; de Álbeniz, Alicia Pérez; Muñiz, José

    2017-08-01

    The main goal of the present study was to test the measurement equivalence of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire - Brief Revised (SPQ-BR) scores in a large sample of Spanish and American non-clinical young adults. The sample was made up of 5,625 young adults (M = 19.65 years; SD = 2.53; 38.5% males). Study of the internal structure, using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), revealed that SPQ-BR items were grouped in a theoretical internal structure of nine first-order factors. Moreover, three or four second-order factor and bifactor models showed adequate goodness-of-fit indices. Multigroup CFA showed that the nine lower-order factor models of the SPQ-BR had configural and weak measurement invariance and partial strong measurement invariance across country. The reliability of the SPQ-BR scores, estimated with omega, ranged from 0.67 to 0.91. Using the item response theory framework, the SPQ-BR provides more accurate information at the medium and high end of the latent trait. Statistically significant differences were found in the raw scores of the SPQ-BR subscales and dimensions across samples. The American group scored higher than the Spanish group in all SPQ-BR domains except Ideas of Reference and Suspiciousness. The finding of comparable factor structure in cross-cultural samples would lend further support to the continuum model of psychosis spectrum disorders. In addition, these results provide new information about the factor structure of schizotypal traits and support the validity and utility of this measure in cross-cultural research.

  13. Tensions, arrangements et ambivalences alimentaires dans le couple mixte Tensions, arrangements and food ambivalence among mixed couples : French men married in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fong-Ming Yang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir d’une enquête effectuée en milieu urbain taiwanais auprès de neuf Français(es ayant migré à Taiwan et marié(es avec des Taiwanais(es, l’auteur propose de réfléchir à la question des pratiques alimentaires en situation de mixité conjugale. Il fait l’hypothèse que ces pratiques alimentaires doivent être observées et s’apprécier en fonction des différents repas et moments alimentaires: petit-déjeuner, déjeuner, nourritures de rue, dîner conjugal, repas dans la belle famille. Ces situations sont riches d’ambivalences : attachement aux habitudes mais aussi passage du dégoût au goût ou bien de la méfiance à la curiosité, double appréciation pour la nourriture dont la présentation n’est pas estimée de la même façon que les produits eux-mêmes, efforts pour accepter les manières de table dans le cadre d’un rapport de force social et/ou affectif, enfin ‘‘oubli’’ de la question alimentaire au profit du lien social qu’il produit.From an investigation made in urban zones with nine male and female French people having migrated to Taiwan and married with Taiwaneses, the author studies the issue of food tensions in situation of mixed couples. He presents the hypothesis that these tensions vary according to food grips: breakfast, lunch, street foods, conjugal dinner, meals with allies. Such food tensions provoke varied practices and judgments: attachment to habits but also the passage of disgust to appreciation, distrust regarding curiosity, double appreciation for food displayed which is not esteemed in the same way as the products themselves, efforts to accept table manners within the framework of a social or emotional balance of power, finally ‘‘forgetting’’ the issue for the benefit of the social link which it produces.

  14. To say or not to say: Dyadic ambivalence over emotional expression and its associations with pain, sexuality, and distress in couples coping with provoked vestibulodynia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awada, Nayla; Bergeron, Sophie; Steben, Marc; Hainault, Victoria-Ann; McDuff, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a highly prevalent and taxing female genital pain condition. Despite the intimate nature of this pain and the fact that affective factors such as anxiety have been shown to modulate its manifestations, no study has yet explored the emotional regulation of couples in which the woman suffers from PVD. Ambivalence over emotional expression (AEE) is an emotional regulation variable that quantifies the extent to which a person is comfortable with the way she or he expresses emotions. We examined whether the dyadic AEE of couples in which the woman suffers from PVD was differentially associated with women's pain and couples' psychological, sexual, and relational functioning. Couples (N = 254), in which the woman suffered from PVD, completed the AEE questionnaire. A couple typology of dyadic AEE was created. Dependent measures for both members of the couple were the global measure of sexual satisfaction scale, the Beck depression inventory II, and the revised dyadic adjustment scale. The female sexual function index and the sexual history form were used to assess the sexual function of women and men, respectively. Women also completed the pain rating index of the McGill pain questionnaire. Couples, in which both partners were considered low on AEE, had the highest scores on sexual satisfaction (P = 0.02) and function (P sexual, and relational outcomes. Results indicate that emotional regulation may be important to consider in the assessment and treatment of couples coping with PVD. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  15. How Can Group Experience Influence the Cue Priority? A Re-Examination of the Ambiguity-Ambivalence Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Shimizu, Kazumi; Udagawa, Daisuke

    2011-01-01

    Since the discovery of the "framing effect" by Kahneman and Tversky, the sensitivity of the "framing effect"---its appearance and in some cases its disappearance---has long been an object of study. However there is little agreement as to the reasons for this sensitivity. The "ambiguity-ambivalence hypothesis" (Wang, 2008) aims to systematically explain the sensitivity of this effect by paying particular attention to people's cue priority: it states that the frami...

  16. Social Relationships and Health: Is Feeling Positive, Negative, or Both (Ambivalent) about your Social Ties Related to Telomeres?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Bert N.; Cawthon, Richard M.; Smith, Timothy W.; Light, Kathleen C.; McKenzie, Justin; Carlisle, McKenzie; Gunn, Heather; Birmingham, Wendy; Bowen, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Objective The quality of one’s personal relationships has been linked to morbidity and mortality across different diseases. As a result, it is important to examine more integrative mechanisms that might link relationships across diverse physical health outcomes. In this study, we examine associations between relationships and telomeres which predict general disease risk. These questions are pursued in the context of a more comprehensive model of relationships that highlights the importance of jointly considering positive and negative aspects of social ties. Method 136 individuals from a community sample (ages 48 to 77) completed the social relationships index which allows a determination of relationships that differ in their positive and negative substrates (i.e., ambivalent, supportive, aversive, indifferent). Telomere length was determined from peripheral blood mononuclear cells via quantitative PCR. Results Participants who had a higher number of ambivalent ties in their social networks evidenced shorter telomeres. These results were independent of other relationships types (e.g., supportive), as well as standard control variables (e.g., age, health behaviors, medication use). Gender moderated the links between ambivalent ties and telomere length with these associations seen primarily in women. Follow-up analyses revealed that the links between ambivalent ties and telomeres were primarily due to friendships, parents, and social acquaintances. Conclusions Consistent with epidemiological findings, these data highlight a novel and integrative biological mechanism by which social ties may impact health across diseases, and further suggests the importance of incorporating both positivity and negativity in the study of specific relationships and physical health. PMID:22229928

  17. Two-year prevalence and stability of individual DSM-IV criteria for schizotypal, borderline, avoidant, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders: toward a hybrid model of axis II disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlashan, Thomas H; Grilo, Carlos M; Sanislow, Charles A; Ralevski, Elizabeth; Morey, Leslie C; Gunderson, John G; Skodol, Andrew E; Shea, M Tracie; Zanarini, Mary C; Bender, Donna; Stout, Robert L; Yen, Shirley; Pagano, Maria

    2005-05-01

    This study tracked the individual criteria of four DSM-IV personality disorders-borderline, schizotypal, avoidant, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders-and how they change over 2 years. This clinical sample of patients with personality disorders was derived from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study and included all participants with borderline, schizotypal, avoidant, or obsessive-compulsive personality disorder for whom complete 24-month blind follow-up assessments were obtained (N=474). The authors identified and rank-ordered criteria for each of the four personality disorders by their variation in prevalence and changeability (remission) over time. The most prevalent and least changeable criteria over 2 years were paranoid ideation and unusual experiences for schizotypal personality disorder, affective instability and anger for borderline personality disorder, feeling inadequate and feeling socially inept for avoidant personality disorder, and rigidity and problems delegating for obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. The least prevalent and most changeable criteria were odd behavior and constricted affect for schizotypal personality disorder, self-injury and behaviors defending against abandonment for borderline personality disorder, avoiding jobs that are interpersonal and avoiding potentially embarrassing situations for avoidant personality disorder, and miserly behaviors and strict moral behaviors for obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. These patterns highlight that within personality disorders the relatively fixed criteria are more trait-like and attitudinal, whereas the relatively intermittent criteria are more behavioral and reactive. These patterns suggest that personality disorders are hybrids of traits and symptomatic behaviors and that the interaction of these elements over time helps determine diagnostic stability. These patterns may also inform criterion selection for DSM-V.

  18. Effects of safety climate on safety norm violations: exploring the mediating role of attitudinal ambivalence toward personal protective equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazza, Nicoletta; Serpe, Alessandra

    2009-01-01

    Research on the role of organizational and psychosocial factors in influencing risk behaviors and the likelihood of injury at work showed that safety climate also has great impact on workers' behavior. However, the mechanisms through which this impact operates are still partially unclear. In order to explore the role that attitudinal ambivalence toward wearing PPE might play in mediating the impact of safety climate on safety norm violations, a questionnaire was administered to 345 Italian workers. Three dimensions of safety climate (i.e., company safety concern, senior managers' safety concern, supervisors' attitudes towards safety) were found to be positively associated with the individual ambivalence level, whereas the fourth one (i.e., work pressure) was negatively correlated with it. In turn, low levels of ambivalence were associated with a lower tendency to break the safety norms, even though the perception of a good safety climate also maintained a direct effect on unsafe behaviors. Designers of training program for the prevention of work related injuries must pay great attention to the psycho-social factors (such as the effects of the safety climate perception by employees on their attitudes and behaviors), and include specific contents into the prevention programs in order to improve workers compliance with safety norms.

  19. Relationships between Ambivalent Sexism and the Five Moral Foundations in Domestic Violence: Is it a Matter of Fairness and Authority?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecina, Maria L; Piñuela, Raul

    2017-04-03

    Ambivalent sexism has served to justify and maintain patriarchy and traditional gender roles characterized by inequality and male domination in the intimate partner violence (IPV) literature; according to the Moral Foundation Theory (MFT) there are two specific moral foundations related to inequality and domination: fairness and authority. We connect these separate fields arguing that sexist attitudes can be related to specific patterns of endorsement of the five moral foundations. Our hypothesis is that ambivalent sexism in men convicted of violence against the partner may be rooted in at least these two moral foundations, and that at least these two moral foundations may also serve to predict intention to change the violent behavior against the partner. Controlling for political orientation, the results show that benevolent sexism correlates positively with the authority foundation; and hostile sexism correlates negatively with the fairness foundation. Both foundations contribute to explaining the two dimensions of ambivalent sexism (benevolent and hostile) and only the fairness foundation predict intention to change the violent behavior against the partner. New treatment approaches could be designed to increase moral concerns about fairness and to reduce moral concerns about authority in people who, at least, have once used violence against their partners.

  20. Convinced, ambivalent or annoyed: Tyrolean ski tourism stakeholders and their perceptions of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trawöger, Lisa

    2014-02-01

    Its focus on snow-dependent activities makes Alpine winter tourism especially sensitive to climate change. Stakeholder risk perceptions are a key factor in adaptation to climate change because they fundamentally drive or constrain stakeholder action. This paper examines climate change perceptions of winter tourism stakeholders in Tyrol (Austria). Using a qualitative approach, expert interviews were conducted. Four opinion categories reflecting different attitudes toward climate change issues were identified: convinced planners , annoyed deniers , ambivalent optimists , convinced wait-and-seers . Although the findings generally indicate a growing awareness of climate change, this awareness is mainly limited to perceiving the issue as a global phenomenon. Awareness of regional and branch-specific consequences of climate change that lead to a demand for action could not be identified. Current technical strategies, like snowmaking, are not primarily climate-induced. At present, coping with climate change is not a priority for risk management. The findings point out the importance of gaining and transferring knowledge of regional and branch-specific consequences of climate change in order to induce action at the destination level.

  1. Convinced, ambivalent or annoyed: Tyrolean ski tourism stakeholders and their perceptions of climate change☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trawöger, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Its focus on snow-dependent activities makes Alpine winter tourism especially sensitive to climate change. Stakeholder risk perceptions are a key factor in adaptation to climate change because they fundamentally drive or constrain stakeholder action. This paper examines climate change perceptions of winter tourism stakeholders in Tyrol (Austria). Using a qualitative approach, expert interviews were conducted. Four opinion categories reflecting different attitudes toward climate change issues were identified: convinced planners, annoyed deniers, ambivalent optimists, convinced wait-and-seers. Although the findings generally indicate a growing awareness of climate change, this awareness is mainly limited to perceiving the issue as a global phenomenon. Awareness of regional and branch-specific consequences of climate change that lead to a demand for action could not be identified. Current technical strategies, like snowmaking, are not primarily climate-induced. At present, coping with climate change is not a priority for risk management. The findings point out the importance of gaining and transferring knowledge of regional and branch-specific consequences of climate change in order to induce action at the destination level. PMID:27064520

  2. Diagnostic ambivalence: psychiatric workarounds and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whooley, Owen

    2010-03-01

    In 1980 the American Psychiatric Association (APA), faced with increased professional competition, revised the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). Psychiatric expertise was redefined along a biomedical model via a standardised nosology. While they were an integral part of capturing professional authority, the revisions demystified psychiatric expertise, leaving psychiatrists vulnerable to infringements upon their autonomy by institutions adopting the DSM literally. This research explores the tensions surrounding standardisation in psychiatry. Drawing on in-depth interviews with psychiatrists, I explore the 'sociological ambivalence' psychiatrists feel towards the DSM, which arises from the tension between the desire for autonomy in practice and the professional goal of legitimacy within the system of mental health professions. To carve a space for autonomy for their practice, psychiatrists develop 'workarounds' that undermine the DSM in practice. These workarounds include employing alternative diagnostic typologies, fudging the numbers (or codes) on official paperwork and negotiating diagnoses with patients. In creating opportunities for patient input and resistance to fixed diagnoses, the varied use of the DSM raises fundamental questions for psychiatrists about the role of the biomedical model of mental illness, especially its particular manifestation in the DSM.

  3. The Prince and the Hobby-Horse: Shakespeare and the Ambivalence of Early Modern Popular Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Pikli

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Shakespearean hobby-horse, mentioned emphatically in Hamlet, brings into focus a number of problems related to early modern popular culture. In the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries the word was characterised by semantic ambivalence, with simultaneously valid meanings of a breed of horse, a morris character, a foolish person, and a wanton woman. The overlapping of these meanings in different cultural discourses of the age (playtexts, emblem books, popular verse, pictures exemplifies the interaction of different productions of early modern popular culture, from social humiliating practices to festivals and public playhouses. This attests to a complex circulation of cultural memory regarding symbols of popular culture, paradoxically both ‘forgotten’ and ‘remembered’ as a basically oral-ritual culture was transformed into written forms. In this context, the Hamletian passage gains new overtones, while the different versions of the playtext (Q1 & 2: 1603, 1604, F: 1623 also offer insights into the changing attitudes regarding popular culture, as it became gradually commercialised and politicised in the following decades. Finally, Shakespeare’s The Winter’s Tale and Jonson’s Bartholomew Fair solidify a critical and sceptical attitude, which seems to have signalled the end of ‘Merry Old England’ on-stage and off-stage as well.

  4. Garden of Ambivalence The Topology of the Mother-child Dyad in Grey Gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Defne Tüzün

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Maysles brothers’ 1975 documentary, Grey Gardens, portrays the lives of Edith Bouvier Beale and her daughter, Edith, known as Little Edie, the aunt and first cousin, respectively, of Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy Onassis. The mother and daughter live together in their East Hampton house that is literally falling apart. As their identical names imply, the Beales share a symbiotic relationship which is reflected in every aspect of their life. I argue that Grey Gardens calls for Julia Kristeva’s insistence on abjection as a crucial struggle with “spatial ambivalence (inside/outside uncertainty” and an attempt to mark out a space in the undifferentiated field of the mother-child symbiosis. In Powers of Horror, Kristeva (1982 states, “abjection preserves what existed in the archaism of pre-objectal relationship” (p. 10. Grey Gardens portrays the topology of the mother-child dyad, which pertains to a particular spatio-temporality: where this primordial relationship is concerned, object and subject crumble, and the distinction between past and present is irrelevant.

  5. Clustering Suicide Attempters: Impulsive-Ambivalent, Well-Planned, or Frequent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; Nogue, Erika; Guillaume, Sebastien; Picot, Marie Christine; Courtet, Philippe

    2016-06-01

    Attempts to predict suicidal behavior within high-risk populations have so far shown insufficient accuracy. Although several psychosocial and clinical features have been consistently associated with suicide attempts, investigations of latent structure in well-characterized populations of suicide attempters are lacking. We analyzed a sample of 1,009 hospitalized suicide attempters that were recruited between 1999 and 2012. Eleven clinically relevant items related to the characteristics of suicidal behavior were submitted to a Hierarchical Ascendant Classification. Phenotypic profiles were compared between the resulting clusters. A decisional tree was constructed to facilitate the differentiation of individuals classified within the first 2 clusters. Most individuals were included in a cluster characterized by less lethal means and planning ("impulse-ambivalent"). A second cluster featured more carefully planned attempts ("well-planned"), more alcohol or drug use before the attempt, and more precautions to avoid interruptions. Finally, a small, third cluster included individuals reporting more attempts ("frequent"), more often serious or violent attempts, and an earlier age at first attempt. Differences across clusters by demographic and clinical characteristics were also found, particularly with the third cluster whose participants had experienced high levels of childhood abuse. Cluster analysis consistently supported 3 distinct clusters of individuals with specific features in their suicidal behaviors and phenotypic profiles that could help clinicians to better focus prevention strategies. © Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  6. Ambivalentsus baltisaksa naiste mälestustekstides. Ambivalence in Baltic German Women’s Autobiographical Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maris Saagpakk

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article I examine the autobiographical texts of two Baltic German women, Natalie von Maydell (1878-1970 and Agnes von Baranow (1877-1968 and analyse their depiction of two breakthrough events in Estonian history: the establishment of the Republic of Estonia and the compulsory relocation of the Baltic Germans. Natalie von Maydell’s memoir, “Ein reiches Leben” is an unpublished manuscript in the family’s possession; Agnes von Baranow’s reminiscences titled Mein Baltenland were published soon after the resettlement in 1941. The analysis has been informed by postcolonial theory, in particular Homi K. Bhabha’s discussion of the master. In her reminiscences, Natalie von Maydell describes her return to the Paasvere Manor at the end of the winter of 1919. During the winter of 1918-1919 the manor had been overtaken by the Bolsheviks, who had vandalized it; Maydell portrays the outward changes in the manor house, how their home did not look homey any longer. In addition to the immediate damage to the building, lost or damaged household items and the violation of a secure home atmosphere, the writer describes the more significant change in the servants’ attitudes: while the damage and pillage could be rectified, it was impossible to control the people again. The circumstances had changed Estonian attitudes toward Germans, and to Maydell it was a painful and alienating experience. Home had become “unhomely.” At the same time, Maydell claims that the Estonians came to talk to her husband secretly, at night. With this sentence she smoothes over the new situation: the attributes of an old, paternalistic system are citations of earlier better times. Life that previously had clear boundaries was now blurred and confused: from one perspective it seemed the same but the next moment she would be reminded again in one way or the other. It is also important to note that the fragility and ambivalence in the Baltic German position was not

  7. Ambivalence, equivocation and the politics of experimental knowledge: a transdisciplinary neuroscience encounter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Des; Littlefield, Melissa M; Knudsen, Kasper J; Tonks, James; Dietz, Martin J

    2014-10-01

    This article is about a transdisciplinary project between the social, human and life sciences, and the felt experiences of the researchers involved. 'Transdisciplinary' and 'interdisciplinary' research-modes have been the subject of much attention lately--especially as they cross boundaries between the social/humanistic and natural sciences. However, there has been less attention, from within science and technology studies, to what it is actually like to participate in such a research-space. This article contributes to that literature through an empirical reflection on the progress of one collaborative and transdisciplinary project: a novel experiment in neuroscientific lie detection, entangling science and technology studies, literary studies, sociology, anthropology, clinical psychology and cognitive neuroscience. Its central argument is twofold: (1) that, in addition to ideal-type tropes of transdisciplinary conciliation or integration, such projects may also be organized around some more subterranean logics of ambivalence, reserve and critique; (2) that an account of the mundane ressentiment of collaboration allows for a more careful attention to the awkward forms of 'experimental politics' that may flow through, and indeed propel, collaborative work more broadly. Building on these claims, the article concludes with a suggestion that such subterranean logics may be indissociable from some forms of collaboration, and it proposes an ethic of 'equivocal speech' as a way to live with and through these kinds of transdisciplinary experiences.

  8. The Social Meaning of Inherited Financial Assets. Moral Ambivalences of Intergenerational Transfers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merlin Schaeffer

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available What do inherited financial assets signify to heirs and testators and how does this shape their conduct? Based on grounded theory methodology and twenty open, thematically structured interviews with US heirs, future heirs and testators, this article explicates a theoretical account that proposes a moral ambivalence as the core category to understand the social meaning of inherited financial assets. In particular, the analysis reveals that the social meaning of inherited assets is a contingent, individual compromise between seeing inherited assets as unachieved wealth and seeing them as family means of support. Being the lifetime achievement of another person, inheritances are, on the one hand, morally dubious and thus difficult to appropriate. Yet in terms of family solidarity, inheritances are "family money," which is used when need arises. Taken from this angle, inheriting is not the transfer of one individual's privately held property to another person, but rather the succession of the social status as support-giver along with the resources that belong to this status to the family's next generation. Heirs need to find a personal compromise between these poles, which always leaves room for interpretation. http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1401131

  9. The ambivalence of the work of the hotel managers: an approach to ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gois Leite, Cyntia Maria; de Carvalho, Ricardo Josématos

    2012-01-01

    This article uses the contributions of ergonomics to understand the work performed by hotel managers. The concern to understand the job of managers is something new in the ergonomics and few studies address this issue, especially in what concerns the work of hotel managers and its aspects of performance and health, which is the focus of this article. Through a literature review on the subject, it is sought to understand the managers' work activity, the impacts on their health and their organizational performance, as managers take an ambivalent position in organizations, since they have to deal directly with the demands of upper and lower hierarchies in a context of high competition, organizational changes and user requirements. It is then inferred there is a risk of increased work density for managers, bringing negative consequences to their health and organizational performance. This phenomenon, still poorly covered by ergonomics, contributes to a certain invisibility of the manager's work in society as a whole, when the manager may suffer from health problems, which are also common in certain populations of workers who do not take the managerial function.

  10. Adult Fear and Control: Ambivalence and Duality in Clive Barker’s The Thief of Always

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle Kristjanson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the relationship between the text and accompanying illustrations in Clive Barker’s children’s novel The Thief of Always: A Fable. This tale of abduction was published in the social background of fear around the child predator of the early 1990s and incorporates ideas of monstrous villainy, loss of childhood innocence, and insatiable desires. As a fable, Thief is a cautionary tale that not only teaches that childhood years are precious and are not to be wished away or squandered in idle leisure, but also of the dangers that some adults pose to children. Problematically, an honest and frank discussion of adult sexual desires toward children would despoil the very innocence that is trying to be protected; thus, a lesson such as this must be sublimated within the story. Yet, it is the illustrations, and more specifically the way in which the illustrations corroborate and contradict the plot of this story that reveals an underlying ambivalence toward the figure of the child and an echoing duality present in both the child and the child predator.

  11. Critical Nexus or Pluralist Discipline? Institutional Ambivalence and the Future of Canadian Sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puddephatt, Antony J; McLaughlin, Neil

    2015-08-01

    While some scholars believe in a transdisciplinary future for the social sciences and humanities, we argue that sociology would do well to maintain its disciplinary borders, while celebrating the plurality of its intellectual, social, and political content. Although a pluralist position can threaten disciplinary coherence and increase fragmentation, we argue the counterbalance ought to be convergence around shared institutional norms of knowledge production. Establishing these norms is not easy, since there is a great deal of institutional ambivalence at play in the field of sociology. As such, sociology is pushed and pulled between two poles of at least four major continuums of knowledge production, which include the following: (1) interdisciplinary versus discipline-based research; (2) political versus analytical scholarship; (3) professional versus public/policy sociology; and (4) local/national versus global audiences. Since both sides of these ideal-typical continuums contain their own pathologies, we propose adopting a balanced position to correct for the shortcomings of each. Rather than imposing one philosophical or theoretical paradigm for the field, we suggest that embracing the "chaos" of our diverse forms of knowledge and centralizing and integrating findings will serve to strengthen our collective efforts in the long term. © 2015 Canadian Sociological Association/La Société canadienne de sociologie.

  12. Ambivalent helpers and unhealthy choices: public health practitioners' narratives of Indigenous ill-health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, Emma; Paradies, Yin

    2005-03-01

    Public health practitioners in Australian indigenous health work in a complex political environment. Public health training is limited in providing them with conceptual tools needed to unpack the postcolonial nexus of 'fourth-world' health. A workshop was designed by the authors to facilitate critical reflection on how the concepts of race and culture are used in constructions of indigenous ill-health. It was attended by researchers, students, clinicians and bureaucrats working in public health in northern Australia. A thematic analysis of the workshop minutes provided insight into public health practitioners' narratives of Indigenous ill-health. The major themes that emerged included tension between structure and agency and between sameness and difference, and ambivalence surrounding the 'helper' identity of public health practitioners. We suggest that these narratives can be understood as attempts to maintain the moral integrity of both Indigenous people and practitioners. This task is necessitated by the specter of cultural relativism intrinsic to contemporary liberal discourses of multiculturalism that attempt to reconcile the universal rights of the citizen with the special rights of minority groups. We argue that the concepts of self-determination and neocolonialism mark the spaces where universal and particular discourses overlap and clash. Practitioners who seek to escape neocolonialism must inhabit only the discursive space of public health congruent with self-determination, leaving them in a bind common to many postcolonial situations. They must relieve the ill-health of indigenous people without acting upon them; change them without declaring that change is required.

  13. Self-Efficacy for Pain Communication Moderates the Relation Between Ambivalence Over Emotional Expression and Pain Catastrophizing Among Patients With Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Denburg, Alyssa N; Shelby, Rebecca A; Caldwell, David S; O'Sullivan, Madeline L; Keefe, Francis J

    2018-04-06

    Pain catastrophizing (ie, the tendency to focus on and magnify pain sensations and feel helpless in the face of pain) is one of the most important and consistent psychological predictors of the pain experience. The present study examined, in 60 patients with osteoarthritis pain who were married or partnered: 1) the degree to which ambivalence over emotional expression and negative network orientation were associated with pain catastrophizing, and 2) whether self-efficacy for pain communication moderated these relations. Hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses revealed a significant main effect for the association between ambivalence over emotional expression and pain catastrophizing; as ambivalence over emotional expression increased, the degree of pain catastrophizing increased. In addition, the interaction between ambivalence over emotional expression and self-efficacy for pain communication was significant, such that as self-efficacy for pain communication increased, the association between ambivalence over emotional expression and pain catastrophizing became weaker. Negative network orientation was not significantly associated with pain catastrophizing. Findings suggest that higher levels of self-efficacy for pain communication may help weaken the effects of ambivalence over emotional expression on pain catastrophizing. In light of these results, patients may benefit from interventions that target pain communication processes and emotion regulation. This article examines interpersonal processes involved in pain catastrophizing. This study has the potential to lead to better understanding of maladaptive pain coping strategies and possibly better prevention and treatment strategies. Copyright © 2018 The American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [French validation of the Revised Paranormal Belief Scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvet, R; Djeriouat, H; Goutaudier, N; Py, J; Chabrol, H

    2014-09-01

    For the last decades, many researchers have focused on paranormal beliefs. Beliefs in the existence of paranormal phenomena would be common and studies conducted in westernized countries have highlighted a high prevalence of individuals believing in the existence of such phenomena. Tobacyk and Milford (1984) developed the Revised Paranormal Belief Scale (RPBS) for assessing beliefs in paranormal phenomena. This 26-item self-reported questionnaire, measuring beliefs in phenomena such as witchcraft or superstition, is one of the most widely used questionnaires to assess such beliefs. While studies focusing on paranormal beliefs tend to develop, there is no French self-report instrument to assess this construct. Researchers have tried to identify specific variables that might be linked to such beliefs, and some have focused on personalities of individuals who believe in the paranormal. Schizotypy has been reported to be significantly and positively correlated with paranormal beliefs. The aim of this study was a) to validate the French version of the RPBS and b) to explore the relationship between Schizotypal Personality Disorder traits and paranormal beliefs. After being recruited using the Internet and social networks (e.g. facebook), a sample of 313 participants (mean [SD] age=31.12 [11.62]; range 18-58years) completed the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ-B), assessing Schizotypal Personality Disorder traits and the Revised Paranormal Belief Scale assessing paranormal beliefs. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to test the proposed 7-factor structure of the RPB developed by Tobacyk. Several adjustment indices were used to evaluate the model. As the first model did not fit the original one, others models were tested. Our findings indicated that a seven-factor solution, excluding 2 items, best described the item structure: (1) spiritualism, (2) superstition, (3) witchcraft, (4) precognition, (5) traditional religious belief, (6) psi, (7) and

  15. The cost of ambivalence -- A look at the power scene in South Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, R.K.

    1997-01-01

    This paper looks at the impact of acute power shortage in South Asia, state initiatives that are less than firm and decisive and attempts to make some suggestions on the issues involved. The discussion would be of interest to planners in other developing countries as well as independent power producers looking for investment opportunities in the region. The South Asian Region consists of countries of the Indian Ocean rim. The region is important as 1/5th of all humanity lives here. Yet it generates only about 5% of all the electricity produced in the world. While in absolute terms the economy especially that of India is one of the largest in the world the per capita GDP is among the lowest. So is the per capita power generation that is around 250 kWh (compare with 12308 kWh in the US). The acute shortage of power in a state of high industrial growth for a region that is richly endowed with various sources of energy as well has a developed capital goods industry, leads to the question as to what has gone wrong? The process of planning and execution of power projects as well as the lack of will for solid action seems to be the culprit. The governments of the region have well understood that the states' resources are just not adequate to support the massive investments required in the power sector. IPPs therefore are being welcomed, but with a sense of ambivalence. Power purchase agreements with private developers have dragged on in a state of uncertainty for years. Important on the agenda is to reform the state owned and monopolistic power utilities. Reforms and privatization are being aimed at supply side improvements, transmission and distribution loss reduction, end use efficiency improvement and encouragement to captive power generation by the industry. Some of the issues that stand out as facilitators and impediments are discussed in this paper

  16. Lessons in ambivalence: The Shanghai Municipal Council's opium policies, 1906-1917.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-An; Du, Yilun

    2016-11-01

    Shanghai was considered to be a "capital of opium" in modern China, hence the history of opium in the city has received significant attention. In the Shanghai International Settlement, where Chinese and foreigners lived as neighbours, drugs were considered by the administration as both "trouble maker", and important financial resource. This paper explores how the Shanghai Municipal Council (SMC), the most senior governing body in the settlement, used its position to maximize political and economic profit from the trade and consumption of opium. The paper is based on documentary analysis of records of the SMC board meetings and other related material stored at Shanghai Municipal Archives. Interpretive approaches were used to analyze the shifting SMC strategies on opium consumption, the competing power relations and the way they were negotiated between actors with a stake in the region, including semi-colonialism and world systems analysis. With the dual purpose of preventing damage and enhancing municipal management, the SMC introduced a licensing system permitting the consumption and trade of drugs. However, the anti-opium policies of the late Qing government and the Anglo-Chinese 10 Year Agreement meant SMC had to shut down opium "houses" (opium dens) and "shops" (for the sale of opium to be consumed off the premises). Over almost a decade, the SMC shifted emphasis from political regulation of a social, recreational practice to maximizing financial benefit. In the process, SMC made full use of the opportunities it gained from a period of ambivalent Chinese and British power relations and local community rule. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The mediating effects of childhood neglect on the association between schizotypal and autistic personality traits and depression in a non-clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianbo; Gong, Jingbo; Nie, Guanghui; He, Yuqiong; Xiao, Bo; Shen, Yanmei; Luo, Xuerong

    2017-10-25

    Autistic personality traits (APT) and schizotypal personality traits (SPT) are associated with depression. However, mediating factors within these relationships have not yet been explored. Thus, the focus of the current study was to examine the effects of childhood neglect on the relationship between APT/SPT and depression. This cross-sectional study was conducted on first-year students (N = 2469) at Hunan University of Chinese Medicine and Hengyang Normal College (Changsha, China). Participants completed surveys on APT, SPT, childhood neglect, abuse and depression. Through correlational analyses, APT and SPT traits were positively correlated with childhood neglect and depression (p childhood maltreatment, emotional neglect (β = 0.112, p Childhood neglect did not account for the relationships between APT/SPT and depression. Further analysis found that childhood neglect mediated the relationship between SPT and depression but not APT and depression. Among types of childhood maltreatment, neglect was the strongest predicting factor for depression. Neglect did not account for the relationship between APT/SPT and depression but was a strong mediating factor between SPT and depression.

  18. Two-sided messages for health risk prevention: the role of argument type, refutation, and issue ambivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelis, Erlinde; Cauberghe, Veroline; De Pelsmacker, Patrick

    2013-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted among adolescents in 2011 in urban parts of Belgium, Europe. The effectiveness of two-sided binge drinking and marijuana prevention messages was investigated in relation to argument type, refutation, and issue ambivalence. Study 1 (n = 373) serves as a baseline study for study 2 (n = 156). Data were collected through a printed questionnaire in classrooms in Flemish secondary schools. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze the data. Implications for health practitioners, as well as limitations and suggestions for further research are given.

  19. Gender Ambivalence and The Expression of Passions in the Performances of Early Roman Cantatas by Castrati and Female Singers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeanneret, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Solo singing is associated with the expression of passions during the 17th century. Cantatas were sung by women as well as castrati, playing an ambivalent game on gender, eroticism, and passions. Contemporary testimonies of these performances juxtaposed with the medical theory of the humors shows...... beloved. While we rightly read such changes of temperature as standardized extravagances of poetics, they are also deeply rooted in Early Modern scientific theories of the body. Performance was one part of sophisticated entertainments along with improvisation of poetry, discourses on love, and games...

  20. Effects of Message Framing on Influenza Vaccination: Understanding the Role of Risk Disclosure, Perceived Vaccine Efficacy, and Felt Ambivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungsu; Pjesivac, Ivanka; Jin, Yan

    2017-10-20

    The current study examined the effects of framing in promotional health messages on intention to vaccinate against seasonal influenza virus. The findings of an experimental study (N = 86) indicated that exposure to both benefits and side effects of vaccination (gain-framed with risk disclosure message) led to lower intention to receive the flu vaccine. This relationship was mediated by both perceived vaccine efficacy and felt ambivalence in a serial order, revealing the underlying psychological mechanisms important for understanding health-related behaviors. Theoretical implications of constructing sub-framed messages are discussed and the concept of second-order framing is introduced.

  1. Psyche’s Sisters: Ambivalence of Sisterhood in Twentieth-century Irish Women’s Short Stories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Wan-lih Chang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines and evaluates representations of problematic sisterly relationships in twentieth-century Irish women’s stories which display an emphasis on ambivalence and sibling rivalry.  The paper is based primarily on the literary output of Mary Lavin, Clare Boylan, Moy McCrory, Éilís Ní Dhuibhne, Jan Kennedy, Mary Morrissy and Claire Keegan.  The paper seeks, by reference both to feminist studies and Irish women’s short stories, to demonstrate the consequences and causes of a divided sisterhood which itself may be traced back to a suppression of expression of female solidarity embedded in western culture and manifested in western literary heritage.  Typically, such stories depict a conflict sourced in the need to develop self-identity and framed within the constraints imposed by separate social roles.  This kind of conflict results potentially in rivalry, antagonism, ambivalence, and the domination of one sibling by another.  Daughters/sisters are often depicted in these stories both as competing with each other for limited resources and also as seeking a sense of personal identity through mutual polarisation.  There are also stories into which are woven undertones of domination disguised as sisterly closeness, for which the actual motivation seems to be a repressed aspiration for intimacy.

  2. How can group experience influence the cue priority? A re-examination of the ambiguity-ambivalence hypothesis

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    Kazumi eShimizu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of the "framing effect" by Kahneman and Tversky, the sensitivity of the "framing effect"---its appearance and in some cases its disappearance---has long been an object of study. However there is little agreement as to the reasons for this sensitivity. The "ambiguity-ambivalence hypothesis" (Wang, 2008 aims to systematically explain the sensitivity of this effect by paying particular attention to people's cue priority: it states that the framing effect occurs when verbal framing is used to compensate for the absence of higher prioritized decision cues. The main purpose of our study is to examine and develop this hypothesis by examining cue priority given differences in people's "group experience". The main result is that the framing effect is absent when the choice problem is presented in a group context that reflects the actual size of the group that the participant has had experience with. Thus, in order to understand the choices that people make in life and death decisions, it is important to incorporate the decision maker's group experience explicitly into the ambiguity-ambivalence hypothesis.

  3. Prefrontal Dopamine D1 Receptors and Working Memory in Schizotypal Personality Disorder: A PET Study with [11C]NNC112

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Judy L.; Rosell, Daniel R.; Slifstein, Mark; Girgis, Ragy R.; Xu, Xiaoyan; Ehrlich, Yosefa; Kegeles, Lawrence S.; Hazlett, Erin A.; Abi-Dargham, Anissa; Siever, Larry J.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) is associated with working memory (WM) impairments that are similar to those observed in schizophrenia. Imaging studies have suggested that schizophrenia is associated with alterations in dopamine D1-receptor availability in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) that may be related to the WM impairments that characterize this disorder. Objectives To characterize prefrontal D1-receptor availability and its relation to WM performance in SPD. Methods We used positron emission tomography (PET) and the radiotracer [11C]NNC112 with 18 unmedicated SPD and 21 healthy-control participants; as an index of D1-receptor availability, binding-potential (BP) measures (BPF, BPND, and BPP) were calculated for prefrontal and striatal subregions. To assess WM, SPD participants completed the 2-back and Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT). Results There were no significant group differences in PFC BP. BPF and BPP in the medial PFC were significantly negatively related to PASAT performance (rs=-0.551, p=.022 and rs=-0.488, p=.047, respectively), but BP was not related to 2-back performance. Conclusions In contrast to what has been found in schizophrenia, SPD was not associated with significant prefrontal D1-receptor alterations. Similar to previous schizophrenia findings, however, higher prefrontal D1-receptor availability was associated with poorer WM performance (as measured by the PASAT) in SPD. These findings suggest that schizophrenia and SPD may share a common pathophysiological feature related to prefrontal dopamine functioning that contributes to WM dysfunction, but that in SPD, alterations in D1 may occur only in a subset of individuals and/or to an extent that is minor relative to what occurs in schizophrenia. PMID:24781514

  4. Communicative-Pragmatic Typology of Irony-Effect with the Strategic Ambivalence within the English and Ukrainian Language Traditions

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    Hnatiuk Lubomira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The research of ambivalence is an actual problem of modern linguistics because of active promotion of Strategic Ambiguity as one of the key pragmatic categories on the way to understand the complexity of the concept of communicative intentions of the speaker. Generalization of conceptual and terminological findings in the Hinting Strategy of ironical utterances allows to develop the appropriate models of their practical application in the interpersonal interaction. Purpose: The purpose of the investigation is to determine the qualifying and classifying features of the irony-effect in order to demonstrate the importance of strategic ambiguity and propose a model for determining the strategically ambiguous communication. The main task of the article is to investigate the strategic ambivalence as one of the key categories of pragmatics toward understanding the complexity of the concept of intention in the speaker's communication and analyze different types of strategic ambiguity in the ironic utterances as well as the mechanisms of optimization of interpersonal interaction on the factual material of English and Ukrainian languages. Results: In the research the term strategic ambivalence refers to those communicative situations where interlocutors use ambiguity purposefully to accomplish their goals. Strategic ambiguity may be particularly useful in the interpersonal interaction. Under the circumstances of the Hinting Strategy communicative acts are often intentionally ambiguous since they allow different interpretations to coexist and therefore they are more effective in the interpersonal interaction. The communicative acts within ironical utterances are unclear and ambiguous. Although clarity is usually considered desirable for interpersonal communication, ambiguity may be more effective under the circumstances of the Hinting Stategy. Discussion: The strategic use of ambiguity minimizes the impolite speech acts. Another important

  5. Sexismo ambivalente hacia hombres: Un estudio exploratorio con adolescentes mexicanos (Ambivalent Sexism Towards Men: An Exploratory Study with Mexican Adolescents

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    Aldo Alexis Arenas-Rojas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: El sexismo ambivalente hacia las mujeres ha sido investigado con mayor frecuencia en comparación con las actitudes sexistas hostiles y benevolentes hacia los hombres. Por ello en esta investigación se exploran las actitudes ambivalentes hacia hombres en adolescentes mexicanos. Método: Estudio descriptivo, transversal y cuantitativo donde cuarenta y tres mujeres y treinta siete hombres, con edades comprendidas entre 12 y 19 años (M=16.61, DT=1.20, contestaron el Inventario de Sexismo Ambivalente hacia Hombres. Resultados: El análisis estadístico mostró que los chicos obtuvieron mayores niveles de sexismo benevolente hacia el hombre, mientras que en el sexismo hostil no se obtuvieron diferencias significativas entre hombres y mujeres. Conclusiones: Desde una perspectiva de género inclusiva es pertinente continuar con el estudio del sexismo hacia las mujeres y los hombres con el fin de entender las dinámicas subyacentes en la discriminación hacia ambos sexos. Por lo tanto, las actitudes hacia los hombres no deben ser consideradas como un tema de investigación irrelevante. Abstract: The ambivalent sexism towards women has been investigated more frequently in comparison of the hostile and benevolent attitudes toward men. Thus, this research explores the ambivalent attitudes toward men in Mexican adolescents. Method: It is a descriptive, transversal and quantitative study. Forty-three women and thirty-seven men, aged between 12 and 19 years (M=16.61, SD=1.20, answered Inventory Ambivalent Sexism towards men. Results: Statistical analysis showed that boys had higher levels of benevolent sexism towards men; while in hostile sexism no significant differences between men and women were obtained. Conclusions: From a gender inclusive perspective is pertinent to continue with the study of sexism towards women and men in order to understand the underlying dynamics discrimination towards both sexes. Thus, the attitudes toward men should not

  6. Poor infant soothability and later insecure-ambivalent attachment: developmental change in phenotypic markers of risk or two measures of the same construct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills-Koonce, W Roger; Propper, Cathi B; Barnett, Melissa

    2012-04-01

    Using data from the Durham Child Health and Development Study (n=148), the current study examines the associations between child and parenting variables at 6 months and child attachment quality at 12 months of age and maternal report of child self regulation at 24 months of age. Child and parent variables predicted distinct forms of insecure attachment relationships. Observations of infant soothability during the reunion session of the Face-to-Face Still Face Paradigm at 6 months differentially predicted children with later insecure-ambivalent attachments from those with secure attachments. Observations of maternal negative intrusiveness at 6 months of age differentially predicted children with insecure-avoidant attachments from those with secure attachments. Maternal sensitivity at 6 months was associated with maternal report of child affective problems at 24 months, but this association was moderated by infant negativity during soothing and later moderated by child attachment quality. Collectively, these results suggest the following two mutually exclusive possibilities regarding infant soothability and later ambivalent attachment quality: either infant soothability is a unique and distinct predictor of later ambivalent attachment quality and this cascade represents a developmental shift in child risk during the first year of life, or that infant soothability following a stressful task at 6 months of age is itself an early indicator of ambivalent attachment behavior with the mother. The data from the current study could not provide differential support for one possibility over the other. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. „THE SEEING WOMAN‟ A NEW IMPERIAL AMBIVALENCE IN MARIE GRAY‟S JOURNEY‟S IN JAVA

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    Rahayu Puji Haryanti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Different from that in the second half of the eighteenth century, travel literature today is a paradise for women authorship. Under the cosmopolitan worldview, women travellers compete with their male counterparts observing and reporting their adventure around the world. Mary Gray, an Irish author who now lives in New Zealand, for example, presents her experience traveling in Indonesia in the reform era. Showing some indication of East- West relation, the work is considered as containing postcolonial discourses offeringalternative answers to the world problem related to new imperial phenomena. Using the postcolonial approach and Pratt‘s theory in travel writing, this research was conducted to identify the traveler‘s strategy called the ‗seeing woman‘ the positions she tries to achieve in her object representation.The result shows some traces of ambivalence within the new imperial andcosmopolitan imperatives.

  8. He loves her, he loves her not: attachment style as a personality antecedent to men's ambivalent sexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Joshua; Hung, Jacqueline A; Glick, Peter; Dinero, Rachel E

    2012-11-01

    The authors present an integrative account of how attachment insecurities relate to sexism. Two studies showed that attachment avoidance predisposes men to endorse hostile but to reject benevolent sexism (BS), whereas attachment anxiety predisposes men toward ambivalent (both hostile and benevolent) sexism. The authors also tested predicted mediators, finding that men's social dominance orientation (a competitive intergroup ideology) mediated the avoidance to hostile sexism link. In addition, romanticism (an idealized interpersonal ideology) mediated attachment insecurity to BS links: (a) Avoidant men tended to reject romanticism (i.e., were cynical about romance) and, in turn, were likely to reject BS, whereas (b) anxious men tended to endorse romanticism (i.e., were idealistic about romance) and, in turn, likely to endorse BS. The authors conclude that men's sexism stems in part from dispositional attachment working models, both directly and through the interpersonal and intergroup ideologies they generate.

  9. Characters and ambivalence in Luke: An emic reading of Luke’s gospel, focusing on the Jewish peasantry

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    Mbengu D. Nyiawung

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Jewish peasantry as a character group in the Gospel of Luke has, thus far, not really attracted much attention in Lukan scholarship. In cases where it has been studied, scholars have often treated ὄχλος [crowd] and λαὸς [people] as synonymous characters. But the question of Jesus’ identity, as depicted in the New Testament, was crucial to the early church and it is this exact question that animates the relationship between Jesus and the various ‘systems’ functioning as part of Luke’s Gospel. From an etic viewpoint, the context of Luke’s Gospel indicates that Jesus’ leadership was characterised by conflict, opposition and rejection. Therefore, this article attempted, through an emic reading of Luke, to differentiate between (and describe the role played by each of these character groups in Luke’s narrative, focusing on the relationship between Jesus and the Jewish peasantry – with special reference to the ambivalent attitude of the latter. It was argued that each Lukan character group has to be read and understood in terms of their attitude, as well as in the broader context of Luke’s intention with their inclusion and specific description. Therefore the various terminologies used when referring to the Jewish peasantry were also discussed; for any analysis of a biblical character group should begin with a reading of the Greek text, because working only with translations can lead to a misappropriation of the text. In order to attain the goals as set out above, this study used a character group which seemed ambivalent and hypocritical in their attitude to analyse Jesus’ leadership approach.

  10. Is There a Specific Ambivalence of the Sacred? Illustrations from the Apparition of Medjugorie and the Movement of Sant’Egidio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Franco, Chiara; Barbato, Mariano; LeNormand, Brigitte

    2012-01-01

    toward violence. At best, the debate is summarised by Appleby's argument about the ambivalence of the sacred. We argue that this ambivalence is not specific to religious claims but inherent to all public claims about best solutions and fundamental questions in politics. The problem is not the claim......In the debate about the return of religion in politics, religious actors and discourses are viewed with a certain concern. Whereas some defend the peaceful effects of religion, most contributions understand religious truth claims as a challenge to democratic pluralism that presents a tendency...... make strong religious truth claims contributing to peace-building and reconciliation during conflicts where religion was an important dimension: the apparitions of Medjugorje in Bosnia-Herzegovina and the movement of Sant'Egidio in Algeria....

  11. Advances and Ambivalence: The Consequences of Women's Educational and Workforce Changes for Women's Political Participation in the United States, 1952 to 2012

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    Ashley Jardina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the last forty years, the gap between men and women with respect to labor-market outcomes, paid hours of work, hours working at home, occupations, college majors, and education levels in the United States has narrowed or disappeared. We ask whether these substantial changes in women's lives—changes in precisely the variables that have seemed to matter so much to our understanding of political participation—have enabled women's political action in the United States. We find that they have not, and we suggest that the brakes on the translation of education and occupation into political participation come from continuing ambivalence about jobs and careers. Of course, these ambivalent attitudes may very well reflect a reality about the complications of workforce participation in a world with unequal and limited access to childcare, parental leave, high-paying jobs, and opportunities for career advancement.

  12. Heirs of Ambivalence: The Study of the Identity Crisis of the Second-Generation Indian Americans in Jhumpa Lahiri's Interpreter of Maladies

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    Hossein Aliakbari Harehdasht

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Jhumpa Lahiri’s Interpreter of Maladies is a collection of short stories which, for the most part, deals with the identity crisis of the Indian Americans who are trapped in-between their Indian heritage and the American culture. The crisis is manifest in their unremitting struggle to preserve, to integrate, and to adjust. The collection, due to its dealing with the in-between-ness, ambivalence, hybridity, and marginality of the displaced Indian Americans, is receptive to the postcolonial studies. This essay draws on the relevant ideas and concepts in the field of the diaspora identity to examine Lahiri's “A Temporary Matter,” “When Mr. Pirzada Came to Dine,” “Sexy,” and “This Blessed House” which portray identity crisis of the second-generation Bengali migrants. The ultimate objective is to investigate into the nature of the internal ambivalence of Lahiri's second-generation characters caused by the reciprocal influence of Host/Guest relationships. The significance of the present study is twofold; on the one hand, it accentuates the intellectual attention to the crisis of identity felt by the exponentially increasing second-generation diaspora; on the other hand, it attempts to attract concentrated scholarly interest in diaspora ambivalence which is one of Lahiri scholars’ less addressed concerns.

  13. Cultural Nationalism, Orientalism, Imperial Ambivalence: The Colored American Magazine and Pauline Elizabeth Hopkins

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    Yu-Fang Cho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    This essay examines African American novelist Pauline Hopkins’s deployment of the trope of respectable domesticity to contest black disenfranchisement in the context of African Americans’ ambivalent relationship to late-nineteenth-century US imperial expansion in the Asia Pacific. This essay analyzes Contending Forces (1900 in relation to two crucial yet underexplored contexts: first, Hopkins’s commentaries on international race relations; second, African American intellectuals’ commentaries on US imperial ventures in the Asia Pacific and on Chinese immigration in the Colored American Magazine, where Hopkins’s fictional works were serialized. Situated within these contexts of comparative racialization, Hopkins’s works offer critical responses to the masculine nationalist representations of black–Asian relations, illuminating the divisive effects of nationalist identification on differentially racialized subjects, the uneven effects of marriage on the black community, and this institution’s structural ties to imperialism and to the color-based class hierarchy within the imagined black community—all of which call for radical reimagining of race relations beyond the nation form.

  14. Stressors among Hispanic adults from immigrant families in the United States: Familismo as a context for ambivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Sasha M; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Zapata Roblyer, Martha I; Crain, Rebecca; Cervantes, Richard C

    2016-07-01

    Ongoing exposure to social stressors is widely believed to undermine the health of Hispanic immigrant families. The current work aims to explore and interpret expressions of familismo as a framework through which postimmigration experiences are interpreted and potentially given meaning. Qualitative data were obtained from 16 focus groups in California and Massachusetts (N = 93). Fifty-two percent of the participants identified as male and 59% primarily spoke Spanish. Analyses revealed 3 distinct forms of ambivalence specific to familismo among Hispanic adults from immigrant families. Give and take described experiences wherein immigrants turn their backs on family in the short term to realize a better long-term future for the family. Negative change explained family misfortunes that arise in the pursuit of a better future for the family and creates doubts about the vision that motivated migration. Forced shifts suggests the navigation of daily life necessitates the inversion or abandonment of culturally idealized family roles and responsibilities. Hispanic adults from immigrant families described several situations in which competing views of familismo likely influenced the interpretation of unanticipated stressors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. A synthesis of the implementation ambivalence of REDD+ in Sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia

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    Divine Odame Appiah

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Reducing emission from deforestation and forest degradation and associated benefits (REDD+, has received much attention as one of the most controversial climate change initiatives, especially by forest fringed community actors in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA and Southeast Asia, (SEA who are skeptical of the scheme.The object of this paper is to examine the seeming potential benefits and accompanying risks and challenges of REDD+ on the livelihoods among smallholder farmers in SSA and SEA. The paper espouses the sustainability context of REDD+ projects as pro-poor forest management mechanisms; through the provision of alternative livelihood. This is achieved through critical review and critique of scientific articles, project reports and relevant documents on REDD+ interventions from a worldwide, regional to local scale. The paper identifies projects that seem to solidify claims that REDD+ projects are simply a new form of colonialism; which the West is using to take advantage of vulnerable groups in the South. The paper concludes with the need to actively engage sub-Saharan African and Southeast Asian women in climate change mitigation benefit schemes on account of the expedient role women play in agricultural activities (which may involve deforestation and forest land degradation.

  16. Ambivalência e medo: faces dos riscos na modernidade Ambivalence and fear: facets of the risks in modernity

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    Daniel Chaves de Brito

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available No diagnóstico da modernidade, incerteza e insegurança - e portanto o medo - são elementos presentes. Partindo dessa constatação, este trabalho tem por objetivo descrever os efeitos ambivalentes do medo sobre a sociedade contemporânea. Nesta tentativa, busca-se o apoio de diversas teorias sociais que, embora não enfoquem o medo, mostram de certa forma os riscos constantes do processo de modernização. Por outro lado, isso permite separar a crítica social que ainda tenta continuar pensando a modernidade com base nas premissas conceituais da razão ocidental, de uma outra, que por sua própria fadiga proclama sua autodestruição. Entende-se aqui que se despedir da razão e considerar o movimento autônomo da modernidade é fazer surgir um processo que apenas garante a modernização do medo.In the diagnosis of the modernity, uncertainty and insecurity - and therefore the fear - they are present elements. Leaving of that verification, this work has for objective to describe the ambivalent effects of the fear on the contemporary society. In that attempt, the support of several social theories is looked for that, although they don't focus the fear, they show the constant risks of the modernization process in a certain way. On the other hand, that allows to separate the social critic, that it still tries to continue thinking the modernity with base about the conceptual premises of the western reason, of another one, that for your own fatigue proclaims your self-destruction. Understands each other here that to say good-bye of the reason and to consider the autonomous movement of the modernity is to do a process that just guarantees the modernization of the fear to appear.

  17. Fear, opposition, ambivalence, and omission: Results from a follow-up study on unmet need for family planning in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staveteig, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Despite a relatively strong family planning program and regionally modest levels of fertility, Ghana recorded one of the highest levels of unmet need for family planning on the African continent in 2008. Unmet need for family planning is a composite measure based on apparent contradictions between women's reproductive preferences and practices. Women who want to space or limit births but are not using contraception are considered to have an unmet need for family planning. The study sought to understand the reasons behind high levels of unmet need for family planning in Ghana. A mixed methods follow-up study was embedded within the stratified, two-stage cluster sample of the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS). Women in 13 survey clusters who were identified as having unmet need, along with a reference group of current family planning users, were approached to be reinterviewed within an average of three weeks from their GDHS interview. Follow-up respondents were asked a combination of closed- and open-ended questions about fertility preferences and contraceptive use. Closed-ended responses were compared against the original survey; transcripts were thematically coded and analyzed using qualitative analysis software. Among fecund women identified by the 2014 GDHS as having unmet need, follow-up interviews revealed substantial underreporting of method use, particularly traditional methods. Complete postpartum abstinence was sometimes the intended method of family planning but was overlooked during questions about method use. Other respondents classified as having unmet need had ambivalent fertility preferences. In several cases, respondents expressed revised fertility preferences upon follow-up that would have made them ineligible for inclusion in the unmet need category. The reference group of family planning users also expressed unstable fertility preferences. Aversion to modern method use was generally more substantial than reported in the GDHS

  18. Fear, opposition, ambivalence, and omission: Results from a follow-up study on unmet need for family planning in Ghana.

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    Sarah Staveteig

    Full Text Available Despite a relatively strong family planning program and regionally modest levels of fertility, Ghana recorded one of the highest levels of unmet need for family planning on the African continent in 2008. Unmet need for family planning is a composite measure based on apparent contradictions between women's reproductive preferences and practices. Women who want to space or limit births but are not using contraception are considered to have an unmet need for family planning. The study sought to understand the reasons behind high levels of unmet need for family planning in Ghana.A mixed methods follow-up study was embedded within the stratified, two-stage cluster sample of the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS. Women in 13 survey clusters who were identified as having unmet need, along with a reference group of current family planning users, were approached to be reinterviewed within an average of three weeks from their GDHS interview. Follow-up respondents were asked a combination of closed- and open-ended questions about fertility preferences and contraceptive use. Closed-ended responses were compared against the original survey; transcripts were thematically coded and analyzed using qualitative analysis software.Among fecund women identified by the 2014 GDHS as having unmet need, follow-up interviews revealed substantial underreporting of method use, particularly traditional methods. Complete postpartum abstinence was sometimes the intended method of family planning but was overlooked during questions about method use. Other respondents classified as having unmet need had ambivalent fertility preferences. In several cases, respondents expressed revised fertility preferences upon follow-up that would have made them ineligible for inclusion in the unmet need category. The reference group of family planning users also expressed unstable fertility preferences. Aversion to modern method use was generally more substantial than reported in

  19. Fear, opposition, ambivalence, and omission: Results from a follow-up study on unmet need for family planning in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Despite a relatively strong family planning program and regionally modest levels of fertility, Ghana recorded one of the highest levels of unmet need for family planning on the African continent in 2008. Unmet need for family planning is a composite measure based on apparent contradictions between women’s reproductive preferences and practices. Women who want to space or limit births but are not using contraception are considered to have an unmet need for family planning. The study sought to understand the reasons behind high levels of unmet need for family planning in Ghana. Methods A mixed methods follow-up study was embedded within the stratified, two-stage cluster sample of the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS). Women in 13 survey clusters who were identified as having unmet need, along with a reference group of current family planning users, were approached to be reinterviewed within an average of three weeks from their GDHS interview. Follow-up respondents were asked a combination of closed- and open-ended questions about fertility preferences and contraceptive use. Closed-ended responses were compared against the original survey; transcripts were thematically coded and analyzed using qualitative analysis software. Results Among fecund women identified by the 2014 GDHS as having unmet need, follow-up interviews revealed substantial underreporting of method use, particularly traditional methods. Complete postpartum abstinence was sometimes the intended method of family planning but was overlooked during questions about method use. Other respondents classified as having unmet need had ambivalent fertility preferences. In several cases, respondents expressed revised fertility preferences upon follow-up that would have made them ineligible for inclusion in the unmet need category. The reference group of family planning users also expressed unstable fertility preferences. Aversion to modern method use was generally more substantial

  20. Näitamise ambivalentne poeetika: J. G. Ballardi „Crash” / The Ambivalent Poetics of Showing in J. G. Ballard's „Crash“

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    Jaak Tomberg

    2016-01-01

    My article revisits a well-known discussion about morality in J. G. Ballard's ”Crash“ that surrounded the appearance of Jean Baudrillard's essay of the same name in a special section of Science Fiction Studies (Nov 1991. In this debate N. Katherine Hayles and Vivian Sobchack strongly oppose Baudrillard's claim that there ”is no affectivity behind [the world that Crash depicts]: no psychology, no ambivalence or desire, no libido or death drive“ to Ballard's novel, and, accordingly, no moral point or warning either. In contrast, Hayles and Sobchack argue that the novel warns us about the transformative influence of contemporary technology. To shed new light on this opposition (whose sides I briefly introduce, I undertake a thorough analysis of ”Crash's“ main poetic features: the prevalence of showing over telling, the recurrence of accounts over descrip­tions, the thoroughly technical vocabulary, allusions towards transcendence, and the interpretive anxiety created by a first-person narrator that bears the author's name. I map the contrast between Ballard's disinte­rested style of writing and the apparent affective charge of his characters while showing how this contrast generates a deep ambivalence that enables both moral and morally indifferent interpretations of the novel. The reader is never told what to think about the obscene events that occur and this provokes him to make difficult moral decisions about the novel. The ambivalence of ”Crash's“ poetics has the subversive potential to dislocate and reconsider the so far predominantly marginalized role of psychopathology and perversion in contemporary techno-culture.

  1. Facilitators in Ambivalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Mikael R.; Erlandson, Peter

    2018-01-01

    This is part of a larger ethnographical study concerning how school development in a local educational context sets cultural and social life in motion. The main data "in this article" consists of semi-structural interviews with teachers (facilitators) who have the responsibility of carrying out a project about formative assessment in…

  2. Ambivalence in rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jan; Langberg, Henning; Doherty, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Knowledge about the organization and factors of importance to rehabilitation of veterans with lower limb amputation is sparse. The aim of this study was, therefore, to improve understanding of the influences of "military identity" on the organization of rehabilitation services...... and to investigate those factors influential in achieving successful rehabilitation, including interprofessional collaboration between different sectors involved in the rehabilitation of veterans with lower limb amputations. METHODS: We used a qualitative exploratory design, triangulating interviews and participant...... observation. Data were generated using in-depth semi-structured interviews (n = 6) exploring in-hospital and post-hospital rehabilitation in Danish veterans after unilateral lower limb amputation due to trauma. We conducted four sessions of participant observation, during weekly post...

  3. The technical ambivalence

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    Marcos Alonso Fernández

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Technique has been a discussion topic since philosophy´s origins, although not many times has it been approached beyond prejudices and simplistic categories. In the 20th century and in the 21st century we have witnessed a rise in the number of works concerning technology, primarily due to the omnipresence and preeminence of modern technology in our lives. Nonetheless, this works have once again fallen short of creating a true philosophy of technology, remaining as demonizing works (technophobic or as praising works (technophilic. One of the exceptions to this reductionist dinamic is Ortega´s philosophy of technology, a relatively unknown aspect of his thought, has nonetheless a great potential as a way of understanding our technologized present.

  4. Inventário de sexismo ambivalente: sua adaptação e relação com o gênero Ambivalent sexism inventory: its adaptation and correlation with gender

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    Nilton S. Formiga

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi adaptar para o Brasil o Inventário de Sexismo Ambivalente (Glick & Fiske, 1996, assim como conhecer em que medida suas pontuações são diferentes em função do gênero. Este instrumento é constituído por 22 itens, respondidos em escala de cinco pontos, tipo Likert e teoricamente avalia dois fatores: sexismo hostil e sexismo benévolo. A amostra foi composta de 200 graduandos do curso de Psicologia de uma universidade privada, de ambos os sexos. A aplicação deste inventário foi coletiva, nas salas de aula, garantido o anonimato das respostas. Os resultados confirmaram a existência dos dois fatores hipotetizados, e indicaram uma correlação do sexismo com o gênero; especificamente, os homens apresentam maior sexismo hostil, enquanto as mulheres pontuaram mais em relação ao sexismo benévolo. Estes resultados são discutidos à luz da literatura sobre os estereótipos de gênero.This study aimed (1 to adapt the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (Glick & Fiske, 1996 to the Brazilian reality, and (2 to evaluate the variability of its scores in relation to gender. This instrument is composed of 22 items that should be responded to on 5-point Likert-scale; theoretically, it evaluates two factors: hostile sexism and benevolent sexism. Two hundred (male and female Psychology undergraduate students of a private university took part in the sample. The questionnaires were completed collectively during class, and the subjects were assured of the anonymity of their answers. The results confirmed the existence of both hypothesized factors, and indicated a correlation of sexism with gender. Specifically, male score were higher in hostile sexism, while female scores were higher in benevolent sexism. These results are discussed with the stereotype of gender background found in the literature.

  5. Measuring emergency department nurses' attitudes towards deliberate self-harm using the Self-Harm Antipathy Scale.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Conlon, Mary

    2012-01-31

    The emergency department is an important gateway for the treatment of self-harm patients. Nurses\\' attitudes towards patients who self-harm can be negative and often nurses experience frustration, helplessness, ambivalence and antipathy. Patients are often dissatisfied with the care provided, and meeting with positive or negative attitudes greatly influences whether they seek additional help. A quantitative design was utilised to measure emergency department nurses\\' attitudes towards deliberate self-harm. The \\'Self-Harm Antipathy Scale\\

  6. Exploring the ambivalent evidence base of mobile health (mHealth) : A systematic literature review on the use of mobile phones for the improvement of community health in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kruijf, J.G.; Krah, E.F.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Africa is labelled the world's fastest-growing ‘mobile region’. Considering such growth and the fragility of the continent's healthcare, mHealth has flourished. This review explores mHealth for community health in Africa in order to assess its still ambivalent evidence base. Methods Using

  7. Going to the doctor with enhancement in mind – An ethnographic study of university students’ use of prescription stimulants and their moral ambivalence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Margit Anne; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Traulsen, Janine Marie

    2015-01-01

    ) enhancement purposes. Methods: The study is based on ethnographic fieldwork and in-depth interviews with 20 university students from multiple universities in New York City, from which the case is drawn. Findings: Three main themes were identified in the analysis. “The doctor prescribed them” illustrates how...... these students use doctors as easy access to study drugs, and legitimize their use of stimulants because they were prescribed. The second theme, “A good cause”, shows that the purpose is what counts as a measure for whether stimulant use is considered morally acceptable or not. The third theme, “Being......Aims: With this article, we aim to use students’ moral ambivalence towards prescription stimulants and the doctor’s who prescribe them to problematize the distinction between enhancement and treatment. We do this by investigating a case in which students obtain legitimate prescriptions for (covert...

  8. The Potential and Challenges of Digital Well-Being Interventions: Positive Technology Research and Design in Light of the Bitter-Sweet Ambivalence of Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbach, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    Along with the dissemination of technical assistance in nearly every part of life, there has been growing interest in the potential of technology to support well-being and human flourishing. "Positive technology" thereby takes the responsible role of a "digital coach," supporting people in achieving personal goals and behavior change. The design of such technology requires knowledge of different disciplines such as psychology, design and human-computer interaction. However, possible synergies are not yet used to full effect, and it needs common frameworks to support a more deliberate design of the "therapeutic interaction" mediated through technology. For positive technology design, positive psychology, and resource oriented approaches appear as particularly promising starting point. Besides a general fit of the basic theoretical conceptions of human change, many elements of established interventions could possibly be transferred to technology design. However, besides the power of focusing on the positive, another psychological aspect to consider are the bitter components inherent to change, such as the confrontation with a negative status quo, threat of self-esteem, and the effort required. The present research discusses the general potential and challenges within positive technology design from an interdisciplinary perspective with theoretical and practical contributions. Based on the bitter-sweet ambivalence of change as present in many psychological approaches of motivation and behavior change, the bitter-sweet continuum serves as a proxy for the mixed emotions and cognitions related to change. An empirical investigation of those factors among 177 users of self-improvement technologies provides initial support for the usefulness of the bitter-sweet perspective in understanding change dynamics. In a next step, the bitter-sweet concept is transformed into different design strategies to support positive change. The present article aims to deepen the discussion

  9. The Potential and Challenges of Digital Well-Being Interventions: Positive Technology Research and Design in Light of the Bitter-Sweet Ambivalence of Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Diefenbach

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Along with the dissemination of technical assistance in nearly every part of life, there has been growing interest in the potential of technology to support well-being and human flourishing. “Positive technology” thereby takes the responsible role of a “digital coach,” supporting people in achieving personal goals and behavior change. The design of such technology requires knowledge of different disciplines such as psychology, design and human-computer interaction. However, possible synergies are not yet used to full effect, and it needs common frameworks to support a more deliberate design of the “therapeutic interaction” mediated through technology. For positive technology design, positive psychology, and resource oriented approaches appear as particularly promising starting point. Besides a general fit of the basic theoretical conceptions of human change, many elements of established interventions could possibly be transferred to technology design. However, besides the power of focusing on the positive, another psychological aspect to consider are the bitter components inherent to change, such as the confrontation with a negative status quo, threat of self-esteem, and the effort required. The present research discusses the general potential and challenges within positive technology design from an interdisciplinary perspective with theoretical and practical contributions. Based on the bitter-sweet ambivalence of change as present in many psychological approaches of motivation and behavior change, the bitter-sweet continuum serves as a proxy for the mixed emotions and cognitions related to change. An empirical investigation of those factors among 177 users of self-improvement technologies provides initial support for the usefulness of the bitter-sweet perspective in understanding change dynamics. In a next step, the bitter-sweet concept is transformed into different design strategies to support positive change. The present article

  10. The Potential and Challenges of Digital Well-Being Interventions: Positive Technology Research and Design in Light of the Bitter-Sweet Ambivalence of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbach, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    Along with the dissemination of technical assistance in nearly every part of life, there has been growing interest in the potential of technology to support well-being and human flourishing. “Positive technology” thereby takes the responsible role of a “digital coach,” supporting people in achieving personal goals and behavior change. The design of such technology requires knowledge of different disciplines such as psychology, design and human-computer interaction. However, possible synergies are not yet used to full effect, and it needs common frameworks to support a more deliberate design of the “therapeutic interaction” mediated through technology. For positive technology design, positive psychology, and resource oriented approaches appear as particularly promising starting point. Besides a general fit of the basic theoretical conceptions of human change, many elements of established interventions could possibly be transferred to technology design. However, besides the power of focusing on the positive, another psychological aspect to consider are the bitter components inherent to change, such as the confrontation with a negative status quo, threat of self-esteem, and the effort required. The present research discusses the general potential and challenges within positive technology design from an interdisciplinary perspective with theoretical and practical contributions. Based on the bitter-sweet ambivalence of change as present in many psychological approaches of motivation and behavior change, the bitter-sweet continuum serves as a proxy for the mixed emotions and cognitions related to change. An empirical investigation of those factors among 177 users of self-improvement technologies provides initial support for the usefulness of the bitter-sweet perspective in understanding change dynamics. In a next step, the bitter-sweet concept is transformed into different design strategies to support positive change. The present article aims to deepen the

  11. Effects of stigma-reducing conditions on intention to seek psychological help among Korean college students with anxious-ambivalent attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Suk Kyung; Choi, Seong In; Lee, Sang Min

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to examine whether stigma-reducing conditions (i.e., random assignment of participants to hypothetical scenarios with varying levels of stigma) effectively increase intention to seek help for Korean college students with anxious-ambivalent attachment style, depending on previous counseling experience. Three hundred thirty Korean college students participated and were randomly assigned to either a low or a high stigma-reducing manipulative condition group. Each group was provided with three possible strategies to reduce stigma: the location of a counseling center, contact with a mental health patient, and the media portrayal of mental illness. In the high-stigma group, the strategies were described in a way that was highly stigmatizing. In the other group, the 3 strategies were created in a way that was not as stigmatizing. In order to examine the effect of stigma-reducing scenarios through the conditions, participants were also instructed to remember a previous or current stressful situation before responding to the questionnaire. The results of multivariate analysis of variance showed a 3-way interaction effect (i.e., level of stigma based on stigma manipulative condition, level of attachment anxiety, and previous counseling experience) on the intentions score when the "contact" and the "media" strategies were applied. The results indicated that individuals who have a higher level of attachment anxiety and a previous experience of counseling were more sensitive to the stigma-reducing manipulative condition. These results highlight the importance of the "contact" and "media" strategies in reducing stigma of seeking counseling for mental health services. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Ambivalência, gênero e modernidade capitalista: a França na era da flexibilidade Ambivalence, gender and capitalist modernity: France in an era of flexibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Berrebi-Hoffman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Tanto a situação na França quanto os quadros de referência teóricos usados para analisar a flexibilidade evoluíram consideravelmente nos últimos vinte anos. Nosso artigo pretende descrever essa transformação e defender uma tese específica. O mundo moderno pós-Ford apresenta dois novos aspectos quando comparado ao que fora descrito na análise funcionalista tradicional: por um lado, as tensões inerentes à natureza ambivalente da flexibilidade são vistas hoje como questões mais pessoais; por outro, a ambivalência não é mais encarada como puramente disfuncional, mas tem um aspecto positivo. À luz desse novo quadro de referência, apresentaremos inicialmente o cenário dos vários debates sobre flexibilidade na França, e mostraremos, em seguida, as relações entre flexibilidade e ambivalência sociológica, antes de apresentarmos os dados empíricos que sustentam nossa tese.Both the situation of employment in France and the frameworks used to analyse flexibility have evolved considerably over the last twenty years. The paper aims to describe this transformation and defend a particular thesis. Our post-Ford modern world has two new aspects when compared with the traditional functionalist analysis: on the one hand, the tensions inherent in the ambivalent nature of flexibility are today seen as more personal issues, and on the other, ambivalence is no longer seen as purely dysfunctional, but to have a possible positive aspect. Given this new framework, the paper first presents the background to the various debates on flexibility in France, and then shows the links between flexibility and sociological ambivalence before presenting empirical data in support of the thesis.

  13. Is Hinduism ambivalent about suicide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Lakshmi; John, Sujit

    2018-05-01

    Hinduism is one of the oldest religions in the world and has over 1.1 billion adherents comprising about 16% of the global population living mainly in India and Nepal. The stand of Hinduism on suicide has been ambiguous through the ages, on one hand, condemning general suicides, while condoning religious suicides on the other. This ambiguity is reflected in contemporary India and among the Indian diaspora. To examine the stand of Hinduism as a religion in the context of suicide. A selected review of literature covering the major Hindu religious texts, cultural practices and suicide. People who follow Hinduism have a suicide rate of about 21 per 100,000 population compared to the global average of 11.4. Hindu countries have higher rates of suicide compared to Islamic and Christian countries, but these rates are lower when compared to Atheist and Buddhist countries. This is reflected in the Indian diaspora as well with reports from Fiji, the Caribbean, Malaysia and the United Kingdom, indicating that suicide was disproportionately high among those of Indian origin. However, a strong faith in Hinduism acts as protective factor. The Hindu belief in karma fosters a sense of acceptance of the vicissitudes of life with equanimity, and the belief in the cycle of births and deaths renders suicide meaningless, as one's soul continues after death. Their religious beliefs makes the Hindus tolerate and accept hardships and calamities stoically. In certain situations, the Hindu religion acts as a protective factor, whereas at other times, it may increase the risk of suicide. It is important to understand these different nuances in the Hindu religion in formulating a culturally appropriate suicide prevention strategy.

  14. Fictions of Ambivalence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    unconscious of suppressed guilt and anxiety, or it can be dealt with as a general way of delivering social critique through fiction. Nevertheless, the order of society and the democratic scenery is, in the narrative, muddled by religious problems with Christian roots. Correspondingly, this paper reflects upon...

  15. Women's Ambivalent Affair with Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Linda M. C.

    1986-01-01

    Conceptually defining power and identifying the personal traits required for its exercise, this article provides a review of recent research on the sex-role socialization and personality characteristics of United States women. Concludes that as women gain more political power, issues such as sex discrimination, reproductive control, and child care…

  16. Ambivalência em mulheres submetidas a laqueadura tubária Ambivalencia en mujeres sometidas a ligación de trompas Ambivalence in women submitted to tubal ligation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleice Adriana Araújo Gonçalves

    2008-12-01

    significativo de mujeres que tanto había motivo de satisfacción como de arrependimiento en relación a la ligadura de trompas (mujeres ambivalentes. Los resultados permitieron el entendimiento de que la ambivalencia con respecto a la ligadura de trompas es un fenómeno que, sujeto a múltiples determinaciones, implica una gran parte de la subjetividad de la mujer, lo que hace compleja su interpretación.Exploratory research, which used the database of a research involving women undergoing tubal ligation, to determine, more accurately, the frequency of ambivalent women and analyze the statistical distribution of these women according to the selected research and how they had originally classified themselves in regard to the procedure (totally or moderately satisfied, ambivalent, totally or moderately regretful. The assumption of the study was that, making up a more accurate assessment of the answers to several of the issues that were asked to them, the number of ambivalent women could be higher than previously disclosed. This assumption was confirmed, being noted a significant increase of women who both had reasons for satisfaction as to regret in relation to tubal ligation (ambivalent women. The results allowed the understanding that the ambivalence regarding tubal ligation is a phenomenon that, subject to multiple determinations, involves a very large portion of the subjectivity of women, making its interpretation a very complex one.

  17. Estereótipos de gênero e sexismo ambivalente em adolescentes masculinos de 12 a 16 anos Ambivalent sexism and gender stereotyping in male adolescents aged 12 to 16 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Mesquita Filho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A discriminação e a violência contra o gênero feminino associam-se a representações distorcidas da mulher. Este trabalho tem o objetivo de mensurar a existência de preconceitos nas manifestações dos estereótipos de gênero e sexismo ambivalente, em adolescentes masculinos de 12 a 16 anos. Em um estudo transversal, aplicaram-se três questionários (sociodemográfico, Gender stereotyping, Inventário do Sexismo Ambivalente a 787 estudantes de 11 escolas públicas. Nos resultados, detectou-se a presença de estereótipos de gênero. Houve diferença significante entre alunos de escolas estaduais e municipais e também nos alunos que estudavam em bairros de poder aquisitivo elevado em relação aos demais. O sexismo, também presente, apresentou-se significantemente mais benévolo que hostil. O escore para o componente benévolo variou conforme a escola cursada. O hostil não foi influenciado pelas variáveis estudadas. Os achados corroboram a existência de estereótipos de gênero e sexismo ambivalente nos adolescentes masculinos e a necessidade de desenvolvimento de ações e políticas para sua erradicação.Discrimination and violence against the female gender are associated with distorted representation of women. This paper aims at measuring the existence of prejudice in the manifestations of ambivalent sexism and gender stereotypes in male adolescents aged 12 to 16 years. Three questionnaires (socio-demographic, Gender stereotyping, Ambivalent Sexism Inventory were applied to 787 students of 11 public schools in a cross-sectional study. The results pointed out to the presence of gender stereotypes. There was a significant difference between students of state and city schools and also between those who studied in neighborhoods presenting a higher economic status in comparison to the others. Sexism presented itself significantly more benevolent than hostile. The score to the benevolent component varied according to the attended

  18. Scale Pretesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Matt C.

    2018-01-01

    Scale pretests analyze the suitability of individual scale items for further analysis, whether through judging their face validity, wording concerns, and/or other aspects. The current article reviews scale pretests, separated by qualitative and quantitative methods, in order to identify the differences, similarities, and even existence of the…

  19. Maslowian Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, C.; And Others

    The development of the Maslowian Scale, a method of revealing a picture of one's needs and concerns based on Abraham Maslow's levels of self-actualization, is described. This paper also explains how the scale is supported by the theories of L. Kohlberg, C. Rogers, and T. Rusk. After a literature search, a list of statements was generated…

  20. Framing scales and scaling frames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lieshout, M.; Dewulf, A.; Aarts, N.; Termeer, K.

    2009-01-01

    Policy problems are not just out there. Actors highlight different aspects of a situation as problematic and situate the problem on different scales. In this study we will analyse the way actors apply scales in their talk (or texts) to frame the complex decision-making process of the establishment

  1. Scaling down

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald L Breiger

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available While “scaling up” is a lively topic in network science and Big Data analysis today, my purpose in this essay is to articulate an alternative problem, that of “scaling down,” which I believe will also require increased attention in coming years. “Scaling down” is the problem of how macro-level features of Big Data affect, shape, and evoke lower-level features and processes. I identify four aspects of this problem: the extent to which findings from studies of Facebook and other Big-Data platforms apply to human behavior at the scale of church suppers and department politics where we spend much of our lives; the extent to which the mathematics of scaling might be consistent with behavioral principles, moving beyond a “universal” theory of networks to the study of variation within and between networks; and how a large social field, including its history and culture, shapes the typical representations, interactions, and strategies at local levels in a text or social network.

  2. [Psychometric properties of the Activities Daily Life Scale (ADL)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, L; Murcia, A; Belzeaux, R; Loundou, A; Azorin, J-M; Chabannes, J-M; Dassa, D; Naudin, J; Samuelian, J-C; Lancon, C

    2010-10-01

    Deficits in social functioning are an important core feature of mental health. Recently in France, the Activities Daily Life (ADL) scale has been proposed by the French authorities to assess social functioning for all hospitalized patients in a psychiatric ward. The perspective is to use this scale in the financing and organization of mental health services in France. The ADL scale is a 6-item (dressing/undressing, walking/mobility, eating/drinking, using toilets, behaviour, relationships/communication) heteroquestionnaire completed by a health care professional at the beginning of each hospitalization, assessing functioning of patients suffering from mental health diseases. However, limited consensus exists on this scale. The psychometric properties of the ADL scale have not been assessed. There is a pressing need for detailed examination of its performance. The aim of this study was to explore ADL psychometric properties in a sample of hospitalized patients in a psychiatric ward. We retrospectively analyzed data for all episodes of care delivered to hospitalized patients in a psychiatric ward in our French Public Hospital from January 1, 2008 to June 30, 2008. The study involved retrospective review of administrative and medical databases. The following data were collected: age, gender, diagnoses based on the International Classification of Diseases - 10th version, ADL scale and Assessment of Social Self-Sufficiency scale (ASSS). The psychometric properties were examined using construct validity, reliability, external validity, reproducibility and sensitivity to change. Data analysis was performed using SPSS 15.0 and WINSTEP software. A total of 1066 patients completed the ADL scale. Among them, 49.7% were male, mean age was 36.5 ± 10.8, and 83.5% were single. Schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders (40.0%), mood disorders (27.9%) and mental and behavioural disorders due to psychoactive substance use (12%) were the most common diagnoses. Factor

  3. KNO scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golokhvastov, A.I.; )

    2001-01-01

    A correct version of the KNO scaling of multiplicity distributions is discussed in detail. Some assertions on KNO-scaling violation based on the misinterpretation of experimental data behavior are analyzed. An accurate comparison with experiment is presented for the distributions of negative particles in e + e - annihilation at √S = 3 - 161 GeV, in inelastic pp interactions at √S = 2.4 - 62 GeV and in nucleus-nucleus interactions at p lab = 4.5 - 520 GeV/c per nucleon. The p-bar p data at √S 546 GeV are considered [ru

  4. Scaling satan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, K M; Huff, J L

    2001-05-01

    The influence on social behavior of beliefs in Satan and the nature of evil has received little empirical study. Elaine Pagels (1995) in her book, The Origin of Satan, argued that Christians' intolerance toward others is due to their belief in an active Satan. In this study, more than 200 college undergraduates completed the Manitoba Prejudice Scale and the Attitudes Toward Homosexuals Scale (B. Altemeyer, 1988), as well as the Belief in an Active Satan Scale, developed by the authors. The Belief in an Active Satan Scale demonstrated good internal consistency and temporal stability. Correlational analyses revealed that for the female participants, belief in an active Satan was directly related to intolerance toward lesbians and gay men and intolerance toward ethnic minorities. For the male participants, belief in an active Satan was directly related to intolerance toward lesbians and gay men but was not significantly related to intolerance toward ethnic minorities. Results of this research showed that it is possible to meaningfully measure belief in an active Satan and that such beliefs may encourage intolerance toward others.

  5. Nuclear scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friar, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear scales are discussed from the nuclear physics viewpoint. The conventional nuclear potential is characterized as a black box that interpolates nucleon-nucleon (NN) data, while being constrained by the best possible theoretical input. The latter consists of the longer-range parts of the NN force (e.g., OPEP, TPEP, the π-γ force), which can be calculated using chiral perturbation theory and gauged using modern phase-shift analyses. The shorter-range parts of the force are effectively parameterized by moments of the interaction that are independent of the details of the force model, in analogy to chiral perturbation theory. Results of GFMC calculations in light nuclei are interpreted in terms of fundamental scales, which are in good agreement with expectations from chiral effective field theories. Problems with spin-orbit-type observables are noted

  6. Nuclear scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friar, J.L.

    1998-12-01

    Nuclear scales are discussed from the nuclear physics viewpoint. The conventional nuclear potential is characterized as a black box that interpolates nucleon-nucleon (NN) data, while being constrained by the best possible theoretical input. The latter consists of the longer-range parts of the NN force (e.g., OPEP, TPEP, the {pi}-{gamma} force), which can be calculated using chiral perturbation theory and gauged using modern phase-shift analyses. The shorter-range parts of the force are effectively parameterized by moments of the interaction that are independent of the details of the force model, in analogy to chiral perturbation theory. Results of GFMC calculations in light nuclei are interpreted in terms of fundamental scales, which are in good agreement with expectations from chiral effective field theories. Problems with spin-orbit-type observables are noted.

  7. Nicholas Urfe’s Masculine Trap or the Construction of Manhood, its Ambivalences and Limitations in John Fowles’s The Magus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Strout

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Western society and its fi ction faces the overwhelming problem of masculinity and its modeling. The era of war, capitalism, the challenges of feminism aff ect the ideology within which men are constructed both as individuals and as a social group. John Fowles’s fi ction tackles the crucial issue of male power and control as masculinity is put to test and trial in his 1965 novel The Magus. The defi nition of manhood, male virility and social respectability of the period shape the 20th century male characters in Fowles’s fiction. This paper aims to explore how John Fowles investigates the role of masculinity and power myths on the personal level of relationship and a wider scale of war and capitalism in The Magus. Notions of masculinity off er the protagonist, Nicholas Urfe, a sense of a superiority and power over women in the course of the novel. Among the goals of the project is to examine the mythical journey of Nicholas, which becomes a testing ground of his masculinity and maturity, as well his trial and ‘disintoxication,’ which is intended to help him to reevaluate his life and his relationships with women. One of the issues posed is whether Nicholas Urfe is reborn as a new man at the end of his search for redemption or if he remains the same egotistic, ‘lone wolf’ as he appears in the beginning of the novel.

  8. Molecular scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher H. Childers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript demonstrates the molecular scale cure rate dependence of di-functional epoxide based thermoset polymers cured with amines. A series of cure heating ramp rates were used to determine the influence of ramp rate on the glass transition temperature (Tg and sub-Tg transitions and the average free volume hole size in these systems. The networks were comprised of 3,3′-diaminodiphenyl sulfone (33DDS and diglycidyl ether of bisphenol F (DGEBF and were cured at ramp rates ranging from 0.5 to 20 °C/min. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and NIR spectroscopy were used to explore the cure ramp rate dependence of the polymer network growth, whereas broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS and free volume hole size measurements were used to interrogate networks’ molecular level structural variations upon curing at variable heating ramp rates. It was found that although the Tg of the polymer matrices was similar, the NIR and DSC measurements revealed a strong correlation for how these networks grow in relation to the cure heating ramp rate. The free volume analysis and BDS results for the cured samples suggest differences in the molecular architecture of the matrix polymers due to cure heating rate dependence.

  9. On “Hearing” Voices and “Seeing” Things: Probing Hallucination Predisposition in a Portuguese Nonclinical Sample with the Launay-Slade Hallucination Scale-Revised

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Castiajo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The experience of hallucinations is a hallmark of psychotic disorders, but they are also present in other psychiatric and medical conditions, and may be reported in nonclinical individuals. Despite the increased number of studies probing the incidence of nonclinical hallucinations, the underlying phenomenological characteristics are still poorly understood. This study aimed to examine the psychometrics proprieties of the Portuguese adaptation of the 16-item Launay-Slade Hallucinations Scale (LSHS, the phenomenological characteristics of nonclinical hallucinatory experiences in a Portuguese sample, and the relationship between clinical symptoms and hallucination predisposition. Three-hundred-and-fifty-four European Portuguese college students completed the LSHS. Of those, 16 participants with high LSHS scores and 14 with low LSHS scores were further screened for clinical symptoms. A three-factor solution for the LSHS Portuguese version proved to be the most adequate. Intrusive or vivid thoughts and sleep-related hallucinations were the most common. Although, fundamentally perceived as positive experiences, all types of hallucinations were described as uncontrollable and dominating. However, the more pleasant they were perceived, the more controllable they were assessed. In addition, hallucination predisposition was associated with increased clinical symptoms. These results corroborate the lower severity of hallucinations in the general population compared to psychotic individuals. Further, they support an association between clinical symptoms and increased vulnerability to hallucinations. Specifically, increased schizotypal tendencies and negative mood (anxiety and depression may be related to increased psychotic risk.

  10. Les ambivalences des 35 heures dans un organisme de sécurité sociale ou l’utopie du temps choisi The dynamics of selected time: what personal «temporal equivalences»?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel Jacquot

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available L’objectif principal de cet article est de voir si la réduction du temps de travail permet de prendre en compte les désirs des salariés dans l’organisation de leur temps de travail et, le cas échéant, de quelle manière et dans quelle mesure. Pour interroger la dynamique du temps choisi impulsée par les 35 heures, deux dimensions du temps de travail sont examinées : son contenant, à savoir les aspects externes, morphologiques ou géométriques tels que la durée et l’horaire de travail ; et son contenu, à savoir les aspects internes ou constitutifs se rapportant à la mise en œuvre de la force de travail. L’étude réalisée dans une caisse régionale d’assurance maladie montre une construction ambivalente du temps choisi : si les salariés ont gagné du pouvoir quant à la détermination de la durée de leur travail et la manière de l’aménager, ils n’ont plus la maîtrise du (temps de travail lui-même, à savoir l’organisation et le contenu de l’activité professionnelle.The main objective of this article is to see if shorter working time takes into account the wishes of salaried workers when setting up their schedules and if so, how and to what extent. To explore the dynamics of selected time as promoted by the 35-hour week, we examine two dimensions : the container of working time, i.e. its external, morphological or geometric aspects such as duration and schedule ; and its contents, i.e. the internal or structural aspects which concern the implementation of the workforce. The study was carried out in a local branch of the French public healthcare system and reveals that workers are ambivalent about selected time : though they gain some power in deciding how long they will work and how to manage their schedule, they have lost control over their actual working time, i.e. over the organization and content of their professional activity.

  11. Ambivalence in Jean Toomer's Cane | Ngwoke | AFRREV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRREV LALIGENS: An International Journal of Language, Literature and Gender Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 2 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  12. Poetic and Francis Bacon's Ambivalence toward Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribble, Paula Tompkins

    Just as rhetoric is a way of knowing, so is poetic, both of which, for Francis Bacon, produce false knowledge. But Bacon is not entirely negative. When the poetic elements of language are used in strategic and public communication, like the scholarly communication Bacon attempts to reform, poetic and rhetoric work together to create a plurality of…

  13. Professionalism's facets: ambiguity, ambivalence, and nostalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erde, Edmund L

    2008-02-01

    Medical educators invoke professionalism as a core competency in curricula. This paper criticizes classic definitions. It also identifies some negative traits of medicine as a profession. The call to professionalism is naive nostalgia. Straightforward didactics in professionalism cannot do the desired work in medical education. The most we can say is that students should adopt the good aspects of professionalism and the profession should stop being some of what it has been. This is a platitude. If the notion is to be more than shallow, each student and practitioner will have to engage in much dialogue, reflection and refinement over many years.

  14. Corporeal ambivalence: Eraserhead as double allegory

    OpenAIRE

    Chinita, Fátima

    2016-01-01

    Considering the film Eraserhead (David Lynch, 1977) an ode to the body in both its outward and inward manifestations, this article compares the body as it is represented in the film, through the physical and psychical depiction of characters, with the cinematic medium and its conventions. The article presents Eraserhead as having three levels of meaning, all of them connected to the corporeal: one literal and two figurative. These latter two are clearly allegorical and, ultimately, one of the...

  15. The ambivalent mentality of a lilliput nation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasson, Charlotte; Lauring, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    the overwhelming forces of globalization. The dual forces of social concern and global outlook could be argued to impose a paradox of globalization and localization on ways of thinking and acting in Denmark. In this chapter we analyse how this specific paradox affects Danish international workers’ abilities...

  16. Heroin: From Drug to Ambivalent Medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Birgitte Schepelern; Johansen, Katrine Schepelern

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an anthropological analysis of the introduction of medically prescribed heroin as part of official substance abuse treatment. While anthropological inquiries of substance abuse treatment have mainly focused on providing the users perspectives on the (ab)use or unraveling...... the conflicts and negotiations between users and staff, the present article argues for the merits of paying attention to the spatial dimensions of substance abuse treatment. Focusing on the spatial and material ramification of the treatment can shed a nuanced light on the still vulnerable process of altering...... the heroin from drug to medicine, and thereby on the attempts to settle heroin in a new practical and semantic landscape. The heroin is anchored in some powerful discourses of crime, death, and pleasure, and the analysis shows how these discourses (re-)appear in the spatial textures of the clinic, contesting...

  17. Japan's Ambivalent Diplomacy on Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajon, C.

    2010-01-01

    Japan often pictures itself as an environmental leader. While many examples of Japan's actions against climate change are in line with global climate change norms, others can be in opposition to them. This study, based on first hand interviews with Japanese policy makers and actors from the private and civil society sector, gives an informed perspective on the process through which Japan came to integrate and implement, at the domestic level, the international objective of climate change prevention, pointing out the discrepancies, tensions or synergies that emerged. As the current governance on climate change, and particularly after the Copenhagen conference, tends to reassert the importance of the national level against the global one, the Japanese case can serve as an example of tools and strategies that fully integrate the domestic level

  18. Ambivalent Sexism and Religion: Connected Through Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikołajczak, Małgorzata; Pietrzak, Janina

    2014-01-01

    Sexist attitudes do not exist in a limbo; they are embedded in larger belief systems associated with specific hierarchies of values. In particular, manifestations of benevolent sexism (Glick and Fiske 1996, 1997, 2001) can be perceived as a social boon, not a social ill, both because they are experienced as positive, and because they reward behaviors that maintain social stability. One of the strongest social institutions that create and justify specific hierarchies of values is religion. In this paper, we examine how the values inherent in religious beliefs (perhaps inadvertently) propagate an unequal status quo between men and women through endorsement of ideologies linked to benevolent sexism. In a survey with a convenience sample of train passengers in Southern and Eastern Poland ( N  = 180), we investigated the relationship between Catholic religiosity and sexist attitudes. In line with previous findings (Gaunt 2012; Glick et al. 2002a; Taşdemir and Sakallı-Uğurlu 2010), results suggest that religiosity can be linked to endorsement of benevolent sexism. This relationship was mediated in our study by the values of conservatism and openness to change (Schwartz 1992): religious individuals appear to value the societal status quo, tradition, and conformity, which leads them to perceive women through the lens of traditional social roles. Adhering to the teachings of a religion that promotes family values in general seems to have as its byproduct an espousal of prejudicial attitudes toward specific members of the family.

  19. The Ambivalent Ontology of Digital Artifacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallinikos, Jannis; Aaltonen, Aleksi; Marton, Attila

    2013-01-01

    are illustrated with reference to (1) provenance and authenticity of digital documents within the overall context of archiving and social memory and (2) the content dynamics occasioned by the findability of content mediated by Internet search engines. We conclude that the steady change and transfiguration...

  20. Hospitality and its Ambivalences : On Zygmunt Bauman

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welten, R.B.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Hospitality is often understood as an ethical openness towards the other. Hospitality, in this way, is a gift. But is this really the situation of hospitality in the world today? Europeans have created another, bespoke hospitality and they insist on being given a generous welcome all over the world

  1. Bipolarity and Ambivalence in Landscape Architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koh, J.

    2010-01-01

    Our discipline of landscape architecture contains bipolarity, not only in terms of landscape and architecture but also because the idea of landscape is both aesthetic and scientific. Furthermore, within landscape architecture there is a gap between design (as implied by architecture) and planning

  2. Hillary Chute's Ambivalent Idiom of Witness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Pylyser

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Hillary L. Chute, Graphic Women: Life Narrative and Contemporary Comics.

    New York: Columbia UP, 2010

    Paper, 316 pages, ISBN: 978-0-231-15063-7

  3. Ambivalence toward Black English: Some Tentative Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Hanni

    1991-01-01

    Describes the writing problems of a poor, black, urban student who wants to succeed in college but doesn't know how. Asserts that language use, particularly the use of Black English, plays a major role in their lack of academic success. Offers drills and strategies to help with this problem. (PRA)

  4. Mercantilização, proteção social e emancipação: as ambivalências do feminismo na crise do capitalismo Marketization, social protection and emancipation: ambivalences of feminism in the capitalist crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Fraser

    2011-12-01

    broader view on the analysis of the conflict between Marketization and social protection. It includes in the analysis a third dimension, the emancipation. The inclusion of this third element transforms the historical process in a three dimensional conflict and forms the heart of a quasi-polanyian perspective that is able to explain the crisis of the XXI century. This text develops this new perspective and uses it to analyze the bets in the emancipation of the gender hierarchy. The triple movement, thus constituted, can overcome the ambivalence of feminism, as the feminist agenda was often manipulated by neoliberalism. The redefinition of social protection in democratic, participatory, non-hierarchic and non-oppressive terms, opens the possibility to a new feminist politics.

  5. Scale Attitude toward Indebtedness: factorial validity and attitudinal profiles in Chilean university students [Escala de Actitudes hacia el Endeudamiento: validez factorial y perfiles actitudinales en estudiantes universitarios chilenos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianela Denegri Coria

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The number of university students who present an early indebtedness has increased in the last years, which represents a potential risk for his financial stability. This study examined validity factorial of the Scale of Attitudes toward the Indebtedness (Denegri et al., 1999 and determines the existence of profile attitudinal typology towards the indebtedness in a sample of 984 university Chilean students with ages between 18 and 25 years. The results indicate the presence of two independent factors named Hedonism and Aus- terity, from which four profiles of attitudes decided towards the indebtedness named: austere, diffuse, hedonistic and ambivalent those who might be to the base of his behaviors of acceptance or rejection of the indebtedness.

  6. Psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Resilience Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilemann, MarySue V; Lee, Kathryn; Kury, Felix Salvador

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to test the reliability and validity of a Spanish translation of the Resilience Scale (RS), which was originally created in English by Wagnild and Young (1993). A team of bilingual, bicultural translators participated in the translation process to enhance the linguistic accuracy and cultural appropriateness of the Spanish translation. As part of the convenience sample of 315 women of Mexican descent who participated in the larger study, data from 147 women who preferred to read and write in Spanish were used in this analysis. The English version of the RS consists of a 17-item "Personal Competence" subscale and an 8-item "Acceptance of Self and Life" subscale for a total of 25 items. However, two items had low item-total loadings and were removed to form a modified 23-item RS. The exploratory principal components factor analysis, varimax rotation, and subsequent goodness of fit indices were ambivalent on whether a one or two-factor solution was appropriate, but the chi-square difference test clearly demonstrated that the two-factor solution of the Spanish version was more useful in explaining variance than a one-factor solution. Internal consistency reliability was estimated with Cronbach's alpha (alpha = 0.93) which was acceptable for the 23-item RS as well as its subscales. Construct validity was demonstrated by a significant positive correlation between resilience and life satisfaction (r = 0.36; p resilience and depressive symptoms (r = -0.29; p urban, low-income women of Mexican descent in the U.S.

  7. Scaling of Metabolic Scaling within Physical Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas S. Glazier

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Both the slope and elevation of scaling relationships between log metabolic rate and log body size vary taxonomically and in relation to physiological or developmental state, ecological lifestyle and environmental conditions. Here I discuss how the recently proposed metabolic-level boundaries hypothesis (MLBH provides a useful conceptual framework for explaining and predicting much, but not all of this variation. This hypothesis is based on three major assumptions: (1 various processes related to body volume and surface area exert state-dependent effects on the scaling slope for metabolic rate in relation to body mass; (2 the elevation and slope of metabolic scaling relationships are linked; and (3 both intrinsic (anatomical, biochemical and physiological and extrinsic (ecological factors can affect metabolic scaling. According to the MLBH, the diversity of metabolic scaling relationships occurs within physical boundary limits related to body volume and surface area. Within these limits, specific metabolic scaling slopes can be predicted from the metabolic level (or scaling elevation of a species or group of species. In essence, metabolic scaling itself scales with metabolic level, which is in turn contingent on various intrinsic and extrinsic conditions operating in physiological or evolutionary time. The MLBH represents a “meta-mechanism” or collection of multiple, specific mechanisms that have contingent, state-dependent effects. As such, the MLBH is Darwinian in approach (the theory of natural selection is also meta-mechanistic, in contrast to currently influential metabolic scaling theory that is Newtonian in approach (i.e., based on unitary deterministic laws. Furthermore, the MLBH can be viewed as part of a more general theory that includes other mechanisms that may also affect metabolic scaling.

  8. Flux scaling: Ultimate regime

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Flux scaling: Ultimate regime. With the Nusselt number and the mixing length scales, we get the Nusselt number and Reynolds number (w'd/ν) scalings: and or. and. scaling expected to occur at extremely high Ra Rayleigh-Benard convection. Get the ultimate regime ...

  9. To scale or not to scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Morten Bo Søndergaard; Christensen, Emil Aputsiaq Flindt; Steffensen, John Fleng

    2017-01-01

    Conventionally, dynamic energy budget (DEB) models operate with animals that have maintenance rates scaling with their body volume, and assimilation rates scaling with body surface area. However, when applying such criteria for the individual in a population level model, the emergent behaviour...

  10. Virtuoses ambivalents Ambivalent virtuososForms of skills among evangelical magicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Jones

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cet article compare les approches divergentes de deux catégories de prestidigitateurs : des artistes de variété qui se servent de l’illusionnisme pour divertir et des apôtres du christianisme qui se servent de l’illusion pour évangéliser. Au lieu de présenter leurs illusions comme une démonstration d’adresse, ces gospel magicians (prestidigitateurs évangéliques s’en servent de manière figurée pour imager des histoires et des leçons qui véhiculent un message chrétien. Niant avec insistance des pouvoirs surnaturels et évitant scrupuleusement les effets qui ressemblent à des miracles bibliques, ils prennent soin de présenter leurs tours comme des spectacles habiles sans ambiguïté ayant pour but de divertir, de galvaniser et d’instruire. Comme leurs homologues séculiers, les magiciens évangéliques proposent des tours empreints de virtuosité. Mais tandis que les magiciens séculiers célèbrent la virtuosité comme élément central de la magie, les magiciens évangéliques minimisent son rôle.This article compares the approaches of two different classes of magicians: entertainers who use illusion to entertain and apostles of Christianity who use illusion to evangelize. Instead of presenting their illusions as a demonstration of skill, these gospel magicians use them as a way of imaging figuratively the stories and lessons that carry a Christian message. Emphatically denying supernatural powers and scrupulously avoiding any effects that resemble biblical miracles, they take care to present their performances as clever tricks clearly designed to entertain, educate and galvanize. Like their secular counterparts, gospel magicians propose tricks full of virtuosity. But while secular magicians celebrate virtuosity as a central element of magic, gospel magicians minimize its role.

  11. Lessons from a large-scale assessment: Results from conceptual inventories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Thacker

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We report conceptual inventory results of a large-scale assessment project at a large university. We studied the introduction of materials and instructional methods informed by physics education research (PER (physics education research-informed materials into a department where most instruction has previously been traditional and a significant number of faculty are hesitant, ambivalent, or even resistant to the introduction of such reforms. Data were collected in all of the sections of both the large algebra- and calculus-based introductory courses for a number of years employing commonly used conceptual inventories. Results from a small PER-informed, inquiry-based, laboratory-based class are also reported. Results suggest that when PER-informed materials are introduced in the labs and recitations, independent of the lecture style, there is an increase in students’ conceptual inventory gains. There is also an increase in the results on conceptual inventories if PER-informed instruction is used in the lecture. The highest conceptual inventory gains were achieved by the combination of PER-informed lectures and laboratories in large class settings and by the hands-on, laboratory-based, inquiry-based course taught in a small class setting.

  12. Atlantic Salmon Scale Measurements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scales are collected annually from smolt trapping operations in Maine as wellas other sampling opportunities (e.g. marine surveys, fishery sampling etc.). Scale...

  13. Concepts of scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Padt, F.J.G.; Arts, B.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides some clarity to the scale debate. It bridges a variety of approaches, definitions and jargons used in various disciplines in order to provide common ground for a concept of scale as a basis for scale-sensitive governance of the environment. The chapter introduces the concept of

  14. Optimal renormalization scales and commensurate scale relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.; Lu, H.J.

    1996-01-01

    Commensurate scale relations relate observables to observables and thus are independent of theoretical conventions, such as the choice of intermediate renormalization scheme. The physical quantities are related at commensurate scales which satisfy a transitivity rule which ensures that predictions are independent of the choice of an intermediate renormalization scheme. QCD can thus be tested in a new and precise way by checking that the observables track both in their relative normalization and in their commensurate scale dependence. For example, the radiative corrections to the Bjorken sum rule at a given momentum transfer Q can be predicted from measurements of the e+e - annihilation cross section at a corresponding commensurate energy scale √s ∝ Q, thus generalizing Crewther's relation to non-conformal QCD. The coefficients that appear in this perturbative expansion take the form of a simple geometric series and thus have no renormalon divergent behavior. The authors also discuss scale-fixed relations between the threshold corrections to the heavy quark production cross section in e+e - annihilation and the heavy quark coupling α V which is measurable in lattice gauge theory

  15. Large scale electrolysers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B Bello; M Junker

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen production by water electrolysis represents nearly 4 % of the world hydrogen production. Future development of hydrogen vehicles will require large quantities of hydrogen. Installation of large scale hydrogen production plants will be needed. In this context, development of low cost large scale electrolysers that could use 'clean power' seems necessary. ALPHEA HYDROGEN, an European network and center of expertise on hydrogen and fuel cells, has performed for its members a study in 2005 to evaluate the potential of large scale electrolysers to produce hydrogen in the future. The different electrolysis technologies were compared. Then, a state of art of the electrolysis modules currently available was made. A review of the large scale electrolysis plants that have been installed in the world was also realized. The main projects related to large scale electrolysis were also listed. Economy of large scale electrolysers has been discussed. The influence of energy prices on the hydrogen production cost by large scale electrolysis was evaluated. (authors)

  16. Scaling of differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Langtangen, Hans Petter

    2016-01-01

    The book serves both as a reference for various scaled models with corresponding dimensionless numbers, and as a resource for learning the art of scaling. A special feature of the book is the emphasis on how to create software for scaled models, based on existing software for unscaled models. Scaling (or non-dimensionalization) is a mathematical technique that greatly simplifies the setting of input parameters in numerical simulations. Moreover, scaling enhances the understanding of how different physical processes interact in a differential equation model. Compared to the existing literature, where the topic of scaling is frequently encountered, but very often in only a brief and shallow setting, the present book gives much more thorough explanations of how to reason about finding the right scales. This process is highly problem dependent, and therefore the book features a lot of worked examples, from very simple ODEs to systems of PDEs, especially from fluid mechanics. The text is easily accessible and exam...

  17. Small scale models equal large scale savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, R.; Segroves, R.

    1994-01-01

    A physical scale model of a reactor is a tool which can be used to reduce the time spent by workers in the containment during an outage and thus to reduce the radiation dose and save money. The model can be used for worker orientation, and for planning maintenance, modifications, manpower deployment and outage activities. Examples of the use of models are presented. These were for the La Salle 2 and Dresden 1 and 2 BWRs. In each case cost-effectiveness and exposure reduction due to the use of a scale model is demonstrated. (UK)

  18. Scale and scaling in agronomy and environmental sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scale is of paramount importance in environmental studies, engineering, and design. The unique course covers the following topics: scale and scaling, methods and theories, scaling in soils and other porous media, scaling in plants and crops; scaling in landscapes and watersheds, and scaling in agro...

  19. Scale of Critical Thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Semerci, Nuriye

    2000-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to develop the scale for critical thinking. The Scale of Critical Thinking was applied to 200 student. In this scale, there are total 55 items, four of which are negative and 51 of which are positive. The KMO (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin) value is 0.75, the Bartlett test value is 7145.41, and the Cronbach Alpha value is 0.90.

  20. Maximum likely scale estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, Marco; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Markussen, Bo

    2005-01-01

    A maximum likelihood local scale estimation principle is presented. An actual implementation of the estimation principle uses second order moments of multiple measurements at a fixed location in the image. These measurements consist of Gaussian derivatives possibly taken at several scales and/or ...

  1. Pre-Kindergarten Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Tim

    This 25-item scale for rating prekindergarten children concerns personal and cognitive skills. Directions for using the scale are provided. Personal skills include personal hygiene, communication skills, eating habits, relationships with the teacher, peer relations, and personal behavior. Cognitive skills rated are verbal skills, object…

  2. Scales of Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Lee Ann

    2018-01-01

    What is Goal Attainment Scaling? In this article, Lee Ann Jung defines it as a way to measure a student's progress toward an individualized goal. Instead of measuring a skill at a set time (for instance, on a test or other assignment), Goal Attainment Scaling tracks the steps a student takes over the course of a year in a targeted skill. Together,…

  3. Magnetron injection gun scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, W.

    1988-01-01

    Existing analytic design equations for magnetron injection guns (MIG's) are approximated to obtain a set of scaling laws. The constraints are chosen to examine the maximum peak power capabilities of MIG's. The scaling laws are compared with exact solutions of the design equations and are supported by MIG simulations

  4. Image scaling curve generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of generating an image scaling curve, where local saliency is detected in a received image. The detected local saliency is then accumulated in the first direction. A final scaling curve is derived from the detected local saliency and the image is then

  5. Image scaling curve generation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of generating an image scaling curve, where local saliency is detected in a received image. The detected local saliency is then accumulated in the first direction. A final scaling curve is derived from the detected local saliency and the image is then

  6. Scales and erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a need to develop scale explicit understanding of erosion to overcome existing conceptual and methodological flaws in our modelling methods currently applied to understand the process of erosion, transport and deposition at the catchment scale. These models need to be based on a sound under...

  7. Parallel Computing in SCALE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeHart, Mark D.; Williams, Mark L.; Bowman, Stephen M.

    2010-01-01

    The SCALE computational architecture has remained basically the same since its inception 30 years ago, although constituent modules and capabilities have changed significantly. This SCALE concept was intended to provide a framework whereby independent codes can be linked to provide a more comprehensive capability than possible with the individual programs - allowing flexibility to address a wide variety of applications. However, the current system was designed originally for mainframe computers with a single CPU and with significantly less memory than today's personal computers. It has been recognized that the present SCALE computation system could be restructured to take advantage of modern hardware and software capabilities, while retaining many of the modular features of the present system. Preliminary work is being done to define specifications and capabilities for a more advanced computational architecture. This paper describes the state of current SCALE development activities and plans for future development. With the release of SCALE 6.1 in 2010, a new phase of evolutionary development will be available to SCALE users within the TRITON and NEWT modules. The SCALE (Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation) code system developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides a comprehensive and integrated package of codes and nuclear data for a wide range of applications in criticality safety, reactor physics, shielding, isotopic depletion and decay, and sensitivity/uncertainty (S/U) analysis. Over the last three years, since the release of version 5.1 in 2006, several important new codes have been introduced within SCALE, and significant advances applied to existing codes. Many of these new features became available with the release of SCALE 6.0 in early 2009. However, beginning with SCALE 6.1, a first generation of parallel computing is being introduced. In addition to near-term improvements, a plan for longer term SCALE enhancement

  8. Interpersonal deviance and consequent social impact in hypothetically schizophrenia-prone men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zborowski, M J; Garske, J P

    1993-08-01

    Interpersonal deviance is central to the theory of and research on schizotypal psychopathology. The present study investigated interpersonal deviance and its corresponding impact among hypothetically schizotypic, or schizophrenia-prone, men, defined by high scores on the Perceptual Aberration-Magical Ideation (Per-Mag) Scale. In a videotaped interview, high-scoring Ss relative to control Ss were rated as more odd (p scale and suggest that interpersonal factors may influence the eventual adjustment of high-scoring individuals.

  9. Allometric Scaling in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banavar, Jayanth

    2009-03-01

    The unity of life is expressed not only in the universal basis of inheritance and energetics at the molecular level, but also in the pervasive scaling of traits with body size at the whole-organism level. More than 75 years ago, Kleiber and Brody and Proctor independently showed that the metabolic rates, B, of mammals and birds scale as the three-quarter power of their mass, M. Subsequent studies showed that most biological rates and times scale as M-1/4 and M^1/4 respectively, and that these so called quarter-power scaling relations hold for a variety of organisms, from unicellular prokaryotes and eukaryotes to trees and mammals. The wide applicability of Kleiber's law, across the 22 orders of magnitude of body mass from minute bacteria to giant whales and sequoias, raises the hope that there is some simple general explanation that underlies the incredible diversity of form and function. We will present a general theoretical framework for understanding the relationship between metabolic rate, B, and body mass, M. We show how the pervasive quarter-power biological scaling relations arise naturally from optimal directed resource supply systems. This framework robustly predicts that: 1) whole organism power and resource supply rate, B, scale as M^3/4; 2) most other rates, such as heart rate and maximal population growth rate scale as M-1/4; 3) most biological times, such as blood circulation time and lifespan, scale as M^1/4; and 4) the average velocity of flow through the network, v, such as the speed of blood and oxygen delivery, scales as M^1/12. Our framework is valid even when there is no underlying network. Our theory is applicable to unicellular organisms as well as to large animals and plants. This work was carried out in collaboration with Amos Maritan along with Jim Brown, John Damuth, Melanie Moses, Andrea Rinaldo, and Geoff West.

  10. Small scale optics

    CERN Document Server

    Yupapin, Preecha

    2013-01-01

    The behavior of light in small scale optics or nano/micro optical devices has shown promising results, which can be used for basic and applied research, especially in nanoelectronics. Small Scale Optics presents the use of optical nonlinear behaviors for spins, antennae, and whispering gallery modes within micro/nano devices and circuits, which can be used in many applications. This book proposes a new design for a small scale optical device-a microring resonator device. Most chapters are based on the proposed device, which uses a configuration know as a PANDA ring resonator. Analytical and nu

  11. Scale-relativistic cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nottale, Laurent

    2003-01-01

    The principle of relativity, when it is applied to scale transformations, leads to the suggestion of a generalization of fundamental dilations laws. These new special scale-relativistic resolution transformations involve log-Lorentz factors and lead to the occurrence of a minimal and of a maximal length-scale in nature, which are invariant under dilations. The minimal length-scale, that replaces the zero from the viewpoint of its physical properties, is identified with the Planck length l P , and the maximal scale, that replaces infinity, is identified with the cosmic scale L=Λ -1/2 , where Λ is the cosmological constant.The new interpretation of the Planck scale has several implications for the structure and history of the early Universe: we consider the questions of the origin, of the status of physical laws at very early times, of the horizon/causality problem and of fluctuations at recombination epoch.The new interpretation of the cosmic scale has consequences for our knowledge of the present universe, concerning in particular Mach's principle, the large number coincidence, the problem of the vacuum energy density, the nature and the value of the cosmological constant. The value (theoretically predicted ten years ago) of the scaled cosmological constant Ω Λ =0.75+/-0.15 is now supported by several different experiments (Hubble diagram of Supernovae, Boomerang measurements, gravitational lensing by clusters of galaxies).The scale-relativity framework also allows one to suggest a solution to the missing mass problem, and to make theoretical predictions of fundamental energy scales, thanks to the interpretation of new structures in scale space: fractal/classical transitions as Compton lengths, mass-coupling relations and critical value 4π 2 of inverse couplings. Among them, we find a structure at 3.27+/-0.26x10 20 eV, which agrees closely with the observed highest energy cosmic rays at 3.2+/-0.9x10 20 eV, and another at 5.3x10 -3 eV, which corresponds to the

  12. Beyond KNO scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegyi, S.

    1998-01-01

    A generalization of the Koba-Nielsen-Olesen scaling law of the multiplicity distributions P(n) is presented. It consists of a change in the normalization point of P(n) compensated by a suitable change in the renormalized parameters and a rescaling. The iterative repetition of the transformation yields the sequence of higher-order moment distributions of P(n). Each member of this sequence may exhibit data collapsing behavior in case of violation of the original KNO scaling hypothesis. It is shown that the iterative procedure can be viewed as varying the collision energy, i.e. the moment distributions of P(n) can represent the pattern of pre-asymptotic KNO scaling violation. The fixed points of the iteration will be determined and a consistency test based on Feynman scaling is to be given. (author)

  13. Understanding scaling laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysenko, W.P.

    1986-01-01

    Accelerator scaling laws how they can be generated, and how they are used are discussed. A scaling law is a relation between machine parameters and beam parameters. An alternative point of view is that a scaling law is an imposed relation between the equations of motion and the initial conditions. The relation between the parameters is obtained by requiring the beam to be matched. (A beam is said to be matched if the phase-space distribution function is a function of single-particle invariants of the motion.) Because of this restriction, the number of independent parameters describing the system is reduced. Using simple models for bunched- and unbunched-beam situations. Scaling laws are shown to determine the general behavior of beams in accelerators. Such knowledge is useful in design studies for new machines such as high-brightness linacs. The simple model presented shows much of the same behavior as a more detailed RFQ model

  14. Scale-Dependent Grasp

    OpenAIRE

    Kaneko, Makoto; Shirai, Tatsuya; Tsuji, Toshio

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses the scale-dependent grasp.Suppose that a human approaches an object initially placed on atable and finally achieves an enveloping grasp. Under such initialand final conditions, he (or she) unconsciously changes the graspstrategy according to the size of objects, even though they havesimilar geometry. We call the grasp planning the scale-dependentgrasp. We find that grasp patterns are also changed according tothe surface friction and the geometry of cross section in additi...

  15. Fast ignition breakeven scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slutz, Stephen A.; Vesey, Roger Alan

    2005-01-01

    A series of numerical simulations have been performed to determine scaling laws for fast ignition break even of a hot spot formed by energetic particles created by a short pulse laser. Hot spot break even is defined to be when the fusion yield is equal to the total energy deposited in the hot spot through both the initial compression and the subsequent heating. In these simulations, only a small portion of a previously compressed mass of deuterium-tritium fuel is heated on a short time scale, i.e., the hot spot is tamped by the cold dense fuel which surrounds it. The hot spot tamping reduces the minimum energy required to obtain break even as compared to the situation where the entire fuel mass is heated, as was assumed in a previous study [S. A. Slutz, R. A. Vesey, I. Shoemaker, T. A. Mehlhorn, and K. Cochrane, Phys. Plasmas 7, 3483 (2004)]. The minimum energy required to obtain hot spot break even is given approximately by the scaling law E T = 7.5(ρ/100) -1.87 kJ for tamped hot spots, as compared to the previously reported scaling of E UT = 15.3(ρ/100) -1.5 kJ for untamped hotspots. The size of the compressed fuel mass and the focusability of the particles generated by the short pulse laser determines which scaling law to use for an experiment designed to achieve hot spot break even

  16. Scales of gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvali, Gia; Kolanovic, Marko; Nitti, Francesco; Gabadadze, Gregory

    2002-01-01

    We propose a framework in which the quantum gravity scale can be as low as 10 -3 eV. The key assumption is that the standard model ultraviolet cutoff is much higher than the quantum gravity scale. This ensures that we observe conventional weak gravity. We construct an explicit brane-world model in which the brane-localized standard model is coupled to strong 5D gravity of infinite-volume flat extra space. Because of the high ultraviolet scale, the standard model fields generate a large graviton kinetic term on the brane. This kinetic term 'shields' the standard model from the strong bulk gravity. As a result, an observer on the brane sees weak 4D gravity up to astronomically large distances beyond which gravity becomes five dimensional. Modeling quantum gravity above its scale by the closed string spectrum we show that the shielding phenomenon protects the standard model from an apparent phenomenological catastrophe due to the exponentially large number of light string states. The collider experiments, astrophysics, cosmology and gravity measurements independently point to the same lower bound on the quantum gravity scale, 10 -3 eV. For this value the model has experimental signatures both for colliders and for submillimeter gravity measurements. Black holes reveal certain interesting properties in this framework

  17. Universities scale like cities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony F J van Raan

    Full Text Available Recent studies of urban scaling show that important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, particularly a power law scaling with population size. These nonlinear effects are common to all cities, with similar power law exponents. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. In this paper we demonstrate that universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the 'gross university income' in terms of total number of citations over 'size' in terms of total number of publications. Moreover, the power law exponents for university scaling are comparable to those for urban scaling. We find that deviations from the expected behavior can indeed be explained by specific local properties of universities, particularly the field-specific composition of a university, and its quality in terms of field-normalized citation impact. By studying both the set of the 500 largest universities worldwide and a specific subset of these 500 universities--the top-100 European universities--we are also able to distinguish between properties of universities with as well as without selection of one specific local property, the quality of a university in terms of its average field-normalized citation impact. It also reveals an interesting observation concerning the working of a crucial property in networked systems, preferential attachment.

  18. Universities scale like cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Raan, Anthony F J

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies of urban scaling show that important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, particularly a power law scaling with population size. These nonlinear effects are common to all cities, with similar power law exponents. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. In this paper we demonstrate that universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the 'gross university income' in terms of total number of citations over 'size' in terms of total number of publications. Moreover, the power law exponents for university scaling are comparable to those for urban scaling. We find that deviations from the expected behavior can indeed be explained by specific local properties of universities, particularly the field-specific composition of a university, and its quality in terms of field-normalized citation impact. By studying both the set of the 500 largest universities worldwide and a specific subset of these 500 universities--the top-100 European universities--we are also able to distinguish between properties of universities with as well as without selection of one specific local property, the quality of a university in terms of its average field-normalized citation impact. It also reveals an interesting observation concerning the working of a crucial property in networked systems, preferential attachment.

  19. Child Development Program Evaluation Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiene, Richard J.

    The Child Development Program Evaluation Scale (CDPES) is actually two scales in one, a licensing scale and a quality scale. Licensing predictor items have been found to predict overall compliance of child day care centers with state regulations in four states. Quality scale items have been found to predict the overall quality of child day care…

  20. The INES scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This document presents the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) which has been created to classify nuclear and radiological events in terms of severity. This scale comprises eight levels from 0 to 7, from a slight but noticeable shift with respect to nominal operation to a major accident. Criteria used for incident and accident classification are indicated; they are based on consequences outside the site, consequences within the site, degradation of in-depth defence. The benefit and weaknesses of this scale are briefly indicated. The major concerned actors are the IAEA, the NEA and the ASN. Some key figures are given (number of declared events and incidents), and a ranking of the main nuclear events is proposed with a brief description of the event: Chernobyl, Fukushima, Kyshtym, Three Mile Island, Sellafield, Tokaimura, Saint-Laurent-des-Eaux. Countries which have adopted INES are indicated, as well as the number of incidents reports in France to the ASN

  1. Wavelets, vibrations and scalings

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Yves

    1997-01-01

    Physicists and mathematicians are intensely studying fractal sets of fractal curves. Mandelbrot advocated modeling of real-life signals by fractal or multifractal functions. One example is fractional Brownian motion, where large-scale behavior is related to a corresponding infrared divergence. Self-similarities and scaling laws play a key role in this new area. There is a widely accepted belief that wavelet analysis should provide the best available tool to unveil such scaling laws. And orthonormal wavelet bases are the only existing bases which are structurally invariant through dyadic dilations. This book discusses the relevance of wavelet analysis to problems in which self-similarities are important. Among the conclusions drawn are the following: 1) A weak form of self-similarity can be given a simple characterization through size estimates on wavelet coefficients, and 2) Wavelet bases can be tuned in order to provide a sharper characterization of this self-similarity. A pioneer of the wavelet "saga", Meye...

  2. No-Scale Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V.; Olive, Keith A.

    2016-01-01

    Supersymmetry is the most natural framework for physics above the TeV scale, and the corresponding framework for early-Universe cosmology, including inflation, is supergravity. No-scale supergravity emerges from generic string compactifications and yields a non-negative potential, and is therefore a plausible framework for constructing models of inflation. No-scale inflation yields naturally predictions similar to those of the Starobinsky model based on $R + R^2$ gravity, with a tilted spectrum of scalar perturbations: $n_s \\sim 0.96$, and small values of the tensor-to-scalar perturbation ratio $r < 0.1$, as favoured by Planck and other data on the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Detailed measurements of the CMB may provide insights into the embedding of inflation within string theory as well as its links to collider physics.

  3. No-scale inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, John; Garcia, Marcos A. G.; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V.; Olive, Keith A.

    2016-05-01

    Supersymmetry is the most natural framework for physics above the TeV scale, and the corresponding framework for early-Universe cosmology, including inflation, is supergravity. No-scale supergravity emerges from generic string compactifications and yields a non-negative potential, and is therefore a plausible framework for constructing models of inflation. No-scale inflation yields naturally predictions similar to those of the Starobinsky model based on R+{R}2 gravity, with a tilted spectrum of scalar perturbations: {n}s∼ 0.96, and small values of the tensor-to-scalar perturbation ratio r\\lt 0.1, as favoured by Planck and other data on the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Detailed measurements of the CMB may provide insights into the embedding of inflation within string theory as well as its links to collider physics.

  4. Inverse scale space decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Marie Foged; Benning, Martin; Schönlieb, Carola-Bibiane

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the inverse scale space flow as a decomposition method for decomposing data into generalised singular vectors. We show that the inverse scale space flow, based on convex and even and positively one-homogeneous regularisation functionals, can decompose data represented...... by the application of a forward operator to a linear combination of generalised singular vectors into its individual singular vectors. We verify that for this decomposition to hold true, two additional conditions on the singular vectors are sufficient: orthogonality in the data space and inclusion of partial sums...... of the subgradients of the singular vectors in the subdifferential of the regularisation functional at zero. We also address the converse question of when the inverse scale space flow returns a generalised singular vector given that the initial data is arbitrary (and therefore not necessarily in the range...

  5. Finite size scaling theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rittenberg, V.

    1983-01-01

    Fischer's finite-size scaling describes the cross over from the singular behaviour of thermodynamic quantities at the critical point to the analytic behaviour of the finite system. Recent extensions of the method--transfer matrix technique, and the Hamiltonian formalism--are discussed in this paper. The method is presented, with equations deriving scaling function, critical temperature, and exponent v. As an application of the method, a 3-states Hamiltonian with Z 3 global symmetry is studied. Diagonalization of the Hamiltonian for finite chains allows one to estimate the critical exponents, and also to discover new phase transitions at lower temperatures. The critical points lambda, and indices v estimated for finite-scaling are given

  6. Spatial ecology across scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Alan; Petrovskii, Sergei; Morozov, Andrew

    2011-04-23

    The international conference 'Models in population dynamics and ecology 2010: animal movement, dispersal and spatial ecology' took place at the University of Leicester, UK, on 1-3 September 2010, focusing on mathematical approaches to spatial population dynamics and emphasizing cross-scale issues. Exciting new developments in scaling up from individual level movement to descriptions of this movement at the macroscopic level highlighted the importance of mechanistic approaches, with different descriptions at the microscopic level leading to different ecological outcomes. At higher levels of organization, different macroscopic descriptions of movement also led to different properties at the ecosystem and larger scales. New developments from Levy flight descriptions to the incorporation of new methods from physics and elsewhere are revitalizing research in spatial ecology, which will both increase understanding of fundamental ecological processes and lead to tools for better management.

  7. X and Y scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, G.B.

    1988-01-01

    Although much of the intuition for interpreting the high energy data as scattering from structureless constituents came from nuclear physics (and to a lesser extent atomic physics) virtually no data existed for nuclear targets in the non-relativistic regime until relatively recently. It is therefore not so surprising that,in site of the fact that the basic nuclear physics has been well understood for a very long time, the corresponding non-relativistic scaling law was not written down until after the relativistic one,relevant to particle physics, had been explored. Of course, to the extent that these scaling laws simply reflect quasi-elastic scattering of the probe from the constituents, they contain little new physics once the nature of the constitutents is known and understood. On the other hand, deviations from scaling represent corrections to the impulse approximation and can reflect important dynamical and coherent features of the system. Furthermore, as will be discussed in detail here, the scaling curve itself represents the single particle momentum distribution of constituents inside the target. It is therefore prudent to plot the data in terms of a suitable scaling variable since this immediately focuses attention on the dominant physics. Extraneous physics, such as Rutherford scattering in the case of electrons, or magnetic scattering in the case of thermal neutrons is factored out and the use of a scaling variable (such as y) automatically takes into account the fact that the target is a bound state of well-defined constituents. In this talk I shall concentrate almost entirely on non-relativistic systems. Although the formalism applies equally well to both electron scattering from nuclei and thermal neutron scattering from liquids, I shall, because of my background, usually be thinking of the former. On the other hand I shall completely ignore spin considerations so, ironically, the results actually apply more to the latter case!

  8. Elders Health Empowerment Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Empowerment refers to patient skills that allow them to become primary decision-makers in control of daily self-management of health problems. As important the concept as it is, particularly for elders with chronic diseases, few available instruments have been validated for use with Spanish speaking people. Objective: Translate and adapt the Health Empowerment Scale (HES) for a Spanish-speaking older adults sample and perform its psychometric validation. Methods: The HES was adapted based on the Diabetes Empowerment Scale-Short Form. Where "diabetes" was mentioned in the original tool, it was replaced with "health" terms to cover all kinds of conditions that could affect health empowerment. Statistical and Psychometric Analyses were conducted on 648 urban-dwelling seniors. Results: The HES had an acceptable internal consistency with a Cronbach's α of 0.89. The convergent validity was supported by significant Pearson's Coefficient correlations between the HES total and item scores and the General Self Efficacy Scale (r= 0.77), Swedish Rheumatic Disease Empowerment Scale (r= 0.69) and Making Decisions Empowerment Scale (r= 0.70). Construct validity was evaluated using item analysis, half-split test and corrected item to total correlation coefficients; with good internal consistency (α> 0.8). The content validity was supported by Scale and Item Content Validity Index of 0.98 and 1.0, respectively. Conclusions: HES had acceptable face validity and reliability coefficients; which added to its ease administration and users' unbiased comprehension, could set it as a suitable tool in evaluating elder's outpatient empowerment-based medical education programs. PMID:25767307

  9. Scaling law systematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfirsch, D.; Duechs, D.F.

    1985-01-01

    A number of statistical implications of empirical scaling laws in form of power products obtained by linear regression are analysed. The sensitivity of the error against a change of exponents is described by a sensitivity factor and the uncertainty of predictions by a ''range of predictions factor''. Inner relations in the statistical material is discussed, as well as the consequences of discarding variables.A recipe is given for the computations to be done. The whole is exemplified by considering scaling laws for the electron energy confinement time of ohmically heated tokamak plasmas. (author)

  10. Tokamak confinement scaling laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, J.

    1998-01-01

    The scaling of energy confinement with engineering parameters, such as plasma current and major radius, is important for establishing the size of an ignited fusion device. Tokamaks exhibit a variety of modes of operation with different confinement properties. At present there is no adequate first principles theory to predict tokamak energy confinement and the empirical scaling method is the preferred approach to designing next step tokamaks. This paper reviews a number of robust theoretical concepts, such as dimensional analysis and stability boundaries, which provide a framework for characterising and understanding tokamak confinement and, therefore, generate more confidence in using empirical laws for extrapolation to future devices. (author)

  11. Rolling at small scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim L.; Niordson, Christian F.; Hutchinson, John W.

    2016-01-01

    The rolling process is widely used in the metal forming industry and has been so for many years. However, the process has attracted renewed interest as it recently has been adapted to very small scales where conventional plasticity theory cannot accurately predict the material response. It is well....... Metals are known to be stronger when large strain gradients appear over a few microns; hence, the forces involved in the rolling process are expected to increase relatively at these smaller scales. In the present numerical analysis, a steady-state modeling technique that enables convergence without...

  12. Scaling up Telemedicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jannie Kristine Bang; Nielsen, Jeppe Agger; Gustafsson, Jeppe

    through negotiating, mobilizing coalitions, and legitimacy building. To illustrate and further develop this conceptualization, we build on insights from a longitudinal case study (2008-2014) and provide a rich empirical account of how a Danish telemedicine pilot was transformed into a large......-scale telemedicine project through simultaneous translation and theorization efforts in a cross-sectorial, politicized social context. Although we focus on upscaling as a bottom up process (from pilot to large scale), we argue that translation and theorization, and associated political behavior occurs in a broader...

  13. SCALE system driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrie, L.M.

    1984-01-01

    The SCALE driver was designed to allow implementation of a modular code system consisting of control modules, which determine the calculation path, and functional modules, which perform the basic calculations. The user can either select a control module and have that module determine the execution path, or the user can select functional modules directly by input

  14. Scaling violation in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furmanski, W.

    1981-08-01

    The effects of scaling violation in QCD are discussed in the perturbative scheme, based on the factorization of mass singularities in the light-like gauge. Some recent applications including the next-to-leading corrections are presented (large psub(T) scattering, numerical analysis of the leptoproduction data). A proposal is made for extending the method on the higher twist sector. (author)

  15. Method of complex scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braendas, E.

    1986-01-01

    The method of complex scaling is taken to include bound states, resonances, remaining scattering background and interference. Particular points of the general complex coordinate formulation are presented. It is shown that care must be exercised to avoid paradoxical situations resulting from inadequate definitions of operator domains. A new resonance localization theorem is presented

  16. Civic Engagement Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Doolittle

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study reports on the development and validation of the Civic Engagement Scale (CES. This scale is developed to be easily administered and useful to educators who are seeking to measure the attitudes and behaviors that have been affected by a service-learning experience. This instrument was administered as a validation study in a purposive sample of social work and education majors at three universities (N = 513 with a return of 354 (69%. After the reliability and validity analysis was completed, the Attitude subscale was left with eight items and a Cronbach’s alpha level of .91. The Behavior subscale was left with six items and a Cronbach’s alpha level of .85. Principal component analysis indicated a two-dimensional scale with high loadings on both factors (mean factor loading for the attitude factor = .79, and mean factor loading for the behavior factor = .77. These results indicate that the CES is strong enough to recommend its use in educational settings. Preliminary use has demonstrated that this scale will be useful to researchers seeking to better understand the relationship of attitudes and behaviors with civic engagement in the service-learning setting. The primary limitations of this research are that the sample was limited to social work and education majors who were primarily White (n = 312, 88.1% and female (n = 294, 83.1%. Therefore, further research would be needed to generalize this research to other populations.

  17. Difficulty scaling through incongruity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lankveld, van G.; Spronck, P.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.; Mateas, M.; Darken, C.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we discuss our work on using the incongruity measure from psychological literature to scale the difficulty level of a game online to the capabilities of the human player. Our approach has been implemented in a small game called Glove.

  18. Symbolic Multidimensional Scaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J.F. Groenen (Patrick); Y. Terada

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Multidimensional scaling (MDS) is a technique that visualizes dissimilarities between pairs of objects as distances between points in a low dimensional space. In symbolic MDS, a dissimilarity is not just a value but can represent an interval or even a histogram. Here,

  19. Cardinal scales for health evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvey, Charles; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2010-01-01

    Policy studies often evaluate health for an individual or for a population by using measurement scales that are ordinal scales or expected-utility scales. This paper develops scales of a different type, commonly called cardinal scales, that measure changes in health. Also, we argue that cardinal...... scales provide a meaningful and useful means of evaluating health policies. Thus, we develop a means of using the perspective of early neoclassical welfare economics as an alternative to ordinalist and expected-utility perspectives....

  20. SCALE Code System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jessee, Matthew Anderson [ORNL

    2016-04-01

    The SCALE Code System is a widely-used modeling and simulation suite for nuclear safety analysis and design that is developed, maintained, tested, and managed by the Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division (RNSD) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). SCALE provides a comprehensive, verified and validated, user-friendly tool set for criticality safety, reactor and lattice physics, radiation shielding, spent fuel and radioactive source term characterization, and sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. Since 1980, regulators, licensees, and research institutions around the world have used SCALE for safety analysis and design. SCALE provides an integrated framework with dozens of computational modules including three deterministic and three Monte Carlo radiation transport solvers that are selected based on the desired solution strategy. SCALE includes current nuclear data libraries and problem-dependent processing tools for continuous-energy (CE) and multigroup (MG) neutronics and coupled neutron-gamma calculations, as well as activation, depletion, and decay calculations. SCALE includes unique capabilities for automated variance reduction for shielding calculations, as well as sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. SCALE’s graphical user interfaces assist with accurate system modeling, visualization of nuclear data, and convenient access to desired results.SCALE 6.2 provides many new capabilities and significant improvements of existing features.New capabilities include:• ENDF/B-VII.1 nuclear data libraries CE and MG with enhanced group structures,• Neutron covariance data based on ENDF/B-VII.1 and supplemented with ORNL data,• Covariance data for fission product yields and decay constants,• Stochastic uncertainty and correlation quantification for any SCALE sequence with Sampler,• Parallel calculations with KENO,• Problem-dependent temperature corrections for CE calculations,• CE shielding and criticality accident alarm system analysis with MAVRIC,• CE

  1. Evolution of Scale Worms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez, Brett Christopher

    ) caves, and the interstitium, recovering six monophyletic clades within Aphroditiformia: Acoetidae, Aphroditidae, Eulepethidae, Iphionidae, Polynoidae, and Sigalionidae (inclusive of the former ‘Pisionidae’ and ‘Pholoidae’), respectively. Tracing of morphological character evolution showed a high degree...... of adaptability and convergent evolution between relatively closely related scale worms. While some morphological and behavioral modifications in cave polynoids reflected troglomorphism, other modifications like eye loss were found to stem from a common ancestor inhabiting the deep sea, further corroborating...... the deep sea ancestry of scale worm cave fauna. In conclusion, while morphological characterization across Aphroditiformia appears deceptively easy due to the presence of elytra, convergent evolution during multiple early radiations across wide ranging habitats have confounded our ability to reconstruct...

  2. Multiple time scale dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kuehn, Christian

    2015-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to dynamical systems with multiple time scales. The approach it takes is to provide an overview of key areas, particularly topics that are less available in the introductory form.  The broad range of topics included makes it accessible for students and researchers new to the field to gain a quick and thorough overview. The first of its kind, this book merges a wide variety of different mathematical techniques into a more unified framework. The book is highly illustrated with many examples and exercises and an extensive bibliography. The target audience of this  book are senior undergraduates, graduate students as well as researchers interested in using the multiple time scale dynamics theory in nonlinear science, either from a theoretical or a mathematical modeling perspective. 

  3. Large scale reflood test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Kemmei; Murao, Yoshio

    1980-01-01

    The large-scale reflood test with a view to ensuring the safety of light water reactors was started in fiscal 1976 based on the special account act for power source development promotion measures by the entrustment from the Science and Technology Agency. Thereafter, to establish the safety of PWRs in loss-of-coolant accidents by joint international efforts, the Japan-West Germany-U.S. research cooperation program was started in April, 1980. Thereupon, the large-scale reflood test is now included in this program. It consists of two tests using a cylindrical core testing apparatus for examining the overall system effect and a plate core testing apparatus for testing individual effects. Each apparatus is composed of the mock-ups of pressure vessel, primary loop, containment vessel and ECCS. The testing method, the test results and the research cooperation program are described. (J.P.N.)

  4. Dissolution of sulfate scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hen, J.

    1991-11-26

    This patent describes a composition for the removal of sulfate scale from surfaces. It comprises: an aqueous solution of about 0.1 to 1.0 molar concentration of an aminopolycarboxylic acid (APCA) containing 1 to 4 amino groups or a salt thereof, and about 0.1 to 1.0 molar concentration of a second component which is diethylenetriaminepenta (methylenephosphonic acid) (DTPMP) or a salt thereof, or aminotri (methylenephosphonic acid) (ATMP) or a salt thereof as an internal phase enveloped by a hydrocarbon membrane phase which is itself emulsified in an external aqueous phase, the hydrocarbon membrane phase continuing a complexing agent weaker for the cations of the sulfate scale than the APCA and DTPMP or ATMP, any complexing agent for the cations in the external aqueous phase being weaker than that in the hydrocarbon membrane phase.

  5. Density scaling for multiplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, A

    2011-01-01

    Generalized Kohn-Sham equations are presented for lowest-lying multiplets. The way of treating non-integer particle numbers is coupled with an earlier method of the author. The fundamental quantity of the theory is the subspace density. The Kohn-Sham equations are similar to the conventional Kohn-Sham equations. The difference is that the subspace density is used instead of the density and the Kohn-Sham potential is different for different subspaces. The exchange-correlation functional is studied using density scaling. It is shown that there exists a value of the scaling factor ζ for which the correlation energy disappears. Generalized OPM and Krieger-Li-Iafrate (KLI) methods incorporating correlation are presented. The ζKLI method, being as simple as the original KLI method, is proposed for multiplets.

  6. Large scale model testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumovsky, M.; Filip, R.; Polachova, H.; Stepanek, S.

    1989-01-01

    Fracture mechanics and fatigue calculations for WWER reactor pressure vessels were checked by large scale model testing performed using large testing machine ZZ 8000 (with a maximum load of 80 MN) at the SKODA WORKS. The results are described from testing the material resistance to fracture (non-ductile). The testing included the base materials and welded joints. The rated specimen thickness was 150 mm with defects of a depth between 15 and 100 mm. The results are also presented of nozzles of 850 mm inner diameter in a scale of 1:3; static, cyclic, and dynamic tests were performed without and with surface defects (15, 30 and 45 mm deep). During cyclic tests the crack growth rate in the elastic-plastic region was also determined. (author). 6 figs., 2 tabs., 5 refs

  7. Urban Scaling in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-16

    the structural funds for regional development and cohesion . Until recently, several systems of territorial units have coexisted in European...for European MAs versus population. See text and figures 1–7, electronic supplementary material, figures S1–S8 for additional details and electronic...scale as expected, although with wide confidence intervals (table 1). The urbanized area of Spanish cities appears superlinear, contrary to theory

  8. Scaling up Copy Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xian; Dong, Xin Luna; Lyons, Kenneth B.; Meng, Weiyi; Srivastava, Divesh

    2015-01-01

    Recent research shows that copying is prevalent for Deep-Web data and considering copying can significantly improve truth finding from conflicting values. However, existing copy detection techniques do not scale for large sizes and numbers of data sources, so truth finding can be slowed down by one to two orders of magnitude compared with the corresponding techniques that do not consider copying. In this paper, we study {\\em how to improve scalability of copy detection on structured data}. Ou...

  9. Beyond the Planck Scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giddings, Steven B.

    2009-01-01

    I outline motivations for believing that important quantum gravity effects lie beyond the Planck scale at both higher energies and longer distances and times. These motivations arise in part from the study of ultra-high energy scattering, and also from considerations in cosmology. I briefly summarize some inferences about such ultra-planckian physics, and clues we might pursue towards the principles of a more fundamental theory addressing the known puzzles and paradoxes of quantum gravity.

  10. Accurate scaling on multiplicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golokhvastov, A.I.

    1989-01-01

    The commonly used formula of KNO scaling P n =Ψ(n/ ) for descrete distributions (multiplicity distributions) is shown to contradict mathematically the condition ΣP n =1. The effect is essential even at ISR energies. A consistent generalization of the concept of similarity for multiplicity distributions is obtained. The multiplicity distributions of negative particles in PP and also e + e - inelastic interactions are similar over the whole studied energy range. Collider data are discussed. 14 refs.; 8 figs

  11. Gravo-Aeroelastic Scaling for Extreme-Scale Wind Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingersh, Lee J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Loth, Eric [University of Virginia; Kaminski, Meghan [University of Virginia; Qin, Chao [University of Virginia; Griffith, D. Todd [Sandia National Laboratories

    2017-06-09

    A scaling methodology is described in the present paper for extreme-scale wind turbines (rated at 10 MW or more) that allow their sub-scale turbines to capture their key blade dynamics and aeroelastic deflections. For extreme-scale turbines, such deflections and dynamics can be substantial and are primarily driven by centrifugal, thrust and gravity forces as well as the net torque. Each of these are in turn a function of various wind conditions, including turbulence levels that cause shear, veer, and gust loads. The 13.2 MW rated SNL100-03 rotor design, having a blade length of 100-meters, is herein scaled to the CART3 wind turbine at NREL using 25% geometric scaling and blade mass and wind speed scaled by gravo-aeroelastic constraints. In order to mimic the ultralight structure on the advanced concept extreme-scale design the scaling results indicate that the gravo-aeroelastically scaled blades for the CART3 are be three times lighter and 25% longer than the current CART3 blades. A benefit of this scaling approach is that the scaled wind speeds needed for testing are reduced (in this case by a factor of two), allowing testing under extreme gust conditions to be much more easily achieved. Most importantly, this scaling approach can investigate extreme-scale concepts including dynamic behaviors and aeroelastic deflections (including flutter) at an extremely small fraction of the full-scale cost.

  12. The ''invisible'' radioactive scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoernstad, T.; Ramsoey, T.

    1999-04-01

    Production and up-concentration of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in the petroleum industry has attracted steadily increasing attention during the last 15 years. Most production engineers today associate this radioactivity with precipitates (scales) and sludges in production tubing, pumps, valves, separators, settling tanks etc., wherever water is being transported or treated. 226 Ra and 228 Ra are the most well known radioactive constituents in scale. Surprisingly little known is the radioactive contamination by 210 Pb and progeny 210 Bi and 210 Po. These are found in combination with 226 Ra in ordinary scale, often in layer of non-radioactive metallic lead in water transportation systems, but also in pure gas and condensate handling systems ''unsupported'' by 226 Ra, but due to transportation and decay of the noble gas 222 Rn in NG/LNG. This latter contamination may be rather thin, in some cases virtually invisible. When, in addition, the radiation energies are low enough for not being detectable on the equipment outer surface, its existence has for most people in the industry been a secret. The report discusses transportation and deposition mechanisms, detection methods and provides some examples of measured results from the North Sea on equipment sent for maintenance. It is concluded that a regular measurement program for this type of contamination should be mandatory under all dismantling processes of transportation and fluid handling equipment for fluids and gases offshore and onshore

  13. Micro-Scale Thermoacoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offner, Avshalom; Ramon, Guy Z.

    2016-11-01

    Thermoacoustic phenomena - conversion of heat to acoustic oscillations - may be harnessed for construction of reliable, practically maintenance-free engines and heat pumps. Specifically, miniaturization of thermoacoustic devices holds great promise for cooling of micro-electronic components. However, as devices size is pushed down to micro-meter scale it is expected that non-negligible slip effects will exist at the solid-fluid interface. Accordingly, new theoretical models for thermoacoustic engines and heat pumps were derived, accounting for a slip boundary condition. These models are essential for the design process of micro-scale thermoacoustic devices that will operate under ultrasonic frequencies. Stability curves for engines - representing the onset of self-sustained oscillations - were calculated with both no-slip and slip boundary conditions, revealing improvement in the performance of engines with slip at the resonance frequency range applicable for micro-scale devices. Maximum achievable temperature differences curves for thermoacoustic heat pumps were calculated, revealing the negative effect of slip on the ability to pump heat up a temperature gradient. The authors acknowledge the support from the Nancy and Stephen Grand Technion Energy Program (GTEP).

  14. H2@Scale Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Mark

    2017-07-12

    'H2@Scale' is a concept based on the opportunity for hydrogen to act as an intermediate between energy sources and uses. Hydrogen has the potential to be used like the primary intermediate in use today, electricity, because it too is fungible. This presentation summarizes the H2@Scale analysis efforts performed during the first third of 2017. Results of technical potential uses and supply options are summarized and show that the technical potential demand for hydrogen is 60 million metric tons per year and that the U.S. has sufficient domestic resources to meet that demand. A high level infrastructure analysis is also presented that shows an 85% increase in energy on the grid if all hydrogen is produced from grid electricity. However, a preliminary spatial assessment shows that supply is sufficient in most counties across the U.S. The presentation also shows plans for analysis of the economic potential for the H2@Scale concept. Those plans involve developing supply and demand curves for potential hydrogen generation options and as compared to other options for use of that hydrogen.

  15. Parents' perceived vulnerability and perceived control in preventing Meningococcal C infection: a large-scale interview study about vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Wal Gerrit

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents' reported ambivalence toward large-scale vaccination programs for childhood diseases may be related to their perception of the risks of side-effects or safety of vaccination and the risk of contracting the disease. The aim of this study is to evaluate parents' perceptions of their child's risk contracting a Meningococcal C infection and parents' perceived control in preventing infection in relation to their evaluation of the safety, effectiveness and usefulness of vaccination. Methods In a large-scale interview study, a random sample of parents was interviewed after their children had received vaccination against Meningococcal C in a catch-up campaign. Questions were asked about the perceived relative vulnerability of their child contracting an infection, perceived control in preventing an infection, and parents' evaluation of the safety, usefulness and effectiveness of vaccination. Results 61% of 2910 (N = 1763 parents who were approached participated. A higher perceived relative vulnerability of their own child contracting the disease was related to a more positive evaluation of the vaccination campaign, while a lower perceived vulnerability did not result in a more negative evaluation. A higher perceived control in being able to prevent an infection was, however, related to a more critical attitude toward the safety, usefulness and effectiveness of vaccination. Conclusion Perceived relative vulnerability contracting an infection and parents' perceived control in preventing an infection seem to influence parents' evaluation of the vaccination programme. Future studies should determine if, and under which circumstances, these perceptions also affect parents' vaccination behaviour and would be relevant to be taken into account when educating parents about vaccination.

  16. Scaling Big Data Cleansing

    KAUST Repository

    Khayyat, Zuhair

    2017-07-31

    Data cleansing approaches have usually focused on detecting and fixing errors with little attention to big data scaling. This presents a serious impediment since identify- ing and repairing dirty data often involves processing huge input datasets, handling sophisticated error discovery approaches and managing huge arbitrary errors. With large datasets, error detection becomes overly expensive and complicated especially when considering user-defined functions. Furthermore, a distinctive algorithm is de- sired to optimize inequality joins in sophisticated error discovery rather than na ̈ıvely parallelizing them. Also, when repairing large errors, their skewed distribution may obstruct effective error repairs. In this dissertation, I present solutions to overcome the above three problems in scaling data cleansing. First, I present BigDansing as a general system to tackle efficiency, scalability, and ease-of-use issues in data cleansing for Big Data. It automatically parallelizes the user’s code on top of general-purpose distributed platforms. Its programming inter- face allows users to express data quality rules independently from the requirements of parallel and distributed environments. Without sacrificing their quality, BigDans- ing also enables parallel execution of serial repair algorithms by exploiting the graph representation of discovered errors. The experimental results show that BigDansing outperforms existing baselines up to more than two orders of magnitude. Although BigDansing scales cleansing jobs, it still lacks the ability to handle sophisticated error discovery requiring inequality joins. Therefore, I developed IEJoin as an algorithm for fast inequality joins. It is based on sorted arrays and space efficient bit-arrays to reduce the problem’s search space. By comparing IEJoin against well- known optimizations, I show that it is more scalable, and several orders of magnitude faster. BigDansing depends on vertex-centric graph systems, i.e., Pregel

  17. Magnetic Scaling in Superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrie, I.D.

    1997-01-01

    The Ginzburg-Landau-Wilson superconductor in a magnetic field B is considered in the approximation that magnetic-field fluctuations are neglected. A formulation of perturbation theory is presented in which multiloop calculations fully retaining all Landau levels are tractable. A 2-loop calculation shows that, near the zero-field critical point, the singular part of the free energy scales as F sing ∼ |t| 2-α F(B|t| -2ν ), where ν is the coherence-length exponent emdash a result which has hitherto been assumed on purely dimensional grounds. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  18. Scaling CouchDB

    CERN Document Server

    Holt, Bradley

    2011-01-01

    This practical guide offers a short course on scaling CouchDB to meet the capacity needs of your distributed application. Through a series of scenario-based examples, this book lets you explore several methods for creating a system that can accommodate growth and meet expected demand. In the process, you learn about several tools that can help you with replication, load balancing, clustering, and load testing and monitoring. Apply performance tips for tuning your databaseReplicate data, using Futon and CouchDB's RESTful interfaceDistribute CouchDB's workload through load balancingLearn option

  19. Scaling in quantum gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ambjørn

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available The 2-point function is the natural object in quantum gravity for extracting critical behavior: The exponential falloff of the 2-point function with geodesic distance determines the fractal dimension dH of space-time. The integral of the 2-point function determines the entropy exponent γ, i.e. the fractal structure related to baby universes, while the short distance behavior of the 2-point function connects γ and dH by a quantum gravity version of Fisher's scaling relation. We verify this behavior in the case of 2d gravity by explicit calculation.

  20. Moment magnitude scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanks, T.C.; Kanamori, H.

    1979-05-10

    The nearly conincident forms of the relations between seismic moment M/sub o/ and the magnitudes M/sub L/, M/sub s/, and M/sub w/ imply a moment magnitude scale M=2/3 log M/sub o/-10.7 which is uniformly valid for 3< or approx. =M/sub L/< or approx. = 7, 5 < or approx. =M/sub s/< or approx. =7 1/2 and M/sub w/> or approx. = 7 1/2.

  1. Scales on the scalp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil A

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A five-year-old boy presented with a six-week history of scales, flaking and crusting of the scalp. He had mild pruritus but no pain. He did not have a history of atopy and there were no pets at home. Examination of the scalp showed thick, yellowish dry crusts on the vertex and parietal areas and the hair was adhered to the scalp in clumps. There was non-scarring alopecia and mild erythema (Figure 1 & 2. There was no cervical or occipital lymphadenopathy. The patient’s nails and skin in other parts of the body were normal.

  2. A problem of scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, L.

    1991-01-01

    Small scale wind energy conversion is finding it even more difficult to realise its huge potential market than grid connected wind power. One of the main reasons for this is that its technical development is carried out in isolated parts of the world with little opportunity for technology transfer: small scale wind energy converters (SWECS) are not born of one technology, but have been evolved for different purposes; as a result, the SWECS community has no powerful lobbying force speaking with one voice to promote the technology. There are three distinct areas of application for SWECS, water pumping for domestic and livestock water supplies, irrigation, drainage etc., where no other mechanical means of power is available or viable, battery charging for lighting, TV, radio, and telecommunications in areas far from a grid or road system, and wind-diesel systems, mainly for use on islands where supply of diesel oil is possible, but costly. An attempt is being made to found an association to support the widespread implementation of SWECS and to promote their implementation. It is intended for Wind Energy for Rural Areas to have a permanent secretariat, based in Holland. (AB)

  3. The Unintentional Procrastination Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernie, Bruce A; Bharucha, Zinnia; Nikčević, Ana V; Spada, Marcantonio M

    2017-01-01

    Procrastination refers to the delay or postponement of a task or decision and is often conceptualised as a failure of self-regulation. Recent research has suggested that procrastination could be delineated into two domains: intentional and unintentional. In this two-study paper, we aimed to develop a measure of unintentional procrastination (named the Unintentional Procrastination Scale or the 'UPS') and test whether this would be a stronger marker of psychopathology than intentional and general procrastination. In Study 1, a community sample of 139 participants completed a questionnaire that consisted of several items pertaining to unintentional procrastination that had been derived from theory, previous research, and clinical experience. Responses were subjected to a principle components analysis and assessment of internal consistency. In Study 2, a community sample of 155 participants completed the newly developed scale, along with measures of general and intentional procrastination, metacognitions about procrastination, and negative affect. Data from the UPS were subjected to confirmatory factor analysis and revised accordingly. The UPS was then validated using correlation and regression analyses. The six-item UPS possesses construct and divergent validity and good internal consistency. The UPS appears to be a stronger marker of psychopathology than the pre-existing measures of procrastination used in this study. Results from the regression models suggest that both negative affect and metacognitions about procrastination differentiate between general, intentional, and unintentional procrastination. The UPS is brief, has good psychometric properties, and has strong associations with negative affect, suggesting it has value as a research and clinical tool.

  4. Scaling MongoDB

    CERN Document Server

    Chodorow, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    Create a MongoDB cluster that will to grow to meet the needs of your application. With this short and concise book, you'll get guidelines for setting up and using clusters to store a large volume of data, and learn how to access the data efficiently. In the process, you'll understand how to make your application work with a distributed database system. Scaling MongoDB will help you: Set up a MongoDB cluster through shardingWork with a cluster to query and update dataOperate, monitor, and backup your clusterPlan your application to deal with outages By following the advice in this book, you'l

  5. Large Scale Solar Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    2001-01-01

    The main objective of the research was to evaluate large-scale solar heating connected to district heating (CSDHP), to build up a simulation tool and to demonstrate the application of the simulation tool for design studies and on a local energy planning case. The evaluation was mainly carried out...... model is designed and validated on the Marstal case. Applying the Danish Reference Year, a design tool is presented. The simulation tool is used for proposals for application of alternative designs, including high-performance solar collector types (trough solar collectors, vaccum pipe collectors......). Simulation programs are proposed as control supporting tool for daily operation and performance prediction of central solar heating plants. Finaly the CSHP technolgy is put into persepctive with respect to alternatives and a short discussion on the barries and breakthrough of the technology are given....

  6. On Scale and Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadish, David

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores thematic parallels between artistic and agricultural practices in the postwar period to establish a link to media art and cultural practices that are currently emerging in urban agriculture. Industrial agriculture has roots in the post-WWII abundance of mechanical and chemical...... equipment and research. These systems are highly mechanically efficient. With minimal physical labour, they extract ever staggering crop yields from ever poorer soils in shifting climatic conditions. However, the fact of mechanical efficiency is used to mask a set of problems with industrial......-scale agricultural systems that range from spreading pests and diseases to poor global distribution of concentrated regional food wealth. That the conversion of vegetatively diverse farmland into monochromatic fields was popularized at the same time as the arrival of colour field paintings like Barnett Newman...

  7. ScaleUp America Communities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — SBA’s new ScaleUp America Initiative is designed to help small firms with high potential “scale up” and grow their businesses so that they will provide more jobs and...

  8. MULTIPLE SCALES FOR SUSTAINABLE RESULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This session will highlight recent research that incorporates the use of multiple scales and innovative environmental accounting to better inform decisions that affect sustainability, resilience, and vulnerability at all scales. Effective decision-making involves assessment at mu...

  9. Absolute flux scale for radioastronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.P.; Stankevich, K.S.

    1986-01-01

    The authors propose and provide support for a new absolute flux scale for radio astronomy, which is not encumbered with the inadequacies of the previous scales. In constructing it the method of relative spectra was used (a powerful tool for choosing reference spectra). A review is given of previous flux scales. The authors compare the AIS scale with the scale they propose. Both scales are based on absolute measurements by the ''artificial moon'' method, and they are practically coincident in the range from 0.96 to 6 GHz. At frequencies above 6 GHz, 0.96 GHz, the AIS scale is overestimated because of incorrect extrapolation of the spectra of the primary and secondary standards. The major results which have emerged from this review of absolute scales in radio astronomy are summarized

  10. Northeast Snowfall Impact Scale (NESIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — While the Fujita and Saffir-Simpson Scales characterize tornadoes and hurricanes respectively, there is no widely used scale to classify snowstorms. The Northeast...

  11. Scale setting in lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommer, Rainer

    2014-02-01

    The principles of scale setting in lattice QCD as well as the advantages and disadvantages of various commonly used scales are discussed. After listing criteria for good scales, I concentrate on the main presently used ones with an emphasis on scales derived from the Yang-Mills gradient flow. For these I discuss discretisation errors, statistical precision and mass effects. A short review on numerical results also brings me to an unpleasant disagreement which remains to be explained.

  12. NoSQL database scaling

    OpenAIRE

    Žardin, Norbert

    2017-01-01

    NoSQL database scaling is a decision, where system resources or financial expenses are traded for database performance or other benefits. By scaling a database, database performance and resource usage might increase or decrease, such changes might have a negative impact on an application that uses the database. In this work it is analyzed how database scaling affect database resource usage and performance. As a results, calculations are acquired, using which database scaling types and differe...

  13. Scale setting in lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, Rainer [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC

    2014-02-15

    The principles of scale setting in lattice QCD as well as the advantages and disadvantages of various commonly used scales are discussed. After listing criteria for good scales, I concentrate on the main presently used ones with an emphasis on scales derived from the Yang-Mills gradient flow. For these I discuss discretisation errors, statistical precision and mass effects. A short review on numerical results also brings me to an unpleasant disagreement which remains to be explained.

  14. Scale issues in tourism development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinji Yang; Lori Pennington-Gray; Donald F. Holecek

    1998-01-01

    Proponents of Alternative Tourism overwhelmingly believe that alternative forms of tourism development need to be small in scale. Inasmuch as tourists' demand has great power to shape the market, the issues surrounding the tourism development scale deserve further consideration. This paper discusses the implications and effects of the tourism development scale on...

  15. Building alliances from ambivalence: evaluation of abortion values ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    70.2%) reported behavioural changes and 93.2% reported increased compassion for women who seek and providers who render termination of pregnancy. Behaviours supportive of the law were more likely among those initially undecided ...

  16. Difficult Questions and Ambivalent Answers on Genetic Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Andréa Wiszmeg; Susanne Lundin; Eva Torkelson; Niclas Hagen; Cecilia Lundberg

    2012-01-01

    A qualitative pilot study on the attitudes of some citizens in southern Sweden toward predictive genetic testing – and a quantitative nation wide opinion poll targeting the same issues, was initiated by the Cultural Scientific Research Team of BAGADILICO. The latter is an international biomedical research environment on neurological disease at Lund University. The data of the two studies crystallized through analysis into themes around which the informants’ personal negotiations of opinions a...

  17. 142 resolving the redactional ambivalence over the role

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patrimonialism is a form of governance in which all power flows directly from the leader .... to understand the power inter-play, and was busy hanging around David. ..... The organizational procedure of Sharia courts in N.Nigeria. (Ph. D. Thesis.

  18. Solidarity and ambivalence in parent-child relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaalen, R.I.A. van

    2007-01-01

    In this dissertation, new challenges for intergenerational family relationship research were formulated and empirically investigated. Major socio-demographic and socio-cultural developments have induced changes in Western family life. These were changes in the structure of families and changes in

  19. AMBIVALENCE OF THE ENTROPY CONCEPT IN THE HUMANITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Andrei V. Matyushko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with various views on the concept of entropy. The author gives examples of entropy actualization from different spheres of existence and comes to conclusion about the ambiguity of the treatment of this term in the Humanities.

  20. Gatekeeping: Why Shouldn't We Be Ambivalent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowbel, Lynda R.

    2012-01-01

    An increase of 88% in programs from 1990 through 2004, low GRE scores, low entry- level wages, declining pass rates in licensing tests, and an increase in ethical violations reported all support the contention that there are higher enrollment rates and decreased gatekeeping selectivity in today's graduate MSW programs. This article discusses four…

  1. Triple diagnostics for early detection of ambivalent necrotizing fasciitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hietbrink, Falco; Bode, Lonneke G.; Riddez, Louis; Leenen, Luke P H; van Dijk, MR

    2016-01-01

    Background: Necrotizing fasciitis is an uncommon, rapidly progressive and potential lethal condition. Over the last decade time to surgery decreased and outcome improved, most likely due to increased awareness and more timely referral. Early recognition is key to improve mortality and morbidity.

  2. Overcoming Ambivalence: The Case for Japanese Martial Internationalism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greig, Alex

    2002-01-01

    ... labels this alternative military posture "martial internationalism," An understanding of how Japanese military policy serves its overall international security interests is a central concern of this thesis...

  3. Female Employment and Fertility: Further Investigation of an Ambivalent Association

    OpenAIRE

    Zeba A. sathar; Shahnaz Kazi

    1989-01-01

    This study of the relationship between female employment and fertility is based on a survey of 1000 ever-married women in Karachi. A distinct pattern of differentials in actual performance and in desired fertility is observed across working and non-working women. Working women are not a homogeneous group, and the differences across six broad occupational groups of working women are more marked than those between working and non-working women. Women in higher status occupations marry much late...

  4. Intraventricular hemorrhage in preterm infants and coagulation--ambivalent perspectives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuperman, Amir A; Brenner, Benjamin; Kenet, Gili

    2013-01-01

    Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is a major complication of preterm birth, and large hemorrhages may yield significant future disability. During the last few decades, the survival of preterm infants has increased dramatically. Nevertheless, morbidity is still a major problem especially for very young and extremely low birth weight infants. As both, mortality and incidence of morbidities known to influence outcome, show a weekly decline with increasing gestational age, prematurity and low birth weight have been identified as major risk factors for IVH occurrence. This stems probably from the increased vulnerability of the premature germinal matrix as well as the physiologically impaired hemostasis, demonstrated in neonates. The hypothesis that a severe coagulation deficiency in the premature newborn could be a major contributing factor for IVH has been suggested, and small open label interventional studies targeting the premature coagulation system have been conducted with ethamsylate, vitamin K, fresh frozen plasma, recombinant activated factor VII and prothrombin complex concentrate. Nevertheless, potential venous origin of hemorrhages, which may be related to thrombophilic risk factors, has also been discussed. The following manuscript will focus upon IVH pathogenesis and address potential therapies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Employees are ambivalent about health checks in the occupational setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damman, O.C.; van der Beek, A.J.; Timmermans, D.R.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Employees are increasingly provided with preventive health checks. However, participation rates are low and several ethical issues arise, such as a potential perceived threat to autonomy and privacy. Aims: To assess what employees think about preventive health checks in the occupational

  6. The ambivalent effect of lattice structure on a spatial game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Gao, Meng; Li, Zizhen; Maa, Zhihui; Wang, Hailong

    2011-06-01

    The evolution of cooperation is studied in lattice-structured populations, in which each individual who adopts one of the following strategies ‘always defect' (ALLD), ‘tit-for-tat' (TFT), and ‘always cooperate' (ALLC) plays the repeated Prisoner's Dilemma game with its neighbors according to an asynchronous update rule. Computer simulations are applied to analyse the dynamics depending on major parameters. Mathematical analyses based on invasion probability analysis, mean-field approximation, as well as pair approximation are also used. We find that the lattice structure promotes the evolution of cooperation compared with a non-spatial population, this is also confirmed by invasion probability analysis in one dimension. Meanwhile, it also inhibits the evolution of cooperation due to the advantage of being spiteful, which indicates the key role of specific life-history assumptions. Mean-field approximation fails to predict the outcome of computer simulations. Pair approximation is accurate in two dimensions but fails in one dimension.

  7. Ambivalent sexism inventory: its adaptation and correlation with gender

    OpenAIRE

    Formiga, Nilton S.; Golveia, Valdiney V.; Santos, Maria Neusa dos

    2002-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo foi adaptar para o Brasil o Inventário de Sexismo Ambivalente (Glick & Fiske, 1996), assim como conhecer em que medida suas pontuações são diferentes em função do gênero. Este instrumento é constituído por 22 itens, respondidos em escala de cinco pontos, tipo Likert e teoricamente avalia dois fatores: sexismo hostil e sexismo benévolo. A amostra foi composta de 200 graduandos do curso de Psicologia de uma universidade privada, de ambos os sexos. A aplicação deste inven...

  8. Paradoxical affinities: otherness and ambivalence as creative pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Jan

    2018-06-01

    Referring to her own background as the child of Jewish refugees forced to leave their countries of origin before the second World War, the author describes how her attitude towards Jung and his ideas has evolved. The role of paradoxical affinities that have affected the author's life and identity as a Jungian analyst are considered, alongside the impact of experiences of otherness whilst supervising and teaching abroad, particularly in Eastern Europe. © 2018, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  9. Ambivalent messages: adolescents' perspectives on pregnancy and birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Amanda Elizabeth; Jelenewicz, Shameeka M; Ma, Alice; Rodgers, Caryn R R; Houston, Avril Melissa; Paluzzi, Pat

    2013-07-01

    To examine, from a youth's perspective, adolescent pregnancy and parenting in Baltimore, Maryland, a city with high rates of adolescent pregnancy. Six gender-stratified focus groups with 13- to 19-year-olds (4 female and 2 male groups; n = 47). We recorded focus groups, transcribed them verbatim, and analyzed them using the constant comparison method. Participants completed questionnaires to collect demographic and behavioral information. Results fit into a social-ecological framework. Individual (e.g., contraceptive use behaviors, religion), interpersonal (e.g., peer norms, maintaining male partners), and community (e.g., clinic factors, perceptions of community) level influences on adolescent pregnancy emerged. Participants discussed contradictory messages that were often gendered in their expectations; for instance, women were responsible for not getting pregnant and raising children. Adolescents expressed beliefs both against (e.g., challenging to complete school) and supporting early childrearing (e.g., religion). Recommendations for addressing the different influences included mentors, education, and community resources. Adolescents' perspectives and values regarding pregnancy and parenting may not mirror traditional and expected norms for pregnancy and requirements for raising a child. These findings challenge the framing of existing interventions as they may not accurately reflect adolescents' values regarding pregnancy and parenting, and thus may need to be modified to highlight positive attitudes toward contraception and postponing pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Ambivalence of Creative Activism as a Reorganization of Critique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrebye, Silas

    2015-01-01

    This article identifies an emerging type of critique and defines it as creative activism. It is argued why this is distinguishable from earlier similar forms of protests and shown why traditional theories of political art, social movements and citizenship are in themselves insufficient to accurat......This article identifies an emerging type of critique and defines it as creative activism. It is argued why this is distinguishable from earlier similar forms of protests and shown why traditional theories of political art, social movements and citizenship are in themselves insufficient...

  11. Teacher ambivalence towards school evaluation : promoting and ruining teacher professionalism

    OpenAIRE

    Hult, Agneta; Edström, Charlotta

    2016-01-01

    Today’s evaluation society makes teachers participate in a stream of external evaluations. How teachers experience evaluation in school and how this affects their work and professionalism is the focus of this article. Teachers’ views of external and internal evaluations and of the consequences for school practice are described and analysed. The interviewed teachers emphasised the importance of internal evaluations performed close to daily teaching practice and jointly with students and collea...

  12. The Ambivalent Impact of Coffee Certification on Farmers' Welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijsbergen, van Bart; Elbers, Willem; Ruben, Ruerd; Njuguna, Samuel N.

    2016-01-01

    Certification is promoted to improve rural welfare through better market access and improved agricultural practices. We compare net effects of Fairtrade- and Utz-Certified coffee production in Central Kenya, using a matched panel from 218 farm-households that belong to three cooperatives and were

  13. Scaling up: Assessing social impacts at the macro-scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schirmer, Jacki

    2011-01-01

    Social impacts occur at various scales, from the micro-scale of the individual to the macro-scale of the community. Identifying the macro-scale social changes that results from an impacting event is a common goal of social impact assessment (SIA), but is challenging as multiple factors simultaneously influence social trends at any given time, and there are usually only a small number of cases available for examination. While some methods have been proposed for establishing the contribution of an impacting event to macro-scale social change, they remain relatively untested. This paper critically reviews methods recommended to assess macro-scale social impacts, and proposes and demonstrates a new approach. The 'scaling up' method involves developing a chain of logic linking change at the individual/site scale to the community scale. It enables a more problematised assessment of the likely contribution of an impacting event to macro-scale social change than previous approaches. The use of this approach in a recent study of change in dairy farming in south east Australia is described.

  14. Scaling of structural failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazant, Z.P. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Chen, Er-Ping [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This article attempts to review the progress achieved in the understanding of scaling and size effect in the failure of structures. Particular emphasis is placed on quasibrittle materials for which the size effect is complicated. Attention is focused on three main types of size effects, namely the statistical size effect due to randomness of strength, the energy release size effect, and the possible size effect due to fractality of fracture or microcracks. Definitive conclusions on the applicability of these theories are drawn. Subsequently, the article discusses the application of the known size effect law for the measurement of material fracture properties, and the modeling of the size effect by the cohesive crack model, nonlocal finite element models and discrete element models. Extensions to compression failure and to the rate-dependent material behavior are also outlined. The damage constitutive law needed for describing a microcracked material in the fracture process zone is discussed. Various applications to quasibrittle materials, including concrete, sea ice, fiber composites, rocks and ceramics are presented.

  15. SPACE BASED INTERCEPTOR SCALING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. CANAVAN

    2001-02-01

    Space Based Interceptor (SBI) have ranges that are adequate to address rogue ICBMs. They are not overly sensitive to 30-60 s delay times. Current technologies would support boost phase intercept with about 150 interceptors. Higher acceleration and velocity could reduce than number by about a factor of 3 at the cost of heavier and more expensive Kinetic Kill Vehicles (KKVs). 6g SBI would reduce optimal constellation costs by about 35%; 8g SBI would reduce them another 20%. Interceptor ranges fall rapidly with theater missile range. Constellations increase significantly for ranges under 3,000 km, even with advanced interceptor technology. For distributed launches, these estimates recover earlier strategic scalings, which demonstrate the improved absentee ratio for larger or multiple launch areas. Constellations increase with the number of missiles and the number of interceptors launched at each. The economic estimates above suggest that two SBI per missile with a modest midcourse underlay is appropriate. The SBI KKV technology would appear to be common for space- and surface-based boost phase systems, and could have synergisms with improved midcourse intercept and discrimination systems. While advanced technology could be helpful in reducing costs, particularly for short range theater missiles, current technology appears adequate for pressing rogue ICBM, accidental, and unauthorized launches.

  16. Large scale tracking algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Ross L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Love, Joshua Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Melgaard, David Kennett [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Karelitz, David B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pitts, Todd Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zollweg, Joshua David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Anderson, Dylan Z. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nandy, Prabal [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Whitlow, Gary L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bender, Daniel A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Byrne, Raymond Harry [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Low signal-to-noise data processing algorithms for improved detection, tracking, discrimination and situational threat assessment are a key research challenge. As sensor technologies progress, the number of pixels will increase signi cantly. This will result in increased resolution, which could improve object discrimination, but unfortunately, will also result in a significant increase in the number of potential targets to track. Many tracking techniques, like multi-hypothesis trackers, suffer from a combinatorial explosion as the number of potential targets increase. As the resolution increases, the phenomenology applied towards detection algorithms also changes. For low resolution sensors, "blob" tracking is the norm. For higher resolution data, additional information may be employed in the detection and classfication steps. The most challenging scenarios are those where the targets cannot be fully resolved, yet must be tracked and distinguished for neighboring closely spaced objects. Tracking vehicles in an urban environment is an example of such a challenging scenario. This report evaluates several potential tracking algorithms for large-scale tracking in an urban environment.

  17. Tipping the scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    In the US, the October 1998 murder of a physician who performed abortions was an outward manifestation of the insidious battle against legal abortion being waged by radical Christian social conservatives seeking to transform the US democracy into a theocracy. This movement has been documented in a publication entitled, "Tipping the Scales: The Christian Right's Legal Crusade Against Choice" produced as a result of a 4-year investigation conducted by The Center for Reproductive Law and Policy. This publication describes how these fundamentalists have used sophisticated legal, lobbying, and communication strategies to further their goals of challenging the separation of church and state, opposing family planning and sexuality education that is not based solely on abstinence, promoting school prayer, and restricting homosexual rights. The movement has resulted in the introduction of more than 300 anti-abortion bills in states, 50 of which have passed in 23 states. Most Christian fundamentalist groups provide free legal representation to abortion clinic terrorists, and some groups solicit women to bring specious malpractice claims against providers. Sophisticated legal tactics are used by these groups to remove the taint of extremism and mask the danger posed to US constitutional principles being posed by "a well-financed and zealous brand of radical lawyers and their supporters."

  18. The Bereavement Guilt Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Stroebe, Magaret; Chan, Cecilia L W; Chow, Amy Y M

    2017-06-01

    The rationale, development, and validation of the Bereavement Guilt Scale (BGS) are described in this article. The BGS was based on a theoretically developed, multidimensional conceptualization of guilt. Part 1 describes the generation of the item pool, derived from in-depth interviews, and review of the scientific literature. Part 2 details statistical analyses for further item selection (Sample 1, N = 273). Part 3 covers the psychometric properties of the emergent-BGS (Sample 2, N = 600, and Sample 3, N = 479). Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a five-factor model fit the data best. Correlations of BGS scores with depression, anxiety, self-esteem, self-forgiveness, and mode of death were consistent with theoretical predictions, supporting the construct validity of the measure. The internal consistency and test-retest reliability were also supported. Thus, initial testing or examination suggests that the BGS is a valid tool to assess multiple components of bereavement guilt. Further psychometric testing across cultures is recommended.

  19. A multi scale model for small scale plasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zbib, Hussein M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text.A framework for investigating size-dependent small-scale plasticity phenomena and related material instabilities at various length scales ranging from the nano-microscale to the mesoscale is presented. The model is based on fundamental physical laws that govern dislocation motion and their interaction with various defects and interfaces. Particularly, a multi-scale model is developed merging two scales, the nano-microscale where plasticity is determined by explicit three-dimensional dislocation dynamics analysis providing the material length-scale, and the continuum scale where energy transport is based on basic continuum mechanics laws. The result is a hybrid simulation model coupling discrete dislocation dynamics with finite element analyses. With this hybrid approach, one can address complex size-dependent problems, including dislocation boundaries, dislocations in heterogeneous structures, dislocation interaction with interfaces and associated shape changes and lattice rotations, as well as deformation in nano-structured materials, localized deformation and shear band

  20. Minimum Efficient Scale (MES) and preferred scale of container terminals

    OpenAIRE

    Kaselimi, Evangelia N.; Notteboom, Theo E.; Pallis, Athanasios A.; Farrell, Sheila

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: The decision on the scale of a port terminal affects the terminals managerial, operational and competitive position in all the phases of its life. It also affects competition structures in the port in which the terminal is operating, and has a potential impact on other terminals. Port authorities and terminal operators need to know the scale of the terminal when engaging in concession agreements. In economic theory the scale of a plant/firm is typically defined in relation to the Mi...

  1. The Scales of Injustice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Blattberg

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper criticises four major approaches to criminal law – consequentialism, retributivism, abolitionism, and “mixed” pluralism – each of which, in its own fashion, affirms the celebrated emblem of the “scales of justice.” The argument is that there is a better way of dealing with the tensions that often arise between the various legal purposes than by merely balancing them against each other. It consists, essentially, of striving to genuinely reconcile those purposes, a goal which is shown to require taking a new, “patriotic” approach to law. Le présent article porte une critique à quatre approches majeures en droit pénal : le conséquentialisme, le rétributivisme, l’abolitionnisme et le pluralisme « mixte. » Toutes ces approches se rangent, chacune à leur manière, sous le célèbre emblème des « échelles de justice. » L’argument est qu’il existe une meilleure façon de faire face aux tensions qui opposent les multiples objectifs judiciaires plutôt que de comparer le poids des uns contre le poids des autres. Il s’agit essentiellement de s’efforcer à réaliser une authentique réconciliation de ces objectifs. Il apparaîtra que pour y parvenir il est nécessaire d’avoir recours à une nouvelle approche du droit, une approche précisément « patriotique. »

  2. Industrial scale gene synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notka, Frank; Liss, Michael; Wagner, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    The most recent developments in the area of deep DNA sequencing and downstream quantitative and functional analysis are rapidly adding a new dimension to understanding biochemical pathways and metabolic interdependencies. These increasing insights pave the way to designing new strategies that address public needs, including environmental applications and therapeutic inventions, or novel cell factories for sustainable and reconcilable energy or chemicals sources. Adding yet another level is building upon nonnaturally occurring networks and pathways. Recent developments in synthetic biology have created economic and reliable options for designing and synthesizing genes, operons, and eventually complete genomes. Meanwhile, high-throughput design and synthesis of extremely comprehensive DNA sequences have evolved into an enabling technology already indispensable in various life science sectors today. Here, we describe the industrial perspective of modern gene synthesis and its relationship with synthetic biology. Gene synthesis contributed significantly to the emergence of synthetic biology by not only providing the genetic material in high quality and quantity but also enabling its assembly, according to engineering design principles, in a standardized format. Synthetic biology on the other hand, added the need for assembling complex circuits and large complexes, thus fostering the development of appropriate methods and expanding the scope of applications. Synthetic biology has also stimulated interdisciplinary collaboration as well as integration of the broader public by addressing socioeconomic, philosophical, ethical, political, and legal opportunities and concerns. The demand-driven technological achievements of gene synthesis and the implemented processes are exemplified by an industrial setting of large-scale gene synthesis, describing production from order to delivery. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Scaling Effects on Materials Tribology: From Macro to Micro Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanov, Pantcho; Chromik, Richard R

    2017-05-18

    The tribological study of materials inherently involves the interaction of surface asperities at the micro to nanoscopic length scales. This is the case for large scale engineering applications with sliding contacts, where the real area of contact is made up of small contacting asperities that make up only a fraction of the apparent area of contact. This is why researchers have sought to create idealized experiments of single asperity contacts in the field of nanotribology. At the same time, small scale engineering structures known as micro- and nano-electromechanical systems (MEMS and NEMS) have been developed, where the apparent area of contact approaches the length scale of the asperities, meaning the real area of contact for these devices may be only a few asperities. This is essentially the field of microtribology, where the contact size and/or forces involved have pushed the nature of the interaction between two surfaces towards the regime where the scale of the interaction approaches that of the natural length scale of the features on the surface. This paper provides a review of microtribology with the purpose to understand how tribological processes are different at the smaller length scales compared to macrotribology. Studies of the interfacial phenomena at the macroscopic length scales (e.g., using in situ tribometry) will be discussed and correlated with new findings and methodologies at the micro-length scale.

  4. Dynamic critical behaviour and scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oezoguz, B.E.

    2001-01-01

    Traditionally the scaling is the property of dynamical systems at thermal equilibrium. In second order phase transitions scaling behaviour is due to the infinite correlation length around the critical point. In first order phase transitions however, the correlation length remains finite and a different type of scaling can be observed. For first order phase transitions all singularities are governed by the volume of the system. Recently, a different type of scaling, namely dynamic scaling has attracted attention in second order phase transitions. In dynamic scaling, when a system prepared at high temperature is quenched to the critical temperature, it exhibits scaling behaviour. Dynamic scaling has been applied to various spin systems and the validity of the arguments are shown. Firstly, in this thesis project the dynamic scaling is applied to 4-dimensional using spin system which exhibits second order phase transition with mean-field critical indices. Secondly, it is shown that although the dynamic is quite different, first order phase transitions also has a different type of dynamic scaling

  5. Plague and Climate: Scales Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ari, Tamara; Neerinckx, Simon; Gage, Kenneth L.; Kreppel, Katharina; Laudisoit, Anne; Leirs, Herwig; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

    2011-01-01

    Plague is enzootic in wildlife populations of small mammals in central and eastern Asia, Africa, South and North America, and has been recognized recently as a reemerging threat to humans. Its causative agent Yersinia pestis relies on wild rodent hosts and flea vectors for its maintenance in nature. Climate influences all three components (i.e., bacteria, vectors, and hosts) of the plague system and is a likely factor to explain some of plague's variability from small and regional to large scales. Here, we review effects of climate variables on plague hosts and vectors from individual or population scales to studies on the whole plague system at a large scale. Upscaled versions of small-scale processes are often invoked to explain plague variability in time and space at larger scales, presumably because similar scale-independent mechanisms underlie these relationships. This linearity assumption is discussed in the light of recent research that suggests some of its limitations. PMID:21949648

  6. H2@Scale Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pivovar, Bryan

    2017-03-31

    Final report from the H2@Scale Workshop held November 16-17, 2016, at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory hosted a technology workshop to identify the current barriers and research needs of the H2@Scale concept. H2@Scale is a concept regarding the potential for wide-scale impact of hydrogen produced from diverse domestic resources to enhance U.S. energy security and enable growth of innovative technologies and domestic industries. Feedback received from a diverse set of stakeholders at the workshop will guide the development of an H2@Scale roadmap for research, development, and early stage demonstration activities that can enable hydrogen as an energy carrier at a national scale.

  7. Scaling structure loads for SMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Won; Song, Jeong Guk; Jeon, Sang Ho; Lim, Hak Kyu; Lee, Kwang Nam [KEPCO ENC, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    When the Seismic Margin Analysis(SMA) is conducted, the new structural load generation with Seismic Margin Earthquake(SME) is the time consuming work. For the convenience, EPRI NP 6041 suggests the scaling of the structure load. The report recommend that the fixed base(rock foundation) structure designed using either constant modal damping or modal damping ratios developed for a single material damping. For these cases, the SME loads can easily and accurately be calculated by scaling the spectral accelerations of the individual modes for the new SME response spectra. EPRI NP 6041 provides two simple methodologies for the scaling structure seismic loads which are the dominant frequency scaling methodology and the mode by mode scaling methodology. Scaling of the existing analysis to develop SME loads is much easier and more efficient than performing a new analysis. This paper is intended to compare the calculating results of two different methodologies.

  8. Scaling structure loads for SMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Won; Song, Jeong Guk; Jeon, Sang Ho; Lim, Hak Kyu; Lee, Kwang Nam

    2012-01-01

    When the Seismic Margin Analysis(SMA) is conducted, the new structural load generation with Seismic Margin Earthquake(SME) is the time consuming work. For the convenience, EPRI NP 6041 suggests the scaling of the structure load. The report recommend that the fixed base(rock foundation) structure designed using either constant modal damping or modal damping ratios developed for a single material damping. For these cases, the SME loads can easily and accurately be calculated by scaling the spectral accelerations of the individual modes for the new SME response spectra. EPRI NP 6041 provides two simple methodologies for the scaling structure seismic loads which are the dominant frequency scaling methodology and the mode by mode scaling methodology. Scaling of the existing analysis to develop SME loads is much easier and more efficient than performing a new analysis. This paper is intended to compare the calculating results of two different methodologies

  9. International Symposia on Scale Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Akihiko; Nakamura, Yuji; Kuwana, Kazunori

    2015-01-01

    This volume thoroughly covers scale modeling and serves as the definitive source of information on scale modeling as a powerful simplifying and clarifying tool used by scientists and engineers across many disciplines. The book elucidates techniques used when it would be too expensive, or too difficult, to test a system of interest in the field. Topics addressed in the current edition include scale modeling to study weather systems, diffusion of pollution in air or water, chemical process in 3-D turbulent flow, multiphase combustion, flame propagation, biological systems, behavior of materials at nano- and micro-scales, and many more. This is an ideal book for students, both graduate and undergraduate, as well as engineers and scientists interested in the latest developments in scale modeling. This book also: Enables readers to evaluate essential and salient aspects of profoundly complex systems, mechanisms, and phenomena at scale Offers engineers and designers a new point of view, liberating creative and inno...

  10. Contact kinematics of biomimetic scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Ranajay; Ebrahimi, Hamid; Vaziri, Ashkan, E-mail: vaziri@coe.neu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States)

    2014-12-08

    Dermal scales, prevalent across biological groups, considerably boost survival by providing multifunctional advantages. Here, we investigate the nonlinear mechanical effects of biomimetic scale like attachments on the behavior of an elastic substrate brought about by the contact interaction of scales in pure bending using qualitative experiments, analytical models, and detailed finite element (FE) analysis. Our results reveal the existence of three distinct kinematic phases of operation spanning linear, nonlinear, and rigid behavior driven by kinematic interactions of scales. The response of the modified elastic beam strongly depends on the size and spatial overlap of rigid scales. The nonlinearity is perceptible even in relatively small strain regime and without invoking material level complexities of either the scales or the substrate.

  11. Drift Scale THM Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutqvist, J.

    2004-01-01

    This model report documents the drift scale coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical (THM) processes model development and presents simulations of the THM behavior in fractured rock close to emplacement drifts. The modeling and analyses are used to evaluate the impact of THM processes on permeability and flow in the near-field of the emplacement drifts. The results from this report are used to assess the importance of THM processes on seepage and support in the model reports ''Seepage Model for PA Including Drift Collapse'' and ''Abstraction of Drift Seepage'', and to support arguments for exclusion of features, events, and processes (FEPs) in the analysis reports ''Features, Events, and Processes in Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport and Features, Events, and Processes: Disruptive Events''. The total system performance assessment (TSPA) calculations do not use any output from this report. Specifically, the coupled THM process model is applied to simulate the impact of THM processes on hydrologic properties (permeability and capillary strength) and flow in the near-field rock around a heat-releasing emplacement drift. The heat generated by the decay of radioactive waste results in elevated rock temperatures for thousands of years after waste emplacement. Depending on the thermal load, these temperatures are high enough to cause boiling conditions in the rock, resulting in water redistribution and altered flow paths. These temperatures will also cause thermal expansion of the rock, with the potential of opening or closing fractures and thus changing fracture permeability in the near-field. Understanding the THM coupled processes is important for the performance of the repository because the thermally induced permeability changes potentially effect the magnitude and spatial distribution of percolation flux in the vicinity of the drift, and hence the seepage of water into the drift. This is important because a sufficient amount of water must be available within a

  12. Scale symmetry and virial theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westenholz, C. von

    1978-01-01

    Scale symmetry (or dilatation invariance) is discussed in terms of Noether's Theorem expressed in terms of a symmetry group action on phase space endowed with a symplectic structure. The conventional conceptual approach expressing invariance of some Hamiltonian under scale transformations is re-expressed in alternate form by infinitesimal automorphisms of the given symplectic structure. That is, the vector field representing scale transformations leaves the symplectic structure invariant. In this model, the conserved quantity or constant of motion related to scale symmetry is the virial. It is shown that the conventional virial theorem can be derived within this framework

  13. Large-scale solar purchasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The principal objective of the project was to participate in the definition of a new IEA task concerning solar procurement (''the Task'') and to assess whether involvement in the task would be in the interest of the UK active solar heating industry. The project also aimed to assess the importance of large scale solar purchasing to UK active solar heating market development and to evaluate the level of interest in large scale solar purchasing amongst potential large scale purchasers (in particular housing associations and housing developers). A further aim of the project was to consider means of stimulating large scale active solar heating purchasing activity within the UK. (author)

  14. Natural Scales in Geographical Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Telmo; Roth, Camille

    2017-04-01

    Human mobility is known to be distributed across several orders of magnitude of physical distances, which makes it generally difficult to endogenously find or define typical and meaningful scales. Relevant analyses, from movements to geographical partitions, seem to be relative to some ad-hoc scale, or no scale at all. Relying on geotagged data collected from photo-sharing social media, we apply community detection to movement networks constrained by increasing percentiles of the distance distribution. Using a simple parameter-free discontinuity detection algorithm, we discover clear phase transitions in the community partition space. The detection of these phases constitutes the first objective method of characterising endogenous, natural scales of human movement. Our study covers nine regions, ranging from cities to countries of various sizes and a transnational area. For all regions, the number of natural scales is remarkably low (2 or 3). Further, our results hint at scale-related behaviours rather than scale-related users. The partitions of the natural scales allow us to draw discrete multi-scale geographical boundaries, potentially capable of providing key insights in fields such as epidemiology or cultural contagion where the introduction of spatial boundaries is pivotal.

  15. Generic maximum likely scale selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Loog, Marco; Markussen, Bo

    2007-01-01

    in this work is on applying this selection principle under a Brownian image model. This image model provides a simple scale invariant prior for natural images and we provide illustrative examples of the behavior of our scale estimation on such images. In these illustrative examples, estimation is based......The fundamental problem of local scale selection is addressed by means of a novel principle, which is based on maximum likelihood estimation. The principle is generally applicable to a broad variety of image models and descriptors, and provides a generic scale estimation methodology. The focus...

  16. « Simplifier l’orthographe, oui, mais... ». Attentes, réserves et ambivalences dans les discours d’enseignant.e.s sur ce que serait une « bonne » réforme de l’orthographe française

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available L’orthographe française est source de difficultés, d’insécurité, de fierté et d’attitudes d’ambivalentes. Elle est également, en raison même de cette ambivalence des attitudes à son égard, l’objet de débats récurrents sur l’opportunité d’une réforme. Un groupe de recherche international a entrepris d’évaluer l’existence d’une demande sociale en matière de réforme de l’orthographe du français. Une enquête par questionnaires a été menée dans 6 pays francophones auprès de plus de 1700 enseignants et futurs enseignants de français. À des degrés divers selon les pays et le statut professionnel des sujets, une majorité des personnes est favorable à une rationalisation du système graphique du français. Ainsi, de façon schématique, les réponses obtenues en Algérie et au Maroc sont plus favorables à une réforme que celles recueillies dans les pays francophones du nord (Belgique, France, Québec, Suisse. Les enseignants en poste sont plus disposés à accepter une réforme que les futurs enseignants encore en formation, et plus particulièrement les enseignants du premier degré (directement et quotidiennement confrontés à l’enseignement des règles que ceux du secondaire. De façon plus ciblée, la présente contribution s’intéresse à ce que les témoins répondent à la question de savoir ce que serait pour eux/elles une « bonne » réforme de l’orthographe. Pour ce faire, nous avons mené une analyse thématique des discours recueillis dans les réponses libres à une question ouverte. Cela nous a permis d’identifier des propositions que nous avons regroupé en blocs thématiques, au sein desquels on peut dégager deux grandes tendances. En effet il ressort des discours des répondants une polarisation marquée autour de deux attitudes. •L’une, pragmatique, se manifeste dans des propos favorables à une simplification de certains points de la norme graphique, principalement

  17. Collider Scaling and Cost Estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.B.

    1986-01-01

    This paper deals with collider cost and scaling. The main points of the discussion are the following ones: 1) scaling laws and cost estimation: accelerating gradient requirements, total stored RF energy considerations, peak power consideration, average power consumption; 2) cost optimization; 3) Bremsstrahlung considerations; 4) Focusing optics: conventional, laser focusing or super disruption. 13 refs

  18. Voice, Schooling, Inequality, and Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, James

    2013-01-01

    The rich studies in this collection show that the investigation of voice requires analysis of "recognition" across layered spatial-temporal and sociolinguistic scales. I argue that the concepts of voice, recognition, and scale provide insight into contemporary educational inequality and that their study benefits, in turn, from paying attention to…

  19. Spiritual Competency Scale: Further Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Stephanie F.; Robertson, Linda A.; Gill, Carman S.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a follow-up analysis of the Spiritual Competency Scale, which initially validated ASERVIC's (Association for Spiritual, Ethical and Religious Values in Counseling) spiritual competencies. The study examined whether the factor structure of the Spiritual Competency Scale would be supported by participants (i.e., ASERVIC…

  20. Scaling as an Organizational Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papazu, Irina Maria Clara Hansen; Nelund, Mette

    2018-01-01

    Organization studies have shown limited interest in the part that scaling plays in organizational responses to climate change and sustainability. Moreover, while scales are viewed as central to the diagnosis of the organizational challenges posed by climate change and sustainability, the role...... turn something as immense as the climate into a small and manageable problem, thus making abstract concepts part of concrete, organizational practice....

  1. The Assertiveness Scale for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeler, Elizabeth; Rimmer, Susan M.

    1981-01-01

    Described an assertiveness scale for children developed to assess four dimensions of assertiveness across three categories of interpersonal situations. The scale was administered to elementary and middle school children (N=609) and readministered to students (N=164) to assess test-retest reliability. Test-retest reliability was low while internal…

  2. On the Geologic Time Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gradstein, F.M.; Ogg, J.G.; Hilgen, F.J.

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes the international divisions and ages in the Geologic Time Scale, published in 2012 (GTS2012). Since 2004, when GTS2004 was detailed, major developments have taken place that directly bear and have considerable impact on the intricate science of geologic time scaling. Precam

  3. A Scale of Mobbing Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Erkan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to develop the Mobbing Impacts Scale and to examine its validity and reliability analyses. The sample of study consisted of 509 teachers from Sakarya. In this study construct validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliabilities and item analysis of the scale were examined. As a result of factor analysis for…

  4. Znamenny scale – fait accompli?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei Yaropolov

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The author addresses one of the most sensitive topics of Znamenny chant: its scale. He tries to restore the “burned bridges” between ideographic and staff-notation of the Chant as he redefines and essentially generalizes the concept of scale as such. The possibility to artificially construct ad hoc many scales sounding sometimes very similar to the scale suggested by the modern staff-notation is a serious argument to regard the “staff-notation based” deciphering from the 17th century (dvoeznamenniki a pure game of chance. The constructed scales, presented in the paper, are different to “keyboard diatonica” and from one another and are never subject to the unified theorizing (unified nomenclature of degrees, etc. Critically commented is the practice to uncontrollably use the trivial pitch-symbols for deciphering, which ipso facto makes the probabilistic steps of unknown scales look as the ill-founded deviations from the diatonic scale steps, which are currently in use in the common musical education. This practice hinders the chance to acknowledge the right of the remote musical culture to rest on foundations that can be formulated both positively and explicitly, all the more so, as the usage of paleographic signs looks rather consistent. The resemblances and differences between musical cultures may be treated more liberally since no scale is seen a norm. The author is based on the writings of Russian musicologist and organologist Felix Raudonikas.

  5. Large-scale data analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Gkoulalas-Divanis, Aris

    2014-01-01

    Provides cutting-edge research in large-scale data analytics from diverse scientific areas Surveys varied subject areas and reports on individual results of research in the field Shares many tips and insights into large-scale data analytics from authors and editors with long-term experience and specialization in the field

  6. Gravitation on large scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud, E.

    A sample of dwarf and spiral galaxies with extended rotation curves is analysed, assuming that the fraction of dark matter is small. The objective of the paper is to prepare a framework for a theory, based on fundamental principles, that would give fits of the same quality as the phenomenology of dark halos. The following results are obtained: 1) The geodesics of massive systems with low density (Class I galaxies) can be described by the metric ds^2 = b^{-1}(r)dr^2 - b(r)dt^2 + r^2 dOmega^2 where b(r) = 1 - {2 over c^2}({{GM} over r} + gamma_f M^{1/2}) In this expression Gamma_f is a new fundamental constant which has been deduced from rotation curves of galaxies with circular velocity V_c^2 >= 2 {{GM} over r} for all r 2) The above metric is deduced from the conformal invariant metric ds^2 = B^{-1}(r)dr^2 - B(r)dt^2 + r^2 dOmega^2 where B(r) = 1 - {2 over c^2}({{GM} over r} + Gamma_f M^{1/2} + {1 over 3} {Gamma_f^2 over G}r) through a linear transform, u, of the linear special group SL(2, R) 3) The term {2 over c^2}Gamma_f M^{1/2} accounts for the difference between the observed rotation velocity and the Newtonian velocity. The term {2 over {3c^2}}{Gamma_f^2 over G}r is interpreted as a scale invariance between systems of different masses and sizes. 4) The metric B is a vacuum solution around a mass M deduced from the least action principle applied to the unique action I_a = -2 a int (-g)^{1/2} [R_{mu kappa}R^{ mu kappa} - 1/3(Ralphaalpha)^2] dx^4 built with the conformal Weyl tensor 5) For galaxies such that there is a radius, r_0, at which {{GM} over r_0} = Gamma M^{1/2} (Class II), the term Gamma M^{1/2} might be confined by the Newtonian potential yielding stationary solutions. 6) The analysed rotation curves of Class II galaxies are indeed well described with metrics of the form b(r) = 1 - {2 over c^2}({{GM} over r} + (n + 1) Gamma_0 M^{1/2}) where n is an integer and Gamma_0 = {1 over the square root of 3}Gamma_f 7) The effective potential is determined and

  7. Dynamic inequalities on time scales

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Ravi; Saker, Samir

    2014-01-01

    This is a monograph devoted to recent research and results on dynamic inequalities on time scales. The study of dynamic inequalities on time scales has been covered extensively in the literature in recent years and has now become a major sub-field in pure and applied mathematics. In particular, this book will cover recent results on integral inequalities, including Young's inequality, Jensen's inequality, Holder's inequality, Minkowski's inequality, Steffensen's inequality, Hermite-Hadamard inequality and Čebyšv's inequality. Opial type inequalities on time scales and their extensions with weighted functions, Lyapunov type inequalities, Halanay type inequalities for dynamic equations on time scales, and Wirtinger type inequalities on time scales and their extensions will also be discussed here in detail.

  8. Entanglement scaling in lattice systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audenaert, K M R [Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Imperial College London, 53 Prince' s Gate, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2PG (United Kingdom); Cramer, M [QOLS, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Eisert, J [Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Imperial College London, 53 Prince' s Gate, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2PG (United Kingdom); Plenio, M B [Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Imperial College London, 53 Prince' s Gate, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2PG (United Kingdom)

    2007-05-15

    We review some recent rigorous results on scaling laws of entanglement properties in quantum many body systems. More specifically, we study the entanglement of a region with its surrounding and determine its scaling behaviour with its size for systems in the ground and thermal states of bosonic and fermionic lattice systems. A theorem connecting entanglement between a region and the rest of the lattice with the surface area of the boundary between the two regions is presented for non-critical systems in arbitrary spatial dimensions. The entanglement scaling in the field limit exhibits a peculiar difference between fermionic and bosonic systems. In one-spatial dimension a logarithmic divergence is recovered for both bosonic and fermionic systems. In two spatial dimensions in the setting of half-spaces however we observe strict area scaling for bosonic systems and a multiplicative logarithmic correction to such an area scaling in fermionic systems. Similar questions may be posed and answered in classical systems.

  9. GUT Scale Fermion Mass Ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinrath, Martin

    2014-01-01

    We present a series of recent works related to group theoretical factors from GUT symmetry breaking which lead to predictions for the ratios of quark and lepton Yukawa couplings at the unification scale. New predictions for the GUT scale ratios y μ /y s , y τ /y b and y t /y b in particular are shown and compared to experimental data. For this comparison it is important to include possibly large supersymmetric threshold corrections. Due to this reason the structure of the fermion masses at the GUT scale depends on TeV scale physics and makes GUT scale physics testable at the LHC. We also discuss how this new predictions might lead to predictions for mixing angles by discussing the example of the recently measured last missing leptonic mixing angle θ 13 making this new class of GUT models also testable in neutrino experiments

  10. Early life adverse experiences and the effect on parenting stress and schizotypal symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Hugill, Melanie; Fletcher, Ian; Berry, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    A robust amount of research indicates that childhood adverse experiences can have a detrimental impact on later relational experiences and mental health as an adult. Adverse childhood experiences, such as childhood sexual abuse (CSA), or other interpersonal traumas can affect the formation of secure attachments to caregivers. These insecure attachment styles persist into adulthood, affecting all subsequent relationships including that between parent and child. This thesis firstly examines the...

  11. Convergent Validity of Four Innovativeness Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Ronald E.

    1986-01-01

    Four scales of innovativeness were administered to two samples of undergraduate students: the Open Processing Scale, Innovativeness Scale, innovation subscale of the Jackson Personality Inventory, and Kirton Adaption-Innovation Inventory. Intercorrelations indicated the scales generally exhibited convergent validity. (GDC)

  12. Cardiac Depression Scale: Mokken scaling in heart failure patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ski Chantal F

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a high prevalence of depression in patients with heart failure (HF that is associated with worsening prognosis. The value of using a reliable and valid instrument to measure depression in this population is therefore essential. We validated the Cardiac Depression Scale (CDS in heart failure patients using a model of ordinal unidimensional measurement known as Mokken scaling. Findings We administered in face-to-face interviews the CDS to 603 patients with HF. Data were analysed using Mokken scale analysis. Items of the CDS formed a statistically significant unidimensional Mokken scale of low strength (H0.8. Conclusions The CDS has a hierarchy of items which can be interpreted in terms of the increasingly serious effects of depression occurring as a result of HF. Identifying an appropriate instrument to measure depression in patients with HF allows for early identification and better medical management.

  13. Scale-by-scale contributions to Lagrangian particle acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalescu, Cristian C.; Wilczek, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Fluctuations on a wide range of scales in both space and time are characteristic of turbulence. Lagrangian particles, advected by the flow, probe these fluctuations along their trajectories. In an effort to isolate the influence of the different scales on Lagrangian statistics, we employ direct numerical simulations (DNS) combined with a filtering approach. Specifically, we study the acceleration statistics of tracers advected in filtered fields to characterize the smallest temporal scales of the flow. Emphasis is put on the acceleration variance as a function of filter scale, along with the scaling properties of the relevant terms of the Navier-Stokes equations. We furthermore discuss scaling ranges for higher-order moments of the tracer acceleration, as well as the influence of the choice of filter on the results. Starting from the Lagrangian tracer acceleration as the short time limit of the Lagrangian velocity increment, we also quantify the influence of filtering on Lagrangian intermittency. Our work complements existing experimental results on intermittency and accelerations of finite-sized, neutrally-buoyant particles: for the passive tracers used in our DNS, feedback effects are neglected such that the spatial averaging effect is cleanly isolated.

  14. On inertial range scaling laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, J.C.

    1994-12-01

    Inertial-range scaling laws for two- and three-dimensional turbulence are re-examined within a unified framework. A new correction to Kolmogorov's k -5/3 scaling is derived for the energy inertial range. A related modification is found to Kraichnan's logarithmically corrected two-dimensional enstrophy cascade law that removes its unexpected divergence at the injection wavenumber. The significance of these corrections is illustrated with steady-state energy spectra from recent high-resolution closure computations. The results also underscore the asymptotic nature of inertial-range scaling laws. Implications for conventional numerical simulations are discussed

  15. Geometric scaling as traveling waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munier, S.; Peschanski, R.

    2003-01-01

    We show the relevance of the nonlinear Fisher and Kolmogorov-Petrovsky-Piscounov (KPP) equation to the problem of high energy evolution of the QCD amplitudes. We explain how the traveling wave solutions of this equation are related to geometric scaling, a phenomenon observed in deep-inelastic scattering experiments. Geometric scaling is for the first time shown to result from an exact solution of nonlinear QCD evolution equations. Using general results on the KPP equation, we compute the velocity of the wave front, which gives the full high energy dependence of the saturation scale

  16. Straight scaling FFAG beam line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagrange, J.-B.; Planche, T.; Yamakawa, E.; Uesugi, T.; Ishi, Y.; Kuriyama, Y.; Qin, B.; Okabe, K.; Mori, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Fixed field alternating gradient (FFAG) accelerators are recently subject to a strong revival. They are usually designed in a circular shape; however, it would be an asset to guide particles with no overall bend in this type of accelerator. An analytical development of a straight FFAG cell which keeps zero-chromaticity is presented here. A magnetic field law is thus obtained, called “straight scaling law”, and an experiment has been conducted to confirm this zero-chromatic law. A straight scaling FFAG prototype has been designed and manufactured, and horizontal phase advances of two different energies are measured. Results are analyzed to clarify the straight scaling law.

  17. Compositeness and the Fermi scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peccei, R.D.

    1984-01-01

    The positive attitude adopted up to now, due to the non-observation of effects of substructure, is that the compositeness scale Λ must be large: Λ > or approx. 1 TeV. Such a large value of Λ gives rise to two theoretical problems which I examine here, namely: 1) What dynamics yields light composite quarks and leptons (msub(f) < < Λ) and 2) What relation does the compositeness scale Λ have with the Fermi scale Λsub(F) = (√2 Gsub(F))sup(-1/2) approx.= 250 GeV. (orig./HSI)

  18. Straight scaling FFAG beam line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagrange, J.-B.; Planche, T.; Yamakawa, E.; Uesugi, T.; Ishi, Y.; Kuriyama, Y.; Qin, B.; Okabe, K.; Mori, Y.

    2012-11-01

    Fixed field alternating gradient (FFAG) accelerators are recently subject to a strong revival. They are usually designed in a circular shape; however, it would be an asset to guide particles with no overall bend in this type of accelerator. An analytical development of a straight FFAG cell which keeps zero-chromaticity is presented here. A magnetic field law is thus obtained, called "straight scaling law", and an experiment has been conducted to confirm this zero-chromatic law. A straight scaling FFAG prototype has been designed and manufactured, and horizontal phase advances of two different energies are measured. Results are analyzed to clarify the straight scaling law.

  19. Japanese large-scale interferometers

    CERN Document Server

    Kuroda, K; Miyoki, S; Ishizuka, H; Taylor, C T; Yamamoto, K; Miyakawa, O; Fujimoto, M K; Kawamura, S; Takahashi, R; Yamazaki, T; Arai, K; Tatsumi, D; Ueda, A; Fukushima, M; Sato, S; Shintomi, T; Yamamoto, A; Suzuki, T; Saitô, Y; Haruyama, T; Sato, N; Higashi, Y; Uchiyama, T; Tomaru, T; Tsubono, K; Ando, M; Takamori, A; Numata, K; Ueda, K I; Yoneda, H; Nakagawa, K; Musha, M; Mio, N; Moriwaki, S; Somiya, K; Araya, A; Kanda, N; Telada, S; Sasaki, M; Tagoshi, H; Nakamura, T; Tanaka, T; Ohara, K

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the TAMA 300 interferometer was to develop advanced technologies for kilometre scale interferometers and to observe gravitational wave events in nearby galaxies. It was designed as a power-recycled Fabry-Perot-Michelson interferometer and was intended as a step towards a final interferometer in Japan. The present successful status of TAMA is presented. TAMA forms a basis for LCGT (large-scale cryogenic gravitational wave telescope), a 3 km scale cryogenic interferometer to be built in the Kamioka mine in Japan, implementing cryogenic mirror techniques. The plan of LCGT is schematically described along with its associated R and D.

  20. Hidden scale invariance of metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummel, Felix; Kresse, Georg; Dyre, Jeppe C.

    2015-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of 58 liquid elements at their triple point show that most metals exhibit near proportionality between the thermal fluctuations of the virial and the potential energy in the isochoric ensemble. This demonstrates a general “hidden” scale invariance...... of metals making the condensed part of the thermodynamic phase diagram effectively one dimensional with respect to structure and dynamics. DFT computed density scaling exponents, related to the Grüneisen parameter, are in good agreement with experimental values for the 16 elements where reliable data were...... available. Hidden scale invariance is demonstrated in detail for magnesium by showing invariance of structure and dynamics. Computed melting curves of period three metals follow curves with invariance (isomorphs). The experimental structure factor of magnesium is predicted by assuming scale invariant...

  1. Parity at the Planck scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzano, Michele; Gubitosi, Giulia; Magueijo, João

    2018-06-01

    We explore the possibility that well known properties of the parity operator, such as its idempotency and unitarity, might break down at the Planck scale. Parity might then do more than just swap right and left polarized states and reverse the sign of spatial momentum k: it might generate superpositions of right and left handed states, as well as mix momenta of different magnitudes. We lay down the general formalism, but also consider the concrete case of the Planck scale kinematics governed by κ-Poincaré symmetries, where some of the general features highlighted appear explicitly. We explore some of the observational implications for cosmological fluctuations. Different power spectra for right handed and left handed tensor modes might actually be a manifestation of deformed parity symmetry at the Planck scale. Moreover, scale-invariance and parity symmetry appear deeply interconnected.

  2. Scaling of graphene integrated circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Massimiliano; Guerriero, Erica; Fiocco, Marco; Alberti, Ruggero; Polloni, Laura; Behnam, Ashkan; Carrion, Enrique A; Pop, Eric; Sordan, Roman

    2015-05-07

    The influence of transistor size reduction (scaling) on the speed of realistic multi-stage integrated circuits (ICs) represents the main performance metric of a given transistor technology. Despite extensive interest in graphene electronics, scaling efforts have so far focused on individual transistors rather than multi-stage ICs. Here we study the scaling of graphene ICs based on transistors from 3.3 to 0.5 μm gate lengths and with different channel widths, access lengths, and lead thicknesses. The shortest gate delay of 31 ps per stage was obtained in sub-micron graphene ROs oscillating at 4.3 GHz, which is the highest oscillation frequency obtained in any strictly low-dimensional material to date. We also derived the fundamental Johnson limit, showing that scaled graphene ICs could be used at high frequencies in applications with small voltage swing.

  3. Large scale structure and baryogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirilova, D.P.; Chizhov, M.V.

    2001-08-01

    We discuss a possible connection between the large scale structure formation and the baryogenesis in the universe. An update review of the observational indications for the presence of a very large scale 120h -1 Mpc in the distribution of the visible matter of the universe is provided. The possibility to generate a periodic distribution with the characteristic scale 120h -1 Mpc through a mechanism producing quasi-periodic baryon density perturbations during inflationary stage, is discussed. The evolution of the baryon charge density distribution is explored in the framework of a low temperature boson condensate baryogenesis scenario. Both the observed very large scale of a the visible matter distribution in the universe and the observed baryon asymmetry value could naturally appear as a result of the evolution of a complex scalar field condensate, formed at the inflationary stage. Moreover, for some model's parameters a natural separation of matter superclusters from antimatter ones can be achieved. (author)

  4. Morocco - Small-Scale Fisheries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The final performance evaluation roadmap for the Small-Scale Fisheries Project (PPA-MCC) is developed using a grid constructed around indicators relating to Project...

  5. Minimum scaling laws in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.Z.; Mahajan, S.M.

    1986-10-01

    Scaling laws governing anomalous electron transport in tokamaks with ohmic and/or auxiliary heating are derived using renormalized Vlasov-Ampere equations for low frequency electromagnetic microturbulence. It is also shown that for pure auxiliary heating (or when auxiliary heating power far exceeds the ohmic power), the energy confinement time scales as tau/sub E/ ∼ P/sub inj//sup -1/3/, where P/sub inj/ is the injected power

  6. Scale issues in remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Weng, Qihao

    2014-01-01

    This book provides up-to-date developments, methods, and techniques in the field of GIS and remote sensing and features articles from internationally renowned authorities on three interrelated perspectives of scaling issues: scale in land surface properties, land surface patterns, and land surface processes. The book is ideal as a professional reference for practicing geographic information scientists and remote sensing engineers as well as a supplemental reading for graduate level students.

  7. Large-scale grid management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langdal, Bjoern Inge; Eggen, Arnt Ove

    2003-01-01

    The network companies in the Norwegian electricity industry now have to establish a large-scale network management, a concept essentially characterized by (1) broader focus (Broad Band, Multi Utility,...) and (2) bigger units with large networks and more customers. Research done by SINTEF Energy Research shows so far that the approaches within large-scale network management may be structured according to three main challenges: centralization, decentralization and out sourcing. The article is part of a planned series

  8. Normalization of emotion control scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojatoolah Tahmasebian

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emotion control skill teaches the individuals how to identify their emotions and how to express and control them in various situations. The aim of this study was to normalize and measure the internal and external validity and reliability of emotion control test. Methods: This standardization study was carried out on a statistical society, including all pupils, students, teachers, nurses and university professors in Kermanshah in 2012, using Williams’ emotion control scale. The subjects included 1,500 (810 females and 690 males people who were selected by stratified random sampling. Williams (1997 emotion control scale, was used to collect the required data. Emotional Control Scale is a tool for measuring the degree of control people have over their emotions. This scale has four subscales, including anger, depressed mood, anxiety and positive affect. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software using correlation and Cronbach's alpha tests. Results: The results of internal consistency of the questionnaire reported by Cronbach's alpha indicated an acceptable internal consistency for emotional control scale, and the correlation between the subscales of the test and between the items of the questionnaire was significant at 0.01 confidence level. Conclusion: The validity of emotion control scale among the pupils, students, teachers, nurses and teachers in Iran has an acceptable range, and the test itemswere correlated with each other, thereby making them appropriate for measuring emotion control.

  9. The Menopause Rating Scale (MRS scale: A methodological review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strelow Frank

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper compiles data from different sources to get a first comprehensive picture of psychometric and other methodological characteristics of the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS scale. The scale was designed and standardized as a self-administered scale to (a to assess symptoms/complaints of aging women under different conditions, (b to evaluate the severity of symptoms over time, and (c to measure changes pre- and postmenopause replacement therapy. The scale became widespread used (available in 10 languages. Method A large multinational survey (9 countries in 4 continents from 2001/ 2002 is the basis for in depth analyses on reliability and validity of the MRS. Additional small convenience samples were used to get first impressions about test-retest reliability. The data were centrally analyzed. Data from a postmarketing HRT study were used to estimate discriminative validity. Results Reliability measures (consistency and test-retest stability were found to be good across countries, although the sample size for test-retest reliability was small. Validity: The internal structure of the MRS across countries was astonishingly similar to conclude that the scale really measures the same phenomenon in symptomatic women. The sub-scores and total score correlations were high (0.7–0.9 but lower among the sub-scales (0.5–0.7. This however suggests that the subscales are not fully independent. Norm values from different populations were presented showing that a direct comparison between Europe and North America is possible, but caution recommended with comparisons of data from Latin America and Indonesia. But this will not affect intra-individual comparisons within clinical trials. The comparison with the Kupperman Index showed sufficiently good correlations, illustrating an adept criterion-oriented validity. The same is true for the comparison with the generic quality-of-life scale SF-36 where also a sufficiently close association

  10. Analyzing the proximity to cover in a landscape of fear: a new approach applied to fine-scale habitat use by rabbits facing feral cat predation on Kerguelen archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierrick Blanchard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Although proximity to cover has been routinely considered as an explanatory variable in studies investigating prey behavioral adjustments to predation pressure, the way it shapes risk perception still remains equivocal. This paradox arises from both the ambivalent nature of cover as potentially both obstructive and protective, making its impact on risk perception complex and context-dependent, and from the choice of the proxy used to measure proximity to cover in the field, which leads to an incomplete picture of the landscape of fear experienced by the prey. Here, we study a simple predator-prey-habitat system, i.e., rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus facing feral cat Felis catus predation on Kerguelen archipelago. We assess how cover shapes risk perception in prey and develop an easily implementable field method to improve the estimation of proximity to cover. In contrast to protocols considering the “distance to nearest cover”, we focus on the overall “area to cover”. We show that fine-scale habitat use by rabbits is clearly related to our measure, in accordance with our hypothesis of higher risk in patches with smaller area to cover in this predator-prey-habitat system. In contrast, classical measures of proximity to cover are not retained in the best predictive models of habitat use. The use of this new approach, together with a more in-depth consideration of contrasting properties of cover, could help to better understand the role of this complex yet decisive parameter for predator-prey ecology.

  11. Mokken scaling of the Myocardial Infarction Dimensional Assessment Scale (MIDAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David R; Watson, Roger

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the hierarchical and cumulative nature of the 35 items of the Myocardial Infarction Dimensional Assessment Scale (MIDAS), a disease-specific health-related quality of life measure. Data from 668 participants who completed the MIDAS were analysed using the Mokken Scaling Procedure, which is a computer program that searches polychotomous data for hierarchical and cumulative scales on the basis of a range of diagnostic criteria. Fourteen MIDAS items were retained in a Mokken scale and these items included physical activity, insecurity, emotional reaction and dependency items but excluded items related to diet, medication or side-effects. Item difficulty, in item response theory terms, ran from physical activity items (low difficulty) to insecurity, suggesting that the most severe quality of life effect of myocardial infarction is loneliness and isolation. Items from the MIDAS form a strong and reliable Mokken scale, which provides new insight into the relationship between items in the MIDAS and the measurement of quality of life after myocardial infarction. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. The Torino Impact Hazard Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binzel, Richard P.

    2000-04-01

    Newly discovered asteroids and comets have inherent uncertainties in their orbit determinations owing to the natural limits of positional measurement precision and the finite lengths of orbital arcs over which determinations are made. For some objects making predictable future close approaches to the Earth, orbital uncertainties may be such that a collision with the Earth cannot be ruled out. Careful and responsible communication between astronomers and the public is required for reporting these predictions and a 0-10 point hazard scale, reported inseparably with the date of close encounter, is recommended as a simple and efficient tool for this purpose. The goal of this scale, endorsed as the Torino Impact Hazard Scale, is to place into context the level of public concern that is warranted for any close encounter event within the next century. Concomitant reporting of the close encounter date further conveys the sense of urgency that is warranted. The Torino Scale value for a close approach event is based upon both collision probability and the estimated kinetic energy (collision consequence), where the scale value can change as probability and energy estimates are refined by further data. On the scale, Category 1 corresponds to collision probabilities that are comparable to the current annual chance for any given size impactor. Categories 8-10 correspond to certain (probability >99%) collisions having increasingly dire consequences. While close approaches falling Category 0 may be no cause for noteworthy public concern, there remains a professional responsibility to further refine orbital parameters for such objects and a figure of merit is suggested for evaluating such objects. Because impact predictions represent a multi-dimensional problem, there is no unique or perfect translation into a one-dimensional system such as the Torino Scale. These limitations are discussed.

  13. The Internet Gaming Disorder Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmens, Jeroen S; Valkenburg, Patti M; Gentile, Douglas A

    2015-06-01

    Recently, the American Psychiatric Association included Internet gaming disorder (IGD) in the appendix of the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). The main aim of the current study was to test the reliability and validity of 4 survey instruments to measure IGD on the basis of the 9 criteria from the DSM-5: a long (27-item) and short (9-item) polytomous scale and a long (27-item) and short (9-item) dichotomous scale. The psychometric properties of these scales were tested among a representative sample of 2,444 Dutch adolescents and adults, ages 13-40 years. Confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that the structural validity (i.e., the dimensional structure) of all scales was satisfactory. Both types of assessment (polytomous and dichotomous) were also reliable (i.e., internally consistent) and showed good criterion-related validity, as indicated by positive correlations with time spent playing games, loneliness, and aggression and negative correlations with self-esteem, prosocial behavior, and life satisfaction. The dichotomous 9-item IGD scale showed solid psychometric properties and was the most practical scale for diagnostic purposes. Latent class analysis of this dichotomous scale indicated that 3 groups could be discerned: normal gamers, risky gamers, and disordered gamers. On the basis of the number of people in this last group, the prevalence of IGD among 13- through 40-year-olds in the Netherlands is approximately 4%. If the DSM-5 threshold for diagnosis (experiencing 5 or more criteria) is applied, the prevalence of disordered gamers is more than 5%. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Fusion power economy of scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, T.J.

    1993-01-01

    In the next 50 yr, the world will need to develop hundreds of gigawatts of non-fossil-fuel energy sources for production of electricity and fuels. Nuclear fusion can probably provide much of the required energy economically, if large single-unit power plants are acceptable. Large power plants are more common than most people realize: There are already many multiple-unit power plants producing 2 to 5 GW(electric) at a single site. The cost of electricity (COE) from fusion energy is predicted to scale as COE ∼ COE 0 (P/P 0 ) -n , where P is the electrical power, the subscript zero denotes reference values, and the exponent n ∼ 0.36 to 0.7 in various designs. The validity ranges of these scalings are limited and need to be extended by future work. The fusion power economy of scale derives from four interrelated effects: improved operations and maintenance costs; scaling of equipment unit costs; a geometric effect that increases the mass power density; and reduction of the recirculating power fraction. Increased plasma size also relaxes the required confinement parameters: For the same neutron wall loading, larger tokamaks can use lower magnetic fields. Fossil-fuel power plants have a weaker economy of scale than fusion because the fuel costs constitute much of their COE. Solar and wind power plants consist of many small units, so they have little economy of scale. Fission power plants have a strong economy of scale but are unable to exploit it because the maximum unit size is limited by safety concerns. Large, steady-state fusion reactors generating 3 to 6 GW(electric) may be able to produce electricity for 4 to 5 cents/kW·h, which would be competitive with other future energy sources. 38 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs

  15. Copper atomic-scale transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fangqing; Kavalenka, Maryna N; Röger, Moritz; Albrecht, Daniel; Hölscher, Hendrik; Leuthold, Jürgen; Schimmel, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    We investigated copper as a working material for metallic atomic-scale transistors and confirmed that copper atomic-scale transistors can be fabricated and operated electrochemically in a copper electrolyte (CuSO 4 + H 2 SO 4 ) in bi-distilled water under ambient conditions with three microelectrodes (source, drain and gate). The electrochemical switching-on potential of the atomic-scale transistor is below 350 mV, and the switching-off potential is between 0 and -170 mV. The switching-on current is above 1 μA, which is compatible with semiconductor transistor devices. Both sign and amplitude of the voltage applied across the source and drain electrodes ( U bias ) influence the switching rate of the transistor and the copper deposition on the electrodes, and correspondingly shift the electrochemical operation potential. The copper atomic-scale transistors can be switched using a function generator without a computer-controlled feedback switching mechanism. The copper atomic-scale transistors, with only one or two atoms at the narrowest constriction, were realized to switch between 0 and 1 G 0 ( G 0 = 2e 2 /h; with e being the electron charge, and h being Planck's constant) or 2 G 0 by the function generator. The switching rate can reach up to 10 Hz. The copper atomic-scale transistor demonstrates volatile/non-volatile dual functionalities. Such an optimal merging of the logic with memory may open a perspective for processor-in-memory and logic-in-memory architectures, using copper as an alternative working material besides silver for fully metallic atomic-scale transistors.

  16. Resiliency Scale (RS): Scale Development, Reliability and Validity Study

    OpenAIRE

    GÜRGAN, Uğur

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a new Resiliency Scale (RS) for Turkish samples. Various items from some major resiliency scales, most of them with some partial change, were collected and a pool of 228 items containing almost all possible resilience areas were obtained. This item-pool was administered to a college sample of 419. Resulting of analysis 50 item RS were obtained and administered to a new college sample of 112 participants. This second sample has also received the Rosenba...

  17. Scale Construction: Motivation and Relationship Scale in Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus Emre Demir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of Motivation and Relationship Scale (MRS, (Raufelder , Drury , Jagenow , Hoferichter & Bukowski , 2013.Participants were 526 students of secondary school. The results of confirmatory factor analysis described that the 21 items loaded three factor and the three-dimensional model was well fit (x2= 640.04, sd= 185, RMSEA= .068, NNFI= .90, CFI = .91, IFI=.91,SRMR=079, GFI= .90,AGFI=.87. Overall findings demonstrated that this scale is a valid and indicates that the adapted MRS is a valid instrument for measuring secondary school children’s motivation in Turkey.

  18. Scaling laws of Rydberg excitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckötter, J.; Freitag, M.; Fröhlich, D.; Aßmann, M.; Bayer, M.; Semina, M. A.; Glazov, M. M.

    2017-09-01

    Rydberg atoms have attracted considerable interest due to their huge interaction among each other and with external fields. They demonstrate characteristic scaling laws in dependence on the principal quantum number n for features such as the magnetic field for level crossing or the electric field of dissociation. Recently, the observation of excitons in highly excited states has allowed studying Rydberg physics in cuprous oxide crystals. Fundamentally different insights may be expected for Rydberg excitons, as the crystal environment and associated symmetry reduction compared to vacuum give not only optical access to many more states within an exciton multiplet but also extend the Hamiltonian for describing the exciton beyond the hydrogen model. Here we study experimentally and theoretically the scaling of several parameters of Rydberg excitons with n , for some of which we indeed find laws different from those of atoms. For others we find identical scaling laws with n , even though their origin may be distinctly different from the atomic case. At zero field the energy splitting of a particular multiplet n scales as n-3 due to crystal-specific terms in the Hamiltonian, e.g., from the valence band structure. From absorption spectra in magnetic field we find for the first crossing of levels with adjacent principal quantum numbers a Br∝n-4 dependence of the resonance field strength, Br, due to the dominant paramagnetic term unlike for atoms for which the diamagnetic contribution is decisive, resulting in a Br∝n-6 dependence. By contrast, the resonance electric field strength shows a scaling as Er∝n-5 as for Rydberg atoms. Also similar to atoms with the exception of hydrogen we observe anticrossings between states belonging to multiplets with different principal quantum numbers at these resonances. The energy splittings at the avoided crossings scale roughly as n-4, again due to crystal specific features in the exciton Hamiltonian. The data also allow us to

  19. Divertor scaling laws for tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catto, P.J.; Krasheninnikov, S.I.; Connor, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    The breakdown of two body scaling laws is illustrated by using the two dimensional plasma code UEDGE coupled to an advanced Navier-Stokes neutrals transport package to model attached and detached regimes in a simplified geometry. Two body similarity scalings are used as benchmarks for runs retaining non-two body modifications due to the effects of (i) multi-step processes altering ionization and radiation via the excited states of atomic hydrogen and (ii) three body recombination. Preliminary investigations indicate that two body scaling interpretations of experimental data fail due to (i) multi-step processes when a significant region of the plasma exceeds a plasma density of 10 19 m -3 , or (ii) three body recombination when there is a significant region in which the temperature is ≤1 eV while the plasma density is ≥10 20 m -3 . These studies demonstrate that two body scaling arguments are often inappropriate in the divertor and the first results for alternate scalings are presented. (orig.)

  20. Scales of Natural Flood Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Alex; Quinn, Paul; Owen, Gareth; Hetherington, David; Piedra Lara, Miguel; O'Donnell, Greg

    2016-04-01

    The scientific field of Natural flood Management (NFM) is receiving much attention and is now widely seen as a valid solution to sustainably manage flood risk whilst offering significant multiple benefits. However, few examples exist looking at NFM on a large scale (>10km2). Well-implemented NFM has the effect of restoring more natural catchment hydrological and sedimentological processes, which in turn can have significant flood risk and WFD benefits for catchment waterbodies. These catchment scale improvements in-turn allow more 'natural' processes to be returned to rivers and streams, creating a more resilient system. Although certain NFM interventions may appear distant and disconnected from main stem waterbodies, they will undoubtedly be contributing to WFD at the catchment waterbody scale. This paper offers examples of NFM, and explains how they can be maximised through practical design across many scales (from feature up to the whole catchment). New tools to assist in the selection of measures and their location, and to appreciate firstly, the flooding benefit at the local catchment scale and then show a Flood Impact Model that can best reflect the impacts of local changes further downstream. The tools will be discussed in the context of our most recent experiences on NFM projects including river catchments in the north east of England and in Scotland. This work has encouraged a more integrated approach to flood management planning that can use both traditional and novel NFM strategies in an effective and convincing way.

  1. Visions of Atomic Scale Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, T.F.; Miller, Michael K.; Rajan, Krishna; Ringer, S.P.

    2012-01-01

    A microscope, by definition, provides structural and analytical information about objects that are too small to see with the unaided eye. From the very first microscope, efforts to improve its capabilities and push them to ever-finer length scales have been pursued. In this context, it would seem that the concept of an ultimate microscope would have received much attention by now; but has it really ever been defined? Human knowledge extends to structures on a scale much finer than atoms, so it might seem that a proton-scale microscope or a quark-scale microscope would be the ultimate. However, we argue that an atomic-scale microscope is the ultimate for the following reason: the smallest building block for either synthetic structures or natural structures is the atom. Indeed, humans and nature both engineer structures with atoms, not quarks. So far as we know, all building blocks (atoms) of a given type are identical; it is the assembly of the building blocks that makes a useful structure. Thus, would a microscope that determines the position and identity of every atom in a structure with high precision and for large volumes be the ultimate microscope? We argue, yes. In this article, we consider how it could be built, and we ponder the answer to the equally important follow-on questions: who would care if it is built, and what could be achieved with it?

  2. Pair plasma relaxation time scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenov, A G; Ruffini, R; Vereshchagin, G V

    2010-04-01

    By numerically solving the relativistic Boltzmann equations, we compute the time scale for relaxation to thermal equilibrium for an optically thick electron-positron plasma with baryon loading. We focus on the time scales of electromagnetic interactions. The collisional integrals are obtained directly from the corresponding QED matrix elements. Thermalization time scales are computed for a wide range of values of both the total-energy density (over 10 orders of magnitude) and of the baryonic loading parameter (over 6 orders of magnitude). This also allows us to study such interesting limiting cases as the almost purely electron-positron plasma or electron-proton plasma as well as intermediate cases. These results appear to be important both for laboratory experiments aimed at generating optically thick pair plasmas as well as for astrophysical models in which electron-positron pair plasmas play a relevant role.

  3. Scaling and prescaling in quarkonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, R.C.; Joshi, G.C.

    1979-01-01

    Recent experiments in the upsilon region indicate the quark mass dependence of quark-antiquark bound state properties. Classes of quark-antiquark potentials exhibiting scaling of energy level spacing with quark mass are presented, and the importance of mass dependence of bound state properties in investigating the nature of the potential is emphasised. The scaling potentials considered are V=V(msup(1/2)r), which exhibits constant level spacing, and V=bmsup(α)rsup(β), and its generalizations, which has scaling of energy levels controlled by the exponents α and β. The class of potentials yielding constant level spacing is shown to be consistent with the interpretation of the state recently observed at 9.46 GeV in e + e - annihilations as a bound state of a new quark and antiquark with esub(p)=1/3

  4. The Satisfaction With Life Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, E; Emmons, R A; Larsen, R J; Griffin, S

    1985-02-01

    This article reports the development and validation of a scale to measure global life satisfaction, the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Among the various components of subjective well-being, the SWLS is narrowly focused to assess global life satisfaction and does not tap related constructs such as positive affect or loneliness. The SWLS is shown to have favorable psychometric properties, including high internal consistency and high temporal reliability. Scores on the SWLS correlate moderately to highly with other measures of subjective well-being, and correlate predictably with specific personality characteristics. It is noted that the SWLS is Suited for use with different age groups, and other potential uses of the scale are discussed.

  5. Bench-scale/field-scale interpretations: Session overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, A.B.; Peyton, B.M.

    1995-04-01

    In situ bioremediation involves complex interactions between biological, chemical, and physical processes and requires integration of phenomena operating at scales ranging from that of a microbial cell (10 -6 ) to that of a remediation site (10 to 1000 m). Laboratory investigations of biodegradation are usually performed at a relatively small scale, governed by convenience, cost, and expedience. However, extending the results from a laboratory-scale experimental system to the design and operation of a field-scale system introduces (1) additional mass transport mechanisms and limitations; (2) the presence of multiple phases, contants, and competing microorganisms (3) spatial geologic heterogeneities; and (4) subsurface environmental factors that may inhibit bacterial growth such as temperature, pH, nutrient, or redox conditions. Field bioremediation rates may be limited by the availability of one of the necessary constituents for biotransformation: substrate, contaminant, electron acceptor, nutrients, or microorganisms capable of degrading the target compound. The factor that limits the rate of bioremediation may not be the same in the laboratory as it is in the field, thereby leading, to development of unsuccessful remediation strategies

  6. Status of xi-scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Politzer, H.D.

    1977-01-01

    The logic of the xi-scaling analysis of inclusive lepton-hadron scattering is reviewed with the emphasis on clarifying what is assumed and what is predicted. The physics content of several recent papers, which purport to criticize this analysis, in fact confirm its validity and utility. For clarity, concentration is placed on the orthodox operator product analysis of electroproduction, local duality and precocious scaling. Other physics discussed includes the successes of QCD in the rate of charm production in muon inelastic scattering and in the energy--momentum sum rule. Gluons

  7. Shadowing in the scaling region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, G.

    1989-01-01

    The approximate scaling behaviour of the shadowing effect at small χ, recently observed in deep inelastic muon scattering experiments on nuclei, is shown to arise naturally at very large ν in those hadron dominance models, formulated many years ago, which are dual to the parton model. At smaller ν small scale breaking effects are expected, which sould die away as ν increases. The predicted shadowing decreases rapidly with increasing χ, at a rate which is only weakly dependent on the atomic number A for reasonably large A. (orig.)

  8. Learning From the Furniture Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvejsel, Marie Frier; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2018-01-01

    Given its proximity to the human body, the furniture scale holds a particular potential in grasping the fundamental aesthetic potential of architecture to address its inhabitants by means of spatial ‘gestures’. Likewise, it holds a technical germ in realizing this potential given its immediate...... tangibility allowing experimentation with the ‘principles’ of architectural construction. In present paper we explore this dual tectonic potential of the furniture scale as an epistemological foundation in architectural education. In this matter, we discuss the conduct of a master-level course where we...

  9. Pelamis WEC - intermediate scale demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yemm, R.

    2003-07-01

    This report describes the successful building and commissioning of an intermediate 1/7th scale model of the Pelamis Wave Energy Converter (WEC) and its testing in the wave climate of the Firth of Forth. Details are given of the design of the semi-submerged articulated structure of cylindrical elements linked by hinged joints. The specific programme objectives and conclusions, development issues addressed, and key remaining risks are discussed along with development milestones to be passed before the Pelamis WEC is ready for full-scale prototype testing.

  10. Organizational Scale and School Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, James W.

    1979-01-01

    The relationship between the organizational scale of schooling (school and school district size) and school success is examined. The history of the movement toward larger school units, the evidence of the effects of that movement, and possible research strategies for further investigation of the issue are discussed. (JKS)

  11. Scaling up of renewable chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Karl; Chotani, Gopal; Danielson, Nathan; Zahn, James A

    2016-04-01

    The transition of promising technologies for production of renewable chemicals from a laboratory scale to commercial scale is often difficult and expensive. As a result the timeframe estimated for commercialization is typically underestimated resulting in much slower penetration of these promising new methods and products into the chemical industries. The theme of 'sugar is the next oil' connects biological, chemical, and thermochemical conversions of renewable feedstocks to products that are drop-in replacements for petroleum derived chemicals or are new to market chemicals/materials. The latter typically offer a functionality advantage and can command higher prices that result in less severe scale-up challenges. However, for drop-in replacements, price is of paramount importance and competitive capital and operating expenditures are a prerequisite for success. Hence, scale-up of relevant technologies must be interfaced with effective and efficient management of both cell and steel factories. Details involved in all aspects of manufacturing, such as utilities, sterility, product recovery and purification, regulatory requirements, and emissions must be managed successfully. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Metrology at the nano scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheridan, B.; Cumpson, P.; Bailey, M.

    2006-01-01

    Progress in nano technology relies on ever more accurate measurements of quantities such as distance, force and current industry has long depended on accurate measurement. In the 19th century, for example, the performance of steam engines was seriously limited by inaccurately made components, a situation that was transformed by Henry Maudsley's screw micrometer calliper. And early in the 20th century, the development of telegraphy relied on improved standards of electrical resistance. Before this, each country had its own standards and cross border communication was difficult. The same is true today of nano technology if it is to be fully exploited by industry. Principles of measurement that work well at the macroscopic level often become completely unworkable at the nano metre scale - about 100 nm and below. Imaging, for example, is not possible on this scale using optical microscopes, and it is virtually impossible to weigh a nano metre-scale object with any accuracy. In addition to needing more accurate measurements, nano technology also often requires a greater variety of measurements than conventional technology. For example, standard techniques used to make microchips generally need accurate length measurements, but the manufacture of electronics at the molecular scale requires magnetic, electrical, mechanical and chemical measurements as well. (U.K.)

  13. Inviscid criterion for decomposing scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dongxiao; Aluie, Hussein

    2018-05-01

    The proper scale decomposition in flows with significant density variations is not as straightforward as in incompressible flows, with many possible ways to define a "length scale." A choice can be made according to the so-called inviscid criterion [Aluie, Physica D 24, 54 (2013), 10.1016/j.physd.2012.12.009]. It is a kinematic requirement that a scale decomposition yield negligible viscous effects at large enough length scales. It has been proved [Aluie, Physica D 24, 54 (2013), 10.1016/j.physd.2012.12.009] recently that a Favre decomposition satisfies the inviscid criterion, which is necessary to unravel inertial-range dynamics and the cascade. Here we present numerical demonstrations of those results. We also show that two other commonly used decompositions can violate the inviscid criterion and, therefore, are not suitable to study inertial-range dynamics in variable-density and compressible turbulence. Our results have practical modeling implication in showing that viscous terms in Large Eddy Simulations do not need to be modeled and can be neglected.

  14. Geometric scaling in exclusive processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munier, S.; Wallon, S.

    2003-01-01

    We show that according to the present understanding of the energy evolution of the observables measured in deep-inelastic scattering, the photon-proton scattering amplitude has to exhibit geometric scaling at each impact parameter. We suggest a way to test this experimentally at HERA. A qualitative analysis based on published data is presented and discussed. (orig.)

  15. An Assertiveness Scale for Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Yul; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Developed a 33-item, situation-specific instrument that measures assertiveness of adolescents. Based on data from 682 elementary and secondary school students, adequate reliability and validity of the Assertiveness Scale for Adolescents (ASA) were obtained when tested against several variables about which predictions could be made. (BH)

  16. A Feminist Family Therapy Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Leora; Piercy, Fred P.

    1991-01-01

    Reports on development and psychometric properties of Feminist Family Therapy Scale (FFTS), a 17-item instrument intended to reflect degree to which family therapists conceptualize process of family therapy from feminist-informed perspective. Found that the instrument discriminated between self-identified feminists and nonfeminists, women and men,…

  17. National Image Interpretablility Rating Scales

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Interactive Media Element This presentation media demonstrates the NIIRS scale and resolution numbers and presents a problem statement to help the student gain an intuitive understanding of the numbers. Last modified: 5/18/2009 ME3XXX Military Applications of Unmanned Air Vehicles/Remotely Operated Aircraft (UAV/ROA)

  18. Animal coloration: sexy spider scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lisa A; McGraw, Kevin J

    2007-08-07

    Many male jumping spiders display vibrant colors that are used in visual communication. A recent microscopic study on a jumping spider from Singapore shows that three-layered 'scale sandwiches' of chitin and air are responsible for producing their brilliant iridescent body coloration.

  19. Salzburger State Reactance Scale (SSR Scale): Validation of a Scale Measuring State Reactance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittenthaler, Sandra; Traut-Mattausch, Eva; Steindl, Christina; Jonas, Eva

    This paper describes the construction and empirical evaluation of an instrument for measuring state reactance, the Salzburger State Reactance (SSR) Scale. The results of a confirmatory factor analysis supported a hypothesized three-factor structure: experience of reactance, aggressive behavioral intentions, and negative attitudes. Correlations with divergent and convergent measures support the validity of this structure. The SSR Subscales were strongly related to the other state reactance measures. Moreover, the SSR Subscales showed modest positive correlations with trait measures of reactance. The SSR Subscales correlated only slightly or not at all with neighboring constructs (e.g., autonomy, experience of control). The only exception was fairness scales, which showed moderate correlations with the SSR Subscales. Furthermore, a retest analysis confirmed the temporal stability of the scale. Suggestions for further validation of this questionnaire are discussed.

  20. Scale modelling in LMFBR safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cagliostro, D.J.; Florence, A.L.; Abrahamson, G.R.

    1979-01-01

    This paper reviews scale modelling techniques used in studying the structural response of LMFBR vessels to HCDA loads. The geometric, material, and dynamic similarity parameters are presented and identified using the methods of dimensional analysis. Complete similarity of the structural response requires that each similarity parameter be the same in the model as in the prototype. The paper then focuses on the methods, limitations, and problems of duplicating these parameters in scale models and mentions an experimental technique for verifying the scaling. Geometric similarity requires that all linear dimensions of the prototype be reduced in proportion to the ratio of a characteristic dimension of the model to that of the prototype. The overall size of the model depends on the structural detail required, the size of instrumentation, and the costs of machining and assemblying the model. Material similarity requires that the ratio of the density, bulk modulus, and constitutive relations for the structure and fluid be the same in the model as in the prototype. A practical choice of a material for the model is one with the same density and stress-strain relationship as the operating temperature. Ni-200 and water are good simulant materials for the 304 SS vessel and the liquid sodium coolant, respectively. Scaling of the strain rate sensitivity and fracture toughness of materials is very difficult, but may not be required if these effects do not influence the structural response of the reactor components. Dynamic similarity requires that the characteristic pressure of a simulant source equal that of the prototype HCDA for geometrically similar volume changes. The energy source is calibrated in the geometry and environment in which it will be used to assure that heat transfer between high temperature loading sources and the coolant simulant and that non-equilibrium effects in two-phase sources are accounted for. For the geometry and flow conitions of interest, the