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Sample records for schizophrenic patients registered

  1. Depression and Suicide in Schizophrenic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Aziz A.

    1988-01-01

    Identified schizophrenic patients as distinctive subgroup of patients who can suffer from major depressive illness and can commit suicide. Found 22.4 percent of 620 schizophrenics in psychiatric facility showed symptoms of major depressive episode. Seven patients committed suicide during acute phase of illness, 9 attempted suicide while…

  2. Rehabilitation of schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunatilake, S; Ananth, J; Parameswaran, S; Brown, S; Silva, W

    2004-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a maldevelopmental disorder of the brain that manifests in positive, negative, cognitive and affective symptoms. Currently, the mainstay of treatment involves pharmacotherapy. The limitations of antipsychotic treatment are that they can only control symptoms and cannot cure the illness, and 20% of patients do not respond, thus leading to the requirement of maintenance treatment. Patients that do respond continue to have disabling residual symptoms such as amotivation and isolation, maladaptive behavior, and impaired social functioning. These symptoms prevent patients from attaining educational, occupational, and social roles. Psychosocial interventions and models of quality of life in schizophrenia are based on the notion that increases in psychosocial functioning will be related to improvement in subjective experiences, such as self-esteem and satisfaction with life. The comparative effect of specific treatment methods and the additional benefits of multiple treatments need to be explored. Diversified techniques have also been employed, such as shaping, cognitive process therapy, mastery-oriented skill training, motivation and enhancement. Issues in designing psychosocial interventions and the role of various professionals in providing such interventions need to be carefully considered. Predictor variables and the indications for particular therapies in an individual need to be explored. Generalizability of the gains made by rehabilitation/recovery is also an important consideration. Patients in jail, chronic mental hospitals, private facilities, and the Veterans Administration system are all different in their ability to benefit, their motivations, and the severity of their psychopathology. Therefore, it is very difficult to generalize findings from one setting to another.

  3. Computed tomographic study of aged schizophrenic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seno, Haruo; Fujimoto, Akihiko; Ishino, Hiroshi; Shibata, Masahiro; Kuroda, Hiroyuki; Kanno, Hiroshi.

    1997-01-01

    The width of interhemispheric fissure, lateral ventricles and third ventricle were measured using cranial computed tomography (CT; linear method) in 45 elderly inpatients with chronic schizophrenia and in 28 age-matched control subjects. Twenty-three patients were men and 22 were women. In addition, Mini-Mental State Examination, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and a subclass of BPRS were undertaken in all patients. There is a significant enlargement of the maximum width of the interhemispheric fissure (in both male and female) and a significant enlargement of ventricular system (more severe in men than in women) in aged schizophrenics, as seen with CT, compared with normal controls. These findings are consistent with previous studies of non-aged schizophrenic patients. Based upon the relation between psychiatric symptoms and CT findings, the most striking is a significant negative correlation between the third ventricle enlargement and the positive and depressive symptoms in all patients. This result suggests that the advanced third ventricle enlargement may decrease these symptoms in aged schizophrenics. (author)

  4. Altered balance in the autonomic nervous system in schizophrenic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, B M; Mehlsen, J; Behnke, K

    1988-01-01

    .05). Heart-rate response to inspiration was greater in non-medicated schizophrenics compared to normal subjects (P less than 0.05), whereas no difference was found between medicated and non-medicated schizophrenics. The results show that the balance in the autonomic nervous system is altered in schizophrenic...... patients with a hyperexcitability in both the sympathetic and the parasympathetic division. Our study has thus indicated a dysfunction in the autonomic nervous system per se and the previous interpretations of attentional orienting responses in schizophrenia is questioned. Medication with neuroleptics......The aim of the present study was to evaluate the autonomic nervous function in schizophrenic patients. Twenty-eight patients (29 +/- 6 years) diagnosed as schizophrenics and in stable medication were included, together with ten schizophrenic patients (25 +/- 5 years) who were unmedicated. Eleven...

  5. Conditional Reasoning in Schizophrenic Patients.

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    Kornreich, Charles; Delle-Vigne, Dyna; Brevers, Damien; Tecco, Juan; Campanella, Salvatore; Noël, Xavier; Verbanck, Paul; Ermer, Elsa

    2017-01-01

    Conditional reasoning (if p then q) is used very frequently in everyday situations. Conditional reasoning is impaired in brain-lesion patients, psychopathy, alcoholism, and polydrug dependence. Many neurocognitive deficits have also been described in schizophrenia. We assessed conditional reasoning in 25 patients with schizophrenia, 25 depressive patients, and 25 controls, using the Wason selection task in three different domains: social contracts, precautionary rules, and descriptive rules. Control measures included depression, anxiety, and severity of schizophrenia measures as a Verbal Intelligence Scale. Patients with schizophrenia were significantly impaired on all conditional reasoning tasks compared to depressives and controls. However, the social contract and precautions tasks yielded better results than the descriptive tasks. Differences between groups disappeared for social contract but remained for precautions and descriptive tasks when verbal intelligence was used as a covariate. These results suggest that domain-specific reasoning mechanisms, proposed by evolutionary psychologists, are relatively resilient in the face of brain network disruptions that impair more general reasoning abilities. Nevertheless, patients with schizophrenia could encounter difficulties understanding precaution rules and social contracts in real-life situations resulting in unwise risk-taking and misunderstandings in the social world.

  6. Regional cerebral blood flow in schizophrenic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagawa, Katsuo; Sibuya, Isoo; Oiji, Arata; Kawakatsu, Sinobu; Morinobu, Shigeru; Totsuka, Shiro; Kinoshita, Osami; Yazaki, Mitsuyasu.

    1990-01-01

    Seventy-six schizophrenic patients were examined by a Xe-133 inhalation method to determine regional cerebral blood flow. A decreased blood flow was observed in the frontal lobe, especially in the right inferior part. In a study on the relationship between disease subtypes and regional cerebral blood flow, negative symptoms were found more predominantly associated with dissolution type than delusion type. In the group of dissolution type, a decreased blood flow was observed in both the right inferior frontal lobe and the right upper hemisphere, in comparison to the group of delution type. Patients presenting with auditory hallucination had a significantly higher incidence of both negative and positive symptoms, as compared with those not presenting with it. In such patients, a significantly decreased blood flow was also seen in the left upper frontal lobe and the bilateral parietal lobe. Xe-133 inhalation method should assist in evaluating brain function in schizophrenic patients, thus leading to the likelihood of developing a new treatment modality. (N.K.)

  7. Computerized spectral analyses of EEG in chronic schizophrenic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Haruhiro

    1985-01-01

    This study was aimed at clarifying the EEG difference between chronic schizophrenic patients and normal controls by using the EEG method of spectral analyses. Twelve comparatively homogenous chronic schizophrenic patients and the 10 healthy controls were subjected to EEG investigations. 1) The EEG of schizophrenic patients had a slowing tendency of the frequency in the frontal pole, anterior temporal and central regions of the scalp compared with control subjects. 2) There was a decrease of mutual relation among the five electrodes' peak frequency in the schizophrenic patients. 3) The EEG of schizophrenic patients had more fast waves of β 1 and β 2 band than that of control subjects. 4) A slowing tendency of the frequency in the first half regions of the scalp was not found in 3 chronic schizophrenic patients which showed defective functions in the frontal area by positron emission tomography. 5) When mental arithmetic was given, the schizophrenic patients showed an increase of fast wave in the central, posterior temporal and occipital regions of the scalp. 6) When they opened their eyes, attenuation in the α band was not so marked in the schizophrenic patients. (author)

  8. Family interaction: parental representation in schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onstad, S; Skre, I; Torgersen, S; Kringlen, E

    1994-01-01

    12 monozygotic (MZ) and 19 same-sexed dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs discordant for DSM-III-R schizophrenia completed the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). The schizophrenic twins described their parents as less caring and being more overprotective compared to their non-schizophrenic co-twins. These results were independent of age, sex and zygosity. Difference in paternal overprotection was the most important variable discriminating between the schizophrenic probands and their co-twins. Three different hypotheses regarding these findings are discussed.

  9. Measurement of plasma homovanillic acid concentrations in schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, R; Powchick, P; Warne, P A; Goldstein, M; McQueeney, R T; Davidson, M

    1990-01-01

    1. Several lines of evidence suggest that abnormalities of central dopaminergic transmission may be involved in the expression of some schizophrenic symptoms. However, elucidation of the role of dopamine (DA) in schizophrenia has eluded investigative efforts partially because no accurate and easily repeatable measure of brain DA activity exists. 2. The development of a technique to measure homovanillic acid in plasma has offered the possibility of performing serial measurements of this major DA metabolite. 3. Assuming that plasma homovanillic acid (PHVA) concentrations is an index of brain DA activity, measurement of PHVA can play a role in elucidating the DA abnormality in schizophrenia. 4. Results to date suggest that plasma homovanillic acid concentrations are lower in chronic schizophrenic patients compared to normal controls, and that PHVA values correlate with schizophrenic symptom severity. 5. In addition, PHVA levels were shown to initially rise and subsequently decline during chronic neuroleptic administration in treatment responsive but not in treatment refractory schizophrenic patients.

  10. Pitting temporal against spatial integration in schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Michael H; Brand, Andreas

    2009-06-30

    Schizophrenic patients show strong impairments in visual backward masking possibly caused by deficits on the early stages of visual processing. The underlying aberrant mechanisms are not clearly understood. Spatial as well as temporal processing deficits have been proposed. Here, by combining a spatial with a temporal integration paradigm, we show further evidence that temporal but not spatial processing is impaired in schizophrenic patients. Eleven schizophrenic patients and ten healthy controls were presented with sequences composed of Vernier stimuli. Patients needed significantly longer presentation times for sequentially presented Vernier stimuli to reach a performance level comparable to that of healthy controls (temporal integration deficit). When we added spatial contextual elements to some of the Vernier stimuli, performance changed in a complex but comparable manner in patients and controls (intact spatial integration). Hence, temporal but not spatial processing seems to be deficient in schizophrenia.

  11. Mortality and causes of death in first admitted schizophrenic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, P B; Juel, K

    1993-01-01

    Although many studies have shown an increased mortality in schizophrenic patients, the literature provides little information about mortality from specific causes in relation to age, gender, and duration of illness. This study examined mortality and causes of death in a total national sample...... of 9156 first admitted schizophrenic patients. Suicide accounted for 50% of deaths in men and 35% of deaths in women. Suicide risk was particularly increased during the first year of follow-up. Death from natural causes, with the exception of cancer and cerebrovascular diseases, was increased. Suicide...

  12. Refraction and eye anterior segment parameters in schizophrenic patients

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    Tongabay Cumurcu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the difference in terms of refractive errors and anterior segment parameters between schizophrenic patients and healthy volunteers. Methods: This study compared 70 patients (48 men who were diagnosed with schizophrenia with a control group of 60 (35 men who were similar in terms of age, gender, education, and socioeconomic level. Anterior segment examination was performed using a Scheimflug system. Axial length and lens thickness (LT were measured using optic biometry. The following tests were administered to the psychiatric patient group: Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS, Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS, and Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS. Results: Mild myopia was detected in both the schizophrenic and control groups, with no statistically significant difference (p>0.005. Corneal volume (CV, anterior chamber volume (ACV, anterior chamber depth (ACD, and central corneal thickness (CCT values were lower in the schizophrenic group, and there was a statistically significant between-group difference (p=0.026, p=0.014, p=0.048, and p=0.005, respectively. LT was greater in schizophrenics, and the difference was found to be statistically significant (p=0.006. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between SAPS and cylinder values (p=0.008. The axial eye length, cylinder value, pupil diameter, mean keratometric value, and anterior chamber angle revealed no statistically significant difference between the groups (p>0.05. Conclusion: No statistically significant difference was detected in terms of refraction disorders between schizophrenics and the healthy control group, while some differences in anterior chamber parameters were present. These results demonstrate that schizophrenics may exhibit clinical and structural differences in the eye.

  13. Unsuccessful Self-Enucleation in a Schizophrenic Patient

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    Noam Bar-Yaakov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-enucleation is a very unusual form of self-mutilation directly linked to mental illness. In this case we present a 26-year-old schizophrenic patient who attempted to enucleate his eye with a rollerball pen. Antipsychotic therapy and emergency surgery saved the patient eye and emphasize the importance of quick response and good collaboration between psychiatric and ophthalmic teams.

  14. Chronic pain and quality of life in schizophrenic patients

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    Jouce Gabriela de Almeida

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalence and characteristics of chronic pain in schizophrenic patients and to compare the quality of life in patients with and without chronic pain. METHODS: Crossover design with a probablistic sample of 205 adult schizophrenic outpatients (80% paranoid schizophrenia. Socio-demographic, psychiatric disorder, pain and quality of life (WHOQOL- brief data were collected between June and September 2008. RESULTS: Mean age was 37 years, 65% were men, and the mean time spent in school was 9 years; 87% were single, 65% lived with parents and 25% had a job. Among patients with chronic pain, 70% did not receive treatment for pain. Regarding quality of life, patients with pain had more physical disabilities compared to those without pain (p < .001. There were no differences in other domains. Comparisons between patients with and without pain did not show any differences in how much they felt their mental health problems disabled them. Conclusion: Chronic pain was common in schizophrenic patients (similar to the general population of a similar age and decreased their quality of life. It is necessary to pay more attention to this co-morbidity.

  15. Cotard Syndrome without Depressive Symptoms in a Schizophrenic Patient.

    OpenAIRE

    Morgado, P; Ribeiro, R; Cerqueira, JJ

    2015-01-01

    Cotard Syndrome without Depressive Symptoms in a Schizophrenic Patient Introduction . Cotard syndrome is a rare condition characterized by nihilistic delusions concerning body or life that can be found in several neuropsychiatry conditions. It is typically associated with depressive symptoms. Method . We present a case of Cotard syndrome without depressive symptoms in the context of known paranoid schizophrenia. A literature review of Cotard syndrome in schizophrenia was performed. Res...

  16. Nonlinear dynamics of electroencephalography study in schizophrenic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xing-shi; XU Yi-feng; TANG Yun-xiang; FANG Yi-ru; ZHANG Chen; ZHANG Ming-dao; LOU Fei-ying

    2013-01-01

    Background Few characteristic changes of linear electroencephalograph (EEG) have been reported in schizophrenia.The aim of the present study was to investigate the changes in temporal-spatial dimensional properties of EEG under different cognitive tasks in patients with schizophrenia.Methods EEG was recorded by using EEG-1518K system and mapping system (Nihon Kohden Tomioka Corporation,Japan) in 45 schizophrenic patients and 47 healthy adults (normal control,NC) under five states:eyes closed,eyes open,mental arithmetic test with eyes closed,memory test with eyes open,and number cancellation test.Correlation dimension (D2) and point-wise correlation dimension (PD2) were calculated for all EEG analyses.Results (1) There were no significant differences of D2 and PD2 between NC and schizophrenic patients under states of eyes open and closed.(2) Compared with NC,schizophrenic patients showed decreased performance of D2 in mental arithmetic test with eyes closed and number cancellation test (mental arithmetic test with eyes closed:Nc 5.9±0.6,Sch 3.0±0.8; number cancellation test:Nc 6.0±0.6,Sch 4.4±0.7; P <0.05 or P <0.01).(3) Schizophrenic patients also showed decrease performance of PD2 in mental arithmetic test with eyes closed,memory test with eyes open,and number cancellation test (mental arithmetic test with eyes closed:Nc 6.9±0.7,Sch 4.0±0.8; memory test with eyes open:Nc 6.6±0.8,Sch 5.0±0.9; number cancellation test:Nc 7.1±0.7,Sch 4.8±0.9; P <0.05 or P <0.01).Conclusions Nonlinear dynamic analysis provided a new approach in clinical investigation of EEG signals.It was helpful to further understand the cerebral mechanism in schizophrenic cognitive process.

  17. [Negative symptoms in patients with non schizophrenic psychiatric disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnoli, Vicente F; Moroni, María V; Cohen, Diego; Chisari Rocha, Liliana; Marleta, María; Sepich Dalmeida, Tomás; Bonani, Matías; D'Alessio, Luciana

    2011-01-01

    The presence of negative symptoms (NS) in different clinical entities other than schizophrenia, with a dimensional approach of negative symptoms, was considered in this work. Determine the presence and distribution of NS, in a population of patients with non schizophrenic psychiatric disorders attending ambulatory treatment at public hospitals. Patients with define DSM IV diagnosis criteria for different disorders; affective, alimentary, substance abuse, anxiety, personality disorders and patients with ILAE diagnoses criteria for temporal lobe epilepsy were included. All patients underwent the subscale PANNS for negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Student T test was calculated to determine the differences of frequency for NS among psychiatric disorders. 106 patients were included; 60 women, 46 men, 38 years +/- 12.1. The 90% of patients have a low score of NS. Media 11.6, Max/min 9.38 -14.29. Emotional withdrawal and passive social withdrawal were more frequent in alimentary disorders than in affective disorder and than in epilepsy. Emotional withdrawal was more frequent in substance disorders than epilepsy. According this study, negative symptoms are present in a low to moderate intensity in non schizophrenic psychiatry entities and in the temporal lobe epilepsy.

  18. A 12-month follow-up study of treating overweight schizophrenic patients with aripiprazole

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schorr, S. G.; Slooff, C. J.; Postema, R.; Van Oven, W.; Schilthuis, M.; Bruggeman, R.; Taxis, K.

    Objective: To investigate the feasibility of switching overweight schizophrenic patients to aripiprazole and to assess the impact of 12 months of aripiprazole treatment on weight in routine practice. Method: This was a non-controlled cohort study in overweight schizophrenic patients. Data were

  19. Models of treatment with antipsychotics of the schizophrenic patients

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    Svjetlana Loga-Zec

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study were to determine which antipsychotic are currently in use, to establish which doses are administrated to patients, to find out is there a practice of proscribing simultaneously more then one antipsychotic drug, to determine whether antipsychotic are proscribed in divided doses, to establish whether there is, besides antipsychotics, treatment with other medicaments (co-administration, especially with antiparkinsonics. The research (study is epidemiological-clinical prospective, descriptive and analytical and it was conducted at University hospitals in Sarajevo, Tuzla and Mostar. Criteria for inclusion, non-inclusion and exclusion from the study were precisely defined as a mean for formation of sample. Based on this hypothesis were established, zero and alterative. According to zero hypothesis in the treatment of schizophrenia at University hospitals in FBiH new antipsychotic drugs are in use, small doses are proscribed (up to 20 mg, not more then one antipsychotic drug is used simultaneously, antipsychotics are administrated once a day and alongside with antipsychotics other medicaments are not co-administrated, especially antiparkinsons. The results of our study are showing that majority of patients are treated with classical antipsychotics. Minority of patients is treated with atypical neuroleptics like olanzapine, which is proscribed only in Sarajevo. Use of risperidone and ziprasidone is registered also only in Sarajevo, but only small number of patients is treated with these drugs. Most frequent antipsychotics were promazine and haloperidol. The range between minimal and maximal daily dose of promazine was from 50 to 450 mg/daily, and for haloperidol from 1 to 75 mg/daily. Above-mentioned drugs were administrated in an average from two to three times a day. Alongside with antipsychotics, other drugs were used. Most frequent was the use of biperidine in oral and parenteral formulation, as

  20. Mortality and causes of death in schizophrenic patients in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, P B; Juel, K

    1990-01-01

    effects from neuroleptics was increased. Mortality from some causes of death used as a measurement of the quality of medical care was found to be slightly increased. Further studies of the quality of the medical care provided to schizophrenic patients and of the association between neuroleptic medication......A cohort consisting of 6178 people that were psychiatric inpatients with a clinical schizophrenia diagnosis in 1957 were followed up from 1957 through 1986, and their cause-specific mortality was determined. Mortality from cardiovascular diseases, lung diseases, gastrointestinal and urogenital...... disorders, accidents and suicide was increased, whereas mortality from cerebrovascular disorders was reduced. In the male patients cancer mortality was reduced whereas cancer mortality in the female patients was increased. Mortality from a number of causes that theoretically could be associated with side...

  1. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE IN A SAMPLE OF INSTITUTIONALIZED CHRONIC SCHIZOPHRENIC PATIENTS

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    Luis Maia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We study the results of a descriptive and exploratory study, with the intent to understand the results of a 21 male schizophrenic patients interned in a Portuguese Mental Health Care Centre, evaluated with neuropsychological test. We tried also to link these tests with variables such as schooling, family contact or lengh of internment. The assessment instruments were: Digits Series and Vocabulary Task, both from WAIS, Raven Progressive Matrices, Rey’s Complex Figures, Luria’s Series Neuropsychological Screening, Clock Task - Neuropsychological Screening and Visual Search and Attention Test. Results show that there is not an attention deficit clinically significant, even that data suggests light attention affection; also variables like family contact and schooling appear as protective factors of memory and also seems to be important for the planning / organization functions.

  2. Computerized EEG and brain imaging studies in untreated schizophrenic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyauchi, Toshiro; Kishimoto, Hideji; Hagimoto, Hiroshi; Fujita, Haruhiro; Tanaka, Kenkichi

    1993-01-01

    We undertook routine EEG, Z-map, CT and PET scans in seven acute untreated schizophrenics. Routine EEGs showed slower activity in only one case. However, the Z-map showed slower activity in all the cases. CT demonstrated brain atrophy in three of the cases, and PET revealed hypofrontality in two, right hypoparietality in four, and both conditions in one case. There was no relation between CT and PET or the Z-map. However, a significant increase in alpha 1 activity was demonstrated on the Z-map in cases who were found to be the parietal type on PET; this was not conspicuous in the frontal type on PET. Moreover, in three of the patients, the Z-map findings were similar to the lesion indicated on PET. (author)

  3. FAMILY EDUCATION IN MANAGEMENT OF SCHIZOPHRENIC AND MOOD DISORDER PATIENTS

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    GH GHASEMI

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The role of family as a preventive, promotive, and curative agent is well documented in mental health studies. However, few attempts have been made to engineer the positive family mechanisms in enhancing psychiatric patients' role performance. Methods. This study is an endeavor to demarcate the effect of family education on social functioning of 170 schizophrenics and 174 patients with mood disorders. Solomon's four group design allowed patients from each category to be assigned into four groups. Key family members from experimental groups participated in a one day monthly programmer over a period of six months. Attitude towards mental illness, family environment and skills in management of patient's verbal and non-verbal behaviors as well as patient's adjustment ability within the family, community and work place constituted the focus of this study. While applying batteries of test, data pertaining to the aforementioned characteristics were obtained from the subjects 6 and 18 months after intervention which were subsequently compared with the baseline data. Findings. Comparing the baseline data with the data pertaining to other phases of intervention, one could observe a regressively progressive change in the families' attitudinal, cognitive and behavioral aspects, allowed by the patients' desirable social adjustment. Conclusion. These observations are congruent with earlier findings in the west, reinforcing the promising role of education in bringing about desirable changes in the family dynamic which can ensure better outcome for the psychiatric patients' illness.

  4. The meaning of pharmacological treatment for schizophrenic patients.

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    Vedana, Kelly Graziani Giacchero; Miasso, Adriana Inocenti

    2014-01-01

    to understand the meaning of medication therapy for schizophrenic patients and formulate a theoretical model about the study phenomenon. a qualitative approach was employed, using Symbolic Interactionism as the theoretical and Grounded Theory as the methodological framework. The research was developed between 2008 and 2010 at three community mental health services in the interior of the State of São Paulo - Brazil. Thirty-six patients and thirty-six family members were selected through theoretical sampling. The data were mainly collected through open interviews and observation and simultaneously analyzed through open, axial and selective coding. the meaning of the pharmacotherapy is centered on the phenomenon "Living with a help that bothers", which expresses the patients' ambivalence towards the medication and determines their decision making. The insight, access, limitations for self-administration of the drugs and interactions with family members and the health team influenced the patient's medication-related behavior. the theory presented in this study provides a comprehensive, contextualized, motivational and dynamic understanding of the relation the patient experiences and indicates potentials and barriers to follow the medication treatment.

  5. The meaning of pharmacological treatment for schizophrenic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Graziani Giacchero Vedana

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to understand the meaning of medication therapy for schizophrenic patients and formulate a theoretical model about the study phenomenon.METHOD: a qualitative approach was employed, using Symbolic Interactionism as the theoretical and Grounded Theory as the methodological framework. The research was developed between 2008 and 2010 at three community mental health services in the interior of the State of São Paulo - Brazil. Thirty-six patients and thirty-six family members were selected through theoretical sampling. The data were mainly collected through open interviews and observation and simultaneously analyzed through open, axial and selective coding.RESULTS: the meaning of the pharmacotherapy is centered on the phenomenon "Living with a help that bothers", which expresses the patients' ambivalence towards the medication and determines their decision making. The insight, access, limitations for self-administration of the drugs and interactions with family members and the health team influenced the patient's medication-related behavior.CONCLUSION: the theory presented in this study provides a comprehensive, contextualized, motivational and dynamic understanding of the relation the patient experiences and indicates potentials and barriers to follow the medication treatment.

  6. The meaning of pharmacological treatment for schizophrenic patients1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedana, Kelly Graziani Giacchero; Miasso, Adriana Inocenti

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to understand the meaning of medication therapy for schizophrenic patients and formulate a theoretical model about the study phenomenon. METHOD: a qualitative approach was employed, using Symbolic Interactionism as the theoretical and Grounded Theory as the methodological framework. The research was developed between 2008 and 2010 at three community mental health services in the interior of the State of São Paulo - Brazil. Thirty-six patients and thirty-six family members were selected through theoretical sampling. The data were mainly collected through open interviews and observation and simultaneously analyzed through open, axial and selective coding. RESULTS: the meaning of the pharmacotherapy is centered on the phenomenon "Living with a help that bothers", which expresses the patients' ambivalence towards the medication and determines their decision making. The insight, access, limitations for self-administration of the drugs and interactions with family members and the health team influenced the patient's medication-related behavior. CONCLUSION: the theory presented in this study provides a comprehensive, contextualized, motivational and dynamic understanding of the relation the patient experiences and indicates potentials and barriers to follow the medication treatment. PMID:25296152

  7. Concentrations in plasma clozapine levels in schizophrenic and schizoaffective patients.

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    Iglesias García, Celso; Iglesias Alonso, Ana; Bobes, Julio

    There is great variability in plasma levels of clozapine. The objective of this study is to know the characteristics of patients treated with clozapine and the relationship between them and the variability of plasma levels. Descriptive, cross-sectional study of all patients currently treated with clozapine in a Psychiatric Service with a diagnosis of schizophrenic psychosis or schizoaffective disorder. The present study assessed physical situation, psychopathology and functionality of the patients and explored the associations and correlations between clinical variables and plasma levels. We studied 39 patients, predominantly men, with negative and depressive symptoms and cardiovascular risk factors (metabolic syndrome and smoking). Significant variability in dose and even greater in clozapine levels were observed. The levels of clozapine at equal doses/kg of body weight were higher in non-smokers, they had positive correlation with BMI and negative correlation with systolic BP, disruptive behaviors and number of cigarettes consumed. Plasma level monitoring clozapine is an important tool to avoid clozapine plasma levels monitoring and minimize undesirable clinical situations (metabolic syndrome, sedation, negative symptoms and functional impairment). It is also important to control the effects of a smoking habit for optimum drug bioavailability. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Visual interaction in recently admitted and chronic long-stay schizophrenic patients.

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    Rutter, D R

    1976-09-01

    Several reports have suggested that schizophrenic patients engage in very little Looking and eye-contact. However, previous work, much of it methodologically unsatisfactory, has been based almost always on the clinical psychiatric interview, with the result that several important questions remain unanswered. In particular, we do not know how schizophrenic patients behave in free conversation, how their behaviour with another patient may differ from their behaviour with a psychiatrically normal partner, nor even whether they show individual consistency across encounters. The first study was designed to examine these questions, by observing recently admitted schizophrenic patients in two free dyadic conversations, one with a schizophrenic partner and one with a psychiatrically normal partner, and comparing them with three control groups: depressive patients; patients suffering from neurotic or personality disorders; and psychiatrically normal chest patients. The second study went on to test whether the early descriptions of gross abnormality may be more appropriate to chronic long-stay patients than to recently admitted patients, and the design consisted of a comparison between the two groups. The first study revealed a quite unexpected pattern of results. Consistently across their two encounters, schizophrenic subjects behaved similarly for the most part to all three control groups, normal and abnormal alike. Moreover, the few differences which did emerge conflicted sharply with previous findings, including the writer's, and were no more marked in patient-patient than patient-normal encounters. The second study revealed no differences between chronic long-stay and recently admitted schizophrenic patients. It is suggested that the differences in findings between the present two studies and previous reports are most likely to be attributable to differences in verbal content: schizophrenic patients show abnormalities of visual interaction when talking about personal

  9. Prevalence of Cigarette Smoking in Schizophrenic Patients Compared to Other Hospital Admitted Psychiatric Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Ziaaddini, Hassan; Kheradmand, Ali; Vahabi, Mostafa

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of cigarette smoking and some of the related factors among schizophrenic and other hospitalized psychiatric patients. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study on 120 patients hospitalized in Shahid Beheshti hospital in Kerman in 2005. Patients were equally devided in two groups of schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. Sampling was based on statistical census and data were collected using a questionnaire including 27 questions o...

  10. Comparison of folic acid levels in schizophrenic patients and control groups

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    Arthy, C. C.; Amin, M. M.; Effendy, E.

    2018-03-01

    Folic acid deficiency is a risk factor for schizophrenia through epidemiology, biochemistry and gene-related studies. Compared with healthy people, schizophrenic patients may have high homocysteine plasma values and homocysteine or low levels of folic acid, which seems to correlate with extrapyramidal motor symptoms caused by neuroleptic therapy and with symptoms of schizophrenia. In this present study, we focus on the difference of folic acid level between schizophrenic patient and control group. The study sample consisted of schizophrenic patients and 14 people in the control group and performed blood sampling to obtain the results of folic acid levels. The folic acid level in both groups was within normal range, but the schizophrenic patient group had lower mean folic acid values of 5.00 ng/ml (sb 1.66), compared with the control group with mean folic acid values of 10.75 ng/ml (sb 4.33). there was the group of the control group had a higher value of folic acid than the schizophrenic group.

  11. P2-26: Comparison between Normal People and Schizophrenic Patients on Face Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yl-Woo Lee

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This research was tested to compare face recognition of normal people and schizophrenic patients. Frontal male faces were used as stimuli, which were Northeast Asian and Southeast Asian. Normal people and patients with positive/negative symptom of schizophrenia participated in this research, and all participants were Korean. Participants were instructed to memorize a stimulus (target presented briefly, and recognize it later among another stimuli (fillers. In recognition task, five faces were presented with a target or without as fillers. The results showed that while schizophrenic patients had difficulty recognizing targets, all participants performed best in the condition of other ethnic target-own ethnic fillers. These results suggest that own ethnicity effect could not be observed, and imply that face processing of schizophrenic patients might be disrupted by perception level rather than memory level.

  12. Increased concentration of. cap alpha. - and. gamma. -endorphin in post mortem hypothalamic tissue of schizophrenic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiegant, V.M.; Verhoef, C.J.; Burbach, J.P.H.; de Wied, D.

    1988-01-01

    The concentrations of ..cap alpha..-, ..beta..- and ..gamma..-endorphin were determined by radioimmunoassay in HPLC fractionated extracts of post mortem hypothalamic tissue obtained from schizophrenic patients and controls. The hypothalamic concentration of ..cap alpha..- and ..gamma..-endorphin was significantly higher in patients than in controls. No difference was found in the concentration of ..beta..-endorphin, the putative precursor of ..cap alpha..- and ..gamma..-endorphins. These results suggest a deviant metabolism of ..beta..-endorphin in the brain of schizophrenic patients. Whether this phenomenon is related to the psychopathology, or is a consequence of ante mortem farmacotherapy, remains to be established.

  13. Written but not oral verbal production is preserved in young schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomé, Franck; Boyer, Patrice; Fayol, Michel

    2002-08-30

    The aim of this study is to discover whether the language capabilities of young schizophrenic patients are more affected in speaking than in writing or whether the disorders are equivalent in the two modes. To do this, we compared spoken and written descriptions of pictures obtained from 10 schizophrenic patients with those produced by 10 control subjects. These productions were analysed on the basis of objective indices. The syntax and coherence of the productions were evaluated by judges. The comparison of the performances of the controls and schizophrenic patients supports the hypothesis that the latter suffer from a language disorder affecting the oral mode but impacting less frequently and less severely on the written mode. These results are discussed in the light of the cognitive mechanisms which may provide an explanation of these language disorders.

  14. Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness among Schizophrenic Patients and Their Families (Comparative Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Sahar; Zaki, Rania A.

    2015-01-01

    This study was a comparative study aiming to assess the extent of internalized stigma of mental illness among patients with schizophrenia & identify stigma as perceived by family members caring schizophrenic patients. The study was conducted in two settings 1st clinic was outpatient clinic for psychiatric patient affiliated to Abbasia…

  15. [Are schizophrenic patients being told their diagnosis today in France?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villani, M; Kovess-Masféty, V

    2017-04-01

    The progressive shifts in the legal and social contexts, along with major changes in information seeking habits with the development of the Internet, have placed patients' information at the core of medical practice. This has to be applied to the psychiatric fields as well, and to questions about how schizophrenic patients are being told their diagnosis nowadays in France. This paper is a national and international literature review about schizophrenia diagnosis disclosure practices, from 1972 to 2014, using French and English languages and various psychology and medical databases. The used key words were "diagnosis", "disclosure", "communication", "breaking bad news", "information", "schizophrenia" and "psychosis". Proportions of diagnosis announcement: our results show that the proportion of psychiatrists delivering schizophrenia diagnosis to their patients varies between countries. Although we must acknowledge that the questionnaires and samples are diverse, we have found that psychiatrists are in general less prone to deliver diagnosis information in France (from 13,5% to 39% given the studies), Germany (28%), Italy (30%), and Japan (30%), than in Anglo-Saxon countries. Thus, 70% of the psychiatrists in North America and 56% in Australia claim that they disclose their diagnosis to schizophrenic patients. In the United-Kingdom, a study targeting psychotic patients themselves has shown that 47% of them had been told their diagnosis by their doctor. Even in the countries where the proportion of diagnosis disclosure is the highest, there remains a substantial difference with other mental illnesses such as affective or anxiety disorders, which are almost always labeled as such in the information communicated to the patient (90% in North America). Diagnostic information about schizophrenia continues therefore to appear problematic for health professionals, which can seem a paradox given the recent social and legal evolutions, the therapeutic progress, the proved

  16. [Development of a proverb test for assessment of concrete thinking problems in schizophrenic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, A; Küfferle, B

    2001-11-01

    Concretism is considered an important aspect of schizophrenic thought disorder. Traditionally it is measured using the method of proverb interpretation, in which metaphoric proverbs are presented with the request that the subject tell its meaning. Interpretations are recorded and scored on concretistic tendencies. However, this method has two problems: its reliability is doubtful and it is rather complicated to perform. In this paper, a new version of a multiple choice proverb test is presented which can solve these problems in a reliable and economic manner. Using the new test, it is has been shown that schizophrenic patients have greater deficits in proverb interpretation than depressive patients.

  17. Dopamine transporter gene polymorphism and psychiatric symptoms seen in schizophrenic patients at their first episode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inada, Toshiya; Sugita, Tetsuyoshi; Dobashi, Izumi [National Institute of Mental Health, Chiba (Japan)] [and others

    1996-07-26

    To investigate the possible role of the dopamine transporter (DAT) gene in determining the phenotype in human subjects, allele frequencies for the 40-bp variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism at this site were compared between 117 Japanese normal controls and 118 schizophrenic patients, including six subgroups: early-onset, those with a family history, and those suffering from one of the following psychiatric symptoms at their first episode: delusion and hallucination; disorganization; bizarre behavior; and negative symptoms. No significant differences were observed between the group as a whole or any subgroup of schizophrenic patients and controls. The results indicate that VNTR polymorphism in the DAT gene is unlikely to be a major contributor to any of the psychiatric parameters examined in the present population of schizophrenic subjects. 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  18. Causal mechanisms of subjective cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenic and depressed patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bosch, RJ; Rombouts, RP

    We examined causal mechanisms of subjective cognitive (dis)abilities in schizophrenic and depressed patients, and in patient and normal control groups. This exploratory study included objective cognitive performance (Continuous Performance Task) as well as mood and mental effort ratings. Self-report

  19. Elevated glutamine/glutamate ratio in cerebrospinal fluid of first episode and drug naive schizophrenic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindström Leif H

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS studies report that glutamine is altered in the brains of schizophrenic patients. There were also conflicting findings on glutamate in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of schizophrenic patients, and absent for glutamine. This study aims to clarify the question of glutamine and glutamate in CSF of first episode and drug naive schizophrenic patients. Method Levels of glutamine and glutamate in CSF of 25 first episode and drug-naive male schizophrenic patients and 17 age-matched male healthy controls were measured by a high performance liquid chromatography. Results The ratio (126.1 (median, 117.7 ± 27.4 (mean ± S.D. of glutamine to glutamate in the CSF of patients was significantly (z = -3.29, p = 0.001 higher than that (81.01 (median, 89.1 ± 22.5 (mean ± S.D. of normal controls although each level of glutamine and glutamate in patients was not different from that of normal controls. Conclusion Our data suggests that a disfunction in glutamate-glutamine cycle in the brain may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

  20. Effectiveness of gratitude disposition promotion program on depression and quality of life of chronic schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Miran; Han, Kuemsun

    2017-01-01

    Gratitude intervention is expectedly an effective intervention to reduce depression and improve the quality of life in schizophrenic patients, but there is a lack of literature on it. We attempted to develop and test the effectiveness of the gratitude disposition promotion program for chronic schizophrenic patients in Korea. Nonequivalent control group pre- and post-test design was used in two mental health centers located at Gyeonggi-do in South Korea. This paper was a quasi-experimental study and the participants who took part in the gratitude disposition promotion program were 17 of experimental group and 15 of control group. Gratitude disposition (the short gratitude, resentment, and appreciation test), depression (Beck Depression Inventory), and quality of life (developed by Kook) of chronic schizophrenic patients were measured before and after an intervention, as compared to the control. Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and t -test were performed for prehomogeneity testing for variables related to the general characteristics. Testing for the effectiveness of gratitude disposition promotion program and hypothesis testing for its effect on depression and quality of life were by ANCOVA and t -test, as verified to significance level of P gratitude disposition promotion program showed significant improvements in gratitude disposition ( F = 18.740, P gratitude disposition promotion program was an effective clinical intervention program for enhancing gratitude disposition and quality of life of chronic schizophrenic patients in community.

  1. Does Pharmacogenetic Testing for CYP450 2D6 and 2C19 among Patients with Diagnoses within the Schizophrenic Spectrum Reduce Treatment Costs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbild, Louise; Andersen, Stig Ejdrup; Werge, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The effect of pharmacogenetic testing for CYP450 2D6 and 2C19 on treatment costs have not yet been documented. This study used Danish patient registers to calculate health care costs of treating patients with diagnoses within the schizophrenic spectrum for one year with or without pharmacogenetic...... testing for polymorphisms in the genes for the CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 enzymes. In a randomized, controlled trial, stratified with respect to metabolizer genotype, 104 patients were assigned to treatment based on pharmacogenetic testing and 103 patients to treatment as usual. Random exclusion of extensive...

  2. Neuropsychology, Social Cognition and Global Functioning Among Bipolar, Schizophrenic Patients and Healthy Controls: Preliminary Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta eCaletti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the extent of impairment in social and non-social cognitive domains in an ecological context comparing bipolar (BD, schizophrenic patients (SKZ and healthy controls (HC. The sample was enrolled at the Department of Psychiatry of Policlinico Hospital, University of Milan, it includes stabilized schizophrenic patients (n = 30, euthymic bipolar patients (n = 18 and healthy controls (n = 18. Patients and controls completed psychiatric assessment rating scales, the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS and the Executive and Social Cognition Battery (ESCB that contains both ecological tests of executive function and social cognition, in order to better detect cognitive deficits in patients with normal results in standard executive batteries. The three groups differed significantly for gender and substance abuse, however the differences did not influence the results. Bipolar patients showed less impairment on cognitive performance compared to schizophrenic patients, even in ecological tests that mimic real life scenarios. In particular, BD performed better than SKZ in verbal memory (p

  3. Depressive syndromes among female caregivers of schizophrenic patients in prof. dr. m. ildrem mental hospital medan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handi, A.; Husada, M. S.; Gultom, D. P.

    2018-03-01

    Caring for schizophrenic patients can lead to emotional distress. It remains unclear about the level of depressive syndromes among female caregivers of schizophrenic patients. To determine the level of depression among female caregivers of schizophrenic patients. This is a descriptive study with a cross-sectional approach to describe the level of depression of female caregivers in Prof. dr. M. Ildrem Mental Hospital Medan, using HADS instruments. Most age group of caregivers is from age 51-60 years that is 48.15%, caregiver’s work status mostly not works (62.96%), marital status of caregiver mostly is married (59.26%), kinship with most patients are a biological mother (57.41%). Most patient age group is from age below 30 years (50%), work status of most patients is not working (81.48%), marital status of most caregiver is married (83.33%). Mostly of the depressive syndrome is mild depression (42.59%). Mostly of the depressive syndrome is from mild depression.

  4. GABA and homovanillic acid in the plasma of Schizophrenic and bipolar I patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrúe, Aurora; Dávila, Ricardo; Zumárraga, Mercedes; Basterreche, Nieves; González-Torres, Miguel A; Goienetxea, Biotza; Zamalloa, Maria I; Anguiano, Juan B; Guimón, José

    2010-02-01

    We have determined the plasma (p) concentration of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA), and the pHVA/pGABA ratio in schizophrenic and bipolar patients. The research was undertaken in a geographic area with an ethnically homogeneous population. The HVA plasma concentrations were significantly elevated in the schizophrenic patients compared to the bipolar patients. The levels of pGABA was significantly lower in the two groups of patients compared to the control group, while the pHVA/pGABA ratio was significantly greater in the both groups of patients compared to the controls. As the levels of pHVA and pGABA are partially under genetic control it is better to compare their concentrations within an homogeneous population. The values of the ratio pHVA/pGABA are compatible with the idea of an abnormal dopamine-GABA interaction in schizophrenic and bipolar patients. The pHVA/pGABA ratio may be a good peripheral marker in psychiatric research.

  5. A comparison between effectiveness of three types of music on memory activity and sustained attention in schizophrenic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Narges bahmany; Karamatollah Zandi ghashghaee; Sadrollah Khosravi

    2014-01-01

    Background: schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder in which a lot of cognitive functions including memory, attention, motor skills, executive functions and intelligence are compromised. Numerous empirical studies showed that schizophrenic patients have problem in sustain retention and memory activity. The objective of this study was a comparison between effectiveness of three types of music on memory activity and sustain retention in schizophrenic patients. Material and Methods: A total of 6...

  6. Reduced frontal and occipital lobe asymmetry on the CT-scans of schizophrenic patients. Its specificity and clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falkai, P.; Schneider, T.; Greve, B.; Klieser, E.; Bogerts, B.

    1995-01-01

    Frontal and occipital lobe widths were determined in the computed tomographic (CT) scans of 135 schizophrenic patients, 158 neuro psychiatrically healthy and 102 psychiatric control subjects, including patients with affective psychosis, neurosis and schizoaffective psychosis. Most healthy right-handed subjects demonstrate a relative enlargement of the right frontal as well as left occipital lobe compared to the opposite hemisphere. These normal frontal and occipital lobe asymmetries were selectively reduced in schizophrenics (f.: 5%, p < .0005; o.: 3%, p < .05), irrespective of the pathophysiological subgroup. Schizophrenic neuroleptic non-responders revealed a significant reduction of frontal lobe asymmetry (3%, p < .05), while no correlation between BPRS-sub scores and disturbed cerebral laterality could be detected. In sum the present study demonstrates the disturbed cerebral lateralisation in schizophrenic patients supporting the hypothesis of interrupted early brain development in schizophrenia. (author)

  7. The Self Representation in Schizophrenic patients: Considerations on the Draw a Tree Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Settineri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract   Objective: The tree is the archetypal symbol of the identification in the growing life. The objective of this study is to evaluate the representation of the self in schizophrenic patients through the tree drawing. Methods: Were identified 36 patients, 22 women and 14 (M-age=53, suffering from schizophrenic disorder. Through the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS and the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS positive and negative symptoms, and the reactive tree representation of the self were assessed.   Results: In the group with negative symptoms archetypal figures are more frequent, such as images that are part of the collective unconscious, or thought more archaic. In patients in which emerges the delirium, that is part of the most evolved thinking, near to the secondary process, the reality testing is better preserved. In cases where there are symptoms mixed the tree structure leads to an archetypal image. Conclusions: This study shows that in the draw of the tree trunk-to-crown ratio in schizophrenic patients was significantly higher than that of healthy individuals. The usefulness of the study insert itself in the Jungian analytic thought, for which psychotic thought corresponds to an abbaissement of the self activity.   Keyword: Representation of Self; Schizophrenia; Draw a Tree Test.

  8. Evolution of plasma homovanillic acid (HVA) in chronic schizophrenic patients treated with haloperidol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galinowski, A; Poirier, M F; Aymard, N; Leyris, A; Beauverie, P; Bourdel, M C; Loo, H

    1998-06-01

    In a 4-week study of 14 drug-free schizophrenic patients (according to DSM-III-R), free and conjugated fractions of plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) were repeatedly measured. Free HVA levels decreased during the first 2 h of haloperidol intake (P pHVA may be a better reflection of the action of haloperidol than free pHVA levels and it may be of prognostic value in terms of drug response.

  9. Attentional network task in schizophrenic patients and theirs unaffected first degree relatives: a potential endofenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, S Guerra; Fuster, J Iglesias; Reyes, M Martín; Collazo, T M Bravo; Quiñones, R Mendoza; Berazain, A Reyes; Rodríguez, M A Pedroso; Días de Villarvilla, T; Bobés, M Antonieta; Valdés-Sosa, M

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, reports of attentional deficits in schizophrenic patients and in their biological relatives have rapidly increased, including an important effort to search for the endophenotypes in order to link specific genes to this illness. Posner et al. developed a test, the Attention Network Test (ANT), to study the neural networks. This test provides a separate measure for each one of the three anatomically-defined attention networks (alerting, orienting and executive control). In this paper, we investigate the attentional performance in 32 schizophrenic patients, 29 unaffected first degree relatives and 29 healthy controls using the ANT through a study of family association. We have studied the efficiency of the segregated executive control, alerting and orienting networks by measuring how response latencies (reaction time) were modified by the cue position and the flanking stimuli. We also studied the familial association of these attentional alterations. The ANOVA revealed main effects of flanker and cue condition and a significant interaction effect between flanker and groups studied. The schizophrenic patients and their relatives had a longer median reaction time than the control group. The probands and their relatives significantly differed from the healthy controls in terms of their conflict resolution; however, the alerting network appeared to be conserved. Our results support the thesis of a specific attentional deficit in schizophrenia and show the segregation of the three attentional networks. The family association of these reported alterations supports the idea of a potential endophenotype in schizophrenia.

  10. BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) serum levels in schizophrenic patients with cognitive deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utami, N.; Effendy, E.; Amin, M. M.

    2018-03-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder with cognitive impairment as the main part. BDNF regulates aspects of developmental plasticity in the brain and is involved in cognitive function. Cognitive functions include capabilities such as attention, executive functioning, assessing, monitoring and evaluating. The aim of the study was to know the BDNF levels in schizophrenic patients with cognitive deficits. The study was held in October 2016 - March 2017, and was the first in Indonesia, especially in North Sumatra. The study was approved by the medical ethics committee of the University of North Sumatera. The study is descriptive based on a retrospective method with cross-sectional approach. The subject is 40 male schizophrenia. Cognitive deficits were assessed by MoCA-Ina. BDNF serum levels were analyzed using the quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay. The average MoCA-Ina score is 21.03±5.21. This suggests that there is a cognitive function deficit in schizophrenic patients. The mean serum BDNF level was 26629±6762. MoCA-Ina scores in schizophrenic patients <26 who experienced a deficit of 77.5% and serum BDNF levels with normal values ranging from 6.186 to 42.580pg/ml.

  11. Radioimmunoassay measurement of creatine kinase BB in the serum of schizophrenic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerner, M H; Friedhoff, A J [New York Univ., NY (USA). Medical Center

    1980-10-23

    Brain type creatine kinase (BB) isoenzyme was measured using a highly sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay procedure (limit of detection, 1 ..mu..g/l of sample) in two schizophrenic populations, an acute non-medicated group consisting of 35 subjects and a chronic group of 15 subjects. Since the assay can also measure the B subunit of MB isoenzyme, patients were selected so as to exclude subjects with possible heart, kidney or other ailments which might result in an increased serum creatine kinase B subunit. Both the acute schizophrenics (3.0 +- 0.23) x S.E.M. and the chronic schizophrenics (2.9 +- 0.33) had serum levels of creatine kinase BB similar to those of controls (2.8 +- 0.21) and non-cardiac patients (3.5 +- 0.58). Patients having myocardial infarction or neurovascular surgery had elevated creatine kinase B subunit. Similar but much less sensitive quantitative results were obtained using agarose multizonal electrophoresis.

  12. Radioimmunoassay measurement of creatine kinase BB in the serum of schizophrenic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerner, M.H.; Friedhoff, A.J.

    1980-01-01

    Brain type creatine kinase (BB) isoenzyme was measured using a highly sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay procedure (limit of detection, 1 μg/l of sample) in two schizophrenic populations, an acute non-medicated group consisting of 35 subjects and a chronic group of 15 subjects. Since the assay can also measure the B subunit of MB isoenzyme, patients were selected so as to exclude subjects with possible heart, kidney or other ailments which might result in an increased serum creatine kinase B subunit. Both the acute schizophrenics (3.0 +- 0.23) x S.E.M. and the chronic schizophrenics (2.9 +- 0.33) had serum levels of creatine kinase BB similar to those of controls (2.8 +- 0.21) and non-cardiac patients (3.5 +- 0.58). Patients having myocardial infarction or neurovascular surgery had elevated creatine kinase B subunit. Similar but much less sensitive quantitative results were obtained using agarose multizonal electrophoresis. (Auth.)

  13. Plasma homovanillic acid levels in schizophrenic patients: correlation with negative symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila, Ricardo; Zumárraga, Mercedes; Basterreche, Nieves; Arrúe, Aurora; Anguiano, Juan B

    2007-05-30

    The relation between changes in the levels of plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) and clinical evolution during neuroleptic treatment of schizophrenic patients has not been satisfactorily characterized, as a number of conflicting findings have been reported. Significant correlations have generally been found using the assessment of positive symptoms as an index of clinical outcome. Nevertheless, attempts to correlate pHVA concentrations with negative symptoms have yielded contradictory results. With a view to evaluating if different responses in negative symptoms are associated with distinct pHVA profiles, we examined the levels of pHVA in 46 neuroleptic-free schizophrenic patients and in these patients after neuroleptic treatment. Negative and positive symptoms were also addressed before and after treatment. Our results reveal that at least two classes of negative symptoms exist; the clinical evolution of the first class of negative symptoms parallels that of positive symptoms, and clinical improvement correlates with reduced dopaminergic activity. In contrast, in the second class, reduced dopaminergic activity is associated with a further deterioration of negative symptoms. These findings corroborate the heterogeneity of negative symptoms and may contribute to a better definition of endophenotypes in the schizophrenic syndrome.

  14. Development and validation of a skin fibroblast biomarker profile for schizophrenic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianthi Logotheti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression profiles of non-neural tissues through microarray technology could be used in schizophrenia studies, adding more information to the results from similar studies on postmortem brain tissue. The ultimate goal of such studies is to develop accessible biomarkers. Supervised machine learning methodologies were used, in order to examine if the gene expression from skin fibroblast cells could be exploited for the classification of schizophrenic subjects. A dataset of skin fibroblasts gene expression of schizophrenia patients was obtained from Gene Expression Omnibus database. After applying statistical criteria, we concluded to genes that present a differential expression between the schizophrenic patients and the healthy controls. Based on those genes, functional profiling was performed with the BioInfoMiner web tool. After the statistical analysis, 63 genes were identified as differentially expressed. The functional profiling revealed interesting terms and pathways, such as mitogen activated protein kinase and cyclic adenosine monophosphate signaling pathways, as well as immune-related mechanisms. A subset of 16 differentially expressed genes from fibroblast gene expression profiling that occurred after Support Vector Machines Recursive Feature Elimination could efficiently separate schizophrenic from healthy controls subjects. These findings suggest that through the analysis of fibroblast based gene expression signature and with the application of machine learning methodologies we might conclude to a diagnostic classification model in schizophrenia.

  15. Therapeutic Effect of Comedy Films on Decreasing of Depression in the Schizophrenic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farbod Fadaei

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This research is an evaluation of the theraputic efficacy of comedy films in improving the mood of the long – stay schizophrenic inpatients. Materials & Methods: 50 schizophrenic patients in 2 rehabilitation wards of Razi Psychiatric – Center were selected on the basis of available sampling. They were divided into 2 groups (Experimental and Control, each group consisted of 25 patients. Before any therapeutic procedure, the magnitudes of their depression were measured by Beck Depressive Inventory. Afterwards, the experimental group was exposed to silent comedies of Charles Chaplin and Mr. Bean (Roan Atkinson for 30 minutes every other day for two weeks. Meanwhile, the control group were shown a documentary film about the formation of planet Earth. At the end of the second week, the magnitude of depression of all cases were again measured by B.D.I. Furthermore, in order to investigate the statistical significance of differences between depression magnitude among both groups before and after the experiment, Mann Withney – U test, was utilized. Also for defining and explaining the data and drawing the scales, SPSS and Excel softwares were employed as well. Results: According to the findings of this research, the difference between depression magnitude in both groups before and after the exposure to comedy films was significant at P=0.05. Conclusion:  This result shows that comedy films can improve the depressed mood in the long–stay schizophrenic people.

  16. CIGARETTE SMOKING IN SCHIZOPHRENIC PATIENTS THAT ARE CURRENTLY TREATED IN A MEXICAN HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Rodríguez-Mayoral

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: tobacco smoking is the most commonly substance abused in psychiatric patients; among them, patients with schizophrenia are the highest abusers. Smoking is related to a decrease in the quality life and life expectancy, as well as interacting with psychotropic drugs. In Mexico, there is not basic descriptive knowledge about the main variables related to cigarette smoking in psychiatric population. The aim of this study was to know the relation among variables (beginning and course of the disease, use of other drugs and times of hospitalization among others and cigarette smoking in a Mexican population of hospitalized schizophrenic patients. Method: The relation between the main variables and smoking were evaluated in a Mexican population of schizophrenic patients while hospitalized. A casuistic sampling was performed in 96 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and they were divided into three groups: 1 non-smokers, 2 ex-smokers and 3 smokers; according to their score on the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence. Results: The results showed that hospitalized schizophrenic patients smoke 2.7 times more than the general population. Most of these patients showed moderate to high dependence of nicotine, as well as a higher risk for other drugs abuse (marihuana mainly. Most patients started smoking before the first positive symptoms of schizophrenia appeared, and their symptoms started at an earlier age than in patients without a smoking background. Conclusions: Similar studies will allow deepening into specific aspects that modify and or improve the prescribed treatments for each psychiatric patient in hospital settings.

  17. Plasma homovanillic acid differences in clinical subgroups of first episode schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, Immaculada; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Deulofeu, Ramon; de la Serna, Elena; Goti, Javier; Salvà, Joan; Bernardo, Miquel

    2009-07-30

    This study evaluates the relationship between plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) levels, which have been used to study the role of central dopamine in schizophrenia, and the positive/negative syndrome in first episode schizophrenic patients before and after antipsychotic treatment. Forty neuroleptic-naive first episode schizophrenic patients were monitored at baseline and on days 7, 14 and 28. Clinical status was evaluated with the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS), the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), and the Brief Psychotic Rating Scale. Plasma HVA levels were also measured. Patients were divided into predominantly positive or negative syndrome groups by subtracting SAPS from SANS scores, at baseline. A healthy control group was also enrolled. Schizophrenic patients as a group had significantly higher pHVA levels than controls at baseline (20.50+/-11.85 vs. 13.04+/-7.22 ng/ml). Moreover, 12 predominantly negative syndrome patients had similar mean baseline pHVA levels (21.30+/-12.36 ng/ml) to those of 28 predominantly positive syndrome patients (19.40+/-11.33 ng/ml). During follow-up, there was a different evolution of pHVA levels in the predominantly positive syndrome group than in the predominantly negative syndrome group, with a significantly greater global reduction of pHVA levels in the former. Although both groups showed clinical improvement following 4 weeks of treatment with risperidone, pHVA levels at endpoint were lower (13.29+/-5.91 ng/ml) than at baseline in patients in the predominantly positive syndrome group, while among those in the predominantly negative syndrome group there was no difference in pHVA levels before and after treatment (21.02+/-13.06 ng/ml). The different pHVA level profiles observed in predominantly positive and negative syndrome first episode patients after 4 weeks of treatment with risperidone suggest that each syndrome may have a different underlying neurobiology.

  18. Clinical correlates of decreased anteroposterior metabolic gradients in positron emission tomography (PET) of schizophrenic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLisi, L.E.; Buchsbaum, M.S.; Holcomb, H.H.

    1985-01-01

    The finding in schizophrenic patients of a reversal of the normal frontal to posterior pattern of brain metabolic activity with positron emission tomography (PET) is of interest, but its relevance to psychopathology is unknown. Using PET, the authors studied 21 patients with chronic schizophrenia and 21 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Although eight of the 21 patients and only one of the control subjects showed a relatively lower anteroposterior metabolic gradient, no clinical correlates of this finding were noted. In addition, cerebral atrophy, as determined by CAT scan, was not associated with this aberrant metabolic pattern

  19. [Evaluation of mimetic expression of schizophrenic and depressed patients by the psychiatrist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, F; Mattes, R; Adam, B; Heimann, H

    1992-01-01

    Facial videos of schizophrenic and depressive patients and of healthy controls when watching both funny and horror films and during emotionally positive or negative interviews were rated by psychiatrists (experts) and students (novices). The observers' task was to rate joy, fear, sadness, and expressivity on a 7-point unipolar intensity scale. The soundless facial videos were presented to each observer for exactly 2.5 min. The observer groups did not differ significantly in their ratings except for sadness. Psychiatrists consistently rated expressed sadness as less intense than students. Facial expressivity and joy were rated as less intense in both patient groups in comparison with healthy controls. Depressives expressed significantly more sadness.

  20. Effects of debrisoquin and haloperidol on plasma homovanillic acid concentration in schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, M; Losonczy, M F; Mohs, R C; Lesser, J C; Powchik, P; Freed, L B; Davis, B M; Mykytyn, V V; Davis, K L

    1987-12-01

    Plasma levels of the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (pHVA) may potentially reflect upon central dopamine activity. This study examines the effects of debrisoquin, haloperidol, and the two drugs combined on pHVA concentrations of schizophrenic patients. Debrisoquin is a drug that suppresses the peripheral formation of homovanillic acid without affecting the central formation. Acute haloperidol administration consistently increased pHVA concentrations in patients pretreated or not pretreated with debrisoquin, suggesting that this increment reflects haloperidol's central and not peripheral effects.

  1. Evaluation and Socio-occupational Intervention in Bipolar and Schizophrenic Patients within a Multimodal Intervention Program- PRISMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Zuluaga, Ana M; Duica, Kelly; Ruiz Galeano, Carlos; Vargas, Cristian; Agudelo Berruecos, Yuli; Ospina, Sigifredo; López-Jaramillo, Carlos

    Functional improvement in bipolar and schizophrenic patients is one of the main aims of treatment. Nevertheless, there is no evidence about the effect of socio-occupational intervention within a multimodal intervention (MI) programme. To describe the socio-occupational profile and to evaluate the functional effect of a MI in bipolar I and schizophrenic patients. A prospective, longitudinal, therapeutic-comparative study was performed including 302 subjects (104 schizophrenic and 198 Bipolar Disorder I [BDI] patients), who were randomised into two groups, multimodal (psychiatry, psychology, medicine, occupational therapy, neuropsychology, and family therapy), or traditional intervention (psychiatry and medicine only). Several scales were applied to assess assertiveness, free time management, social abilities, general anxiety, self-care and performance in home, work and community tasks. After performing the longitudinal analysis, it was shown that the multimodal intervention was more effective than traditional intervention in general anxiety scores (P=.026) and development in home tasks (P=.03) in schizophrenic patients. No statistical differences were found in bipolar patients. The other variables showed improvement, however, their effect was similar in both intervention groups. Our study identified functional improvement in home tasks in schizophrenic patients after receiving multimodal intervention. Other variables also showed improvement for both interventions groups. Future studies, applying longer rehabilitation programs and other ecological strategies should be performed to identify the most effective interventions. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of weight loss diet therapy on anthropometric measurements and biochemical variables in schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urhan, Murat; Ergün, Can; Aksoy, Meral; Ayer, Ahmet

    2015-07-01

    Prevalence of obesity in schizophrenic patients is two to three times higher than in the general population and unhealthy dietary patterns, a sedentary lifestyle and antipsychotic medication use may contribute to the higher levels of obesity among schizophrenic patients. We evaluated the effects of diet therapy on weight loss, anthropometric and biochemical variables in overweight or obese (body mass index, BMI ≥ 27 kg/m(2)) female schizophrenic patients who use antipsychotic medications and in healthy volunteers. Primary demographic variables were collected via questionnaire; blood samples and anthropometric measurements were obtained. Personalized diet recipes were prepared and nutritional education was shared. We logged the physical activity of the patients and maintained food consumption records at 3-day intervals. Participants were weighed every week; anthropometric measurements and blood samples were collected at the end of the first and second months. At the end of the study, reductions in body weight and other anthropometric measurements were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Reductions in body weight and BMI values for patient group were - 4.05 ± 1.73 kg and - 1.62 ± 0.73 kg/m(2) and for the control group were - 6.79 ± 1.80 kg and - 2.55 ± 0.64 kg/m(2), respectively. When compared with the patient group, reductions in the anthropometric variables of the control group were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Fasting glucose, blood lipids, albumin and leptin levels were decreased; insulin and homeostatic model assessment-measured insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) levels were increased insignificantly. Increases in the blood ghrelin levels for both groups were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Improvements to the diets of schizophrenic patient led to improvements in anthropometric measurements and biochemical variables and reduced the health risks caused by antipsychotic medications. Furthermore, we hypothesize that antipsychotic medications do not

  3. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among patients with non-schizophrenic neurodevelopmental disorders in Alexandria, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehata, Amany I; Hassanein, Faika I; Abdul-Ghani, Rashad

    2016-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic parasite with neurotropic characteristics that can mediate neurodevelopmental disorders, including mental, behavioral and personality aspects of their hosts. Therefore, the seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies has been studied in patients with different neurological disorders from different localities. On searching online databases, however, we could not find published studies on the seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies among patients with neurodevelopmental disorders in Egypt. Therefore, the present preliminary study was conducted to determine the serological profile of T. gondii infection among patients with non-schizophrenic neurodevelopmental disorders in Alexandria, Egypt. Data and blood samples were collected from 188 patients recruited for the study from four mental rehabilitation centers in the period from July 2014 to March 2015. The overall seropositivity rates of IgM and IgG among patients were 16.5% (31/188) and 50.0% (94/188), respectively. Of the studied patients' characteristics, only age was significantly associated with anti-Toxoplasma IgG seropositivity, with older patients being about twice more likely exposed to infection. However, no statistically significant association was found with IgM. In addition, seropositivity of anti-Toxoplasma IgG, but not IgM, was significantly associated with non-schizophrenic neurodevelopmental disorders; however, neither IgG nor IgM showed a significant association with cognitive impairment as indicated by the intelligence quotient scores. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Dysregulation of chemo-cytokine production in schizophrenic patients versus healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Giannantonio Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The exact cause of schizophrenia is not known, although several aetiological theories have been proposed for the disease, including developmental or neurodegenerative processes, neurotransmitter abnormalities, viral infection and immune dysfunction or autoimmune mechanisms. Growing evidence suggests that specific cytokines and chemokines play a role in signalling the brain to produce neurochemical, neuroendocrine, neuroimmune and behavioural changes. A relationship between inflammation and schizophrenia was supported by abnormal cytokines production, abnormal concentrations of cytokines and cytokine receptors in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid in schizophrenia. Since the neuropathology of schizophrenia has recently been reported to be closely associated with microglial activation we aimed to determined whether spontaneous or LPS-induced peripheral blood mononuclear cell chemokines and cytokines production is dysregulated in schizophrenic patients compared to healthy subjects. We enrolled 51 untreated first-episode schizophrenics (SC and 40 healthy subjects (HC and the levels of MCP-1, MIP-1α, IL-8, IL-18, IFN-γ and RANTES were determined by Elisa method in cell-free supernatants of PBMC cultures. Results In the simultaneous quantification we found significantly higher levels of constitutively and LPS-induced MCP-1, MIP-1α, IL-8 and IL-18, and lower RANTES and IFNγ levels released by PBMC of SC patients compared with HC. In ten SC patients receiving therapy with risperidone, olanzapine or clozapine basal and LPS-induced production of RANTES and IL-18 was increased, while both basal and LPS-induced MCP-1 production was decreased. No statistically significant differences were detected in serum levels after therapy. Conclusion The observation that in schizophrenic patients the PBMC production of selected chemo-cytokines is dysregulated reinforces the hypothesis that the peripheral cyto-chemokine network is involved in the

  5. Drama therapy as a means of rehabilitation for schizophrenic patients: our impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielańska, A; Cechnicki, A; Budzyna-Dawidowski, P

    1991-10-01

    The authors describe the development of drama therapy and its place in the system of psychosocial treatment of schizophrenic patients. Organizational and therapeutic elements are illustrated with the help of work done by a group of 12 patients on an adaptation of Shakespeare's Hamlet. The aim of this form of outpatient treatment is to use the acting technique in order to make it easier for patients to improve their understanding of themselves--their feelings, motivations and behaviors--and also of other people. The participation of a professional director and the general attractiveness of this type of therapy are considered to play an important role in motivating those patients who would not benefit from traditional psychotherapy. In this form of group psychotherapy verbalization of feelings and problems are structured by the role; thus creating a safe atmosphere and greater motivation to participate. The purpose of our work is to make the roles and the play a constructive aspect of the patient's functioning. This is only possible by uniting what for a schizophrenic patient is characteristically separate, namely, internal experience with external expression. Clinical effects are documented by two case vignettes.

  6. Cotard Syndrome without Depressive Symptoms in a Schizophrenic Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, Pedro; Ribeiro, Ricardo; Cerqueira, João J

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Cotard syndrome is a rare condition characterized by nihilistic delusions concerning body or life that can be found in several neuropsychiatry conditions. It is typically associated with depressive symptoms. Method. We present a case of Cotard syndrome without depressive symptoms in the context of known paranoid schizophrenia. A literature review of Cotard syndrome in schizophrenia was performed. Results. Although there are few descriptions of this syndrome in schizophrenia, patients usually present depressive mood and psychomotor retardation, features not seen in our patient. Loss of the sense of the inner self, present in schizophrenia, could explain patient's symptomatology but neurobiological bases of this syndrome remain unclear. Conclusion. Despite not being considered in actual classifications, Cotard syndrome is still relevant and psychiatric evaluation is critical to diagnosing and treating this condition in psychiatric patients.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging DTI-FT study on schizophrenic patients with typical negative first symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Chengyu; Zhang, Ying; Wei, Fuquan; Cheng, Yougen; Cao, Yulin; Hou, Hongtao

    2016-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) together with a white matter fiber tracking (FT) technique was used to assess different brain white matter structures and functionalities in schizophrenic patients with typical first negative symptoms. In total, 30 schizophrenic patients with typical first negative symptoms, comprising an observation group were paired 1:1 according to gender, age, right-handedness, and education, with 30 healthy individuals in a control group. Individuals in each group underwent routine MRI and DTI examination of the brain, and diffusion-tensor tractography (DTT) data were obtained through whole brain analysis based on voxel and tractography. The results were expressed by fractional anisotropy (FA) values. The schizophrenic patients were evaluated using a positive and negative symptom scale (PANSS) as well as a Global Assessment Scale (GAS). The results of the study showed that routine MRIs identified no differences between the two groups. However, compared with the control group, the FA values obtained by DTT from the deep left prefrontal cortex, the right deep temporal lobe, the white matter of the inferior frontal gyrus and part of the corpus callosum were significantly lower in the observation group (Pscale value in the observation group averaged 7.7±1.5, and the negative scale averaged 46.6±5.9, while the general psychopathology scale averaged 65.4±10.3, and GAS averaged 53.8±19.2. The Pearson statistical analysis, the left deep prefrontal cortex, the right deep temporal lobe, the white matter of the inferior frontal gyrus and the FA value of part of the corpus callosum in the observation group was negatively correlated with the negative scale (Pnegative symptoms and the application of MRI DTI-FT can improve diagnostic accuracy.

  8. Cotard Syndrome without Depressive Symptoms in a Schizophrenic Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Morgado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cotard syndrome is a rare condition characterized by nihilistic delusions concerning body or life that can be found in several neuropsychiatry conditions. It is typically associated with depressive symptoms. Method. We present a case of Cotard syndrome without depressive symptoms in the context of known paranoid schizophrenia. A literature review of Cotard syndrome in schizophrenia was performed. Results. Although there are few descriptions of this syndrome in schizophrenia, patients usually present depressive mood and psychomotor retardation, features not seen in our patient. Loss of the sense of the inner self, present in schizophrenia, could explain patient’s symptomatology but neurobiological bases of this syndrome remain unclear. Conclusion. Despite not being considered in actual classifications, Cotard syndrome is still relevant and psychiatric evaluation is critical to diagnosing and treating this condition in psychiatric patients.

  9. Effect of risperidone versus haloperidol on emotional responding in schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakra, E; Khalfa, S; Da Fonseca, D; Besnier, N; Delaveau, P; Azorin, J M; Blin, O

    2008-10-01

    Studies on emotional processing report that schizophrenic patients present a specific pattern of emotional responding that usually includes deficits in emotional expressiveness, increased feelings of unpleasant emotion but decreased feelings of pleasant emotion, and increased physiological reactivity. However, studies have rarely controlled the nature of antipsychotic medication. Yet, the influence of these drugs on emotional response is uncertain and could vary depending on their pharmacological profile. This prospective and randomized study aimed to compare the effects of an atypical antipsychotic, risperidone, to a typical one, haloperidol, on patients' emotional responding during an emotional induction task. Twenty-five schizophrenic patients underwent two emotional and clinical evaluations: one before treatment initiation and a second 4 weeks after. Emotional states of fear, sadness, anger, joy, and disgust were induced, as well as a neutral baseline state. Video recordings of patients during the induction task allowed for assessment of emotional expressiveness. Self-reports and measures of skin conductance and heart rate were performed to determine both subjective and physiological reactions to emotional experience. Compared to haloperidol, risperidone did not reduce patients' facial expressiveness, decreased physiological reactivity, and decreased experience of unpleasant emotion but maintained experience of pleasant emotion. Emotional expressiveness was negatively correlated to parkisonism. Our preliminary results suggest that atypical antipsychotics allow for better-adapted patterns of emotional responding than typical ones do. We suggest that this effect is due to reduced striatal D2 blockade, therefore, attenuating akinesia, coupled with increased 5HT and DA levels in prefrontal cortex, which improves emotional regulation.

  10. Quality of life assessment of patients with schizophrenic spectrum disorders from Psychosocial Care Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Fernandes Carpinteiro da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Assessing the quality of life and the clinical and social-demographic factors associated in schizophrenic spectrum patients (ICD-10 F20-F29 attending CAPS at the programmatic area 3.0. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a sample of schizophrenic spectrum patients who have been enrolled in 2008 in CAPS in programmatic area (AP 3 at Rio de Janeiro city, using MINIPLUS to assess schizophrenia spectrum disorder and use of psychoactive substances, Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS to assess psychiatric symptoms and Quality of Life Scale (QLS-BR to assess the quality of life. RESULTS: Seventy nine patients were included, of whom 74 (93.7% presented some impairment in quality of life. The most frequently affected area was occupational performance. Variables that showed a significant association with severe impairment of quality of life were: marital status, race, occupation, who patients lived with, homelessness, having children, previous psychiatric hospitalization, negative symptoms and symptoms designated as not applicable (being characterized by a lack of typical positive and negative symptoms. CONCLUSION: The knowledge of these factors should be crucial to implement health policies and psychosocial rehabilitation programs focused on improving the quality of life of these patients.

  11. Self psychology conceptualization of postpsychotic depression and recovery among paranoid schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potik, David

    2014-01-01

    Many psychoanalysts have offered innovative ideas on the treatment of schizophrenic patients, but none on postpsychotic depression. The author presents a psychoanalytic conceptualization of postpsychotic depression based on Kohut's ideas regarding the development of normal and pathological grandiosity. The main premise is that postpsychotic depression stems from the loss of psychotic grandiosity, and that it is the psychological reaction to the loss of omnipotent identity whose role it is to provide an alternative reality. Through near-experience connectedness, clinicians and practitioners in the psychiatric rehabilitation field can facilitate an empathic milieu in which new mental constructs can be established and new behavioral skills can be learned.

  12. Foreign body ingestions in a schizophrenic patient | Alao | West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Here, we report a case of ingestion of a rolled, metal tuna can lid in a male prison inmate previously diagnosed with depression and paranoid schizophrenia. Following evaluation by the surgical team, the foreign body was removed by laparotomy and the patient was discharged back to the prison without complication.

  13. [Treatment of Adult Schizophrenic Patients With Depot Antipsychotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo González, Luis Eduardo; Gómez Restrepo, Carlos; García Valencia, Jenny; de la Hoz Bradford, Ana María; Ávila-Guerra, Mauricio; Bohórquez Peñaranda, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    To determine the indications of long-acting antipsychotic injection and what its effectiveness and safety in adult patients with schizophrenia during the treatment maintenance phase. A clinical practice guideline was elaborated under the parameters of the Methodological Guide of the Ministerio de Salud y Protección Social to identify, synthesize and evaluate the evidence and make recommendations about the treatment and follow-up of adult patients with schizophrenia. The evidence of NICE guide 82 was adopted and updated. The evidence was presented to the Guideline Developing Group and recommendations, employing the GRADE system, were produced. The literature review shows that the evidence has moderate to low quality. 8 articles were used. The risk of relapse was lower with depot risperidone and paliperidone palmitate when compared with placebo. For the risk of hospitalizations comparing depot antipsychotics (APD) versus oral AP, the result is inconclusive. Globally the second-generation APD had a lower risk of discontinuation when compared with placebo. The second generation AP had higher risk of extrapyramidal syndromes than placebo, as in the use of antiparkinsonian. The comparison of second-generation AP injections versus placebo showed an increased risk of early weight gain. The use of depot antipsychotics in the maintenance phase of adult patients diagnosed with schizophrenia is recommended if there is no adherence to oral antipsychotics as the patient's preference. It is not recommended depot antipsychotics in the acute phase of schizophrenia in adults. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  14. Functional MRI in schizophrenia. Diagnostics and therapy monitoring of cognitive deficits of schizophrenic patients by functional MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furtner, J.; Prayer, D.; Sachs, G.

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive impairments are core psychopathological components of the symptomatic of schizophrenic patients. These dysfunctions are generally related to attention, executive functions and memory. This report provides information on the importance of using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for the diagnostics and therapy monitoring of the different subtypes of cognitive dysfunctions. Furthermore, it describes the typical differences in the activation of individual brain regions between schizophrenic patients and healthy control persons. This information should be helpful in identifying the deficit profile of each patient and create an individual therapy plan. (orig.) [de

  15. Inter- and intra-individual variability in the levels of plasma homovanillic acid in schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumárraga, Mercedes; Dávila, Ricardo; González-Torres, Miguel Angel; Anguiano, Juan B; Zabalo, María José; Basterreche, Nieves; Arrúe, Aurora; Zamalloa, María Isabel; Guimón, José

    2007-04-13

    Changes in the levels of homovanillic acid in blood plasma (pHVA) may reflect changes which occur in the brain. In healthy individuals, this concentration of pHVA is stable over time. Over the course of one month, we studied 98 acute schizophrenic patients who had not been taking any medication but were administered neuroleptics upon hospital admission, together with 23 chronic schizophrenic patients on long-term treatment from whom medication was withdrawn. Blood samples were taken at regular intervals from each individual and the concentration of plasma homovanillic acid was measured. We found relative stable values of pHVA with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.363 in acute patients and 0.638 (ppHVA and the presence of pharmacological stimuli, we found a certain reproducibility in the levels of this dopamine metabolite. These findings are consistent with the idea that the dopaminergic activity is characterized by a constitutive value which would be under genetic control. The higher stability observed in chronic patients may reflect a weaker, age-related dopaminergic plasticity; conversely, it may indicate that a lack of plasticity in response to a pharmacological stimulus may be an indicator of poorer prognosis.

  16. Effects of hormones on cognition in schizophrenic male patients--preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratek, Agnieszka; Koźmin-Burzyńska, Agnieszka; Krysta, Krzysztof; Cierpka-Wiszniewska, Katarzyna; Krupka-Matuszczyk, Irena

    2015-09-01

    Schizophrenia is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder of an unknown etiology and a variable phenotypic expression. In the recent years, the impact of hormones on the course of schizophrenia has been investigated. This study is aimed at assessing the level of correlating serum levels of hormones in schizophrenic male patients with their cognitive functioning measured with neuropsychological tests. In the index group there were 15 medicated male schizophrenic patients. In the control group there were 15 age and education matched healthy men. All subjects underwent analysis of serum hormones level (TSH, testosterone, estradiol, FSH, LH, progesterone and prolactin) and a battery of tests (Trail Making Test A and B, Stroop Test, Verbal and Semantic Fluency Test). The mean serum levels of the following hormones were higher in the index group than in the control group: TSH (1.76 mIU/L vs 1.58 mIU/L; p=0.66), progesterone (0.85 ng/ml vs 0.69 ng/ml; p=0.22) and prolactin (558.71 uIU/ml vs 181 uIU/ml; p=0.025). The mean levels of estradiol (24.36 pg/ml vs 25.40 ng/ml; p=0.64), FSH (3.17 mIU/ml vs 5.72 mIU/ml; p=0.019), LH (3.85 mIU/ml vs 5.77 mIU/ml; p=0.056) and testosterone (2.90 ng/ml vs 5.38 ng/ml; p=0.003) were higher in the control group. In the index group there were significant negative correlations between FSH and semantic fluency (ρ=-0.678606), progesterone and: TMT B (ρ=-0.586763), Stroop 1 (ρ=-0.701880) and Stroop 2 (ρ=-0.601074) and prolactin and TMT A (ρ=-0.579607). The preliminary results of our study show that serum levels of FSH and testosterone are significantly lower, whereas the level of prolactin is markedly higher, in schizophrenic male patients than in healthy men. There is an inverse correlation between serum levels of progesterone, FSH and prolactin and the results of certain cognitive functioning tests in schizophrenic men.

  17. A schizophrenic patient with cerebral infarctions after hemorrhagic shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youichi Yanagawa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We herein report the fourth case of cerebral infarction, concomitant with hemorrhagic shock, in English literature. A 33-year-old male, who had been diagnosed with schizophrenia and given a prescription for Olanzapine, was discovered with multiple self-inflicted bleeding cuts on his wrist. On arrival, he was in hemorrhagic shock without verbal responsiveness, but his vital signs were normalized following infusion of Lactate Ringer′s solution. The neuroradiological studies revealed multiple cerebral ischemic lesions without any vascular abnormality. He was diagnosed with speech apraxia, motor aphasia, and dysgraphia, due to multiple cerebral infarctions. As there was no obvious causative factor with regard to the occurrence of cerebral infarction in the patient, the hypoperfusion due to hemorrhagic shock, and the thromboembolic tendency due to Olanzapine, might have acted together to lead to the patient′s cerebral ischemia.

  18. [Clinical prognosis of schizophrenic patients with cannabis addiction. Between nihilism and hope].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, T

    2014-09-01

    Comorbid substance use disorders in schizophrenia are mostly associated with an unfavorable course of the disease and with difficulties in clinical management. Therefore, some therapists tend to react to these patients in a resigned manner. However, there is growing evidence for higher cognitive functioning and less severe deficits in brain morphology of these patients compared to patients without cannabis use. A common interpretation refers to relatively low vulnerability for psychosis in some of these patients, who mainly became schizophrenic because of the pro-psychotic properties of cannabis. Low vulnerability is reflected by a higher cognitive functioning; therefore, the pessimistic view of therapists seems unjustified for at least a subgroup of young patients. Provided that patients are treated in adequate therapeutic settings and that they stop using cannabis, a lower vulnerability may be associated with overall better socio-rehabilitative outcome parameters.

  19. Discourse Analysis in Schizophrenic Patients on the Basis of Grice\\'s Cooperative Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma'soumeh Salmani

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The ultimate goal of this study is one of the discourse fields analysis, i.e. Grice's cooperative principles. Materials & Methods: In this comparative and case - control study, two groups of normal individuals and schizophrenic patients were selected by simple method from sample of convenience and interviewed based on the spontaneous part of Persian Aphasia Test. All the answers were analyzed with respect to the percent rate of errors in the 4 "cooperative maxims", and the errors were collected. Data were analyzed by Independent T Test, ANOVA, Kruskal Wallis and Mann Whitney. Results: There were significant differences between two groups in respect to all the Grice’s cooperative principles (P<0.001, maxim of quantity (P<0.001, maxim of relevance (P<0.001 and maxim of manner (P=0.02, but in maxim of quality there was no significant differeance (P=0.07. The mean percent of errors in the course of illness, education and age varieties were not significant. Conclusion: Schizophrenic patients have incoherence speech and this problem exists in the discourse field and social interactions, thus the patients frequently fail in observing the Gricean cooperative principles.

  20. Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of haloperidol and reduced haloperidol in schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, W H; Lin, S K; Jann, M W; Lam, Y W; Chen, T Y; Chen, C T; Hu, W H; Yeh, E K

    1989-07-01

    Twelve male chronic schizophrenic inpatients, neuroleptic-free for at least 4 weeks, were given an oral test dose of 10 mg haloperidol (HAL) and reduced HAL (RHAL) in a random order, with a 2-week interval. Two weeks after the last test dose, the patients were given HAL, 5 mg orally twice daily for 7 days. Blood samples were drawn at baseline and between 0.5 and 24 hr after the test doses, and during HAL treatment as well. Plasma drug concentrations and homovanillic acid (HVA) levels were measured with high-performance liquid chromatography using electrochemical detection. HAL, but not RHAL, produced increments in plasma HVA (pHVA) levels at 24 hr after a test dose. pHVA levels remained higher than baseline during HAL treatment. Detectable interconversion between HAL and RHAL was observed in eight patients. The capacity of the reductive drug-metabolizing enzyme system, however, was greater than that of the oxidative processes. The plasma RHAL:HAL ratios on days 6 and 7 were higher than and positively correlated with those at Tmax after a single dose of HAL and were negatively correlated with the HAL:RHAL ratios at Tmax after a single dose of RHAL. Thus, both reductive and oxidative drug-metabolizing systems probably contribute to individual differences in plasma RHAL:HAL ratios in HAL-treated schizophrenic patients.

  1. Frontal dopamine D(2/3) receptor binding in drug-naive first-episode schizophrenic patients correlates with positive psychotic symptoms and gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glenthoj, Birte Y; Mackeprang, Torben; Svarer, Claus

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to examine extrastriatal dopamine D(2/3) receptor binding and psychopathology in schizophrenic patients, and to relate binding potential (BP) values to psychopathology. METHODS: Twenty-five drug-naive schizophrenic patients and 20 healthy controls were examined...

  2. Evaluating effectiveness and cost of community care for schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häfner, H; an der Heiden, W

    1991-01-01

    The two main types of mental health services research are (1) the evaluation of the mental health sector within comprehensive systems of health care and (2) the evaluation of individual mental health facilities or types of care. Depending on the information systems available, the difficulties of evaluating complex systems of care can be partially obviated by using descriptive approaches. Structural quality can be assessed by structural indices, the functioning of a system by monitoring utilization, and the overall effectiveness of a national mental health care system roughly by health indicators. Causal analyses of effectiveness are practical when they are based on individual facilities or types of care, which can be studied as isolated systems on the basis of intervention and outcome variables. Reliable and reproducible results can be achieved only if a standardized intervention is used or if the intervention and its objectives are described clearly, the output indicators are defined in terms of identifiable and repeatable operations. The assets and liabilities of quasi-experimental designs and three types of naturalistic approaches will be discussed. When the cost of a new type of care is compared with the cost of traditional mental health care, the section of the population actually served out of the total of patients with comparable needs for care should be considered. Results from the authors' studies will show how the neglect of this epidemiological aspect can lead to false statements.

  3. The cortisol awakening response in caregivers of schizophrenic offspring shows sensitivity to patient status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Bono, Esperanza; De Andres-Garcia, Sara; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2011-01-01

    Taking care of offspring during a prolonged period of time is probably one of the most stressful life experiences for parents. The present study compares the cortisol awakening response (CAR) in 38 long-term caregivers (mothers and fathers of schizophrenic relatives) with a control group of 32 non-caregivers. Factors such as general stress, caregiver burden, patient severity, and institutionalization were studied. Although a blunted CAR was observed in caregivers in comparison with controls, this difference was not significant. Among caregivers, the absence of institutionalization for the patient is associated with a lack of CAR in caregivers in comparison with caregivers of institutionally supported patients. General stress, caregiver burden, and patient severity themselves did not favor significant changes in CAR. CAR shows greater sensitivity to institutional support than patient severity and perceived stress. Further research is needed to explain the impact of these factors on health and the psychological factors involved.

  4. Decreased serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in schizophrenic patients with deficit syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akyol ES

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Esra Soydas Akyol,1 Yakup Albayrak,2 Murat Beyazyüz,3 Nurkan Aksoy,4 Murat Kuloglu,5 Kenji Hashimoto6 1Deparment of Psychiatry, Yenimahalle Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey; 2Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Namik Kemal University, Tekirdag, Turkey; 3Department of Psychiatry, Biga State Hospital, Çanakkale, Turkey; 4Department of Biochemistry, Yenimahalle Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey; 5Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey; 6Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Chiba University Center for Forensic Mental Health, Chiba, Japan Background: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is a well-established neurotrophin that plays a role in the pathophysiology of numerous psychiatric disorders. Many studies have investigated the serum BDNF levels in patients with schizophrenia. However, there are restricted data in the literature that compare the serum BDNF levels in patients with deficit and nondeficit syndromes. In this study, we aimed to compare the serum BDNF levels between schizophrenic patients with deficit or nondeficit syndrome and healthy controls.Methods: After fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 58 patients with schizophrenia and 36 healthy controls were included in the study. The patients were grouped as deficit syndrome (N=23 and nondeficit syndrome (N=35 according to the Schedule for the Deficit Syndrome. Three groups were compared in terms of the sociodemographic and clinical variants and serum BDNF levels.Results: The groups were similar in terms of age, sex, body mass index, and smoking status. The serum BDNF levels in patients with deficit syndrome were significantly lower than those in healthy controls. In contrast, the serum BDNF levels in patients with nondeficit syndrome were similar to those in healthy controls.Conclusion: This study suggests that decreased BDNF levels may play a role in the pathophysio­logy of schizophrenic

  5. Correlation among personal, social performance and cognitive impairment in male schizophrenic patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damanik, R.; Effendy, E.; Camellia, V.

    2018-03-01

    Schizophrenia is a dramatic mental illness with tragic manifestation. The consequences of the illness are for the individual, affected his or her family and society. Schizophrenia is one of the twenty illness that causes Years Lost due to Disability. Treating only the symptom is insufficient. The aim of treatment must include the quality of life of aschizophrenic person. This study aims to examine the relationship between cognitive impairment and performance of the person with schizophrenia. Cognitive test is scaled with Indonesian version of Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA-Ina), while personal and social performance isscaled with Personal and Social Performance scale. There are many studies that search the relationship between cognitive impairment and social functioning of schizophrenic patients, but this is the first study that uses PSP and MoCA-Ina. Both PSP and MoCA-Ina are easy to use but still have high sensitivity and specificity, and perhaps can build people’s interest to use it in clinical practice. Twenty-five male schizophrenic patients were assessed in Prof. M. Ildrem Mental Hospital of North Sumatera Province of Indonesia. Positive correlations between MoCA-Ina and PSP score were identified. Clinicians should pay attention to cognitive and might give some early intervention to it.

  6. Computed tomography (CT) findings of schizophrenic patients after long time from psychosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Naoto; Akashi, Toshio; Toyoda, Junzou; Murakami, Hiroshi; Ogashiwa, Motohide

    1991-01-01

    The CT findings on 20 chronic schizophrenic inpatients who had undergone psychosurgery 37 years ago (operated group) were compared to 20 chronic schizophrenic inpatients without psychosurgery (non-operated group). The subjects of non-operated group were selected by matched age, sex and duration of the illness. Operated group showed significant decrease in frontal lobe size (p<0.001), enlargement of frontal horns of the lateral ventricle (p<0.01), widening of interhemispheric fissure (p<0.05), and brain atrophy (p<0.001) in comparison with non-operated group. Size of surgical injury showed significant rank correlation to frontal lobe size (p<0.01) and brain atrophy (p<0.001). Regarding the horizontal level of injury, in comparison with non-operated group, the patients with deficit in higher frontal areas showed enlargement of lateral ventricles (p<0.01) and those with deficit in lower frontal areas showed widening of interhemispheric fissure (p<0.05). Regarding the laterality of injury, the patients with deficit in left hemisphere showed significantly widened sylvian fissure in comparison with non-operated group (p<0.05). (author)

  7. 123I-IBZM SPECT in schizophrenic patients treated with quetiapine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavics, L.; Szekeres, G.; Janka, Z.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Quetiapine is a novel antipsychotic substance with relative short half-life and low affinity for D2 dopamine receptors. PET and SPECT studies demonstrated individually different D2 receptor occupancy during quetiapine monotherapy. In the present study D2 receptor occupancy was investigated in quetiapine treated schizophrenic patients for the detection of the relationship between the scintigraphic pattern and clinical sign and symptoms. In 10 schizophrenic patients (7 woman, 3 man, age ±SD: 34 ±7 PANSS: 72 ±20) IBZM SPECT (185 MBq, acquisition was started 90 min p.i.) were performed during introduction of quetiapine therapy (600-800 mg/day) and during a lower preservation dose (200-400 mg/day). All the patients were under quetiapine monotherapy. Simultaneously to the SPECT investigations visual contrast standardized rating scales determined sensitivity, clinical symptoms and extrapyramidal signs. For the evaluation of SPECT images visual interpretation and striatum/occipital lobe (S/O) activity ratio was calculated. The striatum/occipital lobe ratio at the first investigation was 1.7 ± 0.23 at the second 1.68 ± 0.12. The receptor occupancy was individually different but no significant difference was observed in relation to the quetiapine dose used. There was no significant difference in PANNSS and no patients had extrapyramidal signs. In 5 patients in clinical steady state decreasing the dose of quetiapine the S/O ratio increased by 1-35 % without long term relapse but in 5 with decreasing S/O ratio (9-29 %) clinical relapse of the disease were observed. The IBZM uptake changes correlated with the time interval until the relapse, but not with the PANNS changes. The initial striatum/occipital ratio was also significantly higher in the group of patients with relapse (over 1.8) compared to the other group. There were no relationship between the initial D2 receptor occupancy and the PANNS changes and the interval until the relapse. Endogen dopamin

  8. The Application of Drawing and Painting to Decrease the Anixiety of the Schizophrenic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farbod Fadaei

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: People with schizophrenia continuous type (previously labeled as chronic, constitute the majority of inpatients in rehabilitation wards. These patients, apart from the characteristic signs and symptoms of schizophrenia, suffer from anxiety. This anxiety, not influenced by antipsychotic medications, can be a part of the schizophrenia per se, but it may be due to the unfavorable frame and quality of life in mental hospital wards. Every attempt in decreasing the anxiety of these patients, can be regarded as a step toward a more perfect treatment and rehabilitation plan, and elevating the quality of their lives. In this research the application of drawing and painting as a method to decrease the anxiety of these patients was evaluated. Materials & Methods: 100 schizophrenic patients (according to DSM-IV criteria who were hospitalized in long stay rehabilitation wards of Razi psychiatric center for at least 2 years, entered the research procedure. Their anxiety level was measured by the Cattel anxiety questionnaire. 50 patients, who were selected as experimental group, had 15 one hour sessions of drawing and painting. For the remainder 50 patients who were the control group, various neutral activities (as placebo were performed, during those hours. Medications were unchanged during the research. After the 15th session the anxiety levels of patients were evaluated for the second time. The scores obtained in the first and second evaluations in each group and between two groups were analyzed by appropriate statistical methods. Results: In comparing the mean scores obtained from the first and second measurements in experimental group by applying the t-test (in correlated groups, the difference was statistically significant (t=67.5, P<0.0l. Conclusion: Sessions of drawing and painting with appropriate duration and frequency can significantly diminish the anxiety in long stay schizophrenic patients in rehabilitation wards.

  9. [Intensity of negative symptoms, working memory and executive functions disturbances in schizophrenic patients in partial remission period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Beata; Borkowska, Alina

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the correlation between the level of working memory and executive functions impairment in schizophrenic subjects in their partial remission period and the intensity of psychopathological symptoms measured by PANSS scale. 45 patients with schizophrenia were included in the study (28 male and 17 female), aged 18-46 (mean 27 +/- 7) years during partial remission of psychopathological symptoms (PANSS partial remission period, the significant dysfunctions of working memory and executive functions show association with negative (not positive) schizophrenic symptoms.

  10. Successful microsurgical penile replantation following self amputation in a schizophrenic patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Gyan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Amputation of the penis is a rare condition reported from various parts of the world as isolated cases or small series of patients; the common etiology is self-mutilating sharp amputation or an avulsion or crush injury in an industrial accident. A complete reconstruction of all penile structures should be attempted in one stage which provides the best chance for full rehabilitation of the patient. We report here a single case of total amputation of the penis in an acute paranoid schizophrenic patient .The penis was successfully reattached using a microsurgical technique. After surgery, near-normal appearance and function including a good urine flow and absence of urethral stricture, capabilities of erection and near normal sensitivity were observed.

  11. Plasma homovanillic acid and treatment response in a large group of schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, W H; Hwu, H G; Chen, T Y; Lin, S K; Lung, F W; Chen, H; Lin, W L; Hu, W H; Lin, H N; Chien, C P

    1993-10-01

    Plasma levels of homovanillic acid (pHVA), a metabolite of dopamine, were measured in ninety-five Chinese schizophrenic patients free of neuroleptics for at least four weeks. These patients were treated with classical antipsychotics for six weeks. Pretreatment pHVA was positively correlated with the subsequent clinical response (r = 0.408, p or = 50%, n = 47) had higher pretreatment pHVA levels than poor responders (BPRS improvement pHVA level was associated with a more consistent clinical response to the subsequent treatment. Using a pHVA level of 12 ng/ml as a demarcation point, 72% of patients (34 of 47) who had pHVA > or = 12 responded whereas 65% (31 of 48) who had pHVA levels may predict a better clinical response to antipsychotics. Based upon the pHVA findings, two hypothetical subtypes of schizophrenia are proposed.

  12. Phosphorus-31 and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the medial temporal region in schizophrenic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Koichiro

    1996-01-01

    Phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was performed 22 schizophrenic patients and in 22 healthy volunteers. Psychiatric symptoms were estimated on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) and the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS). The spectra were quantified for phosphomonoesters (PME), inorganic orthophosphate (Pi), phosphodiesters (PDE), phosphocreatine (Pcr) and the γ, α and β phosphates of 5'-adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by peak area measurements. Proton MRS was performed in 15 schizophrenic patients and in 15 healthy volunteers. Psychiatric symptoms were estimated on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the SANS. The spectra of N-acetylates (NA), choline-containing compounds (Cho) and creatine-phosphocreatine (Cr) were quantified. The patients showed an increase in the % PDE and a decrease in the % β-ATP in the left temporal region. Positive correlations were found between the % PDE and the subscale of positive symptoms on the BPRS and the total score of SAPS. The % β-ATP correlated negatively with the total score on SAPS. The NA/Cho and NA/Cr ratios were significantly lower in patients than in normal subjects. The Cho/Cr ratio was higher in the patient group. The age at onset of illness correlated positively with the NA/Cho and NA/Cr ratios. No significant correlations were observed between the ratios of metabolites and the scores of PANSS and SANS. There were no significant associations between the mole percentages and the ratios and the daily doses of neuroleptics and anticholinergics. These findings suggest that the disturbed membrane phospholipid and high-energy phosphate metabolism in the left medial temporal region may be one of the pathophysiologies of neuroleptic-resistant positive symptoms in schizophrenia and these abnormalities may be related to neuronal loss and/or neuronal dysfunction in this region. (H.O.)

  13. Pharmacotherapy of schizophrenic patients: preponderance of off-label drug use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pickar

    Full Text Available Multiple drug class combinations are often prescribed for the treatment of schizophrenia, although antipsychotic monotherapy reflects FDA labeling and scientific justification for combinations is highly variable. This study was performed to gain current data regarding drug treatment of schizophrenia as practiced in the community and to assess the frequencies of off-label drug class combinations. 200 DSM IV-diagnosed schizophrenic patients recruited from community treatment sources participated in this cross-sectional study of community based schizophrenic patients. Drug class categories include First and Second Generation Antipsychotic drugs (FGA and SGA, respectively, mood stabilizers, antidepressants and anti-anxiety drugs. 25.5% of patients received antipsychotic monotherapy; 70% of patients received an antipsychotic and another drug class. A total of 42.5% of patients received more than one antipsychotic drug. The most common drug class combination was antipsychotic and a mood stabilizer. Stepwise linear discriminant function analysis identified the diagnosis of schizoaffective schizophrenia, history of having physically hurt someone and high scores on the General Portion of the PANSS rating scale predicted the combined use of an antipsychotic drug and a mood stabilizer. "Real world" pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia has developed its own established practice that is predominantly off-label and may have outstripped current data support. The economic implications for public sector payers are substantial as well as for the revenue of the pharmaceutical industry, whose promotion of off-label drug use is an increasingly problematic. These data are consistent with the recognition of the therapeutic limitations of both first and second generation antipsychotic drugs.

  14. Ancient schwannoma of thoracic spine in a schizophrenic patient with somatic delusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Ting Wen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ancient schwannoma is a rare variant of schwannoma characterized by histopathologic degenerative changes, which are thought to be the result of long-term tumor growth and aging. However, ancient schwannoma in the spinal canal is particularly rare. We report a case of thoracic spine intradural extramedullary ancient schwannoma in a schizophrenic patient, who kept saying that “something in his back was giving him electric shock” for a long time. Unfortunately, this complaint was misinterpreted as somatic delusion symptoms. A spinal cord tumor was taken into consideration only after paraparesis developed. We have highlighted this case to remind every clinician to remain alert about the possibility of organic disease while treating patients with psychotic disorder history. Thorough neurological examination is required to avoid misdiagnosis. Spinal canal schwannoma can be totally removed successfully with good functional outcome and prognosis.

  15. Catha edulis chewing effects on treatment of paranoid schizophrenic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotb El-Sayed MI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mohamed-I Kotb El-Sayed, Hatem-K Amin Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Helwan University, Ain Helwan, Helwan, Cairo, Egypt Background: The current study’s aim is to evaluate the possible interaction effects of khat chewing on treatment of paranoid schizophrenic patients.Patients and methods: In the study group, 42 male subjects suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and were classified according to their khat chewing habits into two subgroups: either khat-chewer subgroup (SKc; n=21; r=11, h=10 or non-khat-chewer subgroup (SNKc; n=21, r=11, h=10. Each subgroup was further subdivided according to type of treatment into r (risperidone and h (haloperidol. Healthy male subjects (37 were subdivided into healthy khat-chewer as positive controls (HKc, n=17 and healthy non-khat-chewer as negative controls (HNKc, n=20. Plasma dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC, homovanillic acid, 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, epinephrine, and norepinephrine were estimated.Results: ANOVA and post hoc analysis showed that dopamine was illustrating significant elevation in all khat chewing groups. DOPAC was illustrating significant decrease in all khat chewing groups with an interesting outcome showing significant increase in DOPAC in SNKcr group due to risperidone effect. Homovanillic acid, serotonin, hydroxyindoleacetic acid, and norepinephrine were illustrating significant elevations in all khat chewing groups. Epinephrine was illustrating significant elevation in all chewers than non-chewers groups. Unexpected significant decrease in epinephrine in the SNKcr group indicated that risperidone drug is decreasing epinephrine through indirect mechanism involving calcium.Conclusion: Khat chewing in schizophrenic patients is contraindicated because it aggravates the disease symptoms, attenuates all used treatment medications, and deteriorates all biochemical markers of the patients. Keywords

  16. [Incidence of broken homes in schizophrenic patients. A study of 239 patients treated at a social psychiatric department].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmür, M; Tschopp, A

    1987-01-01

    259 schizophrenics, 102 women and 157 men, of whom 80 were enlisted from a night clinic, 46 from the Psychiatric University Hospital and 113 from an out-patient clinic, were examined with regard to the frequency of broken home situations during their childhood. 20% had, before they were 18 yrs. old, lost a parent by death and 20% by a traumatic separation. 58% had, before they were 18 yrs. old, lost a parent or had lived together with a parent who was seriously ill or badly disturbed. No relation between the age of first illness and a broken home could, according to these research results, be established. The hypothesis that there is a higher rate of broken home situations by schizophrenics with an early outbreak of the illness, could therefore not be confirmed. Neither could a difference in the occurrence of broken home situations between males and females be observed, with the exception of the frequency of loss of parents by death, which was higher by females. The frequency of the factor 'broken home' in our examines is quite similar to the values round by Bleulers' research, 1940-1945 on male schizophrenics.

  17. A comparison between effectiveness of three types of music on memory activity and sustained attention in schizophrenic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges bahmany

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder in which a lot of cognitive functions including memory, attention, motor skills, executive functions and intelligence are compromised. Numerous empirical studies showed that schizophrenic patients have problem in sustain retention and memory activity. The objective of this study was a comparison between effectiveness of three types of music on memory activity and sustain retention in schizophrenic patients. Material and Methods: A total of 60 schizophrenic patients (30 males , 30 females 18-48 years old were selected from available sampling frame. Participants were otherwise healthy except for schizophrenia. Wechsler Memory Scale and cognitive diagnostic battery Kay test were taken from all subjects. Then patients were randomly divided into three experimental groups (Iranian classic, western classic and pop music and three control groups. There were 10 participants (5 male, 5 female in each group. After taking these tests, music therapy course was performed on experimental groups. After music therapy sessions were completed, tests were taken again from groups. Results: Covariance analysis results indicated that music therapy is overall effective on memory activity. But type of music had no effect in improving memory activity. There wasn’t significant difference between groups considering type of music. Furthermore, covariance analysis showed that music therapy is totally effective on sustain retention and type of music is effective in this intervention. Pop music had the most effectiveness on schizophrenic patients in improving sustain retention. Conclusion: Performing music therapy improves memory and retention. More over, using pop music particularly has the most effect in improving sustain retention in schizophrenic patients.

  18. Measurement of methionine level with the LC-ESI-MS/MS method in schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulaksizoglu, S; Kulaksizoglu, B; Ellidag, H Y; Eren, E; Yilmaz, N; Baykal, A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate plasma methionine levels by using liquid chromatography electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-ESI-MS/MS) in schizophrenic patients. A twelve-point standard graph was drawn, and the recovery rate, the intra-day and inter-day coefficients of variation (CV), the limit of detection (LOD), and the limit of quantification (LOQ) were evaluated. The y and R2 values of the standard graph equation were determined as 0.011x + 0.0179 and 0.9989, respectively, and the graph remained linear until the 200 µmol/l level. The intra-day coefficients of variation of the samples (n = 10) containing 8, 28, and 58 µmol/l methionine were determined as 2.68, 3.10, and 3.79%, respectively; while their inter-day coefficients of variation were determined as 2.98, 3.19, and 3.84%. The LOD and LOQ values were determined as 0.04 and 0.1 µmol/l, respectively, while the mean recovery rates were determined as 101.7 and 99.3%. Plasma methionine values were measured as 21.5 (19.5-24,6) µmol/l for the patient group, 17.8 (16.3-20.1) µmol/l for the control group, and the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (p = 0.03). LC-ESI-MS/MS method represents a fairly sensitive, economic, and rapid analysis that requires very little sample and is suitable for measuring methionine levels in schizophrenic patients.

  19. Effectiveness of Vitamin D Supplement Therapy in Chronic Stable Schizophrenic Male Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhmoonesi, Fatemeh; Zarghami, Mehran; Mamashli, Shima; Yazdani Charati, Jamshid; Hamzehpour, Romina; Fattahi, Samineh; Azadbakht, Rahil; Kashi, Zahra; Ala, Shahram; Moshayedi, Mona; Alinia, Habibollah; Hendouei, Narjes

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the aim was to determine whether adding vitamin D to the standard therapeutic regimen of schizophrenic male patients with inadequate vitamin D status could improve some aspects of the symptom burden or not. This study was an open parallel label randomized clinical trial. Eighty patients with chronic stable schizophrenia with residual symptoms and Vitamin D deficiency were recruited randomly and then received either 600000 IU Vitamin D injection once along with their antipsychotic regimen or with their antipsychotic regimen only. Serum vitamin D was measured twice: first at the baseline and again on the fourth month. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was assessed at the baseline and on the fourth month. During the study, the vitamin D serum changes in vitamin group and control group were 22.1 ± 19.9(95%CI = 15.9-28.8) and 0.2 ± 1.7(95%CI = 0.2-0.8) (ng/mL) (pvitamin D and control group respectively (p=0.5). The changes of PANSS negative subscale score (N) were -0.1 ± 0.7 (95%CI = -0.3-0.05) and -0.1 ± 0.5 (95%CI = -0.2-0.04) in vitamin D and control group respectively (p = 0.7) and there was a negative but not significant correlation between serum vitamin D level changes and PANSS negative subscale score (r = -0.04, p = 0.7). We did not find a relationship between serum vitamin D level changes and the improvement of negative and positive symptoms in schizophrenic patients and more randomized clinical trials are required to confirm our findings.

  20. Chronic auditory hallucinations in schizophrenic patients: MR analysis of the coincidence between functional and morphologic abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Bonmatí, Luis; Lull, Juan José; García-Martí, Gracián; Aguilar, Eduardo J; Moratal-Pérez, David; Poyatos, Cecilio; Robles, Montserrat; Sanjuán, Julio

    2007-08-01

    To prospectively evaluate if functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging abnormalities associated with auditory emotional stimuli coexist with focal brain reductions in schizophrenic patients with chronic auditory hallucinations. Institutional review board approval was obtained and all participants gave written informed consent. Twenty-one right-handed male patients with schizophrenia and persistent hallucinations (started to hear hallucinations at a mean age of 23 years +/- 10, with 15 years +/- 8 of mean illness duration) and 10 healthy paired participants (same ethnic group [white], age, and education level [secondary school]) were studied. Functional echo-planar T2*-weighted (after both emotional and neutral auditory stimulation) and morphometric three-dimensional gradient-recalled echo T1-weighted MR images were analyzed using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM2) software. Brain activation images were extracted by subtracting those with emotional from nonemotional words. Anatomic differences were explored by optimized voxel-based morphometry. The functional and morphometric MR images were overlaid to depict voxels statistically reported by both techniques. A coincidence map was generated by multiplying the emotional subtracted functional MR and volume decrement morphometric maps. Statistical analysis used the general linear model, Student t tests, random effects analyses, and analysis of covariance with a correction for multiple comparisons following the false discovery rate method. Large coinciding brain clusters (P < .005) were found in the left and right middle temporal and superior temporal gyri. Smaller coinciding clusters were found in the left posterior and right anterior cingular gyri, left inferior frontal gyrus, and middle occipital gyrus. The middle and superior temporal and the cingular gyri are closely related to the abnormal neural network involved in the auditory emotional dysfunction seen in schizophrenic patients.

  1. Self-mutilation of the nose in a schizophrenic patient with Cotard syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari-Nejad, Alireza; Kerdegari, Mohammad; Reihani-Kermani, Hamed

    2007-10-01

    Cotard syndrome is a rare condition, which its main symptom is nihilistic delusion. Self-mutilation of the nose is also a rare condition, which has not been seen in schizophrenic patients with Cotard syndrome. A single case is presented here. A 32-year-old woman who was diagnosed as having schizophrenia and believed that she was dead, cut the tip of her nose. She had no guilt feeling and described her act as a cosmetic surgery. We try to explain how various symptoms that seem to be very far from each other could exist side by side. Misinterpretation of her face is suggested to be the starting point in her complex symptoms.

  2. Registered criminality and sanctioning of schizophrenia patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkner, Runa; Haastrup, Soeren; Joergensen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia have been shown to have an increased risk of criminality, especially violent crimes. AIMS: The aim of the current study was to describe the pattern of crimes committed by Danish patients with schizophrenia and examine the sanctions given for crimes...... in relation to the different periods in the patients' lives: not yet known to the psychiatric hospital system, known to the system but not yet diagnosed with schizophrenia, and after being diagnosed with schizophrenia. METHODS: Information from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register was correlated...... with data from the Danish National Crime Register. RESULTS: One of the more prominent findings was that 16% of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia receive a prison sentence or a suspended prison sentence, despite the fact that Denmark is a co-signatory of the European Prison Rules and should treat, rather...

  3. The prognostic value of dopamine receptor occupancy by [123I]IBZM-SPECT in schizophrenic patients treated with quetiapine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavics, L.; Ambrus, E.; Argyelan, M.; Kanyo, B.; Csernay, L.; Szekeres, G.; Kovacs, Z.; Keri, S.; Janka, Z.

    2004-01-01

    In the present study D2 receptor occupancy was investigated in quetiapine treated schizophrenic patients for the detection of a relationship between the scintigraphic pattern and clinical signs and symptoms. In 10 schizophrenic patients [ 123I ]IBZM-SPECTs were performed during the introduction of quetiapine therapy (600 - 800 mg/day) and during a lower maintenance dose (200 - 400 mg/day). The patients clinical follow-up was continued for 1 year. For the evaluation of SPECT images, visual interpretation was performed and striatum/occipital lobe (S/O) activity ratio was calculated. The initial striatum/occipital ratio was significantly higher in patients with relapse compared to the others (1.86 ± 0.17, 1.53 ± 0.15, p nd SPECT was a predictive factor for the relapse. D2 receptor occupancy and its changes during quetiapine therapy were related to the prognosis of the treatment efficacy. (author)

  4. Effects of emotionally affect adult and baby' photographs in healthy controls and schizophrenic patients evaluating by exploratory eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Chizuko; Morita, Kiichiro; Shoji, Yoshihisa; Fujiki, Ryo; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Asaumi, Yasue; Uchimura, Naohisa

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between mother and baby is of fundamental importance in the development of cognitive function and emotion. In this study we investigated the effects of affective photographs of a mother and baby (crying or smiling faces) and other stimuli (neutral mother or baby faces) on visual cognitive function in schizophrenic patents. We recorded exploratory eye movements in 22 healthy controls and 22 age-matched schizophrenic patients. Total number of right and left field gaze points (right TNGP, left TNGP) in the visual fields were determined using an eye-mark recorder as subjects viewed affectively charged or neutral photographs (crying, smiling or neutral faces). Left TNGP for all mother photographs (crying, smiling or neutral) were significantly larger in controls than patients, and right TNGP for neutral mother photographs were significantly larger in controls than in patients. Right TNGP for photographs of smiling babies were significantly larger in controls than patients, and left TNGP for photographs of both smiling and crying babies were significantly larger in controls than patients. Within the patient group, right TNGP were significantly larger than left TNGP for all mother photographs (crying, smiling or neutral). Left TNGP for photographs of mothers and babies correlated negatively with negative symptom scores. These results suggest that exploratory eye movements when viewing emotionally laded twin stimuli such as photographs of a mother and baby are a useful marker of visual cognitive function in both healthy controls and schizophrenic patients.

  5. The Correlation Between Schizophrenic Patients' Level of Internalized Stigma and Their Level of Hope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olçun, Zeynep; Şahin Altun, Özlem

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the correlation between schizophrenic patients' level of internalized stigma and their level of hope. The population of the study consisted of patients who had been diagnosed with schizophrenia and also met the study inclusion criteria. The study sample selection from the population was not further divided; the study was conducted with 76 patients. The data of the study were collected using a personal information form, the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) Scale, and Herth Hope Scale. The patients' mean score on the Internalized Stigma Scale was 72.78±16.05. Their score on the Hope Scale is 50.36±11.91. A significant negative correlation was found between the total mean scores of ISMI and the Herth Hope Scale (r=-0.360, pHope Scale (r=0.510, phope levels were found to be moderate. A significant negative correlation was found between internalized stigma and hope. This study also found a significant positive correlation between the stigma resistance of patients and their hope levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Central D2-dopamine receptor occupancy in schizophrenic patients treated with antipsychotic drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farde, L.; Wiesel, F.A.; Halldin, C.; Sedvall, G.

    1988-01-01

    Using positron emission tomography and the carbon 11-labeled ligand raclopride, central D2-dopamine receptor occupancy in the putamen was determined in psychiatric patients treated with clinical doses of psychoactive drugs. Receptor occupancy in drug-treated patients was defined as the percent reduction of specific carbon 11-raclopride binding in relation to the expected binding in the absence of drug treatment. Clinical treatment of schizophrenic patients with 11 chemically distinct antipsychotic drugs (including both classic and atypical neuroleptics such as clozapine) resulted in a 65% to 85% occupancy of D2-dopamine receptors. In a depressed patient treated with the tricyclic antidepressant nortriptyline, no occupancy was found. The time course for receptor occupancy and drug levels was followed after withdrawal of sulpiride or haloperidol. D2-dopamine receptor occupancy remained above 65% for many hours despite a substantial reduction of serum drug concentrations. In a sulpiride-treated patient, the dosage was reduced in four steps over a nine-week period and a curvilinear relationship was demonstrated between central D2-dopamine receptor occupancy and serum drug concentrations. The results demonstrate that clinical doses of all the currently used classes of antipsychotic drugs cause a substantial blockade of central D2-dopamine receptors in humans. This effect appears to be selective for the antipsychotics, since it was not induced by the antidepressant nortriptyline

  7. Analogical reasoning in schizophrenic delusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Jane; Done, D John

    2004-09-01

    Reasoning ability has often been argued to be impaired in people with schizophrenic delusions, although evidence for this is far from convincing. This experiment examined the analogical reasoning abilities of several groups of patients, including non-deluded and deluded schizophrenics, to test the hypothesis that performance by the deluded schizophrenic group would be impaired. Eleven deluded schizophrenics, 10 depressed subjects, seven non-deluded schizophrenics and 16 matched non-psychiatric controls, who were matched on a number of key variables, were asked to solve an analogical reasoning task. Performance by the deluded schizophrenic group was certainly impaired when compared with the depressed and non-psychiatric control groups though less convincingly so when compared with the non-deluded schizophrenic group. The impairment shown by the deluded schizophrenic group seemed to occur at the initial stage of the reasoning task. The particular type of impairment shown by the deluded subjects was assessed in relation to other cognitive problems already researched and the implications of these problems on reasoning tasks and theories of delusions was discussed.

  8. [A comparison of characteristics of pathologic hobbies in schizophrenic patients of different age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeev, I I; Deych, R V; Malinochka, S A

    2016-01-01

    To analyze age-related pathologic hobbies in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Forty-three inpatients, aged from 4 to 16 years, and 31 patients, aged from 18 to 65 years, were studied. Clinical/psychopathological analysis, psychological experiment and clinical statistics were used. Pathological hobbies substantially differed depending on the age (3-6, 7-15 and 18-65 years). In preschool age, hobbies were immature and infantile, arose autochthonously, their course was relatively stable and they had limited maladaptive effects. In junior school/teenager age, hobbies were more distinct and were associated with more diverse and mature realization patterns. Their origin was more depended on environmental factors, the course was persistent or attack-like with more pronounced and steady maladaptive effects. In some cases, there was a trend to pathological hobby progression. Abnormal hobbies in patients of mature age were the most diverse in their subjects and forms of realization as well as in their clinical variants and dynamic types. In the group of mature patients with schizophrenic spectrum disorders, there was a significantly higher percentage of psychotic forms of pathological hobbies.

  9. Recognition of visual stimuli and memory for spatial context in schizophrenic patients and healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brébion, Gildas; David, Anthony S; Pilowsky, Lyn S; Jones, Hugh

    2004-11-01

    Verbal and visual recognition tasks were administered to 40 patients with schizophrenia and 40 healthy comparison subjects. The verbal recognition task consisted of discriminating between 16 target words and 16 new words. The visual recognition task consisted of discriminating between 16 target pictures (8 black-and-white and 8 color) and 16 new pictures (8 black-and-white and 8 color). Visual recognition was followed by a spatial context discrimination task in which subjects were required to remember the spatial location of the target pictures at encoding. Results showed that recognition deficit in patients was similar for verbal and visual material. In both schizophrenic and healthy groups, men, but not women, obtained better recognition scores for the colored than for the black-and-white pictures. However, men and women similarly benefited from color to reduce spatial context discrimination errors. Patients showed a significant deficit in remembering the spatial location of the pictures, independently of accuracy in remembering the pictures themselves. These data suggest that patients are impaired in the amount of visual information that they can encode. With regards to the perceptual attributes of the stimuli, memory for spatial information appears to be affected, but not processing of color information.

  10. Premorbid Personality Disorders in Male Schizophrenic Patients with or without Comorbid Substance Use Disorder: Is Dual Diagnosis Mediated by Personality Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunsoy, Neslihan; Şahiner, Şafak Yalçın; Cingi Külük, Merve; Okay, Tuncer; Ulusoy Kaymak, Semra; Aydemir, Çiğdem; Göka, Erol

    2015-09-01

    Although substance abuse is an important clinical problem in schizophrenic patients, very little evidence explains why these patients use drugs and alcohol. This study therefore aimed to examine whether premorbid personality disorders affect substance abuse. The sample included 40 male schizophrenic patients with and 40 male schizophrenic patients without substance use disorder comorbidity who had applied to Ankara Numune Research and Training Hospital. Each participant and a family member were interviewed in a structured clinical interview that addressed premorbid personality disorders. Altogether, 32 patients (80%) in the group with comorbidity and 28 (70%) in the group without comorbidity had a premorbid personality disorder. Antisocial (35% vs. 0%; ppersonality disorders were more often detected in the group with comorbidity, while avoidant (10% vs. 35%; p=.014) and obsessive-compulsive (0% vs. 15%; p=.026) personality disorders were less frequently found in this group. Comparing the group with comorbidity with premorbid personality types, schizophrenic patients with premorbid antisocial personality disorder were more frequently unemployed and hospitalized as well as had an earlier onset age of schizophrenia (p=.034, p=.038 and p=.035, respectively). Schizophrenic patients with premorbid borderline personality disorder had a significantly earlier onset age of substance use (19±5; p=.028). Schizophrenic patients with substance use comorbidity variously differ from those without comorbidity and some of these differences may be associated with premorbid personality disorders.

  11. Association between the blood concentrations of ammonia and carnitine/amino acid of schizophrenic patients treated with valproic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Masazumi; Amayasu, Hideaki; Itai, Takahiro; Yoshida, Hisahiro

    2017-01-01

    Administration of valproic acid (VPA) is complicated with approximately 0.9% of patients developing hyperammonemia, but the pathogenesis of this adverse effect remains to be clarified. The aim of the present study was to search for mechanisms associated with VPA-induced hyperammonemia in the light of changes in serum amino acids concentrations associated with the urea cycle of schizophrenic patients. Blood samples (10 mL) were obtained from 37 schizophrenic patients receiving VPA for the prevention of violent behaviors in the morning after overnight fast. Blood concentrations of ammonia, VPA, free carnitine, acyl-carnitine, and 40 amino acids including glutamate and citrulline were measured for each patient. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify amino acids or concomitantly administered drugs that were associated with variability in the blood concentrations of ammonia. The blood ammonia level was positively correlated with the serum glutamate concentration ( r  = 0.44, p  < 0.01) but negatively correlated with glutamine ( r  = -0.41, p  = 0.01), citrulline ( r  = -0.42, p  = 0.01), and glycine concentrations ( r  = -0.54, p  < 0.01). It was also revealed that the concomitant administration of the mood stabilizers ( p  = 0.04) risperidone ( p  = 0.03) and blonanserin ( p  < 0.01) was positively associated with the elevation of the blood ammonia level. We hypothisized that VPA would elevate the blood ammonia level of schizophrenic patients. The observed changes in serum amino acids are compatible with urea cycle dysfunction, possibly due to reduced carbamoyl-phosphate synthase 1 (CPS1) activity. We conclude that VPA should be prudently prescribed to schizophrenic patients, particularly those receiving mood stabilizers or certain antipsychotics.

  12. [Impact of a Multimodal Intervention on the Psychological Profile of Schizophrenic and Bipolar I Patients: A Study of PRISMA Program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Zuluaga, Ana María; Vargas, Cristian; Duica, Kelly; Richard, Shanel; Palacio, Juan David; Agudelo Berruecos, Yuli; Ospina, Sigifredo; López-Jaramillo, Carlos

    Bipolar Disorder (BD) and schizophrenia are included in the group of severe mental illness and are main causes of disability and morbidity in the local population due to the bio-psycho-social implications in patients. In the last 20 years or so, adjunctive psychological interventions been studied with the purpose of decreasing recurrences, stabilising the course of the disease, and improving the functionality in these patients. To analyse the psychological effect of a multimodal intervention (MI) vs a traditional intervention (TI) program in BD I and schizophrenic patients. A prospective, longitudinal, therapeutic-comparative study was conducted with 302 patients (104 schizophrenic and 198 bipolar patients) who were randomly assigned to the MI or TI groups of a multimodal intervention program PRISMA. The MI group received care from psychiatry, general medicine, neuropsychology, family therapy, and occupational therapy. The TI group received care from psychiatry and general medicine. The Hamilton and Young scales, and the Scales for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) and Postive Symptoms (SAPS) were used on bipolar and schizophrenic patients, respectively. The scales AQ-12, TEMPS-A, FAST, Zuckerman sensation seeking scale, BIS-11, SAI-E and EEAG were applied to measure the psychological variables. The scales were performed before and after the interventions. The psychotherapy used in this study was cognitive behavioural therapy. There were statistically significant differences in socio-demographic and clinical variables in the schizophrenia and bipolar disorder group. There were no statistically significant differences in the psychological scales after conducting a multivariate analysis between the intervention groups and for both times (initial and final). This study did not show any changes in variables of psychological functioning variables between bipolar and schizophrenic groups, who were subjected to TI vs MI (who received cognitive behavioural therapy

  13. [Expressed Emotions, Burden and Family Functioning in Schizophrenic and Bipolar I Patients of a Multimodal Intervention Program: PRISMA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Alexandra; Palacio, Juan David; Vargas, Cristian; Díaz-Zuluaga, Ana María; Duica, Kelly; Agudelo Berruecos, Yuli; Ospina, Sigifredo; López-Jaramillo, Carlos

    Bipolar disorder and schizophrenia are causes of major suffering in patients. Nevertheless, they also affect family and caregiver functioning. This is important because the participation and involvement of families and caregivers is essential to achieve an optimal treatment. To describe the level of expressed emotions, burden, and family functioning of bipolar and schizophrenic patients and, to evaluate the efficacy of the multimodal intervention (MI) versus traditional intervention (TI) in family functioning and its perception by patients and caregivers. A prospective, longitudinal, therapeutic-comparative study was conducted with 302 patients (104 schizophrenic and 198 bipolar patients) who were randomly assigned to a MI or TI groups of a multimodal intervention program PRISMA. MI group received care from psychiatry, general medicine, neuropsychology, family therapy, and occupational therapy. TI group received care from psychiatry and general medicine. Hamilton, Young and SANS, SAPS scales were applied to bipolar and schizophrenic patients, respectively. The EEAG, FEICS, FACES III and ECF were also applied at the initial and final time. There were statistically significant differences in socio- demographic and clinical variables in schizophrenia vs bipolar group: 83% vs 32.2% were male, 37 vs 43 mean age, 96% vs 59% were single, 50% vs 20% unemployed, and 20% vs 40% had college studies. In addition, 2 vs 2.5 numbers of hospitalisations, 18 vs 16 mean age of substance abuse onset and, 55 vs 80 points in EEAG. There were no statistically significant differences in family scales after conducting a multivariate analysis on thr initial and final time in both groups. This study did not show changes in variables of burden and family functioning between bipolar and schizophrenic groups that were under TI vs MI. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  14. Do ictal EEG characteristics predict treatment outcomes in schizophrenic patients undergoing electroconvulsive therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Gulnihal Gokce; Zincir, Selma; Gulec, Huseyin; Eksioglu, Sevgin; Semiz, Umit Basar; Kurtulmus, Yasemin Sipka

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between features of electroencephalography (EEG), including seizure time, energy threshold level and post-ictal suppression time, and clinical variables, including treatment outcomes and side-effects, among schizophrenia inpatients undergoing electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). This is a naturalistic follow-up study on schizophrenia patients, diagnosed using DSM-IV-TR criteria, treated by a psychosis inpatient service. All participants completed the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale, the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) and a Data Collection Form. Assessments were made before treatment, during ECT and after treatment. Statistically significant improvements in both clinical and cognitive outcome were noted after ECT in all patients. Predictors of improvement were sought by evaluating electrophysiological variables measured at three time points (after the third, fifth and seventh ECT sessions). Logistic regression analysis showed that clinical outcome/improvement did not differ by seizure duration, threshold energy level or post-ictal suppression time. We found that ictal EEG parameters measured at several ECT sessions did not predict clinical recovery/outcomes. This may be because our centre defensively engages in "very specific patient selection" when ECT is contemplated. ECT does not cause short-term cognitive functional impairment and indeed improves cognition, because symptoms of the schizophrenic episode are alleviated.

  15. Dental Health Status of Schizophrenic Patients in the Chronic Psychiatric Care Center in the Province of Chaharmahal va Bakhtiyary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Nik-Farjam

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Schizophrenia is a chronic disease . Schizophrenic patients are unable in personal fuction and self care such as dental health. Especially, side effects of anti– psych otic drugs cause some dental problems in the patient . Also dental problems may lead to some disease , so it is necessary to play full attention to dental health condition in schizophrenic patients. The aim of study was assessing the dental health status of schizophrenic patients confined in chronic psychiatric care center on Chaharmahal & Bakhtiyari. Materials & Methods: This survey is an analytical descriptive and cross-sectional study, 123 schizophrenic patients are assessed in 2008. The data was collected through interview, (using the Scale for the assessment of positive and negative symptom (SAPS and SANS, Decayed, Missed, Filled Teeth index (DMFT, Gingival index and demographic questionnaire. Quantities analysis of data was undertaken by using X 2, Man vetney test and Pearson r test . Results: The mean of DMFT was 19.43±7.71. There was a significant correlation between age, smoking history and cigarettes per day, oral hygiene condition and other negative symptoms and average DMFT (P&le0.05. Also there was a significant correlation between the severity of periodentitis and sex, history of smoking, number of smoked cigarettes per day, previous hospital admission and average of negative and positive symptoms. No significant correlation between the severity of periodentitis and mean DMFT (P&le0.05 was seen. Conclusion: Results of the study demonstrated that dental health of people with schizophrenia is poor.

  16. Nondirective counseling interventions with schizophrenics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerwood, J B

    1993-12-01

    Counseling interventions with paranoid schizophrenics can be daunting. While chemical, directive, and behavioral controls often are considered important, nondirective counseling techniques used by the therapeutic staff may help schizophrenic patients explore their thoughts and feelings. Several nondirective concepts pioneered by Carl Rogers are examined. These methods, which represent basic concepts of the person-centered approach, are empathy, unconditional positive regard, and congruence. A brief illustration of an interaction with a patient diagnosed as paranoid schizophrenic is presented to suggest the effectiveness of Rogerian counseling.

  17. Workplace violence on workers caring for long-term institutionalized schizophrenic patients in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Ching; Wang, Jung-Der; Lew-Ting, Chih-Yin; Chiu, Hsien-Jane; Lin, Yi-Ping

    2007-07-01

    It has been noted that workplace violence most frequently occurs in psychiatric settings. The purpose of this study was to explore the workplace violence, including violence situation, victims' feeling, and the prevention strategies, on workers caring for long-term institutionalized schizophrenic patients in Taiwan. We conducted a face-to-face, in-depth, and semi-structured interview with 13 health care workers suffering from physical violence and/or sexual harassment by patients in 2002. First, the interviews were taped and/or paper-notes recorded, then transcribed, organized, and analyzed. Results found that all of the victims alleged they did not receive enough post-incident support, and more than a half of the victims could not call others for help during the violence. To avoid further attack, most victims offered prevention strategies which were considered valuable for establishing guidelines. However, some victims regarded workplace violence as inevitable and part of the job. The most common situations of workplace violence were during routine ward inspections, especially when the victims were alone. The most serious psychological harm was post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In conclusion, we recommended a re-engineering of the organization to a supportive and safe working environment for prevention of workplace violence in the study hospital.

  18. Performance of a neuro-fuzzy model in predicting weight changes of chronic schizophrenic patients exposed to antipsychotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, T H; Loh, E W; Wu, M S; Hu, T M; Chou, P; Lan, T Y; Chiu, H-J

    2008-12-01

    Artificial intelligence has become a possible solution to resolve the problem of loss of information when complexity of a disease increases. Obesity phenotypes are observable clinical features of drug-naive schizophrenic patients. In addition, atypical antipsychotic medications may cause these unwanted effects. Here we examined the performance of neuro-fuzzy modeling (NFM) in predicting weight changes in chronic schizophrenic patients exposed to antipsychotics. Two hundred and twenty inpatients meeting DSMIV diagnosis of schizophrenia, treated with antipsychotics, either typical or atypical, for more than 2 years, were recruited. All subjects were assessed in the same study period between mid-November 2003 and mid-April 2004. The baseline and first visit's physical data including weight, height and circumference were used in this study. Clinical information (Clinical Global Impression and Life Style Survey) and genotype data of five single nucleotide polymorphisms were also included as predictors. The subjects were randomly assigned into the first group (105 subjects) and second group (115 subjects), and NFM was performed by using the FuzzyTECH 5.54 software package, with a network-type structure constructed in the rule block. A complete learned model trained from merged data of the first and second groups demonstrates that, at a prediction error of 5, 93% subjects with weight gain were identified. Our study suggests that NFM is a feasible prediction tool for obesity in schizophrenic patients exposed to antipsychotics, with further improvements required.

  19. [Efficacy and tolerance of PDE-5 in the treatment of erectile dysfunction in schizophrenic patients: A literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacconi, L; Gressier, F

    2017-02-01

    Sexual dysfunction is an important public health problem in men and is associated with reduced quality of life. It is more common in patients with schizophrenia. It is well-established that antipsychotic drugs cause sexual dysfunction with consequences on the quality of life of patients, adherence to treatment, and public health costs. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5 inhibitors) are indicated for the management of erectile dysfunction. However, there is little information on such treatment in schizophrenic patients. This literature review aimed to summarize the current data on the efficacy and tolerability of PDE-5 inhibitors in the erectile dysfunction in schizophrenic patients. PubMed, PsycInfo and Cochrane databases were searched for studies published until August 2014. Only 6 studies met the inclusion criteria. Three were randomized, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled trials and three were open studies. Various scales were used to measure erectile and orgasmic function, desire, satisfaction during intercourse, overall satisfaction, quality of life and intensity of schizophrenic symptoms. In the 3 randomized studies (one with sildenafil 25-50 mg, one with lodenafil carbonate 80 mg/j and the last one with tadalafil 10 mg), the rate of participants who completed the trial was high (around 95 %). All three included patients with schizophrenia or schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Patients reported significant improvement on sexual dysfunction. However, no statistical difference was reported between lodenafil and placebo, on different scales, suggesting a very important placebo effect in patients with schizophrenia. All three found a good tolerance of PDE-5 inhibitors. Side effects were rare and were mainly nasal congestion, headaches, nausea and dizziness. There were no major side effects or drug interactions. Considering the 3 open studies, 2 involved sildenafil and one tadalafil. All concluded in improved erectile and orgasmic

  20. Social integration and the quality of life of schizophrenic patients in different types of complementary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisse, M; Kallert, T W

    2000-12-01

    Following reunification in Germany in 1990 the new states in the Federal Republic faced the task of restructuring and rebuilding the structures of complementary care for the chronically mentally ill. First and foremost, residential facilities had to be established that would correspond to and meet the currently high need for de-hospitalization by making different types of care and care concepts available. Five groups of patients with chronic schizophrenic psychoses (N = 245 patients) who live in different types of psychiatric care facilities (psychiatric nursing home, social therapeutic hostel, sheltered community residence) or at home, either with or without a family network, were studied. In addition to the sociodemographic data, the psychopathology and the extent of social disabilities were also surveyed, as well as data on the living situation and the subjective quality of life with an emphasis on 'social relationships', 'recreation/leisure activities', and 'general independence'. The five groups differed with regard to various sociodemographic and disorder-related variables, particularly with regard to the extent of social disabilities. Especially relevant, however, are the differences among the patient groups in the extent of daily social life and recreational/leisure activities that are partially reflected in their statements on the subjective quality of life. Primarily for the two groups of home residents, but also in part for the patients living in sheltered community care, social contacts are more or less limited to the residential situation and patients are more or less otherwise socially isolated. This is due among other things to the fact that patients who have been hospitalized for long periods do not as a rule return to their prior area of residence; thus, the available compensatory mediation of relationships with the social environment does not suffice. Demands for the further development of complementary systems of psychiatric care derive from

  1. The effects of psychoactive drugs and neuroleptics on language in normal subjects and schizophrenic patients: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomé, F; Boyer, P; Fayol, M

    2000-12-01

    The aim of this survey is to present an overview of research into psychopharmacology as regards the effects of different psychoactive drugs and neuroleptics (NL) on language in normal subjects and schizophrenic patients. Eighteen studies that have investigated the effects of different drugs (alcohol, amphetamines, secobarbital, L-dopa, psilocybin, ketamine, fenfluramine) and neuroleptics (conventional and atypical) on language are reviewed. There are no studies concerning the effects of neuroleptics on language in healthy subjects. The results of the effects of other molecules indicate that language production can be increased (alcohol, amphetamine, secobarbital), rendered more complex (d-amphetamine), more focused (L-dopa) or more unfocused (psilocybin) and clearly impaired (ketamine). For schizophrenic patients, most studies show that conventional neuroleptic treatments, at a therapeutic dosage and in acute or chronic mode, reduce language disorders at all levels (clinic, linguistic, psycholinguistic). In conjunction with other molecules, the classical NL, when administered at a moderate dosage and in chronic mode, modify language in schizophrenia, either by improving the verbal flow and reducing pauses and positive thought disorder (NL + amphetamine) or by inducing an impairment in the language measurements (NL + fenfluramine). Clinical, methodological and theoretical considerations of results are debated in the framework of schizophrenic language disorders.

  2. Receptor imaging of schizophrenic patients under treatment with typical and atypical neuroleptics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresel, S.; Tatsch, K.; Meisenzahl, E.; Scherer, J.

    2002-01-01

    Schizophrenic psychosis is typically treated by typical and atypical neuroleptics. Both groups of drugs differ with regard to induction of extrapyramidal side effects. The occupancy of postsynaptic dopaminergic D2 receptors is considered to be an essential aspect of their antipsychotic properties. The dopamine D2 receptor status can be assessed by means of [I-123]IBZM SPECT. Studies on the typical neuroleptic haloperidol revealed an exponential dose response relationship measured by IBZM. Extrapyramidal side effects were presented by all patients below a threshold of the specific binding of IBZM below 0.4 (with one exception, norm value: >0.95). Also under treatment with the atypical neuroleptic clozapine an exponential dose response relationship was found. However, none of these patients showed extrapyramidal side effects. Recently introduced, new atypical neuroleptics such as risperidone and olanzapine again presented with an exponential relationship between daily dose and IBZM binding. The curves of the latter were in between the curves of haloperidol and clozapine. Extrapyramidal side effects were documented in a less number of patients treated with risperidone as compared to haloperidol, for olanzapine only one patient revealed these findings in our own patient group. The pharmacological profile of atypical neuroleptics shows - in addition to their binding to dopamine receptors - also high affinities to the receptors of other neurotransmitter systems, particularly the serotonergic system. Therefore, the lower incidence of extrapyramidal side effects seen by atypical in comparison to typical neuroleptics is at least in part most likely due to a complex interaction on a variety of neurotransmitter systems. (orig.) [de

  3. Detecting potential adverse reactions of sulpiride in schizophrenic patients by prescription sequence symmetry analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Chia-Cheng Lai

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Previous studies have demonstrated sulpiride to be significantly more effective than haloperidol, risperidone and olanzapine in schizophrenic treatment; however, only limited information is available on the potential risks associated with sulpiride treatment. This study attempts to provide information on the potential risks of sulpiride treatment of schizophrenia, especially with regard to unexpected adverse effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with schizophrenia aged 18 and older, newly prescribed with a single antipsychotic medication from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan in the period from 2003 to 2010 were included. A within-subject comparison method, prescription sequence symmetry analysis (PSSA was employed to efficiently identify potential causal relationships while controlling for potential selection bias. RESULTS: A total of 5,750 patients, with a mean age of 39, approximately half of whom were male, constituted the study cohort. The PSSA found that sulpiride was associated with EPS (adjusted SR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.46-2.06 and hyperprolactinemia (12.04; 1.59-91.2. In comparison, EPS caused by haloperidol has a magnitude of 1.99 when analyzed with PSSA, and hyperprolactinemia caused by amisulpride has a magnitude of 8.05, respectively. Another finding was the unexpected increase in the use of stomatological corticosteroids, emollient laxatives, dermatological preparations of corticosteroids, quinolone antibacterials, and topical products for joint and muscular pain, after initiation of sulpiride treatment. CONCLUSIONS: We found sulpiride to be associated with an increased risk of EPS and hyperprolactinemia, and the potential risk could be as high as that induced by haloperidol and amisulpride, respectively. Additionally, our study provides grounds for future investigations into the associations between sulpiride and the increased use of additional drugs for managing adverse effects, including

  4. When does subliminal affective image priming influence the ability of schizophrenic patients to perceive face emotions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaina, Lucia Maria; Rana, Kunjan D; Cotos, Ionela; Li-Yang, Chen; Huang, Melissa A; Podea, Delia

    2014-12-24

    Deficits in face emotion perception are among the most pervasive aspects of schizophrenia impairments which strongly affects interpersonal communication and social skills. Schizophrenic patients (PSZ) and healthy control subjects (HCS) performed 2 psychophysical tasks. One, the SAFFIMAP test, was designed to determine the impact of subliminally presented affective or neutral images on the accuracy of face-expression (angry or neutral) perception. In the second test, FEP, subjects saw pictures of face-expression and were asked to rate them as angry, happy, or neutral. The following clinical scales were used to determine the acute symptoms in PSZ: Positive and Negative Syndrome (PANSS), Young Mania Rating (YMRS), Hamilton Depression (HAM-D), and Hamilton Anxiety (HAM-A). On the SAFFIMAP test, different from the HCS group, the PSZ group tended to categorize the neutral expression of test faces as angry and their response to the test-face expression was not influenced by the affective content of the primes. In PSZ, the PANSS-positive score was significantly correlated with correct perception of angry faces for aggressive or pleasant primes. YMRS scores were strongly correlated with PSZ's tendency to recognize angry face expressions when the prime was a pleasant or a neutral image. The HAM-D score was positively correlated with categorizing the test-faces as neutral, regardless of the affective content of the prime or of the test-face expression (angry or neutral). Despite its exploratory nature, this study provides the first evidence that conscious perception and categorization of facial emotions (neutral or angry) in PSZ is directly affected by their positive or negative symptoms of the disease as defined by their individual scores on the clinical diagnostic scales.

  5. Functional MRI in schizophrenia. Diagnostics and therapy monitoring of cognitive deficits of schizophrenic patients by functional MRI; Funktionelle MRT bei Schizophreniepatienten. Diagnostik und Therapiemonitoring kognitiver Defizite schizophrener Patienten mittels funktioneller MRT

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    Furtner, J.; Prayer, D. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Univ.-Klinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria); Sachs, G. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Univ.-Klinik fuer Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Wien (Austria)

    2010-02-15

    Cognitive impairments are core psychopathological components of the symptomatic of schizophrenic patients. These dysfunctions are generally related to attention, executive functions and memory. This report provides information on the importance of using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for the diagnostics and therapy monitoring of the different subtypes of cognitive dysfunctions. Furthermore, it describes the typical differences in the activation of individual brain regions between schizophrenic patients and healthy control persons. This information should be helpful in identifying the deficit profile of each patient and create an individual therapy plan. (orig.) [German] Kognitive Defizite sind ein zentraler Bestandteil der Symptomatik schizophrener Patienten. Diese Defizite betreffen v. a. die Aufmerksamkeit, exekutive Funktionen sowie das Gedaechtnis. Der vorliegende Beitrag zeigt den Stellenwert der funktionellen Magnetresonanztomographie (fMRT) in Hinblick auf Diagnostik und Therapiemonitoring der unterschiedlichen kognitiven Teilbereiche auf. Darueber hinaus werden die Unterschiede in Bezug auf die Aktivierung der einzelnen Gehirnareale zwischen schizophrenen Patienten und gesunden Kontrollpersonen dargestellt. Diese Informationen sollen helfen, in der Praxis ein Profil der kognitiven Leistungsreduktionen sowie ein darauf angepasstes Therapiekonzept zu erstellen. (orig.)

  6. Validation of the French version of the BACS (the brief assessment of cognition in schizophrenia) among 50 French schizophrenic patients.

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    Bralet, Marie-Cécile; Falissard, Bruno; Neveu, Xavier; Lucas-Ross, Margaret; Eskenazi, Anne-Marie; Keefe, Richard S E

    2007-09-01

    Schizophrenic patients demonstrate impairments in several key dimensions of cognition. These impairments are correlated with important aspects of functional outcome. While assessment of these cognition disorders is increasingly becoming a part of clinical and research practice in schizophrenia, there is no standard and easily administered test battery. The BACS (Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia) has been validated in English language [Keefe RSE, Golberg TE, Harvey PD, Gold JM, Poe MP, Coughenour L. The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia: reliability, sensibility, and comparison with a standard neurocognitive battery. Schizophr. Res 2004;68:283-97], and was found to be as sensitive to cognitive dysfunction as a standard battery of tests, with the advantage of requiring less than 35 min to complete. We developed a French adaptation of the BACS and this study tested its ease of administration and concurrent validity. Correlation analyses between the BACS (version A) and a standard battery were performed. A sample of 50 stable schizophrenic patients received the French Version A of the BACS in a first session, and in a second session a standard battery. All the patients completed each of the subtests of the French BACS . The mean duration of completion for the BACS French version was 36 min (S.D.=5.56). A correlation analysis between the BACS (version A) global score and the standard battery global score showed a significant result (r=0.81, p<0.0001). The correlation analysis between the BACS (version A) sub-scores and the standard battery sub-scores showed significant results for verbal memory, working memory, verbal fluency, attention and speed of information processing and executive functions (p<0.001) and for motor speed (p<0.05). The French Version of the BACS is easier to use in French schizophrenic patients compared to a standard battery (administration shorter and completion rate better) and its good psychometric properties suggest

  7. Schizophrenia and the paranormal: more psi belief and superstition, and less déjà vu in medicated schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiah, Yung-Jong; Wu, Yi-Zhen; Chen, Yueh-Hua; Chiang, Shih-Kuang

    2014-04-01

    The present study examined the relation between déjà vu experiences and paranormal beliefs in schizophrenic patients. A total of 522 participants (54.5% female; mean age=33.3, SD=16.02) were recruited, including 422 healthy adults (60.9% female; mean age=29.48, SD=15.07) and 100 medicated adult schizophrenic patients (27.3% female; mean age=48.98, SD=8.57). The Chinese version of the Inventory of Déjà-vu Experiences Assessment was created via back translation. Chinese versions of the Revised Paranormal Belief Scale (CRPB), Beck Anxiety Inventory (CBAI), and Perceived Stress Scale (CPSS) were also used. After controlling for age, gender, education, and anxiety, the results supported the following three hypotheses. Schizophrenic persons have fewer déjà vu experiences than normal persons. These experiences are positively related to paranormal beliefs in healthy adults but not in schizophrenic patients. Schizophrenic patients have higher scores than healthy adults on the psi and superstitious subscales of the CRPB. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [A new patient focused scale for measuring quality of life in schizophrenic patients: the Schizophrenia Quality of Life Scale (SOL)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P; Caci, H; Azorin, J M; Daléry, J; Hardy-Baylé, M C; Etienne, D; Gérard, D; Peretti, C S

    2005-01-01

    RATIONALE/OBJECTIVE: Quality of Life (QOL) has been recognized as an important measure of the outcome of patients by clinicians and policy makers in Mental Health. The emerging consensus in the health field that personal values and the patient's preferences are important in monitoring the quality of medical care outcomes makes it even more important to assess the patient's perspectives. Unfortunately, there is little consensus about what constitutes QOL or how to measure it, particularly in psychotic patients. The objective of this study is to report the stages of development and validation of a QOL questionnaire based on issues pertinent to patients with schizophrenia. During a first phase, identical pattern were identified among interviews (conducted by psychologists) of schizophrenic patients (DSM IV, n = 100), mental health staff (n = 20) and families (n = 20). The data gathered in the first phase were discussed and organized, by 25 experts, into a structure that made up the skeleton of the scale (133 items, 17 factors). Based on a prospective epidemiological study conducted with 337 French psychiatrists, a validation analysis of structural and psychometric proprieties was performed. Finally reliability of the scale was assessed by a second test/retest (D0, D7) study (n = 100). A total of 686 schizophrenic, schizophreniform or schizoaffective patients (DSM IV) were included. Internal consistency analysis identified 14 factors (74 items), all with a Cronbach's alpha of at least 0.75: professional life (0.95), affective and sexual life (0.92), illness knowledge (0.90), relationship (0.92), life satisfaction, (0.87), coping with drugs (0.79), drugs impact on the body (0.87), daily life (0.83), family relationship (0.81), future (0.88), security feeling (0.84), leisure (0.87), money management (0.76) and autonomy (0.75). Construct validity was confirmed (Pearson test) using established clinical (Brief Psychiatry Rating Scale and Clinical Global Improvement), social

  9. Decreased striatal dopamine transporter binding assessed with [123I] FP-CIT in first-episode schizophrenic patients with and without short-term antipsychotic-induced parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, Jose J; Lomeña, Francisco; Parellada, Eduardo; Font, Mireia; Fernandez, Emili; Pavia, Javier; Prats, Alberto; Pons, Francisca; Bernardo, Miquel

    2005-09-01

    Drug-induced parkinsonism (DIP) is one of the main causes of treatment drop-out in schizophrenic patients causing a high incidence of relapse that leads patients to a bad clinical prognosis. The dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway is involved in the movement control, so the study of the dopamine transporter (DAT) could be of great value to determine its implication in the appearance of DIP. The goal of the study is to determine the striatal DAT binding assessed with [(123)I] FP-CIT SPECT in first-episode neuroleptic-naive schizophrenic in-patients with DIP after short-term antipsychotic treatment. The [(123)I] FP-CIT binding ratios of ten schizophrenic in-patients who developed DIP during the first 4-week period of risperidone treatment (6+/-2 mg/day) were compared with ten schizophrenic in-patients treated with the same doses of risperidone and who do not developed DIP and with ten age-matched healthy subjects. Quantitative analyses of SPECTs were performed using regions of interest located in caudate, putamen and occipital cortex. Parkinsonism was assessed by the Simpson-Angus Scale and the psychopathological status by the Clinical General Impression and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scales. Whole striatal [(123)I] FP-CIT binding ratios were significantly lower in patients with and without DIP than in healthy subjects (p<0.001). This was also observed in whole putamen (p<0.001) and caudate nucleus (p<0.001). Females showed higher whole striatal [(123)I] FP-CIT binding ratios than males (p<0.05). No differences in psychopathological scales were observed between patients with and without DIP. Our first-episode schizophrenic patients with and without DIP after short-term risperidone treatment have a decreased striatal DAT binding assessed with [(123)I] FP-CIT. This alteration could be related to the schizophrenic disease or may be secondary to the antipsychotic treatment.

  10. Comparison between Camberwell Family Interview and Expressed Emotion Scale in Determining Emotions of Caregivers of Schizophrenic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    ÇETİNKAYA DUMAN, Zekiye; KUŞCU, M. Kemal; ÖZGÜN, Serkan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to compare the Camberwell Family Interview (CFI) and the Expressed Emotion Scale (EES) in determining the level of expressed emotion in caregivers of patients with schizophrenia. Method The study sample included caregivers of 22 schizophrenic patients followed in two psychiatric clinics. The level of expressed emotion in the caregivers was assessed by the CFI and the EES. CFI was applied to caregivers of the inpatients and the procedure was audio recorded. These records were later used for the ratings. EES was completed by the caregivers. Total EES scores were used to determine the level of expressed emotion in the caregivers. Results Forty point nine percent and 50% of the caregivers had high level of expressed emotion based on the analysis of the data obtained from the CFI and EES. Fifty-nine percent and 50% of the caregivers had low level of expressed emotion based on the data obtained from the CFI and EES. The proportion of the caregivers with high level of expressed emotion as measured by the CFI and the EES were not statistically significantly different within the sample (χ2= 0.727). Conclusion The CFI and the EES were similar in determining the level of expressed emotion in caregivers of schizophrenic patients. It can be suggested that the EES, a user friendly tool, may be preferred to determine the level of expressed emotion in caregivers of patients with schizophrenia. However, further studies with larger samples are needed to obtain more reliable results. PMID:28360561

  11. Enkephalin, dynorphin and substance P in postmortem substantia nigra from normals and schizophrenic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iadarola, M.J.; Ofri, D.; Kleinman, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    Three peptide neuromodulators that are found in high concentration in the subtantia nigra: dynorphin A 1,8-met5-enkephalin-arg6-gly7-leu8 and substance P, were measured by specific radioimmunoassays in nigral tissue from normals and schizophrenics postmortem. Substance P and dynorphin were unchanged between the two groups. However, the proenkephalin-derived peptide was significantly elevated in the schizophrenic group. The immunoreactivity was identified as authentic met5-enkephalin-arg6-gly7-leu8 by high pressure liquid chromatography. The data suggest that a different set of regulatory controls exists for nigral enkephalin peptides as compared to dynorphin and substance P, and that the former system may be disordered in schizophrenia

  12. Enkephalin, dynorphin and substance P in postmortem substantia nigra from normals and schizophrenic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iadarola, M.J.; Ofri, D.; Kleinman, J.E. (National Institute of Dental Research, Bethesda, MD (USA) National Institute of Mental Health, Washington, DC (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Three peptide neuromodulators that are found in high concentration in the subtantia nigra: dynorphin A 1,8-met5-enkephalin-arg6-gly7-leu8 and substance P, were measured by specific radioimmunoassays in nigral tissue from normals and schizophrenics postmortem. Substance P and dynorphin were unchanged between the two groups. However, the proenkephalin-derived peptide was significantly elevated in the schizophrenic group. The immunoreactivity was identified as authentic met5-enkephalin-arg6-gly7-leu8 by high pressure liquid chromatography. The data suggest that a different set of regulatory controls exists for nigral enkephalin peptides as compared to dynorphin and substance P, and that the former system may be disordered in schizophrenia.

  13. Correlation of regional cerebral blood flow and positive/negative symptoms in schizophrenic patients: covariate SPM analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Ki Chun; Kim, J. S.; Kim, C. Y.; Lee, H. K.; Moon, D. H. [Ulsan University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    We investigated the relations between rCBF and psychopathology in schizophrenic patients using a SPM99. Thirty-two patients(M/F:22/10, 25{+-}5,6yr) with active symptoms of schizophrenia and 15 age matched normal controls underwent Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT. Psychopathology of all patients were also assessed according to PANSS (positive and negative syndrome scale in schizophrenia). By covariate SPM analysis, specific areas where rCBF correlated with sum scores of positive/negative synptoms were identified. Regional CBF of schizophrenics was different in several cortical regions from normal controls. Sum scores of positive symptoms were positively correlated with rCBF of both rectal and inferior frontal gyri and right transverse temporal gyrus, and negatively correlated with rCBF of left lingual and right middle temporal gyri (p<0.01). Sum scores of negative symptoms were positively correlated with rCBF of both middle temporal gyri and negatively correlated with rCBF of right superior parietal lobule and medial frontal gyrus (p<0.01). Positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia were correlated with rCBF change in different regions of cerebral association cortex.

  14. Correlation of regional cerebral blood flow and positive/negative symptoms in schizophrenic patients: covariate SPM analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Ki Chun; Kim, J. S.; Kim, C. Y.; Lee, H. K.; Moon, D. H.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the relations between rCBF and psychopathology in schizophrenic patients using a SPM99. Thirty-two patients(M/F:22/10, 25±5,6yr) with active symptoms of schizophrenia and 15 age matched normal controls underwent Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT. Psychopathology of all patients were also assessed according to PANSS (positive and negative syndrome scale in schizophrenia). By covariate SPM analysis, specific areas where rCBF correlated with sum scores of positive/negative synptoms were identified. Regional CBF of schizophrenics was different in several cortical regions from normal controls. Sum scores of positive symptoms were positively correlated with rCBF of both rectal and inferior frontal gyri and right transverse temporal gyrus, and negatively correlated with rCBF of left lingual and right middle temporal gyri (p<0.01). Sum scores of negative symptoms were positively correlated with rCBF of both middle temporal gyri and negatively correlated with rCBF of right superior parietal lobule and medial frontal gyrus (p<0.01). Positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia were correlated with rCBF change in different regions of cerebral association cortex

  15. A Comparative Genomic Study in Schizophrenic and in Bipolar Disorder Patients, Based on Microarray Expression Profiling Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianthi Logotheti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia affecting almost 1% and bipolar disorder affecting almost 3%–5% of the global population constitute two severe mental disorders. The catecholaminergic and the serotonergic pathways have been proved to play an important role in the development of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and other related psychiatric disorders. The aim of the study was to perform and interpret the results of a comparative genomic profiling study in schizophrenic patients as well as in healthy controls and in patients with bipolar disorder and try to relate and integrate our results with an aberrant amino acid transport through cell membranes. In particular we have focused on genes and mechanisms involved in amino acid transport through cell membranes from whole genome expression profiling data. We performed bioinformatic analysis on raw data derived from four different published studies. In two studies postmortem samples from prefrontal cortices, derived from patients with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and control subjects, have been used. In another study we used samples from postmortem orbitofrontal cortex of bipolar subjects while the final study was performed based on raw data from a gene expression profiling dataset in the postmortem superior temporal cortex of schizophrenics. The data were downloaded from NCBI's GEO datasets.

  16. The effect of verbalization strategy on wisconsin card sorting test performance in schizophrenic patients receiving classical or atypical antipsychotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavallaro Roberto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of reports showed en encouraging remediation in some patients' executive deficits thanks to the use of 'information processing strategies'. Moreover the impact of antipsychotics on cognitive functions of the schizophrenics is an important issue, especially if an integrated psychosocial treatment is needed. The aim of this paper is to evaluate different executive performance and response to verbalization, a strategy of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST remediation, in subjects on classical vs atypical antipsychotic (AP treatment. Methods Sixty-three schizophrenic subjects undertook the WCST under standard and modified (verbalization administration. Subjects were stratified by the kind of WCST response (i.e. good, poor and remediable and AP treatment (i.e. atypical vs. classical. Results Subjects on atypical APs showed a better performance than those on classical ones. More poor performers who did not remediate were seen in the sample with classical Aps while subjects who remediated the performance were seen in the subgroup with atypical APs only. An increase of perseverative and total errors was seen in poor performers subjects on classical APs. Conclusion Subjects on atypicals showed a better cognitive pattern in terms of WCST performance. Since the naturalistic assignment of medication we cannot draw conclusions about its effect on cognitive performance and its interaction with cognitive remediation potential. However the data lead us to hypothesize that subjects with potential room for remediation did so with the atypical APs.

  17. Simultaneous determination of amino acids and neurotransmitters in plasma samples from schizophrenic patients by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Diego Soares; Crevelin, Eduardo José; de Moraes, Luiz Alberto Beraldo; Cecilio Hallak, Jaime Eduardo; de Souza Crippa, José Alexandre; Costa Queiroz, Maria Eugênia

    2015-03-01

    A sensitive, reproducible, and rapid method was developed for the simultaneous determination of underivatized amino acids (aspartate, serine, glycine, alanine, methionine, leucine, tyrosine, and tryptophan) and neurotransmitters (glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid) in plasma samples using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry. The plasma concentrations of amino acids and neurotransmitters obtained from 35 schizophrenic patients in treatment with clozapine (27 patients) and olanzapine (eight patients) were compared with those obtained from 38 healthy volunteers to monitor the effectiveness of treatment. The chromatographic conditions separated ten target compounds within 3 min. This method presented linear ranges that varied from (lower limit of quantification: 9.7-13.3 nmol/mL) to (upper limit of quantification: 19.4-800 nmol/mL), intra- and interassay precision with coefficients of variation lower than 10%, and relative standard error values of the accuracy ranged from -2.1 to 9.9%. The proposed method appropriately determines amino acids and neurotransmitters in plasma from schizophrenic patients. Compared with the control group (healthy volunteers), the plasma levels of methionine in schizophrenic patients treated with olanzapine are statistically significantly higher. Moreover, schizophrenic patients treated with clozapine tend to have increased plasma levels of glutamate. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Neural correlates of working memory deficits in schizophrenic patients. Ways to establish neurocognitive endophenotypes of psychiatric disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, O.; Gruber, E.; Falkai, P.

    2005-01-01

    This article briefly reviews some methodological limitations of functional neuroimaging studies in psychiatric patients. We argue that the investigation of the neural substrates of cognitive deficits in psychiatric disorders requires a combination of functional neuroimaging studies in healthy subjects with corresponding behavioral experiments in patients. In order to exemplify this methodological approach we review recent findings regarding the functional neuroanatomy of distinct components of human working memory and provide evidence for selective dysfunctions of cortical networks that underlie specific working memory deficits in schizophrenia. This identification of subgroups of schizophrenic patients according to neurocognitive parameters may facilitate the establishment of behavioral and neurophysiological endophenotypes and the development of a neurobiological classification of psychiatric disorders. (orig.) [de

  19. [A nationwide investigation needs for rehabilitation of schizophrenic outpatients--the patients' attribute and actual conditions of living].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, T; Kuroda, K; Hirano, W; Ueno, M; Yoshizumi, A; Inomata, Y; Komine, K

    1996-01-01

    In Japan we are very short of community resources for persons with mental disability. The authors, a board of resettlement, thought patients' actual conditions of living and needs for rehabilitation to let them live in the community had to be evaluated. Then in March 1993 the actual conditions of living and needs for rehabilitation of schizophrenic outpatients were investigated nationally. This article is the report on the patients' actual conditions of living. Investigation papers were sent to 358 institutions (286 hospitals and 72 clinics) which agreed to cooperate with the investigation. The 5186 investigation papers were received from 313 institutions. All of the papers except 18, which were lack of their ages, were analyzed. All of the schizophrenic outpatients, who consulted psychiatrists on one day during investigation, were considered objects of this research. Those who consented were included the research and psychiatrists filled in investigation papers. These institutions had a policy of intensive social resettlement activities and so on. Male patients were 55% and females were 45%. There were patients in the forties and females were older than males. Thirty-nine percent of them had been hospitalized once or twice. Thirty-four percent of them had been hospitalized for less than one year. Eighteen percent of them had not been hospitalized. Fifty percent of patients answered there was no friend and acquaintance, and had a tendency to stand alone. Fifty-three percent of patients lived with their parents, 21% with their spouses, and 17% alone. But 32% of females lived with their husbands. Sixteen percent worked for full-time jobs, 8% worked part-time jobs, 12% attended day care center 4% went to sheltered-workshops and only 1% went to rehabilitation-workshops for outpatients. While 13% didn't have a right to receive disability pension, the sources of income were job (30%), disability pension (30%), and welfare benefits (12%). Regarding the ability for living

  20. Subdural hematoma cases identified through a Danish patient register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Frantz Rom; Halle, Bo; Pottegård, Anton

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess the usefulness of Danish patient registers for epidemiological studies of subdural hematoma (SDH) and to describe clinical characteristics of validated cases. METHODS: Using a patient register covering a geographically defined area in Denmark, we retrieved...... use did not vary by SDH type (OR 0.9, 95%CI 0.6-1.2). CONCLUSIONS: Danish patient registers are a useful resource for SDH studies. However, choice of International Classification of Diseases code markedly influences diagnostic validity. Distinction between cSDH and aSDH is not possible based on SDH...

  1. Correlation between neuropsychological and social cognition measures and symptom dimensions in schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamura, A Carlo; Caletti, Elisabetta; Paoli, Riccardo Augusto; Cigliobianco, Michela; Zugno, Elisa; Grillo, Paolo; Prunas, Cecilia; Caldiroli, Alice; Zago, Stefano

    2015-12-15

    Neurocognitive and social cognition deficits have been largely reported in Schizophrenia (SKZ) but their association with psychopathology remains uncertain. Our purpose was to explore the relationship between symptom dimensions and neuropsychological performances. We enrolled 35 stabilized schizophrenic outpatients of the Department of Psychiatry of Policlinico Hospital, University of Milan, who completed psychiatric Rating Scales, the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) and the Executive and Social Cognition Battery (ESCB). Disorganized dimension seems to have the most significant impact on cognition, being associated with performance in several BACS subtests (verbal memory, working memory, motor speed, symbol coding, Tower of London) and ESCB tasks (MET and Hotel task number of tasks attempted, number of broken MET rules, sum of deviations in Hotel Task). Positive dimension correlated with performance in verbal fluency, negative dimension with IOWA Test results, cognitive dimension with MET number of inefficiencies and Eyes test score. Impulsive-aggressive and depressive dimensions weakly correlated only with Faux Pas test. Our study supports the existence of a specific disorganized dimension in SKZ, separated from cognitive dimension evaluated through clinical instruments (e.g. PANSS), but capable of influencing cognitive abilities. Furthermore, it strengthens the validity of ecological tasks in evaluating cognition in SKZ. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of striatal dopamine transporter density using ({sup 123}I)-{beta}-CIT SPECT in schizophrenic patients treated with olanzapine: pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chul Eung; Moon, Hey Won; Choe, Won Sick; Kim, Chang Ho; Chi, Dae Yoon [Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-08-01

    This pilot study was performed to understand the pharmacological effect of olanzapine, an atypical antipsychotic agent, on dopamine transporter in schizophrenic patients. Six patients (3 male, 3 female) with schizophrenia, who had not taken any psychotropic drugs for at least four weeks, were studied. Nuclear imaging using ({sup 123}I)-{beta}-CIT SPECT was obtained before and after 4-week treatment with olanzapine. Analysis of ROI on the striatum, caudate nucleus, and putamen was performed. Post-treatment uptake was significantly increased in all the ROIs compared with pre-treatment uptake. This preliminary study with the small number of schizophrenic patients suggested an increase in uptake of dopamine transporter in the striatum, caudate nucleus, and putamen after 4-week treatment with olanzapine, which warrants a large-scaled controlled study to confirm the current findings.

  3. Registered criminality and sanctioning of schizophrenia patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkner, Runa; Haastrup, Soeren; Joergensen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia have been shown to have an increased risk of criminality, especially violent crimes. AIMS: The aim of the current study was to describe the pattern of crimes committed by Danish patients with schizophrenia and examine the sanctions given for crimes in relat...... than imprison, individuals with schizophrenia. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that greater alertness is needed in the judicial system for individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia....

  4. The electronic register patients with hypertensia in Tomsk Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Kobyakova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the limits of the regional program «Prevention and treatment of an arterial hypertension for the period of 2004—2008» the electronic register of the patients with hypertensia inTomskRegion has been created.The electronic register is a two-level system where interaction of two kinds of databases is carried out: the first level is the databases of separate medical organization; the second level is the central integrated database.The basic information for the electronic register are documents confirmed by the Health service Ministry of the Russian Federation, that is the coupon of the out-patient patient and a card of dynamic supervision over the patient with hypertensia.All the data about the patients, included in the register are subdivided into unchangeable and changeable ones.The electronic register is an effective control system providing local leading of health service bodies with qualitative and high-grade information in processes of preparation of decision-making and measure taken for prevention and treatment of hypertensia.The electronic register is an effective monitoring system, providing medical authority of important information for taking decisions establishment measures for prevention and treatment of hypertensia.

  5. Opposite effective connectivity in the posterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex between first-episode schizophrenic patients with suicide risk and healthy controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiran Zhang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The schizophrenic patients with high suicide risk are characterized by depression, better cognitive function, and prominent positive symptoms. However, the neurobiological basis of suicide attempts in schizophrenia is not clear. The suicide in schizophrenia is implicated in the defects in emotional process and decision-making, which are associated with prefrontal-cingulate circuit. In order to explore the possible neurobiological basis of suicide in schizophrenia, we investigated the correlation of prefrontal-cingulate circuit with suicide risk in schizophrenia via dynamic casual modelling. METHOD: Participants were 33 first-episode schizophrenic patients comprising of a high suicide risk group (N = 14 and a low suicide risk group (N = 19. A comparison group of healthy controls (N = 15 were matched for age, gender and education. N-back tasking functional magnetic resonance imaging data was collected. RESULTS: Compared with healthy controls group, the two patients groups showed decreased task-related suppression during 2-back task state versus baseline state in the left posterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex; the hyper-connectivity from the left posterior cingulate cortex to the left medial prefrontal cortex existed in both schizophrenic patients groups, but hypo-connectivity in the opposite direction only existed in the schizophrenic patients group with high suicide risk. CONCLUSIONS: The hyper-connectivity from the left posterior cingulate cortex to the left medial prefrontal cortex may suggest that the abnormal effective connectivity was associated with risk for schizophrenia. The hypo-connectivity in the opposite direction may represent a possible correlate of increased vulnerability to suicide attempt.

  6. Brain computed tomography findings of aged schizophrenics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oomori, Masao; Koshino, Yoshifumi; Murata, Tetsuhito; Murata, Ichirou; Tani, Kazuhiko; Horie, Tan; Isaki, Kiminori

    1992-01-01

    Brain CT was performed in a total of 30 aged schizophrenic patients, consisting of 20 with no history of psychosurgery (lobotomy) and the other 10 lobotomized patients. The CT findings were compared with those from healthy aged persons. The group of schizophrenic patients had marked atrophy of the frontal lobe and dilatated Sylvian fissure as compared with the control group. There was no significant difference in ventricular factors between the two groups. These findings may have implications for the different mechanisms of the occurrence of atrophied brain surface and enlarged ventricle. The cerebral cortex involved in the occurrence of schizophrenia may be affected by aging-related cerebral atrophy, in addition to the morphological changes due to schizophrenia. Thus, schizophrenic cerebral atrophy was more noticeable than physiological aging-related atrophy. However, enlargement of the ventricle in the schizophrenic group progressed with aging in the same manner as that in the normal group. In comparing schizophrenic patients with or without a history of lobotomy, atrophy of the brain surface and enlargement of the ventricle were more marked in the lobotomized patients than the non-lobotomized patients. This confirmed that lobotomy, as well as surgical scar, is involved in the morphology of schizophrenic brain. (N.K.)

  7. D2 dopamine receptors in neuroleptic-naive schizophrenic patients. A positron emission tomography study with [11C]raclopride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farde, L.; Wiesel, F.A.; Stone-Elander, S.; Halldin, C.; Nordstroem, A.L.H.; Hall, H.; Sedvall, G.

    1990-01-01

    Several groups have reported increased densities of D2 dopamine receptors in the basal ganglia of schizophrenic brains postmortem. The significance of this finding has been questioned, since an upregulation of receptor number may be a neuronal response to neuroleptic drug treatment. We have used positron emission tomography and [ 11 C]raclopride to examine central D2 dopamine receptor binding in 20 healthy subjects and 18 newly admitted, young, neuroleptic-naive patients with schizophrenia. An in vivo saturation procedure was applied for quantitative determination of D2 dopamine receptor density (Bmax) and affinity (Kd). When the two groups were compared, no significant difference in Bmax or Kd values was found in the putamen or the caudate nucleus. The hypothesis of generally elevated central D2 dopamine receptor densities in schizophrenia was thus not supported by the present findings. In the patients but not in the healthy controls, significantly higher densities were found in the left than in the right putamen but not in the caudate nucleus

  8. Predictors of subjective quality of life in schizophrenic patients living in the community. A Nordic multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, L; Middelboe, T; Merinder, L; Bjarnason, O; Bengtsson-Tops, A; Nilsson, L; Sandlund, M; Sourander, A; Sørgaard, K W; Vinding, H

    1999-01-01

    As part of a Nordic multi-centre study investigating the life and care situation of community samples of schizophrenic patients the aim of the present part of the study was to examine the relationship between global subjective quality of life and objective life conditions, clinical characteristics including psychopathology and number of needs for care, subjective factors such as satisfaction with different life domains, social network, and self-esteem. A sample of 418 persons with schizophrenia from 10 sites was used. The results of a final multiple regression analysis, explaining 52.3% of the variance, showed that five subjective factors were significantly associated with global subjective quality of life, together with one objective indicator, to have a close friend. No clinical characteristics were associated with global subjective quality of life. The largest part of the variance was explained by satisfaction with health, 36.3% of the variance, and self-esteem, 7.3% of the variance. It is concluded that the actual relationship between objective life conditions and subjectively experienced quality of life still remains unclear. Furthermore, it seems obvious that personality related factors such as self-esteem, mastery and sense of autonomy also play a role in the appraisal of subjective quality of life, which implies that factors like these are important to consider in clinical and social interventions for patients with schizophrenia in order to improve quality of life for these persons.

  9. Computer content analysis of schizophrenic speech: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, G J; Rosenberg, S D

    1975-06-01

    Computer analysis significantly differtiated the thermatic content of the free speech of 10 schizophrenic patients from that of 10 nonschizophrenic patients and from the content of transcripts of dream material from 10 normal subjects. Schizophrenic patients used the thematic categories in factor 1 (the "schizophrenic factor") 3 times more frequently than the nonschizophrenics and 10 times more frequently than the normal subjects (p smaller than 01). In general, the language content of the schizophrenic patient mirrored an almost agitated attempt to locate oneself in time and space and to defend against internal discomfort and confusion. The authors discuss the implications of this study for future research.

  10. The Danish nationwide clinical register for patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibfelt, Else Helene; Jensen, Dorte Vendelbo; Hetland, Merete Lund

    2016-01-01

    the following: patient-reported outcomes for disease activity, pain, fatigue, functional status, and physician-reported objective measures of disease activity, treatment, C-reactive protein, and, when indicated, imaging. For subgroups of patients, the variables such as quality of life, sociodemographic factors...... original papers as well as annual reports of clinical quality (since 2005) have been published. Conclusion: DANBIO is a powerful register for research in rheumatologic diseases and furthermore serves as a Clinical Quality Register with the aim of monitoring treatment quality in patients with RA in Denmark....

  11. Plasma homovanillic acid levels and therapeutic outcome in schizophrenics: comparisons of neuroleptic-naive first-episode patients and patients with disease exacerbation due to neuroleptic discontinuance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, K; Tsuchida, K; Kanzaki, A; Ujike, H; Hamamura, T; Kondo, K; Mutoh, S; Miyanagi, K; Kuroda, S; Otsuki, S

    1995-11-15

    Plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) levels were measured and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) scores were evaluated in 26 schizophrenic patients who had either never been medicated (neuroleptic-naive, first-episode subjects) or whose condition had become exacerbated following neuroleptic discontinuance (exacerbated subjects). All the subjects received medication with a fixed dose of a neuroleptic (haloperidol or fluphenazine, both 9 mg/day) for the first week and variable doses for the subsequent 4 weeks. In the neuroleptic-naive subjects, pHVA levels increased significantly 1 week after starting the protocol; this increase correlated significantly with clinical improvement of the BPRS positive symptom scores at week 5. In the neuroleptic-naive subjects, pHVA levels had declined to the baseline level by week 5. In the exacerbated subjects, there were no significant correlations between pHVA level changes at week 1 and later improvements of the BPRS positive symptom scores. These results suggest that the rise in pHVA levels occurring within 1 week after starting a fixed neuroleptic dose may predict a favorable clinical response in neuroleptic-naive schizophrenic patients.

  12. Ran domized controlled clinical tria l on the efficacy of team play football on schizophrenic patients: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Vinci

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The physical activity is an important aspect of good health for everyone; it is even more important for psychiatric patients who usually live an unhealthy lifestyle. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of football practice on the self-reported health quality of life (SRHQL and Wellbeing in schizophrenic subjects. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted to assess the effectiveness of the Psychosocial Rehabilitation Program performed by Daily Center Mazzacurati, Department of Mental Health Roma/D , for psychotic subjects that included weekly football activities for a period of 9 months. The results show that the model proved effective in the experimental group (SG as regards the psychopathological dimensions, which are significantly improved (Median(IQR: 31(16 versus 53(18; p=0.001; in particular the negative symptomatology has been reduced, and this result is hardly achieved with the drug therapy (17(7 versus 25(15; p=0.003. This study increases the awareness of following this ap proach and improving the extension and the confirmation of the results achieved.

  13. Effects of typical antipsychotic, haloperidol on regional cerebral blood flow in drug-naive schizophrenic patients-study with 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamoya, Masatoshi

    2001-01-01

    For the purpose of examining antipsychotic action of haloperidol (HPD), effects of chronic perioral administration of HPD 4.5 mg/day on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT were investigated in 12 drug-naive schizophrenic patients with acute hallucinatory and delusional state. Further, the SPECT examinations were performed on 20 normal adult volunteers to investigate differences in rCBFs between schizophrenics and the normal subjects. Results are itemized as follows. The rCBF values were significantly increased in the bilateral superior and middle frontal, cingulate, middle temporal, pre-and post-central gyri, the left superior temporal gyrus, the bilateral inferior parietal lobule, and the bilateral hippocampal and thalamic cortices in comparison between normal subjects and before the HPD dose in schizophrenics. However, the rCBF values after the HPD dose showed significant increases only in the bilateral pre-and post-central gyri in comparison with the normal subjects. The rCBF values were significantly decreased in the bilateral superior, middle and inferior frontal, superior and middle temporal gyri, and the left insular gyrus after the HPD dose in comparison with before the HPD dose. The psychiatric assessment with PANSS showed an improvement of positive symptoms consisting of auditory hallucination and delusions after the HPD dose. Statistical analyses on relationships between the rCBF values and PANSS scores before and after the HPD dose showed positive correlations between the right inferior frontal gyrus and auditory hallucination or positive symptoms, between the right superior temporal gyrus, left thalamus and delusions, and between the left thalamus, insular gyrus and negative symptoms. These results suggest that acute drug-naive schizophrenic patients have widespread cortico-subcortical energic hypermetabolism and HPD reduces the hypermetabolism, leading to whole normalized brain metabolism, in particular with the larger region

  14. Effects of typical antipsychotic, haloperidol on regional cerebral blood flow in drug-naive schizophrenic patients-study with 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamoya, Masatoshi [Kanazawa Medical Univ., Ishikawa (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of examining antipsychotic action of haloperidol (HPD), effects of chronic perioral administration of HPD 4.5 mg/day on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT were investigated in 12 drug-naive schizophrenic patients with acute hallucinatory and delusional state. Further, the SPECT examinations were performed on 20 normal adult volunteers to investigate differences in rCBFs between schizophrenics and the normal subjects. Results are itemized as follows. The rCBF values were significantly increased in the bilateral superior and middle frontal, cingulate, middle temporal, pre-and post-central gyri, the left superior temporal gyrus, the bilateral inferior parietal lobule, and the bilateral hippocampal and thalamic cortices in comparison between normal subjects and before the HPD dose in schizophrenics. However, the rCBF values after the HPD dose showed significant increases only in the bilateral pre-and post-central gyri in comparison with the normal subjects. The rCBF values were significantly decreased in the bilateral superior, middle and inferior frontal, superior and middle temporal gyri, and the left insular gyrus after the HPD dose in comparison with before the HPD dose. The psychiatric assessment with PANSS showed an improvement of positive symptoms consisting of auditory hallucination and delusions after the HPD dose. Statistical analyses on relationships between the rCBF values and PANSS scores before and after the HPD dose showed positive correlations between the right inferior frontal gyrus and auditory hallucination or positive symptoms, between the right superior temporal gyrus, left thalamus and delusions, and between the left thalamus, insular gyrus and negative symptoms. These results suggest that acute drug-naive schizophrenic patients have widespread cortico-subcortical energic hypermetabolism and HPD reduces the hypermetabolism, leading to whole normalized brain metabolism, in particular with the larger region

  15. An epidemiological study of concomitant use of Chinese medicine and antipsychotics in schizophrenic patients: implication for herb-drug interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang-Jin Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Herb-drug interactions are an important issue in drug safety and clinical practice. The aim of this epidemiological study was to characterize associations of clinical outcomes with concomitant herbal and antipsychotic use in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this retrospective, cross-sectional study, 1795 patients with schizophrenia who were randomly selected from 17 psychiatric hospitals in China were interviewed face-to-face using a structured questionnaire. Association analyses were conducted to examine correlates between Chinese medicine (CM use and demographic, clinical variables, antipsychotic medication mode, and clinical outcomes. The prevalence of concomitant CM and antipsychotic treatment was 36.4% [95% confidence interval (95% CI 34.2%-38.6%]. Patients using concomitant CM had a significantly greater chance of improved outcomes than non-CM use (61.1% vs. 34.3%, OR = 3.44, 95% CI 2.80-4.24. However, a small but significant number of patients treated concomitantly with CM had a greater risk of developing worse outcomes (7.2% vs. 4.4%, OR = 2.06, 95% CI 2.06-4.83. Significant predictors for concomitant CM treatment-associated outcomes were residence in urban areas, paranoid psychosis, and exceeding 3 months of CM use. Herbal medicine regimens containing Radix Bupleuri, Fructus Gardenia, Fructus Schisandrae, Radix Rehmanniae, Akebia Caulis, and Semen Plantaginis in concomitant use with quetiapine, clozapine, and olanzepine were associated with nearly 60% of the risk of adverse outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Concomitant herbal and antipsychotic treatment could produce either beneficial or adverse clinical effects in schizophrenic population. Potential herb-drug pharmacokinetic interactions need to be further evaluated.

  16. [Cost-effectiveness analysis of schizophrenic patient care settings: impact of an atypical antipsychotic under long-acting injection formulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorca, P M; Miadi-Fargier, H; Lançon, C; Jasso Mosqueda, G; Casadebaig, F; Philippe, A; Guillon, P; Mehnert, A; Omnès, L F; Chicoye, A; Durand-Zaleski, I

    2005-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a disease affecting the young adults and amounts to approximately 300,000 people in France. The French public psychiatric sector takes care of approximately 150,000 adults schizophrenics: 50% benefit from ambulatory care, 50% are in partial or full-time hospitalization care. Schizophrenia represents the first diagnosis that psychiatric sectors take in charge. The costs associated with schizophrenia, mainly hospital costs, are important and were estimated at 2% of the total medical costs in France. In the French social welfare system, the social costs (pensions, allowances, managements of custody or guardianship by social workers) are also to be taken into account: it amounts to a third of the global direct cost. Schizophrenia also generates indirect costs (losses of productivity and premature deaths) which would be at least equal, or even more important, than direct medical costs. The non-compliance to the antipsychotic treatment is a major problem with people suffering from schizophrenia. Indeed the lack of compliance to the treatment, estimated at 20 to 40%, is a major handicap for schizophrenic patient stabilization. The poor level of compliance is due to many various causes: adverse effects that are considered unbearable, medicine viewed as persecutory, negation of the disease, nostalgia for the productive phases of the disease, lack of social support, complexity of the prescription, relapse itself. Compliance is thus influenced by the patient's clinical features, local provision of health care and the specific nature of the drug (adverse effects, pharmaceutical formulation). The atypical antipsychotics present fewer extrapyramidal side effects and reduce the cognitive deficits associated with the disease, which results in improved compliance. Long-acting injectable antipsychotics allow a better therapeutic compliance and thus better efficacy of the treatment. Several studies have shown a significant improvement in compliance related to the

  17. Patient engagement with research: European population register study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKevitt, Christopher; Fudge, Nina; Crichton, Siobhan; Bejot, Yannick; Daubail, Benoît; Di Carlo, Antonio; Fearon, Patricia; Kolominsky-Rabas, Peter; Sheldenkar, Anita; Newbound, Sophie; Wolfe, Charles D A

    2015-12-01

    Lay involvement in implementation of research evidence into practice may include using research findings to guide individual care, as well as involvement in research processes and policy development. Little is known about the conditions required for such involvement. To assess stroke survivors' research awareness, use of research evidence in their own care and readiness to be involved in research processes. Cross sectional survey of stroke survivors participating in population-based stroke registers in six European centres. The response rate was 74% (481/647). Reasons for participation in register research included responding to clinician request (56%) and to 'give something back' (19%); however, 20% were unaware that they were participating in a stroke register. Research awareness was generally low: 57% did not know the purpose of the register they had been recruited to; 73% reported not having received results from the register they took part in; 60% did not know about any research on stroke care. Few participants (7.6%) used research evidence during their consultations with a doctor. The 34% of participants who were interested in being involved in research were younger, more highly educated and already research aware. Across Europe, stroke survivors already participating in research appear ill informed about stroke research. Researchers, healthcare professionals and patient associations need to improve how research results are communicated to patient populations and research participants, and to raise awareness of the relationship between research evidence and increased quality of care. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Experiences of registered nurses caring for patients with an open ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three themes emerged: Difficulty in nursing care, complications such as fistula and infections, and poor hospital administration. Recommendations for assisting registered nurses in taking care of patients with an open abdomen were then made based on the findings of the four focus group interviews. Ethical principles and ...

  19. Dysfluent Handwriting in Schizophrenic Outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawda, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    Taking into account findings in the literature, the author aimed to test whether specific graphical characteristics of handwriting can distinguish patients diagnosed with schizophrenic disorders from healthy controls. Handwriting samples (one sample from each person) from 60 outpatients (29 women, 31 men; age M = 28.5, SD = 5.4) with paranoid schizophrenia were analyzed by three documents examiners and were compared to samples from 60 controls (30 men, 30 women, age M = 28.0, SD = 3.0) without psychiatric disorders. Document examiners assessed 32 graphical features potentially related to schizophrenia. The comparisons between groups revealed that only 7 out of 32 handwriting properties were significantly different in the handwriting of schizophrenic outpatients from controls: the calligraphic forms of letters, loops in ovals, lacking of dots, tremor, sinusoidal baseline, and irregularities size of lower zone. These findings are discussed in terms of motor disturbances in schizophrenia and in relation to the previous research on handwriting of other mental disorders. Similarities between the graphical patterns of handwriting of schizophrenic patients and those of other mental disorders and/or other mental states have been demonstrated. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Psychordrama Effect on Social Skills and Self Esteem of Schizophrenic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Mowlavi

    2009-07-01

    Conclusion: Execution of psychodrama significantly affects social skills and self-esteem of patients with schizophrenia. This is significantly higher in the patients of type I in comparison with type II.

  1. Ensaio com sulpiride em esquizofrênicos hospitalizados Clinical trial with sulpiride on schizophrenic in-patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clóvis Martins

    1974-09-01

    Full Text Available Um ensaio terapêutico é feito com sulpiride, substância psicotrópica dada como muito ativa e cujas propriedades permitem enquadrá-la entre os neurolépticos e os timoanalépticos. Foram tratados 24 pacientes internados, com idades que variavam entre 17 e 48 anos, de ambos os sexos (17 masculinos e 7 femininos, todos com o diagnóstico clínico de esquizofrenia e internados em hospital psiquiátrico. O tempo de doença variava de 30 dias a 18 anos. O sulpiride foi aplicado em doses diárias em torno de 1200 mg, predominantemente por via oral. O tratamento durou em média 6 semanas permanecendo a maioria dos casos em observação por alguns meses, sob tratamento de manutenção. Os resultados foram em geral favoráveis, principalmente no que tange aos fenômenos psicóticos sensoperceptivos e delirantes. Não foram assinalados efeitos colaterais ou manifestações colaterais molestas.A therapeutic trial with sulpiride was made, submiting to treatment 24 in-patients of a mental hospital, diagnosed as schizophrenics. The ages are from 17 to 48 years old, 17 males and 7 females. The time of disease was from 30 dayes to 18 years. The drug was given mainly orally on about 1200 mg/die, in a treament of 6 weeks followed in some cases, by several months of observation. The best results were obtained in the sensoperceptive and delusional symptoms. No side effects of importance were detected.

  2. Different patterns of sexual dysfunctions associated with psychiatric disorders and psychopharmacological treatment. Results of an investigation by semistructured interview of schizophrenic and neurotic patients and methadone-substituted opiate addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teusch, L; Scherbaum, N; Böhme, H; Bender, S; Eschmann-Mehl, G; Gastpar, M

    1995-05-01

    Little is known about sexual dysfunctions associated with psychiatric disorders and psychopharmacological treatment. In the present study schizophrenic patients (n = 45, mostly under neuroleptic treatment), neurotic patients (n = 50, mostly treated without medication), methadone-substituted opiate addicts (n = 37), and normal controls (n = 41) were included. They were interviewed with the aid of a sex-differentiated semistructured questionnaire on sexual function. All the methadone-substituted opiate addicts and nearly all the schizophrenic patients suffered from dysfunctions in at least one criterion. The three clinical groups differed significantly from the controls in sexual interest, emotional arousal, physiological arousal (erectile function/vaginal lubrication), performance (ejaculatory function/vaginism, dyspareunia), and orgasm satisfaction. Characteristic patterns of dysfunction were found in the male patients. The schizophrenic patients had significantly more dysfunctions of interest, physiological arousal, performance, and orgasm than the controls. Emotional arousal, erectile and ejaculatory functions, and orgasm satisfaction were impaired more frequently in the male schizophrenics than in the neurotic patients. Reduced sexual interest, emotional arousal, and orgasm satisfaction were reported more frequently by the methadone-substituted opiate addicts than by the neurotic men. Emotional arousal was even more frequently reduced than in the schizophrenic men. There was no correlation between sexual dysfunction and particular neuroleptics or neuroleptic or methadone dosage. The results are compared with the literature and suggestions made for further investigations.

  3. [On the "folkloric" psychotherapy to schizophrenic patients--based on phenomenological study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, T; Yamada, Y

    1998-01-01

    Psychotherapeutic treatment of schizophrenia is generally considered difficult. One reason for this is that the doctor and patient can easily fall into a relationship of conflict with each other concerning the propriety of "judgments which are morbidly and mistakenly made (K. Jaspers)", referred to as delusions. We carried out close phenomenological structure-analyses of the delusions and of patients' fundamental experiences, based on the premise that a patient with delusions probably has some actual grounding for these in the patient's own concepts, considering the fact that the patient firmly believes these delusions. As a result, we have clarified the following matters from the primary experience of delusions. 1) We found that patients are in a conflicted mental condition which can be considered a collapse of adaptability to "Seken". 2) In this condition of conflict, patients feel guilt relative to "Seken" or feel that they are indebted and should be punished. When patients complained of their primary experience, we were able to persuade them to reserve their judgment of their primary experience, by 3) having each patient listen to the folktale "Torikuyou" in which the "logic of stealing" and the "logic of being stolen", appear in a reciprocal relationship relative to the constitution of crime and punishment, by 4) explaining to each patient about the ambiguity and reciprocity of reality experienced, 5) instead of disputing the propriety of patient's judgment about primary experience, doctor and patient worked together to enable the patient to form a positive understanding of the primary experience. 6) We reduced the patient's psychological conflict relative to primary experience, and were able to defuse and distance the patient's delusions caused by erroneous judgment of primary experience. 7) Regarding the area in which this type of psychotherapeutic approach shows efficacy, we analyzed the concept of "Seken" as a world which can cause conflicts relative to

  4. A massive neglected giant basal cell carcinoma in a schizophrenic patient treated successfully with vismodegib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rosa Marie; Lei, Ulrikke

    2015-01-01

    The small molecule vismodegib is a great treatment alternative to patients challenged, e.g. psychiatric disorders, suffering from severe basal cell carcinoma of the skin in which surgery or other treatment modalities is not possible because of patient's wish or condition. We present a case of a 73...

  5. Predictive validity of proposed remission criteria in first-episode schizophrenic patients responding to antipsychotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wunderink, Lex; Nienhuis, Fokko J.; Sytema, Sjoerd; Wiersma, Durk

    The objective of this study was to examine the predictive validity of the remission criteria proposed by Andreasen et all in first-episode patients responding to antipsychotics. Antipsychotic responsive patients with first-episode schizophrenia showing symptom remission (n = 60) were compared with

  6. Hepatic insulin resistance in antipsychotic naive schizophrenic patients: stable isotope studies of glucose metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nimwegen, Lonneke J. M.; Storosum, Jitschak G.; Blumer, Regje M. E.; Allick, Gideon; Venema, Henk W.; de Haan, Lieuwe; Becker, Hiske; van Amelsvoort, Therese; Ackermans, Mariette T.; Fliers, Eric; Serlie, Mireille J. M.; Sauerwein, Hans P.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to measure insulin sensitivity and body composition in antipsychotic-naive patients with DSM IV schizophrenia and/or schizoaffective disorder compared with matched controls. DESIGN: Seven antipsychotic medication-naive patients fulfilling the DSM IV A criteria for

  7. Relationship between Drug Attitudes of Schizophrenic Patients on Discharge and Re-hospitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannaneh Taghizadeh

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available "n "nObjective: Non-compliance is one of the major problems in treatment of patients with schizophrenia. It is also the most significant risk factor for relapse and re-hospitalization. Previous studies showed that 25-70% of all patients with schizophrenia have negative attitudes to drugs. Therefore, the present study aimed to identify the relationship between drug attitude and discharge and the rate of re-hospitalization in patients with schizophrenia. "nMethod: This cohort study was carried out on 200 hospitalized patients with schizophrenia. Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI was completed for all the patients at the time of discharge. All patients were followed-up for one year for ehospitalization. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between drug attitude and specific risk factors. "nResults: The Mean age of patients was 37.34±10.74 years. Positive and negative drug attitudes were 68%.5 and 27% respectively. The rate of rehospitalization was 41.5% during the one year follow-up. The rate of negative attitude was not significantly different between the two groups with and without re-hospitalization. However, the mean DAI score was significantly lower in the re-hospitalized patients. Multivariate analysis showed that lower DAI score and being female were significant and independent risk factors for re-hospitalization. "n "nConclusion: The more negative attitude the patients with schizophrenia had towards drugs, the more rate of re-hospitalization they had. Moreover, female patients are at higher risk for re-hospitalization.

  8. Computerized tomography studies on schizophrenic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, G.; Huber, G.; Schuettler, R.

    1982-01-01

    Earlier clinical pneumoencephalographic studies showed a subgroup of schizophrenics that have small and dysplastic cerebral ventricles as well as a subgroup with a 'pure defect', i.e., a slight internal brain atrophy. In echoencephalograms of pure and mixed residual schizophrenic syndrome patients, a significantly higher average transverse diameter of the third ventricle was demonstrated compared to that in patients with complete remissions. Correlations cannot be expected between certain groups of disease, e.g., epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, or schizophrenia on the whole, and pneumoencephalographic (PEG) and CT findings. Only schizophrenics with distinct signs of pure defect that had persisted for at least 3 years revealed deviations from normal by CT and PEG, but those with irreversible fixed deformations of personality structure did not. In patients who were 50 years of age or less with psychic reactive and psychopathic personality disorders, CT showed an average third ventricle diameter of 4.2 mm (range 2-6 mm). Of 117 schizophrenics (average age 35.5 years), only 28% revealed pathological CT changes. However, of 36 schizophrenics with pure residual syndromes 69% showed pathological CT findings that always concerned the third ventricle, rarely the lateral ventricles, and in no case the cortex. The average transverse diameter of the third ventricle in this subgroup with pure defect was 7.6 mm, as compared to 4.6 mm in the subgroup of schizophrenics with complete remission. There was no increase in size with increasing years until the 50th year in schizophrenics, as well as in the control group of variations of psychic being (neuroses and psychopathic personality disorders). (orig./MG)

  9. Computerized tomography studies on schizophrenic diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, G.; Huber, G.; Schuettler, R.

    1982-01-01

    Earlier clinical pneumoencephalographic studies showed a subgroup of schizophrenics that have small and dysplastic cerebral ventricles as well as a subgroup with a 'pure defect', i.e., a slight internal brain atrophy. In echoencephalograms of pure and mixed residual schizophrenic syndrome patients, a significantly higher average transverse diameter of the third ventricle was demonstrated compared to that in patients with complete remissions. Correlations cannot be expected between certain groups of disease, e.g., epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, or schizophrenia on the whole, and pneumoencephalographic (PEG) and CT findings. Only schizophrenics with distinct signs of pure defect that had persisted for at least 3 years revealed deviations from normal by CT and PEG, but those with irreversible fixed deformations of personality structure did not. In patients who were 50 years of age or less with psychic reactive and psychopathic personality disorders, CT showed an average third ventricle diameter of 4.2 mm (range 2-6 mm). Of 117 schizophrenics (average age 35.5 years), only 28% revealed pathological CT changes. However, of 36 schizophrenics with pure residual syndromes 69% showed pathological CT findings that always concerned the third ventricle, rarely the lateral ventricles, and in no case the cortex. The average transverse diameter of the third ventricle in this subgroup with pure defect was 7.6 mm, as compared to 4.6 mm in the subgroup of schizophrenics with complete remission. There was no increase in size with increasing years until the 50th year in schizophrenics, as well as in the control group of variations of psychic being (neuroses and psychopathic personality disorders).

  10. A Web-based Game for Teaching Facial Expressions to Schizophrenic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülkesen, Kemal Hakan; Isleyen, Filiz; Cinemre, Buket; Samur, Mehmet Kemal; Sen Kaya, Semiha; Zayim, Nese

    2017-07-12

    Recognizing facial expressions is an important social skill. In some psychological disorders such as schizophrenia, loss of this skill may complicate the patient's daily life. Prior research has shown that information technology may help to develop facial expression recognition skills through educational software and games. To examine if a computer game designed for teaching facial expressions would improve facial expression recognition skills of patients with schizophrenia. We developed a website composed of eight serious games. Thirty-two patients were given a pre-test composed of 21 facial expression photographs. Eighteen patients were in the study group while 14 were in the control group. Patients in the study group were asked to play the games on the website. After a period of one month, we performed a post-test for all patients. The median score of the correct answers was 17.5 in the control group whereas it was 16.5 in the study group (of 21) in pretest. The median post-test score was 18 in the control group (p=0.052) whereas it was 20 in the study group (pgames may be used for the purpose of educating people who have difficulty in recognizing facial expressions.

  11. Intestinal Perforation Due to Foreign Body Ingestion in a Schizophrenic Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Mina; Shariati, Behnam; Bidaki, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Ingestion of foreign bodies has been previously reported in some patients with schizophrenia. This behavior may be a manifestation of delusional beliefs or a response to command hallucinations and can lead to severe complications. Case Presentation This paper reports a patient with schizophrenia who, as a manifestation of his illness, ingested a metallic skewer to kill ademon inside his abdomen that he believed was controlling him. As a result, he developed an acute intestinal perforation and underwent surgery. Conclusions It is of a great importance to closely monitor the therapy compliance of patients suffering from mental illnesses. This will benefit them by preventing some of the serious complications of their disease, which may include life-threatening conditions such as intestinal perforation that needs surgical intervention. PMID:27803892

  12. Neurochemical variables in schizophrenic patients during switching from neuroleptics to clozapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzimanolis, J; Lykouras, L; Markianos, M; Oulis, P

    1998-10-01

    1. The study aimed to search for the effect of clozapine on the levels of the main metabolites of dopamine homovanillic acid (HVA), serotonin 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and norepinephrine 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) in urine as well as on plasma levels of HVA, 5-HIAA, prolactin (PRL) and cortisol. 2. Seventeen male patients diagnosed as suffering from DSM-IIIR schizophrenia completed the study. 3. The patients were switched from classical antipsychotics to clozapine. After six weeks treatment with clozapine the severity of psychopathology (total BPRS score) decreased significantly (p = 0.00004). pHVA and -5-HIAA did not change significantly. uMHPG increased significantly (p = 0.017). Both PRL and cortisol levels decreased significantly (p = 0.0002, p = 0.032 respectively). Patients with high HVA levels in both plasma and urine at baseline had a lower BPRS score at the end of treatment period (p = 0.0001, p = 0.049 respectively).

  13. [Therapeutic options for weight management in schizophrenic patients treated with atypical antipsychotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, J; Sinha-Röder, A; Kahl, K G; Malevani, J; Thuenker, J; Lange-Asschenfeldt, C; Hauner, H; Agelink, M W; Klimke, A

    2008-12-01

    Extensive, selective literature review of 2500 articles from the last years (up to December 2007) predominantly from Medline and Cochrane, using as search terms "antipsychotic or schizophrenia or individual drug names (amisulpride, aripiprazole, clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, ziprasidone)" and the terms "BMI, weight gain, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, lipid(s), cholesterol, triglycerides" was conducted. Regardless of the advantages ascribed to atypical antipsychotics and the special effectiveness of clozapine in patients resistant to therapy and at risk for suicide, the probability of weight gain is considerably increased for some of these substances. Patients with schizophrenia have a considerably reduced life expectancy associated with an increased prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. There is a lack of practical guidelines integrated into clinical psychiatric care for the management of cardiovascular risk factors. The monitoring of patients treated with atypics, which has been recommended in the APA/ADA Consensus Paper in light of these facts, is insufficiently established in clinical practice. A regular monitoring can convey self control and motivation to the patient. In the case of corresponding risk constellations further decisions regarding indication and therapy have to be considered. Especially patients with a high cardiovascular risk profile are highly recommended to participate in a weight-management program for prevention purposes. Such a special program should include elements of dietetic treatment and behaviour and exercise therapy. First controlled studies suggest an effective prevention of weight gain and metabolic changes when applying such a structured program. The practice oriented step by step concept presented here is meant to provide points of reference for the implementation of required medical and psychoeducative measures facilitating the management of weight and further cardiovascular risk factors in the context of

  14. Application of neutron activation analysis and spectrophotometry for the determination of copper level in sera and cerebrospinal fluids of schizophrenic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipcsey, A.; Fekete, J.; Oerdoegh, M.; Szabo, E.

    1985-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis and spectrophotometry were used for the determination of copper content in sera and cerebrospinal fluids of schizophrenic patients against control persons. Comparison of the results of copper determination by both methods is tabulated. From the data the following conclusions can be drawn: for copper determinations in sera the results of the two methods agree excellently. At small copper concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluids the deviations are rather high. It can also be seen that the copper contents determined from cerebrospinal fluids taken at different times are nearly equal. (author)

  15. Where schizophrenic patients commit suicide: a review of suicide among inpatients and former inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompili, Maurizio; Mancinelli, Iginia; Ruberto, Amedeo; Kotzalidis, Giorgio D; Girardi, Paolo; Tatarelli, Roberto

    2005-01-01

    To review the literature on suicide of inpatients with schizophrenia, to identify suicide risk factors as well as typical patterns of behavior and to suggest a rationale and strategies for future interventions. A computerized MedLine, Excerpta Medica and PsycLit search supplemented by an examination of cross-references and reviews. Up to half the suicides among patients with schizophrenia occur during inpatient admission. Inpatient suicides were found among those of a young age group who were predominantly single, childless and socially isolated. The vast majority experienced an illness characterized by long duration and prolonged psychiatric hospitalizations or multiple admissions and discharges. Up to 50% of the suicides occurred in the first few weeks and months following discharge from the hospital. The paranoid subtype of schizophrenia, where positive symptoms prevail and negative symptoms are few, is associated with a suicide risk that is three times greater than that associated with nonparanoid subtypes and eight times greater than the risk associated with the deficit subtype. Treatment of suicide is a major problem among inpatients with schizophrenia. Evidence suggests that suicide is generally carried-out by patients who have been recently discharged or by those who manage to get away from the hospital. Strategies aimed at preventing this phenomenon have been introduced to the medical personnel, but suicide in these patients does not seem to have been reduced. We emphasize the need to establish guidelines for the prevention of suicide in hospitalized patients with schizophrenia.

  16. Regional cerebral blood flow in psychiatry: The resting and activated brains of schizophrenic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gur, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    The investigation of regional brain functioning in schizophrenia has been based on behavioral techniques. Although results are sometimes inconsistent, the behavioral observations suggest left hemispheric dysfunction and left hemispheric overreaction. Recent developments in neuroimaging technology make possible major refinements in assessing regional brain function. Both anatomical and physiological information now be used to study regional brain development in psychiatric disorders. This chapter describes the application of one method - the xenon-133 technique for measuring regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) - in studying the resting and activated brains of schizoprenic patients

  17. Delayed Diagnosis in an Elderly Schizophrenic Patient with Catatonic State and Pulmonary Embolism

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    Hsueh-Chin Hu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Catatonia is a syndrome with any two of five core features: stupor/motoric immobility/catalepsy/waxy flexibility, excitement, negativism/mutism, posturing, and echolalia/echopraxia. We describe a case of delayed diagnosis of pulmonary embolism with an atypical presentation in an elderly schizophrenia male patient, which led to a life-threatening brain infarction. A 75-year-old male was hospitalized in a psychiatric ward because of stupor, poor intake and mutism under a diagnosis of recurrent catatonia. His inability to express his suffering, dehydration, exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and upper gastrointestinal bleeding, however, made an accurate diagnosis difficult. Finally, the high D-dimer level and further chest computed tomography confirmed pulmonary embolism in the trunk of the bilateral main pulmonary arteries. The brain computed tomography also confirmed brain infarcts. He was transferred to the cardiac intensive care unit and was eventually rescued from near death due to pulmonary embolism and brain infarction. A careful differential diagnosis for pulmonary embolism-induced delirium and catatonic state is important in the treatment of patients with a previous diagnosis of catatonic schizophrenia.

  18. [Changes in the EEG spectral power during perception of neutral and emotionally salient words in schizophrenic patients, their relatives and healthy individuals from the general population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfimova, M V; Uvarova, L G

    2007-01-01

    To search for EEG-correlates of emotional processing that might be indicators of genetic predisposition to schizophrenia, changes in EEG spectral power during perception of neutral and emotionally salient words were examined in 36 schizophrenic patients, 50 of their unaffected first-degree relatives, and 47 healthy individuals without any family history of psychoses. In healthy persons, passive listening to neutral words induced minimum changes in cortical rhythmical activity, predominantly in the form of synchronization of slow and fast waves, whereas perception of emotional words was followed by a generalized depression of the alpha and beta1 activity and a locally specific decrease in the power of theta and beta2 frequency bands. The patients and their relatives showed a decrease in the alpha and beta1 activity simultaneously with an increase in the power of delta activity in response to both groups of words. Thus, in the patients and their relatives, reactions to neutral and emotional words were ulterior as a result of augmented reactions to the neutral words. These findings suggest that the EEG changes reflect familial and possibly hereditable abnormal involuntary attention. No prominent decrease in reactivity to emotional stimuli was revealed in schizophrenic families.

  19. Brain functional connectivity during the experience of thought blocks in schizophrenic patients with persistent auditory verbal hallucinations: an EEG study.

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    Angelopoulos, Elias; Koutsoukos, Elias; Maillis, Antonis; Papadimitriou, George N; Stefanis, Costas

    2014-03-01

    Thought blocks (TBs) are characterized by regular interruptions in the stream of thought. Outward signs are abrupt and repeated interruptions in the flow of conversation or actions while subjective experience is that of a total and uncontrollable emptying of the mind. In the very limited bibliography regarding TB, the phenomenon is thought to be conceptualized as a disturbance of consciousness that can be attributed to stoppages of continuous information processing due to an increase in the volume of information to be processed. In an attempt to investigate potential expression of the phenomenon on the functional properties of electroencephalographic (EEG) activity, an EEG study was contacted in schizophrenic patients with persisting auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) who additionally exhibited TBs. In this case, we hypothesized that the persistent and dense AVHs could serve the role of an increased information flow that the brain is unable to process, a condition that is perceived by the person as TB. Phase synchronization analyses performed on EEG segments during the experience of TBs showed that synchrony values exhibited a long-range common mode of coupling (grouped behavior) among the left temporal area and the remaining central and frontal brain areas. These common synchrony-fluctuation schemes were observed for 0.5 to 2s and were detected in a 4-s window following the estimated initiation of the phenomenon. The observation was frequency specific and detected in the broad alpha band region (6-12Hz). The introduction of synchrony entropy (SE) analysis applied on the cumulative synchrony distribution showed that TB states were characterized by an explicit preference of the system to be functioned at low values of synchrony, while the synchrony values are broadly distributed during the recovery state. Our results indicate that during TB states, the phase locking of several brain areas were converged uniformly in a narrow band of low synchrony values and in a

  20. BDNF serum levels in schizophrenic patients during treatment augmentation with sarcosine (results of the PULSAR study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzelecki, Dominik; Kałużyńska, Olga; Wysokiński, Adam

    2016-08-30

    Finding a relationship between schizophrenia symptoms severity and initial level of BDNF and its changes during augmentation of antipsychotic treatment with sarcosine. 57 individuals with schizophrenia with predominantly negative symptoms completed a 6-month RCT prospective study. The patients received 2g of sarcosine (n=27) or placebo (n=30) daily. At the beginning, after 6 weeks and 6 months BDNF levels were measured. Severity of symptoms was assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS). BDNF serum levels were stable after 6 weeks and 6 months in both groups. We noted improvement in negative symptoms, general psychopathology and total PANSS score in sarcosine group comparing to placebo, however there was no correlations between serum BDNF concentrations and PANSS scores in all assessments. Initial serum BDNF concentrations cannot be used as a predictor of the improvement resulting from adding sarcosine. Our results indicate that either BDNF is not involved in the NMDA-dependent mechanism of sarcosine action or global changes in BDNF concentrations induced by amino-acid cannot be detected in blood assessments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Altered Expression Profile of IgLON Family of Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules in the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex of Schizophrenic Patients

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    Karina Karis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural adhesion proteins are crucial in the development and maintenance of functional neural connectivity. Growing evidence suggests that the IgLON family of neural adhesion molecules LSAMP, NTM, NEGR1, and OPCML are important candidates in forming the susceptibility to schizophrenia (SCZ. IgLON proteins have been shown to be involved in neurite outgrowth, synaptic plasticity and neuronal connectivity, all of which have been shown to be altered in the brains of patients with the diagnosis of schizophrenia. Here we optimized custom 5′-isoform-specific TaqMan gene-expression analysis for the transcripts of human IgLON genes to study the expression of IgLONs in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC of schizophrenic patients (n = 36 and control subjects (n = 36. Uniform 5′-region and a single promoter was confirmed for the human NEGR1 gene by in silico analysis. IgLON5, a recently described family member, was also included in the study. We detected significantly elevated levels of the NEGR1 transcript (1.33-fold increase and the NTM 1b isoform transcript (1.47-fold increase in the DLPFC of schizophrenia patients compared to healthy controls. Consequent protein analysis performed in male subjects confirmed the increase in NEGR1 protein content both in patients with the paranoid subtype and in patients with other subtypes. In-group analysis of patients revealed that lower expression of certain IgLON transcripts, mostly LSAMP 1a and 1b, could be related with concurrent depressive endophenotype in schizophrenic patients. Additionally, our study cohort provides further evidence that cannabis use may be a relevant risk factor associated with suicidal behaviors in psychotic patients. In conclusion, we provide clinical evidence of increased expression levels of particular IgLON family members in the DLPFC of schizophrenic patients. We propose that alterations in the expression profile of IgLON neural adhesion molecules are associated with brain

  2. Outcomes in registered, ongoing randomized controlled trials of patient education.

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    Cécile Pino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With the increasing prevalence of chronic noncommunicable diseases, patient education is becoming important to strengthen disease prevention and control. We aimed to systematically determine the extent to which registered, ongoing randomized controlled trials (RCTs evaluated an educational intervention focus on patient-important outcomes (i.e., outcomes measuring patient health status and quality of life. METHODS: On May 6, 2009, we searched for all ongoing RCTs registered in the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry platform. We used a standardized data extraction form to collect data and determined whether the outcomes assessed were 1 patient-important outcomes such as clinical events, functional status, pain, or quality of life or 2 surrogate outcomes, such as biological outcome, treatment adherence, or patient knowledge. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We selected 268 of the 642 potentially eligible studies and assessed a random sample of 150. Patient-important outcomes represented 54% (178 of 333 of all primary outcomes and 46% (286 of 623 of all secondary outcomes. Overall, 69% of trials (104 of 150 used at least one patient-important outcome as a primary outcome and 66% (99 of 150 as a secondary outcome. Finally, for 31% of trials (46 of 150, primary outcomes were only surrogate outcomes. The results varied by medical area. In neuropsychiatric disorders, patient important outcomes represented 84% (51 of 61 of primary outcomes, as compared with 54% (32 of 59 in malignant neoplasm and 18% (4 of 22 in diabetes mellitus trials. In addition, only 35% assessed the long-term impact of interventions (i.e., >6 months. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need to improve the relevance of outcomes and to assess the long term impact of educational interventions in RCTs.

  3. Psychotherapy with schizophrenics in team groups: a systems model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeber, A R

    1991-01-01

    This paper focuses on the treatment of patients with schizophrenic disorders employing the Team Group model. The advantages and disadvantages of the Team Group are presented. Systems theory and principles of group development are applied as a basis for understanding the dynamics of the group in the context at the acute psychiatric unit. Particular problems encountered in treating patients with schizophrenic disorders in this setting are presented. These include: (1) issues of therapist style and technique, (2) basic psychopathology of the schizophrenic disorders, and (3) phase-specific problems associated with the dynamics of the group. Recommendations for therapist interventions are made that may better integrate these patients into the Team Group.

  4. Dose reduction of risperidone and olanzapine can improve cognitive function and negative symptoms in stable schizophrenic patients: A single-blinded, 52-week, randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanling; Li, Guannan; Li, Dan; Cui, Hongmei; Ning, Yuping

    2018-05-01

    The long-term effects of dose reduction of atypical antipsychotics on cognitive function and symptomatology in stable patients with schizophrenia remain unclear. We sought to determine the change in cognitive function and symptomatology after reducing risperidone or olanzapine dosage in stable schizophrenic patients. Seventy-five stabilized schizophrenic patients prescribed risperidone (≥4 mg/day) or olanzapine (≥10 mg/day) were randomly divided into a dose-reduction group ( n=37) and a maintenance group ( n=38). For the dose-reduction group, the dose of antipsychotics was reduced by 50%; for the maintenance group, the dose remained unchanged throughout the whole study. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Negative Symptom Assessment-16, Rating Scale for Extrapyramidal Side Effects, and Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) Consensus Cognitive Battery were measured at baseline, 12, 28, and 52 weeks. Linear mixed models were performed to compare the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Negative Symptom Assessment-16, Rating Scale for Extrapyramidal Side Effects and MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery scores between groups. The linear mixed model showed significant time by group interactions on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale negative symptoms, Negative Symptom Assessment-16, Rating Scale for Extrapyramidal Side Effects, speed of processing, attention/vigilance, working memory and total score of MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (all pNegative Syndrome Scale negative subscale, Negative Symptom Assessment-16, Rating Scale for Extrapyramidal Side Effects, speed of processing, working memory and total score of MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery for the dose reduction group compared with those for the maintenance group (all pnegative symptoms in patients with stabilized schizophrenia.

  5. Cannabis use and dependence among French schizophrenic inpatients

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    Michel eLejoyeux

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: To assess the prevalence of cannabis use and dependence in a population of schizophrenic inpatients and to compare schizophrenics with and without cannabis consumption. Methods: 101 schizophrenic patients were examined during their first week of hospitalization. They answered the PANNS scale of schizophrenia, the CAGE and the Fagerström questionnaire and the DSM-IV-TR criteria for cannabis, alcohol, opiates and nicotine use dependence were checked. We also assessed socio-demographic characteristics, the motive of cannabis consumption and the number of cannabis joints and alcoholic drinks taken.Results: The prevalence of cannabis consumption was 33.6% among schizophrenic inpatients. Schizophrenics consuming cannabis were younger than non-schizophrenics (33.3 vs 44.7 years pConclusion: 33.6 % of the schizophrenic patients hospitalized in psychiatry consume cannabis and most of them are dependent on cannabis and alcohol. Hospitalization in psychiatry may provide an opportunity to systematically identify a dependence disorder and to offer appropriate information and treatment

  6. Effects of handedness (left vs right) and cannabis abuse on intermanual coordination and negative symptoms in schizophrenic patients of the paranoid type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorynia, Inge; Schwaiger, Markus

    2011-09-01

    Intermanual coordination as an index of interhemispheric transfer and negative symptoms were investigated in 50 left- and 42 right-handed schizophrenic inpatients of the paranoid type, also including drug abusers. The primary objective was to show that there were higher values in intermanual coordination and fewer manifestations of negative symptoms in the left-handed compared to the right-handed patients. This assumption was based on previous studies. Most importantly, right- and left-handed patients showed a different behaviour in intermanual coordination, when the duration of illness was taken into consideration. Thus, long-term left-handed paranoid patients performed better in intermanual coordination and showed fewer manifestations of negative symptoms than did long-term right-handed patients. These results were true for the large group of all patients, and among them for the subgroup of patients without drug abuse. Consequently, higher scores in intermanual coordination in left-handed patients may be related to a better interhemispheric crosstalk resulting in less pronounced negative symptoms. Secondary objectives assessed by explorative data analysis included the effects of cannabis abuse. While cannabis abuse may be more prevalent in left-handed patients, its effects may be more pronounced in right-handed patients, scoring higher in intermanual coordination and lower in manifestations of negative symptoms.

  7. [A psychopathological study on three-dimensional computer graphics (3DCGs): special reference to pictures made by a schizophrenic patient before and after the onset].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashizawa, Yuko; Tachikawa, Hirokazu; Hori, Masashi; Hori, Takafumi; Mizukami, Katsuyoshi; Asada, Takashi

    2004-01-01

    A patient with catatonic type schizophrenia drawing 3-dimensional computer graphics (3DCGs) before and after the onset is reported. His 3DCGs are discussed from the view of psychopathology. A 21-year-old male was admitted to our hospital. He was an art student. For three months before admission, he had been absorbed in drawing 3DCGs. When he was asked to draw handmade pictures by his teacher, he experienced a bizarre mood and took an overdose of aspirin. At the time of admission, he was in a stupor state, and was diagnosed with catatonic type schizophrenia. After admission, he exhibited excitement and disorganized speech. These symptoms disappeared after administration of neuroleptics, and he was discharged. The 3DCGs he drew before and after the onset revealed several special characteristics. First, the compositions of his pictures were too geometric and too precise. Secondly, the themes of his pictures changed from romantic before the onset to symbolic after it, and the styles changed from realistic to abstractive after the onset. Finally, histograms of the 3DCGs revealed many colors before onset, which converged to simple colors after. Therefore, it was suggested that the latent pathological process at the beginning of schizophrenia might be reflected in his 3DCGs. 3DCGs are a new type of fine art. They can express beautiful and cool images more simply than handmade pictures. Due to these features, artists can create images of their innerworld, with less effort and talent than picture drawings, by computer assistance. This case suggests that the geometric working space, change-free viewpoints, and computer assistance, which are characteristics of the methods in making 3DCGs may be suitable for schizophrenic artists to create images of their innerworld. However, being absorbed in making 3DCGs could also promote the latent schizophrenic process to the onset.

  8. Improving patient outcomes through registered dietitian order writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Susan R

    2013-10-01

    Traditionally, registered dietitians (RD) have not had order writing privileges in most patient-care facilities and rely on physicians to implement their recommendations. Research has demonstrated that this model results in a high percentage of RD recommendations not being ordered. Timely nutrition interventions are important due to the prevalence of malnutrition in the hospital setting and when RD recommendations are implemented, important outcomes are improved. In addition, several studies have demonstrated that when RDs have order writing privileges, which allows more assurance that an intervention will occur and timely interventions, improved outcomes, such as improved nutrition status, better management of electrolytes and glycemic control, reaching goal calories sooner, reduction in inappropriate parenteral nutrition use, cost savings, and less error with electronic order entry. The process for implementation and outcomes of an RD order writing program at 1 large, urban, tertiary medical center is described. The program has been successful, but the implementation process required multiple years and ongoing monitoring through data collection to ensure success. RDs interested in order writing privileges must consider federal and state regulations, their individual scope of practice (relevant training and competency assessment), and how to obtain approval from the appropriate hospital governing committees. RDs who obtain order writing privileges must understand "with privilege comes responsibility" and should plan to conduct outcomes research to promote the value and acceptance of RD order writing by regulatory agencies at all levels and hospital leaders, for instance physicians and administrators.

  9. The loudness dependence of auditory evoked potentials (LDAEP as an indicator of serotonergic dysfunction in patients with predominant schizophrenic negative symptoms.

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    Christine Wyss

    Full Text Available Besides the influence of dopaminergic neurotransmission on negative symptoms in schizophrenia, there is evidence that alterations of serotonin (5-HT system functioning also play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of these disabling symptoms. From post mortem and genetic studies on patients with negative symptoms a 5-HT dysfunction is documented. In addition atypical neuroleptics and some antidepressants improve negative symptoms via serotonergic action. So far no research has been done to directly clarify the association between the serotonergic functioning and the extent of negative symptoms. Therefore, we examined the status of brain 5-HT level in negative symptoms in schizophrenia by means of the loudness dependence of auditory evoked potentials (LDAEP. The LDAEP provides a well established and non-invasive in vivo marker of the central 5-HT activity. We investigated 13 patients with schizophrenia with predominant negative symptoms treated with atypical neuroleptics and 13 healthy age and gender matched controls with a 32-channel EEG. The LDAEP of the N1/P2 component was evaluated by dipole source analysis and single electrode estimation at Cz. Psychopathological parameters, nicotine use and medication were assessed to control for additional influencing factors. Schizophrenic patients showed significantly higher LDAEP in both hemispheres than controls. Furthermore, the LDAEP in the right hemisphere in patients was related to higher scores in scales assessing negative symptoms. A relationship with positive symptoms was not found. These data might suggest a diminished central serotonergic neurotransmission in patients with predominant negative symptoms.

  10. Dor crônica em pacientes esquizofrênicos: prevalência e características Chronic pain in schizophrenic patients: prevalence and characteristics

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    Jouce Gabriela de Almeida

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A prevalência de dor crônica entre pacientes com transtornos psiquiátricos é, possivelmente, no mínimo igual à encontrada entre a população geral. Para estimar a prevalência de dor crônica em pacientes com esquizofrenia, comparar os grupos com e sem dor crônica e caracterizar a dor foi realizado um estudo transversal, com uma amostra probabilística de 205 pacientes adultos, com diagnóstico de esquizofrenia (idade média 37 anos; 65% homens; média de escolaridade de nove anos; 87% sem companheiro(a; 65% residentes com os pais, atendidos em hospital público do Município de São Paulo, Brasil. A prevalência de dor foi de 36,6%; a dor foi mais presente no abdômen (30,7%, seguida da dor de cabeça, face e boca (24% e região lombar, sacra e cóccix (14,7%. Com relação à freqüência, 24% dos entrevistados referiram ter dor todos os dias. O tempo médio de dor foi de 41 meses, com intensidade moderada. A prevalência de dor crônica em pacientes esquizofrênicos foi semelhante à encontrada para a população geral, e o quadro álgico foi significativo em termos de duração, intensidade e freqüência dos episódios dolorosos.Chronic pain may be at least as prevalent in psychiatric patients as in the general population. To estimate the prevalence of chronic pain in schizophrenic patients, compare the groups with and without chronic pain, and characterize the pain, a cross-sectional study was performed on a probabilistic sample of 205 adult patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia (mean age 37 years; 65% men; mean schooling nine years; 87% single; 65% living with parents, treated at a public hospital in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Prevalence of pain was 36.6%, and the most frequent sites were abdomen (30.7%, head, face, and mouth (24%, and lower back (14.7%. Twenty-four percent of patients reported feeling pain every day. Mean duration of pain was 41 months, with moderate intensity. Prevalence of chronic pain in

  11. Regional cerebral blood flow in schizophrenics

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    Uchino, J.; Ohta, Y.; Nakane, Y.; Mori, H.; Hirota, N.; Yonekura, M.

    1987-01-01

    The present study on schizophrenics dealt with the relationship of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) to age, disease duration, and treatment length with chlorpromazine hydrochloride (CPZ). Regional cerebral blood flow in 28 cerebral regions of interest was measured by iv injection of /sup 133/X in 54 schizophrenic patients and 39 healthy volunteers. Neither age nor dosage of CPZ significantly influenced rCBF. All patients, including 11 treated for a short period of time (6 months or less), were characterized by having a decreased rCBF over the whole cerebrum. Thirty-four patients treated for a long period of time (2 years or more) had a varied rCBF distribution in the left hemisphere, with the most predominant feature being the decrease in rCBF in the frontal lobe (i.e., hypofrontality); however, there was no linear correlation between rCBF and disease duration. A decreased rCBE in the right occipital region was seen in patients with paranoid schizophrenia, suggesting that manifestations of symptoms may depend on disturbed regions. These results suggest that cerebral dysfunction in schizophrenic patients may not be restricted to the frontal lobe, but cover the whole cerebrum, and that nonuniform dysfunction in various regions of the cerebrum, including the frontal lobe, may be involved in manifestations of symptoms.

  12. Regional cerebral blood flow in schizophrenics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchino, Jun; Ohta, Yasuyuki; Nakane, Yoshibumi; Mori, Hiroyuki; Hirota, Noriyoshi; Yonekura, Masahiro.

    1987-01-01

    The present study on schizophrenics dealt with the relationship of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) to age, disease duration, and treatment length with chlorpromazine hydrochloride (CPZ). Regional cerebral blood flow in 28 cerebral regions of interest was measured by iv injection of X-133 in 54 schizophrenic patients and 39 healthy volunteers. Neither age nor dosage of CPZ significantly influenced rCBF. All patients, including 11 treated for a short period of time (6 months or less), were characterized by having a decreased rCBF over the whole cerebrum. Thirty-four patients treated for a long period of time (2 years or more) had a varied rCBF distribution in the left hemisphere, with the most predominant feature being the decrease in rCBF in the frontal lobe (i.e., ''hypofrontality''); however, there was no linear correlation between rCBF and disease duration. A decreased rCBE in the right occipital region was seen in patients with paranoid schizophrenia, suggesting that manifestations of symptoms may depend on disturbed regions. These results suggest that cerebral dysfunction in schizophrenic patients may not be restricted to the frontal lobe, but cover the whole cerebrum, and that nonuniform dysfunction in various regions of the cerebrum, including the frontal lobe, may be involved in manifestations of symptoms. (Namekawa, K.)

  13. Clinical trial enrollment, patient characteristics, and survival differences in prospectively registered metastatic colorectal cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorbye, Halfdan; Pfeiffer, Per; Cavalli-Björkman, Nina

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Trial accrual patterns were examined to determine whether metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients enrolled in trials are representative of a general cancer population concerning patient characteristics and survival. METHODS: A total of 760 mCRC patients referred for their first...... oncological consideration at 3 hospitals in Scandinavia covering defined populations were registered consecutively during 2003 to 2006. Clinical trial enrollment, patient characteristics, and treatment were recorded prospectively, and the follow-up was complete. RESULTS: Palliative chemotherapy was initiated...

  14. Expression changes of serotonin receptor gene subtype 5HT3a in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from schizophrenic patients treated with haloperidol and Olanzapin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariati, Gholam Reza; Ahangari, Ghasem; Hossein-nezhad, Arash; Asadi, Seyed Mohammad; Pooyafard, Farzaneh; Ahmadkhaniha, Hamid Reza

    2009-09-01

    Serotonin receptors are involved in pathophysiology of schizophrenia and may mediate other neurotransmitter effects. We investigated serotonin receptors gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of naïve schizophrenic patients, before and after treatment. Also serotonin receptor gene expression was compared in two treatment groups including Haloperidol and Olanzapine. The PBMC was separated from whole blood by Ficoll-hypaque. The total cellular RNA was extracted and the cDNA was synthesized. This process was followed by real-time PCR using primer pairs specific for 5HT(3a) serotonin receptor mRNA and beta-actin as internal control. The results showed the presence of subtype of serotonin receptor in lymphocytes. Serotonin gene expression showed significant changes in Olanzapine treatment group which correlated with Clinical Global Impression (CGI) score improvement. In conclusion, the present study has shown that human PBMC express serotonin receptors 5HT(3a). Moreover, clinical symptom improvement of Olanzapin may be demonstrated by a change in serotonin receptor gene expression.

  15. Identifying patients with myasthenia for epidemiological research by linkage of automated registers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Emil Greve; Hallas, Jesper; Hansen, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    We validated a new method of identifying patients with incident myasthenia in automated Danish registers for the purpose of conducting epidemiological studies of the disorder.......We validated a new method of identifying patients with incident myasthenia in automated Danish registers for the purpose of conducting epidemiological studies of the disorder....

  16. Exome sequencing in schizophrenic patients with high levels of homozygosity identifies novel and extremely rare mutations in the GABA/glutamatergic pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo Giacopuzzi

    Full Text Available Inbreeding is a known risk factor for recessive Mendelian diseases and previous studies have suggested that it could also play a role in complex disorders, such as psychiatric diseases. Recent inbreeding results in the presence of long runs of homozygosity (ROHs along the genome, which are also defined as autozygosity regions. Genetic variants in these regions have two alleles that are identical by descent, thus increasing the odds of bearing rare recessive deleterious mutations due to a homozygous state. A recent study showed a suggestive enrichment of long ROHs in schizophrenic patients, suggesting that recent inbreeding could play a role in the disease. To better understand the impact of autozygosity on schizophrenia risk, we selected, from a cohort of 180 Italian patients, seven subjects with extremely high numbers of large ROHs that were likely due to recent inbreeding and characterized the mutational landscape within their ROHs using Whole Exome Sequencing and, gene set enrichment analysis. We identified a significant overlap (17%; empirical p-value = 0.0171 between genes inside ROHs affected by low frequency functional homozygous variants (107 genes and the group of most promising candidate genes mutated in schizophrenia. Moreover, in four patients, we identified novel and extremely rare damaging mutations in the genes involved in neurodevelopment (MEGF8 and in GABA/glutamatergic synaptic transmission (GAD1, FMN1, ANO2. These results provide insights into the contribution of rare recessive mutations and inbreeding as risk factors for schizophrenia. ROHs that are likely due to recent inbreeding harbor a combination of predisposing low-frequency variants and extremely rare variants that have a high impact on pivotal biological pathways implicated in the disease. In addition, this study confirms that focusing on patients with high levels of homozygosity could be a useful prioritization strategy for discovering new high-impact mutations in

  17. Exome sequencing in schizophrenic patients with high levels of homozygosity identifies novel and extremely rare mutations in the GABA/glutamatergic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacopuzzi, Edoardo; Gennarelli, Massimo; Minelli, Alessandra; Gardella, Rita; Valsecchi, Paolo; Traversa, Michele; Bonvicini, Cristian; Vita, Antonio; Sacchetti, Emilio; Magri, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    Inbreeding is a known risk factor for recessive Mendelian diseases and previous studies have suggested that it could also play a role in complex disorders, such as psychiatric diseases. Recent inbreeding results in the presence of long runs of homozygosity (ROHs) along the genome, which are also defined as autozygosity regions. Genetic variants in these regions have two alleles that are identical by descent, thus increasing the odds of bearing rare recessive deleterious mutations due to a homozygous state. A recent study showed a suggestive enrichment of long ROHs in schizophrenic patients, suggesting that recent inbreeding could play a role in the disease. To better understand the impact of autozygosity on schizophrenia risk, we selected, from a cohort of 180 Italian patients, seven subjects with extremely high numbers of large ROHs that were likely due to recent inbreeding and characterized the mutational landscape within their ROHs using Whole Exome Sequencing and, gene set enrichment analysis. We identified a significant overlap (17%; empirical p-value = 0.0171) between genes inside ROHs affected by low frequency functional homozygous variants (107 genes) and the group of most promising candidate genes mutated in schizophrenia. Moreover, in four patients, we identified novel and extremely rare damaging mutations in the genes involved in neurodevelopment (MEGF8) and in GABA/glutamatergic synaptic transmission (GAD1, FMN1, ANO2). These results provide insights into the contribution of rare recessive mutations and inbreeding as risk factors for schizophrenia. ROHs that are likely due to recent inbreeding harbor a combination of predisposing low-frequency variants and extremely rare variants that have a high impact on pivotal biological pathways implicated in the disease. In addition, this study confirms that focusing on patients with high levels of homozygosity could be a useful prioritization strategy for discovering new high-impact mutations in genetically

  18. Efficacy of piracetam in the treatment of tardive dyskinesia in schizophrenic patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libov, Igor; Miodownik, Chanoch; Bersudsky, Yuly; Dwolatzky, Tzvi; Lerner, Vladimir

    2007-07-01

    Piracetam is a potent antioxidant, a cerebral neuroprotector, a neuronal metabolic enhancer, and a brain integrative agent. More than 20 years ago, an intravenous preparation of piracetam demonstrated an improvement in the symptoms of tardive dyskinesia. The aim of our study was to reexamine the efficacy of piracetam in the treatment of tardive dyskinesia using an oral preparation. The study was conducted at the Be'er Sheva Mental Health Center from May 2003 to December 2004 and involved a 9-week, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled trial assessing 40 DSM-IV schizophrenic and schizo-affective patients with DSM-IV-TR tardive dyskinesia. All study subjects received their usual antipsychotic treatment. Initially, subjects were randomly assigned to receive 4 weeks of treatment with either piracetam (4800 mg/day) or placebo. Thereafter, following a washout period of 1 week, they entered the crossover phase of the study for a further 4 weeks. The change in score of the Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale from baseline to the study endpoint was the primary outcome measure. The mean decrease in score from baseline to endpoint in the clinical global impression subscale in patients treated with piracetam was 1.1 points compared to 0.1 points in the placebo group (p = .004). The mean decrease in the tardive parkinsonism subscale was 8.7 points in patients treated with piracetam and 0.6 points in those on placebo (p = .001). The mean decrease in the tardive dyskinesia subscale was 3.0 points in the piracetam group in contrast to deterioration of condition in the placebo group by -0.2 points (p = .003). Piracetam appears to be effective in reducing symptoms of tardive dyskinesia. The specific mechanism by which piracetam may attenuate symptoms of tardive dyskinesia needs to be further evaluated. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00190008.

  19. Automutilação de dedos e lábio em paciente esquizofrênico Self-mutilation of fingers and lips in a schizophrenic patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno Satler de Oliveira Diniz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Episódios de automutilação grave são raramente observados na prática psiquiá­trica. Ocorrem principalmente em pacientes psicóticos, sendo o principal diagnóstico a esquizofrenia. As regiões mais comumente automutiladas são o pênis e os olhos. RELATO DE CASO: Relatamos o caso de um paciente portador de esquizofrenia paranóide que desenvolveu quadro de auto-amputação de lábios e falanges secundário a alucinações auditivas de comando e delírios místico-religiosos. CONCLUSÃO: Episódios de automutilação são eventos raros em pacientes esquizofrênicos. Deve-se nestes casos identificar pródromos ou fatores desencadeantes destes episódios para se instituir rapidamente abordagens para prevenir ou diminuir o risco de sua ocorrência nestes pacientes.CONTEXT: Severe self-mutilation episodes are rare in psychiatric practice. Most patients are psychotic during such acts and the main diagnosis is schizophrenia. The regions most commonly self-mutilated are the penis and the eyes. CASE REPORT: A patient previously diagnosed with schizophrenia started self-mutilating his lip and phalanxes secondary to command auditory hallucinations and influenced by mystic-religious delusions. CONCLUSION: Self-mutilation episodes are rare in schizophrenic patients. In such case, it should be identified prodrome symptoms or provoking situations in order to promptly institute strategies to prevent or lessen the risk of new episodes.

  20. [Structural correlation of schizophrenic thought and language disorders with delusional perception and variations of intentionality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm-Hadulla, R

    1988-01-01

    This study originated from a phenomenological and speech-act theoretical concept of schizophrenic concretism. An experimental study was performed showing a highly significant lack in the schizophrenic patients' ability to use metaphors correctly. Basing on the interpretation of proverbs, the hypothesis is rejected that false interpretations of schizophrenic patients are due to intermingling of personal conflicts. On the other hand, it could be shown that concretistic interpretations of proverbs represent an avoidance of conflicts. The concepts of "substitution" and "transfer" enabled us to measure pathological concreteness and "deconflictualisation". The differentiation between schizophrenic and nonpsychotic patients was found to be highly significant. In a complementary study it could be shown that the chronic schizophrenics' disability to transfer images of proverbs to an interpersonally relevant context does not differ significantly from that of patients with their first schizophrenic episode. Discussing our empirical findings, we try to show that the concretistic reduction of thought and speech is also a paradigma of delusion. The "incorrigibility" of schizophrenic delusion was seen to be based on reification of verbal signs and metaphors. After trying to show a connection between the concretistic "Lebensform" (Wittgenstein) and the disordered intentionality of schizophrenic patients, pointers towards psychotherapeutic implications are given.

  1. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in chronic schizophrenic inpatients in relation to long-term neuroleptic treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, D.; Dekker, J.J.M.; Peen, J.; de Wied, C.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Many reports indicate that the incidence and prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increased in schizophrenic patients and related to antipsychotic treatment. In an exploratory cross-sectional study we assessed the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in 266 chronic schizophrenic and

  2. [Cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenic psychoses. Drug and psychological treatment choices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, G; Katschnig, H

    2001-03-01

    Primarily from the perspective of psychopharmacology, schizophrenic symptomatology has recently been dichotomized into "plus" and "minus" symptoms, although the role of cognitive dysfunctions has been regarded as particularly important for the diagnosis since the time of Eugen Bleuler. Many studies show that schizophrenic patients suffer consistently from cognitive dysfunction. Among these, are impairments of attention and memory functions as well as executive functions such as planning and problem solving. These impairments are stable or progressive and often continue into the remission phase of schizophrenia and impair both social integration as well as occupational performance. In this overview, research results on cognitive dysfunction in patients with schizophrenic illnesses and their relation to psychosocial disabilities are described first. The therapeutic value and possible clinical-practice implications of atypical anti-psychotics and various cognitive therapy methods are then presented. Methodological weaknesses and open questions, both pharmacological and with regard to cognitive interventions, are discussed.

  3. The incidence of metabolic syndrome and its reversal in a cohort of schizophrenic patients followed for one year

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schorr, S. G.; Slooff, C. J.; Bruggeman, R.; Taxis, K.

    Cross-sectional studies showed a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia. This study aimed to identify the incidence of metabolic syndrome and its reversal in a non-preselected cohort of chronic psychotic patients in routine practice in one year follow-up and to find

  4. Registered Nurses’ Patient Education in Everyday Primary Care Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergh, Anne-Louise; Friberg, Febe; Persson, Eva; Dahlborg-Lyckhage, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Nurses’ patient education is important for building patients’ knowledge, understanding, and preparedness for self-management. The aim of this study was to explore the conditions for nurses’ patient education work by focusing on managers’ discourses about patient education provided by nurses. In 2012, data were derived from three focus group interviews with primary care managers. Critical discourse analysis was used to analyze the transcribed interviews. The discursive practice comprised a discourse order of economic, medical, organizational, and didactic discourses. The economic discourse was the predominant one to which the organization had to adjust. The medical discourse was self-evident and unquestioned. Managers reorganized patient education routines and structures, generally due to economic constraints. Nurses’ pedagogical competence development was unclear, and practice-based experiences of patient education were considered very important, whereas theoretical pedagogical knowledge was considered less important. Managers’ support for nurses’ practical- and theoretical-based pedagogical competence development needs to be strengthened. PMID:28462314

  5. A Case-controlled Study on Personality Characteristics of Suicidal and Homicidal Schizophrenics%有自杀和凶杀行为的精神分裂症患者人格特征比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小平; 蔡伟雄; 刘铁桥

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To examine differences in personality characteristics between suicidal and homicidal schizophrenic patients.Methods:A case-control study was conducted with 27 suicidal schizophrenic patients and 22 homicidal schizophrenic patients. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) was employed to assess these patients. Results: The results showed no reliable differences on all of the MMPI scale scores. Conclusion: It was concluded that schizophrenic patients with suicidal and homicidal tendencies have similar personality characteristics.

  6. The Danish nationwide clinical register for patients with rheumatoid arthritis: DANBIO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibfelt, Else Helene; Jensen, Dorte Vendelbo; Hetland, Merete Lund

    2016-01-01

    DANBIO is a research register and a data source for rheumatologic diseases (rheumatoid arthritis [RA], axial spondyloarthritis, and psoriatic arthritis) for monitoring clinical quality at the national, regional, and hospital levels. The register includes patients with rheumatologic diseases who are treated at a hospital or a private rheumatologic clinic. Registration is mandatory for all patients with RA regardless of treatment and also for patients with other diagnoses if treated with biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. Since 2006, the registration has been done electronically, including patient-reported outcome measures registered electronically by the patients with the use of touch screens. Core variables such as diagnosis, year of diagnosis, age, and sex are registered at the beginning. Data entered at later visits included the following: patient-reported outcomes for disease activity, pain, fatigue, functional status, and physician-reported objective measures of disease activity, treatment, C-reactive protein, and, when indicated, imaging. For subgroups of patients, the variables such as quality of life, sociodemographic factors, lifestyle, and comorbidity are also registered. The DANBIO cohort comprised ∼26,000 patients with RA, 3,200 patients with axial spondyloarthritis, and 6,200 patients with psoriatic arthritis in 2015. DANBIO has high nationwide coverage and completeness on key data variables. More than 60 original papers as well as annual reports of clinical quality (since 2005) have been published. DANBIO is a powerful register for research in rheumatologic diseases and furthermore serves as a Clinical Quality Register with the aim of monitoring treatment quality in patients with RA in Denmark.

  7. Prediction of short-term changes in symptom severity by baseline plasma homovanillic acid levels in schizophrenic patients receiving clozapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiyoshi, T; Hasegawa, M; Jayathilake, K; Meltzer, H Y

    1997-03-24

    The relationship between pretreatment levels of plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) and the outcome of clozapine treatment was studied in 18 male patients with schizophrenia who were resistant to treatment with conventional neuroleptics. After 6 months of clozapine treatment, 7 patients demonstrated > or = 20% decrease in the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) (responders), while 11 patients did not (non-responders). Responders and non-responders did not differ with respect to the baseline pHVA level. The BPRS Positive Symptom scores at 6 weeks and 3 months, but not those at baseline and 6 months, following initiation of clozapine treatment negatively correlated with pHVA levels for all patients. The correlations became stronger when only responders were included. No significant correlation between Positive Symptom scores and pHVA levels was observed for non-responders. The BPRS Total and Negative Symptom scores did not correlate with pHVA for all patients, responders or non-responders at any time. The percent decrease in the BPRS Positive Symptom scores from baseline at 6 weeks following clozapine treatment correlated significantly with pHVA levels in responders. These results suggest that pretreatment levels of pHVA can be used to predict relatively short-term changes in the positive symptoms of patients with schizophrenia receiving clozapine treatment, particularly for clozapine responders.

  8. The influence of impaired processing speed on cognition in first-episode antipsychotic-naive schizophrenic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Rasmussen, Hans

    2013-01-01

    of neuropsychological tests to assess domains of cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. Composite scores were calculated, grouping tests into cognitive domains. RESULTS: There were significant differences between patients and healthy controls on global cognition and all cognitive domains, including verbal intelligence......BACKGROUND: Impaired cognition is a prominent feature of schizophrenia. To what extent the heterogeneous cognitive impairments can be accounted for by considering only a single underlying impairment or a small number of core impairments remains elusive. This study examined whether cognitive...... impairments in antipsychotic-naïve, first-episode schizophrenia patients may be determined by a relative slower speed of information processing. METHOD: Forty-eight antipsychotic-naïve patients with first-episode schizophrenia and 48 matched healthy controls were administered a comprehensive battery...

  9. Development and validation of a Thai stressful life events rating scale for patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenic methamphetamine abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ek-uma Imkome

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to psychometrically test a Thai Stressful Life Events Rating Scale (TSLERS. Factor analysis was done on data collected from 313 patients with schizophrenia and methamphetamine abuse in Thailand from April to May, 2015. Results identified the following problems impacting physical and mental health: social relationship and social concerns, money, family life, life security, and career. Evaluation of the psychometric scale properties demonstrated acceptable validity and reliability. TSLERS provided scientific and empirical data about stressful life events of patients with schizophrenia and methamphetamine abuse, and was suitable for stress detection and suggesting further innovations.

  10. Study on effects of an atypical antipsychotic, risperidone on regional cerebral blood flow with 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT in drug-naive and unmedicated schizophrenic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koiwa, Daisuke

    2003-01-01

    To examine the underlying mechanisms of intracerebral or clinical actions of the atypical antipsychotic, risperidone (RIS), the effects of RIS on absolute regional cerebral blood flows (rCBFs) measured with 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT and correlations between the rCBFs and psychotic symptoms assessed with positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) were investigated in 10 drug-naive and unmedicated schizophrenic patients with acute hallucinatory and delusional state. Both the SPECT and PANSS were repeated before and after oral 2-week administration of RIS 3 mg/day in all of the 10 patients and after subsequent 2-week administration of RIS 4-6 mg/day in half of the patients. The rCBF values were significantly decreased in the left precentral gyrus alone after the low dose of RIS 3 mg/day in comparison with before the RIS dose. The rCBF values were significantly decreased in the right cingulate, postcentral, inferior parietal gyri and the left inferior temporal gyrus after the high dose of RIS 4-6 mg/day in comparison with before the low dose of RIS 3 mg/day. The psychiatric assessment with PANSS showed an improvement of positive and negative symptoms after the low RIS dose and still more after the high RIS dose. Statistical analyses on relationships between the rCBF values and PANSS scores before and after the low RIS dose showed a positive correlation between the rCBF values in the right middle temporal gyrus and hallucinations (mainly auditory hallucination). These results suggest that chronic RIS administration dose-dependently produces a decrease of rCBF in the cerebral cortex in the manner that the low dose decreases rCBF in a few restricted cortical regions, while the high dose induces the rCBF reduction in more widespread cortical regions. The RIS-induced rCBF decrease in the cerebral cortex is considered to be attributable to a secondary inactivation in the cerebral cortex due to D 2 dopamine receptor blockade of RIS in the striatum through the cortico

  11. Cortical and subcortical 5-HT2A receptor binding in neuroleptic-naive first-episode schizophrenic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erritzoe, David; Rasmussen, Hans; Kristiansen, Klaus Nyegaard

    2008-01-01

    MRIs and PET images. The cerebellum was used as a reference region. The binding potential of specific tracer binding (BP(p)) was used as the outcome measure. No significant difference was seen in cortical receptor distribution between patients and controls. An increase in 5-HT(2A) receptor binding...

  12. Correlations between Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1H MRS in schizophrenic patients and normal controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ng Johnny

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence suggests that white matter integrity may play an underlying pathophysiological role in schizophrenia. N-acetylaspartate (NAA, as measured by Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS, is a neuronal marker and is decreased in white matter lesions and regions of axonal loss. It has also been found to be reduced in the prefrontal and temporal regions in patients with schizophrenia. Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI allows one to measure the orientations of axonal tracts as well as the coherence of axonal bundles. DTI is thus sensitive to demyelination and other structural abnormalities. DTI has also shown abnormalities in these regions. Methods MRS and DTI were obtained on 42 healthy subjects and 40 subjects with schizophrenia. The data was analyzed using regions of interests in the Dorso-Lateral Prefrontal white matter, Medial Temporal white matter and Occipital white matter using both imaging modalities. Results NAA was significantly reduced in the patient population in the Medial Temporal regions. DTI anisotropy indices were also reduced in the same Medial Temporal regions. NAA and DTI-anisotropy indices were also correlated in the left medial temporal region. Conclusion Our results implicate defects in the medial temporal white matter in patients with schizophrenia. Moreover, MRS and DTI are complementary modalities for the study of white matter disruptions in patients with schizophrenia.

  13. [MODen: Psychoeducationnal therapeutic group program for schizophrenic patients, based on nutritional balance and pleasure, using cognitive functions: A pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, S L; Hochard, C; Orens, S; Gautier, C; Lambert, T; Geret, L; Bralet, M C

    2016-10-01

    Schizophrenia causes psychological difficulties (with positive and/or negative symptoms) as well as cognitive disabilities (attention, memory, executive functions and social cognition). Moreover, 40 to 60% of patients suffer from an excess of weight or obesity (due to bad eating habits, eating disorders or medication). All these difficulties impair their autonomy and their insertion into the society. In this context, setting-up a therapeutic tool, which may have cognitive benefits seems relevant. Thus, MODen is a therapeutic educational tool whose aim is to improve cognitive functions and the symptoms by using "nutritional balance" as an aid. In this treatment program, two therapists lead a group of 5 to 8 patients which group meets once a week during two to four hours for 16 weeks, divided in 4 cycles. The first three weeks of each cycle consists of theoretical instruction: patients talk about their eating habits, information is given about nutritional balance and preparation of meals. In the different cycles, flexibility, planning, memory and attention are trained. For instance, the work on categorisation of foods and nutritional balance allow enhancing flexibility abilities. Writing down the lists of different ingredients needed for one week's meals and preparation of meals train planning abilities. MODen also takes into account ecological issues such as the limited budget of patients to do their shopping (this budget is around 4 euros per meal in France). The budget is also linked to planning abilities and reasoning. Finally, during the last session of each cycle the group prepares a meal (from the shopping to cooking). This last session is all about sharing and social cognition abilities. By the end of the program, patients will have prepared four meals together. Also "homework" has to be done each week in order to facilitate memorisation of what has been learned during the last session and to prepare the beginning of the next session. In a pilot study with 8

  14. The psychophysiological effects of Tai-chi and exercise in residential Schizophrenic patients: a 3-arm randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Rainbow Tin Hung; Wan, Adrian Ho Yin; Au-Yeung, Friendly So Wah; Lo, Phyllis Hau Yan; Siu, Pantha Joey Chung Yue; Wong, Cathy Pui Ki; Ng, Winnie Yuen Han; Cheung, Irene Kit Man; Ng, Siu Man; Chan, Cecilia Lai Wan; Chen, Eric Yu Hai

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with schizophrenia are characterized by high prevalence rates and chronicity that often leads to long-term institutionalization. Under the traditional medical model, treatment usually emphasizes the management of psychotic symptoms through medication, even though anti-psychotic drugs are associated with severe side effects, which can diminish patients’ physical and psychological well-being. Tai-chi, a mind-body exercise rooted in Eastern health philosophy, emphasizes the m...

  15. Development and validation of a Thai stressful life events rating scale for patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenic methamphetamine abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Ek-uma Imkome; JintanaYunibhand; Waraporn Chaiyawat

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to psychometrically test a Thai Stressful Life Events Rating Scale (TSLERS). Factor analysis was done on data collected from 313 patients with schizophrenia and methamphetamine abuse in Thailand from April to May, 2015. Results identified the following problems impacting physical and mental health: social relationship and social concerns, money, family life, life security, and career. Evaluation of the psychometric scale properties demonstrated acceptable validity ...

  16. Evaluation of Factors Affecting Continuous Performance Test Identical Pairs Version Score of Schizophrenic Patients in a Japanese Clinical Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayoshi Koide

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Cognitive impairment in schizophrenia strongly relates to social outcome and is a good candidate for endophenotypes. When we accurately measure drug efficacy or effects of genes or variants relevant to schizophrenia on cognitive impairment, clinical factors that can affect scores on cognitive tests, such as age and severity of symptoms, should be considered. To elucidate the effect of clinical factors, we conducted multiple regression analysis using scores of the Continuous Performance Test Identical Pairs Version (CPT-IP, which is often used to measure attention/vigilance in schizophrenia. Methods. We conducted the CPT-IP (4-4 digit and examined clinical information (sex, age, education years, onset age, duration of illness, chlorpromazine-equivalent dose, and Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS scores in 126 schizophrenia patients in Japanese population. Multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate the effect of clinical factors. Results. Age, chlorpromazine-equivalent dose, and PANSS-negative symptom score were associated with mean d′ score in patients. These three clinical factors explained about 28% of the variance in mean d′ score. Conclusions. As conclusion, CPT-IP score in schizophrenia patients is influenced by age, chlorpromazine-equivalent dose and PANSS negative symptom score.

  17. The Well Siblings of Schizophrenics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Laurel; Chase, Laura

    1979-01-01

    Explores the impact of having a schizophrenic sibling. Subjects functioned at high levels of adjustment. Separated from their families, there followed a period of reinvolvement, including responsibility for the ill sibling. Younger siblings expressed guilt over being well, whereas older siblings expressed guilt over earlier sibling rivalry.…

  18. Acceptability and perceived barriers and facilitators to creating a national research register to enable 'direct to patient' enrolment into research: the Scottish Health Research Register (SHARE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Aileen; Ure, Jenny; Nicolson, Donald J; Hanley, Janet; Sheikh, Aziz; McKinstry, Brian; Sullivan, Frank

    2013-10-18

    Difficulties with recruitment pose a major, increasingly recognised challenge to the viability of research. We sought to explore whether a register of volunteers interested in research participation, with data linkage to electronic health records to identify suitable research participants, would prove acceptable to healthcare staff, patients and researchers. We undertook a qualitative study in which a maximum variation sampling approach was adopted. Focus groups and interviews were conducted with patients, general practitioners (GP), practice managers and health service researchers in two Scottish health boards. Analysis was primarily thematic to identify a range of issues and concerns for all stakeholder groups. The concept of a national research register was, in general, acceptable to all stakeholder groups and was widely regarded as beneficial for research and for society. Patients, however, highlighted a number of conditions which should be met in the design of a register to expedite confidence and facilitate recruitment. They also gave their perceptions on how a register should operate and be promoted, favouring a range of media. GPs and practice managers were primarily concerned with the security and confidentiality of patient data and the impact a register may have on their workload. Researchers were supportive of the initiative seeing advantages in more rapid access to a wider pool of patients. They did raise concerns that GPs may be able to block access to personal patient data held in general practice clinical systems and that the register may not be representative of the whole population. This work suggests that patients, healthcare staff and researchers have a favourable view of the potential benefits of a national register to identify people who are potentially eligible and willing to participate in health related research. It has highlighted a number of issues for the developers to incorporate in the design of research registers.

  19. Weight control in schizophrenic patients through Sakata's Charting of Daily Weight Pattern and its associations with temperament and character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Ryoei; Matsuo, Hisae; Naono-Nagatomo, Keiko; Ozono, Kazuhiko; Araki, Ryuji; Ishikawa, Michiko; Abe, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Hiroshi; Ishida, Yasushi

    2014-02-01

    This study examined whether daily self-monitoring of weight and monthly interviews with a doctor improved eating habits and led to weight loss, and whether temperament and character traits affect weight change in persons with schizophrenia. Participants used Sakata's Charting of Daily Weight Pattern to monitor their weight daily. In addition, Sakata's Eating Behavior Questionnaire was administered to evaluate eating-behavior awareness. The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) was used to assess participants' temperament and character. Fifty patients were divided into two groups: the intervention group (n = 25) filled in Sakata's Charting of Daily Weight Pattern every day; was interviewed monthly by a doctor about weight management; was weighed monthly. The non-intervention group (n = 25) was only weighed monthly. The body mass index (mean ± standard error: 0.59 ± 0.10 kg/m(2), p Weight change and TCI scores were not correlated for the intervention group, but scores for "self-directedness" and weight gain in the non-intervention group had a marginally significant negative correlation (r = -0.33, p weight daily on Sakata's Charting of Daily Weight Pattern led to improvements in eating behavior and a decrease in BMI of patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. MMP-9 Serum Levels in Schizophrenic Patients during Treatment Augmentation with Sarcosine (Results of the PULSAR Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Strzelecki

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Find changes in matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9 levels during augmentation of antipsychotic treatment with sarcosine and a relationship between schizophrenia symptoms severity and initial level of MMP-9. Method: Fifty-eight patients with diagnosis of schizophrenia with predominant negative symptoms participated in a six-month prospective RCT (randomized controlled trial. The patients received two grams of sarcosine (n = 28 or placebo (n = 30 daily. At the beginning, after six weeks and after six months MMP-9 levels were measured. Severity of symptomatology was assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS and Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS. Results: MMP-9 serum levels were stable after six weeks and six months in both groups. We noted improvement in negative symptoms, general psychopathology and total PANSS score in sarcosine group compared to placebo; however, there was no correlations between serum MMP-9 concentrations and PANSS scores in all assessments. Initial serum MMP-9 concentrations cannot be used as an improvement predictor acquired during sarcosine augmentation. Conclusions: Our results indicate that either MMP-9 is not involved in the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA-dependent mechanism of sarcosine action in terms of clinical parameters or sarcosine induced changes in peripheral MMP-9 concentrations cannot be detected in blood assessments.

  1. MMP-9 Serum Levels in Schizophrenic Patients during Treatment Augmentation with Sarcosine (Results of the PULSAR Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzelecki, Dominik; Kałużyńska, Olga; Szyburska, Justyna; Wysokiński, Adam

    2016-07-09

    Find changes in matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9) levels during augmentation of antipsychotic treatment with sarcosine and a relationship between schizophrenia symptoms severity and initial level of MMP-9. Fifty-eight patients with diagnosis of schizophrenia with predominant negative symptoms participated in a six-month prospective RCT (randomized controlled trial). The patients received two grams of sarcosine (n = 28) or placebo (n = 30) daily. At the beginning, after six weeks and after six months MMP-9 levels were measured. Severity of symptomatology was assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS). MMP-9 serum levels were stable after six weeks and six months in both groups. We noted improvement in negative symptoms, general psychopathology and total PANSS score in sarcosine group compared to placebo; however, there was no correlations between serum MMP-9 concentrations and PANSS scores in all assessments. Initial serum MMP-9 concentrations cannot be used as an improvement predictor acquired during sarcosine augmentation. Our results indicate that either MMP-9 is not involved in the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-dependent mechanism of sarcosine action in terms of clinical parameters or sarcosine induced changes in peripheral MMP-9 concentrations cannot be detected in blood assessments.

  2. Reduced serum non-enzymatic antioxidant defense and increased lipid peroxidation in schizophrenic patients on a hypocaloric diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zortea, Karine; Fernandes, Brisa Simões; Guimarães, Lísia Rejane; Francesconi, Lenise Petter; Lersch, Camila; Gama, Clarissa Severino; Schroeder, Rafael; Zanotto-Filho, Alfeu; Moreira, José Claudio; Lobato, Maria Inês Rodrigues; Belmonte-de-Abreu, Paulo Silva

    2012-03-14

    Growing evidence suggests that oxidative stress (OS) may be associated with the pathophysiology underlying schizophrenia (SZ). Some studies indicate that nutritional supplements offer protection from OS, but there is no data about the effect of a hypocaloric diet on OS in this population. Therefore, we aimed to study the effect of a hypocaloric dietary intervention on OS in subjects with SZ. A cross-sectional study of 96 participants in outpatient treatment for SZ comprised patients separated into two groups: one group of subjects followed a hypocaloric diet (HD) program (n=42), while the other group followed a regular diet (RD) with no nutritional restrictions (n=54). The serum total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP), total antioxidant reactivity (TAR) and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) levels were assessed. TRAP levels were lower and TBARS levels were higher in the HD group than in the RD group (p=0.022 and p=0.023, respectively). There were no differences in TAR levels between the groups. Additionally, there was a positive correlation between TRAP and TBARS levels after adjusting for BMI and clozapine dose (partial correlation=0.42, pdiet and the levels of TRAP, TBARS, and TAR. Subjects with SZ on a hypocaloric diet displayed different OS parameters than those not following a HD. Serum TRAP levels were lower and TBARS levels were higher among SZ subjects with HD compared to SZ subjects without HD. Lower TRAP levels may reflect decreased oxidative stress, whereas higher TBARS levels most likely reflect a biochemical reaction to the decreased TRAP levels. Additionally, TAR levels were similar between groups, suggesting a similar quality of antioxidant defenses, despite quantitative differences between the two dietary protocols in SZ patients under outpatient care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cardiovascular disease in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta — a nationwide, register-based cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Folkestad, Lars; Hald, Jannie Dahl; Gram, Jeppe; Langdahl, Bente L.; Hermann, Anne Pernille; Diederichsen, Axel CP; Abrahamsen, Bo; Brixen, Kim

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a hereditary connective tissue disease often due to mutations in genes coding for type 1 collagen. Collagen type 1 is important in the development of the heart and vasculature. Little is known about the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in OI.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk of symptomatic CVD in OI.DESIGN: A Danish nationwide, population-based and register-based longitudinal open cohort study.PARTICIPANTS: All patients registered with the diag...

  4. Neural correlates of working memory deficits in schizophrenic patients. Ways to establish neurocognitive endophenotypes of psychiatric disorders; Neuronale Korrelate gestoerter Arbeitsgedaechtnisfunktionen bei schizophrenen Patienten. Ansaetze zur Etablierung neurokognitiver Endophaenotypen psychiatrischer Erkrankungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, O. [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Homburg (Saar) (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kognitions- und Neurowissenschaften, Leipzig (Germany); Gruber, E.; Falkai, P. [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Homburg (Saar) (Germany)

    2005-02-01

    This article briefly reviews some methodological limitations of functional neuroimaging studies in psychiatric patients. We argue that the investigation of the neural substrates of cognitive deficits in psychiatric disorders requires a combination of functional neuroimaging studies in healthy subjects with corresponding behavioral experiments in patients. In order to exemplify this methodological approach we review recent findings regarding the functional neuroanatomy of distinct components of human working memory and provide evidence for selective dysfunctions of cortical networks that underlie specific working memory deficits in schizophrenia. This identification of subgroups of schizophrenic patients according to neurocognitive parameters may facilitate the establishment of behavioral and neurophysiological endophenotypes and the development of a neurobiological classification of psychiatric disorders. (orig.) [German] Dieser Beitrag befasst sich mit einigen methodischen Problemen funktionell-bildgebender Studien mit psychiatrischen Patienten, aufgrund derer die Untersuchung der neuronalen Korrelate kognitiver Defizite bei psychiatrischen Erkrankungen einer Kombination funktionell-bildgebender Studien bei gesunden Normalprobanden mit Verhaltensuntersuchungen bei Patienten bedarf. Dieser methodische Ansatz wird am Beispiel von Arbeitsgedaechtnisfunktionen erlaeutert, wobei zunaechst neuere Erkenntnisse zur funktionellen Neuroanatomie verschiedener Komponenten des menschlichen Arbeitsgedaechtnisses referiert werden. Anschliessend werden bei schizophrenen Patienten erhobene Befunde vorgestellt, die auf spezifische Stoerungen der funktionellen Integritaet neuronaler Netzwerke mit Arbeitsgedaechtnisfunktionen hinweisen. Die damit verbundene Identifikation von Subgruppen schizophrener Patienten koennte zur Etablierung verhaltensneurophysiologisch definierter Endophaenotypen psychiatrischer Stoerungsbilder fuehren und die Entwicklung einer neurowissenschaftlich

  5. A consumer register: an acceptable and cost-effective alternative for accessing patient populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Bryant

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population-based registries are increasingly used to recruit patient samples for research, however, they have several limitations including low consent and participation rates, and potential selection bias. To improve access to samples for research, the utility of a new model of recruitment termed the ‘Consumer Register’, that allows for direct patient recruitment from hospitals, was examined. This paper reports: (i consent rates onto the register; (ii preferred methods and frequency of contact; and (iii the feasibility of establishing the register, including: (a cost per person recruited to the register; (b the differential cost and consent rates of volunteer versus paid data collectors; and (c participant completion rates. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in five outpatient clinics in Australia. Patients were approached by volunteers or paid data collectors and asked to complete a touch-screen electronic survey. Consenting individuals were asked to indicate their willingness and preferences for enrolment onto a research register. Descriptive statistics were used to examine patient preferences and linear regression used to model the success of volunteer versus paid data collectors. The opportunity and financial costs of establishing the register were calculated. Results A total of 1947 patients (80.6 % consented to complete the survey, of which, 1486 (76.3 % completed the questionnaire. Of the completers, the majority (69.4 %, or 1032 participants were willing to be listed on the register and preferred to be contacted by email (50.3 %. Almost 39 % of completers were willing to be contacted three or more times in a 12 month period. The annual opportunity cost of resources consumed by the register was valued at $37,187, giving an opportunity cost per person recruited to the register of $36. After amortising fixed costs, the annual financial outlay was $23,004 or $22 per person recruited to the

  6. Serum levels of interleukin 6 in schizophrenic patients during treatment augmentation with sarcosine (results of the PULSAR study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzelecki, Dominik; Urban-Kowalczyk, Małgorzata; Wysokiński, Adam

    2018-03-01

    Augmentation of sarcosine, a natural inhibitor of the glycine transporter type I, normalizes glutamatergic neurotransmission, having beneficial impact on primary negative symptoms in schizophrenia and may also influence immune system and interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels. Finding a relationship between initial IL-6 serum concentrations or its changes and severity of symptoms as a result of sarcosine addition to stable antipsychotic treatment. Fifity-eight individuals with schizophrenia with predominantly negative symptoms completed a 6-month randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled prospective study. Patients received 2 g of sarcosine (n = 29) or placebo (n = 30) daily per os. We measured IL-6 levels and severity of symptoms at the beginning, after 6 weeks and 6 months. As main clinical tools, we used Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Calgary depression scale for schizophrenia (CDSS). Augmentation with sarcosine had no effect on IL-6 serum levels in all time points. We noted significant improvements in negative symptoms, general psychopathology, and total PANSS score in the sarcosine group. We found correlation of initial serum IL-6 with severity of positive symptoms and negative association between IL-6 levels reduction and positive symptoms reduction. Sarcosine does not significantly affect IL-6 concentrations but IL-6 may be involved in mechanisms related to the presence of positive symptoms. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Higher incidence of hip fracture in newly diagnosed schizophrenic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Higher incidence of hip fracture in newly diagnosed schizophrenic patients in Taiwan. Hip fracture is a major public health concern due to its poor outcome and serious socioeconomic burden in older people (1). Evidence has shown that many factors are related to increased risk of hip fracture, but psychiatric diseases are ...

  8. Sobrepeso e obesidade em pacientes esquizofrênicos em uso de clozapina comparado com o uso de outros antipsicóticos Overweight and obesity in schizophrenic patients taking clozapine compared to the use of other antipsychotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lúcia Leitão-Azevedo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O uso de antipsicóticos tem sido fundamental no tratamento de portadores de esquizofrenia. Entretanto, tanto a clozapina quanto a maior parte dos antipsicóticos atípicos podem induzir um maior ganho de peso corporal e alterações metabólicas. OBJETIVO: Comparar a freqüência de sobrepeso e obesidade em pacientes esquizofrênicos expostos à clozapina com a dos expostos a demais antipsicóticos. MÉTODO: Foram estudados 121 pacientes esquizofrênicos, com idade de 18 anos ou mais, de ambos os sexos, atendidos no Ambulatório de Esquizofrenia e Demências do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, encaminhados de forma consecutiva. Foram avaliadas medidas antropométricas de 53 pacientes em uso de clozapina e de 68 usando outros antipsicóticos, e todos preencheram os critérios diagnósticos de esquizofrenia do DSM-IV e CID-10. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença significativa na freqüência do IMC entre os esquizofrênicos em uso de clozapina, quando comparado com o dos que usam os demais antipsicóticos. As análises mostraram uma elevada prevalência de pacientes (72,7% com excesso de peso (sobrepeso + obesidade. DISCUSSÃO: Devido à maior freqüência de excesso de peso na população esquizofrênica, pode-se evidenciar na amostra um indicativo de maior risco para transtornos vasculares e metabólicos. A ausência de diferença significativa em relação ao uso de clozapina, comparada com os demais antipsicóticos, demonstra a necessidade da montagem de estudos prospectivos determinando a magnitude de ganho de peso e o aumento de risco relativo à exposição específica de cada antipsicótico.BACKGROUND: The use of antipsychotics has been crucial in the treatment of schizophrenic patients. However, clozapine, as well as most atypical antipsychotics, may lead to higher weight gain and metabolic changes. OBJECTIVE: To compare the frequency of overweight and obesity between schizophrenic patients exposed to clozapine to the

  9. The Danish nationwide clinical register for patients with rheumatoid arthritis: DANBIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibfelt EH

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Else Helene Ibfelt,1 Dorte Vendelbo Jensen,2,3 Merete Lund Hetland2,4 1Registry Support Centre (East, Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Research Centre for Prevention and Health, Rigshospitalet, Glostrup University Hospital, 2DANBIO Registry and Copenhagen Center for Arthritis Research, Center for Rheumatology and Spine Diseases, Centre of Head and Orthopedics, Rigshospitalet, Glostrup, 3Department of Rheumatology, Herlev and Gentofte University Hospital, Hellerup, 4Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark Introduction: DANBIO is a research register and a data source for rheumatologic diseases (rheumatoid arthritis [RA], axial spondyloarthritis, and psoriatic arthritis for monitoring clinical quality at the national, regional, and hospital levels. Study population: The register includes patients with rheumatologic diseases who are treated at a hospital or a private rheumatologic clinic. Registration is mandatory for all patients with RA regardless of treatment and also for patients with other diagnoses if treated with biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. Since 2006, the registration has been done electronically, including patient-reported outcome measures registered electronically by the patients with the use of touch screens. Main variables: Core variables such as diagnosis, year of diagnosis, age, and sex are registered at the beginning. Data entered at later visits included the following: patient-reported outcomes for disease activity, pain, fatigue, functional status, and physician-reported objective measures of disease activity, treatment, C-reactive protein, and, when indicated, imaging. For subgroups of patients, the variables such as quality of life, sociodemographic factors, lifestyle, and comorbidity are also registered. Descriptive data: The DANBIO cohort comprised ~26,000 patients with RA, 3,200 patients with axial spondyloarthritis, and 6

  10. Receptor imaging of schizophrenic patients under treatment with typical and atypical neuroleptics; Nuklearmedizinische Rezeptordiagnostik bei schizophrenen Patienten unter Therapie mit typischen und atypischen Neuroleptika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, S.; Tatsch, K. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin der Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Meisenzahl, E. [Psychiatrische Klinik der Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Scherer, J. [Bezirkskrankenhaus Haar (Germany)

    2002-09-01

    Schizophrenic psychosis is typically treated by typical and atypical neuroleptics. Both groups of drugs differ with regard to induction of extrapyramidal side effects. The occupancy of postsynaptic dopaminergic D2 receptors is considered to be an essential aspect of their antipsychotic properties. The dopamine D2 receptor status can be assessed by means of [I-123]IBZM SPECT. Studies on the typical neuroleptic haloperidol revealed an exponential dose response relationship measured by IBZM. Extrapyramidal side effects were presented by all patients below a threshold of the specific binding of IBZM below 0.4 (with one exception, norm value: >0.95). Also under treatment with the atypical neuroleptic clozapine an exponential dose response relationship was found. However, none of these patients showed extrapyramidal side effects. Recently introduced, new atypical neuroleptics such as risperidone and olanzapine again presented with an exponential relationship between daily dose and IBZM binding. The curves of the latter were in between the curves of haloperidol and clozapine. Extrapyramidal side effects were documented in a less number of patients treated with risperidone as compared to haloperidol, for olanzapine only one patient revealed these findings in our own patient group. The pharmacological profile of atypical neuroleptics shows - in addition to their binding to dopamine receptors - also high affinities to the receptors of other neurotransmitter systems, particularly the serotonergic system. Therefore, the lower incidence of extrapyramidal side effects seen by atypical in comparison to typical neuroleptics is at least in part most likely due to a complex interaction on a variety of neurotransmitter systems. (orig.) [German] Die pharmakologische Therapie von Erkrankungen aus dem schizophrenen Formenkreis erfolgt durch typische und atypische Neuroleptika. Beide Gruppen unterscheiden sich klinsich im Wesentlichen durch die Eigenschaft, extrapyramidal

  11. New graduate registered nurses' knowledge of patient safety and practice: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Melanie; Sundin, Deborah; Cope, Vicki

    2018-01-01

    To critically appraise available literature and summarise evidence pertaining to the patient safety knowledge and practices of new graduate registered nurses. Responsibility for patient safety should not be limited to the practice of the bedside nurses, rather the responsibility of all in the healthcare system. Previous research identified lapses in safety across the health care, more specifically with new practitioners. Understanding these gaps and what may be employed to counteract them is vital to ensuring patient safety. A focused review of research literature. The review used key terms and Boolean operators across a 5-year time frame in CINAHL, Medline, psycINFO and Google Scholar for research articles pertaining to the area of enquiry. Eighty-four articles met the inclusion criteria, 39 discarded due to irrelevant material and 45 articles were included in the literature review. This review acknowledges that nursing has different stages of knowledge and practice capabilities. A theory-practice gap for new graduate registered nurses exists, and transition to practice is a key learning period setting new nurses on the path to becoming expert practitioners. Within the literature, there was little to no acknowledgement of patient safety knowledge of the newly registered nurse. Issues raised in the 1970s remain a concern for today's new graduate registered nurses. Research has recognised several factors affecting transition from nursing student to new graduate registered nurse. These factors are leaving new practitioners open to potential errors and risking patient safety. Understanding the knowledge of a new graduate registered nurse upon entering clinical practice may assist in organisations providing appropriate clinical and theoretical support to these nurses during their transition. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Study on effects of an atypical antipsychotic agent, quetiapine, on regional cerebral blood flow with 99mTc-ECD SPECT in drug-naive or unmedicated schizophrenic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monkawa, Akikazu

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the underlying mechanisms of intracerebral actions or clinical efficacies of quetiapine, an atypical antipsychotic agent and a multi-action receptor targeting agent (MARTA), and the influences of quetiapine on absolute regional cerebral blood flows (rCBFs) of schizophrenic patients. Correlations between rCBFs and psychotic symptoms were also examined. Subjects comprised 12 patients who met the ICD-10 criteria for schizophrenia. All patients were drug-naive or unmedicated. Using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with 99m Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD), rCBFs were measured. Psychotic symptoms were evaluated with positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS). The evaluations of SPECT and PANSS were repeated before and after oral 2-week administration of quetiapine 300 mg/day in all patients and after subsequent 2-week administration of quetiapine 600 mg/day in 6 patients. Administration of quetiapine yielded no significant changes in rCBFs at any dose. And there were no significant correlations between the scores of PANSS and the values of rCBFs in any region, though the scores of PANSS decreased after qutiapine administration. It has been reported that, a typical antipsychotic agent, haloperidol, and an atypical antipsychotic agent, risperidone, decrease rCBFs in the cerebral cortex in dose-dependently in drug-naive or unmedicated schizophrenic patients. This phenomenon is considered to be attributable to a secondary inactivation of the cerebral cortex due to D2 receptor blockade of haloperidol or risperidone in the striatum through the cortico-striatal-thalamic pathway. In the frame of this hypothesis, results of this study may relate to the lower degree of D2 blockade induced by quetiapine than that produced by haloperidol and risperidone. (author)

  13. Findings of cranial computerized tomography in chronic schizophrenics with and without tardive dyskinesias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, N.U.

    1985-11-25

    Findings of cranial computed tomography in 20 chronic schizophrenics with clinical distinct, long-dated hyperkinesias (tardive dyskinesias) are compared with those of a similar group of schizophrenics without hyperkinesias. Both groups had a long-term neuroleptic treatment. The tomograms of those patients with tardive dyskinesias showed only in two cases mild, pathological alterations. Also the tomograms of the comparative group showed no severe atrophies, defects of substance or pathological calcifications. It is concluded that there is no correlation between tardive dyskinesias in long-term neuroleptic treated schizophrenics and gross morphological alterations of the brain. Furthermore the problem of tardive dyskinesia in a general aspect is discussed. (orig.).

  14. A retrospective study of registered retinitis pigmentosa patients in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Born, L. I.; Bergen, A. A.; Bleeker-Wagemakers, E. M.

    1992-01-01

    A retrospective study was performed of patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) registered at the Department of Ophthalmogenetics of the Netherlands Ophthalmic Research Institute. The aim was to establish the relative frequencies of the genetic modes and to attempt a clinical subclassification. Of

  15. The Experiences of Registered Nurses Transitioning from Patient Care Settings to Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwin, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Registered nurses (RNs) who make the move from a patient-care service setting to an academic teaching environment often go through a transition phase in their first semesters of teaching that is difficult and traumatic. RNs that go on to higher academic degrees often do so in order to teach in schools of nursing. However, graduate work in nursing…

  16. Validity of ankylosing spondylitis and undifferentiated spondyloarthritis diagnoses in the Swedish National Patient Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindström, U; Exarchou, S; Sigurdardottir, V

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Epidemiological studies of spondyloarthritis (SpA), using ICD codes from the Swedish National Patient Register (NPR), offer unique possibilities but hinge upon an understanding of the validity of the codes. The aim of this study was to validate the ICD codes for ankylosing spondylitis...

  17. Predictive value of stroke discharge diagnoses in the Danish National Patient Register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lühdorf, Pernille; Overvad, Kim; Schmidt, Erik B; Johnsen, Søren P; Bach, Flemming W

    2017-08-01

    To determine the positive predictive values for stroke discharge diagnoses, including subarachnoidal haemorrhage, intracerebral haemorrhage and cerebral infarction in the Danish National Patient Register. Participants in the Danish cohort study Diet, Cancer and Health with a stroke discharge diagnosis in the National Patient Register between 1993 and 2009 were identified and their medical records were retrieved for validation of the diagnoses. A total of 3326 records of possible cases of stroke were reviewed. The overall positive predictive value for stroke was 69.3% (95% confidence interval (CI) 67.8-70.9%). The predictive values differed according to hospital characteristics, with the highest predictive value of 87.8% (95% CI 85.5-90.1%) found in departments of neurology and the lowest predictive value of 43.0% (95% CI 37.6-48.5%) found in outpatient clinics. The overall stroke diagnosis in the Danish National Patient Register had a limited predictive value. We therefore recommend the critical use of non-validated register data for research on stroke. The possibility of optimising the predictive values based on more advanced algorithms should be considered.

  18. Using a quantitative risk register to promote learning from a patient safety reporting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, James G; Caplan, Robert A; Campos, John S; Dreis, David F; Furman, Cathie

    2015-02-01

    Patient safety reporting systems are now used in most health care delivery organizations. These systems, such as the one in use at Virginia Mason (Seattle) since 2002, can provide valuable reports of risk and harm from the front lines of patient care. In response to the challenge of how to quantify and prioritize safety opportunities, a risk register system was developed and implemented. Basic risk register concepts were refined to provide a systematic way to understand risks reported by staff. The risk register uses a comprehensive taxonomy of patient risk and algorithmically assigns each patient safety report to 1 of 27 risk categories in three major domains (Evaluation, Treatment, and Critical Interactions). For each category, a composite score was calculated on the basis of event rate, harm, and cost. The composite scores were used to identify the "top five" risk categories, and patient safety reports in these categories were analyzed in greater depth to find recurrent patterns of risk and associated opportunities for improvement. The top five categories of risk were easy to identify and had distinctive "profiles" of rate, harm, and cost. The ability to categorize and rank risks across multiple dimensions yielded insights not previously available. These results were shared with leadership and served as input for planning quality and safety initiatives. This approach provided actionable input for the strategic planning process, while at the same time strengthening the Virginia Mason culture of safety. The quantitative patient safety risk register serves as one solution to the challenge of extracting valuable safety lessons from large numbers of incident reports and could profitably be adopted by other organizations.

  19. Patient safety: numerical skills and drug calculation abilities of nursing students and registered nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullan, Miriam; Jones, Ray; Lea, Susan

    2010-04-01

    This paper is a report of a correlational study of the relations of age, status, experience and drug calculation ability to numerical ability of nursing students and Registered Nurses. Competent numerical and drug calculation skills are essential for nurses as mistakes can put patients' lives at risk. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2006 in one United Kingdom university. Validated numerical and drug calculation tests were given to 229 second year nursing students and 44 Registered Nurses attending a non-medical prescribing programme. The numeracy test was failed by 55% of students and 45% of Registered Nurses, while 92% of students and 89% of nurses failed the drug calculation test. Independent of status or experience, older participants (> or = 35 years) were statistically significantly more able to perform numerical calculations. There was no statistically significant difference between nursing students and Registered Nurses in their overall drug calculation ability, but nurses were statistically significantly more able than students to perform basic numerical calculations and calculations for solids, oral liquids and injections. Both nursing students and Registered Nurses were statistically significantly more able to perform calculations for solids, liquid oral and injections than calculations for drug percentages, drip and infusion rates. To prevent deskilling, Registered Nurses should continue to practise and refresh all the different types of drug calculations as often as possible with regular (self)-testing of their ability. Time should be set aside in curricula for nursing students to learn how to perform basic numerical and drug calculations. This learning should be reinforced through regular practice and assessment.

  20. Long term three dimensional tracking of orthodontic patients using registered cone beam CT and photogrammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulanger, Pierre; Flores-Mir, Carlos; Ramirez, Juan F; Mesa, Elizabeth; Branch, John W

    2009-01-01

    The measurements from registered images obtained from Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) and a photogrammetric sensor are used to track three-dimensional shape variations of orthodontic patients before and after their treatments. The methodology consists of five main steps: (1) the patient's bone and skin shapes are measured in 3D using the fusion of images from a CBCT and a photogrammetric sensor. (2) The bone shape is extracted from the CBCT data using a standard marching cube algorithm. (3) The bone and skin shape measurements are registered using titanium targets located on the head of the patient. (4) Using a manual segmentation technique the head and lower jaw geometry are extracted separately to deal with jaw motion at the different record visits. (5) Using natural features of the upper head the two datasets are then registered with each other and then compared to evaluate bone, teeth, and skin displacements before and after treatments. This procedure is now used at the University of Alberta orthodontic clinic.

  1. A computed tomographic prolective trohoc study of chronic schizophrenics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glueck, E.; Radue, E.W.; Mundt, C.; Gerhardt, P.

    1980-01-01

    The maximal width of the third ventricle, the maximal distance between the outer tips of the anterior horns, and the number of enlarged cerebral sulci on the two highest CT slices were measured in 68 chronic schizophrenic patients on cranial computed tomograms in order to detect a possible enlargement of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) filled intracranial spaces. These results were compared with values obtained from a control group which was formed in accordance with definite exclusion criteria and matched-pair parameters (sex, age and maximal inner diameter of the skull). In a prolective trohoc study no difference was found in the size of the CSF spaces of schizophrenics and the controls. The psychopathological condition of the patients, which was classified in a semistandardized dialogue, also showed no correlation with the ventricular size or the number of enlarged cerebral sulci. (orig.)

  2. Inadequate Diagnostic Evaluation in Young Patients Registered with a Diagnosis of Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salem, Lise Cronberg; Andersen, Birgitte Bo; Nielsen, T Rune

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Establishing a diagnosis of dementia in young patients may be complex and have significant implications for the patient. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of the diagnostic work-up in young patients diagnosed with dementia in the clinical routine. METHODS: Two hundred...... patients were randomly selected from 891 patients aged ≤65 years registered with a diagnosis of dementia for the first time in 2008 in Danish hospitals, and 159 medical records were available for review. Three raters evaluated their medical records for the completeness of the diagnostic work-up on which...... the diagnosis of dementia had been based, using evidence-based guidelines for the diagnostic evaluation of dementia as reference standards. RESULTS: According to the rater review, only 111 (70%) patients met the clinical criteria for dementia. An acceptable diagnostic work-up including all items of recommended...

  3. Incidence of fractures in patients with multiple sclerosis: the Danish National Health Registers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bazelier, Marloes T; de Vries, Frank; Bentzen, Joan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) are potentially at high risk of fracture due to falls and osteoporosis. Objective: To estimate incidence rates of fractures in MS patients, stratified by fracture type, sex and age, and to compare these rates with controls. Methods: The case...... population consisted of all patients with an accepted diagnosis of MS in the Danish MS Registry (1949-2007). Data were linked to the National Hospital Discharge Register (1977-2007). Patients with MS (n = 11,157) were 1: 6 matched by year of birth, gender, calendar time and region to persons without MS...... (controls). Incidence rates of fracture were estimated as the number of fractures per 1000 person-years. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were calculated by dividing fracture rates in MS patients by fracture rates in controls. Results: Among patients with MS, the incidence rate of any fracture yielded 22.8 per...

  4. Care seeking behaviour and various delays in tuberculosis patients registered under RNTCP in Pune city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayashree Sachin Gothankar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Case finding in tuberculosis is known to be influenced by factors such as patient motivation, care seeking, the degree of diagnostic suspicion by health care provider which could result in a delayed diagnosis.Objective: To determine care seeking behaviour and delay in diagnosis and treatment of new sputum positive tuberculosis patients registered under RNTCP.Material and Methods: Descriptive cross sectional study. 283 new sputum positive tuberculosis patients (≥15 years of age registered during a period of six months at two randomly selected tuberculosis unit of Pune city. Questionnaire by WHO was modified and used. Interviews were conducted in DOT centres. Statistical analysis: Frequency, mean and standard deviation, chi square test.Results: Mean age of patients was 35 (±15 years18% of patients were unemployed and 77% resided in urban slums. The commonest co morbidity in 7.4% and 3.5 % patients was HIV/ AIDS followed by diabetics respectively. Majority of the patients, for the first and second time visited a general practitioner. Median patient, health care system and total delay were 18, 22 and 47 days with mean of 24±21, 32±30 and 56±33 days respectively. Health care system delay was less (p<0.05 in patients who first visited the public health care facility than patients who first visited a private health care provider.Conclusions: General practitioners are preferred first choice of health care provider for tuberculosis patients. Mean health care system delay is more than patient delay.

  5. The relationship between intelligence and cognitive function in schizophrenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catherine; Amin, M. M.; Effendy, E.

    2018-03-01

    The most common of psychotic disorders is schizophrenia. While evaluating the cognitive function with a standardized test, the intelligence test is by using the IQ test. For schizophrenic patients, intelligence is usually reported to be lower than average. This research is an analytical study that commenced in January and ended in March 2014. Primary criteria are schizophrenics who are in-patients in Prof. dr. M. Ildrem Mental Hospital, aged between 15 to 55 years old, with the highest qualification of secondary high school. The secondary criteria are those patients with other psychotic disorders, head injuries and other neurological disorders, endocrine disorders. The total sample is 100 subjects. From this study, the correlation value is 0.876 shows a very strong correlation. And the p-value 0.001.The results of this study show that there is a direct correlation (p=0.001) and a correlation (r=0.876) between intelligence and cognitive function on schizophrenic. And it is also necessary to do more researches by using other rating scales and examination to measure the relationship between intelligence and cognitive function, and other factors that may affect results.

  6. Hospital-based prevalence of chronic kidney disease among the newly registered patients with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P A Khanam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is proved to be a major public health issue worldwide and an important contributor to the overall non-communicable disease burden. It increases risk of mortality, end-stage renal disease and accelerated cardiovascular disease (CVD. Diabetes is the biggest contributor to CKD and end stage renal disease (ESRD. In Bangladesh, very few data on CKD is available. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of CKD among the newly registered diabetic patients at BIRDEM (Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders, a referral center for diabetes in Bangladesh. Methods: The study included all diabetic patients aged 18 - 80 years and were registered in the year 2012. Socio-demographic (age, sex, residence, income, literacy, clinical (obesity, blood pressure and biochemical (blood glucose, lipids, eGFR information were collected from the BIRDEM registry. CKD was defined according to the K/ DOQI guidelines. Results: A total of 1317 type 2 diabetic patients of age 18 to 80 years were studied. Of them, men and women were 54.7% and 45.3%, respectively. The overall prevalence of CKD (eGFR ≤60 (ml/min/m2 was 13.9%. The prevalence was significantly higher in women than men (21.3 v. 7.8%, p50y, higher sBP (≥140mmHg and taking oral hypoglycemic agent (OHA were significant. Conclusions: Thus, the study concludes that the prevalence of CKD among the newly registered diabetic patients is quite high in Bangladesh. The female diabetic patients with older age and with higher SBP bear the brunt of CKD. Considering high prevalence of CKD with severe lifelong complications it is of utmost importance for early detection and intervention at the primary health care (PHC level.

  7. Evaluating the use and limitations of the Danish National Patient Register in register-based research using an example of multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, K; Thygesen, L C; Stenager, E; Brønnum-Hansen, H; Koch-Henriksen, N

    2012-03-01

    The Danish National Patient Register, Landspatientregistret (LPR), is a register of all hospital discharges and outpatient treatments in Denmark. It is increasingly used in research so it is important to understand to what extent this can be used as an accurate source of information. Virtually all patients in Denmark with multiple sclerosis (MS) are reported to the Combined MS Registry (DMSR), so this was used as the standard which the LPR was compared against. All residents of Denmark are assigned a unique Civil Register (CPR) number; this was used to compare data between registers. The LPR completeness was estimated by the proportion of cases from the DMSR that could be retrieved from the LPR. The LPR validity was estimated by the proportion of cases, listed in the LPR and DMSR, in whom the MS diagnosis could be confirmed as definite/probable/possible by the DMSR. We found that 86.9% of those who were DMSR listed with an approved MS diagnosis were also listed in the LPR with a MS diagnosis. The diagnosis was valid in 96.3% of patients listed in the LPR when compared against the DMSR. The low completeness reduces the usefulness of the LPR in epidemiological MS research, in particular incidence studies. The study also found that the completeness of the LPR could be increased to 92.8% by including LPR records from other departments in addition, but this reduced the validity of the LPR to 95.1%. However, these results cannot uncritically be applied to registration of other diseases in the LPR. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Demographic, Clinical and Genetic Characteristics of Child Gaucher Disease Patients in Russia: Pediatric Register Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. B. Movsisyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Registers are an effective tool for tracing the dynamics of patients with rare pathologies.Objective: Our aim was to examine the demographic, clinical and genetic features of child Gaucher disease patients in Russia.Methods: We held a retrospective survey of the pediatric register data with regard to children suffering from Gaucher disease. The period of data accounting was from 2006 to 2016.Results: 115 children with Gaucher disease aged from 3 months to 17 years (the median age of diagnosis is 5 years were registered; 62 them (53.9% are girls. The prevalence of the disease was 0.32 cases for 100,000 children. 95 (82.6% children had 1st type of Gaucher disease, 6 (5.2% — 2nd, and 1 (12.2% — 3rd. Maximum morbidity was in Central (27; 23.5% and Volga (27; 23.5% Federal Districts; minimal — in the Far East (3; 2.6%. By the time of diagnosis all the patients were suffering from splengomegaly. The genotype and phenotype correlations in 90 children with Gaucher disease were as follows: in case of 1st type (n = 77, in 21 (27.3% cases, the p.N370S/р.L444P genotype was set, in 12 (15.6% — the р.N370S/other mutation; in case of 2nd and 3rd types, in 13 children with neuropathic forms, in 9 (62.9% cases — the p.L444P/p.L444P, in 3 (231% — the p.L444P/p. D409H. The rest of genotypes were presented by other mutations, 13 of which were revealed for the first time. The p.W223R (p.W184R mutation is specific for Russian patients. Enzyme replacement therapy was carried out for 109 patients (94.8%: in 105 (96.3% children (1st and 3rd types of Gaucher disease with imiglucerase, in 4 (3.7% children with 1st type — with velaglucerase alfa. Pathogenetic treatment stops the main symptoms in most patients.Conclusion: The pediatric Gaucher disease register allows to systemize the data concerning the disease course in children and optimizing the approaches to its monitoring in Russia.

  9. Analysis of 127 peripartum hypoxic brain injuries from closed claims registered by the Danish Patient Insurance Association

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bock, J.; Christoffersen, J.K.; Hedegaard, M.

    2008-01-01

    : The authors retrospectively investigated peripartum hypoxic brain injuries registered by the Danish Patient Insurance Association. RESULTS: From 1992 to 2004, 127 approved claims concerning peripartum hypoxic brain injuries were registered and subsequently analysed. Thirty-eight newborns died, and a majority...

  10. Registered nurses' decision-making regarding documentation in patients' progress notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tower, Marion; Chaboyer, Wendy; Green, Quentine; Dyer, Kirsten; Wallis, Marianne

    2012-10-01

    To examine registered nurses' decision-making when documenting care in patients' progress notes. What constitutes effective nursing documentation is supported by available guidelines. However, ineffective documentation continues to be cited as a major cause of adverse events for patients. Decision-making in clinical practice is a complex process. To make an effective decision, the decision-maker must be situationally aware. The concept of situation awareness and its implications for making safe decisions has been examined extensively in air safety and more recently is being applied to health. The study was situated in a naturalistic paradigm. Purposive sampling was used to recruit 17 registered nurses who used think-aloud research methods when making decisions about documenting information in patients' progress notes. Follow-up interviews were conducted to validate interpretations. Data were analysed systematically for evidence of cues that demonstrated situation awareness as nurses made decisions about documentation. Three distinct decision-making scenarios were illuminated from the analysis: the newly admitted patient, the patient whose condition was as expected and the discharging patient. Nurses used mental models for decision-making in documenting in progress notes, and the cues nurses used to direct their assessment of patients' needs demonstrated situation awareness at different levels. Nurses demonstrate situation awareness at different levels in their decision-making processes. While situation awareness is important, it is also important to use an appropriate decision-making framework. Cognitive continuum theory is suggested as a decision-making model that could support situation awareness when nurses made decisions about documenting patient care. Because nurses are key decision-makers, it is imperative that effective decisions are made that translate into safe clinical care. Including situation awareness training, combined with employing cognitive

  11. Structural empowerment and patient safety culture among registered nurses working in adult critical care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armellino, Donna; Quinn Griffin, Mary T; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J

    2010-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between structural empowerment and patient safety culture among staff level Registered Nurses (RNs) within adult critical care units (ACCU). There is literature to support the value of RNs' structurally empowered work environments and emerging literature towards patient safety culture; the link between empowerment and patient safety culture is being discovered. A sample of 257 RNs, working within adult critical care of a tertiary hospital in the United States, was surveyed. Instruments included a background data sheet, the Conditions of Workplace Effectiveness and the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture. Structural empowerment and patient safety culture were significantly correlated. As structural empowerment increased so did the RNs' perception of patient safety culture. To foster patient safety culture, nurse leaders should consider providing structurally empowering work environments for RNs. This study contributes to the body of knowledge linking structural empowerment and patient safety culture. Results link structurally empowered RNs and increased patient safety culture, essential elements in delivering efficient, competent, quality care. They inform nursing management of key factors in the nurses' environment that promote safe patient care environments. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. [The Cotard syndrome in schizophrenic disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stompe, Thomas; Schanda, Hans

    2013-01-01

    The Cotard-Syndrome (CS), the belief of being dead, was described for the first time in 1880. Since then it met the interest not only of psychopathologists but also of philosophers. With a few exceptions, the literature is mainly restricted to case reports of anxious-depressive, demented or paranoid patients. It was the aim of our study to investigate the prevalence and the psychopathological context of the CS. We analyzed the Austrian data (N = 346) of the International Study of Psychotic Symptoms in Schizophrenia. A CS could be diagnosed in three cases (0.87%). In all of them, CS developed on the basis of nihilistic-hypochondriac delusions and a progressive loss of energy. Two patients bridged the logical inconsistencies between obviously being alive and the belief of being dead by visual illusions, the third patient, however, by locating himself in an intermediate region between this world and the afterworld. On the one hand the CS can be considered as a special manifestation of the topic of death in schizophrenic delusions, on the other as a nihilistic delusional identity. Without doubt, this uncommon and bizarre psychotic phenomenon will be an object of interest for general psychopathology as well as for the philosophy of mind also in future.

  13. Effects of needs-assessment-based psycho-education of schizophrenic patients' families on the severity of symptoms and relapse rate of patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirabadi, Gholam Reza; Rafizadeh, Mahnaz; Omranifard, Victoria; Yari, Azam; Maracy, Mohammad Reza; Mehrabi, Tayebe; Sadri, Sima

    2014-11-01

    Family psycho-education is one of the most effective interventions for preventing relapse in patients with schizophrenia. We evaluated the efficacy of a needs-assessment-based educational program in comparison with a current program (textbook based) in the treatment of schizophrenia. Patients with schizophrenia and their families (N = 60) were allocated to needs-assessment-based education (treatment) and textbook-based (control) programs; both included 10 sessions of education within about 6 months. Symptoms were assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) prior to intervention and every 3 months for a total of 18 months. A 25% decrease or increase in total PANSS score was considered as response or relapse, respectively. Forty-two cases completed the study. The total PANSS score was significantly decreased in both groups with more reduction in the treatment group. Positive and negative scale scores were reduced in the treatment group, but not significantly in the control group. Response rate was higher in the treatment group and relapse rate was lower (15% vs. 27.2%, P = 0.279). In logistic regression analysis, needs-assessment-based psycho-education was associated with more treatment response. Needs-assessment-based psycho-education is more effective than textbook-based education for treating schizophrenia. We recommend psychiatric care centers to conduct needs-assessment and develop their own program for family psycho-education.

  14. Education attainment is associated with patient-reported outcomes: findings from the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Meridith E; Rolfson, Ola; Nemes, Szilard; Gordon, Max; Malchau, Henrik; Garellick, Göran

    2014-06-01

    Age, sex, and medical comorbidities may be associated with differences in patient-reported outcome scores after THA. Highest level of education may be a surrogate for socioeconomic status, but the degree to which this is associated with patient-reported outcomes after THA is not known. We investigated the national Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register for the association of education attainment on patient-reported outcomes 1 year after THA; specifically, we evaluated level of education attainment against health-related quality of life (HRQoL), pain reduction, and satisfaction with treatment 1 year after THA. All THAs for osteoarthritis performed from 2005 through 2007 with complete patient-reported outcome measures (representing 49% of the THAs performed for this diagnosis) were selected from the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register. These cases were merged with national databases containing education attainment, marital status, and comorbidities (n = 11,464; mean age of patients, 64 years). The patient-reported outcome measure protocol included the HRQoL measure EuroQol five-dimension scale (EQ-5D), a VAS for pain, the Charnley classification survey, and a VAS addressing THA satisfaction. Linear regression analyses determined the association of preoperative patient factors with patient-reported outcomes. High education attainment was associated with higher HRQoL (EQ-5D index ß(high) = 0.03 ± 0.01; EQ VAS ß(high) = 2.6 ± 0.5) after THA, whereas those with low and medium education were at risk for lower HRQoL. High education was associated with less pain after treatment (ß(high) = -3.3 ± 0.05). Individuals with low or medium education were at risk for less satisfaction with THA (p education to a greater extent. Identification of patients who will benefit most from THA and educating those at risk for poorer outcomes, like patients with low and medium education, ultimately may improve patient satisfaction, HRQoL, pain, and the cost utility of THA. Level III

  15. O impacto dos agentes antipsicóticos na densidade mineral óssea de pacientes esquizofrênicos Impact of antipsychotic agents in bone mineral density of schizophrenic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lísia Rejane Guimarães

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudos têm evidenciado o alto risco de osteoporose em pacientes esquizofrênicos. Alguns estudos têm demonstrado que os neurolépticos típicos e a risperidona podem induzir a osteoporose ou reduzir a densidade mineral óssea. Isso pode ser atribuído ao fato de estas drogas, em uso prolongado, induzirem a hiperprolactinemia a níveis acima do normal, em ambos os sexos, e a baixa dos níveis de estrogênio e de testosterona, aumentando o risco para osteopenia/osteoporose. Neste relato, será apresentado um caso de osteopenia em uma paciente mulher de 53 anos, em uso de antipsicóticos há 30 anos, sendo comentados os procedimentos recomendados para detecção dessa ocorrência e as diretrizes existentes para seu manejo.Studies have shown a high risk of osteoporosis in schizophrenic patients. Some studies have demonstrated that typical neuroleptics and risperidone may induce osteoporosis or reduce bone mineral density. This can be due to the fact that prolonged use of those drugs induces hyperprolactinemia to levels above normal in both genders, and reduces the levels of estrogen and testosterone, thus increasing the risk of osteopenia/osteoporosis. We report on a case of osteopenia in a 53-year-old female patient using antipsychotics for 30 years. We comment on the recommended procedures to detect osteopenia and on the existing guidelines for its management.

  16. Increased Risk of Developing Affective Disorder in Patients with Hypothyroidism: A Register-Based Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Anders F.; Kvist, Tine Kajsa; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Links between thyroid function and depression have been noted in many contexts. We assessed whether hospitalization with hypothyroidism was a risk factor for developing affective disorder. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study using historical data from Danish registers....... The observational period was 1977-1999. Three study cohorts were identified: all patients with a first hospital admittance with the resulting index discharge diagnoses hypothyroidism, osteoarthritis, or nontoxic goiter. A later hospitalization with a resulting discharge diagnosis of affective disorder was used...... as event of interest, and rates of readmission were estimated and compared using competing risk models in survival analyses. FINDINGS: We identified 165,307 patients discharged with an index diagnosis. In the observational period, 1041 events occurred. An index diagnosis of hypothyroidism was associated...

  17. Specially trained registered nurses can safely manage epidural analgesia infusion in laboring patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Lenore A; Korejwa, Elise; Kent, Donna Curtis; Raniero, Debbie

    2015-06-01

    To discover evidence for defining the registered nurse's (RN's) role in the management of epidural analgesia in the labor and delivery setting. The Labor Epidural Nurse Safety (LENS) study consisted of two parts. The first part was a 10-year retrospective review of the outcomes of 2,568 laboring women for whom epidural catheters had been placed and verified by an anesthesiologist or certified registered nurse anesthetist, then continuous epidural infusion initiated, and basal rate or patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) dose increased, if needed, within specified parameters by specially trained labor and delivery RNs. The second part compared the outcomes of the neonates born to the 2,568 women in the first part of the study with neonates born to mothers who received PCEA with a continuous infusion initiated and managed exclusively by anesthesiologists and/or certified registered nurse anesthetists at two control sites. Maternal outcomes were quantified by incidences of clinically significant hypotension and sentinel events, such as respiratory distress, cardio/respiratory distress, loss of consciousness, and seizures. Evidence of neonatal outcomes was collected by comparing Apgar scores. No sentinel events occurred, and there was no increase in maternal hypotensive events in the RN-managed group. There were no statistically significant differences in Apgar scores between the experimental and control groups. Specially trained RNs can safely initiate continuous infusions and increase the basal rate of epidural analgesia infusions or PCEA doses administered to laboring women, after insertion and confirmation of correct catheter placement by a qualified anesthesia provider, without adversely affecting maternal and fetal/neonatal outcomes. Copyright © 2015 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Taking cognizance of mental illness in schizophrenics and its association with crime and substance-related diagnoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkner, R; Haastrup, S; Jørgensen, T

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse how committed crimes and substance-related diagnoses are associated with the age on the first contact with the psychiatric hospital system and the age at diagnosing of schizophrenia among schizophrenics. METHOD: In a register-based study including all Danes diagnosed with sc...

  19. Neurocortical electrical activity tomography in chronic schizophrenics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veiga Heloisa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional imaging of brain electrical activity was performed in 25 chronic medicated schizophrenics and 40 controls, analyzing the classical frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha, and beta of 19-channel EEG during resting state to identify brain regions with deviant activity of different functional significances, using LORETA (Low Resolution Tomography and SPM99 (Statistical Parametric Mapping. Patients differed from controls due to an excess of slow activity comprising delta + theta frequency bands (inhibitory pattern located at the right middle frontal gyrus, right inferior frontal gyrus, and right insula, as well as at the bilateral anterior cingulum with a left preponderance. The high temporal resolution of EEG enables the specification of the deviations not only as an excess or a deficit of brain electrical activity, but also as inhibitory (delta, theta, normal (alpha, and excitatory (beta activities. These deviations point out to an impaired functional brain state consisting of inhibited frontal and prefrontal areas that may result in inadequate treatment of externally or internally generated information.

  20. Studies of the correlations between morphological brain changes on MRI and computerized EEG changes in schizophrenics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Kouzou

    1992-01-01

    Twenty eight schizophrenic patients, who ranged in age from 21 to 39 years with a mean of 30.2, and 21 age- and sex-matched normal volunteers were studied by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and electroencephalography (EEG). ALl subjects were given informed consent prior to the present study. They were all right-handed. Schizophrenic patients showed a significantly larger ventricular brain ratio (VBR) on the axial and coronal planes as compared with the control. The bilateral anterior horns, left body, left posterior horn of the lateral ventricle and the third ventricle were significantly larger in schizophrenic patients than the control. The middle half of the corpus callosum was smaller in schizophrenic patients than the control. Schizophrenia was more likely associated not only with delta and theta activities in the centro-parieto-occipital regions but also with beta 1 and beta 2 activities in the front-central regions. In schizophrenic patients, however, alpha 2 activity was markedly decreased in all regions. There were significant positive correlations between the total scores for brief psychiatric rating scale (BPRS) and the areas of the left anterior and posterior horns of the lateral ventricle. The total BPRS scores positively correlated with the area of the third ventricle. In addition, positive correlations were significant between delata activity and the area of the left anterior horn of the lateral ventricle, between delta activity and the area of the third ventricle, and between beta 1 activity and the area of left posteior horn of the lateral ventricle. These results suggest that a dilated third ventricle is associated with electrophysiological brain pathology and psychopathology in schizophrenic patients. (N.K.) 76 refs

  1. Health Care Use by Patients with Somatoform Disorders A Register-Based Follow-Up Study*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nadia Lyhne Trærup; Eplov, Lene Falgaard; Andersen, Jon Trærup

    2012-01-01

    the background population. Data from the Danish National Registers were used to assess health care use in both primary and secondary care. RESULTS: Somatoform patients incurred 2.11 (2.09-2.12) times the primary care visits of controls. They had 3.12 (3.08-3.16) times as many somatic bed-days than controls and 3.......94 (3.91-3.97) as many psychiatric bed-days. Primary care use remained stable 3 years after diagnosis (p = 0.14) and the award of disability pension (p = 0.82). However, the number of somatic admissions decreased from 5.64 to 2.76 (p = 0.0004) 3 years after diagnosis. Somatization had an independent...... of somatic health care was independent of psychiatric comorbidity. Primary care use and disability pension award were not influenced by proper diagnosing of somatoform disorders whereas number of somatic admissions were halved....

  2. Factors Associated with the Intention of Registered Dietitians to Discuss Nutrigenetics with their Patients/Clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard-Mercier, Annie; Desroches, Sophie; Robitaille, Julie; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate factors affecting the intention of Registered Dietitians (RDs) to discuss nutrigenetics with their patients/clients. A survey based on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB; attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control) was developed and sent by email to RD members of the Ordre professionnel des diététistes du Québec. Multiple regression analyses were performed to examine the determinants of intention and behaviour. A total of 141 RDs completed the questionnaire (5.8% response rate). On a scale from -2 to 2 (from strongly disagree to strongly agree), the intention of discussing nutrigenetics with patients/clients was neutral (mean of -0.07 ± 0.92). The TPB construct of attitude was the most strongly associated with intention (β = 0.66, P nutrigenetics with their patients/clients in the last 3 months. Only perceived behavioural control contributed to explain the behaviour (β = 0.17, P nutrigenetics with their patients/clients were determined. This knowledge will help inform the design of future educational content about nutrigenetics.

  3. Inequity of access to ACE inhibitors in Swedish heart failure patients: a register-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Bertil; Hanning, Marianne; Westerling, Ragnar

    2016-01-01

    Background Several international studies suggest inequity in access to evidence-based heart failure (HF) care. Specifically, studies of ACE inhibitors (ACEIs) point to reduced ACEI access related to female sex, old age and socioeconomic position. Thus far, most studies have either been rather small, lacking diagnostic data, or lacking the possibility to account for several individual-based sociodemographic factors. Our aim was to investigate differences, which could reflect inequity in access to ACEIs based on sex, age, socioeconomic status or immigration status in Swedish patients with HF. Methods Individually linked register data for all Swedish adults hospitalised for HF in 2005–2010 (n=93 258) were analysed by multivariate regression models to assess the independent risk of female sex, high age, low employment status, low income level, low educational level or foreign country of birth, associated with lack of an ACEI dispensation within 1 year of hospitalisation. Adjustment for possible confounding was made for age, comorbidity, Angiotensin receptor blocker therapy, period and follow-up time. Results Analysis revealed an adjusted OR for no ACEI dispensation for women of 1.31 (95% CI 1.27 to 1.35); for the oldest patients of 2.71 (95% CI 2.53 to 2.91); and for unemployed patients of 1.59 (95% CI 1.46 to 1.73). Conclusions Access to ACEI treatment was reduced in women, older patients and unemployed patients. We conclude that access to ACEIs is inequitable among Swedish patients with HF. Future studies should include clinical data, as well as mortality outcomes in different groups. PMID:26261264

  4. Perioperative registered nurses knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and barriers regarding pressure ulcer prevention in perioperative patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallier, Peggy C; Reineke, Patricia R; Asadoorian, Kathy; Choonoo, John G; Campo, Marc; Malmgreen-Wallen, Christine

    2017-08-01

    Hospital acquired pressure ulcers have a detrimental effect on patient quality of life, morbidity, mortality, and cost to the healthcare industry. Little is known about pressure ulcer prevention in perioperative services. The objectives of this study were to describe perioperative registered nurses (RNs) knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and barriers about pressure ulcer prevention and to determine if knowledge and the availability of a pressure ulcer staging tool are predictors of pressure ulcer prevention behavior. A cross-sectional descriptive pilot study was conducted. Sixty-two perioperative RNs from 10 acute care hospitals participated. Perioperative nurses believed carrying out pressure ulcer prevention strategies is essential to nursing practice but only two-thirds reported conducting pressure ulcer risk assessment on all patients and daily assessment on at risk patients. Results indicated a knowledge deficit regarding assessment and prevention of pressure ulcers as performance on the PUKT (72%) fell below the recommended score of 90%. Results of binary logistic regression indicated that knowledge as measured by the PUKT and availability of a pressure ulcer staging tool were statistically significant (p=0.03) predictors of pressure ulcer prevention behavior. The initial model without the predictor variables, indicated an overall success rate of correct predictions of 64% which increase to 73% when the predictor variables were added to the initial model. Although perioperative nurses believe that pressure ulcer prevention is important, a knowledge deficit exists and there is a need for pressure ulcer prevention education. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. An open-access mobile compatible electronic patient register for rheumatic heart disease (‘eRegister’) based on the World Heart Federation’s framework for patient registers

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dam, Joris; Tadmor, Brigitta; Spector, Jonathan; Musuku, John; Zühlke, Liesl J; Zühlke, Liesl J; Engel, Mark E; Mayosi, Bongani M; Nestle, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) remains a major disease burden in low-resource settings globally. Patient registers have long been recognised to be an essential instrument in RHD control and elimination programmes, yet to date rely heavily on paper-based data collection and non-networked data-management systems, which limit their functionality. Objectives To assess the feasibility and potential benefits of producing an electronic RHD patient register. Methods We developed an eRegister based on the World Heart Federation’s framework for RHD patient registers using CommCare, an open-source, cloud-based software for health programmes that supports the development of customised data capture using mobile devices. Results The resulting eRegistry application allows for simultaneous data collection and entry by field workers using mobile devices, and by providers using computer terminals in clinics and hospitals. Data are extracted from CommCare and are securely uploaded into a cloud-based database that matches the criteria established by the WHF framework. The application can easily be tailored to local needs by modifying existing variables or adding new ones. Compared with traditional paper-based data-collection systems, the eRegister reduces the risk of data error, synchronises in real-time, improves clinical operations and supports management of field team operations. Conclusions The user-friendly eRegister is a low-cost, mobile, compatible platform for RHD treatment and prevention programmes based on materials sanctioned by the World Heart Federation. Readily adaptable to local needs, this paperless RHD patient register program presents many practical benefits. PMID:26444995

  6. Compiling a register of patients with moderate or severe learning disabilities: experience at one United Kingdom general practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Identifying patients with learning disabilities within primary care is central to initiatives for improving the health of this population. UK general practitioners (GPs) receive additional income for maintaining registers of patients with learning disabilities as part of the Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF), and may opt to provide Directed Enhanced Services (DES), which requires practices to maintain registers of patients with moderate or severe learning disabilities and offer them annual health checks. Objectives This paper describes the development of a register of patients with moderate or severe learning disabilities at one UK general practice. Methods A Read code search of one UK general practice's electronic medical records was conducted in order to identify patients with learning disabilities. Confirmation of diagnoses was sought by scrutinising records and GP verification. Cross-referencing with the practice QOF register of patients with learning disabilities of any severity, and the local authority's list of clients with learning disabilities, was performed. Results Of 15 001 patients, 229 (1.5%) were identified by the Read code search as possibly having learning disabilities. Scrutiny of records and GP verification confirmed 64 had learning disabilities and 24 did not, but the presence or absence of learning disability remained unclear in 141 cases. Cross-referencing with the QOF register (n=81) and local authority list (n=49) revealed little overlap. Conclusion Identifying learning disability and assessing its severity are tasks GPs may be unfamiliar with, and relying on Read code searches may result in under-detection. Further research is needed to define optimum strategies for identifying, cross-referencing and validating practice-based registers of patients with learning disabilities. PMID:22479290

  7. Compiling a register of patients with moderate or severe learning disabilities: experience at one United Kingdom general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodge, Keri-Michèle; Milnes, David; Gilbody, Simon M

    2011-03-01

    Background Identifying patients with learning disabilities within primary care is central to initiatives for improving the health of this population. UK general practitioners (GPs) receive additional income for maintaining registers of patients with learning disabilities as part of the Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF), and may opt to provide Directed Enhanced Services (DES), which requires practices to maintain registers of patients with moderate or severe learning disabilities and offer them annual health checks.Objectives This paper describes the development of a register of patients with moderate or severe learning disabilities at one UK general practice.Methods A Read code search of one UK general practice's electronic medical records was conducted in order to identify patients with learning disabilities. Confirmation of diagnoses was sought by scrutinising records and GP verification. Cross-referencing with the practice QOF register of patients with learning disabilities of any severity, and the local authority's list of clients with learning disabilities, was performed.Results Of 15 001 patients, 229 (1.5%) were identified by the Read code search as possibly having learning disabilities. Scrutiny of records and GP verification confirmed 64 had learning disabilities and 24 did not, but the presence or absence of learning disability remained unclear in 141 cases. Cross-referencing with the QOF register (n=81) and local authority list (n=49) revealed little overlap.Conclusion Identifying learning disability and assessing its severity are tasks GPs may be unfamiliar with, and relying on Read code searches may result in under-detection. Further research is needed to define optimum strategies for identifying, cross-referencing and validating practice-based registers of patients with learning disabilities.

  8. Osteosarcoma of the pelvis - oncological results of 40 patients registered by The Netherlands Committee on Bone Tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, SJ; Kroon, HM; Hoekstra, HJ; Schraffordt Koops, H.

    Aim and methods: We reviewed the oncological outcome in 40 consecutive patients with an osteosarcoma of the pelvic region, registered in the files of the Netherlands Committee on Bone Tumours (NCBT) between 1978 and 1995. Results: Six patients had distant metastases at initial presentation (Enneking

  9. Validity and completeness of rheumatoid arthritis diagnoses in the nationwide DANBIO clinical register and the Danish National Patient Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibfelt, Else Helene; Sørensen, Jan; Jensen, Dorte V

    2017-01-01

    registry. Study design and setting: Patients registered for the first time in 2011 with a diagnosis of RA were identified in DANBIO and DNPR in January 2013. For DNPR, filters were applied to reduce false-positive cases. The diagnosis was verified by a review of patient records. We calculated the positive...

  10. Adult schizophrenic-like variant of adrenoleukodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpak, G M; Lewandowska, E; Schmidt-Sidor, B; Popow, J; Kozłowski, P; Lechowicz, W; Kulczycki, J; Zaremba, J; Dymecki, J

    1996-01-01

    A 35-year-old man died after 30 months following the onset of the disease. There was a history of changes in his mental condition, including disturbances of behavior as well as the evidence of progressing dementia. The patient revealed gait disturbances and finally became bed ridden. Bizarre behavior and changes of mood with concurrent growing irritability which predominated during the course of disease, may explain the initial diagnosis of schizophrenia. Then cerebellar and spastic movement disorders leading to paraparesis and sphincters disturbances developed. Clinical symptoms of adrenal failure were not found apart from episodes of arterial pressure fall. After two years a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed an extensive diffuse demyelinative process in white matter of cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres. Activity of lysosomal enzymes was normal. A general autopsy revealed atrophy of adrenal cortex and the presence of ballooned cells with striated cytoplasm in the reticular and fasciculate zones. Neuropathological examination revealed an extensive demyelination of white matter in cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres and of the long paths of the brain stem, corresponding to changes in MRI examination. Within demyelination areas damage of axons and diffuse cellular and fibrous gliosis were found as well as perivascular lymphocytic infiltrations with the presence of strong PAS (+) and Sudan (+) macrophages. Immunocytochemical reactions with HAM-56 and RCA1 in macrophages were positive. Electron microscopy examination revealed lamellar inclusions in cytoplasm of macrophages. Similar structures were present in the lysosomes of astrocytes. Morphological examination of adrenal glands as well as morphological and ultrastructural study of the brain allowed us to diagnose the cerebral form of adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD). Topography and character of the brain changes seems to be in keeping with a rare schizophrenic-like variant of ALD with progressive dementia

  11. Performance of brain-damaged, schizophrenic, and normal subjects on a visual searching task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, G; Kyc, F

    1978-06-01

    Goldstein, Rennick, Welch, and Shelly (1973) reported on a visual searching task that generated 94.1% correct classifications when comparing brain-damaged and normal subjects, and 79.4% correct classifications when comparing brain-damaged and psychiatric patients. In the present study, representing a partial cross-validation with some modification of the test procedure, comparisons were made between brain-damaged and schizophrenic, and brain-damaged and normal subjects. There were 92.5% correct classifications for the brain-damaged vs normal comparison, and 82.5% correct classifications for the brain-damaged vs schizophrenic comparison.

  12. Comment on Differentiating Paranoid From Nonparanoid Schizophrenics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, James F.

    1971-01-01

    Three methods of differentiating paranoid from nonparanoid schizophrenics were compared using 97 males from a Veterans Administration hospital. Official hospital diagnosis and behavior ratings were found to be significantly correlated, while self-report correlated with neither of the other two techniques. Implications for research are briefly…

  13. Increased amygdala and parahippocampal gyrus activation in schizophrenic patients with auditory hallucinations : An fMRI study using independent component analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jose Escarti, Maria; de la Iglesia-Vaya, Maria; Marti-Bonmati, Luis; Robles, Montserrat; Carbonell, Jose; Jose Lull, Juan; Garcia-Marti, Gracian; Vicente Manjon, Jose; Jesus Aguilar, Eduardo; Aleman, Andre; Sanjuan, Julio

    Objective: Hallucinations in patients with schizophrenia have strong emotional connotations. Functional neuroimaging techniques have been widely used to study brain activity in patients with schizophrenia with hallucinations or emotional impairments. However, few of these Studies have investigated

  14. Leadership and teamwork in medical emergencies: performance of nursing students and registered nurses in simulated patient scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endacott, Ruth; Bogossian, Fiona E; Cooper, Simon J; Forbes, Helen; Kain, Victoria J; Young, Susan C; Porter, Joanne E

    2015-01-01

    To examine nursing students' and registered nurses' teamwork skills whilst managing simulated deteriorating patients. Studies continue to show the lack of timely recognition of patient deterioration. Management of deteriorating patients can be influenced by education and experience. Mixed methods study conducted in two universities and a rural hospital in Victoria, and one university in Queensland, Australia. Three simulation scenarios (chest pain, hypovolaemic shock and respiratory distress) were completed in teams of three by 97 nursing students and 44 registered nurses, equating to a total of 32 student and 15 registered nurse teams. Data were obtained from (1) Objective Structured Clinical Examination rating to assess performance; (2) Team Emergency Assessment Measure scores to assess teamwork; (3) simulation video footage; (4) reflective interview during participants' review of video footage. Qualitative thematic analysis of video and interview data was undertaken. Objective structured clinical examination performance was similar across registered nurses and students (mean 54% and 49%); however, Team Emergency Assessment Measure scores differed significantly between the two groups (57% vs 38%, t = 6·841, p student teams: r = 0·530, p = 0·004, registered nurse teams r = 0·903, p student teams: r = 0·534, p = 0·02, registered nurse teams: r = 0·535, p = 0·049). Themes generated from the analysis of the combined quantitative and qualitative data were as follows: (1) leadership and followership behaviours; (2) help-seeking behaviours; (3) reliance on previous experience; (4) fixation on a single detail; and (5) team support. There is scope to improve leadership, team work and task management skills for registered nurses and nursing students. Simulation appears to be beneficial in enabling less experienced staff to assess their teamwork skills. There is a need to encourage less experienced staff to become leaders and for all staff to develop improved

  15. THE STUDY "REGISTER OF PATIENTS AFTER ACUTE STROKE (REGION." Part 1. Hospital Prospective Register of Patients after Acute Stroke (According to the Results of the Pilot Phase of the Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Boytsov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the main features of the clinical course of acute cerebrovascular accident (ACVA, its short-term and long-term outcomes and quality of pharmacotherapy based on hospital register. Material and methods. The hospital register of acute stroke (AS was organized in one of the cardiovascular centers in Moscow city. The results of the pilot part of the study are presented (170 patients hospitalized from January 01, 2014 to September 30, 2014 with ACVA living in the service area of one of the closest outpatient clinics. Presence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD and their risk factors (RF, prehospital therapy, short-term complications including death and pharmacotherapy recommended to survived patients were analyzed using hospital medical records. During ambulatory follow-up (prospective part of the register the vital status and pharmacotherapy were assessed. Results. The majority of patients with AS had concomitant CVD (on average 2 per patient and non CVD (on average 1.2 per patient. Data on the risk factors of CVD and their complications were reflected insufficiently in the medical records. Most patients in the prehospital period did not receive adequate treatment for the reduction in the cardiovascular risk. 90 patients survived and were discharged. 1.5-2 years after discharge, information on the vital status was available for 78 (86.7% patients. 61 of them (78.2% were alive and 17 (21.8% died. Conclusion. The pilot part of the REGION register revealed that the majority of patients with AS have concomitant CVD and non-CVD. The overall quality of pharmacotherapy, primary and secondary prevention of ACVA was far from that recommended in clinical guidelines, especially during follow-up in outpatient clinic.

  16. Disordered semantic representation in schizophrenic temporal cortex revealed by neuromagnetic response patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silberman Yaron

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Loosening of associations and thought disruption are key features of schizophrenic psychopathology. Alterations in neural networks underlying this basic abnormality have not yet been sufficiently identified. Previously, we demonstrated that spatio-temporal clustering of magnetic brain responses to pictorial stimuli map categorical representations in temporal cortex. This result has opened the possibility to quantify associative strength within and across semantic categories in schizophrenic patients. We hypothesized that in contrast to controls, schizophrenic patients exhibit disordered representations of semantic categories. Methods The spatio-temporal clusters of brain magnetic activities elicited by object pictures related to super-ordinate (flowers, animals, furniture, clothes and base-level (e.g. tulip, rose, orchid, sunflower categories were analysed in the source space for the time epochs 170–210 and 210–450 ms following stimulus onset and were compared between 10 schizophrenic patients and 10 control subjects. Results Spatio-temporal correlations of responses elicited by base-level concepts and the difference of within vs. across super-ordinate categories were distinctly lower in patients than in controls. Additionally, in contrast to the well-defined categorical representation in control subjects, unsupervised clustering indicated poorly defined representation of semantic categories in patients. Within the patient group, distinctiveness of categorical representation in the temporal cortex was positively related to negative symptoms and tended to be inversely related to positive symptoms. Conclusion Schizophrenic patients show a less organized representation of semantic categories in clusters of magnetic brain responses than healthy adults. This atypical neural network architecture may be a correlate of loosening of associations, promoting positive symptoms.

  17. SU-E-J-11: A New Optical Method to Register Patient External Motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbes, B; Azcona, J; Moreno, M; Prieto, E; Foronda, J; Burguete, J

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To devise and implement a new system to measure and register the patient motion during radiotherapy treatments. Methods: The system can obtain the position of several points in the 3D-space, through their projections in the 2D-images recorded by two cameras. The algorithm needs a series of constants, that are obtained using the images of a calibrated phantom.To test the system, some adhesive labels were placed on the surface of an object. Two cameras recorded the moving object over time. An in-house developed software localized the labels in each image. In the first pair of images, the program used a first approximation given by the user. In the subsequent images, it used the last position as an approximate location. The final exact coordinates of the point were obtained in a two-step process using the contrast of the images. From the 2D-positions of the point in each frame, the 3D-trajectories of each of these marks were obtained.The system was tested with linear displacements, oscillations of a mechanical oscillator, circular trajectories of a rotating disk, and with respiratory motion of a volunteer. Results: Trajectories of several points were reproduced with sub-millimeter accuracy in the three directions of the space. The system was able to follow periodic motion with amplitudes lower than 0.5mm; and trajectories of rotating points at speeds up to 200mm/s. The software could also track accurately the respiration motion of a person. Conclusion: A new, inexpensive optical tracking system for patient motion has been demonstrated. The system detects motion with high accuracy. Installation and calibration of the system is simple and quick. Data collection is not expected to involve any discomfort for the patient, nor any delay for the treatment. The system could be also used as a method of warning for patient movements, and for gating. We acknowledge financial support from Fundacion Mutua Madrilena, Madrid, Spain

  18. SU-E-J-11: A New Optical Method to Register Patient External Motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbes, B; Azcona, J; Moreno, M; Prieto, E [Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona, Navarra (Spain); Foronda, J [Tecnun Universidad de Navarra, San Sabastian (Spain); Burguete, J [Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona, Navarra (Spain)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To devise and implement a new system to measure and register the patient motion during radiotherapy treatments. Methods: The system can obtain the position of several points in the 3D-space, through their projections in the 2D-images recorded by two cameras. The algorithm needs a series of constants, that are obtained using the images of a calibrated phantom.To test the system, some adhesive labels were placed on the surface of an object. Two cameras recorded the moving object over time. An in-house developed software localized the labels in each image. In the first pair of images, the program used a first approximation given by the user. In the subsequent images, it used the last position as an approximate location. The final exact coordinates of the point were obtained in a two-step process using the contrast of the images. From the 2D-positions of the point in each frame, the 3D-trajectories of each of these marks were obtained.The system was tested with linear displacements, oscillations of a mechanical oscillator, circular trajectories of a rotating disk, and with respiratory motion of a volunteer. Results: Trajectories of several points were reproduced with sub-millimeter accuracy in the three directions of the space. The system was able to follow periodic motion with amplitudes lower than 0.5mm; and trajectories of rotating points at speeds up to 200mm/s. The software could also track accurately the respiration motion of a person. Conclusion: A new, inexpensive optical tracking system for patient motion has been demonstrated. The system detects motion with high accuracy. Installation and calibration of the system is simple and quick. Data collection is not expected to involve any discomfort for the patient, nor any delay for the treatment. The system could be also used as a method of warning for patient movements, and for gating. We acknowledge financial support from Fundacion Mutua Madrilena, Madrid, Spain.

  19. Schizotypal personality disorder inside and outside the schizophrenic spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgersen, Svenn; Edvardsen, J; Øien, P A; Onstad, S; Skre, I; Lygren, S; Kringlen, E

    2002-03-01

    The concept of schizotypal personality disorder has been heavily discussed since its introduction into the official classification of mental disorders in DSM-III. The aim of this study was to investigate the difference between schizotypal personality disorder within and outside the genetic spectrum of schizophrenia. Schizotypals with and without schizophrenic cotwins and first-degree relatives were compared, with individuals with other mental disorders and no mental disorders as controls. It appeared that only inadequate rapport and odd communication were more pronounced among schizotypals within, compared to schizotypals outside the schizophrenic spectrum. Schizotypals outside the schizophrenic spectrum, however, scored higher than schizotypals inside the schizophrenic spectrum on ideas of reference, suspiciousness, paranoia, social anxiety, self-damaging acts, chronic anger, free-floating anxiety and sensitivity to rejection. Interestingly, the four last features are seldom observed among schizotypals inside the schizophrenic spectrum. Monozygotic non-schizophrenic cotwins of schizophrenics score high on inadequate rapport, odd communication, social isolation and delusions/hallucinations. Monozygotic non-schizophrenic cotwins of schizotypals outside the schizophrenic genetic spectrum score high on illusions, depersonalization, derealization and magical thinking. Negative schizotypal features appear to be inside the schizophrenic spectrum, while positive borderline-like features are outside having another genetic endowment.

  20. Accuracy and Coverage of Diagnosis and Procedural Coding of Severely Injured Patients in the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register: Comparison to Patient Files and the Helsinki Trauma Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinänen, M; Brinck, T; Handolin, L; Mattila, V M; Söderlund, T

    2017-09-01

    The Finnish Hospital Discharge Register data are frequently used for research purposes. The Finnish Hospital Discharge Register has shown excellent validity in single injuries or disease groups, but no studies have assessed patients with multiple trauma diagnoses. We aimed to evaluate the accuracy and coverage of the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register but at the same time validate the data of the trauma registry of the Helsinki University Hospital's Trauma Unit. We assessed the accuracy and coverage of the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register data by comparing them to the original patient files and trauma registry files from the trauma registry of the Helsinki University Hospital's Trauma Unit. We identified a baseline cohort of patients with severe thorax injury from the trauma registry of the Helsinki University Hospital's Trauma Unit of 2013 (sample of 107 patients). We hypothesized that the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register would lack valuable information about these patients. Using patient files, we identified 965 trauma diagnoses in these 107 patients. From the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register, we identified 632 (65.5%) diagnoses and from the trauma registry of the Helsinki University Hospital's Trauma Unit, 924 (95.8%) diagnoses. A total of 170 (17.6%) trauma diagnoses were missing from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register data and 41 (4.2%) from the trauma registry of the Helsinki University Hospital's Trauma Unit data. The coverage and accuracy of diagnoses in the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register were 65.5% (95% confidence interval: 62.5%-68.5%) and 73.8% (95% confidence interval: 70.4%-77.2%), respectively, and for the trauma registry of the Helsinki University Hospital's Trauma Unit, 95.8% (95% confidence interval: 94.5%-97.0%) and 97.6% (95% confidence interval: 96.7%-98.6%), respectively. According to patient records, these patients were subjects in 249 operations. We identified 40 (16.1%) missing operation codes from the Finnish Hospital

  1. Perioperative mortality in hip fracture patients treated with cemented and uncemented hemiprosthesis: a register study of 11,210 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talsnes, Ove; Vinje, Tarjei; Gjertsen, Jan Erik; Dahl, Ola E; Engesæter, Lars B; Baste, Valborg; Pripp, Are Hugo; Reikerås, Olav

    2013-06-01

    Adverse events associated with the use of bone cement for fixation of prostheses is a known complication. Due to inconclusive results in studies of hip fracture patients treated with cemented and uncemented hemiprostheses, this study was initiated. Our study is based on data reported to the Norwegian Hip Fracture Register on 11,210 cervical hip fractures treated with hemiprostheses (8,674 cemented and 2,536 uncemented). Significantly increased mortality within the first day of surgery was found in the cemented group (relative risk 2.9, 95 % confidence interval 1.6-5.1, p=0.001). The finding was robust giving the same results after adjusting for independent risk factors such as age, sex, cognitive impairment and comorbidity [American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score]. For the first post-operative day the number needed to harm was 116 (one death for every 116 cemented prosthesis). However, in the most comorbid group (ASA worse than 3), the number needed to harm was only 33. We found increased mortality for the cemented hemiprosthesis the first post-operative day compared to uncemented procedures. This increased risk is closely related to patient comorbidity estimated by the patient's ASA score.

  2. [Associations between stigma perception and stigma coping behavior and quality of life in schizophrenic patients treated at a community rehabilitation center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chiu-Jung; Chiou, Jeng-Yuan; Yen, Wen-Jiuan; Su, Hui-Chen; Hsiao, Chiu-Yueh

    2012-08-01

    Quality of life (QOL) is a critical issue in mental health care. The associations between quality of life and schizophrenia patients' stigma perception and stigma coping behavior are not well understood. This study investigated quality of life in schizophrenia patients. We used a cross-sectional, correlational research design; enrolled 119 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia as participants; and used instruments including a demographics datasheet, perceived stigma scale, stigma coping behavior scale, and the World Health Organization quality of life scale, brief version to collect data. Data were analyzed using SPSS 12.0 for Windows software. (1) Participants had an average QOL index score of 62.40, indicating moderate quality of life; (2) Long working hours, holding rehabilitation-related employment, and receiving social welfare support correlated with lower QOL; (3) Marital issues had the greatest impact on quality of life, with participants who chose secrecy ÷ concealment reporting generally better QOL; (4) Social welfare support, number of working hours, stigma perception, stigma coping, level of job satisfaction, and level of salary satisfaction together accounted for 48.8% of total QOL variance. Findings increase our understanding of the influence of socio-demographics, stigma perception, and stigma coping behavior on quality of life in individuals with schizophrenia. Greater community involvement in schizophrenia treatment programs can enhance patient satisfaction with their jobs and lives.

  3. Positron CT findings of chronic schizophrenics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyoda, Junzo; Miyazaki, Chihiro; Sugai, Yuichi; Iio, Masaaki.

    1983-01-01

    Positron CT images of 15 chronic schizophrenics (2 females and 13 males) were examined in contrast to 5 male controls. Average age of controls was 36 years and that of schizophrenics was 42 years. Schizophrenic cases were ill over 6 years, averaging 17 years. All were under antipsychotic drug therapy. Tracer compounds were 11 C-CO2 and 11 C-glucose photosynthesised, the former being inhalated once just before and the latter being administered orally 10-15 minutes before examinations. On positron CT images of all normal controls, hyper-radioactivities in frontal regions were observed. Some asymmetries of activities were observed but not remarkable. There wes no difference between the images with 11 C-CO2 and those with 11 C-glucose. In schizophrenic cases, (1) 7 out of 15 cases showed hypo-activities in the frontal regions both with 11 C-CO2 and 11 C-glucose. (2) With 11 C-glucose, relative activities in the brain were lower than those in the soft tissues around the scalp, suggesting the lowered selective uptake of 11 C-glucose by the brain. (3) With 11 C-CO 2, 4 cases showed higher activities in the right temporal regions and their subcortex than the left. By consideration of relationships between these positron CT findings and clinical data such as present age, age of onset of illness, duration of illness, psychiatric symptoms, present drug amount, summed drug amount from administration, EEG and X-ray CT findings, significant correlation was recognized only between low frontal radioactivities and apathy-abulia as main symptom. Limitation on the explanation of the findings with the image alone was discussed. (author)

  4. The therapeutic relationship in the care given to a schizophrenic: narratives of a field diary - doi:10.5020/18061230.2007.p116

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Flávio Moura de Araújo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The schizophrenia is a chronic psychosis with serious social and functional consequences, demanding multiples ways of care in its treatment. This research aimed at describing the evolution of a patient taken ill with paranoid schizophrenia, by means of the adoption of the Therapeutic Relationship process, as a modality of nursing psychiatric care, registered in a field diary as narratives of life experiences, during ten meeting days in one psychiatric service of Fortaleza. It was perceived that the application of the Therapeutic Relationship, gradually, enabled to the studied client the confrontation of personal conflicts (complicated family dynamics, rejection and depression and the satisfaction of basic needs such as the communication and group interaction. Therein, the Therapeutic Relationship is considered a primordial care technique in the reintegration and reorganization of the schizophrenic client, as well as in the search of a better quality of life.

  5. Socioeconomic impact of TB on patients registered within RNTCP and their families in the year 2007 in Chennai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthakrishnan, Ramya; Jeyaraj, Anita; Palani, Gopal; Sathiyasekaran, B W C

    2012-07-01

    Tuberculosis patients are registered in government clinics under Directly Observed Treatment Short-course (DOTS) program in Chennai city catering to 4.34 million population. With the entire country geographically covered under the DOTS program, research into socioeconomic impact of TB on patients and their households is crucial for providing comprehensive patient-friendly TB services and to document the benefits of DOTS. To assess the social and economic impact of TB on patients registered under DOTS program and their families. A cross-sectional study of 300 TB patients was done using a pre-coded semi-quantitative questionnaire between March and June 2007 in all the Tuberculosis Units (TUs) of Chennai city. Social and economic impact was perceived by 69.0% and 30.3% patients, respectively. About 24.3% suffered from both social and economic impact, while 75% patients suffered from any one form of impact. Social impact was perceived by more female patients as compared to males (80.7% vs. 62%; P impact (P impact of TB is still perceived by two-thirds of the patients (69%). Elimination or reduction of social stressors with specific, focused, and intense social support services, awareness generation, and counseling to patients and families need to be built into the program.

  6. Registered Nurses' Perceptions about the Situation of Family Caregivers to Patients with Heart Failure - A Focus Group Interview Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelie K Gusdal

    Full Text Available Heart failure is a growing public health problem associated with poor quality of life and significant morbidity and mortality. The majority of heart failure care is provided by family caregivers, and is associated with caregiver burden and reduced quality of life. Research emphasizes that future nursing interventions should recognize the importance of involving family caregivers to achieve optimal outcomes.The aims of this study are to explore registered nurses' perceptions about the situation of family caregivers to patients with heart failure, and registered nurses' interventions, in order to improve family caregivers' situation.The study has a qualitative design with an inductive approach. Six focus group interviews were held with 23 registered nurses in three hospitals and three primary health care centres. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis.Two content areas were identified by the a priori study aims. Four categories and nine sub-categories emerged in the analysis process. The content area "Family caregivers' situation" includes two categories: "To be unburdened" and "To comprehend the heart failure condition and its consequences". The content area "Interventions to improve family caregivers' situation" includes two categories: "Individualized support and information" and "Bridging contact".Registered nurses perceive family caregivers' situation as burdensome, characterized by worry and uncertainty. In the PHCCs, the continuity and security of an RN as a permanent health care contact was considered an important and sustainable intervention to better care for family caregivers' worry and uncertainty. In the nurse-led heart failure clinics in hospitals, registered nurses can provide family caregivers with the opportunity of involvement in their relative's health care and address congruence and relationship quality within the family through the use of "Shared care" and or Family-centred care. Registered nurses consider it

  7. Registered Nurses' Perceptions about the Situation of Family Caregivers to Patients with Heart Failure - A Focus Group Interview Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusdal, Annelie K; Josefsson, Karin; Thors Adolfsson, Eva; Martin, Lene

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure is a growing public health problem associated with poor quality of life and significant morbidity and mortality. The majority of heart failure care is provided by family caregivers, and is associated with caregiver burden and reduced quality of life. Research emphasizes that future nursing interventions should recognize the importance of involving family caregivers to achieve optimal outcomes. The aims of this study are to explore registered nurses' perceptions about the situation of family caregivers to patients with heart failure, and registered nurses' interventions, in order to improve family caregivers' situation. The study has a qualitative design with an inductive approach. Six focus group interviews were held with 23 registered nurses in three hospitals and three primary health care centres. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Two content areas were identified by the a priori study aims. Four categories and nine sub-categories emerged in the analysis process. The content area "Family caregivers' situation" includes two categories: "To be unburdened" and "To comprehend the heart failure condition and its consequences". The content area "Interventions to improve family caregivers' situation" includes two categories: "Individualized support and information" and "Bridging contact". Registered nurses perceive family caregivers' situation as burdensome, characterized by worry and uncertainty. In the PHCCs, the continuity and security of an RN as a permanent health care contact was considered an important and sustainable intervention to better care for family caregivers' worry and uncertainty. In the nurse-led heart failure clinics in hospitals, registered nurses can provide family caregivers with the opportunity of involvement in their relative's health care and address congruence and relationship quality within the family through the use of "Shared care" and or Family-centred care. Registered nurses consider it necessary to have

  8. Registered Nurses’ Perceptions about the Situation of Family Caregivers to Patients with Heart Failure - A Focus Group Interview Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Heart failure is a growing public health problem associated with poor quality of life and significant morbidity and mortality. The majority of heart failure care is provided by family caregivers, and is associated with caregiver burden and reduced quality of life. Research emphasizes that future nursing interventions should recognize the importance of involving family caregivers to achieve optimal outcomes. Aims The aims of this study are to explore registered nurses’ perceptions about the situation of family caregivers to patients with heart failure, and registered nurses’ interventions, in order to improve family caregivers’ situation. Methods The study has a qualitative design with an inductive approach. Six focus group interviews were held with 23 registered nurses in three hospitals and three primary health care centres. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results Two content areas were identified by the a priori study aims. Four categories and nine sub-categories emerged in the analysis process. The content area “Family caregivers' situation” includes two categories: “To be unburdened” and “To comprehend the heart failure condition and its consequences”. The content area “Interventions to improve family caregivers' situation” includes two categories: “Individualized support and information” and “Bridging contact”. Conclusions Registered nurses perceive family caregivers' situation as burdensome, characterized by worry and uncertainty. In the PHCCs, the continuity and security of an RN as a permanent health care contact was considered an important and sustainable intervention to better care for family caregivers' worry and uncertainty. In the nurse-led heart failure clinics in hospitals, registered nurses can provide family caregivers with the opportunity of involvement in their relative's health care and address congruence and relationship quality within the family through the use of "Shared care

  9. The impact of the Danish Oxygen Register on adherence to guidelines for long-term oxygen therapy in COPD patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringbæk, Thomas Jørgen; Lange, Peter

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of The Danish Oxygen Register on COPD patients' treatment modalities, survival, and adherence to guidelines for long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT). DESIGN: The Danish Oxygen Register. SUBJECTS: 8487 COPD patients who received LTOT in the study period from November 1...... with the possibility of re-evaluation of the criteria for LTOT and adjustment for oxygen flow, with no change during the study period (P=0.43). In a representative subsample, 77.1% had smoking habits or measurement of CO-level registered in 1995 compared to 79.6% in year 2000 (P=0.65), and 25.1% vs. 21.2% (P=0.......34) were considered current smokers. The median survival increased from 1.07 to 1.40 years (P=0.032). CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to guidelines for LTOT has improved concerning administration of oxygen, but has remained poor concerning follow-up of the patients and smoking cessation. Survival of COPD patients...

  10. In vivo effects of olanzapine on striatal dopamine D[sub 2]/D[sub 3] receptor binding in schizophrenic patients: an iodine-123 iodobenzamide single-photon emission tomography study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, S.; Rossmueller, B.; Hahn, K.; Tatsch, K. (Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Munich (Germany)); Mager, T.; Meisenzahl, E.; Moeller, H.J. (Department of Psychiatry, University of Munich (Germany))

    1999-08-01

    Olanzapine is a new atypical antipsychotic agent that belongs to the same chemical class as clozapine. The pharmacological efficacy of olanzapine (in contrast to that of risperidone) has been shown to be comparable to that of clozapine, but olanzapine has the advantage of producing a less pronounced bone marrow depressing effect than clozapine. The specific aims of this study were (a) to assess dopamine D[sub 2]/D[sub 3] receptor availability in patients treated with olanzapine by means of iodine-123 iodobenzamide [[sup 123]I]IBZM single-photon emission tomography (SPET), (b) to compare the results with findings of [[sup 123]I]IBZM SPET in patients under treatment with risperidone and (c) to correlate the results with the occurrance of extrapyramidal side-effects (EPMS). Brain SPET scans were performed in 20 schizophrenic patients (DSM III R) at 2 h after i.v. administration of 185 MBq [[sup 123]I]IBZM. Images were acquired using a triple-head gamma camera (Picker Prism 3000 XP). For semiquantitative evaluation of D[sub 2]/D[sub 3] receptor binding, transverse slices corrected for attenuation were used to calculate specific uptake values [STR-BKG]/BKG (STR=striatum; BKG=background). The mean daily dose of olanzapine ranged from 0.05 to 0.6 mg/kg body weight. The dopamine D[sub 2]/D[sub 3] receptor binding was reduced in all patients treated with olanzapine. Specific IBZM binding [STR-BKG]/BKG ranged from 0.13 to 0.61 (normal controls >0.95). The decreased D[sub 2]/D[sub 3] receptor availability revealed an exponential dose-response relationship (r=-0.85, P<0.001). The slope of the curve was similar to that of risperidone and considerably higher than that of clozapine as compared with the results of a previously published study. EPMS were observed in only one patient, presenting with the lowest D[sub 2]/D[sub 3] availability. The frequency of EPMS induced by olanzapine (5%) was considerably lower than the frequency under risperidone treatment (40%). Our findings

  11. In vivo effects of olanzapine on striatal dopamine D{sub 2}/D{sub 3} receptor binding in schizophrenic patients: an iodine-123 iodobenzamide single-photon emission tomography study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, S.; Rossmueller, B.; Hahn, K.; Tatsch, K. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Munich (Germany); Mager, T.; Meisenzahl, E.; Moeller, H.J. [Department of Psychiatry, University of Munich (Germany)

    1999-08-01

    Olanzapine is a new atypical antipsychotic agent that belongs to the same chemical class as clozapine. The pharmacological efficacy of olanzapine (in contrast to that of risperidone) has been shown to be comparable to that of clozapine, but olanzapine has the advantage of producing a less pronounced bone marrow depressing effect than clozapine. The specific aims of this study were (a) to assess dopamine D{sub 2}/D{sub 3} receptor availability in patients treated with olanzapine by means of iodine-123 iodobenzamide [{sup 123}I]IBZM single-photon emission tomography (SPET), (b) to compare the results with findings of [{sup 123}I]IBZM SPET in patients under treatment with risperidone and (c) to correlate the results with the occurrance of extrapyramidal side-effects (EPMS). Brain SPET scans were performed in 20 schizophrenic patients (DSM III R) at 2 h after i.v. administration of 185 MBq [{sup 123}I]IBZM. Images were acquired using a triple-head gamma camera (Picker Prism 3000 XP). For semiquantitative evaluation of D{sub 2}/D{sub 3} receptor binding, transverse slices corrected for attenuation were used to calculate specific uptake values [STR-BKG]/BKG (STR=striatum; BKG=background). The mean daily dose of olanzapine ranged from 0.05 to 0.6 mg/kg body weight. The dopamine D{sub 2}/D{sub 3} receptor binding was reduced in all patients treated with olanzapine. Specific IBZM binding [STR-BKG]/BKG ranged from 0.13 to 0.61 (normal controls >0.95). The decreased D{sub 2}/D{sub 3} receptor availability revealed an exponential dose-response relationship (r=-0.85, P<0.001). The slope of the curve was similar to that of risperidone and considerably higher than that of clozapine as compared with the results of a previously published study. EPMS were observed in only one patient, presenting with the lowest D{sub 2}/D{sub 3} availability. The frequency of EPMS induced by olanzapine (5%) was considerably lower than the frequency under risperidone treatment (40%). Our findings

  12. Altered relationships between rCBF in different brain regions of never-treated schizophrenics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabri, O.; Schreckenberger, M.; Cremerius, U.; Dickmann, C.; Schulz, G.; Zimny, M.; Buell, U.; Erkwoh, R.; Owega, A.; Sass, H.

    1997-01-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate the relations between regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) of different brain regions in acute schizophrenia and following neuroleptic treatment. Methods: Twenty-two never-treated, acute schizophrenic patients were examined with HMPAO brain SPECT and assessed psychopathologically, and reexamined following neuroleptic treatment (over 96.8 days) and psychopathological remission. rCBF was determined by region/cerebellar count quotients obtained from 98 irregular regions of interest (ROIs), summed up to 11 ROIs on each hemisphere. In acute schizophrenics, interregional rCBF correlations of each ROI to every other ROI were compared to the interregional correlations following neuroleptic treatment and to those of controls. Results: All significant correlations of rCBF ratios of different brain regions were exclusively positive in controls and patients. In controls, all ROIs of one hemisphere except the mesial temporal ROI correlated significantly to its contralateral ROI. Each hemisphere showed significant frontal-temporal correlations, as well as cortical-subcortical and some cortico-limbic. In contrast, in acute schizophrenics nearly every ROI correlated significantly with every other ROI, without a grouping or relation of the rCBF of certain ROIs as in controls. After neuroleptic treatment and clinical improvement, this diffuse pattern of correlations remained. Conclusions: These results indicate differences in the neuronal interplay between regions in schizophrenic and healthy subjects. In nevertreated schizophrenics, diffuse interregional rCBF correlations can be seen as a sign of change and dysfunction of the systems regulating specificity and diversity of the neuronal functions. Neuroleptic therapy and psychopathologic remission showed no normalizing effect on interregional correlations. (orig.) [de

  13. Associations between patients' risk attitude and their adherence to statin treatment - a population based questionnaire and register study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfoed, Benedicte Marie Lind; Paulsen, Maja Skov; Christensen, Palle Mark

    2016-01-01

    the risk-averse patients, OR 0.80 (95 %-CI 0.68-0.95) and OR 0.83 (95 %-CI 0.71-0.98), respectively. No significant association was found between adherence and financial risk attitude. Further, patients in the youngest age group and patients with no CVD were less adherent to statin treatment. CONCLUSION......: We find some indication that risk attitude is associated with adherence to statin treatment, and that risk-neutral and risk-seeking patients may have poorer adherence than risk-averse patients. This is important for clinicians to consider when discussing optimal treatment decisions...... on the association between risk attitude and adherence. The aim of the present study was to estimate associations between patients' adherence to statin treatment and different dimensions of risk attitude, and to identify subgroups of patients with poor adherence. METHODS: Population-based questionnaire and register...

  14. THE ANALYSIS OF LONG-TERM OUTCOMES AND ADHERENT TO TREATMENT IN PATIENTS AFTER MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION: KHABAROVSK REGISTER DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Davidovich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the long-term outcomes and medical treatment in patients during 2.5 years after reference acute myocardial infarction (AMI, to study adherent to medical treatment and the role of various factors affecting the long-term prognosis.Materials and methods. The AMI Register included data about all patients, whom are consistently hospitalized in the regional vascular center (RVC of Khabarovsk during the period from 01.01.14 till 31.03.14. The 2.5 years outcomes and adherence to treatment were evaluated by using phone interview.Results. According to prospective part of the AMI Register of 292 patients discharged from the regional vascular center (RVC, the vital status in 2.5 years managed to be established at 274 (93.8 % from which died 45 (16.42 %, or 15.40 % from all discharged patients. In structure of a mortality the proportion of dead from cardiovascular disease (СVD patients made 86.6 %. The long-term mortality of patients with myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation was 19.3 %, the myocardial infarction non-ST-segment elevation – 13.2 %; р = 0.632.The new predictors of death 2.5 years after the onset of AMI were cerebrovascular diseases, the absence of the antihypertensive drugs and β-blockers before reference AMI, not prescribing antiplatelet drugs in loading doses in the early hours of the disease. Frequency of real reception of statins was 65.1 %, angiotensin-renin blockers –76.0  %, β-blocker – 73.8 % of patients after AMI. Only 55.9 % patients Received double antithrombocytic therapy (DATT  during a year. By  the Moriscors–Green test adherent were only 109 (47.6 %. 79 (34.5 % know their values cholesterol, blood pressure and blood glucose.Conclusions. Indicators of the remote lethality among patients authentically didn’t differ with a myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation in AMI and a myocardial infarction non-ST-segment elevation in AMI in the remote period. The register AMI taped

  15. Socioeconomic impact of TB on patients registered within RNTCP and their families in the year 2007 in Chennai, India

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    Ramya Ananthakrishnan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tuberculosis patients are registered in government clinics under Directly Observed Treatment Short-course (DOTS program in Chennai city catering to 4.34 million population. With the entire country geographically covered under the DOTS program, research into socioeconomic impact of TB on patients and their households is crucial for providing comprehensive patient-friendly TB services and to document the benefits of DOTS. Objective: To assess the social and economic impact of TB on patients registered under DOTS program and their families. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 300 TB patients was done using a pre-coded semi-quantitative questionnaire between March and June 2007 in all the Tuberculosis Units (TUs of Chennai city. Results: Social and economic impact was perceived by 69.0% and 30.3% patients, respectively. About 24.3% suffered from both social and economic impact, while 75% patients suffered from any one form of impact. Social impact was perceived by more female patients as compared to males (80.7% vs. 62%; P < 0.001. More patients with extra-pulmonary disease (44.4% and patients belonging to joint families (40.7% perceived economic impact (P < 0.05. Conclusion: After 8 years of DOTS implementation, the present study has shown that with the availability of DOTS, percentage of patients who mortgaged assets or took loans has reduced. Social impact of TB is still perceived by two-thirds of the patients (69%. Elimination or reduction of social stressors with specific, focused, and intense social support services, awareness generation, and counseling to patients and families need to be built into the program.

  16. Das sprachliche Register (Speech Registers)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess-Luttich, Ernest W. B.

    1974-01-01

    The linguistic behavior of a given individual varies; he will on different occasions speak (or write) differently according to what may be roughly described as different social situations: he will use a number of different registers. The application of such registers both in the field of text analysis and in the preparation of teaching materials…

  17. Biobehavioral Risk Factors in Children of Schizophrenic Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlenmeyer-Kimling, L.; Cornblatt, Barbara

    1984-01-01

    Research on risk factors for schizophrenia is reviewed with emphasis on children of schizophrenic parents. Four areas of biobehavioral functioning that have been examined in high-risk research are discussed. Three of these are considered compatible with hypothesis neurointegrative defect underlying schizophrenic-proneness. (Author/CL)

  18. SOCIOPATHS AND SCHIZOPHRENICS - A COMPARISON OF FAMILY INTERACTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matched groups of sociopaths and schizophrenics were compared in a military psychiatric hospital. Striking differences in patterns of family...pathological concern. The parents of sociopaths showed conspicuous disinterest, characterized by unconcern or rejection. The parents of...schizophrenics wrote more, visited more, and traveled greater distances than did parents of sociopaths .

  19. Arthroplasty register for Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagen, Anja

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Scientific background: The annual number of joint replacement operations in Germany is high. The introduction of an arthroplasty register promises an important contribution to the improvement of the quality of patient’s care. Research questions: The presented report addresses the questions on organization and functioning, benefits and cost-benefits as well as on legal, ethical and social aspects of the arthroplasty registers. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted in September 2008 in the medical databases MEDLINE, EMBASE etc. and was complemented with a hand search. Documents describing arthroplasty registers and/or their relevance as well as papers on legal, ethical and social aspects of such registers were included in the evaluation. The most important information was extracted and analysed. Results: Data concerning 30 arthroplasty registers in 19 countries as well as one international arthroplasty register were identified. Most of the arthroplasty registers are maintained by national orthopedic societies, others by health authorities or by their cooperation. Mostly, registries are financially supported by governments and rarely by other sources.The participation of the orthopedists in the data collection process of the arthroplasty registry is voluntary in most countries. The consent of the patients is usually required. The unique patient identification is ensured in nearly all registers.Each data set consists of patient and clinic identification numbers, data on diagnosis, the performed intervention, the operation date and implanted prostheses. The use of clinical scores, patient-reported questionnaires and radiological documentation is rare. Methods for data documentation and transfer are paper form, electronic entry as well as scanning of the data using bar codes. The data are mostly being checked for their completeness and validity. Most registers offer results of the data evaluation to the treating orthopedists and

  20. Qualidade de vida de familiares cuidadores do doente esquizofrênico Calidad de vida de familiares que cuidan de pacientes esquisofrenicos Life quality of family caregivers of schizophrenic patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Borges Teixeira

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se verificar o conceito de qualidade de vida (QV de familiares cuidadores de pacientes esquizofrênicos e identificar fatores que interferem em sua qualidade de vidas. Para tanto, foi realizada uma pesquisa exploratório-descritiva, transversal, de campo com 52 familiares cuidadores que residiam com o paciente. Concluiu-se que os familiares definiram qualidade de vida como: "ter saúde, poder trabalhar e sustentar a família" (35; "ter saúde"(9; "ter saúde, ter bons hospitais e morar em um bairro melhor"(3; "ter saúde e continuar tratando deles" (2; "ter saúde e casa própria" (2;"ter dinheiro para tratar melhor dele"(1. Entre os fatores que interferiram em suas vidas o "deixar de ir a igreja"; "não sair com amigos"; "deixar de trabalhar " e "não ter mais tempo para si mesmo" foram os que sobressaíram.Se apuntó a verificar el concepto de calidad de vida (CV de familiares que cuidam de pacientes esquisofrenicos y identificar factores que interfieren en su calidad de vida. Así, una investigación exploratorio-descriptiva y transversal fue cumplida con 52 de conserjes familiares que moram con el paciente. Se concluye que los parientes definieron la calidad de vida como: "tener la salud, trabajar y sostener a la familia" (35; "tener la salud (9; "tener la salud, tener buenos hospitales y vivir en un barrio bueno" (3; "tener la salud y continuar cuidan de ellos" (2; "tener salud y casa propia" (2; "tener el dinero para tratar bien de él" (1. Entre los factores que interfirieron en sus vidas "no ir a la iglesia"; "no salir con los amigos"; "no salir para trabajar" y "no tener más tiempo por su cuidado" fueran los más evidentes.It was aimed to verify the concept of life quality (LQ of family caregivers of schizophrenic patient bearers and to identify the factors that interfere in their quality lives. For that an exploratory-descriptive, and traverse research was accomplished with 52 family caregivers that live with the patient. It

  1. Treatment-seeking patients with binge-eating disorder in the Swedish national registers: clinical course and psychiatric comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Elisabeth; Jangmo, Andreas; Thornton, Laura M; Norring, Claes; von Hausswolff-Juhlin, Yvonne; Herman, Barry K; Pawaskar, Manjiri; Larsson, Henrik; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2016-05-26

    We linked extensive longitudinal data from the Swedish national eating disorders quality registers and patient registers to explore clinical characteristics at diagnosis, diagnostic flux, psychiatric comorbidity, and suicide attempts in 850 individuals diagnosed with binge-eating disorder (BED). Cases were all individuals who met criteria for BED in the quality registers (N = 850). We identified 10 controls for each identified case from the Multi-Generation Register matched on sex, and year, month, and county of birth. We evaluated characteristics of individuals with BED at evaluation and explored diagnostic flux across eating disorders presentations between evaluation and one-year follow-up. We applied conditional logistic regression models to assess the association of BED with each comorbid psychiatric disorder and with suicide attempts and explored whether risk for depression and suicide were differentially elevated in individuals with BED with or without comorbid obesity. BED shows considerable diagnostic flux with other eating disorders over time, carries high psychiatric comorbidity burden with other eating disorders (OR 85.8; 95 % CI: 61.6, 119.4), major depressive disorder (OR 7.6; 95 % CI: 6.2, 9.3), bipolar disorder (OR 7.5; 95 % CI: 4.8, 11.9), anxiety disorders (OR 5.2; 95 % CI: 4.2, 6.4), and post-traumatic stress disorder (OR 4.3; 95 % CI: 3.2, 5.7) and is associated with elevated risk for suicide attempts (OR 1.8; 95 % CI: 1.2, 2.7). Depression and suicide attempt risk were elevated in individuals with BED with and without comorbid obesity. Considerable flux occurs across BED and other eating disorder diagnoses. The high psychiatric comorbidity and suicide risk underscore the severity and clinical complexity of BED.

  2. Characteristics, therapy and outcome in an unselected and prospectively registered cohort of pancreatic cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, J K; Mortensen, Michael Bau; Schønnemann, K R

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is associated with a dismal prognosis. Few studies have examined characteristics and outcome in an unselected population-based cohort of PC patients. Therefore, we investigated patient baseline characteristics, therapy choices and survival in a complete cohort of patients...

  3. Positive predictive value of diagnosis coding for hemolytic anemias in the Danish National Patient Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Dennis Lund; Overgaard, Ulrik Malthe; Pedersen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    . Patients with mechanical reason for hemolysis such as an artificial heart valve, and patients with vitamin-B12 or folic acid deficiency were excluded. RESULTS: We identified 412 eligible patients: 249 with a congenital hemolytic anemia diagnosis and 163 with acquired hemolytic anemia diagnosis. In all...

  4. Phase II study of capecitabine (Xeloda (registered) ) and concomitant boost radiotherapy in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, Sunil; Janjan, Nora A.; Skibber, John M.; Rodriguez-Bigas, Miguel A.; Wolff, Robert A.; Das, Prajnan; Delclos, Marc E.; Chang, George J.; Hoff, Paulo M.; Eng, Cathy; Brown, Thomas D.; Crane, Christopher H.; Feig, Barry W.; Morris, Jeffrey; Vadhan-Raj, Saroj; Hamilton, Stanley R.; Lin, Edward H.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of capecitabine (Xeloda (registered) ), an oral fluoropyrimidine, as a radiosensitizer in the neoadjuvant treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Methods and Materials: We conducted a phase II study of capecitabine (825 mg/m 2 orally, twice daily continuous) with radiotherapy (52.5 Gy/30 fractions to the primary tumor and perirectal nodes) in 54 patients with LARC (node-negative ≥T3 or any node-positive tumor) staged by endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). The primary endpoint was pathologic response rate; secondary endpoints included toxicity profiles and survival parameters. Results: Of the 54 patients (median age, 56.7 years; range, 21.3-78.7 years; male:female ratio, 1.7; Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0-1: 100%), 51 patients (94%) had T3N0 or T3N1 disease by EUS. Surgery was not performed in 3 patients; 2 of these patients had metastatic disease, and the third patient refused after a complete clinical response. Of the 51 patients evaluable for pathologic response, 9 patients (18%) achieved complete response, and 12 patients (24%) had microscopic residual disease (<10% viable cells). In addition, 26 patients of all 54 patients (51%) achieved T-downstaging, and 15 patients of 29 patients (52%) achieved N-downstaging. Grade 3/4 toxicities were radiation dermatitis (9%) and diarrhea (2%). Sphincter preservation rate for tumor ≤5 cm from the anal verge was 67% (18/27). Conclusion: This regimen of radiotherapy plus capecitabine is well tolerated and is more convenient than protracted venous infusion of 5-FU. The pathologic response rate is comparable to our previous experience using protracted venous infusion 5-FU for LARC

  5. Validation of celiac disease diagnoses recorded in the Danish National Patient Register using duodenal biopsies, celiac disease-specific antibodies, and human leukocyte-antigen genotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dydensborg Sander, Stine; Størdal, Ketil; Plato Hansen, Tine

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to validate the celiac disease diagnoses recorded in the Danish National Patient Register. To validate the diagnoses, we used information on duodenal biopsies from a national register of pathology reports (the Patobank) and information on celiac disease......-specific antibodies and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotypes obtained from patient medical records. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We included all the children who were born from 1995 to 2012 and who were registered as having celiac disease in the Danish National Patient Register. We reviewed all the pathology reports...... on duodenal biopsies in the Patobank and the information in the medical records on celiac disease-specific antibodies (ie, anti-tissue transglutaminase 2 IgA and IgG, endomysial antibodies IgA, and anti-deamidated gliadin peptide IgG) and HLA genotypes. RESULTS: We identified 2,247 children who were...

  6. Fractures in Patients with Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, and Other Eating Disorders - A Nationwide Register Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, P.; Emborg, C.; Støving, R.K.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study fracture risk in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), or eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS). METHOD: Cohort study including all Danes diagnosed with AN (n = 2,149), BN (n = 1,294), or EDNOS (n = 942) between 1977 and 1998. Each patient...

  7. The experiences of chronically ill patients and registered nurses when they negotiate patient care in hospital settings: a feminist poststructural approach: A qualitative study that explores negotiation of patient care between patients and chronically ill patients in hospital settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griscti, Odette; Aston, Megan; Martin-Misener, Ruth; Mcleod, Deborah; Warner, Grace

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the experiences of chronically ill patients and registered nurse in negotiating patient care in hospital. Specifically, we explored how social and institutional discourses shaped power relations and negotiation of patient care. Current literature indicates that although nurses embrace this notion, such partnerships are not easily implemented. Most existing studies focus on the role of the nurse as the leader of the partnership with little attention paid to how social and institutional values, beliefs and practices shape nurse/patient power relations; or how these relationships are negotiated between nurses and patients. The theoretical and methodological approaches used in this study are based on the precepts of Foucault and feminist poststructural theorists. In depth interviews were conducted with eight chronically ill patients and 10 registered nurses. Both nurses and patients commented about the relationships that develop between nurses and chronically ill patients and how these relationships facilitate negotiation of patient care. Both parties described challenging moments and how institutional discourses may hinder positive negotiations of care. In this paper we highlight three themes that emerged: getting to know each other, they are not the sickest patients and finding time to listen. This study offers an innovative way of unpacking negotiation of care between chronically ill patients and registered nurses. It exposes how social and institutional discourses play a pivotal role in shaping negotiations between nurses and chronically ill patients. Negotiating care with chronically ill patients is not as asymmetric as portrayed in some of the literature and tends to be based on mutual agreements between nurses and patients. Nurses make it a point to listen to patients' needs and resist institutional discourses that preclude them from spending time with patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Retention of antiretroviral naïve patients registered in HIV care in a program clinic in Pune, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghate, Manisha V.; Zirpe, Sunil S.; Gurav, Nilam P.; Rewari, Bharat B.; Gangakhedkar, Raman R.; Paranjape, Ramesh S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Retention in HIV care ensures delivery of services like secondary prevention, timely initiation of treatment, support, and care on a regular basis. The data on retention in pre antiretroviral therapy (ART) care in India is scanty. Materials and Methods: Antiretroviral naïve HIV-infected adult patients registered between January 2011 and March 2012 in HIV care (pre-ART) were included in the study. The follow-up procedures were done as per the national guidelines. Patients who did not report to the clinic for 1 year were considered as pre-ART lost to follow-up (pre-ART LFU). They were contacted either telephonically or by home visits. Logistic regression analysis was done to find out factors associated with pre-ART loss to follow-up. Results: A total of 689 antiretroviral naïve adult patients were registered in the HIV care. Fourteen (2%) patients died and 76 (11%) were LFU till March 2013. The multivariate analysis showed that baseline CD4 count >350 cells/mm3 (P ART LFUs, 35 (46.1%) informed that they would visit the clinic at their convenient time. NGOs that referred 16 female sex workers (FSWs) who were LFU (21.1%) informed that they would make efforts to refer them to the clinic. Conclusion: Higher CD4 count and illiteracy were significantly associated with lower retention in pre-ART care. Developing effective “retention package” for patients and strengthening linkage strategies between key sub-population such as FSWs and ART programming will help to plug the leaky cascade in HIV care. PMID:26396447

  9. Periodontal and systemic diseases among Swedish dental school patients - a retrospective register study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanovic, Marija; Buhlin, Kåre

    2013-01-01

    To investigate if patients with periodontitis attending the Dental School in Huddinge, Sweden presented with more signs of systemic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus and respiratory diseases, compared to healthy and gingivitis patients. In this retrospective study, dental charts were examined where the periodontal diagnoses of patients were known. A total of 325 patients with severe periodontitis and 149 patients without periodontitis, born 1928 to 1968, were identified. Diagnosis regarding the systemic diseases was self-reported. Odds ratios for cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and respiratory diseases were calculated with a logistic regression model that was adjusted for age, gender and smoking. It was observed that more cases of periodontitis were found in older individuals than the controls (61.7 vs 56.2 years; P < 0.001). A total of 44.3% of patients with severe periodontitis also suffered from cardiovascular diseases, 19.1% respiratory diseases and 21.2% from diabetes mellitus. Among the controls, 30.9% had cardiovascular disease, 23.5% suffered from respiratory diseases and 6.7% had diabetes mellitus. Across both groups, hypertension was the most frequent diagnosis. There was a significant association between periodontitis and cardiovascular disease (odds ratio [OR] = 1.79, confidence interval [CI] 1.12-2.86), but not between respiratory diseases and periodontitis (OR= 0.88, CI 0.53-1.47). The risk of diabetes mellitus was greater among those patients with periodontitis (OR= 2.95, CI 1.45- 6.01). This study found that patients with periodontitis presented with more systemic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus than control patients. However, no association was found between periodontitis and respiratory diseases. At the present time, the reasons for the associations or lack of association are unknown.

  10. Diagnostic consistency and interchangeability of schizophrenic disorders and bipolar disorders: A 7-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Yen-Ni; Yang, Shu-Yu; Kuo, Chian-Jue; Lin, Shih-Ku

    2018-03-01

    The change in psychiatric diagnoses in clinical practice is not an unusual phenomenon. The interchange between the diagnoses of schizophrenic disorders and bipolar disorders is a major clinical issue because of the differences in treatment regimens and long-term prognoses. In this study, we used a nationwide population-based sample to compare the diagnostic consistency and interchange rate between schizophrenic disorders and bipolar disorders. In total, 25 711 and 11 261 patients newly diagnosed as having schizophrenic disorder and bipolar disorder, respectively, were retrospectively enrolled from the Psychiatric Inpatient Medical Claims database between 2001 and 2005. We followed these two cohorts for 7 years to determine whether their diagnoses were consistent throughout subsequent hospitalizations. The interchange between the two diagnoses was analyzed. In the schizophrenic disorder cohort, the overall diagnostic consistency rate was 87.3% and the rate of change to bipolar disorder was 3.0% during the 7-year follow-up. Additional analyses of subtypes revealed that the change rate from schizoaffective disorder to bipolar disorder was 12.0%. In the bipolar disorder cohort, the overall diagnostic consistency rate was 71.9% and the rate of change to schizophrenic disorder was 8.3%. Changes in the diagnosis of a major psychosis are not uncommon. The interchange between the diagnoses of schizophrenic disorders and bipolar disorders might be attributed to the evolution of clinical symptoms and the observation of preserved social functions that contradict the original diagnosis. While making a psychotic diagnosis, clinicians should be aware of the possibility of the change in diagnosis in the future. © 2017 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2017 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  11. IDENTIFICATION OF THE INFLUENCE OF IQ ON THEORY OF MIND SKILLS IN A GROUP OF SCHIZOPHRENICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paz López Herrero

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia sufferers may have Theory of Mind (ToM deficits. These deficits are not as severe as those shown by people with other disorders such as autism, because schizophrenic patients can solve simple ToM tests using their Intelligence Quotient (IQ and general problemsolving skills. Our aim was to study ToM by asking a group of schizophrenics to perform a mental verbs task. We then identified the categories into which the mental verbs were grouped and their use profile, and assessed the influence of intelligence quotient. We observed that those with a higher IQ had lower ToM deficits. Subjects with average IQs grouped the mental activities quite well and those with low IQ performed the task poorly as a result of the combined effects of schizophrenia processes and low IQ.

  12. Regional cerebral blood flow in schizophrenics. Tests using the xenon Xe 133 inhalation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariel, R.N.; Golden, C.J.; Berg, R.A.; Quaife, M.A.; Dirksen, J.W.; Forsell, T.; Wilson, J.; Graber, B.

    1983-01-01

    Measurements of intrahemispheric and bilateral regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) for gray and white matter were compared in 29 schizophrenic patients and 22 normal controls, using the xenon Xe 133 inhalation method. Results showed significantly lower CBF values for all brain regions in the schizophrenic group, and post hoc comparisons showed relatively greater reduced gray-matter CBF values in the anterior areas of the brain. There was also a left-hemisphere frontal loss similar to that reported previously, although it was in the context of a generalized loss in anterior functioning. Interhemispheric comparison within both groups showed no differences between homologous regions for gray matter, and greater white-matter CBF values in the right hemisphere than in the left hemisphere. The findings support a hypothesis of a bilateral anterior deficit in schizophrenia

  13. Increments in plasma homovanillic acid concentrations after neuroleptic discontinuation are associated with worsening of schizophrenic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, R S; Amin, F; Powchik, P; Knott, P; Goldstein, M; Apter, S; Kerman, B; Jaff, S; Davidson, M

    1990-01-01

    1. Thirty-two male schizophrenic patients participated in this study. 2. Plasma concentrations of the dopamine metabolite, homovanillic acid (pHVA) were assessed once on neuroleptic medication and twice a week for a maximum of six weeks after its discontinuation. 3. Psychiatric symptomatology was assessed once on neuroleptic medication and once a week for a maximum of six weeks after its discontinuation, using the brief psychiatric rating scale (BPRS). 4. pHVA and total BPRS score increased significantly after discontinuation of neuroleptic as compared to baseline. 5. The magnitude of pHVA and BPRS increments after discontinuation of neuroleptic correlated significantly. 6. Results of this study suggest that worsening of schizophrenic symptoms after discontinuation of neuroleptic treatment is associated with increased pHVA concentrations.

  14. Lower frequency of the low activity adenosine deaminase allelic variant (ADA1*2 in schizophrenic patients Diminuição da frequência da variante alélica de baixa atividade da adenosina desaminase (ADA1*2 em pacientes esquizofrênicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Pimentel Dutra

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Adenosine may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, since it modulates the release of several neurotransmitters such as glutamate, dopamine, serotonin and acetylcholine, decreases neuronal activity by pos-synaptic hyperpolarization and inhibits dopaminergic activity. Adenosine deaminase participates in purine metabolism by converting adenosine into inosine. The most frequent functional polymorphism of adenosine deaminase (22G→A (ADA1*2 exhibits 20-30% lower enzymatic activity in individuals with the G/A genotype than individuals with the G/G genotype. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ADA polymorphism 22G→A (ADA1*2 in schizophrenic patients and healthy controls. METHOD: The genotypes of the ADA 22G→A were identified with allele-specific PCR strategy in 152 schizophrenic patients and 111 healthy individuals. RESULTS: A significant decrease in the frequency of the G/A genotype was seen in schizophrenic patients (7/152 - 4.6% relative to controls (13/111 - 11.7%, p = 0.032, OR = 2.6. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the G/A genotype associated with low adenosine deaminase activity and, supposingly, with higher adenosine levels is less frequent among schizophrenic patients.OBJETIVO: A adenosina pode ter um papel importante na fisiopatologia da esquizofrenia, uma vez que modula a liberação de vários neurotransmissores, tais como glutamato, dopamina, serotonina e acetilcolina, diminui a atividade neuronal por hiperpolarização pós-sináptica e inibe a atividade dopaminérgica. A adenosina desaminase participa do metabolismo das purinas pela conversão de adenosina em inosina. O mais frequente polimorfismo funcional da adenosina desaminase (22G →A (ADA1*2 exibe uma diminuição de 20-30% da atividade funcional em indivíduos com genótipo G/A quando comparados com indivíduos com o genótipo G/G. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o polimorfismo 22G→A (ADA1*2 em pacientes esquizofrênicos e em

  15. Taking cognizance of mental illness in schizophrenics and its association with crime and substance-related diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munkner, R; Haastrup, S; Jørgensen, T; Andreasen, A H; Kramp, P

    2003-02-01

    To analyse how committed crimes and substance-related diagnoses are associated with the age on the first contact with the psychiatric hospital system and the age at diagnosing of schizophrenia among schizophrenics. In a register-based study including all Danes diagnosed with schizophrenia born after November 1, 1963, data on criminality, substance-related diagnoses and contacts with the psychiatric hospital system were analysed. Compared with the non-convicted schizophrenics the convicted were older on first contact with the psychiatric hospital system and older when the diagnosis of schizophrenia was first given. In contrast, having a substance-related diagnosis was associated with a younger age on first contact but did not influence the age at which the diagnosis of schizophrenia was given. It is important that both psychiatrists and the judicial system are aware of possible psychotic symptoms in criminal and abusing individuals to enable earlier detection and treatment.

  16. Research participation registers can increase opportunities for patients and the public to participate in health services research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Verity; Redwood, Sabi; Lasseter, Gemma; Walther, Axel; Reid, Colette; Blazeby, Jane; Martin, Richard; Donovan, Jenny

    2016-07-01

    Members of the public and patients repeatedly indicate their willingness to take part in research, but current United Kingdom research governance involves complex rules about gaining consent. Research participation registers that seek consent from participants to be approached about future studies have several potential benefits, including: increased research participation across clinical and healthy populations; simplified recruitment to health care research; support for people's autonomy in decision making; and improved efficiency and generalizability of research. These potential benefits have to be balanced against ethical and governance considerations. With appropriate processes in place, seeking prospective consent from patients and members of the public to be approached about future studies could potentially increase public participation in health research without compromising informed consent and other ethical principles. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Reproductive Function in Patients with Non-functioning Pituitary Adenoma According to the Register of the Republic of Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinara A. Alieva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of our study was to evaluate the reproductive system status and gonadotropic pituitary function in patients with non-functioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA according to the register data. Depending on the state of the reproductive system at the time of NFPA diagnosis, men and women can be classified into three groups: secondary hypogonadism (40.7%; normal state of the sexual system (22.0%; and PCOS in women (36.5% and reduced testicular size in men (11.2%. Menstrual irregularities took place in 77.8% NFPA women of reproductive age (41.3% of them had galactorea-oligo/amenorrhea combined with moderate hyperprolactinemia, and sexual dysfunction occurred in 42.0% of male patients with NFPA.

  18. Predictors of natural and unnatural mortality among patients with personality disorder: evidence from a large UK case register.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Lei-Yee Fok

    Full Text Available People with personality disorder have reduced life expectancy, yet, within this population, little is known about the clinical predictors of natural and unnatural deaths. We set out to investigate this, using a large cohort of secondary mental health patients with personality disorder.We identified patients with an ICD-10 diagnosis of personality disorder, aged ≥15 years in a large secondary mental healthcare case register. The case register was linked to national mortality tracing. Using Cox regression, we modelled the effect of a number of pre-specified clinical variables on all-cause, natural cause and unnatural cause mortality.2,440 patients were identified. Eighty-five deaths (3.5% of cohort occurred over a 5-year observation period, of which over 50% were from natural causes. All-cause mortality was associated with alcohol or drug use (adjusted Hazard Ratio [aHR] 2.3; 95% CI 1.3-4.1, physical illness (aHR 1.9; 95% CI 1.0-3.6, and functional impairment (aHR 1.9; 95% CI 1.0-3.6. Natural cause mortality was associated with mild problems of alcohol or drug use (aHR 3.4; 95% CI 1.5-7.4, and physical illness (aHR 2.4; 95% CI 1.0-5.6. Unnatural cause mortality was associated only with severe alcohol or drug use (aHR 3.1; 95% CI 1.3-7.3.Alcohol and drug use, physical illness, and functional impairment are predictors of mortality in individuals with personality disorder. Clinicians should be aware of the existence of problems in these domains, even at mild levels, when assessing the needs of patients with personality disorder.

  19. Pimozide versus fluphenazine in ambulatory schizophrenics: A 12-month comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donlon, P T; Swaback, D O; Osborne, M L

    1977-02-01

    In this study, chronic schizophrenic outpatients who had been maintained on various neuroleptics for an average of about 4 years had their previous medications (approximately equivalent to 695 mg of chlorpromazine per day) changed abruptly to either pimozide or fluphenazine given in single daily oral doses on a double-blind basis for a period of 52 weeks. Average daily doses were pimozide 9.6 mg and fluphenazine 12.5 mg. Measurements of the therapeutic effects of the two drugs were made immediately prior to starting the study, at the end of the 2nd and 4th weeks, and thereafter every 4th week to the end of the study. Three psychometric scales were used for evaluation: Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS); Evaluation of Social Functioning (ESFR); and Clinical Global Impressions (CGI). In addition, patients participated in a Social Adjustment Inventory (SAI) evaluation. Statistical analysis with the use of several statistical techniques for between- and within-drug group comparisons revealed that pimozide and fluphenazine were equally effective in maintaining control of symptomatology of chronic schizophrenics at a level commensurate with or better than that provided by their previous medication. Side effects were characteristic of marketed neuroleptics, similar in severity and occurrence between study-drug groups, mainly extrapyramidal symptoms, and readily controlled with antiparkinsonian medication. Pimozide, slightly more potent than fluphenazine, proved to be equally effective for the long-term management of chronic schizophrenic patients.

  20. Multisensory integration of emotional faces and voices in schizophrenics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelder, B. de; Vroomen, J.H.M.; Jong, S. de; Masthoff, E.D.M.; Trompenaars, F.J.; Hodiamont, P.P.G.

    2005-01-01

    In their natural environment, organisms receive information through multiple sensory channels and these inputs from different sensory systems are routinely combined into integrated percepts. Previously, we reported that in a population of schizophrenics, deficits in audiovisual integration were

  1. Multisensory integration of emotional faces and voices in schizophrenics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelder, B. de; Vroomen, J.H.M.; Jong, S.J. de; Masthoff, E.D.M.; Trompenaars, F.J.; Hodiamont, P.P.G.

    2005-01-01

    their natural environment, organisms receive information through multiple sensory channels and these inputs from different sensory systems are routinely combined into integrated percepts. Previously, we reported that in a population of schizophrenics, deficits in audiovisual integration were

  2. Patient safety in practical nurses' education: A cross-sectional survey of newly registered practical nurses in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDenKerkhof, Elizabeth; Sears, Nancy; Edge, Dana S; Tregunno, Deborah; Ginsburg, Liane

    2017-04-01

    Practical nurses have experienced an increasing scope of practice, including an expectation to care for complex patients and function on interdisciplinary teams. Little is known about the degree to which patient safety principles are addressed in practical nursing education. To examine self-reported patient safety competencies of practical nurses. A cross-sectional online survey (July 2014) and face-to-face interviews (June 2015). Ontario, Canada. Survey participants were practical nurses newly registered with the College of Nurses of Ontario between January 2012 and December 2013. Interview participants were faculty and students in a practical nursing program in Ontario. Survey respondents completed the Health Professional Education in Patient Safety Survey online. Self-reported competencies in various patient safety domains were compared between classroom and clinical settings. Faculty members were interviewed about educational preparation of practical nurses and students were interviewed to provide insight into interpretation of survey questions. The survey response rate was 28.4% (n=1104/3883). Mean domain scores indicated a high level of confidence in patient safety competence (Nurses of Ontario >2years and in those who obtained their education outside of Canada. Faculty believed their approach to teaching and learning instilled a deep understanding of the limits to practical nurse autonomous practice. Practical nurses were confident in what they learned about patient safety in their educational programs. The high degree of patient safety competence may be a true reflection of practical nurses understanding of, and comfort with, the limits of their knowledge and, ultimately, the limits of their individual autonomous practice. Further exploration as to whether the questionnaire requires additional modification for use with practical nurse populations is warranted. However, this study provides the first examination of practical nurses' perspectives and

  3. PSYCHIATRIC MORBIDITY PATTERN OF THE FIRST-DEGREE RELATIVES OF SCHIZOPHRENICS: CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Gnana Durai

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available : CONTEXT: Family, Twin and Adoption studies show the inheritance patterns of schizophrenia. The findings from these studies provide support to the claim that familial clustering of schizophrenia is a combined expression of genetic and environmental factors. AIMS: Following the line of previous research, this study attempts to find out any difference in the psychiatric morbidity pattern among the first-degree relatives of familial and sporadic schizophrenics. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: We conducted a cross-sectional survey among a convenience sample of 100 first-degree relatives (age between 18 to 55 years of familial (n=22 and sporadic (n=29 schizophrenics from psychiatric outpatient clinic, of a Government Hospital, India. The schizophrenics satisfied the DSM-IV criteria and all the first degree relatives interviewed never had any psychiatric consultation before or were abusing alcohol or other substances or having any organic pathology. METHODS AND MATERIAL: Informed consent from the patients and relatives was obtained. Survey questionnaires were administered and no personal identifying information was collected. Middle Sex Hospital Questionnaire (MHQ, Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire (EPQ, Multi-Phasic Personality Questionnaire (MPQ and Screening Test for Co-Morbid Personality Disorders (STCPD were administered to the participants.

  4. Validity and reliability of chronic tic disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder diagnoses in the Swedish National Patient Register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rück, Christian; Larsson, K Johan; Lind, Kristina; Perez-Vigil, Ana; Isomura, Kayoko; Sariaslan, Amir; Lichtenstein, Paul; Mataix-Cols, David

    2015-06-22

    The usefulness of cases diagnosed in administrative registers for research purposes is dependent on diagnostic validity. This study aimed to investigate the validity and inter-rater reliability of recorded diagnoses of tic disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in the Swedish National Patient Register (NPR). Chart review of randomly selected register cases and controls. 100 tic disorder cases and 100 OCD cases were randomly selected from the NPR based on codes from the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) 8th, 9th and 10th editions, together with 50 epilepsy and 50 depression control cases. The obtained psychiatric records were blindly assessed by 2 senior psychiatrists according to the criteria of the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) and ICD-10. Positive predictive value (PPV; cases diagnosed correctly divided by the sum of true positives and false positives). Between 1969 and 2009, the NPR included 7286 tic disorder and 24,757 OCD cases. The vast majority (91.3% of tic cases and 80.1% of OCD cases) are coded with the most recent ICD version (ICD-10). For tic disorders, the PPV was high across all ICD versions (PPV=89% in ICD-8, 86% in ICD-9 and 97% in ICD-10). For OCD, only ICD-10 codes had high validity (PPV=91-96%). None of the epilepsy or depression control cases were wrongly diagnosed as having tic disorders or OCD, respectively. Inter-rater reliability was outstanding for both tic disorders (κ=1) and OCD (κ=0.98). The validity and reliability of ICD codes for tic disorders and OCD in the Swedish NPR is generally high. We propose simple algorithms to further increase the confidence in the validity of these codes for epidemiological research. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Registered partnerships

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, family patterns have changed significantly. National laws have taken these changes into account, recognizing new forms of unions, different to heterosexual marriage. Indeed, recently some countries have given the possibility to same-sex couples to enter into various forms of unions. Staff regulations of international organizations are not directly affected by national laws, but in the context of diversity policies, the lack of recognition of these new forms of unions, may appear to discriminate based on sexual orientation and to limit the freedom of choosing marital status. A study by the International Service for Remunerations and Pensions (iSRP) of the OECD in January 2015 (PROS Report (1015) 04) shows that in comparison with other international organizations, CERN offers the least favorable social conditions for its Staff with in a registered partnership. As part of the Five-year review in 2015, it is important that CERN aligns itself with the practice of these other organizations...

  6. Validation of celiac disease diagnoses recorded in the Danish National Patient Register using duodenal biopsies, celiac disease-specific antibodies, and human leukocyte-antigen genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dydensborg Sander S

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Stine Dydensborg Sander,1-3 Ketil Størdal,4,5 Tine Plato Hansen,6 Anne-Marie Nybo Andersen,7 Joseph A Murray,8 Søren Thue Lillevang,9 Steffen Husby1,2 1Hans Christian Andersen Children’s Hospital, Odense University Hospital, 2Institute of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, 3Odense Patient Data Explorative Network (OPEN, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark; 4Mental and Physical Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, 5Department of Pediatrics, Ostfold Hospital Trust, Fredrikstad, Norway; 6Department of Pathology, Hvidovre Hospital, 7Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; 8Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; 9Department of Clinical Immunology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark Purpose: The purpose of this study was to validate the celiac disease diagnoses recorded in the Danish National Patient Register. To validate the diagnoses, we used information on duodenal biopsies from a national register of pathology reports (the Patobank and information on celiac disease-specific antibodies and human leukocyte antigen (HLA genotypes obtained from patient medical records.Patients and methods: We included all the children who were born from 1995 to 2012 and who were registered as having celiac disease in the Danish National Patient Register. We reviewed all the pathology reports on duodenal biopsies in the Patobank and the information in the medical records on celiac disease-specific antibodies (ie, anti-tissue transglutaminase 2 IgA and IgG, endomysial antibodies IgA, and anti-deamidated gliadin peptide IgG and HLA genotypes.Results: We identified 2,247 children who were registered in the Danish National Patient Register with celiac disease. Duodenal biopsies for 1,555 of the children (69% were registered in the Patobank; 1,127 (50% had a biopsy that was compatible with celiac disease (ie, Marsh 2–3. We accessed the medical

  7. Drug use in patients with dementia: a register-based study in the health region of Girona (Catalonia/Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Castells, Pilar; Garre-Olmo, Josep; Calvó-Perxas, Laia; Turró-Garriga, Oriol; Alsina, Elisabet; Carmona, Olga; Perkal, Héctor; Roig, Anna Maria; Cuy, Josep Ma; Lozano, Manuela; Molins, Albert; Vallmajó, Natàlia; López-Pousa, Secundino

    2013-05-01

    To describe the pattern of drug consumption among patients with dementia in a geographically defined general population in Catalonia (Spain), and to determine its association with age, gender, type of dementia and severity indicators. Cross-sectional study that included 1,894 cases of dementia registered by the Registry of Dementias of Girona from 2007 to 2009. Prescribed drugs were categorized according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification. A descriptive analysis of drug consumption was stratified according to age, gender, dementia subtypes and dementia severity. Binary logistic regression models were adjusted to detect the association of these variables with drug consumption according to the ATC groups. The most commonly prescribed drugs were for the central nervous system (CNS) (96.4 %), cardiovascular system (79.4 %) and digestive and metabolic system categories (77.7 %). No significant differences were found between the use of nervous system drugs and age, gender, dementia subtypes or dementia severity. The use of alimentary tract and metabolism related drugs, as well as cardiovascular and blood system drugs, were positively correlated with age and secondary dementia. The prevalence of use of cardiovascular and musculoskeletal drugs was higher in women than in men (OR: 1.34; OR: 1.26 respectively). A negative association was found between the severity of dementia and the use of musculoskeletal drugs (OR: 0.71), while its use was significantly higher in the youngest patients (OR: 1.71). Almost all patients with dementia received a CNS drug, being at risk of inappropriate treatment. Treatment for comorbidities in patients with dementia should not be withheld on the basis of age or dementia severity, but rather on the benefit/risk ratio of its prescription. Further studies are needed to evaluate potentially inappropriate drug use and possible untreated conditions in this population.

  8. CHARACTERISTICS OF PATIENTS WITH CEREBRAL STROKE OR TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK, INCLUDED INTO THE LIS-2 REGISTER (LYUBERTSY STUDY OF MORTALITY IN PATIENTS AFTER STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Martsevich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To provide final data on the three-year period of the inclusion of patients; to give most accurate "portrait" of patients hospitalized with a brain stroke within the framework of the LIS-2 register (Lyubertsy study of mortality in patients after stroke.Material and methods. All patients (n=960 admitted to the Lyubertsy district hospital №2 with stroke for the period from 01.2009 to 12.2011 were included into the study.Results. Men accounted for 37.5%, women - 62.5%, mean age was 71.1±9.8 years. The history of hypertension was present in 833 patients (86.8%, atrial fibrillation in 252 (26.8% patients, 199 (20.7% patients had previously undergone stroke. In-hospital mortality was 21.6% (207 patients had died; mean age 72.9±9.8 years. Low frequency of the antihypertensive therapy (34.5%, lipid-lowering therapy (0.7%, antiplatelet agents (5.7%, anticoagulation therapy prescription in patients with atrial fibrillation was detected.Conclusion. Insufficient assignment of drugs with a proven effect on the prognosis in patients with risk factors prior to the development of the reference stroke draws attention. High incidence of recurrent strokes indicates an underactive secondary prevention.

  9. Inducing Assertive Behavior in Chronic Schizophrenics: A Comparison of Socioenvironmental Desensitization, and Relaxation Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinman, Bernard; And Others

    1972-01-01

    It is concluded that systematic desensitization or relaxation therapy is not effective in inducing assertive behavior in the male chronic schizophrenic. The treatment of choice for the older chronic male schizophrenic remains socioenvironmental therapy. (Author)

  10. Computer-aided tomography (CT) in diagnosis of organic brain lesions in schizophrenics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavilov, S.B.; Belova, O.G.; Nikiforchuk, N.M.; Savvateeva, N.Yu.; Atyasova, E.V.; Baev, A.A.

    1993-01-01

    The authors retrospectively analyse CT data obtained in examinations of 1745 patients divided into three groups. Group 1 consisted of 721 patients with schizophrenia, group consisted of 855 mentally normal subjects directed to computer tomographic examination with suspected organic involvement of the brain, and group 3 consisted of 169 mentally and neurologically normal subjects. Vascular diseases of the nervous system predominated in group 2 as against group 1, being 3.5 times more incident. No intracranial tumors were detected in controls; in schizophrenics computer tomographic signs of volumic brain lesions were detected in 1.5% of cases

  11. MR diffusion tensor analysis of schizophrenic brain using statistical parametric mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Haruyasu; Abe, Osamu; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate diffusion anisotropy in the schizophrenic brain by voxel-based analysis of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). We studied 33 patients with schizophrenia diagnosed by diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM)-IV criteria and 42 matched controls. The data was obtained with a 1.5 T MRI system. We used single-shot spin-echo planar sequences (repetition time/echo time (TR/TE)=5000/102 ms, 5 mm slice thickness and 1.5 mm gap, field of view (FOV)=21 x 21 cm 2 , number of excitation (NEX)=4, 128 x 128 pixel matrix) for diffusion tensor acquisition. Diffusion gradients (b-value of 500 or 1000 s/mm 2 ) were applied on two axes simultaneously. Diffusion properties were measured along 6 non-linear directions. The structural distortion induced by the large diffusion gradients was corrected, based on each T 2 -weighted echo-planar image (b=0 s/mm 2 ). The fractional anisotropy (FA) maps were generated on a voxel-by-voxel basis. T 2 -weighted echo-planar images were then segmented into gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid, using SPM (Wellcome Department of Imaging, University College London, UK). All apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and FA maps in native space were transformed to the stereotactic space by registering each of the images to the same template image. The normalized data was smoothed and analyzed using SPM. The significant FA decrease in the patient group was found in the uncinate fasciculus, parahippocampal white matter, anterior cingulum and other areas (corrected p<0.05). No significant increased region was noted. Our results may reflect reduced diffusion anisotropy of the white matter pathway of the limbic system as shown by the decreased FA. Manual region-of-interest analysis is usually more sensitive than voxel-based analysis, but it is subjective and difficult to set with anatomical reproducibility. Voxel-based analysis of the diffusion tensor

  12. An investigation of factors increasing the risk of aggressive behaviour among schizophrenic inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel eLejoyeux

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the studyThis study tried to identify risk factors of aggressive behavior in a population of schizophrenic inpatients. We tested the association between aggressive behavior and socio-demographic characteristics, addictive disorders, history of suicide attempt and sexual violence, impulsivity and sensation seeking.MethodsAll consecutive schizophrenic inpatients (100 were assessed during six months. Aggressive behavior was quantified with a standardized scale, the Overt Aggression Scale (OAS. We studied socio-demographic characteristics and the history of suicide attempt and sexual violence with a specific standardized questionnaire. Addictive disorders were identified with the Fagerström and CAGE questionnaires and with the DSM-IV-R diagnostic criteria for nicotine, alcohol, cannabis opiates, and cocaine abuse and dependence disorders. Lastly, we studied sensation-seeking with the Zuckerman scale and impulsivity with the Barratt scale. ResultsLinear regression identified four factors associated with aggressive behaviour: male gender (odd ratio =12.8, history of sexual violence (odd ratio = 3.6, Fagerström score (odd ratio= 1.3, number of cigarettes smoked each day (odd ratio=1.16. Patients with nicotine use or dependence had significantly higher levels of OAS scores. This difference was not observed between patients with or without alcohol dependence. OAS scores were correlated to the number of cigarettes smoked each day and to Fagerström scores. Patients with a higher level of sensation seeking and impulsivity also had higher OAS scores. ConclusionA Typical schizophrenic patient at risk of showing aggressive behavior is a man, who smokes and presents a history of sexual violence.

  13. Factors affecting effective communication between registered nurses and adult cancer patients in an inpatient setting: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Li Hui; Hegney, Desley; Ang, Emily

    2011-06-01

    To establish the best available evidence regarding the factors affecting effective communication between registered nurses and inpatient cancer adults. Electronic databases (CINAHL, Ovid, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus and Wiley InterScience) were searched using a three-step search strategy to identify the relevant quantitative and qualitative studies published in English. The grey literature was not included in the review. The identified studies were evaluated using the guidelines from the Joanna Briggs Institute System for the Unified Management, Assessment and Review of Information. A total of three studies were included in the quantitative component of the review, and the data were presented in a narrative summary. Five studies were included in the qualitative component of the review, and the findings were categorised in a meta-synthesis which generated four synthesised findings. The factors that were found to influence effective communication were identified in the characteristics of nurses, patients and the environment. The promoting factors in nurses included genuineness, competency and effective communication skills. The role of post-basic training in improving nurse-patient communication remained inconclusive. Conversely, nurses who were task-orientated, who feared death and who had low self-awareness of their own verbal behaviours inhibited communication. Nurses were also observed to communicate less effectively when delivering psychosocial aspects of care and in emotionally charged situations. On the other hand, patients who participated actively in their own care and exhibited information-seeking behaviour promoted communication with the nurses. However, patients' unwillingness to discuss their disease/feelings, their preference to seek emotional support from their family/friends and their use of implicit cues were some of the factors that were found to inhibit communication. A supportive ward environment increased facilitative behaviour in nurses

  14. Baseline and cognition activated regional cerebral brain flow of naive paranoid schizophrenics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Huafang; Gu Niufan; Xiu Yan; Chen Shaoliang

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the baseline and cognition activated regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in naive paranoid schizophrenics and the relationships between the symptoms and rCBF. Methods: The scale of positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) was adopted to evaluate the symptoms of schizophrenia. The baseline and cognition activated 99 Tc m -ethylcysteinate dimmer (ECD) SPECT were performed one after the other within two days. Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST) was used as cognitive task. Semi-quantitative analyses were applied. Results: There were no significant differences of WCST results between two groups. Compared with normal controls, the baseline rCBF ratios of left to right interior posterior temporal cortex in patients were significantly higher, while that of left mid-medial frontal cortex was significantly lower in patients. There was no significant difference of rCBF ratios of baseline to cognition activated states in patients. WCST couldn't activate the frontal function in patients. The total score of PANSS, score of positive subscale and general syndrome subscale were correlated with the rCBF ratio of several regions of interest (ROIs) . Some symptoms were correlated with the rCBF ratio of some ROIs. Conclusions: The hyperperfusion of left and right temporal inferior posterior cortex and hypoperfusion of left mid-medial frontal cortex could be seen in naive paranoid schizophrenics. Hypofrontality existed in patients before treatment. Some positive symptoms were correlated with the rCBF of some ROI

  15. Impact of preexisting depression on length of stay and discharge destination among patients hospitalized for acute stroke - Linked register-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuyen, Jasper; Spreeuwenberg, Peter M.; Groenewegen, Peter P.; van den Bos, Geertrudis A. M.; Schellevis, Francois G.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose-There exists limited knowledge regarding the relation between depression and healthcare utilization in stroke patients. The objective of this register-based study was to examine the impact of having preexisting depression at the time of hospital admission for acute stroke on

  16. Impact of Preexisting Depression on Length of Stay and Discharge Destination Among Patients Hospitalized for Acute Stroke : Linked Register-Based Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuyen, Jasper; Spreeuwenberg, Peter M.; Groenewegen, Peter P.; Bos, Geertrudis A.M. van den; Schellevis, Francois G.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose—There exists limited knowledge regarding the relation between depression and healthcare utilization in stroke patients. The objective of this register-based study was to examine the impact of having preexisting depression at the time of hospital admission for acute stroke on

  17. Impact of preexisting depression on length of stay and discharge destination among patients hospitalized for acute stroke: linked register-based study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuyen, J.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Groenewegen, P.P.; Bos, G.A.M. van den; Schellevis, F.G.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose: There exists limited knowledge regarding the relation between depression and healthcare utilization in stroke patients. The objective of this register-based study was to examine the impact of having preexisting depression at the time of hospital admission for acute stroke on

  18. Determinants of duration of untreated psychosis among first-episode psychosis patients in Denmark: A nationwide register-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastrup, Lene Halling; Haahr, Ulrik Helt; Jansen, Jens Einar; Simonsen, Erik

    2018-02-01

    Information on determinants of duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) is still needed to inform campaigns targeting people with first episode psychosis (FEP). This nation-wide study analysed the association between demographic factors (age, sex, ethnicity, marital status, and geographic area), premorbid and illness-related factors (global functional level, substance misuse, and contact to police), healthcare factors (referral source and first FEP contact) and DUP. The study population of 1266 patients aged 15-25years diagnosed with FEP (ICD10 F20.0-F20.99) was drawn from the Danish National Indicator Project during 2009-2011. The study population was combined with data from national administrative registers. A multinomial regression model was estimated to analyse the impact of demographic, premorbid and illness-related, and healthcare factors on DUP. One third of the population had a DUP below 6months. DUP longer than 12months was associated with older age at onset, being female, having cannabis misuse, and living in peripheral municipalities. Being charged by the criminal authorities during one year before FEP was associated with a DUP over 6months. DUP is related to a number of demographic, premorbid and healthcare factors. These findings suggest that future information campaigns should focus on increasing the awareness of early signs of psychosis not only among mental health professionals but also other professionals in contact with adolescents such as the police. It may also be useful to consider how to target information campaigns towards persons living in peripheral areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Young Children of Schizophrenic Mothers: Difficulties of Intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Liselotte; Gammeltoft, Marie

    1993-01-01

    Casework by Danish local social agencies on behalf of 11 children og chronically ill schizophrenic mothers is retrospectively analyzed, along with documentation from psychiatric hospitals, consulting child specialists, and other health professionals. Findings point to a need for earlier and more...... precise assessment of the mother's parenting abilities as measured against the severity of her illness and the vulnerability of the child...

  20. Use of acid-suppressive therapy before anti-reflux surgery in 2922 patients: a nationwide register-based study in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lødrup, A; Pottegård, A; Hallas, J; Bytzer, P

    2015-07-01

    Guidelines recommend that patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease are adequately treated with acid-suppressive therapy before undergoing anti-reflux surgery. Little is known of the use of acid-suppressive drugs before anti-reflux surgery. To determine the use of proton pump inhibitors and H2 -receptor antagonists in the year before anti-reflux surgery. A nationwide retrospective study of all patients aged ≥18 undergoing first-time anti-reflux surgery in Denmark during 2000-2012 using data from three different sources: the Danish National Register of Patients, the Danish National Prescription Register, and the Danish Person Register. The study population thus included 2922 patients (median age: 48 years, 55.7% male). The annual proportion of patients redeeming ≥180 DDD of acid-suppressive therapy increased from 17.0% 5 years before anti-reflux surgery to 64.9% 1 year before. The probability for inadequate dosing 1 year before surgery (reflux surgery, as a high proportion of patients receive inadequate dosing of acid-suppressive therapy prior to the operation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Contact allergy to preservatives in patients with occupational contact dermatitis and exposure analysis of preservatives in registered chemical products for occupational use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwensen, Jakob Ferløv; Friis, Ulrik Fischer; Menné, Torkil; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate risk factors for sensitization to preservatives and to examine to which extent different preservatives are registered in chemical products for occupational use in Denmark. A retrospective epidemiological observational analysis of data from a university hospital was conducted. All patients had occupational contact dermatitis and were consecutively patch tested with 11 preservatives from the European baseline series and extended patch test series during a 5-year period: 2009-2013. Information regarding the same preservatives in chemical products for occupational use ('substances and materials') registered in the Danish Product Register Database (PROBAS) was obtained. The frequency of preservative contact allergy was 14.2% (n = 141) in 995 patients with occupational contact dermatitis. Patients with preservative contact allergy had significantly more frequently facial dermatitis (19.9 versus 13.1%) and age > 40 years (71.6 versus 45.8%) than patients without preservative contact allergy, whereas atopic dermatitis was less frequently observed (12.1 versus 19.8%). Preservative contact allergy was more frequent in painters with occupational contact dermatitis as compared to non-painters with occupational contact dermatitis (p contact allergy to methylisothiazolinone and contact allergy to formaldehyde. Analysis of the registered substances and materials in PROBAS revealed that preservatives occurred in several product categories, e.g., 'paints and varnishes', 'cleaning agents', 'cooling agents', and 'polishing agents'. Formaldehyde and isothiazolinones were extensively registered in PROBAS. The extensive use of formaldehyde and isothiazolinones in chemical products for occupational use may be problematic for the worker. Appropriate legislation, substitution, and employee education should be prioritized.

  2. Longterm Work Productivity Costs Due to Absenteeism and Permanent Work Disability in Patients with Early Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Nationwide Register Study of 7831 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martikainen, Janne A; Kautiainen, Hannu; Rantalaiho, Vappu; Puolakka, Kari T

    2016-12-01

    To estimate the development and potential disproportional distribution of longterm productivity costs (PC) and their determinants leading to work absenteeism and permanent work disability in working-aged patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A cohort of subjects with early RA was created by identifying the new cases of RA from the national drug reimbursement register that had been granted a special reimbursement for their antirheumatic medications for RA from 2000-2007. The dataset was enriched by cross-linking with other national registries detailing work absenteeism days and permanent disability pensions. In the base case, the human capital approach was applied to estimate PC based on subjects' annual number of absenteeism days and incomes. Hurdle regression analysis was applied to study the determinants of PC. Among the 7831 subjects with early RA, the mean (bootstrapped 95% CI) annual PC per person-observation year was €4800 (4547-5070). The annual PC declined after the first year of RA diagnosis, but increased significantly in subsequent years. In addition, the PC was heavily disproportionally concentrated in a small fraction of patients with RA, because only around 20% of patients accounted for the majority of total annual PC. The initiation of active drug treatment during the first 3 months after RA diagnosis significantly reduced the cumulative PC when compared with no drug treatment. The longterm PC increased significantly in parallel with years elapsing after RA diagnosis. Further, the majority of these PC are incurred by a small proportion of patients.

  3. The Scandinavian Sarcoma Group Central Register: 6,000 patients after 25 years of monitoring of referral and treatment of extremity and trunk wall soft-tissue sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trovik, Clement; Bauer, Henrik C F; Styring, Emelie; Sundby Hall, Kirsten; Vult Von Steyern, Fredrik; Eriksson, Sigvard; Johansson, Ingela; Sampo, Mika; Laitinen, Minna; Kalén, Anders; Jónsson, Halldór; Jebsen, Nina; Eriksson, Mikael; Tukiainen, Erkki; Wall, Najme; Zaikova, Olga; Sigurðsson, Helgi; Lehtinen, Tuula; Bjerkehagen, Bodil; Skorpil, Mikael; Egil Eide, Geir; Johansson, Elisabeth; Alvegard, Thor A

    2017-06-01

    Purpose - We wanted to examine the potential of the Scandinavian Sarcoma Group (SSG) Central Register, and evaluate referral and treatment practice for soft-tissue sarcomas in the extremities and trunk wall (STS) in the Nordic countries. Background - Based on incidence rates from the literature, 8,150 (7,000-9,300) cases of STS of the extremity and trunk wall should have been diagnosed in Norway, Finland, Iceland, and Sweden from 1987 through 2011. The SSG Register has 6,027 cases registered from this period, with 5,837 having complete registration of key variables. 10 centers have been reporting to the Register. The 5 centers that consistently report treat approximately 90% of the cases in their respective regions. The remaining centers have reported all the patients who were treated during certain time periods, but not for the entire 25-year period. Results - 59% of patients were referred to a sarcoma center untouched, i.e. before any attempt at open biopsy. There was an improvement from 52% during the first 5 years to 70% during the last 5 years. 50% had wide or better margins at surgery. Wide margins are now achieved less often than 20 years ago, in parallel with an increase in the use of radiotherapy. For the centers that consistently report, 97% of surviving patients are followed for more than 4 years. Metastasis-free survival (MFS) increased from 67% to 73% during the 25-year period. Interpretation - The Register is considered to be representative of extremity and trunk wall sarcoma disease in the population of Scandinavia, treated at the reporting centers. There were no clinically significant differences in treatment results at these centers.

  4. Estimation of localization and dipole moment of alpha- and theta-rhythm sources by cluster analysis in healthy subjects and schizophrenics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkhlyutov, VM; Shchuchkin, YV; Ushakov, VL; Strelets, VB; Pirogov, YA

    2006-01-01

    In 12 healthy subjects and 9 schizophrenic patients in the background conditions (with eyes closed) EEG was recorded from 16 standard derivations (10-20 system) during 3 min. The record underwent the spectral analysis detecting alpha- and theta-frequency bands. After the preliminary narrow band

  5. Comparison of self-reported and register data on sickness absence among Norwegian patients participating in an occupational rehabilitation program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Øyeflaten

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sick leave and return to work are common outcome variables in studies where the aim is to measure the effect of targeted interventions for individuals that are on sick leave benefits or other allowances. Use of official register data is often restricted, and research on sick leave and return to work are often based on the participants self-reports. However, there is insufficient documentation that there is agreement between self-reports and register data on sick leave benefits and allowances.Aims: The aim of this study was to analyse the individuals' knowledge about states of sick leave benefits or allowances compared with register data from The Labour and Welfare Administration (NAV in Norway.Method: 153 individuals, sick-listed or on allowances, participated in a 4-week inpatient occupational rehabilitation program. 132 (86% answered a questionnaire on assessments of work, sick leave, and allowances three months after completed rehabilitation. Self-reported data were compared with register data from NAV according to four categories: working, sick-listed, on medical/vocational rehabilitation allowance or disability pension. Agreement between self-reported and register data was evaluated in cross-tabulations and reported with kappa values. Stratified analyses were done for gender, age, education, medical diagnosis and length of sick leave/allowances at baseline.Results: Good agreement was found for medical/vocational rehabilitation allowance (kappa=.70 and disability pension (kappa=.65. Moderate agreement was found for working (kappa=.49 and fair agreement for sick-listed (kappa=.36. Stratified analyses showed significant better kappa values for individuals that had been sick-listed less than 12 months before entering the rehabilitation program.Conclusions: Agreements from good to fair were found between self-reported and official register data on sick leave. However, official register data is preferred in research because this will

  6. Plasma catecholamine metabolites in schizophrenics: evidence for the two-subtype concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, W H; Chen, T Y; Lin, S K; Lung, F W; Lin, W L; Hu, W H; Yeh, E K

    1990-03-01

    Plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) and plasma methoxyhydroxyphenyl glycol (pMHPG), as well as plasma haloperidol, were measured in 33 schizophrenic patients before and during 6 weeks of haloperidol treatment. Good responders had higher baseline pHVA values compared with poor responders (17.4 +/- 8.8 ng/ml, n = 22 versus 11.4 +/- 5.0 ng/ml, n = 11, p less than 0.05). A higher than 15 ng/ml pretreatment pHVA level was associated with a more consistent clinical response to the subsequent treatment. Differential pHVA changes during treatment were also found between good and poor responders. Within the good responder group, a significant decline in pHVA over time was found. By contrast, pHVA showed a transient increase in the poor responder group. Plasma MHPG changes showed a similar pattern during treatment in good responders, although no significant differences in baseline values were found between the good (n = 13) and poor (n = 9) responders, and pMHPG showed no change during treatment in poor responders. Significant correlations between baseline pHVA and pMHPG values were found in 22 patients. Good responders and poor responders did not differ significantly in terms of age, duration of illness, severity of presenting symptoms, haloperidol dose, or plasma drug concentration. Two hypothetical subtypes of schizophrenia and both dopamine and norepinephrine systems involved in schizophrenic psychopathology are proposed.

  7. Follow-up home visits with registered dietitians have a positive effect on the functional and nutritional status of geriatric medical patients after discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Anne Marie; Kjær, Stine; Hansen, Birthe Stenbæk

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To assess the additional benefits of individualized nutritional counselling by a registered dietitian in geriatric patients' home after discharge from hospital, in relation to risk of re-admissions, functional status, nutritional status, use of social services and mortality.Design:Twelv......Objective:To assess the additional benefits of individualized nutritional counselling by a registered dietitian in geriatric patients' home after discharge from hospital, in relation to risk of re-admissions, functional status, nutritional status, use of social services and mortality.......Design:Twelve-week single-blind randomized controlled study.Setting and subjects:Geriatric medical patients (65+ years) at nutritional risk.Interventions:Participants were randomly allocated to receive a visit in their homes, either three individualized nutritional counselling by a registered dietitian complemented......, rehabilitation capacity), nutritional status (weight, BMI, energy and protein intake), need of social services (home care, home nursing, meals-on-wheels) and mortality.Results:One hundred and fifty-two patients were included; 132 (87%) completed the first and 124 (82%) the second data collection after 12 weeks...

  8. Performance of schizophrenic patients in the Stroop Color Word Test and electrodermal responsiveness after acute administration of cannabidiol (CBD Desempenho de pacientes esquizofrênicos no Stroop Color Word Test e responsividade eletrodérmica após administração aguda de canabidiol (CBD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime E. C. Hallak

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The last decade has seen increasing evidence of dysfunctions in the endogenous cannabinoid system in schizophrenia and of its relationship with the typical cognitive impairment of the disorder. Studies in animal models, healthy volunteers, and psychotic patients clearly suggest an antipsychotic-like effect of cannabidiol. This study investigated the effects of cannabidiol on selective attention in 28 schizophrenic patients using the Stroop Color Word Test and on these patients' electrodermal responsiveness to auditive stimuli. METHOD: The subjects attended two experimental sessions, the first one without the administration of drugs. In the second session the subjects were divided into three groups that received either a single dose of cannabidiol 300mg or cannabidiol 600mg or placebo. RESULTS: The three groups did not differ significantly with respect to electrodermal measures in the two experimental sessions. When the first and second sessions were compared improved performance was found in all three groups, with patients who received placebo and cannabidiol 300mg performing better than those who received cannabidiol 600mg. CONCLUSION: The single, acute administration of cannabidiol seems to have no beneficial effects on the performance of schizophrenic patients in the Stroop Color Word Test, although the hypothesis that chronic administration may lead to improvement cannot be disregarded.OBJETIVO: Descobertas relativas a possíveis disfunções do sistema canabinóide endógeno na esquizofrenia e sua relação com o prejuízo cognitivo característico da doença têm aumentado durante a última década. Estudos com modelos animais, voluntários saudáveis e pacientes psicóticos sugerem claramente que o canabidiol possui efeitos antipsicóticos. Este estudo investigou os efeitos do canabidiol sobre a atenção seletiva por meio do Stroop Color Word Test e a responsividade eletrodérmica a estímulos auditivos em 28 pacientes com

  9. EVALUATION OF THE CONFORMITY OF CARDIOVASCULAR THERAPY TO CURRENT CLINICAL GUIDELINES IN THE IMPROVEMENT OF OUTCOMES IN PATIENTS AFTER STROKE (ACCORDING TO THE LIS-2 REGISTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Suvorov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the conformity of preventative therapy prescribed to patients during a hospital stay and at a discharge to clinical guidelines using a special algorithm, and to assess the impact of the results on a long-term mortality based on the LIS-2 register (Lyubertsy study of mortality in patients after cerebral stroke.Material and methods. The scales to assess the quality of cardiovascular care for the prevention of recurrent stroke along with the prevention of recurrent ischemic attacks index (PRIA index for this assessment were developed according to current clinical guidelines. Analysis of the therapy was performed using PRIA index on survived hospital patients from LIS-2 register (N=753. The impact of PRIA index results on a long-term mortality (Me=2.3 years was studied.Results. Based upon the results of the assessment obtained with PRIA index, higher treatment conformity to clinical guidelines resulted in a significantly better long-term survival. Non-conformity to clinical guidelines was due to the lack of prescription of drugs with proven efficacy and irrational choice of preventive therapy. Median of treatment quality assessment was 44.4% (22.2; 44.4.Conclusion. Low conformity of preventive therapy to clinical guidelines is found in the LIS-2 register. The algorithm for the assessment of preventive cardiovascular therapy quality allows identifying limitations in the prevention of recurrent stroke, and can serve as an example of implementation of evidence-based medicine in clinical practice.

  10. Contact allergy to preservatives in patients with occupational contact dermatitis and exposure analysis of preservatives in registered chemical products for occupational use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwensen, Jakob Ferløv; Friis, Ulrik Fischer; Menné, Torkil

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of the study is to investigate risk factors for sensitization to preservatives and to examine to which extent different preservatives are registered in chemical products for occupational use in Denmark. METHODS: A retrospective epidemiological observational analysis of data from...... a university hospital was conducted. All patients had occupational contact dermatitis and were consecutively patch tested with 11 preservatives from the European baseline series and extended patch test series during a 5-year period: 2009-2013. Information regarding the same preservatives in chemical products...... in several product categories, e.g., 'paints and varnishes', 'cleaning agents', 'cooling agents', and 'polishing agents'. Formaldehyde and isothiazolinones were extensively registered in PROBAS. CONCLUSIONS: The extensive use of formaldehyde and isothiazolinones in chemical products for occupational use may...

  11. Patient-reported outcomes at hospital discharge from Heart Centres, a national cross-sectional survey with a register-based follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Selina Kikkenborg; Svanholm, Jette; Lauberg, Astrid

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Patient reported health status, which includes symptom burden, functional status and quality of life, is an important measure of health. Differences in health status between diagnostic groups within cardiology have only been sparsely investigated. These outcomes may predict morbidity...... in national registers. The following instruments are used: SF-12, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, EQ-5D, Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (B-IPQ), HeartQoL and Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale. The following variables are collected from national registers: action diagnosis, procedures......, comorbidity, length of hospital stay, type of hospitalisation, visits to general practitioners and other agents in primary healthcare, dispensed prescription medication, vital status and cause of death. Labour market affiliation, sick leave, early retirement pension, educational degree and income...

  12. [3H]muscimol binding sites increased in autopsied brains of chronic schizophrenics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanada, S.; Mita, T.; Nishino, N.; Tanaka, C.

    1987-01-01

    [ 3 H]muscimol binding and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) activity in the prefrontal cortex and caudate nucleus of autopsied brains from 19 chronic schizophrenics and 17 control subjects were investigated. In the schizophrenics, saturation analysis with varying concentrations of [ 3 H]muscimol revealed an increase in the number GABA/sub A/ receptors, but there was no significant difference in the affinity. In addition, the enhancement of [ 3 H]muscimol binding by diazepam was significantly greater in schizophrenics than in controls. GAD activity did not differ between controls and schizophrenics. The possibility that GABAergic mechanisms might play a role in case of chronic schizophrenia should be given further attention

  13. REAL PRACTICE OF STATINS USE AND ITS DEPENDENCE ON FOLLOW-UP IN THE SPECIALIZED MEDICAL CENTRE IN PATIENTS WITH HIGH CARDIOVASCULAR RISK (ACCORDING TO THE PROFILE REGISTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Martsevich

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To analyze tactics of statins use in patients with high cardiovascular risk on the base of the PROFILE register data.Material and methods. Patients (n=274 who were enrolled into the PROFILE register from May, 1st till December, 31st, 2011 were divided into 3 groups: a control group (82 patients who sought medical care in the medical centre for the first time, the main group A (167 patients who were regularly followed-up in the medical centre and the main group B (25 patients who stopped follow-up in the medical centre over 2 years ago. The incidence rates of statins use and lipid target level achievement, as well as safety of statin therapy were studied in the groups.Results. 25.6, 70.7 and 52% of patients received statins in control group, main group A, and main group B, respectively. Target levels (according to the clinical guidelines of the low density cholesterol (LDC had been reached in 26.3% of patients in the main group A. This characteristic was not valid in the patients of control and main group B because of small size of these groups. Achievement of target LDC level was observed more often in use of statins in moderate and high doses, use of the original drugs, and use of rosu- vastatin. Safety of statin therapy (aspartate and alanine transaminases, creatine kinase activity, and total bilirubin was comparable in the groups of patients who reached or did not reach target LDC levels.Conclusion. High cardiovascular risk patients who were regularly followed-up in the specialized medical centre received statins therapy significantly more often. However statins use is often not correspond to the modern clinical guidelines.

  14. Monitoring the injured brain: registered, patient specific atlas models to improve accuracy of recovered brain saturation values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Michael; Belli, Antonio; Davies, David; Lucas, Samuel J. E.; Su, Zhangjie; Dehghani, Hamid

    2015-07-01

    The subject of superficial contamination and signal origins remains a widely debated topic in the field of Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS), yet the concept of using the technology to monitor an injured brain, in a clinical setting, poses additional challenges concerning the quantitative accuracy of recovered parameters. Using high density diffuse optical tomography probes, quantitatively accurate parameters from different layers (skin, bone and brain) can be recovered from subject specific reconstruction models. This study assesses the use of registered atlas models for situations where subject specific models are not available. Data simulated from subject specific models were reconstructed using the 8 registered atlas models implementing a regional (layered) parameter recovery in NIRFAST. A 3-region recovery based on the atlas model yielded recovered brain saturation values which were accurate to within 4.6% (percentage error) of the simulated values, validating the technique. The recovered saturations in the superficial regions were not quantitatively accurate. These findings highlight differences in superficial (skin and bone) layer thickness between the subject and atlas models. This layer thickness mismatch was propagated through the reconstruction process decreasing the parameter accuracy.

  15. Prediction of the period of psychotic episode in individual schizophrenics by simulation-data construction approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Jung; Wang, Hsiao-Fan; Chiu, Hsien-Jane; Lan, Tsuo-Hung; Hu, Tsung-Ming; Loh, El-Wui

    2010-10-01

    Although schizophrenia can be treated, most patients still experience inevitable psychotic episodes from time to time. Precautious actions can be taken if the next onset can be predicted. However, sufficient information is always lacking in the clinical scenario. A possible solution is to use the virtual data generated from limited of original data. Data construction method (DCM) has been shown to generate the virtual felt earthquake data effectively and used in the prediction of further events. Here we investigated the performance of DCM in deriving the membership functions and discrete-event simulations (DES) in predicting the period embracing the initiation and termination time-points of the next psychotic episode of 35 individual schizophrenic patients. The results showed that 21 subjects had a success of simulations (RSS) ≥70%. Further analysis demonstrated that the co-morbidity of coronary heart diseases (CHD), risks of CHD, and the frequency of previous psychotic episodes increased the RSS.

  16. [Stigma as perceived by schizophrenics and depressives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzinger, Anita; Beck, Michael; Munk, Ingrid; Weithaas, Sandra; Angermeyer, Matthias C

    2003-10-01

    The goal of this study is to investigate the stigma of mental illness from the perspective of the persons directly affected by it. 210 patients with schizophrenia or major depression were questioned about anticipated and concrete stigmatization experiences, using a questionnaire especially developed for this study. Most of the patients expected negative reactions from the environment. Three quarters were convinced that their job application would be rejected when it became known that they are mentally ill. Almost two thirds felt apprehensive that others would avoid them due to their illness. There is hardly any difference between schizophrenia and depressive patients' assessment of stigmatization of mentally ill people. Concrete stigmatization experiences were most frequently reported in the domain of interpersonal interaction. Second comes the distorted picture of mentally ill people that is depicted in the media and experienced as hurtful by the patients. The obstacles to access social roles (partnership, work, etc.) perceived by the patients come third. Participants least frequently mentioned structural discrimination, i. e. disadvantages regarding psychiatric treatment or rehabilitation measures. Contrary to anticipated stigmatization, there are differences between the two diagnostic groups when it comes to concrete stigmatization experiences. Schizophrenia patients more frequently report that others would avoid contact with them and that the access to social roles was especially complicated for them. They also seemed to be more exposed to structural discrimination than depressive patients. Based on the results of this study, ways are discussed of how stigmatization and discrimination of mentally ill people can be reduced.

  17. Investigation of the speed of reaction on external stimulus in schizophrenic psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampera, E

    1997-06-01

    In 30 schizophrenic examinees, the latention time was measured. This time is referred to as an interval between the start of the stimulus and the response to the stimulus in the skin-galvanic reflex. Elementary stimulation has been applied, using device's timer tone and clapping of hands, which should simulate and associate the thunderclap. The intensity of psychosis was measured according to the Metric scale of psychotic behavior by Rogina, while the intensity of anxiety was measured by psychological tests: Rorschach's psycho-diagnostic test and Spillberger's questionnaire for anxiety. The reaction to the stimulus and latention time were registered using polygraph unit in order to record skin-galvanic reflex. The research was performed at two separate time points: prior to the therapy with derivatives of the phenothiazine group (the experimental examination group), and 25 days after the therapy (control group). The research has shown that the latention time in schizophrenic examinees does not significantly differ from the corresponding time in healthy controls, and it averages 2.30 seconds. Furthermore, no statistically significant difference in latention time before and after the therapy was observed. However, before the therapy started, i.e. in experimental group," the examinees who were psychotic to a greater extent have shown longer latention than those less psychotic. Additional finding was that the examinees from experimental group who were more anxious according to psychological tests have also shown longer latention time. After the therapy, the reaction to the external stimulus was stronger, which was expressed in increased reaction amplitude in skin-galvanic reflex. The latention time was prolonged, especially in case of examinees that were psychotic to a smaller extent before the therapy. We can conclude that so-called transformed psychotic anxiety was replaced after the therapy with a "new" anxiety-existential fear, i.e. the stronger anxious expectation

  18. Adjunctive α-lipoic acid reduces weight gain compared with placebo at 12 weeks in schizophrenic patients treated with atypical antipsychotics: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam Wook; Song, Yul-Mai; Kim, Eosu; Cho, Hyun-Sang; Cheon, Keun-Ah; Kim, Su Jin; Park, Jin Young

    2016-09-01

    α-Lipoic acid (ALA) has been reported to be effective in reducing body weight in rodents and obese patients. Our previous open trial showed that ALA may play a role in reducing weight gain in patients with schizophrenia on atypical antipsychotics. The present study evaluated the efficacy of ALA in reducing weight and BMI in patients with schizophrenia who had experienced significant weight gain since taking atypical antipsychotics. In a 12-week, double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study, 22 overweight and clinically stable patients with schizophrenia were randomly assigned to receive ALA or placebo. ALA was administered at 600-1800 mg, as tolerated. Weight, BMI, abdomen fat area measured by computed tomography, and metabolic values were determined. Adverse effects were also assessed to examine safety. Overall, 15 patients completed 12 weeks of treatment. There was significant weight loss and decreased visceral fat levels in the ALA group compared with the placebo group. There were no instances of psychopathologic aggravation or severe ALA-associated adverse effects. ALA was effective in reducing weight and abdominal obesity in patients with schizophrenia who had experienced significant weight gain since beginning an atypical antipsychotic regimen. Moreover, ALA was well tolerated throughout this study. ALA might play an important role as an adjunctive treatment in decreasing obesity in patients who take atypical antipsychotics.

  19. Healthcare resource use, comorbidity, treatment and clinical outcomes for patients with primary intracranial tumors: a Swedish population-based register study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergqvist, Jenny; Iderberg, Hanna; Mesterton, Johan; Bengtsson, Nils; Wettermark, Björn; Henriksson, Roger

    2017-03-01

    Primary intracranial tumors are relatively uncommon and heterogeneous, which make them challenging to study. We coupled data from unique Swedish population-based registries in order to deeper analyze the most common intracranical tumor types. Patient characteristics (e.g. comorbidities), care process measures like adherence to national guidelines, healthcare resource use and clinical outcome was evaluated. A register-based study including several population-based registries for all patients living in Stockholm-Gotland, diagnosed with primary intracranial tumor between 2001 and 2013 was performed. Patient characteristics were captured and investigated in relation to survival, healthcare resource use (inpatient-, outpatient- and primary care) and treatment process. High-grade glioma and meningioma were the most common tumor types and most patients (76%) were above the age of 40 in the patient population (n = 3664). Older age, comorbidity (Elixhauser comorbidity index) and type of tumor (high-grade glioma) were associated with lower survival rate and increased use of healthcare resources, analyzed for patients living in Stockholm (n = 3031). The analyses of healthcare use and survival showed no differences between males and females, when stratifying by tumor types. Healthcare processes were not always consistent with existing national treatment recommendations for patients with high-grade gliomas (n = 474) with regard to specified lead times, analyzed in the Swedish Brain Tumor Registry, as also observed at the national level. Age, comorbidity and high-grade gliomas, but not sex, were associated with decreased survival and increased use of healthcare resources. Fewer patients than aimed for in national guidelines received care according to specified lead times. The analysis of comprehensive population-based register data can be used to improve future care processes and outcomes.

  20. [Beyond suffering, schizophrenic improvisation and therapeutic challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizot, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Led jointly by an actress and an occupational therapist, an 'improvisation' activity has been set up within the Sainte-Anne University Hospital SHU Sector 14 for hospitalised patients, on medical prescription. This containing environment provides psychological support and encourages patients with schizophrenia to explore their creativity and to 'let go' so as to discover new physical possibilities. The group thereby becomes a support for the relationship and the development of verbal and non-verbal communication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. The relation of serotonin-related gene and COMT gene polymorphisms with criminal behavior in schizophrenic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Kyung Bong; Choi, Eun Hee; Lee, Young-joon; Han, Mooyoung; Choi, Sang-Sup; Kim, So Won; Lee, Min Goo

    2012-02-01

    It has been suggested that patients with schizophrenia might be involved in criminal behavior, such as homicidal and violent behavior. However, the relationship between criminal behavior and genes in patients with schizophrenia has not been clearly elucidated. The objective of this study was to examine the relation between criminal behavior and serotonin-related gene or catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene polymorphisms in patients with schizophrenia. Serotonin-related and COMT polymorphic markers were assessed by using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping. Ninety-nine crime-related inpatients with schizophrenia (57 homicidal and 42 nonhomicidal violent) and 133 healthy subjects were enrolled between October 2005 and May 2008. Diagnoses were made according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria. The genotype frequencies of tryptophan hydroxylase-1 (TPH1) A218C and COMT V158M were compared between groups. The TPH1 CC genotype had 2.7-fold higher odds of crime-related schizophrenia compared with A-carrier genotype after the analysis was controlled for sex and age (OR, 2.69; 95% CI, 1.22 - 5.91; P = .01). In addition, the TPH1 CC genotype had 3.4-fold higher odds of homicidal schizophrenia compared with A-carrier genotype after the analysis was controlled for sex and age (OR, 3.38; 95% CI, 1.40 - 8.18; P = .007). However, no significant differences were found in the frequencies of genotype of COMT polymorphism between criminal schizophrenics and healthy subjects, nor were any significant differences found between nonhomicidal schizophrenics and healthy subjects. These results indicate that the TPH1 CC recessive genotype is likely to be a genetic risk factor for criminal behavior, especially homicidal behavior in patients with schizophrenia. However, COMT gene polymorphisms were not associated with criminal behavior in schizophrenic patients. © Copyright 2012 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  2. [Effects on Stress, Problem Solving Ability and Quality of Life of as a Stress Management Program for Hospitalized Schizophrenic Patients: Based on the Stress, Appraisal-Coping Model of Lazarus & Folkman].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun Ah; Sung, Kyung Mi

    2016-08-01

    The study was done to evaluate the effects a Stress Management Program (SMP) on stress, problem solving skills, and quality of life for hospitalized patients with Schizophrenia. A mixed method design was used: a combination of a repeated-measure design with a non-equivalent control group and qualitative data collection. The participants were 40 patients with schizophrenia admitted in three psychiatric hospitals. The experimental group (n=20) received the SMP twice a week for a total of 8 weeks. Study results revealed that the SMP was effective for stress (F=321.02, pproblem solving ability (F=246.28, peffective strategy to reduce patients' hospitalization stress, and improve problem solving skills and quality of life. Therefore, it is recommended that mental health nurses use this stress management program in clinical practice to assist adaptation to hospitalization for persons with schizophrenia.

  3. Prayer and the Registered Nurse (PRN): nurses' reports of ease and dis-ease with patient-initiated prayer request.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minton, Mary E; Isaacson, Mary; Banik, Deborah

    2016-09-01

    To explore nurse comfort with patient-initiated prayer request scenarios. Spiritual care is fundamental to patient care evidenced by Joint Commission requirement of a spiritual assessment on a patient's hospital admission. Prayer is an assessment component. Patients may seek solace and support by requesting prayer from the bedside nurse, the nurse may lack confidence in responding. Absent in the literature are reports specific to nurses' comfort when patients initiate prayer requests. Cross-sectional mixed methods study. Data were collected in early 2014 from 134 nurses in the USA via an online survey using QuestionPro. The qualitative results reported here were collated by scenario and analysed using thematic analysis. The scenario responses revealed patterns of ease and dis-ease in response to patient requests for prayer. The pattern of ease of prayer with patients revealed three themes: open to voice of calm or silence; physical or spiritual; can I call the chaplain. For these nurses, prayer is a natural component of nursing care, as the majority of responses to all scenarios demonstrated an overwhelming ease in response and capacity to pray with patients on request. The pattern of dis-ease of prayer with patients distinguished two themes: cautious hesitancy and whose God. These nurses experienced dis-ease with the patient's request no matter the situation. Educators and administrators must nurture opportunities for students and nurses to learn about and engage in the reflective preparation needed to respond to patient prayer requests. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The effect of a brief family intervention on primary carer's functioning and their schizophrenic relatives levels of psychopathology in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaramane, Virupaksha; Pai, Nagesh B; Vella, Shae-Leigh

    2011-09-01

    This study examined the short term effects of a brief familial intervention on schizophrenic the patient's levels of psychopathology and their primary caregiver's functioning in India. Caregiver functioning was measured by the caregiver's levels of burden and coping along with the patient's perceived level of expressed emotion (EE). The participants were 18 schizophrenic patients and their related primary carer from a medical facility in India. The patients' levels of psychopathology and EE were assessed at baseline and at completion of the study with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS; Kay et al., 1987) and the Family Emotional Involvement And Criticism Scale (FEICS; Shields et al., 1992), respectively. The primary caregiver's levels of burden and coping were also measured at baseline and upon completion of the study by the Burden Assessment Scale (BAS; Thara et al., 1998) and the Family Crisis Oriented Personal Evaluation Scale (F-COPES; McCubbin et al., 1981), respectively. The brief intervention was comprised of 3 one hour sessions aimed at educating the primary caregiver and patient about schizophrenia; along with improving their communication, problem solving skills and expression of emotions. A significant improvement was found between baseline and the final 3-month follow-up on measures of psychopathology for the patients, as well as family functioning for both the caregivers and patients. The implications of the findings are discussed, along with future research directions. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Revisiting the Association of Aggression and Suicidal Behavior in Schizophrenic Inpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuner, Tanja; Hubner-Liebermann, Bettina; Hausner, Helmut; Hajak, Goran; Wolfersdorf, Manfred; Spiessl, Hermann

    2011-01-01

    Our study investigated the association of aggression and suicidal behavior in schizophrenic inpatients. Eight thousand nine hundred one admissions for schizophrenia (1998-2007) to a psychiatric university hospital were included. Schizophrenic suicides (n = 7)/suicide attempters (n = 40) were compared to suicides (n = 30)/suicide attempters (n =…

  6. Pragmatic assessment of schizophrenic bilinguals' L1 and L2 use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports on a study investigating the pragmatic skills and deficits of schizophrenic bilinguals in their spontaneous first language (L1) and second language (L2) speech. Smit (2009) (see also Smit et al., this volume) argues that the locus of deficits in schizophrenic speech is semantics and suggests that a next step ...

  7. National Register Historic Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The National Register Historic District layer is a shape file showing the boundaries of Historic Districts that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

  8. Danish physicians' preferences for prescribing escitalopram over citalopram and sertraline to treatment-naïve patients: a national, register-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Karen Killerup; Glintborg, Dorte; Moreno, Søren Ilsøe; Thirstrup, Steffen; Aagaard, Lise; Andersen, Stig Ejdrup

    2013-05-01

    To investigate whether general practitioners, hospital physicians and specialized practitioners in psychiatry have similar preferences for initiating treatment with expensive serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). All first-time prescriptions for the SSRIs escitalopram, citalopram and sertraline reported to the Danish National Register of Medicinal Product Statistics from April 1, 2009 until March 31, 2010 were analysed with regard to treatment naivety and type of prescriber. A prescription was considered as first time if the patient had not received a prescription for the same drug within the last 2 years. Patients who had not received a prescription for an antidepressant within 6 months prior to the date of redemption were classified as treatment-naïve. We included 82,702 first-time prescriptions, 65,313 (79 %) of which were for treatment-naïve patients. Of the treatment-naïve patients, 19 % were initially prescribed escitalopram. Hospital physicians prescribed escitalopram to 34 % of their treatment-naïve patients, while practitioners specialized in psychiatry prescribed it to 25 %, and general practitioners prescribed it to 17 %. General practitioners, however, were responsible for initiating 87 % of all treatment-naïve patients. The most expensive SSRI, escitalopram, is prescribed as first choice to one in five patients receiving their first antidepressant of escitalopram, citalopram or sertraline. General practitioners made the bulk of all first-time SSRI prescriptions to treatment-naïve patients.

  9. Knowledge and pharmaceutical care practice regarding inhaled therapy among registered and unregistered pharmacists: an urgent need for a patient-oriented health care educational program in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulameer SA

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Shaymaa Abdalwahed Abdulameer Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Rafidain University College, Baghdad, Iraq Background: Inadequate inhaled aerosol device demonstration and technique by health care professionals can lead to poor disease control. The aims of this study were to develop and validate Knowledge of Aerosol Tool (KAT among registered and unregistered pharmacists and to assess the pharmaceutical care practice among registered pharmacists.Methods: The KAT and pharmaceutical care practice questionnaires were developed and modified from previous reports, then an observational cross-sectional study with a convenience sample size of 340 was carried out among registered and unregistered pharmacists. The validation process included face validity and reliability, and item analysis was carried out.Results: The results showed good face validity and reliability with Cronbach’s alpha test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient for test–retest of 0.637 and 0.440, respectively. The KAT item difficulty index for most items was between 0.130 and 0.667. The total KAT scores for registered and unregistered pharmacists were 10.13±3.152 and 8.29±2.930, respectively, which revealed inadequate pharmacist knowledge of inhaled aerosol device technique and therapies. In addition, only 38.38% of the total sample was found to have a high KAT level score. The results showed higher KAT scores among males, pharmacists with a family history of respiratory disease, and pharmacists with a master’s degree. For the registered pharmacists, there were positive correlations between the total KAT score and the total pharmaceutical care practice score and the average number of patients with a respiratory disease seen by the pharmacist weekly, respectively. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between the total KAT score and its aerosol administration subscale with pharmacotherapy care and comorbid disease management practice care.Conclusion: The KAT showed good validity

  10. Nasal cycle dominance and hallucinations in an adult schizophrenic female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannahoff-Khalsa, David; Golshan, Shahrokh

    2015-03-30

    Nasal dominance, at the onset of hallucinations, was studied as a marker of both the lateralized ultradian rhythm of the autonomic nervous system and the tightly coupled ultradian rhythm of alternating cerebral hemispheric dominance in a single case study of a schizophrenic female. Over 1086 days, 145 hallucination episodes occurred with left nostril dominance significantly greater than the right nostril dominant phase of the nasal cycle. A right nostril breathing exercise, that primarily stimulates the left hemisphere, reduces symptoms more quickly for hallucinations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of antipsychotic medication on sexual function and serum prolactin levels in community-treated schizophrenic patients: results from the Schizophrenia Trial of Aripiprazole (STAR study (NCT00237913

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pans Miranda

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effect of antipsychotics for the treatment of schizophrenia in a community based study on sexual function and prolactin levels comparing the use of aripiprazole and standard of care (SOC, which was a limited choice of three widely used and available antipsychotics (olanzapine, quetiapine or risperidone (The Schizophrenia Trial of Aripiprazole [STAR] study [NCT00237913]. Method This open-label, 26-week, multi-centre, randomised study compared aripiprazole to SOC (olanzapine, quetiapine or risperidone in patients with schizophrenia (DSM-IV-TR criteria. The primary effectiveness variable was the mean total score of the Investigator Assessment Questionnaire (IAQ at Week 26. The outcome research variables included the Arizona Sexual Experience scale (ASEX. This along with the data collected on serum prolactin levels at week 4, 8, 12, 18 and 26 will be the focus of this paper. Results A total of 555 patients were randomised to receive aripiprazole (n = 284 or SOC (n = 271. Both treatment groups experienced improvements in sexual function from baseline ASEX assessments. However at 8 weeks the aripiprazole treatment group reported significantly greater improvement compared with the SOC group (p = 0.007; OC. Although baseline mean serum prolactin levels were similar in the two treatment groups (43.4 mg/dL in the aripiprazole group and 42.3 mg/dL in the SOC group, p = NS at Week 26 OC, mean decreases in serum prolactin were 34.2 mg/dL in the aripiprazole group, compared with 13.3 mg/dL in the SOC group (p Conclusion The study findings suggest that aripiprazole has the potential to reduce sexual dysfunction, which in turn might improve patient compliance.

  12. Study of the impact of training of registered nurses in cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a tertiary care centre on patient mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayureshkumar Pareek

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Nurses should have cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR knowledge and skills to be able to implement effective interventions during in-hospital cardiac arrest. The aim of this descriptive study was to assess mortality impact after nurses' CPR training with pre-CPR training data at our institute. Methods: Training regarding CPR was given to nurses, and CPR mortality 1-year before basic life support (BLS and advanced cardiac life support (ACLS training were collected and compared with post-training 1-year CPR mortality. Results: A total of 632 adult patients suffering in-hospital cardiac arrest over the study period. CPR was attempted in 294 patients during the pre-BLS/ACLS training period and in 338 patients in the post-BLS/ACLS training period. In the pre-BLS/ACLS training period, 58 patients (19.7% had return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC, while during the post-BLS/ACLS training period, 102 patients (30.1% had ROSC (P = 0.003. Sixteen of the 58 patients (27.5% who achieved ROSC during the pre-BLS/ACLS training period survived to hospital discharge, compared 54 out of 102 patients (52.9% in the post-BLS/ACLS training period (P < 0.0001. There was no significant association between either the age or sex with the outcomes in the study. Conclusion: Training nurses in cardiopulmonary resuscitation resulted in a significant improvement in survival to hospital discharge after in-hospital cardiac arrest.

  13. Contribution of co-registered PET/CT for patients with suspected recurrence of colo-rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garin, E.; Devillers, A.; Prigent, F.; Girault, S.; Herry, J.Y.; Bourguet, P.; Bouriel, C.; Boudjema, K.; Campion, J.P.; Meunier, B.; Boucher, E.; Raoul, J.L.

    2003-01-01

    Positron emission tomography using 18 F fluorodeoxyglucose (PET) has proved to offer advantages for patients presenting with suspected recurrence of colo-rectal cancer. However; this examination is confronted with two disadvantages: the lack of anatomical reference marks and the presence of physiological uptake that can be difficult to locate. We carried out a retrospective study on 30 patients with suspected recurrence of Colo-rectal cancer in order to evaluate the diagnostic and therapeutic impact of PET/CT fusion images compared with PET alone. PET/CT acquisitions were performed on a prototype Positrace or on a double-detection head gamma camera in coincidence Hawkeye. PET/CT fusion images had a formal diagnostic impact for 6 patients out of 30 (20%), including 5 patients out of 12 (41%) having a suspected pelvic recurrence. In five cases, it allowed us to resolve ambiguities about whether the site of recurrence was located in the bone or the soft tissues. Furthermore, in one case we were able to locate an intra-abdominal uptake focus at the level of the liver. The PET/CT fusion images had a probable diagnostic impact for three additional patients. For two patients, the PET/CT fusion images allowed us to identify an ambiguous uptake focus as being related to physiological renal uptake. For 4 patients out of 30 (13%), the PET/CT fusion images had a clear additional therapeutic impact, including 4/12 (33%) for whom a pelvic recurrence could be suspected. The present study shows that PET/CT fusion images have an important diagnostic and therapeutic impact for patients with suspected recurrence of colorectal cancer; the impact becoming major for the subgroup of patients having a suspected pelvic recurrence. (author)

  14. Adjustment for misclassification in studies of familial aggregation of disease using routine register data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elisabeth Anne Wreford; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the misclassification that occurs when relying solely on routine register data in family studies of disease clustering. A register study of familial aggregation of schizophrenia is used as an example. The familial aggregation is studied using a regression model for the disease...... before this time are misclassified as disease-free. Two methods are presented to adjust for this misclassification: regression calibration and an EM-type algorithm. These methods are used in the schizophrenia example where the large effect of having a schizophrenic mother hardly shows any signs of bias...

  15. Incidence of hip and knee replacement in patients with rheumatoid arthritis following the introduction of biological DMARDs: an interrupted time-series analysis using nationwide Danish healthcare registers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordtz, René Lindholm; Hawley, Samuel; Prieto-Alhambra, Daniel; Højgaard, Pil; Zobbe, Kristian; Overgaard, Søren; Odgaard, Anders; Kristensen, Lars Erik; Dreyer, Lene

    2018-05-01

    To study the impact of the introduction of biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) and associated rheumatoid arthritis (RA) management guidelines on the incidence of total hip (THR) and knee replacements (TKR) in Denmark. Nationwide register-based cohort and interrupted time-series analysis. Patients with incident RA between 1996 and 2011 were identified in the Danish National Patient Register. Patients with RA were matched on age, sex and municipality with up to 10 general population comparators (GPCs). Standardised 5-year incidence rates of THR and TKR per 1000 person-years were calculated for patients with RA and GPCs in 6-month periods. Levels and trends in the pre-bDMARD (1996-2001) were compared with the bDMARD era (2003-2016) using segmented linear regression interrupted by a 1-year lag period (2002). We identified 30 404 patients with incident RA and 297 916 GPCs. In 1996, the incidence rate of THR and TKR was 8.72 and 5.87, respectively, among patients with RA, and 2.89 and 0.42 in GPCs. From 1996 to 2016, the incidence rate of THR decreased among patients with RA, but increased among GPCs. Among patients with RA, the incidence rate of TKR increased from 1996 to 2001, but started to decrease from 2003 and throughout the bDMARD era. The incidence of TKR increased among GPCs from 1996 to 2016. We report that the incidence rate of THR and TKR was 3-fold and 14-fold higher, respectively among patients with RA compared with GPCs in 1996. In patients with RA, introduction of bDMARDs was associated with a decreasing incidence rate of TKR, whereas the incidence of THR had started to decrease before bDMARD introduction. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Multifocality as a prognostic factor in breast cancer patients registered in Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) 1996-2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, L.E.; Gunnarsdottir, K.A.; Lanng, C.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic influence of multifocality in breast cancer patients. In a cohort of 7196 patients there were 945 patients with multifocality. We found no prognostic influence of multifocality on overall survival when controlling for known prognostic......, Gunnarsdottir KA, Rasmussen BB, Moeller S, Lanng C. The prognostic influence of multifocality in breast cancer patients. Breast 2004;13:188-193]....... factors. We found a small but significant influence on disease-free survival (HR=1.16 [1.03-1.31]) and a strong correlation between multifocality and known prognostic factors. This was in accordance with an earlier study done on a smaller population and in a different period of time [Pedersen L...

  17. Cholecystectomy and sphincterotomy in patients with mild acute biliary pancreatitis in Sweden 1988 - 2003: a nationwide register study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stenlund Hans C

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gallstones represent the most common cause of acute pancreatitis in Sweden. Epidemiological data concerning timing of cholecystectomy and sphincterotomy in patients with first attack of mild acute biliary pancreatitis (MABP are scarce. Our aim was to analyse readmissions for biliary disease, cholecystectomy within one year, and mortality within 90 days of index admission for MABP. Methods Hospital discharge and death certificate data were linked for patients with first attack acute pancreatitis in Sweden 1988-2003. Mortality was calculated as case fatality rate (CFR and standardized mortality ratio (SMR. MABP was defined as acute pancreatitis of biliary aetiology without mortality during an index stay of 10 days or shorter. Patients were analysed according to four different treatment policies: Cholecystectomy during index stay (group 1, no cholecystectomy during index stay but within 30 days of index admission (group 2, sphincterotomy but not cholecystectomy within 30 days of index admission (group 3, and neither cholecystectomy nor sphincterotomy within 30 days of index admission (group 4. Results Of 11636 patients with acute biliary pancreatitis, 8631 patients (74% met the criteria for MABP. After exclusion of those with cholecystectomy or sphincterotomy during the year before index admission (N = 212, 8419 patients with MABP remained for analysis. Patients in group 1 and 2 were significantly younger than patients in group 3 and 4. Length of index stay differed significantly between the groups, from 4 (3-6 days, (representing median, 25 and 75 percentiles in group 2 to 7 (5-8 days in groups 1. In group 1, 4.9% of patients were readmitted at least once for biliary disease within one year after index admission, compared to 100% in group 2, 62.5% in group 3, and 76.3% in group 4. One year after index admission, 30.8% of patients in group 3 and 47.7% of patients in group 4 had undergone cholecystectomy. SMR did not differ

  18. Sex Differences in Patient-Reported Outcomes After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Data From the Swedish Knee Ligament Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ageberg, Eva; Forssblad, Magnus; Herbertsson, Pär

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Female gender is a risk factor for sustaining anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. However, little is known about possible sex differences in patients with ACL injury/reconstruction. PURPOSE: To study sex differences in patient-reported outcomes before and at 1 and 2 years after ACL...... in KOOS and EQ-5D preoperatively, 1 and 2 years postoperatively, and over time. RESULTS: Preoperatively, female patients reported worse scores than male patients in 4 KOOS subscales (pain, symptoms, sport/recreation, quality of life) and EQ-5D, with the largest difference seen in KOOS sport....../recreation (mean difference, 4.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.0-6.3). At 1 year postoperatively, female patients reported worse scores than male patients in KOOS pain (mean difference, 1.4; 95% CI, 0.4-2.4) and KOOS sport/recreation (mean difference, 2.7; 95% CI, 0.9-4.4) and at 2 years postoperatively in KOOS...

  19. Diabetes Self-Management Education and Medical Nutrition Therapy Improve Patient Outcomes: A Pilot Study Documenting the Efficacy of Registered Dietitian Nutritionist Interventions through Retrospective Chart Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marincic, Patricia Z; Hardin, Amie; Salazar, Maria V; Scott, Susan; Fan, Shirley X; Gaillard, Philippe R

    2017-08-01

    Diabetes self-management education (DSME) and medical nutrition therapy (MNT) improve patient outcomes; poor reimbursement limits access to care. Our aim was to develop methodology for tracking patient outcomes subsequent to registered dietitian nutritionist interventions, document outcomes for patients with type 2 diabetes attending an American Diabetes Association-recognized program, and obtain outcome data to support reimbursement and public policy initiatives to improve patient access to DSME and MNT. Retrospective chart review. A random sample of 100 charts was chosen from the electronic medical records of patients with type 2 diabetes completing DSME and individualized MNT, June 2013 to 2014. Data were extracted on body mass index (calculated as kg/m 2 ), weight, hemoglobin A1c, blood glucose, and lipids. Mixed-model analysis of variance was used to determine differences between means for continuous variables; McNemar's tests and γ-statistic trend analysis were used to assess frequency of patients reaching glycemic targets. Significant weight loss was observed from baseline (94.3±21.1 kg) to end of program (91.7±21.2 kg [-1.6±3.9 kg]; P0.05). Significant hemoglobin A1c reduction was observed from baseline (8.74%±2.30%) to end of program (6.82%±1.37% [-1.92%±2.25%]; Phemoglobin A1c targets (≤7.0%) vs 27% at baseline (P=0.008). When stratified by diet alone and diet plus drug therapy, patients exhibited a 1.08%±1.20% (Phemoglobin A1c, respectively. Triglycerides decreased from baseline 181.6±75.5 mg/dL (2.0±0.9 mmol/L) to 115.8±48.1 mg/dL (1.3±0.5mmol/L) (P=0.023). High-density lipoprotein increased from 41.4±12.4 mg/dL (1.1±0.3 mmol/L) to 47.3±12.4 mg/dL (1.2±0.3 mmol/L) (P=0.007). Retrospective chart review provides an operational model for abstracting existing patient outcome data subsequent to registered dietitian nutritionist interventions. In support of universal reimbursement and patient access to DSME with supplemental individualized

  20. THE ASSESSMENT OF COMPLIANCE TO THE USE OF NEW ORAL ANTICOAGULANTS IN PATIENTS WITH ATRIAL FIBRILLATION ACCORDING TO THE PROFILE REGISTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Y. Martsevich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study in the PROFILE register the rate of new oral anticoagulants (NOAC taking in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF and to identify the factors influencing it.Material and methods. Patients with AF who applied to the Cardiology Center in 2013-2014 (n=111 were included into the study. The oral anticoagulants (OAC were recommended to patients at the reference visit (n=97. Inquiry in questionnaire format was performed to assess the compliance to recommended therapy at the follow-up visit. Patients were divided into two groups according to taking/not-taking NOAC. Analysis of the facts that influence the compliance to NOAC therapy was performed.Results. At the reference visit 70 patients desired to receive NOAC. At the follow-up visit 29 (41.4% patients refused to take NOAC. Leading causes of NOAC refusal were satisfactory with warfarin (32.6%, the high price of these drugs (23.9%, the description of adverse reactions in the patient information leaflet for medicines (15.2%, and withdrawal by physician in outpatient clinic/hospital (8.7%. Preferential provision of medicines and warfarin therapy at the time of reference visit had a negative impact on the taking of NOAC. Patients taking NOAC were more aware of the possible outcomes of their illness, the possible side effects of OAC and were more familiar with patient information leaflet for medicines.Conclusion. The study assessed NOAC taking rate and the factors influencing patients' compliance to NOAC therapy.

  1. Empowering the registered nurses of tomorrow: students' perspectives of a simulation experience for recognising and managing a deteriorating patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michelle A; Forber, Jan; Conlon, Lisa; Roche, Michael; Stasa, Helen

    2014-05-01

    Recognising and responding to patients who are deteriorating are key aspects to improving outcomes. Simulations provide students with exposure to deteriorating patient scenarios and the role of nurses in such events. The number of programmes seeking to provide best possible simulation experiences is growing exponentially. Robust evaluation of these experiences is crucial to ensure maximum benefit. To assess the impact of a deteriorating patient simulation experience on students' technical and communication skills; and to determine if differing study programmes and years of previous nursing experience influenced students' responses and experiences. A convenience sample of final year nursing students (N=57) in a medical-surgical course at a large urban university completed a descriptive pre/post simulation survey rating their technical skills and communication abilities in recognising and responding to patient deterioration. Changes in pre/post scores were analysed including influence of study programme (3-year, 2-year Enrolled Nurse, 2-year Graduate Entry); gender; and years nursing experience (beyond course clinical practicum). Statistically significant improvements in post-simulation survey scores were demonstrated for combined student group data. Students with greater years of nursing experience had statistically higher scores than those with less experience in both pre- and post-surveys. Specific improvements were identified for: assessing a deteriorating patient; and in seeking help from the medical officer or external service. All student groups gained benefit in participating in a deteriorating patient simulation. For this group, greater years of prior nursing experience led to higher pre- and post-survey scores. The learning activity provided students an experience of the importance of recognising and responding to an acute situation in a timely manner which may be recalled in subsequent clinical situations. © 2013.

  2. A Register-Based Study of Occupational Functioning in Non-Psychotic Patients Before and After Psychotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, Morten Munthe; Poulsen, Stig Bernt; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Mental disorders are an important cause of occupational impairments. Little is known about whether psychotherapeutic treatment helps patients function in their jobs. This study investigated long-term changes in occupational functioning for patients referred to treatment...... higher number of days on sick leave (pOccupational outcome of psychotherapy may be less advantageous than shown in previous studies. Differences can...... perhaps be explained by the length and symmetry of the observation period before and after intervention. Other possible reasons for the outcome are: disorder chronicity; a labor market that excludes individuals with mental disorders; and that psychotherapy does not address occupational functioning....

  3. Subtrochanteric and diaphyseal femur fractures in patients treated with alendronate: a register-based national cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Eiken, Pia; Eastell, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Alendronate (aln) is a potent bisphosphonate with a prolonged duration of action. Recent reports have found long-term aln use to be common in patients with subtrochanteric or proximal diaphyseal femur fracture, raising concerns that these fractures could be a consequence of excessive suppression...

  4. Determinants of duration of untreated psychosis among first-episode psychosis patients in Denmark: A nationwide register-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Lene Halling; Haahr, Ulrik Helt; Jansen, Jens Einar

    2018-01-01

    area), premorbid and illness-related factors (global functional level, substance misuse, and contact to police), healthcare factors (referral source and first FEP contact) and DUP. Method: The study population of 1266 patients aged 15-25. years diagnosed with FEP (ICD10 F20.0-F20.99) was drawn from...

  5. Social media use profile, social skills, and nurse-patient interaction among Registered Nurses in tertiary hospitals: A structural equation model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariano, Micah Celine O; Maniego, John Christian M; Manila, Hariette Lou Marie D; Mapanoo, Ram Cedrick C; Maquiran, Kerwin Miguel A; Macindo, John Rey B; Tejero, Lourdes Marie S; Torres, Gian Carlo S

    2018-04-01

    Social media has become increasingly important over the past decades and has been integrated in various environments, including the healthcare setting. Yet, the influence of social media use on the social skills and nurse-patient interaction of nurses is an area in nursing that requires further studies. This study determined the interrelationships among social media use profile, social skills, and nurse-patient interaction of Registered Nurses in tertiary hospitals. Employing structural equation modeling, a descriptive-correlational study was conducted among 212 consecutively-selected nurses from two tertiary hospitals. Consenting respondents completed a two-part survey composed of the respondent profile sheet and the Social Skills Inventory. The respondent profile sheet assessed demographic profile and social media use profile in terms of the mode, frequency, and duration of utilization. Three trained team members observed each nurse-patient dyad and completed the Nurse-Patient Bonding Instrument. A good fit model illustrated the negative effects of frequent social media use to patient openness (β = -0.18, p social media on a daily basis, however, positively affected both dimensions of social skills. Accessing social media platforms using non-handheld devices showed the most influential positive effects to social skills and nurse-patient interaction. Additionally, although verbal social skills positively affected most dimensions of nurse-patient interaction, non-verbal social skills negatively influenced patient engagement (β = -0.19, p = 0.019) and nurse openness (β = -0.38, p ≤ 0.05). The structural model illustrates the effects of using social media on the social skills and nurse-patient interaction of nurses and emphasizes the need for implementing institutional policies on the judicious use and application of social media in the workplace. Further, social skills development programs geared toward having a balanced social skill must

  6. Prevalence of Disability and Associated Factors among Registered Leprosy Patients in All Africa Tb and Leprosy Rehabilitation and Training Centre (ALERT), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumet, Tigist; Demissie, Meaza; Bekele, Yonas

    2015-10-01

    Delay in leprosy diagnosis and treatment causes disabilities due to nerve damage, immunological reactions and bacillary infiltration. Leprosy disability leads not only to physical dysfunction and activity limitation but also disrupts social interaction of affected individuals by creating stigma and discrimination. This study was aimed at assessing leprosy disability status in patients registered at All African TB and Leprosy Rehabilitation and Training Centre. Medical records of leprosy patients registered from September 11, 2010 to September 10, 2013 G.C were reviewed. Prevalence of disability calculated, bivariate and multiple logistic regressions were used to determine crude and adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence interval. The overall prevalence of disability was found to be 65.9% from all categories of patients (40.2% Grade I and 25.7% Grade II). The Prevalence among the new category was 62.8% (39.1% Grade 1 and 23.7% Grade 2). Those ageed above 30 years, with duration of symptoms 6-12 months and above 24 months, with sensory loss, nerve damage and reversal reaction were more likely to develop disability. In this study the prevalence of disability, both Grade I and II, is very high. Disability was associated with age, duration of symptom, sensory loss, signs of nerve damage and reversal reaction. These risk factors indicate the existence of delay in diagnosis and treatment of leprosy cases. Therefore, the national leprosy control program should investigate leprosy case detection and diagnosis system in the country and work on improving early case detection and prevention of disability.

  7. The impact of methicillin-resistant S. aureus on length of stay, readmissions and costs: a register based case-control study of patients hospitalized in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Elizabeth S. Andreassen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA are thought to incur additional costs for hospitals due to longer stay and contact isolation. The aim of this study was to assess the costs associated with MRSA in Norwegian hospitals. Methods Analyses were based on data fromSouth-Eastern Norway for the year 2012 as registered in the Norwegian Surveillance System for Communicable Diseases and the Norwegian Patient Registry. We used a matched case-control method to compare MRSA diagnosed inpatients with non-MRSA inpatients in terms of length of stay, readmissions within 30 days from discharge, as well as the Diagnosis-Related Group (DRG based costs. Results Norwegian patients with MRSA stayed on average 8 days longer in hospital than controls, corresponding to a ratio of mean duration of 2.08 (CI 95%, 1.75–2.47 times longer.A total of 14% of MRSA positive inpatients were readmitted compared to 10% among controls. However, the risk of readmission was not significantly higher for patients with MRSA. DRG based hospital costs were 0.37 (95% CI, 0.19–0.54 times higher among cases than controls, with a mean cost of EUR13,233(SD 26,899 and EUR7198(SD 18,159 respectively. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that Norwegian patients with MRSA have longer hospital stays, and higher costs than those without MRSA.

  8. The influence of registered nurses and nurse practitioners on patient experience with primary care: results from the Canadian QUALICO-PC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammi, Mehdi; Ambrose, Sarah; Hogg, Bill; Wong, Sabrina

    2017-12-01

    Nurses, whether registered nurses (RNs) or nurse practitioners (NPs), are becoming key providers of primary care services. While evidence for the influence of NPs on patient experience in primary care is mounting, this is less so for RNs. We use the Canadian component of the international Quality and Costs of Primary Care 2013/14 survey to investigate the mechanisms by which nurses can affect patients' experience in primary care, focusing on accessibility and appropriateness of care. The data allow us to distinguish between family practice RNs, specialised RNs and NPs, and covers all types of patients visiting a primary care clinic in a variety of contexts in all Canadian provinces. In addition to the types of nurses and full-time equivalent (FTE) numbers, we explore the role of nurse autonomy and collaboration. Our regression results show that one of the most important predictors of patient experience is the collaboration between health professionals, whereas nurse staffing in terms of FTE numbers has little influence by itself. Different types of nurses influence different dimensions of accessibility, and the association between patient experience and nurse staffing depends on the number of physicians in the clinic. Our results can inform decision-makers on how to strengthen primary care provision, and particularly in Canadian context, the adaptation of the recently implemented interprofessional primary care teams. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Quantitative modeling of the accuracy in registering preoperative patient-specific anatomic models into left atrial cardiac ablation procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rettmann, Maryam E., E-mail: rettmann.maryam@mayo.edu; Holmes, David R.; Camp, Jon J.; Cameron, Bruce M.; Robb, Richard A. [Biomedical Imaging Resource, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Kwartowitz, David M. [Department of Bioengineering, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634 (United States); Gunawan, Mia [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Georgetown University, Washington D.C. 20057 (United States); Johnson, Susan B.; Packer, Douglas L. [Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Dalegrave, Charles [Clinical Cardiac Electrophysiology, Cardiology Division Hospital Sao Paulo, Federal University of Sao Paulo, 04024-002 Brazil (Brazil); Kolasa, Mark W. [David Grant Medical Center, Fairfield, California 94535 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: In cardiac ablation therapy, accurate anatomic guidance is necessary to create effective tissue lesions for elimination of left atrial fibrillation. While fluoroscopy, ultrasound, and electroanatomic maps are important guidance tools, they lack information regarding detailed patient anatomy which can be obtained from high resolution imaging techniques. For this reason, there has been significant effort in incorporating detailed, patient-specific models generated from preoperative imaging datasets into the procedure. Both clinical and animal studies have investigated registration and targeting accuracy when using preoperative models; however, the effect of various error sources on registration accuracy has not been quantitatively evaluated. Methods: Data from phantom, canine, and patient studies are used to model and evaluate registration accuracy. In the phantom studies, data are collected using a magnetically tracked catheter on a static phantom model. Monte Carlo simulation studies were run to evaluate both baseline errors as well as the effect of different sources of error that would be present in a dynamicin vivo setting. Error is simulated by varying the variance parameters on the landmark fiducial, physical target, and surface point locations in the phantom simulation studies. In vivo validation studies were undertaken in six canines in which metal clips were placed in the left atrium to serve as ground truth points. A small clinical evaluation was completed in three patients. Landmark-based and combined landmark and surface-based registration algorithms were evaluated in all studies. In the phantom and canine studies, both target registration error and point-to-surface error are used to assess accuracy. In the patient studies, no ground truth is available and registration accuracy is quantified using point-to-surface error only. Results: The phantom simulation studies demonstrated that combined landmark and surface-based registration improved

  10. Correlation between the personality traits and social behavior mode of schizophrenic patients in remission stage%缓解期精神分裂症患者人格特征与社会行为模式相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆艺; 刘金同; 王旸; 乔冬冬; 苏磊; 李宪伟; 简佳

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨缓解期精神分裂症患者人格特征与其社会行为模式的相关性。方法采用 NEO 人格问卷修订本(NEO-PI-R)、人际信任量表(ITS)、安全感量表(SQ)对111例缓解期精神分裂症患者(研究组)和125例正常健康者(对照组)进行评定,分析大五人格特征与人际信任、安全感的相关性。结果研究组 NEO-PI-R 问卷 C 维度低于对照组(P<0.01)。研究组 NEO-PI-R 问卷的 N 维度与 ITS 量表的特殊信任因子呈正相关(P =0.031),A 维度与特殊信任因子呈负相关(P =0.001),O、A 维度与普遍信任因子呈正相关(P <0.05)。NEO-PI-R 问卷的 N 维度与 SQ 量表的人际安全感因子呈负相关(P =0.000),A、C 维度与人际安全感因子呈正相关(P <0.05),N 维度与确定控制感因子呈负相关(P =0.000),O、A、C 维度与确定控制感因子呈正相关(P <0.05)。结论缓解期精神分裂症患者的人格特征与其社会行为模式有关。%Objective To explore the correlation between the personality traits and social behavior mode of schizophrenic patients in remission stage.Methods 111 patients with schizophrenia in remission stage (study group)and 125 healthy subjects (control group)were assessed with NEO Personality Inventory-Revised edition (NEO-PI-R),Interpersonal Trust Scale (ITS)and Security Questionnaire (SQ).The correlation of big five personality traits with interpersonal trust and sense of security were analyzed between the two groups.Results Score of C dimension of NEO-PI-R in study group was significantly lower than that in control group (P <0.05).In study group,score of N dimension of NEO-PI-R was significantly positively correlated with factor score of special trust of ITS (P =0.031),while score of A dimension was significantly negatively correlated with factor score of special trust (P =0.001 ).Scores of O dimension and A dimension of

  11. Fractures in patients with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and other eating disorders--a nationwide register study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestergaard, Peter; Emborg, Charlotte; Støving, René K; Hagen, Claus; Mosekilde, Leif; Brixen, Kim

    2002-11-01

    To study fracture risk in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), or eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS). Cohort study including all Danes diagnosed with AN (n = 2,149), BN (n = 1,294), or EDNOS (n = 942) between 1977 and 1998. Each patient was compared with three randomly drawn age- and gender-matched control subjects. Fracture risk was increased in AN after diagnosis compared to controls (incidence rate ratio: 1.98, 95% CI: 1.60-2.44), but not before. The increased fracture risk persisted more than 10 years after diagnosis. A significant increase in fracture risk was found before diagnosis in BN (1.31, 95% CI: 1.04-1.64), with a trend towards an increase after diagnosis (1.44, 95% CI: 0.93-2.22). EDNOS patients had a significant increase in fracture risk before (1.39, 95% CI: 1.06-1.81) and after diagnosis (1.77, 95% CI: 1.25-2.51). The increased fracture risk many years after diagnosis indicates permanent skeletal damage. Copyright 2002 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. [Recovery of intersubjectivity and empathy in schizophrenics: through a characteristic type of friendship "frolicking"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Yoshiko

    2003-01-01

    The author has noticed a characteristic form of close, frolicsome friendship between recovering adolescent schizophrenic patients. It occurs in groups of young patients in a psychiatric clinic and in a day-care institution. Through this type of friendship, their intersubjectivity, ability for empathy and human relations develop, essential changes for the amelioration of schizophrenia. It is characterized by 1 A mutual relationship on equal terms with another schizophrenic patient of the same sex and generation; particularly close friendship between two patients, or sometimes several patients who form a group, spending much time together. 2 Playful, childish behavior, jokes and jests; Patients laugh and make others laugh, playing together. 3 Touching the friends' bodies and coordinated playing such as dancing and singing together. 4 Chatting and having common interests, along with sharing various experiences. 5 Enjoyment with so much energy that sometimes, as in a gang, social norms are contravened. 6 Being a transient phenomenon that ends naturally after a certain period. Through such friendship, the adolescents show mental growth compared with their premorbid state. They come to sympathize with others' feelings and willingly cooperate. Their social relationships and spheres of activity expand, and spontaneity and self-esteem become improved. They come to assert themselves adequately, tolerate stress, and conform to social norms. Moreover, they advance to developing a purpose. e.g. work. To be able to have empathy through friendship with those of the same sex and generation is a basic developmental theme generally seen in childhood and pre-adolescence. Such friendship between the patients studied represents benign regression in such a developmental period. This type of friendship is characterized by a frolicsome and playful atmosphere. Frolicking by means of jokes, jests and body-touching, and play with coordinated acts lead to the sharing of emotions and

  13. The Danish Medical Birth Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, Mette; Broe, Anne; Pottegård, Anton

    2018-01-01

    The Danish Medical Birth Register was established in 1973. It is a key component of the Danish health information system. The register enables monitoring of the health of pregnant women and their offspring, it provides data for quality assessment of the perinatal care in Denmark, and it is used...... on all births in Denmark and comprises primarily of data from the Danish National Patient Registry supplemented with forms on home deliveries and stillbirths. It contains information on maternal age provided by the Civil Registration System. Information on pre-pregnancy body mass index and smoking...

  14. [Aggressive behaviour and substance abuse among schizophrenic adolescents compared to antisocial adolescents--a follow-up study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevecke, Kathrin; Dreher, Jan; Walger, Petra; Junglas, Jürgen; Lehmkuhl, Gerd

    2005-04-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze aggressive behaviour towards others by schizophrenic as opposed to antisocial adolescents, and the influence of substance abuse before, during and after their hospitalization. We analyzed 21 schizophrenic adolescents and compared their aggressive behaviour and their substance abuse to that of 21 antisocial juveniles before and during their hospitalization and again at the time of a follow-up interview. The two samples were matched for age, sex and intelligence. In a first step, data were gathered from the hospital records, in a second step, for follow-up data we conducted standardized telephone interview with the patient and his or her parent or caregiver. Within the analysis we focused on aggressive behaviour towards other people and objects, as well as on criminal acts and regular substance abuse. We found less aggressive behaviour among psychotic patients during and post-hospitalization than among their antisocial counterparts. As inpatients, the acutely psychotic juveniles were at higher risk for aggressive acts, but adequate treatment subdued their offensive behaviour. In the long term, there were fewer criminal arrests among psychotic patients. Only in connection with their substance abuse, their aggressive misconduct towards others increased. Our results suggest that drug treatment during adolescence might help to lessen the risk of aggressive behaviour towards others.

  15. Mortality and Causes of Death in Patients With Osteogenesis Imperfecta: A Register-Based Nationwide Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkestad, Lars; Hald, Jannie Dahl; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a hereditary connective tissue disease that causes frequent fractures. Little is known about causes of death and length of survival in OI. The objective of this work was to calculate the risk and cause of death, and the median survival time in patients with OI...... five to one to the OI cohort. We calculated hazard ratios for all-cause mortality and subhazard ratios for cause-specific mortality in a comparison of the OI cohort and the reference population. We also calculated all-cause mortality hazard ratios for males, females, and age groups (0 to 17.99 years......, 18.00 to 34.99 years, 35.00 to 54.99 years, 55.00 to 74.99 years, and >75 years). We identified 687 cases of OI (379 women) and included 3435 reference persons (1895 women). A total of 112 patients with OI and 257 persons in the reference population died during the observation period. The all-cause...

  16. [Inbreeding, endogamy and exogamy among relatives of schizophrenia patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaskuliev, A A; Skoblo, G V

    1975-01-01

    An increased frequency of consanguineous marriages among the parents of schizophrenic patients in comparison with the control group of exogenous-somatic patients (infections, trauma) was found. Endogamy among the parents of schizophrenic patients and the control group was practically the same. The data obtained indicate a certain, but not the leading, role of inbreeding in the etiology of schizophrenia.

  17. Over-Expression of Dopamine D2 Receptor and Inwardly Rectifying Potassium Channel Genes in Drug-Naive Schizophrenic Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes as Potential Diagnostic Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ágnes Zvara

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is one of the most common neuropsychiatric disorders affecting nearly 1% of the human population. Current diagnosis of schizophrenia is based on complex clinical symptoms. The use of easily detectable peripheral molecular markers could substantially help the diagnosis of psychiatric disorders. Recent studies showed that peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL express subtypes of D1 and D2 subclasses of dopamine receptors. Recently, dopamine receptor D3 (DRD3 was found to be over-expressed in schizophrenic PBL and proposed to be a diagnostic and follow-up marker for schizophrenia. In this study we screened PBL of 13 drug-naive/drug-free schizophrenic patients to identify additional markers of schizophrenia. One of the benefits of our study is the use of blood samples of non-medicated, drug-naive patients. This excludes the possibility that changes detected in gene expression levels might be attributed to the medication rather than to the disorder itself. Among others, genes for dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2 and the inwardly rectifying potassium channel (Kir2.3 were found to be over-expressed in microarray analysis. Increased mRNA levels were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR using the SybrGreen method and dual labeled TaqMan probes. The use of both molecular markers allows a more rapid and precise prediction of schizophrenia and might help find the optimal medication for schizophrenic patients.

  18. Nerve trauma of the lower extremity: evaluation of 60,422 leg injured patients from the TraumaRegister DGU® between 2002 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckhagel, Torge; Nüchtern, Jakob; Regelsberger, Jan; Gelderblom, Mathias; Lefering, Rolf

    2018-05-15

    Nerve lesions are well known reasons for reduced functional capacity and diminished quality of life. By now only a few epidemiological studies focus on lower extremity trauma related nerve injuries. This study reveals frequency and characteristics of nerve damages in patients with leg trauma in the European context. Sixty thousand four hundred twenty-two significant limb trauma cases were derived from the TraumaRegister DGU® between 2002 and 2015. The TR-DGU is a multi- centre database of severely injured patients. We compared patients with additional nerve injury to those with intact neural structures for demographic data, trauma mechanisms, concomitant injuries, treatment and outcome parameters. Approximately 1,8% of patients with injured lower extremities suffer from additional nerve trauma. These patients were younger (mean age 38,1 y) and more likely of male sex (80%) compared to the patients without nerve injury (mean age 46,7 y; 68,4% male). This study suggests the peroneal nerve to be the most frequently involved neural structure (50,9%). Patients with concomitant nerve lesions generally required a longer hospital stay and exhibited a higher rate for subsequent rehabilitation. Peripheral nerve damage was mainly a consequence of motorbike (31,2%) and car accidents (30,7%), whereas leg trauma without nerve lesion most frequently resulted from car collisions (29,6%) and falls (29,8%). Despite of its low frequency nerve injury remains a main cause for reduced functional capacity and induces high socioeconomic expenditures due to prolonged rehabilitation and absenteeism of the mostly young trauma victims. Further research is necessary to get insight into management and long term outcome of peripheral nerve injuries.

  19. Long-term use of opioids in 210 officially registered patients with chronic noncancer pain in Taiwan: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tso-Chou; Ger, Luo-Ping; Pergolizzi, Joseph V; Raffa, Robert B; Wang, Ju-O; Ho, Shung-Tai

    2017-04-01

    Prescribing opioids for chronic noncancer pain has been strictly regulated for two decades in Taiwan. The aim of this study was to survey the patients' perspectives and potential drawbacks following long-term use of opioids. An observational cross-sectional survey using the Taiwanese version of Brief Pain Inventory was conducted among outpatients with chronic noncancer pain registered by the Taiwan Food and Drug Administration. Patients were also asked about their sexual behavior, depression, opioid misuse behaviors, and use of complementary and alternative medicine. For 210 of 328 outpatients (64.0%), the median pain duration was 96 months and opioid treatment duration was 57 months. The median morphine equivalent dose was 150 mg/d, with 30.5% of patients exceeding the daily watchful dose, defined as 200 mg of morphine equivalent dose. Pain reduction after taking opioids was ∼50% in the past week. The top three diagnoses were chronic pancreatitis, spinal cord injury, and neuralgia. The leading side effects were constipation (46.7%), and decreased sexual desire (69.5%) and satisfaction (57.9%). Depression was currently diagnosed in 55.2% of patients. Twenty patients (9.5%) displayed at least one aberrant behavior in the past month. Only 76 (36.2%) patients had ever received nerve block procedures, and 118 (56.2%) tried complementary and alternative medicine. This nationwide survey described the concurrent pain intensity, daily function, and various adverse effects by long-term opioids among 210 monitored outpatients with chronic noncancer pain in Taiwan. More efforts are suggested to reduce opioid prescriptions in the 30% of patients exceeding daily watchful dose. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE IN A SAMPLE OF INSTITUTIONALIZED CHRONIC SCHIZOPHRENIC PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Maia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan los resultados de un estudio descriptivo y exploratorio, con el propósito de comprender los resultados de 21 pacientes esquizofrenicos varones, evaluados con pruebas neuropsicológicas, internados en un centro portugués de salud mental. Se busca relacionar estas pruebas a variables tales como escolaridad, contacto familiar o duración de la internación. Los instrumentos del evaluación fueron: serie de dígitos y vocabulario del WAIS, las matrices progresivas de Raven, las figuras complejas de Rey, La serie gráfica neuropsicológica del screening de Luria, el Test del reloj y el test de búsqueda visual y atención. Los resultados de las pruebas sugieren que no hay un déficit de atención clínicamente significativo, aunque sugieren un defecto ligero de la atención. Las variables como contacto familiar y escolaridad aparecen como los factores protectores de memoria y también parecen ser significativos para las funciones de ejecutivas del cerebro como son la planificación y organización.

  1. The multiple-faces configuration illusion in schizophrenic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Simas, Maria Lucia de Bustamante; Rocha, Christiane Delusia de Oliveira; Sedycias, Rafael Freitas Modesto; Amaral, Viviane Ferreira do; Menezes, Felipe Schuler de

    2008-01-01

    The Multiple-Faces Configuration Illusion is observed by staring at a black dot while paying attention to a face in the peripheral visual field (Simas, 2000). Changes of facial expressions, movements, depth (EMF) or different face identities (MF) are observed in this illusion. Forty participants took part in the study: 20 outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia, and 20 people helping friends or relatives in a hospital clinic. The face-stimulus was placed in a partition stand and participants...

  2. affective, schizophrenic and mood disorders in patients admitted at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Schizoaffective Disorder; Schizophrenia; Mood disorders; Epidemiology; Africa. Received: 17-05-2011 .... performance, depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, ...... mixed mania with mood-incongruent psychotic features. Eur.

  3. Expressed emotion among schizophrenic patients in Lagos, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SCIENTIFIC LETTER | http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajpsy.v16i5.43. Afr J Psychiatry 2013 ... arrangements after an episode of mental disorder, and found that relapse rates ... International Pilot study of Schizophrenia which found that outcome was ...

  4. Calcium supplementation and inflammation increase mortality in rheumatoid arthritis: A 15-year cohort study in 609 patients from the Oslo Rheumatoid Arthritis Register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provan, Sella A; Olsen, Inge C; Austad, Cathrine; Haugeberg, Glenn; Kvien, Tore K; Uhlig, Till

    2017-02-01

    To investigate whether osteoporosis or use of calcium supplementations predict all-cause mortality, or death from CVD, in a longitudinal cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Patients in the Oslo RA register (ORAR) were examined, and bone mineral density was measured in 1996. The cohort was linked to the Norwegian Cause of Death registry on December 31, 2010. Death from CVD was defined in 3 following different outcomes: (1) primary atherosclerotic death, (2) atherosclerotic death as one of the 5 listed causes of death, and (3) CVD according to World Health Organization (WHO) definition as primary cause of death. Baseline predictors of all-cause mortality and death from CVD were identified in separate Cox regression models, using backwards selection. Sensitivity analyses were performed including analyses of interactions and competing risk. A total of 609 patients were examined in 1996/1997. By December 31, 2010, 162 patients (27%) had died, resulting in 7439 observed patient-years. Of the deceased, 40 (24.7%) had primary atherosclerotic death. In the final model of all-cause mortality increased baseline ESR [hazard ratio (HR) 1.02 per mm/h, 95% CI: 1.01-1.03], calcium supplementation (1.74, 1.07-2.84), and osteoporosis, defined as a T score ≤2.5 SD at any location, (1.58, 1.07-2.32) predicted higher mortality rates, in models adjusted for age, gender, and a propensity score. In the final model of primary atherosclerotic death, increased ESR (1.03 per mm/h, 1.01-1.05) and calcium supplementation (3.39, 1.41-8.08), predicted higher mortality. Increased baseline ESR and use of calcium supplementation were predictors of increased all-cause mortality and risk of death from CVD in this longitudinal study of patients with RA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Added diagnostic benefit of 16-row whole-body spiral CT in patients with multiple trauma differentiated by region and injury severity according to the ATLS registered concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer, M.H.; Knopke, S.; Schroeder, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: to determine the added diagnostic benefit of using MS-CT in multiple trauma patients differentiated by severity of injury and affected body region. Materials and methods: a retrospective analysis was performed of the 16-row whole-body spiral CT findings in 275 multiple trauma patients (73% men, 27% women; age 39.6 ± 18.9 years) with regard to additional findings and new findings obtained with CT compared to the findings obtained by conventional projection radiography and abdominal ultrasound in the emergency room. The additional and new findings were differentiated by body region (head, face, chest, pelvis, abdomen, spine) and the degree of severity according to the three classes of injuries distinguished by the ATLS registered concept (class 1: simple injury, class 2: potentially life threatening, class 3: immediately life threatening). Results: a total of 921 additional findings (findings potentially relevant for further diagnosis and therapy in addition to the findings obtained by conventional radiography or ultrasound) were obtained by MS-CT in all patients. The distribution by number of patients and body region was as follows: 22 neck, 76 face, 125 chest, 112 abdomen, 50 pelvis, and 91 spine. Most additional findings were categorized as potentially life threatening (ATLS class 2). In addition, there were 439 completely new findings, involving the head in 128 patients (mostly ATLS class 3), the face in 18, the chest in 47, the abdomen in 26, and the spine in 9 patients. Most new findings involving the face, abdomen, and spine were ATLS class 2 injuries. (orig.)

  6. The Danish Pathology Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Beth; Larsen, Ole B

    2011-01-01

    The National Board of Health, Denmark in 1997 published guidelines for reporting of pathology data and the Danish Pathology Register (DPR) was established.......The National Board of Health, Denmark in 1997 published guidelines for reporting of pathology data and the Danish Pathology Register (DPR) was established....

  7. Registered Nurse (Associate Degree).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of registered nurse (with an associate degree), lists technical competencies and competency builders for 19 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 5 units specific to the occupation of registered nurse. The following…

  8. The Danish Adoption Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Liselotte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2011-01-01

    The Danish Adoption Register was established in 1963-1964 to explore the genetic and environmental contribution to familial aggregation of schizophrenia.......The Danish Adoption Register was established in 1963-1964 to explore the genetic and environmental contribution to familial aggregation of schizophrenia....

  9. Josephson shift registers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przybysz, J.X.

    1989-01-01

    This paper gives a review of Josephson shift register circuits that were designed, fabricated, or tested, with emphasis on work in the 1980s. Operating speed is most important, since it often limits system performance. Older designs used square-wave clocks, but most modern designs use offset sine waves, with either two or three phases. Operating margins and gate bias uniformity are key concerns. The fastest measured Josephson shift register operated at 2.3 GHz, which compares well with a GaAs shift register that consumes 250 times more power. The difficulties of high-speed testing have prevented many Josephson shift registers from being operated at their highest speeds. Computer simulations suggest that 30-GHz operation is possible with current Nb/Al 2 O 3 /Nb technology. Junctions with critical current densities near 10 kA/cm 2 would make 100-GHz shift registers feasible

  10. Time and Costs of Insulin Treatment in the Care of Newly Registered Type 2 Diabetes Patients in Diabetes Clinics across Japan (JDDM 22

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariko Oishi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims To study the time and costs of insulin treatment of newly registered outpatients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Methods In total, 355 patients with T2DM were registered on their first visit to one of 11 diabetes clinics across Japan. Of these, 313 were not being treated with insulin (the non-insulin group, whereas 42 were (the insulin group. In the insulin group, 26 were already on insulin at the first visit, whereas 16 were started on insulin after their first visit. The time and costs involved in the care were recorded over the following 5 months. Results In the first 3 months, considerable time was expended in both groups, with the time spent by physicians a little (but significantly longer for the insulin group. The total time expended by all care providers was approximately 1.3-fold greater for the insulin compared with the non-insulin group. The total cost and total cost/min for the insulin group was almost twice that for the non-insulin group. Over the 5-month period, mean HbA 1c in the non-insulin group improved from 8.0% to 6.5%, with 72% achieving a glycemic target of HbA 1c ≤ 6.5%. In contrast, in the insulin group, mean HbA 1c improved from 9.4% to 7.6%, with only 39% achieving the target. There were no reports of major hypoglycemic events in either group and body mass index remained stable. Conclusions The insulin therapy for T2DM can be achieved safely and effectively at outpatient clinics, even though it requires considerably more time and resources than non-insulin therapy.

  11. Dual hydrophilic and salt responsive schizophrenic block copolymers – synthesis and study of self-assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasantha, Vivek Arjunan; Jana, Satyasankar; Lee, Serina Siew Chen; Lim, Chin-Sing; Teo, Serena Lay Ming; Parthiban, Anbanandam; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2015-01-01

    A new class of dual hydrophilic diblock copolymers (BCPs) possessing poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and zwitterionic polysulfabetaine (PSB) was synthesized by reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. These BCPs formed schizophrenic micelles undergoing core–shell

  12. Health care and social care costs of pneumonia in Denmark: a register-based study of all citizens and patients with COPD in three municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brogaard SL

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Susanne Lausten Brogaard,1 Maj Britt Dahl Nielsen,1 Lars Ulrik Nielsen,2 Trine Mosegaard Albretsen,3 Morten Bundgaard,4 Niels Anker,1 Maja Appel,1 Kim Gustavsen,1 Rose-Marie Lindkvist,5 Anne Skjoldan,2 Grete Breinhild,3 Peter Bo Poulsen5 1COWI AS, Management - Health, Kongens Lyngby, 2Seniors and Health Department, Gladsaxe Municipality, Welfare Technology, Søborg, 3Elderly and Health Care Department, Lolland Municipality, Maribo, 4Department of Public Health, Holbaek Municipality, Holbaek, 5Pfizer Denmark ApS, Health & Value, Ballerup, Denmark Background: Pneumonia is a frequent lung infection and a serious illness, which is often diagnosed among patients hospitalized with acute exacerbations of COPD. The aim of this study was to estimate the attributable costs due to pneumonia among patients hospitalized with pneumonia compared to a matched general population control group without pneumonia hospitalization.Methods: This study includes citizens older than 18 years from three municipalities (n=142,344. Based on national registers and municipal data, the health and social care costs of pneumonia in the second half of 2013 are estimated and compared with propensity score-matched population controls.Results: The average health care costs of 383 patients hospitalized with pneumonia in the second half of 2013 were US$34,561 per patient. Among pneumonia patients with COPD, the costs were US$35,022. The attributable costs of patients with pneumonia compared to the population control group for the 6-month period were US$24,155 per case. Overall, the attributable costs for the 383 pneumonia cases amounted to US$9.25 million. Subgroup analyses showed that costs increased with age. The attributable costs due to pneumonia were highest among the 18–59-year-old and the 70–79-year-old patients. This difference is likely to reflect an increased risk of mortality among the pneumonia patients. Men have higher costs than women in the pneumonia group

  13. Validation of a Cerebral Palsy Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topp, Monica; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Uldall, P.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To analyse completeness and validity of data in the Cerebral Palsy Register in Denmark, 1979-1982. METHODS: Completeness has been assessed by comparing data from The Danish National Patient Register (DNPR) with the cases included in the Cerebral Palsy Register (CPR). Agreement between......, but gestational age was subject to a systematic error, and urinary infections in pregnancy (kappa = 0.43) and placental abruption (kappa = 0.52) were seriously under-reported in the CPR. CONCLUSIONS: Completeness of the Cerebral Palsy Register in Denmark, 1979-1982, has been assessed to maximal 85%, emphasizing...

  14. Registers of multiple sclerosis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch-Henriksen, N; Magyari, M; Laursen, B

    2015-01-01

    between a number of different environmental exposures in the past and the subsequent risk of MS. Some of these studies have been able to exonerate suspected risk factors. The other register, the nationwide Danish Multiple Sclerosis Treatment Register, is a follow-up register for all patients who have......There are two nationwide population-based registers for multiple sclerosis (MS) in Denmark. The oldest register is The Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry (DMSR), which is an epidemiological register for estimation of prevalence and incidence of MS and survival, and for identifying exposures earlier...... received disease-modifying treatments since 1996. It has, in particular, contributed to the knowledge of the role of antibodies against the biological drugs used for the treatment of MS....

  15. Recruiting former melanoma patients via hospitals in comparison to office-based dermatologists in a register-based cohort study that required indirect contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Zeissig

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are detailed reviews about different recruitment strategies, but not with regard to differences between recruitment of hospital-based versus office-based physicians. Within this study, the two different recruitment schemes are compared. Advantages and disadvantages of different ways of recruitment in registry-based studies are discussed. Methods In a cross-sectional cancer-registry-based study, long-term melanoma patients were contacted by dermatologists rather than directly by the registry on the basis of the legal situation. Logistic regression models and generalized estimating equations were used to assess effects of various patient and physician characteristics on participation and data quality. Especially differences between hospital-based versus office-based dermatologists are evaluated. Results Seventy two out of 112 contacted dermatologists took part in the study (64.3%. The cooperation proportion was 52.2% (689 participants/1320 contacted patients. Participants and non-participants differed regarding age and sex, but not regarding other social demographic factors and cancer stage. We did not observe a difference in patient participation between hospital-based versus office-based dermatologists (OR 1.08 [CI 0.84–1.39]; p = 0.57. However, medical data provided by the cancer registry were better for participants registered and recruited by hospitals. Conclusions In cohort studies with epidemiological cancer registries, recruitment via physicians has potential disadvantages and is more complex. If this indirect way of contact is mandatory, we recommend recruitment procedures including hospital-based rather than office-based physicians. However, physician characteristics were not associated with outcome.

  16. Lateralization pattern in patients with Schizophrenia and Depression ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to see the incidence of peripheral laterality in schizophrenics and depressed patients. A total of 147 male subjects (29 schizophrenics, 38 depressed, 80 non-patient controls) were asked to indicate their preferences for hand, foot, eye, and ear on the Sidedness Bias Schedule. The correlations ...

  17. Informing the development of a national diabetes register in Ireland: a literature review of the impact of patient registration on diabetes care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica O'Mullane

    2010-09-01

    Conclusions This review suggested that registers are generally assumed to be an essential element of quality improvement interventions rather than an optional addition. A diabetes register is central to the development of a comprehensive diabetes management system in primary care, which can lead to improvements in the processes and outcomes of diabetes care.

  18. The effectiveness of delegation interventions by the registered nurse to the unlicensed assistive personnel and their impact on quality of care, patient satisfaction, and RN staff satisfaction: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Una; Itty, Any Sajan; Nazario, Helen; Pinon, Miriam; Slyer, Jason; Singleton, Joanne

    Delegation by the registered nurse is a decision making process that includes assessment, planning, implementation, and evaluation. Due to an ever-expanding global shortage of nurses, registered nurses are increasingly dependent on unlicensed assistive personnel to assist in the provision of safe patient care. Delegation is recognised as a fundamental nursing skill that can be utilised effectively to improve quality care. To examine and synthesize the best available evidence regarding the impact of delegation interventions used by the registered nurse with the unlicensed assistive personnel and their impact on quality of care, patient satisfaction, and registered nurse staff satisfaction. Registered nurses and unlicensed assistive personnel in patient care settings where delegation occurs.This review considered studies that evaluated the effectiveness of delegation interventions by registered nurses to unlicensed assistive personnel.The outcomes examined were quality of care, patient satisfaction, and/or registered nurse staff satisfaction as measured by validated and reliable tools.The review first considered randomised controlled trials; in their absence other research designs, such as non-randomised controlled trials, or other quasi-experimental studies, observational studies and descriptive studies were considered for inclusion in the systematic review. The search strategy aimed to find both published and unpublished studies in the English language from the inception of the included databases through December 2011. The databases searched included the Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Healthsource Nursing/Academic edition, and PsycINFO. A search of the grey literature and electronic hand searching of relevant journals was also performed. The studies selected for retrieval were critically evaluated by two independent reviewers for methodological quality using standardised critical appraisal instruments from the Joanna

  19. Federal Register in XML

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — The Federal Register is the official daily publication for rules, proposed rules, and notices of Federal agencies and organizations, as well as executive orders and...

  20. The Danish Adoption Register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Liselotte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2011-07-01

    The Danish Adoption Register was established in 1963-1964 to explore the genetic and environmental contribution to familial aggregation of schizophrenia. The register encompass information on all 14,425 non-familial adoptions of Danish children legally granted in Denmark 1924-1947. It includes name and date of birth of each adoptee and his or her biological and adoptive parents, date of transfer to adoptive parents and date of formal adoption. The linkage to biological and adoptive parents is close to complete, even biological fathers are registered for 91.4% of the adoptees. Adoption registers are a unique source allowing disentangling of genetic and familial environmental influences on traits, risk of diseases, and mortality.

  1. Molecular Electronic Shift Registers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beratan, David N.; Onuchic, Jose N.

    1990-01-01

    Molecular-scale shift registers eventually constructed as parts of high-density integrated memory circuits. In principle, variety of organic molecules makes possible large number of different configurations and modes of operation for such shift-register devices. Several classes of devices and implementations in some specific types of molecules proposed. All based on transfer of electrons or holes along chains of repeating molecular units.

  2. IT Risk register

    OpenAIRE

    Kohout, Karel

    2011-01-01

    The theoretical part of the thesis analyzes several selected methodologies and best-practices related to information technology risks management, with focus on documents and guidance developed by ISACA. It builds a set of ideas and basic requirements for effective model of an IT risk register. Strong emphasis is placed on mapping CobiT 4.1 based Risk IT to COBIT 5. The practical part describes implementation of an exploratory web-based IT risk register in Python programming language utilizing...

  3. Real-life effectiveness of Golimumab in biologic-naïve patients with rheumatoid arthritis - data from the Rheumatic Diseases Portuguese Register (Reuma.pt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Filipa Mourão

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To assess the effectiveness of subcutaneous Golimumab 50 mg/monthly combined with methotrexate (SC GLM + MTX over 52 weeks of treatment, in biologic-naïve RA patients, in a multicentre nationwide cohort from the Rheumatic Diseases Portuguese Register (Reuma.pt. Methods. Data for this observational study was collected from March 2011 to August 2015. Disease activity (DAS28, functional capacity (HAQ and Patient Global Disease Assessment (PGDA were measured at baseline and weeks 12, 24 and 52 of treatment. The primary objective was clinical remission over 52 weeks (1 year and secondary objectives were: functional response and functional remission over 52 weeks, variation of individual components of DAS over time and treatment persistence at week 52. Comparison between baseline variables of subjects with and without clinical remission was performed. The SC GLM + MTX persistence rate was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier analysis. Cox proportional hazard model approach was used to evaluate predictive factors of persistence, response and remission. Results. A total of 109 patients were enrolled in the study: 94 (86.2% female, mean age 55.5±13.2 years, mean age at diagnosis 45.5±13.5 years, mean age at beginning of treatment with biologic agents 53.1±13.1 years; 78.1% positive for serum rheumatoid factor. All patients were biologic-naïve and had active disease, despite previous treatment with conventional DMARDs. At the time of this analysis, 93 patients had a follow-up time of at least 52 weeks (i.e. started treatment before August 2014. Of this group, 38.3% achieved clinical remission, 91.9% functional response and 35.2% functional remission, over 52 weeks. Treatment persistence was 75.3% at 1 year. Disease activity indices were all statistically significantly lower at 12, 24 and 52 weeks when compared to baseline. Older age at diagnosis was associated to a lower probability of clinical remission (HR= 0.96, p= 0.031 whereas higher C

  4. Use of Fall-Risk Inducing Drugs in Patients Using Anti-Parkinson Drugs (APD: A Swedish Register-Based Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ylva Haasum

    Full Text Available Many drugs increase the risk of falls in old age. Although persons with Parkinson's disease (PD are at increased risk of experiencing falls and fractures, the use of fall-risk inducing drugs (FRIDs in this population has not previously been investigated. The objective of this study was to investigate the burden of use of FRIDs in older persons treated with anti-Parkinson drugs (APD; used as a proxy for PD, compared to persons without APD.We analyzed individual data on age, sex, type of housing and drug use in 1 346 709 persons aged ≥ 65 years in the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register on the date of 30 September 2008. Main outcome measure was the use of FRIDs.FRIDs were used by 79% of persons with APD and 75% of persons without APD. Persons with APD were more likely to use ≥ 1 FRIDs compared to persons without APD (adjusted OR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.06-1-12. The association was stronger for concomitant use of ≥ 5 FRIDS (adjusted OR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.44-1.55.The high use of FRIDs among persons with APD indicates that these patients may be at increased risk of drug-induced falls. Further studies are needed to investigate how these drugs affect the risk of falling in persons with PD.

  5. Sliding hip screw versus IM nail in reverse oblique trochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures. A study of 2716 patients in the Norwegian Hip Fracture Register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matre, Kjell; Havelin, Leif Ivar; Gjertsen, Jan-Erik; Vinje, Tarjei; Espehaug, Birgitte; Fevang, Jonas Meling

    2013-06-01

    Intramedullary nailing is commonly recommended as the treatment of choice for transverse/reverse oblique trochanteric (AO/OTA type A3=intertrochanteric) and subtrochanteric fractures. However, only to a limited extent is this approach supported by superior results in well designed clinical trials, and the sliding hip screw (SHS) is still a frequently used implant for these fractures. The aim of the present study was to compare IM nails and SHS in the treatment of transverse/reverse oblique trochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures using data from the Norwegian Hip Fracture Register (NHFR). Data on 2716 operations for acute transverse/reverse oblique trochanteric or subtrochanteric fractures were collected from the NHFR from 2005 to 2010. Surgeons reported patient characteristics and details from initial surgery and reoperations, and patients answered questionnaires about pain, satisfaction, and quality of life (EQ-5D) 4, 12, and 36 months postoperatively. Reoperation rates were calculated using Kaplan-Meier analyses. Primary outcome measures were pain (Visual Analogue Scale (VAS)), satisfaction (VAS), quality of life (EQ-5D), and reoperation rates at one year. The treatment groups were similar regarding age, gender, ASA-class, cognitive impairment, and preoperative EQ-5Dindex score. At one year reoperation rates were 6.4% and 3.8% for SHS and IM nails, respectively (p=0.011). Patients treated with SHS also had slightly more pain (VAS 30 vs. 27, p=0.037) and were less satisfied (VAS 31 vs. 36, p=0.003) compared to patients treated with IM nail. There was no statistically significant difference in the EQ-5Dindex score, but the mobility was significantly better for the IM nail group. 12 months postoperatively patients with transverse/reverse oblique trochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures operated with a SHS had a higher reoperation rate compared to those operated with an IM nail. Small differences regarding pain, satisfaction, quality of life, and mobility were

  6. Predictors of poor outcomes after significant chest trauma in multiply injured patients: a retrospective analysis from the German Trauma Registry (Trauma Register DGU®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Stephan; Biberthaler, Peter; Delhey, Patrick; Trentzsch, Heiko; Winter, Hauke; van Griensven, Martijn; Lefering, Rolf; Huber-Wagner, Stefan

    2014-09-03

    Blunt thoracic trauma is one of the critical injury mechanisms in multiply injured trauma victims. Although these patients present a plethora of potential structural damages to vital organs, it remains debated which injuries actually influence outcome and thereby should be addressed initially. Hence, the aim of this study was to identify the influence of critical structural damages on mortality. All patients in the database of the TraumaRegister DGU® (TR-DGU) from 2002-2011 with AIS Chest ≥ 2, blunt trauma, age of 16 or older and an ISS ≥ 16 were analyzed. Outcome parameters were in-hospital mortality as well as ventilation time in patients surviving the initial 14 days after trauma. 22613 Patients were included (mean ISS 30.5 ± 12.6; 74.7% male; Mean Age 46.1 ± 197 years; mortality 17.5%; mean duration of ventilation 7.3 ± 11.5; mean ICU stay 11.7 ± 14.1 days). Only a limited number of specific injuries had a significant impact on survival. Major thoracic vessel injuries (AIS ≥5), bilateral lung contusion, bilateral flail chest, structural heart injury (AIS ≥3) significantly influence mortality in study patients. Several extrathoracic factors (age, blood transfusion, systolic blood pressure and extrathoracic severe injuries) were also predictive of increased mortality. Most injuries of the thoracic wall had no or only a moderate effect on the duration of ventilation. Injuries to the lung (laceration, contusion or pneumothoraces) had a moderate prolonging effect. Cardiac injuries and severe injuries to the thoracic vessels induced a substantially prolonged ventilation interval. We demonstrate quantitatively the influence of specific structural damages of the chest on critical outcome parameters. While most injuries of the chest wall have no or only limited impact in the study collective, injuries to the lung overall show adverse outcome. Injuries to the heart or thoracic vessels have a devastating prognosis following blunt

  7. Most patients who reach disease remission following anti-TNF therapy continue to report fatigue: results from the British Society for Rheumatology Biologics Register for Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druce, Katie L; Bhattacharya, Yagnaseni; Jones, Gareth T; Macfarlane, Gary J; Basu, Neil

    2016-10-01

    RA-related fatigue is common and debilitating, but does not always respond to immunotherapy. In the context of anti-TNF therapy, we aimed to examine whether patients achieving disease remission experienced remission of fatigue. Data from the British Society for Rheumatology Biologics Register for RA were used. In participants with severe baseline fatigue [36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) vitality score ⩽12.5], we identified those in disease remission [28-joint DAS (DAS28) 12.5) and complete remission (SF-36 vitality score >50) at follow-up. Demographic (e.g. sex, age), clinical (e.g. inflammation, joint erosion and co-morbidities) and psychosocial (e.g. SF-36 domains and HAQ) characteristics were compared between responder and non-responder groups. Severe baseline fatigue was reported by 2652 participants, of whom 271 (10%) achieved a DAS28 <2.6 by 6 months. In total, 225 participants (83%) reported partial remission and were distinguished from those who did not by better health status on all psychosocial domains. Far fewer [n = 101 (37.3%)] reported full fatigue remission. In addition to reporting clinically poorer health status, they were distinguished on the basis of a history of hypertension, depression and stroke as well as baseline treatment use of steroids and antidepressants. Despite achieving clinical remission, many RA patients do not achieve complete remission of their fatigue. Therefore, despite being important in overall disease control, reductions in disease activity are not always sufficient to ameliorate fatigue, so other symptom-specific management approaches must be considered for those for whom fatigue does not resolve. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Management of violent behaviour in acutely relapsed schizophrenics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Koen

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The management of aggressive behaviour has always been a criticai issue in psychiatry. Finding measures that can be used to accurately predict the likelihood of assaultative behaviour and thus ensure timeous appropriate pharmacological management remains a dilemma. The study objective was to investigate the naturalistic, pharmacological management of inpatient aggressive behaviour in a group of 50 schizophrenic subjects with a view to determine: (1 whether a presenting history of recent violence lead to altered pharmacological management and (2 whether the NOSIE could be regarded as a useful assessment tool with regards to inpatient behaviour management. No significant difference could be demonstrated between the 2 subsets of subjects (history of violence vs none with respect to total doses of medication administered. No statistical correlation could be found between the total NOSIE score and the dose of psychotropic medication used. The relationship between a subset of NOSIE-items and the total dose of medication was more complex and a clear linear relationship could be demonstrated for a total score of 0 to 5. In this particular ward setting a presenting history of recent violent behaviour did not influence the administration of medication and neither could the clinical judgement employed by the nursing staff to manage inpatient behaviour be captured by the NOSIE. However, a five-item subset of the NOSIE with questions relating to aggression and irritability warrants further scrutiny in this regard.

  9. Practical prognostic index for patients with metastatic recurrent breast cancer: retrospective analysis of 2,322 patients from the GEICAM Spanish El Alamo Register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente, Javier; López-Tarruella, Sara; Ruiz, Amparo; Lluch, Ana; Pastor, Miguel; Alba, Emilio; de la Haba, Juan; Ramos, Manuel; Cirera, Luis; Antón, Antonio; Llombart, Antoni; Plazaola, Arrate; Fernández-Aramburo, Antonio; Sastre, Javier; Díaz-Rubio, Eduardo; Martin, Miguel

    2010-07-01

    Women with recurrent metastatic breast cancer from a Spanish hospital registry (El Alamo, GEICAM) were analyzed in order to identify the most helpful prognostic factors to predict survival and to ultimately construct a practical prognostic index. The inclusion criteria covered women patients diagnosed with operable invasive breast cancer who had metastatic recurrence between 1990 and 1997 in GEICAM hospitals. Patients with stage IV breast cancer at initial diagnosis or with isolated loco-regional recurrence were excluded from this analysis. Data from 2,322 patients with recurrent breast cancer after primary treatment (surgery, radiation and systemic adjuvant treatment) were used to construct the prognostic index. The prognostic index score for each individual patient was calculated by totalling up the scores of each independent variable. The maximum score obtainable was 26.1. Nine-hundred and sixty-two patients who had complete data for all the variables were used in the computation of the prognostic index score. We were able to stratify them into three prognostic groups based on the prognostic index score: 322 patients in the good risk group (score or =15.61). The median survivals for these groups were 3.69, 2.27 and 1.02 years, respectively (P < 0.0001). In conclusion, risk scores are extraordinarily valuable tools, highly recommendable in the clinical practice.

  10. Emotional distress and strain in relatives of patients with severe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The levels of emotional distress and strain were examined in two groups of relatives of psychiatric patients using standard instruments. The dementia group had more GHQ - 30 cases than the schizophrenic group. Even though the schizophrenic relatives had higher distress and strain scores than the dementia relatives, ...

  11. Hello! Are You Registered?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute for Political/Legal Education, Sewell, NJ.

    Organizational procedures and appropriate forms for high school students to conduct a community survey of non-registered voters are provided. Duties for student coordinator, field staff, and clerical staff are described and a flow chart depicts the relationship of personnel to one another and to the community. Students are instructed to notify…

  12. EU Transparency Register

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mańko, R.; Thiel, M.; Bauer, E.

    2014-01-01

    Widespread lobbying in the EU institutions has led to criticism regarding the transparency and accountability of the EU's decision-making process. In response to these concerns, the Parliament set up its transparency register in 1995, followed by the Commission in 2008. The two institutions merged

  13. The Danish heart register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildstrøm, Steen Z; Madsen, Mette

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The Danish Heart Register (DHR) is a clinical database of invasive procedures within cardiology. Content: All providers of these procedures have been obliged to report to DHR since 2000. DHR is used to monitor the activity and quality of the procedures and serves as a data source...

  14. Register for Suicide Attempts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik; Jensen, Børge Frank

    2004-01-01

    The Register for Suicide Attempts (RSA) is a product of the WHO research project "WHO/Euro Multicentre Study on Parasuicide", which, among other things, had the purpose of collecting data on suicide attempts from 13 European countries. Data is collected in order to calculate trends and identify...

  15. Patients receiving anti-TNF therapies experience clinically important improvements in RA-related fatigue: results from the British Society for Rheumatology Biologics Register for Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druce, Katie L; Jones, Gareth T; Macfarlane, Gary J; Basu, Neil

    2015-06-01

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α are important in the pathogenesis of fatigue in conditions such as RA. This study aimed to determine whether fatigue improved in a cohort of RA patients with clinically relevant fatigue commencing anti-TNF-α therapy and, if so, to identify predictors of improvement. Participants recruited to a long-term observational cohort study (the British Society for Rheumatology Biologics Register for RA) provided information on fatigue using the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) vitality subscale. The prevalence of severe baseline fatigue (SF-36 vitality ≤12.5) was calculated and improvements, considered as (i) absolute values and (ii) improvement from severe to non-severe fatigue (SF-36 vitality >12.5), were examined 6 months subsequently. A comprehensive set of putative predictors of fatigue improvement were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression. In 6835 participants the prevalence of severe baseline fatigue was 38.8%. Of those with severe fatigue, 70% reported clinically relevant improvement and 66% moved to the non-severe fatigue category (i.e. improvers). The mean change for improvers was three times the minimum clinically important difference for improvement (33.0 U). Independent baseline predictors of improvement were female sex [odds ratio (OR) 1.3 (95% CI 1.1, 1.7)], not being unemployed due to ill health [OR 1.5 (95% CI 1.2, 1.7)], low disability [OR 1.2 (95% CI 1.001, 1.5)], seropositivity [OR 1.2 (95% CI 0.98, 1.4)], not using steroids [OR 1.2 (95% CI 1.03, 1.5)], no history of hypertension [OR 1.4 (95% CI 1.1, 1.6)] or depression [OR 1.3 (95% CI 1.1, 1.5)] and good mental health [SF-36 mental health subscale >35; OR 1.4 (95% CI 1.2, 1.7)]. Fatigued RA patients reported substantial improvement in their fatigue after commencing anti-TNF-α therapy. Further, a number of clinical and psychosocial baseline factors identified those most likely to improve, supporting future stratified approaches to RA

  16. Patterns of brain activity in normals and schizophrenics with positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkow, N.D.; Wolf, A.P.; Gomez-Mont, F.; Brodie, J.D.; Canero, R.; Van Gelder, P.; Russell, J.A.G.

    1985-01-01

    The authors investigated the functional interaction among brain areas under baseline and upon activation by a visual task to compare the response of normal subjects from the ones of chronic schizophrenics. Cerebral metabolic images were obtained on twelve healthy volunteers an eighteen schizophrenics with positron emission tomography and 11-C-Deoxyglucose. Correlation coefficients among the relative metabolic values (region of interest divided by the average of whole brain gray matter) of 11 brain regions; frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital left and right lobes, left and right basal ganglia and thalamus were computed for the baseline and for the task. Under baseline, normals showed more functional correlations than schizophrenics. Both groups showed a thalamo-occipital (positive) and thalamo-frontal (negative) interaction. The highest correlations among homologous brain areas were the frontal, occipital and basal ganglia

  17. Validation of the danish national diabetes register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Anders; Sortsø, Camilla; Jensen, Peter Bjødstrup

    2015-01-01

    The Danish National Diabetes Register (NDR) was established in 2006 and builds on data from Danish health registers. We validated the content of NDR, using full information from the Danish National Patient Register and data from the literature. Our study indicates that the completeness in NDR...... is ≥95% concerning ascertainment from data sources specific for diabetes, ie, prescriptions with antidiabetic drugs and diagnoses of diabetes in the National Patient Register. Since the NDR algorithm ignores diabetes-related hospital contacts terminated before 1990, the establishment of the date...... of encounter, has been taken as the date of inclusion in NDR. We also find that some 20% of the registrations in NDR may represent false positive inclusions of persons with frequent measurements of blood glucose without having diabetes. We conclude that NDR is a novel initiative to support research...

  18. Register-based studies on migration, ethnicity, and health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norredam, Marie; Kastrup, Marianne; Helweg-Larsen, Karin

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Researchers in Denmark have unique possibilities of register-based research in relation to migration, ethnicity, and health. This review article outlines how these opportunities have been used, so far, by presenting a series of examples. RESEARCH TOPICS: We selected six registers...... it discriminatory. Although, we do not register ethnicity in relation to use of health care in Denmark, our possibilities of linkage between population registers and registers on diseases and healthcare utilisation appear to render the same potentials....... to highlight the process of how migrant study populations have been established and studied in relation to different registers: The Danish Cancer Registry, the Danish Central Psychiatric Research Register, the Danish National Patient Register, the Danish National Health Service Register, the Danish Injury...

  19. Short-term cognitive improvement in schizophrenics treated with typical and atypical neuroleptics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollnik, Jens D; Borsutzky, Marthias; Huber, Thomas J; Mogk, Hannu; Seifert, Jürgen; Emrich, Hinderk M; Schneider, Udo

    2002-01-01

    Atypical neuroleptics seem to be more beneficial than typical ones with respect to long-term neuropsychological functioning. Thus, most studies focus on the long-term effects of neuroleptics. We were interested in whether atypical neuroleptic treatment is also superior to typical drugs over relatively short periods of time. We studied 20 schizophrenic patients [10 males, mean age 35.5 years, mean Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) score at entry 58.9] admitted to our hospital with acute psychotic exacerbation. Nine of them were treated with typical and 11 with atypical neuroleptics. In addition, 14 healthy drug-free subjects (6 males, mean age 31.2 years) were enrolled in the study and compared to the patients. As neuropsychological tools, a divided attention test, the Vienna reaction time test, the Benton visual retention test, digit span and a Multiple Choice Word Fluency Test (MWT-B) were used during the first week after admission, within the third week and before discharge (approximately 3 months). Patients scored significantly worse than healthy controls on nearly all tests (except Vienna reaction time). Clinical ratings [BPRS and Positive and Negative Symptom Scale for Schizophrenia (PANSS)] improved markedly (p divided attention task (r = 0.705, p = 0.034). Neuropsychological functioning (explicit memory, p divided attention, p < 0.05) moderately improved for both groups under treatment but without a significant difference between atypical and typical antipsychotic drugs. Over short periods of time (3 months), neuropsychological disturbances in schizophrenia seem to be moderately responsive to both typical and atypical neuroleptics. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  20. Plasma homovanillic acid in schizophrenics: supportive evidence for the two-subtype hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T Y; Lee, C F; Lung, F W; Lee, T C; Lin, W L; Hu, W H; Yeh, E K; Chang, W H

    1989-06-01

    Plasma levels of homovanillic acid (pHVA), a major metabolite of dopamine (DA), were measured in a group of 51 schizophrenic inpatients before and during 6 weeks of neuroleptic treatment. Steady-state plasma drug concentrations were monitored in parallel with pHVA. Good responders (n = 22) had higher pretreatment pHVA levels as compared to poor responders (n = 22). Differential pHVA changes during neuroleptic treatment were also found between each group. The two groups did not differ significantly in terms of age, duration of illness, severity of presenting symptoms, neuroleptic, dose, or plasma drug concentration. Two hypothetical subtypes in the group of schizophrenics were proposed.

  1. Working memory in volunteers and schizophrenics using BOLD fMRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giesel, F.L.; Hohmann, N.; Seidl, U.; Kress, K.R.; Schoenknecht, P.; Schroeder, J.; Kauczor, H.-U.; Essig, M.

    2005-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging uses the blood oxygen level-dependent effect (BOLD MRI) for noninvasive display of cerebral correlatives of cognitive function. The importance for the understanding of physiological and pathological processes is demonstrated by investigations of working memory in schizophrenics and healthy controls. Working memory is involved in processing rather than storage of information and therefore is linked to complex processes such as learning and problem solving. In schizophrenic psychosis, these functions are clearly restricted. Training effects in the working memory task follow an inverse U-shape function, suggesting that cerebral activation reaches a peak before economics of the brain find a more efficient method and activation decreases. (orig.) [de

  2. Decreased systolic blood pressure is associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment: A nationwide longitudinal observational study of 27,732 patients based on the Swedish National Diabetes Register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Maria K; Afghahi, Henri; Franzen, Stefan; Björk, Staffan; Gudbjörnsdottir, Soffia; Svensson, Ann-Marie; Eliasson, Björn

    2017-05-01

    Previous studies have shown a U-shaped relationship between systolic blood pressure and risk of all-cause of mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment. To evaluate the associations between time-updated systolic blood pressure and time-updated change in systolic blood pressure during the follow-up period and risk of all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment. A total of 27,732 patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment in the Swedish National Diabetes Register were followed for 4.7 years. Time-dependent Cox models were used to estimate risk of all-cause mortality. Time-updated mean systolic blood pressure is the average of the baseline and the reported post-baseline systolic blood pressures. A time-updated systolic blood pressure blood pressure > 10 mmHg between the last two observations was associated with higher risk of all-cause mortality (-10 to -25 mmHg; hazard ratio: 1.24, 95% confidence interval: 1.17-1.32). Both low systolic blood pressure and a decrease in systolic blood pressure during the follow-up are associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment.

  3. Risk of second primary cancer among patients with early operable breast cancer registered or randomised in Danish Breast Cancer cooperative Group (DBCG) protocols of the 77, 82 and 89 programmes during 1977-2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, M.; Jensen, Maiken Brit; Engholm, G.

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer survivors have increased risks of developing second primary cancers due to shared etiology, life style factors but also to primary breast cancer treatment. Among 53 418 patients registered by the population based Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) during 1977-2001, 31 818...... patients were treated and followed according to guidelines of DBCG. In addition to surgery 23% received tamoxifen, 23% chemotherapy and 35% radiotherapy as treatment for primary breast cancer. Second primary cancers were identified by linkage to the population based Danish Cancer Register. Cancer incidence...... rates of the Danish population were used for calculation of standardized incidence ratios (SIRs). Time at risk was from diagnosis of breast cancer+1 year until death or through 2002. Risk for all second primary cancers combined was increased, SIR=1.04 (95% confidence interval 0.99-1.08). Sites...

  4. Register / Andri Ksenofontov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ksenofontov, Andri, 1962-

    2007-01-01

    Näitused: Eesti Kujundusgraafikute Liidu aastanäitus "Register 2007" Kunstihoone galeriis, Signe Kivi "Võimuvaibad ja vaimukleidid" Arhitektuuri- ja Disainigaleriis, "Kehaturg / Sex market" (Dagmar Kase, Eveli Variku tööd) Tallinna Kunstihoones, Andrei Maksimjuki "Surematu klassika" Ühispanga galeriis, Katrin Veegeni "Varsti" A-galeriis, Eda Lõhmuse "Ülespoole" ja Rein Kelpmani "Grosso modo" ArtDepoo Galeriis, Jaan Elkeni "Valge valgus" Galeriis 008, Paul Rodgersi "Transplants" Hobusepea galeriis, Masayo Ave "Haptic Interface Design" Arhitektuuri- ja Disainigaleriis ja workshop Eesti Kunstiakadeemias

  5. Registered Replication Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouwmeester, S.; Verkoeijen, P. P.J.L.; Aczel, B.

    2017-01-01

    and colleagues. The results of studies using time pressure have been mixed, with some replication attempts observing similar patterns (e.g., Rand et al., 2014) and others observing null effects (e.g., Tinghög et al., 2013; Verkoeijen & Bouwmeester, 2014). This Registered Replication Report (RRR) assessed...... the size and variability of the effect of time pressure on cooperative decisions by combining 21 separate, preregistered replications of the critical conditions from Study 7 of the original article (Rand et al., 2012). The primary planned analysis used data from all participants who were randomly assigned...

  6. The Danish Education Registers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vibeke Myrup; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    to adults continuing education and training stem from administrative education reports. Therefore, for cohorts born 1945-1990, 97 percent of the Danish population has a valid education identifier. For the immigrant population born in the same cohorts the coverage is 85-90 percent. Despite a higher level......Collection of systematic information on education is a long established practice in Denmark. Since 1910, the Danish Ministry of Education's annual reports collects information about individual-level test scores in e.g. compulsory schooling. Today, several registers from compulsory schooling...

  7. The Danish Education Registers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vibeke Myrup; Würtz Rasmussen, Astrid

    to adults continuing education and training stem from administrative education reports. Therefore, for cohorts born 1945-1990, 97 percent of the Danish population has a valid education identifier. For the immigrant population born in the same cohorts the coverage is 85-90 percent. Despite a higher level......Collection of systematic information on education is a long established practice in Denmark. Since 1910, the Danish Ministry of Education’s annual reports collects information about individual-level test scores in e.g. compulsory schooling. Today, several registers from compulsory schooling...

  8. The Danish Education Registers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vibeke Myrup; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    2011-01-01

    Collection of systematic information on education is a long established practice in Denmark. Since 1910, the Danish Ministry of Education’s annual reports collects information about individual-level test scores in e.g. compulsory schooling. Today, several registers from compulsory schooling...... to adults continuing education and training stem from administrative education reports. Therefore, for cohorts born 1945-1990, 97 percent of the Danish population has a valid education identifier. For the immigrant population born in the same cohorts the coverage is 85-90 percent. Despite a higher level...

  9. Danish Register of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Peter; Tøttenborg, Sandra Søgaard; Sorknæs, Anne Dichmann

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The Danish Register of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (DrCOPD) is a nationwide database aiming to describe the quality of treatment of all patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Denmark. STUDY POPULATION: DrCOPD comprises data on all patients...

  10. Register-based studies of cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildstrøm, Steen Z; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Madsen, Mette

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The use of the unique personal identification number in the Nordic database systems enables the researchers to link the registers at the individual level. The registers can be used for both defining specific patient populations and to identify later events during follow-up. This rev...... the hospitalisation rate and treatment of cardiovascular disease. The risk of unmeasured factors affecting the results calls for cautious interpretation of the results.......-up. This review gives three examples within cardiovascular epidemiology to illustrate the use of the national administrative registers available to all researchers upon request. Research topics: The hospitalisation rate of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was expected to be increased and case-fatality rate......-based treatment increased significantly over time and adherence to treatment was high. Finally, use of specific nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs by healthy subjects was associated with a dose-dependent increase in cardiovascular risk. CONCLUSION: The nationwide registers have proven very useful in monitoring...

  11. Ethnopsychiatric interpretations of schizophrenic illness: the problem of nervios within Mexican-American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, J H

    1988-09-01

    Among Mexican-American families, the concept of nervios (nerves) serves as a culturally meaningful illness category for a wide range of conditions, including schizophrenic disorders diagnosed according to psychiatric criteria. This article examines the nature and the meaning of nervios as a notion used by Mexican-American families to understand the schizophrenic illness of a relative. Family descriptions of the condition are presented and the emotional and symbolic meanings of the concept are discussed. The complex and somewhat ambiguous nature of folk conceptions is evidenced not only by variations in the description of nervios but also by the finding that nervios is but one way to view schizophrenic illness. It is suggested that a cultural preference for the term nervios is linked to the efforts of family members to reduce the stigma associated with a mental illness while also reinforcing the strength of family bonds and solidarity by fostering tolerant inclusion of the family member within the home. It is argued that the concept of nervios, and the family emotions that surround this folk label, may mediate the course and outcome of schizophrenic disorder.

  12. GABAA receptor subunit gene expression in human prefrontal cortex: comparison of schizophrenics and controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarian, S.; Huntsman, M. M.; Kim, J. J.; Tafazzoli, A.; Potkin, S. G.; Bunney, W. E. Jr; Jones, E. G.; Bloom, F. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex of schizophrenics is hypoactive and displays changes related to inhibitory, GABAergic neurons, and GABAergic synapses. These changes include decreased levels of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), the enzyme for GABA synthesis, upregulation of muscimol binding, and downregulation of benzodiazepine binding to GABAA receptors. Studies in the visual cortex of nonhuman primates have demonstrated that gene expression for GAD and for several GABAA receptor subunit polypeptides is under control of neuronal activity, raising the possibility that similar mechanisms in the hypoactive prefrontal cortex of schizophrenics may explain the abnormalities in GAD and in GABAA receptor regulation. In the present study, which is the first of its type on human cerebral cortex, levels of mRNAs for six GABAA receptor subunits (alpha 1, alpha 2, alpha 5, beta 1, beta 2, gamma 2) and their laminar expression patterns were analyzed in the prefrontal cortex of schizophrenics and matched controls, using in situ hybridization histochemistry and densitometry. Three types of laminar expression pattern were observed: mRNAs for the alpha 1, beta 2, and gamma 2 subunits, which are the predominant receptor subunits expressed in the mature cortex, were expressed at comparatively high levels by cells of all six cortical layers, but most intensely by cells in lower layer III and layer IV. mRNAs for the alpha 2, alpha 5, and beta 1 subunits were expressed at lower levels; alpha 2 and beta 1 were expressed predominantly by cells in layers II, III, and IV; alpha 5 was expressed predominantly in layers IV, V, and VI. There were no significant changes in overall mRNA levels for any of the receptor subunits in the prefrontal cortex of schizophrenics, and the laminar expression pattern of all six receptor subunit mRNAs did not differ between schizophrenics and controls. Because gene expression for GABAA receptor subunits is not consistently altered in the prefrontal cortex of

  13. Treatment results of patients with multiple and extensive drug resistance registered in 2012 in the Russian Federation and in the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Sterlikov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemotherapy results have been analyzed in tuberculosis patients suffering from multiple drug resistance registered for treatment in the Russian Federation in 2011-2012 compared with the treatment outcomes of MDR patients registered for treatment in the world, BRICS and countries of the former Soviet Union in 2011. Treatment outcomes of XDR TB patients have been analyzed for the first time. Chemotherapy efficiency in MDR TB patients in the Russian Federation in the cohort of 2011 made 37.1%, and in the cohort of 2012 made 39.1%, which significantly lower than in the world in general (47.5%, in BRICS and countries of the former Soviet Union; this low treatment efficiency is mostly due to treatment failures (18.3% and those died (19.1%. The treatment efficiency of XDR TB patients registered for treatment in the Russian Federation in 2012 made 26.2% versus 22.0% in the cohort of 2011. Considering the significant financial costs spent on the treatment, the chemotherapy efficiency of M/XDR TB patients in the Russian Federation is too low to improve the epidemic situation and some additional measures are to be taken for its improvement.

  14. Validity of dementia diagnoses in the danish hospital registers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phung, T.K.T.; Andersen, B.B.; Phung, T.K.T.

    2007-01-01

    .24-0.48). Conclusion: The validity of dementia syndrome in the Danish hospital registers was high and allows for epidemiological studies about dementia. Alzheimer's disease, although underregistered, also had a good validity once the diagnosis was registered. In general, other ICD-10 dementia subtypes in the registers......Background:The validity of dementia diagnoses in the Danish nationwide hospital registers was evaluated to determine the value of these registers in epidemiological research about dementia. Methods: Two hundred patients were randomly selected from 4,682 patients registered for the first time...... with a dementia diagnosis in the last 6 months of 2003. The patients' medical journals were reviewed to evaluate if they fulfilled ICD-10 and/or DSM-IV criteria for dementia and specific dementia subtypes. The patients who were still alive in 2006 were invited to an interview. Results: One hundred and ninety...

  15. The Danish multiple sclerosis treatment register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magyari, Melinda; Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Sørensen, Per Soelberg

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the database: The Danish Multiple Sclerosis Treatment Register (DMSTR) serves as a clinical quality register, enabling the health authorities to monitor the quality of the diseasemodifying treatment, and it is an important data source for epidemiological research. Study population: The DMSTR...... includes all patients with multiple sclerosis who had been treated with disease-modifying drugs since 1996. At present, more than 8,400 patients have been registered in this database. Data are continuously entered online into a central database from all sites in Denmark at start and at regular visits. Main...... variables: Include age, sex, onset year and year of the diagnosis, basic clinical information, and information about treatment, side effects, and relapses. Descriptive data: Notification is done at treatment start, and thereafter at every scheduled clinical visit 3 months after treatment start...

  16. Radioimmunotherapy for first-line and relapse treatment of aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma: an analysis of 215 patients registered in the international RIT-Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohloch, Karin; Lankeit, H.K.; Truemper, L. [Georg August University, Hematology and Oncology, Goettingen (Germany); Zinzani, P.L. [University of Bologna, Institute of Hematology and Medical Oncology ' ' L. e A. Seragnoli' ' , Bologna (Italy); Scholz, C.W. [Charite, University Berlin, Hematology, Oncology and Tumor Immunology, Berlin (Germany); Lorsbach, M.; Windemuth-Kieselbach, C. [Alcedis GmbH, Giessen (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    Very few reliable clinical data about the use of radioimmunotherapy in aggressive B-cell lymphoma exist. Patients with aggressive B-cell lymphoma registered in the international RIT-Network were analysed with regard to prior treatment, response and side effects. The RIT-Network is a web-based registry that collects observational data from radioimmunotherapy-treated patients with malignant lymphoma across 13 countries. This analysis included 215 with aggressive B-cell lymphoma out of 232 patients registered in the RIT-Network. Histological subtypes were as follows: 190 diffuse large B-cell, 15 primary mediastinal, 9 anaplastic large cell, and 1 intravascular lymphoma. The median age of the patients was 62 years (range 17 - 88), with 27 % above the age of 70 years. Radioimmunotherapy was mainly used as consolidation after first-line or second-line chemotherapy (56.1 %), as part of third-line to eighth-line therapy for relapse (16.4 %), and in refractory disease (12.2 %). Grade IV neutropenia and thrombopenia and grade III anaemia were observed. The median time to recovery of blood count was 81 days (range 0 - 600 days). The overall response rate was 63.3 %. The complete response rate was 76.4 % in patients treated as part of first-line therapy, and 44.3 % in patients with relapse. Mean overall survival in first-line therapy patients was 32.7 months and 14.0 months in patients with relapse or refractory disease, respectively. Most patients with aggressive B-cell lymphoma in the RIT-Network received radioimmunotherapy as consolidation after first-line therapy with excellent complete remission and overall survival rates compared to published data. In relapsed aggressive B-cell lymphoma, radioimmunotherapy is a safe and feasible treatment leading to satisfactory response rates with acceptable toxicity. (orig.)

  17. Serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in chronically medicated schizophrenic patients: a positive correlation Níveis séricos do fator neurotrófico derivado do cérebro e dos produtos de reação com o ácido tiobarbitúrico em pacientes com esquizofrenia cronicamente medicados: correlação positiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa Severino Gama

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The neurotrophins, antioxidant enzymes and oxidative markers have reciprocal interactions. This report verified in chronically stable medicated schizophrenic patients whether there are correlations between the serum levels of superoxide dismutase, a key enzyme in the antioxidant defense, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, a direct index of lipid peroxidation, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor, the most widely distributed neurotrophin. METHOD: Sixty DSM-IV schizophrenic patients were included (43 males, 17 females. Mean age was 34.7 ± 10.8 years, mean age at first episode was 19.8 ± 7.9 years, and mean illness duration was 14.9 ± 8.5 years. Each subject had a blood sample collected for the determination of serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and superoxide dismutase. RESULTS: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels showed a positive correlation with thiobarbituric acid reactive substances levels (r = 0.333, p = 0.009. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels were not correlated with superoxide dismutase levels (r = - 0.181, p = 0.166, and superoxide dismutase levels were not correlated with thiobarbituric acid reactive substances levels (r = 0.141, p = 0.284. CONCLUSIONS: The positive correlation between brain-derived neurotrophic factor and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances suggests the need of further investigation on intracellular interactions of neurotrophins, antioxidant enzymes and oxidative markers. In addition, this opens a venue for investigation on treatments for the prevention of neurotoxicity along the course of schizophrenia.OBJETIVO: As neurotrofinas, enzimas antioxidantes e marcadores de oxidação têm interações. Este estudo verificou se existem correlações entre os níveis séricos de superóxido-dismutase, uma enzima chave na defesa antioxidante, os produtos de reação com o ácido tiobarbitúrico, um indicador direto de peroxidação lip

  18. Identifying victims of violence using register-based data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Marie; Sørensen, Jan; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of this study was twofold. Firstly we identified victims of violence in national registers and discussed strengths and weaknesses of this approach. Secondly we assessed the magnitude of violence and the characteristics of the victims using register-based data. METHODS: We used three...... nationwide registers to identify victims of violence: The National Patient Register, the Victim Statistics, and the Causes of Death Register. We merged these data and assessed the degree of overlap between data sources. We identified a reference population by selecting all individuals in Denmark over 15....... RESULTS: In 2006, 22,000 individuals were registered as having been exposed to violence. About 70% of these victims were men. Most victims were identified from emergency room contacts and police records, and few from the Causes of Death Register. There was some overlap between the two large data sources...

  19. Long-term benefits and risks of parathyroid hormone treatment in compliant osteoporotic patients. A Danish national register based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Anne-Luise; Hansen, Louise; Vestergaard, Peter

    2018-01-01

    (n = 12,721) were selected. Incidence of fractures, drug consumption, and comorbidity were compared between the three cohorts. Mean follow-up of the PTH-treated patients was 4.3 years (range 1.8-8.7 years). RESULTS: Before initiation of treatment, PTH patients had a significantly higher Charlson...... comorbidity index score and more osteoporotic fractures than both BP patients and controls. No difference was detected in the incidence of fractures during PTH treatment or years after between PTH patients and BP patients. No significant difference in the use of drugs was seen between PTH and BP patients...

  20. Validity of dementia diagnoses in the danish hospital registers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phung, T.K.T.; Andersen, B.B.; Phung, T.K.T.

    2007-01-01

    Background:The validity of dementia diagnoses in the Danish nationwide hospital registers was evaluated to determine the value of these registers in epidemiological research about dementia. Methods: Two hundred patients were randomly selected from 4,682 patients registered for the first time...... with a dementia diagnosis in the last 6 months of 2003. The patients' medical journals were reviewed to evaluate if they fulfilled ICD-10 and/or DSM-IV criteria for dementia and specific dementia subtypes. The patients who were still alive in 2006 were invited to an interview. Results: One hundred and ninety......-seven journals were available for review and 51 patients were interviewed. A registered diagnosis of dementia was found to be correct in 169 (85.8%) cases. Regarding dementia subtypes, the degree of agreement between the registers and the results of the validating process was low with a kappa of 0.36 (95% CI 0...

  1. Portable shift register

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbig, J.K.; Bourret, S.C.; Hansen, W.J.; Hicks, D.V.; Klosterbuer, S.F.; Krick, M.S.

    1994-01-01

    An electronics package for a small, battery-operated, self-contained, neutron coincidence counter based on a portable shift-register (PSR) has been developed. The counter was developed for applications not adequately addressed by commercial packages, including in-plant measurements to demonstrate compliance with regulations (domestic and international), in-plant process control, and in-field measurements (environmental monitoring or safeguards). Our package's features, which address these applications, include the following: Small size for portability and ease of installation;battery or mains operation; a built-in battery to power the unit and a typical detector such as a small sample counter, for over 6 h if power lines are bad or noisy, if there is a temporary absence of power, or if portability is desired; complete support, including bias, for standard neutron detectors; a powerful communications package to easily facilitate robust external control over a serial port; and a C-library to simplify creating external control programs in computers or other controllers. Whereas the PSR specifically addresses the applications mentioned above, it also performs all the measurements made by previous electronics packages for neutron coincidence counters developed at Los Alamos and commercialized. The PSR electronics package, exclusive of carrying handle, is 8 by 10 by 20 cm; it contains the circuit boards, battery, and bias supply and weighs less than 2 kg. This instrument package is the second in an emerging family of portable measurement instruments being developed; the first was the Miniature and Modular Multichannel Analyzer (M 3 CA). The PSR makes extensive use of hardware and software developed for the M 3 CA; like the M 3 CA, it is intended primarily for use with an external controller interfaced over a serial channel

  2. Positive predictive value and impact of misdiagnosis of a heart failure diagnosis in administrative registers among patients admitted to a University Hospital cardiac care unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mard, Shan; Nielsen, Finn Erland

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the positive predictive value (PPV) of a diagnosis of heart failure (HF) in the Danish National Registry of Patients (NRP) among patients admitted to a University Hospital cardiac care unit, and to evaluate the impact of misdiagnosing HF.......To evaluate the positive predictive value (PPV) of a diagnosis of heart failure (HF) in the Danish National Registry of Patients (NRP) among patients admitted to a University Hospital cardiac care unit, and to evaluate the impact of misdiagnosing HF....

  3. PRODROMAL PHASE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF EARLY ONSET SCHIZOPHRENIC PSYCHOSIS - CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Kostić

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia and other mental disorders are often preceded by prodromal changes in behavior that can last from several days to several years, indicating the beginning of psychosis. If the disease starts at an earlier age, especially in adolescence, the prodromal phase is more non-specific and difficult to detect. There is a large number of operational instruments used for clinical assessment and quantification of prodromal symptoms and "at risk mental state", as well as the predictive potential for psychosis. This paper describes the prodromal phase in the development of early onset schizophrenic psychosis, with the emphasis on gradual, several-month psychopathological accumulation and evolution of nonspecific and subclinical, prodromal symptoms to florid schizophrenic symptoms.

  4. Concurrent Medical and Psychiatric Disorders among Schizophrenic and Neurotic Outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Bruno R.; Pai, Shaila

    Although the occurrence of medical illnesses in psychiatric patients is quite high, medical illnesses manifested by psychiatric symptoms are often overlooked. The higher mortality rates among psychiatric patients when compared to the general population may be a reflection of neglect or inadequate treatment of the psychiatric patients' medical…

  5. Sex-Specific Brain Deficits in Auditory Processing in an Animal Model of Cocaine-Related Schizophrenic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Broderick

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine is a psychostimulant in the pharmacological class of drugs called Local Anesthetics. Interestingly, cocaine is the only drug in this class that has a chemical formula comprised of a tropane ring and is, moreover, addictive. The correlation between tropane and addiction is well-studied. Another well-studied correlation is that between psychosis induced by cocaine and that psychosis endogenously present in the schizophrenic patient. Indeed, both of these psychoses exhibit much the same behavioral as well as neurochemical properties across species. Therefore, in order to study the link between schizophrenia and cocaine addiction, we used a behavioral paradigm called Acoustic Startle. We used this acoustic startle paradigm in female versus male Sprague-Dawley animals to discriminate possible sex differences in responses to startle. The startle method operates through auditory pathways in brain via a network of sensorimotor gating processes within auditory cortex, cochlear nuclei, inferior and superior colliculi, pontine reticular nuclei, in addition to mesocorticolimbic brain reward and nigrostriatal motor circuitries. This paper is the first to report sex differences to acoustic stimuli in Sprague-Dawley animals (Rattus norvegicus although such gender responses to acoustic startle have been reported in humans (Swerdlow et al. 1997 [1]. The startle method monitors pre-pulse inhibition (PPI as a measure of the loss of sensorimotor gating in the brain's neuronal auditory network; auditory deficiencies can lead to sensory overload and subsequently cognitive dysfunction. Cocaine addicts and schizophrenic patients as well as cocaine treated animals are reported to exhibit symptoms of defective PPI (Geyer et al., 2001 [2]. Key findings are: (a Cocaine significantly reduced PPI in both sexes. (b Females were significantly more sensitive than males; reduced PPI was greater in females than in males. (c Physiological saline had no effect on startle in

  6. Elevation of D4 dopamine receptor mRNA in postmortem schizophrenic brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanis, N C; Bresnick, J N; Kerwin, R W; Schofield, W N; McAllister, G

    1998-01-01

    The D4 dopamine (DA) receptor has been proposed to be a target for the development of a novel antipsychotic drug based on its pharmacological and distribution profile. There is much interest in whether D4 DA receptor levels are altered in schizophrenia, but the lack of an available receptor subtype-specific radioligand made this difficult to quantitate. In this study, we examined whether D4 mRNA levels are altered in different brain regions of schizophrenics compared to controls. Ribonuclease protection assays were carried out on total RNA samples isolated postmortem from frontal cortex and caudate brain regions of schizophrenics and matched controls. 32P-labelled RNA probes to the D4 DA receptor and to the housekeeping gene, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH), were hybridised with the RNA samples, digested with ribonucleases to remove unhybridised probe, and separated on 6% sequencing gels. Densitometer analysis on the subsequent autoradiogams was used to calculate the relative optical density of D4 mRNA compared to G3PDH mRNA. Statistical analysis of the data revealed a 3-fold higher level (P<0.011) of D4 mRNA in the frontal cortex of schizophrenics compared to controls. No increase was seen in caudate. D4 receptors could play a role in mediating dopaminergic activity in frontal cortex, an activity which may be malfunctioning in schizophrenia.

  7. The Danish Hip Arthroplasty Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundtoft, Per Hviid; Varnum, Claus; Pedersen, Alma Becic

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The aim of the Danish Hip Arthroplasty Register (DHR) is to continuously monitor and improve the quality of treatment of primary and revision total hip arthroplasty (THA) in Denmark. STUDY POPULATION: The DHR is a Danish nationwide arthroplasty register established in January 1995...

  8. Positive predictive value and impact of misdiagnosis of a heart failure diagnosis in administrative registers among patients admitted to a University Hospital cardiac care unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mard, Shan; Nielsen, Finn Erland

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the positive predictive value (PPV) of a diagnosis of heart failure (HF) in the Danish National Registry of Patients (NRP) among patients admitted to a University Hospital cardiac care unit, and to evaluate the impact of misdiagnosing HF. DESIGN: The NRP was used to identify...

  9. Treatment results in localized primary gastric lymphoma: data of patients registered within the German multicenter study (GIT NHL 02/96).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Peter; Probst, Andreas; Berdel, Wolfgang E; Willich, Normann A; Reinartz, Gabriele; Brockmann, Jens; Liersch, Rüdiger; del Valle, Francisco; Clasen, Hermann; Hirt, Carsten; Breitsprecher, Regine; Schmits, Rudolf; Freund, Mathias; Fietkau, Rainer; Ketterer, Peter; Freitag, Eva-Maria; Hinkelbein, Margit; Heinecke, Achim; Parwaresch, Reza; Tiemann, Markus

    2005-10-01

    In the prospective study 02/96 on primary GI lymphoma, we have collected data on histology, clinical features, and treatment results. In particular, in stages I and II localized primary gastric lymphoma (PGL), our objectives were to reduce treatment intensity and to confirm our hypothesis from study 01/92, which maintained that an organ-preserving approach is not inferior to primary surgery. Patients receiving radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy were stratified for histologic grade, stage, and whether surgery had been carried out or not (as decided by each participating center). Patients with aggressive PGL received six cycles of CHOP-14 (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) followed by involved-field radiotherapy (40 Gy). Patients with indolent PGL (including patients experiencing treatment failure with antibiotic therapy for Helicobacter pylori) were treated with extended-field radiotherapy. The volume depended on stage. The irradiation dose was 30 Gy, followed by a boost of 10 Gy (the latter omitted after complete resection) to the tumor region. Seven hundred forty-seven patients were accrued. Of these patients, 393 with localized PGL were treated with radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy only or additional surgery between December 1996 and December 2003. The survival rate at 42 months for patients treated with surgery was 86% compared with 91.0% for patients without surgery. In this nonrandomized study (02/96), we reproduced the previous results of study 01/92 showing no disadvantage for an organ-preserving treatment. Therefore, primary stomach resection should be questioned.

  10. An observational cohort study of patients with newly diagnosed digital ulcer disease secondary to systemic sclerosis registered in the EUSTAR database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Monika; Hollaender, Rebecca; Rosenberg, Daniel; Scott, Martin; Hunsche, Elke; Tyndall, Alan; Denaro, Valentina; Carreira, Patricia; Varju, Cecilia; Gabrielli, Barbara; Zingarelli, Stefania; Caramaschi, Paola; Simic-Pasalic, Katarina; Müller-Ladner, Ulf; Vasile, Massimiliano; Mihai, Carina; Rosato, Edoardo; Vacca, Alessandra; Zenone, Thierry; Mohamed, Walid A; Ancuta, Codrina; Zampogna, Giuseppe; Rednic, Simona; Jabaar, Nadia; Belloli, Laura; Pozzi, Maria R; Foti, Rosario; Walker, Ulrich A

    2015-01-01

    This study describes clinical characteristics, prognostic factors, and quality of life in patients with newly diagnosed (incident) digital ulcers (DU). Observational cohort study of 189 consecutive SSc patients with incident DU diagnosis identified from the EUSTAR database (22 centres in 10 countries). Data were collected from medical charts and during one prospective visit between 01/2004 and 09/2010. Median age at DU diagnosis was 51 years, majority of patients were female (88%), and limited cutaneous SSc was the most common subtype (61%). At incident DU diagnosis, 41% of patients had one DU and 59% had ≥2 DU; at the prospective visit 52% had DU. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and multiple DU at diagnosis were associated with presence of any DU at the prospective visit (odds ratios: 4.34 and 1.32). During the observation period (median follow-up was 2 years) 127 patients had ≥1 hospitalisation. The event rate of new DU per person-year was 0.66, of DU-associated complications was 0.10, and of surgical or diagnostic procedures was 0.12. At the prospective visit, patients with ≥1 DU reported impairment in daily activities by 57%, those with 0 DU by 37%. The mean difference between patients with or without DU in the SF-36 physical component was 2.2, and in the mental component 1.4. DU patients were not routinely prescribed endothelin receptor antagonists or prostanoids. This real world cohort demonstrates that DU require hospital admission, and impair daily activity. PAH and multiple DU at diagnosis were associated with future occurrence of DU.

  11. Therapy-Related Myelodysplastic Syndrome Following Treatment for Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Outcome of Patients Registered in the EWOG-MDS 98/06 Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strahm, Birgitte; Amann, Roland; De Moerloose, Barbara

    Objective: Therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome (tMDS) following treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is one of the most frequently observed secondary malignancies in survivors of childhood cancer. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) is the only curative treatment....... This analysis was performed to asses the outcome of patients with tMDS following treatment for childhood ALL reported to the EWOG-MDS study group. Patients and Transplant Procedure: Forty-three patients (19 male/24 female) were diagnosed with tMDS between August 1989 and August 2009. The median age at diagnosis...... was 8.9 yrs (3.4–20.5). The median interval from diagnosis of ALL to the diagnosis of tMDS was 3.3 yrs (1.7–7.0). Five patients did not receive SCT and died due to progressive disease at a median of 5.6 mo after diagnosis. Thirty-eight patients were transplanted. One patient was excluded from...

  12. Clinical characteristics and oncological outcomes of testicular cancer patients registered in 2005 and 2008: the first large-scale study from the Cancer Registration Committee of the Japanese Urological Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Tsuneharu; Kamoi, Kazumi; Fujimoto, Hiroyuki; Kanayama, Hiro-omi; Ohyama, Chikara; Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki; Eto, Masatoshi; Naito, Seiji; Fukumori, Tomoharu; Kubota, Yoshinobu; Takahashi, Satoru; Mikami, Kazuya; Homma, Yukio

    2014-08-01

    To describe the clinical and pathological characteristics and oncological outcomes of testicular cancer diagnosed in Japan, we report the results of the testicular cancer registration carried out by the Japanese Urological Association. Testicular cancer survey was conducted by the Japanese Urological Association in 2011 to register newly diagnosed testicular cancers in 2005 and 2008. The survey included details such as age, presenting symptoms, physical examination findings, tumor markers, histopathology, clinical stage, initial treatment and clinical outcomes. We analyzed 1121 cases of testicular primary germ cell tumor among 1157 registered patients. The median age was 37.0 years. Seminomas and no