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Sample records for schizophrenic autism clinical

  1. Suicide attempts in schizophrenic patients: clinical variables.

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    Mauri, M C; Paletta, S; Maffini, M; Moliterno, D; Altamura, A C

    2013-10-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with a significant risk of suicide: 40-50% of schizophrenic patients report suicidal ideation at some point in their lives, and 4-13% eventually commit suicide. In order to be able to predict and prevent suicide in schizophrenic patients, it is necessary to investigate and characterise suicide victims who meet the criteria for psychotic disorders and risk factors. The aim of this retrospective study was to verify the associations between suicide attempts (SAs) and the demographic and clinical variables of 106 patients who met the DSM-IV-TR criteria for schizophrenia. The patients were divided into two groups on the basis of the presence/absence of lifetime suicide attempts, and their main demographic and clinical characteristics were analysed and compared. The patients with a history of SAs frequently had a duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) of ≥1 year (chi-squared test=9.984, df=1, p=0.0016). They also showed significant associations with the presence of a depressive dimension (chi-squared test=4.439, df=1, p=0.0351), hospitalisations before SAs (chi-squared test=25.515, df=1, p suicidal behaviours (chi-squared test=18.241, df=2, p=0.0001). Finally, they were more frequently prescribed typical antipsychotic agents. The severity of psychiatric symptoms indicates a high risk of suicide in schizophrenic patients. Further prospective studies of larger samples should investigate the role of early interventions and atypical antipsychotic treatment in reducing the risk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Clinical correlates of decreased anteroposterior metabolic gradients in positron emission tomography (PET) of schizophrenic patients

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    DeLisi, L.E.; Buchsbaum, M.S.; Holcomb, H.H.; Dowling-Zimmerman, S.; Pickar, D.; Boronow, J.; Morihisa, J.M.; van Kammen, D.P.; Carpenter, W.; Kessler, R.

    1985-01-01

    The finding in schizophrenic patients of a reversal of the normal frontal to posterior pattern of brain metabolic activity with positron emission tomography (PET) is of interest, but its relevance to psychopathology is unknown. Using PET, the authors studied 21 patients with chronic schizophrenia and 21 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Although eight of the 21 patients and only one of the control subjects showed a relatively lower anteroposterior metabolic gradient, no clinical correlates of this finding were noted. In addition, cerebral atrophy, as determined by CAT scan, was not associated with this aberrant metabolic pattern.

  3. Novel research translates to clinical cases of schizophrenic and cocaine psychosis.

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    Nunes, João V; Broderick, Patricia A

    2007-08-01

    Pharmacotherapies for schizophrenic and cocaine psychoses are complex but similar because of similarities in their brain neurochemistry and behavioral outcomes. Their neurochemical neuronal mechanisms of action, as shown in preclinical and clinical studies, involve primarily dopaminergic dysfunction and, secondarily, neuroadaptive effects that seem to involve central serotonergic function. Behavioral outcomes of both disorders include hyperactivity and antipsychotic medications can ameliorate psychotic symptoms. Patients with both disorders often arrive at emergency departments and present floridly psychotic with a predominance of positive symptoms, often prompting physicians to select a typical antipsychotic medication such as haloperidol. While this has become conventional wisdom, we believe that to use an atypical antipsychotic medication, such as risperidone, in the treatment of both psychoses is quite rational for long-term management of both positive and negative symptoms. Also, controlled clinical studies have shown that risperidone, an atypical antipsychotic medication, is successful in the treatment of cocaine dependence and withdrawal (Smelson et al 1997, 2002; Grabowski et al 2000). Furthermore, the availability and effectiveness of long-acting risperidone in injectable form opens new possibilities for the long-term management of both disorders. In this paper, we present data which show that the use of risperidone is plausible for effective pharmacotherapy of schizophrenic and cocaine psychoses.

  4. Effect of clinical improvement of schizophrenic symptoms on {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT

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    Shin, Chul Jin; Koong, Sung Soo; Chung, In Won [College of Medicine, Chungbuk National Univ., Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    This study investigated regional blood flow changes of frontal, temporal, and basal ganglia in eleven schizophrenic patients on DSM-IV criteria to examine the relationship between rCBF and clinical improvement of symptoms. Single-photon emission computed tomography imaging with {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO was performed in baseline and sixth weeks after the treatment, and concurrently psychopathology was assessed by PANSS. Antipsychotics wash-out period was more than 2 weeks, and three patient were drug naive. All patients were finally divided into two groups, the improved or not improved. We examined the difference of the amount of rCBF changes between two groups. Finally, frontal activity shows no significant difference between two groups but both groups show decreased frontal blood flow after antipsychotic treatment. However, the change of right temporal rCBF had positive correlation with the change of the total PANSS score, and the change of left temporal lobe activity was greater in the improved group than in the not improved group. Our results suggest that the temporal lobe activity has relation to the underlying schizophrenic symptoms.

  5. Clinical neurogenetics: autism spectrum disorders.

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    Mehta, Sunil Q; Golshani, Peyman

    2013-11-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by deficits in social interactions, communication, and repetitive or restricted interests. There is strong evidence that de novo or inherited genetic alterations play a critical role in causing Autism Spectrum Disorders, but non-genetic causes, such as in utero infections, may also play a role. Magnetic resonance imaging based and autopsy studies indicate that early rapid increase in brain size during infancy could underlie the deficits in a large subset of subjects. Clinical studies show benefits for both behavioral and pharmacological treatment strategies. Genotype-specific treatments have the potential for improving outcome in the future. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. [Clinical prognosis of schizophrenic patients with cannabis addiction. Between nihilism and hope].

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    Schnell, T

    2014-09-01

    Comorbid substance use disorders in schizophrenia are mostly associated with an unfavorable course of the disease and with difficulties in clinical management. Therefore, some therapists tend to react to these patients in a resigned manner. However, there is growing evidence for higher cognitive functioning and less severe deficits in brain morphology of these patients compared to patients without cannabis use. A common interpretation refers to relatively low vulnerability for psychosis in some of these patients, who mainly became schizophrenic because of the pro-psychotic properties of cannabis. Low vulnerability is reflected by a higher cognitive functioning; therefore, the pessimistic view of therapists seems unjustified for at least a subgroup of young patients. Provided that patients are treated in adequate therapeutic settings and that they stop using cannabis, a lower vulnerability may be associated with overall better socio-rehabilitative outcome parameters.

  7. Quality of life in schizophrenic patients: the influence of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics and satisfaction with social support.

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    Guedes de Pinho, Lara Manuela; Pereira, Anabela Maria de Sousa; Chaves, Cláudia Margarida Correia Balula

    2018-03-08

    To evaluate the relationship of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics and satisfaction with social support with the quality of life of schizophrenic patients. This study included a sample of 268 participants. An interview was conducted to obtain sociodemographic and clinical data, supplemented with two assessment tools used to evaluate quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life instrument-Abbreviated version - WHOQOL-Bref) and satisfaction with social support (Social Support Satisfaction Scale - SSSS). Descriptive and inferential analyses were performed. Most individuals were male (63.4%), with a mean age of 45.4 years, single (85.4%), living with their family (62.3%) and unemployed (90.3%). As for clinical characteristics, most had the disease for less than 20 years (50.7%), and 55.6% had at least one hospitalization within the last 5 years. Being employed and having had no hospitalization within the last 5 years were positively correlated with one or more WHOQOL-Bref domains. The results of the variables intimacy (psocial support are factors that positively influence quality of life among schizophrenics. It is therefore crucial that the psychosocial rehabilitation of patients with schizophrenia take these factors into account, increasing the support network, preventing relapses and promoting occupational activities.

  8. Quality of life in schizophrenic patients: the influence of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics and satisfaction with social support

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    Lara Manuela Guedes de Pinho

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To evaluate the relationship of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics and satisfaction with social support with the quality of life of schizophrenic patients. Methodology This study included a sample of 268 participants. An interview was conducted to obtain sociodemographic and clinical data, supplemented with two assessment tools used to evaluate quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life instrument-Abbreviated version – WHOQOL-Bref and satisfaction with social support (Social Support Satisfaction Scale – SSSS. Descriptive and inferential analyses were performed. Results Most individuals were male (63.4%, with a mean age of 45.4 years, single (85.4%, living with their family (62.3% and unemployed (90.3%. As for clinical characteristics, most had the disease for less than 20 years (50.7%, and 55.6% had at least one hospitalization within the last 5 years. Being employed and having had no hospitalization within the last 5 years were positively correlated with one or more WHOQOL-Bref domains. The results of the variables intimacy (p<0.001 and satisfaction with friends (p<0.001 were independently related to the total WHOQOL-Bref score. Conclusion Having a job, having had no hospitalization within the last 5 years and having greater satisfaction with social support are factors that positively influence quality of life among schizophrenics. It is therefore crucial that the psychosocial rehabilitation of patients with schizophrenia take these factors into account, increasing the support network, preventing relapses and promoting occupational activities.

  9. Reduced frontal and occipital lobe asymmetry on the CT-scans of schizophrenic patients. Its specificity and clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falkai, P.; Schneider, T.; Greve, B.; Klieser, E.; Bogerts, B.

    1995-01-01

    Frontal and occipital lobe widths were determined in the computed tomographic (CT) scans of 135 schizophrenic patients, 158 neuro psychiatrically healthy and 102 psychiatric control subjects, including patients with affective psychosis, neurosis and schizoaffective psychosis. Most healthy right-handed subjects demonstrate a relative enlargement of the right frontal as well as left occipital lobe compared to the opposite hemisphere. These normal frontal and occipital lobe asymmetries were selectively reduced in schizophrenics (f.: 5%, p < .0005; o.: 3%, p < .05), irrespective of the pathophysiological subgroup. Schizophrenic neuroleptic non-responders revealed a significant reduction of frontal lobe asymmetry (3%, p < .05), while no correlation between BPRS-sub scores and disturbed cerebral laterality could be detected. In sum the present study demonstrates the disturbed cerebral lateralisation in schizophrenic patients supporting the hypothesis of interrupted early brain development in schizophrenia. (author)

  10. SPECT imaging, clinical features, and cognition before and after low doses of amisulpride in schizophrenic patients with the deficit syndrome.

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    Vaiva, Guillaume; Thomas, Pierre; Llorca, Pierre Michel; Dupont, Sylvie; Cottencin, Olivier; Devos, Patrick; Mazas, Olivier; Rascle, Claire; Steinling, Marc; Goudemand, Michel

    2002-08-20

    The aim of the study was to examine the action of low-dose amisulpride (100 mg/d), an atypical antipsychotic from the benzamide class with a high affinity for the D2 and D3 dopamine receptors, given for 4 weeks in 19 schizophrenic patients with the deficit syndrome, in terms of clinical response, modifications in their cognitive performance and changes in brain perfusion values. A secondary objective was to distinguish between primary and secondary deficit, according to Carpenter's definition. Both efficacy and a relatively low rate of side effects of low-dose amisulpride in the deficit forms of schizophrenia were found as expected from earlier placebo-controlled studies. Our study found significant changes in the cerebral blood flow, before and after treatment, more marked in the frontal area and particularly in the dorso-lateral frontal area. A significant improvement of cognitive function was found after treatment, without a link to any particular changes in a loco-regional perfusion value. Finally, a distinction between primary and secondary deficit showed a higher percentage of clinical improvement in the patients with a secondary deficit. The psychometric and cerebral perfusion changes were no different in the two groups.

  11. Ran domized controlled clinical tria l on the efficacy of team play football on schizophrenic patients: a pilot study

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    Giancarlo Vinci

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The physical activity is an important aspect of good health for everyone; it is even more important for psychiatric patients who usually live an unhealthy lifestyle. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of football practice on the self-reported health quality of life (SRHQL and Wellbeing in schizophrenic subjects. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted to assess the effectiveness of the Psychosocial Rehabilitation Program performed by Daily Center Mazzacurati, Department of Mental Health Roma/D , for psychotic subjects that included weekly football activities for a period of 9 months. The results show that the model proved effective in the experimental group (SG as regards the psychopathological dimensions, which are significantly improved (Median(IQR: 31(16 versus 53(18; p=0.001; in particular the negative symptomatology has been reduced, and this result is hardly achieved with the drug therapy (17(7 versus 25(15; p=0.003. This study increases the awareness of following this ap proach and improving the extension and the confirmation of the results achieved.

  12. Demographic and clinical correlates of autism symptom domains and autism spectrum diagnosis

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    Frazier, Thomas W; Youngstrom, Eric A; Embacher, Rebecca; Hardan, Antonio Y; Constantino, John N; Law, Paul; Findling, Robert L; Eng, Charis

    2014-01-01

    Demographic and clinical factors may influence assessment of autism symptoms. This study evaluated these correlates and also examined whether social communication and interaction and restricted/repetitive behavior provided unique prediction of autism spectrum disorder diagnosis. We analyzed data from 7352 siblings included in the Interactive Autism Network registry. Social communication and interaction and restricted/repetitive behavior symptoms were obtained using caregiver-reports on the Social Responsiveness Scale. Demographic and clinical correlates were covariates in regression models predicting social communication and interaction and restricted/repetitive behavior symptoms. Logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses evaluated the incremental validity of social communication and interaction and restricted/repetitive behavior domains over and above global autism symptoms. Autism spectrum disorder diagnosis was the strongest correlate of caregiver-reported social communication and interaction and restricted/repetitive behavior symptoms. The presence of comorbid diagnoses also increased symptom levels. Social communication and interaction and restricted/repetitive behavior symptoms provided significant, but modest, incremental validity in predicting diagnosis beyond global autism symptoms. These findings suggest that autism spectrum disorder diagnosis is by far the largest determinant of quantitatively measured autism symptoms. Externalizing (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) and internalizing (anxiety) behavior, low cognitive ability, and demographic factors may confound caregiver-report of autism symptoms, potentially necessitating a continuous norming approach to the revision of symptom measures. Social communication and interaction and restricted/repetitive behavior symptoms may provide incremental validity in the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. PMID:24104512

  13. Autism in Phenylketonuria Patients: From Clinical Presentation to Molecular Defects.

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    Khemir, Sameh; Halayem, Soumeyya; Azzouz, Hatem; Siala, Hajer; Ferchichi, Maherzia; Guedria, Asma; Bedoui, Amel; Abdelhak, Sonia; Messaoud, Taieb; Tebib, Neji; Belhaj, Ahlem; Kaabachi, Naziha

    2016-06-01

    Autism has been reported in untreated patients with phenylketonuria. The authors aimed to explore autism in 15 Tunisian and 4 Algerian phenylketonuria patients, and report their clinical, biochemical and molecular peculiarities. The Childhood Autism Rating Scale and the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised were used for the diagnosis of autism. Five exons of phenylalanine hydroxylase gene (7, 6, 10, 11, and 5) were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and directly sequenced. Among these patients, 15 were suffering from autism at the time of evaluation. Six mutations were identified: p.E280K, p.G352Vfs, IVS10nt11, p.I224T, p.R261Q, and p.R252W. There was no correlation between autism and mutations affecting the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene, but the age of diet onset was the determining factor in autistic symptoms' evolution. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Depressive symptoms in schizophrenic patients

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    Gozdzik-Zelazny A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Distinction between true negative and depressive symptoms in schizophrenia is difficult. In the present study we seek to establish the psychological profile of depression-prone schizophrenic patients. We addressed the issue by comparing the expression of psychological indices, such as the feelings of being in control of events, anxiety, mood, and the style of coping with stress in depressive and non-depressive schizophrenics. We also analyzed the strength of the association of these indices with the presence of depressive symptoms. A total of 49 patients (18 women and 31 men, aged 23-59 were enrolled into the study, consisting of a self-reported psychometric survey. We found that the prevalence of clinically significant depression in schizophrenic patients was 61%. The factors which contributed to the intensification of depressive symptoms were the external locus of control, anxiety, gloomy mood, and the emotion-oriented coping with stress. We conclude that psychological testing may discern those schizophrenic patients who would be at risk of depression development and may help separate the blurred boundaries between depressive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia.

  15. Autism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggernaes, Bodil

    2018-01-01

    The concept of autism has changed across time, from the Bleulerian concept, which defined it as one of several symptoms of dementia praecox, to the present-day concept representing a pervasive development disorder. The present theoretical contribution to this special issue of EJN on autism...... introduces new theoretical ideas and discusses them in light of selected prior theories, clinical examples, and recent empirical evidence. The overall aim is to identify some present challenges of diagnostic practice and autism research and to suggest new pathways that may help direct future research. Future...... research must agree on the definitions of core concepts such as autism and psychosis. A possible redefinition of the concept of autism may be a condition in which the rationale of an individual's behaviour differs qualitatively from that of the social environment due to characteristic cognitive impairments...

  16. Clinical and neurophysiological study of peroneal nerve mononeuropathy after substantial weight loss in patients suffering from major depressive and schizophrenic disorder: Suggestions on patients' management

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    Koulouris George C

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peroneal nerve is susceptible to injuries due to its anatomical course. Excessive weight loss, which reduces the fatty cushion protecting the nerve, is considered a common underlying cause of peroneal palsy. Other predisposing factors, such as prolonged postures, traumas of the region or concomitant pathologies (for example diabetes mellitus contribute to the nerve damage. This study aims to reveal the multiple predisposing factors of peroneal nerve mononeuropathy after substantial weight loss that coexist in psychiatric patients and to make suggestions on their management. Methods Nine psychiatric inpatients, major depressive or schizophrenic, with foot drop underwent a complete clinical neurological and neurophysiological examination. All had excessive weight loss, which was completed in a short period of time and had not resulted from a well-balanced low-calorie diet, but was due to their psychiatric illness. Data regarding predisposing factors to peroneal nerve mononeuropathy were gathered, such as habitual leg crossing, squatting or other prolonged postures. Results The clinical examination and the neurophysiological evaluation in all patients were indicative of a focal lesion of the peroneal nerve at the fibular head. Conclusion Patients with major depressive and schizophrenic disorders gather multiple predisposing factors to peroneal palsy, adequate to classify them at a high risk group. The better focus of the attendant medical and nursing staff on this condition, the early clinical and neurophysiologic evaluation and surgical interventions may enable an improved management and prognosis of these patients.

  17. Autism and psychosis: Clinical implications for depression and suicide.

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    Upthegrove, Rachel; Abu-Akel, Ahmad; Chisholm, Katharine; Lin, Ashleigh; Zahid, Sofia; Pelton, Mirabel; Apperly, Ian; Hansen, Peter C; Wood, Stephen J

    2017-08-18

    There is increasing recognition of the co-occurrence of autism and schizophrenia spectrum disorders. However, the clinical significance of this on outcomes such as depression and suicidal thinking has not been explored. This study examines the association of autism spectrum traits, depressive symptoms and suicidal behaviour in individuals with psychotic experiences. In two cross sectional studies, individuals from a non-help seeking university student sample and patients with first episode psychosis (FEP) service completed standardized measures of autism spectrum traits, psychotic experiences, depressive symptoms and suicidal thinking. In healthy non-help seeking students, increased autism traits and increased subclinical psychotic experiences were significantly associated with depressive symptoms; a significant interaction effect suggests their combined presence has a greater impact on depression. In FEP, high autism traits and positive symptoms were associated with increased depression, hopelessness and suicidality, however there was no significant interaction effect. In FEP a multiple mediation model revealed that the relationship between autism traits and risk for suicidality was mediated through hopelessness. Young people with subclinical psychotic experiences and all patients with FEP should be screened for autism spectrum traits, which may have significant impact on clinical outcomes. Tailored interventions for patients with high levels of autistic spectrum co-morbidities in FEP should be a priority for future research. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Jeremy

    2010-01-07

    Evidence for the efficacy of treatments for autism has improved in recent years. In this systematic review the evidence for both drug and non-drug treatments is appraised and clinical guidance is provided for their use. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of early intensive multidisciplinary intervention programmes in children with autism? What are the effects of dietary interventions in children with autism? What are the effects of drug treatments in children with autism? What are the effects of non-drug treatments in children with autism? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to May 2009 (Clinical evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 30 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: applied behavioural analysis; auditory integration training; Autism Preschool Programme; casein-free diet; chelation; Child's Talk programme; cognitive behavioural therapy; digestive enzymes; EarlyBird programme; facilitated communication; Floortime therapy; gluten-free diet; immunoglobulins; melatonin; memantine; methylphenidate; More Than Words programme; music therapy; olanzapine; omega-3 fish oil; picture exchange communication system; Portage scheme; probiotics; relationship development interventions; risperidone; secretin; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs); sensory integration training; social stories; social skills training; Son-Rise programme; TEACCH

  19. Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Autism KidsHealth / For Teens / Autism What's in this article? ... With Autism? Print en español Autismo What Is Autism? Autism (also called "autism spectrum disorder") is a ...

  20. Vitamin D and Autism: Clinical Review

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    Kocovska, Eva; Fernell, Elisabeth; Billstedt, Eva; Minnis, Helen; Gillberg, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder with multiple genetic and environmental risk factors. The interplay between genetic and environmental factors has become the subject of intensified research in the last several years. Vitamin D deficiency has recently been proposed as a possible environmental risk…

  1. Ensaio com sulpiride em esquizofrênicos hospitalizados Clinical trial with sulpiride on schizophrenic in-patients

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    Clóvis Martins

    1974-09-01

    Full Text Available Um ensaio terapêutico é feito com sulpiride, substância psicotrópica dada como muito ativa e cujas propriedades permitem enquadrá-la entre os neurolépticos e os timoanalépticos. Foram tratados 24 pacientes internados, com idades que variavam entre 17 e 48 anos, de ambos os sexos (17 masculinos e 7 femininos, todos com o diagnóstico clínico de esquizofrenia e internados em hospital psiquiátrico. O tempo de doença variava de 30 dias a 18 anos. O sulpiride foi aplicado em doses diárias em torno de 1200 mg, predominantemente por via oral. O tratamento durou em média 6 semanas permanecendo a maioria dos casos em observação por alguns meses, sob tratamento de manutenção. Os resultados foram em geral favoráveis, principalmente no que tange aos fenômenos psicóticos sensoperceptivos e delirantes. Não foram assinalados efeitos colaterais ou manifestações colaterais molestas.A therapeutic trial with sulpiride was made, submiting to treatment 24 in-patients of a mental hospital, diagnosed as schizophrenics. The ages are from 17 to 48 years old, 17 males and 7 females. The time of disease was from 30 dayes to 18 years. The drug was given mainly orally on about 1200 mg/die, in a treament of 6 weeks followed in some cases, by several months of observation. The best results were obtained in the sensoperceptive and delusional symptoms. No side effects of importance were detected.

  2. Vitamin D and autism: clinical review.

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    Kočovská, Eva; Fernell, Elisabeth; Billstedt, Eva; Minnis, Helen; Gillberg, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder with multiple genetic and environmental risk factors. The interplay between genetic and environmental factors has become the subject of intensified research in the last several years. Vitamin D deficiency has recently been proposed as a possible environmental risk factor for ASD. The aim of the current paper is to systematically review the research regarding the possible connection between ASD and vitamin D, and to provide a narrative review of the literature regarding the role of vitamin D in various biological processes in order to generate hypotheses for future research. Systematic data obtained by different research groups provide some, albeit very limited, support for the possible role of vitamin D deficiency in the pathogenesis of ASD. There are two main areas of involvement of vitamin D in the human body that could potentially have direct impact on the development of ASD: (1) the brain (its homeostasis, immune system and neurodevelopment) and (2) gene regulation. Vitamin D deficiency--either during pregnancy or early childhood--may be an environmental trigger for ASD in individuals genetically predisposed for the broad phenotype of autism. On the basis of the results of the present review, we argue for the recognition of this possibly important role of vitamin D in ASD, and for urgent research in the field. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Analogical reasoning in schizophrenic delusions.

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    Simpson, Jane; Done, D John

    2004-09-01

    Reasoning ability has often been argued to be impaired in people with schizophrenic delusions, although evidence for this is far from convincing. This experiment examined the analogical reasoning abilities of several groups of patients, including non-deluded and deluded schizophrenics, to test the hypothesis that performance by the deluded schizophrenic group would be impaired. Eleven deluded schizophrenics, 10 depressed subjects, seven non-deluded schizophrenics and 16 matched non-psychiatric controls, who were matched on a number of key variables, were asked to solve an analogical reasoning task. Performance by the deluded schizophrenic group was certainly impaired when compared with the depressed and non-psychiatric control groups though less convincingly so when compared with the non-deluded schizophrenic group. The impairment shown by the deluded schizophrenic group seemed to occur at the initial stage of the reasoning task. The particular type of impairment shown by the deluded subjects was assessed in relation to other cognitive problems already researched and the implications of these problems on reasoning tasks and theories of delusions was discussed.

  4. [The schizophrenic disorder].

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    Bellomo, L E

    1987-12-01

    The author makes both a historical and up-to-date review of the "schizophrenic defect" concept (S.D.). He comes to the conclusion that this is the "morbid residual" or balance left as "ideo-affective" capital after every productive psychotic outbreak. The S.D. is studied in a "Medium and Long Term" Ward with prevailing statistics amounting to 33% D.E. patients plus 9% active schizophrenic patients over a total average of 100 chronic hospitalized patients. It was found out that 33% of that universe had some scattered family whereas 19% of these patients had no family at all. The latter showed strong tendency towards isolation, slovenliness and "hospitalism". They became "passive-dependent" patients. The situational framework is analyzed. Medical staff relation ships with patients, type of treatment and the illusion created by "fictitious discharge" of E.D. under no favorable psycho-environmental conditions are taken into account. Methods to improve the situation are then outlined and discussed. The following topics are considered: correct therapeutics, family therapy, sectorization, therapeutic community, transition homes (foyers), and current legislation.

  5. Evaluation of Factors Affecting Continuous Performance Test Identical Pairs Version Score of Schizophrenic Patients in a Japanese Clinical Sample

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    Takayoshi Koide

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Cognitive impairment in schizophrenia strongly relates to social outcome and is a good candidate for endophenotypes. When we accurately measure drug efficacy or effects of genes or variants relevant to schizophrenia on cognitive impairment, clinical factors that can affect scores on cognitive tests, such as age and severity of symptoms, should be considered. To elucidate the effect of clinical factors, we conducted multiple regression analysis using scores of the Continuous Performance Test Identical Pairs Version (CPT-IP, which is often used to measure attention/vigilance in schizophrenia. Methods. We conducted the CPT-IP (4-4 digit and examined clinical information (sex, age, education years, onset age, duration of illness, chlorpromazine-equivalent dose, and Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS scores in 126 schizophrenia patients in Japanese population. Multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate the effect of clinical factors. Results. Age, chlorpromazine-equivalent dose, and PANSS-negative symptom score were associated with mean d′ score in patients. These three clinical factors explained about 28% of the variance in mean d′ score. Conclusions. As conclusion, CPT-IP score in schizophrenia patients is influenced by age, chlorpromazine-equivalent dose and PANSS negative symptom score.

  6. Nondirective counseling interventions with schizophrenics.

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    Gerwood, J B

    1993-12-01

    Counseling interventions with paranoid schizophrenics can be daunting. While chemical, directive, and behavioral controls often are considered important, nondirective counseling techniques used by the therapeutic staff may help schizophrenic patients explore their thoughts and feelings. Several nondirective concepts pioneered by Carl Rogers are examined. These methods, which represent basic concepts of the person-centered approach, are empathy, unconditional positive regard, and congruence. A brief illustration of an interaction with a patient diagnosed as paranoid schizophrenic is presented to suggest the effectiveness of Rogerian counseling.

  7. Positron CT findings of chronic schizophrenics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyoda, Junzo; Miyazaki, Chihiro; Sugai, Yuichi; Iio, Masaaki.

    1983-01-01

    Positron CT images of 15 chronic schizophrenics (2 females and 13 males) were examined in contrast to 5 male controls. Average age of controls was 36 years and that of schizophrenics was 42 years. Schizophrenic cases were ill over 6 years, averaging 17 years. All were under antipsychotic drug therapy. Tracer compounds were 11 C-CO2 and 11 C-glucose photosynthesised, the former being inhalated once just before and the latter being administered orally 10-15 minutes before examinations. On positron CT images of all normal controls, hyper-radioactivities in frontal regions were observed. Some asymmetries of activities were observed but not remarkable. There wes no difference between the images with 11 C-CO2 and those with 11 C-glucose. In schizophrenic cases, (1) 7 out of 15 cases showed hypo-activities in the frontal regions both with 11 C-CO2 and 11 C-glucose. (2) With 11 C-glucose, relative activities in the brain were lower than those in the soft tissues around the scalp, suggesting the lowered selective uptake of 11 C-glucose by the brain. (3) With 11 C-CO 2, 4 cases showed higher activities in the right temporal regions and their subcortex than the left. By consideration of relationships between these positron CT findings and clinical data such as present age, age of onset of illness, duration of illness, psychiatric symptoms, present drug amount, summed drug amount from administration, EEG and X-ray CT findings, significant correlation was recognized only between low frontal radioactivities and apathy-abulia as main symptom. Limitation on the explanation of the findings with the image alone was discussed. (author)

  8. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    with Autism . Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology , 25(4), 502-511. Couture, S. M., Penn, D. L., Losh, M., Adolphs, R., Hurley, R...Sirian, L., Black, D. O., & Wagner, A. E. (2002). Adaptive skills and executive function in autism spectrum disorders. Child Neuropsychology , 8(4...Enhancement Therapy for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Nancy J. Minshew, M.D. & Shaun M. Each, Ph.D

  9. The recognition of facial affect in autistic and schizophrenic subjects and their first-degree relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bölte, Sven; Poustka, Fritz

    2003-07-01

    Autism and schizophrenia are considered to be substantially influenced by genetic factors. The endophenotype of both disorders probably also includes deficits in affect perception. The objective of this study was to examine the capacity to detect facially expressed emotion in autistic and schizophrenic subjects, their parents and siblings. Thirty-five subjects with autism and 102 of their relatives, 21 schizophrenic subjects and 46 relatives from simplex (one child affected) and multiplex (more than one child affected) families, as well as an unaffected control sample consisting of 22 probands completed a 50-item computer-based test to assess the ability to recognize basic emotions. The autistic subjects showed a poorer performance on the facial recognition test than did the schizophrenic and the unaffected individuals. In addition, there was a tendency for subjects from multiplex families with autistic loading to score lower on the test than individuals from simplex families with autistic loading. Schizophrenic subjects and their relatives as well as siblings and parents of autistic subjects did not differ from the sample of unaffected subjects in their ability to judge facial affect. Findings corroborate the assumption that emotion detection deficits are part of the endophenotype of autism. In families with autistic children, the extent of facial recognition deficits probably indexes an elevation in familial burden. It seems unlikely that problems in emotion perception form a consistent part of the endophenotype of schizophrenia or the broader phenotype in relatives of patients with psychosis or autism.

  10. Pragmatic Language in autism and fragile X syndrome: Genetic and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losh, Molly; Martin, Gary E; Klusek, Jessica; Hogan-Brown, Abigail L

    2012-03-01

    Evidence suggests a strong genetic basis to autism. Our research program focuses on identifying genetically meaningful phenotypes in autism, through family-genetic and cross-population methods, with a particular focus on language and social phenotypes that have been shown to aggregate in families of individuals with autism. In this article, we discuss recent findings from family study research implicating particular language and personality features as markers for genetic liability to autism and fragile X syndrome and FMR1 -related variation in relatives. We conclude with consideration of the clinical implications of such findings.

  11. The EU-AIMS Longitudinal European Autism Project (LEAP) : Clinical characterisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charman, Tony; Loth, Eva; Tillmann, Julian; Crawley, Daisy; Wooldridge, Caroline; Goyard, David; Ahmad, Jumana; Auyeung, Bonnie; Ambrosino, Sara; Banaschewski, Tobias; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Baumeister, Sarah; Beckmann, Christian; Bölte, Sven; Bourgeron, Thomas; Bours, Carsten; Brammer, Michael; Brandeis, Daniel; Brogna, Claudia; De Bruijn, Yvette; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Cornelissen, Ineke; Acqua, Flavio Dell; Dumas, Guillaume; Durston, Sarah; Ecker, Christine; Faulkner, Jessica; Frouin, Vincent; Garcés, Pilar; Ham, Lindsay; Hayward, Hannah; Hipp, Joerg; Holt, Rosemary J.; Isaksson, Johan; Johnson, Mark H.; Jones, Emily J.H.; Kundu, Prantik; Lai, Meng Chuan; D'Ardhuy, Xavier Liogier; Lombardo, Michael V.; Lythgoe, David J; Mandl, René; Mason, Luke; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Moessnang, Carolin; Mueller, Nico; O'Dwyer, Laurence; Oldehinkel, Marianne; Oranje, Bob; Pandina, Gahan; Persico, Antonio M.; Ruggeri, Barbara; Ruigrok, Amber N V; Sabet, Jessica; Sacco, Roberto; Cáceres, Antonia San Jóse; Simonoff, Emily; Toro, Roberto; Tost, Heike; Waldman, Jack; Williams, Steve C.R.; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Spooren, Will; Murphy, Declan G M; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The EU-AIMS Longitudinal European Autism Project (LEAP) is to date the largest multi-centre, multi-disciplinary observational study on biomarkers for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The current paper describes the clinical characteristics of the LEAP cohort and examines age, sex and IQ

  12. The Broader Autism Phenotype and Friendships in Non-Clinical Dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainer, Allison L.; Block, Nicole; Donnellan, M. Brent; Ingersoll, Brooke

    2013-01-01

    The broader autism phenotype (BAP) is a set of subclinical traits qualitatively similar to those observed in autism spectrum disorders. The current study sought to elucidate the association between self- and informant-reports of the BAP and friendships, in a non-clinical sample of college student dyads. Self-informant agreement of the BAP and…

  13. affective, schizophrenic and mood disorders in patients admitted at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Findings from clinical, genetic, neuropsychological and neurophysiological studies have failed to highlight a clear demarcation between the two main psychotic syndromes i.e.. MD and SCZ12, while evidence from brain imaging,. The relationship between schizo- affective, schizophrenic and mood disorders in patients ...

  14. Refraction and eye anterior segment parameters in schizophrenic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongabay Cumurcu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the difference in terms of refractive errors and anterior segment parameters between schizophrenic patients and healthy volunteers. Methods: This study compared 70 patients (48 men who were diagnosed with schizophrenia with a control group of 60 (35 men who were similar in terms of age, gender, education, and socioeconomic level. Anterior segment examination was performed using a Scheimflug system. Axial length and lens thickness (LT were measured using optic biometry. The following tests were administered to the psychiatric patient group: Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS, Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS, and Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS. Results: Mild myopia was detected in both the schizophrenic and control groups, with no statistically significant difference (p>0.005. Corneal volume (CV, anterior chamber volume (ACV, anterior chamber depth (ACD, and central corneal thickness (CCT values were lower in the schizophrenic group, and there was a statistically significant between-group difference (p=0.026, p=0.014, p=0.048, and p=0.005, respectively. LT was greater in schizophrenics, and the difference was found to be statistically significant (p=0.006. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between SAPS and cylinder values (p=0.008. The axial eye length, cylinder value, pupil diameter, mean keratometric value, and anterior chamber angle revealed no statistically significant difference between the groups (p>0.05. Conclusion: No statistically significant difference was detected in terms of refraction disorders between schizophrenics and the healthy control group, while some differences in anterior chamber parameters were present. These results demonstrate that schizophrenics may exhibit clinical and structural differences in the eye.

  15. Specific Genetic Disorders and Autism: Clinical Contribution towards Their Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, David; Pichard, Nadege; Tordjman, Sylvie; Baumann, Clarisse; Burglen, Lydie; Excoffier, Elsa; Lazar, Gabriela; Mazet, Philippe; Pinquier, Clement; Verloes, Alian; Heron, Delphine

    2005-01-01

    Autism is a heterogeneous disorder that can reveal a specific genetic disease. This paper describes several genetic diseases consistently associated with autism (fragile X, tuberous sclerosis, Angelman syndrome, duplication of 15q11-q13, Down syndrome, San Filippo syndrome, MECP2 related disorders, phenylketonuria, Smith-Magenis syndrome, 22q13…

  16. Accuracy of "Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers" ("M-CHAT") in Detecting Autism and Other Developmental Disorders in Community Clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Teck-Hock; Tan, Vivian Wee-Yen; Lau, Peter Sie-Teck; Kiyu, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    This study determined the accuracy of "Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers" ("M-CHAT") in detecting toddlers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other developmental disorders (DD) in community mother and child health clinics. We analysed 19,297 eligible toddlers (15-36 months) who had "M-CHAT" performed in…

  17. FDG PET/CT findings in a clinically diagnosed case of childhood autism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manglunia, Ashmi S.; Puranik, Ameya D.

    2016-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder with multifactorial etiology and varied presentation, in which early diagnosis is crucial to the implementation of early treatment. A 6-year-old child clinically diagnosed with autism, and a normal magnetic resonance imaging underwent dedicated 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose brain positron emission tomography (PET) as an ancillary investigation. PET image showed diffuse bilateral temporal hypometabolism. Although PET imaging is currently not indicated in the evaluation of autism, characteristic imaging patterns on PET can provide corroborative information and increase the diagnostic confidence for the same

  18. Autism and genetics: Clinical approach and association study with two markers of HRAS gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herault, J.; Petit, E.; Cherpi, C. [Laboratoire de Biochimie Medicale, Tours (France)] [and others

    1995-08-14

    Twin studies and familial aggregation studies indicate that genetic factors could play a role in infantile autism. In an earlier study, we identified a possible positive association between autism and a c-Harvey-ras (HRAS) oncogene marker at the 3{prime} end of the coding region. In an attempt to confirm this finding, we studied a larger population, well-characterized clinically and genetically. We report a positive association between autism and two HRAS markers, the 3{prime} marker used in the initial study and an additional marker in exon 1. 46 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  19. [Intersubjectivity and interpersonal relations of schizophrenics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharfetter, C

    2000-12-01

    Original accounts of an introspectively and linguistically highly gifted schizophrenic woman serve as a means to reflect about the meaning of the concept of intersubjectivity in the sense of Husserl, the constitution of self and world and its failure in the schizophrenic ego disorder. Concerning general psychopathology, there can be attempted to propose a typology of disordered intersubjectivity and consequently interpersonality. Psychotherapy of schizophrenics means reconstruction of intersubjectivity.

  20. [Diagnostics of the genetic causes of autism spectrum disorders - a clinical geneticist's view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczaluba, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    Explanation of the genetic basis of autism spectrum disorders has, for many decades, been a part of interest of researchers and clinicians. In recent years, thanks to modern molecular and cytogenetic techniques, a significant progress has been achieved in the diagnosis of genetic causes of autism. This applies particularly, but not exclusively, to those cases of autism that are accompanied by other clinical signs (i. e. complex phenotypes). The important clinical markers belong to different categories, and include congenital defects/anomalies, dysmorphism and macro-/microcephaly, to name the few. Thus, the choice of the diagnostic strategy depends on the clinical and pedigree information and, under Polish circumstances, the availability of specific diagnostic techniques and the amount of reimbursement under the National Health Service. Overall, the identification of the genetic causes of autism spectrum disorders is possible in about 10-30% of patients. In this paper the practical aspects of the use of different diagnostic techniques are briefly described. Some clinical examples and current recommendations for the diagnosis of patients with autism spectrum disorders are also presented. The point of view of a specialist in clinical genetics, increasingly involved, as part of the multidisciplinary care team, in the diagnostics of an autistic child has been demonstrated.

  1. Symptoms of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder,a clinical sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Alavi Shooshtari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "n Objective: "n "nThe aim of this report was to study the gender role on autismsymptoms distribution and severity in a clinical sample from Iran. Then, the results were compared with the published study from the same community population sample, Iran. "nMethod: The subjects of this retrospective study were a convenient clinical sample of the referrals of children with pervasive developmental disorders. The diagnosis was made according to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. "nResults: "nMost of the subjects were boys. Boys were referred for evaluation more frequently than girls. The sample included 61 children and adolescents aged 2.1 to 15 years; of whom, 49 had autism. The mean age of children with autism was 7.2(SD=3.2 years. The mean of age, the diagnosis and severity of the symptoms were not related to gender . "n "n "nConclusion: Usually, those with severe cases of autism refer to clinics for treatment. Therefore, the clinical sample of children with autism is just the tip of the iceberg and they may not be the actual representative of community sample of children with autism. Preventive programs should be more focused on the screening and referring of inflected girls for service utilization .

  2. Acupuncture for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review of Randomized Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myeong Soo; Choi, Tae-Young; Shin, Byung-Cheul; Ernst, Edzard

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of acupuncture as a treatment for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We searched the literature using 15 databases. Eleven randomized clinical trials (RCTs) met our inclusion criteria. Most had significant methodological weaknesses. The studies' statistical and clinical heterogeneity prevented us from…

  3. Increased Clinical and Neurocognitive Impairment in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Comorbid Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Adam S.; Bates, Marsha E.

    2010-01-01

    Bipolar (BD) symptomatology is prevalent in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and may lead to increased impairment. The current study compared clinical and neurocognitive impairment in children (7-13 years) diagnosed with ASD (n=55), BD (n=34), ASD + BD (n=23), and a non-clinical control group (n=27). Relative to the ASD group, the ASD…

  4. Secretin and Autism: A Two-Part Clinical Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chez, Michael G.; Buchanan, Cathleen P.; Bagan, Bradley T.; Hammer, Michael S.; McCarthy, Karla S.; Ovrutskaya, Irina; Nowinski, Carlynn V.; Cohen, Zamia S.

    2000-01-01

    Fifty-six children with either autism or pervasive developmental disorders not otherwise specified received one injection of secretin, a gastrointestinal hormone. Re-evaluation 3-6 weeks later found minimal but potentially significant improvements, including changes in gastrointestinal symptoms, expressive and/or receptive language function, and…

  5. Autism in Children: Clinical Features, Management and Challenges.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    Page 27. Type of Article: Review. Angela Frank-Briggs. Department of Paediatrics, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt. ABSTRACT. Background: The prevalence of autism world-wide is estimated to be between 1 per 91-110 children. Awareness in the USA and many other developed countries is.

  6. Autism in Children: Clinical Features, Management and Challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: Data was sourced from literature in world health organization (WHO) and published articles on autism and internet Medline publications. ... The combined problems of malaria, malnutrition, pneumonia, HIV/AIDS and other infectious illnesses may be masking emphasis on this neurodevelopmental condition.

  7. Computerized EEG as a predictor of drug response in treatment resistant schizophrenics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itil, T M; Shapiro, D; Schneider, S J; Francis, I B

    1981-10-01

    Thirteen chronic schizophrenics were identified who failed to improve with physician's choice medication and 1 year of systematic treatment with a long acting phenothiazine. These patients were considered to be treatment resistant. Computer analyzed electroencephalogram (CEEG) or these treatment resistant schizophrenics was characterized by a large amount of alpha activity and less fast activity, in comparison with previous results from therapy responsive schizophrenics. The therapy resistant subjects did not display the typical neuroleptic CEEG profile following test dosages of four neuroleptics, and instead displayed CEEG profiles which more closely resembled the typical profile for psychostimulants. These findings may point to an altered metabolism, neurotransmitter defect, or other problem which alters the physiological and clinical response of therapy resistant schizophrenics to neuroleptic medication.

  8. Aggression in children with autism spectrum disorders and a clinic-referred comparison group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Cristan; Butter, Eric; Mazurek, Micah O; Cowan, Charles; Lainhart, Janet; Cook, Edwin H; DeWitt, Mary Beth; Aman, Michael

    2015-04-01

    A gap exists in the literature regarding aggression in autism spectrum disorders and how this behavior compares to other groups. In this multisite study, the Children's Scale for Hostility and Aggression: Reactive/Proactive and the Aggression subscale of the Child Behavior Checklist were rated for 414 children with autism spectrum disorder (autistic disorder, 69%; pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified, 24%; Asperger's disorder, 7%) and 243 clinic-referred children without autism spectrum disorder, aged 1-21 years (mean age about 7 years). Participants were not selected for aggressive behavior. Relative to the comparison group, children with autism spectrum disorder were reported to have less aggression and were more likely to be rated as reactive rather than proactive. Among all subjects, sex was not associated with aggression; higher IQ/adaptive behavior and older age were associated with more sophisticated types of aggression, while lower scores on IQ, adaptive behavior, and communication measures were associated with more physical aggression. The interaction between demographic variables and diagnosis was significant only for age: younger but not older children with autism spectrum disorder showed less aggression than clinic-referred controls. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Clinical and neural effects of six-week administration of oxytocin on core symptoms of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Kuroda, Miho; Kuwabara, Hitoshi; Aoki, Yuta; Iwashiro, Norichika; Tatsunobu, Natsubori; Takao, Hidemasa; Nippashi, Yasumasa; Kawakubo, Yuki; Kunimatsu, Akira; Kasai, Kiyoto; Yamasue, Hidenori

    2015-11-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder with no established pharmacological treatment for its core symptoms. Although previous literature has shown that single-dose administration of oxytocin temporally mitigates autistic social behaviours in experimental settings, it remains in dispute whether such potentially beneficial responses in laboratories can result in clinically positive effects in daily life situations, which are measurable only in long-term observations of individuals with the developmental disorder undergoing continual oxytocin administration. Here, to address this issue, we performed an exploratory, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial including 20 high-functional adult males with autism spectrum disorder. Data obtained from 18 participants who completed the trial showed that 6-week intranasal administration of oxytocin significantly reduced autism core symptoms specific to social reciprocity, which was clinically evaluated by Autism Diagnostic Observation Scale (P = 0.034, PFDR autism spectrum disorder with suggesting its underlying biological mechanisms, but also highlight the necessity to seek optimal regimens of continual oxytocin treatment in future studies. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. schizophrenics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-07-30

    Jul 30, 2006 ... of the use of atypical antipsychotic agents with the development of ... development of diabetes when compared to a general population ..... Diazepam 2mg bid. Sodium Valproate controlled release 500mg bid. 4. Zuclopenthixol depot 200mg IMI 4 weekly. 56. Chlorpromazine 100mg am and 200mg pm. 5.

  11. Anxiety and Quality of Life: Clinically Anxious Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders Compared

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steensel, Francisca J. A.; Bogels, Susan M.; Dirksen, Carmen D.

    2012-01-01

    Comorbid anxiety disorders are common in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, studies comparing children with ASD to clinically anxious children are rare. This study investigated anxiety problems and health-related quality of life in children with high-functioning ASD and comorbid anxiety disorders (referred to as the ASD…

  12. The Clinical Use of Robots for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Joshua J.; Schmitt, Lauren M.; Villano, Michael; Crowell, Charles R.

    2012-01-01

    We examined peer-reviewed studies in order to understand the current status of empirically based evidence on the clinical applications of robots in the diagnosis and treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Studies are organized into four broad categories: (a) the response of individuals with ASD to robots or robot-like behavior in comparison…

  13. Consistency between Research and Clinical Diagnoses of Autism among Boys and Girls with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klusek, J.; Martin, G. E.; Losh, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prior research suggests that 60-74% of males and 16-45% of females with fragile X syndrome (FXS) meet criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in research settings. However, relatively little is known about the rates of clinical diagnoses in FXS and whether such diagnoses are consistent with those performed in a research setting…

  14. Gender Differences in Co-Morbid Psychopathology and Clinical Management in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakanikos, Elias; Underwood, Lisa; Kravariti, Eugenia; Bouras, Nick; McCarthy, Jane

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined rates of co-morbid psychopathology and clinical management/care pathways in adult females (N = 50) and males (N = 100) with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID) living in community settings. We also compared a sub-sample (N = 60) with ASD to an age-, gender- and ID-matched control group (N =…

  15. [Autism and infantile psychosis. Theoretical and clinical contributions of the psychoanalysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendrik, Silvia

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the different theories of various authors that have tried to explain, from the psychoanalytic theory, the early childhood autistic disorder described by Leo Kanner in 1943. Autism differs from other childhood disorders and is characterized by a significant disconnection. This article sustains that there are two different lines of thought. One that explains the disorder as a regression during a normal phase of development; and the other as an early defense in response to extreme situations. These two theories are present in all the current considerations about autism as a theoretical debate that goes beyond the clinical observation and determines the direction of the cure.

  16. Brain computed tomography findings of aged schizophrenics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oomori, Masao; Koshino, Yoshifumi; Murata, Tetsuhito; Murata, Ichirou; Tani, Kazuhiko; Horie, Tan; Isaki, Kiminori

    1992-01-01

    Brain CT was performed in a total of 30 aged schizophrenic patients, consisting of 20 with no history of psychosurgery (lobotomy) and the other 10 lobotomized patients. The CT findings were compared with those from healthy aged persons. The group of schizophrenic patients had marked atrophy of the frontal lobe and dilatated Sylvian fissure as compared with the control group. There was no significant difference in ventricular factors between the two groups. These findings may have implications for the different mechanisms of the occurrence of atrophied brain surface and enlarged ventricle. The cerebral cortex involved in the occurrence of schizophrenia may be affected by aging-related cerebral atrophy, in addition to the morphological changes due to schizophrenia. Thus, schizophrenic cerebral atrophy was more noticeable than physiological aging-related atrophy. However, enlargement of the ventricle in the schizophrenic group progressed with aging in the same manner as that in the normal group. In comparing schizophrenic patients with or without a history of lobotomy, atrophy of the brain surface and enlargement of the ventricle were more marked in the lobotomized patients than the non-lobotomized patients. This confirmed that lobotomy, as well as surgical scar, is involved in the morphology of schizophrenic brain. (N.K.)

  17. [Autism spectrum disorders in adulthood: clinical and neuropsychological findings of Aspergers syndrome diagnosed late in life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnhardt, F-G; Gawronski, A; Volpert, K; Schilbach, L; Tepest, R; Huff, W; Vogeley, K

    2011-05-01

    High-functioning autism (HFA) and Aspergers syndrome (AS) are autism spectrum disorders (ASD) characterised by disturbances in social interaction, both verbal and non-verbal communication and repetitive and/or restrictive behaviour since early childhood. Symptoms appear generally during early childhood and adolescence. The increasing need to clarify diagnostic queries in advanced age led to the constitution of specialised outpatient clinics for adults involving a growing amount of HFA/AS subjects diagnosed late in life. However, thus far neuropsychological data about this group are scarce. We present a subgroup of 39 patients with HFA/AS (mean age at diagnosis 31.1 ± 8.9 years) who were consecutively diagnosed at the autism outpatient clinic at the Department of Psychiatry at the University Hospital Cologne. Autistic symptoms (autism spectrum quotient; AQ), depressive symptoms (Beck depression inventory; BDI), general intelligence (HAWIE-R), social cognition ("theory of mind", ToM) and executive functioning (COWAT) were systematically studied in comparison to a control group matched for age, education, gender and intelligence (n = 39). HFA/AS subjects presented higher AQ scores (40.4 ± 5.2) as opposed to the healthy controls (13.5 ± 4.8). Neuropsychologically, patients showed deficits in social cognition, executive functions and in subtests of HAWIE-R related to verbal comprehension and perceptual organisation as opposed to the healthy control group. The diagnosis of autistic disorders in adulthood basically relies on the clinical assessment of autistic core symptoms which were corroborated by high AQ values. The self-rating instrument AQ was found to be highly discriminative between the HFA/AS group and the healthy control group. The neuropsychological profile of adult HFA/AS patients diagnosed late in life is compatible with that of previously investigated HFA/AS populations. These findings show that such basic autism-associated deficits persist until

  18. Group art therapy as adjunct therapy for the treatment of schizophrenic patients in day hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajić, Gordana Mandić

    2013-11-01

    The schizophrenics are frequently disinterested and resistant to standard care. We presented clinical observations of group art therapy of two schizophrenic patients during integrative therapy in Day Hospital. We modified the original "Synallactic collective image technique" (Vassiliou G, Vassiliou V.). The group is open, heterogeneous, meets once a week and discusses on exhibited drawings, drawn by free associations. The patients' drawings and group protocols showed clinical improvement by lowering depressive themes, more human figures and self-confidence. The obvious severity of markedly impairment on Clinical Global Impression (CGI) and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scales on admission with minimal improvement at discharge was rated. Group art therapy enables visual expression of emotions, perceptions and cognitions, develops creative potentials and support within the group, thus facilitating the integrative therapeutic process of schizophrenics. It may be useful adjunctive therapy for schizoprenic patients.

  19. Group art therapy as adjunct therapy for the treatment of schizophrenic patients in day hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandić-Gajić Gordana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The schizophrenics are frequently disinterested and resistant to standard care. Case report. We presented clinical observations of group art therapy of two schizophrenic patients during integrative therapy in Day Hospital. We modified the original “Synallactic collective image technique” (Vassiliou G, Vassiliou V.. The group is open, heterogeneous, meets once a week and discusses on exhibited drawings, drawn by free associations. The patients' drawings and group protocols showed clinical improvement by lowering depressive themes, more human figures and self-confidence. The obvious severity of markedly impairment on Clinical Global Impression (CGI and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF scales on admission with minimal improvement at discharge was rated. Conclusion. Group art therapy enables visual expression of emotions, perceptions and cognitions, develops creative potentials and support within the group, thus facilitating the integrative therapeutic process of schizophrenics. It may be useful adjunctive therapy for schizoprenic patients.

  20. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in a large clinical sample of children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broder-Fingert, Sarabeth; Brazauskas, Karissa; Lindgren, Kristen; Iannuzzi, Dorothea; Van Cleave, Jeanne

    2014-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are major pediatric public health problems in the United States; however, limited data exist on the prevalence and correlates of overnutrition in children with autism. Through a large integrated health care system's patient database, we identified 6672 children ages 2 to 20 years with an assigned ICD-9 code of autism (299.0), Asperger syndrome (299.8), and control subjects from 2008 to 2011 who had at least 1 weight and height recorded in the same visit. We calculated age-adjusted, sex-adjusted body mass index and classified children as overweight (body mass index 85th to 95th percentile) or obese (≥ 95th percentile). We used multinomial logistic regression to compare the odds of overweight and obesity between groups. We then used logistic regression to evaluate factors associated with overweight and obesity in children with autism, including demographic and clinical characteristics. Compared to control subjects, children with autism and Asperger syndrome had significantly higher odds of overweight (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval: autism 2.24, 1.74-2.88; Asperger syndrome 1.49, 1.12-1.97) and obesity (autism 4.83, 3.85-6.06; Asperger syndrome 5.69, 4.50-7.21). Among children with autism, we found a higher odds of obesity in older children (aged 12-15 years 1.87, 1.33-2.63; aged 16-20 years 1.94, 1.39-2.71) compared to children aged 6 to 11 years. We also found higher odds of overweight and obesity in those with public insurance (overweight 1.54, 1.25-1.89; obese 1.16, 1.02-1.40) and with co-occurring sleep disorder (obese 1.23, 1.00-1.53). Children with autism and Asperger syndrome had significantly higher odds of overweight and obesity than control subjects. Older age, public insurance, and co-occurring sleep disorder were associated with overweight or obesity in this population. Copyright © 2014 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sensory gating deficits in parents of schizophrenics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldo, M.; Madison, A.; Freedman, R. [Univ. of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-18

    Although schizophrenia clusters in families, it is not inherited in Mendelian fashion. This suggests that there may be alternative phenotypic expressions of genes that convey risk for schizophrenia, such as more elementary physiological or biochemical defects. One proposed phenotype is impaired inhibitory gating of the auditory evoked potential to repeated stimuli. Normally, the amplitude of the P50 response to the second stimulus is significantly less than the response to the first, but this gating of response is generally impaired in schizophrenia. Clinically unaffected individuals within a pedigree who have both an ancestral and descendant history of schizophrenia may be useful for studying whether this physiological defect is a possible alternative phenotype. We have studied inhibitory gating of the auditory P50 response to pairs of auditory stimuli in 17 nuclear families. In 11, there was one parent who had another relative with a chronic psychotic illness, in addition to the schizophrenic proband. AR of the parents with family histories of schizophrenia had gating of the P50 response similar to their schizophrenia offspring, whereas only 7% of the parents without family history had gating of the P50 response in the abnormal range. These results support loss of gating of the auditory P50 wave as an inherited deficit related to schizophrenia and suggest that studies of parents may help elucidate the neurobiological expression of genes that convey risk for schizophrenia. 36 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Clinical heterogeneity among people with high functioning autism spectrum conditions: evidence favouring a continuous severity gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woodbury-Smith Marc

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASCs are characterized by a high degree of clinical heterogeneity, but the extent to which this variation represents a severity gradient versus discrete phenotypes is unclear. This issue has complicated genetic studies seeking to investigate the genetic basis of the high hereditability observed clinically in those with an ASC. The aim of this study was to examine the possible clustering of symptoms associated with ASCs to determine whether the observed distribution of symptom type and severity supported either a severity or a symptom subgroup model to account for the phenotypic variation observed within the ASCs. Methods We investigated the responses of a group of adults with higher functioning ASCs on the fifty clinical features examined in the Autism Spectrum Quotient, a screening questionnaire used in the diagnosis of higher functioning ASCs. In contrast to previous studies we have used this instrument with no a priori assumptions about any underlying factor structure of constituent items. The responses obtained were analyzed using complete linkage hierarchical cluster analysis. For the members of each cluster identified the mean score on each Autism Spectrum Quotient question was calculated. Results Autism Spectrum Quotient responses from a total of 333 individuals between the ages of 16.6 and 78.0 years were entered into the hierarchical cluster analysis. The four cluster solution was the one that generated the largest number of clusters that did not also include very small cluster sizes, defined as a membership comprising 10 individuals or fewer. Examination of these clusters demonstrated that they varied in total Autism Spectrum Quotient but that the profiles across the symptoms comprising the Autism Spectrum Quotient did not differ independently of this severity factor. Conclusion These results are consistent with a unitary spectrum model, suggesting that the clinical heterogeneity observed

  3. Clinical characteristics of children and young adults with co-occurring autism spectrum disorder and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Achkar, Christelle M; Spence, Sarah J

    2015-06-01

    The association between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and epilepsy has been described for decades, and yet we still lack the full understanding of this relationship both clinically and at the pathophysiologic level. This review evaluates the available data in the literature pertaining to the clinical characteristics of patients with autism spectrum disorder who develop epilepsy and, conversely, patients with epilepsy who develop autism spectrum disorder. Many studies demonstrate an increased risk of epilepsy in individuals with ASD, but rates vary widely. This variability is likely secondary to the different study methods employed, including the study population and definitions of the disorders. Established risk factors for an increased risk of epilepsy in patients with ASD include intellectual disability and female gender. There is some evidence of an increased risk of epilepsy associated with other factors such as ASD etiology (syndromic), severity of autistic features, developmental regression, and family history. No one epilepsy syndrome or seizure type has been associated, although focal or localization-related seizures are often reported. The age at seizure onset can vary from infancy to adulthood with some evidence of a bimodal age distribution. The severity and intractability of epilepsy in populations with ASD have not been well studied, and there is very little investigation of the role that epilepsy plays in the autism behavioral phenotype. There is evidence of abnormal EEGs (especially epileptiform abnormalities) in children with ASD even in the absence of clinical seizures, but very little is known about this phenomenon and what it means. The development of autism spectrum disorder in patients with epilepsy is less well studied, but there is evidence that the ASD risk is greater in those with epilepsy than in the general population. One of the risk factors is intellectual disability, and there is some evidence that the presence of a particular seizure

  4. Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness among Schizophrenic Patients and Their Families (Comparative Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Sahar; Zaki, Rania A.

    2015-01-01

    This study was a comparative study aiming to assess the extent of internalized stigma of mental illness among patients with schizophrenia & identify stigma as perceived by family members caring schizophrenic patients. The study was conducted in two settings 1st clinic was outpatient clinic for psychiatric patient affiliated to Abbasia…

  5. Schizophrenic patients without neuropsychological deficits : subgroup, disease severity or cognitive compensation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holthausen, EAE; Wiersma, D; Sitskoorn, MM; Hijman, R; Dingemans, PM; Schene, AH; van den Bosch, RJ

    2002-01-01

    Some schizophrenic patients do not show clinically relevant cognitive deficits. The question remains whether this represents the existence of an etiologically different subgroup, a general effect of disease severity or whether their cognitive deficits do not reach a clinical threshold due to a

  6. Is Autism a Disease of the Cerebellum?: An integration of clinical and pre-clinical results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany D. Rogers

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by deficits in social skills and communication, unusual and repetitive behavior, and a range of deficits in cognitive function. While the etiology of autism is unknown, current research indicates that abnormalities of the cerebellum, now believed to be involved in cognitive function and the prefrontal cortex (PFC, are associated with autism. The current paper proposes that impaired cerebello-cortical circuitry could, at least in part, underlie autistic symptoms. The use of animal models that allow for manipulation of genetic and environmental influences are an effective means of elucidating both distal and proximal etiological factors in autism and their potential impact on cerebello-cortical circuitry. Some existing rodent models of autism, as well as some models not previously applied to the study of the disorder, display cerebellar and behavioral abnormalities that parallel those commonly seen in autistic patients. The novel findings produced from research utilizing rodent models could provide a better understanding of the neurochemical and behavioral impact of changes in cerebello-cortical circuitry in autism.

  7. The Added Value of the Combined Use of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule: Diagnostic Validity in a Clinical Swedish Sample of Toddlers and Young Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, Eric; Sturm, Harald; Bölte, Sven

    2015-01-01

    The diagnostic validity of the new research algorithms of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and the revised algorithms of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule was examined in a clinical sample of children aged 18-47 months. Validity was determined for each instrument separately and their combination against a clinical consensus…

  8. Schizophrenic and Sibling: A Comparison of Parental Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Frank; Walsh, Froma

    1980-01-01

    Schizophrenics were differentiated from their siblings in tendencies to see themselves as symbiotically attached to their mothers and failing to be accommodated to by their fathers. Schizophrenics tend to be aligned with the same sex parent. Findings may help explain the psychosexual identification difficulties of schizophrenics. (Author)

  9. Assessment of Relationship between Quality of Life and Coping Strategies in Schizophrenic Patients in Refer To Psychiatric Clinics of Educational Hospitals of Tehran

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    Zahra Tamizi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Quality of life is affected by many factors including stressors and coping strategies. Schizophrenia patients suffer from numerous stresses and have difficulties in coping strategies against life stressors which in turn can influence their quality of life. So it is important that coping strategies in patients with schizophrenia be known. This study has been performed in order to appraise coping strategies in schizophrenia patient and their relationship with quality of life. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive- correlational study 90 schizophrenia patients referring to psychiatry clinics of educational psychiatric hospitals in Tehran during a nine-month period were evaluated with the “World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale-Brief Version” and with “The Ways of Coping Questionnaire”. Data was analyzed by Anova, Independent T test, Kruskal Wallis, Man Whitney and chi-square tests. Results: The results showed that most of the participants (42.1% used the "avoidance” coping strategy. The results also showed that the majority of participants (77.8% had an average level of quality of life. In addition, the results showed that there was a meaningful relationship between quality of life and coping strategies (P=0.005 such that samples who used the "avoidance” coping strategy, had lower quality of life. Conclusion: There was a meaningful relationship between "quality of life" and "coping strategies". Including teaching of coping skills in the treatment and rehabilitation plan of schizophrenia patients can increase their use of more effective coping strategies and to improve their quality of life.

  10. Screening children for autism in an urban clinic using an electronic M-CHAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, John W; Bai, Robert; Perkins, Amy M

    2013-01-01

    The Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) is a screening tool for autism spectrum disorders in the clinic. However, the follow-up questions in the M-CHAT are difficult to implement on a paper format. To compare the effectiveness of the M-CHAT on an electronic format versus paper format in an outpatient clinic setting. Methods. A prospective study used electronic M-CHAT on the iPad. A retrospective review of paper M-CHATs 6 months prior to implementation was used as the comparison group. A total of 176 participants completed the electronic M-CHAT format and 197 paper M-CHATs were retrospectively reviewed. The electronic format (3%) resulted in a significant difference in the frequency of children found to be at risk for autism compared with the paper version (11%); 99% of parents rated the experience as "good" or "excellent." The electronic format lowered both false at-risk screens and false not-at-risk screens and had higher parental satisfaction.

  11. Consistency between research and clinical diagnoses of autism among boys and girls with fragile X syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klusek, J; Martin, G E; Losh, M

    2014-10-01

    Prior research suggests that 60-74% of males and 16-45% of females with fragile X syndrome (FXS) meet criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in research settings. However, relatively little is known about the rates of clinical diagnoses in FXS and whether such diagnoses are consistent with those performed in a research setting using gold standard diagnostic tools. This study explored whether boys and girls with FXS met criteria for ASD in a research setting using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) and the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), and then compared these data with the frequency of parent-reported clinical diagnoses. We also examined child and family characteristics as potential diagnostic predictors across settings. Participants included 35 females and 51 males with FXS (mean age: 10 years), who were from Eastern and Midwestern regions of the USA. About half of the children met criteria for ASD on either the ADOS or ADI-R, with ASD occurring three times more frequently in males than females (∼75% vs. ∼25%). In contrast, ∼25% of participants of both genders had received a clinical diagnosis of ASD. While cognitive and language skills predicted diagnostic outcome on the ADOS and ADI-R, these skills did not predict clinical diagnoses. Executive functions predicted clinical diagnoses, but not diagnoses per the ADOS or ADI-R. ASD in FXS may be under-diagnosed in clinical/educational settings, which raises questions regarding access to ASD-related services. © 2014 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. [Comparative study of life quality in patients with cycloid and schizophrenic psychoses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabs, B; Krause, U; Althaus, G; Stöber, G; Pfuhlmann, B

    2004-05-01

    Cycloid psychoses represent a nosological entity not adequately recognised by contemporary psychiatry. They show full recovery after each episode and thus have a favourable prognosis. Course, psychiatric status, social function, and quality of life (QoL) of 33 patients with cycloid psychosis and 44 schizophrenics were compared (CGI, PANSS, GAF, Strauss-Carpenter,WHOQOL-BREF).Also, 48 controls were asked to rate their QoL. The schizophrenics developed symptoms earlier in life (P=0.009) and were hospitalized longer (P=0.001) and more frequently(P=0.01) than patients with cycloid psychosis. The latter showed better scores in the applied scales (Pcycloid psychotic patients were more satisfied than schizophrenic patients in three of four domains(PCycloid psychoses display better course, outcome, and QoL than schizophrenia.Thus, they appear to present a useful concept deserving more clinical and scientific attention.

  13. [Molecular Biology on the Mechanisms of Autism Spectrum Disorder for Clinical Psychiatrists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makinodan, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    While, in general, a certain number of clinical psychiatrists might not be familiar with molecular biology, the mechanisms of mental illnesses have been uncovered by molecular biology for decades. Among mental illnesses, even biological psychiatrists and neuroscientists have paid less attention to the biological treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) than Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia since ASD has been regarded as a developmental disorder that was seemingly untreatable. However, multifaceted methods of molecular biology have revealed the mechanisms that would lead to the medication of ASD. In this article, how molecular biology dissects the pathobiology of ASD is described in order to announce the possibilities of biological treatment for clinical psychiatrists.

  14. [On a symptom which corresponds with "schizophrenic color" as the impression of schizophrenic disturbance of rapport].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K

    1991-01-01

    It is suggested that "schizophrenic color", as the impression of schizophrenic disturbance of rapport, is closely related to the disturbance of communication, especially metacommunication, by many researchers. So the author defined a symptom named "the cognitive schema of others' position", which means others' time-space position in a patient's delusional world, as the symptom being expected to be closely related to the disturbance of the patient's metacommunication at the interaction with others in his delusional world. Then the author examined statistically the relationship of "schizophrenic color" (or the operational diagnosis of schizophrenia according to DSM-III) to "the cognitive schema of others' position" and at the same time to several forms of auditory hallucination having been considered to be significantly related to schizophrenia. 58 hallucinatory-delusional states (29 schizophrenia, 29 non-schizophrenia) were actually examined and some results were pointed out as follows. Observation of the "improper cognitive schema of others' position", which means the fantastic and impossible, for a human being, time-space position of others in a patient's delusional world, was statistically related to the deterioration of "schizophrenic color" or the operational diagnosis of schizophrenia according to DSM-III. This result was considered to be related to the supposition that the "improper cognitive schema of others' position" is a symptom representing the schizophrenic collapse of the cognitive time-space construction as well as the schizophrenic disturbance of metacommunication. Otherwise, the observation of hallucinatory voices speaking and answering directly to the patient, which has been expected to be one of the most important symptoms of schizophrenia, was not statistically related to the deterioration of "schizophrenic color" or the operational diagnosis of schizophrenia according to DSM-III. And the observation of hallucinatory voices arguing about the

  15. Adult schizophrenic-like variant of adrenoleukodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpak, G M; Lewandowska, E; Schmidt-Sidor, B; Popow, J; Kozłowski, P; Lechowicz, W; Kulczycki, J; Zaremba, J; Dymecki, J

    1996-01-01

    A 35-year-old man died after 30 months following the onset of the disease. There was a history of changes in his mental condition, including disturbances of behavior as well as the evidence of progressing dementia. The patient revealed gait disturbances and finally became bed ridden. Bizarre behavior and changes of mood with concurrent growing irritability which predominated during the course of disease, may explain the initial diagnosis of schizophrenia. Then cerebellar and spastic movement disorders leading to paraparesis and sphincters disturbances developed. Clinical symptoms of adrenal failure were not found apart from episodes of arterial pressure fall. After two years a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed an extensive diffuse demyelinative process in white matter of cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres. Activity of lysosomal enzymes was normal. A general autopsy revealed atrophy of adrenal cortex and the presence of ballooned cells with striated cytoplasm in the reticular and fasciculate zones. Neuropathological examination revealed an extensive demyelination of white matter in cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres and of the long paths of the brain stem, corresponding to changes in MRI examination. Within demyelination areas damage of axons and diffuse cellular and fibrous gliosis were found as well as perivascular lymphocytic infiltrations with the presence of strong PAS (+) and Sudan (+) macrophages. Immunocytochemical reactions with HAM-56 and RCA1 in macrophages were positive. Electron microscopy examination revealed lamellar inclusions in cytoplasm of macrophages. Similar structures were present in the lysosomes of astrocytes. Morphological examination of adrenal glands as well as morphological and ultrastructural study of the brain allowed us to diagnose the cerebral form of adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD). Topography and character of the brain changes seems to be in keeping with a rare schizophrenic-like variant of ALD with progressive dementia

  16. Clinical Characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Israel: Impact of Ethnic and Social Diversities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Mahajnah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increased global prevalence and recognition of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD, it is still scarcely reported in the Arab world. Though Israel has a higher prevalence of ASD, a previous national survey of patients diagnosed between 1972 and 2004, demonstrated that 98% of them were of Jewish ancestry. The disproportional low number of Arab children with ASD in Israel is unclear but may reflect lower awareness and cultural bias. In the present study we collected clinical and demographic characteristics of 200 children with ASD from Arab and Jewish sectors in Israel that were evaluated in two child development centers. We compared the incidence and the medical comorbidity of autism between these two ethnics groups. The medical and psychiatric comorbidity profile in these children was similar to the worldwide published studies. In the present study the prevalence of autism in the Arab sector in Israel was similar to that of the Jewish sector. The Arab patients presented with more severe autistic manifestations and higher incidence of mental retardation, familial members with autism, and consanguinity (P<0.05, while in the Jewish sector milder forms (such as Asperger syndrome and PDD-NOS were more frequent. This discrepancy might be explained by both genetic and cultural factors.

  17. Do Anorexics and Schizophrenics Look Alike on the MMPI?--A Critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verberne, Tom J. P.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory data presented by Small, Madero, Gross, Teagno, Leib, and Ebert (1981) which shows distinct differences, consistent with the clinical diagnosis in the case of the schizophrenic patients, and is suggestive of an affective disorder in the anorexic patients. (Author/JAC)

  18. How are autism and schizotypy related? Evidence from a non-clinical population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie L Dinsdale

    Full Text Available Both autism spectrum conditions (ASCs and schizophrenia spectrum conditions (SSCs involve altered or impaired social and communicative functioning, but whether these shared features indicate overlapping or different etiological factors is unknown. We outline three hypotheses (overlapping, independent, and diametric for the possible relationship between ASCs and SSCs, and compare their predictions for the expected relationships between autistic and schizotypal phenotypes using the Autism Spectrum Quotient and the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief Revised from a large non-clinical sample of undergraduate students. Consistent with previous research, autistic features were positively associated with several schizotypal features, with the most overlap occurring between interpersonal schizotypy and autistic social and communication phenotypes. The first component of a principal components analysis (PCA of subscale scores reflected these positive correlations, and suggested the presence of an axis (PC1 representing general social interest and aptitude. By contrast, the second principal component (PC2 exhibited a pattern of positive and negative loadings indicative of an axis from autism to positive schizotypy, such that positive schizotypal features loaded in the opposite direction to core autistic features. These overall PCA patterns were replicated in a second data set from a Japanese population. To evaluate the validity of our interpretation of the PCA results, we measured handedness and mental rotation ability, as these are established correlates of SSCs and ASCs, respectively. PC2 scores were significantly associated with hand preference, such that increasingly 'schizotypal' scores predicted reduced strength of handedness, which is consistent with previous research. PC1 scores were positively related to performance on the mental rotation task, suggesting trade-offs between social skills and visual-spatial ability. These results provide

  19. [Oxytocin: the hormone of love, trust and social bond. Clinical use in autism and social phobia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Du Pan, R C

    2012-03-21

    Oxytocin, an octapeptide synthesized in the hypothalamus, stimulates milk election and uterine contractions. In the brain this hormone acts as a neuropeptide. It could inhibit through the GABAergic system the activity of limbic amygdala, which is involved in the response to fear. Oxytocin could also induce the protective behaviour of the mother towards its offspring through the dopaminergic system. In mankind, oxytocin plays a role in trust, empathy, generosity, stress and sexuality. Clinical studies are testing potential benefits of oxytocin administration in autism, depression and social phobia. Results are still preliminary.

  20. Understanding Autism in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Ballerini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Detachment from external reality, distancing from others, closure into a sort of virtual hermitage, and prevalence of inner fantasies, are the descriptive aspects of autism. However, from an anthropological-phenomenological point of view, in schizophrenia, the autistic mode of life can arise from a person’s being confronted with a pathological crisis in the obviousness of the intersubjective world, essentially a crisis in the intersubjective foundation of human presence. The “condition of possibility” of the autistic way of being is the deficiency of the operation that phenomenology call empathetic-intuitive constitution of the Other, an Other which is the naturalness of evidence of being a subject like me. The theme of the Other, of intersubjectivity, has become so central in the psychopathological analysis of schizophrenic disorders because the modifications of interhuman encounter cannot be seen as the secondary consequences of symptoms but constitute the fundamental disorder of schizophrenic alienation. Revision of the concept of autism from the original definition, centered on the prevalence of inner fantasies, leads to the profound change with the vision of autism as “loss” and “void.” I call attention to possibility of phenomenological research to understand autistic world starting from this “void.”

  1. Understanding autism in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballerini, Arnaldo

    2012-01-01

    Detachment from external reality, distancing from others, closure into a sort of virtual hermitage, and prevalence of inner fantasies, are the descriptive aspects of autism. However, from an anthropological-phenomenological point of view, in schizophrenia, the autistic mode of life can arise from a person's being confronted with a pathological crisis in the obviousness of the intersubjective world, essentially a crisis in the intersubjective foundation of human presence. The "condition of possibility" of the autistic way of being is the deficiency of the operation that phenomenology call empathetic-intuitive constitution of the Other, an Other which is the naturalness of evidence of being a subject like me. The theme of the Other, of intersubjectivity, has become so central in the psychopathological analysis of schizophrenic disorders because the modifications of interhuman encounter cannot be seen as the secondary consequences of symptoms but constitute the fundamental disorder of schizophrenic alienation. Revision of the concept of autism from the original definition, centered on the prevalence of inner fantasies, leads to the profound change with the vision of autism as "loss" and "void." I call attention to possibility of phenomenological research to understand autistic world starting from this "void."

  2. [Differential diagnosis between Schizotypal Personality Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorders: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünver, Buket; Öner, Özgür; Yurtbaşı, Pınar

    2015-01-01

    Schizotypal personality disorder is characterized by social and interpersonal deficits marked by discomfort with, and reduced capacity for, close relationships as well as by cognitive or perceptual distortions and eccentricities of behavior. Inappropriate or constricted affect, reduced capacity for relationships, lack of close friends and reduced capacity for social life are the symptoms that overlap both schizotypal personality disorder and autism spectrum disorders. The making of differential diagnosis may be difficult since several symptoms are similar between these disorders. In this study, we discussed the differential diagnosis issues on the basis of an adolescent case. Odd appearance, magical thoughts, reference thoughts suggests Schizotypal Personality Disorder whereas lack of eye contact at 2 years old, a preference to be isolated and play alone and referral to a child psychiatrist at 4 years old suggest Autism Spectrum Disorders. Based on the results of psychological assessment, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) profile is compatible with autistic children's profiles. Based on Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire, the patient's anxiety, lack of close friends, constricted affect symptoms which take place in the category of interpersonal schizotypy seems to overlap with lack of communication of Autism Spectrum Disorders. This case report indicates that, separation of autism and schizophrenia, a very important historical breakthrough in autism research, may be blurred in cases with less typical clinical pictures representing autistic and schizophrenic "spectrum" diagnosis.

  3. Borderline, depressive, and schizophrenic discrimination by MMPI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfo, R L; Templer, D I; Cappelletty, G G; Cannon, W G

    1991-11-01

    This study intended to differentiate among borderline personality disorder (BPD), schizophrenic, and depressed patients on the basis of their MMPI profiles. MMPI profiles of 237 psychiatric inpatients were selected on the basis of their primary DSM-III admission diagnoses. Analysis of MMPI mean scores and discriminant function analysis supports previous literature in describing borderline patients as having a broad spectrum of psychopathology typified by an attitude of alienation and rebelliousness, atypical thought content and/or process, and eccentric behavior. Schizophrenic patients are differentiated from BPD patients by the presence of thought disorder and psychotic-like manifestations. The depressed patients did not show the aforementioned extreme characteristics of the other two groups.

  4. Clinical Overlap and Psychiatric Comorbidity in Autism Spectrum Disorder in Adulthood: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Picoito

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD is an early neurodevelopmental disorder that accompanies the individual throughout life. There is a significant clinical overlap of ASD with other psychiatric disorders including personality disorders, psychotic disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder and depression. Additionally, the presence of high rates of psychiatric comorbidity, often with atypical presentations, delays the ASD diagnosis and makes it more difficult to manage. Aims: To illustrate the complexity of ASD diagnosis and approach in adults. Methods: Report of a clinical case and review of the literature. Results and Conclusion: This paper presents the case of a 46-year-old patient, with ASD, with a long history of interpersonal difficulties and psychiatric symptomatology. Over the years, different diagnoses have been made, particularly schizoid and schizotypal personality disorders, psychosis not otherwise specified and paranoid schizophrenia, which led to poor adherence to treatment, and prevented a full understanding of the patient’s clinical presentation and lifelong struggles.

  5. The Schizophrenic Theme in Science Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-06-01

    Victorian religious millenialism which was virtually destroyed by the bitter experiences of two world wars. Science fiction writers seem to be the ...Distribution Unlimnited lo- ABSTRACT COL Franklin D. Jones, MD The Psychiatry and Neurology Con~ultant Office of The Surgeon General of the Army...Title: The Schizophrenic Theme in Science Fiction Author: Franklin D. Jones, MD, COL, MC Originally presented in 1965, this paper reports the results of

  6. Altered balance in the autonomic nervous system in schizophrenic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, B M; Mehlsen, J; Behnke, K

    1988-01-01

    .05). Heart-rate response to inspiration was greater in non-medicated schizophrenics compared to normal subjects (P less than 0.05), whereas no difference was found between medicated and non-medicated schizophrenics. The results show that the balance in the autonomic nervous system is altered in schizophrenic...... patients with a hyperexcitability in both the sympathetic and the parasympathetic division. Our study has thus indicated a dysfunction in the autonomic nervous system per se and the previous interpretations of attentional orienting responses in schizophrenia is questioned. Medication with neuroleptics......The aim of the present study was to evaluate the autonomic nervous function in schizophrenic patients. Twenty-eight patients (29 +/- 6 years) diagnosed as schizophrenics and in stable medication were included, together with ten schizophrenic patients (25 +/- 5 years) who were unmedicated. Eleven...

  7. Parents' Attitudes toward Clinical Genetic Testing for Autism Spectrum Disorder-Data from a Norwegian Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, Jarle; Nærland, Terje; Hope, Sigrun; Torske, Tonje; Høyland, Anne Lise; Strohmaier, Jana; Heiberg, Arvid; Rietschel, Marcella; Djurovic, Srdjan; Andreassen, Ole A

    2017-05-18

    Clinical genetic testing (CGT) of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may have positive and negative effects. Knowledge about parents' attitudes is needed to ensure good involvement of caregivers, which is crucial for accurate diagnosis and effective clinical management. This study aimed to assess parents' attitudes toward CGT for ASD. Parent members of the Norwegian Autism Society were given a previously untested questionnaire and 1455 answered. Linear regression analyses were conducted to evaluate contribution of parent and child characteristics to attitude statements. Provided it could contribute to a casual explanation of their child's ASD, 76% would undergo CGT. If it would improve the possibilities for early interventions, 74% were positive to CGT. Between 49-67% agreed that CGT could have a negative impact on health insurance, increase their concern for the child's future and cause family conflicts. Parents against CGT (9%) were less optimistic regarding positive effects, but not more concerned with negative impacts. The severity of the children's ASD diagnosis had a weak positive association with parent's positive attitudes to CGT ( p -values range from <0.001 to 0.975). Parents prefer that CGT is offered to those having a child with ASD (65%), when the child's development deviates from normal (48%), or before pregnancy (36%). A majority of the parents of children with ASD are positive to CGT due to possibilities for an etiological explanation.

  8. A Study of the Correlation between VEP and Clinical Severity in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winai Sayorwan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Visual evoked potential (VEP is a technique used to assess the brain’s electrical response to visual stimuli. The aims of this study were to examine neural transmission within the visual pathway through VEP testing in preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD and compare it to age-matched controls, as well as search for a correlation between the VEP parameters and the symptoms of ASD. Participants were composed of ASD children (9 males and typically developing children (8 males and 4 females, aged between 3 and 5 years. Checkerboards were chosen as the pattern-reversal VEP. The clinical severity of ASD was assessed using the Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales 2nd edition (VABS-II. Our findings demonstrated that children with ASD had significantly longer N145 latency compared to the controls. A longer N145 latency correlated with a higher score of ATEC within the sensory/cognitive awareness subdomain. In addition, a slower N145 response was also associated with a lower VABS-II score within the socialization domain. The correlation between longer VEP latency and abnormal behaviors in children with ASD suggests a delayed neural communication within other neural circuits, apart from the visual pathway. These lines of evidence support the possibility of using VEP, along with clinical parameters, for the assessment of ASD severity.

  9. Parents’ Attitudes toward Clinical Genetic Testing for Autism Spectrum Disorder—Data from a Norwegian Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarle Johannessen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Clinical genetic testing (CGT of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD may have positive and negative effects. Knowledge about parents’ attitudes is needed to ensure good involvement of caregivers, which is crucial for accurate diagnosis and effective clinical management. This study aimed to assess parents’ attitudes toward CGT for ASD. Parent members of the Norwegian Autism Society were given a previously untested questionnaire and 1455 answered. Linear regression analyses were conducted to evaluate contribution of parent and child characteristics to attitude statements. Provided it could contribute to a casual explanation of their child’s ASD, 76% would undergo CGT. If it would improve the possibilities for early interventions, 74% were positive to CGT. Between 49–67% agreed that CGT could have a negative impact on health insurance, increase their concern for the child’s future and cause family conflicts. Parents against CGT (9% were less optimistic regarding positive effects, but not more concerned with negative impacts. The severity of the children’s ASD diagnosis had a weak positive association with parent’s positive attitudes to CGT (p-values range from <0.001 to 0.975. Parents prefer that CGT is offered to those having a child with ASD (65%, when the child’s development deviates from normal (48%, or before pregnancy (36%. A majority of the parents of children with ASD are positive to CGT due to possibilities for an etiological explanation.

  10. Effectiveness of gratitude disposition promotion program on depression and quality of life of chronic schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Miran; Han, Kuemsun

    2017-01-01

    Gratitude intervention is expectedly an effective intervention to reduce depression and improve the quality of life in schizophrenic patients, but there is a lack of literature on it. We attempted to develop and test the effectiveness of the gratitude disposition promotion program for chronic schizophrenic patients in Korea. Nonequivalent control group pre- and post-test design was used in two mental health centers located at Gyeonggi-do in South Korea. This paper was a quasi-experimental study and the participants who took part in the gratitude disposition promotion program were 17 of experimental group and 15 of control group. Gratitude disposition (the short gratitude, resentment, and appreciation test), depression (Beck Depression Inventory), and quality of life (developed by Kook) of chronic schizophrenic patients were measured before and after an intervention, as compared to the control. Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and t -test were performed for prehomogeneity testing for variables related to the general characteristics. Testing for the effectiveness of gratitude disposition promotion program and hypothesis testing for its effect on depression and quality of life were by ANCOVA and t -test, as verified to significance level of P gratitude disposition promotion program showed significant improvements in gratitude disposition ( F = 18.740, P gratitude disposition promotion program was an effective clinical intervention program for enhancing gratitude disposition and quality of life of chronic schizophrenic patients in community.

  11. Parent Stress in a Randomized Clinical Trial of Atomoxetine and Parent Training for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecavalier, Luc; Pan, Xueliang; Smith, Tristram; Handen, Benjamin L.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Silverman, Laura; Tumuluru, Rameshwari V.; Hollway, Jill; Aman, Michael G.

    2018-01-01

    We previously reported a 2 × 2 randomized clinical trial of atomoxetine (ATX) and parent training (PT) for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and behavioral noncompliance in 128 children with autism spectrum disorder, ages 5-14 years. Children were randomized to one of four conditions: ATX alone, placebo alone, ATX + PT, or…

  12. Demographic and Clinical Characteristics Associated with Engagement in Behavioral Health Treatment among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croen, Lisa A.; Shankute, Naomi; Davignon, Meghan; Massolo, Maria L.; Yoshida, Cathleen

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates demographic and clinical factors associated with initiation, continuation, and adherence to behavioral health treatment (BHT) among children with autism spectrum disorder. Among 293 insured children referred for applied behavior analysis (ABA) based BHT, 23% never initiated treatment. Among those initiating treatment, 31%…

  13. Clinical and Cognitive Characteristics Associated with Mathematics Problem Solving in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Tasha M; Beck, Jonathan S; Iosif, Ana-Maria; McCauley, James B; Gilhooly, Leslie J; Matter, John C; Solomon, Marjorie

    2016-04-01

    Mathematics achievement in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been understudied. However, the ability to solve applied math problems is associated with academic achievement, everyday problem-solving abilities, and vocational outcomes. The paucity of research on math achievement in ASD may be partly explained by the widely-held belief that most individuals with ASD are mathematically gifted, despite emerging evidence to the contrary. The purpose of the study was twofold: to assess the relative proportions of youth with ASD who demonstrate giftedness versus disability on applied math problems, and to examine which cognitive (i.e., perceptual reasoning, verbal ability, working memory) and clinical (i.e., test anxiety) characteristics best predict achievement on applied math problems in ASD relative to typically developing peers. Twenty-seven high-functioning adolescents with ASD and 27 age- and Full Scale IQ-matched typically developing controls were assessed on standardized measures of math problem solving, perceptual reasoning, verbal ability, and test anxiety. Results indicated that 22% of the ASD sample evidenced a mathematics learning disability, while only 4% exhibited mathematical giftedness. The parsimonious linear regression model revealed that the strongest predictor of math problem solving was perceptual reasoning, followed by verbal ability and test anxiety, then diagnosis of ASD. These results inform our theories of math ability in ASD and highlight possible targets of intervention for students with ASD struggling with mathematics. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Subjective experience of personality dimensions in 1st degree relatives of schizophrenics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggini, Carlo; Raballo, Andrea

    2003-12-01

    An increasing number of studies suggest the usefulness of both personality features and neurocognitive vulnerability as tools for isolating phenotypes associated with susceptibility to schizophrenia, however the clinical and heuristic topicality of self-experienced vulnerability has yet to be properly recognized. Biological relatives of schizophrenic patients (because of the familial/genetic load) constitute a promising and suggestive paradigm for addressing the psychopathological relationship between personality features and subjective experience of vulnerability. The current study found that 1st degree unaffected relatives of schizophrenics exceeded normal controls in schizotypal, paranoid, and borderline dimensions, and showed an overlap in the schizoid dimension of clinical Schizotypals (i.e. Schizotypal Personality Disorder Patients). Subsequent correlation analysis showed that schizotypal and schizoid traits are linked to specific domains of self-experienced vulnerability. Clinical heuristics is discussed.

  15. Metabolic syndrome in Thai schizophrenic patients: a naturalistic one-year follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charnsilp Chawanun

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Not only the prevalence, but also the progress of metabolic abnormalities in schizophrenic patients is of importance for treatment planning and policy making. However, there have been very few prospective studies of metabolic disturbance in schizophrenic patients. This study aimed to assess the progress of metabolic abnormalities in Thai individuals with schizophrenia by estimating their one-year incidence rate of metabolic syndrome (MetS. Methods We screened all schizophrenic patients who visited our psychiatric clinic. After the exclusion of participants with MetS at baseline, each subject was reassessed at 6 and 12 months to determine the occurrence of MetS. The definition of MetS, as proposed by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF, was applied. Results Fifty-seven participants (24 males and 33 females had a mean of age and duration of antipsychotic treatment of 37.5 years old and 8.4 years, respectively. At baseline, 13 subjects met the MetS definition. Of 44 subjects who had no MetS at baseline, 35 could be followed up. Seven of these 35 subjects (20.0% had developed MetS at the 6- or 12-month visit, after already having 2 MetS components at baseline. The demographic data and characteristics of those developing and not developing MetS were not different in any respect. Conclusion Thai schizophrenic patients are likely to develop MetS. Their metabolic abnormalities may progress rapidly and fulfill the MetS definition within a year of follow-up. These findings support the importance of assessing and monitoring metabolic syndrome in schizophrenic patients.

  16. Computerized spectral analyses of EEG in chronic schizophrenic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Haruhiro

    1985-01-01

    This study was aimed at clarifying the EEG difference between chronic schizophrenic patients and normal controls by using the EEG method of spectral analyses. Twelve comparatively homogenous chronic schizophrenic patients and the 10 healthy controls were subjected to EEG investigations. 1) The EEG of schizophrenic patients had a slowing tendency of the frequency in the frontal pole, anterior temporal and central regions of the scalp compared with control subjects. 2) There was a decrease of mutual relation among the five electrodes' peak frequency in the schizophrenic patients. 3) The EEG of schizophrenic patients had more fast waves of β 1 and β 2 band than that of control subjects. 4) A slowing tendency of the frequency in the first half regions of the scalp was not found in 3 chronic schizophrenic patients which showed defective functions in the frontal area by positron emission tomography. 5) When mental arithmetic was given, the schizophrenic patients showed an increase of fast wave in the central, posterior temporal and occipital regions of the scalp. 6) When they opened their eyes, attenuation in the α band was not so marked in the schizophrenic patients. (author)

  17. Cannabis Use and Dependence among French Schizophrenic Inpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejoyeux, Michel; Basquin, Anne; Koch, Marie; Embouazza, Houcine; Chalvin, Florence; Ilongo, Michaelle

    2014-01-01

    Background: To assess the prevalence of cannabis use and dependence in a population of schizophrenic inpatients and to compare schizophrenics with and without cannabis consumption. Methods: One hundred one schizophrenic patients were examined during their first week of hospitalization. They answered the PANNS scale of schizophrenia, the CAGE and the Fagerström questionnaire, and the DSM-IV-TR criteria for cannabis, alcohol, opiates, and nicotine use dependence were checked. We also assessed socio-demographic characteristics, the motive of cannabis consumption, and the number of cannabis joints and alcoholic drinks taken. Results: The prevalence of cannabis consumption was 33.6% among schizophrenic inpatients. Schizophrenics consuming cannabis were younger than non-schizophrenics (33.3 vs. 44.7 years p compulsive buying more often (48 vs. 27%, p = 0.04). Logistic regression revealed that factors associated to cannabis consumption among schizophrenics were cannabis dependence, male gender, pathological gambling, opiate dependence, number of joints smoked each day, and compulsive buying. Conclusion: 33.6% of the schizophrenic patients hospitalized in psychiatry consume cannabis and most of them are dependent on cannabis and alcohol. Hospitalization in psychiatry may provide an opportunity to systematically identify a dependence disorder and to offer appropriate information and treatment. PMID:25076916

  18. Cannabis Use and Dependence among French Schizophrenic Inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejoyeux, Michel; Basquin, Anne; Koch, Marie; Embouazza, Houcine; Chalvin, Florence; Ilongo, Michaelle

    2014-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of cannabis use and dependence in a population of schizophrenic inpatients and to compare schizophrenics with and without cannabis consumption. One hundred one schizophrenic patients were examined during their first week of hospitalization. They answered the PANNS scale of schizophrenia, the CAGE and the Fagerström questionnaire, and the DSM-IV-TR criteria for cannabis, alcohol, opiates, and nicotine use dependence were checked. We also assessed socio-demographic characteristics, the motive of cannabis consumption, and the number of cannabis joints and alcoholic drinks taken. The prevalence of cannabis consumption was 33.6% among schizophrenic inpatients. Schizophrenics consuming cannabis were younger than non-schizophrenics (33.3 vs. 44.7 years p compulsive buying more often (48 vs. 27%, p = 0.04). Logistic regression revealed that factors associated to cannabis consumption among schizophrenics were cannabis dependence, male gender, pathological gambling, opiate dependence, number of joints smoked each day, and compulsive buying. 33.6% of the schizophrenic patients hospitalized in psychiatry consume cannabis and most of them are dependent on cannabis and alcohol. Hospitalization in psychiatry may provide an opportunity to systematically identify a dependence disorder and to offer appropriate information and treatment.

  19. Hippocampal Physiology, Structure and Function and the Neuroscience of Schizophrenia: A Unified Account of Declarative Memory Deficits, Working Memory Deficits and Schizophrenic Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia G. Wible

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Memory impairment is a consistent feature of the schizophrenic syndrome. Hippocampal dysfunction has also been consistently demonstrated. This review will discuss neurophysiological and neuroanatomical aspects of memory formation and how they relate to memory impairment in schizophrenia. An understanding of the cellular physiology and connectivity of the hippocampus with other regions can also aid in understanding the relationship between schizophrenic declarative or relational memory deficits, working memory deficits and the clinical symptoms of the syndrome.

  20. Diagnostic consistency and interchangeability of schizophrenic disorders and bipolar disorders: A 7-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Yen-Ni; Yang, Shu-Yu; Kuo, Chian-Jue; Lin, Shih-Ku

    2018-03-01

    The change in psychiatric diagnoses in clinical practice is not an unusual phenomenon. The interchange between the diagnoses of schizophrenic disorders and bipolar disorders is a major clinical issue because of the differences in treatment regimens and long-term prognoses. In this study, we used a nationwide population-based sample to compare the diagnostic consistency and interchange rate between schizophrenic disorders and bipolar disorders. In total, 25 711 and 11 261 patients newly diagnosed as having schizophrenic disorder and bipolar disorder, respectively, were retrospectively enrolled from the Psychiatric Inpatient Medical Claims database between 2001 and 2005. We followed these two cohorts for 7 years to determine whether their diagnoses were consistent throughout subsequent hospitalizations. The interchange between the two diagnoses was analyzed. In the schizophrenic disorder cohort, the overall diagnostic consistency rate was 87.3% and the rate of change to bipolar disorder was 3.0% during the 7-year follow-up. Additional analyses of subtypes revealed that the change rate from schizoaffective disorder to bipolar disorder was 12.0%. In the bipolar disorder cohort, the overall diagnostic consistency rate was 71.9% and the rate of change to schizophrenic disorder was 8.3%. Changes in the diagnosis of a major psychosis are not uncommon. The interchange between the diagnoses of schizophrenic disorders and bipolar disorders might be attributed to the evolution of clinical symptoms and the observation of preserved social functions that contradict the original diagnosis. While making a psychotic diagnosis, clinicians should be aware of the possibility of the change in diagnosis in the future. © 2017 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2017 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  1. DNA damage and repair efficiency in lymphocytes from schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psimadas, Dimitrios; Messini-Nikolaki, Niki; Zafiropoulou, Maria; Fortos, Andreas; Tsilimigaki, Smaragdi; Piperakis, Stylianos M

    2004-02-10

    In the present study we examined schizophrenic patients' lymphocytes sensitivity to the effects of external factors, such as hydrogen peroxide and gamma-irradiation and also their repair efficiency with the comet assay. Our results did no show any difference in basal levels of DNA damage between schizophrenic and normal populations. The slightly increased sensitivity of the schizophrenic population to the externally induced DNA damage compared to controls was not statistically significant. Also the small reduction in the DNA repair efficiency in schizophrenics in comparison to normal population was found to be not statistically significant. Finally, patients with heritable predisposition to schizophrenia did not show any difference in their response from the other schizophrenics.

  2. Characterization of the Pathological and Biochemical Markers that Correlate to the Clinical Features of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Melatonin Drowning 1638 Autism ADIR 20.8 F 50 Zoloft, Zyprexa, Mellaril, Depoprovera Seizure-related 5027 Autism WISC-R, Bender- Gestalt 38.0 M 26 Respirdal...months 35 a: Higher score represents better function. According to the medical histories for UMB-4231 and UMB-5027, the donors had psychological ...hyperactivity disorder Zoloft, Zyprexa, Mellaril, Depoprovera Seizure-related 5027 Autism WISC-R, Bender- Gestalt 38.0 M 26 No Respirdal, Luvox

  3. Review of evolution of clinical, training and educational services and research program for autism spectrum disorders in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Virginia Chun-Nei; Fung, Cheuk-Wing; Lee, So-Lun; Wong, Polly Tsz Yan

    2015-10-01

    The evolution of a local fragmented model of services for children with autism in Hong Kong emerged gradually over the past three decades with lack of government funding or support. This had been due to increasing number of children with autism being detected and referred for earlier assessment. With increasing pressure from parents due to long waiting time for assessment and training services and the increasing polarization by mass media there had been a gradual increasing public awareness over the past five years. Though still highly fragmented in the availability of services, there is a growing "business model" available in the community due to increasing need and lack of public funding for support. There is a lack of strategic planning for medical diagnostic and management issues in Hong Kong. Our University of Hong Kong based Autism Research Program was pioneered in 1985 based on the increasing load of autism cases referred for assessment for other developmental problems and diagnosed as Autism in the Duchess of Kent Children's Hospital. As the first author has been the staff of the University of Hong Kong, this program flourished as a research based program. The benefits of early identification and intervention of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) had been increasingly recognized, and with the increased public awareness and increasing trend of earlier diagnosis, there has been a continuously high demand from parents for earlier assessment and training for children suspected to have ASD. This model had not received extra funding for this integrated program for research, teaching and training in autism. We had to apply for various donations and grants to support the development of this pioneer program. The research output and organization of forums for public education and awareness are reviewed. The latter part of the paper reports the summary of clinical profile of autism cases (N=1441) assessed from 1985 to 2010 June under the University of Hong Kong. As the

  4. Premorbid Personality Disorders in Male Schizophrenic Patients with or without Comorbid Substance Use Disorder: Is Dual Diagnosis Mediated by Personality Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunsoy, Neslihan; Şahiner, Şafak Yalçın; Cingi Külük, Merve; Okay, Tuncer; Ulusoy Kaymak, Semra; Aydemir, Çiğdem; Göka, Erol

    2015-09-01

    Although substance abuse is an important clinical problem in schizophrenic patients, very little evidence explains why these patients use drugs and alcohol. This study therefore aimed to examine whether premorbid personality disorders affect substance abuse. The sample included 40 male schizophrenic patients with and 40 male schizophrenic patients without substance use disorder comorbidity who had applied to Ankara Numune Research and Training Hospital. Each participant and a family member were interviewed in a structured clinical interview that addressed premorbid personality disorders. Altogether, 32 patients (80%) in the group with comorbidity and 28 (70%) in the group without comorbidity had a premorbid personality disorder. Antisocial (35% vs. 0%; ppersonality disorders were more often detected in the group with comorbidity, while avoidant (10% vs. 35%; p=.014) and obsessive-compulsive (0% vs. 15%; p=.026) personality disorders were less frequently found in this group. Comparing the group with comorbidity with premorbid personality types, schizophrenic patients with premorbid antisocial personality disorder were more frequently unemployed and hospitalized as well as had an earlier onset age of schizophrenia (p=.034, p=.038 and p=.035, respectively). Schizophrenic patients with premorbid borderline personality disorder had a significantly earlier onset age of substance use (19±5; p=.028). Schizophrenic patients with substance use comorbidity variously differ from those without comorbidity and some of these differences may be associated with premorbid personality disorders.

  5. Cannabis use and dependence among French schizophrenic inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel eLejoyeux

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: To assess the prevalence of cannabis use and dependence in a population of schizophrenic inpatients and to compare schizophrenics with and without cannabis consumption. Methods: 101 schizophrenic patients were examined during their first week of hospitalization. They answered the PANNS scale of schizophrenia, the CAGE and the Fagerström questionnaire and the DSM-IV-TR criteria for cannabis, alcohol, opiates and nicotine use dependence were checked. We also assessed socio-demographic characteristics, the motive of cannabis consumption and the number of cannabis joints and alcoholic drinks taken.Results: The prevalence of cannabis consumption was 33.6% among schizophrenic inpatients. Schizophrenics consuming cannabis were younger than non-schizophrenics (33.3 vs 44.7 years pConclusion: 33.6 % of the schizophrenic patients hospitalized in psychiatry consume cannabis and most of them are dependent on cannabis and alcohol. Hospitalization in psychiatry may provide an opportunity to systematically identify a dependence disorder and to offer appropriate information and treatment

  6. Characterization of the Pathological and Biochemical Markers that Correlate the Clinical Features of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    disorders , i.e., autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ( ADHD ), schizophrenia...defects in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD is one of the most common behavioral dis- orders in childhood that may persist into adulthood... disorders , i.e., attention deficit hyperactivity disorder , schizophrenia, Down syndrome and Fragile X syndrome. Keywords: Autism,

  7. Clinical and Neurobiological Relevance of Current Animal Models of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Chan; Gonzales, Edson Luck; Lázaro, María T.; Choi, Chang Soon; Bahn, Geon Ho; Yoo, Hee Jeong; Shin, Chan Young

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by social and communication impairments, as well as repetitive and restrictive behaviors. The phenotypic heterogeneity of ASD has made it overwhelmingly difficult to determine the exact etiology and pathophysiology underlying the core symptoms, which are often accompanied by comorbidities such as hyperactivity, seizures, and sensorimotor abnormalities. To our benefit, the advent of animal models has allowed us to assess and test diverse risk factors of ASD, both genetic and environmental, and measure their contribution to the manifestation of autistic symptoms. At a broader scale, rodent models have helped consolidate molecular pathways and unify the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying each one of the various etiologies. This approach will potentially enable the stratification of ASD into clinical, molecular, and neurophenotypic subgroups, further proving their translational utility. It is henceforth paramount to establish a common ground of mechanistic theories from complementing results in preclinical research. In this review, we cluster the ASD animal models into lesion and genetic models and further classify them based on the corresponding environmental, epigenetic and genetic factors. Finally, we summarize the symptoms and neuropathological highlights for each model and make critical comparisons that elucidate their clinical and neurobiological relevance. PMID:27133257

  8. [Autism Spectrum Disorder in DSM-5 - concept, validity, and reliability, impact on clinical care and future research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Christine M

    2014-05-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in DSM-5 comprises the former DSM-IV-TR diagnoses of Autistic Disorder, Asperger's Disorder and PDD-nos. The criteria for ASD in DSM-5 were considerably revised from those of ICD-10 and DSM-IV-TR. The present article compares the diagnostic criteria, presents studies on the validity and reliability of ASD, and discusses open questions. It ends with a clinical and research perspective.

  9. Comparison of ICD-10R, DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 in an Adult Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnostic Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C. Ellie; Gillan, Nicola; Spain, Deborah; Robertson, Dene; Roberts, Gedeon; Murphy, Clodagh M.; Maltezos, Stefanos; Zinkstok, Janneke; Johnston, Katie; Dardani, Christina; Ohlsen, Chris; Deeley, P. Quinton; Craig, Michael; Mendez, Maria A.; Happé, Francesca; Murphy, Declan G. M.

    2013-01-01

    An Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) diagnosis is often used to access services. We investigated whether ASD diagnostic outcome varied when DSM-5 was used compared to ICD-10R and DSM-IV-TR in a clinical sample of 150 intellectually able adults. Of those diagnosed with an ASD using ICD-10R, 56% met DSM-5 ASD criteria. A further 19% met DSM-5 (draft)…

  10. Overlap Between Autism Spectrum Disorders and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Searching for Distinctive/Common Clinical Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Francesco; Lamanna, Anna Linda; Margari, Francesco; Matera, Emilia; Simone, Marta; Margari, Lucia

    2015-06-01

    Recent studies support several overlapping traits between autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), assuming the existence of a combined phenotype. The aim of our study was to evaluate the common or distinctive clinical features between ASD and ADHD in order to identify possible different phenotypes that could have a clinical value. We enrolled 181 subjects divided into four diagnostic groups: ADHD group, ASD group, ASD+ADHD group (that met diagnostic criteria for both ASD and ADHD), and control group. Intelligent quotient (IQ), emotional and behavior problems, ADHD symptoms, ASD symptoms, and adaptive behaviors were investigated through the following test: Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence or Leiter International Performances Scale Revised, Child Behavior Checklist, Conners' Rating Scales-Revised, SNAP-IV Rating Scale, the Social Communication Questionnaire, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. The ASD+ADHD group differs from ADHD or ASD in some domains such as lower IQ mean level and a higher autistic symptoms severity. However, the ASD+ADHD group shares inattention and hyperactivity deficit and some emotional and behavior problems with the ADHD group, while it shares adaptive behavior impairment with ASD group. These findings provide a new understanding of clinical manifestation of ASD+ADHD phenotype, they may also inform a novel treatment target. © 2015 The Authors Autism Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Autism Research.

  11. [Cognitive disorders in schizophrenic patients. A controlled study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, W; Vaitl, P; Schnattinger, H

    1985-01-01

    In a controlled study, the cognitive functions measured by different association tests in a group of 40 schizophrenic inpatients (ICD 295.1+.3+.6) were compared to those of a control group that was matched according to age, sex and IQ. The results indicate that the basic cognitive functions of schizophrenic patients do not differ significantly from those of a control group in the lower-order tasks. In more complex and higher-order tasks, however, schizophrenic patients show a tendency to prefer less obvious associations (overinclusion) and to reject conventional associations (overexclusion). The results are discussed in the context of current literature as a lack of the cognitive organizing principle and its effects on rehabilitation, creativity and art in schizophrenic patients.

  12. The Family Rorschach with families of schizophrenics: replication and extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, L; Robertson, S R; Ladd, J; Alpert, M

    1987-12-01

    Using a modified version of procedures outlined by Shapiro and Wild (9), this study evaluates the use of a Family Rorschach technique as a means of distinguishing families of schizophrenic patients from those of psychiatrically hospitalized, nonschizophrenic individuals. The patients were diagnosed using Research Diagnostic Criteria, and families were matched for age, intelligence, and socioeconomic characteristics. Results showed that the families with schizophrenic offspring scored significantly lower (that is, they had more communication and attentional difficulties) than those with nonschizophrenic offspring; offspring gender and family constellation had little effect on scores. Subsequent analyses indicated that lower scores were not simply a reflection of the psychoticism of the patient. These findings suggest that families of schizophrenics have interpersonal communication difficulties that compromise their ability to maintain a shared focus of attention. The findings are consistent with the suggestion that deviant patterns of family communication in interaction with genetic vulnerability in an offspring may result in the development of a schizophrenic disorder.

  13. Chronic schizophrenics with positive symptomatology have shortened EEG microstate durations

    OpenAIRE

    Strelets, V.; Faber, P. L.; Golikova, J.; Novototsky-Vlasov, V.; Koenig, T.; Gianotti, L. R. R.; Gruzelier, J. H.; Lehmann, D.

    2003-01-01

    In young, first-episode, never-treated schizophrenics compared with controls, (a) generally shorter durations of EEG microstates were reported (Koukkou et al., Brain Topogr 6 (1994) 251; Kinoshita et al., Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging 83 (1998) 58), and (b) specifically, shorter duration of a particular class of microstates (Koenig et al., Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 249 (1999) 205). We now examined whether older, chronic schizophrenic patients with positive symptomatology also show these...

  14. Clinical characteristics of children with autism spectrum disorder and co-occurring epilepsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma W Viscidi

    Full Text Available To estimate the prevalence of epilepsy in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD and to determine the demographic and clinical characteristics of children with ASD and epilepsy in a large patient population.Cross-sectional study using four samples of children with ASD for a total of 5,815 participants with ASD. The prevalence of epilepsy was estimated from a population-based sample. Children with and without epilepsy were compared on demographic and clinical characteristics. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the association between demographic and clinical characteristics and epilepsy.The average prevalence of epilepsy in children with ASD 2-17 years was 12.5%; among children aged 13 years and older, 26% had epilepsy. Epilepsy was associated with older age, lower cognitive ability, poorer adaptive and language functioning, a history of developmental regression and more severe ASD symptoms. The association between epilepsy and the majority of these characteristics appears to be driven by the lower IQ of participants with epilepsy. In a multivariate regression model, only age and cognitive ability were independently associated with epilepsy. Children age 10 or older had 2.35 times the odds of being diagnosed with epilepsy (p<.001 and for a one standard deviation increase in IQ, the odds of having epilepsy decreased by 47% (p<.001.This is among the largest studies to date of patients with ASD and co-occurring epilepsy. Based on a representative sample of children with ASD, the average prevalence of epilepsy is approximately 12% and reaches 26% by adolescence. Independent associations were found between epilepsy and older age and lower cognitive ability. Other risk factors, such as poor language and developmental regression, are not associated with epilepsy after controlling for IQ. These findings can help guide prognosis and alert clinicians to patients with ASD who are at increased risk for epilepsy.

  15. Clinical potential, safety, and tolerability of arbaclofen in the treatment of autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frye RE

    2014-05-01

    the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux suggest that arbaclofen is safe and well-tolerated. Clearly, further clinical studies are needed in order to refine the symptoms and characteristics of children with ASD that are best treated with arbaclofen.Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, Fragile X, gamma-aminobutyric acid, arbaclofen, R-baclofen, STX209

  16. Subverting Space: An Exploration of a Dance Therapy Workshop Apparatus for Schizophrenics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Silvia; Petit, Laetitia

    2017-04-01

    The authors created a dance workshop for schizophrenic patients designed to address their singular experience of space, in which the categories of interior and exterior do not function as limits. The space of the workshop, which, paradoxically, is thought in terms of the psychic space of schizophrenic patients by playing on its borderless quality, creates a continuity between the psychiatric hospital and the external world, and thus helps to prevent the segregation and isolation of such patients. This continuity is established on the basis of both the physical architecture of the workshop setting and the practice of dancing itself. The authors explore the hypothesis that, inside the particular space made possible by the apparatus of the workshop, schizophrenic patients benefit from the experience of movement, beginning with the pulse of rhythm, which establishes a consistency in time. By means of its repetitive character, the beat of music, like movement, accompanies and promotes the experience of continuity, which is the condition for any possible form of symbolizing. Two brief clinical illustrations show how this approach to dance therapy allows a moribund jouissance to be overturned and transformed into the aesthetic jouissance that characterizes the experience of dance.

  17. Competence to consent to sexual activity in bipolar disorder and schizophrenic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandarelli, Gabriele; Zangaro, Stefania; Raja, Michele; Azzoni, Antonella; Tatarelli, Roberto; Ferracuti, Stefano

    2012-04-01

    Little is known about the ability of persons with severe mental disorders to give consent to sexual activity. A possible reason for this shortcoming is the absence of specific criteria and tools to measure sexual consent in psychiatric clinical settings. We developed a clinician oriented semi-structured interview, the Sexual Consent Assessment Scale (SCAS), and investigated sexual consent capacity in a sample of hospitalized patients with bipolar disorder (n = 54, M (age) = 38.1 years, 48% males) and schizophrenic spectrum disorders (n = 31, M (age) = 38.4 years, 29% males). The SCAS items were derived from the criteria proposed by Kennedy and Niederbuhl (Am J Ment Retard, 106:503-510, 2001). The full scale and a shorter scale comprising 10 items (SCAS-10) achieved good initial validity. Patients with schizophrenic spectrum disorders had worse sexual consent capacity than patients with bipolar disorder. This difference was unexpectedly independent from patients' symptomatology, as measured by the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Conversely, poor cognitive functioning measured by the Raven's Standard Progressive matrices was associated with reduced capacity to give sexual consent in both groups. Subjects in the schizophrenic spectrum disorders group were more frequently judged incapable in basic knowledge of birth control methods and in domains underlying metacognitive abilities. Principal component analysis revealed two SCAS-10 interpretable factors: "appropriateness-recognition" and "consequences-metacognition." Our study suggests that patients with severe psychiatric disorders, especially those with cognitive dysfunction, might be at risk of incapacity to give valid sexual consent.

  18. PSYCHIATRIC MORBIDITY PATTERN OF THE FIRST-DEGREE RELATIVES OF SCHIZOPHRENICS: CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Gnana Durai

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available : CONTEXT: Family, Twin and Adoption studies show the inheritance patterns of schizophrenia. The findings from these studies provide support to the claim that familial clustering of schizophrenia is a combined expression of genetic and environmental factors. AIMS: Following the line of previous research, this study attempts to find out any difference in the psychiatric morbidity pattern among the first-degree relatives of familial and sporadic schizophrenics. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: We conducted a cross-sectional survey among a convenience sample of 100 first-degree relatives (age between 18 to 55 years of familial (n=22 and sporadic (n=29 schizophrenics from psychiatric outpatient clinic, of a Government Hospital, India. The schizophrenics satisfied the DSM-IV criteria and all the first degree relatives interviewed never had any psychiatric consultation before or were abusing alcohol or other substances or having any organic pathology. METHODS AND MATERIAL: Informed consent from the patients and relatives was obtained. Survey questionnaires were administered and no personal identifying information was collected. Middle Sex Hospital Questionnaire (MHQ, Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire (EPQ, Multi-Phasic Personality Questionnaire (MPQ and Screening Test for Co-Morbid Personality Disorders (STCPD were administered to the participants.

  19. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    spectrum disorders , and assessing the efficacy of this approach in comparison to an active Enriched Supportive Therapy (EST) intervention. Major...This project is focused on conducting the first randomized-controlled trial of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy (CET) in 54 verbal adults with autism ...of the neuroplastic effects of CET on brain function in support of cognitive enhancement in adult autism . Analyses of treatment effects to date

  20. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Eack et al., in press). The emotion regulation fMRI task used in this study makes use of a negative emotion induction paradigm in which participants... Autism Spectrum Disorders PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Nancy J. Minshew, M.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of Pittsburgh...Enhancement Therapy for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0665 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0665 5c. PROGRAM

  1. Autism Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Improving the lives of all affected by autism. The Autism Society is the nation's leading grassroots ... more Improving the lives of all affected by autism. The Autism Society is the nation's leading grassroots ...

  2. Concentrations in plasma clozapine levels in schizophrenic and schizoaffective patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias García, Celso; Iglesias Alonso, Ana; Bobes, Julio

    There is great variability in plasma levels of clozapine. The objective of this study is to know the characteristics of patients treated with clozapine and the relationship between them and the variability of plasma levels. Descriptive, cross-sectional study of all patients currently treated with clozapine in a Psychiatric Service with a diagnosis of schizophrenic psychosis or schizoaffective disorder. The present study assessed physical situation, psychopathology and functionality of the patients and explored the associations and correlations between clinical variables and plasma levels. We studied 39 patients, predominantly men, with negative and depressive symptoms and cardiovascular risk factors (metabolic syndrome and smoking). Significant variability in dose and even greater in clozapine levels were observed. The levels of clozapine at equal doses/kg of body weight were higher in non-smokers, they had positive correlation with BMI and negative correlation with systolic BP, disruptive behaviors and number of cigarettes consumed. Plasma level monitoring clozapine is an important tool to avoid clozapine plasma levels monitoring and minimize undesirable clinical situations (metabolic syndrome, sedation, negative symptoms and functional impairment). It is also important to control the effects of a smoking habit for optimum drug bioavailability. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. An International Clinical Study of Ability and Disability in Autism Spectrum Disorder Using the WHO-ICF Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahdi, Soheil; Albertowski, Katja; Almodayfer, Omar

    2018-01-01

    This is the fourth international preparatory study designed to develop International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF, and Children and Youth version, ICF-CY) Core Sets for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Examine functioning of individuals diagnosed with ASD as documented...... by the ICF-CY in a variety of clinical settings. A cross-sectional study was conducted, involving 11 units from 10 countries. Clinical investigators assessed functioning of 122 individuals with ASD using the ICF-CY checklist. In total, 139 ICF-CY categories were identified: 64 activities and participation...

  4. Clinical and demographic factors associated with sexual behaviour in children with autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lurike Fourie

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The sexual behaviour and development of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs have been mostly overlooked in research and practice. This study aimed to determine the association between certain clinical and demographic factors found in a sample of children with ASDs, and their reported sexual behaviour (RSB. Methods: The study was conducted at a school in Gauteng, South Africa, for learners with ASDs. Two questionnaires completed by caregivers/parents enquired about family stability, clinical profile and RSB (if any in their child. RSB was analysed via three domains: self-care, socio-sexual skills and actual RSB, with additional information from school records. Results: Of the 107 questionnaires distributed, only 31 parents responded and 24 agreed to participate. The 24 (100% children included 10 pubertal and 14 pre-pubertal children, of which 18 (n = 18 had more stable primary caregiver statuses as well as more stable socioeconomic and family environments. Two of the 14 pre-pubertal children had abnormal self-care, whereas none of the 10 pubertal children had any abnormal self-care. Eight of the 18 children from more stable environments displayed abnormal sexual behaviours. Of the 6 children from less stable environments, two displayed more abnormal socio-sexual skills, whereas 9 of the 18 children from more stable environments displayed more abnormal sexual behaviour. In contrast with the postulated hypothesis that children from less stable socioeconomic and family environments would exhibit more abnormal sexual behaviours, this study did not find any evidence of such a relationship or association. Conclusion: ASDs are characterised by deficits in communication and social skills. These may lead to an affected individual struggling to develop appropriate sexual behaviour. If specific risk factors that contribute to the development of abnormal sexual behaviour can be identified, one can try to modify/prevent these where

  5. Detection of Clinically Relevant Genetic Variants in Autism Spectrum Disorder by Whole-Genome Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yong-hui; Yuen, Ryan K.C.; Jin, Xin; Wang, Mingbang; Chen, Nong; Wu, Xueli; Ju, Jia; Mei, Junpu; Shi, Yujian; He, Mingze; Wang, Guangbiao; Liang, Jieqin; Wang, Zhe; Cao, Dandan; Carter, Melissa T.; Chrysler, Christina; Drmic, Irene E.; Howe, Jennifer L.; Lau, Lynette; Marshall, Christian R.; Merico, Daniele; Nalpathamkalam, Thomas; Thiruvahindrapuram, Bhooma; Thompson, Ann; Uddin, Mohammed; Walker, Susan; Luo, Jun; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Ring, Robert H.; Wang, Jian; Lajonchere, Clara; Wang, Jun; Shih, Andy; Szatmari, Peter; Yang, Huanming; Dawson, Geraldine; Li, Yingrui; Scherer, Stephen W.

    2013-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) demonstrates high heritability and familial clustering, yet the genetic causes remain only partially understood as a result of extensive clinical and genomic heterogeneity. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) shows promise as a tool for identifying ASD risk genes as well as unreported mutations in known loci, but an assessment of its full utility in an ASD group has not been performed. We used WGS to examine 32 families with ASD to detect de novo or rare inherited genetic variants predicted to be deleterious (loss-of-function and damaging missense mutations). Among ASD probands, we identified deleterious de novo mutations in six of 32 (19%) families and X-linked or autosomal inherited alterations in ten of 32 (31%) families (some had combinations of mutations). The proportion of families identified with such putative mutations was larger than has been previously reported; this yield was in part due to the comprehensive and uniform coverage afforded by WGS. Deleterious variants were found in four unrecognized, nine known, and eight candidate ASD risk genes. Examples include CAPRIN1 and AFF2 (both linked to FMR1, which is involved in fragile X syndrome), VIP (involved in social-cognitive deficits), and other genes such as SCN2A and KCNQ2 (linked to epilepsy), NRXN1, and CHD7, which causes ASD-associated CHARGE syndrome. Taken together, these results suggest that WGS and thorough bioinformatic analyses for de novo and rare inherited mutations will improve the detection of genetic variants likely to be associated with ASD or its accompanying clinical symptoms. PMID:23849776

  6. A Pilot Study Examining the Use of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule in Community-Based Mental Health Clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadnick, Nicole; Brookman-Frazee, Lauren; Williams, Katherine Nguyen; Cerda, Gabrielle; Akshoomoff, Natacha

    2015-12-01

    Community-based mental health (CMH) services play an important, but relatively understudied role in the identification and treatment of youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who may be receiving care for other psychiatric conditions. Little is known about the role of standardized ASD assessment measures administered by providers working in generalist community-based mental health (CMH) settings. This pilot study extracted data from three CMH clinics to examine the use of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) by 17 CMH providers who received ASD assessment training with 62 youth ( Mean = 10.69 years) referred for an ASD diagnostic evaluation. Results indicated that 57% of youths assessed ultimately received an ASD diagnosis. All cases given a final ASD diagnosis were classified as "Autism" or "ASD" on the ADOS. Seventy percent of youth who did not receive a final ASD diagnosis were classified as "Non-Spectrum" on the ADOS. In these false positive cases, report narratives indicated that social communication difficulties identified on the ADOS were explained by symptoms of other mental health conditions (e.g., ADHD, anxiety). Future research is needed to examine the utility of the ADOS when used by CMH providers to facilitate CMH capacity to identify ASD.

  7. Neurocortical electrical activity tomography in chronic schizophrenics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veiga Heloisa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional imaging of brain electrical activity was performed in 25 chronic medicated schizophrenics and 40 controls, analyzing the classical frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha, and beta of 19-channel EEG during resting state to identify brain regions with deviant activity of different functional significances, using LORETA (Low Resolution Tomography and SPM99 (Statistical Parametric Mapping. Patients differed from controls due to an excess of slow activity comprising delta + theta frequency bands (inhibitory pattern located at the right middle frontal gyrus, right inferior frontal gyrus, and right insula, as well as at the bilateral anterior cingulum with a left preponderance. The high temporal resolution of EEG enables the specification of the deviations not only as an excess or a deficit of brain electrical activity, but also as inhibitory (delta, theta, normal (alpha, and excitatory (beta activities. These deviations point out to an impaired functional brain state consisting of inhibited frontal and prefrontal areas that may result in inadequate treatment of externally or internally generated information.

  8. Behavioural and developmental interventions for autism spectrum disorder: a clinical systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria B Ospina

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Much controversy exists regarding the clinical efficacy of behavioural and developmental interventions for improving the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASD. We conducted a systematic review to summarize the evidence on the effectiveness of behavioural and developmental interventions for ASD. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Comprehensive searches were conducted in 22 electronic databases through May 2007. Further information was obtained through hand searching journals, searching reference lists, databases of theses and dissertations, and contacting experts in the field. Experimental and observational analytic studies were included if they were written in English and reported the efficacy of any behavioural or developmental intervention for individuals with ASD. Two independent reviewers made the final study selection, extracted data, and reached consensus on study quality. Results were summarized descriptively and, where possible, meta-analyses of the study results were conducted. One-hundred-and-one studies at predominantly high risk of bias that reported inconsistent results across various interventions were included in the review. Meta-analyses of three controlled clinical trials showed that Lovaas treatment was superior to special education on measures of adaptive behaviour, communication and interaction, comprehensive language, daily living skills, expressive language, overall intellectual functioning and socialization. High-intensity Lovaas was superior to low-intensity Lovaas on measures of intellectual functioning in two retrospective cohort studies. Pooling the results of two randomized controlled trials favoured developmental approaches based on initiative interaction compared to contingency interaction in the amount of time spent in stereotyped behaviours and distal social behaviour, but the effect sizes were not clinically significant. No statistically significant differences were found for: Lovaas versus special

  9. Lateralization of Brain Networks and Clinical Severity in Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A HARDI Diffusion MRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Eugenia; Calderoni, Sara; Gaglianese, Anna; Pannek, Kerstin; Mazzotti, Sara; Rose, Stephen; Scelfo, Danilo; Tosetti, Michela; Muratori, Filippo; Cioni, Giovanni; Guzzetta, Andrea

    2016-03-01

    Recent diffusion tensor imaging studies in adolescents and children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have reported a loss or an inversion of the typical left-right lateralization in fronto-temporal regions crucial for sociocommunicative skills. No studies explored atypical lateralization in toddlers and its correlation with clinical severity of ASD. We recruited a cohort of 20 subjects aged 36 months or younger receiving a first clinical diagnosis of ASD (15 males; age range 20-36 months). Patients underwent diffusion MRI (High-Angular-Resolution Diffusion Imaging protocol). Data from cortical parcellation were combined with tractography to obtain a connection matrix and diffusion indexes (DI ) including mean fractional anisotropy (DFA ), number of tracts (DNUM ), and total tract length (DTTL ). A laterality index was generated for each measure, and then correlated with the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G) total score. Laterality indexes of DFA were significantly correlated with ADOS-G total scores only in two intrafrontal connected areas (correlation was positive in one case and negative in the other). Laterality indexes of DTTL and DNUM showed significant negative correlations (P connected areas, mainly fronto-temporal. This study provides first evidence of a significant correlation between brain lateralization of diffusion indexes and clinical severity in toddlers with a first diagnosis of ASD. Significant correlations mainly involved regions within the fronto-temporal circuits, known to be crucial for sociocommunicative skills. It is of interest that all correlations but one were negative, suggesting an inversion of the typical left-right asymmetry in subjects with most severe clinical impairment. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Housing instability and homelessness among rural schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, R E; Wallach, M A; Teague, G B; Freeman, D H; Paskus, T S; Clark, T A

    1991-03-01

    The authors examined housing instability among treated schizophrenic patients in a rural area and compared the findings with those from their previous study of urban patients. Seventy-five patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who were treated in a rural mental health center were assessed with research interviews and ratings by their clinical case managers. The patients were followed for 1 year to identify episodes of psychiatric hospitalization, incarceration, and literal homelessness. Of the 75 patients, 19 (25%) had housing situations characterized as unstable by their case managers. For the majority, housing instability signified tenuousness of living arrangements rather than literal homelessness. Noncompliance with medications, alcohol use, and negative symptoms accounted for 30% of the variance in unstable housing. During follow-up, the unstably housed patients, compared to those in stable living situations, were no more likely to be rehospitalized but were somewhat more likely to be jailed and significantly more likely to be literally homeless. In the authors' previous study of urban psychiatric patients, unstably housed patients were more likely to be literally homeless, highly symptomatic, and rehospitalized during follow-up than the rural patients with unstable housing. Better outcomes in the rural area appeared to be related to the greater availability of housing alternatives and to intensive case management. For patients with unstable housing in both settings, noncompliance with medications and substance abuse, as well as housing arrangements, should be assertively addressed.

  11. Management of violent behaviour in acutely relapsed schizophrenics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Koen

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The management of aggressive behaviour has always been a criticai issue in psychiatry. Finding measures that can be used to accurately predict the likelihood of assaultative behaviour and thus ensure timeous appropriate pharmacological management remains a dilemma. The study objective was to investigate the naturalistic, pharmacological management of inpatient aggressive behaviour in a group of 50 schizophrenic subjects with a view to determine: (1 whether a presenting history of recent violence lead to altered pharmacological management and (2 whether the NOSIE could be regarded as a useful assessment tool with regards to inpatient behaviour management. No significant difference could be demonstrated between the 2 subsets of subjects (history of violence vs none with respect to total doses of medication administered. No statistical correlation could be found between the total NOSIE score and the dose of psychotropic medication used. The relationship between a subset of NOSIE-items and the total dose of medication was more complex and a clear linear relationship could be demonstrated for a total score of 0 to 5. In this particular ward setting a presenting history of recent violent behaviour did not influence the administration of medication and neither could the clinical judgement employed by the nursing staff to manage inpatient behaviour be captured by the NOSIE. However, a five-item subset of the NOSIE with questions relating to aggression and irritability warrants further scrutiny in this regard.

  12. Cognitive enhancement therapy for adult autism spectrum disorder: Results of an 18-month randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eack, Shaun M; Hogarty, Susan S; Greenwald, Deborah P; Litschge, Maralee Y; Porton, Shannondora A; Mazefsky, Carla A; Minshew, Nancy J

    2018-03-01

    Cognitive remediation is a promising approach to treating core cognitive deficits in adults with autism, but rigorously controlled trials of comprehensive interventions that target both social and non-social cognition over a sufficient period of time to impact functioning are lacking. This study examined the efficacy of cognitive enhancement therapy (CET) for improving core cognitive and employment outcomes in adult autism. Verbal adult outpatients with autism spectrum disorder (N = 54) were randomized to an 18-month, single-blind trial of CET, a cognitive remediation approach that integrates computer-based neurocognitive training with group-based training in social cognition, or an active enriched supportive therapy (EST) comparison focused on psychoeducation and condition management. Primary outcomes were composite indexes of neurocognitive and social-cognitive change. Competitive employment was a secondary outcome. Intent-to-treat analyses indicated that CET produced significant differential increases in neurocognitive function relative to EST (d = .46, P = .013). Both CET and EST were associated with large social-cognitive improvements, with CET demonstrating an advantage at 9 (d = .58, P = 0.020), but not 18 months (d = .27, P = 0.298). Effects on employment indicated that participants treated with CET were significantly more likely to gain competitive employment than those in EST, OR = 6.21, P = 0.023, which was mediated by cognitive improvement. CET is a feasible and potentially effective treatment for core cognitive deficits in adult autism spectrum disorder. The treatment of cognitive impairments in this population can contribute to meaningful improvements in adult outcomes. Autism Res 2018, 11: 519-530. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Cognitive enhancement therapy (CET), an 18-month cognitive remediation intervention designed to improve thinking and social understanding, was

  13. Facial phenotypes in subgroups of prepubertal boys with autism spectrum disorders are correlated with clinical phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldridge Kristina

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The brain develops in concert and in coordination with the developing facial tissues, with each influencing the development of the other and sharing genetic signaling pathways. Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs result from alterations in the embryological brain, suggesting that the development of the faces of children with ASD may result in subtle facial differences compared to typically developing children. In this study, we tested two hypotheses. First, we asked whether children with ASD display a subtle but distinct facial phenotype compared to typically developing children. Second, we sought to determine whether there are subgroups of facial phenotypes within the population of children with ASD that denote biologically discrete subgroups. Methods The 3dMD cranial System was used to acquire three-dimensional stereophotogrammetric images for our study sample of 8- to 12-year-old boys diagnosed with essential ASD (n = 65 and typically developing boys (n = 41 following approved Institutional Review Board protocols. Three-dimensional coordinates were recorded for 17 facial anthropometric landmarks using the 3dMD Patient software. Statistical comparisons of facial phenotypes were completed using Euclidean Distance Matrix Analysis and Principal Coordinates Analysis. Data representing clinical and behavioral traits were statistically compared among groups by using χ2 tests, Fisher's exact tests, Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests and Student's t-tests where appropriate. Results First, we found that there are significant differences in facial morphology in boys with ASD compared to typically developing boys. Second, we also found two subgroups of boys with ASD with facial morphology that differed from the majority of the boys with ASD and the typically developing boys. Furthermore, membership in each of these distinct subgroups was correlated with particular clinical and behavioral traits. Conclusions Boys with ASD display a facial phenotype

  14. Strabismus in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Melvin; Edelson, Stephen M.; Rimland, Bernard

    1999-01-01

    Two studies of strabismus ("crossed eyes") in children with autism are reported. A clinical optometric evaluation of 34 individuals with autism, ages 7 to 19 years, found a strabismus rate of 50% and a parent survey of 7,640 families of children with autism found an incidence of 18% (compared to 2-4% in the general population). (Author/DB)

  15. Exploring links between genotypes, phenotypes, and clinical predictors of response to early intensive behavioural intervention in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valsamma eEapen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD is amongst the most familial of psychiatric disorders. Twin and family studies have demonstrated a monozygotic concordance rate of 70–90%, dizygotic concordance of around 10% and more than a 20-fold increase in risk for first-degree relatives. Despite major advances in the genetics of autism, the relationship between different aspects of the behavioural and cognitive phenotype and their underlying genetic liability is still unclear. This is complicated by the heterogeneity of autism, which exists at both genetic and phenotypic levels. Given this heterogeneity, one method to find homogeneous entities and link these with specific genotypes would be to pursue endophenotypes. Evidence from neuroimaging, eye tracking and electrophysiology studies supports the hypothesis that, building on genetic vulnerability, ASD emerges from a developmental cascade in which a deficit in attention to social stimuli leads to impaired interactions with primary caregivers. This results in abnormal development of the neurocircuitry responsible for social cognition, which in turn adversely affects later behavioural and functional domains dependent on these early processes, such as language development. Such a model begets a heterogeneous clinical phenotype, and is also supported by studies demonstrating better clinical outcomes with earlier treatment. Treatment response following intensive early behavioural intervention in ASD is also distinctly variable; however, relatively little is known about specific elements of the clinical phenotype that may predict response to current behavioural treatments. This paper overviews the literature regarding genotypes, phenotypes and predictors of response to behavioural intervention in ASD and presents suggestions for future research to explore linkages between these that would enable better identification of, and increased treatment efficacy for, ASD.

  16. The effect of dietary supplements on clinical aspects of autism spectrum disorder: A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogou, Maria; Kolios, George

    2017-09-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is associated with significant social and financial burden and no definite treatment for this entity has been identified, yet. In recent years there has been an increasing interest in the use of dietary interventions as a complementary therapeutic option for these patients. The aim of this systematic review is to provide high evidence level literature data about the effect of dietary supplements on clinical aspects of children with autism. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using Pubmed as the medical database source. Randomized controlled trials conducted in pediatric populations and including measures of clinical outcomes were considered. A total of 17 eligible prospective studies were selected. Types of dietary supplements evaluated in these studies included amino acids, fatty acids and vitamins/minerals. N-acetylcysteine was shown to exert a beneficial effect on symptoms of irritability. On the other hand, literature data about the efficacy of d-cycloserine and pyridoxine-magnesium supplements was controversial. No significant effect was identified for fatty acids, N,N-dimethylglycine and inositol. Literature data about ascorbic acid and methyl B12 was few, although some encouraging results were found. No serious adverse events were reported in the vast majority of the studies, while the prevalence of adverse reactions was similar between treatment and placebo groups. The use of dietary supplements in children with autism seems to be a safe practice with encouraging data about their clinical efficacy. More studies are needed to further investigate this issue. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Exploring Links between Genotypes, Phenotypes, and Clinical Predictors of Response to Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eapen, Valsamma; Crnčec, Rudi; Walter, Amelia

    2013-09-11

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is amongst the most familial of psychiatric disorders. Twin and family studies have demonstrated a monozygotic concordance rate of 70-90%, dizygotic concordance of around 10%, and more than a 20-fold increase in risk for first-degree relatives. Despite major advances in the genetics of autism, the relationship between different aspects of the behavioral and cognitive phenotype and their underlying genetic liability is still unclear. This is complicated by the heterogeneity of autism, which exists at both genetic and phenotypic levels. Given this heterogeneity, one method to find homogeneous entities and link these with specific genotypes would be to pursue endophenotypes. Evidence from neuroimaging, eye tracking, and electrophysiology studies supports the hypothesis that, building on genetic vulnerability, ASD emerges from a developmental cascade in which a deficit in attention to social stimuli leads to impaired interactions with primary caregivers. This results in abnormal development of the neurocircuitry responsible for social cognition, which in turn adversely affects later behavioral and functional domains dependent on these early processes, such as language development. Such a model begets a heterogeneous clinical phenotype, and is also supported by studies demonstrating better clinical outcomes with earlier treatment. Treatment response following intensive early behavioral intervention in ASD is also distinctly variable; however, relatively little is known about specific elements of the clinical phenotype that may predict response to current behavioral treatments. This paper overviews the literature regarding genotypes, phenotypes, and predictors of response to behavioral intervention in ASD and presents suggestions for future research to explore linkages between these that would enable better identification of, and increased treatment efficacy for, ASD.

  18. The 20 questions task with families of schizophrenics: divergent findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, L; Ladd, J; Robertson, S R; Alpert, M

    1989-06-01

    The study attempted to replicate and extend the results of an earlier study by Wild and Shapiro (16), establishing the utility of Mosher and Hornsby's (8) 20 Questions Task as a means of differentiating families with schizophrenic patients from those of psychiatrically hospitalized but nonschizophrenic individuals. In the current study, Wild and Shapiro's original design was expanded and revised by (a) diagnosing patients using Research Diagnostic Criteria rather than hospital diagnoses and (b) including families with schizophrenic daughters and/or one-parent families, in addition to intact families with schizophrenic sons. Families were comparable on age, intelligence, and socioeconomic variables. The results failed to replicate those reported by Wild and Shapiro, and indicated that the 20 Questions Task was sensitive to differences in family constellation and offspring gender as well as offspring diagnosis. The findings suggest that forms of familial communication deviance detected with the 20 Questions Task may not be unique to families of schizophrenics, thus highlighting the need to expand research on family communication deviance in families with schizophrenic offspring to families with varied family constellations and characteristics.

  19. Comparison of Treatment for Metabolic Disorders Associated with Autism:Reanalysis of Three Clinical Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanna M. Delhey

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD affects about 1 in 45 individuals in the United States, yet effective treatments are yet to be defined. There is growing evidence that ASD is associated with abnormalities in several metabolic pathways, including the inter-connected folate, methylation and glutathione pathways. Several treatments that can therapeutically target these pathways have been tested in preliminary clinical trials. The combination of methylcobalamin (mB12 with low-dose folinic acid (LDFA and sapropterin, a synthetic form of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4 have been studied in open-label trials while high-dose folinic acid has been studied in a double-blind placebo controlled trial. All of these treatments have the potential to positively affect folate, methylation and glutathione pathways. Although the effect of mB12/LDFA and BH4 on methylation and glutathione metabolism have been examined in the open-label studies, these changes have not been compared to controls who received a placebo in order to account for the natural variation in the changes in these pathways. Furthermore, the recent study using high-dose folinic acid (HDFA did not analyze the change in metabolism resulting from the treatment. Thus, we compared changes in methylation and glutathione metabolism and biomarkers of chronic oxidative stress as a result of these three treatments to individuals receiving placebo. In general, mB12/LDFA treatment had a significant effect on glutathione and cysteine metabolism with a medium effect size while BH4 had a significant effect on methylation and markers of chronic oxidative stress with a large effect size. HDFA treatment did not significantly influence biomarkers of methylation, glutathione or chronic oxidative stress. One caveat was that participants in the mB12/LDFA and BH4 studies had significantly worse markers of glutathione metabolism and chronic oxidative stress at baseline, respectively. Thus, the participants selected in these two

  20. Comparison of Treatment for Metabolic Disorders Associated with Autism:Reanalysis of Three Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhey, Leanna M; Tippett, Marie; Rose, Shannon; Bennuri, Sirish C; Slattery, John C; Melnyk, Stepan; James, S Jill; Frye, Richard E

    2018-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affects about 1 in 45 individuals in the United States, yet effective treatments are yet to be defined. There is growing evidence that ASD is associated with abnormalities in several metabolic pathways, including the inter-connected folate, methylation and glutathione pathways. Several treatments that can therapeutically target these pathways have been tested in preliminary clinical trials. The combination of methylcobalamin (mB12) with low-dose folinic acid (LDFA) and sapropterin, a synthetic form of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) have been studied in open-label trials while high-dose folinic acid has been studied in a double-blind placebo controlled trial. All of these treatments have the potential to positively affect folate, methylation and glutathione pathways. Although the effect of mB12/LDFA and BH4 on methylation and glutathione metabolism have been examined in the open-label studies, these changes have not been compared to controls who received a placebo in order to account for the natural variation in the changes in these pathways. Furthermore, the recent study using high-dose folinic acid (HDFA) did not analyze the change in metabolism resulting from the treatment. Thus, we compared changes in methylation and glutathione metabolism and biomarkers of chronic oxidative stress as a result of these three treatments to individuals receiving placebo. In general, mB12/LDFA treatment had a significant effect on glutathione and cysteine metabolism with a medium effect size while BH4 had a significant effect on methylation and markers of chronic oxidative stress with a large effect size. HDFA treatment did not significantly influence biomarkers of methylation, glutathione or chronic oxidative stress. One caveat was that participants in the mB12/LDFA and BH4 studies had significantly worse markers of glutathione metabolism and chronic oxidative stress at baseline, respectively. Thus, the participants selected in these two clinical trials

  1. Pitting temporal against spatial integration in schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Michael H; Brand, Andreas

    2009-06-30

    Schizophrenic patients show strong impairments in visual backward masking possibly caused by deficits on the early stages of visual processing. The underlying aberrant mechanisms are not clearly understood. Spatial as well as temporal processing deficits have been proposed. Here, by combining a spatial with a temporal integration paradigm, we show further evidence that temporal but not spatial processing is impaired in schizophrenic patients. Eleven schizophrenic patients and ten healthy controls were presented with sequences composed of Vernier stimuli. Patients needed significantly longer presentation times for sequentially presented Vernier stimuli to reach a performance level comparable to that of healthy controls (temporal integration deficit). When we added spatial contextual elements to some of the Vernier stimuli, performance changed in a complex but comparable manner in patients and controls (intact spatial integration). Hence, temporal but not spatial processing seems to be deficient in schizophrenia.

  2. Quantification of endocannabinoids in postmortem brain of schizophrenic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muguruza, Carolina; Lehtonen, Marko; Aaltonen, Niina; Morentin, Benito; Meana, J Javier; Callado, Luis F

    2013-08-01

    Numerous studies have implicated the endocannabinoid system in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Endocannabinoids have been measured in blood and cerebrospinal fluid in schizophrenic patients but, to the date, there are no published reports dealing with measurements of endocannabinoid levels in schizophrenics' brain tissue. In the present study, postmortem brain samples from 19 subjects diagnosed with schizophrenia (DSM-IV) and 19 matched controls were studied. In specific brain regions, levels of four endocannabinoids (2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide, AEA), dihomo-γ-linolenoylethanolamine (LEA), and docosahexaenoylethanolamine (DHEA)) and two cannabimimetic compounds (palmitoyl-ethanolamine (PEA) and oleoyl-ethanolamine (OEA)) were measured using quantitative liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole mass spectrometric detection. Suffering from schizophrenia significantly affects the brain levels of 2-AG (pendocannabinoids in different brain regions of schizophrenic subjects. Furthermore, these data evidence the involvement of the endocannabinoid system in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Hoarding in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Anxiety: Incidence, Clinical Correlates, and Behavioral Treatment Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Eric A.; Nadeau, Joshua M.; Johnco, Carly; Timpano, Kiara; McBride, Nicole; Mutch, P. Jane; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the nature and correlates of hoarding among youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Forty children with ASD and a comorbid anxiety disorder were administered a battery of clinician-administered measures assessing presence of psychiatric disorders and anxiety severity. Parents completed questionnaires related to child…

  4. Aggression in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and a Clinic-Referred Comparison Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Cristan; Butter, Eric; Mazurek, Micah O.; Cowan, Charles; Lainhart, Janet; Cook, Edwin H.; DeWitt, Mary Beth; Aman, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A gap exists in the literature regarding aggression in autism spectrum disorders and how this behavior compares to other groups. In this multisite study, the "Children's Scale for Hostility and Aggression: Reactive/Proactive" and the Aggression subscale of the "Child Behavior Checklist" were rated for 414 children with autism…

  5. Sex Differences in Cognitive Domains and Their Clinical Correlates in Higher-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, Sven; Duketis, Eftichia; Poustka, Fritz; Holtmann, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Despite the skewed sex ratio, few studies have addressed possible cognitive sex differences in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). This study compared visual attention to detail (ATTD) and selected executive functions (EF) in 35 males and 21 females with higher-functioning ASD and unaffected sibling controls. Females with ASD outperformed males on…

  6. Clinical and pharmacokinetic evaluation of risperidone for the management of autism spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dinnissen, Mariken; Dietrich, Andrea; van den Hoofdakker, Barbara J.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    Introduction: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is often accompanied by psychiatric comorbidity. Although there is no medication currently available to treat the core symptoms of ASD, risperidone was the first drug to be approved for use in ASD and is still the

  7. An International Clinical Study of Ability and Disability in Autism Spectrum Disorder Using the WHO-ICF Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Soheil; Albertowski, Katja; Almodayfer, Omar; Arsenopoulou, Vaia; Carucci, Sara; Dias, José Carlos; Khalil, Mohammad; Knüppel, Ane; Langmann, Anika; Lauritsen, Marlene Briciet; da Cunha, Graccielle Rodrigues; Uchiyama, Tokio; Wolff, Nicole; Selb, Melissa; Granlund, Mats; de Vries, Petrus J; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Bölte, Sven

    2018-02-08

    This is the fourth international preparatory study designed to develop International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF, and Children and Youth version, ICF-CY) Core Sets for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Examine functioning of individuals diagnosed with ASD as documented by the ICF-CY in a variety of clinical settings. A cross-sectional study was conducted, involving 11 units from 10 countries. Clinical investigators assessed functioning of 122 individuals with ASD using the ICF-CY checklist. In total, 139 ICF-CY categories were identified: 64 activities and participation, 40 body functions and 35 environmental factors. The study results reinforce the heterogeneity of ASD, as evidenced by the many functional and contextual domains impacting on ASD from a clinical perspective.

  8. The relationship between carers' report of autistic traits and clinical diagnoses of autism spectrum disorders in adults with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaumik, Sabyasachi; Tyrer, Freya; Barrett, Mary; Tin, Nyunt; McGrother, Catherine W; Kiani, Reza

    2010-01-01

    It is often difficult to determine the triad of impairments and whether autistic features are the consequence of intellectual impairment or autism spectrum disorders in people with intellectual disability (ID). The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between carer-reported autistic traits and independent diagnoses of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Data were collected on carers' subjective report of autistic traits and clinical diagnoses of ASD. Of 1145 adults with ID identified, 220 (19%) individuals had a diagnosis of ASD, and 778 (68%) individuals had at least one autistic trait. Optimal sensitivity and specificity were achieved with two or more autistic traits (sensitivity 63%; specificity 79%) and the positive predictive value increased substantially as the number of autistic traits increased. However, a significant proportion of individuals with ID who did not have a diagnosis of ASD also displayed autistic traits. Our findings suggest that in the absence of other measures, the presence of autistic traits can serve as a useful proxy measure for ASD in research (and/or clinical settings). However, although information on autistic traits may help healthcare practitioners to identify people with possible ASD, it cannot be used alone to make a formal diagnosis. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. An examination of the clinical outcomes of adolescents and young adults with broad autism spectrum traits and autism spectrum disorder and anorexia nervosa: A multi centre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazar, Bruno Palazzo; Peynenburg, Vanessa; Rhind, Charlotte; Hibbs, Rebecca; Schmidt, Ulrike; Gowers, Simon; Macdonald, Pamela; Goddard, Elizabeth; Todd, Gillian; Micali, Nadia; Treasure, Janet

    2018-02-01

    To compare the clinical outcomes of adolescents and young adults with anorexia nervosa (AN) comorbid with broad autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or ASD traits. The developmental and well-being assessment and social aptitude scale were used to categorize adolescents and young adults with AN (N = 149) into those with ASD traits (N = 23), and those who also fulfilled diagnostic criteria for a possible/probable ASD (N = 6). We compared both eating disorders specific measures and broader outcome measures at intake and 12 months follow-up. Those with ASD traits had significantly more inpatient/day-patient service use (p = .015), as well as medication use (p eating disorder symptoms at 12 months was similar between groups with or without ASD traits. Treatment completion rates between AN only and ASD traits were similar (80.1 vs. 86.5%). Adolescents with AN and ASD traits show similar reductions in their eating disorder symptoms. Nevertheless, their social difficulties remain high suggesting that these are life-long difficulties rather than starvation effects. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. [Visuospatial context processing in untreated schizophrenic patients and relation to disorganization syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longevialle-Hénin, R; Bourdel, M-C; Willard, D; Lôo, H; Olié, J-P; Poirier, M-F; Krebs, M-O; Amado, I

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies on schizophrenia have suggested that context-processing disturbances were one of the core cognitive deficits present in schizophrenia. Schizophrenic patients have a failure either of inhibition strategy and maintenance of visuospatial information (25) in condition of contextual interference. In the present study, we explored the performances of untreated schizophrenic patients with 2 tasks exploring detection and long term retention of complex visual features and field dependence-independence tasks were selected. These abilities involve temporary maintenance of visuospatial information and executive functioning of visual working memory system. Several studies have shown that cognitive deficit may depend on schizophrenic symptomatology. However results remain controversial in determining the specific influence of negative and positive symptomatologies as well as clinical disorganization. Our goal was to explore the processing of spatial context and its relation to disorganized syndrome. This study was approved by the local ethic committee. Thirty-six schizophrenic patients were included according to DSM IV criteria (19 neuroleptic naïve, 17 unmedicated patients during more than 3 months). Thirty-six healthy controls were matched to patients for age, gender and level of education. Absence of axis 1 pathology was attested for controls with SCID-NP. Current symptomatology was evaluated by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) (14). Clinical disorganisation was evaluated with the disorganisation score established upon a factorial analysis of PANSS by Lepine and Lançon. Items selected to distinguish the disorganised group were abstraction, disorganization, orientation, and attention. Two tasks of embedded figures were administered individually to patients and controls. The Faverge task (Research of Figures-RF) (10) evaluates the ability to recognize the target from spatial complex geometrical figures. The Group Embedded Figure Task (GEFT

  11. Autism: Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Publications Awards Partners Contact Us ¿Qué es Autismo? Donate Home What is Autism? What is Autism? ... Information Publications Awards Partners Contact Us ¿Qué es Autismo? Diagnosis Home / What is Autism? / Diagnosis Expand Medical ...

  12. Adaptive Function in Preschoolers in Relation to Developmental Delay and Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders: Insights from a Clinical Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Susan L.; McDonald, Jenny L.; Comino, Elizabeth J.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to explore the relationship between developmental ability, autism and adaptive skills in preschoolers. Adaptive function was assessed in 152 preschoolers with autism, with and without developmental delay, and without autism, with and without developmental delay. Their overall adaptive function, measured by the general adaptive…

  13. The molecular genetics of autism spectrum disorders: genomic mechanisms, neuroimmunopathology, and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Daniel J

    2011-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have become increasingly common in recent years. The discovery of single-nucleotide polymorphisms and accompanying copy number variations within the genome has increased our understanding of the architecture of the disease. These genetic and genomic alterations coupled with epigenetic phenomena have pointed to a neuroimmunopathological mechanism for ASD. Model animal studies, developmental biology, and affective neuroscience laid a foundation for dissecting the neural pathways impacted by these disease-generating mechanisms. The goal of current autism research is directed toward a systems biological approach to find the most basic genetic and environmental causes to this severe developmental disease. It is hoped that future genomic and neuroimmunological research will be directed toward finding the road toward prevention, treatment, and cure of ASD.

  14. The Molecular Genetics of Autism Spectrum Disorders: Genomic Mechanisms, Neuroimmunopathology, and Clinical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Guerra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs have become increasingly common in recent years. The discovery of single-nucleotide polymorphisms and accompanying copy number variations within the genome has increased our understanding of the architecture of the disease. These genetic and genomic alterations coupled with epigenetic phenomena have pointed to a neuroimmunopathological mechanism for ASD. Model animal studies, developmental biology, and affective neuroscience laid a foundation for dissecting the neural pathways impacted by these disease-generating mechanisms. The goal of current autism research is directed toward a systems biological approach to find the most basic genetic and environmental causes to this severe developmental disease. It is hoped that future genomic and neuroimmunological research will be directed toward finding the road toward prevention, treatment, and cure of ASD.

  15. The Molecular Genetics of Autism Spectrum Disorders: Genomic Mechanisms, Neuroimmunopathology, and Clinical Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have become increasingly common in recent years. The discovery of single-nucleotide polymorphisms and accompanying copy number variations within the genome has increased our understanding of the architecture of the disease. These genetic and genomic alterations coupled with epigenetic phenomena have pointed to a neuroimmunopathological mechanism for ASD. Model animal studies, developmental biology, and affective neuroscience laid a foundation for dissecting th...

  16. Decreased striatal dopamine transporter binding assessed with [123I] FP-CIT in first-episode schizophrenic patients with and without short-term antipsychotic-induced parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, Jose J; Lomeña, Francisco; Parellada, Eduardo; Font, Mireia; Fernandez, Emili; Pavia, Javier; Prats, Alberto; Pons, Francisca; Bernardo, Miquel

    2005-09-01

    Drug-induced parkinsonism (DIP) is one of the main causes of treatment drop-out in schizophrenic patients causing a high incidence of relapse that leads patients to a bad clinical prognosis. The dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway is involved in the movement control, so the study of the dopamine transporter (DAT) could be of great value to determine its implication in the appearance of DIP. The goal of the study is to determine the striatal DAT binding assessed with [(123)I] FP-CIT SPECT in first-episode neuroleptic-naive schizophrenic in-patients with DIP after short-term antipsychotic treatment. The [(123)I] FP-CIT binding ratios of ten schizophrenic in-patients who developed DIP during the first 4-week period of risperidone treatment (6+/-2 mg/day) were compared with ten schizophrenic in-patients treated with the same doses of risperidone and who do not developed DIP and with ten age-matched healthy subjects. Quantitative analyses of SPECTs were performed using regions of interest located in caudate, putamen and occipital cortex. Parkinsonism was assessed by the Simpson-Angus Scale and the psychopathological status by the Clinical General Impression and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scales. Whole striatal [(123)I] FP-CIT binding ratios were significantly lower in patients with and without DIP than in healthy subjects (p<0.001). This was also observed in whole putamen (p<0.001) and caudate nucleus (p<0.001). Females showed higher whole striatal [(123)I] FP-CIT binding ratios than males (p<0.05). No differences in psychopathological scales were observed between patients with and without DIP. Our first-episode schizophrenic patients with and without DIP after short-term risperidone treatment have a decreased striatal DAT binding assessed with [(123)I] FP-CIT. This alteration could be related to the schizophrenic disease or may be secondary to the antipsychotic treatment.

  17. Instructions to mimic improve facial emotion recognition in people with sub-clinical autism traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michael B; Dunn, Emily

    2017-11-01

    People tend to mimic the facial expression of others. It has been suggested that this helps provide social glue between affiliated people but it could also aid recognition of emotions through embodied cognition. The degree of facial mimicry, however, varies between individuals and is limited in people with autism spectrum conditions (ASC). The present study sought to investigate the effect of promoting facial mimicry during a facial-emotion-recognition test. In two experiments, participants without an ASC diagnosis had their autism quotient (AQ) measured. Following a baseline test, they did an emotion-recognition test again but half of the participants were asked to mimic the target face they saw prior to making their responses. Mimicry improved emotion recognition, and further analysis revealed that the largest improvement was for participants who had higher scores on the autism traits. In fact, recognition performance was best overall for people who had high AQ scores but also received the instruction to mimic. Implications for people with ASC are explored.

  18. Higher incidence of hip fracture in newly diagnosed schizophrenic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Higher incidence of hip fracture in newly diagnosed schizophrenic patients in Taiwan. Hip fracture is a major public health concern due to its poor outcome and serious socioeconomic burden in older people (1). Evidence has shown that many factors are related to increased risk of hip fracture, but psychiatric diseases are ...

  19. A Rasch analysis between schizophrenic patients and the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Frederic

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the General Oral Health Assessment Index Questionnaire (GOHAI items for differential item functioning (DIF according to demographic characteristics (gender, age and mental health status (schizophrenic disorders versus general population using Rasch analysis.

  20. The Role of Third Person Hallucination in Schizophrenic Suicide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Suicide is among the most common causes of mortality among individuals with schizophrenia. Efforts at determining risk factors have been fruitful as some specific factors for schizophrenic suicide have been reported. However, there are few studies on the role of third person auditory hallucination in such ...

  1. Young Children of Schizophrenic Mothers: Difficulties of Intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Liselotte; Gammeltoft, Marie

    1993-01-01

    Casework by Danish local social agencies on behalf of 11 children og chronically ill schizophrenic mothers is retrospectively analyzed, along with documentation from psychiatric hospitals, consulting child specialists, and other health professionals. Findings point to a need for earlier and more...... precise assessment of the mother's parenting abilities as measured against the severity of her illness and the vulnerability of the child...

  2. Young Children of Schizophrenic Mothers: Difficulties of Intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Liselotte; Gammeltoft, Marie

    1993-01-01

    Casework by Danish local social agencies on behalf of 11 children og chronically ill schizophrenic mothers is retrospectively analyzed, along with documentation from psychiatric hospitals, consulting child specialists, and other health professionals. Findings point to a need for earlier and more...

  3. Clinic Attenders with Autism or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Cognitive Profile at School Age and Its Relationship to Preschool Indicators of Language Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagberg, Bibbi S.; Miniscalco, Carmela; Gillberg, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Many studies have shown that children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have had early indicators of language delay. The aim of the present study was to examine the cognitive profile of school age children referred to a specialist clinic for ASD, ADHD, or both, and relate this profile…

  4. Opisodic memory orientation in schizophrenics, their relatives and normal people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamali Nikpour

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Memory is what creates perseverance and continuity in human and everyone's idea about himself depends on the memory. Among different psychological ideas, cognitive psychology is only one which investigated and recognized the memory. It seems mental and spiritual statuses have effects on memory and lead to memory orientation toward specific systems. According to research findings, there are spatial distortions in schizophrenics patients which are equal with main signs of schizophrenia i.e. disorders in the thoughts of these patients. Orientation has basic role to create and process the data same as thoughts in schizophrenics and normal people. Assessing such memory orientation in selecting the direction against pleasant, unpleasant and neutral stimulants is the purpose of current research Methods:   Used data in current study is related to patients and normal people reactions against pleasant, unpleasant and neutral materials of William’s test. After gathering the data, mean, variance and standard deviation were firstly, estimated and were analyzed statistically by independent T test. Results: Findings showed that there was a meaningful relationship between two mean of patients and normal people in reaction against pleasant, unpleasant and neutral stimulants of William’s test. It meaned normal people selected more pleasant stimulants than schizophrenics. Indeed, normal people selected neutral stimulants with slightly more different than schizophrenics. There was not any meaningful difference between normal people and schizophrenics only in unpleasant stimulants. Conclusion: Ability and intellectual coherence lead to mental appropriate performance and will result those people remind all memories particularly unpleasant ones with more details. Therefore it seems that memory orientation process leads to psychological status controlled the individual.

  5. Rates of Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnosis Under the DSM-5 Criteria Compared to DSM-IV-TR Criteria in a Hospital-Based Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley-McAndrew, Michelle; Mertz, Jana; Hoffman, Martin; Crawford, Donald

    2016-04-01

    We aimed to determine whether there was a decrease in the number of children diagnosed on the autism spectrum after the implementation of the new diagnostic criteria as outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Health Disorders Fifth Edition published in May 2013. We reviewed 1552 charts of children evaluated at the Women and Children's Hospital of Buffalo, Autism Spectrum Disorders Clinic. A comparison was made of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (autism, Asperger disorder, pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified) from 2010 to May 2013 using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Health Disorders Fourth Edition, Text Revision criteria with children diagnosed from June 2013 through June 2015 under the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Health Disorders Fifth Edition. Using χ(2) analysis, the 2013-2015 rate of autism spectrum disorder diagnosis (39%) was significantly lower (P disorder diagnosis was significantly lower under the recently implemented Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Health Disorders Fifth Edition criteria. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. The effects of psychoactive drugs and neuroleptics on language in normal subjects and schizophrenic patients: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomé, F; Boyer, P; Fayol, M

    2000-12-01

    The aim of this survey is to present an overview of research into psychopharmacology as regards the effects of different psychoactive drugs and neuroleptics (NL) on language in normal subjects and schizophrenic patients. Eighteen studies that have investigated the effects of different drugs (alcohol, amphetamines, secobarbital, L-dopa, psilocybin, ketamine, fenfluramine) and neuroleptics (conventional and atypical) on language are reviewed. There are no studies concerning the effects of neuroleptics on language in healthy subjects. The results of the effects of other molecules indicate that language production can be increased (alcohol, amphetamine, secobarbital), rendered more complex (d-amphetamine), more focused (L-dopa) or more unfocused (psilocybin) and clearly impaired (ketamine). For schizophrenic patients, most studies show that conventional neuroleptic treatments, at a therapeutic dosage and in acute or chronic mode, reduce language disorders at all levels (clinic, linguistic, psycholinguistic). In conjunction with other molecules, the classical NL, when administered at a moderate dosage and in chronic mode, modify language in schizophrenia, either by improving the verbal flow and reducing pauses and positive thought disorder (NL + amphetamine) or by inducing an impairment in the language measurements (NL + fenfluramine). Clinical, methodological and theoretical considerations of results are debated in the framework of schizophrenic language disorders.

  7. Differences in quality of life and course of illness between cycloid and schizophrenic psychoses - a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabs, Burkhard Emanuel; Krause, Ulrike; Althaus, Grit; Bartsch, Andreas Joachim; Stöber, Gerald; Pfuhlmann, Bruno

    2004-07-01

    Cycloid psychoses represent a nosological entity not adequately recognised by contemporary psychiatry. They present with full recoveries after each psychotic episode and, thus, have a favourable prognosis. To verify this clinical observation course, outcome and quality of life (QoL, measured by the German version of the Lancashire Quality of Life Profile) of 33 patients with cycloid psychosis and 44 schizophrenics were compared after a mean time of 13 years since first hospitalisation. For comparison of objective and subjective QoL measures, 48 healthy controls were included. Concerning the course of their disease, schizophrenics were hospitalised significantly longer and received higher neuroleptic doses than patients with cycloid psychosis. The latter displayed significantly better scores in the CGI, GAF, Strauss-Carpenter-Outcome and PANSS scales. In global QoL measures, cycloid psychotic patients were more satisfied with their QoL than schizophrenic patients, and did not differ significantly from healthy controls. Cycloid psychoses seem to exhibit a better prognosis than schizophrenia regarding course, outcome, objective, and subjective aspects of QoL. Thus, they appear to present a useful concept deserving more clinical and scientific attention.

  8. [Incidence of broken homes in schizophrenic patients. A study of 239 patients treated at a social psychiatric department].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmür, M; Tschopp, A

    1987-01-01

    259 schizophrenics, 102 women and 157 men, of whom 80 were enlisted from a night clinic, 46 from the Psychiatric University Hospital and 113 from an out-patient clinic, were examined with regard to the frequency of broken home situations during their childhood. 20% had, before they were 18 yrs. old, lost a parent by death and 20% by a traumatic separation. 58% had, before they were 18 yrs. old, lost a parent or had lived together with a parent who was seriously ill or badly disturbed. No relation between the age of first illness and a broken home could, according to these research results, be established. The hypothesis that there is a higher rate of broken home situations by schizophrenics with an early outbreak of the illness, could therefore not be confirmed. Neither could a difference in the occurrence of broken home situations between males and females be observed, with the exception of the frequency of loss of parents by death, which was higher by females. The frequency of the factor 'broken home' in our examines is quite similar to the values round by Bleulers' research, 1940-1945 on male schizophrenics.

  9. A Clinic-Based Assessment for Evaluating Job-Related Social Skills in Adolescents and Adults with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, Dorothea C; White, Bridgette; Grob, Carolyn; Laudont, Courtney

    2017-12-01

    Many individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have difficulties obtaining and maintaining employment, yet little research has evaluated methods for assessing and improving critical vocational skills. In this study, we evaluated an assessment of job-related social skills for individuals with ASD by arranging conditions that simulated on-the-job experiences in a clinic setting. The experimenter contrived situations to assess a variety of social skills, including asking for help, asking for more materials, and responding to corrective feedback. A total of eight individuals, aged 16 to 32 years, participated. Results suggested that the assessment was useful for identifying specific social skills that could be targeted for intervention to increase success in the work environment. These findings add to the current literature by demonstrating an objective method for assessing a variety of job-related social skills under controlled, naturalistic conditions.

  10. A CLINICAL CASE OF SYNGAP1 GENE MUTATION IN A GIRL WITH EPILEPSY, MENTAL RETARDATION, AUTISM, AND MOTOR DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Bobylova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of the latest genetic techniques into practice could discover a basis for the comorbidity of genetic epilepsies and behavioral disturbances with cognitive impairments. Some chromosomal syndromes are characterized by a specific electroencephalogram (EEG pattern, the type of seizures, and the variant of the course of epilepsy. This paper describes a case of synaptic RAS GTP-ase-activating protein 1 (SYNGAP1 gene mutation in a 9-year-old female patient with eyelid myoclonic epilepsy, atypical absences, and atypical autism with mental retardation. The patient’s parents visited a physician for epilepsy (myoclonic absences, markedly delayed psycho-speech development, and specific communication problems in the child. The characteristics of autistic behavior were manifested from birth; routine EEG recorded epileptiform activity at the age of 2 years; epileptic seizures appeared at 5 years. Valproic acid and levetiracetam in this patient exerted a good effect on seizures; however, a clinical and encephalographic remission was achieved by a combination of levetiracetam and ethosuximide. The clinical case including the neurological and psychic statuses, logopedic characteristics, the result of psychological testing, and video-EEG monitoring findings are analyzed in detail.The SYNGAP1 gene is located on chromosome 6p21.3. About 50 cases of SYNGAP1 syndrome are now known worldwide. After normal maternal pregnancy and delivery, the patients show delayed psychomotor development with pronounced regression at 1 to 3 years of age. At this age, there are diffuse polyspike discharges on the EEG or an onset of generalized epileptic seizures (atonic, myoclonic, eyelid myoclonic, and absence seizures, commonly photosensitivity and autoinduction, mental development stops, speech regresses, behavioral disorders that are typical of autism develop. Drug-resistant epilepsy is noted in approximately half of the described cases. There is a correlation

  11. Therapist Perspectives on Training in a Package of Evidence-Based Practice Strategies for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Served in Community Mental Health Clinics

    OpenAIRE

    Drahota, Amy; Stadnick, Nicole; Brookman-Frazee, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Therapist perspectives regarding delivery of evidence-based practice (EBP) strategies are needed to understand the feasibility of implementation in routine service settings. This qualitative study examined the perspectives of 13 therapists receiving training and delivering a package of EBPs to children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in community mental health clinics. Therapists perceived the training and intervention delivery as effective at improving their clinical skills, the psychot...

  12. [Autism: exploring historical psychiatric and psychological concepts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbier, E; Haack, K; Herpertz, S C

    2008-08-01

    Autism today is a widely used term, yet what is understood by autism has changed considerably since first being introduced in scientific discourse almost 100 years ago. Autism is one example for the influence of the psychoanalytic school of Sigmund Freud on scientific psychiatry at the beginning of the 20th century. In particular psychoanalysis had an impact on Eugen Bleuler's concept of schizophrenia. The Swiss psychiatrist did not only acknowledge and follow a biological, but also a psychological approach to psychiatry and thus opened up his subject to psychoanalytic thoughts. This paper provides insights into the term's conceptual history--or, more specifically and precisely--sheds light on the expansion of the term's scope, which has gotten to be used for more and more symptoms and phenomena. When Bleuler first presented the term autism, he used it to refer to a classical schizophrenic symptom. Since, however, Bleuler was not very specific and exclusive in his definition, the term was soon used for other phenomena as well, such as to describe a schizoid symptom in the sense of today's schizoid personality disorder (schizoid autism). The concepts of autistic hebephrenia and depressive autism are further examples how the term was used and give insight into how the contents behind the term changed, got less and less specific and widened its scope. Due to its growing vagueness its suitability and usability as a psychopathological term decreased. This process further was strengthened when the word autism got more and more widely used in colloquial language for different aspects of day-to-day routine and thinking. Thus in psychiatry today, autism is exclusively used in connection with the so-called autism spectrum disorders, but has, as other formerly exclusively technical terms, different and rather unspecific meanings in everyday communication.

  13. Quality of life assessment of patients with schizophrenic spectrum disorders from Psychosocial Care Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Fernandes Carpinteiro da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Assessing the quality of life and the clinical and social-demographic factors associated in schizophrenic spectrum patients (ICD-10 F20-F29 attending CAPS at the programmatic area 3.0. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a sample of schizophrenic spectrum patients who have been enrolled in 2008 in CAPS in programmatic area (AP 3 at Rio de Janeiro city, using MINIPLUS to assess schizophrenia spectrum disorder and use of psychoactive substances, Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS to assess psychiatric symptoms and Quality of Life Scale (QLS-BR to assess the quality of life. RESULTS: Seventy nine patients were included, of whom 74 (93.7% presented some impairment in quality of life. The most frequently affected area was occupational performance. Variables that showed a significant association with severe impairment of quality of life were: marital status, race, occupation, who patients lived with, homelessness, having children, previous psychiatric hospitalization, negative symptoms and symptoms designated as not applicable (being characterized by a lack of typical positive and negative symptoms. CONCLUSION: The knowledge of these factors should be crucial to implement health policies and psychosocial rehabilitation programs focused on improving the quality of life of these patients.

  14. Autism, attachment and parenting: a comparison of children with autism spectrum disorder, mental retardation, language disorder, and non-clinical children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, A.H.; IJzendoorn, M.H. van; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J.; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Daalen, E. van; Dietz, C.; Naber, F.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Engeland, H.M. van

    2007-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have severe and pervasive impairments in the development of social interaction, which may affect the attachment relationship with their parents and may have an impact on parenting. In the current investigation 89 families with young children (mean age

  15. Autism, Attachment and Parenting: A Comparison of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, Mental Retardation, Language Disorder, and Non-Clinical Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutgers, Anna H.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Swinkels, Sophie H. N.; van Daalen, Emma; Dietz, Claudine; Naber, Fabienne B. A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; van Engeland, Herman

    2007-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have severe and pervasive impairments in the development of social interaction, which may affect the attachment relationship with their parents and may have an impact on parenting. In the current investigation 89 families with young children (mean age 26.5 months) were involved, who were diagnosed as…

  16. The Impact of Coping Strategies on Burden of Care in Chronic Schizophrenic Patients and Caregivers of Chronic Bipolar Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Khajavi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: One of the principle of mental health programs is burden and coping of caregivers of chronically mental disorders patients. In this regard, the aim of present study was to measure the amount of burden and relationship between burden and their coping strategies of caregivers. Methods: One hundred of main caregivers of patients (50 schizophrenic patients, 50 bipolar patients from both Razi psychiatric hospital and clinic were enrolled to the study. The instruments were FBIS (Family Burden Interview Schedule as well as Weintraub coping strategies check list (COPE. Chisquare, Pearson correlation coefficient and t-test were used for data analysis. Results: The study showed that the mean of burden in caregivers of chronic schizophrenic patients was significantly (P<0.05 higher than that of bipolar patients (35.5 vs. 28.9. There was inverse correlation (but not statistically meaningful between burden and problem focused coping strategy. Discussion: There was also a direct correlation between burden and emotional-oriented and less benefit and not effective coping strategies, but was not meaningful. Regarding the higher burden in caregivers of chronic schizophrenic patients, social support and offering health services to them seems to be necessary. Training of caregivers for problem-focused copings can also reduce the burden.

  17. [Expressed Emotions, Burden and Family Functioning in Schizophrenic and Bipolar I Patients of a Multimodal Intervention Program: PRISMA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Alexandra; Palacio, Juan David; Vargas, Cristian; Díaz-Zuluaga, Ana María; Duica, Kelly; Agudelo Berruecos, Yuli; Ospina, Sigifredo; López-Jaramillo, Carlos

    Bipolar disorder and schizophrenia are causes of major suffering in patients. Nevertheless, they also affect family and caregiver functioning. This is important because the participation and involvement of families and caregivers is essential to achieve an optimal treatment. To describe the level of expressed emotions, burden, and family functioning of bipolar and schizophrenic patients and, to evaluate the efficacy of the multimodal intervention (MI) versus traditional intervention (TI) in family functioning and its perception by patients and caregivers. A prospective, longitudinal, therapeutic-comparative study was conducted with 302 patients (104 schizophrenic and 198 bipolar patients) who were randomly assigned to a MI or TI groups of a multimodal intervention program PRISMA. MI group received care from psychiatry, general medicine, neuropsychology, family therapy, and occupational therapy. TI group received care from psychiatry and general medicine. Hamilton, Young and SANS, SAPS scales were applied to bipolar and schizophrenic patients, respectively. The EEAG, FEICS, FACES III and ECF were also applied at the initial and final time. There were statistically significant differences in socio- demographic and clinical variables in schizophrenia vs bipolar group: 83% vs 32.2% were male, 37 vs 43 mean age, 96% vs 59% were single, 50% vs 20% unemployed, and 20% vs 40% had college studies. In addition, 2 vs 2.5 numbers of hospitalisations, 18 vs 16 mean age of substance abuse onset and, 55 vs 80 points in EEAG. There were no statistically significant differences in family scales after conducting a multivariate analysis on thr initial and final time in both groups. This study did not show changes in variables of burden and family functioning between bipolar and schizophrenic groups that were under TI vs MI. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  18. [Impact of a Multimodal Intervention on the Psychological Profile of Schizophrenic and Bipolar I Patients: A Study of PRISMA Program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Zuluaga, Ana María; Vargas, Cristian; Duica, Kelly; Richard, Shanel; Palacio, Juan David; Agudelo Berruecos, Yuli; Ospina, Sigifredo; López-Jaramillo, Carlos

    Bipolar Disorder (BD) and schizophrenia are included in the group of severe mental illness and are main causes of disability and morbidity in the local population due to the bio-psycho-social implications in patients. In the last 20 years or so, adjunctive psychological interventions been studied with the purpose of decreasing recurrences, stabilising the course of the disease, and improving the functionality in these patients. To analyse the psychological effect of a multimodal intervention (MI) vs a traditional intervention (TI) program in BD I and schizophrenic patients. A prospective, longitudinal, therapeutic-comparative study was conducted with 302 patients (104 schizophrenic and 198 bipolar patients) who were randomly assigned to the MI or TI groups of a multimodal intervention program PRISMA. The MI group received care from psychiatry, general medicine, neuropsychology, family therapy, and occupational therapy. The TI group received care from psychiatry and general medicine. The Hamilton and Young scales, and the Scales for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) and Postive Symptoms (SAPS) were used on bipolar and schizophrenic patients, respectively. The scales AQ-12, TEMPS-A, FAST, Zuckerman sensation seeking scale, BIS-11, SAI-E and EEAG were applied to measure the psychological variables. The scales were performed before and after the interventions. The psychotherapy used in this study was cognitive behavioural therapy. There were statistically significant differences in socio-demographic and clinical variables in the schizophrenia and bipolar disorder group. There were no statistically significant differences in the psychological scales after conducting a multivariate analysis between the intervention groups and for both times (initial and final). This study did not show any changes in variables of psychological functioning variables between bipolar and schizophrenic groups, who were subjected to TI vs MI (who received cognitive behavioural therapy

  19. A computed tomographic prolective trohoc study of chronic schizophrenics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glueck, E.; Radue, E.W.; Mundt, C.; Gerhardt, P.

    1980-01-01

    The maximal width of the third ventricle, the maximal distance between the outer tips of the anterior horns, and the number of enlarged cerebral sulci on the two highest CT slices were measured in 68 chronic schizophrenic patients on cranial computed tomograms in order to detect a possible enlargement of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) filled intracranial spaces. These results were compared with values obtained from a control group which was formed in accordance with definite exclusion criteria and matched-pair parameters (sex, age and maximal inner diameter of the skull). In a prolective trohoc study no difference was found in the size of the CSF spaces of schizophrenics and the controls. The psychopathological condition of the patients, which was classified in a semistandardized dialogue, also showed no correlation with the ventricular size or the number of enlarged cerebral sulci. (orig.)

  20. Clozapine efficacy in tardive dyskinesia in schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassitt, D P; Louzã Neto, M R

    1998-01-01

    Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a long-term severe complication of antipsychotic treatment, with mean prevalence of 20-35%. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of clozapine in severe TD. In an open trial seven patients with schizophrenia and severe TD were given clozapine for 6 months. Tardive dyskinesia severity was evaluated with AIMS and ESRS and schizophrenic psychopathology with PANSS. Clozapine mean dose at the end of the study was 392.86 mg/day. A mean reduction of 52% was observed in ESRS scores for TD. Two patients also had dystonic movements, and there was 50% reduction in one of them and complete remission in the other. There was also a 27% mean reduction in PANSS scores. Clozapine seems to be an alternative in the treatment of schizophrenic patients with severe TD.

  1. Parent coaching increases the parents' capacity for reflection and self-evaluation: results from a clinical trial in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siller, M; Hotez, E; Swanson, M; Delavenne, A; Hutman, T; Sigman, M

    2018-03-07

    Family-centered parent coaching interventions in autism strive to encourage family engagement and support parent reflection and self-evaluation. This includes the parents' capacity to: (1) carefully observe the child's behavior; (2) reflect upon the child's thoughts, motives, and feelings; (3) consider links between the child's internal experiences and observable behavior; and (4) grapple with the complex interplay among the child's experiences and behaviors, contextual factors, parenting strategies, as well as parental goals and emotions. The current study reports data from a clinical trial of Focused Playtime Intervention (FPI), a parent coaching intervention targeting responsive parental behaviors and child communication. Seventy children with autism between 2 and 6 years and their parents were randomly assigned to participate in FPI for 12 weeks or an active control intervention. The Insightfulness Assessment was administered and used (a) to classify parents' baseline capacity for reflection and self-evaluation as either established (i.e., positively insightful) or emerging, and (b) to capture longitudinal change in the parents' capacity between baseline, exit (~5 months after baseline), and follow up (~14 months after exit) using a dimensional composite subscale score. Results revealed a significant treatment effect of FPI on growth in the parents' capacity for reflection and self-evaluation, conditional on the parents' classification at baseline. That is, parents whose capacity for reflection and self-evaluation was classified as emerging at baseline (n = 42) showed higher rates of growth when assigned to FPI, compared to the control condition. A similar treatment effect was not found for parents whose baseline capacity for reflection and self-evaluation was classified as established (i.e., positively insightful). This is the first study to show that a family-centered parent coaching intervention effectively increases the capacity for reflection and

  2. Patterns of Spontaneous Magnetoencephalographic Activity in Schizophrenic Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Siekmeier, Peter J.; Stufflebeam, Steven M.

    2010-01-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) non-invasively measures the magnetic fields produced by the brain. Pertinent research articles from 1993 to 2009 that measured spontaneous, whole-head MEG activity in schizophrenic patients were reviewed. Data on localization of oscillatory activity and correlation of these findings with psychotic symptoms are summarized. While the variety of measures used by different research groups makes a quantitative meta-analysis difficult, it appears that MEG activity in pa...

  3. A hospital population of schizophrenic patients undergoing change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nystrup, J

    1976-03-01

    From a census investigation in 1953 at the Aarhus Psychiatric Hospital, 393 schizophrenic patients were selected (Population 53, P53) and compared with 282 schizophrenics from the 1962 census at the hospital (Population 62, P62). Through hospital records and the central psychiatric register in Denmark, the population from 1953 was followed for 18 years, the 1962 population for 9 years. At admission it appeared that few of the patients had ever married. This was patriculary so for the males. The males were also found to belong to a lower social group than would have been the case in a sample from the general Danish population. In 1962 more patients had obtained State Disability Pension before admission than the 1953 population. More than two-thirds of all admitted schizophrenic patients were in psychiatric hospital within 3 months after onset of illness. Around two-thirds were admitted upon the request of relatives. In the investigated period the expenses for medicine per patient had increased eightfold, whereas expenses for food had less than doubled. Only 15% of the schizophrenic patients in the investigated populations were discharged to their homes. Four per cent were discharged to a nursing home; 22% had died. Of the 15% discharged to their homes, about 50% were readmitted for some time at a later period. In 1962, however, many more patients were discharged after less than 2 years of hospital stay than was the case for the 1953 population. The readmission rates increased from 38% in the 1953 population to 62% in the 1962 population.

  4. The neurobehavioural evaluation in schizophrenics: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilamkar, Kamini Ramdas

    2013-01-01

    The simple reaction time task assesses the ability of the subject to respond to an external cue and to retrieve a reward. The reaction time provides an indirect index of the processing capability of the central nervous system and a simple means to the determined sensory and the motor performances, which is a neurobehavioural evaluation. A general slowness in the latency in the reaction time tasks and a disengagement deficit in the visual and the hearing oriented tasks were seen in schizophrenics. In order to clarify the feature of the attention disorders in schizophrenia, a simple reaction time task was given to schizophrenics. Schizophrenics (34 males and 20 females, n=54) and healthy controls (40 males and 21 females, n=61) with a mean age of 35±7, who were individually matched for gender and age, were included in the study, by using a response analyser to evaluate the reaction time. The performances were expressed in mean ± standard deviation of the reaction time by using the unpaired 't' test. The schizophrenic patients performed poorer than the healthy controls, which indicated a difficulty in sustaining attention and this was statistically very highly significant (pdisturbance in interpersonal situations. The increased reaction time as compared to that in healthy controls, might be due to the impairment of the psychomotor poverty, disorganization and reality distortion which were associated with the deficits in the cortical neurological functions, such as planning, coordination and sequencing of the motor acts, which showed a greater involvement of the frontal lobe and temporal lobe dysfunction.

  5. Individuelles und gemeinsames Coping in Familien mit schizophren erkrankten Eltern

    OpenAIRE

    Lenz, Albert; Kuhn, Juliane; Walther, Susann; Jungbauer, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Die individuellen Bewältigungsstrategien und familiären Bewältigungsstrategien in Familien mit schizophren erkrankten Eltern werden unter Verwendung des Designs der Triangulation sowohl quantitativ als auch qualitativ erhoben und gegenübergestellt. Bei den Kindern (n = 25) konnten drei Copingtypen gefunden werden: „Aggressives Coping“, „Kontrollierendes Coping“ sowie „Moderates Coping“, womit ein unauffälliges Coping gemeint ist. Weiter zeigte sich, dass Eltern in gewisser Weise Co...

  6. Unsuccessful Self-Enucleation in a Schizophrenic Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noam Bar-Yaakov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-enucleation is a very unusual form of self-mutilation directly linked to mental illness. In this case we present a 26-year-old schizophrenic patient who attempted to enucleate his eye with a rollerball pen. Antipsychotic therapy and emergency surgery saved the patient eye and emphasize the importance of quick response and good collaboration between psychiatric and ophthalmic teams.

  7. Chronic schizophrenics with positive symptomatology have shortened EEG microstate durations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strelets, V; Faber, P L; Golikova, J; Novototsky-Vlasov, V; Koenig, T; Gianotti, L R R; Gruzelier, J H; Lehmann, D

    2003-11-01

    In young, first-episode, never-treated schizophrenics compared with controls, (a) generally shorter durations of EEG microstates were reported (Koukkou et al., Brain Topogr 6 (1994) 251; Kinoshita et al., Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging 83 (1998) 58), and (b) specifically, shorter duration of a particular class of microstates (Koenig et al., Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 249 (1999) 205). We now examined whether older, chronic schizophrenic patients with positive symptomatology also show these characteristics. Multichannel resting EEG (62.2 s/subject) from two subject groups, 14 patients (36.1+/-10.2 years old) and 13 controls (35.1+/-8.2 years old), all males, was analyzed into microstates using a global approach for microstate analysis that clustered the microstates into 4 classes (Koenig et al., 1999). (a) Hypothesis testing of general microstate shortening supported a trend (P=0.064). (b) Two-way repeated measure ANOVA (two subject groupsx4 microstate classes) showed a significant group effect for microstate duration. Posthoc tests revealed that a microstate class with brain electric field orientation from left central to right central-posterior had significantly shorter microstates in patients than controls (68.5 vs. 76.1 ms, P=0.034). The results were in line with the results from young, never-treated, productive patients, thus suggesting that in schizophrenic information processing, one class of mental operations might intermittently cause deviant mental constructs because of premature termination of processing.

  8. The relationship between intelligence and cognitive function in schizophrenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catherine; Amin, M. M.; Effendy, E.

    2018-03-01

    The most common of psychotic disorders is schizophrenia. While evaluating the cognitive function with a standardized test, the intelligence test is by using the IQ test. For schizophrenic patients, intelligence is usually reported to be lower than average. This research is an analytical study that commenced in January and ended in March 2014. Primary criteria are schizophrenics who are in-patients in Prof. dr. M. Ildrem Mental Hospital, aged between 15 to 55 years old, with the highest qualification of secondary high school. The secondary criteria are those patients with other psychotic disorders, head injuries and other neurological disorders, endocrine disorders. The total sample is 100 subjects. From this study, the correlation value is 0.876 shows a very strong correlation. And the p-value 0.001.The results of this study show that there is a direct correlation (p=0.001) and a correlation (r=0.876) between intelligence and cognitive function on schizophrenic. And it is also necessary to do more researches by using other rating scales and examination to measure the relationship between intelligence and cognitive function, and other factors that may affect results.

  9. Chronic pain and quality of life in schizophrenic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouce Gabriela de Almeida

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalence and characteristics of chronic pain in schizophrenic patients and to compare the quality of life in patients with and without chronic pain. METHODS: Crossover design with a probablistic sample of 205 adult schizophrenic outpatients (80% paranoid schizophrenia. Socio-demographic, psychiatric disorder, pain and quality of life (WHOQOL- brief data were collected between June and September 2008. RESULTS: Mean age was 37 years, 65% were men, and the mean time spent in school was 9 years; 87% were single, 65% lived with parents and 25% had a job. Among patients with chronic pain, 70% did not receive treatment for pain. Regarding quality of life, patients with pain had more physical disabilities compared to those without pain (p < .001. There were no differences in other domains. Comparisons between patients with and without pain did not show any differences in how much they felt their mental health problems disabled them. Conclusion: Chronic pain was common in schizophrenic patients (similar to the general population of a similar age and decreased their quality of life. It is necessary to pay more attention to this co-morbidity.

  10. Neurocognitive performance in first-episode and chronic schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Steffen; Andresen, Burghard; Perro, Christian; Schickel, Marc; Krausz, Micheal; Naber, Dieter

    2002-02-01

    Previous research on neuropsychological disturbances in first-episode and chronic schizophrenic patients has provided mixed results which can be partially attributed to methodological inconsistencies. For the present study, 70 schizophrenic patients (40 with chronic and 30 with first-episode schizophrenia) were compared to 30 healthy controls on a large battery of neuropsychological tests. Special attention was paid to potential confounds such as differences in psychopathology, age and educational level between the schizophrenic sub-samples. Healthy controls performed better than both first-episode and chronic patients in almost all cognitive domains (P < 0.01), while the patient samples did not differ in any of the tasks. Results were confirmed in a second series of analyses in which patient subgroups were equated for sociodemographic background variables. The present results confirm recent data collected in longitudinal studies, thus, lending further support for a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia. It is suggested that neuropsychological disturbances occur early in schizophrenia and do not worsen in the course beyond age-related decrement. Possible reasons why previous research has produced contradictory findings are discussed.

  11. Characterization of the Pathological and Biochemical Markers that Correlate to the Clinical Features of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    following neonatal 6-hydroxydopamine treatment. Brain Res 148:245-250 Ray B, Long JM, Sokol DK, Lahiri DK (2011) Increased secreted amyloid precursor...SD) 23.9 (9.2) 1,177 (177) Idiopathic autism 1 M 2 Asphyxia (drowning) 4.0 R 1,328 2 F 5 Asphyxia (drowning) 33.0 R 1,360 3 M 5 Asphyxia (drowning...25.5 R 1,560 4 M 8 Asthma attack 13.8 R 1,740 5 M 9 SUDC 3.7 R 1,690 6 M 11 Asphyxia (drowning) V R 1,400 7 M 28 Seizure-related 43.0 R 1,580 8 M 32

  12. Clinical impact of early diagnosis of autism on the prognosis and parent-child relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elder JH

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer Harrison Elder,1 Consuelo Maun Kreider,2 Susan N Brasher,3 Margaret Ansell4 1Department of Family and Community Health Nursing Science, 2Department of Occupational Therapy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 3Nell Hodgson Woodruff School of Nursing, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, 4Health Science Center Libraries, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA Abstract: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD refers to a lifelong condition that usually appears in late infancy or early childhood, and is characterized by social and communication deficits that impede optimal functioning. Despite widespread research and greater public awareness, ASD has an unclear etiology and no known cure, making it difficult to acquire accurate and timely diagnoses. In addition, once an ASD diagnosis is made, parents find it challenging to navigate the healthcare system and determine which interventions are most effective and appropriate for their child. A growing body of evidence supports the value of early diagnosis and treatment with evidence-based interventions, which can significantly improve the quality of life of individuals with ASD as well as of their carers and families. Particularly noteworthy are early interventions that occur in natural surroundings and can be modified to address age-related goals throughout the lifespan. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to: 1 provide readers with a brief background related to ASD; 2 describe commonly used screening instruments and tools for early diagnosis; 3 describe early interventions that have empirical support; and 4 discuss how the parent–child and family relationships can be affected through this process. This information can provide professionals with information they can use to assist families who make critical and potentially life-changing decisions for children with ASD. Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, ASD, early diagnosis, early intervention, parent–child relationship

  13. Interprofessional clinical education for occupational therapy and psychology students: a social skills training program for children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Dana M; Wittman, Peggy; Bundy, Myra Beth

    2012-01-01

    An interprofessional clinical learning experience was developed for pre-licensure occupational therapy (OT) and psychology graduate students. Students worked in interprofessional teams to plan and implement a social skills training program for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The objectives were to provide a hands-on, student-led clinical experience; facilitate interprofessional collaborative learning through leadership partnerships and teach children with ASD to engage in appropriate social skill behaviors. Concurrently, faculty performed qualitative research to explore how the students worked together to provide intervention to the children. Data were collected via interview, direct observation of student planning sessions and student interprofessional interactions, and collection of posts from an online social network site used for session planning. There were six student participants and two faculty participants. Four themes emerged: learning who I am as a professional, learning to appreciate our professional differences, learning to communicate with each other and figuring it out, for the benefit of the kids. This interprofessional clinical learning experience and research helps ensure that students are adequately prepared to represent their profession as part of a diverse interprofessional health care team.

  14. Frequency and Severity of Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms/Disorders, Violence and Suicidal in Schizophrenic Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseini, S H; Zarghami, M; Moudi, S; Mohammadpour, A R

    2012-01-01

    Background This study determined the prevalence and severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms/disorder (OCS/OCD), aggression and suicidal in schizophrenic patients. Also we compared the prevalence and severity of aggression and suicidal in schizophrenic patients with and without OCS/OCD considering anxiety, depression and substance abuse as confounding factors. Methods During 2007 and 2008, 100 schizophrenic patients were evaluated with Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, Positive and Nega...

  15. The Gluten-Free, Casein-Free Diet in Autism: Results of a Preliminary Double Blind Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Jennifer Harrison; Shankar, Meena; Shuster, Jonathan; Theriaque, Douglas; Burns, Sylvia; Sherrill, Lindsay

    2006-01-01

    This study tested the efficacy of a gluten-free and casein-free (GFCF) diet in treating autism using a randomized, double blind repeated measures crossover design. The sample included 15 children aged 2-16 years with autism spectrum disorder. Data on autistic symptoms and urinary peptide levels were collected in the subjects' homes over the 12…

  16. Effect of adjuvant reserpine treatment on catecholamine metabolism in schizophrenic patients under long-term neuroleptic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagdy, G; Perenyi, A; Frecska, E; Seregi, A; Fekete, M I; Tothfalusi, L; Magyar, K; Bela, A; Arato, M

    1988-01-01

    The clinical and biochemical effects of adjuvant reserpine treatment were investigated in 12 chronic schizophrenic patients on long-term neuroleptic medication. The global severity of the symptoms using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale did not change significantly in the whole group, however, a moderate decrease in positive symptoms (factors though disturbance, activation and hostile-suspiciousness) was observed for 5 patients. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) noradrenaline levels showed a consistent decrease, but other biochemical parameters (CSF dopamine metabolites, platelet MAO and serum dopamine-beta-hydroxylase activities) did not change significantly. The changes of clinical symptoms and biochemical parameters did not show any correlation.

  17. Characterization of the Pathological and Biochemical Markers that Correlate to the Clinical Features of Autism. Subproject 1: The Neuropathological Markers of Abnormal Brain Development and Aging in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    gastrointestinal and sleep disorders , as well as anxiety, aggression, obsessive compulsive behavior and mood disorders observed in autism. However...e) Thickenning of the subependymal cell layer and subependymal nodular dysplasia and an indicative of active neurogenesis in autistic children ...Reduced volume of neurons in a majority of subcortical structures and some cortical regions in the brain of autistic children 4–8 years of age appear

  18. Cancer screening participation in schizophrenic outpatients and the influence of their functional disability on the screening rate: A cross-sectional study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Masaki; Inagaki, Masatoshi; Nakaya, Naoki; Fujimori, Maiko; Higuchi, Yuji; Hayashibara, Chinatsu; So, Ryuhei; Kakeda, Kyoko; Kodama, Masafumi; Uchitomi, Yosuke; Yamada, Norihito

    2017-12-01

    The influence of schizophrenic patients' functional disability on cancer screening participation worldwide is unclear. There are few findings on the disparities in schizophrenic patients' participation in cancer screening programs in Asia. The aim of this study was to investigate the screening rate and the associations between screening and symptom severity/functional disability in patients with schizophrenia. This cross-sectional study was conducted in a psychiatric hospital outpatient clinic in Japan. We recruited schizophrenic patients meeting the national program criteria for cancer screening for colorectal, gastric, lung, breast, and cervical cancer (n = 224, 223, 224, 110, and 175, respectively). Receipt of cancer screenings was assessed using a self-report questionnaire. Scores on the modified Global Assessment of Functioning (mGAF) were evaluated by participants' primary psychiatrists. Rates of cancer screenings were as follows: 24.1% for colorectal, 21.5% for gastric, 30.8% for lung, 25.5% for breast, and 19.4% for cervical cancer. A multivariable logistic analysis showed that a 1-point increase in severity/disability (100 minus mGAF score) was associated with significantly lower odds ratios (OR) for receipt of cancer screenings, except for breast cancer (OR, 0.95, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.93-0.98 for colorectal; OR, 0.96, 95%CI, 0.93-0.98 for gastric; OR, 0.95, 95%CI, 0.93-0.97 for lung; OR, 0.97, 95%CI, 0.94-1.00 for breast; and OR, 0.95, 95%CI, 0.92-0.98 for cervical cancer). The findings demonstrated low rates of cancer screenings in schizophrenic patients in Japan. Our study suggests the need to encourage attendance at cancer screenings, especially in schizophrenic patients with severe symptoms/functional disability. © 2017 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2017 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  19. Clinical and pharmacokinetic evaluation of risperidone for the management of autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinnissen, Mariken; Dietrich, Andrea; van den Hoofdakker, Barbara J; Hoekstra, Pieter J

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is often accompanied by psychiatric comorbidity. Although there is no medication currently available to treat the core symptoms of ASD, risperidone was the first drug to be approved for use in ASD and is still the best established psychopharmacological option for the treatment of irritability and behavioral problems in ASD. This article gives an overview of the pharmacokinetic profile of risperidone and a comprehensive review of treatment studies regarding the use of risperidone in ASD. Ample evidence supports the short-term use of risperidone for treating irritability and behavioral problems in ASD. Risperidone also shows promise in treating symptoms often associated with ASD, such as stereotypical behavior, social difficulties, hyperactivity and cognitive problems. However, several adverse effects have been identified; most are mild or moderate and well manageable, but weight gain and metabolic changes are a considerable concern. Therefore, risperidone should in our view be seen as 'a last resort', only justified for the short-term treatment of serious behavioral problems, which have failed to respond sufficiently to behavioral interventions. Future studies should investigate long-term effects of risperidone and factors that facilitate individual risk-benefit analyses before treatment.

  20. Assessment of suicidality in children and adolescents with diagnosis of high functioning autism spectrum disorder in a Turkish clinical sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karakoç Demirkaya S

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sevcan Karakoç Demirkaya,1 Mustafa Deniz Tutkunkardaş,2 Nahit Motavalli Mukaddes3 1Department of Child Psychiatry, Adnan Menderes University School of Medicine, Aydin, 2Department of Child Psychiatry, Istanbul School of Medicine, Istanbul University, Istanbul, 3Istanbul Institute of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Istanbul, Turkey Objectives: Considering that suicide is one of the most common reasons of adolescent death worldwide, there is a lack of clinical awareness on suicidal behaviors of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. The present study aims to assess the rate of suicidality (suicidal ideation, behaviors and attempts and associated risk factors for suicidality in high functioning ASD.Methods: Medical records of 55 adolescents (six girls, 49 boys, aged between 7–20 years, with diagnosis of ASD were reviewed. The participants were all able to speak fluently and had no significant limitations in intellectual functioning. Clinical assessment of participants was carried out on the basis of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th Edition, Text Revision criteria and Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version. Eskin’s Suicide Screening Questionnaire and sociodemographic data form including detailed history of suicidal behaviors were used. The study group was also divided into suicidal and non-suicidal groups for the purpose of comparing the results.Results: The rate of suicidal behaviors was 29% and suicide attempt was 12.7%. Types of suicidality were behaviors (43.7%, thoughts (37.5%, and verbal declarations (18.7%. A number of bizarre acts were recorded. Rates of comorbid psychiatric disorders such as mood disorders, anxiety disorders and disruptive behaviors were 23.6%, 43.6% and 65.4% respectively. Groups with the psychotic features, positive family history for suicidal behaviors and completed suicide showed more suicidality than

  1. Prediction of the period of psychotic episode in individual schizophrenics by simulation-data construction approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Jung; Wang, Hsiao-Fan; Chiu, Hsien-Jane; Lan, Tsuo-Hung; Hu, Tsung-Ming; Loh, El-Wui

    2010-10-01

    Although schizophrenia can be treated, most patients still experience inevitable psychotic episodes from time to time. Precautious actions can be taken if the next onset can be predicted. However, sufficient information is always lacking in the clinical scenario. A possible solution is to use the virtual data generated from limited of original data. Data construction method (DCM) has been shown to generate the virtual felt earthquake data effectively and used in the prediction of further events. Here we investigated the performance of DCM in deriving the membership functions and discrete-event simulations (DES) in predicting the period embracing the initiation and termination time-points of the next psychotic episode of 35 individual schizophrenic patients. The results showed that 21 subjects had a success of simulations (RSS) ≥70%. Further analysis demonstrated that the co-morbidity of coronary heart diseases (CHD), risks of CHD, and the frequency of previous psychotic episodes increased the RSS.

  2. Cognitive dysfunction at baseline predicts symptomatic 1-year outcome in first-episode schizophrenics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, S; Krausz, M; Gottwalz, E; Lambert, M; Perro, C; Ganzer, S; Naber, D

    2000-01-01

    The present study addresses the consequences of cognitive disturbances on symptomatic outcome. Fifty-three first-episode schizophrenics were reassessed (n = 32) 1 year after admission. Simple regression analyses revealed that several self-perceived cognitive deficits at baseline as measured with the Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire significantly predicted increased Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale global scores at follow-up (p = 0.05 to p = 0.005). A stepwise regression analysis proved memory dysfunction to be the strongest predictor of symptomatic worsening (p = 0.005). It is suggested that the exploration and treatment of neuropsychological deficits in schizophrenia is of great clinical importance with regard to its impact on both functional and symptomatic outcome in schizophrenia. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  3. Multidisciplinary Treatment for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Co-Occurring Mental Health Disorders: Adapting Clinical Research Tools to Everyday Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Maurizio; Detrick, Susan; Fernandez, Anna

    2016-01-01

    In California, individuals with autism and co-occurring mental disorders, and their families, face two serious barriers when attempting to access the mental health services they need. The first is that the State Mental Health Specialty Service guidelines specifically exclude autism as a qualifying primary diagnosis for eligibility for mental…

  4. How autism became autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Bonnie

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that the meaning of the word ‘autism’ experienced a radical shift in the early 1960s in Britain which was contemporaneous with a growth in epidemiological and statistical studies in child psychiatry. The first part of the article explores how ‘autism’ was used as a category to describe hallucinations and unconscious fantasy life in infants through the work of significant child psychologists and psychoanalysts such as Jean Piaget, Lauretta Bender, Leo Kanner and Elwyn James Anthony. Theories of autism were then associated both with schizophrenia in adults and with psychoanalytic styles of reasoning. The closure of institutions for ‘mental defectives’ and the growth in speech therapy services in the 1960s and 1970s encouraged new models for understanding autism in infants and children. The second half of the article explores how researchers such as Victor Lotter and Michael Rutter used the category of autism to reconceptualize psychological development in infants and children via epidemiological studies. These historical changes have influenced the form and function of later research into autism and related conditions. PMID:24014081

  5. Characterization of the Pathological and Biochemical Markers that Correlate to the Clinical Features of Autism. Subproject 2: Contribution of Significant Delay of Neuronal Development and Metabolic Shift of Neurons to Clinical Phenotype of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    number of minicolumns as well as excessive and premature expansion of the dendritic tree. 68814_C001.indd 7 6/22/2009 12:32:42 PM 8 Autism...neuronal structural and functional changes. 1.5.1 OXIDATIVE STRESS IN AUTISM Oxidative stress is known to be associated with premature aging of cells...many folia to the restricted neu- ronal loss in some folia, especially at their basal portion (Gessaga and Urich, 1985). Central apnea , asphyxia, and

  6. Sleep Disorders, Epilepsy, and Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malow, Beth A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this review article is to describe the clinical data linking autism with sleep and epilepsy and to discuss the impact of treating sleep disorders in children with autism either with or without coexisting epileptic seizures. Studies are presented to support the view that sleep is abnormal in individuals with autistic spectrum…

  7. Emotional development in adults with autism and intellectual disabilities: a retrospective, clinical analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Sappok

    Full Text Available Individuals with intellectual disability (ID are at risk for additional autism spectrum disorders (ASD. A large amount of research reveals deficits in emotion-related processes that are relevant to social cognition in ASD. However, studies on the structure and level of emotional development (ED assessing emotional maturity according to the normative trajectory in typically developing children are scares. The level of ED can be evaluated by the 'Scheme of Appraisal of Emotional Development' (SAED, a semi-structured interview with a close caregiver. The SAED assesses the level of emotional developmental based on a five stage system in 10 domains, for example, 'interaction with peers' or 'object permanence', which are conducive to the overall emotional developmental level. This study examined the ED as measured by the SAED in 289 adults (mean age: 36 years with ID with and without additional ASD. A lower level in ED was observed in ASD/ID combined that corresponded to the ED of typically developing children aged 1.5-3 years versus an ED with a corresponding age of 3-7 years in ID individuals without ASD. Moreover, distinct strengths in 'object permanence', and weaknesses in 'interaction', 'verbal communication', 'experience of self', 'affect differentiation', 'anxiety', and 'handling of material objects' led to a characteristic pattern of ED in ASD. SAED domains with highest discriminative power between ID individuals with and without ASD (5/10 were used to predict ASD group membership. The classification using a selection of SAED domains revealed a sensitivity of 77.5% and a specificity of 76.4%. ASD risk increased 2.7-fold with every SAED level. The recognition of delayed and uneven pattern of ED contributes to our understanding of the emotion-related impairments in adults with ID and ASD these individuals. Assessment of intra-individual ED could add value to the standard diagnostic procedures in ID, a population at risk for underdiagnosed ASD.

  8. Revisiting the Association of Aggression and Suicidal Behavior in Schizophrenic Inpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuner, Tanja; Hubner-Liebermann, Bettina; Hausner, Helmut; Hajak, Goran; Wolfersdorf, Manfred; Spiessl, Hermann

    2011-01-01

    Our study investigated the association of aggression and suicidal behavior in schizophrenic inpatients. Eight thousand nine hundred one admissions for schizophrenia (1998-2007) to a psychiatric university hospital were included. Schizophrenic suicides (n = 7)/suicide attempters (n = 40) were compared to suicides (n = 30)/suicide attempters (n =…

  9. [Structural correlation of schizophrenic thought and language disorders with delusional perception and variations of intentionality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm-Hadulla, R

    1988-01-01

    This study originated from a phenomenological and speech-act theoretical concept of schizophrenic concretism. An experimental study was performed showing a highly significant lack in the schizophrenic patients' ability to use metaphors correctly. Basing on the interpretation of proverbs, the hypothesis is rejected that false interpretations of schizophrenic patients are due to intermingling of personal conflicts. On the other hand, it could be shown that concretistic interpretations of proverbs represent an avoidance of conflicts. The concepts of "substitution" and "transfer" enabled us to measure pathological concreteness and "deconflictualisation". The differentiation between schizophrenic and nonpsychotic patients was found to be highly significant. In a complementary study it could be shown that the chronic schizophrenics' disability to transfer images of proverbs to an interpersonally relevant context does not differ significantly from that of patients with their first schizophrenic episode. Discussing our empirical findings, we try to show that the concretistic reduction of thought and speech is also a paradigma of delusion. The "incorrigibility" of schizophrenic delusion was seen to be based on reification of verbal signs and metaphors. After trying to show a connection between the concretistic "Lebensform" (Wittgenstein) and the disordered intentionality of schizophrenic patients, pointers towards psychotherapeutic implications are given.

  10. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in chronic schizophrenic inpatients in relation to long-term neuroleptic treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, D.; Dekker, J.J.M.; Peen, J.; de Wied, C.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Many reports indicate that the incidence and prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increased in schizophrenic patients and related to antipsychotic treatment. In an exploratory cross-sectional study we assessed the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in 266 chronic schizophrenic and

  11. Pragmatic assessment of schizophrenic bilinguals' L1 and L2 use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports on a study investigating the pragmatic skills and deficits of schizophrenic bilinguals in their spontaneous first language (L1) and second language (L2) speech. Smit (2009) (see also Smit et al., this volume) argues that the locus of deficits in schizophrenic speech is semantics and suggests that a next step ...

  12. Zotepine in the treatment of acute hospitalized schizophrenic episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, S; Quiner, S; Barnas, C; Fabisch, H; Haushofer, M; Sackel, C; König, P; Lingg, A; Platz, T; Rittmannsberger, H; Stuppäck, C; Willeit, M; Zapotoczky, H G

    2001-05-01

    The atypical antipsychotic zotepine was studied in an open, multicentre uncontrolled, post-marketing surveillance study in 108 schizophrenic patients hospitalized in 12 trial centres in Austria. Within the dosage range of 50-450 mg (mean at the end of the study, 207 +/- 125 mg/day), a significant reduction of positive as well as negative symptoms was noted. There was no increase in extrapyramidal side-effects during the study and a significant decrease in akathisia scores. The medication was well tolerated during the 42-day observation period. Zotepine improved both positive and negative symptoms and was not accompanied by extrapyramidal side-effects, justifying its classification as an atypical antipsychotic.

  13. Mortality and causes of death in first admitted schizophrenic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, P B; Juel, K

    1993-01-01

    risk during the first year of follow-up increased by 56%, with a 50% reduction on psychiatric in-patient facilities. The study confirms that mortality in schizophrenia is still markedly elevated, and the finding of an increasing suicide risk may be an indicator of some adverse effects...... of 9156 first admitted schizophrenic patients. Suicide accounted for 50% of deaths in men and 35% of deaths in women. Suicide risk was particularly increased during the first year of follow-up. Death from natural causes, with the exception of cancer and cerebrovascular diseases, was increased. Suicide...

  14. The Pediatric Sleep Clinical Global Impressions Scale-A New Tool to Measure Pediatric Insomnia in Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malow, Beth A; Connolly, Heidi V; Weiss, Shelly K; Halbower, Ann; Goldman, Suzanne; Hyman, Susan L; Katz, Terry; Madduri, Niru; Shui, Amy; Macklin, Eric; Reynolds, Ann M

    2016-06-01

    To pilot a clinician-based outcome measure that provides complementary information to objective measures and parent-based questionnaires for insomnia in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The authors developed a Pediatric Sleep Clinical Global Impressions Scale (CGI). Questions included (1) the child's ability to fall asleep and remain sleeping independently (i.e., apart from parents); (2) bedtime resistance; (3) sleep onset delay; (4) night awakening; (5) parental satisfaction with their child's current sleep patterns; (6) family functioning as affected by their child's current sleep patterns; and (7) clinician's overall concern with the child's sleep. After refining the instrument through the evaluation of vignettes by ASD and sleep experts, the authors piloted the Pediatric Sleep CGI in a 12-week randomized trial of iron supplementation in children with ASD. Clinicians completed Pediatric Sleep CGIs and structured sleep histories, parents completed the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ), and children wore actigraphy watches. In repeated measures models, the Pediatric Sleep CGI and CSHQ were correlated for sleep onset delay (r = .66, p sleep onset delay and actigraphy sleep onset delay scores (r = .75, p = .0095) were also correlated. The overall CGI-S showed improvement with therapy (p = .047). The Pediatric Sleep CGI shows promise in measuring clinician-rated outcomes in pediatric insomnia in children with ASD. Larger samples will be necessary to examine reliability, validity, and measure to change, as well as applicability to other populations with pediatric insomnia.

  15. The clinical implications of high levels of autism spectrum disorder features in anorexia nervosa: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huke, Vanessa; Turk, Jeremy; Saeidi, Saeideh; Kent, Andrew; Morgan, John F

    2014-03-01

    This study examined autism spectrum disorder (ASD) features in relation to treatment completion and eating disorder psychopathology in anorexia nervosa (AN). Thirty-two adult women were recruited from specialist eating disorder services. Features of ASD and disordered eating were measured. Premature termination of treatment was recorded to explore whether ASD traits had impact on early discharge. A healthy control group was also recruited to investigate ASD traits between clinical and nonclinical samples. Significant differences were found between the AN group and the healthy control group in obsessive-compulsive disorder traits, depression and anxiety and ASD traits, with significant differences between groups in Social Skill and Attention Switching. The AN group reported no significant relationship between disordered eating severity and ASD traits. No significant effect was found between ASD features and treatment completion. Raw data on premature termination of treatment, despite no statistic impact, showed that seven out of the eight participants with high features of ASD completed treatment as planned compared with 50% of those with low ASD traits. Unexpectedly, this suggests enhanced treatment adherence in ASD. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  16. Autism across Cultures: Rethinking Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Uk

    2012-01-01

    Whereas the autism prevalence rate has been very closely monitored in the United States, the same has not been observed in many other countries. This may be attributed to the fact that each culture views and defines autism differently. Using field notes and semi-structured interviews with family members with an individual with autism, teachers,…

  17. Faux Pas Test in schizophrenic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Negrão

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective The aim of this study is to validate the adult version of “Faux Pas Recognition Test” created by Stone and colleagues (1998 as a reliable instrument assess and discriminate social cognition among schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. Methods This is a cross-sectional study with a total of 196 participants (mean age = 26.45; CI (95% [25.10; 27.83] 51% male. From those, 44 (22.4% patients with schizophrenia and 152 (77.6% healthy controls. The participants answered a short version of the Faux Pas Recognition Test, composed by 10 stories. Results Significant differences were found between both groups regarding their scores on Faux Pas Recognition Test (p = 0.003. Patients with schizophrenia had lower score, compared to healthy controls. Story 14 was the best to distinguish both groups, and Story 16, the worst. Among the questions of Faux Pas stories, the one related to intuition presented the most significant difference between the groups (p = 0.001, followed by the one related to understanding (p = 0.003. Conclusion The Brazilian version of the Faux Pas Recognition Test is a valid test to assess social cognition in schizophrenia and can be an important instrument to be used on the clinical practice.

  18. Therapist perspectives on training in a package of evidence-based practice strategies for children with autism spectrum disorders served in community mental health clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drahota, Amy; Stadnick, Nicole; Brookman-Frazee, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Therapist perspectives regarding delivery of evidence-based practice (EBP) strategies are needed to understand the feasibility of implementation in routine service settings. This qualitative study examined the perspectives of 13 therapists receiving training and delivering a package of EBPs to children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in community mental health clinics. Therapists perceived the training and intervention delivery as effective at improving their clinical skills, the psychotherapy process, and child and family outcomes. Results expand parent pilot study findings, and add to the literature on training community providers and limited research on training providers to deliver EBPs to children with ASD.

  19. Genetic testing including targeted gene panel in a diverse clinical population of children with autism spectrum disorder: Findings and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsner, Louisa; Twachtman-Bassett, Jennifer; Tokarski, Kristin; Stanley, Christine; Dumont-Mathieu, Thyde; Cotney, Justin; Chamberlain, Stormy

    2017-12-21

    Genetic testing of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is now standard in the clinical setting, with American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMGG) guidelines recommending microarray for all children, fragile X testing for boys and additional gene sequencing, including PTEN and MECP2, in appropriate patients. Increasingly, testing utilizing high throughput sequencing, including gene panels and whole exome sequencing, are offered as well. We performed genetic testing including microarray, fragile X testing and targeted gene panel, consistently sequencing 161 genes associated with ASD risk, in a clinical population of 100 well characterized children with ASD. Frequency of rare variants identified in individual genes was compared with that reported in the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC) database. We did not diagnose any conditions with complete penetrance for ASD; however, copy number variants believed to contribute to ASD risk were identified in 12%. Eleven children were found to have likely pathogenic variants on gene panel, yet, after careful analysis, none was considered likely causative of disease. KIRREL3 variants were identified in 6.7% of children compared to 2% in ExAC, suggesting a potential role for KIRREL3 variants in ASD risk. Children with KIRREL3 variants more often had minor facial dysmorphism and intellectual disability. We also observed an increase in rare variants in TSC2. However, analysis of variant data from the Simons Simplex Collection indicated that rare variants in TSC2 occur more commonly in specific racial/ethnic groups, which are more prevalent in our population than in the ExAC database. The yield of genetic testing including microarray, fragile X (boys) and targeted gene panel was 12%. Gene panel did not increase diagnostic yield; however, we found an increase in rare variants in KIRREL3. Our findings reinforce the need for racial/ethnic diversity in large-scale genomic databases used to identify variants that

  20. [Are schizophrenic patients being told their diagnosis today in France?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villani, M; Kovess-Masféty, V

    2017-04-01

    The progressive shifts in the legal and social contexts, along with major changes in information seeking habits with the development of the Internet, have placed patients' information at the core of medical practice. This has to be applied to the psychiatric fields as well, and to questions about how schizophrenic patients are being told their diagnosis nowadays in France. This paper is a national and international literature review about schizophrenia diagnosis disclosure practices, from 1972 to 2014, using French and English languages and various psychology and medical databases. The used key words were "diagnosis", "disclosure", "communication", "breaking bad news", "information", "schizophrenia" and "psychosis". Proportions of diagnosis announcement: our results show that the proportion of psychiatrists delivering schizophrenia diagnosis to their patients varies between countries. Although we must acknowledge that the questionnaires and samples are diverse, we have found that psychiatrists are in general less prone to deliver diagnosis information in France (from 13,5% to 39% given the studies), Germany (28%), Italy (30%), and Japan (30%), than in Anglo-Saxon countries. Thus, 70% of the psychiatrists in North America and 56% in Australia claim that they disclose their diagnosis to schizophrenic patients. In the United-Kingdom, a study targeting psychotic patients themselves has shown that 47% of them had been told their diagnosis by their doctor. Even in the countries where the proportion of diagnosis disclosure is the highest, there remains a substantial difference with other mental illnesses such as affective or anxiety disorders, which are almost always labeled as such in the information communicated to the patient (90% in North America). Diagnostic information about schizophrenia continues therefore to appear problematic for health professionals, which can seem a paradox given the recent social and legal evolutions, the therapeutic progress, the proved

  1. [Negative symptoms, depression, anxiety and alexithymia in DSM III-R schizophrenic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkam, I; Langlois-Thery, S; Dollfus, S; Petit, M

    1997-01-01

    Coined by Sifneos in 1972, alexithymia refers to a relative narrowing in emotional functioning, an inability to find appropriate words to describe their emotions, and a poverty of fantasy life. Although initially described in the context of psychosomatic illness, alexithymic characteristics may be observed in patients with a wide range of medical and psychiatric disorders: Parkinson disease, depression, anxiety, substance abuse and eating disorders. Flattening of affect and poverty of speech, major negative symptoms, referred to chronic schizophrenia: there is a lack of outward display of emotions. Accordingly, some disturbances of alexithymia's scores would be expected in schizophrenic patients. The aims of this study were: first to establish some correlations between alexithymia and some symptoms of schizophrenia, and second to estimate the intensity of alexithymia in negative versus positive and undifferentiated schizophrenic patients. Twenty-nine patients, meeting DSM III-R criteria for schizophrenia have been studied. All of them treated by neuroleptics, were in a stable clinical status for at least one month. The patients were assessed by one trained psychiatrist (IN) using six rating scales: Beth Israel Questionnaire (BIQ) for alexithymia, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Depressive Retardation Rating Scale (DRRS), Montgomery and Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), revised Physical Anhedonia Scale (PAS), and finally, Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale (ESRS). In the total sample, the mean score of BIQ was 4.79 +/- 1.68 (mean +/- SD). Significant correlations were found between alexithymia and blunted affect (r = 0.376; p alexithymia (p alexithymia seems to be correlated with negative and depressive symptoms in negative forms of schizophrenia, regardless of medication status.

  2. [The pre-morbid personality of schizophrenics in the literature of the last hundred years (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, W

    1976-06-01

    A survey of the literature on the primary personality of schizophrenics shows that the essential concepts derive from Kraepelin (1893), E. Bleuler (who also introduced the technical term "schizoid", 1911) and C.G. Jung introversion; 1913). E Kretschmer (1921) adopted these preliminary findings and integrated them into his system of "Constitution" which greatly stimulated research in this field. Most of the following investigations confirmed his hypotheses on the basis of clinical impressions. A few only criticised his teaching, particularly as a theoretical concept. The musculo-somatotonic type apart, Sheldon's (1940) research agrees with Kretschmer to a large degree. Later investigators, however, could not sufficiently support Sheldon's constitutional biology on empirical grounds. No further pre-morbid types were developed in the following years, if one discards the somewhat rare "stormy" character (Arieti, 1955). All attempts to discover differences between the pre-morbid development of personality and the subheadings of schizophrenia failed. Pre-morbid sexual development is not typical, but the disturbances of contact are in the foreground. Whether schizophrenics differ later in their intelligence is still undecided. But it appears certain that, even before the start of their illness, they achieve a lower social status than their siblings. There exists a large experimental psychologic literature on relationships between the original personality, symptoms and psychophysiologic correlates in which it is confirmed again and again that bad pre-morbid adaptation corresponds closely with the severity of symptoms and loss of achievement. There are no consonant result of investigations into the frequency of schizoid structures in schizophrenics, in psychiatric control groups and in the normal population. Psychometric techniques have been used only rarely, but existing publications confirm in principle that schizophrenics are markedly more schizoid than control groups

  3. Decision analytic economic paliperidone ER in relapsing schizophrenic patients in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Berto

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia, with its typical chronic and relapsing course, is very burdensome, both clinically and economically. Its pharmacological management relies on two main drug classes: the older, or typical, antipsychotics, which are quite effective on positive symptoms, but limited by low tolerability and poor efficacy on negative symptoms, and atypical antipsychotics, which are better tolerated and effective on a wider range of psychotic symptoms. In this article, the authors briefly discuss current management options for patients with schizophrenia and highlight some unmet clinical needs in the field. After outlining the main clinical features shown by paliperidone ER, a novel antipsychotic, in its clinical development program, a decision analytic economic appraisal of its use in relapsing schizophrenic patients in Italy, as compared to the other available atypical antipsychotics, is presented. Under base-case assumption and after applying national costs and tariffs, the model predicts paliperidone ER to be associated with better clinical outcomes, expressed in terms of stable days, and lower costs; this means that paliperidone is dominant over the alternatives, according to the principles of economic evaluation of healthcare technologies. One-way sensitivity analyses conducted on structural and cost parameters indicated robustness of base-case estimates, which remain to be confirmed by “real world” national data.

  4. The Phenomenology and Clinical Correlates of Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Eric A.; Sulkowski, Michael L.; Nadeau, Josh; Lewin, Adam B.; Arnold, Elysse B.; Mutch, P. Jane; Jones, Anna M.; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the phenomenology and clinical correlates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in youth with ASD (N = 102; range 7-16 years). The presence of suicidal thoughts and behavior was assessed through the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule-Child and Parent Versions. Children and parents completed measures of anxiety severity,…

  5. Education and dentistry: advanced synergy in the dental treatment of children with autism; a pilot clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Bossù

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. From the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR, autism is considered a pervasive developmental disorder. It manifests as a behavioral syndrome characterised by impairment in social interaction and communication, restricted interests and activities, as well as repetitive and stereotyped patterns. Such profile renders prevention measures and dental care seriously compromised so that usually autistic children are treated and cared following general anesthesia. Aims. We aimed at developing a target-specific educational approach allowing to avoid general anesthesia in autistic patients subjected to dental care treatments (e.g. sealing, plaque ablation, minimal carious lesions etc.; such protocol should also facilitate the implementation of prevention measures. Design. It is proposed a target-specific educational research protocol adopting individual strategies and methodologies, including Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC for patients with speech and language impairments. The dentists are trained by the educator, who acts as a filter between the patient and the medical team. The team is required until a relationship of trust with the patient is built and the dentist is able to continue independently. Results. We present a pilot clinical trial in which out of 34 patients between 6 and 12 years old showed a positive response to the application of the protocol, allowing the execution of dental therapies together with a long-term prevention programme and in 32 of them the general anesthesia was avoided. Negative results regarded two patients who had not undergone any behavioral, psychomotor or speech rehabilitation therapy. Conclusions. Though the results should be considered as preliminary, the application of the method with the synergistic action of the people in the team allowed the execution of dental therapies. Given the positive outcomes, the Pediatric Dentistry Unit of the Umberto I Hospital

  6. Advantages and Challenges of a Home- and Clinic-Based Model of Behavioral Intervention for Individuals Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Justin B; Leaf, Ronald; McEachin, John; Cihon, Joseph H; Ferguson, Julia L

    2017-12-20

    Researchers have demonstrated that comprehensive behavioral intervention can result in significant improvements in the lives of individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; e.g.; Lovaas, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 55(1):3-9, 1987; McEachin et al., American Journal of Mental Retardation 97(4):359-372, 1993). This intervention has occurred in a variety of settings (e.g., school, home, and clinic). Even though procedures based upon the principles of applied behavior analysis (ABA) can be implemented across a variety of settings, there is often confusion about the differences and relative advantages of home- versus clinic-based settings. The purpose of this paper is to provide a discussion of home- and clinic-based intervention within the context of a progressive approach to ABA and discus possible advantages of each type of setting.

  7. Do ictal EEG characteristics predict treatment outcomes in schizophrenic patients undergoing electroconvulsive therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Gulnihal Gokce; Zincir, Selma; Gulec, Huseyin; Eksioglu, Sevgin; Semiz, Umit Basar; Kurtulmus, Yasemin Sipka

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between features of electroencephalography (EEG), including seizure time, energy threshold level and post-ictal suppression time, and clinical variables, including treatment outcomes and side-effects, among schizophrenia inpatients undergoing electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). This is a naturalistic follow-up study on schizophrenia patients, diagnosed using DSM-IV-TR criteria, treated by a psychosis inpatient service. All participants completed the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale, the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) and a Data Collection Form. Assessments were made before treatment, during ECT and after treatment. Statistically significant improvements in both clinical and cognitive outcome were noted after ECT in all patients. Predictors of improvement were sought by evaluating electrophysiological variables measured at three time points (after the third, fifth and seventh ECT sessions). Logistic regression analysis showed that clinical outcome/improvement did not differ by seizure duration, threshold energy level or post-ictal suppression time. We found that ictal EEG parameters measured at several ECT sessions did not predict clinical recovery/outcomes. This may be because our centre defensively engages in "very specific patient selection" when ECT is contemplated. ECT does not cause short-term cognitive functional impairment and indeed improves cognition, because symptoms of the schizophrenic episode are alleviated.

  8. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in schizophrenic patients receiving second-generation antipsychotic agents--a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagal, Urmila A; Torgal, Shashikant S; Patil, Nanasaheb M; Malleshappa, Anil

    2012-06-01

    The present study was taken up to assess the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in schizophrenic patients receiving second-generation antipsychotic agents and to determine the most sensitive and specific clinical parameters used for screening of metabolic syndrome in these patients. The present study was taken up in a tertiary care hospital. Eighty patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and receiving a single second-generation antipsychotic for 3 months or more were enrolled in the study after obtaining written informed consent. Patients were screened for metabolic syndrome using American Heart Association and National, Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (AHA NHLBI)-modified National Cholesterol Education Program, Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) criteria. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was found to be 35%. The clinical parameter with highest sensitivity for screening of metabolic syndrome is low-serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with a sensitivity of 89.28%. Elevated fasting blood glucose and increased waist circumference were found to have highest and equal specificity of 90.38%. There is a high prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenic patients receiving second-generation antipsychotic agents. Increasing awareness of this fact among psychiatrists will help to prevent, detect, and treat this condition that is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality.

  9. Computerized EEG and brain imaging studies in untreated schizophrenic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyauchi, Toshiro; Kishimoto, Hideji; Hagimoto, Hiroshi; Fujita, Haruhiro; Tanaka, Kenkichi

    1993-01-01

    We undertook routine EEG, Z-map, CT and PET scans in seven acute untreated schizophrenics. Routine EEGs showed slower activity in only one case. However, the Z-map showed slower activity in all the cases. CT demonstrated brain atrophy in three of the cases, and PET revealed hypofrontality in two, right hypoparietality in four, and both conditions in one case. There was no relation between CT and PET or the Z-map. However, a significant increase in alpha 1 activity was demonstrated on the Z-map in cases who were found to be the parietal type on PET; this was not conspicuous in the frontal type on PET. Moreover, in three of the patients, the Z-map findings were similar to the lesion indicated on PET. (author)

  10. Subgrouping the autism "spectrum": reflections on DSM-5.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Chuan Lai

    Full Text Available DSM-5 has moved autism from the level of subgroups ("apples and oranges" to the prototypical level ("fruit". But making progress in research, and ultimately improving clinical practice, will require identifying subgroups within the autism spectrum.

  11. Validation of the French version of the BACS (the brief assessment of cognition in schizophrenia) among 50 French schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bralet, Marie-Cécile; Falissard, Bruno; Neveu, Xavier; Lucas-Ross, Margaret; Eskenazi, Anne-Marie; Keefe, Richard S E

    2007-09-01

    Schizophrenic patients demonstrate impairments in several key dimensions of cognition. These impairments are correlated with important aspects of functional outcome. While assessment of these cognition disorders is increasingly becoming a part of clinical and research practice in schizophrenia, there is no standard and easily administered test battery. The BACS (Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia) has been validated in English language [Keefe RSE, Golberg TE, Harvey PD, Gold JM, Poe MP, Coughenour L. The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia: reliability, sensibility, and comparison with a standard neurocognitive battery. Schizophr. Res 2004;68:283-97], and was found to be as sensitive to cognitive dysfunction as a standard battery of tests, with the advantage of requiring less than 35 min to complete. We developed a French adaptation of the BACS and this study tested its ease of administration and concurrent validity. Correlation analyses between the BACS (version A) and a standard battery were performed. A sample of 50 stable schizophrenic patients received the French Version A of the BACS in a first session, and in a second session a standard battery. All the patients completed each of the subtests of the French BACS . The mean duration of completion for the BACS French version was 36 min (S.D.=5.56). A correlation analysis between the BACS (version A) global score and the standard battery global score showed a significant result (r=0.81, p<0.0001). The correlation analysis between the BACS (version A) sub-scores and the standard battery sub-scores showed significant results for verbal memory, working memory, verbal fluency, attention and speed of information processing and executive functions (p<0.001) and for motor speed (p<0.05). The French Version of the BACS is easier to use in French schizophrenic patients compared to a standard battery (administration shorter and completion rate better) and its good psychometric properties suggest

  12. Sensory and sensorimotor gating in children with multiple complex developmental disorders (MCDD) and autism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oranje, Bob; Lahuis, Bertine; van Engeland, Herman

    2013-01-01

    Multiple Complex Developmental Disorder (MCDD) is a well-defined and validated behavioral subtype of autism with a proposed elevated risk of developing a schizophrenic spectrum disorder. The current study investigated whether children with MCDD show the same deficits in sensory gating that are co......Multiple Complex Developmental Disorder (MCDD) is a well-defined and validated behavioral subtype of autism with a proposed elevated risk of developing a schizophrenic spectrum disorder. The current study investigated whether children with MCDD show the same deficits in sensory gating...... that are commonly reported in schizophrenia, or whether they are indistinguishable from children with autism in this respect. P50 suppression and prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle reflex were assessed in children with MCDD (n=14) or autism (n=13), and healthy controls (n=12), matched on age and IQ. All...... subjects showed high levels of PPI and P50 suppression. However, no group differences were found. No abnormalities in sensory filtering could be detected in children with autism or MCDD. Since sensory gating deficits are commonly regarded as possible endophenotypic markers for schizophrenia, the current...

  13. Parent Perspectives of an Evidence-Based Intervention for Children with Autism Served in Community Mental Health Clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadnick, Nicole A.; Drahota, Amy; Brookman-Frazee, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that improvements to community mental health (CMH) care for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are needed. Recent research examining the feasibility of training CMH therapists to deliver a package of evidence-based practice intervention strategies (EBPs) targeting challenging behaviors for school-age children with ASD…

  14. The Clinical, Forensic and Treatment Outcome Factors of Patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder Treated in a Forensic Intellectual Disability Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esan, Fola; Chester, Verity; Gunaratna, Ignatius J.; Hoare, Sudeep; Alexander, Regi T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: To describe the characteristics of those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) treated within a forensic intellectual disability hospital and to compare them with those without ASD. Method: Service evaluation of a cohort of 138 patients treated over a 6-year period. Results: Of the 138, 42 had an ASD. Personality disorders and harmful…

  15. [Sleep-wake patterns in adults with autism spectrum disorders in a clinical setting: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosbergen, G.J.; Jansen, M.P.M.; Rosbergen- de Vries, A.R.; Roke, Y.; Otten, R.N.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The negative consequences of sleep-wake disorders in the general population and in children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are well-established. However, little is known about sleep-wake disorders in adults with ASD.
    AIM: To study and measure sleep-wake disorders and

  16. Overweight and Obesity: Prevalence and Correlates in a Large Clinical Sample of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Katharine E.; Hill, Alison P.; Guion, Kimberly; Voltolina, Lisa; Fombonne, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) and childhood obesity (OBY) are rising public health concerns. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of overweight (OWT) and OBY in a sample of 376 Oregon children with ASD, and to assess correlates of OWT and OBY in this sample. We used descriptive statistics, bivariate, and focused multivariate analyses to…

  17. Prevalence and risk factors of anxiety in a clinical Dutch sample of children with an autism spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, L.A.M.W.; Creemers, D.H.M.; Vermulst, A.A.; Granic, I.

    2018-01-01

    Anxiety is highly prevalent in children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, there is inconsistency in studies investigating prevalence and risk factors of anxiety in children with ASD. Therefore, the first aim of the present study was to give an overview of the prevalence of anxiety

  18. Sensory processing in autism spectrum disorders and Fragile X syndrome—From the clinic to animal models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinclair, David; Oranje, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/217177409; Razak, K. A.; Siegel, S. J.; Schmid, S.

    2017-01-01

    Brains are constantly flooded with sensory information that needs to be filtered at the pre-attentional level and integrated into endogenous activity in order to allow for detection of salient information and an appropriate behavioral response. People with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) or Fragile X

  19. Central D2-dopamine receptor occupancy in schizophrenic patients treated with antipsychotic drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farde, L.; Wiesel, F.A.; Halldin, C.; Sedvall, G.

    1988-01-01

    Using positron emission tomography and the carbon 11-labeled ligand raclopride, central D2-dopamine receptor occupancy in the putamen was determined in psychiatric patients treated with clinical doses of psychoactive drugs. Receptor occupancy in drug-treated patients was defined as the percent reduction of specific carbon 11-raclopride binding in relation to the expected binding in the absence of drug treatment. Clinical treatment of schizophrenic patients with 11 chemically distinct antipsychotic drugs (including both classic and atypical neuroleptics such as clozapine) resulted in a 65% to 85% occupancy of D2-dopamine receptors. In a depressed patient treated with the tricyclic antidepressant nortriptyline, no occupancy was found. The time course for receptor occupancy and drug levels was followed after withdrawal of sulpiride or haloperidol. D2-dopamine receptor occupancy remained above 65% for many hours despite a substantial reduction of serum drug concentrations. In a sulpiride-treated patient, the dosage was reduced in four steps over a nine-week period and a curvilinear relationship was demonstrated between central D2-dopamine receptor occupancy and serum drug concentrations. The results demonstrate that clinical doses of all the currently used classes of antipsychotic drugs cause a substantial blockade of central D2-dopamine receptors in humans. This effect appears to be selective for the antipsychotics, since it was not induced by the antidepressant nortriptyline

  20. Infantilizing Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Jennifer L; Harp, Bev; Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2011-01-01

    When members of the public envision the disability of autism, they most likely envision a child, rather than an adult. In this empirically based essay, three authors, one of whom is an autistic self-advocate, analyzed the role played by parents, charitable organizations, the popular media, and the news industry in infantilizing autism. Parents portrayed the face of autism to be that of a child 95% of the time on the homepages of regional and local support organizations. Nine of the top 12 autism charitable organizations restricted descriptions of autism to child-referential discourse. Characters depicted as autistic were children in 90% of fictional books and 68% of narrative films and television programs. The news industry featured autistic children four times as often as they featured autistic adults in contemporary news articles. The cyclical interaction between parent-driven autism societies, autism fundraising charities, popular media, and contemporary news silences adult self-advocates by denying their very existence. Society's overwhelming proclivity for depicting autism as a disability of childhood poses a formidable barrier to the dignity and well-being of autistic people of all ages.

  1. Opposite differential risks for autism and schizophrenia based on maternal age, paternal age, and parental age differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byars, Sean G; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2016-01-01

    Effects of maternal and paternal age on offspring autism and schizophrenia risks have been studied for over three decades, but inconsistent risks have often been found, precluding well-informed speculation on why these age-related risks might exist. To help clarify this situation we analysed a massive single population sample from Denmark including the full spectrum of autistic and schizophrenic disorders (eliminating between-study confounding), used up to 30 follow-up years, controlled for over 20 potentially confounding factors and interpret the ultimate causation of the observed risk patterns using generally accepted principles of parent-offspring conflict and life-history theory. We evaluated the effects of paternal age, maternal age and parental age difference on offspring mental disorders and found consistently similar risk patterns for related disorders and markedly different patterns between autistic and schizophrenic disorders. Older fathers and mothers both conferred increased risk for autistic but not schizophrenic disorders, but autism risk was reduced in younger parents and offspring of younger mothers had increased risk for many schizophrenic disorders. Risk for most disorders also increased when parents were more dissimilarly aged. Monotonically increasing autism risk is consistent with mutation accumulation as fathers' age, but this explanation is invalid for schizophrenic disorders, which were not related to paternal age and were negatively correlated with maternal age. We propose that the observed maternally induced risk patterns ultimately reflect a shifting ancestral life-history trade-off between current and future reproduction, mediated by an initially high but subsequently decreasing tendency to constrain foetal provisioning as women proceed from first to final pregnancy. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Foundation for Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health.

  2. Autism through the Lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Publications Awards Partners Contact Us ¿Qué es Autismo? Donate Home What is Autism? What is Autism? ... Information Publications Awards Partners Contact Us ¿Qué es Autismo? Autism through the Lifespan Home / Living with Autism / ...

  3. Genital Self-Mutilation in Schizophrenic Patients. A Report of Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mn

    term treatment. Poor adherence to medication can lead to serious and possibly life-threatening complications. Genital self- mutilation has been reported in some schizophrenic patients in response to delusions or command auditory hallucination.

  4. Dual hydrophilic and salt responsive schizophrenic block copolymers – synthesis and study of self-assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasantha, Vivek Arjunan; Jana, Satyasankar; Lee, Serina Siew Chen; Lim, Chin-Sing; Teo, Serena Lay Ming; Parthiban, Anbanandam; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2015-01-01

    A new class of dual hydrophilic diblock copolymers (BCPs) possessing poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and zwitterionic polysulfabetaine (PSB) was synthesized by reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. These BCPs formed schizophrenic micelles undergoing core–shell

  5. Delusions and hallucinations of cocaine abusers and paranoid schizophrenics: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, J; Vierkant, A D

    1991-05-01

    We compared delusions and hallucinations of 100 cocaine abusers and 100 paranoid schizophrenic subjects admitted to an East Texas state psychiatric hospital. Subjects in both groups feared that individuals or organized groups might harm them in some way, but delusions of the paranoid schizophrenic subjects were more often bizarre than those of the cocaine abuse subjects. "Cocaine bugs" (parasitosis) were more often found in the cocaine abuse subjects. Command hallucinations were found in both groups, but the commands of the schizophrenic group more often related to harming or killing others. Cocaine abusers had a greater frequency of visual hallucinations (47 to 7), distinguished by shadows, flashing lights ("snow lights"), objects moving and bugs crawling on the arm. Finally, the most distinguishing characteristics were identity delusions, possession delusions, grandiose delusions (other than identities and possessions), and delusions that their families were imposters (Capgras Syndrome) reported by paranoid schizophrenics. No such delusions were reported by the cocaine abusers.

  6. The Effectiveness of Treatments for Cocaine Dependence in Schizophrenic Patients: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Sabioni, Pamela; Ramos, Anna Carolina; Galduróz, Jose Carlos F.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate and compare the effectiveness of available treatments for cocaine dependence in schizophrenic patients. Method: We searched articles published between May 2002 and June 2012 in the following databases: Scopus, Pubmed and Web of Knowledge. The key words utilised were “schizophrenia”, "dementia praecox", "schizophrenic disorder", "cocaine related disorder", "cocaine abuse", "cocaine addiction", "cocaine dependence", “treatment”, “therapeutic”, and "drug therapy”. Selecti...

  7. Comparison between Camberwell Family Interview and Expressed Emotion Scale in Determining Emotions of Caregivers of Schizophrenic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    ÇETİNKAYA DUMAN, Zekiye; KUŞCU, M. Kemal; ÖZGÜN, Serkan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to compare the Camberwell Family Interview (CFI) and the Expressed Emotion Scale (EES) in determining the level of expressed emotion in caregivers of patients with schizophrenia. Method The study sample included caregivers of 22 schizophrenic patients followed in two psychiatric clinics. The level of expressed emotion in the caregivers was assessed by the CFI and the EES. CFI was applied to caregivers of the inpatients and the procedure was audio recorded. These records were later used for the ratings. EES was completed by the caregivers. Total EES scores were used to determine the level of expressed emotion in the caregivers. Results Forty point nine percent and 50% of the caregivers had high level of expressed emotion based on the analysis of the data obtained from the CFI and EES. Fifty-nine percent and 50% of the caregivers had low level of expressed emotion based on the data obtained from the CFI and EES. The proportion of the caregivers with high level of expressed emotion as measured by the CFI and the EES were not statistically significantly different within the sample (χ2= 0.727). Conclusion The CFI and the EES were similar in determining the level of expressed emotion in caregivers of schizophrenic patients. It can be suggested that the EES, a user friendly tool, may be preferred to determine the level of expressed emotion in caregivers of patients with schizophrenia. However, further studies with larger samples are needed to obtain more reliable results. PMID:28360561

  8. Patterns of altered neural synchrony in the default mode network in autism spectrum disorder revealed with magnetoencephalography (MEG): Relationship to clinical symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajiness-O'Neill, Renée; Brennan, Jonathan R; Moran, John E; Richard, Annette E; Flores, Ana-Mercedes; Swick, Casey; Goodcase, Ryan; Andersen, Tiffany; McFarlane, Kaitlyn; Rusiniak, Kenneth; Kovelman, Ioulia; Wagley, Neelima; Ugolini, Maggie; Albright, Jeremy; Bowyer, Susan M

    2018-03-01

    Disrupted neural synchrony may be a primary electrophysiological abnormality in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), altering communication between discrete brain regions and contributing to abnormalities in patterns of connectivity within identified neural networks. Studies exploring brain dynamics to comprehensively characterize and link connectivity to large-scale cortical networks and clinical symptoms are lagging considerably. Patterns of neural coherence within the Default Mode Network (DMN) and Salience Network (SN) during resting state were investigated in 12 children with ASD (M Age  = 9.2) and 13 age and gender-matched neurotypicals (NT) (M Age  = 9.3) with magnetoencephalography. Coherence between 231 brain region pairs within four frequency bands (theta (4-7 Hz), alpha, (8-12 Hz), beta (13-30 Hz), and gamma (30-80 Hz)) was calculated. Relationships between neural coherence and social functioning were examined. ASD was characterized by lower synchronization across all frequencies, reaching clinical significance in the gamma band. Lower gamma synchrony between fronto-temporo-parietal regions was observed, partially consistent with diminished default mode network (DMN) connectivity. Lower gamma coherence in ASD was evident in cross-hemispheric connections between: angular with inferior/middle frontal; middle temporal with middle/inferior frontal; and within right-hemispheric connections between angular, middle temporal, and inferior/middle frontal cortices. Lower gamma coherence between left angular and left superior frontal, right inferior/middle frontal, and right precuneus and between right angular and inferior/middle frontal cortices was related to lower social/social-communication functioning. Results suggest a pattern of lower gamma band coherence in a subset of regions within the DMN in ASD (angular and middle temporal cortical areas) related to lower social/social-communicative functioning. Autism Res 2018, 11: 434-449. © 2017 International

  9. Effects of Improvisational Music Therapy vs Enhanced Standard Care on Symptom Severity Among Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: The TIME-A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieleninik, Lucja; Geretsegger, Monika; Mössler, Karin; Assmus, Jörg; Thompson, Grace; Gattino, Gustavo; Elefant, Cochavit; Gottfried, Tali; Igliozzi, Roberta; Muratori, Filippo; Suvini, Ferdinando; Kim, Jinah; Crawford, Mike J; Odell-Miller, Helen; Oldfield, Amelia; Casey, Órla; Finnemann, Johanna; Carpente, John; Park, A-La; Grossi, Enzo; Gold, Christian

    2017-08-08

    Music therapy may facilitate skills in areas affected by autism spectrum disorder (ASD), such as social interaction and communication. To evaluate effects of improvisational music therapy on generalized social communication skills of children with ASD. Assessor-blinded, randomized clinical trial, conducted in 9 countries and enrolling children aged 4 to 7 years with ASD. Children were recruited from November 2011 to November 2015, with follow-up between January 2012 and November 2016. Enhanced standard care (n = 182) vs enhanced standard care plus improvisational music therapy (n = 182), allocated in a 1:1 ratio. Enhanced standard care consisted of usual care as locally available plus parent counseling to discuss parents' concerns and provide information about ASD. In improvisational music therapy, trained music therapists sang or played music with each child, attuned and adapted to the child's focus of attention, to help children develop affect sharing and joint attention. The primary outcome was symptom severity over 5 months, based on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), social affect domain (range, 0-27; higher scores indicate greater severity; minimal clinically important difference, 1). Prespecified secondary outcomes included parent-rated social responsiveness. All outcomes were also assessed at 2 and 12 months. Among 364 participants randomized (mean age, 5.4 years; 83% boys), 314 (86%) completed the primary end point and 290 (80%) completed the last end point. Over 5 months, participants assigned to music therapy received a median of 19 music therapy, 3 parent counseling, and 36 other therapy sessions, compared with 3 parent counseling and 45 other therapy sessions for those assigned to enhanced standard care. From baseline to 5 months, mean ADOS social affect scores estimated by linear mixed-effects models decreased from 14.08 to 13.23 in the music therapy group and from 13.49 to 12.58 in the standard care group (mean difference, 0

  10. Characterization of the of the Pathological and Biochemical Markers That Correlate to the Clinical Features of Autism. Subproject 2. Contribution of Significant Delay of Neuronal Development and Metabolic Shift of Neurons to Clinical Phenotype of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    increased number of minicolumns as well as excessive and premature expansion of the dendritic tree. 1.3.2 F uNCTIONAL C oNSEQUENCES OF A BNORMAL B...functional changes. 1.5.1 OXIDATIVE STRESS IN AUTISM Oxidative stress is known to be associated with premature aging of cells and can lead to...basal portion (Gessaga and Urich, 1985). Central apnea , asphyxia, and pulmonary edema occurring during a seizure (Nashef et al., 1996) as well as life

  11. Over-Expression of Dopamine D2 Receptor and Inwardly Rectifying Potassium Channel Genes in Drug-Naive Schizophrenic Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes as Potential Diagnostic Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ágnes Zvara

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is one of the most common neuropsychiatric disorders affecting nearly 1% of the human population. Current diagnosis of schizophrenia is based on complex clinical symptoms. The use of easily detectable peripheral molecular markers could substantially help the diagnosis of psychiatric disorders. Recent studies showed that peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL express subtypes of D1 and D2 subclasses of dopamine receptors. Recently, dopamine receptor D3 (DRD3 was found to be over-expressed in schizophrenic PBL and proposed to be a diagnostic and follow-up marker for schizophrenia. In this study we screened PBL of 13 drug-naive/drug-free schizophrenic patients to identify additional markers of schizophrenia. One of the benefits of our study is the use of blood samples of non-medicated, drug-naive patients. This excludes the possibility that changes detected in gene expression levels might be attributed to the medication rather than to the disorder itself. Among others, genes for dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2 and the inwardly rectifying potassium channel (Kir2.3 were found to be over-expressed in microarray analysis. Increased mRNA levels were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR using the SybrGreen method and dual labeled TaqMan probes. The use of both molecular markers allows a more rapid and precise prediction of schizophrenia and might help find the optimal medication for schizophrenic patients.

  12. Diagnóstico genético e clínico do autismo infantil Genetic and clinical diagnosis of infantile autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA IONE FERREIRA DA COSTA

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Os principais objetivos deste estudo foram caracterizar variáveis selecionadas para um melhor entendimento e diagnóstico do autismo infantil, tais como: achados clínicos e de imagem, critérios diagnósticos, frequência de distúrbios neuropsiquiátricos nos familiares dos propósitos, recorrência familiar e a ocorrência de consanguinidade entre os pais dos propósitos e entre outros casais da família. A amostra foi constituída de 36 propósitos, de ambos os sexos e na faixa etária de 1 a 20 anos, pertencentes a 35 famílias distintas, todos com diagnóstico clínico de autismo infantil. Os resultados foram os seguintes: a deficiência mental foi observada clinicamente em todos os pacientes da amostra e convulsão em 27,8%; distúrbios neuropsiquiátricos foram referidos em pelo menos um familiar dos propósitos (97,14 % das famílias, autismo recorrente em 11,42 % e consanguinidade nos pais (11,42 %, avós e bisavós (2,86 %; achados anormais de tomografia computadorizada de crânio foram verificados em três propósitos. O conjunto destes resultados reforça a sugestão do modelo de herança multifatorial com limiar diferencial para sexo no autismo infantil. A avaliação clínica de todo caso de autismo infantil deverá contemplar sempre os aspectos neurológicos, psiquiátricos e genéticos.The main objectives of this study were to characterize the selected variables for a better understanding and diagnosis of infantile autism such as clinical and image findings, diagnostic criteria, frequency of neuropsychiatric disorders in the subjects' families, familial recurrence and occurrence of consanguinity between the subjetcs' parents and between other couples in the family. The sample was composed of 36 subjects of both sexes, in the age group from 1 through 20 years old, members of 35 distinctive families, all of which presenting clinical diagnosis for infantile autism. Mental retardation was clinically observed in all subjects of the

  13. Autism and autistic spectrum disorders in the context of new DSM-V classification, and clinical and epidemiological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Miodrag

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism is one of disorders from the autism spectrum, besides Asperger syndrome, atypical autism and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. They are classified as mental disorders as being manifested by a wide range of cognitive, emotional and neurobehavioural abnormalities. Key categorical characteristics of the disorder are clear impairments of the development of the child’s socialisation, understanding and production of verbal and non-verbal communication and restricted and repetitive patterns of behaviour. Demarcation boundaries are not clear, neither within the very group of the disorders from the autistic spectrum, nor with respect to the autistic behavioural features in the general population. For this reason, the term spectrum points out the significance of the dimensional assessment of autistic disorders, which will most likely be the basis of the new diagnostic classification of the disorders belonging to the current group of pervasive developmental disorders in the new DSM-V classification. The understanding, as well as the prevalence of the autistic spectrum disorders has changed drastically in the last four decades. From the previous 4 per 10,000 people, today’s prevalence estimates range from 0.6 to around 1%, and the increase of prevalence cannot be explained solely by better recognition on the part of experts and parents or by wider diagnostic criteria. The general conclusion is that the autistic spectrum disorders are no longer rare conditions and that the approach aimed at acknowledging the warning that this is an urgent public health problem is completely justified.

  14. [Recovery of intersubjectivity and empathy in schizophrenics: through a characteristic type of friendship "frolicking"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Yoshiko

    2003-01-01

    The author has noticed a characteristic form of close, frolicsome friendship between recovering adolescent schizophrenic patients. It occurs in groups of young patients in a psychiatric clinic and in a day-care institution. Through this type of friendship, their intersubjectivity, ability for empathy and human relations develop, essential changes for the amelioration of schizophrenia. It is characterized by 1 A mutual relationship on equal terms with another schizophrenic patient of the same sex and generation; particularly close friendship between two patients, or sometimes several patients who form a group, spending much time together. 2 Playful, childish behavior, jokes and jests; Patients laugh and make others laugh, playing together. 3 Touching the friends' bodies and coordinated playing such as dancing and singing together. 4 Chatting and having common interests, along with sharing various experiences. 5 Enjoyment with so much energy that sometimes, as in a gang, social norms are contravened. 6 Being a transient phenomenon that ends naturally after a certain period. Through such friendship, the adolescents show mental growth compared with their premorbid state. They come to sympathize with others' feelings and willingly cooperate. Their social relationships and spheres of activity expand, and spontaneity and self-esteem become improved. They come to assert themselves adequately, tolerate stress, and conform to social norms. Moreover, they advance to developing a purpose. e.g. work. To be able to have empathy through friendship with those of the same sex and generation is a basic developmental theme generally seen in childhood and pre-adolescence. Such friendship between the patients studied represents benign regression in such a developmental period. This type of friendship is characterized by a frolicsome and playful atmosphere. Frolicking by means of jokes, jests and body-touching, and play with coordinated acts lead to the sharing of emotions and

  15. The Prevalence of Internet Addiction among a Japanese Adolescent Psychiatric Clinic Sample with Autism Spectrum Disorder And/or Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Ryuhei; Makino, Kazunori; Fujiwara, Masaki; Hirota, Tomoya; Ohcho, Kozo; Ikeda, Shin; Tsubouchi, Shouko; Inagaki, Masatoshi

    2017-01-01

    Extant literature suggests that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are risk factors for internet addiction (IA). The present cross-sectional study explored the prevalence of IA among 132 adolescents with ASD and/or ADHD in a Japanese psychiatric clinic using Young's Internet Addiction Test. The…

  16. Neural Correlates of Restricted, Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    research and clinical care. KEYWORDS Autism Spectrum Disorder, structural connectivity , functional connectivity , resting-state, restrictive... Connectivity of the Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex Predicts Restrictive Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorder. Authors: T.Q.Nguyen, B...pipeline. This will enable us to better understand the nature of disrupted connectivity in autism and its relation to core symptoms. The state-of-the

  17. [Deinstitutionalization, housing situation and subjective satisfaction of schizophrenic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisse, M; Kallert, T W

    2001-01-01

    After the German reunification the deinstitutionalisation of long-term hospitalised psychiatric patients and the restructuring of the complementary psychiatric care has become necessary in the "new" German states. Hereby it became possible to offer alternative residential settings and new community-oriented care programmes for the mentally disabled. Ten years after the beginning of this process we analysed the impact of the housing conditions and the subjective satisfaction of 245 chronic schizophrenic patients living in different residential care-settings or with family resp. on their own in the Dresden region. Additionally we asked for the satisfaction with the organisation of the deinstitutionalisation process. The subgroups--defined by the residential setting--differ in sociodemographic variables and in the levels of psychopathology (PANSS) and social disabilities (DAS-M). It is shown how deficiencies and restrictions of the living situation and the deinstitutionalisation process are reflected in the respective judgments of the patients especially referring to autonomy and self-determination. Requirements for the further development of the complementary psychiatric care system are deduced.

  18. FAMILY EDUCATION IN MANAGEMENT OF SCHIZOPHRENIC AND MOOD DISORDER PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GH GHASEMI

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The role of family as a preventive, promotive, and curative agent is well documented in mental health studies. However, few attempts have been made to engineer the positive family mechanisms in enhancing psychiatric patients' role performance. Methods. This study is an endeavor to demarcate the effect of family education on social functioning of 170 schizophrenics and 174 patients with mood disorders. Solomon's four group design allowed patients from each category to be assigned into four groups. Key family members from experimental groups participated in a one day monthly programmer over a period of six months. Attitude towards mental illness, family environment and skills in management of patient's verbal and non-verbal behaviors as well as patient's adjustment ability within the family, community and work place constituted the focus of this study. While applying batteries of test, data pertaining to the aforementioned characteristics were obtained from the subjects 6 and 18 months after intervention which were subsequently compared with the baseline data. Findings. Comparing the baseline data with the data pertaining to other phases of intervention, one could observe a regressively progressive change in the families' attitudinal, cognitive and behavioral aspects, allowed by the patients' desirable social adjustment. Conclusion. These observations are congruent with earlier findings in the west, reinforcing the promising role of education in bringing about desirable changes in the family dynamic which can ensure better outcome for the psychiatric patients' illness.

  19. [Richard Arwed Pfeifer. Aesthetics of "schizophrenic art" and brain research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somburg, O; Steinberg, H

    2008-11-01

    This paper concentrates on two aspects of the work of Leipzig brain researcher Richard Arwed Pfeifer (1877-1957). It has been little known that Pfeifer, like Prinzhorn, collected paintings by his schizophrenic patients. In works about these paintings, he tried to decipher their specific attraction and the possibility of differentiating artworks of sane artists from those of insane ones. From experimental research he concluded that the "demonic element" was of utmost importance, which however could temporarily be brought about by sane artists too. Trained in medicine and psychology by Wundt, Flechsig, and Niessl von Mayendorf, Pfeifer was appointed as the first associate professor of brain research in Germany in 1927. Until now he has been appreciated for reestablishing the angioarchitecture of the brain, mainly due to his works on the distribution of capillaries in the brain achieved by a particular method of injection which he developed. Moreover he contributed new findings on the interrelations of the capillaries and thus finally disproved the existence of so-called terminal arteries of Cohnheim.

  20. The meaning of pharmacological treatment for schizophrenic patients1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedana, Kelly Graziani Giacchero; Miasso, Adriana Inocenti

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to understand the meaning of medication therapy for schizophrenic patients and formulate a theoretical model about the study phenomenon. METHOD: a qualitative approach was employed, using Symbolic Interactionism as the theoretical and Grounded Theory as the methodological framework. The research was developed between 2008 and 2010 at three community mental health services in the interior of the State of São Paulo - Brazil. Thirty-six patients and thirty-six family members were selected through theoretical sampling. The data were mainly collected through open interviews and observation and simultaneously analyzed through open, axial and selective coding. RESULTS: the meaning of the pharmacotherapy is centered on the phenomenon "Living with a help that bothers", which expresses the patients' ambivalence towards the medication and determines their decision making. The insight, access, limitations for self-administration of the drugs and interactions with family members and the health team influenced the patient's medication-related behavior. CONCLUSION: the theory presented in this study provides a comprehensive, contextualized, motivational and dynamic understanding of the relation the patient experiences and indicates potentials and barriers to follow the medication treatment. PMID:25296152

  1. The meaning of pharmacological treatment for schizophrenic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Graziani Giacchero Vedana

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to understand the meaning of medication therapy for schizophrenic patients and formulate a theoretical model about the study phenomenon.METHOD: a qualitative approach was employed, using Symbolic Interactionism as the theoretical and Grounded Theory as the methodological framework. The research was developed between 2008 and 2010 at three community mental health services in the interior of the State of São Paulo - Brazil. Thirty-six patients and thirty-six family members were selected through theoretical sampling. The data were mainly collected through open interviews and observation and simultaneously analyzed through open, axial and selective coding.RESULTS: the meaning of the pharmacotherapy is centered on the phenomenon "Living with a help that bothers", which expresses the patients' ambivalence towards the medication and determines their decision making. The insight, access, limitations for self-administration of the drugs and interactions with family members and the health team influenced the patient's medication-related behavior.CONCLUSION: the theory presented in this study provides a comprehensive, contextualized, motivational and dynamic understanding of the relation the patient experiences and indicates potentials and barriers to follow the medication treatment.

  2. NEURON AND GLIAL CELL NUMBERS IN THE MEDIODORSAL THALAMIC NUCLEUS IN BRAINS OF SCHIZOPHRENIC SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Damgaard Nielsen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Several stereological studies of schizophrenic subjects have shown reduction in both the total number of neurons and in the total volume of the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus (MD. This is in contrast to other studies in that no differences have been found. Using systematic random sampling and an optical fractionator design, the total number of neuron and glial cells in the MD subdivisions: parvocellular (MDPC, magnocellular (MDMC, and densocellular (MDDC were counted in brains from 9 schizophrenic and 8 control subjects. The control subjects were age, height and body-weight matched to the schizophrenic subjects. We found the neuronal numbers in the schizophrenic subjects to range more than a factor of two, from 3.68 to 9.22 x 106. This is in contrast to the control subjects, who ranged from 5.24 to 7.10 x 106 in neuronal cell numbers. Within our inhomogeneous sample, some schizophrenic subjects thus exhibited relative high total neuron numbers in MD, while others exhibited relative low neuron numbers. The result is in line with the heterogeneity of this severe mental disease and may help to explain why different research groups get different results. The major limitation in this study is the small number of brains of schizophrenic subjects with a high degree of inhomogeneity in length of disease and age of onset. The debates of the comparison of the neurons in the MD in brains of schizophrenic subjects and control subjects and the possible impact of this variance on the disease are still not complete.

  3. Clinical features of latent inhibition in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rascle, C; Mazas, O; Vaiva, G; Tournant, M; Raybois, O; Goudemand, M; Thomas, P

    2001-09-01

    Paradigms of Latent Inhibition (LI) are inter-species and derived from learning theories. They are considered as tools which allow the attentional processes to be studied. The absence of LI is interpreted as difficulty in discriminating relevant and irrelevant stimuli. Abolition of LI has been shown in acute schizophrenics. The objectives of our study were partly to validate an LI paradigm, based on a contingency detection between two stimuli, in healthy subjects, and partly to analyse LI in schizophrenics. The study included 105 subjects (65 patients and 40 controls). Patients fulfilled the DSM IV diagnosis of schizophrenia. 35 in the acute phase and 30 in the chronic phase. We observed a loss of LI for acute schizophrenics, and an enhancement of LI for chronic schizophrenics. The variations in LI are interpreted from the perspective of a disturbance in the attentional processes. The LI status in acute schizophrenics appears to correlate with the clinical criteria with a prognostic value (low intensity of the negative dimension, late age at the first hospitalization). Moreover, the enhancement of LI correlates with the negative dimension of schizophrenic disease. This correlation is found in acute and chronic schizophrenics. It suggests that the variations of LI may be an indicator of adaptive strategies to a cognitive dysfunction specific to schizophrenia.

  4. Correlation between neuropsychological and social cognition measures and symptom dimensions in schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamura, A Carlo; Caletti, Elisabetta; Paoli, Riccardo Augusto; Cigliobianco, Michela; Zugno, Elisa; Grillo, Paolo; Prunas, Cecilia; Caldiroli, Alice; Zago, Stefano

    2015-12-15

    Neurocognitive and social cognition deficits have been largely reported in Schizophrenia (SKZ) but their association with psychopathology remains uncertain. Our purpose was to explore the relationship between symptom dimensions and neuropsychological performances. We enrolled 35 stabilized schizophrenic outpatients of the Department of Psychiatry of Policlinico Hospital, University of Milan, who completed psychiatric Rating Scales, the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) and the Executive and Social Cognition Battery (ESCB). Disorganized dimension seems to have the most significant impact on cognition, being associated with performance in several BACS subtests (verbal memory, working memory, motor speed, symbol coding, Tower of London) and ESCB tasks (MET and Hotel task number of tasks attempted, number of broken MET rules, sum of deviations in Hotel Task). Positive dimension correlated with performance in verbal fluency, negative dimension with IOWA Test results, cognitive dimension with MET number of inefficiencies and Eyes test score. Impulsive-aggressive and depressive dimensions weakly correlated only with Faux Pas test. Our study supports the existence of a specific disorganized dimension in SKZ, separated from cognitive dimension evaluated through clinical instruments (e.g. PANSS), but capable of influencing cognitive abilities. Furthermore, it strengthens the validity of ecological tasks in evaluating cognition in SKZ. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A virtual environment for investigating schizophrenic patients' characteristics: assessment of cognitive and navigation ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jeonghun; Cho, Wongeun; Kim, Jae-Jin; Peled, Avi; Wiederhold, Brenda K; Wiederhold, Mark D; Kim, In Y; Lee, Jang Han; Kim, Sun I

    2003-08-01

    Patients with schizophrenia have thinking disorders such as delusions or hallucinations because they have a deficit in the ability to systematize and integrate information. Therefore, they cannot integrate or systematize visual, auditory, and tactile stimuli. The multimodal integration model of the brain can provide a theoretical background from which one can approach multimodal stimulus integration. In this study, we suggest a virtual reality system for the multi-modal assessment of cognitive ability of schizophrenia patients. The virtual reality system can provide multimodal stimuli, such as visual and auditory stimuli, to the patient and can evaluate the patient's multimodal integration and working memory integration abilities by making the patient interpret and react to multimodal stimuli, which must be remembered for a given period of time. The clinical study showed that the virtual reality program developed is comparable to those of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and the Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM), and it provides some information related to the schizophrenic patients' behavior in 3D virtual environment.

  6. Comparison of folic acid levels in schizophrenic patients and control groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthy, C. C.; Amin, M. M.; Effendy, E.

    2018-03-01

    Folic acid deficiency is a risk factor for schizophrenia through epidemiology, biochemistry and gene-related studies. Compared with healthy people, schizophrenic patients may have high homocysteine plasma values and homocysteine or low levels of folic acid, which seems to correlate with extrapyramidal motor symptoms caused by neuroleptic therapy and with symptoms of schizophrenia. In this present study, we focus on the difference of folic acid level between schizophrenic patient and control group. The study sample consisted of schizophrenic patients and 14 people in the control group and performed blood sampling to obtain the results of folic acid levels. The folic acid level in both groups was within normal range, but the schizophrenic patient group had lower mean folic acid values of 5.00 ng/ml (sb 1.66), compared with the control group with mean folic acid values of 10.75 ng/ml (sb 4.33). there was the group of the control group had a higher value of folic acid than the schizophrenic group.

  7. Clozapine treatment for neuroleptic-induced tardive dyskinesia, parkinsonism, and chronic akathisia in schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak, B; Mester, R; Abesgaus, J; Wittenberg, N; Adlersberg, S; Gonen, N; Weizman, A

    1997-07-01

    Previous studies on the use of clozapine in neuroleptic-resistant chronic schizophrenic patients have demonstrated positive effects on tardive dyskinesia but were less conclusive about chronic akathisia and parkinsonism. The aim of the present study was to investigate the short-term (18 weeks) efficacy of clozapine in neuroleptic-resistant chronic schizophrenic patients with coexisting tardive dyskinesia, chronic akathisia, and parkinsonism. Twenty chronic, neuroleptic-resistant schizophrenic patients with coexisting tardive dyskinesia, parkinsonism, and chronic akathisia were treated with clozapine. Assessment of tardive dyskinesia, parkinsonism, and chronic akathisia was made once weekly for 18 weeks with the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS), Simpson-Angus Rating Scale for Extrapyramidal Side Effects, and Barnes Rating Scale for Drug-Induced Akathisia (BAS). At the end of 18 weeks of clozapine treatment, improvement rates were 74% for tardive dyskinesia, 69% for parkinsonism, and 78% for chronic akathisia. A statistically significant reduction in the scores on the AIMS and Simpson-Angus Scale was achieved at Week 5 and on the BAS at Week 6 (p clozapine are effective for the treatment of neuroleptic-induced extrapyramidal syndromes in neuroleptic-resistant chronic schizophrenic patients. The relief of tardive dyskinesia, parkinsonism, and chronic akathisia in this group of patients occurs more rapidly than the reduction in psychotic symptoms. Disturbing, long-term extrapyramidal syndromes in chronic schizophrenic patients should be considered an indication for clozapine treatment.

  8. A randomized clinical trial comparison between pivotal response treatment (PRT) and structured applied behavior analysis (ABA) intervention for children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzaheri, Fereshteh; Koegel, Lynn Kern; Rezaee, Mohammad; Rafiee, Seyed Majid

    2014-11-01

    Accumulating studies are documenting specific motivational variables that, when combined into a naturalistic teaching paradigm, can positively influence the effectiveness of interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The purpose of this study was to compare two applied behavior analysis (ABA) intervention procedures, a naturalistic approach, pivotal response treatment (PRT) with a structured ABA approach in a school setting. A randomized clinical trial design using two groups of children, matched according to age, sex and mean length of utterance was used to compare the interventions. The data showed that the PRT approach was significantly more effective in improving targeted and untargeted areas after 3 months of intervention. The results are discussed in terms of variables that produce more rapid improvements in communication for children with ASD.

  9. A Randomized Clinical Trial Comparison Between Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) and Adult-Driven Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Intervention on Disruptive Behaviors in Public School Children with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzaheri, Fereshteh; Koegel, Lynn Kern; Rezaei, Mohammad; Bakhshi, Enayatolah

    2015-09-01

    Children with autism often demonstrate disruptive behaviors during demanding teaching tasks. Language intervention can be particularly difficult as it involves social and communicative areas, which are challenging for this population. The purpose of this study was to compare two intervention conditions, a naturalistic approach, Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) with an adult-directed ABA approach on disruptive behavior during language intervention in the public schools. A randomized clinical trial design was used with two groups of children, matched according to age, sex and mean length of utterance. The data showed that the children demonstrated significantly lower levels of disruptive behavior during the PRT condition. The results are discussed with respect to antecedent manipulations that may be helpful in reducing disruptive behavior.

  10. [Schizophrenic patients, who still live in psychiatric hospitals despite decades of deinstitutionalization. Part 1 of the Hessian Deinstitutionalisation Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Michael; Meyer, Thorsten; Ehlers, Frauke; Gallhofer, Bernd

    2002-07-01

    Deinstitutionalization (DI) of most of the chronic long-stay patients has taken place in the last decades in Germany. However, a "residual" group of patients often remains in psychiatric hospitals, with an ongoing controversy on an appropriate type of their care (community based vs. hospital). Clinical, functional and social characteristics of such schizophrenic patients still residing in the long-stay wards in the German state of Hesse after decades of DI are presented. The n = 266 patients investigated displayed a marked degree of negative symptoms and moderate positive symptoms but, however, severe social disabilities. In addition, the patients were very dependent in daily living, had an extremely impoverished social network and leisure activities. The findings contribute to the research on "difficult-to-place" patients described in the literature.

  11. Lifetime DSM-III-R diagnostic outcomes in the offspring of schizophrenic mothers. Results from the Copenhagen High-Risk Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parnas, Josef; Cannon, T D; Jacobsen, B

    1993-01-01

    42 years, with multiple diagnostic assessments performed by senior clinicians using structured interviews blindly with respect to the group membership of the subject. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred seven offspring of schizophrenic mothers and 104 control children without schizophrenic parents matched...

  12. Confirmation of the Factor Structure and Measurement Invariance of the Children's Scale of Hostility and Aggression: Reactive/Proactive in Clinic-Referred Children With and Without Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Farmer, Cristan A.; Kaat, Aaron J.; Mazurek, Micah O.; Lainhart, Janet E.; DeWitt, Mary Beth; Cook, Edwin H.; Butter, Eric M.; Aman, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The measurement of aggression in its different forms (e.g., physical and verbal) and functions (e.g., impulsive and instrumental) is given little attention in subjects with developmental disabilities (DD). In this study, we confirm the factor structure of the Children's Scale for Hostility and Aggression: Reactive/Proactive (C-SHARP) and demonstrate measurement invariance (consistent performance across clinical groups) between clinic-referred groups with and without autism spectrum...

  13. Dopamine transporter gene polymorphism and psychiatric symptoms seen in schizophrenic patients at their first episode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inada, Toshiya; Sugita, Tetsuyoshi; Dobashi, Izumi [National Institute of Mental Health, Chiba (Japan)] [and others

    1996-07-26

    To investigate the possible role of the dopamine transporter (DAT) gene in determining the phenotype in human subjects, allele frequencies for the 40-bp variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism at this site were compared between 117 Japanese normal controls and 118 schizophrenic patients, including six subgroups: early-onset, those with a family history, and those suffering from one of the following psychiatric symptoms at their first episode: delusion and hallucination; disorganization; bizarre behavior; and negative symptoms. No significant differences were observed between the group as a whole or any subgroup of schizophrenic patients and controls. The results indicate that VNTR polymorphism in the DAT gene is unlikely to be a major contributor to any of the psychiatric parameters examined in the present population of schizophrenic subjects. 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  14. Written but not oral verbal production is preserved in young schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomé, Franck; Boyer, Patrice; Fayol, Michel

    2002-08-30

    The aim of this study is to discover whether the language capabilities of young schizophrenic patients are more affected in speaking than in writing or whether the disorders are equivalent in the two modes. To do this, we compared spoken and written descriptions of pictures obtained from 10 schizophrenic patients with those produced by 10 control subjects. These productions were analysed on the basis of objective indices. The syntax and coherence of the productions were evaluated by judges. The comparison of the performances of the controls and schizophrenic patients supports the hypothesis that the latter suffer from a language disorder affecting the oral mode but impacting less frequently and less severely on the written mode. These results are discussed in the light of the cognitive mechanisms which may provide an explanation of these language disorders.

  15. Self-care actions of chronic schizophrenics associated with meeting solitude and social interaction requisites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J L

    1990-10-01

    Solitude becomes a way of life and social interaction a scarce commodity for many chronic schizophrenics who are in institutional settings. This article describes the self-care actions associated with meeting solitude and social interaction requisites as reported by 10 institutionalized chronic schizophrenics. Eighteen solitude self-care actions and 10 social interaction self-care actions emerged from the interview data. The solitude self-care actions clustered around two distinct categories: distancing and organizing. The social interaction self-care actions clustered around one category, managing situations. The implications of this study extend to anyone who is in the position of providing care and support to an individual diagnosed as a chronic schizophrenic. Additional research is suggested to increase the generalizability of the findings of this study and to isolate conditions related to Orem's (1985) sets of actions for maintenance of a balance between solitude and social interaction.

  16. Facial, vocal and musical emotion recognition is altered in paranoid schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisgerber, Anne; Vermeulen, Nicolas; Peretz, Isabelle; Samson, Séverine; Philippot, Pierre; Maurage, Pierre; De Graeuwe D'Aoust, Catherine; De Jaegere, Aline; Delatte, Benoît; Gillain, Benoît; De Longueville, Xavier; Constant, Eric

    2015-09-30

    Disturbed processing of emotional faces and voices is typically observed in schizophrenia. This deficit leads to impaired social cognition and interactions. In this study, we investigated whether impaired processing of emotions also affects musical stimuli, which are widely present in daily life and known for their emotional impact. Thirty schizophrenic patients and 30 matched healthy controls evaluated the emotional content of musical, vocal and facial stimuli. Schizophrenic patients are less accurate than healthy controls in recognizing emotion in music, voices and faces. Our results confirm impaired recognition of emotion in voice and face stimuli in schizophrenic patients and extend this observation to the recognition of emotion in musical stimuli. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Studies of the correlations between morphological brain changes on MRI and computerized EEG changes in schizophrenics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Kouzou

    1992-01-01

    Twenty eight schizophrenic patients, who ranged in age from 21 to 39 years with a mean of 30.2, and 21 age- and sex-matched normal volunteers were studied by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and electroencephalography (EEG). ALl subjects were given informed consent prior to the present study. They were all right-handed. Schizophrenic patients showed a significantly larger ventricular brain ratio (VBR) on the axial and coronal planes as compared with the control. The bilateral anterior horns, left body, left posterior horn of the lateral ventricle and the third ventricle were significantly larger in schizophrenic patients than the control. The middle half of the corpus callosum was smaller in schizophrenic patients than the control. Schizophrenia was more likely associated not only with delta and theta activities in the centro-parieto-occipital regions but also with beta 1 and beta 2 activities in the front-central regions. In schizophrenic patients, however, alpha 2 activity was markedly decreased in all regions. There were significant positive correlations between the total scores for brief psychiatric rating scale (BPRS) and the areas of the left anterior and posterior horns of the lateral ventricle. The total BPRS scores positively correlated with the area of the third ventricle. In addition, positive correlations were significant between delata activity and the area of the left anterior horn of the lateral ventricle, between delta activity and the area of the third ventricle, and between beta 1 activity and the area of left posteior horn of the lateral ventricle. These results suggest that a dilated third ventricle is associated with electrophysiological brain pathology and psychopathology in schizophrenic patients. (N.K.) 76 refs

  18. Studies of the correlations between morphological brain changes on MRI and computerized EEG changes in schizophrenics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Kouzou (Kagoshima Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1992-06-01

    Twenty eight schizophrenic patients, who ranged in age from 21 to 39 years with a mean of 30.2, and 21 age- and sex-matched normal volunteers were studied by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and electroencephalography (EEG). ALl subjects were given informed consent prior to the present study. They were all right-handed. Schizophrenic patients showed a significantly larger ventricular brain ratio (VBR) on the axial and coronal planes as compared with the control. The bilateral anterior horns, left body, left posterior horn of the lateral ventricle and the third ventricle were significantly larger in schizophrenic patients than the control. The middle half of the corpus callosum was smaller in schizophrenic patients than the control. Schizophrenia was more likely associated not only with delta and theta activities in the centro-parieto-occipital regions but also with beta 1 and beta 2 activities in the front-central regions. In schizophrenic patients, however, alpha 2 activity was markedly decreased in all regions. There were significant positive correlations between the total scores for brief psychiatric rating scale (BPRS) and the areas of the left anterior and posterior horns of the lateral ventricle. The total BPRS scores positively correlated with the area of the third ventricle. In addition, positive correlations were significant between delata activity and the area of the left anterior horn of the lateral ventricle, between delta activity and the area of the third ventricle, and between beta 1 activity and the area of left posteior horn of the lateral ventricle. These results suggest that a dilated third ventricle is associated with electrophysiological brain pathology and psychopathology in schizophrenic patients. (N.K.) 76 refs.

  19. Meconium exposure and autism risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, K M; Xing, G; Walker, C K

    2017-02-01

    This study aims to determine whether fetal meconium passage is associated with autism. This retrospective birth cohort analysis of 9 945 896 children born in California 1991 to 2008 linked discharge diagnosis and procedure codes for prenatal stressors, meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) and meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) with autism diagnoses for 47 277 children through 2012. We assessed the relative risk of autism by meconium status using logistic regression, adjusting for demographic and clinical features. Children exposed to meconium (MSAF and MAS) were more likely to be diagnosed with autism in comparison with unexposed children (0.60% and 0.52%, vs 0.47%, respectively). In adjusted analyses, there was a small increase in autism risk associated with MSAF exposure (adjusted relative risk (aRR) 1.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12 to 1.25), and a marginal association that failed to achieve significance between MAS and autism (aRR 1.08, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.20). Resuscitation of neonates with respiratory compromise from in utero meconium exposure may mitigate long-term neurodevelopmental damage.

  20. Performance of brain-damaged, schizophrenic, and normal subjects on a visual searching task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, G; Kyc, F

    1978-06-01

    Goldstein, Rennick, Welch, and Shelly (1973) reported on a visual searching task that generated 94.1% correct classifications when comparing brain-damaged and normal subjects, and 79.4% correct classifications when comparing brain-damaged and psychiatric patients. In the present study, representing a partial cross-validation with some modification of the test procedure, comparisons were made between brain-damaged and schizophrenic, and brain-damaged and normal subjects. There were 92.5% correct classifications for the brain-damaged vs normal comparison, and 82.5% correct classifications for the brain-damaged vs schizophrenic comparison.

  1. Increased concentration of. cap alpha. - and. gamma. -endorphin in post mortem hypothalamic tissue of schizophrenic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiegant, V.M.; Verhoef, C.J.; Burbach, J.P.H.; de Wied, D.

    1988-01-01

    The concentrations of ..cap alpha..-, ..beta..- and ..gamma..-endorphin were determined by radioimmunoassay in HPLC fractionated extracts of post mortem hypothalamic tissue obtained from schizophrenic patients and controls. The hypothalamic concentration of ..cap alpha..- and ..gamma..-endorphin was significantly higher in patients than in controls. No difference was found in the concentration of ..beta..-endorphin, the putative precursor of ..cap alpha..- and ..gamma..-endorphins. These results suggest a deviant metabolism of ..beta..-endorphin in the brain of schizophrenic patients. Whether this phenomenon is related to the psychopathology, or is a consequence of ante mortem farmacotherapy, remains to be established.

  2. A family study of schizophrenic and normal control probands: implications for the spectrum concept of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, M; Gruen, R; Rainer, J D; Kane, J; Asnis, L; Lord, S

    1985-04-01

    Morbidity risks for mental illness were determined in 750 first-degree relatives of chronic schizophrenic and normal control probands. Psychiatric disorders that were more frequent in relatives of schizophrenic probands than in relatives of normal control probands were chronic schizophrenia (5.8% versus 0.6%), schizotypal personality disorder (definite, 14.6% versus 2.1%; probable, 12.1% versus 6.5%), and paranoid personality disorder (7.3% versus 2.3%). The data suggest that schizotypal and paranoid personality disorders are genetically related to schizophrenia. The implications for schizophrenia research are discussed.

  3. Working memory in volunteers and schizophrenics using BOLD fMRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giesel, F.L.; Hohmann, N.; Seidl, U.; Kress, K.R.; Schoenknecht, P.; Schroeder, J.; Kauczor, H.-U.; Essig, M.

    2005-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging uses the blood oxygen level-dependent effect (BOLD MRI) for noninvasive display of cerebral correlatives of cognitive function. The importance for the understanding of physiological and pathological processes is demonstrated by investigations of working memory in schizophrenics and healthy controls. Working memory is involved in processing rather than storage of information and therefore is linked to complex processes such as learning and problem solving. In schizophrenic psychosis, these functions are clearly restricted. Training effects in the working memory task follow an inverse U-shape function, suggesting that cerebral activation reaches a peak before economics of the brain find a more efficient method and activation decreases. (orig.) [de

  4. When does subliminal affective image priming influence the ability of schizophrenic patients to perceive face emotions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaina, Lucia Maria; Rana, Kunjan D; Cotos, Ionela; Li-Yang, Chen; Huang, Melissa A; Podea, Delia

    2014-12-24

    Deficits in face emotion perception are among the most pervasive aspects of schizophrenia impairments which strongly affects interpersonal communication and social skills. Schizophrenic patients (PSZ) and healthy control subjects (HCS) performed 2 psychophysical tasks. One, the SAFFIMAP test, was designed to determine the impact of subliminally presented affective or neutral images on the accuracy of face-expression (angry or neutral) perception. In the second test, FEP, subjects saw pictures of face-expression and were asked to rate them as angry, happy, or neutral. The following clinical scales were used to determine the acute symptoms in PSZ: Positive and Negative Syndrome (PANSS), Young Mania Rating (YMRS), Hamilton Depression (HAM-D), and Hamilton Anxiety (HAM-A). On the SAFFIMAP test, different from the HCS group, the PSZ group tended to categorize the neutral expression of test faces as angry and their response to the test-face expression was not influenced by the affective content of the primes. In PSZ, the PANSS-positive score was significantly correlated with correct perception of angry faces for aggressive or pleasant primes. YMRS scores were strongly correlated with PSZ's tendency to recognize angry face expressions when the prime was a pleasant or a neutral image. The HAM-D score was positively correlated with categorizing the test-faces as neutral, regardless of the affective content of the prime or of the test-face expression (angry or neutral). Despite its exploratory nature, this study provides the first evidence that conscious perception and categorization of facial emotions (neutral or angry) in PSZ is directly affected by their positive or negative symptoms of the disease as defined by their individual scores on the clinical diagnostic scales.

  5. Clinical and autoimmune features of a patient with autism spectrum disorder seropositive for anti-NMDA-receptor autoantibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gréa, Hélène; Scheid, Isabelle; Gaman, Alexandru; Rogemond, Véronique; Gillet, Sandy; Honnorat, Jérôme; Bolognani, Federico; Czech, Christian; Bouquet, Céline; Toledano, Elie; Bouvard, Manuel; Delorme, Richard; Groc, Laurent; Leboyer, Marion

    2017-03-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by dysfunctions in social interactions resulting from a complex interplay between immunogenetic and environmental risk factors. Autoimmunity has been proposed as a major etiological component of ASD. Whether specific autoantibodies directed against brain targets are involved in ASD remains an open question. Here, we identified within a cohort an ASD patient with multiple circulating autoantibodies, including the well-characterized one against glutamate NMDA receptor (NMDAR-Ab). The patient exhibited alexithymia and previously suffered from two major depressive episodes without psychotic symptoms. Using a single molecule-based imaging approach, we demonstrate that neither NMDAR-Ab type G immunoglobulin purified from the ASD patient serum, nor that from a seropositive healthy subject, disorganize membrane NMDAR complexes at synapses. These findings suggest that the autistic patient NMDAR-Abs do not play a direct role in the etiology of ASD and that other autoantibodies directed against neuronal targets should be investigated.

  6. Changes in neurocognitive functioning during transition to manifest disease: comparison of individuals at risk for schizophrenic and bipolar affective psychoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, S; Dvorsky, D; Wyss, C; Müller, M; Gerstenberg, M; Traber-Walker, N; Walitza, S; Theodoridou, A; Rössler, W; Heekeren, K

    2015-07-01

    Neurocognitive deficits are important aspects of schizophrenic disorder because they have a strong impact on social and vocational outcomes. Previously it was assumed that cognitive abilities progressively deteriorate with illness onset. However, recent research results have contradicted this with observations of continuous or even improved performance in individuals at risk for psychosis or manifest schizophrenia. The objective of our longitudinal study was to examine neurocognitive functioning in help-seeking individuals meeting basic symptoms or ultra-high-risk criteria for schizophrenic psychosis (HRSchiz) or risk criteria for affective psychosis (HRBip). The progression of cognitive functioning in individuals converting to psychosis was compared with that of at-risk individuals who did not convert during the follow-up period. Data were available from 86 study participants who completed neurocognitive and clinical assessments at baseline and, on average, 12.8 (s.d. = 1.5) months later. Neurocognitive measures were grouped according to their load in factor analysis to five cognitive domains: speed, attention, fluency, learning and memory, and working memory. Neurocognitive functioning in HRSchiz and HRBip individuals generally improved over time. Subjects converting to manifest psychosis displayed a stable neurocognitive profile from baseline to follow-up. Compared with non-converters, they had already demonstrated a significantly lower level of performance during their baseline examinations. Our data provide no evidence for a progressive cognitive decline in individuals at risk of psychosis. In line with the neurodevelopmental model, our findings suggest that cognitive deficits are already present very early, before or during the prodromal stage of the illness.

  7. Brain imaging and autism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilbovicius, M.

    2006-01-01

    Autism is a neuro-developmental disorder with a range of clinical presentations, from mild to severe, referred to as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The most common clinical ASD sign is social interaction impairment, which is associated with verbal and non-verbal communication deficits and stereotyped and obsessive behaviors. Thanks to recent brain imaging studies, scientists are getting a better idea of the neural circuits involved in ASD. Indeed, functional brain imaging, such as positron emission tomography (PET), single positron emission tomograph y (SPECT) and functional MRI (fMRI) have opened a new perspective to study normal and pathological brain functions. Three independent studies have found anatomical and rest functional temporal abnormalities. These anomalies are localized in the superior temporal sulcus bilaterally which are critical for perception of key social stimuli. In addition, functional studies have shown hypo-activation of most areas implicated in social perception (face and voice perception) and social cognition (theory of mind). These data suggest an abnormal functioning of the social brain network. The understanding of such crucial abnormal mechanism may drive the elaboration of new and more adequate social re-educative strategies in autism. (author)

  8. Brain imaging and autism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zilbovicius, M. [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot (CEA/DSV/DRM), INSERM CEA 0205, 91 - Orsay (France)

    2006-07-01

    Autism is a neuro-developmental disorder with a range of clinical presentations, from mild to severe, referred to as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The most common clinical ASD sign is social interaction impairment, which is associated with verbal and non-verbal communication deficits and stereotyped and obsessive behaviors. Thanks to recent brain imaging studies, scientists are getting a better idea of the neural circuits involved in ASD. Indeed, functional brain imaging, such as positron emission tomography (PET), single positron emission tomograph y (SPECT) and functional MRI (fMRI) have opened a new perspective to study normal and pathological brain functions. Three independent studies have found anatomical and rest functional temporal abnormalities. These anomalies are localized in the superior temporal sulcus bilaterally which are critical for perception of key social stimuli. In addition, functional studies have shown hypo-activation of most areas implicated in social perception (face and voice perception) and social cognition (theory of mind). These data suggest an abnormal functioning of the social brain network. The understanding of such crucial abnormal mechanism may drive the elaboration of new and more adequate social re-educative strategies in autism. (author)

  9. Autism – environmental risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryka Langauer-Lewowicka 1

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of infantile autism due to developmental brain disorders has been permanently increasing in many parts of the world. Autism is characterized by impairments of communication and reciprocal social interaction and by restricted repetitive behaviours or interests. The causes of these disorders are not yet known. Experimental studies and clinical observation suggest that genetic and environmental factors could converge to result in neurotoxic mechanisms. These may lead to the development of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD. Several recent studies have indicated that perinatal exposure to environmental toxins may be the risk factor for ASD, among them: polybrominated diphenyl, esters, phthalates, bisphenol A, tetrabrombisphenol A, solvents, pesticides, and heavy metals. They can easily pass the placental and blood brain barriers and affect brain development.

  10. Contextual Autism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Kirsten Marie

    2009-01-01

    This project deals with the notion of ghost anthropologically and artistic. The contextual autism of ghosting reveals itself as a sensation of in-betweeness in art as well as in everyday life. The ghost is not easily defined; as Jacques Derrida states in Spectres of Marx (1993/1994) about...

  11. The Relationship between the "Childhood Autism Rating Scale: Second Edition" and Clinical Diagnosis Utilizing the DSM-IV-TR and the DSM-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, Tamara; Meyer, Allison T.; Van Bourgondien, Mary E.

    2016-01-01

    "The Childhood Autism Rating Scale, Second Edition" (CARS2; 2010) includes two rating scales; the CARS2-Standard Version (CARS2-ST) and the newly developed CARS2-High Functioning Version (CARS2-HF). To assess the diagnostic agreement between the CARS2 and DSM-IV-TR versus DSM-5 criteria for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), clinicians at…

  12. Gut to brain interaction in Autism Spectrum Disorders: a randomized controlled trial on the role of probiotics on clinical, biochemical and neurophysiological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santocchi, Elisa; Guiducci, Letizia; Fulceri, Francesca; Billeci, Lucia; Buzzigoli, Emma; Apicella, Fabio; Calderoni, Sara; Grossi, Enzo; Morales, Maria Aurora; Muratori, Filippo

    2016-06-04

    A high prevalence of a variety of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms is frequently reported in patients with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The GI disturbances in ASD might be linked to gut dysbiosis representing the observable phenotype of a "gut-brain axis" disruption. The exploitation of strategies which can restore normal gut microbiota and reduce the gut production and absorption of toxins, such as probiotics addition/supplementation in a diet, may represent a non-pharmacological option in the treatment of GI disturbances in ASD. The aim of this randomized controlled trial is to determine the effects of supplementation with a probiotic mixture (Vivomixx®) in ASD children not only on specific GI symptoms, but also on the core deficits of the disorder, on cognitive and language development, and on brain function and connectivity. An ancillary aim is to evaluate possible effects of probiotic supplementation on urinary concentrations of phthalates (chemical pollutants) which have been previously linked to ASD. A group of 100 preschoolers with ASD will be classified as belonging to a GI group or to a Non-GI (NGI) group on the basis of a symptom severity index specific to GI disorders. In order to obtain four arms, subjects belonging to the two groups (GI and NGI) will be blind randomized 1:1 to regular diet with probiotics or with placebo for 6 months. All participants will be assessed at baseline, after three months and after six months from baseline in order to evaluate the possible changes in: (1) GI symptoms; (2) autism symptoms severity; (3) affective and behavioral comorbid symptoms; (4) plasmatic, urinary and fecal biomarkers related to abnormal intestinal function; (5) neurophysiological patterns. The effects of treatments with probiotics on children with ASD need to be evaluated through rigorous controlled trials. Examining the impact of probiotics not only on clinical but also on neurophysiological patterns, the current trial sets out to provide new

  13. The Relationship Between the Childhood Autism Rating Scale: Second Edition and Clinical Diagnosis Utilizing the DSM-IV-TR and the DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, Tamara; Meyer, Allison T; Van Bourgondien, Mary E

    2016-10-01

    The Childhood Autism Rating Scale, Second Edition (CARS2; 2010) includes two rating scales; the CARS2-Standard Version (CARS2-ST) and the newly developed CARS2-High Functioning Version (CARS2-HF). To assess the diagnostic agreement between the CARS2 and DSM-IV-TR versus DSM-5 criteria for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), clinicians at community based centers of the University of North Carolina TEACCH Autism Program rated participants seen for a diagnostic evaluation on symptoms of autism using both the DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 criteria and either the CARS2-HF or the CARS2-ST. Findings suggest that overall, the diagnostic agreement of the CARS2 remains high across DSM-IV and DSM-5 criteria for autism.

  14. Complex gunshot injury to the heart as a consequence of suicide attempt in a schizophrenic patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Konecny

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: This case represents management of complex self-inflicted gunshot cardiac injury in a schizophrenic patient who discontinued antipsychotic medication. Liaison between themedical rescue service and high level trauma center essentially reduced injury-to-surgery time. Complex heart injury was successfully repaired on extracorporeal circulation.

  15. Dermatoglyphic asymmetry and hair whorl patterns in schizophrenic and bipolar patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi-Nooraie, Reza; Mortaz-Hedjri, Soroush

    2008-01-15

    Dermatoglyphic quantitative counts, asymmetry between two hands, and hair whorls were assessed in schizophrenic, bipolar and normal samples. Higher dermatoglyphic directional asymmetry and lower fluctuating asymmetry in bipolar patients support their hypernormal asymmetries. An inverse association between hair whorl location and dermatoglyphic asymmetry in schizophrenia may show a higher probability of lateralization problems.

  16. A postmortem study of glycine and its potential precursors in chronic schizophrenics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurumaji, A; Watanabe, A; Kumashiro, S; Semba, J; Toru, M

    1996-09-01

    We have measured the concentrations of glycine and its potential precursors, serine and threonine, in 20 areas of the postmortem brains of chronic schizophrenics and controls using high-performance liquid chromatography by pre-column derivatization with dimethyl-amino-azobenzene sulphonyl chloride. The regional distribution pattern of glycine in the postmortem brains with and without the disease was more similar to that of serine (r = 0.874, P threonine (r = 0.476, P threonine was also observed in the supramarginal cortex and posterior portion of the lateral occipitotemporal cortex of the off-drug group of schizophrenics and in the putamen of all schizophrenics. The highly similar distribution pattern of glycine and serine in the postmortem brains supports the close coupling of synthesis and metabolism between these chemicals in human brains. The increased content of glycine in the orbitofrontal cortex, the reduced level of serine in the putamen and the decrease in threonine in the cerebral cortices, which were prominent in the off-drug schizophrenics, may be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

  17. Diagnosis and management of autism in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkanova, Vyara; Rhodes, Fiona; Allan, Charlotte L

    2013-05-01

    Autism affects 1.1% of the adult population. The spectrum of symptoms is wide; some individuals have above average intelligence and are fully independent, while others have limited independence because of a learning disability. Developmental delay is a core feature, and autism is usually diagnosed in childhood. High-functioning individuals with autism, Asperger's syndrome, may remain undiagnosed until adulthood. Autism is a life-long condition characterised by problems in two core dimensions: difficulties with social communication and strongly repetitive behaviour, resistance to change or restricted interests.The history should identify early developmental and behavioural problems in different settings e.g. at home, in education or employment. Sensory and GI problems are very common, and should be asked about. The Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ-10) is a 10-item questionnaire for people with suspected autism. The advantage of using this in primary care is that it provides a time-efficient, structured way of ascertaining key symptoms and clearly signals those who should be referred for further assessment. Patients should be referred if autism is suspected clinically and a diagnosis of autism should be confirmed by a specialist multidisciplinary team. If a diagnosis of autism is made, clinicians should do a risk assessment and formulate risk and crisis management plans. These should include details of the roles and responsibilities of both the specialist team and primary care team in managing crisis situations. For adults with autism a group-based or an individual learning programme to improve social interaction is recommended. Adults with autism have high rates of unemployment, and employment programmes have been successfully used to support people

  18. [Autism and pain - a literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Amandine; Rattaz, Cécile; Pry, René; Baghdadli, Amaria

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present article was to assess the available literature concerning pain and autism. First, authors summarized the published articles on pain reactivity in people with autism. Second, the hypotheses envisaged to explain the presence of expressive particularities in people with autism spectrum disorders were reviewed; these included endogenous opioid excess theory, sensorial abnormalities and sociocommunicative deficit. Finally, the present review dealt with the tools available to assess and manage pain in people with autism. In conclusion, the authors revealed the need for more research to obtain more consensual data and provided some recommendations in this domain that were under exploited by the scientific community. From a clinical point of view, more knowledge about pain in people with autism should enable the development of specific assessment tools and, consequently, better pain management in daily care.

  19. Autisme et Douleur – Analyse Bibliographique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Dubois

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present article was to assess the available literature concerning pain and autism. First, authors summarized the published articles on pain reactivity in people with autism. Second, the hypotheses envisaged to explain the presence of expressive particularities in people with autism spectrum disorders were reviewed; these included endogenous opioid excess theory, sensorial abnormalities and sociocommunicative deficit. Finally, the present review dealt with the tools available to assess and manage pain in people with autism. In conclusion, the authors revealed the need for more research to obtain more consensual data and provided some recommendations in this domain that were underexploited by the scientific community. From a clinical point of view, more knowledge about pain in people with autism should enable the development of specific assessment tools and, consequently, better pain management in daily care.

  20. Sensory processing in autism spectrum disorders and Fragile X syndrome-From the clinic to animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, D; Oranje, B; Razak, K A; Siegel, S J; Schmid, S

    2017-05-01

    Brains are constantly flooded with sensory information that needs to be filtered at the pre-attentional level and integrated into endogenous activity in order to allow for detection of salient information and an appropriate behavioral response. People with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) or Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) are often over- or under-reactive to stimulation, leading to a wide range of behavioral symptoms. This altered sensitivity may be caused by disrupted sensory processing, signal integration and/or gating, and is often being neglected. Here, we review translational experimental approaches that are used to investigate sensory processing in humans with ASD and FXS, and in relevant rodent models. This includes electroencephalographic measurement of event related potentials, neural oscillations and mismatch negativity, as well as habituation and pre-pulse inhibition of startle. We outline robust evidence of disrupted sensory processing in individuals with ASD and FXS, and in respective animal models, focusing on the auditory sensory domain. Animal models provide an excellent opportunity to examine common mechanisms of sensory pathophysiology in order to develop therapeutics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Physical therapy for young children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders–clinical frameworks model in an Israeli setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osnat eAtun-Einy

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent research findings suggest that many children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD demonstrate delayed and atypical motor achievements. It has now become clear that a more holistic, integrative and multi-disciplinary intervention is required to effectively address the motor-related impairments of this population. It is also crucial to ensure that this group of clients has access to early physical therapy (PT interventions. Despite accumulating research on physical interventions, little is known about intervention model for implementation at a national level. This report introduces a model that uniquely illustrates implementation of PT services for a large number of children with ASD. The model has been operating for the past two years in one country (Israel, and includes an optional implementation model of PT practice settings for young children diagnosed with ASD. The Israeli setting offers a unique opportunity for implementing PT services for a multitude of children with ASD on a regular basis as an accepted/needed service. The initial outcomes of the present implementation suggest that an intensive PT intervention program might enhance therapeutic outcomes for this population, and contribute to our knowledge on the

  2. An evaluation of the clinical application of the DSM-5 for the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Claire O; Matson, Johnny L

    2017-09-01

    The changes to the diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) were met with much controversy by researchers, clinicians, and families of individuals with ASD. The goal of this paper is to review the literature on the impact of these changes. Areas covered: This paper reviews the major changes to diagnostic criteria from DSM-IV-TR to DSM-5. It emphasizes how these changes are hypothesized to impact prevalence rates, as well as trends in characteristics of individuals who would have met previous criteria for ASD but no longer qualify for a diagnosis under DSM-5. Policy issues such as access to services and research considerations are also briefly reviewed. Expert commentary: Researchers have found that the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for ASD may significantly impact which children receive diagnoses, which in turn affects access to services that address impairments characteristic of this disorder. Despite the fact that the DSM-5 has now been in use for four years, fewer recent studies were identified than was expected. Future research should continue to focus on the impact of changes in criteria, as well as on translational scientific advances across disciplines.

  3. Sensory processing in autism spectrum disorders and Fragile X syndrome—From the clinic to animal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, D.; Oranje, B.; Razak, K.A.; Siegel, S.J.; Schmid, S.

    2017-01-01

    Brains are constantly flooded with sensory information that needs to be filtered at the pre-attentional level and integrated into endogenous activity in order to allow for detection of salient information and an appropriate behavioral response. People with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) or Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) are often over- or under-reactive to stimulation, leading to a wide range of behavioral symptoms. This altered sensitivity may be caused by disrupted sensory processing, signal integration and/or gating, and is often being neglected. Here, we review translational experimental approaches that are used to investigate sensory processing in humans with ASD and FXS, and in relevant rodent models. This includes electroencephalographic measurement of event related potentials, neural oscillations and mismatch negativity, as well as habituation and pre-pulse inhibition of startle. We outline robust evidence of disrupted sensory processing in individuals with ASD and FXS, and in respective animal models, focusing on the auditory sensory domain. Animal models provide an excellent opportunity to examine common mechanisms of sensory pathophysiology in order to develop therapeutics. PMID:27235081

  4. Superior Temporal Gyrus Volume Abnormalities and Thought Disorder in Left-Handed Schizophrenic Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holinger, Dorothy P.; Shenton, Martha E.; Wible, Cynthia G.; Donnino, Robert; Kikinis, Ron; Jolesz, Ferenc A.; McCarley, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Studies of schizophrenia have not clearly defined handedness as a differentiating variable. Moreover, the relationship between thought disorder and anatomical anomalies has not been studied extensively in left-handed schizophrenic men. The twofold purpose of this study was to investigate gray matter volumes in the superior temporal gyrus of the temporal lobe (left and right hemispheres) in left-handed schizophrenic men and left-handed comparison men, in order to determine whether thought disorder in the left-handed schizophrenic men correlated with tissue volume abnormalities. Method Left-handed male patients (N=8) with DSM-III-R diagnoses of schizophrenia were compared with left-handed comparison men (N=10) matched for age, socioeconomic status, and IQ. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a 1.5-T magnet was used to obtain scans, which consisted of contiguous 1.5-mm slices of the whole brain. MRI analyses (as previously defined by the authors) included the anterior, posterior, and total superior temporal gyrus in both the left and right hemispheres. Results There were three significant findings regarding the left-handed schizophrenic men: 1) bilaterally smaller gray matter volumes in the posterior superior temporal gyrus (16% smaller on the right, 15% smaller on the left); 2) a smaller volume on the right side of the total superior temporal gyrus; and 3) a positive correlation between thought disorder and tissue volume in the right anterior superior temporal gyrus. Conclusions These results suggest that expression of brain pathology differs between left-handed and right-handed schizophrenic men and that the pathology is related to cognitive disturbance. PMID:10553736

  5. Disordered semantic representation in schizophrenic temporal cortex revealed by neuromagnetic response patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silberman Yaron

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Loosening of associations and thought disruption are key features of schizophrenic psychopathology. Alterations in neural networks underlying this basic abnormality have not yet been sufficiently identified. Previously, we demonstrated that spatio-temporal clustering of magnetic brain responses to pictorial stimuli map categorical representations in temporal cortex. This result has opened the possibility to quantify associative strength within and across semantic categories in schizophrenic patients. We hypothesized that in contrast to controls, schizophrenic patients exhibit disordered representations of semantic categories. Methods The spatio-temporal clusters of brain magnetic activities elicited by object pictures related to super-ordinate (flowers, animals, furniture, clothes and base-level (e.g. tulip, rose, orchid, sunflower categories were analysed in the source space for the time epochs 170–210 and 210–450 ms following stimulus onset and were compared between 10 schizophrenic patients and 10 control subjects. Results Spatio-temporal correlations of responses elicited by base-level concepts and the difference of within vs. across super-ordinate categories were distinctly lower in patients than in controls. Additionally, in contrast to the well-defined categorical representation in control subjects, unsupervised clustering indicated poorly defined representation of semantic categories in patients. Within the patient group, distinctiveness of categorical representation in the temporal cortex was positively related to negative symptoms and tended to be inversely related to positive symptoms. Conclusion Schizophrenic patients show a less organized representation of semantic categories in clusters of magnetic brain responses than healthy adults. This atypical neural network architecture may be a correlate of loosening of associations, promoting positive symptoms.

  6. Relationship between Antidepressant Prescription Rates and Features of Schizophrenic Patients and Its Outcome in Schizophrenia Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanci, Nurcan; Çetin Eker, Özlem; Miraloğlu, Özlem; Argun Uslu, Meral; Özkaya, Güven; Eker, Salih Saygın

    2015-03-01

    Comorbid depression in schizophrenia is associated with poor outcome, increased risk of relapse and a high rate of suicide. Identification of depressive symptoms and their appropriate treatment is crucial for depressed schizophrenic patients. The aim of this study is to investigate the rates of antidepressant prescription and their outcomes. The records of the schizophrenic outpatients, who were consulted at Psychosis Unit of Psychiatry Department between January 2007 and September 2012, were evaluated retrospectively. Enrolled schizophrenic patients' antidepressant medications were at their minimal effective doses and effective duration. The present study demonstrates that 39 of the 101 patients during their follow-ups were prescribed antidepressants. The mean follow-up period was 6.3 (±4.2) years; the mean age at onset was 22 (±6.5) years; the mean duration of illness was 14.7 (±7.3) years and the mean number of psychotic exacerbation was 5 (±3.7). The most prescribed antidepressants were; sertraline (36.9%), venlefaxine (23.8%) and essitalopram (20.2%). SSRI's were prescribed 57 (73.1%), where as SNRI's 21 times (26.9%). There was no significant difference between SSRI (78.6%) and SNRI (21.4%) treatments in terms of psychotic exacerbation under antidepressant medication. Full remission of depressive symptoms was achieved in 21 patients (53.8%). Remission rates were significantly higher (pdepressed schizophrenic patients (85.7%) compared to SSRI treated patients (50.9%). In 8 of the 39 patients (20.5%) antidepressant treatment was terminated due to side effects. This study demonstrates that SSRI's were more often prescribed compared to other classes of antidepressants in emerging depressive symptoms in schizophrenic patients despite full remission with SNRI's is more common. There was no significant difference between SSRI and SNRI treatment in terms of psychotic exacerbation.

  7. Identification of new TRIP12 variants and detailed clinical evaluation of individuals with non-syndromic intellectual disability with or without autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramswig, Nuria C; Lüdecke, H-J; Pettersson, M; Albrecht, B; Bernier, R A; Cremer, K; Eichler, E E; Falkenstein, D; Gerdts, J; Jansen, S; Kuechler, A; Kvarnung, M; Lindstrand, A; Nilsson, D; Nordgren, A; Pfundt, R; Spruijt, L; Surowy, H M; de Vries, B B A; Wieland, T; Engels, H; Strom, T M; Kleefstra, T; Wieczorek, D

    2017-02-01

    The ubiquitin pathway is an enzymatic cascade including activating E1, conjugating E2, and ligating E3 enzymes, which governs protein degradation and sorting. It is crucial for many physiological processes. Compromised function of members of the ubiquitin pathway leads to a wide range of human diseases, such as cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and neurodevelopmental disorders. Mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor interactor 12 (TRIP12) gene (OMIM 604506), which encodes an E3 ligase in the ubiquitin pathway, have been associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In addition to autistic features, TRIP12 mutation carriers showed intellectual disability (ID). More recently, TRIP12 was postulated as a novel candidate gene for intellectual disability in a meta-analysis of published ID cohorts. However, detailed clinical information characterizing the phenotype of these individuals was not provided. In this study, we present seven novel individuals with private TRIP12 mutations including two splice site mutations, one nonsense mutation, three missense mutations, and one translocation case with a breakpoint in intron 1 of the TRIP12 gene and clinically review four previously published cases. The TRIP12 mutation-positive individuals presented with mild to moderate ID (10/11) or learning disability [intelligence quotient (IQ) 76 in one individual], ASD (8/11) and some of them with unspecific craniofacial dysmorphism and other anomalies. In this study, we provide detailed clinical information of 11 TRIP12 mutation-positive individuals and thereby expand the clinical spectrum of the TRIP12 gene in non-syndromic intellectual disability with or without ASD.

  8. Variations of the Functional Brain Network Efficiency in a Young Clinical Sample within the Autism Spectrum: A fNIRS Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanwei Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder with dimensional behavioral symptoms and various damages in the structural and functional brain. Previous neuroimaging studies focused on exploring the differences of brain development between individuals with and without autism spectrum disorders (ASD. However, few of them have attempted to investigate the individual differences of the brain features among subjects within the Autism spectrum. Our main goal was to explore the individual differences of neurodevelopment in young children with Autism by testing for the association between the functional network efficiency and levels of autistic behaviors, as well as the association between the functional network efficiency and age. Forty-six children with Autism (ages 2.0–8.9 years old participated in the current study, with levels of autistic behaviors evaluated by their parents. The network efficiency (global and local network efficiency were obtained from the functional networks based on the oxy-, deoxy-, and total-Hemoglobin series, respectively. Results indicated that the network efficiency decreased with age in young children with Autism in the deoxy- and total-Hemoglobin-based-networks, and children with a relatively higher level of autistic behaviors showed decreased network efficiency in the oxy-hemoglobin-based network. Results suggest individual differences of brain development in young children within the Autism spectrum, providing new insights into the psychopathology of ASD.

  9. [Autism spectrum syndrome replaces Asperger syndrome and autism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejerot, Susanne; Nordin, Viviann

    2014-09-23

    Autism spectrum disorder describes a behaviourally defined impairment in social interaction and communication, along with the presence of restricted interests and repetitive behaviours. Although the etiology is mostly unknown, it is evident that biological factors affect the brain and result in the autistic clinical presentation. Assessment for diagnosing autism spectrum disorder should be comprehensive in order to cover all sorts of problems related to the disorder. Knowledge and experience from working with neurological and psychiatric disorders are a prerequisite for quality in the examination. Up to now, there is no cure for autism spectrum disorder, but support and adaptations in education are nevertheless important for obtaining sufficient life quality for the patients and the family.

  10. Primary olfactory cortex in autism and epilepsy: increased glial cells in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menassa, David A; Sloan, Carolyn; Chance, Steven A

    2017-07-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder is characterized by sensory anomalies including impaired olfactory identification. Between 5 and 46 percent of individuals with autism have a clinical diagnosis of epilepsy. Primary olfactory cortex (piriform cortex) is central to olfactory identification and is an epileptogenic structure. Cytoarchitectural changes in olfactory cortex may underlie olfactory differences seen in autism. Primary olfactory cortex was sampled from 17 post-mortem autism cases with and without epilepsy, 11 epilepsy cases without autism and 11 typically developed cases. Stereological and neuropathological methods were used to quantify glial, pyramidal and non-pyramidal cell densities in layers of the piriform as well as identify pathological differences in this area and its neighbouring region, the olfactory tubercle. We found increased layer II glial cell densities in autism with and without epilepsy, which were negatively correlated with age and positively correlated with levels of corpora amylacea in layer I. These changes were also associated with greater symptom severity and did not extend to the olfactory tubercle. Glial cell organization may follow an altered trajectory of development with age in autism. The findings are consistent with other studies implicating increased glial cells in the autism brain. Altered cytoarchitecture may contribute to sensory deficits observed in affected individuals. This study provides evidence that autism is linked to alterations in the cytoarchitectural structure that underlies primary sensory processes and is not restricted to heteromodal ("higher") cognitive centers. © 2016 International Society of Neuropathology.

  11. Risperidone and Explosive Aggressive Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrigan, Joseph P.; Barnhill, L. Jarrett

    1997-01-01

    In this study, 11 males with autism and mental retardation were administered risperidone. Substantial clinical improvement was noted almost immediately; patients with aggression, self-injury, explosivity, and poor sleep hygiene were most improved. The modal dose for optimal response was 0.5 mg bid. Weight gain was a significant side effect.…

  12. Autism Research: Prospects and Priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Research prospects and priorities in autism are discussed with respect to: (1) diagnosis, classification, and epidemiology; (2) clinical research; (3) neuropsychological research; (4) genetics; (5) structural and functional brain imaging; (6) postmortem studies; (7) other biological research; and (8) treatment research. Application of research…

  13. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children Referred for Diagnostic Autism Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Sonia A; Spinks-Franklin, Adiaha; Treadwell-Deering, Diane; Berry, Leandra; Sellers-Vinson, Sherry; Smith, Eboni; Proud, Monica; Voigt, Robert G

    2015-12-01

    Increased public awareness of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and routine screening in primary care have contributed to increased requests for diagnostic ASD evaluations. However, given the scarcity of subspecialty autism diagnostic resources, overreferral of children suspected of having ASD may be contributing to long waiting lists at tertiary care autism centers and delaying diagnosis for those children who truly have ASD. To determine whether children are being excessively referred to ASD-specific diagnostic clinics, our objective was to determine the prevalence of true ASD diagnoses in children referred for diagnostic ASD evaluation. Charts of all patients referred to a regional autism center between April 2011 and August 2012 for suspicion of a possible ASD were retrospectively reviewed and demographic and clinical diagnoses abstracted. Only 214 of 348 patients evaluated (61%) received an ASD diagnosis. Thus, concerns about autism are not confirmed by an ASD diagnosis in a significant number of children. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Determination of psychosis-related clinical profiles in children with autism spectrum disorders using latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakopoulos, Marinos; Stringaris, Argyris; Manolesou, Sofia; Radobuljac, Maja Drobnič; Jacobs, Brian; Reichenberg, Avi; Stahl, Daniel; Simonoff, Emily; Frangou, Sophia

    2015-03-01

    In children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), high rates of idiosyncratic fears and anxiety reactions and thought disorder are thought to increase the risk of psychosis. The critical next step is to identify whether combinations of these symptoms can be used to categorise individual patients into ASD subclasses, and to test their relevance to psychosis. All patients with ASD (n = 84) admitted to a specialist national inpatient unit from 2003 to 2012 were rated for the presence or absence of impairment in affective regulation and anxiety (peculiar phobias, panic episodes, explosive reactions to anxiety), social deficits (social disinterest, avoidance or withdrawal and abnormal attachment) and thought disorder (disorganised or illogical thinking, bizarre fantasies, overvalued or delusional ideas). Latent class analysis of individual symptoms was conducted to identify ASD classes. External validation of these classes was performed using as a criterion the presence of hallucinations. Latent class analysis identified two distinct classes. Bizarre fears and anxiety reactions and thought disorder symptoms differentiated ASD patients into those with psychotic features (ASD-P: 51 %) and those without (ASD-NonP: 49 %). Hallucinations were present in 26 % of the ASD-P class but only 2.4 % of the ASD-NonP. Both the ASD-P and the ASD-NonP class benefited from inpatient treatment although inpatient stay was prolonged in the ASD-P class. This study provides the first empirically derived classification of ASD in relation to psychosis based on three underlying symptom dimensions, anxiety, social deficits and thought disorder. These results can be further developed by testing the reproducibility and prognostic value of the identified classes.

  15. Music therapy services for individuals with autism spectrum disorder: a survey of clinical practices and training needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Petra; Rivera, Nicole R; Chandler, Alie; Humpal, Marcia

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, the definitions, diagnoses, prevalence rates, theories about the causes, evidence-based treatment options, and practice guidelines pertaining to Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have undergone numerous changes. While several recent studies evaluate the effects of music therapy interventions for individuals with ASD, no current review reflects the latest music therapy practices and trends. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the status of music therapy practices for serving clients with ASD, the implementation of national ASD standards and guidelines, the awareness of recent developments, and training needs of music therapists. Professional members of the American Music Therapy Association who are working with individuals with ASD served as the sample for this national cross-sectional survey study (N = 328). A 45-item online questionnaire was designed and distributed through email and social media. Participants accessed the online survey through SurveyMonkey®. Findings suggest music therapy practices and services for individuals with ASD have shifted and now reflect a slightly higher percentage of caseload, a broader age range of clients, and a trend to serve clients in home and community settings. Most therapeutic processes align with recommended practices for ASD and incorporate several of the recognized evidence-based practices. Less understood or recognized are inclusion practices and latest developments in the field of ASD. Music therapists have a solid understanding of providing services for individuals with ASD, but would benefit from advanced online training and improved information dissemination to stay current with the rapidly changing aspects pertinent to this population. © 2013 by the American Music Therapy Association.

  16. Brief Report: "Quick and (Not So) Dirty" Assessment of Change in Autism--Cross-Cultural Reliability of the Developmental Disabilities CGAS and the OSU Autism CGI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choque Olsson, Nora; Bölte, Sven

    2014-01-01

    There are few evaluated economic tools to assess change in autism. This study examined the inter-rater reliability of the Developmental Disabilities Children's Global Assessment Scale (DD-CGAS), and the OSU Autism Clinical Global Impression (OSU Autism CGI) in a European setting. Using these scales, 16 clinicians with multidisciplinary…

  17. The effects of switching from oral to LAI antipsychotic treatment on subjective experience of schizophrenic and schizoaffective patients: Preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrini, Francesco; Spadafora, Mattia; Talamba, Gabriela Alina; Godini, Lucia; Lelli, Lorenzo; Arcabasso, Susanna; Manetti, Mara; Ballerini, Andrea

    2015-06-01

    To present real-world preliminary evidence on the specific effects of switching from oral to long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotic treatment on patient's subjective experience and quality of life (QoL) in a sample of clinically stable psychotic subjects. Twenty-six clinically stable adult schizophrenic and schizoaffective outpatients were recruited. All patients were under a stabilized therapy with a single oral second-generation antipsychotic and were switched to the equivalent maintenance regimen with the long-acting formulation of the same antipsychotic. Two subgroups of patients were created on the basis of the presence/absence of a complete clinical remission at enrollment. Anthropometric (body mass index), psychometric (Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, Young Mania Rating Scale, and Positive And Negative Syndrome Scale), and patient's reported outcome (Subjective Well-Being Under Neuroleptics scale short form, Drug Attitude Inventory short version, and Short Form-36 health survey) data were collected at enrollment (T0) and after 6 months from the treatment switch (T1). Significant improvements in psychometric indexes, and patients' subjective experience of treatment and attitudes toward drug (reflecting in an enrichment of patients' health-related QoL) were found both in initial remitters and non-remitters. Our preliminary results suggest that the switch from oral to LAI antipsychotic treatment may help to address the subjective core of an optimal and satisfying recovery of psychotic patients. Size and duration of this study need to be expanded in order to produce more solid and generalizable results.

  18. [Pragmatics in autism spectrum disorder: recent developments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissine, Mikhail; Clin, Elise; de Villiers, Jessica

    2016-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by primary pragmatic difficulties, out of step with verbal and non-verbal developmental level. This selective survey paper addresses three recent domains of research on pragmatic functions in autism. First, we provide an up-to-date discussion of how lack of sensitivity to social cues impacts early acquisition of words. Second, we review recent findings on the comprehension of non-literal language, pointing to a more refined clinical reality. Third, we describe recent developments in the study of conversation skills in autism. © 2016 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  19. The Prevalence of Internet Addiction Among a Japanese Adolescent Psychiatric Clinic Sample With Autism Spectrum Disorder and/or Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Ryuhei; Makino, Kazunori; Fujiwara, Masaki; Hirota, Tomoya; Ohcho, Kozo; Ikeda, Shin; Tsubouchi, Shouko; Inagaki, Masatoshi

    2017-07-01

    Extant literature suggests that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are risk factors for internet addiction (IA). The present cross-sectional study explored the prevalence of IA among 132 adolescents with ASD and/or ADHD in a Japanese psychiatric clinic using Young's Internet Addiction Test. The prevalence of IA among adolescents with ASD alone, with ADHD alone and with comorbid ASD and ADHD were 10.8, 12.5, and 20.0%, respectively. Our results emphasize the clinical importance of screening and intervention for IA when mental health professionals see adolescents with ASD and/or ADHD in psychiatric services.

  20. A comparison between effectiveness of three types of music on memory activity and sustained attention in schizophrenic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Narges bahmany; Karamatollah Zandi ghashghaee; Sadrollah Khosravi

    2014-01-01

    Background: schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder in which a lot of cognitive functions including memory, attention, motor skills, executive functions and intelligence are compromised. Numerous empirical studies showed that schizophrenic patients have problem in sustain retention and memory activity. The objective of this study was a comparison between effectiveness of three types of music on memory activity and sustain retention in schizophrenic patients. Material and Methods: A total of 6...

  1. [Impact of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) on survival of schizophrenic patients with co-occurring substance use disorders followed for ten years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimelfarb, Yuri; Becalel, Ety; Wolf, Aviva; Ben-Tzarfati, Mashit; Baruch, Yehuda

    2014-11-01

    Despite disproportionately high rates of HCV infection among patients with schizophrenia and co-occurring substance use disorders, to date, scientific evidence for their survival is lacking. The objective of this study was to compare long term survival among this population with and without persisting HCV. Charts of 212 subjects admitted during a period from January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2005 were assessed. Psychiatric diagnoses have been established according to international classification of diseases and health related problems--10th edition (ICD-10). The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to estimate the cumulative survival rates. The association between HCV and mortality was estimated using the Cox proportional hazard regression models, with adjustments for potential confounders. The main outcome was all-cause mortality. Median observation time was 10.0 years. Period prevalence of HCV was 16.0%. Total all-cause, unadjusted mortality was 50.0% in populations with HCV versus 12.9% in populations without HCV (p disorders patients with HCV necessitates new approaches to secondary and tertiary prevention to reduce the burden of chronic liver disease and to improve survival for those who already have evidence of liver disease. The strong adverse effect of HCV on survival should encourage clinical trials including schizophrenic patients with dual disorders, to ascertain whether patients benefit from treatment choices. It is essential that adequate resources and strategies are targeted to the schizophrenic patients with dual disorders with HCV.

  2. Traditional Chinese version of the Mayer Salovey Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT-TC): Its validation and application to schizophrenic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Wei-Chung; Chen, Li-Fen; Chi, Chia-Hsing; Lin, Ching-Hung; Kao, Yu-Chen; Hsu, Wen-Yau; Lane, Hsien-Yuan; Hsieh, Jen-Chuen

    2016-09-30

    Schizophrenia is an illness that impairs a person's social cognition. The Mayer Salovey Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) is the most well-known test used to measure emotional intelligence (EI), which is a major component of social cognition. Given the absence of EI ability-based scales adapted to Chinese speakers, we translated the MSCEIT into a Traditional Chinese version (MSCEIT-TC) and validated this scale for use in schizophrenia studies. The specific aims were to validate the MSCEIT-TC, to develop a norm for the MSCEIT-TC, and use this norm to explore the EI performance of schizophrenic individuals. We included in our study seven hundred twenty-eight healthy controls and seventy-six individuals with schizophrenia. The results suggest that the MSCEIT-TC is reliable and valid when assessing EI. The results showed good discrimination and validity when comparing the two study groups. Impairment was the greatest for two branches Understanding and Managing Emotions, which implies that the deficits of schizophrenia individuals involve ToM (theory of mind) tasks. Deficits involving the negative scale of schizophrenia was related to impaired performance when the MSCEIT-TC was used (in branch 2, 3, 4, and the area Strategic). Our findings suggest that the MSCEIT-TC can be used for emotional studies in healthy Chinese and in clinical setting for investigating schizophrenic individuals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Clinic attenders with autism or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: cognitive profile at school age and its relationship to preschool indicators of language delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagberg, Bibbi S; Miniscalco, Carmela; Gillberg, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Many studies have shown that children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have had early indicators of language delay. The aim of the present study was to examine the cognitive profile of school age children referred to a specialist clinic for ASD, ADHD, or both, and relate this profile specifically to the age at which these children were first flagged up (or not) as suspected from language delay during the preschool years. Forty clinic children with ASD, ADHD, or the combination of the two (without clinical suspicion of learning disability) were assessed cognitively and as regards language development and language function at a mean age of 7.3 years. They were contrasted with a group of 21 children from the community who had been flagged at 2.5 years as suspected of language delay, and who had been followed up neuropsyhiatrically/neuropsychologically and in respect of language at a mean age of 7.9 years. Mean WISC-III full scale IQ was lower than population norms (in spite of the exclusion in both samples of cases with obvious learning disability) and similar across diagnostic groups (ASD and ADHD), and across settings (clinic and community). WISC-III Kaufman factor profiles separated the diagnostic groups as regards Perceptual Organisation. Early concern about language delay was a strong predictor of lower IQ and of distinguishing between "pure" cases of ASD and ADHD. School age clinic children who present with ASD and ADHD have a similar cognitive and early language development profile as do those children from the community, followed prospectively, who present with a suspicion of early preschool language delay and are shown at school age to suffer from ASD or ADHD. Concern about early language delay in the preschool age should prompt assessments (psychiatric and cognitively) for ASD and ADHD in a multidisciplinary setting much more often than is currently the case. In many cases early language delay, even in

  4. Determinants of maternal satisfaction with diagnosis disclosure of autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Nan Chiu

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: Our findings suggest that more efforts are needed to improve the quality of diagnosis-informed counseling in autism, particularly in the context of breaking the news to mothers of children with autism. Future study could further examine the moderating effect of diagnostic subtype of autism spectrum disorders, treatment response, or social support on maternal satisfaction with diagnosis-informed counseling (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00494754.

  5. Enkephalin, dynorphin and substance P in postmortem substantia nigra from normals and schizophrenic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iadarola, M.J.; Ofri, D.; Kleinman, J.E. (National Institute of Dental Research, Bethesda, MD (USA) National Institute of Mental Health, Washington, DC (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Three peptide neuromodulators that are found in high concentration in the subtantia nigra: dynorphin A 1,8-met5-enkephalin-arg6-gly7-leu8 and substance P, were measured by specific radioimmunoassays in nigral tissue from normals and schizophrenics postmortem. Substance P and dynorphin were unchanged between the two groups. However, the proenkephalin-derived peptide was significantly elevated in the schizophrenic group. The immunoreactivity was identified as authentic met5-enkephalin-arg6-gly7-leu8 by high pressure liquid chromatography. The data suggest that a different set of regulatory controls exists for nigral enkephalin peptides as compared to dynorphin and substance P, and that the former system may be disordered in schizophrenia.

  6. Toward the Autism Motor Signature: Gesture patterns during smart tablet gameplay identify children with autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzulewicz, Anna; Sobota, Krzysztof; Delafield-Butt, Jonathan T.

    2016-08-01

    Autism is a developmental disorder evident from infancy. Yet, its clinical identification requires expert diagnostic training. New evidence indicates disruption to motor timing and integration may underpin the disorder, providing a potential new computational marker for its early identification. In this study, we employed smart tablet computers with touch-sensitive screens and embedded inertial movement sensors to record the movement kinematics and gesture forces made by 37 children 3-6 years old with autism and 45 age- and gender-matched children developing typically. Machine learning analysis of the children’s motor patterns identified autism with up to 93% accuracy. Analysis revealed these patterns consisted of greater forces at contact and with a different distribution of forces within a gesture, and gesture kinematics were faster and larger, with more distal use of space. These data support the notion disruption to movement is core feature of autism, and demonstrate autism can be computationally assessed by fun, smart device gameplay.

  7. Comprehension Disorder of the Schizophrenic Character in the Movie “Donnie Darko”

    OpenAIRE

    ANGGRAENI, DHIRA

    2015-01-01

    Keywords: Comprehension disorder, Schizophrenia, Schizophrenic, Donnie Darko movie. Language is an instrument of communication that people use to convey message, therefore, it is important for human life. However, in the use oflanguage, there are some problems that make a person has language disorder. One of the issues that deals with language disorder is the main character in the movie “Donnie Darko” suffer from schizophrenia. Based on the phenomenon, this study aims to obtain an understand...

  8. Influencing and moderating factors analyzed in the group art therapy of two schizophrenic inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chung-Chieh; Ku, Yung-Wen

    2015-12-01

    Art therapy has been considered a guideline treatment for schizophrenia. Due to difficulty in the outcome measurement, the research is difficult and controversial. Here, we presented two schizophrenic patients receiving the regular art group therapy. We compared their characteristics and different outcome. Art therapy is difficult to quantify. However, we could qualify the improvement from the individual case. Further study might be focus on how to make appropriate qualification of art therapy and individualized difference instead of enrollment of huge data bank.

  9. Further data on the effects of subliminal symbiotic stimulation on schizophrenics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, R; Thornton, P; Silverman, L

    1985-11-01

    This investigation further examined the effects of activating unconscious symbiotic fantasies in schizophrenics. One hundred twenty-eight hospitalized schizophrenic men who qualified as "relatively differentiated" on the Adjective Rating Scale were randomly assigned to four groups. Each group was assessed for pathological thinking, pathological nonverbal behavior, and self-esteem before and after the subliminal exposure of an experimental and control stimulus. The control stimulus for all groups was the message PEOPLE ARE WALKING and the experimental stimuli were the messages MOMMY AND I ARE ONE, MOMMY IS ALWAYS WITH ME, MOMMY FEEDS ME WELL, and I CANNOT HURT MOMMY (one for each group). One half of each group was subliminally exposed to verbal messages only and one half to verbal messages accompanied by congruent pictures. The first stimulus (MOMMY AND I ARE ONE) was intended to activate unconscious symbiotic fantasies that in a number of prior studies reduced pathology in groups of relatively differentiated schizophrenics. The other stimuli were intended to activate reassuring unconscious fantasies about "mommy" that were not specifically symbiosis-related. Only the MOMMY AND I ARE ONE stimulus led to more adaptive behavior and did so on all three dependent variables. This supported the supposition, also borne out in two other studies, that it is specifically symbiosis-related gratifications that are ameliorative for schizophrenics. The above results were considerably stronger for the subgroup that was exposed to a picture accompanying the MOMMY AND I ARE ONE message. This was viewed as probably the result of the pictorial representation serving as a concretization of the more abstract verbal message and as such being more relevant to the relatively primitive mode of thinking in schizophrenia.

  10. Cytomegalovirus Antibody in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Schizophrenic Patients Detected by Enzyme Immunoassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller Torrey, E.; Yolken, Robert H.; Winfrey, C. Jack

    1982-05-01

    By means of enzyme immunoassay techniques to detect the presence of antibody to cytomegalovirus, the cerebrospinal fluid of 178 patients with schizophrenia, 17 patients with bipolar disorders, and 11 other psychiatric patients was compared with that of 79 neurological patients and 41 normal control subjects. The cerebrospinal fluid of 20 of the schizophrenic patients and 3 of the patients with bipolar disorders showed significant increases in immunoglobulin M antibody to cytomegalovirus; no difference was found in patients on or off psychotropic medications.

  11. Effect of Recreational Activities in Schizophrenic Patients Rehabilitation in Promoting Social Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Fallahi-Khoshknab

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: one of group interventions in rehabilitation of schizophrenic patients is recreational activities intervention, in this type of rehabilitation therapist participates patients in recreational activities and hobbies, which promotes activity of daily livings and social skills. Our purpose of this study was investigating the effectiveness of recreational interventions in schizophrenics’ social skills. Materials & Methods: in a before and after interventional study, 45 schizophrenic patients selected and assessed with Activity of Daily Living Skills Scale before intervention. Intervention was a recreational trip to MESHAD for ten days all of patients participate and work to prepare trip properties. They live, participate and work for 10 days together. Then after intervention again patients reassessed with Daily Living Skills Scale, and mean of before and after scores compared with paired T test. Results: Results showed means of score increase from 116.87 to 135.49, comparing mean of before and after means with paired T test was significant. Conclusion: recreational interventions can promote social skills in schizophrenic patients.

  12. A deviant EEG brain microstate in acute, neuroleptic-naive schizophrenics at rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, T; Lehmann, D; Merlo, M C; Kochi, K; Hell, D; Koukkou, M

    1999-01-01

    Momentary brain electric field configurations are manifestations of momentary global functional states of the brain. Field configurations tend to persist over some time in the sub-second range ("microstates") and concentrate within few classes of configurations. Accordingly, brain field data can be reduced efficiently into sequences of re-occurring classes of brain microstates, not overlapping in time. Different configurations must have been caused by different active neural ensembles, and thus different microstates assumably implement different functions. The question arises whether the aberrant schizophrenic mentation is associated with specific changes in the repertory of microstates. Continuous sequences of brain electric field maps (multichannel EEG resting data) from 9 neuroleptic-naive, first-episode, acute schizophrenics and from 18 matched controls were analyzed. The map series were assigned to four individual microstate classes; these were tested for differences between groups. One microstate class displayed significantly different field configurations and shorter durations in patients than controls; degree of shortening correlated with severity of paranoid symptomatology. The three other microstate classes showed no group differences related to psychopathology. Schizophrenic thinking apparently is not a continuous bias in brain functions, but consists of intermittent occurrences of inappropriate brain microstates that open access to inadequate processing strategies and context information

  13. Therapeutic Effect of Comedy Films on Decreasing of Depression in the Schizophrenic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farbod Fadaei

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This research is an evaluation of the theraputic efficacy of comedy films in improving the mood of the long – stay schizophrenic inpatients. Materials & Methods: 50 schizophrenic patients in 2 rehabilitation wards of Razi Psychiatric – Center were selected on the basis of available sampling. They were divided into 2 groups (Experimental and Control, each group consisted of 25 patients. Before any therapeutic procedure, the magnitudes of their depression were measured by Beck Depressive Inventory. Afterwards, the experimental group was exposed to silent comedies of Charles Chaplin and Mr. Bean (Roan Atkinson for 30 minutes every other day for two weeks. Meanwhile, the control group were shown a documentary film about the formation of planet Earth. At the end of the second week, the magnitude of depression of all cases were again measured by B.D.I. Furthermore, in order to investigate the statistical significance of differences between depression magnitude among both groups before and after the experiment, Mann Withney – U test, was utilized. Also for defining and explaining the data and drawing the scales, SPSS and Excel softwares were employed as well. Results: According to the findings of this research, the difference between depression magnitude in both groups before and after the exposure to comedy films was significant at P=0.05. Conclusion:  This result shows that comedy films can improve the depressed mood in the long–stay schizophrenic people.

  14. BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) serum levels in schizophrenic patients with cognitive deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utami, N.; Effendy, E.; Amin, M. M.

    2018-03-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder with cognitive impairment as the main part. BDNF regulates aspects of developmental plasticity in the brain and is involved in cognitive function. Cognitive functions include capabilities such as attention, executive functioning, assessing, monitoring and evaluating. The aim of the study was to know the BDNF levels in schizophrenic patients with cognitive deficits. The study was held in October 2016 - March 2017, and was the first in Indonesia, especially in North Sumatra. The study was approved by the medical ethics committee of the University of North Sumatera. The study is descriptive based on a retrospective method with cross-sectional approach. The subject is 40 male schizophrenia. Cognitive deficits were assessed by MoCA-Ina. BDNF serum levels were analyzed using the quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay. The average MoCA-Ina score is 21.03±5.21. This suggests that there is a cognitive function deficit in schizophrenic patients. The mean serum BDNF level was 26629±6762. MoCA-Ina scores in schizophrenic patients values ranging from 6.186 to 42.580pg/ml.

  15. Depressive syndromes among female caregivers of schizophrenic patients in prof. dr. m. ildrem mental hospital medan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handi, A.; Husada, M. S.; Gultom, D. P.

    2018-03-01

    Caring for schizophrenic patients can lead to emotional distress. It remains unclear about the level of depressive syndromes among female caregivers of schizophrenic patients. To determine the level of depression among female caregivers of schizophrenic patients. This is a descriptive study with a cross-sectional approach to describe the level of depression of female caregivers in Prof. dr. M. Ildrem Mental Hospital Medan, using HADS instruments. Most age group of caregivers is from age 51-60 years that is 48.15%, caregiver’s work status mostly not works (62.96%), marital status of caregiver mostly is married (59.26%), kinship with most patients are a biological mother (57.41%). Most patient age group is from age below 30 years (50%), work status of most patients is not working (81.48%), marital status of most caregiver is married (83.33%). Mostly of the depressive syndrome is mild depression (42.59%). Mostly of the depressive syndrome is from mild depression.

  16. Neuropsychology, Social Cognition and Global Functioning Among Bipolar, Schizophrenic Patients and Healthy Controls: Preliminary Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta eCaletti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the extent of impairment in social and non-social cognitive domains in an ecological context comparing bipolar (BD, schizophrenic patients (SKZ and healthy controls (HC. The sample was enrolled at the Department of Psychiatry of Policlinico Hospital, University of Milan, it includes stabilized schizophrenic patients (n = 30, euthymic bipolar patients (n = 18 and healthy controls (n = 18. Patients and controls completed psychiatric assessment rating scales, the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS and the Executive and Social Cognition Battery (ESCB that contains both ecological tests of executive function and social cognition, in order to better detect cognitive deficits in patients with normal results in standard executive batteries. The three groups differed significantly for gender and substance abuse, however the differences did not influence the results. Bipolar patients showed less impairment on cognitive performance compared to schizophrenic patients, even in ecological tests that mimic real life scenarios. In particular, BD performed better than SKZ in verbal memory (p

  17. Early information processing deficit in schizophrenia. New findings using schizophrenic subgroups and manic control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccuzzo, D P; Braff, D L

    1981-02-01

    In recent years, the idea that schizophrenia involves a primary disturbance of the higher cognitive (ie, cortical) thinking processes has been challenged by investigators who have shown that there may be a primary disturbance in schizophrenia in the early stages of information processing that occurs during the first few hundred milliseconds after the stimulus reaches the sense organs. Among the hypothesized early information processing deficits are deficiencies in iconic storage (a brief peripheral memory store) and slowness of processing from iconic storage to a more permanent memory system. Three experiments were conducted using tachistoscopically presented stimuli in order to evaluate these two stages of information processing (iconic storage and speed of processing) in schizophrenic and control subjects. Results converged in supporting the hypothesis, that independent of iconic storage and sensory registration, slow information processing is a relatively stable deficit of schizophrenic patients with a poor prognosis. The schizophrenic patients with a good prognosis had a similar deficit, which was reversible. Results are discussed as they relate to the early information processing deficit theories of schizophrenia.

  18. The Self Representation in Schizophrenic patients: Considerations on the Draw a Tree Test

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    Salvatore Settineri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract   Objective: The tree is the archetypal symbol of the identification in the growing life. The objective of this study is to evaluate the representation of the self in schizophrenic patients through the tree drawing. Methods: Were identified 36 patients, 22 women and 14 (M-age=53, suffering from schizophrenic disorder. Through the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS and the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS positive and negative symptoms, and the reactive tree representation of the self were assessed.   Results: In the group with negative symptoms archetypal figures are more frequent, such as images that are part of the collective unconscious, or thought more archaic. In patients in which emerges the delirium, that is part of the most evolved thinking, near to the secondary process, the reality testing is better preserved. In cases where there are symptoms mixed the tree structure leads to an archetypal image. Conclusions: This study shows that in the draw of the tree trunk-to-crown ratio in schizophrenic patients was significantly higher than that of healthy individuals. The usefulness of the study insert itself in the Jungian analytic thought, for which psychotic thought corresponds to an abbaissement of the self activity.   Keyword: Representation of Self; Schizophrenia; Draw a Tree Test.

  19. Development and validation of a skin fibroblast biomarker profile for schizophrenic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianthi Logotheti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression profiles of non-neural tissues through microarray technology could be used in schizophrenia studies, adding more information to the results from similar studies on postmortem brain tissue. The ultimate goal of such studies is to develop accessible biomarkers. Supervised machine learning methodologies were used, in order to examine if the gene expression from skin fibroblast cells could be exploited for the classification of schizophrenic subjects. A dataset of skin fibroblasts gene expression of schizophrenia patients was obtained from Gene Expression Omnibus database. After applying statistical criteria, we concluded to genes that present a differential expression between the schizophrenic patients and the healthy controls. Based on those genes, functional profiling was performed with the BioInfoMiner web tool. After the statistical analysis, 63 genes were identified as differentially expressed. The functional profiling revealed interesting terms and pathways, such as mitogen activated protein kinase and cyclic adenosine monophosphate signaling pathways, as well as immune-related mechanisms. A subset of 16 differentially expressed genes from fibroblast gene expression profiling that occurred after Support Vector Machines Recursive Feature Elimination could efficiently separate schizophrenic from healthy controls subjects. These findings suggest that through the analysis of fibroblast based gene expression signature and with the application of machine learning methodologies we might conclude to a diagnostic classification model in schizophrenia.

  20. Preventing crime by people with schizophrenic disorders: the role of psychiatric services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgins, S; Müller-Isberner, R

    2004-09-01

    Knowledge of when and how to implement treatments to prevent criminal offending among people with schizophrenia is urgently needed. To identify opportunities for interventions to prevent offending among men with schizophrenic disorders by tracking their histories of offending and admissions to hospital. We examined 232 men with schizophrenic disorders discharged from forensic and general psychiatric hospitals. Data were collected from participants, family members and official records. More than three-quarters (77.8%) of the forensic patients had previously been admitted to general psychiatric services; 24.3% of the general psychiatric patients had a criminal record. Offences had been committed by 39.8% of the forensic patients and 10.8% of the general psychiatric patients before their first admission to general psychiatry, and after their first admission these 59 patients committed 195 non-violent and 59 violent offences. Subsequently, 49 of them committed serious violent offences that led to forensic hospital admission. The offenders were distinguished by a pervasive and stable pattern of antisocial behaviour evident from at least mid-adolescence. General psychiatry requires resources in order to prevent criminal offending among a subgroup of patients with schizophrenic disorders.

  1. Epidemiology and possible causes of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jick, Hershel; Kaye, James A

    2003-12-01

    To review the recent literature on possible causes of the increase in frequency of diagnosed autism reported from three countries, and to compare the medical diagnoses and drug therapy from a new series of autistic boys and their mothers with that of comparable nonautistic boys and their mothers. Case-control evaluation. Members of over 250 general practices in the United Kingdom. Frequency of exposure to drugs and presence of preexisting clinical illnesses in autistic children and their mothers were compared with nonautistic children and their mothers over time. According to published studies, the incidence of boys diagnosed with autism rose dramatically in the 1990s. Numerous published studies have concluded that the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine is not responsible for the large rise in diagnosed autism. In our study, boys diagnosed with autism had medical and drug histories, such as vaccines, before diagnosis, that were closely similar to those of nonautistic boys, except that developmental and sensory disorders were far more common in autistic boys. No material differences during pregnancy were found between the mothers of autistic boys and those of nonautistic boys in relation to illness or drug therapy. In the early 1990s, boys with diagnosed developmental disorders were infrequently diagnosed with autism. In the later 1990s, such boys more often were diagnosed with autism. A major cause of the recent large increase in the number of boys diagnosed with autism probably is due to changing diagnostic practices.

  2. Genetics and epigenetics of autism: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waye, Mary M Y; Cheng, Ho Yu

    2018-04-01

    Autism is a developmental disorder that starts before age 3 years, and children with autism have impairment in both social interaction and communication, and have restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities. There is a strong heritable component of autism and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as studies have shown that parents who have a child with ASD have a 2-18% chance of having a second child with ASD. The prevalence of autism and ASD have been increasing during the last 3 decades and much research has been carried out to understand the etiology, so as to develop novel preventive and treatment strategies. This review aims at summarizing the latest research studies related to autism and ASD, focusing not only on the genetics but also some epigenetic findings of autism/ASD. Some promising areas of research using transgenic/knockout animals and some ideas related to potential novel treatment and prevention strategies will be discussed. © 2017 The Chinese University of Hong Kong. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2017 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  3. [The stigmatising of schizophrenia and autism in the Flemish daily papers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thys, E; Struyven, C I; Danckaerts, M; De Hert, M

    2014-01-01

    A considerable social stigma is attached to many types of psychiatric disorders. However, research also shows that there are differences in the degree of social stigma attached to psychiatric disorders. There is evidence that the portrayal of schizophrenia in the media is particularly negative. To compare the degree of stigma in reporting of autism and schizophrenia in the Flemish daily newspapers. Via the websites of the seven Flemish daily newspapers, we searched for all articles published between 2008 and 2012 containing the keywords autism/autist(ic) and schizophrenia/schizophrenic. The collected articles (n = 4,181) were then graded to their stigmatising content. In the collected articles the coverage of autism was mostly positive, whereas the coverage of schizophrenia was predominantly negative. The contrast between the reporting on autism and on schizophrenia was very substantial (p stigma attached to schizophrenia is poignantly reflected in the Flemish newspapers. The fact that a disorder such as autism, which has many features in common with schizophrenia, is depicted in a much more favourable way than schizophrenia indicates that a more positive image of schizophrenia is not only desirable but also achievable.

  4. The autism puzzle : Challenging a mechanistic model on conceptual and historical grounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, Berend

    2013-01-01

    Although clinicians and researchers working in the field of autism are generally not concerned with philosophical categories of kinds, a model for understanding the nature of autism is important for guiding research and clinical practice. Contemporary research in the field of autism is guided by the

  5. Design and Cohort Characteristics of the Social Spectrum Study: A Multicenter Study of the Autism Spectrum among Clinically Referred Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvekot, Jorieke; Hoopen, Leontine W.; Slappendel, Geerte; van der Ende, Jan; Verhulst, Frank C.; van der Sijde, Ad; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the design and cohort characteristics of the Social Spectrum Study: a clinical cohort study that used a two-phase sampling design to identify children at risk for ASD. After screening 1281 children aged 2.5-10 years who had been consecutively referred to one of six mental health services in the Netherlands,…

  6. Kids' Quest: Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I Have Information For… Parents / Educators What is autism and how do I recognize a kid who might be diagnosed as having an autism spectrum disorder? Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ...

  7. Configuring the autism epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Jens; Christensen, Fie Lund Lindegaard

    2017-01-01

    is skewed in favour of boys, and girls with autism tend to be diagnosed much later than boys. Building and further developing the notion of ‘configuration’ of epidemics, this article explores the configuration of autism in Denmark, with a particular focus on the health system and social support to families...... with children diagnosed with autism, seen from a parental perspective. The article points to diagnostic dynamics that contribute to explaining why girls with autism are not diagnosed as easily as boys. We unfold these dynamics through the analysis of a case of a Danish family with autism.......Autism has been described as an epidemic, but this claim is contested and may point to an awareness epidemic, i.e. changes in the definition of what autism is and more attention being invested in diagnosis leading to a rise in registered cases. The sex ratio of children diagnosed with autism...

  8. Asperger syndrome and schizophrenia: Overlap of self-reported autistic traits using the Autism-spectrum Quotient (AQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugnegård, Tove; Hallerbäck, Maria Unenge; Gillberg, Christopher

    2015-05-01

    In clinical practice, the differential diagnosis of Asperger syndrome (AS) versus schizophrenia can be a challenge. Some self-report instruments-such as the Autism-spectrum Quotient (AQ)-have been portrayed as proxies for the diagnosis of AS. However, it has not been demonstrated to what extent autistic traits-as measured by the AQ-separate AS from schizophrenia. To examine the AS-schizophrenia discriminating ability of the AQ. The AQ is a 50-item self-administered questionnaire (with score range 0-50) for measuring "autistic traits" in adults. Here, it was completed by 136 individuals: 36 with schizophrenic psychosis, 51 with AS and 49 non-clinical comparison cases. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis for the total AQ score was performed to examine the discriminating power of the instrument. Both individuals with schizophrenia and individuals with AS scored significantly higher on AQ than the non-clinical group. The mean total AQ score (± standard deviation) of the AS group (26.7 ± 8.9; range 9-44) was significantly higher than that of the schizophrenia group (22.7 ± 6.2; range 10-35) (P = 0.041). However, when using the full Likert scale for scoring, the difference did not reach significance. In the ROC analysis of total AQ scores for AS versus schizophrenia, the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.65 (P = 0.02). Although mean AQ scores separated AS and schizophrenia at a group comparison level, significant overlap of AQ scores across the two diagnostic groups clearly reduces the discriminating power of the AQ in the separation of schizophrenia from AS.

  9. The Pathophysiology of Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Compart, Pamela J.

    2013-01-01

    Autism has been classically defined by its behavioral symptoms. Traditional medical research has focused on genetic or intrinsic brain-based causes of autism. While both of these are important, additional research has focused on the underlying disordered biochemistry seen in many individuals with autism. Many of these biomedical factors are amenable to treatment. This article will review the main pathophysiologic factors seen in individuals with autism spectrum disorders.

  10. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disability that can cause ... of CDC’s work. Autism: What's New Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder Data Community Report Press Release Learn the Signs. ...

  11. Autism and Learning Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Gregory; Pearson, Joanne

    2004-01-01

    In this article a short overview is given of the relationship between autism and learning disability. Autism exists with any level of intelligence, but many individuals with autism suffer also from learning disability. Although both disorders show overlap in some behaviours they are different in many aspects. Are they distinct syndromes which…

  12. In search of biomarkers for autism: scientific, social and ethical challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Pat; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Bolton, Patrick; Singh, Ilina

    2011-09-20

    There is widespread hope that the discovery of valid biomarkers for autism will both reveal the causes of autism and enable earlier and more targeted methods for diagnosis and intervention. However, growing enthusiasm about recent advances in this area of autism research needs to be tempered by an awareness of the major scientific challenges and the important social and ethical concerns arising from the development of biomarkers and their clinical application. Collaborative approaches involving scientists and other stakeholders must combine the search for valid, clinically useful autism biomarkers with efforts to ensure that individuals with autism and their families are treated with respect and understanding.

  13. Expressed emotion among schizophrenic patients in Lagos, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    or with siblings, 32% for those living with parents and 50% for those living with spouses.3 .... of Social and Clinical. Psychology. 1976b; 15:157-165. 8. Jablensky A, Sartorius N, Ernberg G, et al. Schizophrenia manifestations, incidence and course in different cultures. .... Williams G. Textbook of Sports Medicine. 2nd Edition: ...

  14. Asperger syndrome and schizophrenia: Νeurodevelopmental continuum or separated clinical entities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anomitri, Chr; Lazaratou, H

    2017-01-01

    This article is an overview of the literature on Asperger's syndrome and schizophrenia and aim to discuss their similarities and differences. Eugen Bleuler who associated the terms "schizophrenia" and "autism" a century ago, viewed autism as a form of solitude of schizophrenic patients representing withdrawal from reality. Ever since, there has been confusion as to the boundaries between these conditions. Nowadays recent research, from a variety of perspectives-genomics, neurodevelopment, psychiatry, etc. has given new information on these conditions. It is easier to demarcate these two disorders at the extremes, but it is extremely difficult dissociating milder forms of both disorders. Asperger's syndrome (AS), is considered to be a continuous and lifelong disorder with strong heritability, present from early childhood. It is included within the category of autism spectrum disorders and it is usually diagnosed in childhood. Patients with Asperger syndrome are often diagnosed late or they are considered as having schizophrenia. Misdiagnosing Asperger syndrome creates severe problems by preventing effective therapy. A lot of clinical characteristics of Asperger's syndrome are also present in schizophrenia, such as impaired social interaction, disabilities in communication and restricted interests. On the other side some clinical features may facilitate the differential diagnosis, such as the younger age at onset, family history of pervasive developmental disorders, pragmatic aspects of language use, lack of imagination, ect. It is known that symptoms of Asperger's syndrome have some overlap with those of schizophrenia, but less is known about comorbidity between these two syndromes. It is still a question whether autism spectrum disorders in young children can increase the risk for the development of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, later in life. Both disorders are of neurodevelopmental origin and genetic factors are prominent. In both neurocognitive

  15. Commentary: The Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charman, Tony; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Baird, Gillian; Cox, Antony; Wheelwright, Sally; Swettenham, John; Drew, Auriol

    2001-01-01

    This article comments on results of a study (EC 629 869) on the reliability of the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT), a early detection screening test. It discusses concerns relating to clinic vs. population samples, data analysis, use of a parent questionnaire only to identify autism, and the age of screening. (Contains…

  16. Maternal Vitamin D Levels and the Autism Phenotype among Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Holt, Barbara J.; Serralha, Michael; Holt, Patrick G.; Hart, Prue H.; Kusel, Merci M. H.

    2013-01-01

    We tested whether maternal vitamin D insufficiency during pregnancy is related to the autism phenotype. Serum 25(OH)-vitamin D concentrations of 929 women were measured at 18 weeks' pregnancy. The mothers of the three children with a clinical diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder had 25(OH)-vitamin D concentrations above the population mean.…

  17. Coexistence of 9p Deletion Syndrome and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günes, Serkan; Ekinci, Özalp; Ekinci, Nuran; Toros, Fevziye

    2017-01-01

    Deletion or duplication of the short arm of chromosome 9 may lead to a variety of clinical conditions including craniofacial and limb abnormalities, skeletal malformations, mental retardation, and autism spectrum disorder. Here, we present a case report of 5-year-old boy with 9p deletion syndrome and autism spectrum disorder.

  18. Anxiety Symptoms in Young People with Autism Spectrum Disorder Attending Special Schools: Associations with Gender, Adaptive Functioning and Autism Symptomatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magiati, Iliana; Ong, Clarissa; Lim, Xin Yi; Tan, Julianne Wen-Li; Ong, Amily Yi Lin; Patrycia, Ferninda; Fung, Daniel Shuen Sheng; Sung, Min; Poon, Kenneth K.; Howlin, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety-related problems are among the most frequently reported mental health difficulties in autism spectrum disorder. As most research has focused on clinical samples or high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorder, less is known about the factors associated with anxiety in community samples across the ability range. This…

  19. The Autism Mental Status Exam: Sensitivity and Specificity Using DSM-5 Criteria for Autism Spectrum Disorder in Verbally Fluent Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodberg, David; Weinger, Paige M.; Halpern, Danielle; Parides, Michael; Kolevzon, Alexander; Buxbaum, Joseph D.

    2014-01-01

    The phenotypic heterogeneity of adults suspected of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) requires a standardized diagnostic approach that is feasible in all clinical settings. The autism mental status exam (AMSE) is an eight-item observational assessment that structures the observation and documentation of social, communicative and behavioral signs and…

  20. Design and Cohort Characteristics of the Social Spectrum Study: A Multicenter Study of the Autism Spectrum Among Clinically Referred Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvekot, Jorieke; Hoopen, Leontine W Ten; Slappendel, Geerte; van der Ende, Jan; Verhulst, Frank C; van der Sijde, Ad; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the design and cohort characteristics of the Social Spectrum Study: a clinical cohort study that used a two-phase sampling design to identify children at risk for ASD. After screening 1281 children aged 2.5-10 years who had been consecutively referred to one of six mental health services in the Netherlands, children who screened positive for ASD (n = 428) and a random selection of screen negatives (n = 240) were invited to participate in diagnostic assessments and questionnaires regarding the child, family and society. A 1-year follow-up was also conducted. Results from this study may contribute to knowledge of the identification and characterization of children with ASD, family processes, and the impact of ASD on the family and society.

  1. Evaluation and Socio-occupational Intervention in Bipolar and Schizophrenic Patients within a Multimodal Intervention Program- PRISMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Zuluaga, Ana M; Duica, Kelly; Ruiz Galeano, Carlos; Vargas, Cristian; Agudelo Berruecos, Yuli; Ospina, Sigifredo; López-Jaramillo, Carlos

    Functional improvement in bipolar and schizophrenic patients is one of the main aims of treatment. Nevertheless, there is no evidence about the effect of socio-occupational intervention within a multimodal intervention (MI) programme. To describe the socio-occupational profile and to evaluate the functional effect of a MI in bipolar I and schizophrenic patients. A prospective, longitudinal, therapeutic-comparative study was performed including 302 subjects (104 schizophrenic and 198 Bipolar Disorder I [BDI] patients), who were randomised into two groups, multimodal (psychiatry, psychology, medicine, occupational therapy, neuropsychology, and family therapy), or traditional intervention (psychiatry and medicine only). Several scales were applied to assess assertiveness, free time management, social abilities, general anxiety, self-care and performance in home, work and community tasks. After performing the longitudinal analysis, it was shown that the multimodal intervention was more effective than traditional intervention in general anxiety scores (P=.026) and development in home tasks (P=.03) in schizophrenic patients. No statistical differences were found in bipolar patients. The other variables showed improvement, however, their effect was similar in both intervention groups. Our study identified functional improvement in home tasks in schizophrenic patients after receiving multimodal intervention. Other variables also showed improvement for both interventions groups. Future studies, applying longer rehabilitation programs and other ecological strategies should be performed to identify the most effective interventions. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. Intensive Behavioral Treatment of Urinary Incontinence of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Archival Analysis of Procedures and Outcomes from an Outpatient Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanney, Nicole M.; Jostad, Candice M.; LeBlanc, Linda A.; Carr, James E.; Castile, Allison J.

    2013-01-01

    LeBlanc, Crossett, Bennett, Detweiler, and Carr (2005) described an outpatient model for conducting intensive toilet training with young children with autism using a modified Azrin and Foxx, protocol. In this article, we summarize the use of the protocol in an outpatient setting and the outcomes achieved with a large sample of children with autism…

  3. Are autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder different manifestations of one overarching disorder? : Cognitive and symptom evidence from a clinical and population-based sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Jolanda M J; Oerlemans, Anoek M; van Steijn, Daphne J; Lappenschaar, Martijn G A; de Sonneville, Leo M J; Buitelaar, Jan K; Rommelse, Nanda N J

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently co-occur. Given the heterogeneity of both disorders, several more homogeneous ASD-ADHD comorbidity subgroups may exist. The current study examined whether such subgroups exist, and whether their

  4. A Randomized Clinical Trial Comparison between Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) and Structured Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Intervention for Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzaheri, Fereshteh; Koegel, Lynn Kern; Rezaee, Mohammad; Rafiee, Seyed Majid

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating studies are documenting specific motivational variables that, when combined into a naturalistic teaching paradigm, can positively influence the effectiveness of interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The purpose of this study was to compare two applied behavior analysis (ABA) intervention procedures, a…

  5. Training Adults and Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder to Be Compliant with a Clinical Dental Assessment Using a TEACCH-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Lorena M.; Martínez-Sanchis, Sonia; Silvestre, Francisco J.

    2014-01-01

    The specific neuropsychological and sensory profile found in persons with autism spectrum disorders complicate dental procedures and as a result of this, most are treated under general anesthesia or unnecessary sedation. The main goal of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a short treatment and education of autistic and related…

  6. Mortality and causes of death in schizophrenic patients in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, P B; Juel, K

    1990-01-01

    A cohort consisting of 6178 people that were psychiatric inpatients with a clinical schizophrenia diagnosis in 1957 were followed up from 1957 through 1986, and their cause-specific mortality was determined. Mortality from cardiovascular diseases, lung diseases, gastrointestinal and urogenital...... disorders, accidents and suicide was increased, whereas mortality from cerebrovascular disorders was reduced. In the male patients cancer mortality was reduced whereas cancer mortality in the female patients was increased. Mortality from a number of causes that theoretically could be associated with side...

  7. Study on Positive and Negative Signs in Chronic Schizophrenic Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahel Hemmati

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Schizophrenia has different clinical manifestations, although, it is one disorder patients divided to two groups type 1 and type 2. type 1 who have positive and type 2 who have negative signs. Materials & Methods: They have chronic schizophrenia and treated at least with one antipsychotic drug. With checklist the signs were controlled. Results: In these chronic patients, hallucinations (positive sign are seen with almost all of negative signs. In the other hand, (1 Flat affect (2 A logia & volition (3 Social inattentiveness (4 Inability to feel intimacy are seen more than another signs. Conclusion: For these above  patients new antipsychotic must be examined.

  8. Repint of "Reframing autism as a behavioral syndrome and not a specific mental disorder: Implications of genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tordjman, S; Cohen, D; Anderson, G M; Botbol, M; Canitano, R; Coulon, N; Roubertoux, P L

    2018-06-01

    Clinical and molecular genetics have advanced current knowledge on genetic disorders associated with autism. A review of diverse genetic disorders associated with autism is presented and for the first time discussed extensively with regard to possible common underlying mechanisms leading to a similar cognitive-behavioral phenotype of autism. The possible role of interactions between genetic and environmental factors, including epigenetic mechanisms, is in particular examined. Finally, the pertinence of distinguishing non-syndromic autism (isolated autism) from syndromic autism (autism associated with genetic disorders) will be reconsidered. Given the high genetic and etiological heterogeneity of autism, autism can be viewed as a behavioral syndrome related to known genetic disorders (syndromic autism) or currently unknown disorders (apparent non-syndromic autism), rather than a specific categorical mental disorder. It highlights the need to study autism phenotype and developmental trajectory through a multidimensional, non-categorical approach with multivariate analyses within autism spectrum disorder but also across mental disorders, and to conduct systematically clinical genetic examination searching for genetic disorders in all individuals (children but also adults) with autism. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Reframing autism as a behavioral syndrome and not a specific mental disorder: Implications of genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tordjman, S; Cohen, D; Coulon, N; Anderson, G M; Botbol, M; Canitano, R; Roubertoux, P L

    2017-01-30

    Clinical and molecular genetics have advanced current knowledge on genetic disorders associated with autism. A review of diverse genetic disorders associated with autism is presented and for the first time discussed extensively with regard to possible common underlying mechanisms leading to a similar cognitive-behavioral phenotype of autism. The possible role of interactions between genetic and environmental factors, including epigenetic mechanisms, is in particular examined. Finally, the pertinence of distinguishing non-syndromic autism (isolated autism) from syndromic autism (autism associated with genetic disorders) will be reconsidered. Given the high genetic and etiological heterogeneity of autism, autism can be viewed as a behavioral syndrome related to known genetic disorders (syndromic autism) or currently unknown disorders (apparent non-syndromic autism), rather than a specific categorical mental disorder. It highlights the need to study autism phenotype and developmental trajectory through a multidimensional, non-categorical approach with multivariate analyses within autism spectrum disorder but also across mental disorders, and to conduct systematically clinical genetic examination searching for genetic disorders in all individuals (children but also adults) with autism. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. An investigation of factors increasing the risk of aggressive behaviour among schizophrenic inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel eLejoyeux

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the studyThis study tried to identify risk factors of aggressive behavior in a population of schizophrenic inpatients. We tested the association between aggressive behavior and socio-demographic characteristics, addictive disorders, history of suicide attempt and sexual violence, impulsivity and sensation seeking.MethodsAll consecutive schizophrenic inpatients (100 were assessed during six months. Aggressive behavior was quantified with a standardized scale, the Overt Aggression Scale (OAS. We studied socio-demographic characteristics and the history of suicide attempt and sexual violence with a specific standardized questionnaire. Addictive disorders were identified with the Fagerström and CAGE questionnaires and with the DSM-IV-R diagnostic criteria for nicotine, alcohol, cannabis opiates, and cocaine abuse and dependence disorders. Lastly, we studied sensation-seeking with the Zuckerman scale and impulsivity with the Barratt scale. ResultsLinear regression identified four factors associated with aggressive behaviour: male gender (odd ratio =12.8, history of sexual violence (odd ratio = 3.6, Fagerström score (odd ratio= 1.3, number of cigarettes smoked each day (odd ratio=1.16. Patients with nicotine use or dependence had significantly higher levels of OAS scores. This difference was not observed between patients with or without alcohol dependence. OAS scores were correlated to the number of cigarettes smoked each day and to Fagerström scores. Patients with a higher level of sensation seeking and impulsivity also had higher OAS scores. ConclusionA Typical schizophrenic patient at risk of showing aggressive behavior is a man, who smokes and presents a history of sexual violence.

  11. CIGARETTE SMOKING IN SCHIZOPHRENIC PATIENTS THAT ARE CURRENTLY TREATED IN A MEXICAN HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Rodríguez-Mayoral

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: tobacco smoking is the most commonly substance abused in psychiatric patients; among them, patients with schizophrenia are the highest abusers. Smoking is related to a decrease in the quality life and life expectancy, as well as interacting with psychotropic drugs. In Mexico, there is not basic descriptive knowledge about the main variables related to cigarette smoking in psychiatric population. The aim of this study was to know the relation among variables (beginning and course of the disease, use of other drugs and times of hospitalization among others and cigarette smoking in a Mexican population of hospitalized schizophrenic patients. Method: The relation between the main variables and smoking were evaluated in a Mexican population of schizophrenic patients while hospitalized. A casuistic sampling was performed in 96 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and they were divided into three groups: 1 non-smokers, 2 ex-smokers and 3 smokers; according to their score on the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence. Results: The results showed that hospitalized schizophrenic patients smoke 2.7 times more than the general population. Most of these patients showed moderate to high dependence of nicotine, as well as a higher risk for other drugs abuse (marihuana mainly. Most patients started smoking before the first positive symptoms of schizophrenia appeared, and their symptoms started at an earlier age than in patients without a smoking background. Conclusions: Similar studies will allow deepening into specific aspects that modify and or improve the prescribed treatments for each psychiatric patient in hospital settings.

  12. The fear of object loss, responsiveness to subliminal stimuli, and schizophrenic psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwack, T R; Wiedemann, C F; Yager, J

    1979-02-01

    Thirty schizophrenic patients were seen individually for three sessions in a balanced design. In each session, following subliminal stimulation with a neutral stimulus, a baseline assessment of pathology was made. Then, in different sessions, in counterbalanced order, each patient received one of three experimental (or "critical") stimuli: a) a neutral control stimulus; b) a message--CANNIBAL EATS PERSON--intended to activate aggressive ideation; c) a message--I AM LOSING MOMMY--intended to activate fantasies of object loss. Each of these conditions was followed by an initial and later assessment of pathology, and finally by a measure of the patients' sense of differentiation from a mothering figure. In the final session other measures were also obtained, including each patient's conscious association to the critical stimuli when presented supraliminally. The major results were: a) as in previous experiments, the subliminal aggressive message intensified pathology and aggressive ideation--especially for relatively undifferentiated and relatively nondefended patients; b) subliminal stimulation of fantasies of object loss also increased pathology--especially for nondefended patients--and also increased the patients' sense of merging with the mothering object; c) the patients' response to subliminal stimuli--including presumably neutral ones--was a function of the conscious meaning(s) of such stimuli. It was concluded that: a) the threat of object loss (real or fantasied) may be one of the motivations supporting the development of pathology in schizophrenics; b) the activation of fantasies of aggressive destruction can exacerbate schizophrenic pathology--perhaps by activating fantasies of object loss; c) future research with subliminal stimulation should consider carefully the differential responsiveness of subjects to the content of particular messages.

  13. Comparison of urinary oxidative biomarkers in Iranian children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, Akram; Rashedi, Vahid; Rezaei, Mohammad

    2014-11-01

    Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder usually presents in early childhood and thought to be influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Individuals with autism vary widely in abilities, intelligence, and behaviors. It is common for children with autism to exhibit eating disorders and some have preferences for soft and sweetened food making them susceptible to caries. Furthermore, a wide spectrum of medical and behavioral symptoms exhibited by children with autism makes routine dental care very difficult. Intellectual disability is evident in approximately 70% of individuals with autism and most psychiatric disorders, including autism, are associated with increased oxidative stress. 29 subjects diagnosed with autism, in the age group of 6 to 12 years, were a part of the study. Furturemore, 24 normal healthy siblings of same age group were taken as the control group. The present study aimed to evaluate oxidative stress biomarkers such as urinary total antioxidant concentration (TAC), catalase activity (CAT) and total thiol molecules (TTM). The results showed the autism group have significantly higher CAT activity and concomitant lower TAC and TTM concentration in comparison with control group. The results are discussed in relation to an increased vulnerability to oxidative damage, which may contribute to the development and clinical manifestation of symptoms of autism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Fertility Clinic Success Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Defects ART and Autism 2013 Assisted Reproductive Technology Fertility Clinic Success Rates Report Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Additional Information About ART in the United States. Fertility Clinic Tables Introduction to Fertility Clinic Tables [PDF - ...

  15. Epilepsy in patients with autism: links, risks and treatment challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besag FMC

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Frank MC Besag Neurodevelopmental Team, East London Foundation NHS Trust, Family Consultation Clinic, Bedford, UK Abstract: Autism is more common in people with epilepsy, approximately 20%, and epilepsy is more common in people with autism with reported rates of approximately 20%. However, these figures are likely to be affected by the current broader criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD, which have contributed to an increased prevalence of autism, with the result that the rate for ASD in epilepsy is likely to be higher and the figure for epilepsy in ASD is likely to be lower. Some evidence suggests that there are two peaks of epilepsy onset in autism, in infancy and adolescence. The rate of autism in epilepsy is much higher in those with intellectual disability. In conditions such as the Landau–Kleffner syndrome and nonconvulsive status epilepticus, the epilepsy itself may present with autistic features. There is no plausible mechanism for autism causing epilepsy, however. The co-occurrence of autism and epilepsy is almost certainly the result of underlying factors predisposing to both conditions, including both genetic and environmental factors. Conditions such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety and sleep disorders are common in both epilepsy and autism. Epilepsy is generally not a contraindication to treating these conditions with suitable medication, but it is important to take account of relevant drug interactions. One of the greatest challenges in autism is to determine why early childhood regression occurs in perhaps 25%. Further research should focus on finding the cause for such regression. Whether epilepsy plays a role in the regression of a subgroup of children with autism who lose skills remains to be determined. Keywords: epilepsy, autism, regression, genetics, environment, Landau-Kleffner, CSWS 

  16. History of music therapy treatment interventions for children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke-Hernández, Alaine E

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a systematic review of the history of music therapy research and treatment of children with autism. Understanding such history is important in order to improve clinical efficacy and inform future research. This paper includes a history of autism diagnosis, reviews strengths and limitations of music therapy practice with children with autism from 1940-2009, and suggests direction for future music therapy research and clinical practice with this population. Literature was limited to the English language and obtained with the following search terms: autism, autistic, (early) infantile autism, child, therapeutic music, musical therapy, and music therapy. Table of contents from music therapy journals were searched, and reference lists from obtained articles were perused for additional articles. This historical review focused primarily on journal articles, however, books and book chapters that appeared to hold particular historical significance were also included.

  17. What causes autism? Exploring the environmental contribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrigan, Philip J

    2010-04-01

    Autism is a biologically based disorder of brain development. Genetic factors--mutations, deletions, and copy number variants--are clearly implicated in causation of autism. However, they account for only a small fraction of cases, and do not easily explain key clinical and epidemiological features. This suggests that early environmental exposures also contribute. This review explores this hypothesis. Indirect evidence for an environmental contribution to autism comes from studies demonstrating the sensitivity of the developing brain to external exposures such as lead, ethyl alcohol and methyl mercury. But the most powerful proof-of-concept evidence derives from studies specifically linking autism to exposures in early pregnancy - thalidomide, misoprostol, and valproic acid; maternal rubella infection; and the organophosphate insecticide, chlorpyrifos. There is no credible evidence that vaccines cause autism. Expanded research is needed into environmental causation of autism. Children today are surrounded by thousands of synthetic chemicals. Two hundred of them are neurotoxic in adult humans, and 1000 more in laboratory models. Yet fewer than 20% of high-volume chemicals have been tested for neurodevelopmental toxicity. I propose a targeted discovery strategy focused on suspect chemicals, which combines expanded toxicological screening, neurobiological research and prospective epidemiological studies.

  18. Frontal dopamine D(2/3) receptor binding in drug-naive first-episode schizophrenic patients correlates with positive psychotic symptoms and gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glenthoj, Birte Y; Mackeprang, Torben; Svarer, Claus

    2006-01-01

    of male schizophrenic patients, higher frontal BP values in male (n = 17) compared to female (n = 8) patients, and - in accordance with this - significantly fewer positive schizophrenic symptoms in the female patients. No significant differences in BP values were observed between patients and controls...

  19. [Social and work rehabilitation of schizophrenics under the shop conditions of an industrial enterprise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzamastsev, Iu N

    1979-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the results and effectivity of rehabilitation of 219 schizophrenic patients with unfavourable variants of development, who worked for 1--3 years in shops of an enterprise, intended for promoting the rehabilitative treatment and employment of mental patients. with the use of special rating scales, the efficacy of rehabilitation attained in therapeutic-occupational shops (TOS) and in industrial shops. The study demonstrated that the results of rehabilitation in conditions of a shop are significantly higher than the corresponding indices in conditions of TOS.

  20. [Various aspects of cognitive activities of schizophrenics. III. Maladjustment assimilation/accommodation and generalization of reasoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blein, G; Azorin, J M; Vollrath, J L; Andréoli, A; Tissot, R

    1987-05-01

    Paranoid schizophrenics are unable to balance affirmation and negation. Using the terms of Jean Piaget, they therefore only partially achieve the "équilibrations majorantes" of level II and never those of level III. In their thinking, they have access to the "généralisations inductives" (often excessive ones), but rarely to the "généralisations constructives complétives". They do not have access to the "généralisations synthétisantes" or to the feeling that logic is necessary. They oscillate between the positivist need to measure or verify and absolute beliefs issued from magical thinking.

  1. Visual field loss in schizophrenia: evaluation of magnocellular pathway dysfunction in schizophrenic patients and their parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gracitelli CPB

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Carolina Pelegrini Barbosa Gracitelli,1 Fabiana Benites Vaz de Lima,2,3 Rodrigo A Bressan,2,3 Augusto Paranhos Junior1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; 2LiNC – Interdisciplinary Laboratory of Neuroimaging and Cognition, Department of Psychiatry, Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; 3PROESQ – Schizophrenia Program, Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP, São Paulo, SP, Brazil Purpose: We sought to evaluate the visual pathway deficits in schizophrenic patients, compared with their parents and healthy controls, using Matrix frequency doubling technology (FDT perimetry. Matrix FDT is an ophthalmic test used to detect visual field loss. Method: A total of 13 patients, 13 parents, and 12 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Participants were subjected to Matrix FDT perimetry in a single test session. We analyzed the mean deviation for each eye and used a generalized estimated equation to evaluate differences among the groups and correct the dependency between the eyes. Results: The global mean deviation (presented as the mean of both eyes was significantly lower in the schizophrenic patients than in their parents or controls. Analysis of the general sensitivity of the fibers crossing the optic chiasm showed a difference between the groups (P = 0.006, indicating that the sensitivity of the fibers crossing the optic chiasm was lower than those which did not cross. But when we analyzed the specific groups, the difference between the fibers was not considerable. Comparison of the right and left hemispheres showed that general sensitivity was lower for the left hemisphere, but when we analyzed specific groups, the difference was not significant (P = 0.29. Conclusion: These findings are suggestive of a lower global sensitivity in schizophrenic patients and their parents compared with controls. This difference may be an endophenotype of schizophrenia

  2. Effects of hormones on cognition in schizophrenic male patients--preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratek, Agnieszka; Koźmin-Burzyńska, Agnieszka; Krysta, Krzysztof; Cierpka-Wiszniewska, Katarzyna; Krupka-Matuszczyk, Irena

    2015-09-01

    Schizophrenia is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder of an unknown etiology and a variable phenotypic expression. In the recent years, the impact of hormones on the course of schizophrenia has been investigated. This study is aimed at assessing the level of correlating serum levels of hormones in schizophrenic male patients with their cognitive functioning measured with neuropsychological tests. In the index group there were 15 medicated male schizophrenic patients. In the control group there were 15 age and education matched healthy men. All subjects underwent analysis of serum hormones level (TSH, testosterone, estradiol, FSH, LH, progesterone and prolactin) and a battery of tests (Trail Making Test A and B, Stroop Test, Verbal and Semantic Fluency Test). The mean serum levels of the following hormones were higher in the index group than in the control group: TSH (1.76 mIU/L vs 1.58 mIU/L; p=0.66), progesterone (0.85 ng/ml vs 0.69 ng/ml; p=0.22) and prolactin (558.71 uIU/ml vs 181 uIU/ml; p=0.025). The mean levels of estradiol (24.36 pg/ml vs 25.40 ng/ml; p=0.64), FSH (3.17 mIU/ml vs 5.72 mIU/ml; p=0.019), LH (3.85 mIU/ml vs 5.77 mIU/ml; p=0.056) and testosterone (2.90 ng/ml vs 5.38 ng/ml; p=0.003) were higher in the control group. In the index group there were significant negative correlations between FSH and semantic fluency (ρ=-0.678606), progesterone and: TMT B (ρ=-0.586763), Stroop 1 (ρ=-0.701880) and Stroop 2 (ρ=-0.601074) and prolactin and TMT A (ρ=-0.579607). The preliminary results of our study show that serum levels of FSH and testosterone are significantly lower, whereas the level of prolactin is markedly higher, in schizophrenic male patients than in healthy men. There is an inverse correlation between serum levels of progesterone, FSH and prolactin and the results of certain cognitive functioning tests in schizophrenic men.

  3. Altered Expression Profile of IgLON Family of Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules in the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex of Schizophrenic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Karis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural adhesion proteins are crucial in the development and maintenance of functional neural connectivity. Growing evidence suggests that the IgLON family of neural adhesion molecules LSAMP, NTM, NEGR1, and OPCML are important candidates in forming the susceptibility to schizophrenia (SCZ. IgLON proteins have been shown to be involved in neurite outgrowth, synaptic plasticity and neuronal connectivity, all of which have been shown to be altered in the brains of patients with the diagnosis of schizophrenia. Here we optimized custom 5′-isoform-specific TaqMan gene-expression analysis for the transcripts of human IgLON genes to study the expression of IgLONs in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC of schizophrenic patients (n = 36 and control subjects (n = 36. Uniform 5′-region and a single promoter was confirmed for the human NEGR1 gene by in silico analysis. IgLON5, a recently described family member, was also included in the study. We detected significantly elevated levels of the NEGR1 transcript (1.33-fold increase and the NTM 1b isoform transcript (1.47-fold increase in the DLPFC of schizophrenia patients compared to healthy controls. Consequent protein analysis performed in male subjects confirmed the increase in NEGR1 protein content both in patients with the paranoid subtype and in patients with other subtypes. In-group analysis of patients revealed that lower expression of certain IgLON transcripts, mostly LSAMP 1a and 1b, could be related with concurrent depressive endophenotype in schizophrenic patients. Additionally, our study cohort provides further evidence that cannabis use may be a relevant risk factor associated with suicidal behaviors in psychotic patients. In conclusion, we provide clinical evidence of increased expression levels of particular IgLON family members in the DLPFC of schizophrenic patients. We propose that alterations in the expression profile of IgLON neural adhesion molecules are associated with brain

  4. Functional MRI in schizophrenia. Diagnostics and therapy monitoring of cognitive deficits of schizophrenic patients by functional MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furtner, J.; Prayer, D.; Sachs, G.

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive impairments are core psychopathological components of the symptomatic of schizophrenic patients. These dysfunctions are generally related to attention, executive functions and memory. This report provides information on the importance of using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for the diagnostics and therapy monitoring of the different subtypes of cognitive dysfunctions. Furthermore, it describes the typical differences in the activation of individual brain regions between schizophrenic patients and healthy control persons. This information should be helpful in identifying the deficit profile of each patient and create an individual therapy plan. (orig.) [de

  5. Autism spectrum disorder - Asperger syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... part of the larger developmental disorder category of autism spectrum disorder . ... American Psychiatric Association. Autism spectrum disorder. ... VA: American Psychiatric Publishing: 2013;50-59. Raviola GJ, ...

  6. [Treatment of Adult Schizophrenic Patients With Depot Antipsychotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo González, Luis Eduardo; Gómez Restrepo, Carlos; García Valencia, Jenny; de la Hoz Bradford, Ana María; Ávila-Guerra, Mauricio; Bohórquez Peñaranda, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    To determine the indications of long-acting antipsychotic injection and what its effectiveness and safety in adult patients with schizophrenia during the treatment maintenance phase. A clinical practice guideline was elaborated under the parameters of the Methodological Guide of the Ministerio de Salud y Protección Social to identify, synthesize and evaluate the evidence and make recommendations about the treatment and follow-up of adult patients with schizophrenia. The evidence of NICE guide 82 was adopted and updated. The evidence was presented to the Guideline Developing Group and recommendations, employing the GRADE system, were produced. The literature review shows that the evidence has moderate to low quality. 8 articles were used. The risk of relapse was lower with depot risperidone and paliperidone palmitate when compared with placebo. For the risk of hospitalizations comparing depot antipsychotics (APD) versus oral AP, the result is inconclusive. Globally the second-generation APD had a lower risk of discontinuation when compared with placebo. The second generation AP had higher risk of extrapyramidal syndromes than placebo, as in the use of antiparkinsonian. The comparison of second-generation AP injections versus placebo showed an increased risk of early weight gain. The use of depot antipsychotics in the maintenance phase of adult patients diagnosed with schizophrenia is recommended if there is no adherence to oral antipsychotics as the patient's preference. It is not recommended depot antipsychotics in the acute phase of schizophrenia in adults. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. Early Generalized Overgrowth in Boys With Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawarska, Katarzyna; Campbell, Daniel; Chen, Lisha; Shic, Frederick; Klin, Ami; Chang, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Context Multiple studies have reported an overgrowth in head circumference (HC) in the first year of life in autism. However, it is unclear whether this phenomenon is independent of overall body growth and whether it is associated with specific social or cognitive features. Objectives To examine the trajectory of early HC growth in autism compared with control groups; to assess whether HC growth in autism is independent of height and weight growth during infancy; and to examine HC growth from birth to 24 months in relationship to social, verbal, cognitive, and adaptive functioning levels. Design Retrospective study. Setting A specialized university-based clinic. Participants Boys diagnosed as having autistic disorder (n=64), pervasive developmental disorder–not otherwise specified (n=34), global developmental delay (n=13), and other developmental problems (n=18) and typically developing boys (n=55). Main Outcome Measures Age-related changes in HC, height, and weight between birth and age 24 months; measures of social, verbal, and cognitive functioning at age 2 years. Results Compared with typically developing controls, boys with autism were significantly longer by age 4.8 months, had a larger HC by age 9.5 months, and weighed more by age 11.4 months (P=.05 for all). None of the other clinical groups showed a similar overgrowth pattern. Boys with autism who were in the top 10% of overall physical size in infancy exhibited greater severity of social deficits (P=.009) and lower adaptive functioning (P=.03). Conclusions Boys with autism experienced accelerated HC growth in the first year of life. However, this phenomenon reflected a generalized process affecting other morphologic features, including height and weight. The study highlights the importance of studying factors that influence not only neuronal development but also skeletal growth in autism. PMID:21969460

  8. Discourse Analysis in Schizophrenic Patients on the Basis of Grice\\'s Cooperative Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma'soumeh Salmani

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The ultimate goal of this study is one of the discourse fields analysis, i.e. Grice's cooperative principles. Materials & Methods: In this comparative and case - control study, two groups of normal individuals and schizophrenic patients were selected by simple method from sample of convenience and interviewed based on the spontaneous part of Persian Aphasia Test. All the answers were analyzed with respect to the percent rate of errors in the 4 "cooperative maxims", and the errors were collected. Data were analyzed by Independent T Test, ANOVA, Kruskal Wallis and Mann Whitney. Results: There were significant differences between two groups in respect to all the Grice’s cooperative principles (P<0.001, maxim of quantity (P<0.001, maxim of relevance (P<0.001 and maxim of manner (P=0.02, but in maxim of quality there was no significant differeance (P=0.07. The mean percent of errors in the course of illness, education and age varieties were not significant. Conclusion: Schizophrenic patients have incoherence speech and this problem exists in the discourse field and social interactions, thus the patients frequently fail in observing the Gricean cooperative principles.

  9. Season of birth in suicides: excess of births during the summer among schizophrenic suicide victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karhumaa, Tuomo; Hakko, Helinä; Nauha, Rauno; Räsänen, Pirkko

    2013-01-01

    Season of birth is associated with several psychiatric disorders and suicidal behavior. We explored the association between the season of birth and suicide among schizophrenic and psychotic suicide victims. The study sample consisted of all suicides in the province of Oulu in Northern Finland from 1989 to 2010. Causes of death were extracted from death certificates, and psychiatric diagnoses associated with the hospital treatments were obtained from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. The seasons were defined as follows: winter (from November to January), spring (from February to April), summer (from May to July), and autumn (from August to October). Suicide victims (n = 1,902) were categorized as having either schizophrenia (n = 228) or psychosis other than schizophrenia (n = 240). Suicide victims without any hospital-treated mental disorder (n = 1,434) were used as a comparison group. The distribution of births among suicide victims with schizophrenia differed statistically significantly from that observed in the general population, with a peak in summer (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.0-1.5). Birth during summer may predispose schizophrenic persons to suicide. The putative roles of serotonin, dopamine, and vitamin D status in the season of birth of psychotic suicide victims are discussed. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Evidence for a chromosome 22q susceptibility locus for some schizophrenics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulver, A.E.; Wolyniec, P.; Nestadt, G. [Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Recent reports from linkage studies suggests that in some families there may be a gene associated with schizophrenia on chromosome 22q. Given the probable heterogeneity of schizophrenia, further exploration of this region was undertaken. The region was examined for candidate genes and diseases reported to have some psychiatric manifestations. Studies were initiated to examine the the potential phenotypic and molecular similarity between schizophrenia and velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS), a syndrome associated with an interstitial deletion of 22q11.2. Phenotypic expression: (1) psychiatric evaluations of VCFS patients and their relatives found a high rate of DSM III-R schizophrenia in the patients and of psychotic illness in their 2nd and 3rd degree relatives. (2) 160 schizophrenic patients from the Maryland Epidemiology Sample (MES) were evaluated for the presence of typical facies seen in VCFS. Rating a 5-point scale, {open_quotes}5{close_quotes} being most likely, 15 (9.4%) were rated {open_quotes}5{close_quotes} and 27 (16.9%) were rated {open_quotes}4{close_quotes} for the VCFS-like facial features. Molecular characteristics: fluorescent in situ hybridization methods (FISH) identified 3 schizophrenics among 60 in the MES with the microdeletion of probe sc11.lab commonly deleted in VCFS subjects. This work provides a model for the mapping of complex phenotypes such schizophrenia using both genetic and epidemiological methods.

  11. Behavioral phenotypes in schizophrenic animal models with multiple combinations of genetic and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hida, Hirotake; Mouri, Akihiro; Noda, Yukihiro

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a multifactorial psychiatric disorder in which both genetic and environmental factors play a role. Genetic [e.g., Disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1), Neuregulin-1 (NRG1)] and environmental factors (e.g., maternal viral infection, obstetric complications, social stress) may act during the developmental period to increase the incidence of schizophrenia. In animal models, interactions between susceptibility genes and the environment can be controlled in ways not possible in humans; therefore, such models are useful for investigating interactions between or within factors in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of schizophrenia. We provide an overview of schizophrenic animal models investigating interactions between or within factors. First, we reviewed gene-environment interaction animal models, in which schizophrenic candidate gene mutant mice were subjected to perinatal immune activation or adolescent stress. Next, environment-environment interaction animal models, in which mice were subjected to a combination of perinatal immune activation and adolescent administration of drugs, were described. These animal models showed interaction between or within factors; behavioral changes, which were obscured by each factor, were marked by interaction of factors and vice versa. Appropriate behavioral approaches with such models will be invaluable for translational research on novel compounds, and also for providing insight into the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

  12. Regional cerebral blood flow in schizophrenic patients; In relation to the subtypes of the disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagawa, Katsuo; Sibuya, Isoo; Oiji, Arata; Kawakatsu, Sinobu; Morinobu, Shigeru; Totsuka, Shiro (Yamagata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Kinoshita, Osami; Yazaki, Mitsuyasu

    1990-03-01

    Seventy-six schizophrenic patients were examined by a Xe-133 inhalation method to determine regional cerebral blood flow. A decreased blood flow was observed in the frontal lobe, especially in the right inferior part. In a study on the relationship between disease subtypes and regional cerebral blood flow, negative symptoms were found more predominantly associated with dissolution type than delusion type. In the group of dissolution type, a decreased blood flow was observed in both the right inferior frontal lobe and the right upper hemisphere, in comparison to the group of delution type. Patients presenting with auditory hallucination had a significantly higher incidence of both negative and positive symptoms, as compared with those not presenting with it. In such patients, a significantly decreased blood flow was also seen in the left upper frontal lobe and the bilateral parietal lobe. Xe-133 inhalation method should assist in evaluating brain function in schizophrenic patients, thus leading to the likelihood of developing a new treatment modality. (N.K.).

  13. Maternal depressive symptoms following autism spectrum diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Julie Lounds; Warren, Zachary E

    2012-07-01

    The current study examined depressive symptoms, concerning the week following autism spectrum diagnosis and an average of 1.4 years later, in mothers (n = 75) of young children diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Over three-quarters of mothers (78.7%) provided retrospective reports of clinically significant depressive symptoms regarding the week following their child's ASD diagnosis, with some 37.3% continuing to report clinically significant levels of depressive symptoms at follow-up. Depressive symptoms immediately following diagnosis were not related to initial global characteristics of child functioning, but were related to reported child problem behaviors and financial barriers at follow-up. Results of this study underscore the importance of attention to caregiver distress and depression within models of autism detection and intervention.

  14. Multicultural issues in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyches, Tina Taylor; Wilder, Lynn K; Sudweeks, Richard R; Obiakor, Festus E; Algozzine, Bob

    2004-04-01

    The professional literature provides ample evidence that individuals with autism exhibit a myriad of unusual social, communication, and behavioral patterns of interactions that present challenges to their families and service providers. However, there is a dearth of quality works on multicultural issues regarding autistic spectrum disorders. In this article, we explore issues surrounding autism and multiculturalism, with the intent not to provide answers but to raise questions for further examination. We focus our discussions on two primary issues: autism within cultural groups and multicultural family adaptation based on the framework of pluralistic societies in which some cultural groups are a minority within the dominant culture. We found differences in prevalence rates across races for autism and little information regarding how multicultural families adapt to raising a child with autism. Further, students with multicultural backgrounds and autism are challenged on at least four dimensions: communication, social skills, behavioral repertoires, and culture. Future research in these areas is clearly warranted.

  15. [Autism spectrum disorder and suicidality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguet, G; Contejean, Y; Doyen, C

    2015-09-01

    Most studies on suicide exclude subjects with autism spectrum disorders, yet there is a risk group. The purpose of this article is to present the data in the literature regarding the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of suicidality in subjects with autism spectrum disorders and to identify the factors that promote the transition to action. This review was carried out using the data set collected in Medline PubMed, items with "autism spectrum disorder", "pervasive developmental disorder", "Asperger's syndrome", "suicide", "suicide attempt", and "suicide behavior". In all subjects from our research on PubMed, 21.3% of subjects with autism spectrum disorder reported suicidal ideation, have attempted suicide or died by suicide (115 out of 539 subjects) and 7.7% of subjects supported for suicidal thoughts or attempted suicide exhibited an autism spectrum disorder (62 out of 806 subjects), all ages combined. Suicidal ideation and morbid preoccupation are particularly common in adolescents and young adults. Suicide attempts are accompanied by a willingness for death and can lead to suicide. They are more common in high-functioning autism and Asperger subjects. The methods used are often violent and potentially lethal or fatal in two cases published. Suicide risk depends on many factors that highlight the vulnerability of these subjects, following autistic and developmental symptoms. Vulnerability complicating the diagnosis of comorbid depressive and anxiety disorders are major factors associated with suicidality. Vulnerability but also directly related to suicidality, since the origin of physical and sexual abuse and victimization by peers assigning them the role of "scapegoat" are both responsible for acting out. Given the diversity of factors involved in the risk of suicide in this population, this does not validate "a" program of intervention, but the intervention of "customized programs". Their implementation should be as early as possible in order to treat

  16. Association between the blood concentrations of ammonia and carnitine/amino acid of schizophrenic patients treated with valproic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Masazumi; Amayasu, Hideaki; Itai, Takahiro; Yoshida, Hisahiro

    2017-01-01

    Administration of valproic acid (VPA) is complicated with approximately 0.9% of patients developing hyperammonemia, but the pathogenesis of this adverse effect remains to be clarified. The aim of the present study was to search for mechanisms associated with VPA-induced hyperammonemia in the light of changes in serum amino acids concentrations associated with the urea cycle of schizophrenic patients. Blood samples (10 mL) were obtained from 37 schizophrenic patients receiving VPA for the prevention of violent behaviors in the morning after overnight fast. Blood concentrations of ammonia, VPA, free carnitine, acyl-carnitine, and 40 amino acids including glutamate and citrulline were measured for each patient. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify amino acids or concomitantly administered drugs that were associated with variability in the blood concentrations of ammonia. The blood ammonia level was positively correlated with the serum glutamate concentration ( r  = 0.44, p  blonanserin ( p  < 0.01) was positively associated with the elevation of the blood ammonia level. We hypothisized that VPA would elevate the blood ammonia level of schizophrenic patients. The observed changes in serum amino acids are compatible with urea cycle dysfunction, possibly due to reduced carbamoyl-phosphate synthase 1 (CPS1) activity. We conclude that VPA should be prudently prescribed to schizophrenic patients, particularly those receiving mood stabilizers or certain antipsychotics.

  17. Taking cognizance of mental illness in schizophrenics and its association with crime and substance-related diagnoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkner, R; Haastrup, S; Jørgensen, T

    2003-01-01

    with schizophrenia born after November 1, 1963, data on criminality, substance-related diagnoses and contacts with the psychiatric hospital system were analysed. RESULTS: Compared with the non-convicted schizophrenics the convicted were older on first contact with the psychiatric hospital system and older when...... are aware of possible psychotic symptoms in criminal and abusing individuals to enable earlier detection and treatment....

  18. Taking cognizance of mental illness in schizophrenics and its association with crime and substance-related diagnoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkner, R; Haastrup, S; Jørgensen, T

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse how committed crimes and substance-related diagnoses are associated with the age on the first contact with the psychiatric hospital system and the age at diagnosing of schizophrenia among schizophrenics. METHOD: In a register-based study including all Danes diagnosed with sc...

  19. Nutritional and metabolic status of children with autism vs. neurotypical children, and the association with autism severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, James B; Audhya, Tapan; McDonough-Means, Sharon; Rubin, Robert A; Quig, David; Geis, Elizabeth; Gehn, Eva; Loresto, Melissa; Mitchell, Jessica; Atwood, Sharon; Barnhouse, Suzanne; Lee, Wondra

    2011-06-08

    The relationship between relative metabolic disturbances and developmental disorders is an emerging research focus. This study compares the nutritional and metabolic status of children with autism with that of neurotypical children and investigates the possible association of autism severity with biomarkers. Participants were children ages 5-16 years in Arizona with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (n = 55) compared with non-sibling, neurotypical controls (n = 44) of similar age, gender and geographical distribution. Neither group had taken any vitamin/mineral supplements in the two months prior to sample collection. Autism severity was assessed using the Pervasive Development Disorder Behavior Inventory (PDD-BI), Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC), and Severity of Autism Scale (SAS). Study measurements included: vitamins, biomarkers of vitamin status, minerals, plasma amino acids, plasma glutathione, and biomarkers of oxidative stress, methylation, sulfation and energy production. Biomarkers of children with autism compared to those of controls using a t-test or Wilcoxon test found the following statistically significant differences (p Autism group, mean levels of vitamins, minerals, and most amino acids commonly measured in clinical care were within published reference ranges.A stepwise, multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated significant associations between several groups of biomarkers with all three autism severity scales, including vitamins (adjusted R2 of 0.25-0.57), minerals (adj. R2 of 0.22-0.38), and plasma amino acids (adj. R2 of 0.22-0.39). The autism group had many statistically significant differences in their nutritional and metabolic status, including biomarkers indicative of vitamin insufficiency, increased oxidative stress, reduced capacity for energy transport, sulfation and detoxification. Several of the biomarker groups were significantly associated with variations in the severity of autism. These nutritional and metabolic

  20. Gender identity and sexual orientation in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Rita; Stokes, Mark A

    2017-09-01

    Clinical impressions indicate that there is an overrepresentation of gender-dysphoria within the autism spectrum disorder. However, little is presently known about the demographics of gender-identity issues in autism spectrum disorder. Based upon what little is known, we hypothesized that there would be an increased prevalence of gender-dysphoria among those with autism spectrum disorder compared to a typically developing population. We surveyed gender-dysphoria with the Gender-Identity/Gender-Dysphoria Questionnaire among 90 males and 219 females with autism spectrum disorder and compared these rates to those of 103 males and 158 females without autism spectrum disorder. When compared to typically developing individuals, autistic individuals reported a higher number of gender-dysphoric traits. Rates of gender-dysphoria in the group with autism spectrum disorder were significantly higher than reported in the wider population. Mediation analysis found that the relationship between autistic traits and sexual orientation was mediated by gender-dysphoric traits. Results suggest that autism spectrum disorder presents a unique experience to the formation and consolidation of gender identity, and for some autistic individuals, their sexual orientation relates to their gender experience. It is important that clinicians working with autism spectrum disorder are aware of the gender-diversity in this population so that the necessary support for healthy socio-sexual functioning and mental well-being is provided.

  1. Effects of plasma magnesium and prolactin on quantitative ultrasound measurements of heel bone among schizophrenic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renn Jenn-Huei

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoporosis is a bone disease that can reduce both bone mass and bone strength. It can cause serious fractures of bones, along with causing significant and even devastating physical, psychological and financial consequences for patients and their family members. Many reports have revealed that the prevalence of decreased bone density is higher in schizophrenic patients than in the non-psychological diseased population. The previous report of our group revealed that chronic schizophrenia patients have poorer BUA levels since they were young as compared to the general community population. Hyperprolactinemia and antipsychotics are reported to be among the risk factors for osteoporosis in chronic schizophrenic patients. Methods 93 schizophrenic patients with severely poor adjusted BUA values and 93 age and gender matched patients with normal adjusted BUA values from a previous survey study were selected. Data were collected via questionnaires and via reviews of antipsychotic medications. Blood samples were drawn, and serum levels of prolactin, estradiol, testosterone, magnesium, calcium, phosphate, osteocalcin, Cross-linked N-teleopeptide of type I collagen (NTX, thyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone were checked. The association between BUA levels and serum levels of the above items, along with the type of received antipsychotic medication, was evaluated. Results There was no significant association found between reduced BUA levels and serum prolactin, calcium, phosphate, osteocalcin, NTX, thyroid stimulating hormone and parathyroid hormone levels. There was also no association between BUA levels and types of currently received antipsychotics. There was no association between BUA levels and menstruation condition in female patients. Hypermagnesemia had a borderline association with classical and combined (classical and atypical antipsychotic medications in male patients. Nevertheless, hypermagnesemia is a significant

  2. Language and communication in children with autism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brynskov, Cecilia; Krøjgaard, Peter; Eigsti, Inge-Marie

    2016-01-01

    This paper takes a critical look at two assumptions about communication and language in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) which seem to exist in Denmark and to influence clinical practice. The two assumptions are: (1) Pragmatic language abilities are more or less absent in ASD, and (2...

  3. A comparison between effectiveness of three types of music on memory activity and sustained attention in schizophrenic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges bahmany

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder in which a lot of cognitive functions including memory, attention, motor skills, executive functions and intelligence are compromised. Numerous empirical studies showed that schizophrenic patients have problem in sustain retention and memory activity. The objective of this study was a comparison between effectiveness of three types of music on memory activity and sustain retention in schizophrenic patients. Material and Methods: A total of 60 schizophrenic patients (30 males , 30 females 18-48 years old were selected from available sampling frame. Participants were otherwise healthy except for schizophrenia. Wechsler Memory Scale and cognitive diagnostic battery Kay test were taken from all subjects. Then patients were randomly divided into three experimental groups (Iranian classic, western classic and pop music and three control groups. There were 10 participants (5 male, 5 female in each group. After taking these tests, music therapy course was performed on experimental groups. After music therapy sessions were completed, tests were taken again from groups. Results: Covariance analysis results indicated that music therapy is overall effective on memory activity. But type of music had no effect in improving memory activity. There wasn’t significant difference between groups considering type of music. Furthermore, covariance analysis showed that music therapy is totally effective on sustain retention and type of music is effective in this intervention. Pop music had the most effectiveness on schizophrenic patients in improving sustain retention. Conclusion: Performing music therapy improves memory and retention. More over, using pop music particularly has the most effect in improving sustain retention in schizophrenic patients.

  4. Characteristics of autism spectrum disorder in anorexia nervosa: A naturalistic study in an inpatient treatment programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchanturia, Kate; Adamson, James; Leppanen, Jenni; Westwood, Heather

    2017-11-01

    Previous research has demonstrated links between anorexia nervosa and autism spectrum disorder however, few studies have examined the possible impact of symptoms of autism spectrum disorder on clinical outcomes in anorexia nervosa. The aim of this study was to examine the association between symptoms of autism spectrum disorder and eating disorders, and other psychopathology during the course of inpatient treatment in individuals with anorexia nervosa. Participants with anorexia nervosa (n = 171) completed questionnaires exploring eating disorder psychopathology, symptoms of depression and anxiety, and everyday functioning at both admission and discharge. Characteristics associated with autism spectrum disorder were assessed using the Autism Spectrum Quotient, short version. Autism spectrum disorder symptoms were significantly positively correlated with eating disorder psychopathology, work and social functioning, and symptoms of depression and anxiety, but not with body mass index. Autism Spectrum Quotient, short version scores remained relatively stable from admission to discharge but there was a small, significant reduction in scores. There was no interaction between time and Autism Spectrum Quotient, short version scores on clinical symptom change. In anorexia nervosa, autism spectrum disorder symptoms appear to be associated with a more severe clinical presentation on admission to inpatient care. Autism spectrum disorder symptoms as assessed by self-report measures may be exacerbated by other mental health psychopathology, which warrants further investigation.

  5. Clinical report: a rare co-occurrence of tuberous sclerosis complex and Rett syndrome in a girl with mental retardation, epilepsy and autism

    OpenAIRE

    Belousova, Elena; Sukhorukov, Vladimir; Dorofeeva, Marina; Shagam, Lev; Vlodavetz, Dmitrii V.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. There are some genetic disorders with combination of mental retardation, epilepsy and autism in which the abnormal mammalian Target of Rapamycin (m-TOR) signaling is implicated. The most important of them is tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), but the disturbances of the m-TOR pathway can also be detected in Rett syndrome (RS), Fragile X syndrome and Down syndrome. We describe the rare case of co-occurrence of TSC and RS. Case study. The female child was born at term by normal de...

  6. Autism and Rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilker, Paul; Yergeau, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    Autism is a profoundly rhetorical phenomenon. And all--parents, educators, caregivers, policymakers, the public, and autistic people themselves--would be significantly empowered to understand and respond to it as such. In the continuing absence of stable scientific or medical knowledge about autism, one needs to shine a bright and insistent light…

  7. Autism and attachment security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, Anna Hinderika

    2006-01-01

    Autisme en veilige gehechtheid Men heeft lang gedacht dat kinderen met autisme, door hun problemen in sociale interacties en communicatie, niet in staat zijn om een emotionele band te ontwikkelen met hun ouders, met andere woorden zich te hechten aan hun ouders. Empirisch onderzoek heeft echter

  8. Psychophysiological perspectives on autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksma, Marco Rudolf

    2002-01-01

    Autism is a severe developmental neuropsychiatric disorder, with an onset in the first three years of life. It essentially affects aspects of behaviour which are generally regarded as 'human'. Core characteristics of autism are abnormalities in language, communication and soical interaction,

  9. Sexual Orientation in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, R; Stokes, M A

    2018-01-01

    Clinical impressions suggest a different sexual profile between individuals with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Little is presently known about the demographics of sexual orientation in ASD. Sexual Orientation was surveyed using the Sell Scale of Sexual Orientation in an international online sample of individuals with ASD (N = 309, M = 90, F= 219), aged (M = 32.30 years, SD = 11.93) and this was compared to sexual orientation of typically-developing individuals (N = 310, M = 84, F= 226), aged (M = 29.82 years, SD = 11.85). Findings suggested that sexual orientation was contingent on diagnosis (N = 570, χ 2 (9) =104.05, P Autism Res 2018, 11: 133-141. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Research suggests that individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) report increased homosexuality, bisexuality, and asexuality, but decreased heterosexuality. It is important to increase awareness about increased non-heterosexuality in ASD among autistic populations, medical professionals and care-takers, so as to provide specialized care, if needed and increase support and inclusion for non-heterosexual autistic individuals. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. [Epidemiological research in autism: an integrative view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada-De la Paz, M; Ferrari-Arroyo, M J; Touriño, E; Boada, L

    2005-01-15

    Sixty years after the first descriptions of Autism, the same diagnostic criteria based on clinical observation used then are still valid today. Two years ago, the Instituto de Salud Carlos III set up the Grupo de Estudio en los Trastornos del Espectro Autista (Autism Spectrum Disorders Study Group) with the aim of evaluating the current state of research in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in Spain. This group established collaborative links with different associations and set up a way of working that was more coordinated and closer to the real day-to-day situation experienced by the families involved. The aim of this review is to update certain areas of knowledge concerning the distribution of the factors that determine ASD, that is to say, about the epidemiology of these disorders. At the same time, it intends to arouse a greater degree of interest among professionals who are more directly involved in the study of pervasive developmental disorders. The latest diagnostic tools offer a higher degree of certainty in the complicated process of evaluating a case with symptoms of autism. Nevertheless, given the effectiveness of early attention and how it affects the prognosis, population-based ASD screening programmes must be implemented. These would have to include the use of Modified Check List for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT)-type questionnaires, followed by several levels of diagnosis, in order to reduce the number of false positives while at the same time increasing the true positives.

  11. Examination of Local Functional Homogeneity in Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing neuroimaging evidence suggests that autism patients exhibit abnormal brain structure and function. We used the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE sample to analyze locally focal (~8 mm functional connectivity of 223 autism patients and 285 normal controls from 15 international sites using a recently developed surface-based approach. We observed enhanced local connectivity in the middle frontal cortex, left precuneus, and right superior temporal sulcus, and reduced local connectivity in the right insular cortex. The local connectivity in the right middle frontal gyrus was positively correlated with the total score of the autism diagnostic observation schedule whereas the local connectivity within the right superior temporal sulcus was positively correlated with total subscores of both the communication and the stereotyped behaviors and restricted interests of the schedule. Finally, significant interactions between age and clinical diagnosis were detected in the left precuneus. These findings replicated previous observations that used a volume-based approach and suggested possible neuropathological impairments of local information processing in the frontal, temporal, parietal, and insular cortices. Novel site-variability analysis demonstrated high reproducibility of our findings across the 15 international sites. The age-disease interaction provides a potential target region for future studies to further elucidate the neurodevelopmental mechanisms of autism.

  12. Sensory correlations in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Janet K; Trivedi, Madhukar H; Grannemann, Bruce D; Garver, Carolyn R; Johnson, Danny G; Andrews, Alonzo A; Savla, Jayshree S; Mehta, Jyutika A; Schroeder, Jennifer L

    2007-03-01

    This study examined the relationship between auditory, visual, touch, and oral sensory dysfunction in autism and their relationship to multisensory dysfunction and severity of autism. The Sensory Profile was completed on 104 persons with a diagnosis of autism, 3 to 56 years of age. Analysis showed a significant correlation between the different processing modalities using total scores. Analysis also showed a significant correlation between processing modalities for both high and low thresholds, with the exception that auditory high threshold processing did not correlate with oral low threshold or touch low threshold processing. Examination of the different age groups suggests that sensory disturbance correlates with severity of autism in children, but not in adolescents and adults. Evidence from this study suggests that: all the main modalities and multisensory processing appear to be affected; sensory processing dysfunction in autism is global in nature; and sensory processing problems need to be considered part of the disorder.

  13. Ancient schwannoma of thoracic spine in a schizophrenic patient with somatic delusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Ting Wen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ancient schwannoma is a rare variant of schwannoma characterized by histopathologic degenerative changes, which are thought to be the result of long-term tumor growth and aging. However, ancient schwannoma in the spinal canal is particularly rare. We report a case of thoracic spine intradural extramedullary ancient schwannoma in a schizophrenic patient, who kept saying that “something in his back was giving him electric shock” for a long time. Unfortunately, this complaint was misinterpreted as somatic delusion symptoms. A spinal cord tumor was taken into consideration only after paraparesis developed. We have highlighted this case to remind every clinician to remain alert about the possibility of organic disease while treating patients with psychotic disorder history. Thorough neurological examination is required to avoid misdiagnosis. Spinal canal schwannoma can be totally removed successfully with good functional outcome and prognosis.

  14. Precursors to the Development of Anxiety Disorders in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    neurophysiological, and observational measures. Initial findings indicate that children with ASD who have clinically significant sensory are at increased risk for...presented at the 2016 North Carolina Psychological Association Undergraduate Research Conference, by Ms. Logan Beyer in a poster entitled “Updated...Durham, NC: Duke Center for Autism and Brain Development Clinical Seminar. (Presenter: Carpenter) 10 Carpenter KLH (2016). Anxiety and Autism

  15. Training of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Fellows in Autism and Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrus, Natasha; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy; Hellings, Jessica A.; Stigler, Kimberly A.; Szymanski, Ludwik; King, Bryan H.; Carlisle, L. Lee; Cook, Edwin H., Jr.; Pruett, John R., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disability can be clinically complex and often have limited access to psychiatric care. Because little is known about post-graduate clinical education in autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability, we surveyed training directors of child and adolescent psychiatry fellowship…

  16. Catha edulis chewing effects on treatment of paranoid schizophrenic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotb El-Sayed MI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mohamed-I Kotb El-Sayed, Hatem-K Amin Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Helwan University, Ain Helwan, Helwan, Cairo, Egypt Background: The current study’s aim is to evaluate the possible interaction effects of khat chewing on treatment of paranoid schizophrenic patients.Patients and methods: In the study group, 42 male subjects suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and were classified according to their khat chewing habits into two subgroups: either khat-chewer subgroup (SKc; n=21; r=11, h=10 or non-khat-chewer subgroup (SNKc; n=21, r=11, h=10. Each subgroup was further subdivided according to type of treatment into r (risperidone and h (haloperidol. Healthy male subjects (37 were subdivided into healthy khat-chewer as positive controls (HKc, n=17 and healthy non-khat-chewer as negative controls (HNKc, n=20. Plasma dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC, homovanillic acid, 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, epinephrine, and norepinephrine were estimated.Results: ANOVA and post hoc analysis showed that dopamine was illustrating significant elevation in all khat chewing groups. DOPAC was illustrating significant decrease in all khat chewing groups with an interesting outcome showing significant increase in DOPAC in SNKcr group due to risperidone effect. Homovanillic acid, serotonin, hydroxyindoleacetic acid, and norepinephrine were illustrating significant elevations in all khat chewing groups. Epinephrine was illustrating significant elevation in all chewers than non-chewers groups. Unexpected significant decrease in epinephrine in the SNKcr group indicated that risperidone drug is decreasing epinephrine through indirect mechanism involving calcium.Conclusion: Khat chewing in schizophrenic patients is contraindicated because it aggravates the disease symptoms, attenuates all used treatment medications, and deteriorates all biochemical markers of the patients. Keywords

  17. Virtual reality testing of multi-modal integration in schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkin, Anna; Peled, Avi; Weinshall, Daphna

    2005-01-01

    Our goal is to develop a new family of automatic tools for the diagnosis of schizophrenia, using Virtual Reality Technology (VRT). VRT is specifically suitable for this purpose, because it allows for multi-modal stimulation in a complex setup, and the simultaneous measurement of multiple parameters. In this work we studied sensory integration within working memory, in a navigation task through a VR maze. Along the way subjects pass through multiple rooms that include three doors each, only one of which can be used to legally exit the room. Specifically, each door is characterized by three features (color, shape and sound), and only one combination of features -- as determined by a transient opening rule -- is legal. The opening rule changes over time. Subjects must learn the rule and use it for successful navigation throughout the maze. 39 schizophrenic patients and 21 healthy controls participated in this study. Upon completion, each subject was assigned a performance profile, including various error scores, response time, navigation ability and strategy. We developed a classification procedure based on the subjects' performance profile, which correctly predicted 85% of the schizophrenic patients (and all the controls). We observed that a number of parameters showed significant correlation with standard diagnosis scores (PANSS), suggesting the potential use of our measurements for future diagnosis of schizophrenia. On the other hand, our patients did not show unusual repetition of response despite stimulus cessation (called perseveration in classical studies of schizophrenia), which is usually considered a robust marker of the disease. Interestingly, this deficit only appeared in our study when subjects did not receive proper explanation of the task.

  18. The effects of stimulating symbiotic fantasies on manifest pathology in schizophrenics: a revised formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelsohn, E M

    1981-09-01

    This study was designed as a further investigation of the ameliorative effects of stimulating a symbiotic fantasy in schizophrenics. Fifty-four adult male schizophrenic subjects were each seen individually for three experimental sessions. In each session there was exposure to a neutral subliminal stimulus followed by a baseline assessment of thought disorder and behavioral pathology. This was followed by exposure to one of three critical stimuli: a) a neutral control stimulus; b) the stimulus "mommy and I are one," designed to activate a fantasy of symbiotic gratification, and found in past studies to lead to pathology reduction; and c) "mommy and I are two," designed as a test of the specificity of oneness fantasy in producing symptomatic improvement. Each subject was exposed to the three critical simuli by counterbalanced order. Assessments of pathology were repeated after exposure to the experimental stimuli and comparisons were made with baseline measures. Results were: a) the subliminal symbiotic stimulus produced improvement on one of the measures of pathology, replicating findings from previous studies; and b) unexpectedly, the "mommy and I are two" stimulus led to pathology reduction on both dependent measures and proved significantly more ameliorative than the oneness stimulus. Associations obtained from subjects on a post hoc basis, the relationship between responses of individual subjects to the two stimuli, and the way in which order of presentation of the critical stimuli affected results supported the view that the twoness message also gratified symbiotic wishes while simultaneously providing reassurance against dangers associated with boundary loss. Results were discussed with an eye toward sharpening and refining the formulation advanced in the past to account for the ameliorative effects of the "oneness" stimulus.

  19. Pharmacotherapy of schizophrenic patients: preponderance of off-label drug use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pickar

    Full Text Available Multiple drug class combinations are often prescribed for the treatment of schizophrenia, although antipsychotic monotherapy reflects FDA labeling and scientific justification for combinations is highly variable. This study was performed to gain current data regarding drug treatment of schizophrenia as practiced in the community and to assess the frequencies of off-label drug class combinations. 200 DSM IV-diagnosed schizophrenic patients recruited from community treatment sources participated in this cross-sectional study of community based schizophrenic patients. Drug class categories include First and Second Generation Antipsychotic drugs (FGA and SGA, respectively, mood stabilizers, antidepressants and anti-anxiety drugs. 25.5% of patients received antipsychotic monotherapy; 70% of patients received an antipsychotic and another drug class. A total of 42.5% of patients received more than one antipsychotic drug. The most common drug class combination was antipsychotic and a mood stabilizer. Stepwise linear discriminant function analysis identified the diagnosis of schizoaffective schizophrenia, history of having physically hurt someone and high scores on the General Portion of the PANSS rating scale predicted the combined use of an antipsychotic drug and a mood stabilizer. "Real world" pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia has developed its own established practice that is predominantly off-label and may have outstripped current data support. The economic implications for public sector payers are substantial as well as for the revenue of the pharmaceutical industry, whose promotion of off-label drug use is an increasingly problematic. These data are consistent with the recognition of the therapeutic limitations of both first and second generation antipsychotic drugs.

  20. Childhood trauma interacted with BDNF Val66Met influence schizophrenic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xiao-Jiao; Lv, Xiao-Min; Ai, Xian-Ying; Sun, Meng-Meng; Cui, Kai-Yan; Yang, Li-Min; Wang, Li-Na; Yin, Ai-Hua; Liu, Lan-Fen

    2018-03-01

    The gene - environment (G × E) interaction effect is involved in severe mental disorders. However, whether the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism participates in the childhood-abuse influenced schizophrenic symptoms remains unclear. We examined the interaction between BDNF Val66Met, and childhood trauma (ChT) on psychotic symptoms in a Chinese Han population.To estimate the G × E interaction, psychiatric interviews, self-report questionnaires for ChT, and genotyping for BDNF Val66Met were carried out on 201 schizophrenic patients. G × E interactions were analyzed by generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR).Among all patients, 11.9%, 19.4%, 23.4%, 26.4%, and 73.6% reported emotional abuses, physical abuses (PA), sexual abuses (SA), emotional neglects (EN), and physical neglects (PN), respectively. Significant negative correlations were observed between anxiety/depression factors, and ChT total scores. Patients with 3 different BDNF genotypes showed significant differences in anxiety/depression scores. Significant 2-way interactions were found for Val66Met × PN, 3-way interactions were found for Val66Met × PN × PA, and four-way interactions were found for Val66Met × PN × PA × EN with regard to the excitement scores.Our findings suggested an involvement of BDNF Val66Met polymorphism after ChT in terms of risk for schizophrenia symptoms.

  1. The Application of Drawing and Painting to Decrease the Anixiety of the Schizophrenic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farbod Fadaei

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: People with schizophrenia continuous type (previously labeled as chronic, constitute the majority of inpatients in rehabilitation wards. These patients, apart from the characteristic signs and symptoms of schizophrenia, suffer from anxiety. This anxiety, not influenced by antipsychotic medications, can be a part of the schizophrenia per se, but it may be due to the unfavorable frame and quality of life in mental hospital wards. Every attempt in decreasing the anxiety of these patients, can be regarded as a step toward a more perfect treatment and rehabilitation plan, and elevating the quality of their lives. In this research the application of drawing and painting as a method to decrease the anxiety of these patients was evaluated. Materials & Methods: 100 schizophrenic patients (according to DSM-IV criteria who were hospitalized in long stay rehabilitation wards of Razi psychiatric center for at least 2 years, entered the research procedure. Their anxiety level was measured by the Cattel anxiety questionnaire. 50 patients, who were selected as experimental group, had 15 one hour sessions of drawing and painting. For the remainder 50 patients who were the control group, various neutral activities (as placebo were performed, during those hours. Medications were unchanged during the research. After the 15th session the anxiety levels of patients were evaluated for the second time. The scores obtained in the first and second evaluations in each group and between two groups were analyzed by appropriate statistical methods. Results: In comparing the mean scores obtained from the first and second measurements in experimental group by applying the t-test (in correlated groups, the difference was statistically significant (t=67.5, P<0.0l. Conclusion: Sessions of drawing and painting with appropriate duration and frequency can significantly diminish the anxiety in long stay schizophrenic patients in rehabilitation wards.

  2. REVIEW OF SCHREIBMAN'S THE SCIENCE AND FICTION OF AUTISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Linda A; Losowski-Sullivan, Sheryl; Riley, Andrew R

    2010-01-01

    Although the awareness of autism in the general public has increased significantly over the past 20 years, much of the widely disseminated information is not fully grounded in scientific fact. In The Science and Fiction of Autism (2005), Laura Schreibman addresses a series of debates and controversies in areas ranging from diagnostic practices and etiological theories to effective clinical practices. This book provides an overview of the field of autism that is suitable for well-educated parents and new professionals in the field.

  3. Subgrouping siblings of people with autism: Identifying the broader autism phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Carrie; Smith, Paula; Watson, Peter; Auyeung, Bonnie; Ring, Howard; Baron‐Cohen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the broader autism phenotype (BAP) in siblings of individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASC). Autistic traits were measured in typical controls (n = 2,000), siblings (n = 496), and volunteers with ASC (n = 2,322) using the Autism‐Spectrum Quotient (AQ), both self‐report and parent‐report versions. Using cluster analysis of AQ subscale scores, two sibling subgroups were identified for both males and females: a cluster of low‐scorers and a cluster of high‐scorers. Results show that while siblings as a group have intermediate levels of autistic traits compared to control individuals and participants with ASC, when examined on a cluster level, the low‐scoring sibling group is more similar to typical controls while the high‐scoring group is more similar to the ASC clinical group. Further investigation into the underlying genetic and epigenetic characteristics of these two subgroups will be informative in understanding autistic traits, both within the general population and in relation to those with a clinical diagnosis. Autism Res 2016, 9: 658–665. © 2015 The Authors Autism Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Autism Research PMID:26332889

  4. Sexuality and Gender Role in Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Case Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bejerot, Susanne; Eriksson, Jonna M.

    2014-01-01

    The 'extreme male brain theory of autism' describes an extreme male pattern of cognitive traits defined as strong systemising abilities paired with empathising weaknesses in autism spectrum disorder. However, beyond these cognitive traits, clinical observations have suggested an ambiguous gender-typed pattern regarding several sexually dimorphic traits. The aim of the present study was to investigate if patterns of non-cognitive sexually dimorphic traits differed between the autism spectrum d...

  5. Implementing UK Autism Policy & National Institute for Health and Care Excellence Guidance--Assessing the Impact of Autism Training for Frontline Staff in Community Learning Disabilities Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Alex; Browne, Sarah; Boardman, Liz; Hewitt, Lealah; Light, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    UK National Autism Strategy (Department of Health, 2010 and National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidance (NICE, 2012) states that frontline staff should have a good understanding of Autism. Fifty-six clinical and administrative staff from a multidisciplinary community Learning Disability service completed an electronic questionnaire…

  6. Use of artificial intelligence to shorten the behavioral diagnosis of autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis P Wall

    Full Text Available The Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R is one of the most commonly used instruments for assisting in the behavioral diagnosis of autism. The exam consists of 93 questions that must be answered by a care provider within a focused session that often spans 2.5 hours. We used machine learning techniques to study the complete sets of answers to the ADI-R available at the Autism Genetic Research Exchange (AGRE for 891 individuals diagnosed with autism and 75 individuals who did not meet the criteria for an autism diagnosis. Our analysis showed that 7 of the 93 items contained in the ADI-R were sufficient to classify autism with 99.9% statistical accuracy. We further tested the accuracy of this 7-question classifier against complete sets of answers from two independent sources, a collection of 1654 individuals with autism from the Simons Foundation and a collection of 322 individuals with autism from the Boston Autism Consortium. In both cases, our classifier performed with nearly 100% statistical accuracy, properly categorizing all but one of the individuals from these two resources who previously had been diagnosed with autism through the standard ADI-R. Our ability to measure specificity was limited by the small numbers of non-spectrum cases in the research data used, however, both real and simulated data demonstrated a range in specificity from 99% to 93.8%. With incidence rates rising, the capacity to diagnose autism quickly and effectively requires careful design of behavioral assessment methods. Ours is an initial attempt to retrospectively analyze large data repositories to derive an accurate, but significantly abbreviated approach that may be used for rapid detection and clinical prioritization of individuals likely to have an autism spectrum disorder. Such a tool could assist in streamlining the clinical diagnostic process overall, leading to faster screening and earlier treatment of individuals with autism.

  7. Clinical Holistic Medicine (Mindful Short-Term Psychodynamic Psychotherapy Complimented with Bodywork in the Treatment of Schizophrenia (ICD10-F20/DSM-IV Code 295 and Other Psychotic Mental Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical holistic medicine (CHM has developed into a system that can also be helpful with mentally ill patients. CHM therapy supports the patient through a series of emotionally challenging, existential, and healing crises. The patient’s sense of coherence and mental health can be recovered through the process of feeling old repressed emotions, understanding life and self, and finally letting go of negative beliefs and delusions. The Bleuler's triple condition of autism, disturbed thoughts, and disturbed emotions that characterizes the schizophrenic patient can be understood as arising from the early defense of splitting, caused by negative learning from painful childhood traumas that made the patient lose sense of coherence and withdraw from social contact. Self-insight gained through the therapy can allow the patients to take their bodily, mental, and spiritual talents into use. At the end of therapy, the patients are once again living a life of quality centered on their life mission and they relate to other people in a way that systematically creates value. There are a number of challenges meeting the therapist who works with schizophrenic and psychotic patients, from the potential risk of experiencing a patient's violence, to the obligation to contain the most difficult and embarrassing of feelings when the emotional and often also sexual content of the patient’s unconsciousness becomes explicit. There is a long, well-established tradition for treating schizophrenia with psychodynamic therapy, and we have found that the combination of bodywork and psychotherapy can enhance and accelerate the therapy and might improve the treatment rate further.

  8. [Autism spectrum disorder. Contemporary experimental researches review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luschekina, E A; Strelets, V B

    2014-01-01

    Autism, like schizophrenia, are heterogeneous diseases, which are directed by both genetic factors and external influences in the early stages of development. Knowledge about the similarities and differences of these disorders can help early diagnosis and treatment. Patients with autism have specific cognitive difficulties in social relations. They are characterized by impairment of social interaction, communication and behavioral flexibility. The severity of the delay the development of autistic children, clinical and psychological indicators is correlated with an increase in the high frequency of spontaneous EEG activity. Cognitive task in autistic children, unlike normal persons, does not lead to a significant restructuring of high-frequency EEG activity, which may be a violation of the reaction mechanism to external stimuli and behavioral disorders. Abnormality in high-frequency components of EEG reactivity on cognitive task, the perception of human faces and visual illusions as well as the inadequate system of mirror neurons, can be considered common mechanisms underlying disorders of autism and schizophrenia. These general mechanisms may be considered as related to violation of the inhibition-exitation balance, controlled via GABA-transmission and NMDA-receptors. A multidimensional study of patterns of disontogenesis in autism, in addition to detailing the clinical picture of disease and rehabilitation activities, allows us to clear the fundamental understanding of the brain.

  9. Functional MRI in schizophrenia. Diagnostics and therapy monitoring of cognitive deficits of schizophrenic patients by functional MRI; Funktionelle MRT bei Schizophreniepatienten. Diagnostik und Therapiemonitoring kognitiver Defizite schizophrener Patienten mittels funktioneller MRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtner, J.; Prayer, D. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Univ.-Klinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria); Sachs, G. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Univ.-Klinik fuer Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Wien (Austria)

    2010-02-15

    Cognitive impairments are core psychopathological components of the symptomatic of schizophrenic patients. These dysfunctions are generally related to attention, executive functions and memory. This report provides information on the importance of using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for the diagnostics and therapy monitoring of the different subtypes of cognitive dysfunctions. Furthermore, it describes the typical differences in the activation of individual brain regions between schizophrenic patients and healthy control persons. This information should be helpful in identifying the deficit profile of each patient and create an individual therapy plan. (orig.) [German] Kognitive Defizite sind ein zentraler Bestandteil der Symptomatik schizophrener Patienten. Diese Defizite betreffen v. a. die Aufmerksamkeit, exekutive Funktionen sowie das Gedaechtnis. Der vorliegende Beitrag zeigt den Stellenwert der funktionellen Magnetresonanztomographie (fMRT) in Hinblick auf Diagnostik und Therapiemonitoring der unterschiedlichen kognitiven Teilbereiche auf. Darueber hinaus werden die Unterschiede in Bezug auf die Aktivierung der einzelnen Gehirnareale zwischen schizophrenen Patienten und gesunden Kontrollpersonen dargestellt. Diese Informationen sollen helfen, in der Praxis ein Profil der kognitiven Leistungsreduktionen sowie ein darauf angepasstes Therapiekonzept zu erstellen. (orig.)

  10. Purkinje cell vulnerability and autism: a possible etiological connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Janet Kinnear

    2003-09-01

    Autism is a neurological disorder of unknown etiology. The onset of the abnormal growth and development within the brain is also not known. Current thought by experts in autism is that the time of onset is prenatal, occurring prior to 30 weeks gestation. However, autism comprises a heterogeneous population in that parents report either that their child was abnormal from birth, or that their child was developmentally normal until sometime after birth, at which time the child began to regress or deteriorate. Anecdotal reports suggest that some children with autism have significant illness or clinical events prior to the development of autistic symptoms. Conceivably, these children may become autistic from neuronal cell death or brain damage sometime after birth as result of insult. To support this theory is that marked Purkinje cell loss, the most consistent finding in the autistic disorder, can result from insult. Evidence suggests that the Purkinje cell is selectively vulnerable. This article discusses a theory that the selective vulnerability of the Purkinje cell may play a role in the etiology of autism, and suggests that a future direction in autism research may be to investigate the possibility of neuronal cell loss from insult as a cause of autism. Results of a small pilot survey are also discussed.

  11. AUTISM. Unraveling a pathway to autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burbach, J Peter H

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders with shared symptoms in the area of communication and language, restricted interests, and stereotyped and social behaviors. Causes lie in perturbations of brain development, which can be manifold, but genetic

  12. SOME ASPECTS OF THE AGGRESSIVE ACTS, COMMITTED BY SCHIZOPHRENIC PATIENTS, TRIGGERED BY SOME PSYCHO-TRAUMATIC FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Todorov

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The achievements of the contemporary psychopharmacology enable the out-patient treatment of schizophrenic patients, thus let them living in their usual social environment- family, relatives, neighbors, friends.In this connection, the real conditions of patients’ micro-social environment play an important role- either stimulating their compensatory mechanisms, or exercising negative impact on their adaptation and behavior.We examined 30 schizophrenic patients (22 males, 8 females, who have committed aggressive acts, triggered by psycho-traumatic situations with different sensible content, originating from their micro-social environment.Dominant were family conflicts, followed by conflicts with the neighbors. The aggressive acts were directed to concrete persons, from the close neighborhood, involved into the psycho-traumatic situations.Studying and evaluation of the aggressive acts, triggered by psycho-traumatic factors play an important role for their prevention.

  13. DSM-5 under-Identifies PDDNOS: Diagnostic Agreement between the DSM-5, DSM-IV, and Checklist for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Black, Amanda; Tierney, Cheryl D.

    2013-01-01

    Agreement between the DSM-5, DSM-IV, and Checklist for Autism Spectrum Disorder was assessed in 125 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), which included high and low functioning autism (HFA and LFA) and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDDNOS), and children with other clinical disorders (e.g., ADHD, mental…

  14. Learning about Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Learning About Autism Enter Search Term(s): Español Research Funding An Overview Bioinformatics Current Grants Education and Training Funding Extramural Research News Features Funding Divisions Funding ...

  15. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), the guidelines health care providers use to diagnose different mental health conditions, was released. The DSM-5 made significant changes to how autism is classified ...

  16. Chromosomal abnormalities and autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida El-Baz

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Chromosomal abnormalities were not detected in the studied autistic children, and so the relation between the genetics and autism still needs further work up with different study methods and techniques.

  17. [Autism and neuropsychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labruyère, Nelly; Sonie, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    In neuropsychology, the deficiencies associated with autism are generally classed into three areas: social cognition, executive functioning and central coherence. Autistic people however have singular capacities, notably with regard to their perceptual processing focused on details.

  18. Dental Health Status of Schizophrenic Patients in the Chronic Psychiatric Care Center in the Province of Chaharmahal va Bakhtiyary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Nik-Farjam

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Schizophrenia is a chronic disease . Schizophrenic patients are unable in personal fuction and self care such as dental health. Especially, side effects of anti– psych otic drugs cause some dental problems in the patient . Also dental problems may lead to some disease , so it is necessary to play full attention to dental health condition in schizophrenic patients. The aim of study was assessing the dental health status of schizophrenic patients confined in chronic psychiatric care center on Chaharmahal & Bakhtiyari. Materials & Methods: This survey is an analytical descriptive and cross-sectional study, 123 schizophrenic patients are assessed in 2008. The data was collected through interview, (using the Scale for the assessment of positive and negative symptom (SAPS and SANS, Decayed, Missed, Filled Teeth index (DMFT, Gingival index and demographic questionnaire. Quantities analysis of data was undertaken by using X 2, Man vetney test and Pearson r test . Results: The mean of DMFT was 19.43±7.71. There was a significant correlation between age, smoking history and cigarettes per day, oral hygiene condition and other negative symptoms and average DMFT (P&le0.05. Also there was a significant correlation between the severity of periodentitis and sex, history of smoking, number of smoked cigarettes per day, previous hospital admission and average of negative and positive symptoms. No significant correlation between the severity of periodentitis and mean DMFT (P&le0.05 was seen. Conclusion: Results of the study demonstrated that dental health of people with schizophrenia is poor.

  19. [Autism: An early neurodevelopmental disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet-Brilhault, F

    2017-04-01

    With approximately 67 million individuals affected worldwide, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is the fastest growing neurodevelopmental disorder (United Nations, 2011), with a prevalence estimated to be 1/100. In France ASD affects approximately 600,000 individuals (from childhood to adulthood, half of whom are also mentally retarded), who thus have a major handicap in communication and in adapting to daily life, which leads autism to be recognized as a national public health priority. ASD is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects several domains (i.e., socio-emotional, language, sensori-motor, executive functioning). These disorders are expressed early in life with an age of onset around 18 months. Despite evidence suggesting a strong genetic link with ASD, the genetic determinant remains unclear. The clinical picture is characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication and the presence of restrictive and repetitive behaviors (DSM-5, ICD-10). However, in addition to these two main dimensions there is significant comorbidity between ASD and other neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or with genetic and medical conditions. One of the diagnostic features of ASD is its early emergence: symptoms must begin in early childhood for a diagnosis to be given. Due to brain plasticity, early interventions are essential to facilitate clinical improvement. Therefore, general practitioners and pediatricians are on the front line to detect early signs of ASD and to guide both medical explorations and early rehabilitation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. [Guideline compliance in the treatment of schizophrenic patients. Introduction of a computer-assisted treatment pathway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godemann, F; Blittersdorf, K; Poschenrieder, M; Klimitz, H; Hauth, I; Gutzmann, H

    2010-05-01

    The goal of S3 Guidelines for the Treatment of Schizophrenia was to improve the care of patients with schizophrenic psychoses. However, the publication of guidelines alone does not ensure their consistent implementation. The use of treatment pathways represents one possible approach to help implement the complex treatment recommendations contained in the S3 Guidelines. The first computer-assisted treatment pathway for patients with schizophrenic psychoses was successfully incorporated into the everyday routine of psychiatric hospitals. The aim of the present study was to systematically analyse the impact of this measure on guideline compliance. Based on the S3 Guidelines for the Treatment of Schizophrenia developed by the German Association of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Neurology (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Psychiatrie, Psychotherapie und Nervenheilkunde; DGPPN), diagnostic and treatment procedures were defined by a multiprofessional working group with members from five different hospitals and subsequently incorporated into an existing hospital information system. In one of the five hospitals, the impact of this measure was analysed in a pilot study in a systematic manner. In the year 2007, approximately 100 patients in each of two wards in the hospital received in a parallel group design either standard care or care based on a computer-assisted treatment pathway. Based on their place of residence, patients were assigned to the two units consecutively. Both groups were analysed to determine the extent to which the care they received conformed to treatment guidelines. Data available from the years 2004 and 2005 served as a historical comparison to the present results. The differences in guideline compliance between the two wards were heterogeneous and, in certain respects, counterintuitive. As expected, the treatment pathway group showed an increased number of laboratory tests, more frequent drug screening at hospital admission and more appropriate dosing of

  1. The Pathogenesis of Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy John Watts

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism is well known as a complex developmental disorder with a seemingly confusing and uncertain pathogenesis. The definitive mechanisms that promote autism are poorly understood and mostly unknown, yet available theories do appear to focus on the disruption of normal cerebral development and its subsequent implications on the functional brain unit. This mini-review aims solely to discuss and evaluate the most prominent current theories regarding the pathogenesis of autism. The main conclusion is that although there is not a clear pathway of mechanisms directed towards a simple pathogenesis and an established link to autism on the symptomatic level; there are however several important theories (neural connectivity, neural migration, excitatory-inhibitory neural activity, dendritic morphology, neuroimmune; calcium signalling and mirror neurone which appear to offer an explanation to how autism develops. It seems probable that autism's neurodevelopmental defect is ‘multi-domain’ in origin (rather than a single anomaly and is hence distributed across numerous levels of study (genetic, immunopathogenic, etc.. A more definitive understanding of the pathogenesis could facilitate the development of better treatments for this complex psychiatric disorder.

  2. Signs and Symptoms of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... Mitochondrial Disease FAQs Data & Statistics New Data on Autism Research & Tracking ADDM Community Report CADDRE SEED Frequently ...

  3. Occupational Therapy's Role with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Occupational Therapy’s Role with Autism Autism is a lifelong condition associated with a varied course from early childhood through adulthood. Occupational therapy practitioners are distinctly qualified to ...

  4. Behavioral Benefits of Camel Milk in Subjects with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ayadhi, Laila Y; Halepoto, Dost Muhammad; Al-Dress, Abdul M; Mitwali, Yasmine; Zainah, Rana

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the possible therapeutic effects of camel milk on behavioral characteristics as an interventional strategy in autistic children. Double-blind, Randomized Clinical Trial (RCT). Autism Research and Treatment Center, Al-Amodi Autism Research Chair, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from October 2012 to May 2013. Changes in behavioral characteristics in 65 (boys=60, girls=5) children with autism (aged from 2 to 12 years) were assessed. The behavioral symptoms were evaluated by Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), and Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC) before and after the 2 weeks of camel milk therapy. Significant differences were detected on Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) by CARS, SRS and ATEC scales, following 2 weeks of camel milk consumption, but not in the placebo group. The present study demonstrates that camel milk could be very promising therapeutic intervention in ASD. Further wide scale studies are strongly recommended.

  5. Dor crônica em pacientes esquizofrênicos: prevalência e características Chronic pain in schizophrenic patients: prevalence and characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouce Gabriela de Almeida

    2010-03-01

    schizophrenic patients was similar to that in the general population, and the clinical course was significant in terms of duration, intensity, and frequency.

  6. What is known about autism: genes, brain, and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, Susan L; Tsatsanis, Katherine

    2005-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder of genetic origins, with a heritability of about 90%. Autistic disorder is classed within the broad domain of pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) that also includes Rett syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder, Asperger syndrome, and PDD not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). Prevalence estimates suggest a rate of 0.1-0.2% for autism and 0.6% for the range of PDD disorders. There is considerable phenotypic heterogeneity within this class of disorders as well as continued debate regarding their clinical boundaries. Autism is the prototypical PDD, and is characterized by impairments in three core domains: social interaction, language development, and patterns of behavior (restricted and stereotyped). Clinical pattern and severity of impairment vary along these dimensions, and the level of cognitive functioning of individuals with autism spans the entire range, from profound mental retardation to superior intellect. There is no single biological or clinical marker for autism, nor is it expected that a single gene is responsible for its expression; as many as 15+ genes may be involved. However, environmental influences are also important, as concordance in monozygotic twins is less than 100% and the phenotypic expression of the disorder varies widely, even within monozygotic twins. Multiple susceptibility factors are being explored using varied methodologies, including genome-wide linkage studies, and family- and case-control candidate gene association studies. This paper reviews what is currently known about the genetic and environmental risk factors, neuropathology, and psychopharmacology of autism. Discussion of genetic factors focuses on the findings from linkage and association studies, the results of which have implicated the involvement of nearly every chromosome in the human genome. However, the most consistently replicated linkage findings have been on chromosome 7q, 2q, and 15q. The positive associations from

  7. Genetically meaningful phenotypic subgroups in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veatch, O J; Veenstra-Vanderweele, J; Potter, M; Pericak-Vance, M A; Haines, J L

    2014-03-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder with strong evidence for genetic susceptibility. However, the effect sizes for implicated chromosomal loci are small, hard to replicate and current evidence does not explain the majority of the estimated heritability. Phenotypic heterogeneity could be one phenomenon complicating identification of genetic factors. We used data from the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, head circumferences, and ages at exams as classifying variables to identify more clinically similar subgroups of individuals with ASD. We identified two distinct subgroups of cases within the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange dataset, primarily defined by the overall severity of evaluated traits. In addition, there was significant familial clustering within subgroups (odds ratio, OR ≈ 1.38-1.42, P definition that should increase power to detect genetic factors influencing risk for ASD. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  8. The profile of memory function in children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Diane L; Goldstein, Gerald; Minshew, Nancy J

    2006-01-01

    A clinical memory test was administered to 38 high-functioning children with autism and 38 individually matched normal controls, 8-16 years of age. The resulting profile of memory abilities in the children with autism was characterized by relatively poor memory for complex visual and verbal information and spatial working memory with relatively intact associative learning ability, verbal working memory, and recognition memory. A stepwise discriminant function analysis of the subtests found that the Finger Windows subtest, a measure of spatial working memory, discriminated most accurately between the autism and normal control groups. A principal components analysis indicated that the factor structure of the subtests differed substantially between the children with autism and controls, suggesting differing organizations of memory ability.

  9. Autism spectrum disorders in eating disorder populations: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huke, Vanessa; Turk, Jeremy; Saeidi, Saeideh; Kent, Andy; Morgan, John F

    2013-09-01

    Empirical research addressing cognitive processing deficits in eating disorders has noted an overlap with autism spectrum disorders. We conducted a systematic review investigating the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder in its entirety in eating disordered populations. A comprehensive search for relevant studies was performed on five electronic databases. Studies were not included if solely focused on specific traits of autism spectrum disorders, for instance, theory of mind, set shifting or central coherence. Titles, abstracts and full texts were screened by two members of the research team independently. Quantitative studies published in English were included. A total of eight studies were found to fit the inclusion criteria. Results showed significantly raised prevalence rates of autism spectrum disorder in eating disorder populations compared with those in healthy control participants. This discovery has clinical implications and may assist in deciphering poor responses to conventional treatment, facilitating new psychological interventions for eating disorders. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  10. Translational Mouse Models of Autism: Advancing Toward Pharmacological Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazdoba, Tatiana M.; Leach, Prescott T.; Yang, Mu; Silverman, Jill L.; Solomon, Marjorie

    2016-01-01

    Animal models provide preclinical tools to investigate the causal role of genetic mutations and environmental factors in the etiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Knockout and humanized knock-in mice, and more recently knockout rats, have been generated for many of the de novo single gene mutations and copy number variants (CNVs) detected in ASD and comorbid neurodevelopmental disorders. Mouse models incorporating genetic and environmental manipulations have been employed for preclinical testing of hypothesis-driven pharmacological targets, to begin to develop treatments for the diagnostic and associated symptoms of autism. In this review, we summarize rodent behavioral assays relevant to the core features of autism, preclinical and clinical evaluations of pharmacological interventions, and strategies to improve the translational value of rodent models of autism. PMID:27305922

  11. A sleep habits questionnaire for children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malow, Beth A; Crowe, Crystal; Henderson, Lynnette; McGrew, Susan G; Wang, Lily; Song, Yanna; Stone, Wendy L

    2009-01-01

    Sleep difficulties in children with autism spectrum disorders are common, with poor sleep hygiene a contributing factor. We developed the Family Inventory of Sleep Habits to measure sleep hygiene in this population. Its validity and reliability in 2 groups of children aged 4 to 10 years, those with a clinical diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders, and those who are typically developing are described. In both groups, total and modified (reflecting insomnia subscales) scores on the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire showed significant negative correlations with the total score. The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-III was significantly correlated with total score in the autism spectrum group but not in the typically developing group. Age and socioeconomic status were not correlated with total score in either group. This preliminary work suggests that the Family Inventory of Sleep Habits is a valid and reliable measure of sleep hygiene in autism spectrum disorders.

  12. SAP SE: Autism at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pisano, Gary P.; Austin, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    This case describes SAP's 'Autism at Work' program, which integrates people with autism into the company's workforce. The company has a stated objective of making 1% o its workforce people with autism by 2020. SAP's rationale for the program is based on the belief that 'neurodiversity' contributes...

  13. Green Space and Childhood Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autism, a group of complex neurodevelopmental disorders typically identified in early childhood, affects more than 3 million people in the U.S. To date, the cause of autism is unclear. It is believed that autism results from a combination of genetic and environmental factors incl...

  14. Autism Overview: What We Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, is one of many federal agencies working to understand autism. The NICHD supports and conducts research on what causes autism, how many people have autism, how best to treat…

  15. Random Number Generation in Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Mark A.; Moss, Simon A.; Bradshaw, John L.; Rinehart, Nicole J.

    2002-01-01

    This study explored the ability of 14 individuals with autism to generate a unique series of digits. Individuals with autism were more likely to repeat previous digits than comparison individuals, suggesting they may exhibit a shortfall in response inhibition. Results support the executive dysfunction theory of autism. (Contains references.)…

  16. Peripheral Inflammatory Markers Contributing to Comorbidities in Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Cecilia Inga Jácome

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the contribution of peripheral biomarkers to comorbidities and clinical findings in autism. Seventeen autistic children and age-matched typically developing (AMTD, between three to nine years old were evaluated. The diagnostic followed the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th Edition (DMS-IV and the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS was applied to classify the severity. Cytokine profile was evaluated in plasma using a sandwich type ELISA. Paraclinical events included electroencephalography (EEG record. Statistical analysis was done to explore significant differences in cytokine profile between autism and AMTD groups and respect clinical and paraclinical parameters. Significant differences were found to IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17, IL-12p40, and IL-12p70 cytokines in individuals with autism compared with AMTD (p < 0.05. All autistic patients showed interictalepileptiform activity at EEG, however, only 37.5% suffered epilepsy. There was not a regional focalization of the abnormalities that were detectable with EEG in autistic patients with history of epilepsy. A higher IL-6 level was observed in patients without history of epilepsy with interictalepileptiform activity in the frontal brain region, p < 0.05. In conclusion, peripheral inflammatory markers might be useful as potential biomarkers to predict comorbidities in autism as well as reinforce and aid informed decision-making related to EEG findings in children with Autism spectrum disorders (ASD.

  17. Training of child and adolescent psychiatry fellows in autism and intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrus, Natasha; Veenstra-Vanderweele, Jeremy; Hellings, Jessica A; Stigler, Kimberly A; Szymanski, Ludwik; King, Bryan H; Carlisle, L Lee; Cook, Edwin H; Pruett, John R

    2014-05-01

    Patients with autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disability can be clinically complex and often have limited access to psychiatric care. Because little is known about post-graduate clinical education in autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability, we surveyed training directors of child and adolescent psychiatry fellowship programs. On average, child and adolescent psychiatry directors reported lectures of 3 and 4 h per year in autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability, respectively. Training directors commonly reported that trainees see 1-5 patients with autism spectrum disorder or intellectual disability per year for outpatient pharmacological management and inpatient treatment. Overall, 43% of directors endorsed the need for additional resources for training in autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability, which, coupled with low didactic and clinical exposure, suggests that current training is inadequate.

  18. Communication of suicide intent by schizophrenic subjects: data from the Queensland Suicide Register

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Leo Diego

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicide in mentally ill subjects, like schizophrenics, remains unbearably frequent in Australia and elsewhere. Since these patients are known to constitute a high-risk group, suicide in them should be amongst the most preventable ones. The objective of this study is to investigate the frequency of suicide communication in subjects with reported history of schizophrenia who completed suicide. Method The Queensland Suicide Register (QSR was utilised to identify suicide cases. Frequency of suicide communication was examined in subjects with schizophrenia, and compared with persons with other psychiatric conditions and with subjects with no reported diagnosis. Socio-demographic variables, history of suicidal behaviour, pharmacological treatment and mental health service utilisation were also compared among the three groups. Results and discussion Subjects with a reported diagnosis of schizophrenia comprised 7.2% (n = 135 of the 1,863 suicides included in this study. Subjects with schizophrenia and those with other psychiatric disorders communicated their suicide intent more frequently than those with no psychiatric diagnosis, and persons with schizophrenia communicated their intent more than those with other psychiatric diagnoses. Seventy one per cent of schizophrenia subjects had contact with a mental health professional within the three months prior to suicide. Conclusion The fact that subjects with schizophrenia had the highest prevalence of suicide intent communication could offer concrete opportunities for suicide prevention.

  19. Workplace violence on workers caring for long-term institutionalized schizophrenic patients in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Ching; Wang, Jung-Der; Lew-Ting, Chih-Yin; Chiu, Hsien-Jane; Lin, Yi-Ping

    2007-07-01

    It has been noted that workplace violence most frequently occurs in psychiatric settings. The purpose of this study was to explore the workplace violence, including violence situation, victims' feeling, and the prevention strategies, on workers caring for long-term institutionalized schizophrenic patients in Taiwan. We conducted a face-to-face, in-depth, and semi-structured interview with 13 health care workers suffering from physical violence and/or sexual harassment by patients in 2002. First, the interviews were taped and/or paper-notes recorded, then transcribed, organized, and analyzed. Results found that all of the victims alleged they did not receive enough post-incident support, and more than a half of the victims could not call others for help during the violence. To avoid further attack, most victims offered prevention strategies which were considered valuable for establishing guidelines. However, some victims regarded workplace violence as inevitable and part of the job. The most common situations of workplace violence were during routine ward inspections, especially when the victims were alone. The most serious psychological harm was post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In conclusion, we recommended a re-engineering of the organization to a supportive and safe working environment for prevention of workplace violence in the study hospital.

  20. Autism in patients with propionic acidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witters, Peter; Debbold, Eric; Crivelly, Kea; Vande Kerckhove, Kristel; Corthouts, Karen; Debbold, Brett; Andersson, Hans; Vannieuwenborg, Lena; Geuens, Sam; Baumgartner, Matthias; Kozicz, Tamas; Settles, Lisa; Morava, Eva

    2016-12-01

    Certain inborn errors of metabolism have been suggested to increase the risk of autistic behavior. In an animal model, propionic acid ingestion triggered abnormal behavior resembling autism. So far only a few cases were reported with propionic acidemia and autistic features. From a series of twelve consecutively diagnosed cases with propionic acidemia, we report on eight patients with autistic features. The patients were followed 2-4 times a year and underwent regular clinical, dietary and laboratory investigations. Psychological evaluation was performed every second to fourth year. All patients were compliant with the standard diet and carnitine supplementation. None of the patients had frequent metabolic decompensations. From the metabolic factors known to impact neuropsychological outcome we detected chronically decreased valine levels and altered valine to leucine ratios in five out of the eight patients. Recurrent lactic acid elevations were present in six out of the eight patients. Five of the eight patients were diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder, four of them had pathogenic variants in PCCB. Disorder according to DSM-IV and/or DSM-5 criteria. One of the patients diagnosed with propionic acidemia by newborn screening had the most significant behavioral features and another was diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder prior to propionic acidemia. We hypothesize that chronic suboptimal intracellular metabolic balance may be responsible for the increased risk for autistic features in propionic acidemia. We propose that patients diagnosed with propionic acidemia should be screened for Autism Spectrum Disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sobrepeso e obesidade em pacientes esquizofrênicos em uso de clozapina comparado com o uso de outros antipsicóticos Overweight and obesity in schizophrenic patients taking clozapine compared to the use of other antipsychotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lúcia Leitão-Azevedo

    2006-08-01

    prevalence of patients exposed to other antipsychotics. METHOD: This study assessed 121 schizophrenic outpatients aged 18 years or older, both genders, consecutively referred to an outpatient clinic for schizophrenia and dementia at Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, a public hospital in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Anthropometric measures of 53 patients taking clozapine and of 68 taking other antipsychotics were assessed. All patients met DSM-IV and ICD-10 diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in body mass index between schizophrenic patients taking clozapine and patients taking other antipsychotics. Analyses showed high frequency of overweight and obesity (72.7%. DISCUSSION: Due to higher frequency of overweight in the schizophrenic population, it was possible to confirm a higher risk of vascular and metabolic disorders in the sample. Absence of a significant difference with regard to the use of clozapine, compared to other antipsychotics, provides evidence for the need of prospective studies in order to determine the magnitude of weight gain and risk increase related to specific exposure to each antipsychotic drug.

  2. Atypical Activation during the Embedded Figures Task as a Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Endophenotype of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Michael D.; Holt, Rosemary J.; Chura, Lindsay R.; Calder, Andrew J.; Suckling, John; Bullmore, Edward T.; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Atypical activation during the Embedded Figures Task has been demonstrated in autism, but has not been investigated in siblings or related to measures of clinical severity. We identified atypical activation during the Embedded Figures Task in participants with autism and unaffected siblings compared with control subjects in a number of temporal…

  3. Validation of Existing Diagnosis of Autism in Mainland China Using Standardised Diagnostic Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiang; Allison, Carrie; Auyeung, Bonnie; Zhang, Zhixiang; Matthews, Fiona E.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Brayne, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Research to date in mainland China has mainly focused on children with autistic disorder rather than Autism Spectrum Conditions and the diagnosis largely depended on clinical judgment without the use of diagnostic instruments. Whether children who have been diagnosed in China before meet the diagnostic criteria of Autism Spectrum Conditions is not…

  4. Attention and Written Expression in School-Aged, High-Functioning Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajic, Matthew C.; McIntyre, Nancy; Swain-Lerro, Lindsay; Novotny, Stephanie; Oswald, Tasha; Mundy, Peter

    2016-01-01

    High-functioning children with autism spectrum disorders often find writing challenging. These writing difficulties may be specific to autism spectrum disorder or to a more general clinical effect of attention disturbance, as these children are often comorbid for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology (and children with…

  5. Meta-Analysis of Parent-Mediated Interventions for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevill, Rose E.; Lecavalier, Luc; Stratis, Elizabeth A.

    2018-01-01

    A number of studies of parent-mediated interventions in autism spectrum disorder have been published in the last 15 years. We reviewed 19 randomized clinical trials of parent-mediated interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder between the ages of 1 and 6 years and conducted a meta-analysis on their efficacy. Meta-analysis outcomes…

  6. The Developmental, Dimensional and Diagnostic Interview (3Di): A Novel Computerized Assessment for Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuse, David; Warrington, Richard; Bishop, Dorothy; Chowdhury, Uttom; Lau, Jennifer; Mandy, William; Place, Maurice

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Autism is a diagnostic spectrum of variable severity, with significant comorbidity. No existing standardized interview measures autistic features dimensionally. The authors aimed to develop a parental autism interview that could be administered to unselected clinical and general population samples that measures both symptom intensity…

  7. Does Sex Influence the Diagnostic Evaluation of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C. Ellie; Murphy, Clodagh M.; McAlonan, Grainne; Robertson, Dene M.; Spain, Debbie; Hayward, Hannah; Woodhouse, Emma; Deeley, P. Quinton; Gillan, Nicola; Ohlsen, J. Chris; Zinkstok, Janneke; Stoencheva, Vladimira; Faulkner, Jessica; Yildiran, Hatice; Bell, Vaughan; Hammond, Neil; Craig, Michael C.; Murphy, Declan G. M.

    2016-01-01

    It is unknown whether sex influences the diagnostic evaluation of autism spectrum disorder, or whether male and female adults within the spectrum have different symptom profiles. This study reports sex differences in clinical outcomes for 1,244 adults (935 males and 309 females) referred for autism spectrum disorder assessment. Significantly, more…

  8. Rigid-Compulsive Behaviors Are Associated with Mixed Bowel Symptoms in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Brittany; Williams, Kent C.; Gorrindo, Phillip; Rosenberg, Daniel; Lee, Evon Batey; Levitt, Pat; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Based on clinical experience, we hypothesized that rigid-compulsive behaviors are associated with severe constipation and co-occurring diarrhea or underwear staining in children with autism spectrum disorder. Using data from the Autism Treatment Network, we evaluated the association between these gastrointestinal symptoms and measures of rigid…

  9. Neural Correlates of Communication Skill and Symptom Severity in Autism: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Lauren K.; Hill, Dina E.; Thoma, Robert J.; Euler, Matthew J.; Lewine, Jeffrey D.; Yeo, Ronald A.

    2009-01-01

    Although many studies have compared the brains of normal controls and individuals with autism, especially older, higher-functioning individuals with autism, little is known of the neural correlates of the vast clinical heterogeneity characteristic of the disorder. In this study, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to examine gray matter…

  10. Epilepsy and other central nervous system diseases in atypical autism: a case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Rich, Bente; Isager, Torben

    2011-01-01

    There is an increased but variable risk of epilepsy in autism spectrum disorders. The objective of this study is to compare the prevalence and types of epilepsy and other central nervous system (CNS) diseases in a clinical sample of 89 individuals diagnosed as children with atypical autism (AA...

  11. Untended Wounds: Non-Suicidal Self-Injury in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Brenna B.; Trubanova, Andrea; White, Susan W.

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have examined non-suicidal self-injury in community and clinical samples, but there is no published research on non-suicidal self-injury in individuals with autism spectrum disorder. This lack of research is surprising, since individuals with autism spectrum disorder have high rates of risk factors for non-suicidal self-injury,…

  12. Magnetised Intragastric Foreign Body Collection and Autism: An Advice for Carers and Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Farhan; Davies, Laura; Iftikhar, S. Y.

    2010-01-01

    The pica phenomenon, where non-edible substances are repeatedly consumed, has been linked with developmental and behavioural disorders, particularly autism. The clinical presentation of foreign body ingestion in patients with autism is discussed, and recommendations for caregivers are provided based on the available literature. An 18-year-old man…

  13. Agenesis of the corpus callosum and autism: a comprehensive comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsello, Christina; Kennedy, Daniel P.; Adolphs, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    The corpus callosum, with its ∼200 million axons, remains enigmatic in its contribution to cognition and behaviour. Agenesis of the corpus callosum is a congenital condition in which the corpus callosum fails to develop; such individuals exhibit localized deficits in non-literal language comprehension, humour, theory of mind and social reasoning. These findings together with parent reports suggest that behavioural and cognitive impairments in subjects with callosal agenesis may overlap with the profile of autism spectrum disorders, particularly with respect to impairments in social interaction and communication. To provide a comprehensive test of this hypothesis, we directly compared a group of 26 adults with callosal agenesis to a group of 28 adults with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder but no neurological abnormality. All participants had full-scale intelligence quotient scores >78 and groups were matched on age, handedness, and gender ratio. Using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule together with current clinical presentation to assess autistic symptomatology, we found that 8/26 (about a third) of agenesis subjects presented with autism. However, more formal diagnosis additionally involving recollective parent-report measures regarding childhood behaviour showed that only 3/22 met complete formal criteria for an autism spectrum disorder (parent reports were unavailable for four subjects). We found no relationship between intelligence quotient and autism symptomatology in callosal agenesis, nor evidence that the presence of any residual corpus callosum differentiated those who exhibited current autism spectrum symptoms from those who did not. Relative to the autism spectrum comparison group, parent ratings of childhood behaviour indicated children with agenesis were less likely to meet diagnostic criteria for autism, even for those who met autism spectrum criteria as adults, and even though there was no group difference in parent report of current

  14. Agenesis of the corpus callosum and autism: a comprehensive comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Lynn K; Corsello, Christina; Kennedy, Daniel P; Adolphs, Ralph

    2014-06-01

    The corpus callosum, with its ∼200 million axons, remains enigmatic in its contribution to cognition and behaviour. Agenesis of the corpus callosum is a congenital condition in which the corpus callosum fails to develop; such individuals exhibit localized deficits in non-literal language comprehension, humour, theory of mind and social reasoning. These findings together with parent reports suggest that behavioural and cognitive impairments in subjects with callosal agenesis may overlap with the profile of autism spectrum disorders, particularly with respect to impairments in social interaction and communication. To provide a comprehensive test of this hypothesis, we directly compared a group of 26 adults with callosal agenesis to a group of 28 adults with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder but no neurological abnormality. All participants had full-scale intelligence quotient scores >78 and groups were matched on age, handedness, and gender ratio. Using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule together with current clinical presentation to assess autistic symptomatology, we found that 8/26 (about a third) of agenesis subjects presented with autism. However, more formal diagnosis additionally involving recollective parent-report measures regarding childhood behaviour showed that only 3/22 met complete formal criteria for an autism spectrum disorder (parent reports were unavailable for four subjects). We found no relationship between intelligence quotient and autism symptomatology in callosal agenesis, nor evidence that the presence of any residual corpus callosum differentiated those who exhibited current autism spectrum symptoms from those who did not. Relative to the autism spectrum comparison group, parent ratings of childhood behaviour indicated children with agenesis were less likely to meet diagnostic criteria for autism, even for those who met autism spectrum criteria as adults, and even though there was no group difference in parent report of current

  15. The genetics of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhle, Rebecca; Trentacoste, Stephanie V; Rapin, Isabelle

    2004-05-01

    Autism is a complex, behaviorally defined, static disorder of the immature brain that is of great concern to the practicing pediatrician because of an astonishing 556% reported increase in pediatric prevalence between 1991 and 1997, to a prevalence higher than that of spina bifida, cancer, or Down syndrome. This jump is probably attributable to heightened awareness and changing diagnostic criteria rather than to new environmental influences. Autism is not a disease but a syndrome with multiple nongenetic and genetic causes. By autism (the autistic spectrum disorders [ASDs]), we mean the wide spectrum of developmental disorders characterized by impairments in 3 behavioral domains: 1) social interaction; 2) language, communication, and imaginative play; and 3) range of interests and activities. Autism corresponds in this article to pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition and International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision. Except for Rett syndrome--attributable in most affected individuals to mutations of the methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) gene--the other PDD subtypes (autistic disorder, Asperger disorder, disintegrative disorder, and PDD Not Otherwise Specified [PDD-NOS]) are not linked to any particular genetic or nongenetic cause. Review of 2 major textbooks on autism and of papers published between 1961 and 2003 yields convincing evidence for multiple interacting genetic factors as the main causative determinants of autism. Epidemiologic studies indicate that environmental factors such as toxic exposures, teratogens, perinatal insults, and prenatal infections such as rubella and cytomegalovirus account for few cases. These studies fail to confirm that immunizations with the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine are responsible for the surge in autism. Epilepsy, the medical condition most highly associated with autism, has equally complex genetic/nongenetic (but mostly unknown

  16. GENETIC ASPECTS OF AUTISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastas LAKOSKI

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available In the first paper on the syndrome of autism, Kanner described it as innate and inborn. He drew attention to the abnormalities in infancy without evidence of prior normal development and the intellectual, non emotional qualities shown by many of the parents and grandparents. Subsequently, the supposed lack of parental warmth led many clinicians to abandon the notions of constitutional deficit in the child and instead to postulate a psychogenic origin etiology was likely, genetic factors probably did not play a major role. Attention was draw to the low rate of autism in siblings, the lack of chromosome anomalies, and the similarities with syndromes associated with known brain trauma. Although the rate of autism in siblings was indeed low, it was much higher than in the general population rate providing a strong pointer to the genetic factors. The recognition that this was so, associated with the parallel finding of apparently high familiar loading for language delay, stimulated the first, systematic, twin study of autism, which suggested a strong genetic component. Subsequent research has produced findings in the same direction, although many questions remain unanswered. In this paper the evidence that has accumulated on genetic influences on autism is summarized and the remained dilemmas on this field are discussed.

  17. Eye Tracking Young Children with Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Sasson, Noah J.; Elison, Jed T.

    2012-01-01

    The rise of accessible commercial eye-tracking systems has fueled a rapid increase in their use in psychological and psychiatric research. By providing a direct, detailed and objective measure of gaze behavior, eye-tracking has become a valuable tool for examining abnormal perceptual strategies in clinical populations and has been used to identify disorder-specific characteristics1, promote early identification2, and inform treatment3. In particular, investigators of autism spectrum disorders...

  18. Specific Language Impairment, Nonverbal IQ, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Autism Spectrum Disorder, Cochlear Implants, Bilingualism, and Dialectal Variants: Defining the Boundaries, Clarifying Clinical Conditions, and Sorting Out Causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Mabel L

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this research forum article is to provide an overview of a collection of invited articles on the topic "specific language impairment (SLI) in children with concomitant health conditions or nonmainstream language backgrounds." Topics include SLI, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, cochlear implants, bilingualism, and dialectal language learning contexts. The topic is timely due to current debates about the diagnosis of SLI. An overarching comparative conceptual framework is provided for comparisons of SLI with other clinical conditions. Comparisons of SLI in children with low-normal or normal nonverbal IQ illustrate the unexpected outcomes of 2 × 2 comparison designs. Comparative studies reveal unexpected relationships among speech, language, cognitive, and social dimensions of children's development as well as precise ways to identify children with SLI who are bilingual or dialect speakers. The diagnosis of SLI is essential for elucidating possible causal pathways of language impairments, risks for language impairments, assessments for identification of language impairments, linguistic dimensions of language impairments, and long-term outcomes. Although children's language acquisition is robust under high levels of risk, unexplained individual variations in language acquisition lead to persistent language impairments.

  19. Neuroimaging of autism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhoeven, Judith S.; Cock, Paul de; Lagae, Lieven; Sunaert, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies done by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have provided important insights into the neurobiological basis for autism. The aim of this article is to review the current state of knowledge regarding brain abnormalities in autism. Results of structural MRI studies dealing with total brain volume, the volume of the cerebellum, caudate nucleus, thalamus, amygdala and the area of the corpus callosum are summarised. In the past 5 years also new MRI applications as functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging brought considerable new insights in the pathophysiological mechanisms of autism. Dysfunctional activation in key areas of verbal and non-verbal communication, social interaction, and executive functions are revised. Finally, we also discuss white matter alterations in important communication pathways in the brain of autistic patients. (orig.)

  20. Neuroimaging of autism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhoeven, Judith S.; Cock, Paul de; Lagae, Lieven [University Hospitals of the Catholic University of Leuven, Department of Pediatrics, Leuven (Belgium); Sunaert, Stefan [University Hospitals of the Catholic University of Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium)

    2010-01-15

    Neuroimaging studies done by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have provided important insights into the neurobiological basis for autism. The aim of this article is to review the current state of knowledge regarding brain abnormalities in autism. Results of structural MRI studies dealing with total brain volume, the volume of the cerebellum, caudate nucleus, thalamus, amygdala and the area of the corpus callosum are summarised. In the past 5 years also new MRI applications as functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging brought considerable new insights in the pathophysiological mechanisms of autism. Dysfunctional activation in key areas of verbal and non-verbal communication, social interaction, and executive functions are revised. Finally, we also discuss white matter alterations in important communication pathways in the brain of autistic patients. (orig.)

  1. Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Rosenberg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We used a national online registry to examine variation in cumulative prevalence of community diagnosis of psychiatric comorbidity in 4343 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Adjusted multivariate logistic regression models compared influence of individual, family, and geographic factors on cumulative prevalence of parent-reported anxiety disorder, depression, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder or attention deficit disorder. Adjusted odds of community-assigned lifetime psychiatric comorbidity were significantly higher with each additional year of life, with increasing autism severity, and with Asperger syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder—not otherwise specified compared with autistic disorder. Overall, in this largest study of parent-reported community diagnoses of psychiatric comorbidity, gender, autistic regression, autism severity, and type of ASD all emerged as significant factors correlating with cumulative prevalence. These findings could suggest both underlying trends in actual comorbidity as well as variation in community interpretation and application of comorbid diagnoses in ASD.

  2. ETIOLOGY OF AUTISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir TRAJKOVSKI

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Although there is good evidence that autism is a multifactorial disorder, an adequate understanding of the genetic and nongenetic causes has yet to be achieved. With empirical research findings review is made to evidence on possible causal influences. Much the strongest evidence concerns the importance of susceptibility genes, but such genes have yet to be identified. Specific somatic conditions (tuberous sclerosis and the fragile X syndrome account for a small proportion of cases. Over recent decades there has been a major rise in the rate of diagnosed autism. The main explanation for this rise is to be found in better ascertainment and a broadening of the diagnostic concept. Progress on the elucidation of the causes of autism will be crucially dependent on the combination of epidemiology with more basic science laboratory studies.

  3. The neuropsychology of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happé, F; Frith, U

    1996-08-01

    In this review, we aim to bring together major trends in autism research at three levels: biology, behaviour and cognition. We propose that cognitive theories are vital in neuropsychology, which seeks to make connections between brain abnormality and behavioural symptoms. Research at each of the three levels is incomplete, but important advances have been made. At the biological level, there is strong evidence for genetic factors, although the mechanism is, as yet, unknown. At the behavioural level, diagnosis and education are becoming more coherent and less controversial, although the possibility of autism subtypes has provoked new debate. At the cognitive level, three major theories are proving fruitful (mentalizing impairment, executive dysfunction and weak central coherence), although the relation and overlap between these is uncertain. Rapidly advancing technology and methodology (e.g. brain imaging, gene mapping), as tools of cognitive theory, may help to make autism one of the first developmental disorders to be understood at the neuropsychological level.

  4. Sexuality and gender role in autism spectrum disorder: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejerot, Susanne; Eriksson, Jonna M

    2014-01-01

    The 'extreme male brain theory of autism' describes an extreme male pattern of cognitive traits defined as strong systemising abilities paired with empathising weaknesses in autism spectrum disorder. However, beyond these cognitive traits, clinical observations have suggested an ambiguous gender-typed pattern regarding several sexually dimorphic traits. The aim of the present study was to investigate if patterns of non-cognitive sexually dimorphic traits differed between the autism spectrum disorder and control groups. Fifty adults with autism spectrum disorder and intelligence within the normal range, and 53 neurotypical controls responded to questions on gender role, self-perceived gender typicality and gender identity, as well as sexuality. Measures used were a Swedish modification of the Bem Sex Role Inventory and questions on sexuality and gender designed for the purpose of this study. Our results showed that one common gender role emerged in the autism spectrum disorder group. Masculinity (e.g. assertiveness, leadership and competitiveness) was weaker in the autism spectrum disorder group than in the controls, across men and women. Self-perceived gender typicality did not differ between the groups but tomboyism and bisexuality were overrepresented amongst women with autism spectrum disorder. Lower libido was reported amongst both male and female participants with autism spectrum disorder compared with controls. We conclude that the extreme male patterns of cognitive functions in the autistic brain do not seem to extend to gender role and sexuality. A gender-atypical pattern for these types of characteristics is suggested in autism spectrum disorder.

  5. Sexuality and gender role in autism spectrum disorder: a case control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Bejerot

    Full Text Available The 'extreme male brain theory of autism' describes an extreme male pattern of cognitive traits defined as strong systemising abilities paired with empathising weaknesses in autism spectrum disorder. However, beyond these cognitive traits, clinical observations have suggested an ambiguous gender-typed pattern regarding several sexually dimorphic traits. The aim of the present study was to investigate if patterns of non-cognitive sexually dimorphic traits differed between the autism spectrum disorder and control groups. Fifty adults with autism spectrum disorder and intelligence within the normal range, and 53 neurotypical controls responded to questions on gender role, self-perceived gender typicality and gender identity, as well as sexuality. Measures used were a Swedish modification of the Bem Sex Role Inventory and questions on sexuality and gender designed for the purpose of this study. Our results showed that one common gender role emerged in the autism spectrum disorder group. Masculinity (e.g. assertiveness, leadership and competitiveness was weaker in the autism spectrum disorder group than in the controls, across men and women. Self-perceived gender typicality did not differ between the groups but tomboyism and bisexuality were overrepresented amongst women with autism spectrum disorder. Lower libido was reported amongst both male and female participants with autism spectrum disorder compared with controls. We conclude that the extreme male patterns of cognitive functions in the autistic brain do not seem to extend to gender role and sexuality. A gender-atypical pattern for these types of characteristics is suggested in autism spectrum disorder.

  6. Autism and Clostridium tetani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, E R

    1998-08-01

    Autism is a severe developmental disability believed to have multiple etiologies. This paper outlines the possibility of a subacute, chronic tetanus infection of the intestinal tract as the underlying cause for symptoms of autism observed in some individuals. A significant percentage of individuals with autism have a history of extensive antibiotic use. Oral antibiotics significantly disrupt protective intestinal microbiota, creating a favorable environment for colonization by opportunistic pathogens. Clostridium tetani is an ubiquitous anaerobic bacillus that produces a potent neurotoxin. Intestinal colonization by C. tetani, and subsequent neurotoxin release, have been demonstrated in laboratory animals which were fed vegetative cells. The vagus nerve is capable of transporting tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) and provides a route of ascent from the intestinal tract to the CNS. This route bypasses TeNT's normal preferential binding sites in the spinal cord, and therefore the symptoms of a typical tetanus infection are not evident. Once in the brain, TeNT disrupts the release of neurotransmitters by the proteolytic cleavage of synaptobrevin, a synaptic vesicle membrane protein. This inhibition of neurotransmitter release would explain a wide variety of behavioral deficits apparent in autism. Lab animals injected in the brain with TeNT have exhibited many of these behaviors. Some children with autism have also shown a significant reduction in stereotyped behaviors when treated with antimicrobials effective against intestinal clostridia. When viewed as sequelae to a subacute, chronic tetanus infection, many of the puzzling abnormalities of autism have a logical basis. A review of atypical tetanus cases, and strategies to test the validity of this paper's hypothesis, are included.

  7. Autism and measles-mumps-rubella vaccination: controversy laid to rest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeStefano, F; Chen, R T

    2001-01-01

    It has been suggested that vaccination, particularly with measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine, may be related to the development of autism. The main evidence for a possible association is that the prevalence of autism has been increasing at the same time that infant vaccination coverage has increased, and that in some cases there is an apparent temporal association in which autistic characteristics are first noted shortly after vaccination. Although the prevalence of autism and similar disorders appears to have increased recently, it is not clear if this is an actual increase or the result of increased recognition and changes in diagnostic criteria. The apparent onset of autism in close proximity to vaccination may be a coincidental temporal association. The clinical evidence in support of an association derives from a series of 12 patients with inflammatory bowel conditions and regressive developmental disorders, mostly autism. The possibility that measles vaccine may cause autism through a persistent bowel infection has generated much interest, since it provides a possible biological mechanism. Epidemiological studies, however, have not found an association between MMR vaccination and autism. The epidemiological findings are consistent with current understanding of the pathogenesis of autism, which has a strong genetic component and in which the neurological defects probably occur early in embryonic development. It seems unlikely that a vaccination that is given after birth could cause autism. A minority of cases of autism may have onset after 1 year of age (regressive autism), but the single epidemiological study that included such cases did not find an association with MMR vaccination. Currently, the weight of the available epidemiological and related evidence does not support a causal association between MMR vaccine, or any other vaccine or vaccine constituent, and autism.

  8. Child vocalization composition as discriminant information for automatic autism detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dongxin; Gilkerson, Jill; Richards, Jeffrey; Yapanel, Umit; Gray, Sharmi

    2009-01-01

    Early identification is crucial for young children with autism to access early intervention. The existing screens require either a parent-report questionnaire and/or direct observation by a trained practitioner. Although an automatic tool would benefit parents, clinicians and children, there is no automatic screening tool in clinical use. This study reports a fully automatic mechanism for autism detection/screening for young children. This is a direct extension of the LENA (Language ENvironment Analysis) system, which utilizes speech signal processing technology to analyze and monitor a child's natural language environment and the vocalizations/speech of the child. It is discovered that child vocalization composition contains rich discriminant information for autism detection. By applying pattern recognition and machine learning approaches to child vocalization composition data, accuracy rates of 85% to 90% in cross-validation tests for autism detection have been achieved at the equal-error-rate (EER) point on a data set with 34 children with autism, 30 language delayed children and 76 typically developing children. Due to its easy and automatic procedure, it is believed that this new tool can serve a significant role in childhood autism screening, especially in regards to population-based or universal screening.

  9. Memory functioning in children and adolescents with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwick, Jason S; Bigler, Erin D; Froehlich, Alyson; Dubray, Molly B; Alexander, Andrew L; Lange, Nicholas; Lainhart, Janet E

    2011-11-01

    Memory functioning in children and adolescents ages 5-19 with autism (n = 50) and typically developing controls (n = 36) was assessed using a clinical assessment battery, the Test of Memory and Learning (TOMAL). Participant groups were statistically comparable in age, nonverbal IQ, handedness, and head circumference, and were administered the TOMAL. Test performance on the TOMAL demonstrated broad differences in memory functioning in the autism group, across multiple task formats, including verbal and nonverbal, immediate and delayed, attention and concentration, sequential recall, free recall, associative recall, and multiple-trial learning memory. All index and nearly all subtest differences remained significant even after comparing a subset of the autism group (n = 36) and controls that were matched for verbal IQ (p > .05). However, retention of previously remembered information after a delay was similar in autism and controls. These findings indicate that performance on measures of episodic memory is broadly reduced in autism, and support the conclusion that information encoding and organization, possibly due to inefficient cognitive processing strategies, rather than storage and retrieval, are the primary factors that limit memory performance in autism.

  10. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... only after another family member has been diagnosed. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Fragile X Syndrome Fragile X syndrome is ... known single gene cause of ASD What Is Autism Spectrum Disorder? Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a behavioral diagnosis. ...

  11. Therapies for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... With Autism Spectrum Disorder Therapies for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder Consumer Summary September 23, 2014 Download PDF 692. ... Web page Understanding Your Child's Condition What is autism spectrum disorder (ASD)? ASD includes a range of behavioral symptoms. ...

  12. Ubiquinol Improves Symptoms in Children with Autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gvozdjakova, Anna; Kucharska, Jarmila; Ostatnikova, Daniela; Babinska, Katarina; Nakladal, Dalibor; Crane, Fred L.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Autism is a spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders with manifestation within 3 years after birth. Manifestations of autism include behavior problems (hyperactivity, toys destruction, self-harm, and agression) and sleep and eating disorders. Etiology of autism is poorly understood.

  13. The Swedish Eating Assessment for Autism spectrum disorders (SWEAA)-Validation of a self-report questionnaire targeting eating disturbances within the autism spectrum

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Louise; Råstam, Maria; Wentz, Elisabet

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to design and validate a questionnaire pertaining to eating problems in individuals with normal intelligence, within the autism spectrum. The questionnaire was based on literature search and clinical experience. The validation focused on psychometric properties of reliability and validity using a clinical group of individuals with autism Spectrum disorders (ASD) (n = 57) and a matched, healthy comparison group (n = 31). The instrument showed high levels of reliability, convergent ...

  14. Detecting potential adverse reactions of sulpiride in schizophrenic patients by prescription sequence symmetry analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Chia-Cheng Lai

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Previous studies have demonstrated sulpiride to be significantly more effective than haloperidol, risperidone and olanzapine in schizophrenic treatment; however, only limited information is available on the potential risks associated with sulpiride treatment. This study attempts to provide information on the potential risks of sulpiride treatment of schizophrenia, especially with regard to unexpected adverse effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with schizophrenia aged 18 and older, newly prescribed with a single antipsychotic medication from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan in the period from 2003 to 2010 were included. A within-subject comparison method, prescription sequence symmetry analysis (PSSA was employed to efficiently identify potential causal relationships while controlling for potential selection bias. RESULTS: A total of 5,750 patients, with a mean age of 39, approximately half of whom were male, constituted the study cohort. The PSSA found that sulpiride was associated with EPS (adjusted SR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.46-2.06 and hyperprolactinemia (12.04; 1.59-91.2. In comparison, EPS caused by haloperidol has a magnitude of 1.99 when analyzed with PSSA, and hyperprolactinemia caused by amisulpride has a magnitude of 8.05, respectively. Another finding was the unexpected increase in the use of stomatological corticosteroids, emollient laxatives, dermatological preparations of corticosteroids, quinolone antibacterials, and topical products for joint and muscular pain, after initiation of sulpiride treatment. CONCLUSIONS: We found sulpiride to be associated with an increased risk of EPS and hyperprolactinemia, and the potential risk could be as high as that induced by haloperidol and amisulpride, respectively. Additionally, our study provides grounds for future investigations into the associations between sulpiride and the increased use of additional drugs for managing adverse effects, including

  15. Receptor imaging of schizophrenic patients under treatment with typical and atypical neuroleptics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresel, S.; Tatsch, K.; Meisenzahl, E.; Scherer, J.

    2002-01-01

    Schizophrenic psychosis is typically treated by typical and atypical neuroleptics. Both groups of drugs differ with regard to induction of extrapyramidal side effects. The occupancy of postsynaptic dopaminergic D2 receptors is considered to be an essential aspect of their antipsychotic properties. The dopamine D2 receptor status can be assessed by means of [I-123]IBZM SPECT. Studies on the typical neuroleptic haloperidol revealed an exponential dose response relationship measured by IBZM. Extrapyramidal side effects were presented by all patients below a threshold of the specific binding of IBZM below 0.4 (with one exception, norm value: >0.95). Also under treatment with the atypical neuroleptic clozapine an exponential dose response relationship was found. However, none of these patients showed extrapyramidal side effects. Recently introduced, new atypical neuroleptics such as risperidone and olanzapine again presented with an exponential relationship between daily dose and IBZM binding. The curves of the latter were in between the curves of haloperidol and clozapine. Extrapyramidal side effects were documented in a less number of patients treated with risperidone as compared to haloperidol, for olanzapine only one patient revealed these findings in our own patient group. The pharmacological profile of atypical neuroleptics shows - in addition to their binding to dopamine receptors - also high affinities to the receptors of other neurotransmitter systems, particularly the serotonergic system. Therefore, the lower incidence of extrapyramidal side effects seen by atypical in comparison to typical neuroleptics is at least in part most likely due to a complex interaction on a variety of neurotransmitter systems. (orig.) [de

  16. GABAA receptors, but not dopamine, serotonin or NMDA receptors, are increased in the frontal cortex from schizophrenic subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daen, B.; Hussain, T.; Scarr, E.; Tomaskovic, E.; Kitsoulis, S.; Pavey, G.; Hill, C.; Keks, N.; Opeskin, K.; Copolov, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Having shown changed 5HT 2A receptor density in the frontal cortex (FC) from schizophrenic subjects (1) we now report on further studies of the molecular neuroanatomy of the FC in schizophrenia. We used in situ radioligand binding and autoradiography to measure the density of [ 3 H]8OH-DPAT (1 nM) binding (5HT 1A receptors) and [ 3 H]GR113808 (2.4nM) binding (5HT 4 receptors) in Brodmann's areas (BA) 8, 9 and 10 from 10 schizophrenic and 10 controls subjects. In addition, [ 3 H]muscimol (100 nM) binding (GABA A receptors), [ 3 H]TCP (20nM) binding (NMDA receptors), [ 3 H]SCH 23390 (3nM) binding (DA D 1 like receptors) and [ 3 H]YM-09151-2 (4nM) binding (DA D 2 -like receptors) was measured in BA 9 from 17 schizophrenic and 17 control subjects. Subjects were matched for age and sex and the post-mortem interval for tissue collection did not differ. There was a significant increase (18%) in the density of GABA A receptors in BA 9 from subjects with schizophrenia (p<0.05) with no change in NMDA, dopamine or serotonin receptors. These data support the hypothesis that there are selective changes in neurotransmitter receptors in the FC of subjects with schizophrenia. It is not yet clear if such changes contribute to the pathology of the illness. Copyright (1998) Australian Neuroscience Society

  17. Epigenetics of Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Michelle T; Weksberg, Rosanna

    2017-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), one of the most common childhood neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), is diagnosed in 1 of every 68 children. ASD is incredibly heterogeneous both clinically and aetiologically. The etiopathogenesis of ASD is known to be complex, including genetic, environmental and epigenetic factors. Normal epigenetic marks modifiable by both genetics and environmental exposures can result in epigenetic alterations that disrupt the regulation of gene expression, negatively impacting biological pathways important for brain development. In this chapter we aim to summarize some of the important literature that supports a role for epigenetics in the underlying molecular mechanism of ASD. We provide evidence from work in genetics, from environmental exposures and finally from more recent studies aimed at directly determining ASD-specific epigenetic patterns, focusing mainly on DNA methylation (DNAm). Finally, we briefly discuss some of the implications of current research on potential epigenetic targets for therapeutics and novel avenues for future work.

  18. Validity of Draw-A-Person Test as a measure of Anxiety and Aggression Indices among Schizophrenics of Hospicio de San Juan de Dios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LOVELY LUCKY A. EVARRETTA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study sought to determine the validity of Draw-A-Person Test as a measure of Anxiety and Aggression Indices among Schizophrenics of Hospicio de San Juan de Dios in Bocaue, Bulacan. The Draw a Person Test as a psychological tool took an integral part in revealing the anxiety and aggression indices as showed through the details of the parts of the drawing. It showed that most of the Male Schizophrenics have high aggression indices compare to anxiety indices. The researcher also comes up with an Action Plan for an intervention program for patients with Schizophrenia which includes Art Therapy, Interactive Group Activities and Psychotherapy which is very beneficial for them to achieve continuous stability. This study also serves as awareness and provides understanding to situations of schizophrenics which are sometimes, have not been prioritize by the society. It also serves as a guide to the future researchers who will develop a related study.

  19. Phenotypic continuum between autism and schizophrenia: Evidence from the Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition (MASC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Gilles; Alexandre, Charlotte; Mam-Lam-Fook, Célia; Bendjemaa, Narjes; Gaillard, Raphaël; Garel, Patricia; Dziobek, Isabel; Amado, Isabelle; Krebs, Marie-Odile

    2017-07-01

    Schizophrenic (SCZ) and autism (ASD) spectrum disorders share several features including social cognition impairments. In SCZ, the link between symptomatic dimensions and social cognition deficits remains unclear. The Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition (MASC) test, available in several languages including English, investigates mental state attribution capabilities in complex interpersonal situations. After its translation into French, we used MASC to direct compare social cognition in 36 young participants with SCZ to 19 with ASD and 20 healthy controls (HC) matched for gender, age (18-25y.o.) and level of education. The MASC discriminated each group from the others, patients with SCZ exhibiting difficulties compared to ASD (MASC total score 28.1 (4) and 24.2 (6.6), respectively; p<.001). In the whole sample, MASC scores were inversely correlated with autistic traits, evaluated by autism quotient, and with disorganization symptoms. Finally, in SCZ, over-mentalizing difficulties were correlated with age at disease onset. Our results demonstrate the validity of the French version of the MASC and bring direct evidence supporting the hypothesis of a phenotypic continuum between autism and schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Autism spectrum disorder - childhood disintegrative disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... part of the larger developmental disorder category of autism spectrum disorder . ... American Psychiatric Association. Autism spectrum disorder. ... VA: American Psychiatric Publishing: 2013;50-59. Raviola GJ, ...