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Sample records for schizophrenia schizophreniform disorder

  1. White matter alterations associated with suicide in patients with schizophrenia or schizophreniform disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Jae; Kim, Borah; Oh, Daeyoung; Kim, Min-Kyoung; Kim, Keun-Hyang; Bang, Seong Yun; Choi, Tai Kiu; Lee, Sang-Hyuk

    2016-02-28

    The risk of suicide is disproportionately high among people diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizophreniform disorder. Brain imaging studies have shown a few relationships between neuroanatomy and suicide. This study examines the relationship between alterations in brain white matter (WM) and suicidal behavior in people with schizophrenia or schizophreniform disorder. The study participants were 56 patients with schizophrenia or schizophreniform disorder, with (n=15) and without (n=41) a history of suicide attempts. Fractional anisotropy (FA) values were compared between suicide attempters and non-attempters using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS). Attempters showed significantly higher FA values than non-attempters in the left corona radiata, the superior longitudinal fasciculus, the posterior limb and retrolenticular part of the internal capsule, the external capsule, the insula, the posterior thalamic radiation, the cerebral peduncle, the sagittal stratum, and temporal lobe WM. Scores of the picture arrangement test showed a significant positive correlation with FA values of the right corona radiata, the right superior longitudinal fasciculus, the body of the corpus callosum, and the left corona radiata in attempters but not in non-attempters. These findings suggest that fronto-temporo-limbic circuits can be associated mainly with suicidal behavior in people with schizophrenia or schizophreniform disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Regional cerebral blood flow distribution in newly diagnosed schizophrenia and schizophreniform disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, P; Holm, S; Madsen, P L

    1994-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow distribution (rCBF) in 24 first admissions with schizophrenia or schizophreniform disorder and in 17 healthy volunteers was examined. Single photon emission computed tomography with a brain-retained tracer, technetium-99m-d,l-hexamethyl-propylene amine oxime, was used...... to study subjects under resting conditions and during performance of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. The study is a replication of a previous investigation in an independent series of patients and healthy volunteers. The patients had significantly lower relative blood flow in prefrontal regions during...... activation than did the healthy volunteers. An earlier series of 19 patients and 7 healthy volunteers was studied using exactly the same procedure. Analyses of the combined samples from the two studies (43 patients and 24 healthy volunteers) showed the patients to have significantly lower relative flow...

  3. Depressive and anxiety symptoms in patients with schizophrenia and schizophreniform disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emsley, R A; Oosthuizen, P P; Joubert, A F; Roberts, M C; Stein, D J

    1999-11-01

    Symptoms of depression and anxiety are frequently encountered in the course of schizophrenia and are of considerable clinical importance. They may compromise social and vocational functioning, and they are associated with an increased risk of relapse and suicide. Various treatment approaches have been reported to be successful. The sample comprised 177 patients with DSM-III-R or DSM-IV schizophrenia or schizophreniform disorder who were participants in multinational clinical drug trials at our academic psychiatric unit over a 7-year period and who were assessed by means of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Analysis was performed on baseline PANSS scores. The depression/anxiety score was compared in the men and women, first-episode and multiple-episode patients, and those with predominantly positive and negative syndromes. Correlations were sought between depression/anxiety scores and age, total PANSS score, positive score, negative score, general psychopathology score, and treatment outcome. Multivariate analysis was applied to determine contributions of individual variables toward depression/anxiety and outcome scores. Depression and anxiety symptoms were more severe in women (p = .007), first-episode patients (p = .02), and those with predominantly positive symptoms (p Depression/anxiety scores were significantly correlated to age (r = -0.31, p depression and anxiety scores. PANSS depressive/anxiety scores were generally low in our sample, perhaps because patients with schizoaffective disorder were excluded. The finding that these symptoms were more prominent in women and first-episode patients is in keeping with previous literature. The higher scores in first-episode patients are likely due to the higher positive symptom scores in these patients. The association between depressive/anxiety scores and positive symptoms but not with negative symptoms points to a specific relationship between affective symptoms and the positive symptom domain of

  4. Altered modulation of prefrontal and subcortical brain activity in newly diagnosed schizophrenia and schizophreniform disorder. A regional cerebral blood flow study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, P; Holm, S; Friberg, L

    1991-01-01

    To measure prefrontal and subcortical activity during a cognitive task, we examined 19 newly diagnosed schizophrenics and patients with schizophreniform psychosis. Seven healthy volunteers served as controls. The patients were drug naive or had received neuroleptics for a few days only. Cerebral ...

  5. Altered modulation of prefrontal and subcortical brain activity in newly diagnosed schizophrenia and schizophreniform disorder. A regional cerebral blood flow study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, P; Holm, S; Friberg, L

    1991-01-01

    blood flow distribution was depicted by single photon emission computed tomography at rest and during activation with the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. A significant relative activation deficit in the left inferior-prefrontal region was revealed during the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test in the patient group......To measure prefrontal and subcortical activity during a cognitive task, we examined 19 newly diagnosed schizophrenics and patients with schizophreniform psychosis. Seven healthy volunteers served as controls. The patients were drug naive or had received neuroleptics for a few days only. Cerebral....... Furthermore, the patients had impaired striatal suppression on the left side during the cognitive task. The test performance was significantly impaired in the patients. The inability to reduce striatal activity may be due to a lack of corticostriatal feedback during prefrontal activation....

  6. The 5-year course of obsessive-compulsive symptoms and obsessive-compulsive disorder in first-episode schizophrenia and related disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, Lieuwe; Sterk, Bouke; Wouters, Luuk; Linszen, Don H.

    2013-01-01

    To determine the course of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in first-episode schizophrenia and related disorders and their relationship with clinical characteristics. Consecutively, admitted patients with a first-episode of schizophrenia, schizophreniform

  7. Cerebral calcifications and schizophreniform disorder Calcificações cerebrais e transtorno esquizofreniforme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Fernandez Meyer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Discuss pathophysiological aspects of cerebral calcifications (CC and highlight its importance related to the occurrence of neuropsychiatric syndromes. METHOD: Single case report. RESULT: Man 52 years old, 20 years after going through a total thyroidectomy, starts showing behavioral disturbance (psychotic syndrome. He was diagnosed as schizophrenic (paranoid subtype and submitted to outpatient psychiatric treatment. During a psychiatric admission to evaluate his progressive cognitive and motor deterioration, we identified a dementia syndrome and extensive cerebral calcifications, derived from iatrogenic hypoparathyroidism. CONCLUSION: The calcium and phosphorus disturbances, including hypoparathyroidism, are common causes of CC. Its symptoms can imitate psychiatric disorders and produce serious and permanent cognitive sequelae. The exclusion of organicity is mandatory in any psychiatric investigative diagnosis in order to avoid unfavorable outcomes, such as in the present case report.OBJETIVOS: Discutir aspectos fisiopatológicos das calcificações cerebrais (CC e ressaltar sua importância na ocorrência de síndromes neuropsiquiátricas. MÉTODO: Relato de caso individual. RESULTADO: Homem 52 anos de idade, 20 anos após tireoidectomia total, iniciou com alteração comportamental (síndrome psicótica, foi diagnosticado como portador de esquizofrenia paranoide e encaminhado para ambulatório de psiquiatria. Durante internação psiquiátrica, para avaliação de importante deterioração cognitivo e motora, foi verificada a vigência de síndrome demencial e extensas CC, secundários a hipoparatiroidismo iatrogênico. CONCLUSÃO: Os distúrbios do metabolismo do cálcio e do fósforo, incluindo o hipoparatiroidismo, são causas frequentes de CC. Seus sintomas podem mimetizar transtornos psiquiátricos e provocar sequelas cognitivas permanentes. A exclusão de organicidade é mandatória durante toda investigação diagnóstica na

  8. Diagnostic profile and suicide risk in schizophrenia spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutfors, Johan; Bahmanyar, Shahram; Jönsson, Erik G; Ekbom, Anders; Nordström, Peter; Brandt, Lena; Ösby, Urban

    2010-11-01

    Earlier studies of patients with schizophrenia have investigated suicide risk in relation to specific psychiatric symptoms, but it remains to be better understood how suicide risk relates to the diagnostic profile in these patients. We identified all patients with a first clinical ICD-diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizophreniform or schizoaffective disorder in Stockholm County between 1984 and 2000. Patients who died by suicide within five years from diagnosis were defined as cases (n=84) and were individually matched with a similar number of living controls from the same population. Sociodemographic and clinical variables were retrieved from hospital records through a blind process. DSM-IV lifetime diagnoses for cases and controls were derived using the OPCRIT algorithm. A schizophrenia spectrum diagnosis (i.e. schizophrenia, schizophreniform or schizoaffective disorder) was assigned by OPCRIT to 50% of the suicide cases and 62% of the controls. Criteria for schizophrenia were met by 41% of the cases and 51% of the controls; for schizoaffective disorder by 8% of the cases and 10% of the controls; for other psychosis by 23% of the cases and 25% of the controls; and for mood disorder by 26% of the cases and 12% of the controls. Using the schizophrenia diagnosis as a reference, suicide risk was significantly higher in patients meeting criteria for a mood disorder diagnosis with an adjusted odds ratio of 3.3 (95% CI 1.2-9.0). In patients with a clinical schizophrenia spectrum diagnosis, a DSM-IV mood disorder diagnosis increases the suicide risk more than three-fold. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Exclusion of close linkage between the synaptic vesicular monoamine transporter locus and schizophrenia spectrum disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persico, A.M.; Uhl, G.R. [Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Wang, Zhe Wu [Universitario Campus Bio-Medico, Rome (Italy)] [and others

    1995-12-18

    The principal brain synaptic vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2) is responsible for the reuptake of serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and histamine from the cytoplasm into synaptic vesicles, thus contributing to determination of the size of releasable neurotransmitter vesicular pools. Potential involvement of VMAT2 gene variants in the etiology of schizophrenia and related disorders was tested using polymorphic VMAT2 gene markers in 156 subjects from 16 multiplex pedigrees with schizophrenia, schizophreniform, schizoaffective, and schizotypal disorders and mood incongruent psychotic depression. Assuming genetic homogeneity, complete ({theta} = 0.0) linkage to the schizophrenia spectrum was excluded under both dominant and recessive models. Allelic variants at the VMAT2 locus do not appear to provide major genetic contributions to the etiology of schizophrenia spectrum disorders in these pedigrees. 16 refs.

  10. Schizophrenia: A Systemic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Brian; Miller, Brian; García-Rizo, Clemente; Fernandez-Egea, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    The concept of schizophrenia that is most widely taught is that it is a disorder in which psychotic symptoms are the main problem, and a dysregulation of dopamine signaling is the main feature of pathophysiology. However, this concept limits clinical assessment, the treatments offered to patients, research, and the development of therapeutics. A more appropriate conceptual model is that: 1) schizophrenia is not a psychotic disorder, but a disorder of essentially every brain function in which psychosis is present; 2) it is not a brain disease, but a disorder with impairments throughout the body; 3) for many patients, neuropsychiatric problems other than psychosis contribute more to impairment in function and quality of life than does psychosis; and, 4) some conditions that are considered to be comorbid are integral parts of the illness. In conclusion, students, patients, and family members should be taught this model, along with its implications for assessment, research, and therapeutics. PMID:23518782

  11. Schizophrenia as a semiotic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrod, J B

    1986-01-01

    Lanin-Kettering and Harrow (1985) argue the traditional position that schizophrenia is a thought disorder. Chaika and Lambe (1985) counter that it is a speech disorder at the syntactic-discursive level, and not a thought disorder. On the basis of state-of-the-art research in linguistics, it is suggested that the symptoms of schizophrenia are evidence of neither a thought disorder nor a syntactic-discursive disorder but a semiotic disorder. Semiotic structures have the form of saying something about something to someone and involve speech act, reference, pragmatics, and interpretation. Therefore, it appears that schizophrenic disorder is located in this structure.

  12. [Dissociative identity disorder or schizophrenia?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschöke, S; Steinert, T

    2010-01-01

    We present a case of dissociative identity disorder in which Schneiderian first rank symptoms were present besides of various states of consciousness. Thus the diagnosis of schizophrenia had to be considered. Formally, the symptoms met ICD-10 criteria for schizophrenia. However, taking into account the lack of formal thought disorder and of negative symptoms as well as a typical history of severe and prolonged traumatisation, we did not diagnose a co-morbid schizophrenic disorder. There is good evidence for the existence of psychotic symptoms among patients with dissociative disorders. However, in clinical practice this differential diagnosis is rarely considered.

  13. Long-term prognosis and course of schizo-affective, schizophreniform, and cycloid psychoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbruster, B; Gross, G; Huber, G

    1983-01-01

    From the Bonn study including 502 patients followed up an average 22.4 years after onset of schizophrenic disease diagnosed according to the criteria of K. Schneider, we selected 113 cases of schizo-affective, schizophreniform, and cycloid psychoses in accordance to the definitions given by Kasanin, Retterstøl, Angst, and Leonhard. These psychoses have a better prognosis than the whole sample: characteristic residues are seen more rarely, complete remissions and noncharacteristic residues more frequently. This group of psychoses differs from the whole sample in the hereditary taint, too: the morbidity risk with affective psychoses and with schizophrenic psychoses in first- and second-degree relatives is higher than in the total sample of the Bonn study. In spite of the better prognosis and other differences described in the paper, we believe that these results do not justify the classification of schizo-affective and related disorders as an independent disease group. Between these different subtypes of schizophrenia only a differential typology and not a differential diagnostic is possible.

  14. First episode schizophrenia-related psychosis and substance use disorders: acute response to olanzapine and haloperidol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Alan I; Tohen, Mauricio F; Hamer, Robert M; Strakowski, Stephen M; Lieberman, Jeffrey A; Glick, Ira; Clark, W Scott

    2004-02-01

    Co-occurring substance use disorders, mostly involving alcohol, cannabis or cocaine, occur commonly in patients with schizophrenia and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Available but limited data suggest that substance use disorders (especially cannabis use disorders) may also be common in first-episode patients and appear linked to a poor outcome in these patients. Strategies to curtail substance use form an important dimension of the treatment program for both first-episode and chronic patients. We report on rates of co-occurring substance use disorders in patients within their first episode of schizophrenia-related psychosis from a multicenter, international treatment trial of olanzapine vs. haloperidol. The study involved 262 patients (of 263 who were randomized and who returned for a post-randomization evaluation) within their first episode of psychosis (schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder or schizophreniform disorder) recruited from 14 academic medical centers in North America and Western Europe. Patients with a history of substance dependence within 1 month prior to entry were excluded. Of this sample, 97 (37%) had a lifetime diagnosis of substance use disorder (SUD); of these 74 (28% of the total) had a lifetime cannabis use disorder (CUD) and 54 (21%) had a lifetime diagnosis of alcohol use disorder (AUD). Patients with SUD were more likely to be men. Those with CUD had a lower age of onset than those without. Patients with SUD had more positive symptoms and fewer negative symptoms than those without SUD, and they had a longer duration of untreated psychosis. The 12-week response data indicated that 27% of patients with SUD were responders compared to 35% of those without SUD. Patients with AUD were less likely to respond to olanzapine than those without AUD. These data suggest that first-episode patients are quite likely to have comorbid substance use disorders, and that the presence of these disorders may negatively influence

  15. Violence in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volavka, Jan

    2013-03-01

    Although most psychiatric patients are not violent, serious mental illness is associated with increased risk of violent behavior. Most of the evidence available pertains to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. MEDLINE data base was searched for articles published between 1966 and November 2012 using the combination of key words 'schizophrenia' or 'bipolar disorder' with 'aggression' or 'violence'. For the treatment searches, generic names were used in combination with key words 'schizophrenia' or 'bipolar disorder' and 'aggression' No language constraint was applied. Only articles dealing with adults were included. The lists of references were searched manually to find additional articles. There were statistically significant increases of risk of violence in schizophrenia and in bipolar disorder in comparison with general population. The evidence suggests that the risk of violence is greater in bipolar disorder than in schizophrenia. Most of the violence in bipolar disorder occurs during the manic phase. The risk of violence in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder is increased by comorbid substance use disorder. Violence among adults with schizophrenia may follow at least two distinct pathways-one associated with antisocial conduct, and another associated with the acute psychopathology of schizophrenia. Clozapine is the most effective treatment of aggressive behavior in schizophrenia. Emerging evidence suggests that olanzapine may be the second line of treatment. Treatment adherence is of key importance. Non-pharmacological methods of treatment of aggression in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are increasingly important. Cognitive behavioral approaches appear to be effective in cases where pharmacotherapy alone does not suffice. Violent behavior of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder is a public health problem. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches should be used to treat not only violent behavior, but also contributing comorbidities such

  16. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Obsessive compulsive disorder- prevalence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (DSM) III-R) met the criteria for OCD.' Using DSM-IV' criteria,. Bermanzohn et a/.5 found that 29.7% of ... hierarchy rules (SCID - DSM-IV), 14% of 50 first-episode schizophrenia, schizophreniform or schizoaffective patients .... Poyurovsky M, Hramenkov S, lsakov v; et al. Obsessive-compulsive disorder in hospitalized patients ...

  17. Delusions in schizophrenia spectrum disorders: diagnostic issues.

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    Gladis, M M; Levinson, D F; Mowry, B J

    1994-01-01

    Family studies of schizophrenia frequently include relatives of schizophrenia probands with diagnoses falling within the schizophrenia spectrum. As part of an ongoing genetic linkage study of schizophrenia, the authors examined case material from 50 relatives (of schizophrenia probands) who received a DSM-III-R diagnosis of a nonaffective psychotic disorder or schizotypal or paranoid personality disorder. Eleven exhibited episodic or chronic delusions that resulted in diagnostic dilemmas, often arising from issues pertaining to the classification of delusional phenomena. Four of these cases are presented here. Unusual beliefs were often difficult to classify as odd beliefs versus full delusions, brief/transient versus persistent delusions, bizarre versus non-bizarre delusions. It is suggested that these might be considered continuous rather than dichotomous dimensions. Several possible implications for genetic studies of schizophrenia are discussed.

  18. Self-ordered pointing and visual conditional associative learning tasks in drug-free schizophrenia spectrum disorder patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galluzzo Alessandro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence of a link between schizophrenia and a deficit of working memory, but this has been derived from tasks not specifically developed to probe working memory per se. Our aim was to investigate whether working memory deficits may be detected across different paradigms using the self-ordered pointing task (SOPT and the visual conditional associative learning task (VCALT in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and healthy controls. The current literature suggests deficits in schizophrenia spectrum disorder patients versus healthy controls but these studies frequently involved small samples, broad diagnostic criteria, inclusion of patients on antipsychotic medications, and were not controlled for symptom domains, severity of the disorder, etc. To overcome some of these limitations, we investigated the self-monitoring and conditional associative learning abilities of a numerically representative sample of healthy controls and a group of non-deteriorated, drug-free patients hospitalized for a schizophrenia spectrum disorder with florid, mainly positive psychotic symptoms. Methods Eighty-five patients with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of schizophrenia (n = 71 or schizophreniform disorder (n = 14 and 80 healthy controls entered the study. The clinical picture was dominated by positive symptoms. The healthy control group had a negative personal and family history of schizophrenia or mood disorder and satisfied all the inclusion and exclusion criteria other than variables related to schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Results Compared to controls, patients had worse performances on SOPT, VCALT and higher SOPT/VCALT ratios, not affected by demographic or clinical variables. ROC curves showed that SOPT, VCALT, and SOPT/VCALT ratio had good accuracy in discriminating patients from controls. The SOPT and VCALT scores were inter-correlated in controls but not in patients. Conclusion The

  19. Schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagsberg, Anne Katrine

    2013-01-01

    The DSM-5 list of diagnoses concerning schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders is expected to be revised and graduated from mild to severe. The proposed changes for the diagnosis of schizophrenia affect demands for characteristic symptoms, clarify relation to pervasive developmental...... diagnostic reliability and validity, but it is estimated to exclude about 2 % of patients currently diagnosed with DSM-IV schizophrenia from fulfilling criteria for DSM-5 schizophrenia. It might generate a problem for future young patients if the changes concerning demands on characteristic symptoms turn out...

  20. Anomalies of Imagination and Disordered Self in Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Andreas Christian Rosén; Parnas, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Vivid mental imagery occurs frequently in schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs). Overlapping phenomena, such as obsessions or ruminations, are also frequent in other psychiatric disorders, raising significant diagnostic challenges. Unfortunately, contemporary operational psychopathology lacks t...

  1. Self-disorders and the Schizophrenia Spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordgaard, Julie; Parnas, Josef

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Self-disorders (SD) have been described as a core feature of schizophrenia both in classical and recent psychopathological literature. However, the specificity of SD for the schizophrenia spectrum disorders has never been demonstrated in a diagnostically heterogeneous sample, nor has...... the concurrent validity of SD been examined. AIM: (1) To examine the specificity of Examination of Anomalous Self-Experiences (EASE) measured SD to the schizophrenia spectrum disorder in first contact inpatients, (2) to explore the internal consistency and factorial structure of the EASE, (3) to assess...... the concurrent validity of SD by exploring correlations between SD and the canonical psychopathological dimensions of schizophrenia, (4) to explore relations of SD to intelligence, sociodemographic, and extrinsic illness characteristics. METHODS: A total of 100 consecutive first admission patients underwent...

  2. Disordered Self in the Schizophrenia Spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parnas, Josef; Henriksen, Mads Gram

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the phenomenological and empirical rediscovery of anomalous self-experience as a core feature of the schizophrenia spectrum disorders and presents the current status of research in this field. Historically, a disordered self was considered to be a constitutive phenotype...... of schizophrenia. Although the notion of a disordered self has continued to appear occasionally over the years-mainly in the phenomenologically or psychodynamically oriented literature-this notion was usually considered as a theoretical construct rather than as referring to concretely lived anomalous experiences....... Empirical research on the disorders of self-experience in schizophrenia can be traced back to the US-Denmark psychopathological collaboration in the well-known adoption and high-risk studies, which aimed at identifying trait or phenotypic vulnerability features. This research was later followed by clinical...

  3. Schizophrenia as a self-disorder due to perceptual incoherence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postmes, L.; Sno, H. N.; Goedhart, S.; van der Stel, J.; Heering, H. D.; de Haan, L.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review is to describe the potential relationship between multisensory disintegration and self-disorders in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Sensory processing impairments affecting multisensory integration have been demonstrated in schizophrenia. From a developmental perspective

  4. Treatment of substance use disorders in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Melanie E; Bradshaw, Kristen R; Catalano, Lauren T

    2017-07-01

    Substance use disorders (SUDs) represent a great barrier to functional recovery for individuals with schizophrenia. It is important to use research on treatment of SUDs in schizophrenia to guide treatment recommendations and program planning. We review studies of pharmacological and psychosocial interventions to treat SUDs in individuals with schizophrenia. The criteria used to select studies for inclusion are (1) the percentage of the sample with a schizophrenia spectrum diagnosis is at least 25%; (2) participants have a comorbid SUD or problem use of substances; (3) an intervention for SUD is provided; (4) a substance use-related outcome is measured; and (5) the study design enabled examination of pre-post outcome measures including open label trials, nonrandomized evaluations (quasi-experimental designs, nonrandom assignment to groups), or randomized controlled trials. There are few psychopharmacology outcomes studies. Most have examined use of antipsychotic medications to treat SUDs in schizophrenia. Several trials have yielded positive findings for naltrexone in reducing drinking compared to placebo in this population. Motivational and cognitive-behavioral interventions are associated with decreased substance use in several trials. Treatment for SUDs is feasible within a range of settings and acceptable to many individuals with schizophrenia. All individuals with schizophrenia should be offered brief or more extended psychosocial interventions that incorporate discussion of personal reasons to change and training in cognitive-behavioral strategies to reduce use, cope with cravings and stress, and avoid relapse. Future research must include larger samples, longitudinal designs, and similar outcome measures across studies.

  5. Premorbid neurocognitive functioning in schizophrenia spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Parnas, Josef

    2006-01-01

    ), and the diagnostic assessment (DSM-IIIR) was conducted by senior clinicians 25 years later. The group with schizophrenia spectrum disorder consisted of 84 individuals, and this group obtained significantly lower scores on Coding than nonschizophrenic controls. This difference could not be explained by differences...... in adolescence, the aim of the present prospective study was to examine whether low scores on Coding is associated with the risk of developing schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The 12 subtests of the WISC were administered to 311 children and adolescents with a mean age of 15.1 years (range: 8 to 20 years...... in WISC IQ. Logistic regression analysis controlling for age at examination, gender, and social status yielded a significant, but relatively weak, association between low Coding test score and risk of schizophrenia spectrum disorder. For each unit increase in the Coding raw score, the adjusted odds ratio...

  6. Premorbid neurocognitive functioning in schizophrenia spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Mortensen, E.L.; Parnas, Josef

    2006-01-01

    in adolescence, the aim of the present prospective study was to examine whether low scores on Coding is associated with the risk of developing schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The 12 subtests of the WISC were administered to 311 children and adolescents with a mean age of 15.1 years (range: 8 to 20 years......), and the diagnostic assessment (DSM-IIIR) was conducted by senior clinicians 25 years later. The group with schizophrenia spectrum disorder consisted of 84 individuals, and this group obtained significantly lower scores on Coding than nonschizophrenic controls. This difference could not be explained by differences...... in WISC IQ. Logistic regression analysis controlling for age at examination, gender, and social status yielded a significant, but relatively weak, association between low Coding test score and risk of schizophrenia spectrum disorder. For each unit increase in the Coding raw score, the adjusted odds ratio...

  7. The 5-year course of obsessive-compulsive symptoms and obsessive-compulsive disorder in first-episode schizophrenia and related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Lieuwe; Sterk, Bouke; Wouters, Luuk; Linszen, Don H

    2013-01-01

    To determine the course of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in first-episode schizophrenia and related disorders and their relationship with clinical characteristics. Consecutively, admitted patients with a first-episode of schizophrenia, schizophreniform disorder, or schizoaffective disorder were screened for OCS, and these were measured with the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale were used to assess severity of other symptoms. The course of 3- and 5-year symptoms, psychotic relapse, substance use, remission, full recovery, suicide, and social functioning were assessed. One hundred and eighty-six consecutively admitted and consenting patients were included. Five years after admission, OCS could be assessed in 172 patients. Ninety-one patients (48.9%) reported no OCS symptoms on any of the assessments. OCS restricted to the first assessments occured in 15.1%, 13.4% had persistent OCS, 7.0% had no OCS at first assessment but developed OCS subsequently, and 15.6% had intermittent OCS. The proportion of patients with comorbid OCD varied between 7.3% and 11.8% during follow-up. OCD was associated with more severe depressive symptoms and poorer premorbid functioning and social functioning at follow-up. The 5-year course of OCS/OCD in patients with first-episode schizophrenia or related disorders is variable. OCS/OCD comorbidity was not associated with a more severe course of psychotic symptoms and relapse. Comorbid OCD was associated with more severe depressive symptoms, social dysfunction and worse premorbid functioning. Specific treatment options for schizophrenia patients with comorbid OCD are needed.

  8. Self-disorders in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordgaard, Julie; Nilsson, Lars Siersbæk; Sæbye, Ditte

    2017-01-01

    Self-disorders have been hypothesized to be an underlying and trait-like core feature of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and a certain degree of temporal stability of self-disorders would therefore be expected. The aim of the study was to examine the persistence of self-disorders measured...... by the Examination of Anomalous Self Experiences over a time span of 5 years. 48 patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders were thoroughly assessed for psychopathology at baseline and 5 years later. Self-disorders were assessed by the Examination of Anomalous Self Experiences. The level of self-disorders...... was same at the two occasions for the full Examination of Anomalous Self Disorders and for four out of the five domains. For one domain, the level of self-disorders increased slightly from baseline to follow-up. The correlations between baseline and follow-up were moderate. 9 out of the 13 most...

  9. Risk factor assessment and counselling for 12 months reduces metabolic and cardiovascular risk in overweight or obese patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders: The CRESSOB study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Rojas, Luis; Pulido, Susana; Azanza, Jose R; Bernardo, Miguel; Rojo, Luis; Mesa, Francisco J; Martínez-Ortega, Jose M

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) and cardiovascular risk factors (CRF) have been associated with patients with schizophrenia. The main objective is to assess the evolution of CRF and prevalence of MS for 12 months in a cohort of overweight patients diagnosed with schizophrenia schizophreniform disorder or schizoaffective disorder in which the recommendations for the assessment and control of metabolic and cardiovascular risk were applied. The Control of Metabolic and Cardiovascular Risk in Patients with Schizophrenia and Overweight (CRESSOB) study is a 12-month, observational, prospective, open-label, multicentre, naturalistic study including 109 community mental health clinics of Spain. The study included a total of 403 patients, of whom we could collect all variables related to CRF and MS in 366 patients. Of these 366 patients, 286 completed the follow-up, (baseline, months 3, 6 and 12) where they underwent a complete physical examination and a blood test (glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides), they were asked about their health-related habits (smoking, diet and exercise) and they were given a series of recommendations to prevent cardiovascular risk and MS. A total of 403 patients were included, 63% men, mean age (mean; (SD)) 40.5 (10.5) years. After 12 months, the study showed statistically significant decrease in weight (prisk of heart disease at 10 years (p=0.0353). Overweight patients with schizophrenia who receive appropriate medical care, including CRF monitoring and control of health-related habits experience improvements with regard to most CRFs.

  10. co-occurrence of schizophrenia and obsessive compulsive disorder

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Similarities between schizophrenia and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have long been recognised. Obsessive- compulsive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia wer~jirst described by Westphal over 100 years ago.! The disorder \\,'Vas considered to be a variant of schizophrenia. Since that time the relationship of ...

  11. Body Dysmorphic Disorder : An Unusual Presentation of Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Amul; Sharma, Himanshu; Thakker, Yogesh

    2004-01-01

    Although body dysmorphic disorder is a psychiatric disorder in its own right, rarely it can be a variant of a variety of psychiatric syndromes like schizophrenia, mood disorders, OCD etc. Following is an unusual case report of a female patient who presented with body dysmorphic disorder later diagnosed as having schizophrenia.

  12. Different communication strategies for disclosing a diagnosis of schizophrenia and related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Saeed; Johal, Rupinder K; Ziff, Charlotte; Naeem, Farooq

    2017-10-24

    Delivering the diagnosis of a serious illness is an important skill in most fields of medicine, including mental health. Research has found that communication skills can impact on a person's recall and understanding of the diagnosis, treatment options and prognosis. People may feel confused and perplexed when information about their illness is not communicated properly. Sharing information about diagnosis of a serious mental illness is particularly challenging. The nature of mental illness is often difficult to explain since there may be no clear aetiology, and the treatment options and prognosis may vary enormously. In addition, newly diagnosed psychiatric patients, who are actively ill, often may not accept their diagnosis due to lack of insight or stigma attached to the condition. There are several interventions that aim to help clinicians to communicate life changing medical diagnoses to people; however, little is known specifically for delivering a diagnosis of schizophrenia. To evaluate evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) for the efficacy of different communication strategies used by clinicians to inform people about the diagnosis and outcome of schizophrenia compared with treatment as usual and to compare efficacy between different communication strategies. On 22 June 2015 and 29 June 2016, we searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Study-Based Register of Trials. We also searched sources of grey literature (e.g., dissertations, theses, clinical reports, evaluations published on websites, clinical guidelines and reports from regulatory agencies). We planned to include all relevant RCTs that included adults with schizophrenia or related disorders, including schizophreniform disorder, schizoaffective disorder and delusional disorder. The trials would have investigated the effects of communication strategy or strategies that helped clinicians deliver information specifically about a diagnosis of schizophrenia (which can also include

  13. Meta-analysis of the association between suicidal ideation and later suicide among patients with either a schizophrenia spectrum psychosis or a mood disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, C L; Mullin, K; Ryan, C J; Kuffel, A; Nielssen, O; Large, M M

    2015-03-01

    Recent studies of patients with a mix of psychiatric diagnoses have suggested a modest or weak association between suicidal ideation and later suicide. The aim of this study was to examine the extent to which the association between expressed suicidal ideation and later suicide varies according to psychiatric diagnosis. A systematic meta-analysis of studies that report the association between suicidal ideation and later suicide in patients with 'mood disorders', defined to include major depression, dysthymia and bipolar disorder, or 'schizophrenia spectrum psychosis', defined to include schizophrenia, schizophreniform disorder and delusional disorder. Suicidal ideation was strongly associated with suicide among patients with schizophrenia spectrum psychosis [14 studies reporting on 567 suicides, OR = 6.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.82-11.02]. The association between suicidal ideation and suicide among patients with mood disorders (11 studies reporting on 860 suicides, OR = 1.49, 95% CI 0.92-2.42) was not significant. Diagnostic group made a significant contribution to between-study heterogeneity (Q-value = 16.2, df = 1, P suicidal ideation and suicide between the two diagnostic groups. Meta-regression and multiple meta-regression suggested that methodological issues in the primary research did not explain the findings. Suicidal ideation was weakly but significantly associated with suicide among studies of patients with mood disorders over periods of follow-up of suicidal ideation and later suicide is stronger in schizophrenia spectrum psychosis than in mood disorders this result should be interpreted cautiously due to the high degree of between-study heterogeneity and because studies that used stronger methods of reporting had a weaker association between suicidal ideation and suicide. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Genetic Relationships Between Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder, and Schizoaffective Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardno, Alastair G.

    2014-01-01

    There is substantial evidence for partial overlap of genetic influences on schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, with family, twin, and adoption studies showing a genetic correlation between the disorders of around 0.6. Results of genome-wide association studies are consistent with commonly occurring genetic risk variants, contributing to both the shared and nonshared aspects, while studies of large, rare chromosomal structural variants, particularly copy number variants, show a stronger influence on schizophrenia than bipolar disorder to date. Schizoaffective disorder has been less investigated but shows substantial familial overlap with both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. A twin analysis is consistent with genetic influences on schizoaffective episodes being entirely shared with genetic influences on schizophrenic and manic episodes, while association studies suggest the possibility of some relatively specific genetic influences on broadly defined schizoaffective disorder, bipolar subtype. Further insights into genetic relationships between these disorders are expected as studies continue to increase in sample size and in technical and analytical sophistication, information on phenotypes beyond clinical diagnoses are increasingly incorporated, and approaches such as next-generation sequencing identify additional types of genetic risk variant. PMID:24567502

  15. Neurocognition in Early-Onset Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Stephen R.; Giuliano, Anthony J.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Breiger, David; Sikich, Linmarie; Frazier, Jean A.; Findling, Robert L.; McClellan, Jon; Hamer, Robert M.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We examined the neuropsychological functioning of youth enrolled in the NIMH funded trial, Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (TEOSS). We compared the baseline neuropsychological functioning of youth with schizophrenia (SZ, n = 79) to those with schizoaffective disorder (SA, n = 40), and examined the relationship…

  16. Cognitive dysfunction in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bortolato, Beatrice; Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Köhler, Cristiano A

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is a core feature of schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD). A neurocognitive profile characterized by widespread cognitive deficits across multiple domains in the context of substantial intellectual impairment, which appears to antedate illness onset, is a replicated...... deterioration in either SZ or BD, some findings point to more severe cognitive deficits in patients with early illness onset across both disorders. A compromised pattern of cognitive functioning in individuals at familiar and/or clinical risk to psychosis as well as in first-degree relatives of BD patients...... suggests that early neurodevelopmental factors may play a role in the emergence of cognitive deficits in both disorders. Premorbid intellectual impairment in SZ and at least in a subgroup of patients with BD may be related to a shared genetically determined influence on neurodevelopment....

  17. Redox Dysregulation in the Pathophysiology of Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulak, Anita; Steullet, Pascal; Cabungcal, Jan-Harry

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) are classified as two distinct diseases. However, accumulating evidence shows that both disorders share genetic, pathological, and epidemiological characteristics. Based on genetic and functional findings, redox dysregulation due...

  18. Neuropsychological profile in patients with schizotypal personality disorder or schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Mié; Sumiyoshi, Tomiki; Kato, Kanade; Yoneyama, Eiichi; Kurachi, Masayoshi

    2004-04-01

    Neuropsychological impairments have been consistently reported in patients with schizophrenia. As little is known whether subjects with schizotypal personality disorder exhibit neurocognitive dysfunction similar to that in schizophrenia, we assessed the neuropsychological profile of 15 subjects with schizotypal personality disorder and compared it with that for 15 patients with schizophrenia and for 15 psychiatrically normal volunteers. All participants were administered a standard neuropsychological battery assessing language ability, spatial ability, visuomotor function, verbal memory, visual memory, auditory attention, visual attention, and executive function. Performance on most of the cognitive domains was impaired in patients with schizotypal personality disorder but less than patients with schizophrenia. Specifically, impairment in verbal memory and visuomotor ability in patients with schizotypal personality disorder and patients with schizophrenia were comparable, while patients with schizophrenia performed worse on the test of executive function than did patients with schizotypal personality disorder. As a whole, cognitive deficits in patients with schizotypal personality disorder were qualitatively similar to, but quantitatively milder than, those for patients with schizophrenia. The results suggest that cognitive abilities related to frontotemporal lobe function are disturbed across these schizophrenia-spectrum disorders.

  19. Anomalies of Imagination and Disordered Self in Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Andreas Rosén; Parnas, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Vivid mental imagery occurs frequently in schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs). Overlapping phenomena, such as obsessions or ruminations, are also frequent in other psychiatric disorders, raising significant diagnostic challenges. Unfortunately, contemporary operational psychopathology lacks the epistemological and phenomenological framework to address such questions. Using the resources of phenomenology and philosophy of mind, we articulate the structure of imagination and describe its distinctive modifications in the SSDs. Drawing on pilot data with patients' self-descriptions, we present the notion of perceptualized imagery. The anomalous imagery acquires spatialization, spatiotemporal constancy, explorability, autonomy and a sense of experiential distance between the subject and the image. As a quasi-perceptual, stable object, such imagery often evokes an intense affective response, whereas the normal sense of 'irreality' of the fantasy may become compromised. We articulate these anomalies of imagination as being entailed by the underlying generative disorder of schizophrenia, namely the disorder of minimal self (unstable ipseity or first-person perspective). We propose that pathology of imagination is an important psychopathological aspect of the schizophrenia spectrum, with significant relevance for early diagnosis and differential diagnosis. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Childhood laterality and adult schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a prospective investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Pestle, Sarah; Mednick, Sara

    2005-01-01

    Left or mixed-handedness, footedness, and eye dominance are thought to indicate abnormalities in lateralization related to schizophrenia. Increased left or mixed-dominance in schizophrenia suggests possible hemispheric abnormalities associated with the disorder. A related body of research suggests...... that some indications of lateralization abnormalities may be evident prior to the onset of schizophrenia, suggesting that disruptions in lateralization are inherent to the developmental course of the disorder. We attempted to replicate and extend upon findings indicating differences in lateralization...... between children who later developed a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (n = 26) and those who did not develop a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (n = 216), among a high-risk and control, longitudinal sample. The rate of left or mixed-footedness, eye dominance, and any anomalous lateralization...

  1. Role of 108 schizophrenia-associated loci in modulating psychopathological dimensions in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Chiara; Serretti, Alessandro

    2017-10-01

    The Schizophrenia Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) identified 108 loci associated with schizophrenia, but their role in modulating specific psychopathological dimensions of the disease is unknown. This study investigated which symptom dimensions may be affected by these loci in schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. Positive, negative and depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, cognition, violent behaviors, quality of life, and early onset were investigated in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder using the clinical antipsychotic trials of intervention effectiveness (CATIE) and systematic treatment enhancement program for bipolar disorder (STEP-BD) studies. Individual loci were investigated, then genes within 50 Kbp from polymorphisms with p schizophrenia-associated variant (rs75059851) may modulate negative symptoms. Multi-locus models may provide interesting insights about the biological mechanisms that mediate psychopathological dimensions. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Minor physical anomalies and schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a prospective investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Ekstrøm, Morten; LaBrie, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors prospectively assessed the relationship between minor physical anomalies identified in childhood and adult psychiatric outcome. METHOD: In 1972, minor physical anomalies were measured in a group of 265 Danish children ages 11-13. The examination was part of a larger study...... investigating early signs of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Many of the subjects had a parent with schizophrenia, leaving them at high risk for developing a schizophrenia spectrum disorder. In 1991, adult psychiatric outcome data were obtained for 91.3% (N=242) of the original subjects, including 81 who were...... at high risk. RESULTS: Individuals with a high number of minor physical anomalies developed schizophrenia spectrum disorders significantly more often than they developed a no mental illness outcome. Further, individuals with a high number of minor physical anomalies tended to develop schizophrenia...

  3. Eating Disorders in Schizophrenia: Implications for Research and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Kouidrat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Despite evidence from case series, the comorbidity of eating disorders (EDs with schizophrenia is poorly understood. This review aimed to assess the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of EDs in schizophrenia patients and to examine whether the management of EDs can be improved. Methods. A qualitative review of the published literature was performed using the following terms: “schizophrenia” in association with “eating disorders,” “anorexia nervosa,” “bulimia nervosa,” “binge eating disorder,” or “night eating syndrome.” Results. According to our literature review, there is a high prevalence of comorbidity between schizophrenia and EDs. EDs may occur together with or independent of psychotic symptoms in these patients. Binge eating disorders and night eating syndromes are frequently found in patients with schizophrenia, with a prevalence of approximately 10%. Anorexia nervosa seems to affect between 1 and 4% of schizophrenia patients. Psychopathological and neurobiological mechanisms, including effects of antipsychotic drugs, should be more extensively explored. Conclusions. The comorbidity of EDs in schizophrenia remains relatively unexplored. The clearest message of this review is the importance of screening for and assessment of comorbid EDs in schizophrenia patients. The management of EDs in schizophrenia requires a multidisciplinary approach to attain maximized health outcomes. For clinical practice, we propose some recommendations regarding patient-centered care.

  4. The care needs of elderly patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meesters, P.D.; Comijs, H.C.; Dröes, R.M.; de Haan, L.; Smit, J.H.; Eikelenboom, P.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Stek, M.L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Elderly patients constitute the fastest growing segment of the schizophrenia population. Still, their needs for care are poorly understood. This study aimed to gain insight into the care needs of older patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Setting and Participants: Patients,

  5. Cognitive Discernible Factors between Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stip, Emmanuel; Sepehry, Amir Ali; Prouteau, Antoniette; Briand, Catherine; Nicole, Luc; Lalonde, Pierre; Lesage, Alain

    2005-01-01

    Background: Schizophrenia (SZ) and schizoaffective disorders (SA) are associated with cognitive deficits. Generally, a schizoaffective diagnosis is associated with better prognosis on the level of social integration. It is also well established that cognition is an important factor for good social outcome in schizophrenia. We hypothesized that,…

  6. Dissociation and psychosis in dissociative identity disorder and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laddis, Andreas; Dell, Paul F

    2012-01-01

    Dissociative symptoms, first-rank symptoms of schizophrenia, and delusions were assessed in 40 schizophrenia patients and 40 dissociative identity disorder (DID) patients with the Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation (MID). Schizophrenia patients were diagnosed with the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV Axis I Disorders; DID patients were diagnosed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders-Revised. DID patients obtained significantly (a) higher dissociation scores; (b) higher passive-influence scores (first-rank symptoms); and (c) higher scores on scales that measure child voices, angry voices, persecutory voices, voices arguing, and voices commenting. Schizophrenia patients obtained significantly higher delusion scores than did DID patients. What is odd is that the dissociation scores of schizophrenia patients were unrelated to their reports of childhood maltreatment. Multiple regression analyses indicated that 81% of the variance in DID patients' dissociation scores was predicted by the MID's Ego-Alien Experiences Scale, whereas 92% of the variance in schizophrenia patients' dissociation scores was predicted by the MID's Voices Scale. We propose that schizophrenia patients' responses to the MID do not index the same pathology as do the responses of DID patients. We argue that neither phenomenological definitions of dissociation nor the current generation of dissociation instruments (which are uniformly phenomenological in nature) can distinguish between the dissociative phenomena of DID and what we suspect are just the dissociation-like phenomena of schizophrenia.

  7. [Characteristics of catatonia in schizophrenia and mood disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Ameele, S; Sabbe, B; Morrens, M

    2015-01-01

    Catatonia is a psychomotor symptom cluster that co-occurs with schizophrenia and with mood disorders. The characterisation and the differentiation of psychomotor symptom clusters can contribute to a more accurate diagnosis and a better understanding of underlying neurobiological processes. To compare epidemiology, clinical presentation and treatment of catatonia in schizophrenia and in mood disorders. We reviewed the literature using PubMed. Catatonia is highly prevalent in both schizophrenia and mood disorders, but is slightly more prevalent in the latter. In spite of a considerable overlap, there are differentiating trends in the catatonic symptom profile of schizophrenia and mood disorders. In both of these disorders catatonia is a marker for increasing severity of the course of the illness. Compared to catatonia in mood disorders, catatonia in schizophrenia has a poorer response to benzodiazepines and ECT. Catatonia in schizophrenia and mood disorders is characterized by a distinctive profile. Comparative research on clinical presentation and neurobiological processes is warranted in order to arrive at a more accurate characterisation of these psychomotor symptom clusters.

  8. Schizoaffective disorder merges schizophrenia and bipolar disorders as one disease--there is no schizoaffective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Charles Ray; Hurwitz, Nathaniel

    2007-07-01

    Schizoaffective disorder was named as a compromise diagnosis in 1933, and remains popular as judged by its place in the International Classification of Diseases and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, its frequent use in clinical practice, and its extensive discussion in the literature. Some, however, have questioned the validity of schizoaffective disorder as separate from psychotic mood disorder. We examined the literature to assess the rationale for the continuation of schizoaffective disorder as a legitimate diagnostic category. The diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder depends on the disease specificity of the diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia; however, the psychotic symptoms for schizophrenia, traditionally held as specific, can be accounted for by psychotic bipolar. Further, the interrater reliability for diagnosing schizoaffective disorder is very low. A recent and expanding body of comparative evidence from a wide range of clinical and basic science studies, especially genetic, reveals multiple similarities between schizoaffective disorder, schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar. Schizoaffective disorder unifies schizophrenia and bipolar, blurring the zones of rarity between them and suggesting that schizoaffective disorder is not a separate, 'bona-fide' disease. Patients diagnosed with schizoaffective disorder likely suffer from a psychotic mood disorder. The diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder, which can result in substandard treatment, should be eliminated from the diagnostic nomenclature.

  9. Self‐Disorders as schizophrenia spectrum vulnerability phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raballo, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia spectrum disorders are characterised by manifold psychopathological expressions, which might include major symptoms (such as delusions, hallucinations or social withdrawal), psychobehavioural enduring personality patterns (e.g. schizoid/schizotypal traits), or more subtle, quasi...

  10. Formal Thought Disorder and language impairment in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radanovic, Marcia; Sousa, Rafael T de; Valiengo, L; Gattaz, Wagner Farid; Forlenza, Orestes Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a psychiatric illness in which disorders of thought content are a prominent feature. The disruption of normal flow of thought, or "Formal Thought Disorder" (FTD), has been traditionally assessed through the content and form of patients' speech, and speech abnormalities in schizophrenia were considered as a by-product of the disruption in conceptual structures and associative processes related to psychosis. This view has been changed due to increasing evidence that language per se is impaired in schizophrenia, especially its semantic, discursive, and pragmatic aspects. Schizophrenia is currently considered by some authors as a "language related human specific disease" or "logopathy", and the neuroanatomical and genetic correlates of the language impairment in these patients are under investigation. Such efforts may lead to a better understanding about the pathophysiology of this devastating mental disease. We present some current concepts related to FTD as opposed to primary neurolinguistic abnormalities in schizophrenia.

  11. Childhood adversity and cognitive function in schizophrenia spectrum disorders and healthy controls: evidence for an association between neglect and social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilian, S; Asmal, L; Chiliza, B; Olivier, M R; Phahladira, L; Scheffler, F; Seedat, S; Marder, S R; Green, M F; Emsley, R

    2017-12-22

    Childhood adversity is associated with cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. However, findings to date are inconsistent and little is known about the relationship between social cognition and childhood trauma. We investigated the relationship between childhood abuse and neglect and cognitive function in patients with a first-episode of schizophrenia or schizophreniform disorder (n = 56) and matched healthy controls (n = 52). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study assessing this relationship in patients and controls exposed to similarly high levels of trauma. Pearson correlational coefficients were used to assess correlations between Childhood Trauma Questionnaire abuse and neglect scores and cognition. For the MCCB domains displaying significant (p childhood neglect remained a significant predictor of impairment in social cognition in both patients and controls. Neglect was also a significant predictor of poorer verbal learning in patients and of attention/vigilance in controls. However, childhood abuse did not significantly predict cognitive impairments in either patients or controls. These findings are cross sectional and do not infer causality. Nonetheless, they indicate that associations between one type of childhood adversity (i.e. neglect) and social cognition are present and are not illness-specific.

  12. An independent analysis of the Copenhagen sample of the Danish adoption study of schizophrenia. III. The relationship between paranoid psychosis (delusional disorder) and the schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, K S; Gruenberg, A M; Strauss, J S

    1981-09-01

    To genetic relationship between paranoid psychosis (delusional disorder) and schizophrenia spectrum disorders (schizophrenia and schizotypal personality disorder) is examined by a blind independent diagnostic evaluation of the interviews of relatives from the greater Copenhagen sample of the Danish Adoption Study of Schizophrenia. While cases of schizophrenia spectrum disorders are strongly concentrated in the biologic relatives of the schizophrenic adoptees, this pattern is not found for delusional disorder. These results suggest that from a genetic perspective, delusional disorder is not part of the schizophrenia spectrum.

  13. Very Early-onset Schizophrenia with Secondary Onset Tic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telgote, Shilpa A; Pendharkar, Shreyas Shrikant; Kelkar, Amol D; Bhojane, Sachin

    2017-01-01

    Very early-onset schizophrenia (defined as an onset of psychosis before 13 years of age) is a rare and severe form of the disorder which is clinically and neurobiologically continuous with the adult-onset disorder. It is rarely reported tic disorder.

  14. Socioeconomic status and beliefs about depression, schizophrenia and eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von dem Knesebeck, Olaf; Mnich, Eva; Daubmann, Anne; Wegscheider, Karl; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Lambert, Martin; Karow, Anne; Härter, Martin; Kofahl, Christopher

    2013-05-01

    The association between socioeconomic status (SES) and knowledge/belief about depression, schizophrenia and eating disorders will be analysed. Data stem from a telephone survey in two large German cities (Hamburg and Munich, n = 2,014, response rate 51 %). Written vignettes with typical signs and symptoms suggestive of a depression, schizophrenia and eating disorders were presented to the respondents. Respondents were then asked about knowledge/belief about causes, symptoms, prevalence and treatment using a standardised questionnaire. Education, occupational position and income were used as SES indicators. Results of mixed hierarchal logistic regression analyses show that individuals with a low SES know less about symptoms and prevalences of depression, schizophrenia and eating disorders. Moreover, people with a high SES are more likely to consider medication as effective in case of depression and schizophrenia, but are less likely to believe that activities such as sports or relaxation are an effective measure to treat the three mental disorders under study. Respondents with a high SES are less likely to believe that a weak will is a possible cause of depression, schizophrenia and eating disorders. We found large similarities in the associations between SES and beliefs across the three mental disorders. Finally, associations of beliefs about mental disorders with education are stronger and more consistent than with income and occupational position. Results indicate an inequality in mental health literacy and underline that information campaigns on causes, symptoms, prevalence and treatment of mental disorders should consider information needs of people with a low SES.

  15. Minor physical anomalies and schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a prospective investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Ekstrøm, Morten; LaBrie, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors prospectively assessed the relationship between minor physical anomalies identified in childhood and adult psychiatric outcome. METHOD: In 1972, minor physical anomalies were measured in a group of 265 Danish children ages 11-13. The examination was part of a larger study...... at high risk. RESULTS: Individuals with a high number of minor physical anomalies developed schizophrenia spectrum disorders significantly more often than they developed a no mental illness outcome. Further, individuals with a high number of minor physical anomalies tended to develop schizophrenia...... spectrum disorders more often than other psychopathology. Among individuals at genetic high risk, higher numbers of minor physical anomalies may interact with pre-existing vulnerabilities for schizophrenia to increase the likelihood of a schizophrenia spectrum disorder outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Minor physical...

  16. Early stage vision in schizophrenia and schizotypal personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Brian F; Bismark, Andrew; Hetrick, William P; Bodkins, Misty; Vohs, Jenifer L; Shekhar, Anantha

    2006-09-01

    Previous studies of visual perception have reported deficits in contrast sensitivity and dot motion discrimination in schizophrenia. We tested whether these deficits also appear in schizotypal personality disorder (SPD). SPD appears to be genetically and symptomatically related to schizophrenia, but without the marked psychosocial impairment associated with psychotic disorders. The present study investigated contrast sensitivity for moving and static gratings, form discrimination and dot motion discrimination in 24 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (SZ), 16 individuals with SPD, and 40 control subjects. SZ, but not SPD subjects, showed impairments on tests of contrast sensitivity for static and moving gratings, form discrimination in noise, and dot motion discrimination. Visual performance did not differ between medicated SZ patients and patients withdrawn from medication. These results confirm early stage visual deficits in schizophrenia regardless of medication status. SPD subjects, in contrast, show intact early stage visual processing despite the presence of marked schizotypal symptoms.

  17. Dissociative identity disorder and schizophrenia: differential diagnosis and theoretical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Brad; Park, Jane

    2008-06-01

    Schizophrenia and dissociative identity disorder (DID) are typically thought of as unrelated syndromes--a genetically based psychotic disorder versus a trauma-based dissociative disorder--and are categorized as such by the DSM-IV. However, substantial data exist to document the elevated occurrence of psychotic symptoms in DID; awareness of these features is necessary to prevent diagnostic confusion. Recent research has also pointed out that schizophrenia and DID overlap not only in psychotic symptoms but also in terms of traumatic antecedents, leading to a number of suggestions for revision of our clinical, theoretical, and nosologic understanding of the relationship between these two disorders.

  18. Neurophysiological distinction between schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H Mathalon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizoaffective disorder (SA is distinguished from schizophrenia (SZ based on the presence of prominent mood symptoms over the illness course. Despite this clinical distinction, SA and SZ patients are often combined in research studies, in part because data supporting a distinct pathophysiological boundary between the disorders are lacking. Indeed, few studies have addressed whether neurobiological abnormalities associated with SZ, such as the widely replicated reduction and delay of the P300 event-related potential (ERP, are also present in SA. Scalp EEG was acquired from patients with DSM-IV SA (n=15 or SZ (n=22, as well as healthy controls (HC; n=22 to assess the P300 elicited by infrequent target (15% and task-irrelevant distractor (15% stimuli in separate auditory and visual “oddball” tasks. P300 amplitude was reduced and delayed in SZ, relative to HC, consistent with prior studies. These SZ abnormalities did not interact with stimulus type (target vs. task-irrelevant distractor or modality (auditory vs. visual. Across sensory modality and stimulus type, SA patients exhibited normal P300 amplitudes (significantly larger than SZ patients and indistinguishable from HC. However, P300 latency and reaction time were both equivalently delayed in SZ and SA patients, relative to HC. P300 differences between SA and SZ patients could not be accounted for by variation in symptom severity, socio-economic status, education, or illness duration. Although both groups show similar deficits in processing speed, SA patients do not exhibit the P300 amplitude deficits evident in SZ, consistent with an underlying pathophysiological boundary between these disorders.

  19. Brain Processing of proprioception and self-disorder in Schizophrenia spectrum patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfred, Sidse Marie

    12 first-admitted schizophrenia spectrum subjects (six with schizophrenia and six with schizotypal personality disorder: 7 females, one left-handed) Mean age: 27 years (STD 5,4)......12 first-admitted schizophrenia spectrum subjects (six with schizophrenia and six with schizotypal personality disorder: 7 females, one left-handed) Mean age: 27 years (STD 5,4)...

  20. Formal Thought Disorder and language impairment in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Radanovic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a psychiatric illness in which disorders of thought content are a prominent feature. The disruption of normal flow of thought, or “Formal Thought Disorder” (FTD, has been traditionally assessed through the content and form of patients’ speech, and speech abnormalities in schizophrenia were considered as a by-product of the disruption in conceptual structures and associative processes related to psychosis. This view has been changed due to increasing evidence that language per se is impaired in schizophrenia, especially its semantic, discursive, and pragmatic aspects. Schizophrenia is currently considered by some authors as a “language related human specific disease” or “logopathy”, and the neuroanatomical and genetic correlates of the language impairment in these patients are under investigation. Such efforts may lead to a better understanding about the pathophysiology of this devastating mental disease. We present some current concepts related to FTD as opposed to primary neurolinguistic abnormalities in schizophrenia.

  1. EEG synchronization to modulated auditory tones in schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and schizotypal personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Colleen A; Sporns, Olaf; Lysaker, Paul H; O'Donnell, Brian F

    2003-12-01

    The authors tested whether neural synchronization deficits were present in subjects with schizophrenia and schizotypal personality disorder. Amplitude-modulated tones were used to evaluate auditory steady-state evoked potential entrainment in a combined group of 21 subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, 11 subjects with schizotypal personality disorder, and 22 nonpsychiatric comparison subjects. The schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder group exhibited decreased power compared to the schizotypal personality disorder and nonpsychiatric comparison groups. There were no differences between groups in N100 amplitude. Subjects with schizophrenia but not subjects with schizotypal personality disorder have deficits in steady-state responses to periodic stimuli, despite an intact response to sensory-evoked potentials (N100). These deficits reflect aberrant neural synchronization or resolution and may contribute to disturbed perceptual and cognitive integration in schizophrenia.

  2. Very early-onset schizophrenia with secondary onset tic disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Shilpa A Telgote; Shreyas Shrikant Pendharkar; Amol D Kelkar; Sachin Bhojane

    2017-01-01

    Very early-onset schizophrenia (defined as an onset of psychosis before 13 years of age) is a rare and severe form of the disorder which is clinically and neurobiologically continuous with the adult-onset disorder. It is rarely reported

  3. Non-adherence to pharmacological treatment in schizophrenia and schizophrenia spectrum disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungdalh, P. M.

    2017-01-01

    Background and objectives The primary treatment for schizophrenia and schizophrenia-spectrum disorders is antipsychotic medication. One of the many public health challenges in mental illness, is to identify contributing factors to non-adherence to pharmacological treatment. The objective...... of this study was to perform an updated systematic review of risk factors for non-adherence to pharmacological treatment in schizophrenia in a European and American context. Methods The study was a systematic literature review of studies that included at least two measurements of pharmacological adherence...... of illness, alcohol or drug abuse and unspecified younger age. Conclusions The findings in this systematic literature review are consistent with previous reviews on non-adherence and schizophrenia. It stresses the methodological challenges in psychiatric adherence research and establishes the need for more...

  4. Evolving Notions of Schizophrenia as a Developmental Neurocognitive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Larry J; Mirsky, Allan F

    2017-10-01

    We review the changing conceptions of schizophrenia over the past 50 years as it became understood as a disorder of brain function and structure in which neurocognitive dysfunction was identified at different illness phases. The centrality of neurocognition has been recognized, especially because neurocognitive deficits are strongly related to social and role functioning in the illness, and as a result neurocognitive measures are used routinely in clinical assessment of individuals with schizophrenia. From the original definitions of the syndrome of schizophrenia in the early 20th century, impaired cognition, especially attention, was considered to be important. Neurocognitive impairments are found in the vast majority of individuals with schizophrenia, and they vary from mild, relatively restricted deficits, to dementia-like syndromes, as early as the first psychotic episode. Neurocognitive deficits are found in the premorbid phase in a substantial minority of pre-teenage youth who later develop schizophrenia, and they apparently worsen by the prodromal, high-risk phase in a majority of those who develop the illness. While there is limited evidence for reversibility of impairments from pharmacological interventions in schizophrenia, promising results have emerged from cognitive remediation studies. Thus, we expect cognitive interventions to play a larger role in schizophrenia in the coming years. Moreover, because youth at risk for schizophrenia can be identified by an emergent high-risk syndrome, earlier interventions might be applied in a pre-emptive way to reduce disability and improve adaptation. The notion of schizophrenia as a developmental neurocognitive disorder with stages opens up a window of possibilities for earlier interventions. (JINS, 2017, 23, 881-892).

  5. Formal thought disorder in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalincetin, Berna; Bora, Emre; Binbay, Tolga; Ulas, Halis; Akdede, Berna Binnur; Alptekin, Koksal

    2017-07-01

    Historically, formal thought disorder has been considered as one of the distinctive symptoms of schizophrenia. However, research in last few decades suggested that there is a considerable clinical and neurobiological overlap between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (BP). We conducted a meta-analysis of studies comparing positive (PTD) and negative formal thought disorder (NTD) in schizophrenia and BP. We included 19 studies comparing 715 schizophrenia and 474 BP patients. In the acute inpatient samples, there was no significant difference in the severity of PTD (d=-0.07, CI=-0.22-0.09) between schizophrenia and BP. In stable patients, schizophrenia was associated with increased PTD compared to BP (d=1.02, CI=0.35-1.70). NTD was significantly more severe (d=0.80, CI=0.52-0.1.08) in schizophrenia compared to BP. Our findings suggest that PTD is a shared feature of both schizophrenia and BP but persistent PTD or NTD can distinguish subgroups of schizophrenia from BP and schizophrenia patients with better clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Schizophrenia, depression, and sleep disorders: their traditional Oriental medicine equivalents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Peggy; de Rover, Peter; Staudte, Heike; Lim, Sabina; van den Noort, Maurits

    2015-02-01

    Psychiatric disorders can be described and treated from both a Western (allopathic) and an Eastern perspective, which should be taken into account when conducting research. Patients with schizophrenia or depression are likely to be undergoing Western treatment when they are referred to an acupuncturist for (add-on) treatment, and knowledge of both types of treatments is necessary to integrate them successfully. In this study, the different Traditional Oriental Medicine (TOM) diagnostic patterns in patients with a Western diagnosis of schizophrenia, depression, or sleep disorders are described from a literature and a clinical perspective. The data on 30 depression and 30 schizophrenia patients from a German study are presented. Our results show that if a psychiatric group, sorted in accordance to Western diagnostic principles, is diagnosed on the basis of TOM diagnostic patterns, it can be categorized into different groups of patients with psychiatric disorders; this finding has far-reaching consequences in scientific research on acupuncture. Moreover, we found a high prevalence of sleep disorders in patients with both schizophrenia and depression, which could be explained from the perspective of a TOM diagnostic pattern. Finally, we discuss sleep quality as a treatment objective that may play a crucial role in mediating acupuncture-induced treatment effects in patients with schizophrenia and depression. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Two methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) polymorphisms, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Erik G; Larsson, Kristina; Vares, Maria

    2008-01-01

    disorder. In a replication attempt the MTHFR C677T and A1298C SNPs were analyzed in three Scandinavian schizophrenia case-control samples. In addition, Norwegian patients with bipolar disorder were investigated. There were no statistically significant allele or genotype case-control differences....... The present Scandinavian results do not verify previous associations between the putative functional MTHFR gene polymorphisms and schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. However, when combined with previous studies in meta-analyses there is still evidence for association between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism......Recent meta-analyses of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) have suggested association between two of its functional single gene polymorphisms (SNPs; C677T and A1298C) and schizophrenia. Studies have also suggested association between MTHFR C677T and A1298C variation and bipolar...

  8. Two methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) polymorphisms, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Erik G; Larsson, Kristina; Vares, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Recent meta-analyses of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) have suggested association between two of its functional single gene polymorphisms (SNPs; C677T and A1298C) and schizophrenia. Studies have also suggested association between MTHFR C677T and A1298C variation and bipolar...... disorder. In a replication attempt the MTHFR C677T and A1298C SNPs were analyzed in three Scandinavian schizophrenia case-control samples. In addition, Norwegian patients with bipolar disorder were investigated. There were no statistically significant allele or genotype case-control differences....... The present Scandinavian results do not verify previous associations between the putative functional MTHFR gene polymorphisms and schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. However, when combined with previous studies in meta-analyses there is still evidence for association between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism...

  9. Mitochondrial variants in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandi Rollins

    Full Text Available Mitochondria provide most of the energy for brain cells by the process of oxidative phosphorylation. Mitochondrial abnormalities and deficiencies in oxidative phosphorylation have been reported in individuals with schizophrenia (SZ, bipolar disorder (BD, and major depressive disorder (MDD in transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic studies. Several mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA sequence have been reported in SZ and BD patients.Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC from a cohort of 77 SZ, BD, and MDD subjects and age-matched controls (C was studied for mtDNA sequence variations and heteroplasmy levels using Affymetrix mtDNA resequencing arrays. Heteroplasmy levels by microarray were compared to levels obtained with SNaPshot and allele specific real-time PCR. This study examined the association between brain pH and mtDNA alleles. The microarray resequencing of mtDNA was 100% concordant with conventional sequencing results for 103 mtDNA variants. The rate of synonymous base pair substitutions in the coding regions of the mtDNA genome was 22% higher (p = 0.0017 in DLPFC of individuals with SZ compared to controls. The association of brain pH and super haplogroup (U, K, UK was significant (p = 0.004 and independent of postmortem interval time.Focusing on haplogroup and individual susceptibility factors in psychiatric disorders by considering mtDNA variants may lead to innovative treatments to improve mitochondrial health and brain function.

  10. Defining psychosis: the evolution of DSM-5 schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhati, Mahendra T

    2013-11-01

    Descriptions of mental illness exist throughout recorded history. However, until the mid-twentieth century, there was no standard nosology or diagnostic standard for mental disorders. This limited understanding of these disorders and development of better treatments. As conditions such as dementia praecox and schizophrenia were being described, collaborative efforts were made in the twentieth century to develop the first Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). This review provides an overview of the history of psychiatric diagnosis with a focus on the history of schizophrenia as a diagnosis in the DSM. DSM-5 updates to diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia and related disorders are provided. Limitations to diagnostic validity and reliability are discussed in addition to changes in diagnostic approaches to schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders in an effort to improve diagnostic validity and reliability. The DSM-5 reflects the culmination of an ongoing collaborative effort to improve the diagnosis of mental disorders, and future research in Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) will help provide convergent validity when understanding and treating mental illnesses.

  11. Eating Disorders in Schizophrenia: Implications for Research and Management

    OpenAIRE

    Kouidrat, Youssef; Amad, Ali; Lalau, Jean-Daniel; Loas, Gwenole

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Despite evidence from case series, the comorbidity of eating disorders (EDs) with schizophrenia is poorly understood. This review aimed to assess the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of EDs in schizophrenia patients and to examine whether the management of EDs can be improved. Methods. A qualitative review of the published literature was performed using the following terms: “schizophrenia” in association with “eating disorders,” “anorexia nervosa,” “bulimia nervosa,” “b...

  12. Self-disorder and subjective dimensions of suicidality in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skodlar, Borut; Parnas, Josef

    2009-01-01

    We studied 25 schizophrenia patients using the Examination of Anomalous Self-Experience phenomenological interview framework. In a previous study, this sample was qualitatively interviewed concerning subjective reasons for suicidal ideation. We hypothesized that 2 main identified reasons...... on suicidality in schizophrenia: it appears to be partly motivated by a disordered sense of self. These findings, if replicated, may have considerable therapeutic and preventive implications....... for suicidality, that is, sense of solitude and inferiority feelings, would be associated with disturbances measured by the Examination of Anomalous Self-Experience scale, that is, disorders of self-awareness and self-presence. The hypothesis was empirically supported. The results shed some additional light...

  13. Risk of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in relatives of people with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Henrik; Rydén, Eleonore; Boman, Marcus; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul; Landén, Mikael

    2013-08-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, and it has been suggested that combined bipolar disorder and ADHD is aetiologically distinct from the pure disorders. To clarify whether ADHD shares genetic and environmental factors with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. By linking longitudinal Swedish national registers, we identified 61 187 persons with ADHD (the proband group) and their first- and second-degree relatives, and matched them with a control group of people without ADHD and their corresponding relatives. Conditional logistic regression was used to determine the risks of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in the relatives of the two groups. First-degree relatives of the ADHD proband group were at increased risk of both bipolar disorder (odds ratio (OR) = 1.84-2.54 for parents, offspring and full siblings) and schizophrenia (OR = 1.71-2.22 for parents, offspring and full siblings). The risks of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia among second-degree relatives were substantially lower than among full siblings. These findings suggest that the co-occurrence of ADHD and bipolar disorder as well as ADHD and schizophrenia is due to shared genetic factors, rather than representing completely aetiologically distinct subsyndromes.

  14. Association of Substance Use Disorders With Conversion From Schizotypal Disorder to Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorthøj, Carsten; Albert, Nikolai; Nordentoft, Merete

    2018-04-25

    Understanding the role of substance use disorders in conversion from schizotypal disorder to schizophrenia may provide physicians and psychiatrists with important tools for prevention or early detection of schizophrenia. To investigate whether substance use disorders, in particular cannabis use disorder, are associated with conversion to schizophrenia in individuals with schizotypal disorder. This prospective cohort study included a population-based sample of all individuals born in Denmark from January 1, 1981, through August 10, 2014, with an incident diagnosis of schizotypal disorder and without a previous diagnosis of schizophrenia. Follow-up was completed on August 10, 2014, and data were analyzed from March 10, 2017, through February 15, 2018. Information on substance use disorders combined from 5 different registers. Cox proportional hazards regression using time-varying information on substance use disorders and receipt of antipsychotics and adjusted for parental history of mental disorders, sex, birth year, and calendar year were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for conversion to schizophrenia. A total of 2539 participants with incident schizotypal disorder were identified (1448 men [57.0%] and 1091 women [43.0%]; mean [SD] age, 20.9 [4.4] years). After 2 years, 16.3% (95% CI, 14.8%-17.8%) experienced conversion to schizophrenia. After 20 years, the conversion rate was 33.1% (95% CI, 29.3%-37.3%) overall and 58.2% (95% CI, 44.8%-72.2%) among those with cannabis use disorders. In fully adjusted models, any substance use disorder was associated with conversion to schizophrenia (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.11-1.63). When data were stratified by substance, cannabis use disorders (HR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.01-1.68), amphetamine use disorders (HR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.14-3.17), and opioid use disorders (HR, 2.74; 95% CI, 1.38-5.45) were associated with conversion to schizophrenia. These associations were not explained by concurrent use of antipsychotics, functional

  15. Self‐Disorders as schizophrenia spectrum vulnerability phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raballo, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia spectrum disorders are characterised by manifold psychopathological expressions, which might include major symptoms (such as delusions, hallucinations or social withdrawal), psychobehavioural enduring personality patterns (e.g. schizoid/schizotypal traits), or more subtle, quasi......‐ineffable changes in the structure of subjective experience. A cluster of such anomalous subjective experiences, namely basic anomalies of self‐awareness (Self‐Disorders, SDs), were emphasized in classic literature and in phenomenological psychiatry as an essential clinical feature of schizophrenia, anchoring...... the coherence of its symptoms as well as of its spectrum manifestations. However, the potential topicality of SDs for the delineation of phenotypic vulnerability traits, as well as for the construct validity of the concept of schizophrenia spectrum has remained relatively neglected. The current research project...

  16. Schizophrenia, depression, and sleep disorders: Their traditional oriental medicine equivalents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, M.P.C.; Rover, P. de; Staudte, H.; Lim, S.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders can be described and treated from both a Western (allopathic) and an Eastern perspective, which should be taken into account when conducting research. Patients with schizophrenia or depression are likely to be undergoing Western treatment when they are referred to an

  17. Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: no recovery without suicide prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Tom

    2015-11-01

    Suicide prevention for people with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder warrants an evidence-based approach to service design as well as clinical practice. The issue of personal responsibility (diminished when mental capacity is impaired) contributing to reduction of suicide risk has, arguably, been neglected. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  18. Schizophrenia and personality disorder patients' adherence to music therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, Niels Jørgensen; Pedersen, Inge Nygaard; Hestbæk, Trine Lundsfryd

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate a random sample of patients receiving music therapy for variables predicting drop out from music therapy treatment. Method: All 27 pt with the diagnosis F 20 and F 60 were included. As explanatory variables were used 3 groups: Sociodemographic variables, psychiatric vari...... that patients with schizophrenia and personality disorder complete the music therapy treatment....

  19. Update on schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: focus on cariprazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts RJ

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Rona Jeannie Roberts,1 Lillian Jan Findlay,2 Peggy L El-Mallakh,2 Rif S El-Mallakh1 1Mood Disorders Research Program, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, 2School of Nursing, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA Abstract: Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are severe psychiatric disorders that are frequently associated with persistent symptoms and significant dysfunction. While there are a multitude of psychopharmacologic agents are available for treatment of these illnesses, suboptimal response and significant adverse consequences limit their utility. Cariprazine is a new, novel antipsychotic medication with dopamine D2 and D3 partial agonist effects. Its safety and efficacy have been investigated in acute psychosis of schizophrenia, bipolar mania, bipolar depression, and unipolar depression. Efficacy has been demonstrated in schizophrenia and mania. It is unclear if cariprazine is effective in depression associated with unipolar or bipolar illness. Adverse consequences include extrapyramidal symptoms including akathisia, and various gastrointestinal symptoms. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA has recently approved cariprazine. This review will provide clinicians with basic information regarding the research program of cariprazine. Keywords: cariprazine, dopamine D3 receptor, dopamine D2 receptor, bipolar disorder, mania, bipolar depression, schizophrenia

  20. IMMUNE AND NEUROIMMUNE ALTERATIONS IN MOOD DISORDERS AND SCHIZOPHRENIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drexhage, Roosmarijn C.; Weigelt, Karin; van Beveren, Nico; Cohen, Dan; Versnell, Marjan A.; Nolen, Willem A.; Drexhage, Hemmo A.; Guest, PC; Bahn, S

    2011-01-01

    A large number of publications over the past 20 years have indicated that immune system function is altered in schizophrenia and mood disorder patients. This chapter reviews the evidence, which suggests that a proinflammatory state of the cytokine network induces psychopathologic symptoms and may be

  1. Brain structural changes in schizoaffective disorder compared to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, B L; Canales-Rodríguez, E J; Madre, M; Radua, J; Monte, G; Alonso-Lana, S; Landin-Romero, R; Moreno-Alcázar, A; Bonnin, C M; Sarró, S; Ortiz-Gil, J; Gomar, J J; Moro, N; Fernandez-Corcuera, P; Goikolea, J M; Blanch, J; Salvador, R; Vieta, E; McKenna, P J; Pomarol-Clotet, E

    2016-01-01

    Brain structural changes in schizoaffective disorder, and how far they resemble those seen in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, have only been studied to a limited extent. Forty-five patients meeting DSM-IV and RDC criteria for schizoaffective disorder, groups of patients with 45 matched schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, and 45 matched healthy controls were examined using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Analyses comparing each patient group with the healthy control subjects found that the patients with schizoaffective disorder and the patients with schizophrenia showed widespread and overlapping areas of significant volume reduction, but the patients with bipolar disorder did not. A subsequent analysis compared the combined group of patients with the controls followed by extraction of clusters. In regions where the patients differed significantly from the controls, no significant differences in mean volume between patients with schizoaffective disorder and patients with schizophrenia in any of five regions of volume reduction were found, but mean volumes in the patients with bipolar disorder were significantly smaller in three of five. The findings provide evidence that, in terms of structural gray matter brain abnormality, schizoaffective disorder resembles schizophrenia more than bipolar disorder. © 2015 The Authors. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Alexithymia and personality disorder functioning styles in paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shaohua; Li, Huichun; Liu, Weibo; Zheng, Leilei; Ma, Ying; Chen, Qiaozhen; Chen, Yiping; Yu, Hualiang; Lu, Yunrong; Pan, Bing; Wang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Personality disorder functioning styles might contribute to the inconclusive findings about alexithymic features in schizophrenia. We therefore studied the relationship between alexithymia and personality styles in paranoid schizophrenia. We administered the Chinese versions of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), the Parker Personality Measure (PERM), the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale as well as the Hamilton Anxiety and Depression Scales to 60 paranoid schizophrenia patients and 60 healthy control subjects. Patients scored significantly higher on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, TAS 'difficulty identifying feelings' and 'difficulty describing feelings', Hamilton Depression Scale and most PERM scales. In healthy subjects, difficulty identifying feelings predicted the PERM 'dependent' style, and the Hamilton Anxiety Scale predicted difficulty identifying feelings and difficulty describing feelings. In patients, difficulty identifying feelings nonspecifically predicted all the PERM scales; by contrast, the PERM 'antisocial' style predicted difficulty identifying feelings, the 'avoidant' style predicted difficulty describing feelings, and the 'histrionic' and 'paranoid (-)' styles predicted 'externally oriented thinking'. Personality disorder functioning styles - instead of anxiety, depression, psychotic symptoms or disease duration - were specifically associated with alexithymia scales in our patients, which sheds light on a cognitive-personological substrate in paranoid schizophrenia on the one hand, and calls for a longitudinal design to discover how premorbid or postacute residual personality styles contribute to the sluggish disorder on the other. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Social cognition and functional capacity in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Nicholas S; Sutton, Griffin P; Allen, Daniel N

    2014-12-15

    Social cognition is a functionally relevant predictor of capacity in schizophrenia (SZ), though research concerning its value for bipolar disorder (BD) is limited. The current investigation examined the relationship between two social cognitive factors and functional capacity in bipolar disorder. This study included 48 individuals with bipolar disorder (24 with psychotic features) and 30 patients with schizophrenia. Multiple regression controlling for estimated IQ scores was used to assess the predictive value of social cognitive factors on the UCSD Performance-Based Functional Skills Assessment (UPSA). Results found that for the bipolar with psychosis and schizophrenia groups, the social/emotion processing factor predicted the UPSA. The theory of mind factor only predicted the UPSA for the schizophrenia group.. Findings support the clinical utility of evaluating emotion processing in individuals with a history of psychosis. For BD, theory of mind may be better explained by a generalized cognitive deficit. In contrast, social/emotion processing may be linked to distinct neurobiological processes associated with psychosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Anxiety symptoms in a major mood and schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpov, B; Joffe, G; Aaltonen, K; Suvisaari, J; Baryshnikov, I; Näätänen, P; Koivisto, M; Melartin, T; Oksanen, J; Suominen, K; Heikkinen, M; Paunio, T; Isometsä, E

    2016-09-01

    Comorbid anxiety symptoms and disorders are present in many psychiatric disorders, but methodological variations render comparisons of their frequency and intensity difficult. Furthermore, whether risk factors for comorbid anxiety symptoms are similar in patients with mood disorders and schizophrenia spectrum disorders remains unclear. The Overall Anxiety Severity and Impairment Scale (OASIS) was used to measure anxiety symptoms in psychiatric care patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (SSA, n=113), bipolar disorder (BD, n=99), or depressive disorder (DD, n=188) in the Helsinki University Psychiatric Consortium Study. Bivariate correlations and multivariate linear regression models were used to examine associations of depressive symptoms, neuroticism, early psychological trauma and distress, self-efficacy, symptoms of borderline personality disorder, and attachment style with anxiety symptoms in the three diagnostic groups. Frequent or constant anxiety was reported by 40.2% of SSA, 51.5% of BD, and 55.6% of DD patients; it was described as severe or extreme by 43.8%, 41.4%, and 41.2% of these patients, respectively. SSA patients were significantly less anxious (P=0.010) and less often avoided anxiety-provoking situations (P=0.009) than the other patients. In regression analyses, OASIS was associated with high neuroticism, symptoms of depression and borderline personality disorder and low self-efficacy in all patients, and with early trauma in patients with mood disorders. Comorbid anxiety symptoms are ubiquitous among psychiatric patients with mood or schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and in almost half of them, reportedly severe. Anxiety symptoms appear to be strongly related to both concurrent depressive symptoms and personality characteristics, regardless of principal diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Childhood motor coordination and adult schizophrenia spectrum disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Sorensen, Holger J; Maeda, Justin

    2009-01-01

    -13 years old. Adult diagnostic information was available for 244 members of the sample. Participants fell into three groups: children whose mothers or fathers had a psychiatric hospital diagnosis of schizophrenia (N=94); children who had at least one parent with a psychiatric record of hospitalization......OBJECTIVE: The authors examined whether motor coordination difficulties assessed in childhood predict later adult schizophrenia spectrum outcomes. METHOD: A standardized childhood neurological examination was administered to a sample of 265 Danish children in 1972, when participants were 10...... in May 2007. RESULTS: Children who later developed a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (N=32) displayed significantly higher scores on a scale of coordination deficits compared with those who did not develop a mental illness in this category (N=133). CONCLUSIONS: Results from this study provide further...

  6. Brain Age in Early Stages of Bipolar Disorders or Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, Tomas; Franke, Katja; Kolenic, Marian; Capkova, Jana; Matejka, Martin; Propper, Lukas; Uher, Rudolf; Stopkova, Pavla; Novak, Tomas; Paus, Tomas; Kopecek, Miloslav; Spaniel, Filip; Alda, Martin

    2017-12-20

    The greater presence of neurodevelopmental antecedants may differentiate schizophrenia from bipolar disorders (BD). Machine learning/pattern recognition allows us to estimate the biological age of the brain from structural magnetic resonance imaging scans (MRI). The discrepancy between brain and chronological age could contribute to early detection and differentiation of BD and schizophrenia. We estimated brain age in 2 studies focusing on early stages of schizophrenia or BD. In the first study, we recruited 43 participants with first episode of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (FES) and 43 controls. In the second study, we included 96 offspring of bipolar parents (48 unaffected, 48 affected) and 60 controls. We used relevance vector regression trained on an independent sample of 504 controls to estimate the brain age of study participants from structural MRI. We calculated the brain-age gap estimate (BrainAGE) score by subtracting the chronological age from the brain age. Participants with FES had higher BrainAGE scores than controls (F(1, 83) = 8.79, corrected P = .008, Cohen's d = 0.64). Their brain age was on average 2.64 ± 4.15 years greater than their chronological age (matched t(42) = 4.36, P stages of BD showed comparable BrainAGE scores to controls (F(2,149) = 1.04, corrected P = .70, η2 = 0.01) and comparable brain and chronological age. Early stages of schizophrenia, but not early stages of BD, were associated with advanced BrainAGE scores. Participants with FES showed neurostructural alterations, which made their brains appear 2.64 years older than their chronological age. BrainAGE scores could aid in early differential diagnosis between BD and schizophrenia. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  7. Ethnicity and suicide attempt: analysis in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bani-Fatemi, Ali; Polsinelli, Gina; Kennedy, James L; De Luca, Vincenzo

    2013-10-08

    Evidence is mixed as to whether White Europeans are at a higher risk for suicide attempts or completions compared to other ethnic groups. The present analysis assessed whether risk for suicide attempt was associated with White European ethnicity in 907 subjects with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Subjects were diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, and ethnicity was determined by self-report. Subjects were recruited from psychiatric care centers in Toronto, Canada. Logistic regression correcting for clinical covariates like age, gender and diagnosis, was used in this study. We found no difference in suicide attempter status in white and non-white subjects who were diagnosed with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Our study does not support the evidence that White-European patients in North America are at higher risk for suicide attempt compared to non-European descent subjects. However, this result has to be replicated in larger studies in patients with these disorders.

  8. Schizophrenia and personality disorder patients' adherence to music therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannibal, Niels; Pedersen, Inge Nygaard; Hestbæk, Trine; Sørensen, Torben Egelund; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl

    2012-12-01

    Music therapy is used in psychiatric treatment of severe psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia, depression and personality disorder. To investigate adherence and predictors for adherence to music therapy treatment in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or personality disorder. Demographic, psychiatric and therapeutic data were collected for 27 patients receiving music therapy treatment over a 1-year observation period and a 1-year follow-up period. Predictors for adherence to music therapeutic treatment were determined by means of regression analysis. Drop-out from treatment was low (11.5%) and none of the variables significantly predicted adherence. Lack of significance may be because of type 2 error. Patients with severe mental disorder may adhere to music therapy treatment.

  9. Bipolar disorder and self-stigma: A comparison with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karidi, M V; Vassilopoulou, D; Savvidou, E; Vitoratou, S; Maillis, A; Rabavilas, A; Stefanis, C N

    2015-09-15

    Even though numerous studies have focused on the effects of self-stigma on patients with schizophrenia, little is known about self-stigma of patients with bipolar disorder (BD). In this study, a self-administered scale of self-stigmatising attitudes of patients with BD and schizophrenia was used to explore these attitudes, examine the potential differences between the two groups and study the factors that influence stigma within groups. Self-stigma of 120 patients with schizophrenia and BD was assessed with the Self-stigma Questionnaire (SSQ) and the Stigma Inventory for Mental Illness (SIMI). Presence of clinical symptoms, overall functioning and level of self-esteem were also evaluated. Self-stigma is present in both groups but differs in its intensity. Patients with BD experience self-stigma in a lesser degree without affecting their social life or overall functioning. Patients with schizophrenia adopt more intense self-stigmatising attitudes leading to social exclusion and lower level of overall functioning. The results are limited by the small sample size, whereas the inclusion of other questionnaires would broaden our insight to self-stigma. Self-stigma has a direct effect on overall functioning of patients with BD and schizophrenia tampering the clinical outcome of therapeutic interventions. Therefore, it should be incorporated in every treatment plan and be addressed as a clinical symptom of the mental illness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Schizophrenia and/or bipolar disorder: the neurocognitive endophenotypes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaladjian, A; Azorin, J-M; Pomietto, P; Corréard, N; Belzeaux, R; Adida, M

    2012-12-01

    Although Kraepelinian dichotomous conceptualization of psychosis was historically beneficial, modern studies do not support the existence of a sub-typing of psychotic illnesses into schizophrenic and affective psychoses. Years of intensive investigation on the genetic bases of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder suggest that these disorders, rather than being wholly distinct disorders, share common genetic risks. However, one of the most serious difficulties for genetic research in these illnesses is their enormous phenotypic heterogeneity. A response to this problem is the use of neurocognitive functions as endophenotypes or intermediate phenotypes. A review of the literature suggests that in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, neurocognitive functions are influenced by genetic factors and that there exists neuropsychological deficits in the nonaffected relatives of probands. However, it is unclear whether or not patterns of performance on neurocognitive tasks across probands as well as unaffected family members offer potential for identifying shared and illness-specific neurocognitive phenotypes for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Overlapping and unique neurocognitive endophenotypic signatures of the two psychoses are comprehensively described. Copyright © 2012 L’Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  11. [Negative symptoms in schizophrenia and substance-related disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, N; Belzeaux, R; Adida, M; Azorin, J-M

    2015-12-01

    Dual diagnosis of schizophrenia and substance-related disorders is common in psychiatric practice. Epidemiologic studies and report have established that the risk of a substance-related disorder was 4 to 5 times higher in a population of psychiatric patients than in the general population. However, little is known on the reason of this relationship and the treatments required. It's well known that a family history of psychosis is a risk factor of schizophrenia. Similarly a family history of substance use disorders increases the risk of using substances. Because the two disorders often occurred together, it could be hypothesized that a genetic risk factor is common. However, recent studies did not confirm this hypothesis and it seems that their genetic risks factor would be unrelated. Evidence now exists describing the different profiles of patients whether they used substance or not. Concerning negative symptoms clinical studies and meta-analyses have described fewer symptoms in schizophrenia patients with a substance use disorder. Among the different explanations that have been addressed, it seems that a lower capability of obtaining the substance could partly explain this relationship. Perhaps because patients with social withdrawal have more difficulties to find and spend the time required to obtain abused substances. At the opposite some products such as cocaine may relieve some symptoms especially anhedonia and alogia. However the link between substance-related disorders and negative symptoms is weak and decreases in more recent studies, probably because negative symptoms as well as addiction disorders are better characterized. Considering that treating psychiatric symptoms may not always lead to a decrease in the substance-related disorders but that patients who give up substances improve their psychotic symptoms, a therapeutic strategy should be planned for these dual disorders patients combining psychiatry and addiction interventions. Copyright © 2015

  12. Excess mortality of acute and transient psychotic disorders: comparison with bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castagnini, Augusto; Foldager, Leslie; Bertelsen, Aksel

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate mortality and causes of death of short-lived psychotic disorders, by carrying out a comparison with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Method: Record linkage study to the official register of causes of death of all cases aged 15–64 years who were listed for the first time...... in the Danish Psychiatric Register between 1995 and 2008 with an ICD-10 diagnosis of ‘acute and transient psychotic disorders’ (ATPDs; n = 4157), bipolar disorder (n = 3200) and schizophrenia (n = 4576). Results: A total of 232 patients (5.6%) with ATPDs, 172 (5.4%) with bipolar disorder and 233 (5...

  13. Compare of Executive Function in Bipolar I Disorder and Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza khodaei-Ardakani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There is evidence for differential executive function in Bipolar I Disorder (BID and schizophrenia that may tend different cognitive deficits and abnormalities. The objective of this sudsy was to compare the executive function of BID and schizophrenic patients. Materials & Methods: We studied 50 patients with BID, and 50 with schizophrenia participants in outpatients' clinic of Rouzbeh hospital. All participants completed the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST the Persian version. The participants were mach in three basic variables which had most contributions in cognitive conditions in patients. They were Age, educational status and period of illness. Results: The two patient groups had compared performance on the WCST in compared with general population (P<0/05. In the WCST, schizophrenic patients showed impairment executive function than BID patients (P<0/05. Conclusion: findings indicated that schizophrenic patients had more dysfunctions executive function than the Bipolar disorder I patients. Although, both disorders may show impairment in executive function, but the dysfunction in schizophrenia greater than Bipolar I Disorder patients.

  14. Contextual social cognition impairments in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baez, Sandra; Herrera, Eduar; Villarin, Lilian; Theil, Donna; Gonzalez-Gadea, María Luz; Gomez, Pedro; Mosquera, Marcela; Huepe, David; Strejilevich, Sergio; Vigliecca, Nora Silvana; Matthäus, Franziska; Decety, Jean; Manes, Facundo; Ibañez, Agustín M

    2013-01-01

    The ability to integrate contextual information with social cues to generate social meaning is a key aspect of social cognition. It is widely accepted that patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders have deficits in social cognition; however, previous studies on these disorders did not use tasks that replicate everyday situations. This study evaluates the performance of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders on social cognition tasks (emotional processing, empathy, and social norms knowledge) that incorporate different levels of contextual dependence and involvement of real-life scenarios. Furthermore, we explored the association between social cognition measures, clinical symptoms and executive functions. Using a logistic regression analysis, we explored whether the involvement of more basic skills in emotional processing predicted performance on empathy tasks. The results showed that both patient groups exhibited deficits in social cognition tasks with greater context sensitivity and involvement of real-life scenarios. These deficits were more severe in schizophrenic than in bipolar patients. Patients did not differ from controls in tasks involving explicit knowledge. Moreover, schizophrenic patients' depression levels were negatively correlated with performance on empathy tasks. Overall performance on emotion recognition predicted performance on intentionality attribution during the more ambiguous situations of the empathy task. These results suggest that social cognition deficits could be related to a general impairment in the capacity to implicitly integrate contextual cues. Important implications for the assessment and treatment of individuals with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders, as well as for neurocognitive models of these pathologies are discussed.

  15. Genetic association between NRG1 and schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder in Han Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zujia; Chen, Jianhua; Khan, Raja Amjad Waheed; Song, Zhijian; Wang, Meng; Li, Zhiqiang; Shen, Jiawei; Li, Wenjin; Shi, Yongyong

    2016-04-01

    Schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, and bipolar disorder are three major psychiatric disorders affecting around 0.66%, 3.3%, and 1.5% of the Han Chinese population respectively. Several genetic linkage analyses and genome wide association studies identified NRG1 as a susceptibility gene of schizophrenia, which was validated by its role in neurodevelopment, glutamate, and other neurotransmitter receptor expression regulation. To further investigate whether NRG1 is a shared risk gene for major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder as well as schizophrenia, we performed an association study among 1,248 schizophrenia cases, 1,056 major depression cases, 1,344 bipolar disorder cases, and 1,248 controls. Totally 15 tag SNPs were genotyped and analyzed, and no population stratification was found in our sample set. Among the sites, rs4236710 (corrected Pgenotye  = 0.015) and rs4512342 (Pallele  = 0.03, Pgenotye  = 0.045 after correction) were associated with schizophrenia, and rs2919375 (corrected Pgenotye  = 0.004) was associated with major depressive disorder. The haplotype rs4512342-rs6982890 showed association with schizophrenia (P = 0.03 for haplotype "TC" after correction), and haplotype rs4531002-rs11989919 proved to be a shared risk factor for both major depressive disorder ("CC": corrected P = 0.009) and bipolar disorder ("CT": corrected P = 0.003). Our results confirmed that NRG1 was a shared common susceptibility gene for major mental disorders in Han Chinese population. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Substance use disorders in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depressive illness: a registry-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesvåg, Ragnar; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Bakken, Inger Johanne; Høye, Anne; Ystrom, Eivind; Surén, Pål; Reneflot, Anne; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted

    2015-08-01

    To compare the prevalence and pattern of comorbid substance use disorders (SUD) between patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depressive illness. Data on presence of alcohol use disorder (AUD) and non-alcohol drug use disorder (DUD) were retrieved from the Norwegian Patient Register for individuals born between 1950 and 1989 who in the period 2009-2013 were diagnosed with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or depressive illness according to the 10th version of the WHO International Classification of Diseases. The prevalence of AUD only, DUD only, or both was compared between men and women across age and diagnostic groups. The prevalence of SUD was 25.1 % in schizophrenia (AUD: 4.6 %, DUD: 15.6 %, AUD and DUD: 4.9 %), 20.1 % in bipolar disorder (AUD: 8.1 %, DUD: 7.6 %, AUD and DUD: 4.4 %), and 10.9 % in depressive illness (AUD: 4.4 %, DUD: 4.3 %, AUD and DUD: 2.2 %). Middle-aged men with bipolar disorder had the highest prevalence of AUD (19.1 %) and young men with schizophrenia had the highest prevalence of DUD (29.6 %). Of the specific DUDs, all but sedative use disorder were more prevalent in schizophrenia than the other groups. Cannabis and stimulant use disorder was found among 8.8 and 8.9 %, respectively, of the men with schizophrenia. The alarmingly high prevalence of DUD among young patients with severe mental disorders should encourage preventive efforts to reduce illicit drug use in the adolescent population.

  17. Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... local NAMI About NAMI + x IN THIS SECTION Esquizofrenia Share NAMI Share Home Learn More Mental Health Conditions Schizophrenia IN THIS SECTION Esquizofrenia Schizophrenia Overview Treatment Support Discuss Schizophrenia is a ...

  18. Childhood disintegrative disorder misdiagnosed as childhood-onset schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neena Sanjiv Sawant

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD is a rare pervasive developmental disorder, which is often misdiagnosed as schizophrenia, probably due to the resultant severe social impairment and withdrawn behaviour with stereotypys that could be mistaken for psychosis. We report a case of CDD that was misdiagnosed by a psychiatrist as childhood-onset schizophrenia and treated with high doses of antipsychotics. The patient did not show any improvement. This highlights ethical issues that arise from treatment modalities, with polypharmacy being the biggest culprit, and also points to the need to continue medical education at the level of primary health services and among practising rural doctors where tertiary centres with child guidance facilities and a multidisciplinary team are not available.

  19. Informing DSM-5: biological boundaries between bipolar I disorder, schizoaffective disorder, and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, Victoria E; Suppes, Trisha

    2013-05-14

    The fifth version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) opted to retain existing diagnostic boundaries between bipolar I disorder, schizoaffective disorder, and schizophrenia. The debate preceding this decision focused on understanding the biologic basis of these major mental illnesses. Evidence from genetics, neuroscience, and pharmacotherapeutics informed the DSM-5 development process. The following discussion will emphasize some of the key factors at the forefront of the debate. Family studies suggest a clear genetic link between bipolar I disorder, schizoaffective disorder, and schizophrenia. However, large-scale genome-wide association studies have not been successful in identifying susceptibility genes that make substantial etiological contributions. Boundaries between psychotic disorders are not further clarified by looking at brain morphology. The fact that symptoms of bipolar I disorder, but not schizophrenia, are often responsive to medications such as lithium and other anticonvulsants must be interpreted within a larger framework of biological research. For DSM-5, existing nosological boundaries between bipolar I disorder and schizophrenia were retained and schizoaffective disorder preserved as an independent diagnosis since the biological data are not yet compelling enough to justify a move to a more neurodevelopmentally continuous model of psychosis.

  20. Association of religion with delusions and hallucinations in the context of schizophrenia: implications for engagement and adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearing, Robin Edward; Alonzo, Dana; Smolak, Alex; McHugh, Katie; Harmon, Sherelle; Baldwin, Susanna

    2011-03-01

    The relationship of religion and schizophrenia is widely acknowledged, but often minimized by practitioners and under investigated by researchers. In striving to help fill this gap, this paper focuses on examining four aims: 1) how research has investigated the association between religiosity and schizophrenia; 2) how is religiosity associated with delusions and hallucinations; 3) what are the risk and protective factors associated with religiosity and schizophrenia; and 4) does religion influence treatment adherence with individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia. A systematic literature search of PsycINFO and MEDLINE databases from January 1, 1980 through January 1, 2010 was conducted using the terms schizophrenia, schizoaffective, schizophreniform, psychotic disorder not otherwise specified (NOS) and religion, religiosity, spirituality, or faith. Seventy (n=70) original research studies were identified. Religion can act as both a risk and protective factor as it interacts with the schizophrenia symptoms of hallucination and delusions. Cultural influences tend to confound the association of religion and schizophrenia. Adherence to treatment has a mixed association with religiosity. The relationship between religion and schizophrenia may be of benefit to both clinicians and researchers through enhancing adherence to treatment, and enhancement of the protective aspects while minimizing associated risk. The relationship of religion and schizophrenia needs further research that is more nuanced and methodologically rigorous, specifically concerning its influence on engagement and adherence to treatment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A Randomized Comparison of Aripiprazole and Risperidone for the Acute Treatment of First-Episode Schizophrenia and Related Disorders: 3-Month Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Delbert G; Gallego, Juan A; John, Majnu; Petrides, Georgios; Hassoun, Youssef; Zhang, Jian-Ping; Lopez, Leonardo; Braga, Raphael J; Sevy, Serge M; Addington, Jean; Kellner, Charles H; Tohen, Mauricio; Naraine, Melissa; Bennett, Natasha; Greenberg, Jessica; Lencz, Todd; Correll, Christoph U; Kane, John M; Malhotra, Anil K

    2015-11-01

    Research findings are particularly important for medication choice for first-episode patients as individual prior medication response to guide treatment decisions is unavailable. We describe the first large-scale double-masked randomized comparison with first-episode patients of aripiprazole and risperidone, 2 commonly used first-episode treatment agents. One hundred ninety-eight participants aged 15-40 years with schizophrenia, schizophreniform disorder, schizoaffective disorder or psychotic disorder Not Otherwise Specified, and who had been treated in their lifetime with antipsychotics for 2 weeks or less were randomly assigned to double-masked aripiprazole (5-30 mg/d) or risperidone (1-6 mg/d) and followed for 12 weeks. Positive symptom response rates did not differ (62.8% vs 56.8%) nor did time to response. Aripiprazole-treated participants had better negative symptom outcomes but experienced more akathisia. Body mass index change did not differ between treatments but advantages were found for aripiprazole treatment for total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting glucose, and prolactin levels. Post hoc analyses suggested advantages for aripiprazole on depressed mood. Overall, if the potential for akathisia is a concern, low-dose risperidone as used in this trial maybe a preferred choice over aripiprazole. Otherwise, aripiprazole would be the preferred choice over risperidone in most situations based upon metabolic outcome advantages and some symptom advantages within the context of similar positive symptom response between medications. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Minimal Self and Timing Disorders in Schizophrenia: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brice Martin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available For years, phenomenological psychiatry has proposed that distortions of the temporal structure of consciousness contribute to the abnormal experiences described before schizophrenia emerges, and may relate to basic disturbances in consciousness of the self. However, considering that temporality refers mainly to an implicit aspect of our relationship with the world, disturbances in the temporal structure of consciousness remain difficult to access. Nonetheless, previous studies have shown a correlation between self disorders and the automatic ability to expect an event in time, suggesting timing is a key issue for the psychopathology of schizophrenia. Timing disorders may represent a target for cognitive remediation, but this requires that disorders can be demonstrated at an individual level. Since cognitive impairments in patients with schizophrenia are discrete, and there is no standardized timing exploration, we focused on timing impairments suggested to be related to self disorders. We present the case report of AF, a 22 year old man suffering from schizophrenia, with no antipsychotic intake. Although AF shows few positive and negative symptoms and has a normal neurocognitive assessment, he shows a high level of disturbance of Minimal Self Disorders (SDs (assessed with the EASE scale. Moreover, AF has a rare ability to describe his self and time difficulties. An objective assessment of timing ability (variable foreperiod task confirmed that AF had temporal impairments similar to those previously described in patients, i.e., a preserved ability to distinguish time intervals, but a difficulty to benefit from the passage of time to expect a visual stimulus. He presents additional difficulties in benefitting from temporal cues and adapting to changes in time delays. The impairments were ample enough to yield significant effects with analyses at the individual level. Although causal relationships between subjective and objective impairments cannot

  3. Treatment of cannabis use disorders in people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders - a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorthøj, Carsten; Fohlmann, Allan; Nordentoft, Merete

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cannabis use disorders (CUD) are prevalent among people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD), with a range of detrimental effects, e.g. reduced compliance to medication and psychosocial interventions, and increased level of psychotic-dimension symptoms. The aim of this study...

  4. The relationship of antisocial personality disorder and history of conduct disorder with crime incidence in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safa Maghsoodloo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Commission of crime and hostility and their forensic consequences in a patient with schizophrenia can worsen the patient′s condition and disturb his family, society, and even the psychiatrist. Based on previous research, patients with schizophrenia are at a higher risk for crime. It is not clear whether this is due to the nature of schizophrenia, comorbidity of antisocial personality disorder, or the history of conduct disorder in childhood. In this study, we investigated this hypothesis. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 30 criminal and 30 non-criminal patients with schizophrenia, who had been referred by the court to the Forensic Medicine Center of Isfahan, were evaluated for antisocial personality disorder, history of conduct disorder, and psychopathy checklist-revise (PCL-R score. Results: Frequency distribution of antisocial personality disorder (73.3%, history of conduct disorder in childhood (86.7%, and score of PCL-R ≥25 (indicating high probability of hostility in patients (40% were significantly higher in criminal patients than in non-criminals (10%, 30% and 0%, respectively; P < 0.001. Conclusions: More prevalence of antisocial personality disorder, history of conduct disorder, and high score of PCL-R (≥25 in criminal schizophrenic patients may indicate that in order to control the hostility and for prevention of crime, besides treating acute symptoms of psychosis, patients might receive treatment and rehabilitation for comorbidities too.

  5. The relationship of antisocial personality disorder and history of conduct disorder with crime incidence in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghsoodloo, Safa; Ghodousi, Arash; Karimzadeh, Taghi

    2012-06-01

    Commission of crime and hostility and their forensic consequences in a patient with schizophrenia can worsen the patient's condition and disturb his family, society, and even the psychiatrist. Based on previous research, patients with schizophrenia are at a higher risk for crime. It is not clear whether this is due to the nature of schizophrenia, comorbidity of antisocial personality disorder, or the history of conduct disorder in childhood. In this study, we investigated this hypothesis. In this case-control study, 30 criminal and 30 non-criminal patients with schizophrenia, who had been referred by the court to the Forensic Medicine Center of Isfahan, were evaluated for antisocial personality disorder, history of conduct disorder, and psychopathy checklist-revise (PCL-R) score. Frequency distribution of antisocial personality disorder (73.3%), history of conduct disorder in childhood (86.7%), and score of PCL-R ≥25 (indicating high probability of hostility) in patients (40%) were significantly higher in criminal patients than in non-criminals (10%, 30% and 0%, respectively; P antisocial personality disorder, history of conduct disorder, and high score of PCL-R (≥25) in criminal schizophrenic patients may indicate that in order to control the hostility and for prevention of crime, besides treating acute symptoms of psychosis, patients might receive treatment and rehabilitation for comorbidities too.

  6. Association of adoptive child's thought disorders and schizophrenia spectrum disorders with their genetic liability for schizophrenia spectrum disorders, season of birth and parental Communication Deviance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roisko, Riikka; Wahlberg, Karl-Erik; Hakko, Helinä; Tienari, Pekka

    2015-04-30

    Joint effects of genotype and the environment have turned out to be significant in the development of psychotic disorders. The purpose of the present study was to assess the association of an adoptive child׳s thought and schizophrenia spectrum disorders with genetic and environmental risk indicators and their interactions. A subgroup of the total sample used in the Finnish Adoptive Family Study was considered in the present study. The subjects were 125 adoptees at a high (n=53) or low (n=72) genetic risk of schizophrenia spectrum disorders and their adoptive parents. The risk factors evaluated were the adoptive child's genetic risk for schizophrenia spectrum disorders, winter or spring birth and parental Communication Deviance (CD). Thought disorders in the adoptees were assessed using the Thought Disorder Index and diagnoses were made according to DSM-III-R criteria. The adoptive child׳s Thought Disorder Index was only associated with parental Communication Deviance. The adoptive child's heightened genetic risk or winter or spring birth or parental CD or their interactions did not predict the adoptee's schizophrenia spectrum disorder. The results suggest that studies taking several risk indicators and their interactions into account may change views on the mutual significance of well-known risk factors. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  7. Victimization of patients with schizophrenia and related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Paul B; de Castella, A R; Filia, K M; Filia, S L; Benitez, J; Kulkarni, J

    2005-03-01

    Previous research has predominately focused on patients with mental illness as the instigators, rather than the victims, of violence and criminal activity. However, patients with schizophrenia appear to experience a higher degree of victimization compared to general community samples. We aimed to establish the 1-month prevalence of violent and non-violent victimization in a sample of patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and to investigate the determinants of victimization. Reports of violent and non-violent victimization were recorded in 348 patients in Dandenong, an outer metropolitan suburb of Melbourne, Australia along with the subjective perception of patients as to their degree of protection from being robbed or attacked. Patients reporting victimization were compared with those who did not, across a range of clinical and psychosocial variables. 11.2% of the sample reported being the victim of non-violent crime and 4.3% the victim of violent crime in the 1-month period. 23.2% reported dissatisfaction with their protection against being attacked or robbed. The major determinant of victimization was the lack of any meaningful daily activity. Patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders are at increased risk of victimization, both of the violent and non-violent type. Further research is required to understand the pathways through which victimization occurs and to understand whether psychosocial interventions can reduce victimization in this patient population.

  8. Gender Identity Disorder and Schizophrenia: Neurodevelopmental Disorders with Common Causal Mechanisms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Philip Rajkumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gender identity disorder (GID, recently renamed gender dysphoria (GD, is a rare condition characterized by an incongruity between gender identity and biological sex. Clinical evidence suggests that schizophrenia occurs in patients with GID at rates higher than in the general population and that patients with GID may have schizophrenia-like personality traits. Conversely, patients with schizophrenia may experience alterations in gender identity and gender role perception. Neurobiological research, including brain imaging and studies of finger length ratio and handedness, suggests that both these disorders are associated with altered cerebral sexual dimorphism and changes in cerebral lateralization. Various mechanisms, such as Toxoplasma infection, reduced levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, early childhood adversity, and links with autism spectrum disorders, may account for some of this overlap. The implications of this association for further research are discussed.

  9. Gender Identity Disorder and Schizophrenia: Neurodevelopmental Disorders with Common Causal Mechanisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Ravi Philip

    2014-01-01

    Gender identity disorder (GID), recently renamed gender dysphoria (GD), is a rare condition characterized by an incongruity between gender identity and biological sex. Clinical evidence suggests that schizophrenia occurs in patients with GID at rates higher than in the general population and that patients with GID may have schizophrenia-like personality traits. Conversely, patients with schizophrenia may experience alterations in gender identity and gender role perception. Neurobiological research, including brain imaging and studies of finger length ratio and handedness, suggests that both these disorders are associated with altered cerebral sexual dimorphism and changes in cerebral lateralization. Various mechanisms, such as Toxoplasma infection, reduced levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), early childhood adversity, and links with autism spectrum disorders, may account for some of this overlap. The implications of this association for further research are discussed. PMID:25548672

  10. Gender identity disorder and schizophrenia: neurodevelopmental disorders with common causal mechanisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Ravi Philip

    2014-01-01

    Gender identity disorder (GID), recently renamed gender dysphoria (GD), is a rare condition characterized by an incongruity between gender identity and biological sex. Clinical evidence suggests that schizophrenia occurs in patients with GID at rates higher than in the general population and that patients with GID may have schizophrenia-like personality traits. Conversely, patients with schizophrenia may experience alterations in gender identity and gender role perception. Neurobiological research, including brain imaging and studies of finger length ratio and handedness, suggests that both these disorders are associated with altered cerebral sexual dimorphism and changes in cerebral lateralization. Various mechanisms, such as Toxoplasma infection, reduced levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), early childhood adversity, and links with autism spectrum disorders, may account for some of this overlap. The implications of this association for further research are discussed.

  11. Epigenetic Treatment of Neuropsychiatric Disorders: Autism and Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Walter H; Maneta, Eleni; Pinkert, Carl A; Irwin, Michael H; Hoffman, Michelle E; Faller, Douglas V; Steliou, Kosta

    2016-03-01

    Neuropsychiatric disorders are a heterogeneous group of conditions that often share underlying mitochondrial dysfunction and biological pathways implicated in their pathogenesis, progression, and treatment. To date, these disorders have proven notoriously resistant to molecular-targeted therapies, and clinical options are relegated to interventional types, which do not address the core symptoms of the disease. In this review, we discuss emerging epigenetic-driven approaches using novel acylcarnitine esters (carnitinoids) that act on master regulators of antioxidant and cytoprotective genes and mitophagic pathways. These carnitinoids are actively transported, mitochondria-localizing, biomimetic coenzyme A surrogates of short-chain fatty acids, which inhibit histone deacetylase and may reinvigorate synaptic plasticity and protect against neuronal damage. We outline these neuroprotective effects in the context of treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Joint analysis of psychiatric disorders increases accuracy of risk prediction for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Robert; Moser, Gerhard; Chen, Guo-Bo

    2015-01-01

    approach significantly increases the prediction accuracy for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder in the discovery as well as in independent validation datasets. By grouping SNPs based on genome annotation and fitting multiple random effects, we show that the prediction accuracy...... could be further improved. The gain in prediction accuracy of the multivariate approach is equivalent to an increase in sample size of 34% for schizophrenia, 68% for bipolar disorder, and 76% for major depressive disorders using single trait models. Because our approach can be readily applied to any...

  13. Assessing neural tuning for object perception in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder with multivariate pattern analysis of fMRI data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric A. Reavis

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: The results show for the first time MVPA can be used successfully to classify individual perceptual stimuli in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. However, the results do not provide evidence of abnormal neural tuning in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

  14. Contextual Social Cognition Impairments in Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarin, Lilian; Theil, Donna; Gonzalez-Gadea, María Luz; Gomez, Pedro; Mosquera, Marcela; Huepe, David; Strejilevich, Sergio; Vigliecca, Nora Silvana; Matthäus, Franziska; Decety, Jean; Manes, Facundo; Ibañez, Agustín M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The ability to integrate contextual information with social cues to generate social meaning is a key aspect of social cognition. It is widely accepted that patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders have deficits in social cognition; however, previous studies on these disorders did not use tasks that replicate everyday situations. Methodology/Principal Findings This study evaluates the performance of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders on social cognition tasks (emotional processing, empathy, and social norms knowledge) that incorporate different levels of contextual dependence and involvement of real-life scenarios. Furthermore, we explored the association between social cognition measures, clinical symptoms and executive functions. Using a logistic regression analysis, we explored whether the involvement of more basic skills in emotional processing predicted performance on empathy tasks. The results showed that both patient groups exhibited deficits in social cognition tasks with greater context sensitivity and involvement of real-life scenarios. These deficits were more severe in schizophrenic than in bipolar patients. Patients did not differ from controls in tasks involving explicit knowledge. Moreover, schizophrenic patients’ depression levels were negatively correlated with performance on empathy tasks. Conclusions/Significance Overall performance on emotion recognition predicted performance on intentionality attribution during the more ambiguous situations of the empathy task. These results suggest that social cognition deficits could be related to a general impairment in the capacity to implicitly integrate contextual cues. Important implications for the assessment and treatment of individuals with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders, as well as for neurocognitive models of these pathologies are discussed. PMID:23520477

  15. Contextual social cognition impairments in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Baez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ability to integrate contextual information with social cues to generate social meaning is a key aspect of social cognition. It is widely accepted that patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders have deficits in social cognition; however, previous studies on these disorders did not use tasks that replicate everyday situations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study evaluates the performance of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders on social cognition tasks (emotional processing, empathy, and social norms knowledge that incorporate different levels of contextual dependence and involvement of real-life scenarios. Furthermore, we explored the association between social cognition measures, clinical symptoms and executive functions. Using a logistic regression analysis, we explored whether the involvement of more basic skills in emotional processing predicted performance on empathy tasks. The results showed that both patient groups exhibited deficits in social cognition tasks with greater context sensitivity and involvement of real-life scenarios. These deficits were more severe in schizophrenic than in bipolar patients. Patients did not differ from controls in tasks involving explicit knowledge. Moreover, schizophrenic patients' depression levels were negatively correlated with performance on empathy tasks. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Overall performance on emotion recognition predicted performance on intentionality attribution during the more ambiguous situations of the empathy task. These results suggest that social cognition deficits could be related to a general impairment in the capacity to implicitly integrate contextual cues. Important implications for the assessment and treatment of individuals with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders, as well as for neurocognitive models of these pathologies are discussed.

  16. Semantics, pragmatics, and formal thought disorders in people with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salavera, Carlos; Puyuelo, Miguel; Antoñanzas, José L; Teruel, Pilar

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze how formal thought disorders (FTD) affect semantics and pragmatics in patients with schizophrenia. The sample comprised subjects with schizophrenia (n = 102) who met the criteria for the disorder according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition Text Revision. In the research process, the following scales were used: Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for psychopathology measurements; the Scale for the Assessment of Thought, Language, and Communication (TLC) for FTD, Word Accentuation Test (WAT), System for the Behavioral Evaluation of Social Skills (SECHS), the pragmatics section of the Objective Criteria Language Battery (BLOC-SR) and the verbal sections of the Wechsler Adults Intelligence Scale (WAIS) III, for assessment of semantics and pragmatics. The results in the semantics and pragmatics sections were inferior to the average values obtained in the general population. Our data demonstrated that the more serious the FTD, the worse the performances in the Verbal-WAIS tests (particularly in its vocabulary, similarities, and comprehension sections), SECHS, and BLOC-SR, indicating that FTD affects semantics and pragmatics, although the results of the WAT indicated good premorbid language skills. The principal conclusion we can draw from this study is the evidence that in schizophrenia the superior level of language structure seems to be compromised, and that this level is related to semantics and pragmatics; when there is an alteration in this level, symptoms of FTD appear, with a wide-ranging relationship between both language and FTD. The second conclusion is that the subject's language is affected by the disorder and rules out the possibility of a previous verbal impairment.

  17. Social support and religion: mental health service use and treatment of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolak, A; Gearing, R E; Alonzo, D; Baldwin, S; Harmon, S; McHugh, K

    2013-08-01

    The perceptions and religious beliefs held by family members, mental health and health care professionals, and the community may affect the treatment of individuals with schizophrenia. To better identify and understand the influence of families, professionals and community members on individual's treatment for schizophrenia, this review paper examines: (1) the religious perceptions of families, professionals, and the public towards schizophrenia; (2) religious perceptions of the etiology of schizophrenia; (3) how others perceive religion as a coping mechanism; and (4) how religion influences treatment engagement and help-seeking behaviors. MEDLINE and PsycInfo databases were systematically searched from 1980 to 2010 using the terms schizophrenia, schizoaffective, schizophreniform, psychotic disorder not otherwise specified and religion, religiosity, spirituality, and faith. Forty-three (n = 43) original research studies met the inclusion criteria. This study found that religious beliefs influence the treatment of schizophrenia in the following ways: Religious themes were positively associated with coping, treatment engagement and help-seeking behavior. Evidence of religious underpinnings was found in perceptions of etiology. The findings also indicate that there is often both a preference among family members and caregivers to utilize religious-based professionals and caution toward mental health professionals. Researchers and professionals may find avenues for improving treatment through examining the interaction of religious and schizophrenia at the social support level.

  18. Dissociative Disorders Among Chinese Inpatients Diagnosed With Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junhan; Ross, Colin A.; Keyes, Benjamin B.; Li, Ying; Dai, Yunfei; Zhang, Tianhong; Wang, Lanlan; Fan, Qing; Xiao, Zeping

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the prevalence of dissociative disorders in a sample of Chinese psychiatric inpatients. Participants in the study consisted of 569 consecutively admitted inpatients at Shanghai Mental Health Center, China, of whom 84.9% had a clinical diagnosis of schizophrenia based on the Chinese Classification and Diagnostic Criteria for Mental Disorders, Version 3 (CCMD-3). All participants completed a self-report measure of dissociation, the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) and none had a prior diagnosis of a dissociative disorder. Ninety-six randomly selected participants were interviewed with a structured interview, the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule (DDIS) and a clinical interview. These 96 patients did not differ significantly from the 473 patients who were not interviewed on any demographic measures or on the self-report measure dissociation. A total of 28 (15.3%, after weighting of the data) patients received a clinical diagnosis of a dissociative disorder based on DSM-IV-TR criteria. Dissociative identity disorder was diagnosed in 2 (0.53%, after weighting) patients. Compared to the patients without a dissociative disorder, patients with dissociative disorders were significantly more likely to report childhood abuse (57.1% versus 22.1%), but the two groups did not differ significantly on any demographic measures. Dissociative disorders were readily identified in an inpatient psychiatric population in China. PMID:20603768

  19. Catatonic features in adolescents with schizophrenia with and without a comorbid pervasive developmental disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Waris, Petra; Lindberg, Nina; Kettunen, Kirsi; Lipsanen, Jari; Tani, Pekka

    2014-01-01

    Background Catatonia has been associated with both schizophrenia and pervasive developmental disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate catatonic features among adolescents suffering from schizophrenia. Further, we compared these features between adolescents with a comorbid pervasive developmental disorder and those without one. Finally, we wanted to compare the profile of catatonia-like features of our schizophrenia patients to that described earlier among persons with autism spectrum ...

  20. A genetic deconstruction of neurocognitive traits in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla P D Fernandes

    Full Text Available Impairments in cognitive functions are common in patients suffering from psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Cognitive traits have been proposed as useful for understanding the biological and genetic mechanisms implicated in cognitive function in healthy individuals and in the dysfunction observed in psychiatric disorders.Sets of genes associated with a range of cognitive functions often impaired in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder were generated from a genome-wide association study (GWAS on a sample comprising 670 healthy Norwegian adults who were phenotyped for a broad battery of cognitive tests. These gene sets were then tested for enrichment of association in GWASs of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The GWAS data was derived from three independent single-centre schizophrenia samples, three independent single-centre bipolar disorder samples, and the multi-centre schizophrenia and bipolar disorder samples from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium.The strongest enrichments were observed for visuospatial attention and verbal abilities sets in bipolar disorder. Delayed verbal memory was also enriched in one sample of bipolar disorder. For schizophrenia, the strongest evidence of enrichment was observed for the sets of genes associated with performance in a colour-word interference test and for sets associated with memory learning slope.Our results are consistent with the increasing evidence that cognitive functions share genetic factors with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Our data provides evidence that genetic studies using polygenic and pleiotropic models can be used to link specific cognitive functions with psychiatric disorders.

  1. Schizophrenia and comorbid cannabis use disorders: Brain structure, function and the effect of antipsychotic medications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machielsen, M.W.J.

    2014-01-01

    The overall aim of the studies described in this thesis was to increase our understanding of schizophrenia, co-morbid cannabis use disorders and the effects of different antipsychotic medications in patients with schizophrenia and a comorbid cannabis use disorder. Therefore we studied the clinical

  2. Acupuncture in the treatment of a female patient suffering from chronic schizophrenia and sleep disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, M.P.C.; Lim, S.; Yeo, S.; Lee, S.H.; Staudte, H.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den

    2016-01-01

    Background. The use of acupuncture in the treatment of sleep disorders in patients with chronic schizophrenia is investigated. Case Presentation. We report the case of a 44-year-old female outpatient of German origin who had been suffering from long-term schizophrenia and sleep disorders. The

  3. Acupuncture treatment of a male patient suffering from long-term schizophrenia and sleep disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, M.P.C.; Staudte, H.; Yeo, S.; Lee, S.H.; Lim, S.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of acupuncture in the treatment of chronic schizophrenia and co-morbid sleep disorders. Methods: A 42-year-old German male outpatient, suffering from long-term schizophrenia and sleep disorders, entered the study. Acupuncture was used as a

  4. Neurocognitive Outcomes in the Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Jean A.; Giuliano, Anthony J.; Johnson, Jacqueline L.; Yakutis, Lauren; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Breiger, David; Sikich, Linmarie; Findling, Robert L.; McClellan, Jon; Hamer, Robert M.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.; Hooper, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess neurocognitive outcomes following antipsychotic intervention in youth enrolled in the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (TEOSS). Method: Neurocognitive functioning of youth (ages 8 to 19 years) with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder was evaluated…

  5. Overlapping and Segregating Structural Brain Abnormalities in Twins With Schizophrenia or Bipolar Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff; van Baal, G. Caroline M.; Schnack, Hugo G.; Brans, Rachel G. H.; van der Schot, Astrid C.; Brouwer, Rachel M.; van Haren, Neeltje E. M.; Lepage, Claude; Collins, D. Louis; Evans, Alan C.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Nolen, Willem; Kahn, Rene S.

    Context: The nosologic dichotomy between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (BD) as formulated by Kraepelin is currently being questioned, stimulated by the finding that schizophrenia and BD partly share a common genetic origin. Although both disorders are characterized by changes in brain

  6. Predictors of poor adherence to medication among patients with first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quach, Phuong Le; Mors, Ole; Christensen, Torben Østergaard

    2009-01-01

    This study sought to identify predictors for poor adherence to medication among patients with first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorder.......This study sought to identify predictors for poor adherence to medication among patients with first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorder....

  7. Suicidal Behavior in Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorder: Examining the Role of Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkavy-Friedman, Jill M.; Nelson, Elizabeth A.; Venarde, David F.; Mann, J. John

    2004-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between depression and suicidal behavior among individuals with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder can aid assessment and treatment. In this study, 86 individuals with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder were assessed for past and current suicidal behavior, depression, hopelessness, and reasons for…

  8. Self-Disorder and Brain Processing of Proprioception in Schizophrenia Spectrum Patients: A Re-Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfred, Sidse M.; Raballo, Andrea; Mørup, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Background : Anomalies of self-awareness (self-disorders, SDs) are theorized to be basic to schizophrenia psychopathology. We have previously observed dysfunction of brain processing of proprioception in schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SZS). We hypothesized that SDs could be associated with abn...

  9. Increased mortality among patients admitted with major psychiatric disorders: a register-based study comparing mortality in unipolar depressive disorder, bipolar affective disorder, schizoaffective disorder, and schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Thomas Munk; Munk-Olsen, Trine; Nordentoft, Merete

    2007-01-01

    disorder has never been examined in a population-based study. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to examine and compare mortality rates after admission with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, unipolar depressive disorder, or bipolar affective disorder and to examine the impact of family history......: Unipolar depressive disorder, bipolar affective disorder, and schizoaffective disorder were associated with the same pattern of excess mortality. Schizophrenia had a lower mortality from unnatural causes of death and a higher mortality from natural causes compared to the 3 other disorders. Family history...

  10. Phenomenology and neurobiology of self disorder in schizophrenia: Primary factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borda, Juan P; Sass, Louis A

    2015-12-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous syndrome, varying between persons and over course of illness. In this and a companion article, we argue that comprehension of this condition or set of conditions may require combining a phenomenological perspective emphasizing disorders of basic-self experience ("ipseity disturbance") with a multidimensional appreciation of possible neurobiological correlates--both primary and secondary. Previous attempts to link phenomenology and neurobiology generally focus on a single neurocognitive factor. We consider diverse aspects of schizophrenia in light of a diverse, albeit interacting, set of neurocognitive abnormalities, examining both synchronic (structural) interdependence and diachronic (temporal) succession. In this article we focus on the primary or foundational role of early perceptual and motoric disturbances that affect perceptual organization and especially intermodal or multisensory perceptual integration (“perceptual dys-integration”). These disturbances are discussed in terms of their implications for three interconnected aspects of selfhood in schizophrenia, primary forms of: disrupted "hold" or "grip" on the world, hyperreflexivity, diminished self-presence (self-affection). Disturbances of organization or integration imply forms of perceptual incoherence or diminished cognitive coordination. The effect is to disrupt one's ability to apprehend the world in holistic, vital, or contextually grounded fashion, or to fully identify with or experience the unity of one's own body or thinking--thereby generating an early and profound (albeit often subtle) disruption or diminishment of basic or core self and of the sense of existing in a coherent world. We discuss interrelationships or possible complementarities between these three aspects, and consider their relevance for a neurodevelopmental account of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A Genetic Deconstruction of Neurocognitive Traits in Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandes, Carla P. D.; Christoforou, Andrea; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Ersland, Kari M.; Djurovic, Srdjan; Mattheisen, Manuel; Lundervold, Astri J.; Reinvang, Ivar; Nöthen, Markus M.; Rietschel, Marcella; Ophoff, Roel A.; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G.; Werge, Thomas; Cichon, Sven; Espeseth, Thomas; Andreassen, Ole A.; Steen, Vidar M.; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Kahn, René S.; Linszen, Don H.; van Os, Jim; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Cahn, Wiepke; de Haan, Lieuwe; Krabbendam, Lydia; Myin-Germeys, Inez

    2013-01-01

    Background: Impairments in cognitive functions are common in patients suffering from psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Cognitive traits have been proposed as useful for understanding the biological and genetic mechanisms implicated in cognitive function in healthy

  12. Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schizophrenia is a serious brain illness. People who have it may hear voices that aren't there. ... job or take care of themselves. Symptoms of schizophrenia usually start between ages 16 and 30. Men ...

  13. Catatonic features in adolescents with schizophrenia with and without a comorbid pervasive developmental disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waris, Petra; Lindberg, Nina; Kettunen, Kirsi; Lipsanen, Jari; Tani, Pekka

    2014-01-01

    Catatonia has been associated with both schizophrenia and pervasive developmental disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate catatonic features among adolescents suffering from schizophrenia. Further, we compared these features between adolescents with a comorbid pervasive developmental disorder and those without one. Finally, we wanted to compare the profile of catatonia-like features of our schizophrenia patients to that described earlier among persons with autism spectrum disorders. The study comprised a consecutive sample of 18 adolescents with schizophrenia (mean age 15.6 years, SD 1.4) and their families. Diagnosis of schizophrenia was assessed with the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children - Present and Life-Time (K-SADS-PL) for the DSM-IV. The Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders version 11 was used to assess catatonic features. All adolescents with schizophrenia had showed some lifetime catatonic features. Approximately 78% of them had already expressed these features before the age of 10. The number of catatonic features before the age of 10 was significantly higher among the adolescents with a comorbid pervasive developmental disorder compared to those without one. The numbers of catatonic features after the age of 10 did not significantly differ between the two groups. Over three-quarters of schizophrenia patients shared four lifetime catatonic features: "lacks facial expression", "odd intonation", "poor eye contact" and "lack of cooperation". Adolescent schizophrenia patients with a comorbid pervasive developmental disorder show many catatonic features in childhood whereas those without one seem to develop these features first in adolescence. Catatonic features exhibited by adolescents with schizophrenia resemble those described among persons with pervasive developmental disorders without schizophrenia.

  14. Psychiatric family history and schizophrenia risk in Denmark: which mental disorders are relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, P B; Pedersen, M G; Pedersen, C B

    2010-02-01

    A family history of schizophrenia is the strongest single indicator of individual schizophrenia risk. Bipolar affective disorder and schizo-affective disorders have been documented to occur more frequently in parents and siblings of schizophrenia patients, but the familial occurrence of the broader range of mental illnesses and their role as confounders have not been studied in large population-based samples. All people born in Denmark between 1955 and 1991 (1.74 million) were followed for the development of schizophrenia (9324 cases) during 28 million person-years at risk. Information of schizophrenia in cohort members and psychiatric history in parents and siblings was established through linkage with the Danish Psychiatric Central Register. Data were analysed using log-linear Poisson regression. Schizophrenia was, as expected, strongly associated with schizophrenia and related disorders among first-degree relatives. However, almost any other psychiatric disorder among first-degree relatives increased the individual's risk of schizophrenia. The population attributable risk associated with psychiatric family history in general was 27.1% whereas family histories including schizophrenia only accounted for 6.0%. The general psychiatric family history was a confounder of the association between schizophrenia and urbanization of place of birth. Clinically diagnosed schizophrenia is associated with a much broader range of mental disorders in first-degree relatives than previously reported. This may suggest risk haplotypes shared across many disorders and/or shared environmental factors clustering in families. Failure to take the broad range of psychiatric family history into account may bias results of all risk-factor studies of schizophrenia.

  15. Assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment in women with schizophrenia or related psychotic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebdrup, Ninna H; Assens, Maria; Hougaard, Charlotte O

    2014-01-01

    To determine the prevalence rate of women with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or related psychotic disorder in assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment and to study these women's fertility treatment outcome in comparison to women with no psychotic disorders.......To determine the prevalence rate of women with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or related psychotic disorder in assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment and to study these women's fertility treatment outcome in comparison to women with no psychotic disorders....

  16. Mood disorders are associated with a more severe hypovitaminosis D than schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belzeaux, Raoul; Boyer, Laurent; Ibrahim, El Chérif; Féron, François; Leboyer, Marion; Fond, Guillaume

    2015-09-30

    Patients with psychiatric disorders display high levels of hypovitaminosis D (vitamin D status in psychiatric inpatients, 82 individuals with mood disorders or schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorders were included. Hypovitaminosis D was significantly lower in patients with mood disorders than patients with schizophrenia (standardized β coefficient=0.385, p=0.007). Further studies are warranted to determine specific causes of hypovitaminosis D and the interest of supplementation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Perspective-taking deficits in people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a prospective investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Lam, Cecilia W; Jiwatram, Tina

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study examined data from a Danish prospective longitudinal project in attempt to address the state/trait controversy regarding theory of mind deficits in schizophrenia. Deficits in perspective-taking--a component of theory of mind--were investigated prospectively among children who......-psychotic disorder. CONCLUSIONS: Deficits in perspective-taking among children who later developed schizophrenia spectrum disorders suggest that a facet of theory of mind is impaired prior to development of schizophrenia. Our findings lend support to the hypothesis that theory of mind deficits in schizophrenia...

  18. Characteristics of schizophrenia suicides compared with suicides by other diagnosed psychiatric disorders and those without a psychiatric disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Juncheng; Zhang, Jie

    2014-05-01

    There has been much literature on schizophrenia, but very little is known about the characteristics of suicides with schizophrenia in comparison with the suicides with other diagnosed psychiatric disorders and without psychiatric disorders. Thirty-eight suicides with schizophrenia, 150 suicides with other psychiatric disorder, and 204 suicides without a psychiatric disorder were entered in current study. Psychological autopsy (PA) was applied to collect information of the suicides. Social demographic factors and clinical characteristics of the suicides were measured. The well validated standard scales were applied: Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), Landerman's Social Support Scale (DSSI), Dickman's Impulsivity Inventory (DII), Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD). Suicide intents were appraised by the Beck Suicide Intent Scale (SIS). The SCID based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) was applied to assess the psychiatric status of individuals. Demographic characteristics, clinical characteristics, method of suicide and suicide intents of suicides were compared among the three groups (schizophrenia group, other psychiatric disorders group, and none psychiatric disorders group). There were 9.7% of suicides who suffered schizophrenia. The current study found that being female was the risk factor for suicides with schizophrenia in rural China, which was opposite to the previous studies. The suicides with psychiatric disorder scored higher on hopelessness, anxiety, and depression, but lower on social support and impulsivity than suicides without psychiatric disorder. The suicides with psychiatric disorder were less impulsive than none psychiatric disorders group, too. The schizophrenia group did not show more violence than other psychiatric disorders group. This research compared the demographic characteristics, clinical characteristics, method of suicide and suicide intents among the

  19. Comparison of characteristics of suicide attempters with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and those with mood disorders in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Makiko; Kawanishi, Chiaki; Yamada, Tomoki; Sugiura, Kanna; Iwamoto, Yoko; Sato, Ryoko; Morita, Satoshi; Odawara, Toshinari; Hirayasu, Yoshio

    2011-06-30

    Suicidality in patients with schizophrenia is high. To clarify the characteristics of suicidal behavior in patients with schizophrenia, we investigated suicide attempters with schizophrenia spectrum disorders in comparison with patients with mood disorders. One hundred patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and 155 patients with mood disorders admitted to an emergency department after a suicide attempt were interviewed in detail on items concerning 1) demographic characteristics, 2) previous suicidal behavior, and 3) index suicidal behavior. Differences between the two groups were subsequently analyzed. Patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders showed a lower incidence of previous deliberate self-harm, and a higher incidence of a subsequent suicide attempt more than 1 year after the previous suicide attempt as well as a higher lethality of index suicide attempt compared to patients with mood disorders. Furthermore, the most common motive for making a suicide attempt in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders was having a mental problem. This study revealed the factors associated with suicide attempts among Japanese patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and the nature of these factors makes it difficult to predict future attempts. This makes clear the importance of continuous long-term follow-up with careful attention to the mental symptoms and psychological burden for such patients. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Study of Attention Deficit in Patients with Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SM Kafi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Attention deficit has significant effect on the life of patients suffering from schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to assess the attention deficit in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: In the present post-hoc study, 132 patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder were selected via non-randomized sampling at Shafa Hospital (Rasht, Iran and then divided into four equal groups: chronic schizophrenia patients, first-episode patients, chronic bipolar patients, and first-episode bipolar patients. Thirty-three healthy individuals were selected as the control group. Subjects were evaluated by Stroop color-word test. The gathered Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Results: Attention deficit among chronic schizophrenics and patients suffering from bipolar disease was higher than the control group (p <1. Chronic schizophrenic patients compared with schizophrenia bipolar disease and first round schizophrenia showed more attention deficit. There was no significant difference among the first bipolar disease and schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, as well as the first round schizophrenia (p<0.05. Conclusion: Attention deficit is more severe in schizophrenic patients than bipolar disorder, and chronicity is more effective in schizophrenic patients. Key words: Attention, Schizophrenia, Chronicity

  1. Rates and Predictors of Conversion to Schizophrenia or Bipolar Disorder Following Substance-Induced Psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starzer, Marie Stefanie Kejser; Nordentoft, Merete; Hjorthøj, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors investigated the rates of conversion to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder after a substance-induced psychosis, as well as risk factors for conversion. METHOD: All patient information was extracted from the Danish Civil Registration System and the Psychiatric Central Research...... to obtain cumulative probabilities for the conversion from a substance-induced psychosis to schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios for all covariates. RESULTS: Overall, 32.2% (95% CI=29.7-34.9) of patients with a substance......-induced psychosis converted to either bipolar or schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. The highest conversion rate was found for cannabis-induced psychosis, with 47.4% (95% CI=42.7-52.3) converting to either schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Young age was associated with a higher risk of converting to schizophrenia...

  2. LORETA current source density for duration mismatch negativity and neuropsychological assessment in early schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Miyanishi

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Patients with schizophrenia elicit cognitive decline from the early phase of the illness. Mismatch negativity (MMN has been shown to be associated with cognitive function. We investigated the current source density of duration mismatch negativity (dMMN, by using low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA, and neuropsychological performance in subjects with early schizophrenia. METHODS: Data were obtained from 20 patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia or schizophreniform disorder, and 20 healthy control (HC subjects. An auditory odd-ball paradigm was used to measure dMMN. Neuropsychological performance was evaluated by the brief assessment of cognition in schizophrenia Japanese version (BACS-J. RESULTS: Patients showed smaller dMMN amplitudes than those in the HC subjects. LORETA current density for dMMN was significantly lower in patients compared to HC subjects, especially in the temporal lobes. dMMN current density in the frontal lobe was positively correlated with working memory performance in patients. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to identify brain regions showing smaller dMMN current density in early schizophrenia. Further, poor working memory was associated with decreased dMMN current density in patients. These results are likely to help understand the neural basis for cognitive impairment of schizophrenia.

  3. Premorbid self-disorders and lifetime diagnosis in the schizophrenia spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parnas, Josef; Carter, John; Frederiksen, Julie E Nordgaard

    2016-01-01

    an aspect of self-disorder as measured by the EASE. RESULTS: Premorbid Self-Disorder Scale scores significantly predicted lifetime schizophrenia-spectrum diagnosis in the high-risk cohort. Although there was considerable item overlap between the new scale and an existing MMPI scale (psychoticism......AIM: The notion of a disordered self as a core disturbance of schizophrenia was proposed in many foundational texts. Recent studies, spurred by the development of the Examination of Anomalous Self-Experience (EASE), seem to indicate that self-disorders are a specific manifestation of schizophrenia...... vulnerability. Follow-up studies of help-seeking, prodromal and first-admission patients have demonstrated the utility of self-disorders for predicting later schizophrenia-spectrum disturbance. We wished to extend these findings by gauging the predictive value of self-disorders in a premorbid, non...

  4. Morbidity risk of psychiatric disorders among the first degree relatives of schizophrenia patients in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ching-Jui; Chen, Wei J; Liu, Shi K; Cheng, Joseph J; Yang, Wen-Chen Ou; Chang, Hung-Jung; Lane, Hsien-Yuan; Lin, Shi-Kwang; Yang, Tien-Wei; Hwu, Hai-Gwo

    2002-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the boundaries of the schizophrenia spectrum and whether inclusion of such phenotypes increases power for linkage analysis of schizophrenia. Participants were 234 first degree relatives (FDRs) of 94 schizophrenia probands in Northern Taiwan who completed a direct interview using the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies (DIGS). Based on best estimate diagnosis, the morbidity risk in the relatives for schizophrenia was 2.5 percent (Weinberg's shorter method) or 3.9 percent (Kaplan-Meier estimate). Depending on the stringency of diagnosis, lifetime prevalence was 2.6 percent to 4.7 percent for schizotypal personality disorder, 3.4 percent to 8.6 percent for paranoid personality disorder, and 1.3 percent to 3.4 percent for schizoid personality disorder. These figures are significantly higher than the corresponding figures in the general population. However, none of the recurrence risk ratio for any spectrum that included both schizophrenia and a personality disorder (3.0 to 5.9) was greater than that of schizophrenia alone (9.3 to 14.4). Thus, including schizophrenia-related personality disorders in the spectrum did not increase power for linkage analysis of schizophrenia.

  5. Neuregulin 3 is associated with attention deficits in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Sandra; Strohmaier, Jana; Breuer, Rene; Mattheisen, Manuel; Degenhardt, Franziska; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Schulze, Thomas G; Nöthen, Markus M; Cichon, Sven; Rietschel, Marcella; Wüst, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    Linkage and fine mapping studies have established that the neuregulin 3 gene (NRG3) is a susceptibility locus for schizophrenia. Association studies of this disorder have implicated NRG3 variants in both psychotic symptoms and attention performance. Psychotic symptoms and cognitive deficits are also frequent features of bipolar disorder. The aims of the present study were to extend analysis of the association between NRG3 and psychotic symptoms and attention in schizophrenia and to determine whether these associations also apply to bipolar disorder. A total of 358 patients with schizophrenia and 111 patients with bipolar disorder were included. Psychotic symptoms were evaluated using the Operational Criteria Checklist for Psychotic Illness (OPCRIT) and attention performance was assessed using the Trail Making Test (TMT). Symptoms and performance scores were then tested for association with the NRG3 variant rs6584400. A significant association was found between the number of rs6584400 minor alleles and the total OPCRIT score for psychotic symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Moreover, in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients, minor allele carriers of rs6584400 outperformed homozygous major allele carriers in the TMT. The results suggest that rs6584400 is associated with psychotic symptoms and attention performance in schizophrenia. The finding of a significant association between rs6584400 and attention performance in bipolar disorder supports the hypothesis that this NRG3 variant confers genetic susceptibility to cognitive deficits in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

  6. Perceived discrimination and the risk of schizophrenia in ethnic minorities: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veling, Wim; Hoek, Hans W; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2008-12-01

    Previous studies have reported a very high incidence of schizophrenia for immigrant ethnic groups in Western Europe. The explanation of these findings is unknown, but is likely to involve social stress inherent to the migrant condition. A previous study reported that the incidence of schizophrenia in ethnic groups was higher when these groups perceived more discrimination. We conducted a case-control study of first-episode schizophrenia, and investigated whether perceived discrimination at the individual level is a risk factor for schizophrenia. Cases included all non-western immigrants who made first contact with a physician for a psychotic disorder in The Hague, the Netherlands, between October 2000 and July 2005, and received a diagnosis of a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (DSM IV: schizophrenia, schizophreniform disorder, schizoaffective disorder) (N = 100). Two matched control groups were recruited, one among immigrants who made contact with non-psychiatric secondary health care services (N = 100), and one among siblings of the cases (N = 63). Perceived discrimination in the year before illness onset was measured with structured interviews, assessing experiences of prejudice, racist insults or attacks, and perception of discrimination against one's ethnic group. Conditional logistic regression analyses were used to predict schizophrenia as a function of perceived discrimination. Cases reported somewhat higher rates of perceived discrimination in the year prior to illness onset than their siblings and the general-hospital controls, but these differences were not statistically significant; 52% of the cases and 42% of both control groups had perceived any discrimination. Perceived discrimination at the individual level was not a risk factor for schizophrenia in these data. Perceived discrimination was positively correlated with cultural distance and cannabis use, and negatively with ethnic identity, self-esteem, and mastery. The relationship between racial

  7. Looking at the Schizophrenia Spectrum Through the Prism of Self-disorders: An Empirical Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raballo, Andrea; Sæbye, Ditte; Parnas, Josef

    2011-01-01

    ), schizotypal personality disorder (n = 61), other mental illness not belonging to the schizophrenia spectrum (n = 112), and no mental illness (n = 103). The effect of diagnostic grouping on the level of SDs was explored via general linear model and logistic regression. The diagnosis of schizophrenia...... spectrum has been explicitly acknowledged, mainly as a consequence of the increasing focus on early detection and prevention of psychosis. The current study tested the hypothesis of a specific aggregation of self-disorders (SDs, various anomalies of self-awareness) in schizophrenia-spectrum conditions......, comparing different diagnostic groups; 305 subjects, previously assessed in the Copenhagen Schizophrenia Linkage Study, were grouped into 4 experimental samples, according to their Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Third Edition Revised) main diagnosis: schizophrenia, (n = 29...

  8. Looking at the Schizophrenia Spectrum Through the Prism of Self-disorders: An Empirical Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raballo, Andrea; Sæbye, Ditte; Parnas, Josef

    2011-01-01

    , comparing different diagnostic groups; 305 subjects, previously assessed in the Copenhagen Schizophrenia Linkage Study, were grouped into 4 experimental samples, according to their Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Third Edition Revised) main diagnosis: schizophrenia, (n = 29......), schizotypal personality disorder (n = 61), other mental illness not belonging to the schizophrenia spectrum (n = 112), and no mental illness (n = 103). The effect of diagnostic grouping on the level of SDs was explored via general linear model and logistic regression. The diagnosis of schizophrenia...... spectrum has been explicitly acknowledged, mainly as a consequence of the increasing focus on early detection and prevention of psychosis. The current study tested the hypothesis of a specific aggregation of self-disorders (SDs, various anomalies of self-awareness) in schizophrenia-spectrum conditions...

  9. A qualitative analysis of the effects of a comorbid disordered gambling diagnosis with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovenko, Igor; Clark, Cameron M; Hodgins, David C; Goghari, Vina M

    2016-03-01

    Little research has examined the association between disordered gambling and psychosis. In addition, clinicians treating schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders rarely screen for or treat comorbid gambling problems due to diagnostic overshadowing. Thus, the effects of disordered gambling on symptoms of schizophrenia and vice versa remain largely unexplored and unidentified in research and clinical practice. The goal of the present study was to explore qualitatively the reciprocal associations between schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder and disordered gambling through content and functional analyses from the perspective of the affected individual. Eight participants who met DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and disordered gambling participated in a qualitative interview examining key antecedents associated with their gambling, as well as perceived functional consequences of gambling. Content analysis revealed unique patterns of responses specific to individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder that are not typically observed in individuals with disordered gambling alone. Specifically, gambling as filling a need for activity, and gambling as a means of connecting with society/world were the notable reasons for engaging in problematic gambling. Furthermore, some, but not all participants described a direct exacerbation of their psychosis by gambling and a greater involvement in gambling due to their symptoms of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A longitudinal study of schizophrenia- and affective spectrum disorders in individuals diagnosed with a developmental language disorder as children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik Birkebæk; Hauschild, K.M.

    2008-01-01

    . 1.8%; P schizophrenia (F20.x) the respective figures were 3.8% versus 1.1%; P = 0.0001. The variable degree of expressive language disorder was significantly associated with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder diagnosis in the DPCR. There was no significant increase in affective......The prevalence and types of schizophrenia- and affective spectrum disorders were studied in 469 individuals with a developmental language disorder (DLD), assessed in the same clinic during a period of 10 years, and 2,345 controls from the general population. All participants were screened through...... the nationwide Danish Psychiatric Central Register (DPCR). The mean length of follow-up was 34.7 years, and the mean age at follow-up 35.8 years. The results show an excess of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (F20-F29) within participants with DLD when compared with controls from the overall population (6.4% vs...

  11. Attempted suicide in a Xhosa schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lückhoff, Marlize; Koen, Liezl; Jordaan, Esme; Niehaus, Daniel

    2014-04-01

    Suicide risk behavior is a significant contributor to the mortality and morbidity of schizophrenia. We previously reported affected sibship status in a Xhosa schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder sample to be protective in nature; given the counterintuitive nature of this finding, we expanded the sample size to seek further clarification. Subjects were assessed with the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies and then stratified into two groups: with (n = 137) or without (n = 837) a previous suicide attempt. The presence of lifetime bizarre behavior (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.12-1.87) or cannabis use or abuse (OR 1.2; 95% CI 10.01-1.47) was a significant predictor of suicide attempts, while a higher global alogia score (OR 0.84; 95% CI 0.74-0.96) was a protective factor. Our data seem to support that in this population, encouraging family members to report bizarre behavior and implementing dual diagnosis interventions for cannabis use or abuse could be an appropriate starting point toward developing a targeted suicide prevention program for further research. © 2013 The American Association of Suicidology.

  12. Prevalence of Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders in Average-IQ Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo Marín, Jorge; Rodríguez-Franco, Montserrat Alviani; Mahtani Chugani, Vinita; Magán Maganto, María; Díez Villoria, Emiliano; Canal Bedia, Ricardo

    2018-01-01

    Since their separation as independent diagnostics, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) have been conceptualized as mutually exclusive disorders. Similarities between both disorders can lead to misdiagnosis, especially when it comes to average-IQ adults who were not identified during childhood. The aim of this…

  13. Does Operational Diagnosis of Schizophrenia Significantly Impact Intellectual Deficits in Psychotic Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, H.; Shioiri, T.; Itoh, M.; Sato, Y.; Shichiri, K.; Someya, T.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests that, as a group, patients with schizophrenia have intellectual deficits that may precede the manifestation of psychotic symptoms; however, how successfully intelligence tests are able to discriminate schizophrenia from other psychotic disorders has yet to be investigated in detail. Methods: Using Wechsler Adult…

  14. Cessation of cannabis use by patients with recent-onset schizophrenia and related disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Nienke; de Haan, Lieuwe; van den Berg, Sake; de Gier, Martin; Becker, Hiske; Linzen, Don H.

    2008-01-01

    Cannabis abuse has been found to be a component risk factor for the onset and poor outcome during the early course of schizophrenia and related disorders. Cannabis use has become a target for prevention and treatment of schizophrenia patients. Therefore, knowledge of factors that influence

  15. Obsessive compulsive disorder--prevalence in Xhosa-speaking schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehaus, Dana J H; Koen, Liezl; Muller, Jacqueline; Laurent, Claudine; Stein, Dan J; Lochner, Christine; Seedat, Soraya; Mbanga, Irene; Deleuze, Jean-Francois; Mallet, Jacques; Emsley, Robin A

    2005-02-01

    Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) has been reported in up to 31% of schizophrenia sufferers. This study evaluated the presence of OCD in a Xhosa-speaking schizophrenia group. Xhosa patients (N = 509, including 100 sibships) with schizophrenia were recruited from hospital and community settings. The patients underwent a structured clinical interview for the presence of lifetime co-morbid schizophrenia and OCD. Only 3 patients (0.5%) fulfilled criteria for OCD. No concordance for OCD was noted in the sibship group. Our findings differ from those in other parts of the world, and if replicated, might suggest unique protective environmental or genetic factors for OCD in certain ethnic groups.

  16. A genome-wide meta-analysis identifies novel loci associated with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke-Sheng; Liu, Xue-Feng; Aragam, Nagesh

    2010-12-01

    Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder both have strong inherited components. Recent studies have indicated that schizophrenia and bipolar disorder may share more than half of their genetic determinants. In this study, we performed a meta-analysis (combined analysis) for genome-wide association data of the Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP array 6.0 to detect genetic variants influencing both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder using European-American samples (653 bipolar cases and 1034 controls, 1172 schizophrenia cases and 1379 controls). The best associated SNP rs11789399 was located at 9q33.1 (p=2.38 × 10(-6), 5.74 × 10(-4), and 5.56 × 10(-9), for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and meta-analysis of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, respectively), where one flanking gene, ASTN2 (220kb away) has been associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia. The next best SNP was rs12201676 located at 6q15 (p=2.67 × 10(-4), 2.12 × 10(-5), 3.88 × 10(-8) for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and meta-analysis, respectively), near two flanking genes, GABRR1 and GABRR2 (15 and 17kb away, respectively). The third interesting SNP rs802568 was at 7q35 within CNTNAP2 (p=8.92 × 10(-4), 1.38 × 10(-5), and 1.62 × 10(-7) for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and meta-analysis, respectively). Through meta-analysis, we found two additional associated genes NALCN (the top SNP is rs2044117, p=4.57 × 10(-7)) and NAP5 (the top SNP is rs10496702, p=7.15 × 10(-7)). Haplotype analyses of above five loci further supported the associations with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. These results provide evidence of common genetic variants influencing schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. These findings will serve as a resource for replication in other populations to elucidate the potential role of these genetic variants in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Childhood adversity and conduct disorder: A developmental pathway to violence in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Clare; Harris, Stephanie; Fahy, Thomas; Murphy, Declan; Picchioni, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Both childhood adversity and conduct disorder are over-represented among adult patients with schizophrenia and have been proposed as significant factors that may increase the risk of violence. It is not known how childhood adversity and conduct disorder might interact to contribute towards an increased risk of violence in schizophrenia. This study aimed to explore the relationships between childhood adversity, conduct disorder and violence among men with schizophrenia. 54 male patients with schizophrenia from a range of inpatient and outpatient mental health services were assessed for exposure to a variety of childhood adversities, conduct disorder before the age of 15 and later violent behaviour in adulthood. Exposure to domestic violence during childhood was associated with an increased propensity to violence in adulthood. Symptoms of conduct disorder were associated both with cumulative exposure to childhood adversities and with later propensity to violence. The cumulative number of childhood adversities was associated with adult propensity to violence. This association was significantly attenuated by inclusion of conduct disorder in the model. This is the first study to demonstrate an association between childhood exposure to domestic violence and later violent behaviour in schizophrenia. Conduct disorder may mediate the association between cumulative childhood adversities and adult propensity to violence, indicating an indirect pathway. These results indicate a complex interplay between childhood adversity, conduct disorder and later violent behaviour in schizophrenia, and suggest that there may be shared aetiological risk factors on a common developmental pathway to violence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Facial emotion recognition, socio-occupational functioning and expressed emotions in schizophrenia versus bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thonse, Umesh; Behere, Rishikesh V; Praharaj, Samir Kumar; Sharma, Podila Sathya Venkata Narasimha

    2018-03-27

    Facial emotion recognition deficits have been consistently demonstrated in patients with severe mental disorders. Expressed emotion is found to be an important predictor of relapse. However, the relationship between facial emotion recognition abilities and expressed emotions and its influence on socio-occupational functioning in schizophrenia versus bipolar disorder has not been studied. In this study we examined 91 patients with schizophrenia and 71 with bipolar disorder for psychopathology, socio occupational functioning and emotion recognition abilities. Primary caregivers of 62 patients with schizophrenia and 49 with bipolar disorder were assessed on Family Attitude Questionnaire to assess their expressed emotions. Patients of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder performed similarly on the emotion recognition task. Patients with schizophrenia group experienced higher critical comments and had a poorer socio-occupational functioning as compared to patients with bipolar disorder. Poorer socio-occupational functioning in patients with schizophrenia was significantly associated with greater dissatisfaction in their caregivers. In patients with bipolar disorder, poorer emotion recognition scores significantly correlated with poorer adaptive living skills and greater hostility and dissatisfaction in their caregivers. The findings of our study suggest that emotion recognition abilities in patients with bipolar disorder are associated with negative expressed emotions leading to problems in adaptive living skills. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Memory deficit in patients with schizophrenia and posttraumatic stress disorder: relational vs item-specific memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung W

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Wookyoung Jung,1 Seung-Hwan Lee1,2 1Clinical Emotions and Cognition Research Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry, Inje University, Ilsan-Paik Hospital, 2Department of Psychiatry, Inje University, Ilsan-Paik Hospital, Goyang, Korea Abstract: It has been well established that patients with schizophrenia have impairments in cognitive functioning and also that patients who experienced traumatic events suffer from cognitive deficits. Of the cognitive deficits revealed in schizophrenia or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD patients, the current article provides a brief review of deficit in episodic memory, which is highly predictive of patients’ quality of life and global functioning. In particular, we have focused on studies that compared relational and item-specific memory performance in schizophrenia and PTSD, because measures of relational and item-specific memory are considered the most promising constructs for immediate tangible development of clinical trial paradigm. The behavioral findings of schizophrenia are based on the tasks developed by the Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS initiative and the Cognitive Neuroscience Test Reliability and Clinical Applications for Schizophrenia (CNTRACS Consortium. The findings we reviewed consistently showed that schizophrenia and PTSD are closely associated with more severe impairments in relational memory compared to item-specific memory. Candidate brain regions involved in relational memory impairment in schizophrenia and PTSD are also discussed. Keywords: schizophrenia, posttraumatic stress disorder, episodic memory deficit, relational memory, item-specific memory, prefrontal cortex, hippocampus

  20. Social cognition in schizophrenia in comparison to bipolar disorder: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Emre; Pantelis, Christos

    2016-08-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is a common characteristic of both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (BP). While these deficits are more severe in schizophrenia, there is a significant overlap between conditions. However, it was hypothesized that social cognitive deficits might be more specific to schizophrenia. We conducted a meta-analysis of studies comparing facial emotion recognition and theory of mind (ToM) abilities in schizophrenia and BP. 26 studies comparing 1301 patients with schizophrenia and 1075 with BP were included. Schizophrenia patients significantly underperformed compared with BP patients in both facial emotion recognition (d=0.39) and ToM (d=0.57). Neurocognitive deficits significantly contributed to schizophrenia-BP group differences for ToM. However, between-group differences for social cognition were not statistically more severe than neurocognition. Social cognitive impairment is more severe in schizophrenia in comparison to BP. However, between-group differences are modest and are comparable to other neurocognitive differences between schizophrenia and BP. There is significant overlap in social cognitive performance deficits observed in both schizophrenia and BP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Differential diagnosis of substance-induced psychosis and schizophrenia in patients with substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, R N; Miner, C R

    1997-01-01

    We derived a statistical model that discriminates between substance-induced psychosis (i.e., DSM-III-R organic delusional disorder or organic hallucinosis; ODD-OH) and DSM-III-R schizophrenia in patients who have both DSM-III-R psychoactive substance use disorders (PSUD) and prominent delusions or hallucinations. A sample of 211 PSUD inpatients was divided by year of admission into data sets A and B, each of which was divided between those with concurrent schizophrenia and those with concurrent ODD-OH. A six-predictor discriminant function correctly classified 76.2 percent of all set A patients, including 83.1 percent with schizophrenia. Formal thought disorder and bizarre delusions significantly predict a diagnosis of schizophrenia, with odds ratios (OR) of 3.55:1 and 6.09:1, respectively. Suicidal ideation (OR = 0.32:1), intravenous cocaine abuse (0.18:1), and a history of drug detoxification (0.26:1) or methadone maintenance (0.18:1) demonstrate inverse relationships with a schizophrenia diagnosis. The model was validated in set B, correctly predicting the diagnostic status of 70.4 percent of patients (72.5% with schizophrenia). The pattern of presenting symptoms and clinical history differs in patients with psychosis due to PSUD and in those whose psychosis is due to schizophrenia. The model presented here contributes to the differential diagnosis of schizophrenia and ODD-OH among patients with PSUD.

  2. Coping strategies in schizoaffective disorder and schizophrenia: Differences and similarities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingrone, Cinzia; Montemagni, Cristiana; Sandei, Luisa; Bava, Irene; Mancini, Irene; Cardillo, Simona; Rocca, Paola

    2016-10-30

    Aims of the current study were to explore differences in coping between 58 patients with schizoaffective disorder (SAD) and 89 with schizophrenia (SZ) and to identify factors associated with coping in both disorders. The demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with SAD and with SZ were compared using ANOVA and χ(2). Pearson's correlations were calculated between coping styles and socio-demographic and clinical variables in each group. The significant ones were subsequently analyzed using multiple regressions. Patients with SAD used emotion oriented coping more frequently than patients 2016with SZ. In patients with SAD, self-esteem contributed to task-oriented; avolition-anhedonia (AA) to emotion-oriented; duration of illness and years of education to distraction; AA to social diversion. In patients with SZ, AA, the mental component summary score of the Short Form - 36 Health Survey (SF-36) and self-esteem contributed to emotion oriented coping; the mental component summary score of SF-36 to distraction; AA to social diversion. Our results suggest that patients with SAD and SZ use diverse coping strategies. A greater attention must be given to the presence of self-esteem and AA in individuals with both disorders. These factors are potentially modifiable from specific therapeutic interventions, which can produce effects on coping strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of catatonia presentation in patients with schizophrenia and mood disorder in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afe Taiwo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective: To compare the clinical profile and pattern of catatonic symptoms of patients with schizophrenia and mood disorder. "n "nMethod: Records of 13,968 patients seen between 1983-1985 and 2003- 2005 were reviewed for symptoms of catatonia by resident doctors in psychiatry. Cases in which the diagnosis were schizophrenia or mood disorder were then noted. Socio-demographic and clinical features were described for each diagnosis. "nResults: There were a total of 98 cases with catatonia out of the 13,968 case notes reviewed. Schizophrenia accounted for 82.5% and 53.4% in the two periods, while the proportion associated with mood disorders increased from 10% to 20.7%. Male to female  ratio was 1.2:1 in schizophrenia and 1:3 in mood disorder. Those with schizophrenia were younger and with an earlier age of onset of symptoms than those with mood disorders. "nConclusion:Catatonia associated with mood disorder was found to be increasing over the years when compared with schizophrenia. Differences were observed in socio-demographic characteristics and number of predominant catatonic symptoms. Having a separate category for catatonia due to the mood disorders in the current diagnostic guidelines (10th edition of the International Classification of Diseases and the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual will help in better diagnosis of catatonia.

  4. Comparison of catatonia presentation in patients with schizophrenia and mood disorders in lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Dada Mobolaji; Olubunmi, Okewole Adeniran; Taiwo, Oduguwa; Taiwo, Afe; Rahman, Lawal; Oladipo, Adepoju

    2011-01-01

    To compare the clinical profile and pattern of catatonic symptoms of patients with schizophrenia and mood disorder. Records of 13,968 patients seen between 1983-1985 and 2003-2005 were reviewed for symptoms of catatonia by resident doctors in psychiatry. Cases in which the diagnosis were schizophrenia or mood disorder were then noted. Socio-demographic and clinical features were described for each diagnosis. There were a total of 98 cases with catatonia out of the 13,968 case notes reviewed. Schizophrenia accounted for 82.5% and 53.4% in the two periods, while the proportion associated with mood disorders increased from 10% to 20.7%. Male to female ratio was 1.2:1 in schizophrenia and 1:3 in mood disorder. Those with schizophrenia were younger and with an earlier age of onset of symptoms than those with mood disorders. Catatonia associated with mood disorder was found to be increasing over the years when compared with schizophrenia. Differences were observed in socio-demographic characteristics and number of predominant catatonic symptoms. Having a separate category for catatonia due to the mood disorders in the current diagnostic guidelines (10(th) edition of the International Classification of Diseases and the 4(th) edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual) will help in better diagnosis of catatonia.

  5. What is specific to suicide in schizophrenia disorder? Demographic, clinical and behavioural dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGirr, Alexander; Turecki, Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    Schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder are diagnostic categories that are particularly at risk for suicide. A number of risk factors have been proposed to play a role in vulnerability to suicide, but it is unclear whether these are specific to certain diagnostic groups at risk for suicide or generalizable across disorders. It remains to be better understood what differentiates schizophrenic from non-schizophrenic suicides and whether or not these two groups share a common suicide liability. Five hundred and twenty seven consecutive suicides, 43 of whom met criteria for schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder, were investigated by means of proxy-based interviews using structured diagnostic instruments and personality trait assessments. Compared to other suicides, we found that schizophrenic and schizoaffective suicides presented comparably elevated levels of impulsive aggressive traits. They also had comparable levels of family history of suicidal behaviour among first degree relatives. Overall, schizophrenics and schizoaffective suicides met criteria for fewer psychiatric disorders, and were less likely to meet criteria for more than one disorder. Compared to suicides without schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders, lower levels depressive disorders, of current and lifetime comorbid alcohol abuse, and personality disorders were found within those suicides who met criteria schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders. Elevated levels of impulsive-aggressive personality traits, considered as indicative of an elevated risk for suicide in other diagnostic categories, are also found among schizophrenic and schizoaffective suicide completers. Elevated levels of impulsive aggressive behaviours may serve as a common liability to suicide across major psychopathological categories, including schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder.

  6. Brain volume in male patients with recent onset schizophrenia with and without cannabis use disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenders, L.; Machielsen, M.W.; van der Meer, F.J.; van Gasselt, A.C.; Meijer, C.J.; van den Brink, W.; Koeter, M.W.; Caan, M.W.; Cousijn, J.; den Braber, A.; van 't Ent, D.; Rive, M.M.; Schene, A.H.; van de Giessen, E.; Huyser, C.; de Kwaasteniet, B.P.; Veltman, D.J.; de Haan, L.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is highly comorbid with cannabis use disorders (CUDs), and this comorbidity is associated with an unfavourable course. Early onset or frequent cannabis use may influence brain structure. A key question is whether comorbid CUDs modulate brain morphology alterations

  7. A validation of wrist actigraphy against polysomnography in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Jennum, Poul Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Sleep disturbances are frequent in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Actigraphy has been established as a generally reliable method to examine these disturbances across varying time spans, but the validity against polysomnography (PSG) is not well investigated...... for the number of awakenings, and low or zero for the other examined sleep variables. These findings were reproduced in the subgroup analyses that compared men and women, as well as patients with bipolar versus schizophrenia spectrum disorders. When excluding patients with extensive periods of wakefulness after...... for this population. We validated wrist-worn actigraphy against PSG in a population of chronic, medicated patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From a clinical trial, we derived data from 37 patients with schizophrenia and five patients with bipolar disorder who were examined with one...

  8. Understanding schizophrenia as a disorder of consciousness: biological correlates and translational implications from quantum theory perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan

    2015-04-30

    From neurophenomenological perspectives, schizophrenia has been conceptualized as "a disorder with heterogeneous manifestations that can be integrally understood to involve fundamental perturbations in consciousness". While these theoretical constructs based on consciousness facilitate understanding the 'gestalt' of schizophrenia, systematic research to unravel translational implications of these models is warranted. To address this, one needs to begin with exploration of plausible biological underpinnings of "perturbed consciousness" in schizophrenia. In this context, an attractive proposition to understand the biology of consciousness is "the orchestrated object reduction (Orch-OR) theory" which invokes quantum processes in the microtubules of neurons. The Orch-OR model is particularly important for understanding schizophrenia especially due to the shared 'scaffold' of microtubules. The initial sections of this review focus on the compelling evidence to support the view that "schizophrenia is a disorder of consciousness" through critical summary of the studies that have demonstrated self-abnormalities, aberrant time perception as well as dysfunctional intentional binding in this disorder. Subsequently, these findings are linked with 'Orch-OR theory' through the research evidence for aberrant neural oscillations as well as microtubule abnormalities observed in schizophrenia. Further sections emphasize the applicability and translational implications of Orch-OR theory in the context of schizophrenia and elucidate the relevance of quantum biology to understand the origins of this puzzling disorder as "fundamental disturbances in consciousness".

  9. Social and nonsocial cognition in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia: relative levels of impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junghee; Altshuler, Lori; Glahn, David C; Miklowitz, David J; Ochsner, Kevin; Green, Michael F

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the relative extent of impairment in social and nonsocial cognitive domains in patients with bipolar disorder compared with schizophrenia patients and healthy comparison subjects. Sixty-eight clinically stable outpatients with bipolar disorder, 38 clinically stable outpatients with schizophrenia, and 36 healthy comparison subjects completed a range of social (facial affect perception, emotional regulation, empathic accuracy, mental state attribution, and self-referential memory) and nonsocial (speed of processing, attention/vigilance, working memory, verbal memory, visual memory, and reasoning/problem solving) cognitive tasks. For each social cognitive task, patients with bipolar disorder did not differ significantly from comparison subjects, and both groups performed better than schizophrenia patients. Within the bipolar group, clinical features and medication status were not related to social cognitive performance. Bipolar patients showed performance patterns across tasks (i.e., profiles) that were similar to those of comparison subjects on both social and nonsocial cognitive domains, whereas both groups differed from schizophrenia patients for both domains. Regarding relative impairment across the two cognitive domains, results revealed a significant group-by-domain interaction in which bipolar patients showed less impaired social than nonsocial cognition, while schizophrenia patients showed the opposite pattern. Bipolar patients showed less impairment on social relative to nonsocial cognitive performance, whereas schizophrenia patients showed more impairment on social relative to nonsocial cognitive performance. These results suggest that these two cognitive domains play different roles in bipolar disorder compared with in schizophrenia.

  10. How genes and environmental factors determine the different neurodevelopmental trajectories of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demjaha, Arsime; MacCabe, James H; Murray, Robin M

    2012-03-01

    The debate endures as to whether schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are separate entities or different manifestations of a single underlying pathological process. Here, we argue that this sterile argument obscures the fact that the truth lies somewhere in between. Thus, recent studies support a model whereby, on a background of some shared genetic liability for both disorders, patients with schizophrenia have been subject to additional genetic and/or environmental factors that impair neurodevelopment; for example, copy number variants and obstetric complications are associated with schizophrenia but not with bipolar disorder. As a result, children destined to develop schizophrenia show an excess of neuromotor delays and cognitive difficulties while those who later develop bipolar disorder perform at least as well as the general population. In keeping with this model, cognitive impairments and brain structural abnormalities are present at first onset of schizophrenia but not in the early stages of bipolar disorder. However, with repeated episodes of illness, cognitive and brain structural abnormalities accumulate in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, thus clouding the picture.

  11. Is cerebrovascular disease a silent condition in patients with chronic schizophrenia-related disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrocal-Izquierdo, Nuria; Bioque, Miquel; Bernardo, Miguel

    2017-03-01

    Patients with chronic schizophrenia-related disorders are at a heightened risk of developing cardiovascular disease. The presence and interpretation of cerebral vascular lesions in neuroimaging tests in these patients represents a common clinical challenge. Nevertheless, the literature on cerebrovascular disease in this population is scarce and contradictory. The aim of this study was to analyse the relationship between schizophrenia-related disorders and cerebrovascular morbidity. A case-control study compared cerebrovascular morbidity in a group of patients with schizophrenia-related disorder versus a group of patients with another severe mental illness. The risk of presenting cerebrovascular morbidity was four times higher and statistically significant in patients with schizophrenia-related disorders compared with controls, paired by age and sex. However, both groups were homogeneous in terms of cardiovascular risk factors. There were significant differences between the two groups only in the time using first-generation antipsychotic drugs and taking two or more antipsychotic medications simultaneously. The relationship between chronic schizophrenia-related disorders and cerebrovascular disease may be beyond the classic cardiovascular risk factors and related to certain medications. This is one of the first studies to focus on the relation among cerebrovascular morbidity, antipsychotic drugs and disorders related to schizophrenia in middle-aged and elderly adults.

  12. Determinants of subjective quality of life in first-episode schizophrenia: perspective from Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, K Y

    2010-05-01

    This study sought to examine the determinants of subjective quality of life among patients with first-episode schizophrenia in a developing country. One-hundred and twenty patients registered with National Mental Health Registry for Schizophrenia from 1 January 2003 to 31 August 2005 were included. They were diagnosed with first-episode schizophrenia, schizoaffective and schizophreniform disorders and had been compliant to treatment. Sociodemographic data were obtained and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale-Anchored Version, Health of The Nation Outcome Scales, Simpson-Angus Extrapyramidal Side Effects Scale, Barnes Akathisia Scale and the World Health Organization Quality of Life were used to assess psychopathology, side effects from antipsychotics and subjective quality of life. Gender, positive and disorganized symptoms of schizophrenia, and cognitive and physical impairments appeared to be the most important predictors of subjective quality of life among the patients from this centre in Malaysia. Different domains of self-rated quality of life correlated with different sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Some of the characteristics were malleable and a better understanding of these could lead to improvements in the management of patients with schizophrenia.

  13. Rates and Predictors of Conversion to Schizophrenia or Bipolar Disorder Following Substance-Induced Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starzer, Marie Stefanie Kejser; Nordentoft, Merete; Hjorthøj, Carsten

    2018-04-01

    The authors investigated the rates of conversion to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder after a substance-induced psychosis, as well as risk factors for conversion. All patient information was extracted from the Danish Civil Registration System and the Psychiatric Central Research Register. The study population included all persons who received a diagnosis of substance-induced psychosis between 1994 and 2014 (N=6,788); patients were followed until first occurrence of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder or until death, emigration, or August 2014. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to obtain cumulative probabilities for the conversion from a substance-induced psychosis to schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios for all covariates. Overall, 32.2% (95% CI=29.7-34.9) of patients with a substance-induced psychosis converted to either bipolar or schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. The highest conversion rate was found for cannabis-induced psychosis, with 47.4% (95% CI=42.7-52.3) converting to either schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Young age was associated with a higher risk of converting to schizophrenia. Self-harm after a substance-induced psychosis was significantly linked to a higher risk of converting to both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Half the cases of conversion to schizophrenia occurred within 3.1 years after a substance-induced psychosis, and half the cases of conversion to bipolar disorder occurred within 4.4 years. Substance-induced psychosis is strongly associated with the development of severe mental illness, and a long follow-up period is needed to identify the majority of cases.

  14. The incidence of schizophrenia and schizophrenia spectrum disorders in Denmark in the period 2000-2012. A register-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühl, Johanne Olivia Grønne; Laursen, Thomas Munk; Thorup, Anne; Nordentoft, Merete

    2016-10-01

    We aimed to examine changes over time in the incidence of broad and narrow schizophrenia spectrum disorders in Denmark from 2000 to 2012. Patients were classified as incident schizophrenia if registered with a first time in- or outpatient contact with relevant diagnostic codes in the Danish Psychiatric Central Register between 2000 and 2012. Their history of contacts was traced back to 1969. Broad schizophrenia included schizophrenia, schizotypal disorder, persistent delusional disorder, acute and transient psychotic disorders, schizoaffective disorders, and other nonorganic and unspecified psychotic disorders, (ICD 10 codes F20-F29). Narrow schizophrenia was defined with the ICD 10 codes F20.0-F20.9. Incidence rates (IR) and incidence rate ratios (IRR) were calculated using Poisson regression. The IRR for broad schizophrenia increased by 1.43 (CI 95% 1.34-1.52) for females and 1.26 (CI 95% 1.20-1.33) for males. IRR for narrow schizophrenia increased by 1.36 (CI 95% 1.24-1.48) for females and 1.20 (CI 95% 1.11-1.29) for males. There was a significantly increased incidence in patients up to 32years of age. This was mainly explained by a significant 2-3 fold increase in outpatient incidence. We found a significant decrease in IRR for patients with broad and narrow schizophrenia aged 33 or older for both in- and outpatients. The increased incidence of schizophrenia could partly be explained by better implementation of the diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia in child and adolescent psychiatry and improved access to early intervention services, but a true increase in incidence of schizophrenia cannot be excluded. The decrease of incidence in the older age group could indicate that the national Danish early intervention strategy was successful. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of suicide attempts in schizophrenia and major depressive disorder: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwari, Girish H; Vankar, Ganpat K; Parikh, Minakshi N

    2013-12-01

    Schizophrenia and major depressive disorder (MDD) are among the most common psychiatric diagnoses associated with suicide. There is a dearth of published research systematically comparing suicidal behavior in schizophrenia and MDD. The present study aimed to compare suicide attempts in schizophrenia and MDD. In this hospital-based, cross-sectional study, 50 outpatients each of schizophrenia and MDD were evaluated for their sociodemographic characteristics. In subjects with a history of suicide attempt(s), additional information related to the attempt(s) was obtained. Suicide Intent Scale (SIS) was used to assess the suicidal intent and Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was used to measure the current suicidal risk. Thirty-four percent and 44% of patients with schizophrenia and MDD, respectively, attempted suicide. The attempters in schizophrenia compared to those in MDD were younger and more likely to be single (unmarried, separated or divorced). Suicidal intent was stronger in schizophrenia, while the attempters with MDD were more often preoccupied with a death wish and reported that stressful life events influenced the attempt. There were no differences in the attempt methods of the two groups. Current suicidal risk was higher in attempters compared to the non-attempters in schizophrenia as well as MDD. Suicide attempts in schizophrenia and MDD have similar features, with quite a few notable differences, which have been discussed at length in the present paper. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Polygenic dissection of diagnosis and clinical dimensions of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruderfer, D M; Fanous, A H; Ripke, S

    2014-01-01

    Bipolar disorder and schizophrenia are two often severe disorders with high heritabilities. Recent studies have demonstrated a large overlap of genetic risk loci between these disorders but diagnostic and molecular distinctions still remain. Here, we perform a combined genome-wide association stu...

  17. A genetic deconstruction of neurocognitive traits in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes, Carla P D; Christoforou, Andrea; Giddaluru, Sudheer

    2013-01-01

    Impairments in cognitive functions are common in patients suffering from psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Cognitive traits have been proposed as useful for understanding the biological and genetic mechanisms implicated in cognitive function in healthy individuals...... and in the dysfunction observed in psychiatric disorders....

  18. Prevalence of smoking in patients with bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder and schizophrenia and their relationships with quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Hong; An, Feng-Rong; Ungvari, Gabor S; Ng, Chee H; Chiu, Helen F K; Wu, Ping-Ping; Jin, Xin; Xiang, Yu-Tao

    2017-08-16

    Few studies have compared the prevalence of smoking between patients with bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder (MDD) and schizophrenia. This study examined the prevalence of smoking and its relationships with demographic and clinical characteristics, and quality of life (QOL) in patients with these psychiatric disorders. A total of 1,102 inpatients were consecutively screened. Psychopathology and QOL were measured with standardized instruments. The prevalence of current smoking in the whole sample was 16.7%; 17.5% in bipolar disorder, 10.6% in MDD and 18.5% in schizophrenia. The rates of smoking in bipolar disorder (p = 0.004, OR = 2.5, 95%CI: 1.3-4.7) and schizophrenia (p = 0.03, OR = 2.0, 95%CI: 1.06-3.8) were significantly higher than in MDD, while no difference was found between bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Smokers had a higher mental QOL than non-smokers (p = 0.007) in MDD, but no difference was found in the other two groups. Male gender, living alone, higher personal income, older age of onset, health insurance coverage, and first episode was significantly associated with smoking in one or more diagnostic groups. Smoking appears more common in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia than in MDD in China. The figures in all disorders were lower than that reported in most of other countries.

  19. BrainAGE score indicates accelerated brain aging in schizophrenia, but not bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenadić, Igor; Dietzek, Maren; Langbein, Kerstin; Sauer, Heinrich; Gaser, Christian

    2017-08-30

    BrainAGE (brain age gap estimation) is a novel morphometric parameter providing a univariate score derived from multivariate voxel-wise analyses. It uses a machine learning approach and can be used to analyse deviation from physiological developmental or aging-related trajectories. Using structural MRI data and BrainAGE quantification of acceleration or deceleration of in individual aging, we analysed data from 45 schizophrenia patients, 22 bipolar I disorder patients (mostly with previous psychotic symptoms / episodes), and 70 healthy controls. We found significantly higher BrainAGE scores in schizophrenia, but not bipolar disorder patients. Our findings indicate significantly accelerated brain structural aging in schizophrenia. This suggests, that despite the conceptualisation of schizophrenia as a neurodevelopmental disorder, there might be an additional progressive pathogenic component. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Cortical Release Signs in Patients with Schizophrenia, Depressive Disorders, and Bipolar Affective Disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Espriella, Ricardo Andrés; Hernández, José Fernando; Espejo, Lina María

    2013-12-01

    Determining the presence of cortical release signs associated with white matter damage, is a clinically easy method to perform. The objective of this study is to determine the presence of cortical release signs in patients with mental illnesses and cerebrovascular disease, as well as its clinical usefulness, given that it indicates cortical damage. A review was made of cortical release signs in patients hospitalized in clinical psychiatry and general hospitals with bipolar affective disorder (40), depression (37), schizophrenia (33), cardiovascular disease (33) and dementia (37). The signs of cortical release do not have the same importance as cortical damage. For example, the glabellar reflex was found in all the groups, that of paratonia, particularly in the group with schizophrenia, and others signs in the group of patients with dementia. It is suggested that these signs imply subcortical white matter damage. The appearance of these signs shows the need for a follow up of patients diagnosed with bipolar affective disorder, depression and schizophrenia. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  1. The association between intelligence scores and family history of psychiatric disorder in schizophrenia patients, their siblings and healthy controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, K.; Derks, E.M.; Bruggeman, R.; Cahn, W.; de Haan, L.; Kahn, R.; Krabbendam, L.; Linzen, D.; Myin-Germeys, I.; van Os, J.; Wiersma, D.

    2013-01-01

    Background:The degree of intellectual impairment in schizophrenia patients and their relatives has been suggested to be associated with the degree of familial loading for schizophrenia. Since other psychiatric disorders are also more present in relatives of schizophrenia patients, the definition of

  2. The association between intelligence scores and family history of psychiatric disorder in schizophrenia patients, their siblings and healthy controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, Kim H. W.; Derks, Eske M.; Kahn, René S.; Linszen, Don; van Os, Jim; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Cahn, Wiepke; de Haan, Lieuwe; Krabbendam, Lydia; Myin-Germeys, Inez

    2013-01-01

    The degree of intellectual impairment in schizophrenia patients and their relatives has been suggested to be associated with the degree of familial loading for schizophrenia. Since other psychiatric disorders are also more present in relatives of schizophrenia patients, the definition of family

  3. Exploratory investigation of biomarker candidates for suicide in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Nagy A; Bradford, Daniel W; Kilts, Jason D; Szabo, Steven T; Naylor, Jennifer C; Allen, Trina B; Strauss, Jennifer L; Hamer, Robert M; Brancu, Mira; Brunca, Mira; Shampine, Lawrence J; Marx, Christine E

    2015-01-01

    Clozapine and lithium increase neurosteroids in rodents, and both drugs demonstrate antisuicidal actions. We therefore hypothesized that neurosteroid levels may be reduced in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder who completed suicide. To investigate neurosteroid levels in the parietal cortex and posterior cingulate in schizophrenia and bipolar patients who died by suicide, and compare them with patients with these disorders who died of other causes. Neurosteroid levels were quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in the parietal cortex and posterior cingulate. Mann-Whitney analyses were conducted in exploratory post hoc analyses to investigate neurosteroids as possible biomarker candidates for suicide. The study showed that pregnenolone was significantly decreased in the parietal cortex in the combined group of patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder who died by suicide (n = 13) compared with patients with these disorders who died of other causes (n = 17, p = .02). Pregnenolone levels were also lower in the parietal cortex in the individual group of schizophrenia patients who died by suicide (n = 4) compared with schizophrenia patients who died of other causes (n = 11) p = .04). Pregnenolone alterations may be relevant to the neurobiology of suicide in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

  4. Core of schizophrenia: estrangement, dementia or neurocognitive disorder?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urfer-Parnas, Annick; Mortensen, Erik L; Parnas, Josef

    2010-01-01

    dysfunctions were most likely a consequence rather than a primary, causal factor in the manifestation of schizophrenia despite their consensus on the assumption of its neurobiological origins. Rather, they considered impairments of intelligence and neurocognition as an expression of pseudodementia, i...... and environmental factors.......BACKGROUND: The recent literature frequently represents schizophrenia as a deteriorating neurocognitive process similar to organic degenerative dementia. METHODS: This study addresses the following questions: (1) Did the classic authors equate degenerative dementia with schizophrenia? (2...

  5. GAD2 Alternative Transcripts in the Human Prefrontal Cortex, and in Schizophrenia and Affective Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasey N Davis

    Full Text Available Genetic variation and early adverse environmental events work together to increase risk for schizophrenia. γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in adult mammalian brain, plays a major role in normal brain development, and has been strongly implicated in the pathobiology of schizophrenia. GABA synthesis is controlled by two glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD genes, GAD1 and GAD2, both of which produce a number of alternative transcripts. Genetic variants in the GAD1 gene are associated with increased risk for schizophrenia, and reduced expression of its major transcript in the human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC. No consistent changes in GAD2 expression have been found in brains from patients with schizophrenia. In this work, with the use of RNA sequencing and PCR technologies, we confirmed and tracked the expression of an alternative truncated transcript of GAD2 (ENST00000428517 in human control DLPFC homogenates across lifespan besides the well-known full length transcript of GAD2. In addition, using quantitative RT-PCR, expression of GAD2 full length and truncated transcripts were measured in the DLPFC of patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression. The expression of GAD2 full length transcript is decreased in the DLPFC of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients, while GAD2 truncated transcript is increased in bipolar disorder patients but decreased in schizophrenia patients. Moreover, the patients with schizophrenia with completed suicide or positive nicotine exposure showed significantly higher expression of GAD2 full length transcript. Alternative transcripts of GAD2 may be important in the growth and development of GABA-synthesizing neurons as well as abnormal GABA signaling in the DLPFC of patients with schizophrenia and affective disorders.

  6. Pharmaceutical Innovation in the Treatment of Schizophrenia and Mental Disorders Compared with Other Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacEwan, Joanna P; Seabury, Seth; Aigbogun, Myrlene Sanon; Kamat, Siddhesh; van Eijndhoven, Emma; Francois, Clement; Henderson, Crystal; Citrome, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the level of private and public investment in research and development of treatments for schizophrenia and other mental disorders compared to other diseases in order to present data on the economic burden and pharmaceutical innovation by disease area, and to compare the level of investment relative to burden across different diseases. The levels of investment and pharmaceutical innovation relative to burden across different diseases were assessed. Disease burden and prevalence for mental disorders (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder); cancer; rheumatoid arthritis; chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder; diabetes; cardiovascular disease; and neurological disorders (dementia and epilepsy) were estimated from literature sources. Pharmaceutical treatment innovation was measured by the total number of drug launches and the number of drugs launched categorized by innovativeness. Research and development expenditures were estimated using published information on annual public and domestic private research and development expenditures by disease area. Lastly, investment relative to disease burden was measured among the set of disease classes for which all three measures were available: schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and neurology (dementia and epilepsy combined). The level of investment and pharmaceutical innovation in mental disorders was comparatively low, especially relative to the burden of disease. For mental disorders, investment was $3.1 per $1,000 burden invested in research and development for schizophrenia, $1.8 for major depressive disorder, and $0.4 for bipolar disorder relative to cancer ($75.5), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ($9.4), diabetes ($7.6), cardiovascular disease ($6.3), or rheumatoid arthritis ($5.3). Pharmaceutical innovation was also low

  7. A longitudinal study of schizophrenia- and affective spectrum disorders in individuals diagnosed with a developmental language disorder as children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik Birkebæk; Hauschild, K.M.

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence and types of schizophrenia- and affective spectrum disorders were studied in 469 individuals with a developmental language disorder (DLD), assessed in the same clinic during a period of 10 years, and 2,345 controls from the general population. All participants were screened through....... 1.8%; P language disorder was significantly associated with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder diagnosis in the DPCR. There was no significant increase in affective...... the nationwide Danish Psychiatric Central Register (DPCR). The mean length of follow-up was 34.7 years, and the mean age at follow-up 35.8 years. The results show an excess of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (F20-F29) within participants with DLD when compared with controls from the overall population (6.4% vs...

  8. Coping strategies and self-stigma in patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubova, Michaela; Prasko, Jan; Hruby, Radovan; Latalova, Klara; Kamaradova, Dana; Marackova, Marketa; Slepecky, Milos; Gubova, Terezia

    2016-01-01

    Maladaptive coping strategies may adversely disturb the overall functioning of people with mental disorders. Also, self-stigma is considered a maladaptive psychosocial phenomenon that can affect many areas of patient life. It has a negative impact on self-image, and may lead to dysphoria, social isolation, reduced adherence, using of negative coping strategies, and lower quality of life. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between coping strategies and self-stigma among persons with schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. A total of 104 clinically stable outpatients with chronic schizophrenia-spectrum disorders were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Sociodemographic and clinical data were recorded. Patients were examined by psychiatrists with the Stress Coping Style Questionnaire, the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness scale, and the Clinical Global Impression scale. Correlation and multiple-regression analyses were performed to discover contributing factors to self-stigma. Positive coping strategies were used by patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders to the same extent as in the healthy population. Negative coping strategies were overused by these patients. There were significant associations between self-stigma, severity of the disorder, and coping strategies in schizophrenia. The ability to use positive coping strategies was connected with lower self-stigma. Use of negative coping strategies predominantly increased the self-stigma of patients with schizophrenia. This study revealed a significant association among self-stigma, severity of the disorder, and coping strategies in individuals suffering from schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Thinking about coping strategies and self-stigma in practice may play a significant role in understanding people with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, especially for mental health professionals.

  9. Marital adjustment of patients with substance dependence, schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shital S Muke

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Marital adjustment is considered as a part of social well-being. Disturbed marital relationship can directly affect the disease adjustment and the way they face disease outcomes and complications. It may adversely affect physical health, mental health, the quality-of-life and even economic status of individuals. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the marital adjustment among patients with substance dependence, schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of each 30 patients with substance dependence, bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia, diagnosed as per international classification of diseases-10 diagnostic criteria for research with a minimum duration of illness of 1 year were evaluated using marital adjustment questionnaire. The data was analyzed using parametric and non-parametric statistics. Results: Prevalence of poor marital adjustment in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder and substance dependence was 60%, 70% and 50% respectively. There was a significant difference on overall marital adjustment among substance dependence and bipolar affective disorder patients. There was no significant difference on overall marital adjustment among patients with substance dependence and schizophrenia as well as among patients with schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. On marital adjustment domains, schizophrenia patients had significantly poor sexual adjustment than substance dependence patients while bipolar affective disorder patients had significantly poor sexual and social adjustment compared with substance dependence patients. Conclusion: Patients with substance dependence have significant better overall marital adjustment compared with bipolar affective disorder patients. Patients with substance dependence have significantly better social and sexual adjustment than patients with bipolar affective disorder as well as significantly better sexual

  10. Music therapy for people with schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geretsegger, Monika; Mössler, Karin A; Bieleninik, Łucja; Chen, Xi-Jing; Heldal, Tor Olav; Gold, Christian

    2017-05-29

    Music therapy is a therapeutic approach that uses musical interaction as a means of communication and expression. Within the area of serious mental disorders, the aim of the therapy is to help people improve their emotional and relational competencies, and address issues they may not be able to using words alone. To review the effects of music therapy, or music therapy added to standard care, compared with placebo therapy, standard care or no treatment for people with serious mental disorders such as schizophrenia. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Trials Study-Based Register (December 2010 and 15 January, 2015) and supplemented this by contacting relevant study authors, handsearching of music therapy journals and manual searches of reference lists. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared music therapy with standard care, placebo therapy, or no treatment. Review authors independently selected, quality assessed and data extracted studies. We excluded data where more than 30% of participants in any group were lost to follow-up. We synthesised non-skewed continuous endpoint data from valid scales using a standardised mean difference (SMD). We employed a fixed-effect model for all analyses. If statistical heterogeneity was found, we examined treatment dosage (i.e. number of therapy sessions) and treatment approach as possible sources of heterogeneity. Ten new studies have been added to this update; 18 studies with a total 1215 participants are now included. These examined effects of music therapy over the short, medium, and long-term, with treatment dosage varying from seven to 240 sessions. Overall, most information is from studies at low or unclear risk of biasA positive effect on global state was found for music therapy compared to standard care (medium term, 2 RCTs, n = 133, RR 0.38 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.24 to 0.59, low-quality evidence, number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome NNTB 2, 95% CI 2 to 4). No binary

  11. Diffusion tensor imaging of cingulum bundle and corpus callosum in schizophrenia vs. bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenadić, Igor; Hoof, Anna; Dietzek, Maren; Langbein, Kerstin; Reichenbach, Jürgen R; Sauer, Heinrich; Güllmar, Daniel

    2017-08-30

    Both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder show abnormalities of white matter, as seen in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analyses of major brain fibre bundles. While studies in each of the two conditions have indicated possible overlap in anatomical location, there are few direct comparisons between the disorders. Also, it is unclear whether phenotypically similar subgroups (e.g. patients with bipolar disorder and psychotic features) might share white matter pathologies or be rather similar. Using region-of-interest (ROI) analysis of white matter with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at 3 T, we analysed fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of the corpus callosum and cingulum bundle in 33 schizophrenia patients, 17 euthymic (previously psychotic) bipolar disorder patients, and 36 healthy controls. ANOVA analysis showed significant main effects of group for RD and ADC (both elevated in schizophrenia). Across the corpus callosum ROIs, there was not group effect on FA, but for RD (elevated in schizophrenia, lower in bipolar disorder) and ADC (higher in schizophrenia, intermediate in bipolar disorder). Our findings show similarities and difference (some gradual) across regions of the two major fibre tracts implicated in these disorders, which would be consistent with a neurobiological overlap of similar clinical phenotypes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Detecting allocentric and egocentric navigation deficits in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder using virtual reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Alireza; Hesami, Ehsan; Kargar, Mahmoud; Shams, Jamal

    2018-04-01

    Present evidence suggests that the use of virtual reality has great advantages in evaluating visuospatial navigation and memory for the diagnosis of psychiatric or other neurological disorders. There are a few virtual reality studies on allocentric and egocentric memories in schizophrenia, but studies on both memories in bipolar disorder are lacking. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of allocentric and egocentric memories in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. For this resolve, an advanced virtual reality navigation task (VRNT) was presented to distinguish the navigational performances of these patients. Twenty subjects with schizophrenia and 20 bipolar disorder patients were compared with 20 healthy-matched controls on the newly developed VRNT consisting of a virtual neighbourhood (allocentric memory) and a virtual maze (egocentric memory). The results demonstrated that schizophrenia patients were significantly impaired on all allocentric, egocentric, visual, and verbal memory tasks compared with patients with bipolar disorder and normal subjects. Dissimilarly, the performance of patients with bipolar disorder was slightly lower than that of control subjects in all these abilities, but no significant differences were observed. It was concluded that allocentric and egocentric navigation deficits are detectable in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder using VRNT, and this task along with RAVLT and ROCFT can be used as a valid clinical tool for distinguishing these patients from normal subjects.

  13. Capgras' syndrome in first-episode psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, Paola; Bhuvaneswar, Chaya; Tohen, Mauricio; Khalsa, Hari-Mandir K; Maggini, Carlo; Baldessarini, Ross J

    2014-01-01

    Misidentification phenomena, including the delusion of 'imposters' named after Joseph Capgras, occur in various major psychiatric and neurological disorders but have rarely been studied systematically in broad samples of modern patients. This study investigated the prevalence and correlated clinical factors of Capgras' phenomenon in a broad sample of patient-subjects with first-lifetime episodes of psychotic affective and nonaffective disorders. We evaluated 517 initially hospitalized, first-episode psychotic-disorder patients for the prevalence of Capgras' phenomenon and its association with DSM-IV-TR diagnoses including schizophreniform, brief psychotic, unspecified psychotic, delusional, and schizoaffective disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar-I disorder and major depression with psychotic features, and with characteristics of interest including antecedent psychiatric and neurological morbidity, onset type and presenting psychopathological phenomena, using standard bivariate and multivariate statistical methods. Capgras' syndrome was identified in 73/517 (14.1%) patients (8.2-50% across diagnoses). Risk was greatest with acute or brief psychotic disorders (schizophreniform psychoses 50%, brief psychoses 34.8%, or unspecified psychoses 23.9%), intermediate in major depression (15%), schizophrenia (11.4%) and delusional disorder (11.1%), and lowest in bipolar-I (10.3%) and schizoaffective disorders (8.2%). Associated were somatosensory, olfactory and tactile hallucinations, Schneiderian (especially delusional perception), and cycloid features including polymorphous psychotic phenomena, rapidly shifting psychomotor and affective symptoms, pananxiety, ecstasy, overconcern with death, and perplexity or confusion, as well as rapid onset, but not sex, age, abuse history, dissociative features, or indications of neurological disorders. Capgras' syndrome was prevalent across a broad spectrum of first-episode psychotic disorders, most often in acute psychoses of rapid onset.

  14. Capgras Syndrome in First-Episode Psychotic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, Paola; Bhuvaneswar, Chaya; Tohen, Mauricio; Khalsa, Hari-Mandir K.; Maggini, Carlo; Baldessarini, Ross J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Misidentification phenomena, including the delusion of “imposters” named after Joseph Capgras, occur in various major psychiatric and neurological disorders but have rarely been studied systematically in broad samples of modern patients. This study investigated the prevalence and correlated clinical factors of Capgras phenomenon in a broad sample of patient-subjects with first-lifetime episodes of psychotic affective and non affective disorders. Methods We evaluated 517 initially hospitalized, first-episode psychotic-disorder patients for prevalence of Capgras phenomenon and its association with DSM-IV-TR diagnoses including schizophreniform, brief psychotic, unspecified psychotic, delusional, and schizoaffective disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar-I disorder and major depression with psychotic features, and with characteristics of interest including antecedent psychiatric and neurological morbidity, onset-type and presenting psychopathological phenomena, using standard bivariate and multivariate statistical methods. Results Capgras syndrome was identified in 73/517 (14.1%) patients (8.2%–50% across diagnoses). Risk was greatest with acute or brief psychotic disorders (schizophreniform [50%], brief [34.8%], or unspecified [23.9%] psychoses), intermediate in major depression (15%), schizophrenia (11.4%) and delusional disorder (11.1%), and lowest in bipolar-I (10.3%) and schizoaffective disorders (8.2%). Associated were somatosensory, olfactory and tactile hallucinations, Schneiderian (especially delusional perception), and cycloid features as described by Perris and Brockington including polymorphous psychotic phenomena, rapidly shifting psychomotor and affective symptoms, pan-anxiety, ecstasy, over-concern with death, and perplexity or confusion, as well as rapid-onset, but not sex, age, abuse-history, dissociative features, or indications of neurological disorders. Conclusions Capgras syndrome was prevalent across a broad spectrum of first

  15. Structural brain alterations associated with schizophrenia preceded by conduct disorder: a common and distinct subtype of schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, Boris; Leygraf, Norbert; Müller, Bernhard W; Scherbaum, Norbert; Forsting, Michael; Wiltfang, Jens; Gizewski, Elke R; Hodgins, Sheilagh

    2013-09-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) prior to age 15 is a precursor of schizophrenia in a minority of cases and is associated with violent behavior through adulthood, after taking account of substance misuse. The present study used structural magnetic imaging to examine gray matter (GM) volumes among 27 men with schizophrenia preceded by CD (SZ+CD), 23 men with schizophrenia but without CD (SZ-CD), 27 men with CD only (CD), and 25 healthy (H) men. The groups with schizophrenia were similar in terms of age of onset and duration of illness, levels of psychotic symptoms, and medication. The 2 groups with CD were similar as to number of CD symptoms, lifelong aggressive behavior, and number of criminal convictions. Men with SZ+CD, relative to those with SZ-CD, displayed (1) increased GM volumes in the hypothalamus, the left putamen, the right cuneus/precuneus, and the right inferior parietal cortex after controlling for age, alcohol, and drug misuse and (2) decreased GM volumes in the inferior frontal region. Men with SZ+CD (relative to the SZ-CD group) and CD (relative to the H group) displayed increased GM volumes of the hypothalamus and the inferior and superior parietal lobes, which were not associated with substance misuse. Aggressive behavior, both prior to age 15 and lifetime tendency, was positively correlated with the GM volume of the hypothalamus. Thus, among males, SZ+CD represents a distinct subtype of schizophrenia. Although differences in behavior emerge in childhood and remain stable through adulthood, further research is needed to determine whether the differences in GM volumes result from abnormal neural development distinct from that of other males developing schizophrenia.

  16. The impact of substance use disorders on the course of schizophrenia-A 15-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lasse M; Hesse, Morten; Lykke, Jørn

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This follow-up study compared patients with schizophrenia with co-occurring substance use disorder to patients with schizophrenia and no substance use disorder. AIMS: To investigate the prognostic significance of the effects of substance use disorders on the course of schizophrenia....... METHOD: Patients with schizophrenia and co-occurring substance use disorder (n=107), and patients with schizophrenia only (n=119) were followed over a 15-year period through the use of national hospitalization registers, data for time and cause of death, and data for homelessness or institutionalization......-psychiatric disorders. In three types of hospital contacts, patients with co-occurring substance use had approximately two to three times as many hospitalizations as did patients with schizophrenia only. Rates for homelessness and institutionalization were similar in both groups. Patients with a dual diagnosis were...

  17. A study of hippocampal shape anomaly in schizophrenia and in families multiply affected by schizophrenia or bipolar disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, S.E.J.; Ng, V.; McDonald, C.; Schulze, K.; Morgan, K.; Dazzan, P.; Murray, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    Hippocampal shape anomaly (HSA), characterised by a rounded hippocampus, has been documented in congenital malformations and epileptic patients. Subtle structural hippocampal abnormalities have been demonstrated in patients with schizophrenia. We tested the hypothesis that HSA is more frequent in schizophrenia, particularly in patients from families multiply affected by schizophrenia, and that HSA is transmitted within these families. We also aimed to define the anatomical features of the hippocampus and other cerebral structures in the HSA spectrum and to determine the prevalence of HSA in a control group. We reviewed the magnetic resonance imaging of a large number of subjects with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, many of who came from multiply affected families, relatives of the affected probands, and controls. Quantitative measures of hippocampal shape and position and other qualitative anatomical measures were performed (including depth of dominant sulcus cortical cap, angle of dominant sulcus and hippocampal fissure, bulk of collateral white matter, prominence of temporal horn lateral recess and blurring of internal hippocampal architecture) on subjects with HSA. A spectrum of mild, moderate and severe HSA was defined. The prevalence of HSA was, 7.8% for the controls (n=218), 9.3% for all schizophrenic subjects (n=151) and 12.3% for familial schizophrenic subjects (n=57). There was a greater prevalence of moderate or severe forms of HSA in familial schizophrenics than controls. However, there was no increase in the prevalence of HSA in the unaffected first-degree relatives of schizophrenic patients or in patients with familial bipolar disorder. HSA was rarely transmitted in families. HSA was frequently associated with a deep, vertical collateral/occipito-temporal sulcus and a steep hippocampal fissure. Our data raise the possibility that HSA is linked to disturbances of certain neurodevelopmental genes associated with schizophrenia. However, the lack of

  18. A study of hippocampal shape anomaly in schizophrenia and in families multiply affected by schizophrenia or bipolar disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, S.E.J. [Department of Neuroradiology, Kings Healthcare NHS Trust, King' s College Hospital, Denmark Hill, SE5 9RS, London (United Kingdom); Ng, V. [Department of Neuroimaging, Maudsley Hospital, London (United Kingdom); McDonald, C.; Schulze, K.; Morgan, K.; Dazzan, P.; Murray, R.M. [Division of Psychological Medicine, Institute of Psychiatry, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Hippocampal shape anomaly (HSA), characterised by a rounded hippocampus, has been documented in congenital malformations and epileptic patients. Subtle structural hippocampal abnormalities have been demonstrated in patients with schizophrenia. We tested the hypothesis that HSA is more frequent in schizophrenia, particularly in patients from families multiply affected by schizophrenia, and that HSA is transmitted within these families. We also aimed to define the anatomical features of the hippocampus and other cerebral structures in the HSA spectrum and to determine the prevalence of HSA in a control group. We reviewed the magnetic resonance imaging of a large number of subjects with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, many of who came from multiply affected families, relatives of the affected probands, and controls. Quantitative measures of hippocampal shape and position and other qualitative anatomical measures were performed (including depth of dominant sulcus cortical cap, angle of dominant sulcus and hippocampal fissure, bulk of collateral white matter, prominence of temporal horn lateral recess and blurring of internal hippocampal architecture) on subjects with HSA. A spectrum of mild, moderate and severe HSA was defined. The prevalence of HSA was, 7.8% for the controls (n=218), 9.3% for all schizophrenic subjects (n=151) and 12.3% for familial schizophrenic subjects (n=57). There was a greater prevalence of moderate or severe forms of HSA in familial schizophrenics than controls. However, there was no increase in the prevalence of HSA in the unaffected first-degree relatives of schizophrenic patients or in patients with familial bipolar disorder. HSA was rarely transmitted in families. HSA was frequently associated with a deep, vertical collateral/occipito-temporal sulcus and a steep hippocampal fissure. Our data raise the possibility that HSA is linked to disturbances of certain neurodevelopmental genes associated with schizophrenia. However, the lack of

  19. Comparison of psychopathological dimensions between major depressive disorder and schizophrenia spectrum disorders focusing on language, affectivity and motor behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinau, Sarah; Stegmayer, Katharina; Lang, Fabian U; Jäger, Markus; Strik, Werner; Walther, Sebastian

    2017-04-01

    This study tested whether patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and schizophrenia spectrum disorders would differ in three dimensions of psychopathology (language, affectivity and motor behavior) as assessed by the Bern Psychopathology Scale (BPS) in a cohort of 58 patients with MDD and 146 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The overall estimation of severity of each of the three dimensions was rated on a seven-point Likert scale from severely inhibited to severely disinhibited. Here, more than half of the patients endorsed ratings that showed normal or mildly (dis-)inhibited behavior. At group level more pronounced negative ratings of affect were seen in MDD. Group comparisons of the severity ratings on language or motor behavior yielded no differences between schizophrenia spectrum disorders and MDD. At the individuals' levels, extreme ratings in the language and motor dimensions were more frequent in schizophrenia spectrum disorders and in the affectivity dimension more frequent in MDD. Shared psychopathological features could be seen across diagnoses, supporting a dimensional approach to psychopathology in endogenous psychoses. However, the groups differ in the severity of affect ratings as well as in the distribution of language, affectivity and motor ratings with more variance among the group of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Living with Schizophrenia. Psychological Disorders Series, Book 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, Stuart; Geiser, Craig; Kaplan, Kalman J.; Harrow, Martin

    Co-written by two individuals with schizophrenia and two psychotherapists who have worked professionally with people experiencing schizophrenia, this book gives first-hand insight into the process and effects of the disease. The patients provide an introduction to the book that includes a list of questions, with their answers, that were asked of…

  1. Dissociation and social cognition in schizophrenia spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renard, Selwyn B.; Pijnenborg, Marieke; Lysaker, Paul H.

    While there is emerging evidence that dissociation is linked with trauma history and possibly symptoms in schizophrenia, it remains unclear whether dissociation represents a symptom dimensions in its own right in schizophrenia and as such is uniquely related to other features of illness. To explore

  2. Deficits in Degraded Facial Affect Labeling in Schizophrenia and Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemiek van Dijke

    Full Text Available Although deficits in facial affect processing have been reported in schizophrenia as well as in borderline personality disorder (BPD, these disorders have not yet been directly compared on facial affect labeling. Using degraded stimuli portraying neutral, angry, fearful and angry facial expressions, we hypothesized more errors in labeling negative facial expressions in patients with schizophrenia compared to healthy controls. Patients with BPD were expected to have difficulty in labeling neutral expressions and to display a bias towards a negative attribution when wrongly labeling neutral faces. Patients with schizophrenia (N = 57 and patients with BPD (N = 30 were compared to patients with somatoform disorder (SoD, a psychiatric control group; N = 25 and healthy control participants (N = 41 on facial affect labeling accuracy and type of misattributions. Patients with schizophrenia showed deficits in labeling angry and fearful expressions compared to the healthy control group and patients with BPD showed deficits in labeling neutral expressions compared to the healthy control group. Schizophrenia and BPD patients did not differ significantly from each other when labeling any of the facial expressions. Compared to SoD patients, schizophrenia patients showed deficits on fearful expressions, but BPD did not significantly differ from SoD patients on any of the facial expressions. With respect to the type of misattributions, BPD patients mistook neutral expressions more often for fearful expressions compared to schizophrenia patients and healthy controls, and less often for happy compared to schizophrenia patients. These findings suggest that although schizophrenia and BPD patients demonstrate different as well as similar facial affect labeling deficits, BPD may be associated with a tendency to detect negative affect in neutral expressions.

  3. Cognitive regulation of negative affect in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Jesseca E; Hamilton, Meelah K; Lino, Bianca J; Ly, Patricia; Denny, Kelsey; Hwang, Eun-Ji; Mitchell, Philip B; Carr, Vaughan J; Green, Melissa J

    2013-06-30

    Schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) exhibit common cognitive deficits that may impede the capacity for self-regulating affect. We examined the use of particular cognitive strategies for regulating negative affect in SZ and BD, and their associations with levels of mood symptomatology. Participants were 126 SZ, 97 BD, and 81 healthy controls (HC) who completed the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ), the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) and the Hypomanic Personality Scale (HPS). Patients with SZ and BD reported more frequent rumination, catastrophising and self-blame, and less use of putting into perspective, relative to HC. Additionally, SZ patients were more likely to engage in other-blame, compared to HC. The most consistent predictors of symptomatology for SZ were self-blame and catastrophising, while for BD were rumination and reduced positive reappraisal. These findings demonstrate maladaptive use of cognitive strategies to self-regulate negative affect in SZ and BD, resembling those reported previously for unipolar depression. The ineffective use of adaptive cognitive reframing strategies in both patient groups may reflect the impact of their shared cognitive deficits, and requires further investigation. Remediation of cognitive capacities contributing to ineffective self-regulation may facilitate reduced mood symptomatology in SZ and BD. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Substance Use Among Homeless Individuals With Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maremmani, Angelo G I; Bacciardi, Silvia; Gehring, Nicole D; Cambioli, Luca; Schütz, Christian; Jang, Kerry; Krausz, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Mental illness and substance use are overrepresented within urban homeless populations. This paper compared substance use patterns between homeless individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum (SS) and bipolar disorders (BD) using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. From a sample of 497 subjects drawn from Vancouver, Canada who participated in the At Home/Chez Soi study, 146 and 94 homeless individuals were identified as BD and SS, respectively. In the previous 12 months, a greater proportion of BD homeless reported greater use of cocaine (χ = 20.0, p = 0.000), amphetamines (χ = 13,8, p = 0.000), opiates (χ = 24.6, p = 0.000), hallucinogens (χ = 11.7, p = 0.000), cannabinoids (χ = 5.05, p = 0.034), and tranquilizers (χ = 7.95, p = 0.004) compared to SS. Cocaine and opiates were significantly associated with BD homeless (χ = 39.06, df = 2, p homeless, affected by adverse psychosocial factors and severe psychiatric conditions.

  5. Review of risperidone for the treatment of pediatric and adolescent bipolar disorder and schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R Bishop

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey R Bishop1,2, Mani N Pavuluri21Department of Pharmacy Practice, University of Illinois at Chicago College of Pharmacy, Chicago, IL, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry, Pediatric Mood Disorders Program and Center for Cognitive Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: Risperidone is a commonly used medication for the treatment of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in children and adolescents. It has been studied as a monotherapy treatment in early onset schizophrenia and as both monotherapy and combination therapy for pediatric bipolar disorder. Studies to date indicate that risperidone is an effective treatment for positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia and mania symptoms of bipolar disorder. In young patient populations, side effects such as weight gain, extrapyramidal side effects, and prolactin elevation require consideration when evaluating the risk benefit ratio for individual patients. Here we review published studies of risperidone for the treatment of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in children and adolescents to provide practitioners with an overview of published data on the efficacy and safety of risperidone in these patient populations.Keywords: risperidone, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, children, adolescents

  6. Joint Analysis of Psychiatric Disorders Increases Accuracy of Risk Prediction for Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder, and Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Robert; Moser, Gerhard; Chen, Guo-Bo; Ripke, Stephan; Absher, Devin; Agartz, Ingrid; Akil, Huda; Amin, Farooq; Andreassen, Ole A.; Anjorin, Adebayo; Anney, Richard; Arking, Dan E.; Asherson, Philip; Azevedo, Maria H.; Backlund, Lena; Badner, Judith A.; Bailey, Anthony J.; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barchas, Jack D.; Barnes, Michael R.; Barrett, Thomas B.; Bass, Nicholas; Battaglia, Agatino; Bauer, Michael; Bayés, Mònica; Bellivier, Frank; Bergen, Sarah E.; Berrettini, Wade; Betancur, Catalina; Bettecken, Thomas; Biederman, Joseph; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Black, Donald W.; Blackwood, Douglas H.R.; Bloss, Cinnamon S.; Boehnke, Michael; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Breen, Gerome; Breuer, René; Bruggeman, Richard; Buccola, Nancy G.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Bunney, William E.; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Byerley, William F.; Caesar, Sian; Cahn, Wiepke; Cantor, Rita M.; Casas, Miguel; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chambert, Kimberly; Choudhury, Khalid; Cichon, Sven; Cloninger, C. Robert; Collier, David A.; Cook, Edwin H.; Coon, Hilary; Cormand, Bru; Cormican, Paul; Corvin, Aiden; Coryell, William H.; Craddock, Nicholas; Craig, David W.; Craig, Ian W.; Crosbie, Jennifer; Cuccaro, Michael L.; Curtis, David; Czamara, Darina; Daly, Mark J.; Datta, Susmita; Dawson, Geraldine; Day, Richard; De Geus, Eco J.; Degenhardt, Franziska; Devlin, Bernie; Djurovic, Srdjan; Donohoe, Gary J.; Doyle, Alysa E.; Duan, Jubao; Dudbridge, Frank; Duketis, Eftichia; Ebstein, Richard P.; Edenberg, Howard J.; Elia, Josephine; Ennis, Sean; Etain, Bruno; Fanous, Ayman; Faraone, Stephen V.; Farmer, Anne E.; Ferrier, I. Nicol; Flickinger, Matthew; Fombonne, Eric; Foroud, Tatiana; Frank, Josef; Franke, Barbara; Fraser, Christine; Freedman, Robert; Freimer, Nelson B.; Freitag, Christine M.; Friedl, Marion; Frisén, Louise; Gallagher, Louise; Gejman, Pablo V.; Georgieva, Lyudmila; Gershon, Elliot S.; Geschwind, Daniel H.; Giegling, Ina; Gill, Michael; Gordon, Scott D.; Gordon-Smith, Katherine; Green, Elaine K.; Greenwood, Tiffany A.; Grice, Dorothy E.; Gross, Magdalena; Grozeva, Detelina; Guan, Weihua; Gurling, Hugh; De Haan, Lieuwe; Haines, Jonathan L.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Hallmayer, Joachim; Hamilton, Steven P.; Hamshere, Marian L.; Hansen, Thomas F.; Hartmann, Annette M.; Hautzinger, Martin; Heath, Andrew C.; Henders, Anjali K.; Herms, Stefan; Hickie, Ian B.; Hipolito, Maria; Hoefels, Susanne; Holmans, Peter A.; Holsboer, Florian; Hoogendijk, Witte J.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Hultman, Christina M.; Hus, Vanessa; Ingason, Andrés; Ising, Marcus; Jamain, Stéphane; Jones, Ian; Jones, Lisa; Kähler, Anna K.; Kahn, René S.; Kandaswamy, Radhika; Keller, Matthew C.; Kelsoe, John R.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Kennedy, James L.; Kenny, Elaine; Kent, Lindsey; Kim, Yunjung; Kirov, George K.; Klauck, Sabine M.; Klei, Lambertus; Knowles, James A.; Kohli, Martin A.; Koller, Daniel L.; Konte, Bettina; Korszun, Ania; Krabbendam, Lydia; Krasucki, Robert; Kuntsi, Jonna; Kwan, Phoenix; Landén, Mikael; Långström, Niklas; Lathrop, Mark; Lawrence, Jacob; Lawson, William B.; Leboyer, Marion; Ledbetter, David H.; Lee, Phil H.; Lencz, Todd; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Levinson, Douglas F.; Lewis, Cathryn M.; Li, Jun; Lichtenstein, Paul; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.; Lin, Dan-Yu; Linszen, Don H.; Liu, Chunyu; Lohoff, Falk W.; Loo, Sandra K.; Lord, Catherine; Lowe, Jennifer K.; Lucae, Susanne; MacIntyre, Donald J.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Maestrini, Elena; Magnusson, Patrik K.E.; Mahon, Pamela B.; Maier, Wolfgang; Malhotra, Anil K.; Mane, Shrikant M.; Martin, Christa L.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Mattheisen, Manuel; Matthews, Keith; Mattingsdal, Morten; McCarroll, Steven A.; McGhee, Kevin A.; McGough, James J.; McGrath, Patrick J.; McGuffin, Peter; McInnis, Melvin G.; McIntosh, Andrew; McKinney, Rebecca; McLean, Alan W.; McMahon, Francis J.; McMahon, William M.; McQuillin, Andrew; Medeiros, Helena; Medland, Sarah E.; Meier, Sandra; Melle, Ingrid; Meng, Fan; Meyer, Jobst; Middeldorp, Christel M.; Middleton, Lefkos; Milanova, Vihra; Miranda, Ana; Monaco, Anthony P.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Moran, Jennifer L.; Moreno-De-Luca, Daniel; Morken, Gunnar; Morris, Derek W.; Morrow, Eric M.; Moskvina, Valentina; Mowry, Bryan J.; Muglia, Pierandrea; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Murtha, Michael; Myers, Richard M.; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Neale, Benjamin M.; Nelson, Stan F.; Nievergelt, Caroline M.; Nikolov, Ivan; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit; Nolen, Willem A.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Nurnberger, John I.; Nwulia, Evaristus A.; Nyholt, Dale R.; O’Donovan, Michael C.; O’Dushlaine, Colm; Oades, Robert D.; Olincy, Ann; Oliveira, Guiomar; Olsen, Line; Ophoff, Roel A.; Osby, Urban; Owen, Michael J.; Palotie, Aarno; Parr, Jeremy R.; Paterson, Andrew D.; Pato, Carlos N.; Pato, Michele T.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Pergadia, Michele L.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Perlis, Roy H.; Pickard, Benjamin S.; Pimm, Jonathan; Piven, Joseph; Posthuma, Danielle; Potash, James B.; Poustka, Fritz; Propping, Peter; Purcell, Shaun M.; Puri, Vinay; Quested, Digby J.; Quinn, Emma M.; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni; Rasmussen, Henrik B.; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Rehnström, Karola; Reif, Andreas; Ribasés, Marta; Rice, John P.; Rietschel, Marcella; Ripke, Stephan; Roeder, Kathryn; Roeyers, Herbert; Rossin, Lizzy; Rothenberger, Aribert; Rouleau, Guy; Ruderfer, Douglas; Rujescu, Dan; Sanders, Alan R.; Sanders, Stephan J.; Santangelo, Susan L.; Schachar, Russell; Schalling, Martin; Schatzberg, Alan F.; Scheftner, William A.; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Scherer, Stephen W.; Schork, Nicholas J.; Schulze, Thomas G.; Schumacher, Johannes; Schwarz, Markus; Scolnick, Edward; Scott, Laura J.; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Shi, Jianxin; Shilling, Paul D.; Shyn, Stanley I.; Silverman, Jeremy M.; Sklar, Pamela; Slager, Susan L.; Smalley, Susan L.; Smit, Johannes H.; Smith, Erin N.; Smoller, Jordan W.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.S.; St Clair, David; State, Matthew; Steffens, Michael; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Strauss, John S.; Strohmaier, Jana; Stroup, T. Scott; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Sutcliffe, James; Szatmari, Peter; Szelinger, Szabocls; Thapar, Anita; Thirumalai, Srinivasa; Thompson, Robert C.; Todorov, Alexandre A.; Tozzi, Federica; Treutlein, Jens; Tzeng, Jung-Ying; Uhr, Manfred; van den Oord, Edwin J.C.G.; Van Grootheest, Gerard; Van Os, Jim; Vicente, Astrid M.; Vieland, Veronica J.; Vincent, John B.; Visscher, Peter M.; Walsh, Christopher A.; Wassink, Thomas H.; Watson, Stanley J.; Weiss, Lauren A.; Weissman, Myrna M.; Werge, Thomas; Wienker, Thomas F.; Wiersma, Durk; Wijsman, Ellen M.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Williams, Nigel; Willsey, A. Jeremy; Witt, Stephanie H.; Wray, Naomi R.; Xu, Wei; Young, Allan H.; Yu, Timothy W.; Zammit, Stanley; Zandi, Peter P.; Zhang, Peng; Zitman, Frans G.; Zöllner, Sebastian; Coryell, William; Potash, James B.; Scheftner, William A.; Shi, Jianxin; Weissman, Myrna M.; Hultman, Christina M.; Landén, Mikael; Levinson, Douglas F.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Smoller, Jordan W.; Wray, Naomi R.; Lee, S. Hong

    2015-01-01

    Genetic risk prediction has several potential applications in medical research and clinical practice and could be used, for example, to stratify a heterogeneous population of patients by their predicted genetic risk. However, for polygenic traits, such as psychiatric disorders, the accuracy of risk prediction is low. Here we use a multivariate linear mixed model and apply multi-trait genomic best linear unbiased prediction for genetic risk prediction. This method exploits correlations between disorders and simultaneously evaluates individual risk for each disorder. We show that the multivariate approach significantly increases the prediction accuracy for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder in the discovery as well as in independent validation datasets. By grouping SNPs based on genome annotation and fitting multiple random effects, we show that the prediction accuracy could be further improved. The gain in prediction accuracy of the multivariate approach is equivalent to an increase in sample size of 34% for schizophrenia, 68% for bipolar disorder, and 76% for major depressive disorders using single trait models. Because our approach can be readily applied to any number of GWAS datasets of correlated traits, it is a flexible and powerful tool to maximize prediction accuracy. With current sample size, risk predictors are not useful in a clinical setting but already are a valuable research tool, for example in experimental designs comparing cases with high and low polygenic risk. PMID:25640677

  7. Premorbid childhood ocular alignment abnormalities and adult schizophrenia-spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Maeda, Justin A; Hayashi, Kentaro

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relation between childhood ocular alignment deficits and adult psychiatric outcomes among children at high-risk for schizophrenia and controls. A sample of 265 Danish children was administered a standardized eye exam assessing strabismus and related ocular alignment deficits....... All children whose mothers or fathers had a psychiatric diagnosis of schizophrenia comprised the first group (N=90). Children who had at least one parent with a diagnosis other than schizophrenia comprised the first matched control group (N=93). The second control group consisted of children...... offspring of parents with other non-psychotic disorder and no mental illness), although the results failed to reach statistical significance. Results from this study suggest a premorbid relation between ocular deficits and schizophrenia-spectrum disorders in childhood prior to onset of psychopathology...

  8. The relationship of akathisia with suicidality and depersonalization among patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cem Atbaşoglu, E; Schultz, S K; Andreasen, N C

    2001-01-01

    An association of suicidality and depersonalization with akathisia has been reported, but it is not clear whether these phenomena are specific to akathisia or are nonspecific manifestations of distress. The authors used the Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (Ham-D) to examine the relationships between suicidality, depersonalization, dysphoria, and akathisia in 68 patients with schizophrenia or schizophreniform disorder. Akathisia was associated with higher scores on the Ham-D ratings of suicidality, depersonalization, and agitation. In a logistic regression model, depressive mood and subjective awareness of akathisia appeared to be the only predictors of suicidality and depersonalization, respectively. These findings support the association between akathisia and both suicidality and depersonalization. However, these symptoms appear to be nonspecific responses to accompanying depressive mood and the subjective awareness of the akathisia syndrome, respectively.

  9. Change in Prolactin Levels in Pediatric Patients Given Antipsychotics for Schizophrenia and Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders: A Network Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakrapani Balijepalli

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Treatment of schizophrenia with first- and second-generation antipsychotics has been associated with elevated prolactin levels, which may increase the risk for prolactin-related adverse events. Methods. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs included in a recent systematic review were considered for this analysis. A Bayesian network meta-analysis was used to compare changes in prolactin levels in pediatric patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizophrenia spectrum disorders treated with second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs. Results. Five RCTs, including 989 patients combined, have evaluated the changes in prolactin for pediatric patients after 6 weeks of treatment with risperidone, quetiapine, aripiprazole, olanzapine, and paliperidone. In the overall study population, treatment with risperidone was associated with the highest increase in mean prolactin levels compared to other SGAs. Patients treated with risperidone 4–6 mg/day were found to experience the greatest increases (55.06 ng/ml [95% CrI: 40.53–69.58] in prolactin levels, followed by risperidone 1–3 mg/day, paliperidone 3–6 mg/day, and paliperidone 6–12 mg/day. Conclusions. This study shows that there are differences in SGAs ability to cause hyperprolactinemia. Further, there is clear evidence of safety concerns with risperidone and paliperidone treatment in adolescent schizophrenia patients. Registration. PROSPERO CRD42014009506.

  10. Some new approaches for prevention of schizophrenia spectrum disorders in patients exposed to exogenous stressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Dzeruzhinska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Environment factors affect to the clinical phenotype of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Aim. To develop recommendations for the prevention schizophrenia spectrum disorders considering the influence of environmental factors on the clinical pathomorphosis of the disease. Methods. It was conducted the psychopathological and psychodiagnostic survey of 186 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders with an assessment of clinical features and level of social functioning. It was identified factors that have the most significant pathological effects on the course of disorders on the basis of the received data: the using of a cannabinoid in a family history, mother`s infectious and somatic diseases during pregnancy, mother's using alcohol during pregnancy, consumption of alcohol in adolescent patients, fetal hypoxia or perinatal trauma of the patient at birth, problems with the group of primary support in the family of a child in childhood, maternal toxicosis, crisis relationships in the family, migration to different cultural environment. Results. Clinical pathomorphism of disorders of the spectrum of schizophrenia under the influence of environmental factors determines the features of psychotherapeutic interventions. In people with cannabinoids, it is important to eliminate the symptoms of anxiety through emotion-supportive measures, as well as to create a motivation to ask help in case of symptoms of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. In a group with perinatal complications, the emphasis should be put on cognitive methods in order to correct mental disorders and overcome hypochondria. Early measures to form a positive attitude towards themselves and the environment, supporting family relationships, overcoming depressive symptoms, and developing social activity are targets of psychotherapeutic interventions in people with schizophrenic spectrum disorders and psychological traumatic events. Conclusion. Minimization of environmental

  11. Age of Onset in Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders: Complex Interactions between Genetic and Environmental Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelli, Laura; Toscano, Elena; Porcelli, Stefano; Fabbri, Chiara; Serretti, Alessandro

    2016-03-01

    In this study we evaluated the role of a candidate gene for major psychosis, Sialyltransferase (ST8SIA2), in the risk to develop a schizophrenia spectrum disorders, taking into account exposure to stressful life events (SLEs). Eight polymorphisms (SNPs) were tested in 94 Schizophreniainpatients and 176 healthy controls. Schizophrenia patients were also evaluated for SLEs in different life periods. None of the SNPs showed association with schizophrenia. Nevertheless, when crossing genetic variants with childhood SLEs, we could observe trends of interaction with age of onset. Though several limitations, our results support a protective role of ST8SIA2 in individuals exposed to moderate childhood stress.

  12. Predictors of suicide attempts in 3.322 patients with affective disorders and schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, Juan A; Rachamallu, Vivekananda; Yuen, Eunice Y; Fink, Sabina; Duque, Laura M; Kane, John M

    2015-08-30

    This study explores risk factors for suicide attempts using the electronic health records of 3322 patients with either schizophrenia spectrum disorders or affective disorders who underwent a comprehensive psychiatric evaluation at the Emergency Department at the Long Island Jewish Medical Center or the Hillside Evaluation Center at The Zucker Hillside Hospital from August 3rd 2011 to July 5th 2012. Multivariate regression analyses showed, after adjusting for sex, that previous suicidal attempts and financial or relationship losses were significantly associated with a current suicidal attempt. Additionally, higher odds of having a suicidal attempt were also found in those subjects with a diagnosis of an affective disorder, compared to a schizophrenia spectrum diagnosis, and those patients in the children/adolescent group compared to those in the adult/elderly group. Our study results confirm and expand results from prior studies. Therefore, physicians should be alert for the presence of any or all of these factors upon evaluation of psychiatric patients, and if present, either psychiatric hospitalization or a close psychiatric follow up in collaboration with family and a therapist would be key in reducing the risk of potential suicidal behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Bilaterally reduced claustral volumes in schizophrenia and major depressive disorder: a morphometric postmortem study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Hans-Gert; Ortmann, Anna; Dobrowolny, Henrik; Steiner, Johann; Brisch, Ralf; Gos, Tomasz; Bogerts, Bernhard

    2016-02-01

    Multiple brain structural abnormalities have been reported in schizophrenia and major depressive disorder. A majority of disease-affected brain regions act as relay nodes within neural networks, which are known to be impaired in neuropsychiatric diseases. One of these regions is the claustrum, which has the highest connectivity in the human brain by regional volume. Its possible involvement in disturbed connectivity is yet incompletely explored, however. The present study aimed at searching for possible structural deviations of the claustrum in neuropsychiatric disorders. We found bilaterally reduced claustral volumes both in schizophrenia and in major depressive disorder. These structural impairments may have different, disease-related consequences: In patients with schizophrenia, they may contribute to sensory processing impairments, and in patients with major depressive disorder to disturbances in salience.

  14. Risk of Schizophrenia Increases After All Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maibing, Cecilie Frejstrup; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Benros, Michael Eriksen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Earlier smaller studies have shown associations between child and adolescent psychiatric disorders and schizophrenia. Particularly, attention-deficit/hyperactivity-disorder and autism have been linked with schizophrenia. However, large-scale prospective studies have been lacking. We......, therefore, conducted the first large-scale study on the association between a broad spectrum of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders and the risk of being diagnosed with schizophrenia. Methods: Danish nationwide registers were linked to establish a cohort consisting of all persons born during 1990......-2000 and the cohort was followed until December 31, 2012. Data were analyzed using survival analyses and adjusted for calendar year, age, and sex. Results: A total of 25138 individuals with child and adolescent psychiatric disorders were identified, out of which 1232 individuals were subsequently diagnosed...

  15. Reprint of "Treatment of cannabis use disorders in people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders--a systematic review"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorthøj, Carsten; Fohlmann, Allan; Nordentoft, Merete

    2009-01-01

    Cannabis use disorders (CUD) are prevalent among people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD), with a range of detrimental effects, e.g. reduced compliance to medication and psychosocial interventions, and increased level of psychotic-dimension symptoms. The aim of this study was to review...

  16. Personality traits and cognitive ability in individuals with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and community participants.

    OpenAIRE

    Zvinyatskovskiy, Aleksey

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive ability and personality traits usefully characterize psychopathology across individuals presenting with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and ADHD as well as the general population. Working memory and executive functioning are two putative markers of neurobiological impairment associated with pathology in these disorders. Impulsivity and schizotypy are personality traits related to symptoms of mental illness. Although relationships between cognitive ability and personality have been ...

  17. Social function in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder: Associations with personality, symptoms and neurocognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lysaker Paul H

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has indicated that stable individual differences in personality exist among persons with schizophrenia spectrum disorders predating illness onset that are linked to symptoms and self appraised quality of life. Less is known about how closely individual differences in personality are uniquely related to levels of social relationships, a domain of dysfunction in schizophrenia more often linked in the literature with symptoms and neurocognitive deficits. This study tested the hypothesis that trait levels of personality as defined using the five-factor model of personality would be linked to social function in schizophrenia. Methods A self-report measure of the five factor model of personality was gathered along with ratings of social function, symptoms and assessments of neurocognition for 65 participants with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Results Univariate correlations and stepwise multiple regression indicated that frequency of social interaction was predicted by higher levels of the trait of Agreeableness, fewer negative symptoms, better verbal memory and at the trend level, lesser Neuroticism (R2 = .42, p 2 = .67, p Conclusions Taken together, the findings of this study suggest that person-centered variables such as personality, may account for some of the broad differences seen in outcome in schizophrenia spectrum disorders, including social outcomes. One interpretation of the results of this study is that differences in personality combine with symptoms and neurocognitive deficits to affect how persons with schizophrenia are able to form and sustain social connections with others.

  18. Autistic disorders and schizophrenia: related or remote? An anatomical likelihood estimation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlton Cheung

    Full Text Available Shared genetic and environmental risk factors have been identified for autistic spectrum disorders (ASD and schizophrenia. Social interaction, communication, emotion processing, sensorimotor gating and executive function are disrupted in both, stimulating debate about whether these are related conditions. Brain imaging studies constitute an informative and expanding resource to determine whether brain structural phenotype of these disorders is distinct or overlapping. We aimed to synthesize existing datasets characterizing ASD and schizophrenia within a common framework, to quantify their structural similarities. In a novel modification of Anatomical Likelihood Estimation (ALE, 313 foci were extracted from 25 voxel-based studies comprising 660 participants (308 ASD, 352 first-episode schizophrenia and 801 controls. The results revealed that, compared to controls, lower grey matter volumes within limbic-striato-thalamic circuitry were common to ASD and schizophrenia. Unique features of each disorder included lower grey matter volume in amygdala, caudate, frontal and medial gyrus for schizophrenia and putamen for autism. Thus, in terms of brain volumetrics, ASD and schizophrenia have a clear degree of overlap that may reflect shared etiological mechanisms. However, the distinctive neuroanatomy also mapped in each condition raises the question about how this is arrived in the context of common etiological pressures.

  19. Schizophrenia Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... illogical. People with thought disorders may have trouble organizing their thoughts. Sometimes a person will stop talking ... schizophrenia, including: Genes, because schizophrenia sometimes runs in families. However, it is important to know that just ...

  20. Cross-sensory gating in schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder : EEG evidence for impaired brain connectivity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magnee, Maurice J. C. M.; Oranje, Bob; van Engeland, Herman; Kahn, Rene S.; Kemner, Chantal

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and schizophrenia are both neurodevelopmental disorders that have extensively been associated with impairments in functional brain connectivity. Using a cross-sensory P50 suppression paradigm, this study investigated low-level audiovisual interactions on cortical EEG

  1. Co-morbid anxiety disorders in patients with schizophrenia in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Anxiety disorders occur commonly in schizophrenia but are often overlooked by psychiatrists. Their presence may compound the challenges faced by these patients and may contribute to poor outcome. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of anxiety disorders among the ...

  2. Cross-sensory gating in schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder: EEG evidence for impaired brain connectivity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnée, Maurice J C M; Oranje, Bob; van Engeland, Herman

    2009-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and schizophrenia are both neurodevelopmental disorders that have extensively been associated with impairments in functional brain connectivity. Using a cross-sensory P50 suppression paradigm, this study investigated low-level audiovisual interactions on cortical EEG...

  3. Suicidal Behavior Among Inpatients with Schizophrenia and Mood Disorders in Chengdu, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Mao-Sheng; Wu, Qiu-Hua; Conwell, Yeates; Chen, Eric Yu-Hai; Chan, Cecilia Lai-Wan

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the characteristics of suicidal behavior (suicide attempt or suicidal ideation) among 230 consecutively admitted inpatients with schizophrenia and mood disorders in a university hospital in China. The rate of lifetime suicidal behavior was found to be significantly higher in patients with mood disorders (62.4%) than in…

  4. Perceived emotional intelligence is impaired and associated with poor community functioning in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Naomi T; Green, Michael F; Wynn, Jonathan K; Proudfit, Greg H; Altshuler, Lori; Horan, William P

    2015-03-01

    Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have been associated with shared and distinct emotion processing abnormalities. Initial findings indicate that these disorders differ with respect to the domain of emotional intelligence (EI). Individuals with schizophrenia display deficits on performance measures of EI, whereas those with bipolar disorder do not. However, no research has examined patients' subjective beliefs about their own EI (referred to as "perceived EI"). This study examined perceived EI, assessed with the Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS), and its clinical and functional correlates in outpatients with schizophrenia (n=35) or bipolar disorder I (n=38) and matched healthy controls (n=35). The TMMS includes three subscales that assess beliefs about one's ability to attend to (Attention to Feelings), understand (Clarity of Feelings), and repair emotions (Mood Repair). Participants in the clinical groups also completed community functioning and symptom assessments. Both clinical groups reported significantly lower perceived EI than controls, but did not differ from each other. Higher total TMMS correlated with higher levels of independent living in the schizophrenia group (r=.36) and better social functioning in the bipolar group (r=.61). In addition, although higher Attention to Feelings scores correlated with greater psychiatric symptoms in the schizophrenia group, higher scores across all subscales correlated with less manic symptoms in the bipolar group. The findings suggest that perceived EI is impaired and related to community functioning in both disorders. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. The neuroanatomical basis of panic disorder and social phobia in schizophrenia: a voxel based morphometric study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Picado

    Full Text Available It is known that there is a high prevalence of certain anxiety disorders among schizophrenic patients, especially panic disorder and social phobia. However, the neural underpinnings of the comorbidity of such anxiety disorders and schizophrenia remain unclear. Our study aims to determine the neuroanatomical basis of the co-occurrence of schizophrenia with panic disorder and social phobia.Voxel-based morphometry was used in order to examine brain structure and to measure between-group differences, comparing magnetic resonance images of 20 anxious patients, 20 schizophrenic patients, 20 schizophrenic patients with comorbid anxiety, and 20 healthy control subjects.Compared to the schizophrenic patients, we observed smaller grey-matter volume (GMV decreases in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and precentral gyrus in the schizophrenic-anxiety group. Additionally, the schizophrenic group showed significantly reduced GMV in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, precentral gyrus, orbitofrontal cortex, temporal gyrus and angular/inferior parietal gyrus when compared to the control group.Our findings suggest that the comorbidity of schizophrenia with panic disorder and social phobia might be characterized by specific neuroanatomical and clinical alterations that may be related to maladaptive emotion regulation related to anxiety. Even thought our findings need to be replicated, our study suggests that the identification of neural abnormalities involved in anxiety, schizophrenia and schizophrenia-anxiety may lead to an improved diagnosis and management of these conditions.

  6. Residual Negative Symptoms Differentiate Cognitive Performance in Clinically Stable Patients with Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Krishnadas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive deficits in various domains have been shown in patients with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. The purpose of the present study was to examine if residual psychopathology explained the difference in cognitive function between clinically stable patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We compared the performance on tests of attention, visual and verbal memory, and executive function of 25 patients with schizophrenia in remission and 25 euthymic bipolar disorder patients with that of 25 healthy controls. Mediation analysis was used to see if residual psychopathology could explain the difference in cognitive function between the patient groups. Both patient groups performed significantly worse than healthy controls on most cognitive tests. Patients with bipolar disorder displayed cognitive deficits that were milder but qualitatively similar to those of patients with schizophrenia. Residual negative symptoms mediated the difference in performance on cognitive tests between the two groups. Neither residual general psychotic symptoms nor greater antipsychotic doses explained this relationship. The shared variance explained by the residual negative and cognitive deficits that the difference between patient groups may be explained by greater frontal cortical neurophysiological deficits in patients with schizophrenia, compared to bipolar disorder. Further longitudinal work may provide insight into pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie these deficits.

  7. Associations between health risk behaviors and symptoms of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katon, Wayne J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To systematically review the literature to determine if health risk behaviors in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder are associated with subsequent symptom burden or level of functioning. Method Using the PRISMA systematic review method we searched PubMed, Cochrane, PsychInfo and EMBASE databases with key words: health risk behaviors, diet, obesity, overweight, BMI, smoking, tobacco use, cigarette use, sedentary lifestyle, sedentary behaviors, physical inactivity, activity level, fitness, sitting AND schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, bipolar illness, schizoaffective disorder, severe and persistent mental illness, and psychotic to identify prospective, controlled studies of greater than 6 months duration. Included studies examined associations between sedentary lifestyle, smoking, obesity, physical inactivity and subsequent symptom severity or functional impairment in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Results Eight of the 2130 articles identified met inclusion criteria and included 508 patients with a health risk behavior and 825 controls. Six studies examined tobacco use and two studies examined weight gain/obesity. Seven studies found that patients with schizophrenia or bipolar illness and at least one health risk behavior had more severe subsequent psychiatric symptoms and/or decreased level of functioning. Conclusion Tobacco use and weight gain/obesity may be associated with increased severity of symptoms of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder or decreased level of functioning. PMID:23044246

  8. Antipsychotic treatment for children and adolescents with schizophrenia spectrum disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagsberg, Anne Katrine; Tarp, Simon; Glintborg, D

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Antipsychotic treatment in early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) lacks a rich evidence base, and efforts to rank different drugs concerning their efficacy have not proven any particular drug superior. In contrast to the literature regarding adult-onset schizophrenia (AOS), comparative...... allocate children and adolescents presenting with schizophrenia or a related non-affective psychotic condition to an intervention group or to a control group. Two reviewers will-independently and in duplicate-screen titles and abstracts, complete full text reviews to determine eligibility, and subsequently...

  9. Individualized differential diagnosis of schizophrenia and mood disorders using neuroanatomical biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsouleris, Nikolaos; Meisenzahl, Eva M; Borgwardt, Stefan; Riecher-Rössler, Anita; Frodl, Thomas; Kambeitz, Joseph; Köhler, Yanis; Falkai, Peter; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Reiser, Maximilian; Davatzikos, Christos

    2015-07-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging-based markers of schizophrenia have been repeatedly shown to separate patients from healthy controls at the single-subject level, but it remains unclear whether these markers reliably distinguish schizophrenia from mood disorders across the life span and generalize to new patients as well as to early stages of these illnesses. The current study used structural MRI-based multivariate pattern classification to (i) identify and cross-validate a differential diagnostic signature separating patients with first-episode and recurrent stages of schizophrenia (n = 158) from patients with major depression (n = 104); and (ii) quantify the impact of major clinical variables, including disease stage, age of disease onset and accelerated brain ageing on the signature's classification performance. This diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging signature was then evaluated in an independent patient cohort from two different centres to test its generalizability to individuals with bipolar disorder (n = 35), first-episode psychosis (n = 23) and clinically defined at-risk mental states for psychosis (n = 89). Neuroanatomical diagnosis was correct in 80% and 72% of patients with major depression and schizophrenia, respectively, and involved a pattern of prefronto-temporo-limbic volume reductions and premotor, somatosensory and subcortical increments in schizophrenia versus major depression. Diagnostic performance was not influenced by the presence of depressive symptoms in schizophrenia or psychotic symptoms in major depression, but earlier disease onset and accelerated brain ageing promoted misclassification in major depression due to an increased neuroanatomical schizophrenia likeness of these patients. Furthermore, disease stage significantly moderated neuroanatomical diagnosis as recurrently-ill patients had higher misclassification rates (major depression: 23%; schizophrenia: 29%) than first-episode patients (major depression: 15%; schizophrenia: 12

  10. Cross-Disorder Genomewide Analysis of Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder, and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jie; Perlis, Roy H.; Lee, Phil H.; Rush, A John; Fava, Maurizio; Sachs, Gary S.; Lieberman, Jeffrey; Hamilton, Steven P.; Sullivan, Patrick; Sklar, Pamela; Purcell, Shaun; Smoller, Jordan W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Family and twin studies indicate substantial overlap of genetic influences on psychotic and mood disorders. Linkage and candidate gene studies have also suggested overlap across schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder (BPD), and major depressive disorder (MDD). The objective of this study was to apply genomewide association study (GWAS) analysis to address the specificity of genetic effects on these disorders. Method We combined GWAS data from three large effectiveness studies of SCZ (CATIE, genotyped n = 741), BPD (STEP-BD, n = 1575) and MDD (STAR*D, n= 1938) and psychiatrically-screened controls (NIMH-GI controls, n = 1204). We applied a two-stage analytic procedure involving an omnibus test of allele frequency differences among case and control groups followed by a model selection step to identify the best-fitting model of allelic effects across disorders. Results The strongest result was seen for a single nucleotide polymorphism near the adrenomedullin (ADM) gene (rs6484218, p = 3.93 × 10−8), with the best-fitting model indicating that the effect is specific to bipolar II disorder. We also observed evidence suggesting that several genes may have effects that transcend clinical diagnostic boundaries including variants in NPAS3 that showed pleiotropic effects across SCZ, BPD, and MDD. Conclusions This study provides the first genomewide significant evidence implicating variants near the ADM gene on chromosome 11p15 in psychopathology, with effects that appear to be specific to bipolar II disorder. Although we do not detect genomewide significant evidence of cross-disorder effects, our study provides evidence that there are both pleiotropic and disorder-specific effects on major mental illness and illustrates an approach to dissecting the genetic basis of mood and psychotic disorders that can inform future large-scale cross-disorder GWAS analyses. PMID:20713499

  11. [Differential Diagnosis of Schizophrenia: Psychotic Symptoms in Neurodevelopmental Disorders and Psychotic Disorders due to other Medical Conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokurcan, Ahmet; Atbaşoğlu, Eşref Cem

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on the differentiation of schizophrenia in the setting of adult psychiatry from neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD's) and psychosis due to other medical conditions (PDMC). Psychotic disorders in early adulthood are most frequently diagnosed with the schizophrenia spectrum or mood disorders. However, they may be the manifestation of neurologic, endocrine or immunologic disease. Individuals with NDD's such as the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or intellectual developmental disorder (IDD) may also present initially in adulthood. Therefore it is not uncommon that the psychiatrist is the first physician to assess a psychotic patient with underlying medical illness or a NDD. Failure to identify the underlying cause will delay appropriate management. Overdiagnosis of primary psychiatric disorders may be misleading in planning the treatment, as evidence-based treatment algorithms relevant to psychosis are intended for primary psychotic disorders like schizophrenia, and symptomatic treatment may result in unnecessary exposure to antipsychotic drugs. Exclusion of other medical conditions and NDD's is essential before establishing a diagnosis of schizophrenia.

  12. Medications Used for Cognitive Enhancement in Patients With Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder, Alzheimer's Disease, and Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wen-Yu; Lane, Hsien-Yuan; Lin, Chieh-Hsin

    2018-01-01

    Cognitive impairment, which frequently occurs in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease, has a significant impact on the daily lives of both patients and their family. Furthermore, since the medications used for cognitive enhancement have limited efficacy, the issue of cognitive enhancement still remains a clinically unsolved challenge. We reviewed the clinical studies (published between 2007 and 2017) that focused on the efficacy of medications used for enhancing cognition in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and memantine are the standard treatments for Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Some studies have reported selective cognitive improvement in patients with schizophrenia following galantamine treatment. Newer antipsychotics, including paliperidone, lurasidone, aripiprazole, ziprasidone, and BL-1020, have also been reported to exert cognitive benefits in patients with schizophrenia. Dopaminergic medications were found to improve language function in patients with Parkinson's disease. However, no beneficial effects on cognitive function were observed with dopamine agonists in patients with schizophrenia. The efficacies of nicotine and its receptor modulators in cognitive improvement remain controversial, with the majority of studies showing that varenicline significantly improved the cognitive function in schizophrenic patients. Several studies have reported that N -methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptor (NMDAR) enhancers improved the cognitive function in patients with chronic schizophrenia. NMDAR enhancers might also have cognitive benefits in patients with Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease. Raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, has also been demonstrated to have beneficial effects on attention, processing speed, and memory in female patients with schizophrenia. Clinical trials with

  13. Coping strategies and self-stigma in patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holubova M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Michaela Holubova,1,2 Jan Prasko,1 Radovan Hruby,3 Klara Latalova,1 Dana Kamaradova,1 Marketa Marackova,1 Milos Slepecky,4 Terezia Gubova2 1Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacký University Olomouc, University Hospital Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic; 2Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Liberec, Liberec, Czech Republic; 3Private Psychiatric Practice, Martin, Slovak Republic; 4Department of Psychology Sciences, Faculty of Social Science and Health Care, Constantine the Philosopher University, Nitra, Slovak Republic Background: Maladaptive coping strategies may adversely disturb the overall functioning of people with mental disorders. Also, self-stigma is considered a maladaptive psychosocial phenomenon that can affect many areas of patient life. It has a negative impact on self-image, and may lead to dysphoria, social isolation, reduced adherence, using of negative coping strategies, and lower quality of life. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between coping strategies and self-stigma among persons with schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders.Subjects and methods: A total of 104 clinically stable outpatients with chronic schizophrenia-spectrum disorders were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Sociodemographic and clinical data were recorded. Patients were examined by psychiatrists with the Stress Coping Style Questionnaire, the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness scale, and the Clinical Global Impression scale. Correlation and multiple-regression analyses were performed to discover contributing factors to self-stigma.Results: Positive coping strategies were used by patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders to the same extent as in the healthy population. Negative coping strategies were overused by these patients. There were significant associations between self-stigma, severity of the disorder, and coping strategies in schizophrenia. The ability to use positive coping

  14. Neurological Soft Signs In Psychoses A Comparison Between Schizophrenia & Other Psychotic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahsavand. E. Noroozian. M

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is one of the most important and disabling mental disorders in the world. Males and females are equally affected. Diagnosis is a very difficult problem in this disorder. Because the diagnostic systems such as ICD-10 and DSM-IV are mainly subjective, they are not valid and reliable. Essentially, in the future, we will need to more objective criteria in psychiatry especially in diagnosis of schizophrenia. Neurological soft signs are an example of these objective criteria. In this study we evaluated the prevalence of neurological soft signs in schizophrenic patients and compared it with the prevalence of these signs in other psychotic patients (except mood disorders with psychotic features and normal subjects."nMethods: We compared the neurological soft signs (sensory motor integration, motor. Coordination, consequent complex motor acts, primary reflexes, and eye movements in 30 schizophrenic patients, 30 other psychotic patients (other than mood disorders with psychotic features and 30 normal subjects. Diagnosis of schizophrenia and also other psychoses were based on DSM-IN criteria. Normal subjects have been selected form the staff of Roozbeh hospital randomly."nResults: The difference between the means of motor coordination subscale of neurological soft signs in schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders (other than mood disorders with psychotic features were significant (P value < 0.04. There were no significant differences between the means of other subscales of neurological soft signs in two groups of patients."nConclusion: There are some disturbances of motor coordination subscale of neurological soft signs in patients with schizophrenia. It seems that, these disturbances are evidence of involvements of basal ganglia, motor cerebral cortex, and cerebellum. So it may be suggested that motor coordination as a marker can be used in differentiation between the schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders.

  15. The rationale for early intervention in schizophrenia and related disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Jeppesen, Pia; Petersen, Lone

    2009-01-01

    , adherence to treatment, comorbid drug abuse, relapse and readmission. Some benefits persist after cessation of the intervention. Conclusions: Early intervention in schizophrenia is justified to reduce the negative personal and social impact of prolonged periods of untreated symptoms. Furthermore, phase...

  16. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Hospitalized Patients with Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedeh Samiei

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: OCD was found among a considerable proportion of the study sample. OCD may be associated with exacerbating schizophrenic symptoms. Therefore, psychiatrists should consider the simultaneous treatment of OCD and schizophrenia. Further studies are suggested in this issue.

  17. Differential effects of antipsychotic drugs on insight in first episode schizophrenia: Data from the European First-Episode Schizophrenia Trial (EUFEST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijnenborg, G H M; Timmerman, M E; Derks, E M; Fleischhacker, W W; Kahn, R S; Aleman, A

    2015-06-01

    Although antipsychotics are widely prescribed, their effect of on improving poor illness insight in schizophrenia has seldom been investigated and therefore remains uncertain. This paper examines the effects of low dose haloperidol, amisulpride, olanzapine, quetiapine, and ziprasidone on insight in first-episode schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or schizophreniform disorder. The effects of five antipsychotic drugs in first episode psychosis on insight were compared in a large scale open randomized controlled trial conducted in 14 European countries: the European First-Episode Schizophrenia Trial (EUFEST). Patients with at least minimal impairments in insight were included in the present study (n=455). Insight was assessed with item G12 of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), administered at baseline and at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after randomization. The use of antipsychotics was associated with clear improvements in insight over and above improvements in other symptoms. This effect was most pronounced in the first three months of treatment, with quetiapine being significantly less effective than other drugs. Effects of spontaneous improvement cannot be ruled out due to the lack of a placebo control group, although such a large spontaneous improvement of insight would seem unlikely. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  18. [Disturbances of social cognition in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder--similarities and differences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, Anna; Andrzejewska, Marta; Rybakowski, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    In the first part of the article, two aspects of social cognition, such as the Theory of Mind (ToM), i.e. the ability to infer about mental and affective states of other people, having both cognitive and perceptive aspects as well as empathy, i.e. the ability to understand other person's perspective and take an emotional response of the observer to the affective state of the other person, were presented. Next, research on social cognition in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (BD) has been reviewed, and the disturbances, observed in these two illnesses were compared, with particular emphasis on studies investigating social cognition in both schizophrenia and BD. The results of studies show that ToM disturbances occur both in schizophrenia and BD patients, however, in schizophrenia they are of greater severity. As for empathy, patients with schizophrenia have significant disturbances of recognizing emotions, as well as of cognitive and affective empathy. Patients with BD do not have abnormalities in cognitive empathy, have lesser disturbances of emotion recognition disorder compared with schizophrenia and show a connection between disturbances of affective empathy and the course of the disease (time period after manic or depressive episode). Further exploration of these issues seems important in order to determine to what extent the disturbances of social cognition can influence social and professional life of patients. It is also a potential area for therapeutic interventions supportive to pharmacotherapy.

  19. Health states for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder within the Global Burden of Disease 2010 Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrari Alize J

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A comprehensive revision of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD study is expected to be completed in 2012. This study utilizes a broad range of improved methods for assessing burden, including closer attention to empirically derived estimates of disability. The aim of this paper is to describe how GBD health states were derived for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. These will be used in deriving health state-specific disability estimates. A literature review was first conducted to settle on a parsimonious set of health states for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. A second review was conducted to investigate the proportion of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder cases experiencing these health states. These were pooled using a quality-effects model to estimate the overall proportion of cases in each state. The two schizophrenia health states were acute (predominantly positive symptoms and residual (predominantly negative symptoms. The three bipolar disorder health states were depressive, manic, and residual. Based on estimates from six studies, 63% (38%-82% of schizophrenia cases were in an acute state and 37% (18%-62% were in a residual state. Another six studies were identified from which 23% (10%-39% of bipolar disorder cases were in a manic state, 27% (11%-47% were in a depressive state, and 50% (30%-70% were in a residual state. This literature review revealed salient gaps in the literature that need to be addressed in future research. The pooled estimates are indicative only and more data are required to generate more definitive estimates. That said, rather than deriving burden estimates that fail to capture the changes in disability within schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, the derived proportions and their wide uncertainty intervals will be used in deriving disability estimates.

  20. The lived body in schizophrenia: Transition from basic self-disorders to full-blown psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor eIrarrázaval

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides the results of a phenomenological study of patients with schizophrenia during their first psychiatric hospitalisation. The study aims at clarify aspects related to the diagnosis of schizophrenia and to reach a greater understanding of the illness, with a view to contribute to prevention and psychotherapeutic intervention models. Firstly, the paper offers a description of the patients’ disembodiment manifested in acute phases of schizophrenia. Secondly, it presents a description of the subjective anomalies that may be considered as disorders of ipseity or of pre-reflexive self-awareness. Thirdly, the description is extended to encompass secondary disturbances to processes of establishing consensual intersubjectivity that lead to difficulties in shared communication practices and a progressive withdrawal from the intersubjective world. The conclusion states that a structural element, a key part of the personal processes involved in schizophrenia, is the diminishment of self-presence in experience, which manifests on both individual and social levels.

  1. Education and employment levels among Jamaican patients newly diagnosed with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Bertilee; Curtis-Downes, Desdemona; Gibson, Roger C

    2013-05-01

    Comparisons between persons with bipolar disorder and those with schizophrenia are not well researched in the Caribbean. To compare the educational and occupational attainments in Jamaicans diagnosed with these two disorders. Data on diagnosis, educational level, type of employment and other basic socio-demographic variables were collected from Jamaican hospital patients who were newly diagnosed with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Fisher's exact and χ2 tests, as well as binary logistic regression, were used to explore how these characteristics varied according to diagnosis. Statistical significance was taken at p educational attainment than bipolar disorder (p = .022 for educational level attained; p = .026 for completion of secondary school). The majority (87.1%) of the 93 patients included in the analysis had no specific marketable job skills. However, the proportion of persons with bipolar disorder who had such skills was three times the corresponding proportion of persons with schizophrenia. The low educational achievement among persons with schizophrenia makes education a potentially important area for interventions targeted at this group. Because gross deficiencies in job skills were common to both patient groups, improvement in job skill levels is an important goal for persons with either of these disorders.

  2. Prevalences of autoimmune diseases in schizophrenia, bipolar I and II disorder, and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremaschi, Laura; Kardell, Mathias; Johansson, Viktoria; Isgren, Anniella; Sellgren, Carl M; Altamura, A Carlo; Hultman, Christina M; Landén, Mikael

    2017-12-01

    Previous studies on the relationship between autoimmune diseases, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder are mainly based on hospital discharge registers with insufficient coverage of outpatient data. Furthermore, data is scant on the prevalence of autoimmune diseases in bipolar subgroups. Here we estimate the self-reported prevalences of autoimmune diseases in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder type I and II, and controls. Lifetime prevalence of autoimmune diseases was assessed through a structured interview in a sample of 9076 patients (schizophrenia N = 5278, bipolar disorder type I N = 1952, type II N = 1846) and 6485 controls. Comparative analyses were performed using logistic regressions. The prevalence of diabetes type 1 did not differ between groups. Hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism regardless of lithium effects, rheumatoid arthritis, and polymyalgia rheumatica were most common in bipolar disorder. Systemic lupus erythematosus was less common in bipolar disorder than in the other groups. The rate of autoimmune diseases did not differ significantly between bipolar subgroups. We conclude that prevalences of autoimmune diseases show clear differences between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, but not between the bipolar subgroups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Nonlinkage of D6S260, a putative schizophrenia locus, to bipolar affective disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, L.J.; Mitchell, P.B. [Univ. of South Wales (Australia); Salmon, J. [Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia)] [and others

    1996-09-20

    To examine whether genes that predispose to schizophrenia also confer a predisposition to other psychiatric disorders such as bipolar affective disorder (BAD), we tested for linkage between the recently identified schizophrenia susceptibility locus D6S260 and the inheritance of BAD in 12 large Australian pedigrees. We found no evidence for linkage over a region of 12-27 cM from the D6S260 locus, depending on the model used. Our results therefore do not provide support for the continuum theory of psychosis. 13 refs., 2 tabs.

  4. Cannabinoid CB1 receptor immunoreactivity in the prefrontal cortex: Comparison of schizophrenia and major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggan, Stephen M; Stoyak, Samuel R; Verrico, Christopher D; Lewis, David A

    2010-09-01

    We recently showed that measures of cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R) mRNA and protein were significantly reduced in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) area 9 in schizophrenia subjects relative to matched normal comparison subjects. However, other studies have reported unaltered or higher measures of CB1R levels in schizophrenia. To determine whether these discrepancies reflect differences across brain regions or across subject groups (eg, presence of depression, cannabis exposure, etc), we used immunocytochemical techniques to determine whether lower levels of CB1R immunoreactivity are (1) present in another DLPFC region, area 46, in the same subjects with schizophrenia, (2) present in area 46 in a new cohort of schizophrenia subjects, (3) present in major depressive disorder (MDD) subjects, or (4) attributable to factors other than a diagnosis of schizophrenia, including prior cannabis use. CB1R immunoreactivity levels in area 46 were significantly 19% lower in schizophrenia subjects relative to matched normal comparison subjects, a deficit similar to that observed in area 9 in the same subjects. In a new cohort of subjects, CB1R immunoreactivity levels were significantly 20 and 23% lower in schizophrenia subjects relative to matched comparison and MDD subjects, respectively. The lower levels of CB1R immunoreactivity in schizophrenia subjects were not explained by other factors such as cannabis use, suicide, or pharmacological treatment. In addition, CB1R immunoreactivity levels were not altered in monkeys chronically exposed to haloperidol. Thus, the lower levels of CB1R immunoreactivity may be common in schizophrenia, conserved across DLPFC regions, not present in MDD, and not attributable to other factors, and thus a reflection of the underlying disease process.

  5. Theory of mind in women with borderline personality disorder or schizophrenia: differences in overall ability and error patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Anja eVaskinn; Anja eVaskinn; Bjørnar T. eAntonsen; Bjørnar T. eAntonsen; Ragnhild A. eFretland; Isabel eDziobek; Kjetil eSundet; Kjetil eSundet; Theresa eWilberg

    2015-01-01

    Although borderline personality disorder and schizophrenia are notably different mental disorders, they share problems in social cognition – or understanding the feelings, intentions and thoughts of other people. To date no studies have directly compared the social cognitive abilities of individuals with these two disorders. In this study, the social cognitive subdomain theory of mind was investigated in females with borderline personality disorder (n = 25), females with schizophrenia (n = 25...

  6. The volumes of the fornix in schizophrenia and affective disorders: a post-mortem study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisch, Ralf; Bernstein, Hans-Gert; Stauch, Renate; Dobrowolny, Henrik; Krell, Dieter; Truebner, Kurt; Meyer-Lotz, Gabriela; Bielau, Hendrik; Steiner, Johann; Kropf, Siegfried; Gos, Tomasz; Danos, Peter; Bogerts, Bernhard

    2008-12-30

    Structural and functional pathology of limbic structures including the hippocampus are frequently replicated in schizophrenia. Although the fornix is the main afferent system of the hippocampus to the septal nuclei and the hypothalamus (especially the mammillary bodies), relatively few studies have investigated structural changes of the fornix in schizophrenia. We measured the volume of the fornix in post-mortem brains in 19 patients with schizophrenia, 9 patients with bipolar disorder, 7 patients with unipolar depression, and 14 control subjects by planimetry of serial sections. The volumes, the mean cross-sectional areas, and the anterior to posterior distances of the fornix did not differ among patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, unipolar depression, and control subjects. No lateralization existed between the right and the left fornices in among patients in the diagnostic groups and the control subjects. The fornix does not show morphometrical abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and unipolar depression compared with control subjects, which might indicate that the fornix is not a primary focus of structural changes in these diseases.

  7. Ziprasidone versus olanzapine, risperidone or quetiapine in patients with chronic schizophrenia: a 12-week open-label, multicentre clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lublin, Henrik; Haug, Hans-Joachim; Koponen, Hannu

    2009-01-01

    The efficacy, safety and tolerability of ziprasidone versus the comparators olanzapine, risperidone or quetiapine were investigated in adult patients with chronic schizophrenia, schizoaffective and schizophreniform disorders, with lack of efficacy or intolerance to their previous antipsychotic...... treatment based on clinical judgement of the investigator. A total of 293 patients were randomized to 12 weeks treatment with either ziprasidone 80-160 mg/day (n=147) or with one of the comparator drugs (n=146). In the latter group the investigator could choose between olanzapine 10-20 mg/day (n=24...... to the disadvantage of ziprasidone) to the composite group (olanzapine, risperidone or quetiapine) on the total PANSS score as well as on all subscores (P

  8. Overlapping and disease specific trait, response, and reflection impulsivity in adolescents with first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, J. R.M.; Rydkjaer, J.; Fagerlund, B.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Schizophrenia and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are developmental disorders with shared clinical characteristics such as cognitive impairments and impulsivity. Impulsivity is a core feature of ADHD and an important factor in aggression, violence, and substance use...

  9. Atypical visual and somatosensory adaptation in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, G N; Butler, J S; Peters, G A; Molholm, S; Foxe, J J

    2016-01-01

    Neurophysiological investigations in patients with schizophrenia consistently show early sensory processing deficits in the visual system. Importantly, comparable sensory deficits have also been established in healthy first-degree biological relatives of patients with schizophrenia and in first-episode drug-naive patients. The clear implication is that these measures are endophenotypic, related to the underlying genetic liability for schizophrenia. However, there is significant overlap between patient response distributions and those of healthy individuals without affected first-degree relatives. Here we sought to develop more sensitive measures of sensory dysfunction in this population, with an eye to establishing endophenotypic markers with better predictive capabilities. We used a sensory adaptation paradigm in which electrophysiological responses to basic visual and somatosensory stimuli presented at different rates (ranging from 250 to 2550 ms interstimulus intervals, in blocked presentations) were compared. Our main hypothesis was that adaptation would be substantially diminished in schizophrenia, and that this would be especially prevalent in the visual system. High-density event-related potential recordings showed amplitude reductions in sensory adaptation in patients with schizophrenia (N=15 Experiment 1, N=12 Experiment 2) compared with age-matched healthy controls (N=15 Experiment 1, N=12 Experiment 2), and this was seen for both sensory modalities. At the individual participant level, reduced adaptation was more robust for visual compared with somatosensory stimulation. These results point to significant impairments in short-term sensory plasticity across sensory modalities in schizophrenia. These simple-to-execute measures may prove valuable as candidate endophenotypes and will bear follow-up in future work. PMID:27163205

  10. Premorbid self-disorders and lifetime diagnosis in the schizophrenia spectrum: a prospective high-risk study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnas, Josef; Carter, John; Nordgaard, Julie

    2016-02-01

    The notion of a disordered self as a core disturbance of schizophrenia was proposed in many foundational texts. Recent studies, spurred by the development of the Examination of Anomalous Self-Experience (EASE), seem to indicate that self-disorders are a specific manifestation of schizophrenia vulnerability. Follow-up studies of help-seeking, prodromal and first-admission patients have demonstrated the utility of self-disorders for predicting later schizophrenia-spectrum disturbance. We wished to extend these findings by gauging the predictive value of self-disorders in a premorbid, non-clinical population at high risk for schizophrenia. Children from the Copenhagen High-Risk Project with high-genetic risk for schizophrenia (N = 212) were assessed premorbidly (average age = 15), and diagnostically re-evaluated after 10 and 25 years. Since the EASE was not available at the time of premorbid assessment, we hypothesized that a proxy scale drawn from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) could distinguish those who later developed a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder (N = 68) from those who remained healthy (N = 64). The Self-Disorder Scale comprised 32 items whose content suggested an aspect of self-disorder as measured by the EASE. Premorbid Self-Disorder Scale scores significantly predicted lifetime schizophrenia-spectrum diagnosis in the high-risk cohort. Although there was considerable item overlap between the new scale and an existing MMPI scale (psychoticism), the overlap did not account for the Self-Disorder Scale's predictive efficacy. The results support the notion of self-disorders as a core vulnerability feature in schizophrenia, detectable premorbidly in those developing later schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. © 2014 The Authors. Early Intervention in Psychiatry published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Differing correlates for suicide attempts among patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder in India and USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Triptish; Thomas, Pramod; Semwal, Prachi; Thelma, B.K.; Nimgaonkar, V.L.; Deshpande, Smita N.

    2017-01-01

    Background Suicide is one of the most common causes of death among persons with schizophrenia. Differing risk factors have been identified in published studies. The differences may have arisen because a uniform set of variables was not analyzed. Alternatively, the nature and effect of risk factors may vary in different settings. To test these possibilities, we investigated the same set of variables in two independent cross-national samples ascertained using identical protocols. Methods Patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (DSM IV criteria) were recruited in India (n=460) and the USA (n=424). Results Consistent with earlier publications, a diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder, history of depression, pattern of symptoms and educational status were significantly associated with suicide attempts in the US sample. None of these variables were significantly associated in the Indian sample. Conclusions The impact of known risk factors for suicide attempts among patients with schizophrenia differs across ethnic groups. PMID:16781121

  12. Cognitive deficits and levels of IQ in adolescent onset schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagerlund, Birgitte; Pagsberg, A Katrine; Hemmingsen, Ralf

    2006-01-01

    the profile and severity of cognitive impairments in first-episode early onset psychotic patients who received the schizophrenia diagnosis to those diagnosed with other non-organic, non-affective psychotic disorders. The secondary purpose was to examine whether the profile of cognitive deficits, in terms......Cognitive deficits have been found to be prevalent in early onset schizophrenia. Whether these deficits also characterise other early onset psychotic disorders to a similar degree is unclear, as very few comparative studies have been done. The primary purpose of this study was to compare...... of intelligence, executive functions, memory, attention and processing speed was global or specific. First-episode psychotic adolescents (N = 39) between the ages 11 and 17 years were included, 18 of whom were diagnosed with schizophrenia, and 21 with other non-organic, non-affective psychoses, using ICD-10...

  13. Association study of 21 circadian genes with bipolar I disorder, schizoaffective disorder, and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Hader A; Talkowski, Michael E; Wood, Joel; Chowdari, Kodavali V; McClain, Lora; Prasad, Konasale; Montrose, Debra; Fagiolini, Andrea; Friedman, Edward S; Allen, Michael H; Bowden, Charles L; Calabrese, Joseph; El-Mallakh, Rif S; Escamilla, Michael; Faraone, Stephen V; Fossey, Mark D; Gyulai, Laszlo; Loftis, Jennifer M; Hauser, Peter; Ketter, Terence A; Marangell, Lauren B; Miklowitz, David J; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Patel, Jayendra; Sachs, Gary S; Sklar, Pamela; Smoller, Jordan W; Laird, Nan; Keshavan, Matcheri; Thase, Michael E; Axelson, David; Birmaher, Boris; Lewis, David; Monk, Tim; Frank, Ellen; Kupfer, David J; Devlin, Bernie; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L

    2009-11-01

    Published studies suggest associations between circadian gene polymorphisms and bipolar I disorder (BPI), as well as schizoaffective disorder (SZA) and schizophrenia (SZ). The results are plausible, based on prior studies of circadian abnormalities. As replications have not been attempted uniformly, we evaluated representative, common polymorphisms in all three disorders. We assayed 276 publicly available 'tag' single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 21 circadian genes among 523 patients with BPI, 527 patients with SZ/SZA, and 477 screened adult controls. Detected associations were evaluated in relation to two published genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Using gene-based tests, suggestive associations were noted between EGR3 and BPI (p = 0.017), and between NPAS2 and SZ/SZA (p = 0.034). Three SNPs were associated with both sets of disorders (NPAS2: rs13025524 and rs11123857; RORB: rs10491929; p < 0.05). None of the associations remained significant following corrections for multiple comparisons. Approximately 15% of the analyzed SNPs overlapped with an independent study that conducted GWAS for BPI; suggestive overlap between the GWAS analyses and ours was noted at ARNTL. Several suggestive, novel associations were detected with circadian genes and BPI and SZ/SZA, but the present analyses do not support associations with common polymorphisms that confer risk with odds ratios greater than 1.5. Additional analyses using adequately powered samples are warranted to further evaluate these results.

  14. Subtypes of aggression in patients with schizophrenia: the role of personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Sune; Forth, Adelle; Kongerslev, Mickey; Haahr, Ulrik Helt; Pedersen, Liselotte; Simonsen, Erik

    2013-04-01

    Research has repeatedly demonstrated that schizophrenia has a small but significant association with violence. It is further recognised that a subgroup of people with such links also have personality disorders, but the extent to which type of violence or aggression varies according to subgroup is less clear. This study aimed to investigate, among co-morbid cases, if the number or type of personality disorders predicts type of aggression. In a cross-sectional study, 108 patients with schizophrenia were assessed for personality disorder, Axis-I diagnosis, verbal IQ, social functioning and type of aggression. Logistic regression revealed that the more personality disorders identified (Cluster B personality disorders compared with Clusters A and C) and anti-social personality disorder compared with other Cluster B disorders significantly predicted premeditated aggression. These findings suggest that detailed personality assessment should be a routine part of comprehensive assessment of patients with schizophrenia. Improved knowledge of the presence and type of personality disorders may help detect and manage the risk of some types of aggression. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spectrum and other psychotic disorders. In: American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013:87-122. Freudenreich O, Brown HE, Holt DJ. ...

  16. Emotional intelligence and non-social cognition in schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frajo-Apor, B; Kemmler, G; Pardeller, S; Plass, T; Mühlbacher, M; Welte, A-S; Fleischhacker, W W; Hofer, A

    2017-01-01

    The different patterns of Emotional Intelligence (EI) deficits in schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder are are not yet well understood. This study compares EI levels among these groups and highlights the potential impact of non-social cognition on EI. Fifty-eight schizophrenia and 60 bipolar outpatients were investigated using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) and the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS). Analyses of covariance were performed with adjustment for the BACS composite score. Compared to bipolar subjects, schizophrenia patients showed significantly lower levels in both EI and non-social cognition. After adjustment for the BACS composite score, the difference in EI was lost. The mediation analysis revealed that differences between schizophrenia and bipolar patients in strategic EI are almost fully attributable to the mediating effect of non-social cognition. Our findings suggest that in both schizophrenia and bipolar patients EI is strongly influenced by non-social cognitive functioning. This has to be taken into account when interpreting MSCEIT data in comparative studies in serious mental illness and emphasizes the importance of cognitive remediation.

  17. Impact of Substance Use Disorder on Presentation and Short-Term Course of Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudraprosad Chakraborty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare a cohort of schizophrenia patients with substance use disorder (SUD with a similar cohort of schizophrenia patients without SUD with regard to sociodemographic variables, clinical variables, psychopathology, anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, treatment outcome, and side effect profile of drugs. A total of 143 consecutive inpatients with ICD-10 DCR diagnosis of schizophrenia were included after obtaining informed consent. Patients were evaluated by a semistructured data sheet and Maudsley Addiction Profile. They were then rated by Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale, Calgary Depression Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale at presentation, three weeks, and six weeks. At three weeks and six weeks, they were also evaluated by UKU Side Effect Rating Scale. Substance abuse was detected in 63.6% schizophrenia patients. Nicotine was the commonest substance followed by cannabis and alcohol. Substance users had longer untreated illness and more depressive symptoms at presentation and six-week follow-up. Dual diagnosis patients had difficulty in abstraction at three and six weeks but not at presentation. Schizophrenia patients with SUD had more depressive symptoms. SUD appeared to mask abstraction difficulties at presentation. Schizophrenia patients with SUD should be carefully assessed for presence of depression.

  18. Intersubjectivity and Psychopathology in the Schizophrenia Spectrum: Complicated We, Compensatory Strategies, and Self-Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Mads Gram; Nilsson, Lars Siersbæk

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies in phenomenological psychopathology emphasize the importance of intersubjectivity for our understanding of schizophrenia. Yet, the central role of the "we" in social experience and engagement is largely absent from this literature. Our study explores the relation between psychopathology and intersubjectivity in the schizophrenia spectrum through the prism of the "we." First, we explore the role of intersubjectivity in the current schizophrenia spectrum definitions and discuss the main contemporary research trends. Second, we recollect some of the classical accounts of schizophrenia, which offer a different perspective on the pervasive and often persistent intersubjective difficulties in these conditions. Third, capitalizing on recent advances in collective intentionality studies, we present and discuss a conceptual framework of the "we" and of how the "we" may be disrupted in schizophrenia. Through this framework and with the use of clinical vignettes, we elicit 3 compensatory strategies, which, we suggest, reflect a fragile sense of "we" in the schizophrenia spectrum, i.e. (i) positive withdrawal, (ii) imposing a goal-oriented, spatiotemporal structure on intersubjective engagement, and (iii) preferring social activities with a clear attribution of social roles and rules. Finally, we discuss the relation between anomalous self-experiences (i.e. self-disorders) and the complicated "we." © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Emotional intelligence and non-social cognition in schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frajo-Apor, B.; Kemmler, G.; Pardeller, S.; Plass, T.; Mühlbacher, M.; Welte, A.-S.; Fleischhacker, W. W.; Hofer, A.

    2017-01-01

    Background The different patterns of Emotional Intelligence (EI) deficits in schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder are are not yet well understood. This study compares EI levels among these groups and highlights the potential impact of non-social cognition on EI. Method Fifty-eight schizophrenia and 60 bipolar outpatients were investigated using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) and the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS). Analyses of covariance were performed with adjustment for the BACS composite score. Results Compared to bipolar subjects, schizophrenia patients showed significantly lower levels in both EI and non-social cognition. After adjustment for the BACS composite score, the difference in EI was lost. The mediation analysis revealed that differences between schizophrenia and bipolar patients in strategic EI are almost fully attributable to the mediating effect of non-social cognition. Conclusions Our findings suggest that in both schizophrenia and bipolar patients EI is strongly influenced by non-social cognitive functioning. This has to be taken into account when interpreting MSCEIT data in comparative studies in serious mental illness and emphasizes the importance of cognitive remediation. PMID:27640523

  20. Hippocampal α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor levels in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten Skøtt; Weyn, Annelies; Mikkelsen, Jens D

    2011-01-01

    The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is involved in cognitive function and synaptic plasticity. Consequently, changes in α7 nAChR function have been implicated in a variety of mental disorders, especially schizophrenia. However, there is little knowledge regarding the levels of the α7 n...

  1. The rationale for early intervention in schizophrenia and related disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Jeppesen, Pia; Petersen, Lone

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Aim: To examine the rationale and evidence supporting an early intervention approach in schizophrenia. Methods: A selective literature review was conducted. Results: During the onset of schizophrenia, there is often a significant delay between the emergence of psychotic symptoms and the ......Abstract Aim: To examine the rationale and evidence supporting an early intervention approach in schizophrenia. Methods: A selective literature review was conducted. Results: During the onset of schizophrenia, there is often a significant delay between the emergence of psychotic symptoms...... and the initiation of treatment. The average duration of untreated psychosis is around 1–2 years. During this period, brain function may continue to deteriorate and social networks can be irreversibly damaged. Studies have consistently linked longer duration of untreated psychosis with poorer outcomes...... and this relationship holds even after controlling for the potential confounding variable of premorbid functioning. In Norway, the early Treatment and Intervention in PSychosis study demonstrated that duration of untreated psychosis is amenable to intervention with the combination of educational campaigns...

  2. No association between serum cholesterol and death by suicide in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder, or major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Yi, Ki Kyoung; Na, Riji; Lim, Ahyoung; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2013-12-05

    Previous research on serum total cholesterol and suicidality has yielded conflicting results. Several studies have reported a link between low serum total cholesterol and suicidality, whereas others have failed to replicate these findings, particularly in patients with major affective disorders. These discordant findings may reflect the fact that studies often do not distinguish between patients with bipolar and unipolar depression; moreover, definitions and classification schemes for suicide attempts in the literature vary widely. Subjects were patients with one of the three major psychiatric disorders commonly associated with suicide: schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder, and major depressive disorder (MDD). We compared serum lipid levels in patients who died by suicide (82 schizophrenia, 23 bipolar affective disorder, and 67 MDD) and non-suicide controls (200 schizophrenia, 49 bipolar affective disorder, and 175 MDD). Serum lipid profiles did not differ between patients who died by suicide and control patients in any diagnostic group. Our results do not support the use of biological indicators such as serum total cholesterol to predict suicide risk among patients with a major psychiatric disorder.

  3. Neural Mechanisms Underlying Affective Theory of Mind in Violent Antisocial Personality Disorder and/or Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, Boris; Pawliczek, Christina; Müller, Bernhard W; Wiltfang, Jens; Brüne, Martin; Forsting, Michael; Gizewski, Elke R; Leygraf, Norbert; Hodgins, Sheilagh

    2017-10-21

    Among violent offenders with schizophrenia, there are 2 sub-groups, one with and one without, conduct disorder (CD) and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), who differ as to treatment response and alterations of brain structure. The present study aimed to determine whether the 2 groups also differ in Theory of Mind and neural activations subsuming this task. Five groups of men were compared: 3 groups of violent offenders-schizophrenia plus CD/ASPD, schizophrenia with no history of antisocial behavior prior to illness onset, and CD/ASPD with no severe mental illness-and 2 groups of non-offenders, one with schizophrenia and one without (H). Participants completed diagnostic interviews, the Psychopathy Checklist Screening Version Interview, the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, authorized access to clinical and criminal files, and underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while completing an adapted version of the Reading-the-Mind-in-the-Eyes Task (RMET). Relative to H, nonviolent and violent men with schizophrenia and not CD/ASPD performed more poorly on the RMET, while violent offenders with CD/ASPD, both those with and without schizophrenia, performed similarly. The 2 groups of violent offenders with CD/ASPD, both those with and without schizophrenia, relative to the other groups, displayed higher levels of activation in a network of prefrontal and temporal-parietal regions and reduced activation in the amygdala. Relative to men without CD/ASPD, both groups of violent offenders with CD/ASPD displayed a distinct pattern of neural responses during emotional/mental state attribution pointing to distinct and comparatively successful processing of social information. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Schizophrenia: a neurodevelopmental disorder--integrative genomic hypothesis and therapeutic implications from a transgenic mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachowiak, M K; Kucinski, A; Curl, R; Syposs, C; Yang, Y; Narla, S; Terranova, C; Prokop, D; Klejbor, I; Bencherif, M; Birkaya, B; Corso, T; Parikh, A; Tzanakakis, E S; Wersinger, S; Stachowiak, E K

    2013-02-01

    Schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder featuring complex aberrations in the structure, wiring, and chemistry of multiple neuronal systems. The abnormal developmental trajectory of the brain appears to be established during gestation, long before clinical symptoms of the disease appear in early adult life. Many genes are associated with schizophrenia, however, altered expression of no one gene has been shown to be present in a majority of schizophrenia patients. How does altered expression of such a variety of genes lead to the complex set of abnormalities observed in the schizophrenic brain? We hypothesize that the protein products of these genes converge on common neurodevelopmental pathways that affect the development of multiple neural circuits and neurotransmitter systems. One such neurodevelopmental pathway is Integrative Nuclear FGFR1 Signaling (INFS). INFS integrates diverse neurogenic signals that direct the postmitotic development of embryonic stem cells, neural progenitors and immature neurons, by direct gene reprogramming. Additionally, FGFR1 and its partner proteins link multiple upstream pathways in which schizophrenia-linked genes are known to function and interact directly with those genes. A th-fgfr1(tk-) transgenic mouse with impaired FGF receptor signaling establishes a number of important characteristics that mimic human schizophrenia - a neurodevelopmental origin, anatomical abnormalities at birth, a delayed onset of behavioral symptoms, deficits across multiple domains of the disorder and symptom improvement with typical and atypical antipsychotics, 5-HT antagonists, and nicotinic receptor agonists. Our research suggests that altered FGF receptor signaling plays a central role in the developmental abnormalities underlying schizophrenia and that nicotinic agonists are an effective class of compounds for the treatment of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Quality indicators in the treatment of patients with depression, bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. Consensus study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Miquel; de Dios, Consuelo; Pérez, Víctor; Ignacio, Emilio; Serrano, Manuel; Vieta, Eduard; Mira, José Joaquín; Guilabert, Mercedes; Roca, Miquel

    To define a set of indicators for mental health care, monitoring quality assurance in schizophrenia, depression and bipolar disorders in Spain. Qualitative research. Consensus-based study involving 6 psychiatrists on the steering committee and a panel of 43 psychiatrists working in several health services in Spain. An initial proposal of 44 indicators for depression, 42 for schizophrenia and 58 for bipolar disorder was elaborated after reviewing the literature. This proposal was analysed by experts using the Delphi technique. The valuation of these indicators in successive rounds allowed those with less degree of consensus to be discarded. Feasibility, sensitivity and clinical relevance were considered. The study was carried out between July 2015 and March 2016. Seventy indicators were defined by consensus: 17 for major depression, 16 for schizophrenia, 17 for bipolar disorder and 20 common to all three pathologies. These indicators included measures related to adequacy, patient safety, exacerbation, mechanical restraint, suicidal behaviour, psychoeducation, adherence, mortality and physical health. This set of indicators allows quality monitoring in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia, depression or bipolar disorder. Mental health care authorities and professionals can use this proposal for developing a balanced scorecard adjusted to their priorities and welfare objectives. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Significant relationship between lifetime alcohol use disorders and suicide attempts in an Australian schizophrenia sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Duncan; Gladman, Beverley; Mowry, Bryan

    2012-02-01

    Suicide and attempted suicide are common in individuals with schizophrenia, and evidence exists for a link between substance use disorders and suicidality in this disorder. However, alcohol has not been consistently implicated. We examined the relationship between substance use disorders and suicide attempts in schizophrenia. We recruited a schizophrenia sample in Australia (n = 821) for genetic analyses. We analysed demographic and clinical variables, including substance use disorders, and their relationship to suicide attempts using generalised equation modelling. A significant association was identified between lifetime alcohol abuse/dependence and suicide attempts (OR = 1.66; 95% CI, 1.23 to 2.24; p = 0.001) after adjustment for potential confounders, but not between cannabis abuse/dependence and suicide attempts, nor between other illicit drug abuse/dependence and suicide attempts. Polysubstance abuse/dependence was also not implicated. These results suggest that the presence of alcohol abuse/dependence may be a risk factor for suicide attempts in individuals with schizophrenia, independent of comorbid substance abuse/dependence.

  7. Re-analysis of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia gene expression complements the Kraepelinian dichotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qian, Kui; Di Lieto, Antonio; Corander, Jukka

    2012-01-01

    The differential diagnosis of schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) is based solely on clinical features and upon a subset of overlapping symptoms. Within the last years, an increasing amount of clinical, epidemiological and genetic data suggested inconsistent with the Kraepelinian dichotomy...

  8. Cognitive functioning in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: A quantitative review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbendam, L.; Arts, B.; Van Os, J.; Aleman, A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Evidence suggests that cognitive functioning in bipolar disorder may be impaired even in euthymic states, but it is unclear if the pattern of deficits is similar to the deficits found in schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to review quantitatively the studies on cognitive performance

  9. Co-morbid anxiety disorders in patients with schizophrenia in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of anxiety disorders among the participants with schizophrenia .... mental illness. The WHODAS II is a self-report questionnaire that as- sesses activity limitations and disability in the previous month. It was developed to assess six different adult life tasks: ...

  10. Sleep Disturbances and Suicide Risk in an 8-Year Longitudinal Study of Schizophrenia-Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shirley Xin; Lam, Siu Ping; Zhang, Jihui; Yu, Mandy Wai Man; Chan, Joey Wing Yan; Chan, Cassandra Sheung Yan; Espie, Colin A; Freeman, Daniel; Mason, Oliver; Wing, Yun-Kwok

    2016-06-01

    Disrupted sleep is one of the prominent but often overlooked presenting symptoms in the clinical course of psychotic disorders. The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence of sleep disturbances, particularly insomnia and nightmares, and their prospective associations with the risk of suicide attempts in patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. A naturalistic longitudinal study was conducted in outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders recruited from the psychiatric outpatient clinic of a regional university-affiliated public hospital in Hong Kong. A detailed sleep questionnaire was completed by 388 patients at baseline in May-June 2006. Relevant clinical information was extracted from clinical case notes from June 2007-October 2014. Prevalence of frequent insomnia and frequent nightmares was 19% and 9%, respectively. Baseline frequent insomnia was significantly associated with an increased incidence of suicide attempts during the follow-up period (adjusted hazard ratio = 4.63, 95% confidence interval 1.40-15.36, P Sleep disturbances are common in patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. The association between sleep disturbances and suicidal risk underscores the need for enhanced clinical attention and intervention on sleep disturbances in patients with schizophrenia. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  11. Acute Antipsychotic Treatment of Children and Adolescents With Schizophrenia-Spectrum Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagsberg, Anne Katrine; Tarp, Simon; Glintborg, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    for ziprasidone and unclear for asenapine. Adverse reaction profiles varied substantially among the investigated antipsychotics and were largely consistent with prior findings in adults. Protocol registration information-Antipsychotic Treatment for Children With Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders: Network Meta......-Analysis of Randomised Trials; https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/; CRD42013006676....

  12. Support of association between BRD1 and both schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyegaard, Mette; Severinsen, Jacob E; Als, Thomas D

    2010-01-01

    A recent study published by our group implicated the bromodomain containing protein 1 (BRD1) gene located at chromosome 22q13.33 with schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar affective disorder (BPD) susceptibility and provided evidence suggesting a possible role for BRD1 in neurodevelopment. The present s...

  13. Assessment of relatedness between neurocan gene as bipolar disorder susceptibility locus and schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilijana Oruč

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Large scale genetic association meta-analyses showed that neurocan (NCAN gene polymorphism rs1064395 is susceptibility locus for bipolar disorder. These studies also included patients with bipolar disorder originated from Bosnia and Herzegovina. Followed by theory of shared genetic elements between bipolar disorder and schizophrenia susceptibility, other studies explored several genetic factors with schizophrenia vulnerability as well. In this work, authors investigated the association between previously confirmed bipolar disorder genetic risk factor-neurocan with schizophrenia in a population sample of Bosnia and Herzegovina.Ethical aspects of this research were assessed by Ethics Committee of Clinical Center University of Sarajevo. Blood samples for DNA extraction were taken from the total of 86 patients and healthy individuals who previously signed informed consent. Genotyping for rs 1064395 was done using direct sequencing method. A case-control analysis of common genetic polymorphism within neurocan gene and schizophrenia status in a consecutively sampled patient cohort have been done using Fisher-exact test with odds-ratio calculation. No statistically significant allele and genotype association with disease status was found (p>0.05.Our finding supports the fact that large-scale genetic association studies approach need to be employed when detecting the variants with small additive effect in phenotypes with complex ethiology.

  14. Auditory verbal hallucinations in patients with borderline personality disorder are similar to those in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slotema, C. W.; Daalman, K.; Blom, J. D.; Diederen, K. M.; Hoek, H. W.; Sommer, I. E. C.

    Background. Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) are frequently claimed to be brief, less severe and qualitatively different from those in schizophrenia, hence the term 'pseudohallucinations'. AVH in BPD may be more similar to those experienced

  15. Prevalence and classification of hallucinations in multiple sensory modalities in schizophrenia spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lim, Anastasia; Hoek, Hans W.; Deen, Mathijs L.; Blom, Jan Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Background: Auditory hallucinations are experienced by 60-80% of all patients diagnosed with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder. However, in this patient group, the prevalence of hallucinations in multiple sensory modalities, i.e. multimodal hallucinations (MMHs), is unknown. Aims: To assess the

  16. Prevalence and classification of hallucinations in multiple sensory modalities in schizophrenia spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lim, Anastasia; Hoek, Hans W.; Deen, Mathijs L.; Blom, Jan Dirk; Bruggeman, Richard; Cahn, Wiepke; de Haan, Lieuwe; Kahn, René S.; Meijer, Carin J.; Myin-Germeys, Inez; van Os, Jim; Wiersma, Durk

    2016-01-01

    Background Auditory hallucinations are experienced by 60–80% of all patients diagnosed with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder. However, in this patient group, the prevalence of hallucinations in multiple sensory modalities, i.e. multimodal hallucinations (MMHs), is unknown. Aims To assess the

  17. Clinical manifestations of self-disorders and the Gestalt of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Mads Gram; Parnas, Josef

    2012-01-01

    Anomalies of self-experience (self-disorders) constitute crucial phenotypes of the schizophrenia spectrum. The following qualitative study demonstrates a variety of these core experiential anomalies. From a sample of 36 first-admitted patients, all of whom underwent a comprehensive psychiatric ev...

  18. Factors associated with overweight and obesity in schizophrenia, schizoaffective and bipolar disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouinard, Virginie-Anne; Pingali, Samira M; Chouinard, Guy; Henderson, David C; Mallya, Sonal G; Cypess, Aaron M; Cohen, Bruce M; Öngür, Dost

    2016-03-30

    Evidence suggests abnormal bioenergetic status throughout the body in psychotic disorders. The present study examined predictors of elevated body mass index (BMI) across diagnostic categories of schizophrenia, schizoaffective and bipolar disorders. In a cross-sectional study, we studied demographic and clinical risk factors for overweight and obesity in a well-characterized sample of 262 inpatients and outpatients with schizophrenia (n=59), schizoaffective disorder (n=81) and bipolar I disorder (n=122). Across the three diagnostic categories, the prevalence of overweight (29.4%) and obesity (33.2%) combined was 62.6% (164/262). Logistic regression analyses, adjusted for age, sex and ethnicity, showed that schizoaffective disorder, lifetime major depressive episode, presence of prior suicide attempt, and more than 5 lifetime hospitalizations were significantly associated with BMI≥25. Patients with schizophrenia had significantly lower risk for overweight and obesity. Overall, we found that affective components of illness were associated with elevated BMI in our cross-diagnostic sample. Our results show that patients with schizoaffective disorder have a greater risk for obesity. Identifying predictors of elevated BMI in patients with psychotic and mood disorders will help prevent obesity and related cardiovascular and cerebral complications. Future studies are needed to elucidate the mechanistic nature of the relationship between obesity and psychiatric illness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The needs of carers: a comparison between eating disorders and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graap, Holmer; Bleich, Stefan; Herbst, Florian; Scherzinger, Charlotte; Trostmann, Yvonne; Wancata, Johannes; de Zwaan, Martina

    2008-10-01

    This pilot study compares the level of distress and the need for support between carers of patients with anorexia (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) and carers of patients with schizophrenia. Thirty-two carers of patients suffering from AN and BN and 30 carers of patients with schizophrenia filled out the general health questionnaire (GHQ-12) and the burden inventory (BI). In addition, they were interviewed with a semi-structured research interview, the carers' needs assessment (CNA), to assess relevant problem areas as well as the need for helpful interventions. Patients with an eating disorder were interviewed with the eating disorder examination (EDE) and patients with schizophrenia with the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) to assess the severity of the disorder. The mean duration of illness was 5.3 years in the patients with eating disorders and 7.3 years in the patients with schizophrenia. Most of the carers were mothers or partners. In the CNA we found high numbers of problems as well as high numbers of unmet needs for interventions. The most frequently mentioned problem areas in all groups of carers were "disappointment caused by the chronic course of the illness, concerns about the patient's future" and "problems in communication with the patient". The most frequently reported need for support in all groups was "counseling and support by a professional". Carers of patients with BN reported a significantly lower number of problems and of needs for interventions compared to the carers of patients with AN and schizophrenia. Also in the BI and the GHQ-12 we found significantly lower total scores in carers of patients with BN. Carers of patients with AN and schizophrenia did not differ significantly in any of the assessments. The severity or duration of illness of the patients did not correlate with the carers' burden or needs. Carers of patients with an eating disorder and carers of patients with schizophrenia are burdened with similar problems and have

  20. Illness management and recovery programme for people with severe mental illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsbek, Lisa; Dalum, Helle Stentoft; Lindschou, Jane

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the benefits and harms of the curriculum-based intervention IMR for people with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like psychoses (schizophreniform and schizoaffective disorders).......To investigate the benefits and harms of the curriculum-based intervention IMR for people with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like psychoses (schizophreniform and schizoaffective disorders)....

  1. Psychopathological and pathopsychological features of depressive disorders in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталія Олександрівна Марута

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the modern literature on the problem of depressive disorders in schizophrenia structure demonstrated that despite the acceptance of the important role of depressive disorders at schizophrenia there are no single opinion about its place, clinical assessment, therapy, prognostic value for today and the conclusions of different authors on this problem are ambiguous and contradictory that proves that the researches of this direction are timely.Aim of research – to study the clinical-psychopathological and pathopsychological features of depressive disorders in patients with schizophrenia for improvement of diagnostics of this pathology.Materials and methods. 120 patients with schizophrenia and depressive symptomatology in the clinical picture took part in research. They were divided into 3 groups according to the aim of research: 38 patients with schizophrenia with the duration of disease less than 5 years (I group, 39 patients with the duration of disease 7-8 years (II group and 43 patients with duration of disease more than 13 years (III group.For realization of the aim were used the following methods: clinical-psychopathological that included the assessment of psychic state of patient (collection of complaints, anamnesis, its psychopathological interpretation; Calgary depression scale schizophrenia (CDSS; WHO brief questionnaire of the quality of life (WHOQOL- BREF; questionnaire of the social isolation “The method of evaluation of the suicide risk”, “Self-actualization test” and method of statistical processing of the received data.Results of research. At the research was studied and described the syndrome structure of depression at schizophrenia and pathopsychological features of demonstration of depression at schizophrenia. There was shown that at the different stages of disease depression undergo the significant changes: anxious and obsessive syndrome complexes with time lose its emotional specificity and transform into

  2. GeneAnalytics Pathway Analysis and Genetic Overlap among Autism Spectrum Disorder, Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen S. Khanzada

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar disorder (BPD and schizophrenia (SCH show similar neuropsychiatric behavioral disturbances, including impaired social interaction and communication, seen in autism spectrum disorder (ASD with multiple overlapping genetic and environmental influences implicated in risk and course of illness. GeneAnalytics software was used for pathway analysis and genetic profiling to characterize common susceptibility genes obtained from published lists for ASD (792 genes, BPD (290 genes and SCH (560 genes. Rank scores were derived from the number and nature of overlapping genes, gene-disease association, tissue specificity and gene functions subdivided into categories (e.g., diseases, tissues or functional pathways. Twenty-three genes were common to all three disorders and mapped to nine biological Superpathways including Circadian entrainment (10 genes, score = 37.0, Amphetamine addiction (five genes, score = 24.2, and Sudden infant death syndrome (six genes, score = 24.1. Brain tissues included the medulla oblongata (11 genes, score = 2.1, thalamus (10 genes, score = 2.0 and hypothalamus (nine genes, score = 2.0 with six common genes (BDNF, DRD2, CHRNA7, HTR2A, SLC6A3, and TPH2. Overlapping genes impacted dopamine and serotonin homeostasis and signal transduction pathways, impacting mood, behavior and physical activity level. Converging effects on pathways governing circadian rhythms support a core etiological relationship between neuropsychiatric illnesses and sleep disruption with hypoxia and central brain stem dysfunction.

  3. Childhood trauma in schizophrenia spectrum disorders as compared to substance abuse disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mørkved, Nina; Winje, Dagfinn; Dovran, Anders; Arefjord, Kjersti; Johnsen, Erik; Kroken, Rune Andreas; Anda-Ågotnes, Liss-Gøril; Thimm, Jens C; Sinkeviciute, Igne; Rettenbacher, Maria; Løberg, Else-Marie

    2018-03-01

    The prevalence of childhood trauma (CT) in schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs) and substance abuse disorders (SUDs) is high. Direct comparisons of CT in these disorders are lacking, and it is not known whether there are differences in self-reported CT in SSDs as compared to SUDs. We aimed to compare the frequency, severity and types of CT in SDDs and SUDs. Patients with SSDs (n = 57) and SUDs (n = 57) were matched for age and gender. Overall levels of CT and CT subtypes were measured retrospectively by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire Short-Form (CTQ-SF), and grouped into none/low and moderate/severe levels of CT. Group differences in CTQ-SF sum score and subscale scores, as well as differences in the severity of overall CT and CT subtypes were all non-significant. In both groups, 64.9% reported ≥ 1 subtypes of CT above cut-off. Of those who reported CT above the cut-off, 13.5% in the psychosis group reported ≥ 4 subtypes, as compared to 2.7% in the substance abuse group. We did not find statistically significant differences between SSDs and SUDs in terms of exposure to CT frequency or severity, all effect sizes were small (r < 0.15). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Genetics Home Reference: schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share: Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Schizophrenia Schizophrenia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Schizophrenia is a brain disorder classified as a psychosis, ...

  5. EFFICACY OF COMMUNITY TREATMENTS FOR SCHIZOPHRENIA AND OTHER PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS: A LITERATURE REVIEW.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio eArmijo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Chile, the clinical guidelines For the Treatment of People from First Episode of Schizophrenia aim to support individuals with schizophrenia to live independently, establishment occupational goals, and gain an adequate quality of life and social interaction. This requires the implementation of a treatment model that integrates psychosocial and pharmacological dimensions. Community intervention strategies ensure the achievement of these goals.Objectives: This study compiles and synthesizes available scientific evidence from the last 14 years on the effectiveness of community intervention strategies for schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. Methodology: An electronic search was carried out using PUBMED, LILACS and Science-Direct as databases. Criteria of inclusion: i: randomized clinical trials, ii. Community-based interventions, iii. diagnosis of schizophrenia or related psychotic disorder (section F2 of ICD-10. Exclusion Criteria: i. treatments exclusively pharmacological, ii. Interventions carried out in inpatient settings, ii. bipolar affective disorder or substance-induced psychosis (greater than 50% of sample. Results: 66 articles were reviewed. Community strategies for integrated treatment from the first outbreak of schizophrenia significantly reduced negative and psychotic symptoms, days of hospitalization, and comorbidity with substance abuse and improved global functioning and adherence to treatment. In other stages, there were improved outcomes in negative and positive symptoms and general psychopathology. Psychoeducation for patients and families reduced the levels of self-stigma and domestic abuse, as well as improved knowledge of the disease and treatment adherence. Training focused on cognitive, social, and labor skills has been shown to improve yields in social functioning and employment status. Conclusions: Community-based intervention strategies are widely supported in the treatment of patients with

  6. Efficacy of community treatments for schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armijo, Julio; Méndez, Emmanuel; Morales, Ricardo; Schilling, Sara; Castro, Ariel; Alvarado, Rubén; Rojas, Graciela

    2013-10-09

    In Chile, the clinical guidelines "for the treatment of people from first episode of schizophrenia" aim to support individuals with schizophrenia to live independently, establishment occupational goals, and gain an adequate quality of life and social interaction. This requires the implementation of a treatment model that integrates psychosocial and pharmacological dimensions. Community intervention strategies ensure the achievement of these goals. This study compiles and synthesizes available scientific evidence from the last 14 years on the effectiveness of community intervention strategies for schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. An electronic search was carried out using PUBMED, LILACS, and Science Direct as databases. Criteria of inclusion: (i) randomized clinical trials, (ii) Community-based interventions, (iii) diagnosis of schizophrenia or related psychotic disorder (section F2 of ICD-10). (i) treatments exclusively pharmacological, (ii) interventions carried out in inpatient settings, (iii) bipolar affective disorder or substance-induced psychosis (greater than 50% of sample). Sixty-six articles were reviewed. Community strategies for integrated treatment from the first outbreak of schizophrenia significantly reduced negative and psychotic symptoms, days of hospitalization, and comorbidity with substance abuse and improved global functioning and adherence to treatment. In other stages, there were improved outcomes in negative and positive symptoms and general psychopathology. Psychoeducation for patients and families reduced the levels of self-stigma and domestic abuse, as well as improved knowledge of the disease and treatment adherence. Training focused on cognitive, social, and labor skills has been shown to improve yields in social functioning and employment status. Community-based intervention strategies are widely supported in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia.

  7. The association between Darier disease, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia revisited: a population-based family study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederlöf, Martin; Bergen, Sarah E; Långström, Niklas; Larsson, Henrik; Boman, Marcus; Craddock, Nick; Östberg, Per; Lundström, Sebastian; Sjölander, Arvid; Nordlind, Klas; Landén, Mikael; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2015-05-01

    Darier disease is an autosomal dominant skin disorder caused by mutations in the ATPase, Ca++ transporting, cardiac muscle, slow twitch 2 (ATP2A2) gene and previously reported to cosegregate with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in occasional pedigrees. It is, however, unknown whether these associations exist also in the general population, and the objective of this study was to examine this question. We compared a national sample of individuals with Darier disease and their first-degree relatives with matched unexposed individuals from the general population and their first-degree relatives, respectively. To examine risks for bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using conditional logistic regressions. Individuals with Darier disease had a 4.3 times higher risk of being diagnosed with bipolar disorder (95% CI: 2.6-7.3) and a 2.3 times higher risk of being diagnosed with schizophrenia (95% CI: 1.1-5.2) than matched individuals from the general population. Relatives of individuals with Darier disease had a 1.6 times higher risk of having bipolar disorder (95% CI: 1.1-2.5) than relatives of matched individuals from the general population, but no increased risk of schizophrenia (risk ratio = 0.8, 95% CI: 0.4-1.8). The association between Darier disease and bipolar disorder is manifest also in the population, and our data suggest that genetic variability within the ATP2A2 gene that causes Darier disease also confers susceptibility for bipolar disorder. The Darier-causing mutations merit additional attention in molecular genetic research on bipolar disorder. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Childhood residential mobility, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder: a population-based study in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paksarian, Diana; Eaton, William W; Mortensen, Preben B; Pedersen, Carsten B

    2015-03-01

    Childhood adversity is gaining increasing attention as a plausible etiological factor in the development of psychotic disorders. Childhood residential mobility is a potential risk factor that has received little attention in this context. We used registry data to estimate associations of residential mobility with narrow and broad schizophrenia and bipolar disorder across the course of childhood among 1.1 million individuals born in Denmark 1971-1991 and followed from age 15 through 2010. We assessed effect modification by sex, family history of mental disorder, the presence of siblings close in age, and distance moved. In individual-year models adjusted for family history, urbanicity at birth, and parental age, mobility at all ages except the year of birth was associated with heightened risk of narrow and broad schizophrenia, and risk increased with age at moving and with the number of moves. Further adjustment for mobility at all ages 0-15 revealed associations mainly during the latter half of childhood, which were strongest during adolescence. Associations between mobility and bipolar disorder were fewer and weaker compared to schizophrenia. There was modest evidence of interaction with family history of psychiatric diagnosis, but little evidence for interaction by sex, the presence of closely-aged siblings, or distance moved. Schizophrenia associations did not appear attributable to increased mobility among adolescents with earlier onset. Mobility may increase risk for psychotic disorders, particularly schizophrenia. Children may be especially vulnerable during adolescence. Future research should investigate the importance of school changes and the potential for interaction with genetic risk. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  9. Fatty acid composition of the postmortem prefrontal cortex of patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamazaki, Kei; Maekawa, Motoko; Toyota, Tomoko; Dean, Brian; Hamazaki, Tomohito; Yoshikawa, Takeo

    2015-06-30

    Postmortem brain studies have shown abnormal levels of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially docosahexaenoic acid, in the frontal cortex (particularly the orbitofrontal cortex) of patients with depression, schizophrenia, or bipolar disorder. However, the results from regions in the frontal cortex other than the orbitofrontal cortex are inconsistent. In this study we investigated whether patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depressive disorder have abnormalities in PUFA levels in the prefrontal cortex [Brodmann area (BA) 8]. In postmortem studies, fatty acids in the phospholipids of the prefrontal cortex (BA8) were evaluated by thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography. Specimens were evaluated for patients with schizophrenia (n=15), bipolar disorder (n=15), or major depressive disorder (n=15) and compared with unaffected controls (n=15). In contrast to previous studies, we found no significant differences in the levels of PUFAs or other fatty acids in the prefrontal cortex (BA8) between patients and controls. Subanalysis by sex also showed no significant differences. No significant differences were found in any individual fatty acids between suicide and non-suicide cases. These psychiatric disorders might be characterized by very specific fatty acid compositions in certain areas of the brain, and BA8 might not be involved in abnormalities of PUFA metabolism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Avoidant Personality Disorder is a Separable Schizophrenia Spectrum Personality Disorder even when Controlling for the Presence of Paranoid and Schizotypal Personality Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Fogelson, D. L.; Nuechterlein, K. H.; Asarnow, R. A.; Payne, D. L.; Subotnik, K. L.; Jacobson, K. C.; Neale, M. C.; Kendler, K. S.

    2007-01-01

    It is unresolved whether avoidant personality disorder (APD) is an independent schizophrenia (Sz)-spectrum personality disorder (PD). Some studies find APD and social anxiety symptoms (Sxs) to be a separable dimension of psychopathology in relatives (Rels) of schizophrenics while other studies find avoidant Sxs to be correlated with schizotypal and paranoid Sxs.

  11. Effects of the diagnostic label 'schizophrenia', actively used or passively accepted, on general practitioners' views of this disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magliano, Lorenza; Strino, Antonella; Punzo, Rosanna; Acone, Roberta; Affuso, Gaetana; Read, John

    2017-05-01

    General practitioners (GPs) play a key role in the care of somatic and psychiatric problems in people diagnosed with schizophrenia (PWS). It is probable that, like other health professionals, GPs are not all free of prejudices toward PWS. In clinical practice, GPs sometimes interact with clients diagnosed with schizophrenia by specialists, passively accepting this diagnosis. Other times, GPs interact with clients having symptoms of schizophrenia but who have not been diagnosed. In this case, GPs are expected to actively make a diagnosis. Giving the key role of GPs in the process of care, it is worthwhile examining whether passive acceptance and active usage of the diagnosis schizophrenia have differential effects on GPs' attitudes toward people with this disorder. To investigate GPs' views of schizophrenia and whether they were influenced by a 'schizophrenia' label, passively accepted or actively used. A total of 430 randomly selected GPs were invited to complete a questionnaire about their views of schizophrenia, either after reading a description of this disorder and making a diagnosis, or without being provided with a description but passively accepting the label 'schizophrenia' given in the questionnaire. The GPs who passively accepted the label schizophrenia ( n = 195) and those who actively identified schizophrenia from the description ( n = 127) had similar views. Compared to the GPs who did not identify schizophrenia in the description ( n = 65), those who used the diagnosis, actively or passively: more frequently reported heredity and less frequently psychosocial factors as causes of the disorder; were more skeptical about recovery; were more convinced of the need for long-term pharmacotherapies; believed more strongly that PWS should be discriminated against when in medical hospital; and perceived PWS as more dangerous and as kept at greater social distance. The diagnosis 'schizophrenia', however used, is associated with pessimistic views

  12. A Meta-Analysis of Neuropsychological Functioning in Patients with Early Onset Schizophrenia and Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Rebeca Garcia; Castellanos, F. Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Despite the nosological distinction between bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, there is increasing evidence that these conditions share phenomenological characteristics. To examine the similarities in their patterns of cognitive impairment, we conducted a meta-analysis from 12 studies of Early Onset Schizophrenia (EOS) and 12 studies of Pediatric…

  13. Adjuvant Aspirin Therapy Reduces Symptoms of Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders : Results From a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, Wijnand; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Selten, Jean-Paul; Heijnen, Cobi J.; Kahn, Rene S.; Burger, Huibert

    Objective: Inflammatory processes may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of adjuvant treatment with aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Method: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled

  14. Comparison of metabolic syndrome prevalence in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayerifard, Razieh; Bureng, Majid Akbari; Zahiroddin, Alireza; Namjoo, Massood; Rajezi, Sepideh

    2017-11-01

    Research has shown that the metabolic syndrome is more prevalent among patients with schizophrenia or bipolar I disorder. Given the scarcity of research on the disorders, this paper aims to compare the prevalence of the syndrome among the two groups of patients. A total of 120 individuals participated in this cross sectional study: 60 patients with schizophrenia (26 males and 34 females) and 60 patients with bipolar I disorder (32 males and 28 females). The psychological disorders were diagnosed by some experienced psychiatrists according to the DSM-V. Furthermore, metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to ATP III guidelines. Metabolic syndrome prevalence among schizophrenic and bipolar I patients was 28 and 36 percent, respectively; the disparity in prevalence is not significant. According to the results, compared to their male counterparts, females were more prone significant to metabolic syndrome. Moreover, diastolic blood pressure was significantly higher among bipolar I patients. On the other hand, schizophrenic males were observed to have higher fasting blood sugar levels in comparison to bipolar I males patients. Age, consumption of second generation antipsychotics or antidepressants, and the duration of the disorder were found to be related to metabolic syndrome. This study showed that metabolic syndrome is not more prevalent among bipolar I patients, compared to those with schizophrenia. Also, women are more likely to be affected by the syndrome. A number of factors such as age, consumption of medication, and duration of the disorder are associated with the likelihood of the syndrome. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. A possible common basis for MDD, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia: Lessons from electrophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goded eShahaf

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is ample electrophysiological evidence of attention dysfunction in the EEG/ERP signal of various psychopathologies such as major depressive disorder (MDD, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. The reduced attention-related ERP waves show much similarity between MDD, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia, raising the question whether there are similarities in the neurophysiologic process that underlies attention dysfunction in these pathologies. The present work suggests that there is such a unified underlying neurophysiologic process, which results in reduced attention in the three pathologies. Naturally, as these pathologies involve different clinical manifestations, we expect differences in their underlying neurophysiology. These differences and their subtle manifestation in the ERP marker for attention are also discussed.MDD, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia are just three of multiple neuropsychiatric disorders, which involve changes in the EEG/ERP manifestations of attention. Further work should expand the basic model presented here to offer comprehensive modeling of these multiple disorders and to emphasize similarities and dissimilarities of the underlying neurophysiologic processes.

  16. A Comparison of Brain/Behavioral Systems, and Quality of Life among Patients with Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Najafi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the research was to compare brain/behavioral systems, and quality of life among people with schizophrenia, people with bipolar disorder, and normal people. Materials and Methods: In this causal-comparative research, 90 people consisting of people with schizophrenia, people with bipolar disorder, and normal people were selected using access sampling method, and they completed the Gray-Wilson Personality Questionnaire and Quality of Life Scale. Results: The findings suggested that there is a significant difference in behavioral inhibition and activation inhibition between normal people and people with bipolar disorder, as well as in sub-scales from quality of life of normal people and people with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Conclusion: Impairment in brain/behavioral systems and low quality of life provides explanations for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

  17. Association between alcohol and substance use disorders and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and unipolar depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorthøj, Carsten; Østergaard, Marie Louise Drivsholm; Benros, Michael Eriksen

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: People with severe mental illness have both increased mortality and are more likely to have a substance use disorder. We assessed the association between mortality and lifetime substance use disorder in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or unipolar depression. METHODS......: In this prospective, register-based cohort study, we obtained data for all people with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or unipolar depression born in Denmark in 1955 or later from linked nationwide registers. We obtained information about treatment for substance use disorders (categorised into treatment for alcohol...... standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) to compare the mortality in the study populations to that of the background population. FINDINGS: Our population included 41 470 people with schizophrenia, 11 739 people with bipolar disorder, and 88 270 people with depression. In schizophrenia, the SMR in those...

  18. Schizophrenia and delusional disorders with onset in later life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassett Anne

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia-spectrum illness is most commonly associated with an onset in early adulthood. When non-affective psychotic symptoms emerge for the first time in later life, the clinical presentation has both similarities and differences with earlier-onset syndromes. This situation has resulted in continuing debate about the nosological status of late-onset psychosis, and whether there are particular risk factors associated with this late-life peak in incidence. Although early cognitive decline is frequently identified in these patients, studies, to date, have not established if there is a relationship with the dementing illnesses of old age. Sensory impairment, social isolation, and a family history of schizophrenia have been associated with late-onset psychosis, but appear to exert a nonspecific influence on vulnerability. While diagnostic issues remain unresolved, clinicians need to formulate treatment strategies that most appropriately address the constellation of symptoms in the clinical presentation of their psychotic elderly patients.

  19. The rationale for early intervention in schizophrenia and related disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Jeppesen, Pia; Petersen, Lone

    2009-01-01

    , adherence to treatment, comorbid drug abuse, relapse and readmission. Some benefits persist after cessation of the intervention. Conclusions: Early intervention in schizophrenia is justified to reduce the negative personal and social impact of prolonged periods of untreated symptoms. Furthermore, phase...... and this relationship holds even after controlling for the potential confounding variable of premorbid functioning. In Norway, the early Treatment and Intervention in PSychosis study demonstrated that duration of untreated psychosis is amenable to intervention with the combination of educational campaigns...

  20. Treatment outcome of schizophrenia co-morbid with obsessive-compulsive disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.N.S.; Arshad, N.; Naeem Ullah

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the pharmacological treatment outcome of schizophrenia, co-morbid with obsessive-compulsive disorder by comparing the effects of typical neuroleptic, atypical neuroleptic and a combination of typical with anti-obsessional drugs on positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia and obsessional symptoms. Subjects and Methods: The sample consisted of 39 patients suffering from schizophrenia co-morbid with obsessive- compulsive disorder. They were divided in three groups according to the pharmacological treatment given by the treating psychiatrists. Sample was assessed at the start of treatment and twelve weeks later. Results: Patients receiving typical neuroleptics and anti-obsessional drugs showed better outcome (p < .05) both in psychotic (pre-intervention mean scores of positive scale of PANSS 26.90 as compared to postinterventional mean scores 19.00) and obsessional symptoms (pre-intervention mean scores on Padua Inventory 165.00 compared to 84.00 postinterventional mean scores) than those receiving typical and atypical neuroleptics alone. Conclusion: Treatment outcome of schizophrenia co-morbid with obsessive-compulsive disorder shows better results if anti-obsessional drugs are added to the neuroleptics. (author)

  1. Factor structure of the Bern Psychopathology Scale in a sample of patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Fabian U; Stierlin, Annabel S; Stegmayer, Katharina; Walther, Sebastian; Becker, Thomas; Jäger, Markus

    2015-10-01

    The Bern Psychopathology Scale (BPS) is based on a system-specific approach to classifying the psychopathological symptom pattern of schizophrenia. It consists of subscales for three domains (language, affect and motor behaviour) that are hypothesized to be related to specific brain circuits. The aim of the study was to examine the factor structure of the BPS in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. One hundred and forty-nine inpatients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders were recruited at the Department of Psychiatry II, Ulm University, Germany (n=100) and at the University Hospital of Psychiatry, Bern, Switzerland (n=49). Psychopathology was assessed with the BPS. The VARCLUS procedure of SAS(®) (a type of oblique component analysis) was used for statistical analysis. Six clusters were identified (inhibited language, inhibited motor behaviour, inhibited affect, disinhibited affect, disinhibited language/motor behaviour, inhibited language/motor behaviour) which explained 40.13% of the total variance of the data. A binary division of attributes into an inhibited and disinhibited cluster was appropriate, although an overlap was found between the language and motor behaviour domains. There was a clear distinction between qualitative and quantitative symptoms. The results argue for the validity of the BPS in identifying subsyndromes of schizophrenia spectrum disorders according to a dimensional approach. Future research should address the longitudinal assessment of dimensional psychopathological symptoms and elucidate the underlying neurobiological processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Theory of mind in bipolar disorder and its comparison to the impairments observed in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L. C. Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to make sense of information on the potential intentions and dispositions of others is of paramount importance for understanding their communicative intent, and for judging what an appropriate reaction might be. Thus anything that impinges on this ability has the potential to cause significant social impairment, and compromise an individual’s level of functioning. Both bipolar disorder and schizophrenia are known to feature theory of mind impairment. We conducted a theoretical review to determine the extent and types of theory of mind impairment in bipolar disorder, and evaluate their relationship to medication and symptoms. We also considered possible mediatory mechanisms, and set out to discover what else could be learnt about the impairment in bipolar disorder by comparison to the profile of impairment in schizophrenia. The literature established that in bipolar disorder (i some form of theory of mind impairment has been observed in all mood states, including euthymia, (ii the form of theory of mind assessed and task used to make the assessment influence the impairment observed, and (iii there might be some relationship to cognitive impairment, although a relationship to standard clinical variables was harder to establish. What also became clear in the literature on bipolar disorder itself was the possible relationship of theory of mind impairment to history of psychotic symptoms. Direct comparative studies including patients with schizophrenia were thus examined, and provided several important directions for future research on the bases of impairment in bipolar disorder. Particularly prominent was the issue of whether theory of mind impairment could be considered a candidate endophenotype for the psychoses, although current evidence suggests this may be premature. The differences in impairment across schizophrenia and bipolar disorder may, however, have genuine differential effects on social functioning and the likely success

  3. Theory of Mind in Bipolar Disorder, with Comparison to the Impairments Observed in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rachel L C; Young, Allan H

    2015-01-01

    Our ability to make sense of information on the potential intentions and dispositions of others is of paramount importance for understanding their communicative intent, and for judging what an appropriate reaction might be. Thus, anything that impinges on this ability has the potential to cause significant social impairment, and compromise an individual's level of functioning. Both bipolar disorder and schizophrenia are known to feature theory of mind impairment. We conducted a theoretical review to determine the extent and types of theory of mind impairment in bipolar disorder, and evaluate their relationship to medication and symptoms. We also considered possible mediatory mechanisms, and set out to discover what else could be learnt about the impairment in bipolar disorder by comparison to the profile of impairment in schizophrenia. The literature established that in bipolar disorder (i) some form of theory of mind impairment has been observed in all mood states, including euthymia, (ii) the form of theory of mind assessed and task used to make the assessment influence the impairment observed, and (iii) there might be some relationship to cognitive impairment, although a relationship to standard clinical variables was harder to establish. What also became clear in the literature on bipolar disorder itself was the possible relationship of theory of mind impairment to history of psychotic symptoms. Direct comparative studies, including patients with schizophrenia, were thus examined, and provided several important directions for future research on the bases of impairment in bipolar disorder. Particularly prominent was the issue of whether theory of mind impairment could be considered a candidate endophenotype for the psychoses, although current evidence suggests that this may be premature. The differences in impairment across schizophrenia and bipolar disorder may, however, have genuine differential effects on social functioning and the likely success of

  4. Some new approaches for prevention of schizophrenia spectrum disorders in patients exposed to exogenous stressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Dzeruzhinska

    2017-08-01

    Methods. It was conducted the psychopathological and psychodiagnostic survey  of 186 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders with an assessment of clinical features and level of social functioning. It was identified factors that have the most significant pathological effects on the course of disorders on the basis of the received data: the using of a cannabinoid in a family history, mother`s infectious and somatic diseases during pregnancy, mother's using alcohol during pregnancy, consumption of alcohol in adolescent patients, fetal hypoxia or perinatal trauma of the patient at birth, problems with the group of primary support in the family of a child in childhood, maternal toxicosis, crisis relationships in the family, migration to different cultural environment. Results. Clinical pathomorphism of disorders of the spectrum of schizophrenia under the influence of environment factors determines the features of psychotherapeutic interventions. In people with cannabinoids, it is important to eliminate the symptoms of anxiety through emotion-supportive measures, as well as to create a motivation to ask help in case of symptoms of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. In a group with perinatal complications, the emphasis should be put on cognitive methods in order to correct mental disorders and overcome hypochondria. Early measures to form a positive attitude towards themselves and the environment, supporting family relationships, overcoming depressive symptoms, and developing social activity are targets of psychotherapeutic interventions in people with schizophrenic spectrum disorders and psychological traumatic events. Conclusion. Minimization of environmental factors influence in high risk individuals would postpone early manifestation, reduce disability in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, as evidenced by the statement of leading health experts.

  5. Theory of Mind in Bipolar Disorder, with Comparison to the Impairments Observed in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rachel L. C.; Young, Allan H.

    2016-01-01

    Our ability to make sense of information on the potential intentions and dispositions of others is of paramount importance for understanding their communicative intent, and for judging what an appropriate reaction might be. Thus, anything that impinges on this ability has the potential to cause significant social impairment, and compromise an individual’s level of functioning. Both bipolar disorder and schizophrenia are known to feature theory of mind impairment. We conducted a theoretical review to determine the extent and types of theory of mind impairment in bipolar disorder, and evaluate their relationship to medication and symptoms. We also considered possible mediatory mechanisms, and set out to discover what else could be learnt about the impairment in bipolar disorder by comparison to the profile of impairment in schizophrenia. The literature established that in bipolar disorder (i) some form of theory of mind impairment has been observed in all mood states, including euthymia, (ii) the form of theory of mind assessed and task used to make the assessment influence the impairment observed, and (iii) there might be some relationship to cognitive impairment, although a relationship to standard clinical variables was harder to establish. What also became clear in the literature on bipolar disorder itself was the possible relationship of theory of mind impairment to history of psychotic symptoms. Direct comparative studies, including patients with schizophrenia, were thus examined, and provided several important directions for future research on the bases of impairment in bipolar disorder. Particularly prominent was the issue of whether theory of mind impairment could be considered a candidate endophenotype for the psychoses, although current evidence suggests that this may be premature. The differences in impairment across schizophrenia and bipolar disorder may, however, have genuine differential effects on social functioning and the likely success of

  6. Non-adherence to antipsychotic medication, relapse and rehospitalisation in recent-onset schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widen Jan H

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of this study were to describe outcome with respect to persistent psychotic symptoms, relapse of positive symptoms, hospital admissions, and application of treatment by coercion among patients with recent onset schizophrenia being adherent and non-adherent to anti-psychotic medication. Materials and methods The study included 50 patients with recent onset schizophrenia, schizoaffective or schizophreniform disorders. The patients were clinically stable at study entry and had less than 2 years duration of psychotic symptoms. Good adherence to antipsychotic medication was defined as less than one month without medication. Outcomes for poor and good adherence were compared over a 24-month follow-up period. Results The Odds Ratio (OR of having a psychotic relapse was 10.27 and the OR of being admitted to hospital was 4.00 among non-adherent patients. Use of depot-antipsychotics were associated with relapses (OR = 6.44. Conclusion Non-adherence was associated with relapse, hospital admission and having persistent psychotic symptoms. Interventions to increase adherence are needed. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials NCT00184509. Key words: Adherence, schizophrenia, antipsychotic medication, admittances, relapse.

  7. Therapeutic improvements expected in the near future for schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garay, Ricardo P; Citrome, Leslie; Samalin, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    agonists, they differ markedly in their pharmacodynamic profiles. Encenicline and valbenazine are first-in-class candidates for treatment of cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia (CIAS) and tardive dyskinesia, respectively. Eleven add-on compounds were previously approved for other therapeutic...... indications and are for the most part being studied at academic medical centers and smaller pharmaceutical companies for negative symptoms and CIAS or for specific populations (comorbidities, antipsychotic-induced obesity). Expert opinion: Promising new agents are emerging for schizophrenia...... and schizoaffective disorder. In addition to better-tolerated antipsychotics that treat positive symptoms, we could see the arrival of the first effective drug for negative symptoms and CIAS, which would strongly facilitate the ultimate goal of recovery in persons with schizophrenia....

  8. Premorbid childhood ocular alignment abnormalities and adult schizophrenia-spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Maeda, Justin A; Hayashi, Kentaro

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relation between childhood ocular alignment deficits and adult psychiatric outcomes among children at high-risk for schizophrenia and controls. A sample of 265 Danish children was administered a standardized eye exam assessing strabismus and related ocular alignment deficits...... with no parental diagnoses (N=82). In 1992, adult psychiatric outcome data were obtained for 242 of the original subjects. It was found that children who later developed a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder had significantly higher eye exam scale and strabismus scale scores compared to children who developed other...... non-psychotic psychopathology and children who did not develop a mental illness. The mean rank for children in the high-risk group (offspring of parents with schizophrenia) on the eye scale and the strabismus scale was greater than the mean rank for children in the matched control groups (both...

  9. Cognitive deficits and levels of IQ in adolescent onset schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagerlund, Birgitte; Pagsberg, A Katrine; Hemmingsen, Ralf

    2006-01-01

    of intelligence, executive functions, memory, attention and processing speed was global or specific. First-episode psychotic adolescents (N = 39) between the ages 11 and 17 years were included, 18 of whom were diagnosed with schizophrenia, and 21 with other non-organic, non-affective psychoses, using ICD-10...... the profile and severity of cognitive impairments in first-episode early onset psychotic patients who received the schizophrenia diagnosis to those diagnosed with other non-organic, non-affective psychotic disorders. The secondary purpose was to examine whether the profile of cognitive deficits, in terms...... of attention, executive functions, reaction time, and memory in the schizophrenic and psychotic adolescent groups. However, analyses of WISC-III factor profiles suggested that early onset schizophrenia patients may have more global IQ deficits than non-organic, non-affective psychoses when examined recently...

  10. Premorbid multivariate markers of neurodevelopmental instability in the prediction of adult schizophrenia-spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golembo-Smith, Shana; Schiffman, Jason; Kline, Emily

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined whether multiple childhood indicators of neurodevelopmental instability known to relate to schizophrenia-spectrum disorders could predict later schizophrenia-spectrum outcomes. A standardized battery of neurological and intellectual assessments was administered to a sample...... of 265 Danish children in 1972, when participants were 10-13years old. Parent psychiatric diagnoses were also obtained in order to evaluate the predictive strength of neurodevelopmental factors in combination with genetic risk. Adult diagnostic information was available for 244 members of the sample....... Participants were grouped into three categories indicating level of genetic risk: children with a parent with schizophrenia (n=94); children with a parent with a non-psychotic mental health diagnosis (n=84); and children with a parent with no records of psychiatric hospitalization (n=66). Variables measured...

  11. Exploring Factors Associated with the Psychosocial Impact of Stigma Among People with Schizophrenia or Affective Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świtaj, Piotr; Chrostek, Anna; Grygiel, Paweł; Wciórka, Jacek; Anczewska, Marta

    2016-04-01

    Stigmatization can exert a variety of pernicious effects on the lives of persons with mental illnesses. The purpose of this study was to explore factors related to the psychosocial impact of stigma among 229 people receiving psychiatric treatment: 123 with schizophrenia [International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10): F20] and 106 with affective disorders (ICD-10: F31-F33). In the whole sample, the factors most prominently associated with a greater impact of stigma on personal and family life were schizophrenia diagnosis, current inpatient treatment, actually experienced stigma and self-stigma. However, the patterns of predictors varied between the two diagnostic categories. For the schizophrenia group, only self-stigma significantly contributed to a stronger stigma impact. In the affective group, a more severe impact of stigma was significantly predicted by inpatient status and experienced stigma. Anti-stigma programs should address the specific features of stigmatization associated with various psychiatric diagnoses.

  12. EEG correlates of a mental arithmetic task in patients with first episode schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garakh, Zhanna; Zaytseva, Yuliya; Kapranova, Alexandra; Fiala, Ondrej; Horacek, Jiri; Shmukler, Alexander; Gurovich, Isaac Ya; Strelets, Valeria B

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the spectral power of the cortical bands in patients with first episode schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder at rest and during the performance of a mental arithmetic task. We analyzed EEG spectral power (SP) in the resting state and subsequently while counting down from 200 in steps of 7, in 32 first episode schizophrenia patients (SZ), 32 patients with first episode schizoaffective disorder (SA) and healthy controls (HC, n=40). Behavioral parameters such as accuracy and counting speed were also evaluated. Both SZ and SA patients were slower in counting than HC, no difference was obtained in the accuracy and counting speed in the patient groups. In the resting state patients showed elevated midline theta power, off-midline anterior beta 2 power and decreased central/posterior alpha power. The SA group occupied an intermediate position between the schizophrenia patients and controls. In task performance patients lacked a typical increase of midline theta, left anterior beta 2, and anterior gamma power; however, schizoaffective patients demonstrated a growing trend of power in the gamma band in left anterior off-midline sites similar to HC. Moreover, alpha power was less inhibited in schizoaffective patients and more pronounced in schizophrenia patients indicating distinct inhibitory mechanisms in these psychotic disorders. Patients with SA demonstrate less alteration in the spectral power of bands at rest than SZ, and present spectral power changes during cognitive task performance close to the controls. Our study contributes to the present evidence on the neurophysiological distinction between schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Spatial behavior reflects the mental disorder in OCD patients with and without comorbid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershoni, Anat; Hermesh, Haggai; Fineberg, Naomi A; Eilam, David

    2014-02-01

    Resolving the entangled nosological dilemma of whether obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) with and without schizophrenia (schizo-OCD and OCD, respectively) are two independent entities or whether schizo-OCD is a combined product of its parent disorders. Studying motor activity in OCD and in schizo-OCD patients. Performance of the patients was compared with the performance of the same motor task by a matching control individual. Behavior in both schizo-OCD and OCD patients differed from controls in the excessive repetition and addition of acts, thus validating an identical OC facet. However, there was a significant difference in spatial behavior. Schizo-OCD patients traveled over a greater area with less focused activity as typical to schizophrenia patients and in contrast to OCD patients, who were more focused and traveled less in a confined area. While schizo-OCD and OCD patients share most of the OC ritualistic attributes, they differ in the greater spread of activity in schizo-OCD, which is related to schizophrenia disorder. It is suggested that the finding on difference in spatial behavior is a reflection of the mental differences between OCD and schizophrenia. In other words, this could be an overt and observable manifestation of the mental state, and therefore may facilitate the nosology of OC spectrum disorders and OCD. It seems as if both the OCD patients' focus on specific thoughts, and the contrasting wandering thoughts of schizophrenia patients, are reflected in the focused activity of the former and wandering from one place to the next of the latter.

  14. A validation of wrist actigraphy against polysomnography in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baandrup L

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Lone Baandrup,1,2 Poul Jørgen Jennum3 1Center for Neuropsychiatric Schizophrenia Research (CNSR, 2Center for Clinical Intervention and Neuropsychiatric Schizophrenia Research (CINS, Copenhagen University Hospital, Mental Health Center Glostrup, Mental Health Services – Capital Region of Denmark, Glostrup, Denmark; 3Danish Center for Sleep Medicine, Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Center for Healthy Ageing, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Rigshospitalet, Glostrup, Denmark Purpose: Sleep disturbances are frequent in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Actigraphy has been established as a generally reliable method to examine these disturbances across varying time spans, but the validity against polysomnography (PSG is not well investigated for this population. We validated wrist-worn actigraphy against PSG in a population of chronic, medicated patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Patients and methods: From a clinical trial, we derived data from 37 patients with schizophrenia and five patients with bipolar disorder who were examined with one-night PSG and concomitant actigraphy. The following sleep variables were compared between the two methods: total sleep time, sleep efficiency, sleep latency, number of awakenings, and time awake after sleep onset. The degree of consistency between the two methods was evaluated using the intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland–Altman plots. Subgroup analyses included splitting the analyses according to sex, diagnosis, and duration of wakefulness after sleep onset. PSG was considered the gold standard. Results: The intraclass correlation coefficient was high for total sleep time, moderate for the number of awakenings, and low or zero for the other examined sleep variables. These findings were reproduced in the subgroup analyses that compared men and women, as well as patients with bipolar versus schizophrenia spectrum disorders. When excluding

  15. Laterality and mental disorders in the postgenomic age--A closer look at schizophrenia and language lateralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Güntürkün, Onur; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Hirnstein, Marco

    2015-12-01

    Most people are right-handed and show left-hemispheric language lateralization, but a minority exhibits left-handedness and right-hemispheric language lateralization. This atypical laterality pattern is observed significantly more often in schizophrenia patients than in the general population, which led several authors to conclude that there is a genetic link between laterality and schizophrenia. It has even been suggested that a failure in the lateralization process, orchestrated by genes, could be the primary cause of schizophrenia. However, the molecular genetic evidence for a link between laterality and schizophrenia is weak. Recent genetic evidence indicates that schizophrenia is not a single disorder but a group of heritable disorders caused by different genotypic networks leading to distinct clinical symptoms. To uncover the link between schizophrenia and laterality we therefore suggest a paradigm shift where genetics are not mapped on schizophrenia as a whole but on discrete schizophrenia symptoms. In addition, we provide a critical evaluation of current theories on the genetic link between schizophrenia and brain asymmetry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Elevated urine levels of bufotenine in patients with autistic spectrum disorders and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuele, Enzo; Colombo, Roberto; Martinelli, Valentina; Brondino, Natascia; Marini, Mara; Boso, Marianna; Barale, Francesco; Politi, Pierluigi

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the endogeneous psychotomimetic molecule bufotenine (N-N-dimethyl-5-idroxytryptamine) may play a role in the pathogenesis of severe mental disorders. The potential association of bufotenine with the clinical features of autism and schizophrenia is not entirely understood. In this study, we measured urinary levels of bufotenine in subjects with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), schizophrenia and healthy comparison subjects free of psychiatric symptoms. We also sought to assess whether urine concentrations of this molecule may be associated with the clinical characteristics of psychiatric patients. Urine bufotenine levels were measured using a high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) assay in young adults with severe ASD (n=15), patients with schizophrenia (n=15), and healthy control subjects (n=18). The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale was used to measure adaptive behaviors in ASD individuals. The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) was used for patients with schizophrenia. Urine bufotenine levels were significantly higher in ASD subjects (3.30 +/- 0.49 microg/L, p<0.05) and patients with schizophrenia (4.39 +/- 0.43 microg/L, p<0.001) compared with controls (1.53 +/- 0.30 microg/L). Among patients with ASD, there was a significant positive correlation between urine bufotenine and hyperactivity scores on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (r=0.479, p<0.05). No other associations were detected. Our results indicate that elevated urine levels of the endogeneous psychotomimetic molecule bufotenine may play a role in ASD and schizophrenia, and can be correlated with hyperactivity scores in autism.

  17. Affecting coping: does neurocognition predict approach and avoidant coping strategies within schizophrenia spectrum disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAulay, Rebecca; Cohen, Alex S

    2013-09-30

    According to various diathesis-stress models of schizophrenia, life stress plays a defining role in the onset and course of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. In this regard, individual differences in coping strategies and affective traits, variables related to the management and experience of stress, may play a large role in susceptibility to the disorder and symptom exacerbation. Furthermore, it has been posited that cognitive deficits may limit an individuals' ability to effectively respond to stressful situations. We investigated the relationships between attention, immediate memory, trait negative affect (NA), trait positive affect (PA) and specific coping strategies within three groups: chronic schizophrenia patients (n=27), psychometrically-defined schizotypy (n=89), and schizotypy demographically-matched controls (n=26). As hypothesized affective traits displayed predictable relationships with specific coping strategies, such that NA was associated with the greater use of avoidant coping strategies within the schizophrenia and schizotypy group, while PA was associated with greater use of approach coping styles within all groups. The schizotypy group reported significantly higher levels of NA and also greater use of avoidant coping strategies than both the control and schizophrenia group. As expected group differences were found in trait affect, coping strategies, and cognitive functioning. Importantly, these group differences remained significant even when demographic variables were entered as covariates. Contrary to our expectations, cognitive functioning displayed only a few tenuous relationships with coping strategies within the schizophrenia and schizotypy groups. Overall, results support the notion that affective traits and not cognitive functioning is the best predictor of approach and avoidant coping strategies. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparative analysis of psychological adaptation in patients with paranoid schizophrenia and shizotypal disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Stepanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was the comparing of psychological adaptation characteristics (type of attitude to a disease, psychological defense mechanisms, special aspects of coping-strategy as exemplified by 2 groups of schizophrenia disorder patients: 1 schizotypal disorders (F-21 according to ICD-10; 2 paranoid schizophrenia (F-20 according to ICD-10. The authors arrived at the conclusion of the same nature if special aspects of psychological adaptation in the groups compared. At the same time, both groups compared showed imbalance of «the level of success» between individual characteristics constituting the module of psychological adaptation. This circumstance testifies to the fact that psychological adaptation in the patients with schizophrenic disorders should be evaluated on a case- bycase basis. In conclusion, the study revealed the necessity to take into consideration of these characteristics during rehabilitation of these patients.

  19. [Planning disorders in men with schizophrenia and in men with localized frontal lobe lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okruszek, Łukasz; Rutkowska, Aleksandra

    2013-01-01

    Planning disorders have been observed in people with frontal lobe lesions for many decades. There's also growing body of evidence of frontal dysfunction in people with schizophrenia. The aim of this study is to compare the planning abilities in men with schizophrenia, men with localized frontal lobe lesions and healthy men. A sample of 90 men participated in the study. They were divided into three groups: men with schizophrenia (n = 30), men with localized frontal lobe lesions (n = 30) and healthy men (n = 30) as a control group. Planning abilities were assessed with a clinical trial based on Tower of London task. Significant differences in ToL measures were found between controls and men with schizophrenia (Trials solved: p frontal lobe lesions (Trials solved: p frontal lobe lesion groups. Similar deficits in planning and solving problems, which require planning, may be observed in men with schizophrenia and men with frontal lobe lesions. In both groups time spent on thinking is less effective than in healthy men. Not only quantitative, but also qualitative assessment should be carried when examining patients' performance on Tower of London task.

  20. Quality of life in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: The impact of symptomatic remission and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, A; Mizuno, Y; Wartelsteiner, F; Wolfgang Fleischhacker, W; Frajo-Apor, B; Kemmler, G; Mimura, M; Pardeller, S; Sondermann, C; Suzuki, T; Welte, A; Uchida, H

    2017-10-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is significantly affected in individuals with schizophrenia or bipolar I disorder (BD-I). The current study investigated whether symptomatic remission and resilience might differently impact HRQOL in these patients. Fifty-two patients with schizophrenia and 60 patients suffering from BD-I from outpatient mental health services as well as 77 healthy control subjects from the general community were included into a cross-sectional study. HRQOL and resilience were assessed using the WHOQOL-BREF and the Resilience Scale. In patients, psychopathology was quantified by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale or the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale and the Young Mania Rating Scale, respectively. Notably, both patient groups showed lower HRQOL and resilience compared to control subjects, non-remitted patients indicated lower HRQOL than remitted ones. The effect of remission on HRQOL was significantly larger in patients with BD-I than in those with schizophrenia but did not explain the difference in HRQOL between groups. Resilience predicted HRQOL in all three groups. When accounting for the effect of resilience among remitted patients, only the difference in HRQOL between schizophrenia patients and control subjects was significant. These findings demonstrate the impact of symptomatic remission and resilience on HRQOL of both patients suffering from schizophrenia and BD-I and indicate that these factors are especially relevant for HRQOL of patients with BD-I. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Factors contributing to social cognition impairment in borderline personality disorder and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreou, Christina; Kelm, Lea; Bierbrodt, Julia; Braun, Vivien; Lipp, Michael; Yassari, Amir H; Moritz, Steffen

    2015-10-30

    Social cognition (SC) deficits have been described both in patients with schizophrenia and borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, while the former tend towards simplistic mental state attributions (undermentalizing), the latter are more likely to make overly complex mental state inferences (overmentalizing). Performance on complex SC tasks has been shown to correlate with neurocognitive ability, emotion perception, a history of trauma, and overconfidence in errors. However, it is unclear how these factors relate to different aspects of SC deficits. Aim of the present study was to examine the pathways of SC impairment by investigating performance profiles and their predictors comparatively in BPD and schizophrenia. Participants were 44 patients with BPD, 36 patients with schizophrenia, and 38 healthy controls. Undermentalizing and overmentalizing were assessed with an ecologically valid SC task. Patients with BPD exhibited increased overmentalizing, whereas patients with schizophrenia showed a more extensive deficit pattern, their main error type being undermentalizing. Overconfidence in errors was the most important predictor for overmentalizing, while undermentalizing depended mainly on verbal memory and emotion perception. Thus, BPD und schizophrenia exhibited different SC impairment patterns, and different types of SC errors were predicted by different factors. These findings have implications for the optimization of treatment approaches. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Urban social stress – Risk factor for mental disorders. The case of schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lederbogen, Florian; Haddad, Leila; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Living in an urban environment is associated with an increased prevalence of specific mental health disorders, particularly schizophrenia. While many factors have been discussed as possible mediators of this association, most researchers favour the hypothesis that urban living stands as a proxy for an increased exposure to social stress. This factor has been recognized as one of the most powerful causes for the development of mental disorders, and appears to correlate with the markedly increased incidence of schizophrenia in urban minority groups. However, the hypothesis that the general urban population is exposed to increased levels of social stress has to be validated. Pursuing the goal of understanding how social stress acts as a risk factor for mental disorder in urban populations must include factors like social conditions, environmental pollutants, infrastructure and economic issues. -- Highlights: • City living is associated with an increased prevalence of mental health disorders, particularly schizophrenia. • Possible mediators of this association include exposure to social stress. • This mechanism seems plausible in urban minority groups. • However, it is unclear whether social stress exposure is increased in the general urban population. -- New data support the hypothesis that increased exposure to social stressors is a key factor mediating the increased prevalence of specific mental disorders in urban populations

  3. Depressive disorders and family functioning among the caregivers of patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, C B; Alipah, B; Tutiiryani, M D; Ainsah, O

    2010-09-01

    To determine the prevalence of depressive disorders among caregivers of patients with schizophrenia, its association with patient's and caregiver's socio-demographic characteristics and family functioning. This was a cross-sectional study of caregivers of patients with schizophrenia at the outpatient clinic, Hospital Permai Johor Bahru, Malaysia. The study was conducted between August and October 2008. A total of 243 caregivers who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were enrolled, of whom 232 completed the self-administered socio-demographic questionnaire, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30) and the McMaster Family Assessment Device. A total of 33 caregivers with the GHQ-30 cut-off point of 7/8 were assessed further by the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview to diagnose depressive disorder. The prevalence of psychological distress in our study sample was 14% (n = 33) and that of depressive disorders was 6% (n = 14). There was no association between patients' and caregivers' socio-demographic characteristics with depressive disorders, but there were significant associations between depressive disorders and family functioning dimensions in terms of Communication and Roles. Although the causal link was not established, the results suggested that depression had a significant association with family functioning among caregivers of patients with schizophrenia.

  4. Involvement of Neuroinflammation during Brain Development in Social Cognitive Deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Yutaka; Chiba, Kenji

    2016-09-01

    Development of social cognition, a unique and high-order function, depends on brain maturation from childhood to adulthood in humans. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia have similar social cognitive deficits, although age of onset in each disorder is different. Pathogenesis of these disorders is complex and contains several features, including genetic risk factors, environmental risk factors, and sites of abnormalities in the brain. Although several hypotheses have been postulated, they seem to be insufficient to explain how brain alterations associated with symptoms in these disorders develop at distinct developmental stages. Development of ASD appears to be related to cerebellar dysfunction and subsequent thalamic hyperactivation in early childhood. By contrast, schizophrenia seems to be triggered by thalamic hyperactivation in late adolescence, whereas hippocampal aberration has been possibly initiated in childhood. One of the possible culprits is metal homeostasis disturbances that can induce dysfunction of blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. Thalamic hyperactivation is thought to be induced by microglia-mediated neuroinflammation and abnormalities of intracerebral environment. Consequently, it is likely that the thalamic hyperactivation triggers dysregulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex for lower brain regions related to social cognition. In this review, we summarize the brain aberration in ASD and schizophrenia and provide a possible mechanism underlying social cognitive deficits in these disorders based on their distinct ages of onset. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  5. Risk factors for suicide in schizophrenia: findings from a Swedish population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutfors, Johan; Brandt, Lena; Jönsson, Erik G; Ekbom, Anders; Sparén, Pär; Osby, Urban

    2009-03-01

    Previous reports regarding risk factors for suicide in schizophrenia have been inconclusive. We performed a matched case-control study of in-patient-treated schizophrenia patients in order to assess the suicide risk associated with socioeconomic, demographic, and psychiatric factors. The cases were 84 patients who died by suicide within five years after diagnosis in a cohort of all patients discharged for the first time from psychiatric hospitals in Stockholm County, Sweden, with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizophreniform disorder or schizoaffective disorder between the years 1984 and 2000. One control was individually and randomly matched with each case from the same cohort by date (+/-1 year) and age (+/-5 years) at index diagnosis. Data were retrieved from clinical records of the case-control pairs in a blind fashion. Of the suicides, 54% were men and 46% were women. In multivariate analyses, higher educational attainment (odds ratio [OR] 3.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03-8.0), age >or=30 years at onset of symptoms (OR 4.8, CI 1.1-21.2), and a history of a suicide attempt requiring non-psychiatric medical treatment (OR 5.0, CI 1.6-15.4) were found to be significantly associated with an increased suicide risk. Gender did not significantly affect the suicide risk, nor did a history of self-discharge, compulsory in-patient treatment, substance-use disorder or a family history of mental disorders or suicide. In schizophrenia, certain suicide risk factors may differ from those in the general population. Clinical suicide risk assessment for schizophrenia patients should be performed taking this into account.

  6. Cognitive-perceptual deficits and symptom correlates in first-episode schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riaan M. Olivier

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thought disorder and visual-perceptual deficits have been well documented, but their relationships with clinical symptoms and cognitive function remain unclear. Cognitive-perceptual deficits may underscore clinical symptoms in schizophrenia patients. Aim: This study aimed to explore how thought disorder and form perception are related with clinical symptoms and cognitive dysfunction in first-episode schizophrenia. Setting: Forty-two patients with a first-episode of schizophrenia, schizophreniform or schizoaffective disorder were recruited from community clinics and state hospitals in the Cape Town area. Methods: Patients were assessed at baseline with the Rorschach Perceptual Thinking Index (PTI, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS and the MATRICS Cognitive Consensus Battery (MCCB. Spearman correlational analyses were conducted to investigate relationships between PTI scores, PANSS factor analysis-derived domain scores and MCCB composite and subscale scores. Multiple regression models explored these relationships further. Results: Unexpectedly, poor form perception (X- % was inversely correlated with the severity of PANSS positive symptoms (r = -0.42, p = 0.02. Good form perception (XA% correlated significantly with speed of processing (r = 0.59, p < 0.01, working memory (r = 0.48, p < 0.01 and visual learning (r = 0.55, p < 0.01. PTI measures of thought disorder did not correlate significantly with PANSS symptom scores or cognitive performance. Conclusions: Form perception is associated with positive symptoms and impairment in executive function during acute psychosis. These findings suggest that there may be clinical value in including sensory-perceptual processing tasks in cognitive remediation and social cognitive training programmes for schizophrenia patients.

  7. Reduced load-dependent default mode network deactivation across executive tasks in schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haatveit, Beathe; Jensen, Jimmy; Alnæs, Dag; Kaufmann, Tobias; Brandt, Christine L; Thoresen, Christian; Andreassen, Ole A; Melle, Ingrid; Ueland, Torill; Westlye, Lars T

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with cognitive impairment and brain network dysconnectivity. Recent efforts have explored brain circuits underlying cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia and documented altered activation of large-scale brain networks, including the task-positive network (TPN) and the task-negative default mode network (DMN) in response to cognitive demands. However, to what extent TPN and DMN dysfunction reflect overlapping mechanisms and are dependent on cognitive state remain to be determined. In the current study, we investigated the recruitment of TPN and DMN using independent component analysis in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (n = 29) and healthy controls (n = 21) during two different executive tasks probing planning/problem-solving and spatial working memory. We found reduced load-dependent DMN deactivation across tasks in patients compared to controls. Furthermore, we observed only moderate associations between the TPN and DMN activation across groups, implying that the two networks reflect partly independent mechanisms. Additionally, whereas TPN activation was associated with task performance in both tasks, no such associations were found for DMN. These results support a general load-dependent DMN dysfunction in schizophrenia spectrum disorder across two demanding executive tasks that is not merely an epiphenomenon of cognitive dysfunction.

  8. Eating habits and nutritional status of patients with affective disorders and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefańska, Ewa; Lech, Magdalena; Wendołowicz, Agnieszka; Konarzewska, Beata; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Ostrowska, Lucyna

    2017-12-30

    The aim of the study was to assess the nutritional value of the food intake in the group of men and women suffering from recurrent affective disorders and schizophrenia, and also to determine the relation between selected nutritional parameters with anthropometric indices defining the nutritional status of the subjects. 219 persons participated in the study (61 patients with recurrent depressive disorders, 60 patients with schizophrenia and 98 healthy volunteers). A24-hour dietary recall was used in the quantitative assessment of the diet. Anthropometric and biochemical measurements as well as body composition analysis were used to assess the nutritional status. It was shown that women with depression and schizophrenia had a significantly higher content of both visceral adipose tissue and subcutaneous adipose tissue as compared with the control group. A diet with a higher content of energy from protein, a higher supply of calcium promoted a lower fat content in the bodies of women suffering from depression (no such relationship was observed in the group of men). In the group of patients with schizophrenia, a diet with a lower supply of energy promoted a lower BMI value, waist circumference, lower waist-hip ratio and a lower fat content in the body. An improper energy structure and an improper content of nutrients can, in the future, contribute to the development of many somatic diseases, thus leading to deterioration of life quality of subjects and preventing the maintenance of mental health.

  9. Thought disorder in schizophrenia: impairment in contextual processing via integrative failures in cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patniyot, Nicholas S

    2011-10-01

    Formal thought disorder is a critical dysfunction in schizophrenia whose cause remains uncertain, but whose explanation may greatly further our understanding of the disease. Thought disorder in patients with schizophrenia has been hypothesized to involve a disturbance in the internal representation of context. Positive symptoms of schizophrenia attributable to thought disorder display a lack of organization that may be accounted for by an absence of normal contextual processing occurring within the operations of the executive system. But the precise nature and pervasiveness of the deficient cognitive operation remain undistinguished. It is proposed here that the assimilatory functions of the brain appear to lack the ability to perform a particular type of integrative operation when presented with heterogeneous information. This deficit involves committing cognitive misattributions through a confusion of mental terms via a process in thought analogous to a linguistic failure to correctly interpret deictic referents. Both proposed deficits in mental deixis and analogous "metarepresentational" deficits in schizophrenia potentially involve a failure to draw information for a conclusion from a separate framework of relations in integrative fashion. These deficits appear to involve a failure to take an interpreted piece of information as an output from a particular mental task and incorporate it into a new operational scheme, and a central attribute to the deficit is that there is a loss of an effective or adequate integration of separate strata of information. Potential neurobiological correlates to such a system based on current knowledge about schizophrenia neurocircuitry, as well as implications for testing, are also discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Impaired insight into illness and cognitive insight in schizophrenia spectrum disorders: Resting state functional connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerretsen, Philip; Menon, Mahesh; Mamo, David C.; Fervaha, Gagan; Remington, Gary; Pollock, Bruce G.; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    Background Impaired insight into illness (clinical insight) in schizophrenia has negative effects on treatment adherence and clinical outcomes. Schizophrenia is described as a disorder of disrupted brain connectivity. In line with this concept, resting state networks (RSNs) appear differentially affected in persons with schizophrenia. Therefore, impaired clinical, or the related construct of cognitive insight (which posits that impaired clinical insight is a function of metacognitive deficits), may reflect alterations in RSN functional connectivity (fc). Based on our previous research, which showed that impaired insight into illness was associated with increased left hemisphere volume relative to right, we hypothesized that impaired clinical insight would be associated with increased connectivity in the DMN with specific left hemisphere brain regions. Methods Resting state MRI scans were acquired for participants with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (n = 20). Seed-to-voxel and ROI-to-ROI fc analyses were performed using the CONN-fMRI fc toolbox v13 for established RSNs. Clinical and cognitive insight were measured with the Schedule for the Assessment of Insight—Expanded Version and Beck Cognitive Insight Scale, respectively, and included as the regressors in fc analyses. Results As hypothesized, impaired clinical insight was associated with increased connectivity in the default mode network (DMN) with the left angular gyrus, and also in the self-referential network (SRN) with the left insula. Cognitive insight was associated with increased connectivity in the dorsal attention network (DAN) with the right inferior frontal cortex (IFC) and left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Conclusion Increased connectivity in DMN and SRN with the left angular gyrus and insula, respectively, may represent neural correlates of impaired clinical insight in schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and is consistent with the literature attributing impaired insight to left

  11. The role of schizotypy in the study of the etiology of schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrantes-Vidal, Neus; Grant, Phillip; Kwapil, Thomas R

    2015-03-01

    Schizotypy provides a useful construct for understanding the development of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. As research on the epidemiology of psychotic symptoms and clinical risk for psychosis has expanded, conceptual challenges have emerged to comprehend the nature and borders of the space comprised between personality variation and psychosis. Schizotypy is considered in light of these more recent constructs. It is suggested that rather than being superseded by them due to their higher specificity and predictive power for transition to psychosis, schizotypy integrates them as it constitutes a dynamic continuum ranging from personality to psychosis. The advantages of schizotypy for studying schizophrenia etiology are discussed (eg, it facilitates a developmental approach and the identification of causal, resilience, and compensating factors and offers a multidimensional structure that captures etiological heterogeneity). An overview of putative genetic, biological, and psychosocial risk factors is presented, focusing on communalities and differences between schizotypy and schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The found notable overlap supports etiological continuity, and, simultaneously, differential findings appear that are critical to understanding resilience to schizophrenia. For example, discrepant findings in genetic studies might be interpreted as suggestive of sets of independent genetic factors playing a differential role in schizotypy and schizophrenia: some would influence variation specifically on schizotypy dimensions (ie, high vs low schizotypy, thereby increasing proneness to psychosis), some would confer unspecific liability to disease by impacting neural properties and susceptibility to environmental factors (ie, high vs low resilience to disorder) and some might contribute to disease-specific characteristics. Finally, schizotypy's promise for studying gene-environment interactions is considered. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University

  12. Differential effects of childhood trauma and cannabis use disorders in patients suffering from schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudin, G; Godin, O; Lajnef, M; Aouizerate, B; Berna, F; Brunel, L; Capdevielle, D; Chereau, I; Dorey, J M; Dubertret, C; Dubreucq, J; Faget, C; Fond, G; Gabayet, F; Laouamri, H; Lancon, C; Le Strat, Y; Tronche, A M; Misdrahi, D; Rey, R; Passerieux, C; Schandrin, A; Urbach, M; Vidalhet, P; Llorca, P M; Schürhoff, F

    2016-08-01

    Childhood trauma (CT) and cannabis use are both environmental and modifier risk factors for schizophrenia. However, little is known about how they interact in schizophrenia. We examined the main effect of each of these two environmental factors on the clinical expression of the disease using a large set of variables, and we tested whether and how cannabis and CT interact to influence the course and the presentation of the illness. A sample of 366 patients who met the DSM-IV-TR criteria for schizophrenia was recruited through the FACE-SCZ (Fondamental Advanced Centre of Expertise - Schizophrenia) network. Patients completed a large standardized clinical evaluation including Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders-I (SCID-I), Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS), Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS), Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), Short-Quality of Life-18 (S-QoL-18), and Medication Adherence Rating Scale (MARS). We assessed CT with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and cannabis status with SCID-I. CT significantly predicted the number of hospitalizations, GAF, and S-QoL-18 scores, as well as the PANSS total, positive, excitement, and emotional distress scores. Cannabis use disorders significantly predicted age of onset, and MARS. There was no significant interaction between CT and cannabis use disorders. However, we found evidence of a correlation between these two risk factors. CT and cannabis both have differential deleterious effects on clinical and functional outcomes in patients with schizophrenia. Our results highlight the need to systematically assess the presence of these risk factors and adopt suitable therapeutic interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Impaired insight into illness and cognitive insight in schizophrenia spectrum disorders: resting state functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerretsen, Philip; Menon, Mahesh; Mamo, David C; Fervaha, Gagan; Remington, Gary; Pollock, Bruce G; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2014-12-01

    Impaired insight into illness (clinical insight) in schizophrenia has negative effects on treatment adherence and clinical outcomes. Schizophrenia is described as a disorder of disrupted brain connectivity. In line with this concept, resting state networks (RSNs) appear differentially affected in persons with schizophrenia. Therefore, impaired clinical, or the related construct of cognitive insight (which posits that impaired clinical insight is a function of metacognitive deficits), may reflect alterations in RSN functional connectivity (fc). Based on our previous research, which showed that impaired insight into illness was associated with increased left hemisphere volume relative to right, we hypothesized that impaired clinical insight would be associated with increased connectivity in the DMN with specific left hemisphere brain regions. Resting state MRI scans were acquired for participants with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (n=20). Seed-to-voxel and ROI-to-ROI fc analyses were performed using the CONN-fMRI fc toolbox v13 for established RSNs. Clinical and cognitive insight were measured with the Schedule for the Assessment of Insight-Expanded Version and Beck Cognitive Insight Scale, respectively, and included as the regressors in fc analyses. As hypothesized, impaired clinical insight was associated with increased connectivity in the default mode network (DMN) with the left angular gyrus, and also in the self-referential network (SRN) with the left insula. Cognitive insight was associated with increased connectivity in the dorsal attention network (DAN) with the right inferior frontal cortex (IFC) and left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Increased connectivity in DMN and SRN with the left angular gyrus and insula, respectively, may represent neural correlates of impaired clinical insight in schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and is consistent with the literature attributing impaired insight to left hemisphere dominance. Increased connectivity in

  14. DCLK1 variants are associated across schizophrenia and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håvik, Bjarte; Degenhardt, Franziska A; Johansson, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    that have neuro-cognitive dysfunctions: schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar affective disorder (BP) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We mined six genome wide association studies (GWASs) that were available publically or through collaboration; three for BP, two for SCZ and one for ADHD. We also......Doublecortin and calmodulin like kinase 1 (DCLK1) is implicated in synaptic plasticity and neurodevelopment. Genetic variants in DCLK1 are associated with cognitive traits, specifically verbal memory and general cognition. We investigated the role of DCLK1 variants in three psychiatric disorders...

  15. Premorbid teacher-rated social functioning predicts adult schizophrenia-spectrum disorder: A high-risk prospective investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsuji, Thomas; Kline, Emily; Sorensen, Holger J.

    2013-01-01

    Social functioning deficits are a core component of schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and may emerge years prior to the onset of diagnosable illness. The current study prospectively examines the relation between teacher-rated childhood social dysfunction and later mental illness among participants...... who were at genetic high-risk for schizophrenia and controls (n=244). The teacher-rated social functioning scale significantly predicted psychiatric outcomes (schizophrenia-spectrum vs. other psychiatric disorder vs. no mental illness). Poor premorbid social functioning appears to constitute a marker...

  16. Movement disorder profile and treatment outcomes in a one-year study of patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen L

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Lei Chen, Haya Ascher-Svanum, Anthony Lawson, Virginia L Stauffer, Allen Nyhuis, Virginia Haynes, Kory Schuh, Bruce J KinonEli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USABackground: This study identified subgroups of patients with schizophrenia who differed on their movement disorder profile and compared their treatment outcomes.Methods: Data from a randomized, open-label, one-year study of patients with schizophrenia who were treated with antipsychotics in usual clinical care settings were analyzed (n = 640. Five measures of movement disorder were incorporated into a single Movement Disorder Index (MDI. Subgroups that differed in their movement disorder profile over the one-year study period were compared on clinical and functional outcomes.Results: Three subgroups were identified: a worsening of MDI in 15% of patients, an improvement in 33%, and no change in 53%. Compared with the other two subgroups, the MDI-worsened subgroup had poorer symptom improvement measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS total score (mean changes of −11.0, −18.4, and −16.8 for the patients who had a worsening of MDI, no change, and an improvement, respectively, poorer symptom improvement on the PANSS positive and anxiety/depression subscale scores, worsening on the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36 physical component summary score, and a higher rate of hospitalization (P < 0.05.Conclusion: Patients with schizophrenia who experience worsening of their MDI score appear to have poorer clinical and functional outcomes, suggesting that such worsening may be a marker of poorer prognosis.Keywords: schizophrenia, treatment outcome, movement disorder

  17. Cognitive Effects of Electroconvulsive Therapy in Patients with Major Depressive, Bipolar and Schizophrenia Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Fouladi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT is a highly effective treatment for affective and schizophrenic disorders. The main objective of this study was to examine the cognitive effects of ECT in patients with major depressive, bipolar and schizophrenia disorders. Methods: In this study we administered a battery of cognitive tasks on 90 patients with major depressive, bipolar and schizophrenia disorders, one day before and after the termination of ECT. The effects were measured by a set of computerized cognitive tests including: auditory reaction time, visual reaction time, verbal memory, Benton visual memory, Wisconsin card sort and motor function. The collected data were analyzed using One-way ANOVA and dependent t-test. Results: The results showed that depressive patients had poorer verbal memory and motor function after the termination of ECT compared to pretest, but their executive function was improved (p<0.05. After the termination of ECT the verbal and visual memory and executive function was significantly improved in patients with bipolar and schizophrenia disorders but their motor function was significantly reduced (p<0.05. Conclusion: Results of this study showed improvement for most cognitive functions in patients after electroconvulsive therapy. Findings of this study may help patients and their families to overcome their fear of electroconvulsive therapy. The results also can aware patients regarding the cognitive effects of electroconvulsive therapy.

  18. Role of immunological factors in the pathophysiology and diagnosis of bipolar disorder: comparison with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamura, A Carlo; Buoli, Massimiliano; Pozzoli, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Several lines of evidence point to the key role of neurobiological mechanisms and shared genetic background in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. For both disorders, neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative processes have been postulated to be relevant for the pathogenesis as well as dysregulation of immuno-inflammatory pathways. Inflammation is a complex biological response to harmful stimuli and it is mediated by cytokines cascades, cellular immune responses, oxidative factors and hormone regulation. Cytokines, in particular, are supposed to play a critical role in infectious and inflammatory processes, mediating the cross-talk between the brain and the immune system; they also possibly contribute to the development of the central nervous system. From this perspective, even though mixed results have been reported, it seems that both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are associated with an imbalance in inflammatory cytokines; in fact, some of these could represent biological markers of illness and could be possible targets for pharmacological treatments. In light of these considerations, the purpose of the present paper was to provide a comprehensive and critical review of the existing literature about immunological abnormalities in bipolar disorder with particular attention to the similarities and differences with schizophrenia. © 2013 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2013 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  19. Movement disorder profile and treatment outcomes in a one-year study of patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Ascher-Svanum, Haya; Lawson, Anthony; Stauffer, Virginia L; Nyhuis, Allen; Haynes, Virginia; Schuh, Kory; Kinon, Bruce J

    2013-01-01

    This study identified subgroups of patients with schizophrenia who differed on their movement disorder profile and compared their treatment outcomes. Data from a randomized, open-label, one-year study of patients with schizophrenia who were treated with antipsychotics in usual clinical care settings were analyzed (n = 640). Five measures of movement disorder were incorporated into a single Movement Disorder Index (MDI). Subgroups that differed in their movement disorder profile over the one-year study period were compared on clinical and functional outcomes. THREE SUBGROUPS WERE IDENTIFIED: a worsening of MDI in 15% of patients, an improvement in 33%, and no change in 53%. Compared with the other two subgroups, the MDI-worsened subgroup had poorer symptom improvement measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score (mean changes of -11.0, -18.4, and -16.8 for the patients who had a worsening of MDI, no change, and an improvement, respectively), poorer symptom improvement on the PANSS positive and anxiety/depression subscale scores, worsening on the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) physical component summary score, and a higher rate of hospitalization (P < 0.05). Patients with schizophrenia who experience worsening of their MDI score appear to have poorer clinical and functional outcomes, suggesting that such worsening may be a marker of poorer prognosis.

  20. Modern representations about differential diagnosis of schizophrenia-like psychosis disorders due to psychoactive substance use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Chugunov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years in the world there is a tendency of quantity of persons who use drugs increase. Free availability of drugs of different groups for population is the main cause. Another trend associated with the consumption of drugs. All these factors led to the increased frequency of psychosis occurrence among consumers of psychoactive substances. In structure of such psychosis there are a variety of symptoms and syndromes. And since the number of drug users is quite broad in its structure - there are also persons with mental illness. This gives number of diagnostic difficulties. In this regard, the aim of the study was to trace the modern ideas of differential diagnosis of schizophrenia-like psychosis disorders due to the drug use. Materials and methods of research. In this work the content analysis of the modern representations of differential diagnosis of schizophrenia-like psychosis disorders as a result of the use of psychoactive substances was made. The problem of determination of primary and secondary nature of drug addiction in patients with psychotic disorders was indicated. Etiology and psychopathogenesis hypotheses of the addiction from psychoactive substances in the context of their correlation with endogenous mental pathology were defined. In the literature there is no clear diagnostic criteria that would allow distinguishing psychosis due to the use of drugs and endogenous psychosis, which is combined with the admission medicines. However, the attention of clinicians should be concentrated on the premorbid condition: the presence of hereditary family history, pathological behavior in childhood and adolescence. It was found that the majority of substances may cause one or more syndromes - delirium, dementia, and amnestic syndrome, delusional syndrome, hallucinatory syndrome, depressive syndrome, anxiety, and personality disorder, such disorders as schizophrenia-like psychosis disorders are not rare. Special attention was paid to the

  1. Mortality gap for people with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia: UK-based cohort study 2000-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Joseph F; Marston, Louise; Walters, Kate; King, Michael B; Osborn, David P J

    2017-09-01

    Background Bipolar disorder and schizophrenia are associated with increased mortality relative to the general population. There is an international emphasis on decreasing this excess mortality. Aims To determine whether the mortality gap between individuals with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia and the general population has decreased. Method A nationally representative cohort study using primary care electronic health records from 2000 to 2014, comparing all patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia and the general population. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. Results Individuals with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia had elevated mortality (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 1.79, 95% CI 1.67-1.88 and 2.08, 95% CI 1.98-2.19 respectively). Adjusted HRs for bipolar disorder increased by 0.14/year (95% CI 0.10-0.19) from 2006 to 2014. The adjusted HRs for schizophrenia increased gradually from 2004 to 2010 (0.11/year, 95% CI 0.04-0.17) and rapidly after 2010 (0.34/year, 95% CI 0.18-0.49). Conclusions The mortality gap between individuals with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, and the general population is widening. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.

  2. Fatty acid composition of the postmortem corpus callosum of patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamazaki, K; Maekawa, M; Toyota, T; Dean, B; Hamazaki, T; Yoshikawa, T

    2017-01-01

    Studies investigating the relationship between n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels and psychiatric disorders have thus far focused mainly on analyzing gray matter, rather than white matter, in the postmortem brain. In this study, we investigated whether PUFA levels showed abnormalities in the corpus callosum, the largest area of white matter, in the postmortem brain tissue of patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depressive disorder. Fatty acids in the phospholipids of the postmortem corpus callosum were evaluated by thin-layer chromatography and gas chromatography. Specimens were evaluated for patients with schizophrenia (n=15), bipolar disorder (n=15), or major depressive disorder (n=15) and compared with unaffected controls (n=15). In contrast to some previous studies, no significant differences were found in the levels of PUFAs or other fatty acids in the corpus callosum between patients and controls. A subanalysis by sex gave the same results. No significant differences were found in any PUFAs between suicide completers and non-suicide cases regardless of psychiatric disorder diagnosis. Patients with psychiatric disorders did not exhibit n-3 PUFAs deficits in the postmortem corpus callosum relative to the unaffected controls, and the corpus callosum might not be involved in abnormalities of PUFA metabolism. This area of research is still at an early stage and requires further investigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Decreased expression of Sprouty2 in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: a correlation with BDNF expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anilkumar Pillai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Current theories on the pathophysiology of schizophrenia suggest altered brain plasticity such as decreased neural proliferation and migration, delayed myelination, and abnormal synaptic modeling, in the brain of subjects with schizophrenia. Though functional alterations in BDNF, which plays important role in neuroplasticity, are implicated in many abnormalities found in schizophrenia, the regulatory mechanism(s involved in the abnormal signaling of BDNF in schizophrenia is not clear. The present study investigated whether Sprouty2, a regulator of growth factor signaling, is abnormally expressed in schizophrenia, and is associated with the changes in BDNF mRNA in this disorder. The potential effect of antipsychotic drugs on Sprouty2 expression was tested in adult rats. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Sprouty2 and BDNF gene expression were analyzed in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex samples from the Stanley Array Collection. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of RNA in 100 individuals (35 with schizophrenia, 31 with bipolar disorder, and 34 psychiatrically normal controls showed significantly decreased expression of Sprouty2 and BDNF in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Moreover, a significant correlation between these two genes existed in control, schizophrenia and bipolar subjects. Long-term treatment with antipsychotic drugs, haloperidol and olanzapine, showed differential effects on both Sprouty2 and BDNF mRNA and protein levels in the frontal cortex of rats. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrating decreased expression of Sprouty2 associated with changes in BDNF, suggest the possibility that these decreases are secondary to treatment rather than to factors that are significant in the disease process of either schizophrenia and/or bipolar disorder. Further exploration of Sprouty2-related signal transduction pathways may be helpful to design novel treatment strategies for these disorders.

  4. Caregiver-coping in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia--a re-examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehra, Ritu; Chakrabarti, Subho; Kulhara, Paramanand; Sharma, Rajni

    2005-04-01

    The caregiving experience has been extensively investigated in some chronic/severe mental illnesses such as schizophrenia. These studies have suggested that illness variables and situational/personal characteristics of caregivers have a significant influence on how caregivers cope with mental illness. However, other similar conditions, e. g. bipolar affective disorder (BPAD), have been relatively neglected in this regard. This study attempted to compare caregiver-coping in BPAD and schizophrenia and to explore the determinants of such coping. Illness variables and coping, burden, appraisal, perceived support, and neuroticism among caregivers were examined in 50 patients each of BPAD and schizophrenia and their caregivers. High levels of patient-dysfunction and caregiver-burden, low awareness of illness and low perceived control over patient's behaviour were characteristic of both BPAD and schizophrenia, with no significant differences between the two groups on these parameters. Coping patterns were also quite alike, though caregivers of patients with schizophrenia were using some emotion-focused strategies significantly more often. Caregiver's gender, patient-dysfunction and caregiver-neuroticism had a significant influence on coping patterns, but explained only a small proportion of the variance in use of different coping strategies. Coping and other elements of the caregiving experience in BPAD are no different from schizophrenia. The relationship between caregiver-coping and its determinants appears to be a complex one. More methodologically sound and culturally relevant investigations are required to understand this intricate area, with the hope that a better understanding will help the cause of both patients and their caregivers.

  5. [A case of Asperger's disorder with catatonia originally suspected of being catatonic schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Shinnosuke; Yamaga, Kuniaki; Kobayashi, Toshiyuki; Kato, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    We report the case of an adolescent male who presented with mutism, immobility, catalepsy, and mannerisms. The patient was admitted to our hospital with suspected catatonic schizophrenia; however, he was subsequently diagnosed with catatonia due to Asperger's disorder. The patient was a 16-year-old male. More than six months before presentation, his grandfather displayed bizarre and violent behavior. Subsequently, he began to experience catatonia, which eventually led to hospitalization. Treatment with diazepam improved his condition and, as no causal disorders other than Asperger's disorder were identified, he was diagnosed with catatonia. The patient had experienced persistent abuse by his mother during childhood; therefore, it is important to consider reactive attachment disorder (DSM-IV-TR) as a differential diagnosis. Among child and adolescent psychiatrists, catatonia is considered to occur at a high frequency among patients with autistic spectrum disorders. In contrast, general psychiatrists tend to consider catatonia as related to schizophrenia, which may be the reason why the diagnosis of our patient was difficult. We assume that the pathogenesis of catatonia in this case was death mimicry due to the subjective perception of a life-threatening situation. For the treatment of catatonia with autistic spectrum disorders, the efficacy of benzodiazepines and electroconvulsive therapy has been established. When a patient with an autistic spectrum disorder presents with motor functional disturbances, it is important to consider these disturbances as catatonia. Furthermore, it is also important to begin the treatment mentioned above even in the presence of definite psychogenic or situational factors.

  6. Stem cell-derived neurons in the development of targeted treatment for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watmuff, Bradley; Liu, Bangyan; Karmacharya, Rakesh

    2017-04-01

    The recent advent of induced pluripotent stem cells has enabled the study of patient-specific and disease-related neurons in vitro and has facilitated new directions of inquiry into disease mechanisms. With these approaches, we now have the possibility of correlating ex vivo cellular phenotypes with individual patient response to treatment and/or side effects, which makes targeted treatments for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder a distinct prospect in the coming years. Here, we briefly review the current state of stem cell-based models and explore studies that are providing new insights into the disease biology of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, which are laying the foundations for the development of novel targeted therapies.

  7. Family therapy for schizophrenia: co-occurring psychotic and substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Jennifer D; Mueser, Kim T; Glynn, Shirley M

    2012-05-01

    People with schizophrenia have a high prevalence of co-occurring substance use disorders, which is related to a worse course of psychiatric illness, more frequent relapses, and increased depression and suicide, compared with those with schizophrenia alone. The Family Intervention for Dual Diagnosis (FIDD) program, which includes psychoeducation and goal setting and focuses on building communication and problem-solving skills within the family, can aid in decreasing the stress related to having a close relationship with someone with a dual disorder. Here, the case of a young man with psychosis and marijuana dependence is examined. This article describes how the FIDD intervention helped him with his problematic substance use, as well as to build skills within his relationship for increased empathy and reduced interpersonal stress. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Theory of mind in women with borderline personality disorder or schizophrenia: differences in overall ability and error patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja eVaskinn

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Although borderline personality disorder and schizophrenia are notably different mental disorders, they share problems in social cognition – or understanding the feelings, intentions and thoughts of other people. To date no studies have directly compared the social cognitive abilities of individuals with these two disorders. In this study, the social cognitive subdomain theory of mind was investigated in females with borderline personality disorder (n = 25, females with schizophrenia (n = 25 and healthy females (n = 25. An ecologically valid video-based measure (Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition was used. For the overall score, females with schizophrenia performed markedly below both healthy females and females with borderline personality disorder, whereas females with borderline personality disorder did not perform significantly different compared to the healthy control group. A statistically significant error type x group interaction effect indicated that the groups differed with respect to kind of errors. Whereas females with borderline personality disorder made mostly overmentalizing errors, females with schizophrenia in addition committed undermentalizing errors. Our study suggests different magnitude and pattern of social cognitive problems in borderline personality disorder and schizophrenia.

  9. Blonanserin-induced Mood Alteration in Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorder: Two Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Min, Aran; Kim, Daeho

    2013-01-01

    We report two outpatients, one with schizophrenia and one with schizoaffective disorder, who developed manic or hypomanic episodes following the initiation of blonanserin during the course of treatment. Blonanserin is a novel antipsychotic that acts as a 5-HT and D2 receptor antagonist. Both patients developed hypomanic episodes within 2 weeks of receiving a small dose (6-8 mg) of blonanserin, and one patient later developed full-blown mania; both episodes ended within 1 month of discontinuin...

  10. Exploring Factors Associated with the Psychosocial Impact of Stigma Among People with Schizophrenia or Affective Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    ?witaj, Piotr; Chrostek, Anna; Grygiel, Pawe?; Wci?rka, Jacek; Anczewska, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Stigmatization can exert a variety of pernicious effects on the lives of persons with mental illnesses. The purpose of this study was to explore factors related to the psychosocial impact of stigma among 229 people receiving psychiatric treatment: 123 with schizophrenia [International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10): F20] and 106 with affective disorders (ICD-10: F31?F33). In the whole sample, the factors most prominently associated with a greater impact of stigma on person...

  11. Positron emission tomography assessment of cerebral glucose metabolic rates in autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitelman, Serge A; Bralet, Marie-Cecile; Mehmet Haznedar, M; Hollander, Eric; Shihabuddin, Lina; Hazlett, Erin A; Buchsbaum, Monte S

    2018-04-01

    Several models have been proposed to account for observed overlaps in clinical features and genetic predisposition between schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder. This study assessed similarities and differences in topological patterns and vectors of glucose metabolism in both disorders in reference to these models. Co-registered 18 fluorodeoxyglucose PET and MRI scans were obtained in 41 schizophrenia, 25 ASD, and 55 healthy control subjects. AFNI was used to map cortical and subcortical regions of interest. Metabolic rates were compared between three diagnostic groups using univariate and multivariate repeated-measures ANOVA. Compared to controls, metabolic rates in schizophrenia subjects were decreased in the frontal lobe, anterior cingulate, superior temporal gyrus, amygdala and medial thalamic nuclei; rates were increased in the occipital cortex, hippocampus, basal ganglia and lateral thalamic nuclei. In ASD subjects metabolic rates were decreased in the parietal lobe, frontal premotor and eye-fields areas, and amygdala; rates were increased in the posterior cingulate, occipital cortex, hippocampus and basal ganglia. In relation to controls, subjects with ASD and schizophrenia showed opposite changes in metabolic rates in the primary motor and somatosensory cortex, anterior cingulate and hypothalamus; similar changes were found in prefrontal and occipital cortices, inferior parietal lobule, amygdala, hippocampus, and basal ganglia. Schizophrenia and ASD appear to be associated with a similar pattern of metabolic abnormalities in the social brain. Divergent maladaptive trade-offs, as postulated by the diametrical hypothesis of their evolutionary relationship, may involve a more circumscribed set of anterior cingulate, motor and somatosensory regions and the specific cognitive functions they subserve.

  12. [The language disorders in schizophrenia in neurolinguistic and psycholinguistic perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovan, Cristiano

    2012-01-01

    The descriptive psychopathology has classically equated the language with the formal aspects of thought. Recent developments in experimental and clinical research have emphasized the study of the language as a specific communicative ability. Within the framework of cognitive neuropsychology, the development of innovative research models, such as those based on the mentalizing ability, has allowed to formulate new hypotheses on the pathogenetic aspects of schizophrenia. Furthermore, mentalizing ability appears to be a basic skill for the pragmatic dimension of language. The author, after a brief description of the methods of investigation of neurolinguistics and psycholinguistics, presents a review of recent studies obtained by consulting the PubMed and PsycINFO databases. Finally, he focuses on the relationship between research findings and issues related to clinical practice.

  13. The Treatment of Hallucinations in Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Iris E. C.; Slotema, Christina W.; Daskalakis, Zafiris J.; Derks, Eske M.; Blom, Jan Dirk; van der Gaag, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the treatment of hallucinations in schizophrenia. The first treatment option for hallucinations in schizophrenia is antipsychotic medication, which can induce a rapid decrease in severity. Only 8% of first-episode patients still experience mild to moderate hallucinations after continuing medication for 1 year. Olanzapine, amisulpride, ziprasidone, and quetiapine are equally effective against hallucinations, but haloperidol may be slightly inferior. If the drug of first choice provides inadequate improvement, it is probably best to switch medication after 2–4 weeks of treatment. Clozapine is the drug of choice for patients who are resistant to 2 antipsychotic agents. Blood levels should be above 350–450 μg/ml for maximal effect. For relapse prevention, medication should be continued in the same dose. Depot medication should be considered for all patients because nonadherence is high. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) can be applied as an augmentation to antipsychotic medication. The success of CBT depends on the reduction of catastrophic appraisals, thereby reducing the concurrent anxiety and distress. CBT aims at reducing the emotional distress associated with auditory hallucinations and develops new coping strategies. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is capable of reducing the frequency and severity of auditory hallucinations. Several meta-analyses found significantly better symptom reduction for low-frequency repetitive TMS as compared with placebo. Consequently, TMS currently has the status of a potentially useful treatment method for auditory hallucinations, but only in combination with state of the art antipsychotic treatment. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is considered a last resort for treatment-resistant psychosis. Although several studies showed clinical improvement, a specific reduction in hallucination severity has never been demonstrated. PMID:22368234

  14. Current approaches to treatments for schizophrenia spectrum disorders, part I: an overview and medical treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien WT

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Wai Tong Chien, Annie LK Yip School of Nursing, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong Abstract: During the last three decades, an increasing understanding of the etiology, psychopathology, and clinical manifestations of schizophrenia spectrum disorders, in addition to the introduction of second-generation antipsychotics, has optimized the potential for recovery from the illness. Continued development of various models of psychosocial intervention promotes the goal of schizophrenia treatment from one of symptom control and social adaptation to an optimal restoration of functioning and/or recovery. However, it is still questionable whether these new treatment approaches can address the patients' needs for treatment and services and contribute to better patient outcomes. This article provides an overview of different treatment approaches currently used in schizophrenia spectrum disorders to address complex health problems and a wide range of abnormalities and impairments resulting from the illness. There are different treatment strategies and targets for patients at different stages of the illness, ranging from prophylactic antipsychotics and cognitive–behavioral therapy in the premorbid stage to various psychosocial interventions in addition to antipsychotics for relapse prevention and rehabilitation in the later stages of the illness. The use of antipsychotics alone as the main treatment modality may be limited not only in being unable to tackle the frequently occurring negative symptoms and cognitive impairments but also in producing a wide variety of adverse effects to the body or organ functioning. Because of varied pharmacokinetics and treatment responsiveness across agents, the medication regimen should be determined on an individual basis to ensure an optimal effect in its long-term use. This review also highlights that the recent practice guidelines and standards have

  15. Disorders of working memory and selected cognitive processes inpatients treated for paranoid schizophrenia

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    Damian Giętkowski

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Already since the times of Baddeley and Hitch the dorsolateral part of the frontal lobe was regarded as the function‑ al centre of the working memory. Working memory disorders are, on the other hand, one of the basic and consoli‑ dated disorders in the course of paranoid schizophrenia. The concept of neurodevelopmental schizophrenia com‑ bines these elements and associates the illness with the changes occurring in the brain in the prenatal period. The efficiency of the working memory system, which acts as a buffer manipulating with the possessed and inflowing information, influences the quality of other cognitive processes, such as long‑term memory, short‑term memory, con‑ centration and thinking. A study was performed on two groups: one experimental consisting of 31 people suffering from paranoid schizophrenia and one control group of 31 healthy people. In both groups a replica of Wisconsin Card Sorting Task was used in order to measure the efficiency of the working memory and selected tests from WAIS‑R (PL: the Polish adaptation of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale to assess the functioning of concentration, memory and thinking. The results of the study showed that in the experimental group the efficiency of the working memory is very low and that the illness affects the performance of concentration, memory and thinking. Moreover the tests proved that the working memory disorder increases with time.

  16. Caregivers consequences of care among patients with eating disorders, depression or schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Josune; Padierna, Angel; van Wijngaarden, Bob; Aguirre, Urko; Anton, Ane; Muñoz, Pedro; Quintana, José M

    2015-06-09

    The consequences of caring for a person with a mental illness can impose a substantial burden. Few studies have compared this burden among caregivers of patients with eating disorders and other mental illnesses. The objective of this study was to compare caregiver consequences in eating disorders (ED) with caregiver consequences in depression and schizophrenia, assessed with the same instrument, the Involvement Evaluation Questionnaire (IEQ). Another aim was to identify factors that may predict these consequences. We conducted a cross-sectional study involving 251 caregivers of ED patients; 252 caregivers of patients with depression; and 151 caregivers of patients with schizophrenia. Caregivers completed the Involvement Evaluation Questionnaire EU Version (IEQ-EU). Descriptive statistics, ANOVA, and Chi-square were applied to examine the inter-variable relationships. Consequences- indexes were also computed. In all samples, worrying was the most commonly reported consequence of caregiving. Predictive variables for a high level of caregiver burden included being a mother or partner of the person being cared for (p = eating disorders patients than among caregivers of patients with depression or schizophrenia. Our findings suggest that caregivers of patients with an ED could benefit from providing adequate assessment and support.

  17. Disease signatures for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder using patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watmuff, Bradley; Berkovitch, Shaunna S; Huang, Joanne H; Iaconelli, Jonathan; Toffel, Steven; Karmacharya, Rakesh

    2016-06-01

    Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are complex psychiatric disorders that present unique challenges in the study of disease biology. There are no objective biological phenotypes for these disorders, which are characterized by complex genetics and prominent roles for gene-environment interactions. The study of the neurobiology underlying these severe psychiatric disorders has been hindered by the lack of access to the tissue of interest - neurons from patients. The advent of reprogramming methods that enable generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from patient fibroblasts and peripheral blood mononuclear cells has opened possibilities for new approaches to study relevant disease biology using iPSC-derived neurons. While early studies with patient iPSCs have led to promising and intriguing leads, significant hurdles remain in our attempts to capture the complexity of these disorders in vitro. We present here an overview of studies to date of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder using iPSC-derived neuronal cells and discuss potential future directions that can result in the identification of robust and valid cellular phenotypes that in turn can lay the groundwork for meaningful clinical advances. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. High frequencies of de novo CNVs in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Malhotra, Dheeraj

    2011-12-22

    While it is known that rare copy-number variants (CNVs) contribute to risk for some neuropsychiatric disorders, the role of CNVs in bipolar disorder is unclear. Here, we reasoned that a contribution of CNVs to mood disorders might be most evident for de novo mutations. We performed a genome-wide analysis of de novo CNVs in a cohort of 788 trios. Diagnoses of offspring included bipolar disorder (n = 185), schizophrenia (n = 177), and healthy controls (n = 426). Frequencies of de novo CNVs were significantly higher in bipolar disorder as compared with controls (OR = 4.8 [1.4,16.0], p = 0.009). De novo CNVs were particularly enriched among cases with an age at onset younger than 18 (OR = 6.3 [1.7,22.6], p = 0.006). We also confirmed a significant enrichment of de novo CNVs in schizophrenia (OR = 5.0 [1.5,16.8], p = 0.007). Our results suggest that rare spontaneous mutations are an important contributor to risk for bipolar disorder and other major neuropsychiatric diseases.

  19. Internet communication of outpatients with Asperger's disorder or schizophrenia in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watabe, Takashi; Suzuki, Kunifumi

    2015-03-01

    There is insufficient information about the Internet usage of psychiatric patients. The aim of this study is to investigate the usage of Internet communication among subjects with Asperger's disorder (AD) or schizophrenia. A questionnaire survey was carried out in Japan among 29 outpatients with AD, 32 outpatients with schizophrenia, and 97 age-matched normal volunteers. This study limited the participants to young male adults (20- to 39-year-olds) using the Internet. People with a diagnosis of AD prefer personal computers to mobile phones as their Internet terminal, have an inclination to use anonymous media, and tend to think that they can communicate more correctly through the Internet than face-to-face communication. People with a diagnosis of schizophrenia employ the Internet to a degree almost similar to controls, and tend to rely on unknown persons, but also sometimes feel hurt when communicating on the Internet. Moreover, their sensitivity to the risks of the Internet tends to decrease with the aggravation of their psychotic symptoms. It may be important to pay attention to the excessive use of some limited media by people with a diagnosis of AD. Providing people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia with sufficient information about the risks of the Internet is also important. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. Facial emotion perception impairments in schizophrenia patients with comorbid antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Dorothy Y Y; Liu, Amy C Y; Lui, Simon S Y; Lam, Bess Y H; Siu, Bonnie W M; Lee, Tatia M C; Cheung, Eric F C

    2016-02-28

    Impairment in facial emotion perception is believed to be associated with aggression. Schizophrenia patients with antisocial features are more impaired in facial emotion perception than their counterparts without these features. However, previous studies did not define the comorbidity of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) using stringent criteria. We recruited 30 participants with dual diagnoses of ASPD and schizophrenia, 30 participants with schizophrenia and 30 controls. We employed the Facial Emotional Recognition paradigm to measure facial emotion perception, and administered a battery of neurocognitive tests. The Life History of Aggression scale was used. ANOVAs and ANCOVAs were conducted to examine group differences in facial emotion perception, and control for the effect of other neurocognitive dysfunctions on facial emotion perception. Correlational analyses were conducted to examine the association between facial emotion perception and aggression. Patients with dual diagnoses performed worst in facial emotion perception among the three groups. The group differences in facial emotion perception remained significant, even after other neurocognitive impairments were controlled for. Severity of aggression was correlated with impairment in perceiving negative-valenced facial emotions in patients with dual diagnoses. Our findings support the presence of facial emotion perception impairment and its association with aggression in schizophrenia patients with comorbid ASPD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Association of neurocognition, anxiety, positive and negative symptoms with coping preference in schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysaker, Paul H; Davis, Louanne W; Lightfoot, Jeffrey; Hunter, Nicole; Stasburger, Amy

    2005-12-15

    It is recognized that persons with schizophrenia tend to cope with stress in a relatively avoidant and ineffectual manner and that this coping style is linked to poorer outcome. Less is understood, however, about the interrelationship between symptoms, deficits in neurocognition and coping style in schizophrenia. To determine the extent to which various neurocognitive deficits and symptoms are related to coping style in schizophrenia, measures of positive symptoms, negative symptoms, state and trait anxiety levels, verbal memory and executive function were correlated with self-report of preference for a range of active and avoidant coping strategies. Participants were 42 persons with schizophrenia spectrum disorders enrolled in outpatient psychiatric care. Stepwise multiple regressions indicated that greater preferences for taking action when faced with a stressor were significantly (p<.05) linked to lesser positive symptoms and lesser state anxiety while greater preferences for thinking or talking about possible solutions were linked to lesser impairments in neurocognition. A greater preference for resigning in the face of stress was significantly linked to greater levels of negative symptoms and trait anxiety, while a preference to ignore stressors was linked to both greater levels of positive symptoms and graver impairments in neurocognition. Implications for understanding the genesis of psychosocial dysfunction and for the development of rehabilitative interventions are discussed.

  2. Temporomandibular disorders in patients with schizophrenia using antipsychotic agents: a discussion paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Araújo AN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Arão Nogueira de Araújo,1 Marion Alves do Nascimento,1 Eduardo Pondé de Sena,1,2 Abrahão Fontes Baptista3,4 1Postgraduate Program in Interactive Processes of Organs and Systems, 2Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Health Sciences, 3Department of Biomorphology, Institute of Health Sciences, 4Postgraduate Program in Medicine and Health, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, Brazil Abstract: Patients with psychiatric problems show a tendency to develop temporomandibular disorders (TMD. Particularly, patients with schizophrenia are quite likely to have signs and symptoms of TMD due to the impairment of their oral health, the use of antipsychotic drugs, and other general health problems. In nonschizophrenic populations, TMD have been considered as the main cause of nondental pain in the orofacial region, involving mechanisms associated with changes in masticatory activity at the cortical and neuromuscular levels. Individuals with schizophrenia do not usually complain of pain, and TMD is misdiagnosed in this population. In this paper, we aimed to review the clinical aspects of TMD in people with schizophrenia on antipsychotic drug therapy. Keywords: schizophrenia, temporomandibular joint, pain, antipsychotic agents

  3. Correlates of adverse childhood events among adults with schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Stanley D; Lu, Weili; Mueser, Kim T; Jankowski, Mary Kay; Cournos, Francine

    2007-02-01

    Multiple studies have found that childhood adversity is related to a range of poor mental health, substance abuse, poor physical health, and poor social functioning outcomes in the general population of adults. However, despite the high rates of childhood adversity in schizophrenia, the clinical correlates of these events have not been systematically evaluated. This study evaluated the relationship between adverse experiences in childhood and functional, clinical, and health outcomes among adults with schizophrenia. The authors surveyed 569 adults with schizophrenia regarding adverse childhood events (including physical abuse, sexual abuse, parental mental illnesses, loss of a parent, parental separation or divorce, witnessing domestic violence, and foster or kinship care). The relationships between cumulative exposure to these events and psychiatric, physical, and functional outcomes were evaluated. Increased exposure to adverse childhood events was strongly related to psychiatric problems (suicidal thinking, hospitalizations, distress, and posttraumatic stress disorder), substance abuse, physical health problems (HIV infection), medical service utilization (physician visits), and poor social functioning (homelessness or criminal justice involvement). The findings extend the results of research in the general population by suggesting that childhood adversity contributes to worse mental health, substance abuse, worse physical health, and poor functional outcomes in schizophrenia.

  4. Relative Risk of Acute Myocardial Infarction in People with Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-I Wu

    Full Text Available Despite high mortality associated with serious mental illness, risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI remains unclear, especially for patients with bipolar disorder. The main objective was to investigate the relative risk of AMI associated with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders in a national sample.Using nationwide administrative data, an 11-year historic cohort study was assembled, comprised of cases aged 18 and above who had received a diagnosis of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, compared to a random sample of all other adults excluding those with diagnoses of serious mental illness. Incident AMI as a primary diagnosis was ascertained. Hazard ratios stratified by age and gender were calculated and Cox regression models were used to adjust for other covariates.A total of 70,225 people with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder and 207,592 people without serious mental illness were compared. Hazard ratios in men adjusted for age, income and urbanization were 1.15 (95% CI 1.01~1.32 for schizophrenia and 1.37 (1.08~1.73for bipolar disorder, and in women, 1.85 (1.58~2.18 and 1.88(1.47~2.41 respectively. Further adjustment for treated hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidaemia attenuated the hazard ratio for men with schizophrenia but not the other comparison groups. Hazard ratios were significantly stronger in women than men and were stronger in younger compared to older age groups for both disorders; however, gender modification was only significant in people with schizophrenia, and age modification only significant in people with bipolar disorder.In this large national sample, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder were associated with raised risk of AMI in women and in the younger age groups although showed differences in potential confounding and modifying factors.

  5. [The relationship between antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia and menstrual disorders in women with schizophrenia; a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouwehand, A J; Mollema-Schelwald, B M; Knegtering, H

    2012-01-01

    Menstrual disorders are common among women with schizophrenia, particularly when they are being treated with antipsychotics. The occurrence of menstrual disorders is often attributed to the use of prolactin-elevating antipsychotics, although menstrual disorders also occur in patients not using antipsychotics. Therefore we need to find out whether menstrual disorders in schizophrenia are drug-related or whether they have some other connection with schizophrenia. To identify and discuss studies that investigate the relationship between antipsychotics-induced hyperprolactinemia and menstrual disorders in women with schizophrenia. We reviewed the literature systematically using PubMed, Psyc, info and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Very few studies have investigated the connection between antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia and menstrual disorders and most have serious methodological limitations. Only one study was able to demonstrate such a connection. On the basis of current research no firm conclusions can be drawn about the relationship between the increased frequency of menstrual disorders in women with schizophrenia and elevated prolactin levels resulting from the use of antipsychotics.

  6. Can structural MRI aid in clinical classification? A machine learning study in two independent samples of patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnack, Hugo G; Nieuwenhuis, Mireille; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Abramovic, Lucija; Scheewe, Thomas W; Brouwer, Rachel M; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Kahn, René S

    2014-01-01

    Although structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has revealed partly non-overlapping brain abnormalities in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, it is unknown whether structural MRI scans can be used to separate individuals with schizophrenia from those with bipolar disorder. An algorithm capable of discriminating between these two disorders could become a diagnostic aid for psychiatrists. Here, we scanned 66 schizophrenia patients, 66 patients with bipolar disorder and 66 healthy subjects on a 1.5T MRI scanner. Three support vector machines were trained to separate patients with schizophrenia from healthy subjects, patients with schizophrenia from those with bipolar disorder, and patients with bipolar disorder from healthy subjects, respectively, based on their gray matter density images. The predictive power of the models was tested using cross-validation and in an independent validation set of 46 schizophrenia patients, 47 patients with bipolar disorder and 43 healthy subjects scanned on a 3T MRI scanner. Schizophrenia patients could be separated from healthy subjects with an average accuracy of 90%. Additionally, schizophrenia patients and patients with bipolar disorder could be distinguished with an average accuracy of 88%.The model delineating bipolar patients from healthy subjects was less accurate, correctly classifying 67% of the healthy subjects and only 53% of the patients with bipolar disorder. In the latter group, lithium and antipsychotics use had no influence on the classification results. Application of the 1.5T models on the 3T validation set yielded average classification accuracies of 76% (healthy vs schizophrenia), 66% (bipolar vs schizophrenia) and 61% (healthy vs bipolar). In conclusion, the accurate separation of schizophrenia from bipolar patients on the basis of structural MRI scans, as demonstrated here, could be of added value in the differential diagnosis of these two disorders. The results also suggest that gray matter pathology in

  7. Isochromosome 13 in a patient with childhood-onset schizophrenia, ADHD, and motor tic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graw Sharon L

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A small percentage of all cases of schizophrenia have a childhood onset. The impact on the individual and family can be devastating. We report the results of genetic analyses from a patient with onset of visual hallucinations at 5 years, and a subsequent diagnosis at 9 years of schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD with hyperactivity and impulsivity, and chronic motor tic disorder. Results Karyotypic analysis found 45,XX,i(13(q10 in all cells examined. Alpha satellite FISH of isochromosome 13 revealed a large unsplit centromeric region, interpreted as two centromeres separated by minimal or undetectable short-arm material or as a single monocentric centromere, indicating that the isochromosome likely formed post-zygotically by a short arm U-type or centromeric exchange. Characterization of chromosome 13 simple tandem repeats and Affymetrix whole-genome 6.0 SNP array hybridization found homozygosity for all markers, and the presence of only a single paternal allele in informative markers, consistent with an isodisomic isochromosome of paternal origin. Analysis of two chromosome 13 schizophrenia candidate genes, D-amino acid oxidase activator (DAOA and 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin receptor 2A (5-HTR2A, failed to identify non-synonymous coding mutations but did identify homozygous risk polymorphisms. Conclusions We report a female patient with childhood-onset schizophrenia, ADHD, and motor tic disorder associated with an isodisomic isochromosome 13 of paternal origin and a 45,XX,i(13(q10q10 karyotype. We examined two potential mechanisms to explain chromosome 13 involvement in the patient's pathology, including reduction to homozygosity of a paternal mutation and reduction to homozygosity of a paternal copy number variation, but were unable to identify any overtly pathogenic abnormality. Future studies may consider whether epigenetic mechanisms resulting from uniparental disomy (UPD and the lack of

  8. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE BURDEN OF BIPOLAR AFFECTIVE DISORDER AND SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Jayakrishnaveni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Mental and behavioural disorders have a large impact on individuals, family and communities. There is a paucity of studies on burden and cost of illness of Bipolar Affective Disorder both internationally and in India. Such studies are important for clinical management and policy decisions. Aim of the study - The aim of the present study is to assess the magnitude of the cost of illness and family burden of Bipolar Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia and to find out the difference in the burden of the caregivers for both the groups. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was conducted in the outpatient department of Institute of Mental Health, Chennai. Sixty patients in each group were included by stratified sampling. Caregivers living with patients for atleast one year are included in the study, and those with any comorbid illness, were excluded from the study. ICD -10 diagnostic and research criteria were used for diagnosis of BPAD and Schizophrenia, Questionnaire for Assessment of Cost of Illness was used to assess cost of illness and Family Burden Interview Schedule was used to assess burden of caregivers. RESULTS Schizophrenia patients are mostly from urban, nuclear family. The illness characters & sociodemographic profile of caregivers are comparable. Lifetime costs and loss of income over lifetime was more in schizophrenia. Loss of income in the past year was similar. The burden was comparable for caregivers of both groups in disruption of family routine, interaction with family members, effect on mental health. CONCLUSION Burden of both diseases were comparable except schizophrenics experience more financial burden.

  9. RC2S: A Cognitive Remediation Program to Improve Social Cognition in Schizophrenia and Related Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyroux, Elodie; Franck, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    In people with psychiatric disorders, particularly those suffering from schizophrenia and related illnesses, pronounced difficulties in social interactions are a key manifestation. These difficulties can be partly explained by impairments in social cognition, defined as the ability to understand oneself and others in the social world, which includes abilities such as emotion recognition, theory of mind (ToM), attributional style, and social perception and knowledge. The impact of several kinds of interventions on social cognition has been studied recently. The best outcomes in the area of social cognition in schizophrenia are those obtained by way of cognitive remediation programs. New strategies and programs in this line are currently being developed, such as RC2S (cognitive remediation of social cognition) in Lyon, France. Considering that the social cognitive deficits experienced by patients with schizophrenia are very diverse, and that the main objective of social cognitive remediation programs is to improve patients’ functioning in their daily social life, RC2S was developed as an individualized and flexible program that allows patients to practice social interaction in a realistic environment through the use of virtual reality techniques. In the RC2S program, the patient’s goal is to assist a character named Tom in various social situations. The underlying idea for the patient is to acquire cognitive strategies for analyzing social context and emotional information in order to understand other characters’ mental states and to help Tom manage his social interactions. In this paper, we begin by presenting some data regarding the social cognitive impairments found in schizophrenia and related disorders, and we describe how these deficits are targeted by social cognitive remediation. Then we present the RC2S program and discuss the advantages of computer-based simulation to improve social cognition and social functioning in people with psychiatric disorders

  10. RC2S: a cognitive remediation program to improve social cognition in schizophrenia and related disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie ePEYROUX

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In people with psychiatric disorders, particularly those suffering from schizophrenia and related illnesses, pronounced difficulties in social interactions are a key manifestation. These difficulties can be partly explained by impairments in social cognition, defined as the ability to understand oneself and others in the social world, which includes abilities such as emotion recognition, theory of mind, attributional style, and social perception and knowledge. The impact of several kinds of interventions on social cognition has been studied recently. The best outcomes in the area of social cognition in schizophrenia are those obtained by way of cognitive remediation programs. New strategies and programs in this line are currently being developed, such as RC2S (Cognitive Remediation of Social Cognition in Lyon, France. Considering that the social cognitive deficits experienced by patients with schizophrenia are very diverse, and that the main objective of social cognitive remediation programs is to improve patients’ functioning in their daily social life, RC2S was developed as an individualized and flexible program that allows patients to practice social interaction in a realistic environment through the use of virtual-reality techniques. In the RC2S program, the patient’s goal is to assist a character named Tom in various social situations. The underlying idea for the patient is to acquire cognitive strategies for analyzing social context and emotional information in order to understand other characters’ mental states and to help Tom manage his social interactions. In this paper, we begin by presenting some data regarding the social cognitive impairments found in schizophrenia and related disorders, and we describe how these deficits are targeted by social cognitive remediation. Then we present the RC2S program and discuss the advantages of computer-based simulation to improve social cognition and social functioning in people with

  11. RC2S: A Cognitive Remediation Program to Improve Social Cognition in Schizophrenia and Related Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyroux, Elodie; Franck, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    In people with psychiatric disorders, particularly those suffering from schizophrenia and related illnesses, pronounced difficulties in social interactions are a key manifestation. These difficulties can be partly explained by impairments in social cognition, defined as the ability to understand oneself and others in the social world, which includes abilities such as emotion recognition, theory of mind (ToM), attributional style, and social perception and knowledge. The impact of several kinds of interventions on social cognition has been studied recently. The best outcomes in the area of social cognition in schizophrenia are those obtained by way of cognitive remediation programs. New strategies and programs in this line are currently being developed, such as RC2S (cognitive remediation of social cognition) in Lyon, France. Considering that the social cognitive deficits experienced by patients with schizophrenia are very diverse, and that the main objective of social cognitive remediation programs is to improve patients' functioning in their daily social life, RC2S was developed as an individualized and flexible program that allows patients to practice social interaction in a realistic environment through the use of virtual reality techniques. In the RC2S program, the patient's goal is to assist a character named Tom in various social situations. The underlying idea for the patient is to acquire cognitive strategies for analyzing social context and emotional information in order to understand other characters' mental states and to help Tom manage his social interactions. In this paper, we begin by presenting some data regarding the social cognitive impairments found in schizophrenia and related disorders, and we describe how these deficits are targeted by social cognitive remediation. Then we present the RC2S program and discuss the advantages of computer-based simulation to improve social cognition and social functioning in people with psychiatric disorders.

  12. Current approaches to treatments for schizophrenia spectrum disorders, part I: an overview and medical treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Wai Tong; Yip, Annie Lk

    2013-01-01

    During the last three decades, an increasing understanding of the etiology, psychopathology, and clinical manifestations of schizophrenia spectrum disorders, in addition to the introduction of second-generation antipsychotics, has optimized the potential for recovery from the illness. Continued development of various models of psychosocial intervention promotes the goal of schizophrenia treatment from one of symptom control and social adaptation to an optimal restoration of functioning and/or recovery. However, it is still questionable whether these new treatment approaches can address the patients' needs for treatment and services and contribute to better patient outcomes. This article provides an overview of different treatment approaches currently used in schizophrenia spectrum disorders to address complex health problems and a wide range of abnormalities and impairments resulting from the illness. There are different treatment strategies and targets for patients at different stages of the illness, ranging from prophylactic antipsychotics and cognitive-behavioral therapy in the premorbid stage to various psychosocial interventions in addition to antipsychotics for relapse prevention and rehabilitation in the later stages of the illness. The use of antipsychotics alone as the main treatment modality may be limited not only in being unable to tackle the frequently occurring negative symptoms and cognitive impairments but also in producing a wide variety of adverse effects to the body or organ functioning. Because of varied pharmacokinetics and treatment responsiveness across agents, the medication regimen should be determined on an individual basis to ensure an optimal effect in its long-term use. This review also highlights that the recent practice guidelines and standards have recommended that a combination of treatment modalities be adopted to meet the complex health needs of people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. In view of the heterogeneity of the risk

  13. Premorbid IQ and adult schizophrenia spectrum disorder: Verbal and Performance subtests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Schiffman, Jason

    2010-01-01

    The present prospective high-risk study examined associations between childhood scores on five Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) subtests (vocabulary, similarities, block design, object assembly, and mazes) and later development of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD). The sample...... psychiatric disorders (OPD), and 133 had no diagnosis (ND). The SSD group obtained lower scores than the ND group on all subtests and IQs, but when adjusted for sex and parental social status only significantly lower scores on similarities, object assembly, mazes, and total IQ. Compared with the ND group...

  14. Frontonasal dysmorphology in bipolar disorder by 3D laser surface imaging and geometric morphometrics: comparisons with schizophrenia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hennessy, Robin J

    2010-09-01

    Any developmental relationship between bipolar disorder and schizophrenia engenders continuing debate. As the brain and face emerge in embryological intimacy, brain dysmorphogenesis is accompanied by facial dysmorphogenesis. 3D laser surface imaging was used to capture the facial surface of 13 male and 14 female patients with bipolar disorder in comparison with 61 male and 75 female control subjects and with 37 male and 32 female patients with schizophrenia. Surface images were analysed using geometric morphometrics and 3D visualisations to identify domains of facial shape that distinguish bipolar patients from controls and bipolar patients from those with schizophrenia. Both male and female bipolar patients evidenced significant facial dysmorphology: common to male and female patients was overall facial widening, increased width of nose, narrowing of mouth and upward displacement of the chin; dysmorphology differed between male and female patients for nose length, lip thickness and tragion height. There were few morphological differences in comparison with schizophrenia patients. That dysmorphology of the frontonasal prominences and related facial regions in bipolar disorder is more similar to than different from that found in schizophrenia indicates some common dysmorphogenesis. Bipolar disorder and schizophrenia might reflect similar insult(s) acting over slightly differing time-frames or slightly differing insult(s) acting over a similar time-frame.

  15. Neurocognition and social skill in older persons with schizophrenia and major mood disorders: An analysis of gender and diagnosis effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueser, Kim T; Pratt, Sarah I; Bartels, Stephen J; Forester, Brent; Wolfe, Rosemarie; Cather, Corinne

    2010-05-01

    Effective social interactions necessary for getting affiliative and instrumental needs met require the smooth integration of social skills, including verbal, non-verbal, and paralinguistic behaviors. Schizophrenia is characterized by prominent impairments in social and role functioning, and research on younger individuals with the illness has shown that social skills deficits are both common and distinguish the disease from other psychiatric disorders. However, less research has focused on diagnostic differences and correlates of social skills in older persons with schizophrenia. To address this question, we examined diagnostic and gender differences in social skills in a community-dwelling sample of 183 people older than age 50 with severe mental illness, and the relationships between social skills and neurocognitive functioning, symptoms, and social contact.Individuals with schizophrenia had worse social skills than those with bipolar disorder or major depression, with people with schizoaffective disorder in between. Social contact and cognitive functioning, especially executive functions and verbal fluency, were strongly predictive of social skills in people with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder, but not those with mood disorder. Other than blunted affect, symptoms were not predictive of social skills in either the schizophrenia spectrum or the mood disorder group. Older age was associated with worse social skills in both groups, whereas female gender was related to better skills in the mood disorder group, but not the schizophrenia group. The findings suggest that poor social skills, which are related to the cognitive impairment associated with the illness, are a fundamental feature of schizophrenia that persists from the onset of the illness into older age.

  16. Constituents of Saffron (Crocus sativus L. as Potential Candidates for the Treatment of Anxiety Disorders and Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Pitsikas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders and schizophrenia are common public health issues. The dried stigma of the plant Crocus sativus L., (C. sativus commonly known as saffron are used in folk medicine for various purposes. Several lines of evidence suggest that C. sativus, crocins and safranal are implicated in anxiety and schizophrenia. Here, I intend to critically review advances in research of these emerging molecules for the treatment of anxiety and schizophrenia, discuss their advantages over currently used anxiolytics and neuroleptics, as well remaining challenges. Current analysis shows that C. sativus and its components might be a promising class of compounds for the treatment of the above mentioned psychiatric diseases.

  17. Genetic vulnerability and premature death in schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a 28-year follow-up of adoptees in the Finnish Adoptive Family Study of Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakko, Helinä; Wahlberg, Karl-Erik; Tienari, Pekka; Räsänen, Sami

    2011-09-01

    Excess mortality is widely reported among schizophrenia patients, but rarely examined in adoption study settings. We investigated whether genetic background plays a role in the premature death of adoptees with schizophrenia. Mortality among 382 adoptees in the Finnish Adoptive Family Study of Schizophrenia was monitored from 1977 to 2005 through the national causes-of-death register. The sample covered 190 adoptees with a high genetic risk of schizophrenia (HR) and 192 with a low risk (LR). Overall mortality among the adoptees did not differ between the HR and LR groups, as 10% and 9% respectively had died during the follow-up, at mean ages of 45 and 46 years. Schizophrenia spectrum disorder was the most significant predictor of premature death in both groups, with dysfunction in the rearing family environment associated with mortality, unnatural deaths and suicides in the HR but not in the LR group. All the suicides involved HR cases. Mortality among the adoptees was not related to genetic factors but to environmental ones. The association of unnatural deaths and suicides with dysfunction in the rearing environment among the HR adoptees may indicate that they had a greater genetically determined vulnerability to environmental effects than their LR counterparts. The genetic and rearing environments can be disentangled in this setting because the biological parents give the offspring their genes and the adoptive parents give them their rearing environment. Our findings add to knowledge of the factors associated with the premature death of adoptees in mid-life.

  18. High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders in Adults: Consequences for Primary Caregivers Compared to Schizophrenia and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grootscholten, Inge A C; van Wijngaarden, Bob; Kan, Cornelis C

    2018-01-08

    Primary caregivers experience consequences from being in close contact to a person with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study used the Involvement Evaluation Questionnaire to explore the level of consequences of 104 caregivers involved with adults with High Functioning ASD (HF-ASD) and compared these with the consequences reported by caregivers of patients suffering from depression and schizophrenia. Caregivers involved with adults with an HF-ASD experience overall consequences comparable to those involved with patients with depression or schizophrenia. Worrying was the most reported consequence. More tension was experienced by the caregivers of ASD patients, especially by spouses. More care and attention for spouses of adults with an HF-ASD appears to be needed.

  19. Diagnostic agreement of schizophrenia spectrum disorders among chronic patients with functional psychoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, K D; Frederiksen, J N; Parnas, J

    2006-01-01

    diagnostic systems were identified. Diagnostic agreement was assessed using unweighted kappa-statistics and pairwise concordance rates (CR). RESULTS: High diagnostic agreement of schizophrenia was observed across the ICD-10 and DSM systems (CR >0.70, kappa >0.70), which all had a significantly lower...... function previous to the onset of illness. Similarly high pairwise CR were observed for schizophrenia spectrum disorders across all diagnostic systems. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that diagnostic agreement is higher among chronic patients than that observed in subjects with a recent onset......BACKGROUND: To investigate whether diagnostic agreement across different diagnostic systems improves in a sample of chronic patients suffering from functional psychosis compared to first-admitted patients. SAMPLING AND METHODS: Among 353 patients with a history of functional psychosis, a subset...

  20. Self-stigma in borderline personality disorder – cross-sectional comparison with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, major depressive disorder, and anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grambal A

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ales Grambal,1 Jan Prasko,1 Dana Kamaradova,1 Klara Latalova,1 Michaela Holubova,1,2 Marketa Marackova,1 Marie Ociskova,1 Milos Slepecky3 1Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Department of Psychiatry, Palacky University Olomouc, University Hospital Olomouc, Olomouc, 2Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Liberec, Liberec, Czech Republic; 3Faculty of Social Science and Health Care, Department of Psychology Sciences, Constantine the Philosopher University, Nitra, Slovak Republic Introduction: Self-stigma arises from one’s acceptance of societal prejudices and is common in psychiatric patients. This investigation compares the self-stigma of a sample of patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD, schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SCH, major depressive disorder (MDD, bipolar affective disorder (BAD, and anxiety disorders (AD and explores of the self-stigma with the subjective and objective measures of the severity of the disorder and demographic factors. Methods: The total of 184 inpatients admitted to the psychotherapeutic department diagnosed with BPD, SCH, MDD, BAP, and AD were compared on the internalized stigma of mental illness (ISMI scale. The ISMI-total score was correlated with the subjective and objective evaluation of the disorder severity (clinical global impression, and clinical and demographic factors. Results: The self-stigma levels were statistically significantly different among the diagnostic groups (BPD 71.15±14.74; SCH 63.2±13.27; MDD 64.09±12.2; BAD 62.0±14.21; AD 57.62±15.85; one-way analysis of variance: F=8.698, df=183; P<0.005. However after applying the Bonferroni’s multiple comparison test, the only significant difference was between the BPD patients and the patients with AD (P<0.001. Stepwise regression analysis showed that the strongest factors connected with the higher level of self-stigma were being without partner, the number of hospitalization, and the severity of the disorder. Conclusion: The BPD patients

  1. Search for common haplotypes on chromosome 22q in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder from the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, T H; Børglum, A D; Mors, O

    2002-01-01

    Chromosome 22q may harbor risk genes for schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. This is evidenced through genetic mapping studies, investigations of cytogenetic abnormalities, and direct examination of candidate genes. Patients with schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder from the Faroe...... Islands were typed for 35 evenly distributed polymorphic markers on 22q in a search for shared risk genes in the two disorders. No single marker was strongly associated with either disease, but five two-marker segments that cluster within two regions on the chromosome have haplotypes occurring...

  2. Homer1a protein expression in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leber, Stefan L; Llenos, Ida C; Miller, Christine L; Dulay, Jeannette R; Haybaeck, Johannes; Weis, Serge

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, there was growing interest in postsynaptic density proteins in the central nervous system. Of the most important candidates of this specialized region are proteins belonging to the Homer protein family. This family of scaffolding proteins is suspected to participate in the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases. The present study aims to compare Homer1a expression in the hippocampus and cingulate gyrus of patients with major psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression. Immunohistochemistry was used to analyze changes of Homer1a protein expression in the hippocampal formation and the cingulate gyrus from the respective disease groups. Glial cells of the cingulate gyrus gray matter showed decreased Homer1a levels in bipolar disorder when compared to controls. The same results were seen when comparing cingulate gyrus gray matter glial cells in bipolar disorder with major depression. Stratum oriens glial cells of the hippocampus showed decreased Homer1a levels in bipolar disorder when compared to controls and major depression. Stratum lacunosum glial cells showed decreased Homer1a levels in bipolar disorder when compared to major depression. In stratum oriens interneurons Homer1a levels were increased in all disease groups when compared to controls. Stratum lucidum axons showed decreased Homer1a levels in bipolar disorder when compared to controls. Our data demonstrate altered Homer1a levels in specific brain regions and cell types of patients suffering from schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression. These findings support the role of Homer proteins as interesting candidates in neuropsychiatric pathophysiology and treatment.

  3. Self-disorder and subjective dimensions of suicidality in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skodlar, Borut; Parnas, Josef

    2009-01-01

    for suicidality, that is, sense of solitude and inferiority feelings, would be associated with disturbances measured by the Examination of Anomalous Self-Experience scale, that is, disorders of self-awareness and self-presence. The hypothesis was empirically supported. The results shed some additional light...

  4. Self-disorder and subjective dimensions of suicidality in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skodlar, Borut; Parnas, Josef

    2010-01-01

    for suicidality, that is, sense of solitude and inferiority feelings, would be associated with disturbances measured by the Examination of Anomalous Self-Experience scale, that is, disorders of self-awareness and self-presence. The hypothesis was empirically supported. The results shed some additional light...

  5. Improved detection of common variants associated with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder using pleiotropy-informed conditional false discovery rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Ole A; Thompson, Wesley K; Schork, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    are currently lacking. Here, we use a genetic pleiotropy-informed conditional false discovery rate (FDR) method on GWAS summary statistics data to identify new loci associated with schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorders (BD), two highly heritable disorders with significant missing heritability...

  6. Differential impairment of social cognition factors in bipolar disorder with and without psychotic features and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Nicholas S; Allen, Daniel N; Sutton, Griffin P; Vertinski, Mary; Ringdahl, Erik N

    2013-12-01

    While it is well-established that patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder exhibit deficits in social cognition, few studies have separately examined bipolar disorder with and without psychotic features. The current study addressed this gap by comparing patients with bipolar disorder with (BD+) and without (BD-) psychotic features, patients with schizophrenia (SZ), and healthy controls (NC) across social cognitive measures. Principal factor analysis on five social cognition tasks extracted a two-factor structure comprised of social/emotional processing and theory of mind. Factor scores were compared among the four groups. Results identified differential patterns of impairment between the BD+ and BD- group on the social/emotional processing factor while all clinical groups performed poorer than controls on the theory of mind factor. This provides evidence that a history of psychosis should be taken into account while evaluating social cognition in patients with bipolar disorder and also raises hypotheses about the relationship between social cognition and psychosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Drug-related predictors of readmission for schizophrenia among patients admitted to treatment for drug use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rømer Thomsen, Kristine; Thylstrup, Birgitte; Pedersen, Michael Mulbjerg; Pedersen, Mads Uffe; Simonsen, Erik; Hesse, Morten

    2017-09-28

    Patients with schizophrenia and comorbid drug use disorders (DUD) have a severe course of illness. Despite strong evidence that drug use can exacerbate psychotic symptoms, we have limited knowledge of how specific drugs may increase risk of schizophrenia readmission in this group. This study aimed to assess drug-related predictors of readmission for schizophrenia among a national cohort of patients with a history of schizophrenia admitted to DUD treatment. A record-linkage study was used to assess drug-related factors associated with readmission to mental health treatment for schizophrenia, using a consecutive cohort of 634 patients admitted to DUD treatment between 2000 and 2006 in Danish treatment services and tracked until February 2013 or death, controlling for baseline psychiatric treatment variables. The majority of patients were males (79.8%) and the mean age was 34.7years. Of all patients, 78.7% were readmitted for schizophrenia during follow-up, and 6.8% died without having been readmitted. We found a robust association between use of amphetamine at baseline and elevated risk of readmission, a less robust association between use of cannabis and elevated risk of readmission, and no association with cocaine, opioids, alcohol, benzodiazepines, and MDMA. Furthermore, one or more psychiatric inpatients visit in the year prior to DUD admission was robustly associated with elevated risk of schizophrenia readmission. Use of amphetamine and cannabis are risk markers for schizophrenia readmission among patients with a history of schizophrenia and DUD. Psychiatric history is a predictor of schizophrenia readmission in this patient group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Fine mapping of ZNF804A and genome-wide significant evidence for its involvement in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Williams, H J

    2011-04-01

    A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) reported evidence for association between rs1344706 within ZNF804A (encoding zinc-finger protein 804A) and schizophrenia (P=1.61 × 10(-7)), and stronger evidence when the phenotype was broadened to include bipolar disorder (P=9.96 × 10(-9)). In this study we provide additional evidence for association through meta-analysis of a larger data set (schizophrenia\\/schizoaffective disorder N=18 945, schizophrenia plus bipolar disorder N=21 274 and controls N=38 675). We also sought to better localize the association signal using a combination of de novo polymorphism discovery in exons, pooled de novo polymorphism discovery spanning the genomic sequence of the locus and high-density linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping. The meta-analysis provided evidence for association between rs1344706 that surpasses widely accepted benchmarks of significance by several orders of magnitude for both schizophrenia (P=2.5 × 10(-11), odds ratio (OR) 1.10, 95% confidence interval 1.07-1.14) and schizophrenia and bipolar disorder combined (P=4.1 × 10(-13), OR 1.11, 95% confidence interval 1.07-1.14). After de novo polymorphism discovery and detailed association analysis, rs1344706 remained the most strongly associated marker in the gene. The allelic association at the ZNF804A locus is now one of the most compelling in schizophrenia to date, and supports the accumulating data suggesting overlapping genetic risk between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

  9. Medications Used for Cognitive Enhancement in Patients With Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder, Alzheimer’s Disease, and Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yu Hsu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/aimsCognitive impairment, which frequently occurs in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, Alzheimer’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease, has a significant impact on the daily lives of both patients and their family. Furthermore, since the medications used for cognitive enhancement have limited efficacy, the issue of cognitive enhancement still remains a clinically unsolved challenge.Sampling and methodsWe reviewed the clinical studies (published between 2007 and 2017 that focused on the efficacy of medications used for enhancing cognition in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, Alzheimer’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease.ResultsAcetylcholinesterase inhibitors and memantine are the standard treatments for Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Some studies have reported selective cognitive improvement in patients with schizophrenia following galantamine treatment. Newer antipsychotics, including paliperidone, lurasidone, aripiprazole, ziprasidone, and BL-1020, have also been reported to exert cognitive benefits in patients with schizophrenia. Dopaminergic medications were found to improve language function in patients with Parkinson’s disease. However, no beneficial effects on cognitive function were observed with dopamine agonists in patients with schizophrenia. The efficacies of nicotine and its receptor modulators in cognitive improvement remain controversial, with the majority of studies showing that varenicline significantly improved the cognitive function in schizophrenic patients. Several studies have reported that N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptor (NMDAR enhancers improved the cognitive function in patients with chronic schizophrenia. NMDAR enhancers might also have cognitive benefits in patients with Alzheimer’s disease or Parkinson’s disease. Raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, has also been demonstrated to have beneficial effects on attention, processing

  10. Age at onset mixture analysis and systematic comparison in schizophrenia spectrum disorders: Is the onset heterogeneity dependent on heterogeneous diagnosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowrouzi, Behdin; Kamhi, Roy; Hu, Jayi; Kennedy, James L; Matmari, Michelle; De Luca, Vincenzo

    2015-05-01

    A major obstacle to the identification of the neurobiological correlates of schizophrenia is the substantial diagnostic heterogeneity of this disorder. Dividing schizophrenia into "early" and "late" subtypes may reduce heterogeneity and facilitate identification of biomarkers related to this disease. Our objective was to assess the presence of different sub-groups in schizophrenia by age at onset analysis. The participants in this study were 612 unrelated patients with schizophrenia. Admixture analysis was applied in order to identify a model of separate normal distributions of age at onset characterized by different means, variances and population proportions to evaluate the effect of winter birth and ethnicity on early onset schizophrenia. The best-fitting model suggested three subgroups with means and standard deviations of 17.11 ± 2.09, 21.96 ± 3.43 and 30.02 ± 7.1 years, comprising 34.6%, 42.6% and 22.8% of the sample respectively. We considered as predictors of early onset schizophrenia: male gender, winter birth, white ethnicity and positive family history for psychiatric disorders. Earlier onset was significantly associated with male gender. We also compared our age at onset distribution with those published in other studies and we found significant differences with several studies suggesting heterogeneity in age at onset that is likely influenced by diagnostic heterogeneity in applying the DSM-IV criteria. Overall, our study showed that a typical early onset schizophrenia patient is more likely to be a white male with cannabis abuse and positive family history of psychiatric disorders. The heterogeneity in reporting age at onset across different studies suggests the application of more stringent criteria in diagnosing schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Risk of metabolic syndrome and its components in people with schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, Davy; Stubbs, Brendon; Mitchell, Alex J; De Hert, Marc; Wampers, Martien; Ward, Philip B; Rosenbaum, Simon; Correll, Christoph U

    2015-10-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components are highly predictive of cardiovascular diseases. The primary aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the prevalence of MetS and its components in people with schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder, comparing subjects with different disorders and taking into account demographic variables and psychotropic medication use. The secondary aim was to compare the MetS prevalence in persons with any of the selected disorders versus matched general population controls. The pooled MetS prevalence in people with severe mental illness was 32.6% (95% CI: 30.8%-34.4%; N = 198; n = 52,678). Relative risk meta-analyses established that there was no significant difference in MetS prevalence in studies directly comparing schizophrenia versus bipolar disorder, and in those directly comparing bipolar disorder versus major depressive disorder. Only two studies directly compared people with schizophrenia and major depressive disorder, precluding meta-analytic calculations. Older age and a higher body mass index were significant moderators in the final demographic regression model (z = -3.6, p = 0.0003, r(2)  = 0.19). People treated with all individual antipsychotic medications had a significantly (ppeople with severe mental illness had a significantly increased risk for MetS (RR = 1.58; 95% CI: 1.35-1.86; p<0.001) and all its components, except for hypertension (p = 0.07). These data suggest that the risk for MetS is similarly elevated in the diagnostic subgroups of severe mental illness. Routine screening and multidisciplinary management of medical and behavioral conditions is needed in these patients. Risks of individual antipsychotics should be considered when making treatment choices. © 2015 World Psychiatric Association.

  12. Implicit Recognition of Familiar and Unfamiliar Faces in Schizophrenia: A Study of the Skin Conductance Response in Familiarity Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurely Ameller

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveFamiliarity is a subjective sensation that contributes to person recognition. This process is described as an emotion-based memory-trace of previous meetings and could be disrupted in schizophrenia. Consequently, familiarity disorders could be involved in the impaired social interactions observed in patients with schizophrenia. Previous studies have primarily focused on famous people recognition. Our aim was to identify underlying features, such as emotional disturbances, that may contribute to familiarity disorders in schizophrenia. We hypothesize that patients with familiarity disorders will exhibit a lack of familiarity that could be detected by a flattened skin conductance response (SCR.MethodThe SCR was recorded to test the hypothesis that emotional reactivity disturbances occur in patients with schizophrenia during the categorization of specific familiar, famous and unknown faces as male or female. Forty-eight subjects were divided into the following 3 matched groups with 16 subjects per group: control subjects, schizophrenic people with familiarity disorder, and schizophrenic people without familiarity disorders.ResultsEmotional arousal is reflected by the skin conductance measures. The control subjects and the patients without familiarity disorders experienced a differential emotional response to the specific familiar faces compared with that to the unknown faces. Nevertheless, overall, the schizophrenic patients without familiarity disorders showed a weaker response across conditions compared with the control subjects. In contrast, the patients with familiarity disorders did not show any significant differences in their emotional response to the faces, regardless of the condition.ConclusionOnly patients with familiarity disorders fail to exhibit a difference in emotional response between familiar and non-familiar faces. These patients likely emotionally process familiar faces similarly to unknown faces. Hence, the lower

  13. Suspiciousness and low self-esteem as predictors of misattributions of anger in schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysaker, Paul Henry; Davis, Louanne Whitman; Tsai, Jack

    2009-04-30

    While it is widely recognized that many with schizophrenia have significant difficulties in correctly identifying the emotions of others, less is known about the causes and correlates of particular forms of misattribution, including mistakenly seeing anger in others. One possibility is that persons with high levels of suspiciousness and low levels of self-esteem are at risk to attribute their poor feelings about themselves to the malice of others. To explore this possibility, we identified 52 persons with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder who made significant numbers of errors on the Bell-Lysaker Emotional Recognition Test. We then performed a cluster analysis based on measures of suspiciousness from the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and self-esteem from the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Schedule, and found the following four groups: a) High Suspiciousness/High Self-Esteem; b) Mild Suspiciousness/High Self-Esteem; c) High Suspiciousness/Low Self-Esteem; and d) Minimal Suspiciousness/Low Self-Esteem. Comparisons between groups revealed that as predicted the High Suspiciousness/Low Self-Esteem group made significantly more misattributions of anger than other groups, even when levels of depression were controlled for statistically. Implications for addressing the misattributions of anger in schizophrenia are discussed.

  14. Neurological Soft Signs in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Standardised Assessment and Comparison with Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bolton

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available While several studies have detected raised levels of neurological soft signs in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD, the specificity of these abnormalities remains uncertain. This study used a new standardised measure, the Cambridge Neurological Inventory (CNI, to assess soft signs in 51 subjects with OCD. Comparison was made with data on patients with schizophrenia and a non-clinical control group from a previously reported study. Individuals with OCD showed raised levels of soft signs compared with non-clinical controls in many categories of the CNI: Motor Coordination, Sensory Integration, Primitive Reflexes, Extrapyramidal Signs, and Failure of Suppression. Compared with patients with schizophrenia, the OCD group had lower levels of neurological signs in some CNI categories: Hard Signs, Motor Co-ordination, Tardive Dyskinesia, Catatonic Signs, and Extrapyramidal Signs. However, levels of soft signs in the OCD group did not significantly differ from those in the schizophrenia group in other CNI categories: Sensory Integration, Primitive Reflexes and Failure of Suppression. The significance of these patterns of findings is discussed.

  15. Metacognition deficits as a risk factor for prospective motivation deficits in schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Lauren; Firmin, Ruth L; Minor, Kyle S; Vohs, Jenifer L; Buck, Benjamin; Buck, Kelly D; Lysaker, Paul H

    2016-11-30

    Although motivation deficits are key determinants of functional outcomes, little is known about factors that contribute to prospective motivation in people with schizophrenia. One candidate factor is metacognition, or the ability to form complex representations about oneself, others, and the world. This study aimed to assess whether metacognition deficits were a significant predictor of reduced prospective motivation, after controlling for the effects of baseline motivation, anticipatory pleasure, and antipsychotic medication dose. Fifty-one participants with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder completed measures of metacognition and anticipatory pleasure at baseline; participants also completed a measure of motivation at baseline and six months after the initial assessment. Baseline antipsychotic dose was obtained from medical charts. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that lower levels of baseline metacognition significantly predicted reduced levels of motivation assessed six months later, after controlling for baseline levels of motivation, anticipatory pleasure, and antipsychotic dose. Higher baseline antipsychotic dose was also a significant predictor of reduced six month motivation. Results suggest that metacognition deficits and higher antipsychotic dose may be risk factors for the development of motivation deficits in schizophrenia. Implications include utilizing interventions to improve metacognition in conjunction with evaluating and possibly lowering antipsychotic dose for people struggling with motivation deficits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Interpersonal conflict strategies and their impact on positive symptom remission in persons aged 55 and older with schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Carl I; Solanki, Dishal; Sodhi, Dimple

    2013-01-01

    Although interpersonal interactions are thought to affect psychopathology in schizophrenia, there is a paucity of data about how older adults with schizophrenia manage interpersonal conflicts. This paper examines interpersonal conflict strategies and their impact on positive symptom remission in older adults with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The schizophrenia group consisted of 198 persons aged 55 years and over living in the community who developed schizophrenia before age 45. A community comparison group (n = 113) was recruited using randomly selected block-groups. Straus' Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS) was used to assess the ways that respondents handled interpersonal conflicts. Seven conflict management subscales were created based on a principal component analysis with equamax rotation of items from the CTS. The order of the frequency of the tactics that was used was similar for both the schizophrenia and community groups. Calm and Pray tactics were the most commonly used, and the Violent and Aggressive tactics were rarely utilized. In two separate logistic regression analysis, after controlling for confounding variables, positive symptom remission was found to be associated significantly with both the Calm and Pray subscales. The findings suggest that older persons with schizophrenia approximate normal distribution patterns of conflict management strategies and the most commonly used strategies are associated with positive symptom remission.

  17. Altered coupling of regional cerebral blood flow and brain temperature in schizophrenia compared with bipolar disorder and healthy subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Miho; Sato, Noriko; Sakai, Koji; Okazaki, Mitsutoshi; Maikusa, Norihide; Hattori, Kotaro; Hori, Hiroaki; Teraishi, Toshiya; Shimoji, Keigo; Yamada, Kei; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that schizophrenia patients have dysfunctional thermoregulation. The aim of this study was to examine whether brain temperature (BT) in schizophrenia patients differs from that in patients with bipolar disorder and healthy subjects by using magnetic resonance imaging. We also evaluated the possible relationship between BT and cerebral blood flow (CBF). We analyzed the temperature of lateral ventricles as the mean BT using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) thermometry, and evaluated the relationships between the BT and the CBF using pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL) among 3 diagnostic groups, 22 male patients with schizophrenia, 19 male patients with bipolar disorder, and 23 healthy male subjects. There were significant positive correlations between BT in the lateral ventricles and CBF in both the patients with bipolar disorder and healthy subjects. By contrast, there were significant negative correlations in patients with schizophrenia. We could not detect the significant difference in the surrogates of BT among three diagnostic groups. We showed that patients with schizophrenia, but not those with bipolar disorder, have dysfunctional thermoregulation in the brain. Brain temperature is highly dependent on cerebral metabolism and CBF, and thus uncoupling of cerebral metabolism and CBF may occur in schizophrenics. PMID:25182665

  18. Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms/disorder in patients with schizophrenia: Prevalence, relationship with other symptom dimensions and impact on functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Sandeep; Dua, Devakshi; Chakrabarti, Subho; Avasthi, Ajit

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of comorbid obsessive compulsive symptoms/disorder and its impact on outcome among patients with schizophrenia. 181 patients with schizophrenia were evaluated on Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Symptom Checklist, Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia, Positive and Negative Symptom Scale, Social Occupational Functioning Scale, Global Assessment of Functioning Scale and Indian Disability Evaluation and Assessment Scale. Slightly more than one-fourth of patients fulfilled the diagnosis of current (28.2%) and lifetime (29.8%) diagnosis of obsessive compulsive disorder. On Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Symptom Checklist, the most common lifetime obsessions were those of contamination (25.4%), followed by obsessions of need for symmetry or exactness (11.6%). The most common compulsions were those of cleaning/washing (27.1%), followed by those of checking (24.3%). Presence of obsessive compulsive symptoms was associated with younger age of onset, higher prevalence of comorbid depression, and current suicidal ideations. Thus, it can be concluded that a significant proportion of patients with schizophrenia have obsessive compulsive symptoms/disorder. Clinicians managing patients of schizophrenia should evaluate the patients thoroughly for presence of comorbid obsessive compulsive symptoms/disorder and must take the same into account while managing the patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biological treatment of acute agitation or aggression with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder in the inpatient setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correll, Christoph U; Yu, Xin; Xiang, Yutao; Kane, John M; Masand, Prakash

    2017-05-01

    Schizophrenia and bipolar disorders are chronic illnesses that commonly present with symptoms of acute agitation and aggression. These symptoms must be managed rapidly to prevent potential harm to the patient and others, including their caregivers, peers, and health care workers. A number of treatment options are available to clinicians to manage acute agitation and aggression, including non-pharmacologic behavioral and environmental de-escalation strategies, as well as biological treatment options such as pharmacologic agents and electroconvulsive therapy. We summarize the available biological treatment options for patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder presenting with acute agitation or aggression in the inpatient setting, focusing on antipsychotics. The following searches were used in PubMed to obtain the most relevant advances in treating schizophrenia or bipolar disorder with acute agitation and aggression: (agitation, agitated, aggression, aggressive, hostile, hostility, violent, or violence) and (schizophr*, psychosis, psychot*, psychos*, mania, manic, or bipolar) and (*pharmacologic, antipsychotic*, neuroleptic*, antiepileptic*, anti-seizure*, mood stabilizer*, lithium, benzodiazepine*, beta blocker, beta-blocker, alpha2, alpha-2, *histamine*, electroconvulsive, ECT, shock, or transcranial). Individual searches were performed for each drug class. The studies were limited to peer-reviewed, English-language, and human studies. Most were placebo-controlled randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or meta-analyses. Among pharmacologic agents, antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants, and lithium have been studied in randomized trials. Some typical and, more recently, atypical antipsychotics are available as both oral and short-acting intramuscular (IM) formulations, with 1 typical antipsychotic also available as an inhalable formulation. Among the pharmacologic agents studied in RCTs, atypical antipsychotics have the best evidence to support

  20. Evidence for Distinguishable Treatment Costs among Paranoid Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Hirjak

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia spectrum disorders result in enormous individual suffering and financial burden on patients and on society. In Germany, there are about 1,000,000 individuals suffering from schizophrenia (SZ or schizoaffective disorder (SAD, a combination of psychotic and affective symptoms. Given the heterogeneous nature of these syndromes, one may assume that there is a difference in treatment costs among patients with paranoid SZ and SAD. However, the current the national system of cost accounting in psychiatry and psychosomatics in Germany assesses all schizophrenia spectrum disorders within one category.The study comprised a retrospective audit of data from 118 patients diagnosed with paranoid SZ (F20.0 and 71 patients with SAD (F25. We used the mean total costs as well as partial cost, i.e., mean costs for medication products, mean personal costs and mean infrastructure costs from each patient for the statistical analysis. We tested for differences in the four variables between SZ and SAD patients using ANCOVA and confirmed the results with bootstrapping.SAD patients had a longer duration of stay than patients with SZ (p = .02. Mean total costs were significantly higher for SAD patients (p = .023. Further, we found a significant difference in mean personnel costs (p = .02 between patients with SZ and SAD. However, we found no significant differences in mean pharmaceutical costs (p = .12 but a marginal difference of mean infrastructure costs (p = .05 between SZ and SAD. We found neither a common decrease of costs over time nor a differential decrease in SZ and SAD.We found evidence for a difference of case related costs of inpatient treatments for paranoid SZ and SAD. The differences in mean total costs seem to be primarily related to the mean personnel costs in patients with paranoid SZ and SAD rather than mean pharmaceutical costs, possibly due to higher personnel effort and infrastructure.

  1. Metacognition Is Necessary for the Emergence of Motivation in People With Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders: A Necessary Condition Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Lauren; Bonfils, Kelsey A; Firmin, Ruth L; Buck, Kelly D; Choi, Jimmy; Dimaggio, Giancarlo; Popolo, Raffaele; Minor, Kyle S; Lysaker, Paul H

    2017-12-01

    Metacognition deficits are a putative cause of reduced motivation in people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. However, it is unclear whether certain levels of metacognition are necessary for motivation to emerge. This study used a Necessary Condition Analysis to test whether metacognition was necessary for the presence of motivation and to identify the minimum level of metacognition necessary for high motivation to be possible in people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (N = 175). Participants completed clinician-rated measures of metacognition and motivation. Necessary Condition Analysis revealed that metacognition is a necessary condition for motivation and that high levels of motivation were only possible, although not guaranteed, when at least a basic level of metacognition was present. The findings suggest that metacognition is a necessary building block for the development of motivation. Results suggest that targeting metacognition may be essential for improving motivation among people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders who do not meet this metacognition threshold.

  2. Use of the Beck Scale for suicide ideation with psychiatric inpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia, schizoaffective, or bipolar disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinninti, N; Steer, R A; Rissmiller, D J; Nelson, S; Beck, A T

    2002-09-01

    To ascertain how useful the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSI; Beck & Steer, Manual for Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (1991)) would be for assessing the severity of suicidal ideation in patients who were diagnosed with schizophrenia, schizoaffective, or bipolar disorders, 142 inpatients were asked to complete the BSI. Eight (6%) patients refused, and four patients (3%) were unable to complete the BSI because they were unable to concentrate. Of the 130 patients who completed the BSI, 53 (41%) had schizoaffective, 37 (28%) had paranoid schizophrenia, 30 (23%) had manic bipolar, and 10 (8%) had depressed bipolar disorders. The coefficient alpha for the BSI was .96, and its one-week test-retest reliability for a subsample of 15 inpatients was 0.88, p suicide, r = 0.46, p suicide ideators. The results were discussed as supporting the use of the BSI with inpatients who are diagnosed with schizophrenia, schizoaffective, or bipolar disorders.

  3. Evidence implicating BRD1 with brain development and susceptibility to both schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severinsen, Jacob; Bjarkam, Carsten; Kiær-Larsen, Stine

    Introduction: Linkage studies suggest that chromosome 22q12-13 may contain one or more shared susceptibility genes for schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar affective disorder (BPD). In a Faeroese sample we previously reported association between microsatellite markers located at 22q13.31-qtel and both...... disorders. Methods: The present study reports an association analysis across 5 genes (including 14 single nucleotide and two microsatellite polymorphisms) in this interval using a case-control sample of 162 BPD, 103 SZ patients and 200 controls. Results: The bromodomain-containing 1 gene (BRD1), which...... encodes a putative regulator of transcription showed association with both disorders with minimal p-values of 0.0046 and 0.00001 for single marker and overall haplotype analysis, respectively. A specific BRD1 2-marker “risk” haplotype showed a frequency of ~10% in the combined case group versus ~1...

  4. Comparison of visual perceptual organization in schizophrenia and body dysmorphic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Steven M; Elliott, Corinna M; Feusner, Jamie D; Keane, Brian P; Mikkilineni, Deepthi; Hansen, Natasha; Hartmann, Andrea; Wilhelm, Sabine

    2015-09-30

    People with schizophrenia are impaired at organizing potentially ambiguous visual information into well-formed shape and object representations. This perceptual organization (PO) impairment has not been found in other psychiatric disorders. However, recent data on body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), suggest that BDD may also be characterized by reduced PO. Similarities between these groups could have implications for understanding the RDoC dimension of visual perception in psychopathology, and for modeling symptom formation across these two conditions. We compared patients with SCZ (n=24) to those with BDD (n=20), as well as control groups of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients (n=20) and healthy controls (n=20), on two measures of PO that have been reliably associated with schizophrenia-related performance impairment. On both the contour integration and Ebbinghaus illusion tests, only the SCZ group demonstrated abnormal performance relative to controls; the BDD group performed similarly to the OCD and CON groups. In addition, on both tasks, the SCZ group performed more abnormally than the BDD group. Overall, these data suggest that PO reductions observed in SCZ are not present in BDD. Visual processing impairments in BDD may arise instead from other perceptual disturbances or attentional biases related to emotional factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Fractal analysis of MRI data for the characterization of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squarcina, Letizia; Bellani, Marcella; De Luca, Alberto; Bertoldo, Alessandra; Brambilla, Paolo; Turkheimer, Federico E

    2015-01-01

    Fractal geometry can be used to analyze shape and patterns in brain images. With this study we use fractals to analyze T1 data of patients affected by schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, with the aim of distinguishing between healthy and pathological brains using the complexity of brain structure, in particular of grey matter, as a marker of disease. 39 healthy volunteers, 25 subjects affected by schizophrenia and 11 patients affected by bipolar disorder underwent an MRI session. We evaluated fractal dimension of the brain cortex and its substructures, calculated with an algorithm based on the box-count algorithm. We modified this algorithm, with the aim of avoiding the segmentation processing step and using all the information stored in the image grey levels. Moreover, to increase sensitivity to local structural changes, we computed a value of fractal dimension for each slice of the brain or of the particular structure. To have reference values in comparing healthy subjects with patients, we built a template by averaging fractal dimension values of the healthy volunteers data. Standard deviation was evaluated and used to create a confidence interval. We also performed a slice by slice t-test to assess the difference at slice level between the three groups. Consistent average fractal dimension values were found across all the structures in healthy controls, while in the pathological groups we found consistent differences, indicating a change in brain and structures complexity induced by these disorders. (paper)

  6. Fractal analysis of MRI data for the characterization of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squarcina, Letizia; De Luca, Alberto; Bellani, Marcella; Brambilla, Paolo; Turkheimer, Federico E.; Bertoldo, Alessandra

    2015-02-01

    Fractal geometry can be used to analyze shape and patterns in brain images. With this study we use fractals to analyze T1 data of patients affected by schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, with the aim of distinguishing between healthy and pathological brains using the complexity of brain structure, in particular of grey matter, as a marker of disease. 39 healthy volunteers, 25 subjects affected by schizophrenia and 11 patients affected by bipolar disorder underwent an MRI session. We evaluated fractal dimension of the brain cortex and its substructures, calculated with an algorithm based on the box-count algorithm. We modified this algorithm, with the aim of avoiding the segmentation processing step and using all the information stored in the image grey levels. Moreover, to increase sensitivity to local structural changes, we computed a value of fractal dimension for each slice of the brain or of the particular structure. To have reference values in comparing healthy subjects with patients, we built a template by averaging fractal dimension values of the healthy volunteers data. Standard deviation was evaluated and used to create a confidence interval. We also performed a slice by slice t-test to assess the difference at slice level between the three groups. Consistent average fractal dimension values were found across all the structures in healthy controls, while in the pathological groups we found consistent differences, indicating a change in brain and structures complexity induced by these disorders.

  7. Facial, vocal and cross-modal emotion processing in early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannitelli, Marianna; Xavier, Jean; François, Anne; Bodeau, Nicolas; Laurent, Claudine; Cohen, David; Chaby, Laurence

    2015-10-01

    Recognition of emotional expressions plays an essential role in children's healthy development. Anomalies in these skills may result in empathy deficits, social interaction difficulties and premorbid emotional problems in children and adolescents with schizophrenia. Twenty-six subjects with early onset schizophrenia spectrum (EOSS) disorders and twenty-eight matched healthy controls (HC) were instructed to identify five basic emotions and a neutral expression. The assessment entailed presenting visual, auditory and congruent cross-modal stimuli. Using a generalized linear mixed model, we found no significant association for handedness, age or gender. However, significant associations emerged for emotion type, perception modality, and group. EOSS patients performed worse than HC in uni- and cross-modal emotional tasks with a specific negative emotion processing impairment pattern. There was no relationship between emotion identification scores and positive or negative symptoms, self-reported empathy traits or a positive history of developmental disorders. However, we found a significant association between emotional identification scores and nonverbal communication impairments. We conclude that cumulative dysfunctions in both nonverbal communication and emotion processing contribute to the social vulnerability and morbidity found in youths who display EOSS disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Fractal analysis of MRI data for the characterization of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squarcina, Letizia; De Luca, Alberto; Bellani, Marcella; Brambilla, Paolo; Turkheimer, Federico E; Bertoldo, Alessandra

    2015-02-21

    Fractal geometry can be used to analyze shape and patterns in brain images. With this study we use fractals to analyze T1 data of patients affected by schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, with the aim of distinguishing between healthy and pathological brains using the complexity of brain structure, in particular of grey matter, as a marker of disease. 39 healthy volunteers, 25 subjects affected by schizophrenia and 11 patients affected by bipolar disorder underwent an MRI session. We evaluated fractal dimension of the brain cortex and its substructures, calculated with an algorithm based on the box-count algorithm. We modified this algorithm, with the aim of avoiding the segmentation processing step and using all the information stored in the image grey levels. Moreover, to increase sensitivity to local structural changes, we computed a value of fractal dimension for each slice of the brain or of the particular structure. To have reference values in comparing healthy subjects with patients, we built a template by averaging fractal dimension values of the healthy volunteers data. Standard deviation was evaluated and used to create a confidence interval. We also performed a slice by slice t-test to assess the difference at slice level between the three groups. Consistent average fractal dimension values were found across all the structures in healthy controls, while in the pathological groups we found consistent differences, indicating a change in brain and structures complexity induced by these disorders.

  9. Psychodynamic day treatment programme for patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders: Dynamics and predictors of therapeutic change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pec, Ondrej; Bob, Petr; Pec, Jan; Hrubcova, Adela

    2017-09-13

    The purpose of this study was to test whether a psychodynamically based group psychotherapeutic programme might improve symptoms, social functions, or quality of life in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and to investigate factors that might predict clinical improvement or dropouts from the programme. A quantitative prospective cohort study. We have investigated 81 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders who participated in a 9-month psychodynamically based psychotherapeutic day programme. The patients were assessed at the beginning and end of the programme, and then at 1-year follow-up. The assessment included psychotic manifestations (HoNOS), quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF), demographic data, and daily doses of medication. 21 patients dropped out from the programme, and 46 patients succeeded in undergoing follow-up assessment. The psychotic manifestations (self-rating version of HoNOS) and quality of life measured with WHOQOL-BREF (domains of social relationships and environment) were significantly improved at the end of the programme and at follow-up. However, the manifestations on the version for external evaluators of HoNOS were improved only at follow-up. Years of psychiatric treatment, number of hospitalizations or suicide attempts, and experience of relationships with a partner were negatively related to clinical improvement, whereas symptom severity, current working, or study activities were related positively. The results show that a group psychodynamic programme may improve the clinical status and quality of life of patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. This type of programme is more beneficial for patients with higher pre-treatment symptom severity and the presence of working or study activities. A psychodynamically based group programme improves the clinical status and quality of life in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Data indicate that changes on the subjective level are detectable by the end of the

  10. Blonanserin-induced Mood Alteration in Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorder: Two Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Aran; Kim, Daeho

    2013-12-01

    We report two outpatients, one with schizophrenia and one with schizoaffective disorder, who developed manic or hypomanic episodes following the initiation of blonanserin during the course of treatment. Blonanserin is a novel antipsychotic that acts as a 5-HT and D2 receptor antagonist. Both patients developed hypomanic episodes within 2 weeks of receiving a small dose (6-8 mg) of blonanserin, and one patient later developed full-blown mania; both episodes ended within 1 month of discontinuing blonanserin. The mood alteration observed in these cases suggests a possible antidepressant effect of blonanserin; thus, clinicians should monitor mood changes when administering this antipsychotic.

  11. Comorbidity of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Schizophrenia in an Adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Nabil Md. Rosli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a girl with a history of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD subsequently exhibiting psychosis. She never attained remission since the outset. Initially she seemed to be resistant to most antipsychotics, namely, risperidone, haloperidol, paliperidone, quetiapine, and clozapine. However, she later responded remarkably better to risperidone after it was reintroduced for the second time. Recognizing and understanding the various pathogenesis of OCD or obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS in schizophrenia are vital in laying out plan to manage the patient effectively.

  12. Pain perception in schizophrenia: influence of neuropeptides, cognitive disorders, and negative symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urban-Kowalczyk M

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Małgorzata Urban-Kowalczyk,1 Justyna Pigońska,2 Janusz Śmigielski3 1Department of Affective and Psychotic Disorders, Medical University of Łódź, Łódź, Poland; 2Department of Neurology and Movement Disorders, Medical University of Łódź, Łódź, Poland; 3Department of Geriatrics, Healthy Ageing Research Centre (HARC, Medical University of Łódź, Łódź, Poland Objectives: The causes and nature of insensitivity to pain in schizophrenia remain unknown. The role of endorphins and the association of cognitive dysfunction and negative symptoms are postulated.Methods: In this study, 43 patients with schizophrenia, five first-degree relatives, and 34 healthy controls were examined. Participants’ plasma concentrations of substance P, β-endorphin, and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP were assessed. In patients, the Trail-Making Test, the Color Reading Interference Test (Stroop test, and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale Negative Syndrome subscale (PANSS N test were performed. We also evaluated pain threshold using nociceptive reflex (RTIII testing.Results: The mean β-endorphin concentration was about 20% higher in patients than in healthy controls (P<0.05. CGRP concentrations were significantly higher in patients than in controls (5.34 ng/mL versus 4.16 ng/mL; P<0.01. Subjects treated with antipsychotic polytherapy had higher concentrations of CGRP than did patients treated with second-generation antipsychotic monotherapy (5.92 ng/mL versus 5.02 ng/mL; P<0.05. There were no correlations between any biochemical parameters and Trail-Making Test, Stroop test, and PANSS N scores. There were no differences in RTIII among study groups. Strong negative correlation (P<0.001 was found between PANSS N scores and subjective pain threshold on the right lower limb.Conclusion: The insensitivity to pain in schizophrenia is a complex phenomenon that is probably not related to changes in nociceptive pathways. Increase in β-endorphin level

  13. Associations of symptoms, neurocognition, and metacognition with insight in schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kevin K S

    2016-02-01

    Many persons with schizophrenia experience poor insight and, as a result, are at risk for treatment non-adherence and numerous negative outcomes. However, to date, the etiology of poor insight has not yet been fully elucidated. One recent theory concerning the roots of poor insight in schizophrenia has proposed that it may result, in part, from impairments in metacognition, or the capacity to think about thinking. The present study thus aims to examine whether metacognition is associated with insight even after controlling for the effects of psychiatric symptomatology and neurocognition. In this study, 95 adults with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder were assessed on measures of insight (i.e., awareness of symptoms, treatment needs, and illness consequences), psychiatric symptoms (i.e., positive symptoms, negative symptoms, and general psychopathology), neurocognitive functions (i.e., executive function, memory, and attention), and metacognitive capacities (i.e., self-reflectivity and theory of mind). Univariate correlations followed by stepwise multiple regressions, which controlled for symptoms and neurocognition, indicated that both self-reflectivity and theory of mind were significantly linked with awareness of symptoms; theory of mind was linked with awareness of treatment needs; and self-reflectivity was linked with awareness of illness consequences. Importantly, these findings suggest that metacognitive capacities may be related to insight independent of concurrent psychiatric symptoms and neurocognitive deficits. Moreover, awareness of different facets of the illness may require contributions from different components of metacognition. Future research should investigate how existing metacognitive skill training programs could potentially be tailored, or modified, to help persons with schizophrenia to develop and enhance insight. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Avoidant Personality Disorder Symptoms in First-Degree Relatives of Schizophrenia Patients Predict Performance on Neurocognitive Measures: The UCLA Family Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fogelson, D. L.; Asarnow, R. A.; Sugar, C. A.; Subotnik, K. L.; Jacobson, K. C.; Neale, M. C.; Kendler, K. S.; Kuppinger, H.; Nuechterlein, K. H.

    2010-01-01

    Whether avoidant personality disorder symptoms are related to neurocognitive impairments that aggregate in relatives of schizophrenics is unknown. We report the relationship between avoidant personality disorder symptoms and neurocognitive performance in the first-degree relatives of probands with schizophrenia.

  15. Neurocognitive function in clinically stable individuals with long-term bipolar I disorder: Comparisons with schizophrenia patients and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pei-Yun; Wang, Peng-Wei; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2017-05-01

    This study compared the levels of the five domains of neurocognitive function-executive function, attention, memory, verbal comprehension, and perceptual organization-among clinically stable individuals with long-term bipolar I disorder, individuals with long-term schizophrenia, and a group of controls. We recruited a total of 93 clinically stable individuals with bipolar I disorder, 94 individuals with schizophrenia, and 106 controls in this study. Their neurocognitive function was measured using a series of neurocognitive function tests: the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III), Line Cancellation Test, Visual Form Discrimination, Controlled Oral Word Association Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Continuous Performance Task, and Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition. Neurocognitive function was compared among the three groups through a multivariate analysis of variance. The results indicated that when the effect of age was controlled, clinically stable individuals with bipolar I disorder and those with schizophrenia demonstrated poor neurocognitive function on all tests except for the WAIS-III Similarity and Information and the Line Cancellation Test. The individuals with bipolar I disorder had similar levels of neurocognitive function compared with the schizophrenia group, but higher levels of neurocognitive function on the WAIS-III Comprehension, Controlled Oral Word Association Test, and Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition Auditory Immediate and Delayed Index and Visual Immediate and Delayed Index. The conclusions of this study suggest that compared with controls, individuals with long-term bipolar I disorder and those with long-term schizophrenia have poorer neurocognitive function, even when clinically stable. Individuals with long-term bipolar I disorder and those with long-term schizophrenia have similar levels of deficits in several domains of neurocognitive function. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  16. Neurocognitive function in clinically stable individuals with long-term bipolar I disorder: Comparisons with schizophrenia patients and controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Yun Lin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the levels of the five domains of neurocognitive function—executive function, attention, memory, verbal comprehension, and perceptual organization—among clinically stable individuals with long-term bipolar I disorder, individuals with long-term schizophrenia, and a group of controls. We recruited a total of 93 clinically stable individuals with bipolar I disorder, 94 individuals with schizophrenia, and 106 controls in this study. Their neurocognitive function was measured using a series of neurocognitive function tests: the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—Third Edition (WAIS-III, Line Cancellation Test, Visual Form Discrimination, Controlled Oral Word Association Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Continuous Performance Task, and Wechsler Memory Scale—Third Edition. Neurocognitive function was compared among the three groups through a multivariate analysis of variance. The results indicated that when the effect of age was controlled, clinically stable individuals with bipolar I disorder and those with schizophrenia demonstrated poor neurocognitive function on all tests except for the WAIS-III Similarity and Information and the Line Cancellation Test. The individuals with bipolar I disorder had similar levels of neurocognitive function compared with the schizophrenia group, but higher levels of neurocognitive function on the WAIS-III Comprehension, Controlled Oral Word Association Test, and Wechsler Memory Scale—Third Edition Auditory Immediate and Delayed Index and Visual Immediate and Delayed Index. The conclusions of this study suggest that compared with controls, individuals with long-term bipolar I disorder and those with long-term schizophrenia have poorer neurocognitive function, even when clinically stable. Individuals with long-term bipolar I disorder and those with long-term schizophrenia have similar levels of deficits in several domains of neurocognitive function.

  17. Is the association between offspring intelligence and parents' educational attainment influenced by schizophrenia or mood disorder in parents?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Aja Neergaard; Mors, Ole; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2017-01-01

    interaction suggested that the positive association between maternal education and offspring intelligence was stronger in offspring of mothers with schizophrenia compared to the control group (p = 0.03). The associations between parental education and offspring intelligence are also observed when restricting...... the sample to conscripts whose parents are diagnosed after 30 years of age. In conclusion, findings from this study show a more positive effect of education on offspring intelligence in mothers with schizophrenia compared to mothers from the control group. This effect could have both environmental...... for developing schizophrenia. Based on these findings, we aim to investigate if the association between educational achievement in parents and intelligence in their offspring is influenced by schizophrenia or mood disorder in parents. In a large population-based sample of young adult male conscripts (n = 156...

  18. Co-morbid depressive disorder is associated with better neurocognitive performance in first episode schizophrenia spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herniman, Sarah E; Cotton, Sue M; Killackey, Eóin; Hester, Robert; Allott, Kelly A

    2018-03-15

    Both major depressive disorder (MDD) and first episode schizophrenia spectrum (FES) are associated with significant neurocognitive deficits. However, it remains unclear whether the neurocognitive deficits in individuals with FES are more severe if there is comorbid depressive disorder. The aim of this study was to compare the neurocognitive profiles between those with and without full-threshold depressive disorder in FES. This study involved secondary analysis of baseline data from a randomized controlled trial of vocational intervention for young people with first-episode psychosis (N = 82; age range: 15-25 years). Those with full-threshold depressive disorder (n = 24) had significantly better information processing speed than those without full-threshold depressive disorder. Severity of depressive symptoms was also associated with better information processing speed. In additional to the cross-sectional design, limitations of this study include the absence of assessing insight as a potential mediator. After the first psychotic episode, it could be speculated that those with better information processing speed may be more likely to develop full-threshold depressive disorder, as their ability to efficiently process information may allow them to be more aware of their situations and environments, and consequently to have greater insight into the devastating consequences of FES. Such novel findings support the examination of full-threshold depressive disorder in relation to neurocognitive performance across illness phases in future work. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A first national survey of knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards schizophrenia, bipolar disorders and autism in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durand-Zaleski Isabelle

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to support evidence-based policies for reduction of stigma, a better understanding of its components: ignorance (knowledge, prejudice (attitude and discrimination (behaviour is necessary. This study explores public perceptions and quantifies stigma for three chronic mental disorders: autism, schizophrenia and bipolar disorders in France. Methods Survey of 1000 adults selected from an established market research panel. The 21-item questionnaire explored knowledge, attitudes and behaviours toward each disorder. Results Although 95% respondents recognized the names of each disorder fewer than 70% could report specific characteristics and only 33% considered that publically available information was adequate; most respondents identified the media as their main resource. Labeling of conditions in a negative way was frequent (61% when referring to mental disorders in general, but fell significantly (18% when linked to an individual with a disorder. Individuals with schizophrenia are assumed to be dangerous; 65% respondents would engage in social distancing from such an individual, versus 29% for bipolar disorders and 7% for autism (p  Conclusion This first population-based survey in France shows that attitudes towards bipolar disorders and autism are less prejudicial than towards schizophrenia. However, most public attitudes and behaviours towards different disorders appear to be based on assumptions rather than knowledge or evidence suggesting a generic information or anti-stigma programme is unlikely to be effective.

  20. Neuropsychology and emotion processing in violent individuals with antisocial personality disorder or schizophrenia: The same or different? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgwick, Ottilie; Young, Susan; Baumeister, David; Greer, Ben; Das, Mrigendra; Kumari, Veena

    2017-12-01

    To assess whether there are shared or divergent (a) cognitive and (b) emotion processing characteristics among violent individuals with antisocial personality disorder and/or schizophrenia, diagnoses which are commonly encountered at the interface of mental disorder and violence. Cognition and emotion processing are incorporated into models of violence, and thus an understanding of these characteristics within and between disorder groups may help inform future models and therapeutic targets. Relevant databases (OVID, Embase, PsycINFO) were searched to identify suitable literature. Meta-analyses comparing cognitive function in violent schizophrenia and antisocial personality disorder to healthy controls were conducted. Neuropsychological studies not comparing these groups to healthy controls, and emotion processing studies, were evaluated qualitatively. Meta-analyses indicated lower IQ, memory and executive function in both violent schizophrenia and antisocial personality disorder groups compared to healthy controls. The degree of deficit was consistently larger in violent schizophrenia. Both antisocial personality disorder and violent schizophrenia groups had difficulties in aspects of facial affect recognition, although theory of mind results were less conclusive. Psychopathic traits related positively to experiential emotion deficits across the two disorders. Very few studies explored comorbid violent schizophrenia and antisocial personality disorder despite this being common in clinical practice. There are qualitatively similar, but quantitatively different, neuropsychological and emotion processing deficits in violent individuals with schizophrenia and antisocial personality disorder which could be developed into transdiagnostic treatment targets for violent behaviour. Future research should aim to characterise specific subgroups of violent offenders, including those with comorbid diagnoses.

  1. Cognitive dysfunction in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia: a systematic review of meta-analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bortolato B

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Beatrice Bortolato,1 Kamilla W Miskowiak,2 Cristiano A Köhler,3 Eduard Vieta,4 André F Carvalho3 1Department of Mental Health, ULSS 10 “Veneto Orientale”, Venice, Italy; 2Psychiatric Centre Copenhagen, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark; 3Translational Psychiatry Research Group and Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza, CE, Brazil; 4Bipolar Disorders Program, Institute of Neuroscience, Hospital Clínic Barcelona, IDIBAPS, CIBERSAM, University of Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain Abstract: Cognitive impairment is a core feature of schizophrenia (SZ and bipolar disorder (BD. A neurocognitive profile characterized by widespread cognitive deficits across multiple domains in the context of substantial intellectual impairment, which appears to antedate illness onset, is a replicated finding in SZ. There is no specific neuropsychological signature that can facilitate the diagnostic differentiation of SZ and BD, notwithstanding, neuropsychological deficits appear more severe in SZ. The literature in this field has provided contradictory results due to methodological differences across studies. Meta-analytic techniques may offer an opportunity to synthesize findings and to control for potential sources of heterogeneity. Here, we performed a systematic review of meta-analyses of neuropsychological findings in SZ and BD. While there is no conclusive evidence for progressive cognitive deterioration in either SZ or BD, some findings point to more severe cognitive deficits in patients with early illness onset across both disorders. A compromised pattern of cognitive functioning in individuals at familiar and/or clinical risk to psychosis as well as in first-degree relatives of BD patients suggests that early neurodevelopmental factors may play a role in the emergence of cognitive deficits in both disorders. Premorbid intellectual impairment in SZ and at least in a

  2. Depression in Kraepelinian schizophrenia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Today there is still considerable symptom overlap between schizophrenia and mood disorders, and the relationship between depression and schizophrenia remains controversial.4. Many patients carry chart diagnoses of both disorders in the clinical setting. Some of the difficulty with the term 'depression' in schizophrenia ...

  3. Common and disease-specific dysfunctions of brain systems underlying attentional and executive control in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, Tobias; Wolter, Sarah; Falck, Stefanie; Wild, Eva; Wild, Florian; Gruber, Eva; Falkai, Peter; Gruber, Oliver

    2014-09-01

    Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder broadly overlap in multiple areas involving clinical phenomenology, genetics, and neurobiology. Still, the investigation into specific elementary (sub-)processes of executive functioning may help to define clear points of distinction between these categorical diagnoses to validate the nosological dichotomy and, indirectly, to further elucidate their pathophysiological underpinnings. In the present behavioral study, we sought to separate common from diagnosis-specific deficits in a series of specific elementary sub-functions of executive processing in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. For our purpose, we administered a modern and multi-purpose neuropsychological task paradigm to equal-sized and matched groups of schizophrenia patients, patients with bipolar disorder, and healthy control subjects. First, schizophrenia patients compared to the bipolar group exhibited a more pronounced deficit in general measures of task performance comprising both response speed and accuracy. Additionally, bipolar patients showed increased advance task preparation, i.e., were better able to compensate for response speed deficits when longer preparation intervals were provided. Set-shifting, on the other hand, was impaired to a similar degree in both patient groups. Finally, schizophrenia patients exhibited a specific deficit in conflict processing (inhibitory control) and the shielding of task-relevant processing from distraction (i.e., attentional maintenance). The present investigation suggests that specific neuropsychological measures of elementary executive functions may represent important points of dissociation between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, which may help to differentiate the pathophysiological underpinnings of these major psychiatric disorders. In this context, the present findings highlight the measures of inhibitory control and attentional maintenance as promising candidates.

  4. Overlapping and disease specific aspects of impulsivity in children and adolescents with schizophrenia spectrum disorders or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Jens Richardt Møllegaard; Rydkjær, Jacob; Fagerlund, Birgitte

    Impulsiveness Scale) are compared between three groups of children and adolescents between 12 and 17 years of age: patients with early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders (N=29), patients with ADHD (N=29), and healthy controls (N=45). Results: Preliminary results: Reflection impulsivity is significantly......Objectives: To identify disease specific and overlapping aspects of impulsivity in children and adolescents with early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders or ADHD. Methods: Motor impulsivity (Stop Signal Task), reflection impulsivity (Information Sampling Task), and trait impulsivity (Barratt...... increased in patients with ADHD but not in early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorder patients who perform non-significantly different from the healthy controls in the decreased win condition. Discussion: Reduced information sampling in children and adolescents with ADHD may reflect an inability to delay...

  5. Are There Differences in Neurocognition and Social Cognition Among Adolescents with Schizophrenia, a Pervasive Developmental Disorder, and Both Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waris, Petra; Tani, Pekka; Lindberg, Nina; Lipsanen, Jari; Kettunen, Kirsi; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Saarimaa, Leena-Kaisa; Reinvall, Outi; Voutilainen, Arja; Hokkanen, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SCH) and pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) belong to different diagnostic categories. There is, however, overlap between these 2 diagnostic groups. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate some aspects of neurocognitions and social cognitions in adolescents with SCH (n = 10, 2 boys and 8 girls; age range = 13.3-17.7 years), a PDD (n = 15, 7 boys and 8 girls; age range = 13.3-18.0 years), or both disorders (n = 8, 5 boys and 3 girls; age range = 13.5-18 years). Eight subtests (Information, Similarities, Arithmetic, Comprehension, Picture Completion, Coding B, Block Design, and Object Assembly) of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Version and 2 subtests (Theory of Mind [ToM] and Affect Recognition) of the NEPSY-II were administered. Adolescents with both disorders and those with a PDD only performed better on visual processing tasks than did adolescents with SCH only. On the other hand, adolescents with both disorders as well as those with SCH only experienced more problems with processing speed than did adolescents with a PDD only. Adolescents with SCH only performed significantly more poorly with verbal ToM tasks compared with those with a PDD only. Adolescents with both disorders performed as well as those with SCH only. All in all, our preliminary findings support the current idea that SCH and PDDs are separate disorders.

  6. Cannabis-induced psychosis and subsequent schizophrenia-spectrum disorders: follow-up study of 535 incident cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Mikkel; Rosenberg, Raben; Foldager, Leslie; Perto, Gurli; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl

    2005-12-01

    Few studies have examined samples of people with cannabis-induced psychotic symptoms. To establish whether cannabis-induced psychotic disorders are followed by development of persistent psychotic conditions, and the timing of their onset. Data on patients treated for cannabis-induced psychotic symptoms between 1994 and 1999 were extracted from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register. Those previously treated for any psychotic symptoms were excluded. The remaining 535 patients were followed for at least 3 years. In a separate analysis, the sample was compared with people referred for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders for the first time, but who had no history of cannabis-induced psychosis. Schizophrenia-spectrum disorders were diagnosed in 44.5% of the sample. New psychotic episodes of any type were diagnosed in 77.2%. Male gender and young age were associated with increased risk. Development of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders was often delayed, and 47.1% of patients received a diagnosis more than a year after seeking treatment for a cannabis-induced psychosis. The patients developed schizophrenia at an earlier age than people in the comparison group (males, 24.6 v. 30.7 years, females, 28.9 v. 33.1 years). Cannabis-induced psychotic disorders are of great clinical and prognostic importance.

  7. Is Schizophrenia a Disorder of Consciousness? Experimental and Phenomenological Support for Anomalous Unconscious Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Giersch

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Decades ago, several authors have proposed that disorders in automatic processing lead to intrusive symptoms or abnormal contents in the consciousness of people with schizophrenia. However, since then, studies have mainly highlighted difficulties in patients’ conscious experiencing and processing but rarely explored how unconscious and conscious mechanisms may interact in producing this experience. We report three lines of research, focusing on the processing of spatial frequencies, unpleasant information, and time-event structure that suggest that impairments occur at both the unconscious and conscious level. We argue that focusing on unconscious, physiological and automatic processing of information in patients, while contrasting that processing with conscious processing, is a first required step before understanding how distortions or other impairments emerge at the conscious level. We then indicate that the phenomenological tradition of psychiatry supports a similar claim and provides a theoretical framework helping to understand the relationship between the impairments and clinical symptoms. We base our argument on the presence of disorders in the minimal self in patients with schizophrenia. The minimal self is tacit and non-verbal and refers to the sense of bodily presence. We argue this sense is shaped by unconscious processes, whose alteration may thus affect the feeling of being a unique individual. This justifies a focus on unconscious mechanisms and a distinction from those associated with consciousness.

  8. Suicidality in schizophrenia spectrum disorders: the relationship to hallucinations and persecutory delusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjelby, E; Sinkeviciute, I; Gjestad, R; Kroken, R A; Løberg, E-M; Jørgensen, H A; Hugdahl, K; Johnsen, E

    2015-10-01

    Assessment of suicide risk is crucial in schizophrenia and results concerning risk contributed by hallucinations and persecutory delusions are inconsistent. We aimed to determine factors associated with suicidal ideation and plans at the time of acute admission in patients suffering from schizophrenia spectrum disorders. One hundred and twenty-four patients older than 18 years admitted to an acute psychiatric ward due to psychosis were consecutively included. Predictors of suicidal ideation and suicide plans at the time of admission were examined with multinominal logistic regression and structural equation modelling (SEM). The study design was pragmatic, thus entailing a clinically relevant representation. Depression Odds Ratio (OR) 12.9, Drug use OR 4.07, Hallucinations OR 2.55 and Negative symptoms OR 0.88 significantly predicted Suicidal ideation. Suspiciousness/ Persecution did not. Only Depression and Hallucinations significantly predicted Suicide plans. In the SEM-model Anxiety, Depression and Hopelessness connected Suspiciousness/Persecution, Hallucinations and Lack of insight with Suicidal ideation and Suicide plans. The study contributes to an increasing evidence base supporting an association between hallucinations and suicide risk. We want to emphasise the importance of treating depression and hallucinations in psychotic disorders, reducing hopelessness while working with insight and reducing drug abuse in order to lower suicide risk. ClinicalTrials.gov ID; URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/NCT00932529. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Action (verb) fluency deficits in schizophrenia spectrum disorders: linking language, cognition and interpersonal functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Daria; Clark, Melanie; Jablensky, Assen; Badcock, Johanna C

    2017-11-01

    Deficits in action (verb) fluency have previously been reported in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The degree to which this reflects difficulties generating verbs in different semantic categories is unknown. Here, action fluency responses of 46 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and 76 healthy controls were classified as action or mental state verbs, using well-established taxonomies. The word length, frequency, age of acquisition, valence and concreteness of the verbs produced were also examined. Participants also completed measures of cognitive function, and clinical symptoms. Independent inter-rater agreement of semantic categorization was high. The percentage of action verbs produced was significantly lower in patients than controls, whilst the percentage of mental state verbs produced did not differ. Patients' action verbs were: significantly less concrete; positively correlated with memory and intelligence; and negatively correlated with interpersonal symptoms. Impaired action verb, but intact mental state verb generation is consistent with the neural separability of these processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Association of Per3 length polymorphism with bipolar I disorder and schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan R

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ramanujam Karthikeyan,1 Ganapathy Marimuthu,1 Chellamuthu Ramasubramanian,2 Gautham Arunachal,2 Ahmed S BaHammam,3 David Warren Spence,4 Daniel P Cardinali,5 Gregory M Brown,6 Seithikurippu R Pandi-Perumal7 1Department of Animal Behaviour and Physiology, School of Biological Sciences, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai, India; 2MS Chellamuthu Trust and Research Foundation, KK Nagar, Madurai, India; 3University Sleep Disorders Center, College of Medicine, National Plan for Science and Technology, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4Independent researcher, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; 5Department of Teaching and Research, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Pontificia Universidad Católica Argentina, Buenos Aires, Argentina; 6Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; 7Center for Healthful Behavior Change (CHBC, Division of Health and Behavior, Department of Population Health, NYU Langone Medical Center, Clinical and Translational Research Institute, New York, New York, USA Background: Sleep–wake disturbances have frequently been reported in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, and are considered to be caused by an underlying circadian rhythm disorder. The study presented here was designed to investigate the existence of Per3 polymorphism in bipolar disorder type I (BD-I and schizophrenic patients in South India.Methods: Blood samples were collected from 311 BD-I patients, 293 schizophrenia patients, and 346 age- and sex-matched normal controls. Per3 genotyping was performed on DNA by polymerase chain reaction using specific primers.Results: An increased prevalence of five repeat homozygotes was seen in BD-I patients as compared with healthy controls (odds ratio =1.72 [95% confidence interval: 1.08–2.76, P=0.02]. In BD-I patients, the frequency of the five repeat allele was higher (allele frequency =0.41, and that of the four repeat allele lower (allele frequency =0.36 (χ2=4.634; P<0.03 than in

  11. Association study of candidate genes for susceptibility to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder on chromosome 22Q13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severinsen, Jacob; Binderup, Helle; Mors, Ole

    , in which a missense mutation recently has been suggested to cause catatonic schizophrenia in a German family. The selected candidate genes were analyzed by a combination of database search and direct sequencing in a subset of the patients from the Faroe Islands in order to identify SNPs in the coding......Chromosome 22q is suspected to harbor risk genes for schizophrenia as well as bipolar affective disorder. This is evidenced through genetic mapping studies, investigations of cytogenetic abnormalities, and direct examination of candidate genes. In a recent study of distantly related patients from...... the Faroe Islands we have obtained evidence suggesting two regions on chromosome 22q13 to potentially harbor susceptibility genes for both schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. We have selected a number of candidate genes from these two regions for further analysis, including the neuro-gene WKL1...

  12. Are executive functions related to emotional intelligence? A correlational study in schizophrenia and borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, M M; Triviño, M; Arnedo, M; Roldán, G; Tudela, P

    2016-12-30

    This research explored the relationship between executive functions (working memory and reasoning subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Trail Making and Stroop tests, fluency and planning tasks, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test) and emotional intelligence measured by the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test in patients with schizophrenia or borderline personality disorder compared to a control group. As expected, both clinical groups performed worse than the control group in executive functions and emotional intelligence, although the impairment was greater in the borderline personality disorder group. Executive functions significantly correlated with social functioning. Results are discussed in relation to the brain circuits that mediate executive functions and emotional intelligence and the findings obtained with other models of social cognition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A first national survey of knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards schizophrenia, bipolar disorders and autism in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle; Scott, Jan; Rouillon, Frédéric; Leboyer, Marion

    2012-08-28

    In order to support evidence-based policies for reduction of stigma, a better understanding of its components: ignorance (knowledge), prejudice (attitude) and discrimination (behaviour) is necessary. This study explores public perceptions and quantifies stigma for three chronic mental disorders: autism, schizophrenia and bipolar disorders in France. Survey of 1000 adults selected from an established market research panel. The 21-item questionnaire explored knowledge, attitudes and behaviours toward each disorder. Although 95% respondents recognized the names of each disorder fewer than 70% could report specific characteristics and only 33% considered that publically available information was adequate; most respondents identified the media as their main resource. Labeling of conditions in a negative way was frequent (61%) when referring to mental disorders in general, but fell significantly (18%) when linked to an individual with a disorder. Individuals with schizophrenia are assumed to be dangerous; 65% respondents would engage in social distancing from such an individual, versus 29% for bipolar disorders and 7% for autism (p autism are less prejudicial than towards schizophrenia. However, most public attitudes and behaviours towards different disorders appear to be based on assumptions rather than knowledge or evidence suggesting a generic information or anti-stigma programme is unlikely to be effective.

  14. The impact of substance use disorders on the course of schizophrenia--a 15-year follow-up study: dual diagnosis over 15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Lasse M; Hesse, Moten; Lykke, Jørn

    2011-08-01

    This follow-up study compared patients with schizophrenia with co-occurring substance use disorder to patients with schizophrenia and no substance use disorder. To investigate the prognostic significance of the effects of substance use disorders on the course of schizophrenia. Patients with schizophrenia and co-occurring substance use disorder (n=107), and patients with schizophrenia only (n=119) were followed over a 15-year period through the use of national hospitalization registers, data for time and cause of death, and data for homelessness or institutionalization. The median length of psychiatric hospitalization was 12 days for a patient with dual diagnosis, and 21 days for patients with schizophrenia only. Patients with dual diagnosis displayed a significantly elevated usage of all types of hospital contacts except inpatient treatment for non-psychiatric disorders. In three types of hospital contacts, patients with co-occurring substance use had approximately two to three times as many hospitalizations as did patients with schizophrenia only. Rates for homelessness and institutionalization were similar in both groups. Patients with a dual diagnosis were also significantly more at risk of dying during follow-up than were patients with schizophrenia only. The findings suggest that the long-term course of schizophrenia is considerably more severe in patients who have a dual diagnosis compared to patients with schizophrenia only Substance use disorders have a substantial impact on the hospitalization rates of patients with schizophrenia, as well as on life expectancy. Patients with co-morbid substance abuse are more likely to be admitted for treatment during a given year although they have briefer contact with treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Evidence of a locus for schizophrenia and related disorders on the short arm of chromosome 5 in a large pedigree

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, J.M.; Altstiel, L.D.; Siever, L.J. [Bronx VA Medical Center, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-09

    We attempted to identify a locus for schizophrenia and related disorders in 24 nuclear families of schizophrenic probands using a predefined classification system for affected cases that included those disorders most clearly identified as sharing a genetic relationship with schizophrenia-schizoaffective disorder and schizotypal personality disorder. Initially, we evaluated 8 markers on chromosome 5 on the first 12 families with available genotyping and diagnostic assessments and, assuming autosomal dominant transmission, found a lod score of 2.67 for the D5S111 locus (5p14.1-13.1) in one large nuclear family (no. 17; sibship: n = 12; schizophrenia: n = 3; schizotypal personality disorder: n = 2); the other 11 families were much smaller, less complete, and provided little additional information. Other branches of no. 17 were then assessed and the 2-point lod score for family 17 rose to 3.72; using multipoint analysis the lod score in 17 was 4.37. When only schizophrenia was used to define affectedness, the positive evidence for linkage to D5S111 was greatly reduced. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the lod score is heavily dependent upon the predefined diagnostic criteria. Our studies of other families of schizophrenic probands eventually totalled 23, but linkage to D5S111 in these yielded a -2.41 lod score. The results provide evidence for genetic linkage of the D5S111 locus to schizophrenia and related disorders in one family. It may be of interest that over several generations, almost all the ancestors of family 17 could be traced back to a small, relatively isolated, hill region of Puerto Rico. 74 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Neurocognitive performance, psychopathology and social functioning in individuals at high risk for schizophrenia or psychotic bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkintoni, Evgenia; Pallis, Eleftherios G; Bitsios, Panos; Giakoumaki, Stella G

    2017-01-15

    Although cognitive deficits are consistent endophenotypes of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, findings in psychotic bipolar disorder (BDP) are inconsistent. In this study we compared adult unaffected first-degree relatives of schizophrenia and BDP patients on cognition, psychopathology, social functioning and quality of life. Sixty-six unaffected first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients (SUnR), 36 unaffected first-degree relatives of BDP patients (BDPUnR) and 102 controls participated in the study. Between-group differences were examined and Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA) predicted group membership. Visual memory, control inhibition, working memory, cognitive flexibility and abstract reasoning were linearly impaired in the relatives' groups. Poorer verbal fluency and processing speed were evident only in the SUnR group. The SUnR group had higher depressive and somatization symptoms while the BDPUnR group had higher anxiety and lower social functioning compared with the controls. Individuals with superior cognition were more likely to be classified as controls; those with higher social functioning, prolonged processing speed and lower anxiety were more likely to be classified as SUnR. The relatives' sample is quite heterogeneous; the effects of genetic or environmental risk-factors were not examined. Cognitive functions mediated by a fronto-parietal network, show linear impairments in unaffected relatives of BDP and schizophrenia patients; processing speed and verbal fluency impairments were evident only in schizophrenia relatives. Self-perceived symptomatology and social functioning also differ between schizophrenia and BDP relatives. The continuum seen in patients in several indices was also seen in the cognitive impairments in unaffected relatives of schizophrenia and BDP patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Coping with delusions in schizophrenia and affective disorder with psychotic symptoms: the relationship between coping strategies and dimensions of delusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rückl, Sarah; Gentner, Nana Christina; Büche, Liesa; Backenstrass, Matthias; Barthel, Andreas; Vedder, Helmut; Bürgy, Martin; Kronmüller, Klaus-Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Self-generated coping strategies and the enhancement of coping strategies are effective in the treatment of psychotic symptoms. Evaluating these strategies can be of clinical interest to develop better coping enhancement therapies. Cognitive models consider delusions as multidimensional phenomena. Using a psychometric approach, the relationship between coping and the dimensions of delusion were examined. Thirty schizophrenia spectrum patients with delusions and 29 patients with affective disorder with psychotic symptoms were interviewed using the Heidelberg Coping Scales for Delusions and the Heidelberg Profile of Delusional Experience. Analyses of variance were conducted to investigate differences between the groups, and Spearman's rank-based correlations were used to examine the correlations between coping factors and the dimensions of delusion. Schizophrenia spectrum patients used more medical care and symptomatic coping, whereas patients with affective disorder engaged in more depressive coping. In the schizophrenia spectrum sample, the action-oriented, the cognitive, and the emotional dimensions of delusion were related to coping factors. In patients with affective disorder, only the action-oriented dimension was related to coping factors. Patients with schizophrenia and affective disorder cope differently with delusions. The dimensions of delusion are related to coping and should be regarded when using cognitive therapy approaches to enhance coping strategies. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Parental Origin of Interstitial Duplications at 15q11.2-q13.3 in Schizophrenia and Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isles, Anthony R; Ingason, Andrés; Lowther, Chelsea

    2016-01-01

    Duplications at 15q11.2-q13.3 overlapping the Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome (PWS/AS) region have been associated with developmental delay (DD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia (SZ). Due to presence of imprinted genes within the region, the parental origin of these duplications may...

  19. Interactions Between Variation in Candidate Genes and Environmental Factors in the Etiology of Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder: a Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiak, Błażej; Stramecki, Filip; Gawęda, Łukasz; Prochwicz, Katarzyna; Sąsiadek, Maria M; Moustafa, Ahmed A; Frydecka, Dorota

    2017-08-18

    Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (BD) are complex and multidimensional disorders with high heritability rates. The contribution of genetic factors to the etiology of these disorders is increasingly being recognized as the action of multiple risk variants with small effect sizes, which might explain only a minor part of susceptibility. On the other site, numerous environmental factors have been found to play an important role in their causality. Therefore, in recent years, several studies focused on gene × environment interactions that are believed to bridge the gap between genetic underpinnings and environmental insults. In this article, we performed a systematic review of studies investigating gene × environment interactions in BD and schizophrenia spectrum phenotypes. In the majority of studies from this field, interacting effects of variation in genes encoding catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and FK506-binding protein 5 (FKBP5) have been explored. Almost consistently, these studies revealed that polymorphisms in COMT, BDNF, and FKBP5 genes might interact with early life stress and cannabis abuse or dependence, influencing various outcomes of schizophrenia spectrum disorders and BD. Other interactions still require further replication in larger clinical and non-clinical samples. In addition, future studies should address the direction of causality and potential mechanisms of the relationship between gene × environment interactions and various categories of outcomes in schizophrenia and BD.

  20. Procedural learning in Parkinson's disease, specific language impairment, dyslexia, schizophrenia, developmental coordination disorder, and autism spectrum disorders: A second-order meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Gillian M; Lum, Jarrad A G

    2017-10-01

    The serial reaction time task (SRTT) has been used to study procedural learning in clinical populations. In this report, second-order meta-analysis was used to investigate whether disorder type moderates performance on the SRTT. Using this approach to quantitatively summarise past research, it was tested whether autism spectrum disorder, developmental coordination disorder, dyslexia, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and specific language impairment differentially affect procedural learning on the SRTT. The main analysis revealed disorder type moderated SRTT performance (p=0.010). This report demonstrates comparable levels of procedural learning impairment in developmental coordination disorder, dyslexia, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and specific language impairment. However, in autism, procedural learning is spared. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A register based epidemiological description of risk factors and outcomes for major psychiatric disorders, focusing on a comparison between bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Thomas Munk

    2006-01-01

    This Ph.D. thesis summarizes the results from 3 cohort studies describing risk factors for and mortality of major psychiatric disorders with focus on comparison between schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. Furthermore, the results are evaluated in the context of the dichotomization...... and followed over several decades. Survival analysis techniques were applied to identify risk factors and mortality rates. The results demonstrated an overlap in risk factors for schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. Excess mortality (compared to persons never admitted with a psychiatric disorder......), and environmental factors act (or interact) with this predisposition. However, large differences in gender distribution and age at onset are present, and differences and similarities between the disorders should be further examined before the Kraepelinian dichotomization can be disregarded....

  2. Progranulin gene variability and plasma levels in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Galimberti

    Full Text Available Basing on the assumption that frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (BPD might share common aetiological mechanisms, we analyzed genetic variation in the FTLD risk gene progranulin (GRN in a German population of patients with schizophrenia (n = 271 or BPD (n = 237 as compared with 574 age-, gender- and ethnicity-matched controls. Furthermore, we measured plasma progranulin levels in 26 German BPD patients as well as in 61 Italian BPD patients and 29 matched controls.A significantly decreased allelic frequency of the minor versus the wild-type allele was observed for rs2879096 (23.2 versus 34.2%, P<0.001, OR:0.63, 95%CI:0.49-0.80, rs4792938 (30.7 versus 39.7%, P = 0.005, OR: 0.70, 95%CI: 0.55-0.89 and rs5848 (30.3 versus 36.8, P = 0.007, OR: 0.71, 95%CI: 0.56-0.91. Mean±SEM progranulin plasma levels were significantly decreased in BPD patients, either Germans or Italians, as compared with controls (89.69±3.97 and 116.14±5.80 ng/ml, respectively, versus 180.81±18.39 ng/ml P<0.001 and were not correlated with age.In conclusion, GRN variability decreases the risk to develop BPD and schizophrenia, and progranulin plasma levels are significantly lower in BPD patients than in controls. Nevertheless, a larger replication analysis would be needed to confirm these preliminary results.

  3. The METEOR study of diabetes and other metabolic disorders in patients with schizophrenia treated with antipsychotic drugs. I. Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Hert, Marc; Mauri, Mauro; Shaw, Ken; Wetterling, Tilman; Doble, Adam; Giudicelli, Agnès; Falissard, Bruno

    2010-12-01

    Patients with schizophrenia present a two- to three-fold higher prevalence of diabetes, of metabolic syndrome and of cardiovascular morbidity. The reason for this increased prevalence may involve intrinsic vulnerability, lifestyle factors and iatrogenic effects of antipsychotic drugs. The objective of this multinational, cross-sectional, pharmacoepidemiological study was to determine the prevalence of diabetes, lipid disorders, obesity, hypertension and the metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia treated with antipsychotic drugs. Particular attention was taken to acquire data on a wide a range as possible of demographic, clinical and lifestyle variables that may influence the risk of metabolic disorders, which were taken into account in the calculation of prevalence data by propensity scoring. The study included 2270 subjects from 16 European countries, predominantly from Central and Eastern Europe. The proportion of subjects presenting the pathologies of interest was relatively high, ranging from 28% for glycaemic disorders to 70% for lipid disorders. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. A Nation-Wide Study on the Percentage of Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder Patients Who Earn Minimum Wage or Above.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Michael; Kapara, Ori; Goldberg, Shira; Yoffe, Rinat; Noy, Shlomo; Weiser, Mark

    2016-03-01

    Although it is undisputable that patients with severe mental illness have impaired ability to work, the extent of this is unclear. This is a nation-wide, cross-sectional survey of patients who have been hospitalized with severe mental illness earning minimum wage or above. Data from the Israeli Psychiatric Hospitalization Case Registry were linked with nation-wide data from the National Insurance Institute (the equivalent of US Social Security) on personal income. Hospitalization data were obtained on all consecutive admissions to any psychiatric hospital in the country between 1990-2008 with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, other nonaffective psychotic disorders, or bipolar disorder (N = 35 673). Earning minimum wage or more was defined as earning at least 1000 USD/month, which was equivalent to minimum wage in Israel in December 2010. The percentages of patients with only 1 admission who were earning minimum wage or above in December 2010 were as follows: 10.6% of patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia; 21.6% of patients with a diagnosis of nonaffective psychotic disorders; and 24.2% of patients with bipolar disorder. The percentages of patients with multiple admissions who were earning minimum wage or above were as follows: 5.8% of patients with schizophrenia; 11.2% of patients with nonaffective psychotic disorders; and 19.9% of patients with bipolar disorder. Despite potential confounders, the results indicate that patients with schizophrenia, nonaffective psychotic disorders, or bipolar disorder have a poor employment outcome, even if they have only been admitted once. These results emphasize the importance of improving interventions to re-integrate these individuals into the work force. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Efficacy of Atypical Antipsychotics in the Management of Acute Agitation and Aggression in Hospitalized Patients with Schizophrenia or Bipolar Disorder: Results from a Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xin; Correll, Christoph U; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Xu, Yifeng; Huang, Jizhong; Yang, Fude; Wang, Gang; Si, Tianmei; Kane, John M; Masand, Prakash

    2016-10-25

    Acute agitation and aggression are common symptoms in patients with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. In this review, we discuss the prevalence, clinical assessment strategies, treatment options, and current Western and Chinese guidelines for the management of acute agitation and aggression in patients with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. Among available approaches, we discuss in detail recent evidence supporting the use of intramuscular (IM) antipsychotics and some recently approved oral atypical antipsychotics for the management of acute aggression and agitation in hospitalized patients with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia presenting with acute agitation or aggression, highlighting some differences between individual antipsychotic agents.

  6. Aggression and psychopathology in treatment-resistant inpatients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Karen A; Volavka, Jan; Czobor, Pal; Sheitman, Brian; Lindenmayer, Jean-Pierre; Citrome, Leslie L; McEvoy, Joseph; Lieberman, Jeffrey A

    2005-01-01

    Positive psychotic symptoms, such as threat/"control-override" delusions or command hallucinations, have been related to aggression in patients with schizophrenia. However, retrospective data collection has hampered evaluation of the direct influence of psychopathology on aggressive behavior. In this study, we monitored aggressive behavior and psychopathology prospectively and in close temporal proximity in 157 treatment-resistant inpatients diagnosed with chronic schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder participating in a 14-week double-blind clinical trial. Aggressive behavior was rated with the overt aggression scale (OAS). Psychopathology was assessed using the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS). At baseline, subjects who would be aggressive during the study had higher scores on only two PANSS items: hostility and poor impulse control. During the study PANSS positive subscale scores were significantly higher in aggressive subjects. Total PANSS scores were higher within 3 days of an aggressive incident, as were positive and general psychopathology subscale scores. However, in a smaller subsample for whom PANSS ratings were available within 3 days before aggressive incidents, only scores on the PANSS positive subscale were significantly higher. These findings in chronic, treatment resistant inpatients support the view that positive symptoms may lead to aggression.

  7. Differential metabolic rates in prefrontal and temporal Brodmann areas in schizophrenia and schizotypal personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchsbaum, Monte S; Nenadic, Igor; Hazlett, Erin A; Spiegel-Cohen, Jacqueline; Fleischman, Michael B; Akhavan, Arash; Silverman, Jeremy M; Siever, Larry J

    2002-03-01

    In an exploration of the schizophrenia spectrum, we compared cortical metabolic rates in unmedicated patients with schizophrenia and schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) with findings in age- and sex-matched normal volunteers. Coregistered magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) scans were obtained in 27 schizophrenic, 13 SPD, and 32 normal volunteers who performed a serial verbal learning test during tracer uptake. A template of Brodmann areas derived from a whole brain histological section atlas was used to analyze PET findings. Significantly lower metabolic rates were found in prefrontal areas 44-46 in schizophrenic patients than in normal volunteers. SPD patients did not differ from normal volunteers in most lateral frontal regions, but they had values intermediate between those of normal volunteers and schizophrenic patients in lateral temporal regions. SPD patients showed higher than normal metabolic rates in both medial frontal and medial temporal areas. Metabolic rates in Brodmann area 10 were distinctly higher in SPD patients than in either normal volunteers or schizophrenic patients.

  8. Auditory feature perception and auditory hallucinatory experiences in schizophrenia spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnakenberg Martin, Ashley M; Bartolomeo, Lisa; Howell, Josselyn; Hetrick, William P; Bolbecker, Amanda R; Breier, Alan; Kidd, Gary; O'Donnell, Brian F

    2017-09-21

    Schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SZ) is associated with deficits in auditory perception as well as auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH). However, the relationship between auditory feature perception and auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH), one of the most commonly occurring symptoms in psychosis, has not been well characterized. This study evaluated perception of a broad range of auditory features in SZ and determined whether current AVHs relate to auditory feature perception. Auditory perception, including frequency, intensity, duration, pulse-train and temporal order discrimination, as well as an embedded tone task, was assessed in both AVH (n = 20) and non-AVH (n = 24) SZ individuals and in healthy controls (n = 29) with the Test of Basic Auditory Capabilities (TBAC). The Hamilton Program for Schizophrenia Voices Questionnaire (HPSVQ) was used to assess the experience of auditory hallucinations in patients with SZ. Findings suggest that compared to controls, the SZ group had greater deficits on an array of auditory features, with non-AVH SZ individuals showing the most severe degree of abnormality. IQ and measures of cognitive processing were positively associated with performance on the TBAC for all SZ individuals, but not with the HPSVQ scores. These findings indicate that persons with SZ demonstrate impaired auditory perception for a broad range of features. It does not appear that impaired auditory perception is associated with recent auditory verbal hallucinations, but instead associated with the degree of intellectual impairment in SZ.

  9. Suicidal behavior and insight into illness among patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Yu-Chen; Liu, Yia-Ping

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the relationship between suicidal behavior and socio-demographic and clinical factors, including insight into illness, in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. We evaluated 104 inpatients using the Self-Appraisal of Illness Questionnaire (SAIQ) for insight assessment, several Beck-related symptoms rating scales, and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for psychopathology. These patients were also evaluated for suicidal behavior and risk using the critical items of the Scale for Suicide Ideation (SSI) and lifetime suicide attempts. Patients with suicidal behavior generally had greater insight into illness than those who were non-suicidal. After controlling for depressive symptoms, the association of insight into illness with current suicidal ideation remained significant, whereas the association between insight and lifetime suicide attempts was no longer significant. As predicted, the regression analyses revealed that those with greater suicide risk had significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms and hopelessness and more lifetime suicide attempts. Moreover, greater insight into illness appeared to have a close, independent connection to suicidal behavior. Our findings suggest that depression, hopelessness, and greater insight into illness are major risk factors for suicide in patients with schizophrenia. It is plausible that depression mediates the relationship between greater insight into illness and suicidal behavior. Aggressive improvement of insight without the risk of deteriorating depressive symptoms may be warranted to reduce the risk of suicide.

  10. Spatial-memory deficit in schizophrenia spectrum disorders under viewpoint-independent demands in the virtual courtyard task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Leanne K; Girard, Todd A; King, Jelena; King, Matthew J; Herdman, Katherine A; Christensen, Bruce K; King, John

    2013-01-01

    This study builds upon our previous work indicating that impaired hippocampal-dependent forms of memory are core to schizophrenia. Using a virtual-reality courtyard task, we presented participants with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD; n = 20) and a healthy community comparison group (n = 20) with objects to remember within a town square, followed by a recognition test of the location of objects from either the same viewpoint or a shifted viewpoint relative to initial presentation. The SSD group demonstrated a relative deficit under shifted- compared to same-view conditions. These findings provide further support for deficient hippocampal-dependent cognition in SSD.

  11. Neurocognitive performance, subjective well-being, and psychosocial functioning after benzodiazepine withdrawal in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Glenthoj, Birte

    2017-01-01

    -on melatonin due to its anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties. We examined how melatonin and benzodiazepine withdrawal affect cognition, subjective well-being, and psychosocial functioning. Eighty patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder were randomized to add-on treatment once daily...... with either prolonged-release melatonin or placebo in a 24-week, double-blind clinical trial. All participants gradually tapered usual benzodiazepine dosage in a closely monitored treatment setting. We used the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) to assess neurocognitive performance...

  12. Genome-Wide Methylome Analyses Reveal Novel Epigenetic Regulation Patterns in Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongsheng; Camarillo, Cynthia; Xu, Juan; Arana, Tania Bedard; Xiao, Yun; Zhao, Zheng; Chen, Hong; Ramirez, Mercedes; Zavala, Juan; Escamilla, Michael A.; Armas, Regina; Mendoza, Ricardo; Ontiveros, Alfonso; Nicolini, Humberto; Jerez Magaña, Alvaro Antonio; Rubin, Lewis P.; Li, Xia; Xu, Chun

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BP) are complex genetic disorders. Their appearance is also likely informed by as yet only partially described epigenetic contributions. Using a sequencing-based method for genome-wide analysis, we quantitatively compared the blood DNA methylation landscapes in SZ and BP subjects to control, both in an understudied population, Hispanics along the US-Mexico border. Remarkably, we identified thousands of differentially methylated regions for SZ and BP preferentially located in promoters 3′-UTRs and 5′-UTRs of genes. Distinct patterns of aberrant methylation of promoter sequences were located surrounding transcription start sites. In these instances, aberrant methylation occurred in CpG islands (CGIs) as well as in flanking regions as well as in CGI sparse promoters. Pathway analysis of genes displaying these distinct aberrant promoter methylation patterns showed enhancement of epigenetic changes in numerous genes previously related to psychiatric disorders and neurodevelopment. Integration of gene expression data further suggests that in SZ aberrant promoter methylation is significantly associated with altered gene transcription. In particular, we found significant associations between (1) promoter CGIs hypermethylation with gene repression and (2) CGI 3′-shore hypomethylation with increased gene expression. Finally, we constructed a specific methylation analysis platform that facilitates viewing and comparing aberrant genome methylation in human neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:25734057

  13. Shared and divergent neurocognitive impairments in adult patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: Whither the evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuswanto, Carissa; Chin, Rowena; Sum, Min Yi; Sengupta, Somnath; Fagiolini, Andrea; McIntyre, Roger S; Vieta, Eduard; Sim, Kang

    2016-02-01

    Recent data from genetic and brain imaging studies have urged rethinking of bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia (SCZ) as lying along a continuum of major endogenous psychoses rather than dichotomous disorders. We systematically reviewed extant studies (from January 2000 to July 2015) that directly compared neurocognitive impairments in adults with SCZ and BD. Within 36 included studies, comparable neurocognitive impairments were found in SCZ and BD involving executive functioning, working memory, verbal fluency and motor speed. The extent and severity of neurocognitive impairments in patients with schizoaffective disorder, and BD with psychotic features occupy positions intermediate between SCZ and BD without psychotic features, suggesting spectrum of neurocognitive impairments across psychotic spectrum conditions. Neurocognitive impairments correlated with socio-demographic (lower education), clinical (more hospitalizations, longer duration of illness, negative psychotic symptoms and non-remission status), treatment (antipsychotics, anti-cholinergics) variables and lower psychosocial functioning. The convergent neurocognitive findings in both conditions support a continuum concept of psychotic disorders and further research is needed to clarify common and dissimilar progression of specific neurocognitive impairments longitudinally. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Genome-Wide Methylome Analyses Reveal Novel Epigenetic Regulation Patterns in Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongsheng Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia (SZ and bipolar disorder (BP are complex genetic disorders. Their appearance is also likely informed by as yet only partially described epigenetic contributions. Using a sequencing-based method for genome-wide analysis, we quantitatively compared the blood DNA methylation landscapes in SZ and BP subjects to control, both in an understudied population, Hispanics along the US-Mexico border. Remarkably, we identified thousands of differentially methylated regions for SZ and BP preferentially located in promoters 3′-UTRs and 5′-UTRs of genes. Distinct patterns of aberrant methylation of promoter sequences were located surrounding transcription start sites. In these instances, aberrant methylation occurred in CpG islands (CGIs as well as in flanking regions as well as in CGI sparse promoters. Pathway analysis of genes displaying these distinct aberrant promoter methylation patterns showed enhancement of epigenetic changes in numerous genes previously related to psychiatric disorders and neurodevelopment. Integration of gene expression data further suggests that in SZ aberrant promoter methylation is significantly associated with altered gene transcription. In particular, we found significant associations between (1 promoter CGIs hypermethylation with gene repression and (2 CGI 3′-shore hypomethylation with increased gene expression. Finally, we constructed a specific methylation analysis platform that facilitates viewing and comparing aberrant genome methylation in human neuropsychiatric disorders.

  15. Reduced heart rate variability in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, D S; Westlye, L T; Kaufmann, T; Rustan, Ø G; Brandt, C L; Haatveit, B; Steen, N E; Andreassen, O A

    2016-01-01

    Despite current diagnostic systems distinguishing schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) as separate diseases, emerging evidence suggests they share a number of clinical and epidemiological features, such as increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. It is not well understood if poor cardiac autonomic nervous system regulation, which can be indexed non-invasively by the calculation of heart rate variability (HRV), contributes to these common CVD risk factors in both diseases. We calculated HRV in 47 patients with SZ, 33 patients with BD and 212 healthy controls. Measures of symptom severity were also collected from the patient groups. Heart rate variability was significantly reduced in both these disorders in comparison with the healthy participants; however, there were no HRV differences between disorders. Importantly, these reductions were independent of the medication, age or body mass index effects. There was also preliminary evidence that patients with reduced HRV had increased overall and negative psychosis symptom severity regardless of SZ or BD diagnosis. We suggest that HRV may provide a possible biomarker of CVD risk and symptom severity in severe mental illness. Thus, our results highlight the importance of cardiometabolic screening across SZ and bipolar spectrum disorders. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. [Review of risks factors in childhood for schizophrenia and severe mental disorders in adulthood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artigue, Jordi; Tizón, Jorge L

    2014-01-01

    To provide scientific evidence, using a literature review on psychosocial risk factors in mental health, that a high exposure to psychosocial stress situations in childhood increases the risk of mental disorders in adulthood,. A literature review up to December 2011 in the electronic databases from Medline, Universitat de Barcelona, and the Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona. The keywords used were: childhood, prenatal, vulnerability, risk, abuse, neglect, child mental disorder, schizophrenia, and prevention. Inclusion criteria for the studies reviewed: 1) designed to investigate childhood risk factors; 2) Comparative studies with persons without risk factors; 3) Studies with sufficient statistical significance; 4) Studies with "n" participants equal to o more than 30 persons. There are a group of easily identifiable mental health risk factors in childhood that can help in the prevention of mental disorders in the adulthood. They can be grouped into four categories: A) Pregnancy, birth and perinatal problems; B) Poor interpersonal relations with parents; C) Adverse life events in the first two years of life; D) Cognitive deficits in primary school, and social isolation during school years. There are life events that may increase the possibilities of suffering some kind of Psychopathology. It is necessary to consider those events as Risk Factors for Mental Health. The accumulation of these Risk Factors increases vulnerability to Mental Disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. No association between the -399 C > T polymorphism of the neuropeptide Y gene and schizophrenia, unipolar depression or panic disorder in a Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, C; Koefoed, P; Hansen, E S

    2006-01-01

    potential associations between the polymorphism and three psychiatric disorders in a Danish population. METHOD: We investigated the occurrence of the polymorphism in patients with schizophrenia (n = 291), unipolar depression (n = 256) and panic disorder (n = 142) compared with controls (n = 716). RESULTS...... or panic disorder, respectively, suggests that the polymorphism is not involved in the etiology of these disorders in the Danish population....

  18. Molecular pathways involved in neuronal cell adhesion and membrane scaffolding contribute to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder susceptibility.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Dushlaine, C

    2011-03-01

    Susceptibility to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder may involve a substantial, shared contribution from thousands of common genetic variants, each of small effect. Identifying whether risk variants map to specific molecular pathways is potentially biologically informative. We report a molecular pathway analysis using the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) ratio test, which compares the ratio of nominally significant (P<0.05) to nonsignificant SNPs in a given pathway to identify the \\'enrichment\\' for association signals. We applied this approach to the discovery (the International Schizophrenia Consortium (n=6909)) and validation (Genetic Association Information Network (n=2729)) of schizophrenia genome-wide association study (GWAS) data sets. We investigated each of the 212 experimentally validated pathways described in the Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes in the discovery sample. Nominally significant pathways were tested in the validation sample, and five pathways were found to be significant (P=0.03-0.001); only the cell adhesion molecule (CAM) pathway withstood conservative correction for multiple testing. Interestingly, this pathway was also significantly associated with bipolar disorder (Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (n=4847)) (P=0.01). At a gene level, CAM genes associated in all three samples (NRXN1 and CNTNAP2), which were previously implicated in specific language disorder, autism and schizophrenia. The CAM pathway functions in neuronal cell adhesion, which is critical for synaptic formation and normal cell signaling. Similar pathways have also emerged from a pathway analysis of autism, suggesting that mechanisms involved in neuronal cell adhesion may contribute broadly to neurodevelopmental psychiatric phenotypes.

  19. NMDA receptor subunit NRI and postsynaptic protein PSD-95 in hippocampus and orbitofrontal cortex in schizophrenia and mood disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Carla; Deakin, J F W

    2005-12-15

    Much interest has focussed on glutamate and the N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. A number of studies have reported abnormal gene transcription of various glutamate receptor subtypes in the hippocampus including the NMDA receptor. However, corresponding protein levels in subregions of the hippocampus have not yet been investigated. We have used immunoautoradiographical techniques to assess the expression of the obligatory NMDA receptor subunit NR1 and an associated post-synaptic density protein PSD-95 in the hippocampal dentate gyrus and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in schizophrenia and mood disorder. Optical density measures from film autoradiographs revealed no changes in NR1 or PSD-95 in the OFC or dentate hilus, however a decrease in PSD-95 was found in the dentate molecular layer in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder relative to major depression. These findings were unrelated to antipsychotic or mood stabilizer drug treatment. The dentate molecular layer contains the dendritic trees of granule cells and is the target of major excitatory afferent inputs from associative cortical, parahippocampal and hippocampal regions. A reduction in PSD-95 at glutamate synapses of the molecular layer may have a deleterious impact on information flow to other hippocampal regions via granule cells and their projecting mossy fibres. A down-regulation of PSD-95 in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder may also relate to disease mechanisms of psychosis.

  20. The Impact of Sex Differences on Odor Identification and Facial Affect Recognition in Patients with Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilufar Mossaheb

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSocial interactive functions such as facial emotion recognition and smell identification have been shown to differ between women and men. However, little is known about how these differences are mirrored in patients with schizophrenia and how these abilities interact with each other and with other clinical variables in patients vs. healthy controls.MethodsStandardized instruments were used to assess facial emotion recognition [Facially Expressed Emotion Labelling (FEEL] and smell identification [University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT] in 51 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and 79 healthy controls; furthermore, working memory functions and clinical variables were assessed.ResultsIn both the univariate and the multivariate results, illness showed a significant influence on UPSIT and FEEL. The inclusion of age and working memory in the MANOVA resulted in a differential effect with sex and working memory as remaining significant factors. Duration of illness was correlated with both emotion recognition and smell identification in men only, whereas immediate general psychopathology and negative symptoms were associated with emotion recognition only in women.ConclusionBeing affected by schizophrenia spectrum disorder impacts one’s ability to correctly recognize facial affects and identify odors. Converging evidence suggests a link between the investigated basic and social cognitive abilities in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders with a strong contribution of working memory and differential effects of modulators in women vs. men.

  1. Brain lactate and pH in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: a systematic review of findings from magnetic resonance studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Asli Ercan; Yuksel, Cagri; Du, Fei; Chouinard, Virginie-Anne; Öngür, Dost

    2018-03-14

    Converging evidence from molecular to neuroimaging studies suggests brain energy metabolism abnormalities in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. One emerging hypothesis is: decreased oxidative phosphorylation leading to accumulation of lactic acid from glycolysis and subsequent acidification of tissue. In this regard, integrating lactate and pH data from magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies in both diseases may help us understand underlying neurobiological mechanisms. In order to achieve this goal, we performed a systematic search of case-control studies examining brain lactate or pH among schizophrenia and/or bipolar patients by using MRS. Medline/Pubmed and EBSCO databases were searched separately for both diseases and outcomes. Our search yielded 33 studies in total composed of 7 lactate and 26 pH studies. In bipolar disorder, 5 out of 6 studies have found elevated lactate levels especially in the cingulate cortex and 4 out of 13 studies reported reduced pH in the frontal lobe. In contrast, in schizophrenia a single study has examined lactate and reported elevation, while only 2 out of 13 studies examining pH have reported reduction in this measure. There were no consistent patterns for the relationship between lactate or pH levels and medication use, disease type, mood state, and other clinical variables. We highlight the need for future studies combining 1 H-MRS and 31 P-MRS approac